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1

Morphological characterization of rat incisor fluorotic lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphological characterization of fluorotic rat incisor enamel was carried out. Experimental adult animals received drinking water with 45mg F\\/L of fluoride, and the control group received distilled water. Fluoride concentrations found in the control and fluorosis groups were 0.04 and 0.09?g\\/mL (plasma), 0.26 and 0.66?g\\/mg (whole tibia), and 0.24 and 2.3?g\\/mg (tibia surface), with P?0.001 for all comparisons between

Regina Aparecida Saiani; Isabel Maria Porto; Elcio Marcantonio Junior; Jaime Aparecido Cury; Frederico Barbosa de Sousa; Raquel Fernanda Gerlach

2009-01-01

2

Morphological characterization of rat incisor fluorotic lesions.  

PubMed

The morphological characterization of fluorotic rat incisor enamel was carried out. Experimental adult animals received drinking water with 45 mg F/L of fluoride, and the control group received distilled water. Fluoride concentrations found in the control and fluorosis groups were 0.04 and 0.09 microg/mL (plasma), 0.26 and 0.66 microg/mg (whole tibia), and 0.24 and 2.3 microg/mg (tibia surface), with P < or = 0.001 for all comparisons between the groups. A succession of white and pigmented bands was observed in the fluorotic rat incisors. Under polarizing light microscopy, cross-sections of superficial areas corresponding to the white bands (from the surface to approximately 20 microm) showed high positive birefringence. These fluorotic lesions also exhibited the lowest resistance to superficial acid etching. No morphological differences in inner enamel were seen under scanning electron microscopy. In fluorotic enamel, only the surface layer related to the white areas presented lower birefringence compared with the enamel of control teeth and the surface layer of the pigmented areas (normal ones) of fluorotic teeth. In conclusion, the white bands of fluorotic rat enamel represent hypomineralized superficial areas and are not subsurface lesions. The detailed description of these lesions is important to understand dental fluorosis. PMID:19781688

Saiani, Regina Aparecida; Porto, Isabel Maria; Marcantonio Junior, Elcio; Cury, Jaime Aparecido; de Sousa, Frederico Barbosa; Gerlach, Raquel Fernanda

2009-11-01

3

Morphological characterization of the evolving rat spinal cord injury after photochemically induced ischemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have characterized the evolving morphological changes in the adult rat spinal cord following photochemically induced spinal\\u000a cord ischemia. In cresyl violet-stained sections, disintegration of the tissue at the epicenter was evident at 6 h. This was\\u000a preceded at 1 h post ischemia by an albumin immunoreactivity. The albumin immunoreactivity was increased at 6 and even more\\u000a so at 24

Mia von Euler; Erik Sundström; Åke Seiger

1997-01-01

4

Electrophysiological and morphological characterization of cells in superficial layers of rat presubiculum.  

PubMed

The presubiculum (PrS) plays critical roles in spatial information processing and memory consolidation and has also been implicated in temporal lobe epileptogenesis. Despite its involvement in these processes, a basic structure-function analysis of PrS cells remains far from complete. To this end, we performed whole-cell recording and biocytin labeling of PrS neurons in layer (L)II and LIII to examine their electrophysiological and morphological properties. We characterized the cell types based on electrophysiological criteria, correlated their gross morphology, and classified them into distinct categories using unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis. We identified seven distinct cell types: regular-spiking (RS), irregular-spiking (IR), initially bursting (IB), stuttering (Stu), single-spiking (SS), fast-adapting (FA), and late-spiking (LS) cells, of which RS and IB cells were common to LII and LIII, LS cells were specific to LIII, and the remaining types were identified exclusively in LII. Recorded neurons were either pyramidal or nonpyramidal and, except for Stu cells, displayed spine-rich dendrites. The RS, IB, and IR cells appeared to be projection neurons based on extension of their axons into LIII of the medial entorhinal area (MEA) and/or angular bundle. We conclude that LII and LIII of PrS are distinct in their neuronal populations and together constitute a more diverse population of neurons than previously suggested. PrS neurons serve as major drivers of circuits in superficial (LII-III) entorhinal cortex (ERC) and couple neighboring structures through robust afferentation, thereby substantiating the PrS's critical role in the parahippocampal region. PMID:23681479

Abbasi, Saad; Kumar, Sanjay S

2013-09-01

5

Characterization of functional and morphological changes in a rat model of colitis induced by Trichinella spiralis.  

PubMed

We intended to characterize the effect of inflammation on the spontaneous colonic motility pattern and the role of iNOS in its disruption in colitis. Colitis was induced by an intracolonic enema of T. spiralis larvae. Animals were studied 2-30 days postinfection (PI). Standard H&E and iNOS staining was performed on colonic sections. Altered stool consistency was found from day 1 to day 21 PI; leukocytosis peaked on days 6-21 PI. Edema and cell infiltration were found in mucosa and submucosa (days 2-14 PI). Contractility displayed a disorganized pattern with decreased high-amplitude, low-frequency (HALF) contractions. A progressive fading of spontaneous activity was observed and was partly restored in strips devoid of submucosa. iNOS immunoreactivity increased in epithelial and infiltrating cells (days 2-14 PI). In this model of colonic inflammation, the decrease in spontaneous contractility, which might be caused by NO generated from mucosal and submucosal iNOS, bears some traits with changes observed in ulcerative colitis and might thus be useful to study the dismotility observed in this human disease. PMID:16110832

Aulí, Mariona; Fernández, Ester

2005-08-01

6

Time course characterization of serum cardiac troponins, heart fatty acid-binding protein, and morphologic findings with isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury in the rat.  

PubMed

We investigated the kinetics of circulating biomarker elevation, specifically correlated with morphology in acute myocardial injury. Male Hanover Wistar rats underwent biomarker and morphologic cardiac evaluation at 0.5 to seventy-two hours after a single subcutaneous isoproterenol administration (100 or 4000 microg/kg). Dose-dependent elevations of serum cardiac troponins I and T (cTnI, cTnT), and heart fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) occurred from 0.5 hour, peaked at two to three hours, and declined to baseline by twelve hours (H-FABP) or forty-eight to seventy-two hours (Serum cTns). They were more sensitive in detecting cardiomyocyte damage than other serum biomarkers. The Access 2 platform, an automated chemiluminescence analyzer (Beckman Coulter), showed the greatest cTnI fold-changes and low range sensitivity. Myocardial injury was detected morphologically from 0.5 hour, correlating well with loss of cTnI immunoreactivity and serum biomarker elevation at early time points. Ultrastructurally, there was no evidence of cardiomyocyte death at 0.5 hour. After three hours, a clear temporal disconnect occurred: lesion scores increased with declining cTnI, cTnT, and H-FABP values. Serum cTns are sensitive and specific markers for detecting acute/active cardiomyocyte injury in this rat model. Heart fatty acid-binding protein is a good early marker but is less sensitive and nonspecific. Release of these biomarkers begins early in myocardial injury, prior to necrosis. Assessment of cTn merits increased consideration for routine screening of acute/ongoing cardiomyocyte injury in rat toxicity studies. PMID:20585145

Clements, Peter; Brady, Sally; York, Malcolm; Berridge, Brian; Mikaelian, Igor; Nicklaus, Rosemary; Gandhi, Mitul; Roman, Ian; Stamp, Clare; Davies, Dai; McGill, Paul; Williams, Thomas; Pettit, Syril; Walker, Dana; Turton, John

2010-08-01

7

Morphological characterization of chicken anaemia agent (CAA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Chicken anaemia agent (CAA) was characterized as a virion with 25nm in diameter, with a buoyant density in CsCl of 1.36–1.37 g\\/cm3, and containing a circular, single-stranded DNA genome. The virus is composed of 32 hollow morphological units representing a regular T=3 icosahedron.

H. Gelderblom; S. Kling; R. Lurz; I. Tischer; V. v. Bülow

1989-01-01

8

Social Structure Predicts Genital Morphology in African Mole-Rats  

PubMed Central

Background African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia) exhibit a wide range of social structures, from solitary to eusocial. We previously found a lack of sex differences in the external genitalia and morphology of the perineal muscles associated with the phallus in the eusocial naked mole-rat. This was quite surprising, as the external genitalia and perineal muscles are sexually dimorphic in all other mammals examined. We hypothesized that the lack of sex differences in naked mole-rats might be related to their unusual social structure. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared the genitalia and perineal muscles in three African mole-rat species: the naked mole-rat, the solitary silvery mole-rat, and the Damaraland mole-rat, a species considered to be eusocial, but with less reproductive skew than naked mole-rats. Our findings support a relationship between social structure, mating system, and sexual differentiation. Naked mole-rats lack sex differences in genitalia and perineal morphology, silvery mole-rats exhibit sex differences, and Damaraland mole-rats are intermediate. Conclusions/Significance The lack of sex differences in naked mole-rats is not an attribute of all African mole-rats, but appears to have evolved in relation to their unusual social structure and reproductive biology.

Seney, Marianne L.; Kelly, Diane A.; Goldman, Bruce D.; Sumbera, Radim; Forger, Nancy G.

2009-01-01

9

Morphologic development of neonatal rat pinealocytes in monolayer culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphological development of pinealocytes maintained in monolayer culture, without the neural and humoral effects present in the developing rat has been studied and compared with the development that occurs in vivo. Pinealocytes in 5 day cultures contained organelles that were similar to those present in the pineals of intact 5 day old rats. However, light and dark cells were

Valerie I. Steinberg; Vernon Rowe; Itaru Watanabe; James Parr; Marcia Degenhardt

1981-01-01

10

Plastic solar cell interface and morphological characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plastic solar cell research has become an intense field of study considering these devices may be lightweight, flexible and reduce the cost of photovoltaic devices. The active layer of plastic solar cells are a combination of two organic components which blend to form an internal morphology. Due to the poor electrical transport properties of the organic components it is important to understand how the morphology forms in order to engineer these materials for increased efficiency. The focus of this thesis is a detailed study of the interfaces between the plastic solar cell layers and the morphology of the active layer. The system studied in detail is a blend of P3HT and PCBM that acts as the primary absorber, which is the electron donor, and the electron acceptor, respectively. The key morphological findings are, while thermal annealing increases the crystallinity parallel to the substrate, the morphology is largely unchanged following annealing. The deposition and mixing conditions of the bulk heterojunction from solution control the starting morphology. The spin coating speed, concentration, solvent type, and solution mixing time are all critical variables in the formation of the bulk heterojunction. In addition, including the terminals or inorganic layers in the analysis is critical because the inorganic surface properties influence the morphology. Charge transfer in the device occurs at the material interfaces, and a highly resistive transparent conducting oxide layer limits device performance. It was discovered that the electron blocking layer between the transparent conducting oxide and the bulk heterojunction is compromised following annealing. The electron acceptor material can diffuse into this layer, a location which does not benefit device performance. Additionally, the back contact deposition is important since the organic material can be damaged by the thermal evaporation of Aluminum, typically used for plastic solar cells. Depositing a thin thermal and momentum blocking layer of lithium fluoride prevents damage which ultimately leads to higher efficiencies. Finally, new materials have been synthesized with better electronic properties and stability. Characterization of the polymer properties and how they assemble is important for high device performance. One new promising polymer, Polybenzo[1,2-b:4,5- b']dithiophene-4,7-dithien-2-yl-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (PBnDT-DTBT), was characterized with PCBM and it was found that this polymer assembles similarly to previously studied polymers. The efficiency gained with this new polymer is obtained from an improvement in the materials electronic properties since the morphology closely resembles the P3HT:PCBM system.

Guralnick, Brett W.

11

Morphology and immunohistochemistry of rat aortic grafts.  

PubMed

Allotransplantation (TPL) of the abdominal aortic segments of BN donors was performed in 32 Lewis recipients with or without cyclosporin A (CyA) immunosuppression, and the vascular changes were compared to those of 10 syngeneic grafts (Lewis-->Lewis) and to the autologous rat aortae. The vessels were examined 2, 3, 4 and 5 months post TPL by light microscopy, the thickness of intima and media was measured morphometrically and the cell infiltration of adventitia and intima was assessed semiquantitatively. Thirty-six aortae were examined by three-step enzyme immunohistochemistry (proof of selected differentiation, proliferation, cytoskeletal and connective tissue matrix antigens). The adventitia displayed an intense focal and scattered mononuclear cell infiltration; it was more discrete and focal in the intima. This cellularity persisted in the allografts but disappeared from the intima and was reduced in the adventitia of the isografts after four and five months. Disseminated ED1+ activated macrophages were the most prominent population of infiltrates whereas modest numbers of adventitial ED2+ tissue macrophages remained constant throughout the intervals examined. CD4+ cells (focal and scattered) outnumbered (roughly twice) the scattered CD8+ lymphocytes; both these types were rare in the intima. Leukocyte invasion of the media was lacking (except for scarce isolated CD8+ cells in some allografts). In syngeneic grafts the smooth muscle cells (SMC) of media remained intact and the intimal thickening was slight to absent (about 5 microns) four and five months post TPL. On the other hand, the allograft media underwent severe destructive changes (karyolysis, depletion of alpha-SMC actin, focal calcification and general thinning without rupture or aneurysm). The prominent allograft intimal thickening (70-80 microns) was due to the proliferation of longitudinally oriented myointimal cells (alpha-SMC actin, FD2, PCNA and Ki67+) and an increase in matrix substance (strong metachromasia and positivity of chondroitin-sulfate proteoglycan). The deposition of lipids remained discrete, without atheromatous plaques and mural thrombosis. All changes were comparable in CyA-treated and untreated animals. Thus the main lesions of the allografts were (i) persistent mononuclear infiltration chiefly in adventitia, (ii) destruction of medial SMC, and (iii) intimal thickening by proliferation of myointimal cells. At the postTPL intervals examined the proliferation and intimal migration of medial SMC were not apparent and a morphological correlate of significant anti-medial-SMC cytotoxic attack was lacking. PMID:10664891

Rossmann, P; Lácha, J; Lodererová, A

1999-01-01

12

Social Structure Predicts Genital Morphology in African Mole-Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAfrican mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia) exhibit a wide range of social structures, from solitary to eusocial. We previously found a lack of sex differences in the external genitalia and morphology of the perineal muscles associated with the phallus in the eusocial naked mole-rat. This was quite surprising, as the external genitalia and perineal muscles are sexually dimorphic in all other mammals

Marianne L. Seney; Diane A. Kelly; Bruce D. Goldman; Radim Sumbera; Nancy G. Forger; Anna Dornhaus

2009-01-01

13

Characterizing the Morphology of Chaos on Europa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chaos terrain represents a type of feature unique to Europa and covers approximately one third of the satellite's surface. Two endmember models have been proposed for its formation: one suggests it forms through melting of the surface by liquid water from the subsurface ocean; the second suggests that chaos forms from the upwelling of thermally or compositionally buoyant diapirs. The formation of chaos disrupts preexisting surfaces and it has been observed that the magnitude of this disruption varies from one feature to another. Based on the morphological characteristics of different prominent and well-imaged regions of chaos (i.e., Conamara and Murias), this feature-type has been subdivided into endmember classes (Greeley et al., 2000). Conamara chaos is defined by kilometer-scale blocks of preexisting ridged plains material that have been tilted, translated and rotated with respect to one another within a generally lower-albedo matrix of hummocky material. Approximately 60% of the preexisting terrain has been replaced with or converted into matrix material (Spaun et al., 1998). In contrast, Murias chaos appears to be comprised purely of matrix material, with no hint of blocks of preexisting material or tectonic structure (Figueredo et al. 2002). The morphological characteristics of these two types of chaos have been commonly used to establish criteria for examining formation models. However, additional distinct morphologies of chaos have been proposed and the abundance/distribution of chaos morphologies is not well known. Understanding the importance of these various morphologies could provide valuable insight regarding the formation and evolution of this unique feature-type. To that end, we have systematically mapped the global distribution of chaos using image data at resolutions from ~1 km/pixel to 10 m/pixel and covering a range of viewing geometries. From this, we have categorized variations in morphology using the relative abundance of plates within a given feature as a defining characteristic and, using this map, we examine potential trends in the distribution of chaos morphologies.

Quick, L. C.; Patterson, G. W.; Prockter, L. M.

2008-12-01

14

Morphological modifications in clitoris and vagina in spontaneously hypertensive rats.  

PubMed

We evaluated possible morphological alteration in clitoris and vagina from spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive WKY rats. Clitoris and vagina were processed by Masson's trichrome, anti-alpha-smooth-muscle actin, anticollagen type I (COL I) and type III (COL III), and anti-TGFbeta(1). SHR presented higher amount of clitoral cavernous smooth muscle (CSM), vascular smooth muscle; TGFbeta(1) in clitoral vessel wall; higher wall/lumen ratio in both vaginal and clitoral vessels; and remarkable interstitial fibrosis, expressed by a higher amount in interstitial COL I and III in both clitoris and vagina, compared to WKY rats. Nerve fibers from clitoral and vaginal tissue in SHR showed important fibrosis at perineurium. SHR showed positive correlation between systolic blood pressure (SBP) and clitoral CSM; SBP and fibrosis in clitoris; and SBP and COL I and III in clitoris, respectively. Similar findings were observed between SBP and COL I and III in vagina. In conclusion, SHR present morphologic changes in clitoral vessels as well as in clitoral cavernous space, which have a high positive correlation with the high blood pressure level. Moreover, the increase in extracellular matrix affects not only the clitoral and vaginal interstitium but also the nerve structures from both clitoris and vagina. PMID:12904802

Bechara, A J; Cao, G; Casabé, A R; Romano, S V; Toblli, J E

2003-06-01

15

Multi-Scale Characterization of Inhomogeneous Morphologically Textured Microstructures (Preprint).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A computationally efficient microstructure characterization technique is presented that separately identifies morphological texture and any orientation dependence of second-phase clustering via a concise visual representation. This technique, the Vector M...

G. B. Wilks J. E. Spowart M. A. Tschopp

2009-01-01

16

Morphological Changes in Rat Vestibular System Following Weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mammalian gravity receptors (maculas) are morphologically organized for weighted, parallel distributed processing of information. There are two basic circuits: 1) highly channeled, type I cell to calyx; and 2) distributed modifying, type II cells to calyces and processes. The latter circuit should be the more adaptable since it modifies final output. To test this hypothesis, rats were flown in microgravity for 9 days aboard a space shuttle and euthanized shortly after landing. Hair cells and ribbon synapses from maculas of 3 flight and 3 ground control rats were studied ultrastructurally in blocks of 50 serial sections. Synapses increased by approximately 41% in type I cells and by approximately 55% in type II cells in flight animals. There was a shift toward the spherular form of ribbon synapse in both types of hair cells in flight animals. Current findings tend to support the stated hypothesis and indicate that mature utricular hair cells retain synaptic plasticity, permitting adaptation to an altered gravitational environment.

Ross, Muriel D.

1993-01-01

17

Morphological effects of rapeseed oil in rats. III. Studies in germ-free rats.  

PubMed

The morphological effects on the myocardium of feeding rapeseed oil were compared in conventional and germ-free rats in short-term experiments (10 days). It was concluded that the fatty accumulation in the heart muscle cells occurring in rats fed rapeseed oil was not influenced by the presence or absence of a normal intestinal flora. In long-term experiments (80 days) under similar conditions, the myocardial effects of feeding germ-free rats with conventional rapeseed oil, rapeseed oil from the Canadian cultivar Oro very low in erucic acid, or arachis oil were studied in serial sections. Severe myocardial lesions developed in the group of rats fed conventional rapeseed oil, while in the other two groups the myocardium was completely normal. These results give no support to the theory that other factors than C22:1 acids in rapeseed oil are responsible for the myocardial lesions. PMID:1062118

Engfeldt, B; Gustafsson, B

1975-01-01

18

Morphological characterization of fullerene-androsterone conjugates.  

PubMed

Here we report on the self-organization characteristics in water of two diastereomer pairs of fullerene-androsterone hybrids that have the hydrophobic C60 appendage in the A and D ring of the androsterone moiety, respectively. The morphology and particle size in aqueous solution were determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS), with satisfactory agreement between both techniques. In general, these fullerene derivatives are shown to organize into spherical nano-scale structures with diameters in the ranges of 10-20 and 30-50 nm, respectively. PMID:24778962

Ruiz, Alberto; Suárez, Margarita; Martin, Nazario; Albericio, Fernando; Rodríguez, Hortensia

2014-01-01

19

High-intensity exercise may compromise renal morphology in rats.  

PubMed

We investigated the renal effects of a high-intensity exercise (HIE) program based on strength training. 20 Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 2 experimental groups performing HIE or control over 12 weeks. Urinary volume, pH, citrate and calcium, and plasma urea, total proteins, creatinine, albumin, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase (CK), calcium, magnesium, corticosterone and testosterone were measured. We also studied renal morphology with the Fibrosis HR(®) software. Plasma urea and CK concentrations were higher in the HIE compared to the control group (p<0.05), whereas plasma creatinine was lower (p<0.01). Plasma corticosterone was higher (p<0.05) and testosterone lower (p<0.01) in the HIE group. Except for the higher urinary volume found in the HIE group (p<0.05), no differences between groups were observed in the rest of urinary parameters analyzed. Renal interstitial connective tissue was ~30% higher in the HIE group (p<0.05). Glomerular tufts and mesangial areas were also higher in the HIE group (all, p<0.05). No differences between groups were observed in the glomerular area. Overall, HIE promoted a worse morphological renal profile that might be associated with a higher risk for incidence of kidney disease in the long-term. The stress induced by the type of exercise performed could be on the basis of this worse morphological renal status. PMID:24424961

Aparicio, V A; Tassi, M; Nebot, E; Camiletti-Moirón, D; Ortega, E; Porres, J M; Aranda, P

2014-07-01

20

Morphological changes in cavernous tissue in spontaneously hypertensive rats.  

PubMed

Erectile dysfunction has an increased prevalence in hypertensive patients and is associated with cardiovascular diseases. For many years the discussion has been polarized on whether in hypertensive patients, it is the arterial hypertension or the antihypertensive therapy that is the cause of male erectile dysfunction. The aim of our study was to determine the morphologic changes in cavernous tissue (CT) in an animal model of arterial hypertension. Male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) (n = 15) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats (n = 15) were studied for 8 months. Animals were allowed to drink tap water and fed a standard rat chow ad libitum. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured monthly by the tail/cuff method. At the end of the experiment all the animals were sacrificed for microscopic studies. Cavernous tissue was processed by hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's trichrome, and monoclonal anti-alpha smooth muscle actin. Cavernous smooth muscle (CSM) and vascular smooth muscle (VSM) proliferation and CT fibrosis were evaluated by a semiquantitative score. SHR showed a higher proliferative score in CSM (2.7 +/- 0.28 v 1.1 +/- 0.07; P < .001), as well as in VSM (2.7 +/- 0.25 v 1 +/- 0.05; P < .001), and higher CT fibrosis score (2.8 +/- 0.28 v 0.1 +/- 0.07; P < .001), when compared to WKY rats. Furthermore, SHR showed a positive correlation between SBP and CSM proliferative score (r2 = 0.9277), SBP and VSM proliferative score (r2 = 0.8828), and SBP and CT fibrosis score (r2 = 0.7775). In addition, an increase in the surrounding connective tissue at the perineurium and endoneurium of the amielinic nerves in CT was observed in the SHR group. According to these results we conclude that SHR present morphologic changes in vessels as well as in cavernous spaces of the erectile tissue that have a high positive correlation with high blood pressure. Moreover, the increase in extracellular matrix expansion seems to affect not only the interstitium but also the neural structures of the penis. PMID:10912754

Toblli, J E; Stella, I; Inserra, F; Ferder, L; Zeller, F; Mazza, O N

2000-06-01

21

Characterizing the morphology of protein binding patches.  

PubMed

Let the patch of a partner in a protein complex be the collection of atoms accounting for the interaction. To improve our understanding of the structure-function relationship, we present a patch model decoupling the topological and geometric properties. While the geometry is classically encoded by the atomic positions, the topology is recorded in a graph encoding the relative position of concentric shells partitioning the interface atoms. The topological-geometric duality provides the basis of a generic dynamic programming-based algorithm comparing patches at the shell level, which may favor topological or geometric features. On the biological side, we address four questions, using 249 cocrystallized heterodimers organized in biological families. First, we dissect the morphology of binding patches and show that Nature enjoyed the topological and geometric degrees of freedom independently while retaining a finite set of qualitatively distinct topological signatures. Second, we argue that our shell-based comparison is effective to perform atomic-level comparisons and show that topological similarity is a less stringent than geometric similarity. We also use the topological versus geometric duality to exhibit topo-rigid patches, whose topology (but not geometry) remains stable upon docking. Third, we use our comparison algorithms to infer specificity-related information amidst a database of complexes. Finally, we exhibit a descriptor outperforming its contenders to predict the binding affinities of the affinity benchmark. The softwares developed with this article are availablefrom http://team.inria.fr/abs/vorpatch_compatch/. PMID:22806945

Malod-Dognin, Noël; Bansal, Achin; Cazals, Frédéric

2012-12-01

22

Morphological and functional alterations in glycerol preserved rat aortic allografts.  

PubMed

Glycerol preservation is an effective method for long-term preservation of skin allografts and has a potential use in preserving arterial allografts. We evaluated the effect of glycerol concentration and incubation period on vessel-wall integrity of rat aortic allografts. No significant differences were measured in breaking strength (2.3 +/- 0.3 N) and bursting pressure (223 +/- 32 kPa) between standard glycerolized and control segments (1.7 +/- 0.3 N, 226 +/- 17 kPa). Isometric tension measurements showed complete lack of functional contraction and relaxation capacity in allograft segments prepared according to all preservation protocols. Morphologically, thickness of the vessel-wall media diminished after preservation using low (30/50/75%) or high (70/85/98%) concentrations of glycerol, as compared to control segments (i.e. 81 +/- 2.4 microm, 95 +/- 5.6 microm and 125 +/- 3.5 microm, respectively). Confocal microscopy and Fourier analysis demonstrated that vascular collagen and elastin bundle orientation had remained unaltered. Electron microscopy showed defragmentation of luminal endothelial cells. In conclusion, glycerol preservation of rat aorta resulted in an acellular tissue matrix, which maintained biomechanical integrity and extracellular matrix characteristics. The next step in the investigation will be to test the concept of glycerol preservation of arterial allografts in a vascular transplantation model. PMID:15636056

Fahner, P J; Idu, M M; Legemate, D A; Vanbavel, E; Borstlap, J; Pfaffendorf, M; van Marle, J; van Gulik, T M

2004-11-01

23

Placental morphology of rats prenatally exposed to methyl parathion.  

PubMed

Although prenatal exposure to pesticides has been associated with numerous adverse reproductive effects, data on the effects of such toxics in the placenta is limited. Thus, the present study was carried out to determine the morphology of the rat placenta exposed to the organophosphate pesticide methyl parathion (MP) in ad libitum fed and restricted diet animals. The pregnant females were randomly divided into control groups and experimental groups, the latter of which received MP at the doses of 0.0, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg/kg. Most cells in the maternal-fetal interface showed significant alterations in the presence of MP. Trophoblast giant cells exhibited either prominent characteristics of degeneration or normal morphology with many phagosome vacuoles, apparently containing cell debris. Vascular congestion was also more frequent in the labyrinth of the treated animals. Areas of fibrosis and hemorrhage were found in the decidua, as well as decidual cells presenting pyknotic nuclei and acidophilic cytoplasm. In the placentas of females treated with both restricted diet and MP, such changes were much more severe. Together, these alterations suggest a direct, toxic effect of MP on the placental cells. The phagocytic activity exhibited by trophoblast cells, may be playing a role in the removal of death cells from the maternal-placental interface and/or in a compensatory mechanism to maintain the uptake of maternal nutrients, following decreased metabolic exchange functions of the labyrinth due to the toxic effect of the MP. PMID:15384254

Levario-Carrillo, Margarita; Olave, María Elena; Corral, Dora Chávez; Alderete, Jaime Gutiérrez; Gagioti, Sonia María; Bevilacqua, Estela

2004-07-01

24

Morphological analysis of rat ureteric terminal arterioles in situ.  

PubMed

Confocal imaging of Fluo-4, Propidium iodide, and di-8-Anepps loaded ureter were used to study the morphology of terminal arterioles with an inner diameter <50 ?m in intact rat ureter. Optical sectioning showed that the muscle coat of the terminal arterioles consisted of a monolayer of highly curved smooth muscle cells which run circumferentially around the endothelium. This technique allowed not only to measure the inner diameter of the terminal arterioles but also to define the orientation and number of revolutions an individual smooth muscle cell made around the endothelium. We measured thickness, width, length, and morphological profile of the myocytes and endothelial cells. Propidium iodide staining showed nuclei of individual cells by continuous imaging at high resolution in serial optical sections. Conventional haematoxylin-eosin, Masson's tri-chrome staining, and transmission electron microscopy were also used in this study to compare the measurements obtained from live confocal imaging with histological standard methods. Parameters obtained from live imaging were significantly different. This technique of live staining allowed measuring the cellular and nuclear dimensions of the terminal arterioles in their natural environment which are important in studying the effects of vascular disease or aging on vascular structure. PMID:23450700

Mumtaz, Sadaf

2013-06-01

25

Isolation and characterization of hepatic Golgi lipoproteins from hypercholesterolemic rats.  

PubMed Central

The feeding of cholesterol-rich diets alters the serum lipoproteins of a number of mammalian species. These lipoproteins are characterized by the presence of several classes of particles enriched in cholesteryl esters and apolipoprotein E (apo E). It was the aim of this study to determine whether one or more of these particles arises by de novo hepatic synthesis by characterizing nascent lipoproteins isolated from the hepatic Golgi apparatus of hypercholesterolemic rats. Characterization of these lipoproteins afforded the opportunity to assess morphologic, biochemical, and biophysical properties of newly synthesized lipoproteins before enzymatic alterations and apoprotein transfer known to occur after secretion into the plasma compartment. Golgi very low density lipoproteins (VLDL, d < 1.006 g/ml) from hypercholesterolemic rats contained nearly four times the total cholesterol mass found in control Golgi VLDL. They exhibited electrophoretic mobility intermediate between beta and pre-beta and were devoid of apo C. A second population of hepatic Golgi lipoproteins was isolated from hypercholesterolemic rats at 1.006--1.040 g/ml d. These low density lipoproteins were smaller than VLDL, displayed beta electrophoretic mobility, were enriched in cholesteryl esters, and contained apo E as well as apo B. The fatty acid composition of the core lipids of the nascent lipoproteins was found to reflect that of dietary triglyceride. The liver of the hypercholesterolemic rat thus plays an active role in dietary-induced hypercholesterolemia by synthesizing a modified VLDL and a low density lipoprotein resembling serum low density lipoprotein. Images

Swift, L L; Manowitz, N R; Dunn, G D; LeQuire, V S

1980-01-01

26

Morphological and molecular characterization of Italian emmer wheat accessions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characterization of 39 Italian ecotypes and cultivars of Triticum turgidum L. spp. dicoccum Shrank ex Schübler (emmer wheat) was performed utilizing agro-morphological and molecular tools. Emmer wheat is a hulled species which grows wild in the Near East and is still cultivated in the Mediterranean Basin. Due to its characteristics, in Italy it is cultivated mainly in marginal lands

Mario Augusto Pagnotta; Linda Mondini; Maroun Fandy Atallah

2005-01-01

27

Genomic Characterization of Human and Rat Prolactinomas  

PubMed Central

Although prolactinomas can be effectively treated with dopamine agonists, about 20% of patients develop dopamine resistance or tumor recurrence after surgery, indicating a need for better understanding of underlying disease mechanisms. Although estrogen-induced rat prolactinomas have been widely used to investigate the development of this tumor, the extent that the model recapitulates features of human prolactinomas is unclear. To prioritize candidate genes and gene sets regulating human and rat prolactinomas, microarray results derived from human prolactinomas and pituitaries of estrogen-treated ACI rats were integrated and analyzed. A total of 4545 differentially expressed pituitary genes were identified in estrogen-treated ACI rats [false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.01]. By comparing pituitary microarray results derived from estrogen-treated Brown Norway rats (a strain not sensitive to estrogen), 4073 genes were shown specific to estrogen-treated ACI rats. Human prolactinomas exhibited 1177 differentially expressed genes (FDR < 0.05). Combining microarray data derived from human prolactinoma and pituitaries of estrogen-treated ACI rat, 145 concordantly expressed genes, including E2F1, Myc, Igf1, and CEBPD, were identified. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed that 278 curated pathways and 59 gene sets of transcription factors were enriched (FDR < 25%) in estrogen-treated ACI rats, suggesting a critical role for Myc, E2F1, CEBPD, and Sp1 in this rat prolactinoma. Similarly increased Myc, E2F1, and Sp1 expression was validated using real-time PCR and Western blot in estrogen-treated Fischer rat pituitary glands. In summary, characterization of individual genes and gene sets in human and in estrogen-induced rat prolactinomas validates the model and provides insights into genomic changes associated with this commonly encountered pituitary tumor.

Tong, Yunguang; Zheng, Yun; Zhou, Jin; Oyesiku, Nelson M.; Koeffler, H. Phillip

2012-01-01

28

Hypertension promotes islet morphological changes with vascular injury on pre-diabetic status in SHRsp rats.  

PubMed

Abstract Hypertensive patients have a higher incidence of new-onset diabetic mellitus than normotensive subjects, and we hypothesized that hypertension induces morphological changes in islets via vascular injury. To test our hypothesis, we administrated hydralazine or irbesartan to spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone (SHRsp) rats. A greater islet fibrosis was observed in SHRsp rats compared with controls, and irbesartan significantly ameliorated the fibrosis. High fat diet induced glucose intorelance in SHRsp rats and irbesartan but not hydralazine improved glucose torelance. We demonstrate islet morphological changes in hypertensive rats, and our data suggest that angiotensin receptor blockers have the potential to prevent islet injury. PMID:23786428

Satoh, Minoru; Nagasu, Hajime; Haruna, Yoshisuke; Ihoriya, Chieko; Kadoya, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Tamaki; Kashihara, Naoki

2014-01-01

29

The Morphology of the Rat Vibrissal Array: A Model for Quantifying Spatiotemporal Patterns of Whisker-Object Contact  

PubMed Central

In all sensory modalities, the data acquired by the nervous system is shaped by the biomechanics, material properties, and the morphology of the peripheral sensory organs. The rat vibrissal (whisker) system is one of the premier models in neuroscience to study the relationship between physical embodiment of the sensor array and the neural circuits underlying perception. To date, however, the three-dimensional morphology of the vibrissal array has not been characterized. Quantifying array morphology is important because it directly constrains the mechanosensory inputs that will be generated during behavior. These inputs in turn shape all subsequent neural processing in the vibrissal-trigeminal system, from the trigeminal ganglion to primary somatosensory (“barrel”) cortex. Here we develop a set of equations for the morphology of the vibrissal array that accurately describes the location of every point on every whisker to within ±5% of the whisker length. Given only a whisker's identity (row and column location within the array), the equations establish the whisker's two-dimensional (2D) shape as well as three-dimensional (3D) position and orientation. The equations were developed via parameterization of 2D and 3D scans of six rat vibrissal arrays, and the parameters were specifically chosen to be consistent with those commonly measured in behavioral studies. The final morphological model was used to simulate the contact patterns that would be generated as a rat uses its whiskers to tactually explore objects with varying curvatures. The simulations demonstrate that altering the morphology of the array changes the relationship between the sensory signals acquired and the curvature of the object. The morphology of the vibrissal array thus directly constrains the nature of the neural computations that can be associated with extraction of a particular object feature. These results illustrate the key role that the physical embodiment of the sensor array plays in the sensing process.

Gopal, Venkatesh; Solomon, Joseph H.; Hartmann, Mitra J. Z.

2011-01-01

30

Blue Maize: Morphology and Starch Synthase Characterization of Starch Granule  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of pigmented maize varieties has increased due to their high anthocyanins content, but very few studies are reported\\u000a about the starch properties of these grains. The aim of this work was to isolate the starch granules from pigmented blue maize\\u000a and carry out the morphological, physicochemical, and biochemical characterization studies. The proximate composition of starch\\u000a granules showed high

Rubi G. Utrilla-Coello; Edith Agama-Acevedo; Ana Paulina Barba de la Rosa; Jose L. Martinez-Salgado; Sandra L. Rodriguez-Ambriz; Luis A. Bello-Perez

2009-01-01

31

Morphological, Host Range, and Genetic Characterization of Two Coliphages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two coliphages, AR1 and LG1, were characterized based on their morphological, host range, and genetic properties. Transmission electron microscopy showed that both phages belonged to the Myoviridae; phage particles of LG1 were smaller than those of AR1 and had an isometric head 68 nm in diameter and a complex contractile tail 111 nm in length. Transmission electron micrographs of AR1

Lawrence Goodridge; Alicia Gallaccio; Mansel W. Griffiths

2003-01-01

32

Orally Administered Ovine Serum Immunoglobulins Influence Growth Performance, Organ Weights, and Gut Morphology in Growing Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, our aim was to determine whether orally administered ovine serum Ig improved growth performance, organ weights, and gut morphology in growing rats and whether the method of manufacture of ovine serum Ig affected its bioactivity. Ninety Sprague-Dawley male rats were used in a 21-d growth study and were fed a basal control diet (BD; no Ig) and

Prabhu Balan; Kyoung-Sik Han; Shane M. Rutherfurd; Harjinder Singh; Paul J. Moughan

2008-01-01

33

The case of an insular molarless black rat: Effects on lifestyle and mandible morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a specimen of an insular black rat (Rattus rattus) from Illa den Colom (Menorca, Western Mediterranean) displaying a singular dental characteristic. It has no molar teeth but displays regular incisors. Its mere occurrence as a regular adult rat is puzzling and we attempted to evaluate what diet and morphological changes in jaw shape were promoted by the total

Pere Bover; Josep A. Alcover; Jacques Michaux; Sabrina Renaud

2010-01-01

34

Morphological evidence for local microcircuits in rat vestibular maculae  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous studies suggested that intramacular, unmyelinated segments of vestibular afferent nerve fibers and their large afferent endings (calyces) on type I hair cells branch. Many of the branches (processes) contain vesicles and are presynaptic to type II hair cells, other processes, intramacular nerve fibers, and calyces. This study used serial section transmission electron microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction methods to document the origins and distributions of presynaptic processes of afferents in the medial part of the adult rat utricular macula. The ultrastructural research focused on presynaptic processes whose origin and termination could be observed in a single micrograph. Results showed that calyces had 1) vesiculated, spine-like processes that invaginated type I cells and 2) other, elongate processes that ended on type II cells pre- as well as postsynaptically. Intramacular, unmyelinated segments of afferent nerve fibers gave origin to branches that were presynaptic to type II cells, calyces, calyceal processes, and other nerve fibers in the macula. Synapses with type II cells occurred opposite subsynaptic cisternae (C synapses); all other synapses were asymmetric. Vesicles were pleomorphic but were differentially distributed according to process origin. Small, clear-centered vesicles, approximately 40-60 nm in diameter, predominated in processes originating from afferent nerve fibers and basal parts of calyces. Larger vesicles approximately 70-120 nm in diameter having approximately 40-80 nm electron-opaque cores were dominant in processes originating from the necks of calyces. Results are interpreted to indicate the existence of a complex system of intrinsic feedforward (postsynaptic)-feedback (presynaptic) connections in a network of direct and local microcircuits. The morphological findings support the concept that maculae dynamically preprocess linear acceleratory information before its transmission to the central nervous system.

Ross, M. D.

1997-01-01

35

Characterization of the spatial variability of channel morphology  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The spatial variability of two fundamental morphological variables is investigated for rivers having a wide range of discharge (five orders of magnitude). The variables, water-surface width and average depth, were measured at 58 to 888 equally spaced cross-sections in channel links (river reaches between major tributaries). These measurements provide data to characterize the two-dimensional structure of a channel link which is the fundamental unit of a channel network. The morphological variables have nearly log-normal probability distributions. A general relation was determined which relates the means of the log-transformed variables to the logarithm of discharge similar to previously published downstream hydraulic geometry relations. The spatial variability of the variables is described by two properties: (1) the coefficient of variation which was nearly constant (0.13-0.42) over a wide range of discharge; and (2) the integral length scale in the downstream direction which was approximately equal to one to two mean channel widths. The joint probability distribution of the morphological variables in the downstream direction was modelled as a first-order, bivariate autoregressive process. This model accounted for up to 76 per cent of the total variance. The two-dimensional morphological variables can be scaled such that the channel width-depth process is independent of discharge. The scaling properties will be valuable to modellers of both basin and channel dynamics. Published in 2002 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

Moody, . J. A.; Troutman, B. M.

2002-01-01

36

Characterization of rat hepatic acetyltransferase.  

PubMed Central

Rat liver cytosol is capable of N-acetylation (NAT) of arylamines, O-acetylation (OAT) of arylhydroxylamines, and N,O-acetyltransfer (AHAT) of arylhydroxamic acids. Physical, enzymatic, and immunochemical techniques now support the conclusion that a single 32 kDa protein accounts for all of these activities. Of the five immunoglobulin (IgG1) mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAb) produced against this protein, each affected one or more of these acetylation activities. When mixed with rat hepatic cytosol and then chromatographed on a gel filtration column, mAbs 1F2 and 5F8 increased the apparent size of all enzymes capable of acetylation from 32 kDa to the exclusion volume. Each of the mAbs reacted with only a single 32 kDa protein on SDS-PAGE/Western blots, regardless of the state of purity of the enzyme. This enzyme is unstable in low salt solutions, as reflected by a relative loss in NAT versus AHAT activity, but it does not result in changes in either molecular weight or isoelectric point (pl). A second form of instability is shown by the formation of more basic peptides with pls as high as 6, again without change in molecular weight. Although NAT activity is retained in acetyltransferase (AT) that has a minimally modified pl, further increases in pl result in total loss of enzyme activity. The differential effects of the mAbs on AT suggest that the ratios of NAT, OAT, and AHAT may be highly dependent on the conformation of the enzyme and, consequently, provide insight as to why the abilities of ATs from different species exhibit such dissimilar potentials for the activation of aromatic amines by OAT and AHAT. Images Figure 1.

Land, S J; King, C M

1994-01-01

37

Crack layer morphology and toughness characterization in steels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Both the macro studies of crack layer propagation are presented. The crack extension resistance parameter R sub 1 based on the morphological study of microdefects is introduced. Experimental study of the history dependent nature of G sub c supports the representation of G sub c as a product of specific enthalpy of damage (material constant) and R sub 1. The latter accounts for the history dependence. The observation of nonmonotonic crack growth under monotonic changes of J as well as statistical features of the critical energy release rate (variance of G sub c) indicate the validity of the proposed damage characterization.

Chudnovsky, A.; Bessendorf, M.

1983-01-01

38

Morphological characterization of Pelibuey sheep in Colima, México.  

PubMed

A study was conducted with the objective to characterize the morphology of Pelibuey sheep in the state of Colima, Mexico. A total of 386 sheep were scored for 12 body measurements in addition to live weight and five racial and eight functional indices were calculated. The influence of sex on the body measurements and indices was analyzed, and morphological harmony was determined through Pearson correlation. The sexual dimorphism was 1.21, with males being 67 % heavier than females. Females and males had a high and moderate degree of harmony in their morphological model, respectively. Pelibuey sheep were dolichocephalous, tended to be medium- to large-sized according to the thoracic index, with a convex curve rump; they were a homogeneous breed, well adapted to environmental and production conditions of the state of Colima, Mexico, and show an undefined zootechnical aptitude and therefore a great potential to be oriented towards meat or milk production through genetic selection or terminal crossbreeding systems using specialized breeds. PMID:23114577

Arredondo-Ruiz, Victalina; Macedo-Barragán, Rafael; Molina-Cárdenas, Jaime; Magaña-Álvarez, Julio; Prado-Rebolledo, Omar; García-Márquez, Luis J; Herrera-Corredor, Alejandra; Lee-Rangel, Héctor

2013-04-01

39

Structural characterization of semicrystalline polymer morphologies by imaging-SANS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Control and optimization of polymer properties require the global knowledge of the constitutive microstructures of polymer morphologies in various conditions. The microstructural features can be typically explored over a wide length scale by combining pinhole-, focusing- and ultra-small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) techniques. Though it proved to be a successful approach, this involves major efforts related to the use of various scattering instruments and large amount of samples and the need to ensure the same crystallization kinetics for the samples investigated at various facilities, in different sample cell geometries and at different time intervals. With the installation and commissioning of the MgF2 neutron lenses at the KWS-2 SANS diffractometer installed at the Heinz Maier-Leibnitz neutron source (FRMII reactor) in Garching, a wide Q-range, between 10-4Å-1 and 0.5Å-1, can be covered at a single instrument. This enables investigation of polymer microstructures over a length scale from lnm up to 1?m, while the overall polymer morphology can be further examined up to 100?m by optical microscopy (including crossed polarizers). The study of different semi-crystalline polypropylene-based polymers in solution is discussed and the new imaging-SANS approach allowing for an unambiguous and complete structural characterization of polymer morphologies is presented.

Radulescu, A.; Fetters, L. J.; Richter, D.

2012-02-01

40

Chronic stress alters dendritic morphology in rat medial prefrontal cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic stress produces deficits in cognition accompanied by alterations in neural chemis- try and morphology. Medial prefrontal cortex is a target for glucocorticoids involved in the stress response. We have previously demonstrated that 3 weeks of daily corticosterone injections result in dendritic reorganiza- tion in pyramidal neurons in layer II-III of medial prefrontal cortex. To determine if similar morphological changes

Susan C. Cook; Cara L. Wellman

2004-01-01

41

Morphological Characterization of the Polyflux 210H Hemodialysis Filter Pores  

PubMed Central

Background. Morphological characterization of hemodialysis membranes is necessary to improve pore design. Aim. To delineate membrane pore structure of a high flux filter, Polyflux 210H. Methods. We used a Joel JSM-6010LV scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a SU6600 Hitachi field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) to characterize the pore and fiber morphology. The maximal diameters of selected uremic toxins were calculated using the macromolecular modeling Crystallographic Object-Oriented Toolkit (COOT) software. Results. The mean pore densities on the outermost and innermost surfaces of the membrane were 36.81% and 5.45%, respectively. The membrane exhibited a tortuous structure with poor connection between the inner and outer pores. The aperture's width in the inner surface ranged between 34 and 45?nm, which is 8.76–11.60 times larger than the estimated maximum diameter of ?2-microglobulin (3.88?nm). Conclusion. The results suggest that the diameter size of inner pore apertures is not a limiting factor to middle molecules clearance, the extremely diminished density is. Increasing inner pore density and improving channel structure are strategies to improve clearance of middle molecules.

Hedayat, A.; Szpunar, J.; Kumar, N. A. P. Kiran; Peace, R.; Elmoselhi, H.; Shoker, A.

2012-01-01

42

Social status and sex effects on neural morphology in Damaraland mole-rats, Fukomys damarensis.  

PubMed

We previously reported that in a eusocial rodent, the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber), traditional neural sex differences were absent; instead, neural dimorphisms were associated with breeding status. Here we examined the same neural regions previously studied in naked mole-rats in a second eusocial species, the Damaraland mole-rat (Fukomys damarensis). Damaraland mole-rats live in social groups with breeding restricted to a small number of animals. However, colony sizes are much smaller in Damaraland mole-rats than in naked mole-rats and there is consequently less reproductive skew. In this sense, Damaraland mole-rats may be considered intermediate in social organization between naked mole-rats and more traditional laboratory rodents. We report that, as in naked mole-rats, breeding Damaraland mole-rats have larger volumes of the principal nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus than do subordinates, with no effect of sex on these measures. Thus, these structures may play special roles in breeders of eusocial species. However, in contrast to what was seen in naked mole-rats, we also found sex differences in Damaraland mole-rats: volume of the medial amygdala and motoneuron number in Onuf's nucleus were both greater in males than in females, with no significant effect of breeding status. Thus, both sex and breeding status influence neural morphology in Damaraland mole-rats. These findings are in accord with the observed sex differences in body weight and genitalia in Damaraland but not naked mole-rats. We hypothesize that the increased sexual dimorphism in Damaraland mole-rats relative to naked mole-rats is related to reduced reproductive skew. PMID:21701152

Anyan, Jeff J; Seney, Marianne L; Holley, Amanda; Bengston, Lynn; Goldman, Bruce D; Forger, Nancy G; Holmes, Melissa M

2011-01-01

43

Development of morphological and functional polarity in primary cultures of immature rat uterine epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

The present study describes a culture environment in which luminal epithelial cells isolated from immature rat uteri and cultured on a matrix-coated permeable surface, with separate apical and basal secretory compartments, proliferate to confluence. Subsequently the cells undergo a process of differentiation accompanied by progressive development of functional polarity. Ultrastructural and immunocytochemical evidence verifies the ability of these primary cultures to regain polar organization, separate membrane domains, and form functional tight junctions as demonstrated by the development of transepithelial resistance. The appearance of uvomorulin is restricted to the lateral cell surface. Coordinated indices of functional polarity that develop progressively in post-confluent cultures include the preferential uptake of [35S]methionine from the basal surface and a rise in uterine epithelial cell secretory activity characterized by a progressive preference for apical secretion. The time dependent development of polarity was characterized by differences in the protein profiles of the apical and basolateral secretory compartments. The maintenance of hormone responsiveness by the cultured cells was validated by the secretion of two proteins identified as secretory markers of estrogen response in the intact uterus. The technique of culturing the cells on a matrix-coated permeable surface with separate secretory compartments produces a uterine epithelial cell that morphologically and functionally resembles its in situ equivalent. The culture method and analytical approach used in this present study may be applied to primary cultures of a variety of natural epithelia, which have hitherto proven resistant to more conventional culture methodologies.

1988-01-01

44

Functional and morphological modifications of the urinary bladder in aging female rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional and morphological modifications of the urinary bladder in aging female rats. Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 278: R964-R972, 2000.—In female Wistar\\/Rij rats, 10 and 30 mo old, the micturition profiles in conscious animals, the contractile responses of the isolated urinary bladder, and the histology of the vesical tissue have been investigated. During cystomanometry, 60% of conscious senescent

P. LLUEL; S. PALEA; M. BARRAS; F. GRANDADAM; D. HEUDES; P. BRUNEVAL; B. CORMAN; D. J. MARTIN

45

A Combined Phytohemagglutinin and ?-Ketoglutarate Pharmacology Study of Gut Morphology and Growth in Older Adult Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study has evaluated the effect of phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) in combination with alpha-ketoglutaric acid (AKG), on GI-tract morphology and N balance in adult rats. Rats, aged approx. 15 months, were assigned to one of four experimental groups, (1) Control group, (2) AKG group, (3) AKG+PHA 100% group and (4) AKG+PHA 1% group. AKG and AKG+PHA were administered via a stomach

R. Filip; A. Harrison; S. G. Pierzynowski

2007-01-01

46

Micro-morphologic changes around biophysically-stimulated titanium implants in ovariectomized rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis may present a risk factor in achievement of osseointegration because of its impact on bone remodeling properties of skeletal phsiology. The purpose of this study was to evaluate micro-morphological changes in bone around titanium implants exposed to mechanical and electrical-energy in osteoporotic rats. METHODS: Fifteen 12-week old sprague-dowley rats were ovariectomized to develop osteoporosis. After 8 weeks of

Kivanc Akca; Ebru Sarac; Ugur Baysal; Mete Fanuscu; Ting-Ling Chang; Murat Cehreli

2007-01-01

47

Physiological, Morphological and Neurochemical Characterization of Neurons Modulated by Movement  

PubMed Central

The role of individual neurons and their function in neuronal circuits is fundamental to understanding the neuronal mechanisms of sensory and motor functions. Most investigations of sensorimotor mechanisms rely on either examination of neurons while an animal is static1,2 or record extracellular neuronal activity during a movement.3,4 While these studies have provided the fundamental background for sensorimotor function, they either do not evaluate functional information which occurs during a movement or are limited in their ability to fully characterize the anatomy, physiology and neurochemical phenotype of the neuron. A technique is shown here which allows extensive characterization of individual neurons during an in vivo movement. This technique can be used not only to study primary afferent neurons but also to characterize motoneurons and sensorimotor interneurons. Initially the response of a single neuron is recorded using electrophysiological methods during various movements of the mandible followed by determination of the receptive field for the neuron. A neuronal tracer is then intracellularly injected into the neuron and the brain is processed so that the neuron can be visualized with light, electron or confocal microscopy (Fig. 1). The detailed morphology of the characterized neuron is then reconstructed so that neuronal morphology can be correlated with the physiological response of the neuron (Figs. 2,3). In this communication important key details and tips for successful implementation of this technique are provided. Valuable additional information can be determined for the neuron under study by combining this method with other techniques. Retrograde neuronal labeling can be used to determine neurons with which the labeled neuron synapses; thus allowing detailed determination of neuronal circuitry. Immunocytochemistry can be combined with this method to examine neurotransmitters within the labeled neuron and to determine the chemical phenotypes of neurons with which the labeled neuron synapses. The labeled neuron can also be processed for electron microscopy to determine the ultrastructural features and microcircuitry of the labeled neuron. Overall this technique is a powerful method to thoroughly characterize neurons during in vivo movement thus allowing substantial insight into the role of the neuron in sensorimotor function.

Dessem, Dean

2011-01-01

48

Morphological study of the mammalian stress response: characterization of changes in cytoplasmic organelles, cytoskeleton, and nucleoli, and appearance of intranuclear actin filaments in rat fibroblasts after heat-shock treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using both electron microscopy and immunological methods, we have character- ized a number of changes occurring in rat fibroblasts after heat-shock treatment. Incubation of the cells for 3 h at 42°-43°C resulted in a number of changes within the cytoplasm including: a disruption and fragmentation of the Golgi complex; a modest swelling of the mitochondria and subtle alterations in the

WILLIAM I. WELCH; JOSEPH P. SUHAN

1985-01-01

49

Characterization of prostanoid receptors on rat neutrophils.  

PubMed Central

1. The effects of various prostanoid agonists have been compared on the increase in intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+]i) and the aggregation reaction of rat peritoneal neutrophils induced by N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (FMLP). 2. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and the specific IP-receptor agonist, cicaprost, both inhibited the FMLP-induced increase in [Ca2+]i (IC50 33 nM and 18 nM respectively) and the FMLP-induced aggregation reaction (IC50 5.6 nM and 7.9 nM respectively). PGD2, PGF2 alpha, and the TP-receptor agonist, U 46619, were inactive at the highest concentration tested (1 microM). 3. The EP1-receptor agonist, 17-phenyl-omega-trinor PGE2, and the EP3-receptor agonists, GR 63799X and sulprostone, had no inhibitory effect on FMLP-stimulated rat neutrophils. 4. PGE1 (EP/IP-receptor agonist) and iloprost (IP-receptor agonist) inhibited the FMLP-induced increase in [Ca2+]i with IC50 values of 34 nM and 38 nM respectively. The EP2-receptor agonists, butaprost and misoprostol (1 microM), inhibited both FMLP-stimulated [Ca2+]i and aggregation. However another EP2-receptor agonist, AH 13205, was inactive in both assays. 5. Prostanoid receptors present on rat neutrophils were further characterized by measuring [3H]-adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate ([3H]-cyclic AMP) accumulation. Only those agonists capable of stimulating [3H]-cyclic AMP accumulation were able to inhibit both FMLP-stimulated [Ca2+]i and aggregation. 6. These results indicate that rat neutrophils possess inhibitory IP and EP-receptors; the relative potencies of PGE2, misoprostol and butaprost are those expected for the EP2-receptor subtype. No evidence for DP, FP, TP or EP1 and EP3-receptors was obtained.

Wise, H; Jones, R L

1994-01-01

50

Orally administered ovine serum immunoglobulins influence growth performance, organ weights, and gut morphology in growing rats.  

PubMed

In this study, our aim was to determine whether orally administered ovine serum Ig improved growth performance, organ weights, and gut morphology in growing rats and whether the method of manufacture of ovine serum Ig affected its bioactivity. Ninety Sprague-Dawley male rats were used in a 21-d growth study and were fed a basal control diet (BD; no Ig) and 5 test diets: spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP), freeze-dried ovine Ig (FDOI), 2 concentrations of spray-dried ovine Ig (SDOI(100) and SDOI(150)), and inactivated ovine Ig (IOI). Diets were isocaloric and contained the same amount of the first limiting amino acids, methionine plus cysteine. The body weight gain:feed ratio was higher (P < 0.05) for the FDOI-fed rats than for the BD- and IOI-fed groups. FDOI rats had higher jejunum (P < 0.05) and colon weights (P < 0.05) at the end of the study than rats in the BD group. Compared with the SDOI(100)-fed group, the FDOI group supported higher (P < 0.05) duodenum and colon weights. For gut morphology, the FDOI and the BD and IOI groups differed (P < 0.05). The FDOI-fed rats had longer (P < 0.05) villi and greater villi surface areas in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum than the rats fed SDOI(100). An ovine Ig fraction selectively improved growth performance, organ weight, and gut morphology in growing rats. Compared with spray-drying, a freeze-drying procedure appears to preserve a higher degree of immunological activity. PMID:19106311

Balan, Prabhu; Han, Kyoung-Sik; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Singh, Harjinder; Moughan, Paul J

2009-02-01

51

Correlations Between Morphology and Electrophysiology of Pyramidal Neurons in Slices of Rat Visual Cortex. II. Electrophysiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

slices of rat visual cortex were impaled with glass micro- pipettes containing horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and stud- ied using current-clamp techniques prior to pressure injec- tion of HRP into the neurons. On morphological grounds, cells stained in layer 2\\/3 were placed into a single class whereas layer 5 cells were divided into 2 classes. Cells in one of these classes

Adrian Mason; Alan Larkman

52

A morphological study of the circadian cycle of the pineal gland of the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

To seek a morphological expression of circadian rhythm, we investigated cytologically pineal glands taken from rats every 2 to 4 h under a lighting regime of 12 h of illumination (6:00 to 18:00) and 12 h of darkness. The changes in the number of synaptic ribbons and ribbon fields was observed by electron microscopy. The number of these intracellular elements

Katsumaro Kurumado; Wataru Mori

1977-01-01

53

The morphology of the rat ovarian network during reproduction and aging.  

PubMed

We studied the morphology of the ovarian network in outbred albino rats of different age. Morphogenetic restructuring of the network during aging were detected. The role of the network in the glandular cystic transformation of the ovaries in aging was discussed. PMID:23658928

Shapovalov, F A; Borovaya, T G; Kruglikov, G G; Kappusheva, L M

2013-04-01

54

Morphologic Evidence of Photoreceptor Differentiation of Pinealocytes in the Neonatal Rat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The pineal body and the retina of the neonatal Sprague-Dawley rat were studied by light and electron microscopy, and the morphologic differentiation of the parenchymal cells of the pineal body was compared with that of the developing photoreceptor cells o...

B. L. Zimmerman M. O. M. Tso

1973-01-01

55

KIDNEY MORPHOLOGY AND FUNCTION IN THE YOUNG OF RATS MALNOURISHED AND EXPOSED TO NITROFEN DURING PREGNANCY  

EPA Science Inventory

The separate and combined effects of prenatal protein deficiency (65 casein) and prenatal nitrofen exposure (12.5 mg/kg on gestational days 7-21) on renal morphology in the 21-day fetal and postnatal rat were examined. Maternal protein deprivation reduced maternal feed intake, fe...

56

Facet Model and Mathematical Morphology for Surface Characterization  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an algorithm for the automatic segmentation and representation of surface structures and non-uniformities in an industrial setting. The automatic image processing and analysis algorithm is developed as part of a complete on-line web characterization system of a papermaking process at the wet end. The goal is to: (1) link certain types of structures on the surface of the web to known machine parameter values, and (2) find the connection between detected structures at the beginning of the line and defects seen on the final product. Images of the pulp mixture (slurry), carried by a fast moving table, are obtained using a stroboscopic light and a CCD camera. This characterization algorithm succeeded where conventional contrast and edge detection techniques failed due to a poorly controlled environment. The images obtained have poor contrast and contain noise caused by a variety of sources. After a number of enhancement steps, conventional segmentation methods still f ailed to detect any structures and are consequently discarded. Techniques tried include the Canny edge detector, the Sobel, Roberts, and Prewitt's filters, as well as zero crossings. The facet model algorithm, is then applied to the images with various parameter settings and is found to be successful in detecting the various topographic characteristics of the surface of the slurry. Pertinent topographic elements are retained and a filtered image computed. Carefully tailored morphological operators are then applied to detect and segment regions of interest. Those regions are then selected according to their size, elongation, and orientation. Their bounding rectangles are computed and represented. Also addressed in this paper are aspects of the real time implementation of this algorithm for on-line use. The algorithm is tested on over 500 images of slurry and is found to segment and characterize nonuniformities on all 500 images.

Abidi, B.R.; Goddard, J.S.; Hunt, M.A.; Sari-Sarraf, H.

1999-11-13

57

Isolation and characterization of fly ash from rat lung tissue  

SciTech Connect

Inhaled fly ash may be leached by lung fluids, making potentially toxic trace elements in the fly ash bioavailable. We studied the composition and morphology of fly ash particles recovered from lungs of rats exposed to fly ash from a power plant burning pulverized eastern coal. Animals were sacrificed 1, 3, 6, and 12 mo after the commencement of the 4-wk exposures. Particles isolated from lungs of exposed animals, control fly ash samples, and samples recovered from control lungs spiked with fly ash were characterized by computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy (CCSEM) and thin window energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). EDS spectra of fly ash and ashed lung residues were distinct. Thus, fly ash particles could be distinguished from ashed lung residues. A majority of the fly ash particles recovered from lungs of exposed animals had similar morphology and composition to the exposure material. However, the number of silicon-rich particles decreased with time. After 6 mo, about 1% by number of the particles had been transformed, producing numerous needles associated with residues of fly ash particles. Particles that looked like diatoms were observed. This demonstrated that the sample preparation procedures used did not destroy delicate structures. Fly ash particles from a spiked control lung subjected to the same separation procedures did not have these structures. The structures may be the result of leaching of particles by lung fluids, which suggests that the glassy matrix components of fly ash particles may be bioavailable.

Rothenberg, S.J.; Seiler, F.A.; Hobbs, C.H.; Casuccio, G.S.; Spangler, C.E. (Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1989-01-01

58

Isolation and characterization of fly ash from rat lung tissue.  

PubMed

Inhaled fly ash may be leached by lung fluids, making potentially toxic trace elements in the fly ash bioavailable. We studied the composition and morphology of fly ash particles recovered from lungs of rats exposed to fly ash from a power plant burning pulverized eastern coal. Animals were sacrificed 1, 3, 6, and 12 mo after the commencement of the 4-wk exposures. Particles isolated from lungs of exposed animals, control fly ash samples, and samples recovered from control lungs spiked with fly ash were characterized by computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy (CCSEM) and thin window energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). EDS spectra of fly ash and ashed lung residues were distinct. Thus, fly ash particles could be distinguished from ashed lung residues. A majority of the fly ash particles recovered from lungs of exposed animals had similar morphology and composition to the exposure material. However, the number of silicon-rich particles decreased with time. After 6 mo, about 1% by number of the particles had been transformed, producing numerous "needles" associated with residues of fly ash particles. Particles that looked like diatoms were observed. This demonstrated that the sample preparation procedures used did not destroy delicate structures. Fly ash particles from a spiked control lung subjected to the same separation procedures did not have these structures. The structures may be the result of leaching of particles by lung fluids, which suggests that the glassy matrix components of fly ash particles may be bioavailable. PMID:2760936

Rothenberg, S J; Seiler, F A; Hobbs, C H; Casuccio, G S; Spangler, C E

1989-01-01

59

Longitudinal analysis of calorie restriction on rat taste bud morphology and expression of sweet taste modulators.  

PubMed

Calorie restriction (CR) is a lifestyle intervention employed to reduce body weight and improve metabolic functions primarily via reduction of ingested carbohydrates and fats. Taste perception is highly related to functional metabolic status and body adiposity. We have previously shown that sweet taste perception diminishes with age; however, relatively little is known about the effects of various lengths of CR upon taste cell morphology and function. We investigated the effects of CR on taste bud morphology and expression of sweet taste-related modulators in 5-, 17-, and 30-month-old rats. In ad libitum (AL) and CR rats, we consistently found the following parameters altered significantly with advancing age: reduction of taste bud size and taste cell numbers per taste bud and reduced expression of sonic hedgehog, type 1 taste receptor 3 (T1r3), ?-gustducin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). In the oldest rats, CR affected a significant reduction of tongue T1r3, GLP-1, and ?-gustducin expression compared with age-matched AL rats. Leptin receptor immunopositive cells were elevated in 17- and 30-month-old CR rats compared with age-matched AL rats. These alterations of sweet taste-related modulators, specifically during advanced aging, suggest that sweet taste perception may be altered in response to different lengths of CR. PMID:24077597

Cai, Huan; Daimon, Caitlin M; Cong, Wei-Na; Wang, Rui; Chirdon, Patrick; de Cabo, Rafael; Sévigny, Jean; Maudsley, Stuart; Martin, Bronwen

2014-05-01

60

The case of an insular molarless black rat: Effects on lifestyle and mandible morphology.  

PubMed

We report a specimen of an insular black rat (Rattus rattus) from Illa den Colom (Menorca, Western Mediterranean) displaying a singular dental characteristic. It has no molar teeth but displays regular incisors. Its mere occurrence as a regular adult rat is puzzling and we attempted to evaluate what diet and morphological changes in jaw shape were promoted by the total lack of molars, and allowed the successful survival of this specimen. Two approaches were performed: first, bone tissue was analysed to obtain delta(15)N and delta(13)C values in order to estimate dietary preferences of the rat. Second, the shape of the jaw was analysed through elliptic Fourier analysis, using outlines as markers of diet. The values for C and N fractionation (-19.89 per thousand and 10.06 per thousand, respectively) suggest that the molarless rat included animal food in the diet and not exclusively plant material as observed in other mainland rat populations. The morphometric analysis in which the shape of the molarless mandible falls into the range of omnivorous groups leads to a similar conclusion. The adult age of the specimen suggests that it fed efficiently enough with its incisors to allow a normal growth. Although displaying a lack of molar teeth, no deep changes in remodelling jaw morphology can be observed and its shape falls into the variation of regular murines. The molarless rat exemplifies that special ecological features on small islands allow the survival of aberrant morphotypes. PMID:20538260

Bover, Pere; Alcover, Josep A; Michaux, Jacques; Renaud, Sabrina

2010-08-01

61

Morphology of inhibitory and excitatory interneurons in superficial laminae of the rat dorsal horn  

PubMed Central

If we are to stand any chance of understanding the circuitry of the superficial dorsal horn, it is imperative that we can identify which classes of interneuron are excitatory and which are inhibitory. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that there is a correlation between the morphology of an interneuron and its postsynaptic action. We used in vitro slice preparations of the rat spinal cord to characterize and label interneurons in laminae I–III with Neurobiotin. Labelled cells (n= 19) were reconstructed in 3D with Neurolucida and classified according to the scheme proposed by Grudt & Perl (2002). We determined if cells were inhibitory or excitatory by reacting their axon terminals with antibodies to reveal glutamate decrboxylase (for GABAergic cells) or the vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (for glutamatergic cells). All five islet cells retrieved were inhibitory. Of the six vertical (stalked) cells analysed, four were excitatory and, surprisingly, two were inhibitory. It was noted that these inhibitory cells had axonal projections confined to lamina II whereas excitatory vertical cells projected to lamina I and II. Of the remaining neurons, three were radial cells (2 inhibitory, 1 excitatory), two were antennae cells (1 inhibitory, 1 excitatory), one was an inhibitory central cell and the remaining two were unclassifiable excitatory cells. Our hypothesis appears to be correct only for islet cells. Other classes of cells have mixed actions, and in the case of vertical cells, the axonal projection appears to be a more important determinant of postsynaptic action.

Maxwell, David J; Belle, Mino D; Cheunsuang, Ornsiri; Stewart, Anika; Morris, Richard

2007-01-01

62

MORPHOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF GOLDFISH ERYTHROPHORES AND THEIR PTERINOSOMES  

PubMed Central

The fine structure of integumental erythrophores and the intracellular location of pteridine and carotenoid pigments in adult goldfish, Carassius auratus, were studied by means of cytochemistry, paper and thin-layer chromatography, ionophoresis, density-gradient centrifugal fractionation, and electron microscopy. The ultrastructure of erythrophores is characterized by large numbers of somewhat ellipsoidal pigment granules and a well-developed system of tubules which resembles endoplasmic reticulum. The combined morphological and biochemical approaches show that pteridine pigments of erythrophores are located characteristically in pigment granules and are the primary yellow pigments of these organelles. Accordingly, this organelle is considered to be the "pterinosome" which was originally found in swordtail erythrophores. Major pteridines obtainable from goldfish pterinosomes are sepiapterin, 7-hydroxybiopterin, isoxanthopterin, and 6-carboxyisoxanthopterin. Density-gradient fractions indicate that carotenoids are mostly associated with the endoplasmic reticulum. Both tyrosinase and possibly a tyrosinase inhibitor containing sulfhydryl groups are present in the pterinosome. The possible existence of a tyrosinase inhibitor is suggested by the marked increase of tyrosinase activity upon the addition of iodoacetamide or p-chloromercuribenzoic acid. In the light of their fine structure, pigmentary composition, and enzymatic properties, the erythrophores and pterinosomes are discussed with respect to their probable functions and their relationship to melanophores.

Matsumoto, Jiro; Obika, Masataka

1968-01-01

63

Quantitative methods to characterize morphological properties of cell lines.  

PubMed

Descriptive terms are often used to characterize cells in culture, but the use of nonquantitative and poorly defined terms can lead to ambiguities when comparing data from different laboratories. Although recently there has been a good deal of interest in unambiguous identification of cell lines via their genetic markers, it is also critical to have definitive, quantitative metrics to describe cell phenotypic characteristics. Quantitative metrics of cell phenotype will aid the comparison of data from experiments performed at different times and in different laboratories where influences such as the age of the population and differences in culture conditions or protocols can potentially affect cellular metabolic state and gene expression in the absence of changes in the genetic profile. Here, we present examples of robust methodologies for quantitatively assessing characteristics of cell morphology and cell-cell interactions, and of growth rates of cells within the population. We performed these analyses with endothelial cell lines derived from dolphin, bovine and human, and with a mouse fibroblast cell line. These metrics quantify some characteristics of these cells lines that clearly distinguish them from one another, and provide quantitative information on phenotypic changes in one of the cell lines over large number of passages. PMID:22619183

Mancia, Annalaura; Elliott, John T; Halter, Michael; Bhadriraju, Kiran; Tona, Alessandro; Spurlin, Tighe A; Middlebrooks, Bobby L; Baatz, John E; Warr, Gregory W; Plant, Anne L

2012-07-01

64

Developmental morphology of calcium oxalate foreign body stones in rats.  

PubMed

Calcium oxalate bladder stones were induced in male rats by implanting plastic foreign bodies and by adding ethylene glycol to their drinking water. The foreign body surface was first coated with cellular debris and some amorphous material. Encrustation with crystals of calcium oxalate started on the third day of implantation. Within 2 weeks the entire surface of a foreign body was covered with crystals and some noncrystalline material. Calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals consisted of platelike crystallites arranged in hemispherulitic or spherulitic habit. Calcium oxalate dihydrate crystals wee basically dipyramidal, a majority of them showing interpenetrant twinning. The stone grew by confluent crystal growth and crystal aggregation. A transformation of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals to calcium oxalate dihydrate also occurred. The matrix consisting of cellular debris and urinary macromolecules was universally distributed in the stone including the inside of crystal bodies. PMID:3924373

Khan, S R; Hackett, R L

1985-03-01

65

Morphological and functional alterations to sinusoidal endothelial cells in the early phase of endotoxin-induced liver failure after partial hepatectomy in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liver failure following major hepatectomy is characterized pathologically by massive hepatic necrosis, which is thought to\\u000a begin with injury of sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs). To examine the early events of SECs leading to hepatic damage, we\\u000a performed time-course analyses of the morphological and functional perturbation of SECs after endotoxin administration to\\u000a hepatectomized rats. At 1.5 h after endotoxin injection, when hepatocellular

S. Yachida; Yasutaka Kokudo; Hisao Wakabayashi; Takashi Maeba; Kenji Kaneda; Hajime Maeta

1998-01-01

66

Morphological and functional characterization of cholinergic interneurons in the dorsal horn of the mouse spinal cord.  

PubMed

Endogenous acetylcholine is an important modulator of sensory processing, especially at the spinal level, where nociceptive (pain-related) stimuli enter the central nervous system and are integrated before being relayed to the brain. To decipher the organization of the local cholinergic circuitry in the spinal dorsal horn, we used transgenic mice expressing enchanced green fluorescent protein specifically in cholinergic neurons (ChAT::EGFP) and characterized the morphology, neurochemistry, and firing properties of the sparse population of cholinergic interneurons in this area. Three-dimensional reconstruction of lamina III ChAT::EGFP neurons based either on their intrinsic fluorescence or on intracellular labeling in live tissue demonstrated that these neurons have long and thin processes that grow preferentially in the dorsal direction. Their dendrites and axon are highly elongated in the rostrocaudal direction, beyond the limits of a single spinal segment. These unique morphological features suggest that dorsal horn cholinergic interneurons are the main contributors to the plexus of cholinergic processes located in lamina IIi, just dorsal to their cell bodies. In addition, immunostainings demonstrated that dorsal horn cholinergic interneurons in the mouse are ?-aminobutyric acidergic and express nitric oxide synthase, as in rats. Finally, electrophysiological recordings from these neurons in spinal cord slices demonstrate that two-thirds of them have a repetitive spiking pattern with frequent rebound spikes following hyperpolarization. Altogether our results indicate that, although they are rare, the morphological and functional features of cholinergic neurons enable them to collect segmental information in superficial layers of the dorsal horn and to modulate it over several segments. PMID:21618225

Mesnage, Bruce; Gaillard, Stéphane; Godin, Antoine G; Rodeau, Jean-Luc; Hammer, Matthieu; Von Engelhardt, Jakob; Wiseman, Paul W; De Koninck, Yves; Schlichter, Rémy; Cordero-Erausquin, Matilde

2011-11-01

67

Remarkable features of ovarian morphology and reproductive hormones in insulin-resistant Zucker fatty (fa/fa) rats  

PubMed Central

Background Zucker fatty (fa/fa) rats are a well-understood model of obesity and hyperinsulinemia. It is now thought that obesity/hyperinsulinemia is an important cause of endocrinological abnormality, but to date there have been no reports on the changes in ovarian morphology or the ovarian androgen profile in rat models of obesity and insulin resistance. Methods In this study we investigated the effects of obesity and hyperinsulinemia on ovarian morphology and the hormone profile in insulin-resistant Zucker fatty rats (5, 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age, n = 6-7). Results Ovaries from 5-week-old fatty rats had significantly greater total and atretic follicle numbers, and higher atretic-to-total follicle ratios than those from lean rats. Ovaries from 12- and 16-week-old fatty rats showed interstitial cell hyperplasia and numerous cysts with features of advanced follicular atresia. In addition, serum testosterone and androstenedione levels significantly declined in fatty rats from age 8 to 16 weeks, so that fatty rats showed significantly lower levels of serum testosterone (12 and 16 weeks) and androstenedione (all weeks) than lean rats. This may reflect a reduction of androgen synthesis during follicular atresia. Serum adiponectin levels were high in immature fatty rats, and although the levels declined significantly as they matured, it remained significantly higher in fatty rats than in lean rats. On the other hand, levels of ovarian adiponectin and its receptors were significantly lower in mature fatty rats than in lean mature rats or immature fatty rats. Conclusions Our findings indicate that ovarian morphology and hormone profiles are significantly altered by the continuous insulin resistance in Zucker fatty rats. Simultaneously, abrupt reductions in serum and ovarian adiponectin also likely contribute to the infertility seen in fatty rats.

2010-01-01

68

Effects of electrical stimulation on neuromuscular junction morphology in the aging rat tongue  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Alterations in neuromuscular junction (NMJ) structure in cranial muscles may contribute to age-related deficits in critical sensorimotor actions such as swallowing. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is used in swallowing therapy, but it is unclear how NMJ structure is affected or if NMJ morphology is best measured in two or three dimensions. METHODS Two- and three-dimensional measurements of NMJ morphology in the genioglossus muscle were compared in rats that had undergone 8 weeks of hypoglossal nerve stimulation versus untreated controls. RESULTS The relationship between motor endplate volume and nerve terminal volume had a mean positive slope in 90% of the young adult controls, but it was positive in only 50% of the old controls; 89% of NMES old rats had a positive slope. NMJ measurements were more accurate when measured in three dimensions. CONCLUSIONS In the NMJ, aging and NMES are associated with changes in the pre- and post-synaptic relationship.

Johnson, Aaron M.; Connor, Nadine P.

2010-01-01

69

Phenobarbital pretreatment protects against morphologic changes in rat bronchiolar epithelium caused by an impurity of malathion.  

PubMed Central

Oral administration (20 mg/kg) of O,O,S-trimethyl phosphorothioate (OOS) causes delayed toxicity in rats; ie, death occurs as late as 28 days after treatment. OOS-treated rats show morphologic changes in the bronchiolar epithelium of the lung; nonciliated (Clara) cells are fewer but larger 3 days after treatment. We have now found that pretreatment with the P-450-dependent mixed-function oxidase inducer, phenobarbital, protects against the morphologic changes caused by OOS. These results support the view that the lung is a target organ of the delayed toxicity caused by OOS and that OOS detoxification is mediated by P-450-dependent metabolism. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4

Gandy, J.; Talbot, P.; Fukuto, T. R.; Imamura, T.

1983-01-01

70

Crimp morphology in relaxed and stretched rat Achilles tendon.  

PubMed

Fibrous extracellular matrix of tendon is considered to be an inextensible anatomical structure consisting of type I collagen fibrils arranged in parallel bundles. Under polarized light microscopy the collagen fibre bundles appear crimped with alternating dark and light transverse bands. This study describes the ultrastructure of the collagen fibrils in crimps of both relaxed and in vivo stretched rat Achilles tendon. Under polarized light microscopy crimps of relaxed Achilles tendons appear as isosceles or scalene triangles of different size. Tendon crimps observed via SEM and TEM show the single collagen fibrils that suddenly change their direction containing knots. The fibrils appear partially squeezed in the knots, bent on the same plane like bayonets, or twisted and bent. Moreover some of them lose their D-period, revealing their microfibrillar component. These particular aspects of collagen fibrils inside each tendon crimp have been termed 'fibrillar crimps' and may fulfil the same functional role. When tendon is physiologically stretched in vivo the tendon crimps decrease in number (46.7%) (P<0.01) and appear more flattened with an increase in the crimp top angle (165 degrees in stretched tendons vs. 148 degrees in relaxed tendons, P<0.005). Under SEM and TEM, the 'fibrillar crimps' are still present, never losing their structural identity in straightened collagen fibril bundles of stretched tendons even where tendon crimps are not detectable. These data suggest that the 'fibrillar crimp' may be the true structural component of the tendon crimp acting as a shock absorber during physiological stretching of Achilles tendon. PMID:17229278

Franchi, Marco; Fini, Milena; Quaranta, Marilisa; De Pasquale, Viviana; Raspanti, Mario; Giavaresi, Gianluca; Ottani, Vittoria; Ruggeri, Alessandro

2007-01-01

71

Radioprotection of the rat parotid gland by WR-2721: morphology at 60 days post-irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultrastructure of rat parotid glands protected by S-2(3-aminopropylamino) ethyl phosphorothioate (WR-2721) was evaluate 60 days following a single dose of 3.2 kR of x-irradiation and compared with that of similarly irradiated but non-protected glands. Non-protected glands suffered a drastic reduction in the amount of acinar tissue while ducts and blood vessels exhibited only minor morphological changes. The evidence of

Neal E. Pratt; Marvin Sodicoff; Jonathan Liss; Mary Davis; Mark Sinesi

1980-01-01

72

Morphological and functional damage of the retina caused by intravitreous indocyanine green in rat eyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: This study was designed to investigate the influence of intravitreal indocyanine green (ICG) on retinal morphology and function. Methods: Brown Norway rats eyes (n=24) were vitrectomized by the injection of 0.05 ml of 100% SF6 gas. Two weeks later, ICG solution was injected into the vitreous cavity of vitrectomized eyes at a dose of 25 mg\\/ml, 2.5 mg\\/ml, 0.25

Hiroshi Enaida; Taiji Sakamoto; Toshio Hisatomi; Yoshinobu Goto; Tatsuro Ishibashi

2002-01-01

73

Architectural and morphological assessment of rat abdominal wall muscles: comparison for use as a human model  

PubMed Central

The abdominal wall is a composite of muscles that are important for the mechanical stability of the spine and pelvis. Tremendous clinical attention is given to these muscles, yet little is known about how they function in isolation or how they interact with one another. Given the morphological, vascular, and innervation complexities associated with these muscles and their proximity to the internal organs, an appropriate animal model is important for understanding their physiological and mechanical significance during function. To determine the extent to which the rat abdominal wall resembles that of human, 10 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were killed and formalin-fixed for architectural and morphological analyses of the four abdominal wall muscles (rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, and transversus abdominis). Physiological cross-sectional areas and optimal fascicle lengths demonstrated a pattern that was similar to human abdominal wall muscles. In addition, sarcomere lengths measured in the neutral spine posture were similar to human in their relation to optimal sarcomere length. These data indicate that the force-generating and length change capabilities of these muscles, relative to one another, are similar in rat and human. Finally, the fiber lines of action of each abdominal muscle were similar to human over most of the abdominal wall. The main exception was in the lower abdominal region (inferior to the pelvic crest), where the external oblique becomes aponeurotic in human but continues as muscle fibers into its pelvic insertion in the rat. We conclude that, based on the morphology and architecture of the abdominal wall muscles, the adult male Sprague-Dawley rat is a good candidate for a model representation of human, particularly in the middle and upper abdominal wall regions.

Brown, Stephen H M; Banuelos, Karina; Ward, Samuel R; Lieber, Richard L

2010-01-01

74

Morphology characterization of organic solar cell materials and blends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The organization of polymers and fullerenes, both in their pure states and mixed together, have a large impact on their macroscopic properties. For mixtures used in organic solar cells, the morphology of the mixture has a very large impact upon the mixture's ability to efficiently convert sunlight into useful electrical energy. Understanding how the morphology can change under certain processing conditions and in turn, affect the characteristics of the solar cell is therefore important to improving the function of organic solar cells. Conventional poly(3-hexylthiophene):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) solar cells have served as a staple system to study organic solar cell function for nearly a decade. Much of the understanding of how to make these "poorly"conductive organic materials efficiently convert sunlight into electricity has come from the study of P3HT:PCBM. It has long been understood that in order for a polymer:fullerene (electron donor and acceptor, respectively) mixture to function well as a solar cell, two major criteria for the morphology must be met; first, the interface between the two materials must be large to efficiently create charges, and secondly, there must be continous pathways through the "pure" materials for charges to be efficiently collected at the electrodes. This makes it advantageous for OPV materials to phase-separate into interconnected domains with very small domain sizes, a structure that P3HT:PCBM seems to naturally self-assemble. Despite P3HT:PCBM's ability to reach an optimal morphology, a complete understanding of exactly how the morphology affects device performance has not been realized. Completely different morphological models can end up predicting the same device performance characteristics. Much of the problem comes from the assumed morphology within a particular model, which can often be incorrect. The problem lies in the fact that obtaining real, accurate morphological information is difficult. An often neglected morphological feature is the existence of a third mixed phase, which is often unaccounted for because much about its composition and location are poorly understood. Obtaining this information and measuring the full morphology of OPV layers would therefore enable further understanding of device function. It is the aim of this thesis to demonstrate a technique which can measure the morphology of OPV layers accurately, accounting for the third phase and its composition. By using a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) in conjunction with electron tomography (ET) and an easily resolved fullerene component, the morphology of P3HT:fullerene layers are herein investigated. The combination of materials and techniques are demonstrated to accurately measure the morphology, illustrated by results which corroborate previous studies in the literature. It will be shown that not only can the position of each of the three phases present be measured, but their compositions can also be determined. Through this technique, morphologies formed under different processing conditions are quantitatively compared. The technique reveals differences between conventional processing methods that are not obvious through other measurements. Differences in the materials distribution throughout the thickness of the layer are also demonstrated and shown to give implications toward device function. Additionally, the precise changes in morphology which occur from different processing conditions are determined and shown to have a significant impact upon the properties of an OPV layer as a solar energy harvester. Not only does the morphology of the mixed materials affect the solar cell properties, but the local structure of the component materials themselves can strongly influence the macroscopic properties. By removing the fullerene component and forming pure domains of P3HT, the effects of internal structure on the properties of P3HT and how the structure is formed is also herein investigated. Through these techniques, the morphology and structure of diffe

Roehling, John Daniel

75

BIOCHEMICAL, FUNCTIONAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF NEUROTOXICITY: EFFECTS OF ACUTE ADMINISTRATION OF TRIMETHYLTIN TO THE DEVELOPING RAT  

EPA Science Inventory

The neurotoxic organometal, trimethyltin (TMT), was administered to rats on postnatal day (PND)5. Neurotoxicity was assessed throughout subsequent development using morphological, biochemical and functional endpoints. These consisted of brain weight measures and histology (morpho...

76

Isolation and characterization of rat glomerular epithelial cells in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolation and characterization of rat glomerular epithelial cells in vitro. Rat glomeruli were isolated by a graded sieving technique, and the nature and purity of the preparation were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A great majority of the glomeruli (86.0 ± 6.0%) were not encapsulated, and there was very little contamination of the preparations with tubular fragments. By supplementing

Jeffrey I Kreisberg; Richard L Hoover; Morris J Karnovsky

1978-01-01

77

Morphological and Biochemical Effects of 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine and 1-Methylhydrazine in Rats and Mice  

PubMed Central

Single toxic doses of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine induced mild centrilobular necrosis of the liver in rats and mice. Ultrastructural studies showed hepatic nuclear changes including nucleolar microsegregation and changes in the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. 1-Methylhydrazine caused little morphological change in the liver. Tumours of the colon and kidney and also massive cystic hyperplasia of the liver were found in some of the rats and tumours of the anal margin and kidney in some of the mice, following single doses of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. Incorporation of amino acids into rat liver proteins was inhibited by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, which also caused disaggregation of hepatic polysomes. No effects on hepatic protein synthesis by 1,1-dimethylhydrazine or 1-methylhydrazine were observed. Similarities between the effects of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, cycasin and dimethylnitrosamine are discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8

Hawks, A.; Hicks, R. M.; Holsman, J. W.; Magee, P. N.

1974-01-01

78

Morphological divergence of breeders and helpers in wild Damaraland mole-rat societies.  

PubMed

The specialization of body shape to an individual's role within society represents a pinnacle of social evolution. Although commonplace among social insects, divergence in the body shapes of breeders and helpers has to date been documented in just one social vertebrate, the naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber; an extraordinary species in which large colony size and frequent inbreeding may have favored the evolution of such specialization. Here, we present new evidence of morphological divergence between breeders and helpers in the Damaraland mole-rat, Fukomys damarensis; a much less socially extreme species that reflects an independent evolutionary origin of sociality. Using longitudinal data from wild populations, we show that dominant female Damaraland mole-rats, like many social insect queens, have a significantly more elongate body shape than subordinates. This difference arises not from a pre-existing difference in the body shapes of subordinates that do, and those that do not, become dominant, but from a modification to the growth trajectory of subordinates on dominance acquisition. Our findings reveal a wider role for morphological divergence within vertebrate societies and, as Damaraland mole-rats neither live in unusually large groups nor inbreed, suggest that circumstances favoring the evolution of such specializations may be more widespread among vertebrates than previously supposed. PMID:20561049

Young, Andrew J; Bennett, Nigel C

2010-11-01

79

CHIP MORPHOLOGY CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING IN MACHINING HARDENED 52100 STEELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hard machining is attracting more and more attention as an alternative to grinding in finish machining some hardened steels. The saw-toothed chips formed in hard machining have their own unique characteristics. The saw-toothed chip morphology is of great interest since the understanding of the saw-toothed chip morphology and its evolution in machining helps unveil hard machining chip formation mechanisms as

Mason D. Morehead; Yong Huang; Jian Luo

2007-01-01

80

New Segmented Polyurethanes Containing Perfluoropolyether Blocks 1. Morphological Characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphology of a new class of segmented polyurethanes (PU) containing perfluoropoly-ethers soft blocks was investigated by SEM and TEM. Effective, selective staining was obtained using ruthenium tetroxide that easily reacts with PU hard phase, leaving the fluori-nated soft phase unaltered. The presence of both a micro- and a macro-phase separation was revealed. Various morphological features including shell-core structures and

E. G. Gattiglia; A. Turturro; C. Tonelli; T. Trombetta; G. Ajroldi

1998-01-01

81

Isolation and characterization of fly ash from rat lung tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inhaled fly ash may be leached by lung fluids, making potentially toxic trace elements in the fly ash bioavailable. We studied the composition and morphology of fly ash particles recovered from lungs of rats exposed to fly ash from a power plant burning pulverized eastern coal. Animals were sacrificed 1, 3, 6, and 12 mo after the commencement of the

S. J. Rothenberg; F. A. Seiler; C. H. Hobbs; G. S. Casuccio; C. E. Spangler

1989-01-01

82

Protective role of Melissa officinalis L. extract on liver of hyperlipidemic rats: A morphological and biochemical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effects of Melissa officinalis L. extract on hyperlipidemic rats were investigated, morphologically and biochemically. The animals were fed a lipogenic diet consisting of 2% cholesterol, 20% sunflower oil and 0.5% cholic acid added to normal chow and were given 3% ethanol for 42 days. The plant extract was given by gavage technique to rats to a

S. Bolkent; R. Yanardag; Omur Karabulut-Bulan; B. Yesilyaprak

2005-01-01

83

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DILATED RENAL PELVIS IN THE NITROFEN-EXPOSED RAT FETUS: EFFECTS ON MORPHOLOGY AND FUNCTION (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

The fate of the dilated renal pelvis that is induced in fetal rats following prenatal exposure to nitrofen was evaluated. Groups of Long Evans rats were exposed to 0, 6.25, 12.5 or 25 mg/kg of nitrofen on gestation days 7-16. Renal morphology of the offspring were determined on g...

84

Significance of the Dilated Renal Pelvis in the Nitrofen-Exposed Rat Fetus: Effects on Morphology and Function (Journal Version).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fate of the dilated renal pelvis that is induced in fetal rats following prenatal exposure to nitrofen was evaluated. Groups of Long Evans rats were exposed to 0, 6.25, 12.5 or 25 mg/kg of nitrofen on gestation days 7-16. Renal morphology of the offsp...

R. J. Kavlock B. R. Hoyle B. F. Rehnberg E. H. Rogers

1988-01-01

85

Morphological Control and Characterization of Monodispersed Ceria Particles  

SciTech Connect

The morphological control of cerium oxide particles was carried out by a homogeneous precipitation followed by calcination in air at 400 deg. C. The effects of pre-aging temperature, aging time and precipitation reagents on the morphologies of final products were investigated. When urea was used as a precipitation reagent, monodispersed spherical and flake-like cerium carbonate hydroxide precursor was precipitated in the solution at 90 deg. C for 2 h after pre-aging at 25 deg. C - 50 deg. C for 24-72 h. On the other hand, monodispersed nanosize rod-like cerium hydroxide particles were obtained using triethanolamine as precipitation reagent. Ceria particles with the same morphologies and slightly smaller particle size than those of as-prepared cerium precursor could be obtained after calcination in air at 400 deg. C. Physical-chemical characteristics of the monodispersed cerium oxide particles were evaluated.

Minamidate, Y.; Yin, S.; Devaraju, M. K.; Sato, T. [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

2010-11-24

86

Effect of prenatal and perinatal acrylamide on the biochemical and morphological changes in liver of developing albino rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acrylamide has been employed as an experimental probe to investigate biochemical and morphological changes in developing rat\\u000a liver following toxin administration in pregnant rats. Non-anesthetized pregnant rats were given acrylamide by gastric intubation\\u000a at a dose of 10 mg\\/kg\\/day. The pups were divided into three groups: Group A, mothers were treated with saline (control group);\\u000a Group B, mothers were treated with

Ahmed Aly Allam; Abdel Whaab El-Ghareeb; Manal Abdul-Hamid; Ahlam El Bakery; Mammoun Gad; Mohammad Sabri

2010-01-01

87

Characterization of the Morphology of RDX Particles Formed by Laser Ablation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The morphology of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) particles produced by laser ablation has been characterized using scanning electron microscopy and Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer analyses. The effects of laser pulse energy, wavelength, and duration...

J. F. De Lucia J. L. Gottfried S. M. Piraino

2012-01-01

88

Morphological, Pathogenic, and Molecular Characterization of Alternaria Isolates Associated with Alternaria Late Blight of Pistachio  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Pryor, B. M., and Michailides, T. J. 2002. Morphological, pathogenic, and molecular characterization of ,Alternaria isolates associated with Alternaria late blight of pistachio. Phytopathology 92:406-416. Alternaria isolates ,were ,obtained from ,various pistachio tissues

Barry M. Pryor; Themis J. Michailides

2002-01-01

89

P688The effect of ionizing radiation on morphological and molecular changes of the rat myocardium.  

PubMed

One of the most widely used methods of treating oncological patients is ionizing radiation therapy. Radiation beam causes damage to the cancer cells which can reduce cancerous mass and leads to recovery of the oncological patients. On the other hand irradiation of other nearby tissues like myocardium can cause some damage which can induce serious health problems leading to the heart ischemia and heart failure. The aim of this work was to study the morphological changes and changes in molecular markers six weeks after irradiation with a single dose of 25 Gy, applied to mediastinal region of Wistar male rats. Irradiated myocardium was examined for PPAR-alpha and miRNA gene expression levels. Changes in ventricular myocardium were studied using electron microscopy. CRP (C - reactive protein) levels were monitored from blood serum of irradiated and non-irradiated rats. Six weeks after chest irradiation, electron microscopy revealed increased left ventricular capillary density and oedema, activation and or degeneration of endothelial cells and presence of inflammatory cells. Surprisingly, CRP levels in irradiated rats were about 50% lower than in the healthy rats, although CRP plays a major role in acute phase inflammation. This finding suggests the existence of compensatory phase or defence mechanisms in subacute phase of irradiated rats. The irradiated rats exhibited lower expression of PPAR-alpha (Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor alpha) than the control ones. This indicates a shift in substrate preferences from fatty acids to glucose. Expression of microRNA-15b in irradiated rat myocardium was significantly decreased compared with that in normal hearts. Therefore, it can be assumed that irradiated hearts were probably protected by activation of some adaptive mechanism. Despite deleterious effects of irradiation on the myocardium, the results indicate that protective mechanisms maintaining the physiological function are activated in early phase of radiation injury. PMID:25020415

Kura, B; Viczenczova, C; Frimmel, K; Ravingerova, T; Tribulova, N; Okruhlicova, L; Lazou, A; Kukreja, R; Fulop, M; Slezak, J

2014-07-15

90

Adipogenesis of Sprague Dawely rats mesenchymal stem cells: a morphological, immunophenotyping and gene expression follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) offer significant promise as a multipotent source for cell-based therapies and could form the basis for the differentiation and cultivation of tissue grafts to replace damaged tissue. However, no gene expression follow up analysis has been undertaken to characterize the in vitro adipogenic differentiated MSCs. The main goal of this study was to focus on MSCs and to analyze their differentiation capacity. To achieve this aim, bone marrow MSCs from sprague dawely rats were isolated, expanded in monolayer culture and characterized with respect to their cluster of differentiation (CD) and ability for adipogenic differentiation capacity. The expression of CD44, CD45, CD29, CD34, and CD90 on bone marrow derived MSCs was characterized using flow cytometry. Adipogenesis was determined by staining with oil-red O and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assessments of lipoprotein lipase, leptin, adiponectin and adipocyte genes at different time intervals, after 4, 7, 14, and 21 days. Our results revealed that the pattern of CD marker expression was highly positive significant with CD29, CD44, and CD90 when compared with CD34 and CD45. MSCs showed proliferative potential and were capable of adipogenic differentiation characterized by reddish brown-droplets following staining with oil-red O and expression of molecular bands of genes. These results demonstrate, at the morphological, immunophenotyping and gene expression levels, the multipotency of MSCs and thus highlight their potential therapeutic value for cell-based tissue engineering.

2014-01-01

91

[Pentosan polysulfate sodium prevents kidney morphological changes and albuminuria in rats with type 1 diabetes].  

PubMed

Decreased levels of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have been observed in the kidney and other organs, in human and animal models of diabetes. Long-term administration of heparins and other glycosaminoglycans has demonstrated a beneficial effect on morphological and functional kidney abnormalities in diabetic rats. We assessed the effect of pentosan polysulfate sodium (PPS), a semi-synthetic glycosaminoglycan with low anticoagulant activity, on kidney involvement in streptozotocin diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by i.v. administration of streptozotocin (STZ). Animals were randomly allocated to three groups: C = control, STZ and STZ + PPS = pretreated with PPS (15 mg/kg, s.c.). After three months of follow-up, blood and 24 h-urine samples were obtained, the animals were sacrificed and the kidney microdissected for morphometric analysis. Urinary albumin excretion was markedly increased in untreated diabetic rats (C = 0.26 ± 0.03 vs STZ = 7.75 ± 1.8 mg/24 h) and PPS treatment partially prevented the albumin rise (3.7 ± 0.7 mg/24 h), without affecting the metabolic control HbA1c (C = 3.6 ± 1.7; STZ = 8.82 ± 0.47; STZ + PPS = 8.63 ± 0.54). Electron microscope observation revealed typical renal lesions described in experimental diabetes (STZ group). PPS administration prevents the tubular basement membrane thickening and the loss of cytoarchitecture induced by experimental diabetes. Our data demonstrate that long-term administration of PPS has a favourable effect on morphological and functional abnormalities in kidneys of diabetic rats and suggests a potential therapeutic use for this compound. PMID:21113213

Mathison Natera, Y; Finol, H J; Quero, Z; González, R; González, J

2010-01-01

92

The effects of Creatine Long-Term Supplementation on Muscle Morphology and Swimming Performance in Rats  

PubMed Central

Creatine (Cr) has been shown to increase the total muscle mass. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Cr supplementation on muscle morphology and swimming performance, using an animal model. Each rat was subjected to exercise 15-minute period daily for the 12 weeks. The rats were randomly divided into four groups: no Cr supplementation (CON), no Cr supplementation and incomplete food intake (lacking lysine and methionine in diet for rats) (INCO), Cr supplementation 1 g·kg-1·day-1 (CREAT-I) and Cr supplementation 2 g·kg-1·day-1 (CREAT-II). Three months later, all groups adult rats exercised in swimming pool chambers. Swimming time was recorded as minute for each rat. Following swimming performance period, the animals were killed by cervical dislocation and the gastrocnemius and diaphragm muscles were dissected. Serial slices of 5-7 ?m were allocated paraffin wax and histochemical staining procedure of cross-sections was carried out with heamatoxylin-eosin technics. All groups gained body weight at the end of 12 weeks but there was no statistical difference among them. Swimming time values were statistical difference between CREAT-II and CON group as well as between CREAT-I and CON group (p < 0.05). In the INCO group was determined increased connective tissue cell of the muscle sample. In contrast, in the CREAT-I and CREAT-II group, the basic histological changes were large-scale muscle fibers and hypertrophic muscle cells. These results suggest that long-term creatine supplementation increased the number of muscle fibers and enhanced endurance swimming performance in rats. Key points There is no study about the effects of creatine long-term supplementation on muscle morphology and swimming performance in rats. Long-term creatine supplementation increase muscle hypertrophy (but not body weight) and enhance endurance swimming performance in rats. The quantitative analysis indicated that the number of muscle fibers per defined area increased in creatine supplementation groups.

Yildiz, Ahmet; Ozdemir, Ercan; Gulturk, Sefa; Erdal, Sena

2009-01-01

93

Morphological Characterization of Symmetric Diblock Copolymers Via Novel Combinatorial Methods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We have developed a technique to create polymer thin films with a controlled, continuous gradient in film thickness. As a demonstration of the utility of this technique, we have revisited the well-studied phenomena of the morphology of symmetric diblock copolymer thin films.

Smith, Archie; Meredith, J. C.; Amis, Eric; Karim, Alamgir

2000-01-01

94

Streptozotocin-induced diabetes in the rat is associated with changes in vaginal hemodynamics, morphology and biochemical markers  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes is associated with declining sexual function in women. However, the effects of diabetes on genital tissue structure, innervation and function remains poorly characterized. In control and streptozotocin-treated female rats, we investigated the effects of diabetes on vaginal blood flow, tissue morphology, and expression of arginase I, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), key enzymes that regulate smooth muscle relaxation. We further related these changes with estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) and androgen receptor (AR) expression. Results In addition to significantly elevated blood glucose levels, diabetic rats had decreased mean body weight, lower levels of plasma estradiol, and higher plasma testosterone concentration, compared to age-matched controls. Eight weeks after administration of buffer (control) or 65 mg/kg of streptozotocin (diabetic), the vaginal blood flow response to pelvic nerve stimulation was significantly reduced in diabetic rats. Histological examination of vaginal tissue from diabetic animals showed reduced epithelial thickness and atrophy of the muscularis layer. Diabetic animals also had reduced vaginal levels of eNOS and arginase I, but elevated levels of PKG, as assessed by Western blot analyses. These alterations were accompanied by a reduction in both ER? and AR in nuclear extracts of vaginal tissue from diabetic animals. Conclusion In ovariectomized (estrogen deficient) animals, previous reports from our lab and others have documented changes in blood flow, tissue structure, ER?, arginase I and eNOS that parallel those observed in diabetic rats. We hypothesize that diabetes may lead to multiple disruptions in sex steroid hormone synthesis, metabolism and action. These pathological events may cause dramatic changes in tissue structure and key enzymes that regulate cell growth and smooth muscle contractility, ultimately affecting the genital response during sexual arousal.

Kim, Noel N; Stankovic, Miljan; Cushman, Tulay T; Goldstein, Irwin; Munarriz, Ricardo; Traish, Abdulmaged M

2006-01-01

95

Characterization of Inducible Cyclooxygenase in Rat Brain  

PubMed Central

Considerable debate exists regarding the cellular source of prostaglandins in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). At least two forms of prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase, or cyclooxygenase (COX), the principal enzyme in the biosynthesis of these mediators, are known to exist. Both forms have been identified in the CNS, but only the distribution of COX 1 has been mapped in detail. In this study, we used Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry to describe the biochemical characterization and anatomical distribution of the second, mitogen-inducible form of this enzyme, COX 2 in the rat brain. COX 2-like immunoreactive (COX 2-ir) staining occurred in dendrites and cell bodies of neurons, structures that are typically postsynaptic. It was noted in distinct portions of specific cortical laminae and subcortical nuclei. The distribution in the CNS was quite different from COX 1. COX 2-ir neurons were primarily observed in the cortex and allocortical structures, such as the hippocampal formation and amygdala. Within the amygdala, neurons were primarily observed in the caudal and posterior part of the deep and cortical nuclei. In the diencephalon, COX 2-ir cells were also observed in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and in the nuclei of the anteroventral region surrounding the third ventricle, including the vascular organ of the lamina terminalis. COX 2-ir neurons were also observed in the subparafascicular nucleus, the medial zona incerta, and pretectal area. In the brainstem, COX 2-ir neurons were observed in the dorsal raphe nucleus, the nucleus of the brachium of the inferior colliculus, and in the region of the subcoeruleus. The distribution of COX 2-ir neurons in the CNS suggests that COX 2 may be involved in processing and integration of visceral and special sensory input and in elaboration of the autonomic, endocrine, and behavioral responses.

BREDER, CHRISTOPHER D.; DEWITT, DAVID; KRAIG, RICHARD P.

2009-01-01

96

In vitro characterization of rat bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and their precursors  

PubMed Central

Although the rat is commonly used for basic immunology and transplantation research, phenotypic and functional characterization of rat dendritic cells (DCs) lags behind similar studies in the human and mouse. Therefore, these features were examined using DCs propagated from cultures of rat bone marrow maintained in a medium supplemented with granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor. Analysis of cytospin preparations of cultured cells showed that DCs arise from OX7+ myelomonocytic precursors. Typical mature rat DCs were morphologically similar to their mouse and human counterparts and expressed major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II (common part determinant of Ia), OX62 (integrin molecule), OX7 (CD90), ICAM-1 (CD54), and CTLA4 counterreceptor, but were negative for OX8 (CD8), OX19 (CD5), W3/25 (CD4), and ED2, a rat macrophage marker. Functional analysis of OX62+ sorted DCs showed that they could effectively present the soluble antigen ovalbumin to naive T cells in vitro. A combination of anti-MHC class II monoclonal antibody and CTLA4-immunoglobulin inhibited allostimulatory ability more effectively than either reagent alone. Implications for studying the role of DCs in immune responses in the rat are discussed.

Chen-Woan, M.; Delaney, C.P.; Fournier, V.; Wakizaka, Y.; Murase, N.; Fung, J.; Starzl, T.E.; Demetris, A.J.

2011-01-01

97

Sleep Deprivation Alters Rat Ventral Prostate Morphology, Leading to Glandular Atrophy: A Microscopic Study Contrasted with the Hormonal Assays  

PubMed Central

We investigated the effect of 96?h paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) and 21-day sleep restriction (SR) on prostate morphology using stereological assays in male rats. After euthanasia, the rat ventral prostate was removed, weighed, and prepared for conventional light microscopy. Microscopic analysis of the prostate reveals that morphology of this gland was altered after 96?h of PSD and 21 days of SR, with the most important alterations occurring in the epithelium and stroma in the course of both procedures compared with the control group. Both 96?h PSD and 21-day SR rats showed lower serum testosterone and higher corticosterone levels than control rats. The significance of our result referring to the sleep deprivation was responsible for deep morphological alterations in ventral prostate tissue, like to castration microscopic modifications. This result is due to the marked alterations in hormonal status caused by PSD and SR.

Venancio, Daniel P.; Andersen, Monica L.; Vilamaior, Patricia S. L.; Santos, Fernanda C.; Zager, Adriano; Tufik, Sergio; Taboga, Sebastiao R.; De Mello, Marco T.

2012-01-01

98

Morphological characteristics of waste polyethylene/polypropylene plastics during pyrolysis and representative morphological signal characterizing pyrolysis stages.  

PubMed

In this work, the morphological characteristics of waste polyethylene (PE)/polypropylene (PP) plastics during their pyrolysis process were investigated, and based on their basic image changing patterns representative morphological signals describing the pyrolysis stages were obtained. PE and PP granules and films were used as typical plastics for testing, and influence of impurities was also investigated. During pyrolysis experiments, photographs of the testing samples were taken sequentially with a high-speed infrared camera, and the quantitative parameters that describe the morphological characteristics of these photographs were explored using the "Image Pro Plus (v6.3)" digital image processing software. The experimental results showed that plastics pyrolysis involved four stages: melting, two stages of decomposition which are characterized with bubble formation caused by volatile evaporating, and ash deposition; and each stage was characterized with its own phase changing behaviors and morphological features. Two stages of decomposition are the key step of pyrolysis since they took up half or more of the reaction time; melting step consumed another half of reaction time in experiments when raw materials were heated up from ambient temperatures; and coke-like deposition appeared as a result of decomposition completion. Two morphological signals defined from digital image processing, namely, pixel area of the interested reaction region and bubble ratio (BR) caused by volatile evaporating were found to change regularly with pyrolysis stages. In particular, for all experimental scenarios with plastics films and granules, the BR curves always exhibited a slowly drop as melting started and then a sharp increase followed by a deep decrease corresponding to the first stage of intense decomposition, afterwards a second increase - drop section corresponding to the second stage of decomposition appeared. As ash deposition happened, the BR dropped to zero or very low values. When impurities were involved, the shape of BR curves showed that intense decomposition started earlier but morphological characteristics remained the same. In addition, compared to parameters such as pressure, the BR reflects reaction stages better and its change with pyrolysis process of PE/PP plastics with or without impurities was more intrinsically process correlated; therefore it can be adopted as a signal for pyrolysis process characterization, as well as offering guide to process improvement and reactor design. PMID:23177018

Wang, H; Chen, D; Yuan, G; Ma, X; Dai, X

2013-02-01

99

Effect of different durations of overdistention on rat bladder function and morphology  

PubMed Central

We investigated the contribution of the duration of overdistention (DOD) to rat bladder function and morphology and explored its possible molecular mechanisms. Bladder overdistention was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250?g) by an infusion of saline. Forty rats were divided into 5 groups submitted to different DOD, i.e., 1, 2, 4, and 8?h, and control. Bladder function was evaluated by cystometry. Morphological changes were observed by light and transmission electron microscopy. Compared to control (44.567 ± 3.472?cmH2O), the maximum detrusor pressure of groups with 2-, 4- and 8-h DOD decreased significantly (means ± SEM): 32.774 ± 3.726, 31.321 ± 2.847, and 29.238 ± 3.724?cmH2O. With the increase of DOD, inflammatory infiltration and impairment of ultrastructure were more obvious in bladder tissue. Compared to control (1.90 ± 0.77), the apoptotic indexes of groups with 1-, 2-, 4-, and 8-h DOD increased significantly (6.47 ± 2.10, 10.66 ± 1.97, 13.91 ± 2.69, and 18.33 ± 3.28%). Compared to control (0.147 ± 0.031/0.234 ± 0.038 caspase 3/?-actin and Bax/Bcl-2 ratios), both caspase 3/?-actin and Bax/Bcl-2 ratios of 1-, 2-, 4-, and 8-h DOD increased significantly (0.292 ± 0.037/0.508 ± 0.174, 0.723 ± 0.173/1.745 ± 0.471, 1.104 ± 0.245/4.000 ± 1.048, and 1.345 ± 0.409/8.398 ± 3.332). DOD plays an important role in impairment of vesical function and structure. With DOD, pro-apoptotic factors increase and anti-apoptotic factors decrease, possibly contributing to the functional deterioration and morphological changes of the bladder.

Jin, Xiao-Dong; Cao, Min; Zhou, Xie-Lai; Yin, Hong-Ping; Chen, Zhao-Dian; Xu, Ning; Jiang, Hai

2012-01-01

100

[The functional and morphological changes in the liver and kidneys of white rats treated with aluminum].  

PubMed

A total of 126 white male Wistar rats under subacute conditions were studied. Of them, 76 were perorally treated with AlCl3 in a dose of 3 mg/kg b.w. daily for 40 days. Activities of acid phosphatase (AP), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), adenosine triphosphatase (ATP-ase) and the contents of glycogen, glucoproteins and RNA were dynamically followed-up in the liver and kidney. Serum activities of ASAT and ALAT were estimated by Borhringer's tests. Morphological changes were histochemically investigated. There was an initial elevation followed by reduction mostly manifested for SDH and ATP-ase and an increase of AP at the end of trial. Histochemical data argued for disorders of protein and carbohydrate metabolism. Morphological alterations more outlined in the liver became more severe until the end of the experiment. PMID:8713350

Nikolova, P; Softova, E; Kavaldzhieva, B; Boiadzhieva, S

1994-01-01

101

Loading effects on rat craniomandibular morphology: a system for gravity studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravity effects on muscle and bone are a major impediment to long-term space travel. We introduce a model for studying these effects, the craniomandibular system. Some advantages of this system include: (1) craniomandibular morphology is determined by epigenetic factors including gravity, (2) relatively light forces can significantly alter its morphology, and (3) soft diet and tooth loss produce effects that are similar to those produced in lower limbs by weightlessness. In the study, implants made either of gold (experimental group) or lightweight acrylic (controls) were attached to adult rats' mandibles. After 13 weeks, the animals' skulls and mandibles were dissected. Pair-wise comparisons indicated that the experimental animals showed significantly shortened and narrowed cranial bases, and significant changes in the posterior zygomatic arch region. These results indicate that simulated macrogravity influences bone remodeling in the adult craniomandibular system.

Singh, Ranbir; Carvalho, Thais; Gerstner, Geoffrey E.

2005-02-01

102

Morphology of rat spinal motoneurons with normal and hormonally altered specificity.  

PubMed

Potential determinants of motoneuronal morphology were examined by using a sexually dimorphic, steroid-sensitive neuromuscular system in the rat spinal cord. In males, the spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus (SNB) innervates the perineal muscles bulbocavernosus (BC) and levator ani (LA), and the dorsolateral nucleus (DLN) innervates the ischiocavernosus muscle (IC). Adult females normally lack these motoneurons and the peripheral targets. Prenatal exposure of females to the androgen dihydrotestosterone propionate (DHTP) partially masculinizes this neuromuscular system and alters moto-neuron-to-muscle specificity, resulting in retained SNB target muscles anomalously innervated by motoneurons in the DLN. Because the morphology of SNB and DLN motoneurons normally differs significantly, the influence of spinal cord location and peripheral target on motoneuron morphology can be directly compared. Injection of cholera toxin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (CTHRP) into the LA of DHTP-treated females labeled motoneurons predominantly in the SNB. These (SNB-LA) motoneurons in DHTP females were identical in all morphological measures to those of normal males. CTHRP injection into the BC of DHTP females labeled motoneurons in both the SNB and the DLN. SNB-BC motoneurons in DHTP females resembled those of normal males in process number and orientation, but were significantly smaller in dendritic length per motoneuron and in soma size. The DLN motoneurons anomalously projecting to the BC in DHTP females differed significantly from SNB-BC motoneurons in soma size and number and orientation of primary processes. However, these motoneurons were identical in all respects to DLN-IC motoneurons in DHTP females; DLN-IC motoneurons were similar to those of normal males in the orientation of their dendritic arbor, but were significantly smaller in dendritic length, soma size, and number of primary processes. These comparisons make it clear that DHTP selectively affects motoneuronal specificity and morphology in specific motoneuron classes. Further, motoneuronal morphology in the SNB/DLN system appears to be influenced more by spinal cord location than by peripheral target. PMID:2324318

Kurz, E M; Bowers, C A; Sengelaub, D R

1990-02-22

103

Faceted Surface Grain Morphology of Rapidly Solidified Alumina: Characterization and Potential Applications  

SciTech Connect

This communication reports on the characterization of novel surface microstructure formed in rapidly solidified porous alumina ceramic. Advanced characterization techniques such as Orientation Imaging Microscopy (OIM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) are used to understand the crystallographic and morphological aspects of the resultant microstructure. Potential applications of laser surface modified alumina ceramics are presented.

Harimkar, Sandip [Oklahoma State University; Kenik, Edward A [ORNL; Shim, Sanghoon [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Dahotre, Narendra B [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2009-01-01

104

Synthesis and Morphological Characterization of Block Copolymers for Improved Biomaterials  

PubMed Central

Biocompatible polymers are known to act as scaffolds for the regeneration and growth of bone. Block copolymers are of interest as scaffold materials because a number of the blocks are biocompatible, and their nanostructure is easily tunable with synthetic techniques. In this paper, we report the synthesis of a novel class of biomaterials from block copolymers containing a hydrophobic block of methyl methacrylate and a hydrophilic block of either acrylic acid, dimethyl acrylamide, or 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate. The block copolymers were synthesized using a combination of reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization and click chemistry. Since the surface morphology is critical for successful cell growth, atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies were conducted for selected block copolymers. The topography, phase angle and friction maps were obtained in dry and physiological buffer environments to study the morphology. Results of AFM imaging identified the presence of polymer domains corresponding to the copolymer components. The distribution of nanoscale features in these block copolymers are comparable to those found on other surfaces that exhibit favorable cell adhesion and growth. In physiological buffer medium, the hydrophilic component of the block copolymer (acrylic acid or hydroxyethyl methacrylate) appear to be present in greater amounts on the surface as a consequence of water absorption and swelling.

Schricker, Scott; Palacio, Manuel; Thirumamagal, B.T.S.; Bhushan, Bharat

2010-01-01

105

Derivation and characterization of embryonic stem cells lines derived from transgenic Fischer 344 and Dark Agouti rats.  

PubMed

Rat embryonic stem cell (ESC) lines are not widely available, and there are only 2 lines available for distribution. Here, ESC lines were derived and characterized from Fischer 344 (F344) rats that express marker transgenes either ?-galactosidase or human placental alkaline phosphatase (AP), nontransgenic F344 rats, and from Dark Agouti (DA) rats. The ESC lines were maintained in an undifferentiated state as characterized by colony morphology, expression of Oct4, Nanog, Sox-2, Cdx2, and Stella, staining for AP, and stage-specific embryonic antigen-1. Pluripotency was demonstrated in vitro by differentiation to embryoid bodies, followed by embryonic monsters. The Cdx2 expression by ESCs was unexpected and was confirmed via reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, immunocytochemistry. Pluripotency of ESCs was demonstrated in vivo by production of teratoma after an injection into F344 nontransgenic rats, and by an injection of male DA ESCs into F344 or Sprague-Dawley rat blastocysts and the generation of chimeric rats and germline contribution. ESCs from both F344 and DA contributed to chimeric rats, and one DA ESC line was proved to be germline competent. ESC sublines were created by transfection with a plasmid expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) under the control of a beta actin promoter and cytomegalovirus enhancer (pCX-eGFP) or by transfection with a plasmid expressing GFP under the control of a 3.1 kb portion of the rat Oct4 promoter (pN1-Oct4-GFP). In pN1-Oct4-GFP sublines, GFP gene expression and fluorescence were shown to be correlated with endogenous Oct4 gene expression. Therefore, these new ESC lines may be useful for tissue engineering and transplantation studies or for optimizing culture conditions required for self-renewal and differentiation of rat ESCs. While they made chimeric rats, further work is needed to confirm whether the transgenic F344 rat ESCs described here are germline-competent ESCs. PMID:21995453

Hong, James; He, Hong; Weiss, Mark L

2012-06-10

106

Morphologic investigation of injury caused by locally applied negative pressure in a rat model.  

PubMed

Although some previous studies have reported patients who developed compartment syndrome or died because of locally applied negative pressure, no detailed investigation of pathologic changes caused by negative pressure-induced injury has been reported in the literature. The main purpose of this study was to examine the morphologic characteristics of injury caused by local negative pressure and correlate these with systemic changes. A total of 30 male Wister rats were used. Animals were randomly assigned to 6 groups. Negative pressure was applied to the right hindlimb of each animal in each group for periods of 0 (sham-operated), 30, 60, 90, 120, or 180 min using a vacuum pump. Macroscopic and microscopic changes induced by local negative pressure were already observed after 30 min and were exacerbated with time. The proportion of muscle degeneration was highest in the deep tissues, irrespective of exposure time. The observed increase in the weight of the injured hindlimb at 180 min was caused by an approximately 30% fluid shift to the hindlimb, demonstrating that the application of negative pressure to the hindlimb of rats can induce hypovolemic shock. We here reveal the morphologic changes induced by local negative pressure and discuss possible mechanisms of negative pressure-induced injury. PMID:22204931

Kenji, Ninomiya; Ihama, Yoko; Fukasawa, Maki; Nagai, Takumi; Fuke, Chiaki; Miyazaki, Tetsuji

2012-01-01

107

Morphological alterations of rat lung bronchiolar epithelium produced by various trialkyl phosphorothioates.  

PubMed

A single oral administration of O, O, S-trimethyl phosphorothioate (OOS-Me), an impurity in widely used organophosphorus insecticides, causes delayed toxicity (delayed death) which is accompanied by morphological changes in the bronchiolar epithelium of rat lungs. A series of simple O,O-dimethyl and O,O-diethyl S-alkyl phosphorothioate esters, which induce delayed toxicity, were examined for their effect on rat bronchiolar epithelium. The structural analogues synthesized and tested include O, O-dimethyl S-ethyl phosphorothioate, O,O-dimethyl S-isopropyl phosphorothioate, O,O,S-triethyl phosphorothioate, and O,O-diethyl S-methyl phosphorothioate. The present investigation demonstrated that these analogues of OOS-Me which cause delayed toxicity produce body weight loss, accompanied by morphological alterations of terminal bronchiolar epithelium, i.e. loss of the apical bulge of non-ciliated Clara cells. Another impurity which produces delayed toxicity, O,S,S-trimethyl phosphorodithioate, was also capable of producing similar effects at near the LD50 level. PMID:6740710

Gandy, J; Ali, F A; Hasegawa, L; Imamura, T

1984-07-01

108

Morphological and molecular characterization of selected Ramaria mycorrhizae.  

PubMed

Ramaria species are conspicuous mycorrhizal symbionts of conifers in the Pacific Northwest. Here we collected and identified sporocarps and associated ectomycorrhizae of Ramaria acrisiccescens Marr & Stuntz, R. cyaneigranosa Marr & Stuntz, R. sandaracina Marr & Stuntz, R. celerivirescens Marr & Stuntz, and R. flavobrunnescens var. aromatica Marr & Stuntz. An internal transcribed spacer (ITS)- restriction fragment length polymorphism pattern was observed for each of the Ramaria species and used as a diagnostic tool to support the identification of mycorrhizae occurring in mats below the sporocarps. We provide a description of ectomycorrhizae of Ramaria, which exhibit similar macro- and microscopic characteristics such as ramification pattern, coloration, abundance of mycelial strands and emanating hyphae, mantle morphology and chemical reactions of mantle and mycelial strands with KOH, FeSO4 and Melzer's reagent. Sequences of the ITS region for each of the species are deposited in the GenBank. PMID:14745631

Nouhra, Eduardo R; Horton, Thomas R; Cazares, Efren; Castellano, Michael

2005-01-01

109

Characterization of Rat Calvarial Nonunion Defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the healing of nonunions by describing the histology and ultrastructural appearance of craniotomy defects as a model. Bone defects (3,4 and 8 mm) were created in the calvaria of adult rats. Central and peripheral specimens of 8-mm defects were retrieved at 1 3 7 10 14 21 28 and 42 days and examined using both light and

John P. Schmitz; Zvi Schwartz; Jeffrey O. Hollinger; Barbara D. Boyan

1990-01-01

110

Specific Reactions of Different Striatal Neuron Types in Morphology Induced by Quinolinic Acid in Rats  

PubMed Central

Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurological degenerative disease and quinolinic acid (QA) has been used to establish HD model in animals through the mechanism of excitotoxicity. Yet the specific pathological changes and the underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. We aimed to reveal the specific morphological changes of different striatal neurons in the HD model. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were subjected to unilaterally intrastriatal injections of QA to mimic the HD model. Behavioral tests, histochemical and immunhistochemical stainings as well as Western blots were applied in the present study. The results showed that QA-treated rats had obvious motor and cognitive impairments when compared with the control group. Immunohistochemical detection showed a great loss of NeuN+ neurons and Darpp32+ projection neurons in the transition zone in the QA group when compared with the control group. The numbers of parvalbumin (Parv)+ and neuropeptide Y (NPY)+ interneurons were both significantly reduced while those of calretinin (Cr)+ and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)+ were not changed notably in the transition zone in the QA group when compared to the controls. Parv+, NPY+ and ChAT+ interneurons were not significantly increased in fiber density while Cr+ neurons displayed an obvious increase in fiber density in the transition zone in QA-treated rats. The varicosity densities of Parv+, Cr+ and NPY+ interneurons were all raised in the transition zone after QA treatment. In conclusion, the present study revealed that QA induced obvious behavioral changes as well as a general loss of striatal projection neurons and specific morphological changes in different striatal interneurons, which may help further explain the underlying mechanisms and the specific functions of various striatal neurons in the pathological process of HD.

Mu, Shuhua; Wu, Jiajia; Chen, Si; OuYang, Lisi; Lei, Wanlong

2014-01-01

111

Morphological characterization and kinetics study of polyaniline film formation by emulsion polymerization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics and morphology of polyaniline film prepared by using ammonium persulfate (APS) as oxidant and dodecylbenzoyl\\u000a sulfonic acid (DBSA) as both emulsifier and dopant were studied in this paper. The kinetics of the formation of polyaniline\\u000a film was determined by using the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), and the film morphology was characterized by scanning\\u000a electron microscopy (SEM). The reaction

Zhi-hong Mo; Wei Qiu; Xiao-chao Yang; Jun Yan; Zi-di Gu

2009-01-01

112

Three-dimensional morphology of the pericellular matrix of intervertebral disc cells in the rat  

PubMed Central

Intervertebral disc cells are surrounded by a pericellular matrix that is biochemically and morphologically distinct from other extracellular matrix regions. Although the function of the pericellular matrix is not fully understood, prior studies of pericellular matrix-chondrocyte regions in articular cartilage (termed ‘chondrons’) suggest that the size, shape, and mechanical properties of the pericellular matrix significantly influence the micromechanical environment of the contained cells. A first step in understanding the role of the pericellular matrix in the intervertebral disc is to quantify the three-dimensional morphology and zonal variations of these regions across the disc. In this study, three-dimensional reconstructions and morphometric measurements of pericellular matrix-cell regions were obtained in situ using fluorescence confocal microscopy of en bloc sections of nucleus pulposus and anulus fibrosus of the rat disc immunolabeled for type VI collagen. The morphology of the pericellular matrix and cells varied significantly across regions, with distinct pericellular matrix aspect ratios (largest/smallest diameter) showing shapes that were generally large and rounded in the nucleus pulposus (average of 1.9), and ellipsoidal and discoidal in the inner (2.4) and outer anulus fibrosus (2.8). The average pericellular matrix volume per cell was found to be significantly larger in the nucleus (6424 µm3) than that of inner (1903 µm3) and outer (1433 µm3) anulus. Pericellular matrix regions containing 1 or 2 cells were the dominant subgroup in the rat intervertebral disc at both 1 and 12 months of age. Multicellular pericellular matrix regions were present more often in the younger nucleus pulposus and outer anulus fibrosus. The orientation of the pericellular matrix regions further varied significantly across the disc, reflecting local collagen matrix architecture. These studies provide new information on the organization and shape of intervertebral disc cells and their surrounding pericellular matrix, which may provide new insights into the mechanisms that regulate cell-matrix interactions.

Cao, Li; Guilak, Farshid; Setton, Lori A

2007-01-01

113

Apoptotic morphology does not always require caspase activity in rat cerebellar granule neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The death of a cell via apoptosis is characterized by morphological changes including cell shrinkage and nuclear condensation.\\u000a Intracellularly, proteases, including caspases, are activated. In the present article we have compared the ability of three\\u000a different neurotoxic agents to induce caspase activity in cerebellar granule cells (CGC). These compounds are the micro-tubule-disrupting\\u000a agent colchicine and the oxidative stress-inducing agents hydrogen

Elisabetta Dare; Adrienne M. Gorman; Eva Ahlbom; Mario Gotz; Takashi Momoi; Sandra Ceccatelli

2001-01-01

114

Neuroprotective effects of testosterone on dendritic morphology following partial motoneuron depletion: Efficacy in female rats  

PubMed Central

Motoneuron loss is a significant medical problem, capable of causing severe movement disorders and even death. We have previously demonstrated that partial depletion of motoneurons induces dendritic atrophy in remaining motoneurons, with a concomitant reduction in motor activation. Treatment of male rats with testosterone attenuates the regressive changes following partial motoneuron depletion. To test whether testosterone has similar effects in females, we examined potential neuroprotective effects in motoneurons innervating muscles of the quadriceps of female rats. Motoneurons were selectively killed by intramuscular injection of cholera toxin-conjugated saporin. Simultaneously, some saporin-injected rats were given implants containing testosterone or left untreated. Four weeks later, surviving motoneurons were labeled with cholera toxin-conjugated HRP, and dendritic arbors were reconstructed in 3 dimensions. Compared to normal females, partial motoneuron depletion resulted in decreased dendritic length in remaining quadriceps motoneurons, and this atrophy was greatly attenuated by testosterone treatment. These findings suggest that testosterone has neuroprotective effects on morphology in both males and females, further supporting a role for testosterone as a neurotherapeutic agent in the injured nervous system.

Wilson, Randall E.; Coons, Kellie D.; Sengelaub, Dale R.

2009-01-01

115

Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Meloidogyne mayaguensis Isolates from Florida.  

PubMed

The discovery of Meloidogyne mayaguensis is confirmed in Florida; this is the first report for the continental United States. Meloidogyne mayaguensis is a virulent species that can reproduce on host cultivars bred for nematode resistance. The perineal patterns of M. mayaguensis isolates from Florida show morphological variability and often are similar to M. incognita. Useful morphological characters for the separation of M. mayaguensis from M. incognita from Florida are the male stylet length values (smaller for M. mayaguensis than M. incognita) and J2 tail length values (greater for M. mayaguensis than M. incognita). Meloidogyne mayaguensis values for these characters overlap with those of M. arenaria and M. javanica from Florida. Enzyme analyses of Florida M. mayaguensis isolates show two major bands (VS1-S1 phenotype) of esterase activity, and one strong malate dehydrogenase band (Rm 1.4) plus two additional weak bands that migrated close together. Their detection requires larger amounts of homogenates from several females. Amplification of two separate regions of mitochondrial DNA resulted in products of a unique size. PCR primers embedded in the COII and 16S genes produced a product size of 705 bp, and amplification of the 63-bp repeat region resulted in a single product of 322 bp. Nucleotide sequence comparison of these mitochondrial products together with sequence from 18S rDNA and ITS1 from the nuclear genome were nearly identical with the corresponding regions from a M. mayaguensis isolate from Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, the type locality of the species. Meloidogyne mayaguensis reproduced on cotton, pepper, tobacco, and watermelon but not on peanut. Preliminary results indicate the M. mayaguensis isolates from Florida can reproduce on tomato containing the Mi gene. Molecular techniques for the identification of M. mayaguensis will be particularly useful in cases of M. mayaguensis populations mixed with M. arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica, which are the most economically important root-knot nematode species in Florida, and especially when low (<25) numbers of specimens of these species are recovered from the soil. PMID:19262811

Brito, J; Powers, T O; Mullin, P G; Inserra, R N; Dickson, D W

2004-09-01

116

Morphological comparison and functional reconstitution of rat hepatic parenchymal cells on various matrices.  

PubMed

Four types of materials, type I collagen coat (Coat), acid-soluble type I collagen gel (Hardgel), pepsin-treated acid-soluble type I collagen gel (Softgel), and an extract of extracellular matrix of the murine Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm sarcoma (Matrigel), were used as matrices to culture rat hepatic parenchymal cells, and their morphological changes and adhesion were compared to the matrices by electron microscopic observations. Hepatic parenchymal cells cultured on Coat and Hardgel were extended and flattened, whereas cells cultured on Softgel and Matrigel assembled and formed aggregates. Such aggregates consisted of several hepatic parenchymal cells, with a recognizable bile duct-like alveolus on the inside. Morphologically, the aggregates were more spherical on Matrigel and oval shaped on Softgel. Microvilli of the cell surface were parallel to the matrix on Matrigel, but invaded into the gel on Softgel. Subsequently, investigation into how these morphological features affected the liver-specific functions, including secretion of albumin and induction of P450 by 3-methylcholanthrene, demonstrated that a high level of liver function was maintained in a long-term culture in hepatic parenchymal cells on Softgel. These results suggest that hepatic parenchymal cell interactions were stronger with Softgel than with Matrigel, and that Softgel appears to closely mimic the in vivo environment. PMID:9792035

Awata, R; Sawai, H; Imai, K; Terada, K; Senoo, H; Sugiyama, T

1998-09-01

117

Morphological, rheological and mechanical characterization of polypropylene nanocomposite blends.  

PubMed

In the present work, the effectiveness of styrene/ethylene-butylene/styrene rubbers grafted with maleic anhydride (MA) and a metallocene polyethylene (mPE) as toughening materials in binary and ternary blends with polypropylene and its nanocomposite as continuous phases was evaluated in terms of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), oscillatory shear flow and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMA). The flexural modulus and heat distortion temperature values were determined as well. A metallocene polyethylene and a polyamide-6 were used as dispersed phases in these binary and ternary blends produced via melt blending in a corotating twin-screw extruder. Results showed that the compatibilized blends prepared without clay are tougher than those prepared with the nanocomposite of PP as the matrix phase and no significant changes in shear viscosity, melt elasticity, flexural or storage moduli and heat distortion temperature values were observed between them. However, the binary blend with a nanocomposite of PP as matrix and metallocene polyethylene phase exhibited better toughness, lower shear viscosity, flexural modulus, and heat distortion temperature values than that prepared with polyamide-6 as dispersed phase. These results are related to the degree of clay dispersion in the PP and to the type of morphology developed in the different blends. PMID:18572576

Rosales, C; Contreras, V; Matos, M; Perera, R; Villarreal, N; García-López, D; Pastor, J M

2008-04-01

118

Spermatogenic cells of the prepuberal mouse: isolation and morphological characterization  

PubMed Central

A procedure is described which permits the isolation from the prepuberal mouse testis of highly purified populations of primitive type A spermatogonia, type A spermatogonia, type B spermatogonia, preleptotene primary spermatocytes, leptotene and zygotene primary spermatocytes, pachytene primary spermatocytes and Sertoli cells. The successful isolation of these prepuberal cell types was accomplished by: (a) defining distinctive morphological characteristics of the cells, (b) determining the temporal appearance of spermatogenic cells during prepuberal development, (c) isolating purified seminiferous cords, after dissociation of the testis with collagenase, (d) separating the trypsin-dispersed seminiferous cells by sedimentation velocity at unit gravity, and (e) assessing the identity and purity of the isolated cell types by microscopy. The seminiferous epithelium from day 6 animals contains only primitive type A spermatogonia and Sertoli cells. Type A and type B spermatogonia are present by day 8. At day 10, meiotic prophase is initiated, with the germ cells reaching the early and late pachytene stages by 14 and 18, respectively. Secondary spermatocytes and haploid spermatids appear throughout this developmental period. The purity and optimum day for the recovery of specific cell types are as follows: day 6, Sertoli cells (purity>99 percent) and primitive type A spermatogonia (90 percent); day 8, type A spermatogonia (91 percent) and type B spermatogonia (76 percent); day 18, preleptotene spermatocytes (93 percent), leptotene/zygotene spermatocytes (52 percent), and pachytene spermatocytes (89 percent), leptotene/zygotene spermatocytes (52 percent), and pachytene spermatocytes (89 percent).

Bellve, AR; Cavicchia, JC; Millette, CF; O'Brien, DA; Bhatnagar, YM; Dym, M

1977-01-01

119

Morphological characterization of a human glioma cell l ine.  

PubMed

A human malignant continuous cell line, named NG97, was recently established in our laboratory. This cell line has been serially subcultured over 100 times in standard culture media presenting no sign of cell senescence. The NG97 cell line has a doubling time of about 24 h. Immunocytochemical analysis of glial markers demonstrated that cells are positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and S-100 protein, and negative for vimentin. Under phase-contrast microscope, cultures of NG97 showed cells with variable morphological features, such as small rounded cells, fusiform cells (fibroblastic-like cells), and dendritic-like cells. However, at confluence just small rounded and fusiform cells can be observed. At scanning electron microscopy (SEM) small rounded cells showed heterogeneous microextentions, including blebs and filopodia. Dendritic-like cells were flat and presented extensive prolongations, making several contacts with small rounded cells, while fusiform cells presented their surfaces dominated by microvilli.We believe that the knowledge about NG97 cell line may be useful for a deeper understanding of biological and immunological characteristics of gliomas. PMID:15885136

Machado, Camila Ml; Schenka, André; Vassallo, José; Tamashiro, Wirla Msc; Gonçalves, Estela M; Genari, Selma C; Verinaud, Liana

2005-05-10

120

Morphological characterization of a human glioma cell l ine  

PubMed Central

A human malignant continuous cell line, named NG97, was recently established in our laboratory. This cell line has been serially subcultured over 100 times in standard culture media presenting no sign of cell senescence. The NG97 cell line has a doubling time of about 24 h. Immunocytochemical analysis of glial markers demonstrated that cells are positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and S-100 protein, and negative for vimentin. Under phase-contrast microscope, cultures of NG97 showed cells with variable morphological features, such as small rounded cells, fusiform cells (fibroblastic-like cells), and dendritic-like cells. However, at confluence just small rounded and fusiform cells can be observed. At scanning electron microscopy (SEM) small rounded cells showed heterogeneous microextentions, including blebs and filopodia. Dendritic-like cells were flat and presented extensive prolongations, making several contacts with small rounded cells, while fusiform cells presented their surfaces dominated by microvilli. We believe that the knowledge about NG97 cell line may be useful for a deeper understanding of biological and immunological characteristics of gliomas.

Machado, Camila ML; Schenka, Andre; Vassallo, Jose; Tamashiro, Wirla MSC; Goncalves, Estela M; Genari, Selma C; Verinaud, Liana

2005-01-01

121

Achromobacter species (CDC group Vd): morphological and biochemical characterization.  

PubMed Central

Twenty-three isolates of Achromobacter species (CDC group Vd) were examined morphologically and biochemically. Gram stains revealed gram-variable bacilli frequently curved or hooked at one pole and often coryneform in shape and arrangement. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of extracellular material in polar accumulations and demonstrated the polar flagella arrangement seen by light microscopy to be lateral. Two colony types were produced; one was minute and watery at 24 h (35 degrees C) progressing to large, mucoid colonies at 48 h, and the other type was shiny, glistening, opaque but nonmucoid. All isolates grew on MacConkey agar and produced catalase, oxidase, and urease. Most grew on salmonella-shigella agar, reduced nitrate to nitrite and gas, hydrolyzed esculin, deaminated phenylalanine (2 to 4 days) and produced H2S in triple sugar iron agar (4 to 12 days). Oxidation of carbohydrates was weak, delayed, and limited to glucose and xylose. Two isolates also oxidized maltose, mannitol, and sucrose. The ability of miniaturized "nonfermenter" kits to identify Achromobacter species was tested. The Minitek (Baltimore Biological Laboratory, Cockeysville, Md.) and N/F (Corning, Roslyn, N.Y.) systems, respectively, identified 21 and 19 of the 23 isolates, whereas the Oxi/Ferm (Roche, Nutley, N.J.) identified 13 and the API 20E (Analytab Products, Plainview, N.Y.) identified only 3. Images

Chester, B; Cooper, L H

1979-01-01

122

Characterization of surface and pore morphologies on nanoporous organosilicate films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have fabricated nanoporous organosilicate films with reactive porogen trimethoxysilyl - propyl - cyclodextrin(TMSCD). With same amount of porogen loading, the films with reactive porogen. TMSCD have shown higher mechanical strength than those with other non-reactive porogen. We have measured the pore morphologies depending on the types of porogens and loading densities along the pore generation processes by the grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering, x-ray reflectivity, and ellipsometry. We measured the porosity of the film as a function of time and the annealing condition. We determined the actual porosity by measuring electron density of the films. In low loading density (10%˜40%) pore size is very small and pore distribution is uniform. In high loading density (>50%) the pores start to aggregate. We found that the porosity of the films can be affected easily by moisture. The results will be discussed with the mechanical properties along the optimized conditions for the films with ultra low dielectric constant.

Kim, Jeeun; Lee, Heeju; Song, Sanghoon; Cha, Wonsuk; Kim, Hyunjung; Park, Gunwoo; Min, Sungkyu; Lee, Taehoon; Rhee, Heewoo; Kim, Gwangwoo

2008-03-01

123

Morphology, PKC? expression, and synaptic responsiveness of different types of rat central lateral amygdala neurons  

PubMed Central

Recent findings implicate the central lateral amygdala (CeL) in conditioned fear. Indeed, CeL contains neurons exhibiting positive (CeL-On) or negative (CeL-Off) responses to fear-inducing conditioned stimuli (CSs). In mice, these cells differ in their expression of protein kinase C? (PKC?) and physiological properties. CeL-Off cells are PKC?+ and late firing (LF), whereas CeL-On cells are PKC?? and express a regular-spiking (RS) or low-threshold bursting (LTB) phenotype. However, the scarcity of LF cells in rats raises questions about the correspondence between the organization of CeL in mice and rats. Therefore, we studied the PKC? expression, morphological properties, synaptic responsiveness, and fear conditioning-induced plasticity of rat CeL neurons. No PKC?+ LF cells were encountered, but ?20–25% of RS and LTB neurons were PKC?+. Compared with RS neurons, a higher proportion of LTB cells projected to central medial amygdala (CeM) and they had fewer primary dendritic branches, yet the amplitude of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) evoked by lateral amygdala (LA) stimulation was similar in RS and LTB cells. In contrast, LA-evoked inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) had a higher amplitude in LTB than RS neurons. Finally, fear conditioning did not induce plasticity at LA inputs to RS or LTB neurons. These findings point to major species differences in the organization of CeL. Since rat LTB cells are subjected to stronger feedforward inhibition, they are more likely to exhibit inhibitory CS responses than RS cells. This is expected to cause a disinhibition of CeM fear output neurons and therefore an increase in fear expression.

Amano, Taiju; Amir, Alon; Goswami, Sonal

2012-01-01

124

Insights into Embryo Defenses of the Invasive Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata: Egg Mass Ingestion Affects Rat Intestine Morphology and Growth  

PubMed Central

Background The spread of the invasive snail Pomacea canaliculata is expanding the rat lungworm disease beyond its native range. Their toxic eggs have virtually no predators and unusual defenses including a neurotoxic lectin and a proteinase inhibitor, presumably advertised by a warning coloration. We explored the effect of egg perivitellin fluid (PVF) ingestion on the rat small intestine morphology and physiology. Methodology/Principal Findings Through a combination of biochemical, histochemical, histopathological, scanning electron microscopy, cell culture and feeding experiments, we analyzed intestinal morphology, growth rate, hemaglutinating activity, cytotoxicity and cell proliferation after oral administration of PVF to rats. PVF adversely affects small intestine metabolism and morphology and consequently the standard growth rate, presumably by lectin-like proteins, as suggested by PVF hemaglutinating activity and its cytotoxic effect on Caco-2 cell culture. Short-term effects of ingested PVF were studied in growing rats. PVF-supplemented diet induced the appearance of shorter and wider villi as well as fused villi. This was associated with changes in glycoconjugate expression, increased cell proliferation at crypt base, and hypertrophic mucosal growth. This resulted in a decreased absorptive surface after 3 days of treatment and a diminished rat growth rate that reverted to normal after the fourth day of treatment. Longer exposure to PVF induced a time-dependent lengthening of the small intestine while switching to a control diet restored intestine length and morphology after 4 days. Conclusions/Significance Ingestion of PVF rapidly limits the ability of potential predators to absorb nutrients by inducing large, reversible changes in intestinal morphology and growth rate. The occurrence of toxins that affect intestinal morphology and absorption is a strategy against predation not recognized among animals before. Remarkably, this defense is rather similar to the toxic effect of plant antipredator strategies. This defense mechanism may explain the near absence of predators of apple snail eggs.

Gimeno, Eduardo J.; Heras, Horacio

2014-01-01

125

[Effect of sulodexide on aortic vasodilation capacity and associated morphological changes in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes].  

PubMed

Endothelial dysfunction (ED) is observed in patients with hypercholesterolemia, arterial hypertension, obesity and diabetes mellitus. Recent evidences suggest the involvement of glycosaminoglycans (GSG) in ED. We evaluated the effect of sulodexide (SLD), a natural GSG used in albuminuria and ischemic diabetes treatment, on arterial relaxation and vascular morphological changes in a diabetic type I model. Diabetes was induced, in Sprague-Dawley rats by streptozotocine (STZ) administration, 60 mg, i.v. Rats were divided into four groups; I: control, II: diabetics, III: control + SLD, IV: diabetics treated with SLD (15 mg/day). After three months, phenylephrine precontracted aortic rings were used to evaluate acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (NPS) relaxation capacities. Light microscopy of aorta was done with several staining procedures. In vitro, SLD did not change smooth muscle tone in resting or phenylephrine precontracted aortic rings. In diabetic rats, ACh relaxation was 28.8-35.1% lower than in control rats. Diabetic rats treated with SLD showed aortic ACh relaxation similar to control rats. No significative statistical difference was found in endothelium-independent NPS relaxation, between the different groups. Light microscopy histological studies revealed important morphological alterations, particularly in intima and adventitia layers of aortic artery; those changes were dramatically reversed in SLD treated rats. Our experiments support the conclusion that SLD is a potential drug for improving endothelial dysfunction in diabetes. PMID:21365875

Vásquez, José; Mathison, Yaira; Romero-Vecchione, Eduardo; Suárez, Claudia

2010-12-01

126

Characterization of the rat developmental liver transcriptome.  

PubMed

Gene regulation and transcriptome studies have been enabled by the development of RNA-Seq applications for high-throughput sequencing platforms. Next generation sequencing is remarkably efficient and avoids many issues inherent in hybridization-based microarray methodologies including the exon-specific dependence of probe design. Biologically relevant transcripts including messenger and regulatory RNAs may now be quantified and annotated regardless of whether they have previously been observed. We used RNA-Seq to investigate global patterns of gene expression in early developing rat liver. Liver samples from timed-pregnant Lewis rats were collected at six fetal and neonatal stages [embryonic day (E)14, E16, E18, E20, postnatal day (P)1, P7], transcripts were sequenced using an Illumina HiSeq 2000, and data analysis was performed with the Tuxedo software suite. Genes and isoforms differing in abundance were queried for enrichment within functionally related gene groups using the Functional Annotation Tool of the DAVID Bioinformatics Database. While hematopoietic gene expression is initiated by E14, hepatocyte maturation is a gradual process involving clusters of genes responsible for response to nutrients and enzymes responsible for glycolysis and fatty acid catabolism. Following birth, a large cluster of differentially abundant genes was enriched for mitochondrial gene expression and cholesterol synthesis indicating that by 1 wk of age, the liver is engaged in lipid sensing and bile production. Clustering results for differentially abundant genes and isoforms were similar with the greatest difference for the E14/E16 comparison. Finally, a bioinformatic approach was used to annotate 1,307 novel liver transcripts assembled from sequences that aligned to intergenic regions of the rat genome. PMID:23429212

Chapple, Richard H; Tizioto, Polyana C; Wells, Kevin D; Givan, Scott A; Kim, JaeWoo; McKay, Stephanie D; Schnabel, Robert D; Taylor, Jeremy F

2013-04-16

127

Malotilate completely inhibits CCl4-induced liver cirrhosis in rats: biochemical and morphological analysis.  

PubMed

Malotilate, diisopropyl 1,3-dithiol-2-ylidenemalonate, is a relatively recently synthesized hepatotrophic chemical substance. Its inhibitory effect on rat liver cirrhosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) was biochemically and morphologically investigated for 10 weeks, since this chemical had been reported to suppress liver damage caused by CCl4 or in vitro collagenogenesis of human fibroblasts. Concomitant administration of malotilate with CCl4 completely suppressed liver cell necrosis and markedly inhibited fatty change of hepatocytes in the first three weeks of the experiment. During the six to ten weeks of the experimental period, liver cirrhosis was perfectly inhibited by malotilate. Previously established liver cirrhosis, however, could not be normalized by malotilate treatment. Precise mechanism of the inhibitory effect of malotilate on liver cirrhosis is not elucidated, but this substance is clearly effective for preventing liver cell damage and/or liver cirrhosis caused by CCl4. PMID:1292970

Suzuki, T

1992-06-01

128

The effects of hexane on rat myocardium: a morphometric and morphological study.  

PubMed Central

Specimens from the left ventricular myocardium of 10 rats that had been exposed to subcutaneously administered hexane for 30 days were morphometrically and morphologically examined. Other than the presence of occasional necrotic fibres in hexane-treated animals, there was little difference in the histological appearance of myofibres in control or experimental specimens. There was a slight reduction in the average diameter of cardiac myofibres after exposure to hexane. Pathological ultrastructural changes of the myofibres were noted in the experimental and not in the control groups. Mitochondrial oedema and necrosis and myofilament disorganization and dissolution were significant changes noted in the experimental group. These pathological changes suggest that hexane, a constituent of glue and benzine, is cardiotoxic. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11

Maharaj, B.; Khedun, S. M.; Gregory, M. A.; Naicker, T.

1993-01-01

129

Morphological characterization of periodontium-derived human stem cells.  

PubMed

The aim of this study has been to characterize adult human somatic periodontium-derived stem cells (PDSCS) isolated from human periodontium and to follow their differentiation after cell culture. PDSCS were isolated from human periodontal tissue and cultured as spheres in serum-free medium. After 10 days the primary spheres were dissociated and the secondary spheres sub-cultured for another 1-2 weeks. Cells from different time points were analyzed, and immunohistochemical and electron microscopic investigations carried out. Histological analysis showed differentiation of spheres deriving from the PDSCS with central production of extracellular matrix beginning 3 days after sub-culturing. Isolated PDSCS developed pseudopodia which contained actin. Tubulin was found in the central portion of the cells. Pseudopodia between different cells anastomosed, indicating intercellular transport. Immunostaining for osteopontin demonstrated a positive reaction in primary spheres and within extracellular matrix vesicles after sub-culturing. In cell culture under serum-free conditions human PDSCS form spheres which are capable of producing extracellular matrix. Further investigations have do be carried out to investigate the capability of these cells to differentiate into osteogenic progenitor cells. PMID:20591640

Arnold, Wolfgang H; Becher, Sebastian; Dannan, A; Widera, Darius; Dittmar, T; Jacob, Monica; Mannherz, Hans Georg; Dittmar, Thomas; Kaltschmidt, B; Kaltschmidt, C; Grimm, Wolf-Dieter

2010-08-20

130

MRI-based morphological modeling, synthesis and characterization of cardiac tissue-mimicking materials.  

PubMed

This study uses standard synthetic methodologies to produce tissue-mimicking materials that match the morphology and emulate the in vivo murine and human cardiac mechanical and imaging characteristics, with dynamic mechanical analysis, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and magnetic resonance imaging. In accordance with such aims, poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) elastomeric materials were synthesized (at two different glycerol (G)-sebacic (S) acid molar ratios; the first was synthesized using a G:S molar ratio of 2:2, while the second from a 2:5 G:S molar ratio, resulting in PGS2:2 and PGS2:5 elastomers, respectively). Unlike the synthesized PGS2:2 elastomers, the PGS2:5 materials were characterized by an overall mechanical instability in their loading behavior under the three successive loading conditions tested. An oscillatory response in the mechanical properties of the synthesized elastomers was observed throughout the loading cycles, with measured increased storage modulus values at the first loading cycle, stabilizing to lower values at subsequent cycles. These elastomers were characterized at 4 °C and were found to have storage modulus values of 850 and 1430 kPa at the third loading cycle, respectively, in agreement with previously reported values of the rat and human myocardium. SEM of surface topology indicated minor degradation of synthesized materials at 10 and 20 d post-immersion in the PBS buffer solution, with a noted cluster formation on the PGS2:5 elastomers. AFM nanoindentation experiments were also conducted for the measurement of the Young modulus of the sample surface (no bulk contribution). Correspondingly, the PGS2:2 elastomer indicated significantly decreased surface Young's modulus values 20 d post-PBS immersion, compared to dry conditions (Young's modulus = 1160 ± 290 kPa (dry) and 200 ± 120 kPa (20 d)). In addition to the two-dimensional (2D) elastomers, an integrative platform for accurate construction of three-dimensional tissue-mimicking models of cardiac anatomy from 2D MR images using rapid prototyping manufacturing processes was developed. For synthesized elastomers, doping strategies with two different concentrations of the MRI contrast agent Dotarem allowed independent and concurrent control of the imaging characteristics (contrast and relaxivity) during the synthetic process for increased contrast agent absorption, with tremendous potential for non-destructive in vivo use and applications to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. PMID:22406555

Kossivas, Fotis; Angeli, S; Kafouris, D; Patrickios, C S; Tzagarakis, V; Constantinides, C

2012-06-01

131

Morphology, design and characterization of IPN-containing structured latex particles for damping applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have prepared a series of novel structured latex particles with interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) cores and glassy SAN shells. The IPN cores were composed of two polymers: polybutadiene-based and acrylic-based. The morphologies of these latex particles were determined by TEM. The glass transition temperature and mechanical behavior of the polymers were characterized by DMS. The effect of different components

M. S El-Aasser; R Hu; V. L Dimonie; L. H Sperling

1999-01-01

132

Morphological characterization of high surface area mesoporous micropheres of platinum and platinum\\/ruthenium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesoporous microspheres of Pt and Pt\\/Ru have been electrodeposited into a carbon black layer on a silicon\\/gold electrode surface and characterized for coulombic deposition efficiency, physical morphology, particle size and dispersion, electrochemically available surface area, and activity toward methanol oxidation. The target applications for these deposits are catalyst materials in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. Coulombic efficiency was measured

Trevor Lawrence Knutson

2007-01-01

133

One-step anodization fabrication and morphology characterization of porous AAO with ideal nanopore arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fabrication method for one-step anodization of an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template with nanopore arrays using pretreated high purity aluminum foil is reported in this article. Morphology of the AAO was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Results showed that porous AAO with ideal nanopore arrays can be fabricated by one-step anodization fabrication technology

W.-B. Yang; Y.-L. Zhou; X.-H. Tang; B.-J. Zhang; G. Lei

2007-01-01

134

Characterization of interfacial morphology in polymer electrolyte fuel cells: Microporous layer and catalyst layer surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interface between the micro-porous layer (MPL) and the catalyst layer (CL) can have an impact on thermal, electrical and two-phase mass transport in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC). However, there is scant information available regarding the true morphology of the MPL and CL surfaces. In this work, optical profilometry is used to characterize the MPL and CL surfaces

F. E. Hizir; S. O. Ural; E. C. Kumbur; M. M. Mench

2010-01-01

135

Morphologic and proteomic characterization of exosomes released by cultured extravillous trophoblast cells  

SciTech Connect

Exosomes represent an important intercellular communication vehicle, mediating events essential for the decidual microenvironment. While we have demonstrated exosome induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, to date, no extensive characterization of trophoblast-derived exosomes has been provided. Our objective was to provide a morphologic and proteomic characterization of these exosomes. Exosomes were isolated from the conditioned media of Swan71 human trophoblast cells by ultrafiltration and ultracentrifugation. These were analyzed for density (sucrose density gradient centrifugation), morphology (electron microscopy), size (dynamic light scattering) and protein composition (Ion Trap mass spectrometry and western immunoblotting). Based on density gradient centrifugation, microvesicles from Sw71 cells exhibit a density between 1.134 and 1.173 g/ml. Electron microscopy demonstrated that microvesicles from Sw71 cells exhibit the characteristic cup-shaped morphology of exosomes. Dynamic light scattering showed a bell-shaped curve, indicating a homogeneous population with a mean size of 165 nm {+-} 0.5 nm. Ion Trap mass spectrometry demonstrated the presence of exosome marker proteins (including CD81, Alix, cytoskeleton related proteins, and Rab family). The MS results were confirmed by western immunoblotting. Based on morphology, density, size and protein composition, we defined the release of exosomes from extravillous trophoblast cells and provide their first extensive characterization. This characterization is essential in furthering our understanding of 'normal' early pregnancy.

Atay, Safinur [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY (United States)] [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY (United States); Gercel-Taylor, Cicek [Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women's Health, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY (United States)] [Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women's Health, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY (United States); Kesimer, Mehmet [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)] [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Taylor, Douglas D., E-mail: ddtaylor@louisville.edu [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY (United States); Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women's Health, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY (United States)

2011-05-01

136

Morphological and sedimentary characterization of changing glacial regimes on the eastern Wilkes Land margin  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integration of all seismic reflection data sets available from the eastern Wilkes Land margin allow us to: (1) define five regionally preserved shelf erosional unconformities when the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) extended to the outer continental shelf, and (2) redefine some of the unconformities previously interpreted on the continental rise. Morphological characterization of the five unconformities on the

C. Escutia; L. de Santis; F. Donda

2009-01-01

137

Morphological changes of short-wavelength cones in the developing S334ter-3 Transgenic rat  

PubMed Central

The S334ter-3 rat is a transgenic model of retinal degeneration (RD) developed to express a rhodopsin mutation similar to that found in human retinitis pigmentosa. Due to this advantage over other models of RD, a few retina transplant studies have been reported on this animal model. Currently, no information is available on cone photoreceptor changes that occur in the S334ter RD model. In this study, we investigated the effect of RD on the morphology, distribution, and synaptic connectivity of short-wavelength cones (S-cones) during development of S334ter-3 rat retinas. At P21 RD retinas, the outer-nuclear layer was significantly narrower, while S-cones showed shortening of their segments and axons compared to control retinas. From P90 onward, S-opsin-immunoreactive cells appeared at the outer margin of the inner-nuclear layer of RD retinas. Double-labelling experiments showed these cells contained recoverin and cone arrestin. Furthermore, ultra-structure study showed that synaptic ribbons are conserved in the S-cone at P180 RD retinas. Although cell density of S-cones significantly dropped after P90, survival rates depended on the retinal region. Overall, the S334ter-3 RD model shows hallmarks of cone remodelling due to photoreceptor degeneration.

Hombrebueno, Jose R.; Tsai, Melody M.; Kim, Hong-Lim; De Juan, Joaquin; Grzywacz, Norberto M.; Lee, Eun-Jin

2010-01-01

138

Diets Rich in Saturated and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Induce Morphological Alterations in the Rat Ventral Prostate  

PubMed Central

Aim To evaluate the influence of dietary lipid quality on the body mass, carbohydrate metabolism and morphology of the rat ventral prostate. Materials and Methods Wistar rats were divided into four groups: SC (standard chow), HF-S (high-fat diet rich in saturated fatty acids), HF-P (high-fat diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids) and HF-SP (high-fat diet rich in saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids). We analyzed body mass, fat mass deposits, plasma blood, insulin resistance and the ventral prostate structure. Results Groups that received high-fat diets were heavier and presented larger fat deposits than SC group. The HF-S and HF-SP groups had higher glucose, insulin and total cholesterol serum levels and insulin resistance compared with the SC. The acinar area, epithelium height and area density of the lumen were higher in the HF-SP than in the other groups. The epithelium area density and epithelial cell proliferation were greater in the HF-P and HF-SP than in the SC group. All of the groups that received high-fat diets had greater area density of the stroma, area density of smooth muscle cells and stromal cell proliferation compared with the SC group. Conclusion Diets rich in saturated and/or polyunsaturated fatty acids induced overweight. Independently of insulin resistance, polyunsaturated fatty acids increased prostate stromal and epithelial cell proliferation. Saturated fatty acids influenced only stromal cellular proliferation. These structural and morphometric alterations may be considered risk factors for the development of adverse remodeling process in the rat ventral prostate.

Furriel, Angelica; Campos-Silva, Pamella; Silva, Paola Cariello Guedes Picarote; Costa, Waldemar Silva; Sampaio, Francisco Jose Barcellos; Gregorio, Bianca Martins

2014-01-01

139

Effect of the environment on the dendritic morphology of the rat auditory cortex  

PubMed Central

The present study aimed to identify morphological correlates of environment-induced changes at excitatory synapses of the primary auditory cortex (A1). We used the Golgi-Cox stain technique to compare pyramidal cells dendritic properties of Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to different environmental manipulations. Sholl analysis, dendritic length measures, and spine density counts were used to monitor the effects of sensory deafness and an auditory version of environmental enrichment (EE). We found that deafness decreased apical dendritic length leaving basal dendritic length unchanged, whereas EE selectively increased basal dendritic length without changing apical dendritic length. On the contrary, deafness decreased while EE increased spine density in both basal and apical dendrites of A1 layer 2/3 (LII/III) neurons. To determine whether stress contributed to the observed morphological changes in A1, we studied neural morphology in a restraint-induced model that lacked behaviorally relevant acoustic cues. We found that stress selectively decreased apical dendritic length in the auditory but not in the visual primary cortex. Similar to the acoustic manipulation, stress-induced changes in dendritic length possessed a layer specific pattern displaying LII/III neurons from stressed animals with normal apical dendrites but shorter basal dendrites, while infragranular neurons (layers V and VI) displayed shorter apical dendrites but normal basal dendrites. The same treatment did not induce similar changes in the visual cortex, demonstrating that the auditory cortex is an exquisitely sensitive target of neocortical plasticity, and that prolonged exposure to different acoustic as well as emotional environmental manipulation may produce specific changes in dendritic shape and spine density.

Bose, Mitali; Munoz-Llancao, Pablo; Roychowdhury, Swagata; Nichols, Justin A.; Jakkamsetti, Vikram; Porter, Benjamin; Byrapureddy, Rajasekhar; Salgado, Humberto; Kilgard, Michael P.; Aboitiz, Francisco; Dagnino-Subiabre, Alexies; Atzori, Marco

2010-01-01

140

Characterization of lactate dehydrogenase isozyme pattern and morphology of three marine fish cell lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three continuous marine fish cell lines of FG (i.e., Flounder Gill) from flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) gill, SPH (i.e., Sea Perch Heart) from sea perch ( Lateolabrax japonicus) heart and RSBF (i.e., Red Sea Bream Fin) from red sea bream ( Pagrosomus major) fin, were characterized by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozyme and morphological analysis. The LDH isozyme patterns of these three cell lines and their corresponding tissues of origin were investigated and compared. The results showed: (1) No difference was found in the LDH isozyme patterns of FG and flounder gill tissue. However, the LDH isozyme patterns of SPH and RSBF were significantly different from their corresponding tissues of origin; (2) LDH isozyme patterns of FG, SPH and RSBF were markedly different from each other and could serve as genetic markers for species identification and detection of cross contamination. Morphological change analysis of these three cell lines in comparison to their original tissues indicated that FG cells still appeared epithelioid without morphological transformation. However, morphological changes were found in SPH and RSBF compared to their original tissues. Therefore, the cellular morphology was still plastic in the relatively stable culture conditions, and it was possible that change of LDH patterns was related to morphological changes of fish cells in vitro.

Guo, Hua-Rong; Zhang, Shi-Cui; Li, Hong-Yan; Tong, Shang-Liang; Xiang, Jian-Hai

2002-09-01

141

Quantitation and characterization of rat tissue metallothioneins by gel electrophoresis  

SciTech Connect

A discontinuous gradient gel electrophoretic system was developed to quantitate and characterize metallothionein (MT) in rat tissue. Vertical slab separating gels (1.5 mm x 14 cm x 12 cm) consisted of a linear polyacrylamide gradient 7.5 to 30% T and 5% Bis. The stacking gels (3% T and 20% Bis) were photopolymerized using riboflavin as the catalyst. Liver cytosols were prepared from rats which received (i.p.) various amounts of Zn (5 mg/kg BW) or Cd (2.5 mg/kg BW). Purified MT was prepared by gel filtration and DEAE ion-exchange chromatography. Cytosols were heated (80/sup 0/C, 2 min) and centrifuged to obtain a supernatant. An appropriate amount of supernatant and various amounts of MT standard were electrophoresed (constant current, 20 mA per slab) for 9 hours. Gels were stained with Commassie Blue (R-250, 0.25%) for 12 hours and destained. Gels were scanned by densitometer and peaks heights were determined. Significantly linear standard curves (..mu..g MT vs. peak height) were established for both MTI and MTII. (Cd, Zn)-MTI migrated slower than Zn-MTI while mobilities for both (Cd, Zn)- and Zn-MTII were the same. The accumulation of MTI was consistently less than MTII in liver from both Zn- and Cd-injected rats. Their results suggest that electrophoretic analysis is an excellent system not only for quantitation but also for characterization of MT in rat tissue.

Lin, L.Y.; McCormick, C.C.

1986-03-05

142

Integrated morphologic analysis for the identification and characterization of disease subtypes  

PubMed Central

Background and objective Morphologic variations of disease are often linked to underlying molecular events and patient outcome, suggesting that quantitative morphometric analysis may provide further insight into disease mechanisms. In this paper a methodology for the subclassification of disease is developed using image analysis techniques. Morphologic signatures that represent patient-specific tumor morphology are derived from the analysis of hundreds of millions of cells in digitized whole slide images. Clustering these signatures aggregates tumors into groups with cohesive morphologic characteristics. This methodology is demonstrated with an analysis of glioblastoma, using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas to identify a prognostically significant morphology-driven subclassification, in which clusters are correlated with transcriptional, genetic, and epigenetic events. Materials and methods Methodology was applied to 162 glioblastomas from The Cancer Genome Atlas to identify morphology-driven clusters and their clinical and molecular correlates. Signatures of patient-specific tumor morphology were generated from analysis of 200 million cells in 462 whole slide images. Morphology-driven clusters were interrogated for associations with patient outcome, response to therapy, molecular classifications, and genetic alterations. An additional layer of deep, genome-wide analysis identified characteristic transcriptional, epigenetic, and copy number variation events. Results and discussion Analysis of glioblastoma identified three prognostically significant patient clusters (median survival 15.3, 10.7, and 13.0?months, log rank p=1.4e-3). Clustering results were validated in a separate dataset. Clusters were characterized by molecular events in nuclear compartment signaling including developmental and cell cycle checkpoint pathways. This analysis demonstrates the potential of high-throughput morphometrics for the subclassification of disease, establishing an approach that complements genomics.

Kong, Jun; Gutman, David A; Wang, Fusheng; Gao, Jingjing; Appin, Christina; Cholleti, Sharath; Pan, Tony; Sharma, Ashish; Scarpace, Lisa; Mikkelsen, Tom; Kurc, Tahsin; Moreno, Carlos S; Brat, Daniel J; Saltz, Joel H

2012-01-01

143

Determination and Characterization of a Cannabinoid Receptor in Rat Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The determination and characterization of a cannabinoid receptor from brain are reported. A biologically active bicyclic cannabinoid analgetic CP-55,940 was tntium-Iabeled to high specific activity. Conditions for binding to rat brain P2 membranes and synapto- somes were established. The pH optimum was between 7 and 8, and specific binding could be eliminated by heating the mem- branes to 60#{176}.

WILLIAM A. DEVANE; FRANCIS A. DYSARZ; M. ROSS JOHNSON III; LAWRENCE S. MELVIN; ALLYN C. HOWLETT

144

Synthesis, characterization, and bioavailability in rats of ferric phosphate nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particle size is a determinant of iron (Fe) absorption from poorly soluble Fe compounds. Decreasing the particle size of metallic Fe and ferric pyrophosphate added to foods increases Fe absorption. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize nanoparticles of FePO4 and determine their bioavailability and potential toxicity in rats. Amorphous FePO4 nanopowders with spherical structure were synthesized

Fabian Rohner; Frank O. Ernst; Myrtha Arnold; Monika Hilbe; Ralf Biebinger; Frank Ehrensperger; Sotiris E. Pratsinis; Wolfgang Langhans; Richard F. Hurrell; Michael B. Zimmermann

2007-01-01

145

Hormonally mediated plasticity of motoneuron morphology in the adult rat spinal cord: a cholera toxin-HRP study.  

PubMed

The dorsolateral nucleus (DLN) and the spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus (SNB) of the rat lumbar spinal cord are sexually dimorphic groups of motoneurons that innervate striated perineal muscles involved in male copulatory behavior. Androgens control the development of these motoneurons and their target muscles, and continue to influence the system in adulthood. Given that several features of SNB motoneuron morphology have been shown to be androgen sensitive in adult male rats, we examined the effects of androgen manipulations on the morphology of motoneurons in the DLN in adult rats. Adult male rats were castrated and implanted with testosterone-filled or blank implants, or were subjected to a sham-castration procedure. Six weeks after treatment, motoneurons in the DLN were retrogradely labeled with cholera toxin-horseradish peroxidase (HRP) after injection into the ischiocavernosus (IC) muscle and their morphology assessed. Measures of the radial extent and coverage of the dendritic arbor of DLN motoneurons projecting to the IC (DLN-IC motoneurons) were similar across the groups, indicating comparable degrees of HRP transport. However, DLN-IC motoneurons in castrates with blank implants possessed both shorter dendritic lengths and smaller somas than those of castrates treated with testosterone. Castrates with testosterone implants had DLN-IC motoneurons that were significantly larger than those of sham castrates in dendritic length and soma area. These results suggest that motoneurons in the DLN, like those in the SNB, possess a significant degree of structural plasticity in adulthood which is influenced by androgens. PMID:1795161

Kurz, E M; Brewer, R G; Sengelaub, D R

1991-12-01

146

Characterization of Nanocomposite filler Morphology using Ultra Small-Angle X-ray Scattering  

SciTech Connect

Loading polymer matrices with nanoscale fillers is widely believed to have the potential to push polymer properties to extreme values. Realization of anticipated properties, however, has proven elusive. Recent nanocomposite research suggests better characterization of the large-scale morphology will provide insight explaining these shortfalls. This work will present ultra-small angle X-ray scattering as a viable tool for elucidating the hierarchical filler morphology that exists within polymer nanocomposites. Scattering analysis tools developed by our group will be applied to scattering data from nanocomposites filled with carbon nanotubes, layered silicates, and colloidal silica. The relationship between imaging data and scattering data will be discussed in the context of filler dispersion. Finally, the impact of large-scale filler morphology on mechanical and electrical properties will be discussed.

Justice, Ryan S.; Schaefer, Dale W. (UCIN); (AFRL)

2010-10-22

147

Microanalytical method for the characterization of fiber components and morphology of woody plants.  

PubMed

Microanalytical techniques were developed which allow the rapid characterization of fiber components and morphology of loblolly pine in a large number of samples. These techniques consist of extractives removal, holocellulose preparation, alpha-cellulose and lignin content determination, and fiber length and coarseness analyses. Greater than 95% of the nonvolatile extractives from an increment core sample of loblolly pine was removed by four successive two-day acetone extractions. Fiber morphology and alpha-cellulose content was determined from holocellulose prepared from only 100 mg of wood. Similarly, a microanalytical acetyl bromide method was developed that enabled the accurate determination of lignin content from less than 50 mg of wood. Through the development of these microanlytical methods, it is possible to accurately and rapidly analyze fiber morphology and chemical components in a large number of increment core samples. PMID:11853477

Yokoyama, T; Kadla, J F; Chang, H-m

2002-02-27

148

Effect of jet fuels on the skin morphology and irritation in hairless rats.  

PubMed

Jet A and JP-8 are the major jet fuels used in civilian and military (US Air Force) flights, respectively. JP-8+100 is a new jet fuel recently introduced by US Air Force in some of its locations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dermal exposure of jet fuels (Jet A, JP-8, and JP-8+100) on the skin morphology, barrier function, moisture content, blood flow, and skin irritation (erythema and edema) in hairless rats. Jet fuels were applied by both occlusive and unocclusive methods. The skin of treated and control (untreated) sites were excised and analyzed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (500 MHz, 11.7 Tesla). Unocclusive application of JP-8, Jet A, and JP-8+100 increased the transepidermal water loss (TEWL) gradually and the values at 120 h were significantly greater than the baseline value (P<0.05). Both occlusive and unocclusive application of jet fuels decreased the skin moisture content significantly (P<0.05). Unocclusive application of JP-8, Jet A, and JP-8+100 increased the skin blood flow, though the values returned to the baseline levels within 24 h. Occlusive application of jet fuels (8 h/day for 2 days) caused a substantial increase in the skin blood flow and the values at 48 h were about 6-fold greater than the baseline value. Occlusive application of jet fuels caused a moderate to severe erythema and a moderate edema. MRI was used to obtain proton images and water self-diffusion maps of hairless rat skin exposed to jet fuel. Exposure to JP-8 showed the largest difference from the control with regards to visual observations of the stratum corneum and hair follicles, while JP-8+100 appeared to affect the hair follicle region. The results of the present study demonstrate that exposure to jet fuels can disrupt the skin barrier function, cause skin irritation, and alter the skin structure (stratum corneum and viable epidermis) and MRI can be used as a tool to investigate the alterations in the skin morphology after exposure to toxic chemicals. PMID:12049834

Kanikkannan, Narayanasamy; Locke, Bruce R; Singh, Mandip

2002-06-14

149

Morphological and genetic activation of microglia after diffuse traumatic brain injury in the rat.  

PubMed

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivors experience long-term post-traumatic morbidities. In diffuse brain-injured rats, a chronic sensory sensitivity to whisker stimulation models the agitation of TBI survivors and provides anatomical landmarks across the whisker-barrel circuit to evaluate post-traumatic neuropathology. As a consequence of TBI, acute and chronic microglial activation can contribute to degenerative and reparative events underlying post-traumatic morbidity. Here we hypothesize that a temporal sequence of microglial activation states contributes to the circuit pathology responsible for post-traumatic morbidity, and test the hypothesis by examining microglial morphological activation and neuroinflammatory markers for activation states through gene expression and receptor-binding affinity. Adult male, Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to a single moderate midline fluid percussion injury (FPI) or sham injury. Microglial activation was determined by immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time PCR and receptor autoradiography in the primary somatosensory barrel field (S1BF) and ventral posterior medial nucleus (VPM) of the thalamus at 7 and 28 days following FPI. Morphological changes indicative of microglial activation, including swollen cell body with thicker, shrunken processes, were evident in S1BF and VPM at 7 and 28 days post-injury. Principally at 7 days post-injury in VPM, general inflammatory gene expression (major histocompatibility complex I, major histocompatibility complex II, translocator protein 18 kDa [TSPO]) is increased above sham level and TSPO gene expression confirmed by receptor autoradiography. Further, CD45, a marker of classical activation, and TGF-?I, an acquired deactivation marker, were elevated significantly above sham at 7 days post-injury. Daily administration of the anti-inflammatory ibuprofen (20mg/kg, i.p.) significantly reduced the expression of these genes. Evidence for alternative activation (arginase 1) was not observed. Thus, these data demonstrate concomitant classical activation and acquired deactivation phenotypes of microglia in diffuse TBI in the absence of overt contusion or cavitation. Anti-inflammatory treatment may further alleviate the neuropathological burden of post-traumatic inflammation. PMID:22960311

Cao, T; Thomas, T C; Ziebell, J M; Pauly, J R; Lifshitz, J

2012-12-01

150

Time course of behavioral, physiological, and morphological changes after estradiol treatment of ovariectomized rats.  

PubMed

Previous studies showed that treatment with 17-?-estradiol-3-benzoate (EB) reduces isoproterenol (ISOP) stimulated water intake by ovariectomized rats. This effect was observed 48h after the second of two EB injections, suggesting that the attenuation is attributable to classic EB actions to alter gene expression. However, in addition to classic, slowly-occurring, genomic effects, estrogens have more rapidly-occurring effects that may be nongenomic or 'nonclassical' genomic effects. Thus, it is possible that the EB attenuation of water intake stimulated by ISOP is genomic, nongenomic, or both. Accordingly, we measured ISOP-induced water intake by OVX rats at different times after EB injections, using time points likely to indicate classic genomic effects (48h or 24h) or nonclassical genomic or nongenomic effects (90min). We also examined EB effects on body weight, uterine weight, and plasma volume and Na(+) concentration in the same animals using the same time points and EB dose. EB treatment decreased water intake stimulated by ISOP in both the 24-h and 48-h groups; however, water intake in the 90-min group was not affected by EB. Uterine weight was unchanged 90min after EB, but was increased 24h after the first injection of EB. In contrast, body weight decreased after EB, but not until 48h after the second EB injection. Finally, EB did not alter plasma Na(+) concentration or hematocrit, though plasma protein concentration increased transiently 24h after EB treatment. Taken together, these findings suggest that the behavioral, morphological, and physiological effects of EB likely are attributable to slowly-occurring, classic genomic actions of estrogens. Moreover, the time course of the observed effects varied, suggesting tissue-specific differences in estrogen receptor density or subtype, or in co-activators or co-repressors that, ultimately, determine the timing and direction of EB effects. PMID:21324332

Graves, Nora S; Hayes, Heather; Fan, Liming; Curtis, Kathleen S

2011-06-01

151

Gestational protein restriction induces alterations in placental morphology and mitochondrial function in rats during late pregnancy.  

PubMed

The placenta acts a regulator of nutrient composition and supply from mother to fetus and is the source of hormonal signals that affect maternal and fetal metabolism. Thus, appropriate development of the placenta is crucial for normal fetal development. We investigated the effect of gestational protein restriction (GPR) on placental morphology and mitochondrial function on day 19 of gestation. Pregnant dams were divided into two groups: normal (NP 17 % casein) or low-protein diet (LP 6 % casein). The placentas were processed for biochemical, histomorphometric and ultrastructural analysis. The integrity of rat placental mitochondria (RPM) isolated by conventional differential centrifugation was measured by oxygen uptake (Clark-type electrode). LP animals presented an increase in adipose tissue and triacylglycerol and a decrease in serum insulin levels. No alterations were observed in body, liver, fetus, or placenta weight. There was also no change in serum glucose, total protein, or lipid content. Gestational protein restriction had tissue-specific respiratory effects, with the observation of a small change in liver respiration (~13 %) and considerable respiratory inhibition in placenta samples (~37 %). The higher oxygen uptake by RPM in the LP groups suggests uncoupling between respiration and oxidative phosphorylation. In addition, ultrastructural analysis of junctional zone giant cells from LP placenta showed a disorganized cytoplasm, with loss of integrity of most organelles and intense vacuolization. The present results led us to hypothesize that GPR alters placental structure and morphology, induces sensitivity to insulin, mitochondrial abnormalities and suggests premature aging of the placenta. Further studies are needed to test this hypothesis. PMID:23884563

Rebelato, Hércules Jonas; Esquisatto, Marcelo Augusto Marreto; Moraes, Camila; Amaral, Maria Esmeria Corezola; Catisti, Rosana

2013-12-01

152

Electrophysiological and morphological properties of rat supratrigeminal premotor neurons targeting the trigeminal motor nucleus.  

PubMed

The electrophysiological and morphological characteristics of premotor neurons in the supratrigeminal region (SupV) targeting the trigeminal motor nucleus (MoV) were examined in neonatal rat brain stem slice preparations with Ca(2+) imaging, whole cell recordings, and intracellular biocytin labeling. First, we screened SupV neurons that showed a rapid rise in intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) after single-pulse electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral MoV. Subsequent whole cell recordings were generated from the screened SupV neurons, and their antidromic responses to MoV stimulation were confirmed. We divided the antidromically activated premotor neurons into two groups according to their discharge patterns during the steady state in response to 1-s depolarizing current pulses: those firing at a frequency higher (HF neurons, n = 19) or lower (LF neurons, n = 17) than 33 Hz. In addition, HF neurons had a narrower action potential and a larger afterhyperpolarization than LF neurons. Intracellular labeling revealed that the axons of all HF neurons (6/6) and half of the LF neurons (4/9) entered the MoV from its dorsomedial aspect, whereas the axons of the remaining LF neurons (5/9) entered the MoV from its dorsolateral aspect. Furthermore, the dendrites of three HF neurons penetrated into the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus (Vp), whereas the dendrites of all LF neurons were confined within the SupV. These results suggest that the types of SupV premotor neurons targeting the MoV with different firing properties have different dendritic and axonal morphologies, and these SupV neuron classes may play unique roles in diverse oral motor behaviors, such as suckling and mastication. PMID:24501266

Nakamura, Shiro; Nakayama, Kiyomi; Mochizuki, Ayako; Sato, Fumihiko; Haque, Tahsinul; Yoshida, Atsushi; Inoue, Tomio

2014-05-01

153

Characterization and subcellular distribution of somatogenic receptor in rat liver  

SciTech Connect

Binding of (/sup 125/I)iodobovine GH ((/sup 125/I)iodo-bGH) to rat liver microsomes and Golgi/endosomal fractions isolated from male and female rats has been characterized. Binding of bGH to a pure somatogenic site was suggested by the finding that 50% inhibition of (/sup 125/I)iodo-bGH binding required 5-130 ng bGH, rGH, or hGH/incubation, while around 500 ng rat PRL/incubation were needed to obtain the same effect. Binding of (/sup 125/I)iodo-bGH to microsomes and Golgi/endosomes was time, temperature, and protein dependent. Maximal specific binding occurred at 15-16 and 15-20 h at 22 C in Golgi and microsomal membranes, respectively. Subcellular distribution studies demonstrated in the Golgi/endosomal fractions compared to the total particulate fraction, while residual microsomes devoid of Golgi/endosomal-derived components were approximately 2-fold enriched. Low levels of somatogenic receptors were detected in lysosome-enriched fractions. Removal of endogenous ligand by treating Golgi/endosomal membranes with 3M MgCl/sub 2/ increased specific binding of bGH about 2- to 3-fold. These results indicate that approximately 50% of specific somatogenic binding sites in the low density fractions represent internalized ligand-receptor complexes. The level of rat liver somatogenic receptors did not show a pronounced sex differentiation; however, an endocrine dependence of somatogenic receptor levels is suggested by the finding that livers from rats in the late stages of pregnancy had a level of somatogenic receptors exceeding that of nonpregnant rats.

Husman, B.; Andersson, G.; Norstedt, G.; Gustafsson, J.A.

1985-06-01

154

Characterization and control of fungal morphology for improved production performance in biotechnology.  

PubMed

Filamentous fungi have been widely applied in industrial biotechnology for many decades. In submerged culture processes, they typically exhibit a complex morphological life cycle that is related to production performance--a link that is of high interest for process optimization. The fungal forms can vary from dense spherical pellets to viscous mycelia. The resulting morphology has been shown to be influenced strongly by process parameters, including power input through stirring and aeration, mass transfer characteristics, pH value, osmolality and the presence of solid micro-particles. The surface properties of fungal spores and hyphae also play a role. Due to their high industrial relevance, the past years have seen a substantial development of tools and techniques to characterize the growth of fungi and obtain quantitative estimates on their morphological properties. Based on the novel insights available from such studies, more recent studies have been aimed at the precise control of morphology, i.e., morphology engineering, to produce superior bio-processes with filamentous fungi. PMID:22771505

Krull, Rainer; Wucherpfennig, Thomas; Esfandabadi, Manely Eslahpazir; Walisko, Robert; Melzer, Guido; Hempel, Dietmar C; Kampen, Ingo; Kwade, Arno; Wittmann, Christoph

2013-01-20

155

Characterization of lactate dehydrogenase isozyme pattern and morphology of three marine fish cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three continuous marine fish cell lines of FG (i.e., Flounder Gill) from flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) gill, SPH (i.e., Sea Perch Heart) from sea perch (Lateolabrax japonicus) heart and RSBF (i.e., Red Sea Bream Fin) from red sea bream (Pagrosomus major) fin, were characterized by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozyme and morphological analysis. The LDH isozyme patterns of these\\u000a three cell lines

Hua-Rong Guo; Shi-Cui Zhang; Hong-Yan Li; Shang-Liang Tong; Jian-Hai Xiang

2002-01-01

156

Metabolic and morphologic properties of single muscle fibers in the rat after spaceflight, Cosmos 1887  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adaptation of a slow (soleus, So!) and a fast (medial gastrocnemius, MG) skeletalmuscle to space- flight was studied in five young male rats. The flight period was 12.5 days and the rats were killed approxi- mately 48 h after returning to I g. Five other rats that were housed in cages similar to those used by the flight rats

BEATRIX MIU; THOMAS P. MARTIN; ROLAND R. ROY; V. OGANOV

157

Decreased nitric oxide markers and morphological changes in the brain of arsenic-exposed rats.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies demonstrate an association between chronic consumption of arsenic contaminated water and cognitive deficits, especially when the exposure takes place during childhood. This study documents structural changes and nitrergic deficits in the striatum of adult female Wistar rats exposed to arsenic in drinking water (3 ppm, approximately 0.4 mg/kg per day) from gestation, throughout lactation and development until the age of 4 months. Kainic acid injected animals (10mg/kg, i.p.) were also analyzed as positive controls of neural cell damage. Morphological characteristics of cells, fiber tracts and axons were analyzed by means of light microscopy as well as immunoreactivity to neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). As nitrergic markers, nitrite/nitrate concentrations, nNOS levels and expression of nNOS-mRNA were quantified in striatal tissue. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation (LPx) were determined as oxidative stress markers. Arsenic exposure resulted in moderate to severe alterations of thickness, organization, surrounding space and shape of fiber tracts and axons, while cell bodies remained healthy. These anomalies were not accompanied by ROS and/or LPx increases. By contrast, except the expression of nNOS-mRNA, all nitrergic markers including striatal nNOS immunoreactivity presented a significant decrease. These results indicate that arsenic targets the central nitrergic system and disturbs brain structural organization at low exposure levels. PMID:19409443

Ríos, R; Zarazúa, S; Santoyo, M E; Sepúlveda-Saavedra, J; Romero-Díaz, V; Jiménez, V; Pérez-Severiano, F; Vidal-Cantú, G; Delgado, J M; Jiménez-Capdeville, M E

2009-06-30

158

Changes in testicular morphology and steroidogenesis in adult rats exposed to Atrazine.  

PubMed

Atrazine is an herbicide considered as a potent endocrine disruptor, causing adverse effects on both gender of mammalian and non-mammalian species. Despite the known adverse effects of Atrazine, little is known about its action on male genital system, especially in adults. We evaluated the effects of Atrazine (50 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg) in the 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) expression, plasmatic and testicular estrogen and testosterone levels, androgen receptor expression and morphological changes in adult rat testes. Atrazine at doses higher than 50 mg/kg resulted in decreased body weight, increased adrenal weight and transient increase in testis weight, followed by testis atrophy. A reduction in testosterone but increase in estradiol levels was observed. We showed for the first time that testicular 3beta-HSD protein was decreased, whereas in the adrenal it was unchanged. The results suggest that 3beta-HSD inhibition may represent an alternative mechanism through which Atrazine affects the testicular androgenesis, leading to changes in spermatogenesis. PMID:20045047

Victor-Costa, Anna Bolivar; Bandeira, Simone Miranda Carozzi; Oliveira, André Gustavo; Mahecha, Germán Arturo Bohórquez; Oliveira, Cleida Aparecida

2010-06-01

159

Morphology and physiology of excitatory neurons in layer 6b of the somatosensory rat barrel cortex.  

PubMed

Neocortical lamina 6B (L6B) is a largely unexplored layer with a very heterogeneous cellular composition. To date, only little is known about L6B neurons on a systematic and quantitative basis. We investigated the morphological and electrophysiological properties of excitatory L6B neurons in the rat somatosensory barrel cortex using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and simultaneous biocytin fillings. Subsequent histological processing and computer-assisted 3D reconstructions provided the basis for a classification of excitatory L6B neurons according to their structural and functional characteristics. Three distinct clusters of excitatory L6B neurons were identified: (C1) pyramidal neurons with an apical dendrite pointing towards the pial surface, (C2) neurons with a prominent, "apical"-like dendrite not oriented towards the pia, and (C3) multipolar spiny neurons without any preferential dendritic orientation. The second group could be further subdivided into three categories termed inverted, "tangentially" oriented and "horizontally" oriented neurons. Furthermore, based on the axonal domain two subcategories of L6B pyramidal cells were identified that had either a more barrel-column confined or an extended axonal field. The classification of excitatory L6B neurons provided here may serve as a basis for future studies on the structure, function, and synaptic connectivity of L6B neurons. PMID:22944531

Marx, Manuel; Feldmeyer, Dirk

2013-12-01

160

Morphological and biochemical examination of Cosmos 1887 rat heart tissue: Part I--Ultrastructure.  

PubMed

Morphological changes were observed in the left ventricle of rat heart tissue from animals flown on the Cosmos 1887 biosatellite for 12.5 days. These tissues were compared to the synchronous and vivarium control hearts. While many normal myofibrils were observed, others exhibited ultrastructural alterations, i.e., damaged and irregular-shaped mitochondria and generalized myofibrillar edema. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the volume density data revealed a statistically significant increase in glycogen and a significant decrease in mitochondria compared to the synchronous and vivarium controls. Point counting indicated an increase in lipid and myeloid bodies and a decrease in microtubules, but these changes were not statistically significant. In addition, the flight animals exhibited some patchy loss of protofibrils (actin and myosin filaments) and some abnormal supercontracted myofibrils that were not seen in the controls. This study was undertaken to gain insight into the mechanistic aspects of cardiac changes in both animals and human beings as a consequence of space travel (1). Cardiac hypotrophy and fluid shifts have been observed after actual or simulated weightlessness and raise concerns about the functioning of the heart and circulatory system during and after travel in space (2-4). PMID:2295379

Philpott, D E; Popova, I A; Kato, K; Stevenson, J; Miquel, J; Sapp, W

1990-01-01

161

Morphological and biochemical examination of Cosmos 1887 rat heart tissue. Part 1: Ultrastructure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Morphological changes were observed in the left ventricle of rat heart tissue from animals flown on the Cosmos 1887 biosatellite for 12.5 days. These tissues were compared to the synchronous and vivarium control hearts. While many normal myofibrils were observed, others exhibited ultrastructural alterations, i.e., damaged and irregular-shaped mitochondria and generalized myofibrillar edema. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the volume density data revealed a statistically significant increase in glycogen and a significant decrease in mitochondria compared to the synchronous and vivarium controls. Point counting indicated an increase in lipid and myeloid bodies and a decrease in microtubules, but these changes were not statistically significant. In addition, the flight animals exhibited some patchy loss of protofibrils (actin and myosin filaments) and some abnormal supercontracted myofibrils that were not seen in the controls. This study was undertaken to gain insight into the mechanistic aspects of cardiac changes in both animals and human beings as a consequence of space travel. Cardiac hypotrophy and fluid shifts have been observed after actual or simulated weightlessness and raise concerns about the functioning of the heart and circulatory system during and after travel in space.

Philpott, D. E.; Popova, I. A.; Kato, K.; Stevenson, J.; Miquel, J.; Sapp, W.

1990-01-01

162

Morphologic and morphometric evaluation of experimental acute crush injuries of the sciatic nerve of rats.  

PubMed

In order to qualify and quantify nerve fiber lesion following an acute crush injury, a morphologic and morphometric study was carried out in 25 Wistar rats divided into five groups of five animals each according to the crushing load applied, i.e., 500, 1,000, 5,000, 10,000, and 15,000 g. The injury was produced under general anesthesia on a 5mm-long intermediate segment of the right sciatic nerve for 10 min using a dead-weight machine. The animals were killed with an excessive dose of anesthetics 72 h later and submitted to perfusion with a fixing solution through the abdominal aorta immediately after death. Both the right and left sciatic nerves were removed and prepared for histologic and morphometric examinations; 5 microm-thick sections stained with 1% Toluidine blue were examined under a light microscope equipped with a video camera linked to a computer loaded with a graphic program (KS 400). The morphometric studies included measuring total number of fibers, fiber density, fiber diameter, myelin fiber area, axon diameter, axon area and G ratio. The results showed that damage to the nerve fibers began to appear as early as with the 500 g load and was similar in all groups despite the load applied, increasing with the 10,000 and 15,000 g loads, although the external supporting tissues and small diameter fibers were preserved. The predominant type of lesion produced was axonotmesis. PMID:18644327

Mazzer, Patrícia Yume Cantalejo Nagima; Barbieri, Cláudio Henrique; Mazzer, Nilton; Fazan, Valéria Paula Sassoli

2008-08-30

163

Morphology and Physiology of Excitatory Neurons in Layer 6b of the Somatosensory Rat Barrel Cortex  

PubMed Central

Neocortical lamina 6B (L6B) is a largely unexplored layer with a very heterogeneous cellular composition. To date, only little is known about L6B neurons on a systematic and quantitative basis. We investigated the morphological and electrophysiological properties of excitatory L6B neurons in the rat somatosensory barrel cortex using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and simultaneous biocytin fillings. Subsequent histological processing and computer-assisted 3D reconstructions provided the basis for a classification of excitatory L6B neurons according to their structural and functional characteristics. Three distinct clusters of excitatory L6B neurons were identified: (C1) pyramidal neurons with an apical dendrite pointing towards the pial surface, (C2) neurons with a prominent, “apical”-like dendrite not oriented towards the pia, and (C3) multipolar spiny neurons without any preferential dendritic orientation. The second group could be further subdivided into three categories termed inverted, “tangentially” oriented and “horizontally” oriented neurons. Furthermore, based on the axonal domain two subcategories of L6B pyramidal cells were identified that had either a more barrel-column confined or an extended axonal field. The classification of excitatory L6B neurons provided here may serve as a basis for future studies on the structure, function, and synaptic connectivity of L6B neurons.

Marx, Manuel; Feldmeyer, Dirk

2013-01-01

164

Morphology, growth characteristics and oestrogen-binding capacity of DMBA-induced mammary tumours from ovariectomized rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphology of 20 mammary adenocarcinomas induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) in Sprague-Dawley rats was compared with their growth characteristics and oestrogen-binding capacity following ovariectomy. The capacity to bind (3H)oestradiol-17B did not appear to be related to the growth characteristics, time of appearance after DMBA administration, or time between ovariectomy and assay for specific oestrogen-binding proteins. Furthermore, different tumours appeared to

E S Boylan; E H Fowler; J L Wittliff

1977-01-01

165

Effects of Carica papaya (paw paw) seeds extract on the morphology of pituitary-gonadal axis of male Wistar rats.  

PubMed

The effects of oral administration of Carica papaya seeds extract on the morphology of pituitary, testes and sex accessory glands were studied. The C. papaya extract (50 and 200 mg/kg/day) was administered orally to sexually mature male Wistar rats for 1 and 8 weeks, respectively. The control group received corn oil (vehicle) only. The animals were killed after 1 and 8 weeks treatment for histological preparation. The microscopic examination of the sections of pituitary gonadotrophs (FSH and LH cells) treated with 200 mg/kg of C. papaya extract showed pronounced hypertrophy, while section of rats treated with 50 mg/kg showed mild hypertrophy and hyperplasia. Whereas the testes of rats treated with C. papaya extract at 50 and 200 mg/kg revealed gradual degeneration of germ cells, Sertoli cells and Leydig cells as well as germinal epithelium. However, tubules of epididymes of rats treated with extract, 200 mg/kg, appeared empty indicating the degeneration of sperm cells in the lumina. The sections of prostate glands of rats treated with 200 mg/kg extract showed coagulation of secretion in the lumina as well as empty tubules with cell debris, while the effect was reduced in rats treated with 50 mg/kg. The seminal vesicles showed progressive collapse and shrinkage of villi. These results suggest that C. papaya extract interfered with the pituitary - gonadal axis to influence male reproductive functions, which confirmed its antifertility property as reported previously. PMID:16372375

Udoh, Paul; Essien, Itohowo; Udoh, Francis

2005-12-01

166

Prenatal exposure of diclofenac sodium affects morphology but not axon number of the median nerve of rats.  

PubMed

The present study examined the effect of DS exposure on median nerve development in rats during prenatal life. Pregnant female rats were divided into three groups: a control group, a saline group and a DS group. Offspring of these animals were divided into 2 subgroups: 4 weeks old and 20 weeks old. Nerve samples were taken from the right legs and evaluated using stereological techniques in terms of the axon number, axon cross-sectional area, and myelin thickness. No drug-dependent macroscopic abnormality was observed in the nerve. No differences were noted for axon number in the control, saline, and DS groups of the same age and gender. No gender difference was found for axon number or axon area between the other matched groups. In conclusion, prenatal exposure to diclofenac sodium does not affect axon number in rats, but can alter the morphology of the male and female median nerve. PMID:23553140

Ayranc?, Ebru; Altunkaynak, Berrin Zuhal; Akta?, Abit; Ra?betli, Murat Ç; Kaplan, Suleyman

2013-01-01

167

3D Reconstruction and Standardization of the Rat Vibrissal Cortex for Precise Registration of Single Neuron Morphology  

PubMed Central

The three-dimensional (3D) structure of neural circuits is commonly studied by reconstructing individual or small groups of neurons in separate preparations. Investigation of structural organization principles or quantification of dendritic and axonal innervation thus requires integration of many reconstructed morphologies into a common reference frame. Here we present a standardized 3D model of the rat vibrissal cortex and introduce an automated registration tool that allows for precise placement of single neuron reconstructions. We (1) developed an automated image processing pipeline to reconstruct 3D anatomical landmarks, i.e., the barrels in Layer 4, the pia and white matter surfaces and the blood vessel pattern from high-resolution images, (2) quantified these landmarks in 12 different rats, (3) generated an average 3D model of the vibrissal cortex and (4) used rigid transformations and stepwise linear scaling to register 94 neuron morphologies, reconstructed from in vivo stainings, to the standardized cortex model. We find that anatomical landmarks vary substantially across the vibrissal cortex within an individual rat. In contrast, the 3D layout of the entire vibrissal cortex remains remarkably preserved across animals. This allows for precise registration of individual neuron reconstructions with approximately 30 µm accuracy. Our approach could be used to reconstruct and standardize other anatomically defined brain areas and may ultimately lead to a precise digital reference atlas of the rat brain.

Egger, Robert; Narayanan, Rajeevan T.; Helmstaedter, Moritz; de Kock, Christiaan P. J.; Oberlaender, Marcel

2012-01-01

168

Characterization of pruriceptive trigeminothalamic tract neurons in rats.  

PubMed

Rodent models of facial itch and pain provide a valuable tool for distinguishing between behaviors related to each sensation. In rats, pruritogens applied to the face elicit scratching using the hindlimb while algogens elicit wiping using the forelimb. We wished to determine the role of trigeminothalamic tract (VTT) neurons in carrying information regarding facial itch and pain to the forebrain. We have characterized responses to facially applied pruritogens (serotonin, BAM8-22, chloroquine, histamine, capsaicin, and cowhage) and noxious stimuli in 104 VTT neurons recorded from anesthetized rats. Each VTT neuron had a mechanically sensitive cutaneous receptive field on the ipsilateral face. All pruriceptive VTT neurons also responded to noxious mechanical and/or thermal stimulation. Over half of VTT neurons responsive to noxious stimuli also responded to at least one pruritogen. Each tested pruritogen, with the exception of cowhage, produced an increase in discharge rate in a subset of VTT neurons. The response to each pruritogen was characterized, including maximum discharge rate, response duration, and spike timing dynamics. Pruriceptive VTT neurons were recorded from throughout superficial and deep layers of the spinal trigeminal nucleus and were shown to project via antidromic mapping to the ventroposterior medial nucleus or posterior thalamic nuclei. These results indicate that pruriceptive VTT neurons are a subset of polymodal nociceptive VTT neurons and characterize a system conducive to future experiments regarding the similarities and differences between facial itch and pain. PMID:24478156

Moser, Hannah R; Giesler, Glenn J

2014-04-01

169

Trigonella foenum graecum seed extract protects kidney function and morphology in diabetic rats via its antioxidant activity.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress is involved in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Because Trigonella foenum graecum has been reported to have antidiabetic and antioxidative effects, we hypothesized that T foenum graecum seed aqueous extract (TE) restores the kidney function of diabetic rats via its antioxidant activity. Rats were fed diets enriched with sucrose (50%, wt/wt), lard (30%, wt/wt), and cholesterol (2.5%, wt/wt) for 8 weeks to induce insulin resistance. After a DN model was induced by streptozotocin, the rats were administered a low (440 mg/kg), medium (870 mg/kg), or high (1740 mg/kg) dose of TE by oral intragastric intubation for 6 weeks. In TE-treated DN rats, blood glucose, kidney/body weight ratio, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, 24-hour content of urinary protein, and creatinine clearance were significantly decreased compared with nontreated DN rats. Diabetic rats showed decreased activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase, increased concentrations of malondialdehyde in the serum and kidney, and increased levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in urine and renal cortex DNA. Treatment with TE restored the altered parameters in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, all of the ultramorphologic abnormalities in the kidney of diabetic rats, including the uneven thickening of the glomerular base membrane, were markedly ameliorated by TE treatment. We conclude that TE confers protection against functional and morphologic injuries in the kidneys of diabetic rats by increasing activities of antioxidants and inhibiting accumulation of oxidized DNA in the kidney, suggesting a potential drug for the prevention and therapy of DN. PMID:21840472

Xue, Wanli; Lei, Jing; Li, Xuanshe; Zhang, Ruijuan

2011-07-01

170

Hemodynamic flow improves rat hepatocyte morphology, function, and metabolic activity in vitro  

PubMed Central

In vitro primary hepatocyte systems typically elicit drug induction and toxicity responses at concentrations much higher than corresponding in vivo or clinical plasma Cmax levels, contributing to poor in vitro-in vivo correlations. This may be partly due to the absence of physiological parameters that maintain metabolic phenotype in vivo. We hypothesized that restoring hemodynamics and media transport would improve hepatocyte architecture and metabolic function in vitro compared with nonflow cultures. Rat hepatocytes were cultured for 2 wk either in nonflow collagen gel sandwiches with 48-h media changes or under controlled hemodynamics mimicking sinusoidal circulation within a perfused Transwell device. Phenotypic, functional, and metabolic parameters were assessed at multiple times. Hepatocytes in the devices exhibited polarized morphology, retention of differentiation markers [E-cadherin and hepatocyte nuclear factor-4? (HNF-4?)], the canalicular transporter [multidrug-resistant protein-2 (Mrp-2)], and significantly higher levels of liver function compared with nonflow cultures over 2 wk (albumin ?4-fold and urea ?5-fold). Gene expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes was significantly higher (fold increase over nonflow: CYP1A1: 53.5 ± 10.3; CYP1A2: 64.0 ± 15.1; CYP2B1: 15.2 ± 2.9; CYP2B2: 2.7 ± 0.8; CYP3A2: 4.0 ± 1.4) and translated to significantly higher basal enzyme activity (device vs. nonflow: CYP1A: 6.26 ± 2.41 vs. 0.42 ± 0.015; CYP1B: 3.47 ± 1.66 vs. 0.4 ± 0.09; CYP3A: 11.65 ± 4.70 vs. 2.43 ± 0.56) while retaining inducibility by 3-methylcholanthrene and dexamethasone (fold increase over DMSO: CYP1A = 27.33 and CYP3A = 4.94). These responses were observed at concentrations closer to plasma levels documented in vivo in rats. The retention of in vivo-like hepatocyte phenotype and metabolic function coupled with drug response at more physiological concentrations emphasizes the importance of restoring in vivo physiological transport parameters in vitro.

Simmers, M. B.; Deering, T. G.; Berry, D. J.; Feaver, R. E.; Hastings, N. E.; Pruett, T. L.; LeCluyse, E. L.; Blackman, B. R.; Wamhoff, B. R.

2013-01-01

171

Integral-geometry characterization of photobiomodulation effects on retinal vessel morphology.  

PubMed

The morphological characterization of quasi-planar structures represented by gray-scale images is challenging when object identification is sub-optimal due to registration artifacts. We propose two alternative procedures that enhances object identification in the integral-geometry morphological image analysis (MIA) framework. The first variant streamlines the framework by introducing an active contours segmentation process whose time step is recycled as a multi-scale parameter. In the second variant, we used the refined object identification produced in the first variant to perform the standard MIA with exact dilation radius as multi-scale parameter. Using this enhanced MIA we quantify the extent of vaso-obliteration in oxygen-induced retinopathic vascular growth, the preventative effect (by photobiomodulation) of exposure during tissue development to near-infrared light (NIR, 670 nm), and the lack of adverse effects due to exposure to NIR light. PMID:25071966

Barbosa, Marconi; Natoli, Riccardo; Valter, Kriztina; Provis, Jan; Maddess, Ted

2014-07-01

172

Integral-geometry characterization of photobiomodulation effects on retinal vessel morphology  

PubMed Central

The morphological characterization of quasi-planar structures represented by gray-scale images is challenging when object identification is sub-optimal due to registration artifacts. We propose two alternative procedures that enhances object identification in the integral-geometry morphological image analysis (MIA) framework. The first variant streamlines the framework by introducing an active contours segmentation process whose time step is recycled as a multi-scale parameter. In the second variant, we used the refined object identification produced in the first variant to perform the standard MIA with exact dilation radius as multi-scale parameter. Using this enhanced MIA we quantify the extent of vaso-obliteration in oxygen-induced retinopathic vascular growth, the preventative effect (by photobiomodulation) of exposure during tissue development to near-infrared light (NIR, 670 nm), and the lack of adverse effects due to exposure to NIR light.

Barbosa, Marconi; Natoli, Riccardo; Valter, Kriztina; Provis, Jan; Maddess, Ted

2014-01-01

173

Structural, morphologic and optical characterization of In(2-x)Al x S3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aluminum-doped indium sulfide thin films are deposited on glass by spray pyrolysis technique. The structure and the surface morphology of these films were characterized by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. The effects of aluminum ratio z and substrate temperature T s, on the film structure and grain size are discussed. The influence of aluminum ratio on surface morphology is revealed by scanning electron microscope. Besides, energy dispersive spectrometry technique is used to compare atomic aluminum concentration in the film with aluminum ratio z in spray solution. Optical properties are studied by a spectrophotometer in the wavelength range 350-850 nm, at room temperature. Optical transmission and grain size are found to be maximal for z = 1.8 %. Moreover, band-gap energy is found to increase with aluminum ratio.

Jebbari, N.; Saadallah, F.; Guasch, C.; Turki, N. Kamoun; Yacoubi, N.; Bennaceur, R.

2014-04-01

174

Effects of a Saturated Fat and High Cholesterol Diet on Memory and Hippocampal Morphology in the Middle-Aged Rat  

PubMed Central

Diets rich in cholesterol and/or saturated fats have been shown to be detrimental to cognitive performance. Therefore, we fed a cholesterol (2%) and saturated fat (hydrogenated coconut oil, Sat Fat 10%) diet to 16-month old rats for 8 weeks to explore the effects on the working memory performance of middle-aged rats. Lipid profiles revealed elevated plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL, and LDL for the Sat-Fat group as compared to an iso-caloric control diet (12% soybean oil). Weight gain and food consumption were similar in both groups. Sat-Fat treated rats committed more working memory errors in the water radial arm maze, especially at higher memory loads. Cholesterol, amyloid-? peptide of 40 (A?40) or 42 (A?42) residues, and nerve growth factor in cortical regions was unaffected, but hippocampal Map-2 staining was reduced in rats fed a Sat-Fat diet, indicating a loss of dendritic integrity. Map-2 reduction correlated with memory errors. Microglial activation, indicating inflammation and/or gliosis, was also observed in the hippocampus of Sat-Fat fed rats. These data suggest that saturated fat, hydrogenated fat and cholesterol can profoundly impair memory and hippocampal morphology.

Granholm, Ann-Charlotte; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A.; Moore, Alfred B.; Nelson, Matthew E.; Freeman, Linnea R.; Sambamurti, Kumar

2009-01-01

175

Morphological characterization of cells in concentrated suspensions using multispectral diffuse optical tomography  

PubMed Central

Based on a non-spherical model of particle scattering, we investigate the capabilities and limitations of a T-matrix based inverse algorithm to morphologically characterize cells in concentrated suspensions. Here the cells are modeled as randomly orientated spheroidal particles with homogenous dielectric properties and suspended in turbid media. The inverse algorithm retrieves the geometrical parameters and the concentration of cells simultaneously by inverting the reduced scattering coefficient spectra obtained from multispectral diffuse optical tomography (MS-DOT). Both round and spheroidal cells are tested and the role of multiple and higher order scattering of particles on the performance of the algorithm is evaluated using different concentrations of cells.

Hajihashemi, Mohammad Reza; Li, Xiaoqi; Jiang, Huabei

2013-01-01

176

Morphological and molecular characterization of Frankia sp. isolates from nodules of Alnus nepalensis Don.  

PubMed

Nodules collected from Alnus nepalensis growing in mixed forest stands at three different sites around Shillong, were crushed in various culture media to obtain isolates of Frankia. The isolates were found to have typical Frankia morphology as revealed by the scanning electron microscope. Seedlings inoculated with isolates or crushed nodules formed nitrogen fixing nodules. Frankia specific DNA probes amplified the DNA of the tested isolate AnpUS4. Partial nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that AnpUS4 was phylogenetically distinct from all other Frankia strains characterized so far. PMID:7511370

Ganesh, G; Misra, A K; Chapelon, C; Normand, P

1994-01-01

177

Characterization of the dynamics of block copolymer microdomains with local morphological measures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the structure formation in thin films of cylinder forming block copolymers. With in situ scanning probe microscopy image sequences can be recorded with high temporal (2 min per frame) and spatial (10 nm) resolution. We compare different image processing methods for quantitative analysis of the large amount of data. Computing local Minkowski functionals yields local geometrical and morphological information about the observed structures and enables us to track their evolution with time. An alternative characterization method is to reduce the gray scale images to their skeleton and to classify and count the branching points of the skeletonized structure. We tracked the temporal evolution of these measures and computed correlation functions.

Rehse, S.; Mecke, K.; Magerle, R.

2008-05-01

178

Differential effects of intrastriatal 6-hydroxydopamine on cell number and morphology in midbrain dopaminergic subregions of the rat.  

PubMed

The midbrain dopaminergic perikarya are differentially affected in Parkinson?s disease (PD). This study compared the effects of a partial unilateral intrastriatal 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion model of PD on the number, morphology, and nucleolar volume of dopaminergic cells in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), ventral tegmental area (VTA), and retrorubral field (RRF). Adult, male rats (n=10) underwent unilateral intrastriatal infusion of 6-OHDA (12.5?g). Lesions were verified by amphetamine-stimulated rotation 7 days post-infusion. Rats were euthanized 14 days after treatment with 6-OHDA and brains were stained with a tyrosine hydroxylase-silver nucleolar (TH-AgNOR) stain. Dopaminergic cell number and morphology in the lesioned and intact hemispheres were quantified using stereological methods. The magnitude of decrease in planimetric volume, neuronal number, cell density, and neuronal volume resulting from 6-OHDA lesion differed between regions, with the SNpc exhibiting the greatest loss of neurons (46%), but the smallest decrease in neuronal volume (13%). The lesion also resulted in a decrease in nucleolar volume that was similar in all three regions (22-26%). These findings indicate that intrastriatal 6-OHDA lesion differentially affects dopaminergic neurons in the SNpc, VTA, and RRF; however, the resulting changes in nucleolar morphology suggest a similar cellular response to the toxin in all three cell populations. PMID:24924804

Healy-Stoffel, Michelle; Omar Ahmad, S; Stanford, John A; Levant, Beth

2014-07-29

179

Scanning electron microscopic changes in morphology of pulmonary endothelium in rat lung isografts following hypothermic ischaemic storage and transplantation.  

PubMed Central

Endothelial monolayer integrity is a critical factor limiting vascular permeability of solid organs in transplantation. Several in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo studies suggest that damage to endothelial cells (EC) due to hypothermia and ischaemia-reperfusion injury causes morphological and functional damage to the endothelium leading to parenchymal oedema and haemorrhage. Aiming to study morphological changes to arterial pulmonary EC subjected to transplantation procedures, random scanning electron micrographs of vascular endothelium of rat lungs were taken. Forty-eight rat lungs were hypothermically stored for 48 or 72 hours in two different preservation solutions and studied either at the end of the cold storage period, or 5 min, 24 h or 4 weeks following transplantation. After 5 minutes of revascularization, micrographs showed EC shape variations, bleb formation and cell retraction with intercellular gap formation. Twenty-four hours after transplantation loss of monolayer continuity was widely extended. Four weeks of revascularization resulted in either well preserved specimens with nearly normal endothelium, or badly preserved arteries with fibrotic degeneration of the luminal vessel wall. The morphological disruptions found in this study help to explain the alterations in permeability control and vascular dysfunction observed in lung transplantation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7

Hidalgo, M. A.; Sarathchandra, P.; Fryer, P. R.; Fuller, B. J.; Green, C. J.

1995-01-01

180

Trypanosoma cruzi infection alters glucose metabolism at rest and during exercise without modifying the morphology of pancreatic islets in rats.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of Trypanosoma cruzi infection on pancreatic morphology and glucose metabolism at rest and during exercise. Wistar rats were randomized into control (CG=10) and infected (IG=10) groups. The IG animals were inoculated with T. cruzi Y strain (300,000 trypomastigotes/50 g). After 9 weeks, the animals were subjected to glucose (OGTT) and insulin (ITT) tolerance tests and a treadmill running protocol. Blood glucose, lactate and time to fatigue were determined. After euthanasia, the pancreases were removed for morphological and biochemical analyses. The IG presented abnormal glucose kinetics in OGTT and a similar glucose curve in ITT compared to the CG. During the exercise test, the IG showed anticipation of time to fatigue. At the point of fatigue, no difference was found in blood glucose and lactate between the groups. There was a significant correlation between lactate levels and the time to fatigue. The IG presented marked pancreatic inflammation, fibrosis and protein oxidation. The number of ? cells in the IG animals was not reduced. T. cruzi infection impaired pancreas morphology and glucose metabolism at rest and during exercise in rats, which could constitute an additional mechanism in the induction of exercise intolerance in Chagas' disease. PMID:22749578

Novaes, Rômulo D; Gonçalves, Reggiani V; Penitente, Arlete R; Talvani, André; Neves, Clóvis A; Natali, Antônio J; Maldonado, Izabel R S C

2012-08-15

181

Effects of Trypanosoma cruzi infection on myocardial morphology, single cardiomyocyte contractile function and exercise tolerance in rats.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) infection on myocardial morphology, single cardiomyocyte contractile function and exercise tolerance in rats. Adult Wistar rats were randomized into control (n = 14) and infected (n = 14) groups. Infected animals were inoculated with T. cruzi Y strain (300,000 trypomastigotes/50 g body weight). After 9 weeks, the animals were subjected to a treadmill running protocol. Then, the right atrium (RA) and left ventricle (LV) were removed for morphological and cell contractile evaluation. The infected animals exhibited a significant reduction in distance travelled, total time to fatigue and workload. In addition, these animals had hypertrophy, increased myocardial cellularity, and an increase in the proportion of collagen and blood vessels. RA and LV myocytes from infected animals showed marked contractile dysfunction under basal conditions and a reduced contractile response to ?-adrenergic stimulation. The workload of infected animals was correlated closely with the amplitude of cell shortening of RA and LV myocytes. T. cruzi infection influenced the myocardial morphology and the mechanical properties of RA and LV single myocytes negatively and reduced exercise tolerance. Single cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction could constitute an additional mechanism of cardiac impairment and reduced exercise tolerance in this infection. PMID:21736646

Novaes, Rômulo D; Penitente, Arlete R; Gonçalves, Reggiani V; Talvani, André; Neves, Clóvis A; Maldonado, Izabel R S C; Natali, Antônio J

2011-10-01

182

Structural and morphological characterization of TiO2 thin films synthesized by spray pyrolysis technique.  

PubMed

Thin films of nanocrystalline TiO2 were synthesized by spray pyrolysis technique in the temperature range 300 degrees C to 550 degrees C in steps of 50 degrees C. The films were coated on glass and quartz substrates by ultrasonic nebulization of titanium-oxy-acetyl acetonate followed by pyrolysis. The structure and morphology of the thin films were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy (RS) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), while the optical band gaps were measured by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE) and UV-Visible spectroscopy. XRD investigations revealed distinct crystal structures of the films synthesized above and below 300 degrees C. While films grown at substrate temperature 300 degrees C were amorphous, those grown at 350 dgrees C and above showed tetragonal anatase crystal structure. The morphological investigations from SEM showed that the films deposited at 350 degrees C were porous and exhibited flower like morphology. The microstructures of the films grown on quartz at 450 degrees C were found to be uniform and dense. The nominal grain sizes evaluated from High Resolution SEM (HRSEM) studies were approximately 20 nm and compared well with the grain sizes calculated from XRD. The band gap values calculated from ellipsometry studies were approximately 3.7 eV and 3.95 eV for the films grown at 450 degrees C and 350 degrees C, respectively. This is in good agreement with those obtained from UV-Visible spectroscopy. PMID:19928217

Raut, N C; Mathews, Tom; Sundari, S Tripura; Sairam, T N; Dash, S; Tyagi, A K

2009-09-01

183

Effect of single-dose amoxicillin on rat incisor odontogenesis: a morphological study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of exposure to amoxicillin on tooth development remains to be elucidated. The purpose of this study was to investigate\\u000a the effect of amoxicillin on rat incisor odontogenesis. Male Wistar rats weighing approximately 100 g were given a single\\u000a intraperitoneal injection of 3.0 g\\/kg body weight amoxicillin. One week after injection, the rats were fixed, and the lower\\u000a incisors were demineralized

Kaido Kumazawa; Takashi Sawada; Takaaki Yanagisawa; Seikou Shintani

184

Ventricular activity morphological characterization: ectopic beats removal in long term atrial fibrillation recordings.  

PubMed

Ectopic beats are early heart beats remarkably different to the normal beat morphology that provoke serious disturbances in electrocardiographic analysis. These beats are very common in atrial fibrillation (AF), causing important residua when ventricular activity has to be removed for atrial activity (AA) analysis. In this work, a method is proposed to cancel out ectopics by discriminating between normal and abnormal beats, with an accuracy higher than 99%, through QRS morphological delineation and characterization. The most similar ectopics to the one under cancellation are clustered to provide a very precise cancellation template. Simulated and real AF recordings were used to validate the method. A new index, able to estimate the presence of ventricular residue after ectopics cancellation, was defined. Results by using the 2, 4, 6, …, 30 most similar ectopics to the one under study yielded optimal cancellation for templates composed of 10 beats. Furthermore, these beats were very likely located close to the ectopic under cancellation, which could facilitate the algorithm implementation. As conclusion, the proposed method is an effective way to remove ectopics from long term AF recordings and get them ready for the application of any QRST cancellation technique able to extract the AA in optimal conditions. Moreover, it could also detect, characterize and remove ectopics in any other type of non-AF recordings. PMID:23228563

Martínez, Arturo; Alcaraz, Raúl; Rieta, José J

2013-03-01

185

Airway morphology and function of rats following dermal sensitization and respiratory challenge with low molecular weight chemicals.  

PubMed

Local lymph node activation and increased total serum IgE levels are suggested to be predictive parameters of airway hypersensitivity caused by low molecular weight (LMW) chemicals. Whether increases of total serum IgE are indicative of actual induction of specific airway reactions (morphological and functional) after inhalation challenge was examined in the present study. In Brown Norway (BN) and Wistar rats, serum IgE concentrations were examined following topical exposure of chemicals with known diverse sensitization potential in humans: trimellitic anhydride (TMA), a dermal and respiratory sensitizer; dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), a dermal sensitizer with no known potential to cause respiratory allergy; and methyl salicylate, a skin irritant devoid of sensitizing properties. Functional and histopathological changes in the respiratory tract were examined after subsequent inhalatory challenge with these chemicals. Of the three tested chemicals, only topical exposure to TMA resulted in a significant increase in total serum IgE concentrations in the high-IgE-responding BN rat. Upon subsequent inhalatory challenge of these rats, TMA induced specific airway reactions which included a sharp decrease in respiratory rate during challenge, followed by an increase in breathing rate with a concomitant decrease in tidal volume 24 and 48 h after inhalatory challenge, and histopathological changes in the larynx and lungs of animals necropsied 48 h after challenge. Interestingly, despite low IgE levels, TMA induced histopathological changes in the larynx and lungs of Wistar rats too. Laryngeal changes were also observed in Wistar rats upon sensitization and challenge with DNCB. These data suggest that increased total serum IgE after topical sensitization is associated with immediate-type specific airway reactivity after inhalation challenge in BN rats and thus may be a valuable parameter in testing for respiratory sensitization potential of LMW compounds. Histopathological examination upon subsequent inhalation challenge of sensitized low-IgE-responders may provide information on other allergic inflammatory airway reactions. PMID:9772201

Arts, J H; Kuper, C F; Spoor, S M; Bloksma, N

1998-09-01

186

Morphological and Metabolic Changes in the Nigro-Striatal Pathway of Synthetic Proteasome Inhibitor (PSI)-Treated Rats: A MRI and MRS Study  

PubMed Central

Systemic administration of a Synthetic Proteasome Inihibitor (PSI) in rats has been described as able to provide a model of Parkinson’s disease (PD), characterized by behavioral and biochemical modifications, including loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN), as assessed by post-mortem studies. With the present study we aimed to assess in-vivo by Magnetic Resonance (MR) possible morphological and metabolic changes in the nigro-striatal pathway of PSI-treated rats. 10 animals were subcutaneously injected with PSI 6.0 mg/kg dissolved in DMSO 100%. Injections were made thrice weekly over the course of two weeks. 5 more animals injected with DMSO 100% with the same protocol served as controls. The animals underwent MR sessions before and at four weeks after the end of treatment with either PSI or vehicle. MR Imaging was performed to measure SN volume and Proton MR Spectroscopy (1H-MRS) was performed to measure metabolites changes at the striatum. Animals were also assessed for motor function at baseline and at 4 and 6 weeks after treatment. Dopamine and dopamine metabolite levels were measured in the striata at 6 weeks after treatment. PSI-treated animals showed volumetric reduction of the SN (p<0.02) at 4 weeks after treatment as compared to baseline. Immunofluorescence analysis confirmed MRI changes in SN showing a reduction of tyrosine hydroxylase expression as compared to neuron-specific enolase expression. A reduction of N-acetyl-aspartate/total creatine ratio (p?=?0.05) and an increase of glutamate-glutamine-? amminobutirrate/total creatine were found at spectroscopy (p?=?0.03). At 6 weeks after treatment, PSI-treated rats also showed motor dysfunction compared to baseline (p?=?0.02), accompanied by dopamine level reduction in the striatum (p?=?0.02). Treatment with PSI produced morphological and metabolic modifications of the nigro-striatal pathway, accompanied by motor dysfunction. MR demonstrated to be a powerful mean to assess in-vivo the nigro-striatal pathway morphology and metabolism in the PSI-based PD animal model.

Delli Pizzi, Stefano; Rossi, Cosmo; Di Matteo, Vincenzo; Esposito, Ennio; Guarnieri, Simone; Mariggio, Maria Addolorata; Franciotti, Raffaella; Caulo, Massimo; Thomas, Astrid; Onofrj, Marco

2013-01-01

187

Morphological and functional manifestations of rat adrenal-cortex response to sodium bromide administration under hypodynamic stress  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Functional and morphological manifestations of adrenal cortex response to hypodynamia (2-hr immobilization on an operating table) under the influence of bromine preparations were studied. The sodium bromide was administered intraperitoneally in 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg doses once and repeatedly during ten days. The adrenal gland was evaluated functionally by ascorbic acid and cholesterol content and morphologically by coloring it with hematoxylin-eosin and Sudans for lipid revealing at freezing. Results are displayed in two tables and microphotographs. They are summarized as follows: the bromine weakens the functional state of the adrenal cortex in intact rats, causing changes similar to those under stress. During immobilization combined with preliminary bromine administration, a less pronounced stress reaction is noticeable.

Kirichek, L. T.; Zholudeva, V. I.

1979-01-01

188

Perinatal glucocorticoid treatment produces molecular, functional, and morphological changes in the anterior pituitary gland of the adult male rat.  

PubMed

Stress or glucocorticoid (GC) treatment in perinatal life can induce long-term changes in the sensitivity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis to the feedback actions of GCs and, hence, in GC secretion. These changes have been ascribed largely to changes in the sensitivity of the limbic system, and possibly the hypothalamus, to GCs. Surprisingly, the possibility that early life stress/GC treatment may also exert irreversible effects at the pituitary level has scarcely been addressed. Accordingly, we have examined the effects of pre- and neonatal dexamethasone treatment on the adult male pituitary gland, focusing on the following: 1) the integrity of the acute annexin 1 (ANXA1)-dependent inhibitory actions of GCs on ACTH secretion, a process requiring ANXA1 release from folliculostellate (FS) cells; and 2) the morphology of FS cells and corticotrophs. Dexamethasone was given to pregnant (d 16-19) or lactating (d 1-7 postpartum) rats via the drinking water (1 microg/ml); controls received normal drinking water. Pituitary tissue from the offspring was examined ex vivo at d 90. Both treatment regimens reduced ANXA1 expression, as assessed by Western blotting and quantitative immunogold labeling. In particular, the amount of ANXA1 located on the outer surface of the FS cells was reduced. By contrast, IL-6 expression was increased, particularly by the prenatal treatment. Pituitary tissue from untreated control rats responded to dexamethasone with an increase in cell surface ANXA1 and a reduction in forskolin-induced ACTH release. In contrast, pituitary tissue from rats treated prenatally or neonatally with dexamethasone was unresponsive to the steroid, although, like control tissue, it responded readily to ANXA1, which readily inhibited forskolin-driven ACTH release. Prenatal dexamethasone treatment reduced the size but not the number of FS cells. It also caused a marked reduction in corticotroph number and impaired granule margination without affecting other aspects of corticotroph morphology. Similar but less marked effects on pituitary cell morphology and number were evident in tissue from neonatally treated rats. Our study shows that, when administered by a noninvasive process, perinatal GC treatment exerts profound effects on the adult pituitary gland, impairing the ANXA1-dependent GC regulation of ACTH release and altering the cell profile and morphology. PMID:16099861

Theogaraj, E; John, C D; Christian, H C; Morris, J F; Smith, S F; Buckingham, J C

2005-11-01

189

Morphology of Rat Hippocampal CA1 Neurons Following Modified Two and Four-Vessels Global Ischemia Models  

PubMed Central

Background An appropriate animal model of ischemia stroke is essential for evaluation of different therapeutic methods. Two and four-vessel global ischemia models are one of the most common types of transient cerebral ischemia. Objectives In this study, the morphology of rat hippocampal CA1 neurons in modified models of two and four-vessel ischemia and reperfusion were evaluated. Materials and Methods In this study, 20 Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups. In group 2 and 3, both common carotid arteries were occluded for 10 minutes in either 3 or 24 hours of reperfusions, respectively. In group 4 and 5, both common carotid and vertebral arteries were occluded for 10 minutes in either 3 or 24 hours of reperfusions, respectively. Group 1 as control, underwent the whole surgery without any arteries occlusion. Hippocampi of the rats in all groups were processed and tissue sections were stained using the Nissl method. The morphology of CA1 neurons were studied under a light microscope and compared different groups. Results In all groups ischemic changes were apparently observed in hippocampus CA1 neurons. In two-vessel occlusion model, after 3 and 24 hours of reperfusions, ischemic cells accounted for 14.9% and 23.2%, respectively. In four-vessel occlusion model, after 3 and 24 hours of reperfusions, ischemic cells accounted for 7.6% and 44.9% (P < 0.0001), respectively. Conclusions Modified four-vessel occlusion model resulted in significant ischemic changes after 24 hours of reperfusion in CA1 neurons of rat hippocampus.

Atlasi, Mohammad Ali; Naderian, Homayoun; Noureddini, Mahdi; Fakharian, Esmaeil; Azami, Abolfazl

2013-01-01

190

GLUTAMATE NEUROTOXICITY IN THE DEVELOPING RAT COCHLEA: PHYSIOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL APPROACHES  

EPA Science Inventory

The neurotoxic effects of exogenous glutamate were studied in the rat cochlea. lutamate-treated rats (4g/kg/day ip, postnatal days 2 through 9) exhibited electrophysiologically-measured elevations in high frequency thresholds usually associated with hair cell loss in the basal re...

191

The Oxidative and Morphological Effects of High Concentration Chronic Toluene Exposure on Rat Sciatic Nerves  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to investigate the effects of chronic toluene inhalation in high concentration on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities and ultrastructural changes in the sciatic nerves of rats. Male Wistar albino rats (150–250 g) were divided in two experimental groups: the control and the toluene treated group (n=10 for each). Toluene treatment was performed by inhalation of 3000

Omer Coskun; Sukru Oter; Ahmet Korkmaz; Ferah Armutcu; Mehmet Kanter

2005-01-01

192

Characterization of the rat neutrophil formyl peptide chemotaxis receptor.  

PubMed Central

Numerous synthetic N-formylated peptides, believed to be the analogs of the naturally occurring initiating signal peptides produced by bacteria, are potent chemotactic agents for phagocytic cells in several species. The authors have characterized the receptor with moderately high affinity for the chemotactic peptide f-Met-Leu-[3H]Phe on the rat peritoneal neutrophils. When neutrophils are incubated with f-Met-Leu-[3H]Phe at 24 C, the binding is saturable and reversible. The receptor on the inflammatory rat neutrophils has an equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) of 3.4 x 10(-8) M at 24 C, and there are approximately 65,000 sites per cell. In addition, the potency of several of these chemotactic peptides in inducing lysosomal enzyme secretion and superoxide production correlated well with their ability to compete with f-Met-Leu-[3H]Phe for receptor binding. Structure activity studies further demonstrate that the fine specificity of the formyl peptide receptor has been conserved across species lines.

Marasco, W. A.; Fantone, J. C.; Freer, R. J.; Ward, P. A.

1983-01-01

193

Characterization of phospholipid methylation in rat brain myelin.  

PubMed

Highly purified rat brain myelin was solubilized in Triton X-100 and myelin phospholipid N-methyltransferase was characterized. The enzyme activities were separated by isoelectric focusing and ion-exchange chromatography. The phospholipid methyl-transferase has shown at least four peaks of activity with pIapp. values of 4.5, 5.2, 6.2 and 8.4. After affinity purification each of these activities revealed a close set of bands of approx. 65 kDa on SDS/PAGE. These data together with those from preparative SDS/PAGE separations suggested that rat brain myelin contains three acidic and at least one basic phospholipid-methylating isoenzymes and that the major isoenzyme in each case is approx. 65 kDa in size. While the predominant product of the reaction catalysed by all detected isoforms was monomethylated phosphatidylethanolamine, the least acidic isoform (pIapp. 6.2) also formed about 20% phosphatidylcholine, suggesting that these isoenzymes may play different roles in vivo. PMID:7717982

Tsvetnitsky, V; Auchi, L; Nicolaou, A; Gibbons, W A

1995-04-01

194

Characterization of p75{sup +} ectomesenchymal stem cells from rat embryonic facial process tissue  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ectomesenchymal stem cells (EMSCs) were found to migrate to rat facial processes at E11.5. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We successfully sorted p75NTR positive EMSCs (p75{sup +} EMSCs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p75{sup +} EMSCs up to nine passages showed relative stable proliferative activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined the in vitro multilineage potential of p75{sup +} EMSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p75{sup +}EMSCs provide an in vitro model for tooth morphogenesis. -- Abstract: Several populations of stem cells, including those from the dental pulp and periodontal ligament, have been isolated from different parts of the tooth and periodontium. The characteristics of such stem cells have been reported as well. However, as a common progenitor of these cells, ectomesenchymal stem cells (EMSCs), derived from the cranial neural crest have yet to be fully characterized. The aim of this study was to better understand the characteristics of EMSCs isolated from rat embryonic facial processes. Immunohistochemical staining showed that EMSCs had migrated to rat facial processes at E11.5, while the absence of epithelial invagination or tooth-like epithelium suggested that any epithelial-mesenchymal interactions were limited at this stage. The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), a typical neural crest marker, was used to select p75NTR-positive EMSCs (p75{sup +} EMSCs), which were found to show a homogeneous fibroblast-like morphology and little change in the growth curve, proliferation capacity, and cell phenotype during cell passage. They also displayed the capacity to differentiate into diverse cell types under chemically defined conditions in vitro. p75{sup +} EMSCs proved to be homogeneous, stable in vitro and potentially capable of multiple lineages, suggesting their potential for application in dental or orofacial tissue engineering.

Wen, Xiujie; Liu, Luchuan; Deng, Manjing; Zhang, Li; Liu, Rui; Xing, Yongjun; Zhou, Xia [Department of Stomatology, Daping Hospital and Research Institute of Surgery, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China)] [Department of Stomatology, Daping Hospital and Research Institute of Surgery, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Nie, Xin, E-mail: dr.xinnie@gmail.com [Department of Stomatology, Daping Hospital and Research Institute of Surgery, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China)] [Department of Stomatology, Daping Hospital and Research Institute of Surgery, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China)

2012-10-12

195

Chemical and morphological characterization of sugarcane bagasse submitted to a delignification process for enhanced enzymatic digestibility  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years, biorefining of lignocellulosic biomass to produce multi-products such as ethanol and other biomaterials has become a dynamic research area. Pretreatment technologies that fractionate sugarcane bagasse are essential for the successful use of this feedstock in ethanol production. In this paper, we investigate modifications in the morphology and chemical composition of sugarcane bagasse submitted to a two-step treatment, using diluted acid followed by a delignification process with increasing sodium hydroxide concentrations. Detailed chemical and morphological characterization of the samples after each pretreatment condition, studied by high performance liquid chromatography, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, is reported, together with sample crystallinity and enzymatic digestibility. Results Chemical composition analysis performed on samples obtained after different pretreatment conditions showed that up to 96% and 85% of hemicellulose and lignin fractions, respectively, were removed by this two-step method when sodium hydroxide concentrations of 1% (m/v) or higher were used. The efficient lignin removal resulted in an enhanced hydrolysis yield reaching values around 100%. Considering the cellulose loss due to the pretreatment (maximum of 30%, depending on the process), the total cellulose conversion increases significantly from 22.0% (value for the untreated bagasse) to 72.4%. The delignification process, with consequent increase in the cellulose to lignin ratio, is also clearly observed by nuclear magnetic resonance and diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy experiments. We also demonstrated that the morphological changes contributing to this remarkable improvement occur as a consequence of lignin removal from the sample. Bagasse unstructuring is favored by the loss of cohesion between neighboring cell walls, as well as by changes in the inner cell wall structure, such as damaging, hole formation and loss of mechanical resistance, facilitating liquid and enzyme access to crystalline cellulose. Conclusions The results presented herewith show the efficiency of the proposed method for improving the enzymatic digestibility of sugarcane bagasse and provide understanding of the pretreatment action mechanism. Combining the different techniques applied in this work warranted thorough information about the undergoing morphological and chemical changes and was an efficient approach to understand the morphological effects resulting from sample delignification and its influence on the enhanced hydrolysis results.

2011-01-01

196

Effects of tamoxifen on vaginal blood flow and epithelial morphology in the rat  

PubMed Central

Background Tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor modulator with both estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activity, is widely used as adjuvant therapy in breast cancer patients. Treatment with tamoxifen is associated with sexual side effects, such as increased vaginal dryness and pain/discomfort during sexual activity. There have been limited investigations of the effect of tamoxifen on estrogen-dependent peripheral genital arousal responses. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of tamoxifen on vaginal physiology in the rat. Methods Female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to sham surgery or bilateral ovariectomy. After 2 weeks, sham-operated rats were implanted with subcutaneous osmotic infusion pumps containing vehicle (control) or tamoxifen (150 ?g/day). Ovariectomized rats were similarly infused with vehicle. After an additional 2 weeks, vaginal blood flow responses to pelvic nerve stimulation were measured by laser Doppler flowmetry and vaginal tissue was collected for histological and biochemical assay. Results Tamoxifen treatment did not change plasma estradiol concentrations relative to control animals, while ovariectomized rats exhibited a 60% decrease in plasma estradiol. Tamoxifen treatment caused a significant decrease in mean uterine weight, but did not alter mean vaginal weight. Vaginal blood flow was significantly decreased in tamoxifen-infused rats compared to controls. Similar to ovariectomized animals, estrogen receptor binding was increased and arginase enzyme activity was decreased in tamoxifen-infused rats. However, different from control and ovariectomized animals, the vaginal epithelium in tamoxifen-infused rats appeared highly mucified. Periodic acid-Schiff staining confirmed a greater production of carbohydrate-rich compounds (e.g. mucin, glycogen) by the vaginal epithelium of tamoxifen-infused rats. Conclusion The observations suggest that tamoxifen exerts both anti-estrogenic and pro-estrogenic effects in the vagina. These physiological alterations may eventually lead to vaginal atrophy and compromise sexual function.

Kim, Noel N; Stankovic, Miljan; Armagan, Abdullah; Cushman, Tulay T; Goldstein, Irwin; Traish, Abdulmaged M

2006-01-01

197

Influence of ageing and physical activity on vascular morphology in rat skeletal muscle  

PubMed Central

Key structural and functional properties of the skeletal muscle vasculature that underlie diminished vascular conductance with ageing remain obscure. The purpose of this investigation was to test the hypotheses that (1) reduced levels of spontaneous physical activity in old rats are associated with skeletal muscle vascular remodelling (e.g. arterial rarefaction), and (2) consequent to a vascular remodelling, calculated shear stress is maintained in feed arteries of aged muscle at levels commensurate with that in young. Activity during daily light and dark cycles (12–12 h) was measured at 30-s intervals for 2 weeks in young (6 months; n = 9) and old (24 months; n = 9) Fisher 344 rats via telemetry. Subsequently, the gastrocnemius complex and soleus muscles were excised and all feed arteries were counted, isolated, cannulated and maximally dilated for measurement of luminal diameter. Resting blood flow was also measured to estimate vessel wall shear-stress in the feed arteries perforating the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles. Overall, young rats were ?1.6 times more active during dark periods and ?4 times more active during light periods than old rats. In addition, young rats had approximately one additional feed artery perforating both the soleus (young, 3.3 ± 0.2; old, 2.6 ± 0.2 vessels; P < 0.05) and gastrocnemius (young, 8.8 ± 0.1; old, 7.5 ± 0.2 vessels, P < 0.05) muscles compared with old rats. However, average vessel wall shear stress at rest was similar between young and old rats (soleus: Y, 65 ± 5; O, 64 ± 5 dynes cm?2; gastrocnemius: Y, 329 ± 22; O, 327 ± 27 dynes cm?2) resulting from a larger vessel diameter in arteries from old rats. In conclusion, lower activity levels of old rats likely contribute to resistance artery rarefaction and, consequently, this provides a plausible mechanism for the altered blood flow patterns observed during exercise in aged skeletal muscle.

Behnke, Bradley J; Prisby, Rhonda D; Lesniewski, Lisa A; Donato, Anthony J; Olin, Hillary M; Delp, Michael D

2006-01-01

198

The rat STSL locus: characterization, chromosomal assignment, and genetic variations in sitosterolemic hypertensive rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Elevated plant sterol accumulation has been reported in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP) and the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat. Additionally, a blood pressure quantitative trait locus (QTL) has been mapped to rat chromosome 6 in a New Zealand genetically hypertensive rat strain (GH rat). ABCG5 and ABCG8 (encoding sterolin-1 and sterolin-2 respectively) have been

Hongwei Yu; Bhaswati Pandit; Eric Klett; Mi-Hye Lee; Kangmo Lu; Khalil Helou; Ikuo Ikeda; Nami Egashira; Masao Sato; Richard Klein; Ashok Batta; Gerald Salen; Shailendra B Patel

2003-01-01

199

Morphological and Phylogenetic Characterizations of Freshwater Thioploca Species from Lake Biwa, Japan, and Lake Constance, Germany  

PubMed Central

Filamentous, gliding, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria of the genus Thioploca were found on sediments in profundal areas of Lake Biwa, a Japanese freshwater mesotrophic lake, and were characterized morphologically and phylogenetically. The Lake Biwa Thioploca resembled morphologically Thioploca ingrica, a brackish water species from a Danish fjord. The diameters of individual trichomes were 3 to 5.6 ?m; the diameters of complete Thioploca filaments ranged from 18 to 75 ?m. The cell lengths ranged from 1.2 to 3.8 ?m. In transmission electron microscope specimens stained with uranyl acetate, dense intracellular particles were found, which did not show any positive signals for phosphorus and sulfur in an X-ray analysis. The 16S rRNA gene of the Thioploca from Lake Biwa was amplified by using newly designed Thioploca-specific primers (706-Thioploca, Biwa160F, and Biwa829R) in combination with general bacterial primers in order to avoid nonspecific amplification of contaminating bacterial DNA. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of the three overlapping PCR products resulted in single DGGE bands, indicating that a single 16S rRNA gene had been amplified. With the same method, the Thioploca from Lake Constance was examined. The 16S rRNA sequence was verified by performing fluorescence in situ hybridization targeted at specific motifs of the Lake Biwa Thioploca. Positive signals were obtained with the bacterial probe EUB-338, the ?-proteobacterial probe GAM42a, and probe Biwa829 targeting the Lake Biwa Thioploca. Based on the nearly complete 16S rRNA sequence and on morphological similarities, the Thioploca from Lake Biwa and the Thioploca from Lake Constance are closely related to T. ingrica and to each other.

Kojima, Hisaya; Teske, Andreas; Fukui, Manabu

2003-01-01

200

Effects of raftilose on serum biochemistry and liver morphology in rats fed with normal or high-fat diet.  

PubMed

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the leading cause of chronic liver injury in developed countries. Oligofructose (OFS) is a prebiotic with proven benefits for health. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of 10% OFS on hepatic morphology and lipid metabolism in Wistar Kyoto rats submitted to normal diet (ND) or high-fat diet (FD). Animals were treated for 7 weeks. Lipid profile and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were measured and liver histology evaluated at the end of the study. Ten percent OFS reduced triglyceride (TAG) levels when added to any of the diet regimens; 10% OFS decreased plasmatic urea in ND and plasmatic and urinary urea levels in FD; ND + 10% OFS treated rats showed lower ALP activity than controls. FD increased ALP activity, an effect not reversed by OFS. Animals submitted to FD have microscopic hepatic changes: marked steatosis with disarranged centrilobular zone structure; enlarged sinusoids; enlarged mitochondria and an increase in number and volume of adiposomes. Supplementation with 10% OFS in FD reversed those effects. In conclusion, 10% OFS supplementation prevented deleterious effects of FD such as alterations on lipid profile (TAG elevation) and hepatic morphologic changes. OFS decreased ALP activity in animals subjected to ND, which may have contributed to the differences on lipid metabolism. PMID:23653231

Correia-Sá, Inês; de-Sousa-Lopes, Hugo; Martins, Maria J; Azevedo, Isabel; Moura, Eduardo; Vieira-Coelho, Maria A

2013-08-01

201

Neonatal nutritional rehabilitation of morphological features in facial motoneurons altered by prenatally food deprivation in the rat.  

PubMed

Undernutrition alters facial motoneurons development. Here, we evaluated the plastic characteristics of facial motoneurons in response to neonatal rehabilitation. Prenatally undernourished rat pups derived from pregnant rats fed with 50% of the diet from gestational days G6 to G12, and with 60% of food from G13 to G21 and rehabilitated after birth by a pair of control lactating foster dams. Morphological features of 640 Golgi-Cox impregnated motoneurons from 12, 20 and 30 days old pups were analyzed. Neonatal food rehabilitation increased the number and extension of the dendritic branches (main neuronal reception area) without altering significantly soma measurements (main neuronal firing area), suggesting that food and sensory maternal disponibility after birth ameliorates the damage due to prenatal deprivation. Findings showed that neonatal rehabilitation in addition to intense maternal polysensorial stimuli from the foster mothers partially diminished the morphological alterations associated to prenatal undernutrition, and provide evidence of plastic properties of facial motoneurons to the influence of environmental cues. PMID:12168689

Pérez-Torrero, Esther; Torrero, Carmen; Salas, Manuel

2002-09-01

202

Morphological and electrophysiological features of motor neurons and putative interneurons in the dorsal vagal complex of rats and mice.  

PubMed

The dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) contains preganglionic motor neurons that control viscera along the subdiaphragmatic digestive tract, but may also contain neurons that do not project to the viscera. Neurons that expressed EGFP 60-72 h subsequent to PRV-152 inoculation of vagal terminals in the stomach wall were targeted for whole-cell patch-clamp recording and biocytin filling in transverse brainstem slices from rats and their quantitative morphological and electrophysiological characteristics were compared with uninfected cells. Over 90% of PRV-152 labeled neurons were also labeled subsequent to intraperitoneal injection of FluoroGold, indicating that most were preganglionic motor neurons. In reconstructed neurons with an identifiable axon trajectory, two cellular subtypes were distinguished. The axon projected ventrolaterally from the DMV in 44 of 49 cells and these were likely to be vagal motor neurons. Axons of other neurons ramified within the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) or DMV. These cells were smaller and otherwise morphologically distinct from putative motor neurons. Transgenic mice with GFP-expressing inhibitory neurons (i.e., GIN mice) were used to identify a GABAergic subset of DMV neurons. These neurons had locally ramifying axons and formed a morphologically distinct subset of DMV cells, which were similar in size and axon trajectory to GABAergic neurons in the NTS. Most neurons in the DMV therefore possess morphological features of motor neurons, but locally projecting cells and inhibitory neurons with distinct morphological features are also found within the DMV. These cells likely contribute to regulation of vagal function. PMID:19619517

Gao, Hong; Glatzer, Nicholas R; Williams, Kevin W; Derbenev, Andrei V; Liu, Dan; Smith, Bret N

2009-09-29

203

Morphological and molecular characterization of a fungus, Hirsutella sp., isolated from planthoppers and psocids in Argentina.  

PubMed

A mycosed planthopper, Oliarus dimidiatus Berg (Hemiptera: Cixiidae), and two psocids, Heterocaecilius sp. (Psocodea: Pseudocaeciliidae) and Ectopsocus sp. (Ectopsocidae), were collected from Los Hornos and La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina between February and September 2007. Observations of mycelia growing on the host revealed that the putative fungal parasite had synnemata supporting monophialidic conidiogenous cells. Likewise, in vitro fungal cultures presented characteristics typical of the fungus Hirsutella citriformis Speare (Ascomycota: Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae). The identity of the isolated fungi characterized based on morphological aspects was complemented by means of the internal transcribed spacer sequences. The sequences of both isolates were highly homologous to those of Cordyceps sp. (Fries) Link and Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Berkely) G.H. Sung, J.M. Sung, Hywel-Jones, and Spatafora (Ophiocordycipitaceae). We additionally confirmed that both isolates had the ability to infect and kill adults of Delphacodes kuscheli Fennah (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) after 10 days. Therefore, based on the morphology of the isolated fungi, their ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequence, and their ability to parasite insects, we conclude that the fungi isolated belong to the genus Hirsutella and might have biotechnological potential. PMID:23885970

Toledo, Andrea V; Simurro, María E; Balatti, Pedro A

2013-01-01

204

Clinical, Morphological, and Molecular Characterization of Penicillium canis sp. nov., Isolated from a Dog with Osteomyelitis.  

PubMed

Infections caused by Penicillium species are rare in dogs, and the prognosis in these cases is poor. An unknown species of Penicillium was isolated from a bone lesion in a young dog with osteomyelitis of the right ilium. Extensive diagnostic evaluation did not reveal evidence of dissemination. Resolution of lameness and clinical stability of disease were achieved with intravenous phospholipid-complexed amphotericin B initially, followed by long-term combination therapy with terbinafine and ketoconazole. A detailed morphological and molecular characterization of the mold was undertaken. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer revealed the isolate to be closely related to Penicillium menonorum and Penicillium pimiteouiense. Additional sequence analysis of ?-tubulin, calmodulin, minichromosome maintenance factor, DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and pre-rRNA processing protein revealed the isolate to be a novel species; the name Penicillium canis sp. nov. is proposed. Morphologically, smooth, ovoid conidia, a greenish gray colony color, slow growth on all media, and a failure to form ascomata distinguish this species from closely related Penicillium species. PMID:24789186

Langlois, Daniel K; Sutton, Deanna A; Swenson, Cheryl L; Bailey, Chris J; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Nelson, Nathan C; Thompson, Elizabeth H; Wickes, Brian L; French, Stephanie; Fu, Jianmin; Vilar-Saavedra, Paulo; Peterson, Stephen W

2014-07-01

205

Morphological and molecular characterization of renal ciliates infecting farmed snails in Spain.  

PubMed

Renal infections by parasitic ciliates were studied in adult snails of Helix aspersa aspersa and Helix aspersa maxima collected from 2 mixed rearing system-based heliciculture farms located in Galicia (NW Spain). The occurrence of ciliates was also examined in slugs (Deroceras reticulatum) invading the greenhouses where first growing and fattening of snails is carried out. Histological examinations revealed a severe destruction of the renal epithelium in heavily infected hosts. Three ciliate isolates, one from each host species, were obtained and grown in axenic cultures. Cultured and parasitic ciliates were characterized morphologically and morphometrically. In addition, the encystment behaviour, the occurrence of autogamy, and the sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome-c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) genes were also studied in the 3 isolates. A polymorphic life cycle involving resting and reproductive cysts, together with the morphological and morphometrical characteristics and the confirmation that autogamy occurs within cysts, demonstrate that our ciliates belong to the species Tetrahymena rostrata (Kahl, 1926) Corliss, 1952. The 3 isolates formed a well-supported clade using both genetic markers, and were clearly separate from the strain ATCC(R) 30770, which has been identified as Tetrahymena rostrata. We argue that our Spanish isolates should be regarded as Tetrahymena rostrata, and that the ATCC isolate should be regarded as a misidentification as neither cytological nor cytogenetical support for its identity has been presented. PMID:19402940

Segade, P; Kher, C P; Lynn, D H; Iglesias, R

2009-06-01

206

Morphological and Molecular Characterization of a Fungus, Hirsutella sp., Isolated from Planthoppers and Psocids in Argentina  

PubMed Central

A mycosed planthopper, Oliarus dimidiatus Berg (Hemiptera: Cixiidae), and two psocids, Heterocaecilius sp. (Psocodea: Pseudocaeciliidae) and Ectopsocus sp. (Ectopsocidae), were collected from Los Hornos and La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina between February and September 2007. Observations of mycelia growing on the host revealed that the putative fungal parasite had synnemata supporting monophialidic conidiogenous cells. Likewise, in vitro fungal cultures presented characteristics typical of the fungus Hirsutella citriformis Speare (Ascomycota: Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae). The identity of the isolated fungi characterized based on morphological aspects was complemented by means of the internal transcribed spacer sequences. The sequences of both isolates were highly homologous to those of Cordyceps sp. (Fries) Link and Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Berkely) G.H. Sung, J.M. Sung, Hywel-Jones, and Spatafora (Ophiocordycipitaceae). We additionally confirmed that both isolates had the ability to infect and kill adults of Delphacodes kuscheli Fennah (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) after 10 days. Therefore, based on the morphology of the isolated fungi, their ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequence, and their ability to parasite insects, we conclude that the fungi isolated belong to the genus Hirsutella and might have biotechnological potential.

Toledo, Andrea V.; Simurro, Maria E.; Balatti, Pedro A.

2013-01-01

207

Morphology, Structure and Function Characterization of PEI Modified Magnetic Nanoparticles Gene Delivery System  

PubMed Central

Modified magnetic nanoparticles are used as non-viral gene carriers in biological applications. To achieve successful gene delivery, it is critical that nanoparticles effectually assemble with nucleic acids. However, relatively little work has been conducted on the assemble mechanisms between nanoparticles and DNA, and its effects on transfection efficiency. Using biophysical and biochemical characterization, along with Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we investigate the morphologies, assembling structures and gene delivering abilities of the PEI modified magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) gene delivery system. In this gene delivery system, MNP/DNA complexes are formed via binding of DNA onto the surface of MNPs. MNPs are favorable to not only increase DNA concentration but also prevent DNA degradation. Magnetofection experiments showed that MNPs has low cytotoxicity and introduces highly stable transfection in mammalian somatic cells. In addition, different binding ratios between MNPs and DNA result in various morphologies of MNP/DNA complexes and have an influence on transfection efficiency. Dose–response profile indicated that transfection efficiency positively correlate with MNP/DNA ratio. Furthermore, intracellular tracking demonstrate that MNPs move though the cell membranes, deliver and release exogenous DNA into the nucleus.

Zhao, Xiang; Cui, Haixin; Chen, Wenjie; Wang, Yan; Cui, Bo; Sun, Changjiao; Meng, Zhigang; Liu, Guoqiang

2014-01-01

208

Morphological Study of Early Changes in Rat Bones in Simulated Weightlessness.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

By histomorphometric methods tibial bones and lumbar vertebrae of rats exposed for 7 days to hypokinesia or head-down suspension were investigated. Both hypokinesia and suspension led to osteoporosis of the tibial metaphyseal spongiosa which was primarily...

A. S. Kaplanskiy, Z. F. Sakharova, Y. I. Ilyinakakuyeva, G. N. Durnova

1988-01-01

209

Dietary fat saturation, mortality and heart and lung morphology of rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rats of both sexes were fed diets containing 21% (wt) fat as beef tallow (BT), safflower oil (SO), or a 60:40 BT:SO mix (M).\\u000a Some of each group were killed at 9, 12, 15, 18, and 21 months of age. Death by 15 months was significantly (P<.001) greater\\u000a in SO rats than in other groups. Mortality in SO females was

Audrey A. Spindler; Jacqueline Dupont; Melvin M. Mathias

1978-01-01

210

Biochemical and morphological changes in the digestive tract of rats after prenatal and postnatal malnutrition13  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six-week-old rats subjected to prenatal and postnatal dietary restriction (ma- ternal and weanling intake = 50% that of controls) were studied. Compared with controls, malnourished rats not only had reduced body (78 ± 12 vs 187 ± 2 1 g) and organ weights (small intestine: 4.5 1 ± 0.46 vs 9.89 ± 0.6 1 g; colon: 0.75 ± 0.08 vs

Agus Firmansyah; Laurentius Suwandito; Duna Penn; Emanuel Lebenthal

211

Morphological and mineralogical characterizations of oolitic iron ore in the Exi region, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The morphological and mineralogical characterizations of a Chinese oolitic iron ore (Exi deposit) were studied by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in this work. It is shown that the Exi ore is mainly composed of hematite, quartz, apatite, and chlorite. The hematite is present as the oolitic layers and in the spaces between the aggregated ooids; quartz exists as granular particles in the spaces and as nucleuses in ooids; the harmful mineral, apatite, is associated with hematite as the oolitic layers, fine dissemination, granular particles in the spaces, and nucleuses in ooids. From the viewpoint of mineral beneficiation, it is hard to separate apatite and chlorite but easy to separate quartz from hematite in the Exi iron ore in recovering the iron values.

Song, Shao-xian; Campos-Toro, Ernesto Fabian; Zhang, Yi-min; Lopez-Valdivieso, Alejandro

2013-02-01

212

Morphological and molecular characterization of Pratylenchus lentis n. sp. (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae) from Sicily  

PubMed Central

Pratylenchus lentis n. sp. parasitizing roots of lentil in Sicily, Italy, is described and illustrated. The new species is characterized by a relatively high lip region with three annuli, mean stylet length of 16 ?m, with anteriorly flattened knobs, cylindrical body with a relatively anterior vulva, large and ovoid spermatheca full of sperm, plump tail with truncate, irregularly annulated terminus, and by the presence of males. Molecular ITS-RFLP and sequencing analyses of the new species showed clear differences from other most morphologically similar species, such as P. thornei and P. mediterraneus. Preliminary host range tests revealed that chickpea, pea, faba bean and durum wheat are good hosts of P. lentis n. sp., whereas common bean, alfalfa and barley are less robust hosts and tomato, bell pepper, eggplant, melon and sunflower are poor hosts for the nematode.

De Luca, F.; Handoo, Z. A.; Di Vito, M.

2008-01-01

213

Morphological and molecular characterization of Zygotylenchus gansuensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Pratylenchinae) from China.  

PubMed

Zygotylenchus gansuensis n. sp. is described and illustrated from the rhizosphere of jujube (Zizyphus jujuba Mill.) based on morphology and molecular analyses. This new species is characterized by a low and flattened labial region with three annuli, stylet 14.1±0.5 (13.0-14.9) ?m long, deirids absent, five lateral lines in the vulval region, pharyngeal glands overlapping ventrally or ventrolaterally, V = 56.4±1.6 (54.0-60.8), indistinct spermatheca, subcylindrical tail with smooth and rounded terminus, and males absent. Molecular analyses show that the species has unique partial SSU, LSU D2D3 and ITS rRNA sequences. Phylogenetic relationships of Z. gansuensis n. sp. with other nematodes in Pratylenchinae are analysed using SSU and LSU D2D3. PMID:24989759

Wang, Honghong; Zhuo, Kan; Liao, Jinling

2014-01-01

214

The localization of adenosine triphosphatases in morphologically characterized subcellular fractions of guinea-pig brain  

PubMed Central

1. The distribution of adenosine triphosphatase was studied in morphologically characterized subcellular fractions of guinea-pig brain. The conditions of homogenization were selected so as to favour the survival of nerve endings as organized structures. 2. A fraction consisting mainly of the external membranes of nerve endings was rich in a ouabain-sensitive Na+–K+-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase which closely resembled that present in the classical microsomal fraction studied by other workers, but which showed a higher specific activity. 3. A dinitrophenol-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase was located in the nerve-ending mitochondria. 4. The synaptic-vesicle fraction contained a small amount of adenosine triphosphatase that differed in its response to several ions and other compounds from the membrane, myelin and mitochondrial fractions, indicating freedom from contamination by these elements. ImagesPLATE 1PLATE 2

Hosie, R. Jeanette A.

1965-01-01

215

HemoHIM improves ovarian morphology and decreases expression of nerve growth factor in rats with steroid-induced polycystic ovaries.  

PubMed

Estradiol valerate (EV)-induced polycystic ovaries (PCOs) in rats cause the anovulation and cystic ovarian morphology. We investigated whether treatment with HemoHIM influences the ovarian morphology and the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) in an EV-induced PCO rat model. PCO was induced by a single intramuscular injection of EV (4 mg, dissolved in sesame oil) in adult cycling rats. HemoHIM was either administered orally (100 mg/kg of body weight/day) for 35 consecutive days or injected intraperitoneally (50 mg/kg of body weight) every other day after EV injection. Ovarian morphology was almost normalized, and NGF was normalized in the PCO + HemoHIM group. HemoHIM lowered the high numbers of antral follicles and increased the number of corpora lutea in PCOs. The results are consistent with a beneficial effect of HemoHIM in the prevention and treatment of PCO syndrome. PMID:20041792

Kim, Sung Ho; Lee, Hae June; Kim, Joong Sun; Moon, Changjong; Kim, Jong Choon; Bae, Chun Sik; Park, Hae Ran; Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung Kee

2009-12-01

216

Morphology of cerebral lesions in the Eker rat model of tuberous sclerosis.  

PubMed

Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder, caused by mutations of either the TSC1 or TSC2 gene. Characteristic brain pathologies (including cortical tubers and subependymal hamartomas/giant astrocytomas) are thought to cause epilepsy, as well as other neurological dysfunction. The Eker rat, which carries a spontaneous germline mutation of the TSC2 gene (TSC2+/-), provides a unique animal model in which to study the relationship between TSC cortical pathologies and epilepsy. In the present study, we have analyzed the seizure propensity and histopathological features of a modified Eker rat preparation, in which early postnatal irradiation was employed as a "second hit" stimulus in an attempt to exacerbate cortical malformations and increase seizure propensity. Irradiated Eker rats had a tendency toward lower seizure thresholds (latencies to flurothyl-induced seizures) than seen in non-irradiated Eker rats (significant difference) or irradiated wild-type rats (non-significant difference). The majority of irradiated Eker rats exhibited dysplastic cytomegalic neurons and giant astrocyte-like cells, similar to cytopathologies observed in TSC lesions of patients. The most prominent features in these brains were hamartoma-like lesions involving large eosinophilic cells, similar to giant tuber cells in human TSC. In some cells from these hamartomas, immunocytochemistry revealed features of both neuronal and glial phenotypes, suggesting an undifferentiated or immature cell population. Both normal-appearing and dysmorphic neurons, as well as cells in the hamartomas, exhibited immunopositivity for tuberin, the protein product of the TSC2 gene. PMID:15185103

Wenzel, H Jürgen; Patel, Leena S; Robbins, Carol A; Emmi, Adriana; Yeung, Raymond S; Schwartzkroin, Philip A

2004-08-01

217

Aging cochleas in the F344 rat: morphological and functional changes.  

PubMed

The Fischer 344 rat strain has been frequently used as an animal model of rapid aging. The present study was aimed at evaluating the incidence of apoptotic cells in the inner ear of 20-24-month-old F344 rats and to correlate it with cochlear function using otoacoustic emissions. Staining with cresyl violet and the enzymatic labeling (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase, TdT) of fragmented DNA revealed large numbers of apoptotic cells in the marginal and basal layers of the stria vascularis and in adjacent cells of the spiral ligament. The amplitudes of distortion products otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), which reflect functional state of the outer hair cells, were significantly reduced or totally absent in these animals. In contrast to old F344 rats, no marked DPOAE amplitude reduction and smaller numbers of apoptotic cells were found in young 4-month-old F344 rats or in aged 24-28-month-old Long Evans rats. The accumulation of apoptotic cells, mainly in the basal layer of the stria vascularis and in adjacent cells of the spiral ligament, leads to a detachment of the stria vascularis from the spiral ligament and results in the impairment of outer hair cell function. This specific type of strial deterioration suggests that aged F344 rats can serve as an animal model of strial presbycusis. PMID:17442517

Buckiova, Daniela; Popelar, Jiri; Syka, Josef

2007-07-01

218

Testicular morphology of male rats exposed to Phaleria macrocarpa (Mahkota dewa) aqueous extract  

PubMed Central

Objective(s): This study was designed to investigate the effect of Phaleria macrocarpa aqueous extract (PM) on spermatogenesis by observing the histological changes of testes in adult male rats. Materials and Methods: PM was prepared by boiling the dried slices of P. macrocarpa fruits followed by filtering, centrifugation and freeze-drying to obtain the powder form. Eighteen Sprague Dawley adult male rats were divided into three groups (six in each group), designated as treatment (240 mg/kg PM), negative control (distilled water) and positive control (4mg/kg testosterone) and administered via intragastric gavage for seven weeks. In the sixth week of supplementation period, each male rat was introduced to five female rats. Afterward, all rats were sacrificed and the testes were removed for histological studies. Results: PM significantly increased the number of cell and the thickness of seminiferous tubules of male rats (P<0.05). However, there was no significant effect on the volume and size of testes. The mean of spermatogonia cells numbers of PM groups differed significantly from the negative and positive groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: PM showed potential value as an attractive alternative for improving sexual strength by increasing the number of spermatogonia cell and the thickness of the seminiferous tubules. Perhaps, PM could be suggested to be one of the herbal remedies that can improve men fertility. The results may have some clinical implication in the management of infertility.

Parhizkar, Saadat; Zulkifli, Suriani Binti; Dollah, Mohammad Aziz

2014-01-01

219

Morphological Variability in Leaves and Molecular Characterization of Novel Table Grape Candidate Cultivars (Vitis vinifera L.).  

PubMed

The present work report the characterization of twenty-one table grapes candidate cultivars plus five registered ones included as reference, by means of 47 ampelographic traits, 23 ampelometric measurements and six microsatellite loci. The final goal of the research was to analyse the possibility of reducing the number of morphological and molecular tools required for a precise and effective description of a grape genotype or cultivar. This would be of great help for future biodiversity description on a larger sample of more than 300 table grapes accessions today grown at the 'Consiglio per la Ricerca e la sperimentazione in Agricoltura (C.R.A.)-Unità di ricerca per l'uva da tavola e la vitivinicoltura in ambiente mediterraneo (Bari-Italy)'. OIV ampelographic traits showed a clear distinction among all twenty-six genotypes analysed, suggesting the relevant morphological variability investigated. Principal component analysis based on ampelometric traits revealed main veins ON(3), ON(4) and O(3)N(4); ratios between main veins; angles between main veins and of petiolar sinus, to be the most effective records in differentiating cultivars, for a total variation of 69.9 % described by the first three components. Molecular analysis based on six microsatellite loci was performed on all genotypes, providing a detailed molecular profile and a dendrogram of genetic similarity, in which all genotypes were clearly distinguishable. Finally, with the goal of using the minimum possible number of markers to differentiate genotypes, microsatellites VVMD5 and VVMD27 were selected to be sufficient to distinguish among all the candidate cultivars included in the analysis, representing a possible 'step by step' approach when a molecular characterization has to be undertaken on a large number of genotypes, by first testing few markers and increasing their number only if necessary. PMID:24415447

Alba, Vittorio; Bergamini, Carlo; Cardone, Maria Francesca; Gasparro, Marica; Perniola, Rocco; Genghi, Rosalinda; Antonacci, Donato

2014-06-01

220

Characterization and cellular localization of PSG in rat testis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to establish the rat testis as a model system for studying the human pregnancy-specific b1-glycoprotein (PSG), expression and cellular distribution of PSG in rat testis were examined. Three partial PSG cDNAs, namely, rnCGM6, rnGCM7, and rnCGM8 were obtained when rat testis cDNA libraries were screened with a human placental PSG cDNA probe. Unlike the human PSGs, the rat

Le Ann Blomberg; Shao-Ming Wu; Ghenima Dirami; Martin Dym; Janice Y. Chou; Wai-Yee Chan

1997-01-01

221

Morphologic alterations in the trachea and the salivary gland following the induction of rapid synchronous vitamin A deficiency in rats.  

PubMed Central

The use of the synchronous induction method enables both assessment of the sequence and reliability of the appearance of morphologic signs of vitamin A deficiency, and their accurate correlation with biochemical and physiologic abnormalities. In the trachea, hyperplasia of basal epithelial cells was observed by Day 4 (T4) following the withdrawal of retinoic acid from retinoate-cycled, stringently deficient rats. Keratinization was observed by Day 6, the upper part of the trachea showing the highest incidence of keratinization. All such metaplastic changes originated in the narrow strip of tissue directly cojoining the esophagus. In the submaxillary glands, atrophy of the acini, an increase in interlobular spaces, and fibrosis and dilatation of the ducts was observed by Day 10. In more advanced stages of deficiency (T14-T18), cyst formation associated with suppuration and extensive cell atrophy was observed. Morphologic changes were less marked in the sublingual glands, although mucin levels were noticeably depressed by Day 12 of deficiency. Following the oral dosing of deficient animals (T12) with 350 micrograms retinyl palmitate, all such changes were reversed within 6 days in the trachea and within 10 days in the submaxillary and sublingual glands. Similar patterns were observed whether animals were force-fed or were fed ad libitum. Apart, therefore, from cause-effect considerations per se, morphologic changes are also potentially valuable reference indicators of deficiency, particularly in time course studies, or where force-feeding attenuates other signs of deficiency. Images Figure 1-3

Anzano, M. A.; Olson, J. A.; Lamb, A. J.

1980-01-01

222

Characterization of polyamine transport in rat aortic smooth muscle cells.  

PubMed

Increased arterial wall polyamine content has been linked to intimal hyperplasia (IH) formation. Intracellular polyamine content may be regulated by a polyamine transmembrane transport mechanism, but the existence of such a system has not been demonstrated in systemic arterial smooth muscle cells. This study characterizes polyamine transport as found in rat aortic smooth muscle cells. Smooth muscle cells were isolated and cultured from Sprague-Dawley rat aortas. Polyamine transport was determined by adding [14C]-polyamines to the medium, calculating transport kinetic parameters, Vmax and Km. Competition studies with unlabeled polyamines and uptake in the presence of paraquat, a polyamine transport inhibitor, were done to test the specificity of the uptake system. We identified polyamine transporters in aortic smooth muscle cells which were temperature, concentration, and time dependent. Kinetic studies revealed that spermidine and spermine had greater affinity for the transporter(s) than putrescine (Km = 0.3, 0.3, and 3.7 microM respectively; P = 0.0001) while maximum uptake velocity was similar for all polyamines (26.6-31.0 pmole/mg protein/min). Inhibition of de novo polyamine synthesis upregulated polyamine transport 2.8-3.8 times (P = 0.0001) while transporter affinity (as reflected by Km) remained unchanged. Competition studies and paraquat treatment indicated the presence of two polyamine transporters: one shared by all polyamines, the other specific for spermine and spermidine. These data indicate that transmembrane polyamine transport occurs in arterial smooth muscle cells. Upregulation of this system may represent one control mechanism for IH development. PMID:8072288

Toursarkissian, B; Endean, E D; Aziz, S M

1994-09-01

223

A new model of acute liver steatosis induced in rats by fasting followed by refeeding a high carbohydrate-fat free diet. Biochemical and morphological analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Dietary habits are often considered to be responsible for fatty liver, a common histological finding in human liver biopsies. The aim of the present work was to test the hypothesis that fasting followed by refeeding high carbohydrate-fat free diets in rats disrupts hepatic lipid homeostatis, leading to liver lipid accumulation and morphological alterations.Methods: Male Wistar rats were fasted for

Nathalie M. Delzenne; Nancy A. Hernaux; Henryk S. Taper

1997-01-01

224

Metabolic and morphologic properties of single muscle fibers in the rat after spaceflight, Cosmos 1887.  

PubMed

The adaptation of a slow (soleus, Sol) and a fast (medial gastrocnemius, MG) skeletal muscle to spaceflight was studied in five young male rats. The flight period was 12.5 days and the rats were killed approximately 48 h after returning to 1 g. Five other rats that were housed in cages similar to those used by the flight rats were maintained at 1 g for the same period of time to serve as ground-based controls. Fibers were classified as dark or light staining for myosin adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase). On the average, the fibers in the Sol of the flight rats atrophied twice as much as those in the MG. Further, the fibers located in the deep (close to the bone and having the highest percentage of light ATPase and high oxidative fibers in the muscle cross section) region of the MG atrophied more than the fibers located in the superficial (away from the bone and having the lowest percentage of light ATPase and high oxidative fibers in the muscle cross-section) region of the muscle. Based on quantitative histochemical assays of single muscle fibers, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity per unit volume was unchanged in fibers of the Sol and MG. However, in the Sol, but not the MG, the total amount of SDH activity in a 10-microns-thick section of a fiber decreased significantly in response to spaceflight. Based on population distributions, it appears that the alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) activities were elevated in the dark ATPase fibers in the Sol, whereas the light fibers in the Sol and both fiber types in the MG did not appear to change. The ratio of GPD to SDH activities increased in the dark (but not light) fibers of the Sol and was unaffected in the MG. Immunohistochemical analyses indicate that approximately 40% of the fibers in the Sol of flight rats expressed a fast myosin heavy chain compared with 22% in control rats. Further, 31% of the fibers in the Sol of flight rats expressed both fast and slow myosin heavy chains compared with 8% in control rats. Immunohistochemical changes in the MG were minimal. These data suggest that the magnitude and direction of enzymatic activity and cell volume changes are dependent on the muscle, the region of the muscle, and the type of myosin expressed in the fibers. Further, the ability of fibers to maintain normal or even elevated activities per unit volume of some metabolic enzymes is remarkable considering the marked and rapid decrease in fiber volume. PMID:2136839

Miu, B; Martin, T P; Roy, R R; Oganov, V; Ilyina-Kakueva, E; Marini, J F; Leger, J J; Bodine-Fowler, S C; Edgerton, V R

1990-01-01

225

Metabolic and morphologic properties of single muscle fibers in the rat after spaceflight, Cosmos 1887  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The adaptation of a slow (soleus, Sol) and a fast (medial gastrocnemius, MG) skeletal muscle to spaceflight was studied in five young male rats. The flight period was 12.5 days and the rats were killed approximately 48 h after returning to 1 g. Five other rats that were housed in cages similar to those used by the flight rats were maintained at 1 g for the same period of time to serve as ground-based controls. Fibers were classified as dark or light staining for myosin adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase). On the average, the fibers in the Sol of the flight rats atrophied twice as much as those in the MG. Further, the fibers located in the deep (close to the bone and having the highest percentage of light ATPase and high oxidative fibers in the muscle cross section) region of the MG atrophied more than the fibers located in the superficial (away from the bone and having the lowest percentage of light ATPase and high oxidative fibers in the muscle cross-section) region of the muscle. Based on quantitative histochemical assays of single muscle fibers, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity per unit volume was unchanged in fibers of the Sol and MG. However, in the Sol, but not the MG, the total amount of SDH activity in a 10-microns-thick section of a fiber decreased significantly in response to spaceflight. Based on population distributions, it appears that the alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) activities were elevated in the dark ATPase fibers in the Sol, whereas the light fibers in the Sol and both fiber types in the MG did not appear to change. The ratio of GPD to SDH activities increased in the dark (but not light) fibers of the Sol and was unaffected in the MG. Immunohistochemical analyses indicate that approximately 40% of the fibers in the Sol of flight rats expressed a fast myosin heavy chain compared with 22% in control rats. Further, 31% of the fibers in the Sol of flight rats expressed both fast and slow myosin heavy chains compared with 8% in control rats. Immunohistochemical changes in the MG were minimal. These data suggest that the magnitude and direction of enzymatic activity and cell volume changes are dependent on the muscle, the region of the muscle, and the type of myosin expressed in the fibers. Further, the ability of fibers to maintain normal or even elevated activities per unit volume of some metabolic enzymes is remarkable considering the marked and rapid decrease in fiber volume.

Miu, B.; Martin, T. P.; Roy, R. R.; Oganov, V.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E.; Marini, J. F.; Leger, J. J.; Bodine-Fowler, S. C.; Edgerton, V. R.

1990-01-01

226

Spinal cord morphology and antinociception after chronic intrathecal administration of excitatory amino acid antagonists in the rat.  

PubMed

Drugs that antagonize the action of excitatory amino acids on the NMDA receptor in the spinal cord are of interest in pain treatment. Before such drugs can be applied clinically, their potential toxicity should be studied. This study was performed in rats in order to reveal possible neurotoxicologic side effects following chronic intrathecal (i.t.) application of two NMDA receptor antagonists: 3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP) and kynurenic acid (KYN). Rats equipped with i.t. catheters were injected twice a day for 2 weeks with saline, 2 nmol (0.5 micrograms) CPP or 210 nmol (40 micrograms) KYN, where the doses of CPP and KYN were chosen on the basis of similar analgesic effects after one administration. Antinociception was tested daily using the tail-flick and hot-plate tests. The antinociceptive effect was similar in CPP- and KYN-treated rats on days 1 and 2. The effect of CPP decreased during the following days, whereas that of KYN persisted for the 12-day testing period. The spinal cord was then removed and prepared for light and electron microscopic examination, and a morphometric method using an unbiased stereological estimator of cell number and cell volume was applied as a sensitive variable of spinal cord neurotoxicity. Morphologic and ultrastructural analyses of the spinal cord segment adjacent to the tip of the catheter showed normal appearance with no differences between the groups. Furthermore, no differences in cell number or cell volume in the dorsal horn were found between the groups. In conclusion, chronic i.t. administration of pharmacologically active doses of CPP and KYN in rats did not produce neurotoxic effects in the spinal cord.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8233545

Kristensen, J D; Post, C; Gordh, T; Svensson, B A

1993-09-01

227

Dietary supplementation with ovine serum immunoglobulin attenuates acute effects on growth, organ weights, gut morphology and intestinal mucin production in the growing rat challenged with Salmonella enteritidis.  

PubMed

The aim was to determine the effect of orally administered ovine serum immunoglobulin (Ig) on growth performance, organ weight, gut morphology and mucin production in the Salmonella enteritidis--gavaged growing rat. Four groups consisted of non-gavaged rats fed a casein-based control basal diet (BD) and three groups of rats gavaged with 1×10(7) CFU S. enteritidis and fed a casein-based diet, a diet containing freeze-dried ovine Ig (FDOI) or a casein-based diet containing inactivated ovine Ig (IOI). The rats were randomly allocated to one of the four groups (n=15/group) and received their respective diets for an 18-day experimental study. Gavaging took place on day 15. Average daily gain and body gain : feed ratio (post-gavage, 3 days) were significantly (P<0.05) higher for the Salmonella-challenged rats fed the FDOI diet compared to those fed the BD and IOI diets. At the end of the study, the small intestine and colon were significantly (P<0.05) heavier for the gavaged rats fed the FDOI diet compared to the gavaged rats fed either the BD or IOI diet. Moreover, the relative weights of the caecum, liver and spleen of the gavaged rats fed the BD or IOI diet were significantly (P<0.05) heavier compared to the gavaged rats fed the FDOI diet. Generally, the gavaged rats fed the FDOI diet had significantly (P<0.05) higher goblet cell counts and luminal mucin protein contents than the gavaged rats fed either the BD or IOI diet and had a more functional gut morphology. Overall, the FDOI fraction prevented the acute effects of S. enteritidis. PMID:22440348

Balan, P; Han, K S; Rutherfurd, S M; Singh, H; Moughan, P J

2011-08-01

228

Effect of iodine supplementation on thyroid and testicular morphology and function in euthyroid rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventy-five male weaner euthyroid rats, randomly divided into three equal groups were used to evaluate the effect of iodine\\u000a supplementation in the diet on growth and spermatogenesis. From the age of six weeks, the rat groups were fed normal diet\\u000a containing 0.05 mg iodine\\/Kg diet (A); normal diet supplemented with 0.5 mg\\/Kg iodine (B) and normal diet supplemented with\\u000a 3.0 mg\\/Kg iodine for

S. V. O. Shoyinka; I. R. Obidike; C. O. Ndumnego

2008-01-01

229

Morphologic spectrum of immunohistochemically characterized clear cell carcinoma of the ovary: a study of 155 cases.  

PubMed

Establishing a diagnosis of ovarian clear cell carcinoma (O-CCC) can be subject to significant interobserver variation. Accurately diagnosing this tumor is important because of its chemoresistance and reported association with Lynch syndrome. The spectrum of the morphologic features of O-CCC has not been well described in a series composed of immunohistochemically characterized cases. A total of 155 cases diagnosed as O-CCC were retrieved from the files of 3 institutions to analyze architectural and cytologic features. The immunohistochemical features of these cases have been reported earlier. A comprehensive list of features was recorded, including, but not limited to, architectural patterns, nuclear appearance, cytoplasmic characteristics, and mitotic index. Between 1 and 13 slides were available for review for each case. The cases were divided into 2 groups based on morphologic characteristics, those with features shared by the large majority (the first group, n=138) and those that showed unusual characteristics (second group, n=17). Tumors in the first group typically showed a mixture of architectural patterns, the most frequent being papillary and tubulocystic. Papillae, usually small and round and lacking hierarchical branching and tufting or stratification of more than 3 cells, were present at least focally in almost 3 of 4 cases. The cell shape was predominantly cuboidal, not columnar. Nuclear pleomorphism and prominent nucleoli were frequently present, but never diffusely. Clear cytoplasm was found in nearly every case and hobnail cells were common. Mitoses exhibited a range from 0 to 13 with an average of 3 to 4 per 10 high power fields. The second group of tumors showed numerous unusual morphologic characteristics, despite the presence of clear cytoplasm, including those typically seen in other ovarian epithelial tumors, such as serous and endometrioid carcinoma. Eighty-nine percent of tumors from the first group showed the expected "O-CCC immunophenotype" [hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) positive, and estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) and p53 negative], whereas 4% of tumors showed HNF positivity along with focal ER or PR expression. Seven percent of tumors were not immunoreactive with these markers. Twenty-nine percent of tumors in the second group showed the O-CCC immunophenotype, whereas 24% of tumors were p53 positive, 5% of tumors were WT1 positive, and the remaining cases were negative for all markers. Ninety-seven percent (112 of 117) of HNF-positive tumors in this series were classical O-CCC. Therefore, O-CCC has characteristic morphologic features and a specific, if not unique, immunophenotype in the vast majority of the cases. Clear cell-rich tumors with features that depart from the classical morphologic appearances described herein should suggest the possibility of an alternative diagnosis. PMID:21164285

DeLair, Deborah; Oliva, Esther; Köbel, Martin; Macias, Antonio; Gilks, C Blake; Soslow, Robert A

2011-01-01

230

Characterization of a morphological checkpoint coupling cell-specific transcription to septation in Bacillus subtilis.  

PubMed

Early in the process of spore formation in Bacillus subtilis, asymmetric cell division produces a large mother cell and a much smaller prespore. Differentiation of the prespore is initiated by activation of an RNA polymerase sigma factor, sigmaF, specifically in that cell. sigmaF is controlled by a regulatory cascade involving an anti-sigma factor, SpoIIAB, an anti-anti-sigma factor, SpoIIAA, and a membrane-bound phosphatase, SpoIIE, which converts the inactive, phosphorylated form of SpoIIAA back to the active form. SpoIIE is required for proper asymmetric division and much of the protein is sequestered into the prespore during septation. Importantly, activation of sigmaF is dependent on formation of the asymmetric septum. We have now characterized this morphological checkpoint in detail, using strains affected in cell division and/or spoIIE function. Surprisingly, we found that significant dephosphorylation of SpoIIAA occurred even in the absence of septation. This shows that the SpoIIE phosphatase is at least partially active independent of the morphological event and also that cells can tolerate significant levels of unphosphorylated SpoIIAA without activating sigmaF. We also describe a spoIIE mutant in which the checkpoint is bypassed, probably by an increase in the dephosphorylation of SpoIIAA. Taken together, the results support the idea that sequestration of SpoIIE protein into the prespore plays an important role in the control of sigmaF activation and in coupling this activation to septation. PMID:10476035

Feucht, A; Daniel, R A; Errington, J

1999-09-01

231

Influence of age on aluminum-induced neurobehavioral effects and morphological changes in rat brain.  

PubMed

Aluminum (Al) is potentially toxic for mammals. In contrast to well documented Al neurotoxicity, neurobehavioral studies of Al in rodents have generally not produced robust or consistent results. In the present study, 16 young male (21 days old) and 16 old male (18 months) rats were exposed to 0 (control group) and 100 mg/kg/day of Al administered as Al nitrate nonahydrate in drinking water concurrently with citric acid (356 mg/kg/day) for a period of 100 days. At the end of the exposure period, rats were evaluated for motor activity in an open-field apparatus and learning in a passive avoidance test. After behavioral testing, rats were sacrificed and brain samples were collected to determine Al concentrations and to study synapses in the left CA1 fields of hippocampal formation. While no significant effects of Al exposure between groups could be detected on behavior, the total number of synapses decreased with age and Al exposure. In turn, the percentage of perforated synapses significantly increased in old Al-loaded rats. PMID:12520767

Colomina, M Teresa; Roig, José L; Sánchez, Domènec J; Domingo, José L

2002-12-01

232

MORPHOLOGIC ANALYSIS CORRELATES WITH GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN CULTURED F344 RAT MESOTHELIAL CELLS  

EPA Science Inventory

The gene expression pattern of mesothelial cells in vitro was determined after 4 or 12 h exposure to the rat mesothelial, kidney and thyroid carcinogen, and oxidative stressor potassium bromate (KBr03). Gene expression changes observed using cDNA arrays indicated oxidative stres...

233

SEM surface morphology of the contractile cells in the rat seminiferous tubules.  

PubMed

The SEM observation of the basal surface of the contractile cells in the boundary tissue of the seminiferous tubule of the rat revealed that the contractile cells are extremely flat, vary in shape from rectangular to hexagonal, and are arranged close to each other, in the fashion of a tiled floor, around the seminiferous epithelium. PMID:477892

Murakami, M; Hamasaki, M; Okita, S; Abe, J

1979-08-15

234

Cosmos 1887: morphology, histochemistry, and vasculature of the growing rat tibia.  

PubMed

Light microscopy, electron microscopy, and enzyme histochemistry were used to study the effects of spaceflight on metaphyseal and cortical bone of the rat tibia. Cortical cross-sectional area and perimeter were not altered by a 12.5-day spaceflight in 3-month-old male rats. The endosteal osteoblast population and the vasculature near the periosteal surface in flight rats compared with ground controls showed more pronounced changes in cortical bone than in metaphyseal bone. The osteoblasts demonstrated greater numbers of transitional Golgi vesicles, possibly caused by a decreased cellular metabolic energy source, but no difference in the large Golgi saccules or the cell membrane-associated alkaline phosphatase activity. The periosteal vasculature in the diaphysis of flight rats often showed lipid accumulations within the lumen of the vessels, occasional degeneration of the vascular wall, and degeneration of osteocytes adjacent to vessels containing intraluminal deposits. These changes were not found in the metaphyseal region of flight animals. The focal vascular changes may be due to ischemia of bone or a developing fragility of the vessel walls as a result of spaceflight. PMID:2153083

Doty, S B; Morey-Holton, E R; Durnova, G N; Kaplansky, A S

1990-01-01

235

Morphological Plasticity in Efferent Pathways to of the Rat Following Urethral Obstruction the Urinary Bladder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partial urethral ligation in female Wistar rats produces changes in the neural control of the lower urinary tract in- cluding bladder hyperactivity and facilitation of a spinal mic- turition reflex pathway. To gain insight into the mechanisms underlying these changes, axonal tracing studies were con- ducted to examine the postganglionic efferent limb of the micturition reflex pathway which originates in

William D. Steers; Jonathan Ciambotti; Susan Erdman; William C. de Groat

236

Morphologic Changes in the Pineal Parenchyma Cells of Rats Exposed to Continuous Light or Darkness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young female rats were main- tained for 8 weeks in continuous light or dark- ness, after which their pineal organs were re- moved and studied with light microscopy. The pineals from animals kept in light appeared to be functionally inhibited in that the paren- chymal cells were smaller in size, contained fewer prominent nucleoli and had much less cytoplasmic basophila

WILLARD D. ROTH; RICHARD J. WURTMAN; MARK D. ALTSCHULE

1962-01-01

237

Morphological, molecular, and functional heterogeneity of cholangiocytes from normal rat liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND & AIMS: While the lobular heterogeneity of hepatocytes is established, limited data suggest that bile duct epithelial cells, of cholangiocytes, are heterogeneous along the normal intrahepatic biliary tree. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that cholangiocytes are structurally and functionally heterogeneous in the biliary tract of normal rats. METHODS: A series of in situ and in vitro experiments was performed

G Alpini; S Roberts; SM Kuntz; Y Ueno; S Gubba; PV Podila; G LeSage; NF LaRusso

1996-01-01

238

Cosmos 1887: morphology, histochemistry, and vasculature of the growing rat tibia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Light microscopy, electron microscopy, and enzyme histochemistry were used to study the effects of spaceflight on metaphyseal and cortical bone of the rat tibia. Cortical cross-sectional area and perimeter were not altered by a 12.5-day spaceflight in 3-month-old male rats. The endosteal osteoblast population and the vasculature near the periosteal surface in flight rats compared with ground controls showed more pronounced changes in cortical bone than in metaphyseal bone. The osteoblasts demonstrated greater numbers of transitional Golgi vesicles, possibly caused by a decreased cellular metabolic energy source, but no difference in the large Golgi saccules or the cell membrane-associated alkaline phosphatase activity. The periosteal vasculature in the diaphysis of flight rats often showed lipid accumulations within the lumen of the vessels, occasional degeneration of the vascular wall, and degeneration of osteocytes adjacent to vessels containing intraluminal deposits. These changes were not found in the metaphyseal region of flight animals. The focal vascular changes may be due to ischemia of bone or a developing fragility of the vessel walls as a result of spaceflight.

Doty, S. B.; Morey-Holton, E. R.; Durnova, G. N.; Kaplansky, A. S.

1990-01-01

239

Morphological characterization of high surface area mesoporous micropheres of platinum and platinum/ruthenium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mesoporous microspheres of Pt and Pt/Ru have been electrodeposited into a carbon black layer on a silicon/gold electrode surface and characterized for coulombic deposition efficiency, physical morphology, particle size and dispersion, electrochemically available surface area, and activity toward methanol oxidation. The target applications for these deposits are catalyst materials in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. Coulombic efficiency was measured simultaneously with coulombic charge data using an in-situ liquid phase quartz crystal microbalance. Deposition efficiency varied from near unity to under 30%, depending on precursor salt concentration and applied deposition potential. The effect of chloride ion concentration on kinetic rates under various deposition conditions is also discussed. In general, more negative applied potential and lower precursor salt concentrations showed higher deposition efficiencies. Pt/Ru deposits showed similar trends to Pt deposits, albeit at lower efficiency. Microsphere morphology was evaluated for electrochemically available surface area through hydrogen adsorption/desorption (Pt) and carbon monoxide stripping voltammetry (Pt/Ru). Mass specific surface area rose rapidly at low loading and remained relatively constant thereafter at 40-50 m 2/g for Pt and 60-70 m2/g for Pt/Ru. Particle size analysis of the growth process revealed electrochemically available surface area may penetrate up to 80 rim below the microsphere's surface for loadings of 3.000 coulombs, which had an average diameter of 250 nm. Applied deposition potential and precursor salt concentration have shown a modest effect on Pt surface area and a stronger effect on Pt/Ru surface area. More positive potential and higher precursor concentration resulted in the greatest surface area for both compositions. The effect on morphology of the catalyst pore structure and distribution of growth centers throughout the carbon layer are discussed in terms of kinetic impact on nucleation and growth processes in the presence of chloride ions. Methanol oxidation current response was evaluated for Pt/Ru samples. Normalized oxidation current was highest at very low catalyst loading and became constant at higher loading. Deposition potential did not have a meaningful effect on catalyst activity, while precursor concentration showed a modest effect. Oxidation currents ranged from 52 MA/m2 at high precursor concentration to 30 mA/m2 at low concentration.

Knutson, Trevor Lawrence

240

Effects of ulinastatin administered at different time points on the pathological morphologies of the lung tissues of rats with hyperthermia  

PubMed Central

Hyperthermia not only directly induces cell injury of body tissues, but also causes the body to release large amounts of inflammatory mediators and cells with extensive biological activities to induce a systemic inflammatory response and immune dysfunction. Thus, hyperthermia causes systemic inflammatory response syndrome, aggravating injuries to various organs. This study aimed to observe the effects of ulinastatin (UTI) administered at different time points on the cellular morphologies of the lung tissues of rats with systemic hyperthermia. A total of 40 male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: The normal control group (C group), the hyperthermia group without medication (H group), the hyperthermia and UTI pre-treatment group (HU group), the group treated with UTI at 1 h after hyperthermia (HU1 group), and the group treated with UTI at 2 h after hyperthermia (HU2 group). The systemic hyperthermia rat model was established in a heating chamber with a biological oxygen supply. For the HU, HU1 and HU2 groups, UTI (5×104 U/kg) was administered at different time points. For the C and H groups, an equivalent volume of normal saline was administered. During heating, the respiratory frequency and rectal temperature were measured and recorded once every 30 min. After 2.5 h of heating, the wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio of the lung tissues of the rats was measured. Additionally, the cellular morphologies of the lung tissues were observed under light and electron microscopes. The respiratory frequencies and lung tissue W/D ratios of the rats in the various hyperthermia groups were significantly higher than those of the rats in the C group (all P<0.05). The respiratory frequencies and lung tissue W/D values of the HU and HU1 groups were significantly lower than those of the H group (all P<0.05). Under the light microscope, the bronchial surrounding tissues of the HU and HU1 groups were loose, and the majority of the pulmonary alveolar structures were normal; the H and HU2 groups presented a number of changes, including pulmonary interstitial hyperemia, alveolar epithelial swelling and emphysema. Under the electron microscope, it was observed in the type II epithelial cells of the pulmonary alveoli of the H group that the mitochondria were swollen, the cell ridges were shortened, the microvilli were thin and increased, and the alveolar wall was thickened. Also, an increased number of infiltrating neutrophils were visible. In addition, the type II epithelial cells of the HU2 group also presented these changes to different extents and the changes in the HU and HU1 groups were the mildest. These results indicate that the early application of UTI relieves edema and the extent of cell injury of the lung tissue in rats with systemic hyperthermia.

QIN, ZAI-SHENG; TIAN, PEI; WU, XIA; YU, HONG-MEI; GUO, NA

2014-01-01

241

Sperm pathology: a step beyond descriptive morphology. Origin, characterization and fertility potential of abnormal sperm phenotypes in infertile men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sperm pathology is presented as the discipline of characterizing structural and functional deficiencies in abnormal spermatozoa. This concept complements that of sperm morphology mainly concerned with the appearance of spermatozoa. These two notions collaborate in providing correlations of prognostic value with sperm fertilizing capacity, explaining the mechanisms of sperm inefficiency, suggesting strategies to improve fertilization and opening a door to

Hector E. Chemes; Vanesa Y. Rawe

2003-01-01

242

The Characterization of Obese Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Rat Model Suitable for Exercise Intervention  

PubMed Central

Objective To develop a new polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) rat model suitable for exercise intervention. Method Thirty six rats were randomly divided into three experimental groups: PCOS rats with high-fat diet (PF, n?=?24), PCOS rats with ordinary diet (PO, n?=?6), and control rats with ordinary diet (CO, n?=?6). Two kinds of PCOS rat model were made by adjustment diet structure and testosterone injection for 28 days. After a successful animal model, PF model rats were randomly assigned to three groups: exercise with a continuation of high-fat diet (PF-EF, n?=?6), sedentary with a continuation of high-fat diet (PF-SF, n?=?6), exercise with an ordinary diet (PF-EO, n?=?6). Fasting blood glucose (FBG) and insulin (FINS), estrogen (E2), progesterone (P), and testosterone (T) in serum were determined by RIA, and ovarian morphology was evaluated by Image-Pro plus 6.0. Results Body weight, Lee index, FINS increased significantly in PF rat model. Serum levels of E2 and T were significantly higher in PF and PO than in CO. Ovary organ index and ovarian areas were significant lower in PF than in CO. After intervention for 2 weeks, the levels of 1 h postprandial blood glucose (PBG1), 2 h postprandial blood glucose (PBG2), FINS and the serum levels of T decreased significantly in PF-EF rats and PF-EO rats. The ratio of FBG/FINS was significant higher in PF-EO rats than in PF-SF rats. Ovarian morphology showed that the numbers of preantral follicles and atretic follicles decreased significantly, and the numbers of antral follicles and corpora lutea increased significantly in the rats of PF-EF and PF-EO. Conclusion By combination of high-fat diet and testosterone injection, the obese PCOS rat model is conformable with the lifestyle habits of fatty foods and insufficient exercise, and has metabolic and reproductive characteristics of human PCOS. This model can be applied to study exercise intervention.

Qiu, Shuwei; Jiang, Zhongli

2014-01-01

243

Hemodynamic characterization of chronic bile duct-ligated rats: effect of pentobarbital sodium  

SciTech Connect

Systemic and splanchnic hemodynamics of the chronic bile duct-ligated rat were characterized by radioactive microspheres. Conscious and pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized, bile duct-ligated and sham-operated rats had cardiac output and regional organ blood flows determined. The conscious bile duct-ligated rat compared with the sham-operated showed a hyperdynamic circulation with an increased cardiac output and portal tributary blood flow. Pentobarbital sodium anesthesia induced marked hemodynamic changes in both sham-operated and bile duct-ligated rats. The latter group was especially sensitive to its effects; thus, comparison of cardiac output and portal tributary blood flow between anesthetized bile duct-ligated and sham-operated rats showed no significant differences. The authors conclude that the rat with cirrhosis due to chronic bile duct ligation is an excellent model for hemodynamic investigations but should be studied in the conscious state, since pentobarbital sodium anesthesia eliminated the hyperdynamic circulation.

Lee, S.S.; Girod, C.; Braillon, A.; Hadengue, A.; Lebrec, D.

1986-08-01

244

Diethylstilbestrol-treated adult rats with altered epididymal sperm numbers and sperm motility parameters, but without alterations in sperm production and sperm morphology.  

PubMed

In this study, we characterized estrogenic effects of diethylstilbestrol (DES) on reproductive parameters in male rats to identify a minimal dose level that alters epididymal and sperm functions but has little or no effect on sperm production and/or spermatogenesis. Adult rats (five animals/group) received s.c. injections of 0.2 ml of corn oil containing DES at a rate of 1.0 mg, 200 microg, 40 microg, 8 microg, 1.6 microg, or 320 ng x rat(-1) x day(-1) for 12 days. The control group received corn oil only. DES effects were similar in the 8-microg group and higher dose groups and included significant (P < or = 0.05) reductions in 1) absolute and relative weights of the head and body of the epididymis (EP), tail of the EP, and seminal vesicle, 2) numbers of sperm in both regions of the EP, and 3) motility characteristics in sperm collected from the tail of the EP. Conversely, no significant changes were observed in relative testis weight, daily sperm production, spermatogenesis, seminiferous epithelial height in stage VII, and sperm morphology. All of the above parameters in the 1.6-microg group (except seminal vesicle weight) and 320-ng group were comparable to those of controls. Plasma testosterone (T) level was reduced to an almost undetectable level in the > or = 8-microg groups and to a very low level in the 1.6-microg group (0.35 vs. 2.36 ng/ml in controls or 320-ng group), but LH level was unaltered. In a parallel fertility study, males received DES at a rate of 40, 8, or 1.6 microg x rat(-1) x day(-1) for 12 days prior to and 12 days during cohabitation (1:1) with untreated females. Of the 15 females cohabited with treated males (5 females/dose), none in the 40-microg and 8-microg groups and 1 in the 1.6-microg group formed a copulatory plug and delivered 8 pups, in contrast to 5/5 copulatory plugs and 13-15 pups/litter in the controls. DES at a rate of 8 microg x rat(-1) x day(-1) for 12 days reduced EP weights, sperm numbers in the EP, and sperm motility patterns but caused minimal to no alterations in daily sperm production, spermatogenesis, or sperm morphology. Factors other than T, or in addition to lower T, may be responsible for DES-induced reproductive disorders (despite lower T, sperm contents and sperm motility patterns in the EP were normal in the 1.6-microg group). Deficits in EP sperm functions and/or sexual behavior (as evident from absence of copulatory plugs) probably accounted for reduced fertility in treated males. PMID:11207210

Goyal, H O; Braden, T D; Mansour, M; Williams, C S; Kamaleldin, A; Srivastava, K K

2001-03-01

245

Overall morphology of basement membrane of rat seminiferous tubule as revealed by scanning electron microscopy.  

PubMed

Scanning electron microscopic observation of the basal surface of the basement membrane of the rat seminiferous tubule has revealed that the basement membrane appears to be like a tiled floor, and formation of meshwork structure of collagen fibrils is evident in some exfoliated areas of basement membrane. This meshwork structure is considered to ensure fluid regulation from the intertubular medium toward the lumen of the seminiferous tubules. PMID:3617243

Yamamoto, M; Miyake, K; Takaba, H; Hashimoto, J; Sahashi, M

1987-01-01

246

Behavioral and morphological effects of minocycline in the 6-hydroxydopamine rat model of Parkinson's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neuropathology in many neurodegenerative diseases is mediated by inflammatory cascades that influence neuronal dysfunction and death. Minocycline reduces the neurodegeneration observed in various models of Parkinson's. We exploited the unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion model to assess the effect of minocycline on related neurodegeneration. Thirty Fisher 344 rats were divided into three daily treatment groups: (1) after: 45 mg\\/kg of minocycline

Elias Matthew Quintero; Lauren Willis; Rachel Singleton; Naida Harris; Peng Huang; Narayan Bhat; Ann-Charlotte Granholm

2006-01-01

247

Gene Expression and Morphological Changes in Surgically Injured Carotids of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expression profiles of genes involved in cell proliferation, differentiation and programmed death were investigated in carotids of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) treated with a model of surgical injury that mimics events occurring during arterial grafts, endarterectomy and organ transplantation. The mRNA level of the c-myc, angiotensin II receptor 1 (AT1), Rb\\/p105, Rb2\\/p130, Bcl-2 and Bax-? genes was assessed by

A. Forte; G. Di Micco; U. Galderisi; M. De Feo; F. Esposito; S. Esposito; A. Renzulli; L. Berrino; M. Cipollaro; L. Agozzino; M. Cotrufo; F. Rossi; A. Cascino

2002-01-01

248

Moderate aging does not modulate morphological responsiveness of the neuromuscular system to chronic overload in Fischer 344 rats.  

PubMed

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of aging on neuromuscular adaptations to chronic overload. Eight young adult (8 months old) and eight aged (22 months old) Fischer 344 rats underwent unilateral synergist ablation to overload the plantaris and soleus muscles of that hindlimb and to provide control muscles from the contralateral hindlimb. Cytofluorescent staining and confocal microscopy were used to quantify pre- and post-synaptic features of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). Histochemical staining and light microscopy were used to assess adaptations of myofibers to chronic overload. Results demonstrate that NMJs of young adult and aged muscles did not undergo morphological remodeling as a result of 4 weeks of chronic overload. In contrast, myofibers of young and aged rats displayed significant (P<0.05), but similar hypertrophy ( approximately 18%) following that 4 week intervention. In both age groups, however, this hypertrophy was detected in the plantaris, but not the soleus. These data indicate that moderate aging (the equivalent of 65 years in human lifetime) does not modify the sensitivity of the neuromuscular system to chronic overload. PMID:17720323

Deschenes, M R; Tenny, K; Eason, M K; Gordon, S E

2007-09-21

249

Morphology of the rat cochlear primary afferents during prenatal development: a Cajal's reduced silver and rapid Golgi study.  

PubMed Central

In this study, we analyse the process of spatial organisation of the cochlear root related to the morphological and topographical changes in the CN during the prenatal development of Wistar rats, placing special emphasis on aspects of the latero-medial distribution of the cochlear afferents. A total of 35 embryos from 8 Wistar rats was employed, corresponding to embryonic days 14, 16, 18 and 20. Twenty of these embryos were studied by the Cajal's reduced silver stain and 15 by the rapid Golgi method (osmium dichromate method). The otocyst, the vestibulo-cochlear ganglion and vestibulo-cochlear nerve were first observed at embryonic Day 14 (E14). At E16, a sharp separation between the cochlear and vestibular roots was distinguished. The final position of the primary afferents and their main branches (anterior and posterior) in the CN was observed at E18 and E20, when the total number of cochlear turns had been formed. The cochlear afferents coming from the apical coil, the last to be incorporated into the cochlear root, project their posterior branches at the bifurcation towards more medial portions of the PVCN and their anterior branches towards the more lateral regions of the AVCN. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3(Cont.) Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5(Cont.) Fig. 5

Angulo, A; Merchan, J A; Merchan, M A

1990-01-01

250

Morphology, growth characteristics and oestrogen-binding capacity of DMBA-induced mammary tumours from ovariectomized rats.  

PubMed Central

The morphology of 20 mammary adenocarcinomas induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) in Sprague-Dawley rats was compared with their growth characteristics and oestrogen-binding capacity following ovariectomy. The capacity to bind (3H)oestradiol-17B did not appear to be related to the growth characteristics, time of appearance after DMBA administration, or time between ovariectomy and assay for specific oestrogen-binding proteins. Furthermore, different tumours appeared to have oestrogen-binding capacities unrelated to the percentage of neoplastic cells within the tumour, amount of inflammation, mast cell infiltration, or the presence of fluid-filled cysts. The only morphological features which appeared to be correlated with oestrogen-binding capacity were the number of mitoses and the lipid content of the tumour; that is, the oestrogen-binding capacity tended to be lower in tumours with moderate or large numbers of mitoses and in tumours with much lipid in the epithelial cells. Six of the 19 adenocarcinomas found prior to sacrifice either continued growing or remained static following ovariectomy, while the others underwent regression. In 5 of the regressing tumours a new growth phase was observed, usually beginning 2 months after ovariectomy. Tumours other thus osteosarcoma as well as fibroadenomas and Zymbal-gland tumours. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5

Boylan, E. S.; Fowler, E. H.; Wittliff, J. L.

1977-01-01

251

Morphology, growth characteristics and oestrogen-binding capacity of DMBA-induced mammary tumours from ovariectomized rats.  

PubMed

The morphology of 20 mammary adenocarcinomas induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) in Sprague-Dawley rats was compared with their growth characteristics and oestrogen-binding capacity following ovariectomy. The capacity to bind (3H)oestradiol-17B did not appear to be related to the growth characteristics, time of appearance after DMBA administration, or time between ovariectomy and assay for specific oestrogen-binding proteins. Furthermore, different tumours appeared to have oestrogen-binding capacities unrelated to the percentage of neoplastic cells within the tumour, amount of inflammation, mast cell infiltration, or the presence of fluid-filled cysts. The only morphological features which appeared to be correlated with oestrogen-binding capacity were the number of mitoses and the lipid content of the tumour; that is, the oestrogen-binding capacity tended to be lower in tumours with moderate or large numbers of mitoses and in tumours with much lipid in the epithelial cells. Six of the 19 adenocarcinomas found prior to sacrifice either continued growing or remained static following ovariectomy, while the others underwent regression. In 5 of the regressing tumours a new growth phase was observed, usually beginning 2 months after ovariectomy. Tumours other thus osteosarcoma as well as fibroadenomas and Zymbal-gland tumours. PMID:405032

Boylan, E S; Fowler, E H; Wittliff, J L

1977-05-01

252

DEET (N,N-diethyltoluamide) does not affect sperm number, viability and head morphology in male rats treated dermally.  

PubMed

DEET (N,N-Diethyltoluamide) was applied dermally to groups of 80 Sprague Dawley rats 5 days/week for 9 weeks (63 days), at three dose levels, (100, 300, and 1000 mg/kg). The undiluted material was applied with micropipettes to shaved patches. There was no run off and the material wet out onto the skin. Dose levels were calculated based on mean weights and adjusted weekly by reweighing half the animals in each group and calculating a mean body weight. Animals were scheduled for kill at three times; days 36-37, 65-66 and 95-96 after initiation of treatment. Data collected at each kill included sperm count, viability as assessed by ATP levels and morphology; testes histopathology (control and high-dose groups only) and body and organ weights (liver, kidneys and testes). DEET, when applied dermally, did not alter sperm count, sperm morphology, sperm viability, body weight or food consumption at any dose level tested. PMID:6617532

Lebowitz, H; Young, R; Kidwell, J; McGowan, J; Langloss, J; Brusick, D

1983-01-01

253

Isolation and morphological and metabolic characterization of common endophytes in annually burned tallgrass prairie.  

PubMed

Dark septate endophytes (DSE) are common and abundant root-colonizing fungi in the native tallgrass prairie. To characterize DSE fungi were isolated from roots of mixed tallgrass prairie plant communities. Isolates were grouped according to morphology, and the grouping was refined by ITS-RFLP and/or sequencing of the ITS region. Sporulating species of Periconia, Fusarium, Microdochium and Aspergillus were isolated along with many sterile fungi. Leek resynthesis was used to quickly screen for DSE fungi among the isolates. Periconia macro-spinosa and Microdochium sp. formed typical DSE structures in the roots; Periconia produced melanized intracellular microsclerotia in host root cortex, whereas Microdochium produced abundant melanized inter- and intracellular chlamydospores. To further validate the results of the leek resynthesis growth responses of leek and a dominant prairie grass, Andropogon gerardii, were assessed in a laboratory resynthesis system. Leek growth mainly was unresponsive to the inoculation with Periconia or Microdochium, whereas Andropogon tended to respond positively. Select Periconia and Microdochium isolates were tested further for their enzymatic capabilities and for ability to use organic and inorganic nitrogen sources. These fungi tested positive for amylase, cellulase, polyphenol oxidases and gelatinase. Periconia isolates used both organic and inorganic nitrogen sources. Our study identified distinct endophytes in a tallgrass prairie ecosystem and indicated that these endo-phytes can use a variety of complex nutrient sources, suggesting facultative biotrophic and saprotrophic habits. PMID:20648749

Mandyam, Keerthi; Loughin, Thomas; Jumpponen, Ari

2010-01-01

254

Morphology of the Myoepithelial Cell: Immunohistochemical Characterization from Resting to Motile Phase  

PubMed Central

Myoepithelium is present in canine mammary tumors as resting and proliferative suprabasal and spindle and stellate interstitial cells. The aim of this paper was to evaluate a panel of markers for the identification of four different myoepithelial cell morphological types in the normal and neoplastic mammary gland and to investigate immunohistochemical changes from an epithelial to a mesenchymal phenotype. Cytokeratin 19 (CK19), cytokeratin 5/6 (CK5/6), cytokeratin 14 (CK14), estrogen receptor (ER), p63 protein, vimentin (VIM), and ?-smooth muscle actin (Alpha-SMA) antibodies were used on 29 neoplasms (3 benign and 3 malignant myoepithelial tumors, 7 carcinomas in benign-mixed tumors and 16 complex carcinomas) and on normal tissue of mammary glands. All these antibodies were also tested on 3 mammary tissues from animals with no mammary pathology. The myoepithelial markers were well expressed in the suprabasal cells and gradually lost in the motile types, with the stellate cells maintaining only VIM expression typical of mesenchyma. ER labeled some resting and motile myoepithelial cells. On the basis of our results, we propose a transition from myoepithelial immotile cells into migratory fibroblast-like cells. This transition and the characterization of an immunohistochemical panel for resting and motile myoepithelial cells shed more light on the biological behavior of myoepithelial cells.

Beha, Germana; Sarli, Giuseppe; Brunetti, Barbara; Sassi, Francesco; Ferrara, Domenico; Benazzi, Cinzia

2012-01-01

255

Synthesis, morphology, and magnetic characterization of iron oxide nanowires and nanotubes.  

PubMed

We have explored the synthesis of iron oxide particles, tubes, and fibrils within the pores of nanoporous polycarbonate and alumina membranes. The membranes contain uniformly distributed cylindrical pores with monodispersed diameters (varying between 20 and 200 nm) and thicknesses of 6 and 60 microm, respectively. By hydrolysis and polymerization of iron salts, particles of different sizes and phases were formed in the pores, building iron oxide particle nanowires. Alternatively, by the sol-gel technique, using as reagents metalloorganic compounds, fibrils and tubes of different iron oxide phases were prepared. Structural and morphological investigations performed using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed ordered iron oxide particle wires, tubes, and fibrils formed inside the membrane nanopores. Magnetic characterization was accomplished with a vibrating sample magnetometer. Below the blocking temperature (T(B)), the magnetic behavior of the nanowires was governed by dipolar interaction between nearest-neighbor nanoparticles inside the pore, whereas the energy barrier, and therefore the T(B) value, was mainly governed by dipolar interaction between magnetic moments over larger (interpore) distances. As expected, crystalline iron oxide nanotubes exhibited magnetic perpendicular anisotropy due to their magnetocrystalline and shape anisotropy. PMID:16851809

Suber, Lorenza; Imperatori, Patrizia; Ausanio, Giovanni; Fabbri, Fabio; Hofmeister, Herbert

2005-04-21

256

Microscopic image analysis techniques for the morphological characterization of pharmaceutical particles: Influence of process variables.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of various process variables on some of the shape factors most widely used in the morphological characterization of pharmaceutical particles (including circularity, aspect ratio, er, and the recently proposed Vr and Vp). After optimization of the illumination system and greyscale thresholds for discrimination of particle background, we evaluated the effects of process variables within the image capture and analysis system, including the image capture device (video or digital camera), image color information (24-bits-per-pixel RGB or 8-bits-per-pixel black and white), file type (JPG or TIFF), and JPG file compression ratio. A key aspect was evaluation of the effect of scaling factor (microm/pixel), dependent on real pixel size and optical magnification, on shape factor estimates. The results obtained indicate that accurate estimation of shape factors requires use of a scaling factor below a certain maximum; however, use of very low scaling factors will mean that the field of view is very small, so that it will contain very few particles, implying a time-consuming increase in the number of images that must be analyzed. Finally, we use statistical procedures to estimate the minimum number of particles that must be analyzed in order to provide accurate estimates of shape factors. PMID:16372305

Almeida-Prieto, Sergio; Blanco-Méndez, José; Otero-Espinar, Francisco J

2006-02-01

257

Structural, morphological and interfacial characterization of Al-Mg/TiC composites  

SciTech Connect

Morphological and structural characterization of Al-Mg/TiC composites obtained by infiltration process and wetting by the sessile drop technique were studied. Focusing at the interface, wetting of TiC substrates by molten Al-Mg-alloys at 900 deg. C was investigated. Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) indicated that aluminum carbide (Al{sub 4}C{sub 3}) is formed at the interface and traces of TiAl{sub 3} in the wetting assemblies were detected. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observations show that TiC particles do not appear to be uniformly attacked to produce a continuous layer of Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} at the interface. Molten Al-Mg-alloys were infiltrated into TiC preforms with flowing argon at a temperature of 900 deg. C. In the composites no reaction phase was observed by SEM. Quantification of the Al phase in the composite was carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rietveld analysis. Chemical mapping analyzed by SEM shows that the Al-Mg alloy surrounds TiC particles. In the composites with 20 wt.% of Mg the Al-Mg-{beta} phase was detected through XRD.

Contreras, A. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Programa de Investigacion en Ductos, Corrosion y Materiales, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, San Bartolo Atepehuacan, C. P. 07730, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: acontrer@imp.mx; Angeles-Chavez, C. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Programa de Investigacion en Ductos, Corrosion y Materiales, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, San Bartolo Atepehuacan, C. P. 07730, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Flores, O. [Instituto de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, P. O. Box 48-3, Cuernavaca, Mor (Mexico); Perez, R. [Instituto de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, P. O. Box 48-3, Cuernavaca, Mor (Mexico)

2007-08-15

258

Characterization of gas-aerosol interaction kinetics using morphology dependent stimulated Raman scattering. 1992 Annual summary  

SciTech Connect

This study is aimed at characterizing the influence of aerosol surface structure on the kinetics of gas-aerosol interactions. Changes in gas phase chemical reaction rates as a function of exposure to a specific aerosol are measured with aerosols having different surface properties due to the composition and/or temperature of the material making up the aerosol. The kinetic data generated can be used directly in atmospheric modeling calculations. The surface structure of the aerosol is using morphology-dependent enhancement of simulated Raman scattering (MDSRS). Detailed dynamics of gas-aerosol interactions can be obtained by correlating the change in the reaction rate with change in surface structure and by monitoring the change in aerosol surface structure during, the course of the reaction. This dynamics information can be used to generate kinetic data for systems which are similar in nature to those studied, but are not amenable to laboratory investigation. We show here that increased MDSRS sensitivity is achieved by using an excitation laser source that has a narrow linewidth and we have been able to detect sulfate anion concentrations much lower than previously reported. We have shown that the linewidth of the MDSRS mode excited in a droplet is limited by the laser linewidth. This is a positive result for it eases our ability to quantify the MDSRS gain equation. This result also suggests that MDSRS signal size should be independent of droplet size, and preliminary experiments confirm this hypothesis.

Aker, P.M.

1993-01-30

259

Characterization of gas-aerosol interaction kinetics using morphology dependent stimulated Raman scattering  

SciTech Connect

This study is aimed at characterizing the influence of aerosol surface structure on the kinetics of gas-aerosol interactions. Changes in gas phase chemical reaction rates as a function of exposure to a specific aerosol are measured with aerosols having different surface properties due to the composition and/or temperature of the material making up the aerosol. The kinetic data generated can be used directly in atmospheric modeling calculations. The surface structure of the aerosol is using morphology-dependent enhancement of simulated Raman scattering (MDSRS). Detailed dynamics of gas-aerosol interactions can be obtained by correlating the change in the reaction rate with change in surface structure and by monitoring the change in aerosol surface structure during, the course of the reaction. This dynamics information can be used to generate kinetic data for systems which are similar in nature to those studied, but are not amenable to laboratory investigation. We show here that increased MDSRS sensitivity is achieved by using an excitation laser source that has a narrow linewidth and we have been able to detect sulfate anion concentrations much lower than previously reported. We have shown that the linewidth of the MDSRS mode excited in a droplet is limited by the laser linewidth. This is a positive result for it eases our ability to quantify the MDSRS gain equation. This result also suggests that MDSRS signal size should be independent of droplet size, and preliminary experiments confirm this hypothesis.

Aker, P.M.

1993-01-30

260

Immunolocalization and characterization of the rat analogue of human CD59 in kidney and glomerular cells.  

PubMed

CD59, a potent inhibitor of the human membrane attack complex (MAC) of complement, is present on many different tissues throughout the body. Recently we identified and characterized the rat analogue of CD59 and produced a number of monoclonal antibodies (mAb). We have now used these antibodies to demonstrate, by immunofluorescence microscopy, that rat CD59 was widely expressed in the rat kidney. Staining of renal sections revealed the presence of rat CD59 in abundance in the glomerulus, collecting ducts and distal tubules. Staining was abolished by treatment of sections with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PIPLC). Rat mesangial cells also stained strongly for rat CD59, giving an intensely granular staining pattern. In complement attack experiments the cultured mesangial cells were rendered more susceptible to lysis by rat or human complement after preincubation with the anti-inhibitor mAb. The results demonstrate that the rat analogue of CD59 is present and functionally active in rat renal tissue. The protective effect of CD59 against MAC-mediated tissue injury can now be examined in rat models of human renal disease. PMID:7507093

Hughes, T R; Meri, S; Davies, M; Williams, J D; Morgan, B P

1993-11-01

261

Rapid Morphological Brain Abnormalities during Acute Methamphetamine Intoxication in the Rat. An Experimental study using Light and Electron Microscopy  

PubMed Central

This study describes morphological abnormalities of brain cells during acute methamphetamine (METH) intoxication in the rat and demonstrates the role of hyperthermia, disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and edema in their development. Rats with chronically implanted brain, muscle and skin temperature probes and an intravenous (iv) catheter were exposed to METH (9 mg/kg) at standard (23°C) and warm (29°C) ambient temperatures, allowing for the observation of hyperthermia ranging from mild to pathological levels (38–42°C). When brain temperature peaked or reached a level suggestive of possible lethality (>41.5°C), rats were injected with Evans blue (EB), rapidly anesthetized, perfused, and their brains were taken for further analyses. Four brain areas (cortex, hippocampus, thalamus and hypothalamus) were analyzed for EB extravasation, water and electrolyte (Na+, K+, Cl?) contents, immunostained for albumin and glial fibrillary acidic protein, and examined for neuronal, glial and axonal alterations using standard light and electron microscopy. These examinations revealed profound abnormalities in neuronal, glial, and endothelial cells, which were stronger with METH administered at 29°C than 23°C and tightly correlated with brain and body hyperthermia. These changes had some structural specificity, but in each structure they tightly correlated with increases in EB levels, the numbers of albumin-positive cells, and water and ion contents, suggesting leakage of the BBB, acutely developing brain edema, and serious shifts in brain ion homeostasis as leading factors underlying brain abnormalities. While most of these acute structural and functional abnormalities appear to be reversible, they could trigger subsequent cellular alterations in the brain and accelerate neurodegeneration—the most dangerous complication of chronic amphetamine-like drug abuse.

Sharma, Hari S.; Kiyatkin, Eugene A.

2009-01-01

262

Functional and morphological assessment of a standardized rat sciatic nerve crush injury with a non-serrated clamp.  

PubMed

Peripheral nerve researchers frequently use the rat sciatic nerve crush as a model for axonotmesis. Unfortunately, studies from various research groups report results from different crush techniques and by using a variety of evaluation tools, making comparisons between studies difficult. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the sequence of functional and morphologic changes after an acute sciatic nerve crush injury with a non-serrated clamp, giving a final standardized pressure of p = 9 MPa. Functional recovery was evaluated using the sciatic functional index (SFI), the extensor postural thrust (EPT) and the withdrawal reflex latency (WRL), before injury, and then at weekly intervals until week 8 postoperatively. The rats were also evaluated preoperatively and at weeks 2, 4, and 8 by ankle kinematics, toe out angle (TOA), and gait-stance duration. In addition, the motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) and the gastrocnemius-soleus weight parameters were measured just before euthanasia. Finally, structural, ultrastructural and histomorphometric analyses were carried out on regenerated nerve fibers. At 8 weeks after the crush injury, a full functional recovery was predicted by SFI, EPT, TOA, and gait-stance duration, while all the other parameters were still recovering their original values. On the other hand, only two of the histomorphometric parameters of regenerated nerve fibers, namely myelin thickness/axon diameter ratio and fiber/axon diameter ratio, returned to normal values while all other parameters were significantly different from normal values. The employment of traditional methods of functional evaluation in conjunction with the modern techniques of computerized analysis of gait and histomorphometric analysis should thus be recommended for an overall assessment of recovery in the rat sciatic nerve crush model. PMID:15684656

Varejão, Artur S P; Cabrita, António M; Meek, Marcel F; Bulas-Cruz, José; Melo-Pinto, Pedro; Raimondo, Stefania; Geuna, Stefano; Giacobini-Robecchi, Maria G

2004-11-01

263

Characterization of the Adenovirus Type 12-Rat Embryo Transformation System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One of the goals of the research is to investigate the transformation of human cells by human virus. Adenovirus type 12, known to be oncogenic in hamsters and rats, is a virus of special interest. Although transformation of hamster, rat, and rabbit cells ...

A. E. Freeman

1966-01-01

264

Generation and characterization of severe combined immunodeficiency rats.  

PubMed

Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice, the most widely used animal model of DNA-PKcs (Prkdc) deficiency, have contributed enormously to our understanding of immunodeficiency, lymphocyte development, and DNA-repair mechanisms, and they are ideal hosts for allogeneic and xenogeneic tissue transplantation. Here, we use zinc-finger nucleases to generate rats that lack either the Prkdc gene (SCID) or the Prkdc and Il2rg genes (referred to as F344-scid gamma [FSG] rats). SCID rats show several phenotypic differences from SCID mice, including growth retardation, premature senescence, and a more severe immunodeficiency without "leaky" phenotypes. Double-knockout FSG rats show an even more immunocompromised phenotype, such as the abolishment of natural killer cells. Finally, xenotransplantation of human induced pluripotent stem cells, ovarian cancer cells, and hepatocytes shows that SCID and FSG rats can act as hosts for xenogeneic tissue grafts and stem cell transplantation and may be useful for preclinical testing of new drugs. PMID:22981234

Mashimo, Tomoji; Takizawa, Akiko; Kobayashi, Junya; Kunihiro, Yayoi; Yoshimi, Kazuto; Ishida, Saeko; Tanabe, Koji; Yanagi, Ami; Tachibana, Asato; Hirose, Jun; Yomoda, Jun-ichiro; Morimoto, Shiho; Kuramoto, Takashi; Voigt, Birger; Watanabe, Takeshi; Hiai, Hiroshi; Tateno, Chise; Komatsu, Kenshi; Serikawa, Tadao

2012-09-27

265

Self-assembled light lanthanide oxalate architecture with controlled morphology, characterization, growing mechanism and optical property  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: {yields} Flower-like Sm{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}.10H{sub 2}O was gained with Na{sub 3}Cit assisted precipitation method. {yields} The mechanism of the flower-like Sm{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}.10H{sub 2}O formation was proposed. {yields} The Sm{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}.10H{sub 2}O and Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples exhibited obviously different PL spectra. {yields} Ln{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}.nH{sub 2}O (Ln = Gd, Dy, Lu, Y) also were achieved by the simple method. -- Abstract: Flower-like Sm{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}.10H{sub 2}O had been synthesized by a facile complex agent assisted precipitation method. The flower-like Sm{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}.10H{sub 2}O was characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis and photoluminescence. The possible growth mechanism of the flower-like Sm{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}.10H{sub 2}O was proposed. To extend this method, other Ln{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}.nH{sub 2}O (Ln = Gd, Dy, Lu, Y) with different morphologies also had been prepared by adjusting different rare earth precursors. Further studies revealed that besides the reaction conditions and the additive amount of complex agents, the morphologies of the as-synthesised lanthanide oxalates were also determined by the rare earth ions. The Sm{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}.10H{sub 2}O and Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples exhibited different photoluminescence spectra, which was relevant to Sm{sup 3+} energy level structure of 4f electrons. The method may be applied in the synthesis of other lanthanide compounds, and the work could explore the potential optical materials.

He, Hongmei [Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, 230026 (China)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, 230026 (China); Zhang, Youjin, E-mail: zyj@ustc.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, 230026 (China)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, 230026 (China); Zhu, Wei; Zheng, Ao [Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, 230026 (China)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, 230026 (China)

2011-10-15

266

Functional and morphological assessment of early impairment of airway function in a rat model of emphysema.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate airway structure-function relations in elastase-induced emphysema in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated intratracheally with 50 IU porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE, n = 8) or saline (controls, n = 6). Six weeks later, lung volumes [functional residual capacity (FRC), residual volume (RV), and total lung capacity (TLC)] and low-frequency impedance parameters (Newtonian resistance, R(N); tissue damping; tissue elastance, H) were measured, and tracheal sounds were recorded during slow inflation to TLC following in vivo degassing. The lungs were fixed and stained for standard morphometry, elastin, and collagen. In the PPE group, FRC and RV were higher [4.53 ± 0.7 (SD) vs. 3.28 ± 0.45 ml; P = 0.003 and 1.06 ± 0.35 vs. 0.69 ± 0.18 ml; P = 0.036, respectively], and H was smaller in the PPE-treated rats than in the controls (1,344 ± 216 vs. 2,178 ± 305 cmH(2)O/l; P < 0.001), whereas there was no difference in R(N). The average number of crackles per inflation was similar in the two groups; however, the crackle size distributions were different and the lower knee of the pressure-volume curves was higher in the PPE group. Microscopic images revealed different alveolar size distributions but similar bronchial diameters in the two groups. The treatment caused a slight but significant decrease in the numbers of alveolar attachments, no difference in elastin and slightly increased mean level and heterogeneity of collagen in the bronchial walls. These results suggest that tissue destruction did not affect the conventionally assessed airway resistance in this emphysema model, whereas the alterations in the recruitment dynamics can be an early manifestation of impaired airway function. PMID:22442024

Tolnai, J; Szabari, M V; Albu, G; Maár, B A; Parameswaran, H; Bartolák-Suki, E; Suki, B; Hantos, Z

2012-06-01

267

Correlating habenular subnuclei in rat and mouse by using topographic, morphological, and cytochemical criteria.  

PubMed

The mammalian habenulae consist of medial (MHb) and lateral (LHb) nuclear complexes. Especially the LHb has received much interest because it has been recognized as the potential center of an "anti-reward system." Subnuclear organization and connectivity of the LHb are well known. In contrast, criteria to classify habenular neurons into distinct groups with potentially different biological functions are missing, most likely as a result of the lack of appropriate marker proteins. Actually, a huge amount of data concerning the localization of more than 20,000 mouse protein genes is provided in the Allen Brain Atlas. Unfortunately, the immediate use of this information is prohibited by the fact that the subnuclear organization of the habenular complexes in mouse is not known so far. The present report, therefore, uses topographic, structural, and cytochemical information from the rat to recognize corresponding areas within the mouse habenulae. Taking advantage of the fact that the Klüver-Barrera technique allows simultaneous observation of neuronal cell bodies and myelinated fibers, we were able to correlate subnuclear areas in the mouse habenula to subnuclei, which had been rigorously identified by several criteria in the rat. Our data suggest that the topographic localization of habenular subnuclei is rather similar between mouse and rat and that they may be homologous in these two species. Consequently, our data may allow using the Allen Brain Atlas as a source of basal information, which should be helpful to select candidate molecular markers for functionally different neurons in the mouse and potentially in higher mammalian species. J. Comp. Neurol. 522:2650-2662, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24478034

Wagner, Franziska; Stroh, Thomas; Veh, Rüdiger W

2014-08-01

268

Isolation, characterization, and differentiation of stem cells derived from the rat amniotic membrane.  

PubMed

Stem-cell-based therapies may offer treatments for a variety of intractable diseases. A fundamental goal in stem-cell biology concerns the characterization of diverse populations that exhibit different potentials, growth capabilities, and therapeutic utilities. We report the characterization of a stem-cell population isolated from tissue explants of rat amniotic membrane. Similar to mesenchymal stem cells, these amnion-derived stem cells (ADSCs) express the surface markers CD29 and CD90, but were negative for the lymphohematopoietic markers CD45 and CD11b. ADSCs exist in culture in a multidifferentiated state, expressing neuroectodermal (neurofilament-M), mesodermal (fibronectin), and endodermal (alpha-1-antitrypsin) genes. To assess plasticity, ADSCs were subjected to a number of culture conditions intended to encourage differentiation into neuroectodermal, mesodermal, and endodermal cell types. ADSCs cultured in a defined neural induction media assumed neuronal morphologies and up-regulated neural-specific genes. Under different conditions, ADSCs were capable of differentiating into presumptive bone and fat cells, indicated by the deposition of mineralized matrix and accumulated lipid droplets, respectively. Moreover, ADSCs cultured in media that promotes liver cell differentiation up-regulated liver-specific genes (albumin) and internalized low-density lipoprotein (LDL), consistent with a hepatocyte phenotype. To determine whether this observed plasticity reflects the presence of true stem cells within the population, we have derived individual clones from single cells. Clonal lines recapitulate the expression pattern of parental ADSC cultures and are multipotent. ADSCs have been cultured for 20 passages without losing their plasticity, suggesting long-term self-renewal. In sum, our data suggest that ADSCs and derived clonal lines are capable of long-term self-renewal and multidifferentiation, fulfilling all the criteria of a stem-cell population. PMID:17608732

Marcus, Akiva J; Coyne, Thomas M; Rauch, Judah; Woodbury, Dale; Black, Ira B

2008-02-01

269

The morphology of the surface of artcular cartilage in adult rats.  

PubMed Central

Articular cartilage from the weight-bearing area of the femoral concyles in adult rats is smooth in the normal, non-weight-bearing condition, showing none of the surface irregularities (8-15 micrometer) reported by previous authors. Demonstrable changes in the surface characteristics of articular cartilage may be attributable to preparation procedures. The normal smoothness observed in TEM studies has been confirmed by an SEM method. 'Quarternary ridges' described as evidence of ageing may be analogous to 'wrinkles' observed on the surface cartilage exposed to ambient atmospheric conditions. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11

Bloebaum, R D; Wilson, A S

1980-01-01

270

Mesenchymal stem cells improved the ultrastructural morphology of cerebral tissues after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.  

PubMed

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) causes widespread disruption in the cerebral architecture.The process of SAH is complicated and many people lose their lives or become disabled after injury. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered as good candidate for repair of cerebral damage. The aim was to assess the ultrastructural changes in the rat cerebral tissue after intravenous transplantation of MSCs. Female Wistar rats (8 per group) weighing 275~300 g were assigned to control (SAH+PBS) and experimental groups (SAH+MSCs).The samples from middle cerebral arterial wall and parietal cerebral tissue were prepared for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) according to standard protocol. Fine architectures of the vessel wall, including the contraction of the inner layer, smooth muscle layer,as well as neural cells were observed after SAH. Cerebral arterial wall and cortex, including neuronal and glial cells were injured post SAH. But, administration of MSCs improved the structural integrity of cerebral tissues. Changes were much more balanced with their relative improvement in some areas. The role of MSCs for repairing the injured cerebral tissues post experimental SAH was approved by electron microscopy. PMID:24737942

Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Sadeghian-Nodoushan, Fatemeh; Fesahat, Farzaneh; Mir-Esmaeili, Seyed Mohsen; Anvari, Morteza; Hekmati-Moghadam, Seyed Hossain

2014-03-01

271

Effects of ozone and neutrophils on function and morphology of the isolated rat lung  

SciTech Connect

Since whole-animal studies suggest that neutrophils play a role in ozone-induced impairment of pulmonary function and increases in airway reactivity, this study was designed to study more precisely the interaction of neutrophils and ozone using the isolated perfused rat lung. Sprague-Dawley rat lungs (n = 60) were ventilated for 3 h with 95% air and 5% CO2 alone or mixed with 1 ppm ozone and perfused with buffer alone or with neutrophils (8 x 10(7)). RL, Cdyn, Ppa, airway reactivity to methacholine, lung/body weight, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) protein concentration, and airway lesions were analyzed using a two-way GLM or Kruskal-Wallis test (p < or = 0.05 significant). Both ozone and neutrophils increased RL and decreased Cdyn. Ozone but not neutrophils increased airway reactivity to methacholine. Neutrophils but not ozone increased lung weight/body weight and BALF protein concentration. Ozone damaged airway epithelium. In distal bronchioles, neutrophils enhanced this damage. We conclude that (1) ozone impaired pulmonary function, increased airway reactivity, and damaged airway epithelium without causing measurable microvascular leak; (2) neutrophils impaired pulmonary function, probably a result of microvascular leak, but did not change airway reactivity or damage airway epithelium; and (3) neutrophils had no effect on ozone-induced airway reactivity but had an additive effect on ozone-induced pulmonary function impairment and a synergistic effect on ozone-induced airway epithelial injury.

Joad, J.P.; Bric, J.M.; Pino, M.V.; Hyde, D.M.; McDonald, R.J. (Univ. of California, Davis (United States))

1993-06-01

272

Comparison of functional and morphological deficits in the rat after gestational exposure to ionizing radiation  

SciTech Connect

Ionizing radiation is a precise tool for altering formation of the developing cerebral cortex of the fetal rat. Whole body exposure of the pregnant rat on gestational day 13, 15 or 17 to 1.0 Gy of gamma radiation resulted in maximum thinning of the cortex on days 15 and 17. In the preweaning period, functional tests (negative geotaxis, reflex suspension, continuous corridor and gait) were most affected by irradiation gestational day 15, as was body weight. When a lower dose of radiation (0.75 Gy) was used on gestational day 15, the damage to the cortex was much less but behavioral changes were still present. Frontal, parietal and occipital areas of the cortex were approximately equally affected. Using stepwise multiple regression analysis, the linkage of functional tests and cortical thickness was examined. Functional variables which were most commonly included as predictors of frontal and parietal cortex were negative geotaxis and continuous corridor. Occipital cortical layers were not predicted by behavioral variables. In predicting function using cortical variables, frontal cortex was better than parietal and occipital cortex was the poorest predictor.

Norton, S.; Kimler, B.F.

1988-07-01

273

Purkinje-like cells of the rat cochlear nucleus: a combined functional and morphological study.  

PubMed

Purkinje-like cells (PLCs) of the cochlear nucleus (CN) are strongly calbindin positive neurones with unknown function. In the present work functional and morphological methods have been employed to provide data about PLCs in general, and about their possible involvement in the synaptic organisation of the CN in particular. PLCs had slightly elongated soma, from which a complex dendritic arborisation extended with highly variable dimensions. On the basis of their morphology, three classes of PLCs were identified. Positively identified PLCs fired a train of action potentials on sustained depolarization. When hyperpolarizing stimuli were applied, the presence of a slowly activating, ZD7288-sensitive inward current was noted that corresponded to the h-current. PLCs received both excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs. Functional experiments revealed that 76% and 14% of the spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents recorded from the cell bodies of the PLCs were mediated via glycinergic and GABAergic synapses, respectively. PLCs presented strong cerebellin1-like immunoreactivity, but its distribution differed from that seen in cerebellar Purkinje cells. Our results indicate that PLCs are parts of the synaptic circuitry of the CN, thus they may be actively involved in the processing and analysis of auditory information. PMID:19699723

Koszeghy, Aron; Pál, Balázs; Pap, Pál; Pocsai, Krisztina; Nagy, Zsuzsanna; Szucs, Géza; Rusznák, Zoltán

2009-11-10

274

Creation and preliminary characterization of a leptin knockout rat.  

PubMed

Leptin, a cytokine-like hormone secreted mainly by adipocytes, regulates various pathways centered on food intake and energy expenditure, including insulin sensitivity, fertility, immune system, and bone metabolism. Here, using zinc finger nuclease technology, we created the first leptin knockout rat. Homozygous leptin null rats are obese with significantly higher serum cholesterol, triglyceride, and insulin levels than wild-type controls. Neither gender produced offspring despite of repeated attempts. The leptin knockout rats also have depressed immune system. In addition, examination by microcomputed tomography of the femurs of the leptin null rats shows a significant increase in both trabecular bone mineral density and bone volume of the femur compared with wild-type littermates. Our model should be useful for many different fields of studies, such as obesity, diabetes, and bone metabolism-related illnesses. PMID:22948215

Vaira, Sergio; Yang, Chang; McCoy, Aaron; Keys, Kelly; Xue, Shurong; Weinstein, Edward J; Novack, Deborah V; Cui, Xiaoxia

2012-11-01

275

Morphologic and histochemical studies of bone cells from SL-3 rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous studies of rat bone following space flight indicate a significant reduction in new bone formation as a result of hypogravity. In the present study of animals from SL-3 flight, the cellular activity of the bone forming cells, the osteoblasts, was investigated. Measurements of alkaline and acid phosphatase, Golgi activity, secretory granule size, and lysosomal activity, all indicated very little difference between flight and flight-simulated controls. However, there was a tendency for osteoblasts in compact bone of flight animals to show a smaller cytoplasmic volume compared to non-flight controls. If, as in previous studies, a significant reduction in bone formation occurred, it could be due to a normal level of procollagen degradation within these smaller osteoblasts, resulting in less collagen secretion per cell.

Doty, S. B.

1985-01-01

276

Morphology of the lingual papillae in the brush-tailed rat kangaroo.  

PubMed

We examined the dorsal lingual surface of an adult brush-tailed rat kangaroo (Bettongia penicillata) by scanning electron microscopy. The filiform and fungiform papillae on the lingual apex and body consisted of a main papilla and secondary papillae. The connective tissue core of the filiform papillae on the lingual apex was cylindrical in shape with a crushed top. The connective tissue core of the filiform papillae on the lingual body had one large and several small processes. The fungiform papillae were round in shape. The connective tissue core of the fungiform papillae had several depressions on its top. The surface of the vallate papillae was rough and the papillae were surrounded by a groove and a pad. Several long conical papillae derived from the posterolateral margin of the tongue where foliate papillae have been shown to be distributed in many other animal species. The long conical papillae were very similar to those of the koala and opossum. PMID:24815106

Emura, Shoichi; Okumura, Toshihiko; Chen, Huayue

2014-01-01

277

Characterization of time-course morphological features for efficient prediction of osteogenic potential in human mesenchymal stem cells.  

PubMed

Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) represents one of the most frequently applied cell sources for clinical bone regeneration. To achieve the greatest therapeutic effect, it is crucial to evaluate the osteogenic differentiation potential of the stem cells during their culture before the implantation. However, the practical evaluation of stem cell osteogenicity has been limited to invasive biological marker analysis that only enables assaying a single end-point. To innovate around invasive quality assessments in clinical cell therapy, we previously explored and demonstrated the positive predictive value of using time-course images taken during differentiation culture for hBMSC bone differentiation potential. This initial method establishes proof of concept for a morphology-based cell evaluation approach, but reveals a practical limitation when considering the need to handle large amounts of image data. In this report, we aimed to scale-down our proposed method into a more practical, efficient modeling scheme that can be more broadly implemented by physicians on the frontiers of clinical cell therapy. We investigated which morphological features are critical during the osteogenic differentiation period to assure the performance of prediction models with reduced burden on image acquisition. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed characterization that describes both the critical observation period and the critical number of time-points needed for morphological features to adequately model osteogenic potential. Our results revealed three important observations: (i) the morphological features from the first 3 days of differentiation are sufficiently informative to predict bone differentiation potential, both activities of alkaline phosphatase and calcium deposition, after 3 weeks of continuous culture; (ii) intervals of 48?h are sufficient for measuring critical morphological features; and (iii) morphological features are most accurately predictive when early morphological features from the first 3 days of differentiation are combined with later features (after 10 days of differentiation). Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2014;111: 1430-1439. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24420699

Matsuoka, Fumiko; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Agata, Hideki; Kagami, Hideaki; Shiono, Hirofumi; Kiyota, Yasujiro; Honda, Hiroyuki; Kato, Ryuji

2014-07-01

278

Phenotypic and Functional Characterization of Vaginal Dendritic Cells in a Rat Model of Candida albicans Vaginitis  

PubMed Central

This study analyzes the phenotype of vaginal dendritic cells (VDCs), their antigenic presentation and activation of T-cell cytokine secretion, and their protective role in a rat model of Candida vaginitis. Histological observation demonstrated a significant accumulation of OX62+ VDCs in the mucosal epithelium of Candida albicans-infected rats at the third round of infection. We identified two subsets of OX62+ VDCs differing in the expression of CD4 molecule in both noninfected and Candida-infected rats. The OX62+ CD4+ subset of VDCs displayed a lymphoid cell-like morphology and expressed the T-cell antigen CD5, whereas the OX62+ CD4? VDC subset exhibited a myeloid morphology and was CD5 negative. Candida infection resulted in VDC maturation with enhanced expression of CD80 and CD134L on both CD4+ and CD4? VDC subsets at 2 and 6 weeks after Candida infection. CD5? CD4? CD86? CD80? CD134L+ VDCs from infected, but not noninfected, rats spontaneously released large amounts of interleukin-12 (IL-12) and tumor necrosis factor alpha, whereas all VDC subsets released comparable levels of IL-10 and IL-2 cytokines. Furthermore, OX62+ VDCs from infected rats primed naïve CD4+ T-cell proliferation and release of cytokines, including gamma interferon, IL-2, IL-6, and IL-10, in response to staphylococcal enterotoxin B stimulation in vitro. Adoptive transfer of highly purified OX62+ VDCs from infected rats induced a significant acceleration of fungal clearance compared with that in rats receiving naive VDCs, suggesting a protective role of VDCs in the anti-Candida mucosal immunity. Finally, VDC-mediated protection was associated with their ability to rapidly migrate to the vaginal mucosa and lymph nodes, as assessed by adoptive transfer of OX62+ VDCs labeled with 5 (and 6-)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester.

De Bernardis, Flavia; Lucciarini, Roberta; Boccanera, Maria; Amantini, Consuelo; Arancia, Silvia; Morrone, Stefania; Mosca, Michela; Cassone, Antonio; Santoni, Giorgio

2006-01-01

279

Phenotypic and functional characterization of vaginal dendritic cells in a rat model of Candida albicans vaginitis.  

PubMed

This study analyzes the phenotype of vaginal dendritic cells (VDCs), their antigenic presentation and activation of T-cell cytokine secretion, and their protective role in a rat model of Candida vaginitis. Histological observation demonstrated a significant accumulation of OX62(+) VDCs in the mucosal epithelium of Candida albicans-infected rats at the third round of infection. We identified two subsets of OX62(+) VDCs differing in the expression of CD4 molecule in both noninfected and Candida-infected rats. The OX62(+) CD4(+) subset of VDCs displayed a lymphoid cell-like morphology and expressed the T-cell antigen CD5, whereas the OX62(+) CD4(-) VDC subset exhibited a myeloid morphology and was CD5 negative. Candida infection resulted in VDC maturation with enhanced expression of CD80 and CD134L on both CD4(+) and CD4(-) VDC subsets at 2 and 6 weeks after Candida infection. CD5(-) CD4(-) CD86(-) CD80(-) CD134L(+) VDCs from infected, but not noninfected, rats spontaneously released large amounts of interleukin-12 (IL-12) and tumor necrosis factor alpha, whereas all VDC subsets released comparable levels of IL-10 and IL-2 cytokines. Furthermore, OX62(+) VDCs from infected rats primed naïve CD4(+) T-cell proliferation and release of cytokines, including gamma interferon, IL-2, IL-6, and IL-10, in response to staphylococcal enterotoxin B stimulation in vitro. Adoptive transfer of highly purified OX62(+) VDCs from infected rats induced a significant acceleration of fungal clearance compared with that in rats receiving naive VDCs, suggesting a protective role of VDCs in the anti-Candida mucosal immunity. Finally, VDC-mediated protection was associated with their ability to rapidly migrate to the vaginal mucosa and lymph nodes, as assessed by adoptive transfer of OX62(+) VDCs labeled with 5 (and 6-)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester. PMID:16790803

De Bernardis, Flavia; Lucciarini, Roberta; Boccanera, Maria; Amantini, Consuelo; Arancia, Silvia; Morrone, Stefania; Mosca, Michela; Cassone, Antonio; Santoni, Giorgio

2006-07-01

280

Prenatal exposure to tobacco extract containing nicotinic alkaloids produces morphological and behavioral changes in newborn rats.  

PubMed

Tobacco exposure is not only a health concern for adults but has also been shown to exert deleterious effects on the health of the fetus, newborn, child, and adolescent. Decreased cognitive function, lower Intellectual Quotient (IQ) and deficits in learning and memory in children have been associated with maternal smoking during pregnancy. In this study, we have studied the effect of a tobacco plant extract on the growth and development in the rat. The extract contained relative proportions of alkaloids, including nicotine, purified by chemical separation. Pregnant rats received oral doses of either control (NaCl) or tobacco extract during the entire gestational period. Offspring length and body weight were measured. Each day, the offspring were observed for the following physical parameters: hair growth, incisor eruption and eye opening. The day of appearance of these developments was recorded. Before weaning, the offspring were examined to test their cliff avoidance response (6 postnatal day (PN)), surface righting reflex (05, 07, 13 postnatal day), swimming development (10, 12 postnatal day), negative geotaxis response (7,9,13 and 17 postnatal day) and jumping down choice cage (15, 17 postnatal day). Administration of tobacco extract to dams during the entire gestation period affects behavior and development in pups. The observed effects were a delay in opening eyes, incisor eruption and hair appearance, behavioral developments and an alteration in the rate of success behavior. However, in the jumping down choice cage test there was no difference compared to control animals. The results suggest that tobacco extract has a significant effect on the development of behavioral patterns, orientation and motor coordination and function. They also suggest significant growth retardation and teratogenic effects. PMID:22306748

Khalki, Hanane; Khalki, Loubna; Aboufatima, Rachida; Ouachrif, Abderrahim; Mountassir, Maryam; Benharref, Ahmed; Chait, Abderrahman

2012-05-01

281

Functional and morphologic changes caused by acute ozone exposure in the isolated and perfused rat lung  

SciTech Connect

Ozone has been shown to increase airway resistance and/or airway reactivity in vivo in animals and humans. Because of the complexities inherent in studying this phenomenon in whole animals, we developed a model of ozone-induced effects on airway physiology using the isolated perfused rat lung. Rat lungs were suspended in an airtight chamber and perfused via the pulmonary circulation with a modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer containing 4.5% bovine albumin. Ventilation of the lungs was achieved by generating a fluctuating negative pressure within the chamber (-2 to -7 cm H2O) at a rate of 60 breaths/min. The lungs were ventilated with humidified 95% air and 5% CO2 alone (control condition) or mixed with ozone at 1.0 or 2.0 ppm. Transpulmonary pressure, flow rate, and tidal volume were recorded at 0, 1, 2, and 3 hours, and pulmonary resistance (RL) and dynamic compliance (Cdyn) were calculated. There was no significant difference in lung weight/total body weight ratios between the three groups at the end of the 3-h period. RL increased and Cdyn decreased in a time- and dose-dependent manner with ozone exposure. The percent increase above baseline in RL +/- SEM at 3 h was 9.4 +/- 4.1% for control lungs, 21.0 +/- 3.2% for 1.0 ppm ozone-exposed lungs, and 63.6 +/- 13.5% for 2.0 ppm ozone-exposed lungs. The percent decrease below baseline in Cdyn +/- SEM at 3 h was 27.4 +/- 2.1% for control lungs, 37.1 +/- 2.7% for 1.0 ppm ozone-exposed lungs, and 55.2 +/- 7.3% for 2.0 ppm ozone-exposed lungs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Pino, M.V.; McDonald, R.J.; Berry, J.D.; Joad, J.P.; Tarkington, B.K.; Hyde, D.M. (California Primate Research Center, University of California, Davis (United States))

1992-04-01

282

Characterization of Modified Allergen Extracts by in vitro ?-Hexosaminidase Release from Rat Basophils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: To date, there is no well-established test available that can be used to measure functional properties of modified allergens (allergoids). Due to the cross-linking process, the IgE-binding capacity of the allergens, normally necessary for their characterization, is lost. The aim of this study was to test whether the rat basophilic leukaemia (RBL) cell assay (?-hexosaminidase release by rat basophils

Kirsten Gehlhar; Marcus Peters; Kirsten Brockmann; Hans van Schijndel; Albrecht Bufe

2005-01-01

283

Generation and characterization of a GFP transgenic rat line for embryological research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Model organisms expressing fluorescent proteins are important tools for research. The present study was performed to generate\\u000a and characterize a new line of green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic rats for use as a model in experimental embryological\\u000a research. We injected a GFP expression vector into 135 zygotes of the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat strain. Embryo transfer of 103\\u000a surviving embryos resulted

Elena Popova; Brit Rentzsch; Michael Bader; Alexander Krivokharchenko

2008-01-01

284

Characterization of six varieties of Cucumis melo L. based on morphological and physiological characters, including shelf-life of fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventy-two accessions covering six varieties of Cucumis melo were characterized by using 35 morphological characters with emphasis on shelf-life, and the relationships between shelf-life\\u000a and related characters was investigated. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that development period of plant and\\u000a fruit, size of seed and fruit, shelf-life, stem hair, flesh juiciness, netting, abscission of peduncle, rapid yellowing of\\u000a epidermis at

Li Liu; Fumika Kakihara; Masahiro Kato

2004-01-01

285

Quartz crystal microbalance sample stage for in situ characterization of thickness and surface morphology of spin coated polymer films  

SciTech Connect

A miniature spin coating stage is developed for in situ characterization of the thickness and the surface morphology of spin coated polymer films using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and atomic force microscopy. The spin coated polystyrene films deposited on gold surfaces from solutions using the stage were found to be uniform; the thickness of the films varied linearly with the polystyrene concentration in solution. The film thickness determined by the QCM agree with that from ellipsometry measurements.

Rao Nanxia; Xie Xin; Wielizcka, David; Zhu Daming [Department of Physics, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, Missouri 64110 (United States)

2006-11-15

286

Chromosomal mapping of pancreatic islet morphological features and regulatory hormones in the spontaneously diabetic (Type 2) Goto-Kakizaki rat.  

PubMed

Insulin resistance and altered endocrine pancreas function are central pathophysiological features of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat is a model of spontaneous T2DM characterised by reduced beta cell mass and genetically determined glucose intolerance and altered insulin secretion. To identify genetic determinants of endocrine pancreas histopathology, we carried out quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping of histological phenotypes (beta cell mass -BCM and insulin-positive cell area -IPCA) and plasma concentration of hormones and growth factors in a F2 cohort derived from GK and normoglycemic Brown Norway rats. Although IPCA and BCM in the duodenal region of the pancreas were highly positively correlated (P < 10(-6)), and similarly in the splenic region, both measures were poorly correlated when comparing duodenal and splenic phenotypes. Strongest evidence of linkage to pancreas morphological traits was obtained between BCM and chromosome 10 (LOD 3.2). Evidence of significant linkage (LOD 4.2) to plasma corticosterone was detected in a region of chromosome 1 distal to other QTLs previously identified in the GK. Male-specific genetic effects were detected, including linkages (LOD > 4) to growth hormome (GH) on chromosome 6 and prolactin on chromosome 17. These data suggest independent genetic control of the structure and function of ontologically different regions of the endocrine pancreas. Novel QTLs for corticosterone, prolactin and GH may contribute to diabetes in the GK. The QTLs that we have identified in this, and previous genetic studies collectively underline the complex and multiple mechanisms involved in diabetes in the GK strain. PMID:20878524

Finlay, Clare; Argoud, Karène; Wilder, Steven P; Ouali, Fetta; Ktorza, Alain; Kaisaki, Pamela J; Gauguier, Dominique

2010-10-01

287

Effects of vitamin B-6 deficiency on morphological changes in dendritic trees of Purkinje cells in developing cerebellum of rats.  

PubMed

The effect of maternal vitamin B-6 deficiency on the morphological changes in the dendritic growth of Purkinje cells of progeny was studied at four different ages (12, 15, 21, and 50 days) of postnatal development. By day 10, rat pups in the deficient groups (0.6 or 1.0 mg pyridoxine . HCl/kg diet) began to show gross neurological symptoms of the deficiency and before weaning approximately 12% of the pups in the 0.6 group had died. At each age studied, body weights were less and brain-body weight ratios were greater in the deficient groups compared to control (7.0 mg pyridoxine . HCl/kg diet) groups. Morphological changes of the Purkinje cell dendritic field, as determined from camera lucida drawings of Golgi-Cox impregnated cells of the mid-sagittal vermis, indicated significantly smaller width, height and area in the deficient groups compared to the control. Stereological measurements showed that dendritic branching density was significantly less in the 0.6 group compared with the 1.0 and 7.0 groups. The total length of Purkinje cell dendrites per cell was significantly reduced in the deficient groups compared to the 7.0 group. Qualitative analyses of photomicrographs of Purkinje cells indicated more dendritic and somatic aberrations in the deficient groups than in the control. Dendritic trees were larger in size and more complex in the 7.0 group compared to the deficient groups. The findings indicate that maternal vitamin B-6 deficiency interferes with normal development of the Purkinje cell dendrites. PMID:7229735

Chang, S J; Kirksey, A; Morré, D M

1981-05-01

288

Combined Effects of Ephedrine-Containing Dietary Supplements, Caffeine, and Nicotine on Morphology and Ultrastructure of Rat Hearts  

PubMed Central

Cigarette smokers have an increased risk for coronary artery disease. Nicotine present in cigarettes can adversely affect the cardiovascular system via stimulation of both sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons. Caffeine, another cardiovascular and central nervous system (CNS) stimulant, is commonly found in Ephedra and Ephedra-free dietary supplements. These caffeine-containing supplements also have been linked to cardiovascular toxicities. Although no longer on the U.S market, Ephedra-containing supplements are another source of cardiovascular and CNS stimulants, namely the ephedrine alkaloids. Together caffeine, nicotine, and ephedrine can individually stress the cardiovascular system, and an overlap of these agents is predicted in smokers and dieters. To understand the collective effects of these stimulants on the heart morphology and ultrastructure, rats were exposed to synthetic combinations of nicotine (0.2?mg/kg/day), ephedrine (0–30?mg/kg/day), and/or caffeine (0–24?mg/kg/day) as well as an extract from a caffeine-containing Ephedra supplement (Metabolife 356). After exposure for 3 days, the hearts were removed and examined for hypersensitivity myocarditis and myocardial necrosis. None of the drugs tested alone affected heart tissue morphology, nor were atypical cardiac cells observed. However, in combination, significant interactions were found between caffeine and ephedrine; the interventricular septum was most susceptible, with a significant increase in atypical cardiac cells observed. Nicotine pretreatment caused greater susceptibility to cardiotoxicity associated with combinations of caffeine + ephedrine or Metabolife, particularly in the left ventricle wall. These results indicate that sympathomimetic combinations present in Ephedra supplements may have produced cardiotoxicity reported in consumers of these products. Moreover, the presence of nicotine exacerbates these toxic effects.

Brown, Christopher E.; Trauth, Stanley E.; Grippo, Richard S.; Gurley, Bill J.

2012-01-01

289

[Morphological and functional characteristics of thyroid gland in the offspring of female rats with experimental chronic liver disease of various etiology].  

PubMed

The peculiarities of structural and functional development of the thyroid gland were studied in the offspring of female rats with experimental chronic liver disease. Morphometric methods as well as immune enzyme analysis were used. Impairment in the development of thyroid gland structure was found in experimental animals, as evidenced by lower magnitudes of volume density of follicular and intrafollicular epithelium, as well as by reduced values of thyrocyte height. Morphological changes of the thyroid gland in the offspring of female rats with chronic liver disease were accompanied by the impairment of the gland endocrine function (decreased serum levels of T3 and T4). PMID:16669247

Briukhin, G V; Nikolina, O V; Barysheva, S V

2005-01-01

290

Creation and preliminary characterization of a Tp53 knockout rat  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The tumor suppressor TP53 plays a crucial role in cancer biology, and the TP53 gene is the most mutated gene in human cancer. Trp53 knockout mouse models have been widely used in cancer etiology studies and in search for a cure of cancer with some limitations that other model organisms might help overcome. Via pronuclear microinjection of zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), we created a Tp53 knockout rat that contains an 11-bp deletion in exon 3, resulting in a frameshift and premature terminations in the open reading frame. In cohorts of 25 homozygous (Tp53?11/?11), 37 heterozygous (Tp53?11/+) and 30 wild-type rats, the Tp53?11/?11 rats lived an average of 126 days before death or removal from study because of clinical signs of abnormality or formation of tumors. Half of Tp53?11/+ were removed from study by 1 year of age because of tumor formation. Both Tp53?11/+ and Tp53?11/?11 rats developed a wide spectrum of tumors, most commonly sarcomas. Interestingly, there was a strikingly high incidence of brain lesions, especially in Tp53?11/?11 animals. We believe that this mutant rat line will be useful in studying cancer types rarely observed in mice and in carcinogenicity assays for drug development.

McCoy, Aaron; Besch-Williford, Cynthia L.; Franklin, Craig L.; Weinstein, Edward J.; Cui, Xiaoxia

2013-01-01

291

Morphological and parametric estimation of fetal neural stem cell migratory capacity in the rat brain.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can non-invasively monitor the migratory behavior of magnetically labeled stem cells after transplantation. Signal changes associated with the clearance of the contrast agent due to cell death and leaked tracer in the interstitial space must be better understood in order to accurately interpret imaging results. In this study, fetal neural stem cells were labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particles and transplanted into the corpus callosum of the adult rat. MRI was performed on the day of transplantation and at one week. Control subjects received injections of either non-viable, labeled cells or loose SPIO particles. Two quantitative image analysis algorithms were developed to evaluate imaging results: 1) signal intensity drop-out areas were segmented and compared on a pixel-wise basis between initial and one week images; and 2) signal intensity profiles of transplanted materials at one week were parametrically modeled to estimate migration speed. Segmentation results showed that the number of pixels segmented at one week was significantly greater than the initial number of segmented pixels for subjects receiving injections of viable cells as compared to controls (p<0.05). The average speed of migration of viable cells along the corpus callosum was 69.2+/-41.1 microm/d and was significantly higher than controls (p<0.05). This study demonstrates an in vivo assay to quantitatively evaluate stem cell migration that can be used in different experimental paradigms. PMID:18002996

Flexman, J A; Cross, D J; Kim, Y; Minoshima, S

2007-01-01

292

A morphological study of the effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine and indomethacin on rat mesenteric venules.  

PubMed Central

A method is described for preparing venules of the rat mesentery for electron microscopy after the application of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and pretreatment with indomethacin. Local application of 5-HT caused the leakage of colloidal carbon and the emigration of leucocytes into the venule wall. 5-HT also caused endothelial cells to bulge and their nuclei to contort. It increased the number of protrusions on both the luminal and abluminal surfaces of the endothelium and increased the width of the subendothelial space, and the degree of vesiculation in the endothelial cells. Systemic treatment with indomethacin significantly decreased the amount of carbon passing through the endothelium after the local application of 5-HT, but enhanced some of the other effects of 5-HT. Thus it increased the bulging of endothelial cells and contortion of their nuclei, and further increased the number of surface protrusions and the subendothelial space. It had no effect on the emigration of leucocytes resulting from the application of 5-HT. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5

Northover, A. M.

1978-01-01

293

The energy costs of sexual dimorphism in mole-rats are morphological not behavioural  

PubMed Central

Different reproductive strategies of males and females may lead to the evolution of differences in their energetic costs of reproduction, overall energetic requirements and physiological performances. Sexual dimorphism is often associated with costly behaviours (e.g. large males might have a competitive advantage in fighting, which is energetically expensive). However, few studies of mammals have directly compared the energy costs of reproductive activities between sexes. We compared the daily energy expenditure (DEE) and resting metabolic rate (RMR) of males and females of two species of mole-rat, Bathyergus janetta and Georychus capensis (the former is sexually dimorphic in body size and the latter is not) during a period of intense digging when males seek females. We hypothesized that large body size might be indicative of greater digging or fighting capabilities, and hence greater mass-independent DEE values in males of the sexually dimorphic species. In contrast to this prediction, although absolute values of DEE were greater in B. janetta males, mass-independent values were not. No differences were apparent between sexes in G. capensis. By comparison, although RMR values were greater in B. janetta than G. capensis, no differences were apparent between the sexes for either species. The energy cost of dimorphism is most likely to be the cost of maintenance of a large body size, and not the cost of behaviours performed when an individual is large.

Scantlebury, M; Speakman, J.R; Bennett, N.C

2005-01-01

294

Functional and Morphological Evidence of Age-Related Denervation in Rat Laryngeal Muscles  

PubMed Central

Laryngeal muscle dysfunction compromises voice, swallowing, and airway protection in elderly adults. Laryngeal muscles and their motor neurons and their motor neurons communicate via the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). We tested the hypothesis that aging disrupts NMJ organization and function in the laryngeal thyroarytenoid (TA) and posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) muscles We determined NMJ density and size and acetylcholine receptor (AChR) subunit mRNAs in TA and PCA muscles from 6-, 18-, and 30- month old-rats. NMJ function was determined with tubocurarine (TC) and contractions during nerve and muscle stimulation. NMJ size, abundance, and clustering decreased in 30-month TA and PCA muscles. AChRe mTNA and protein increased with age in both muscles. AChRg mRNA increased with age in both muscles while protein content increased in TA only. Aging PCA and TA were more sensitive to TC, demonstrating functional evidence of denervation. These results demonstrate that NMJs become smaller and less abundant in aging TA and PCA muscles.

Andrade, Francisco H.

2009-01-01

295

Characterization of homocysteine metabolism in the rat liver.  

PubMed Central

Recent evidence suggests that an increased plasma concentration of the sulphur amino acid homocysteine is a risk factor for the development of vascular disease. The tissue(s) responsible for homocysteine production and export to the plasma are not well known. However, given the central role of the liver in amino acid metabolism, we developed a rat primary hepatocyte model in which homocysteine (and cysteine) production and export were examined. The dependence of homocysteine export from incubated hepatocytes on methionine concentration fitted well to a rectangular hyperbola, with half-maximal homocysteine export achieved at methionine concentrations of approx. 0.44 mM. Hepatocytes incubated with 1 mM methionine and 1 mM serine (a substrate for the transulphuration pathway of homocysteine removal) produced and exported significantly less homocysteine (25-40%) compared with cells incubated with 1 mM methionine alone. The effects of dietary protein on homocysteine metabolism were also examined. Rats fed a 60% protein diet had a significantly increased total plasma homocysteine level compared with rats fed a 20% protein diet. In vitro effects of dietary protein were examined using hepatocytes isolated from animals maintained on these diets. When incubated with 1 mM methionine, hepatocytes from rats fed the high protein diet exported significantly more homocysteine compared with hepatocytes from rats fed the normal protein diet. Inclusion of serine significantly lowered homocysteine export in the normal protein group, but the effect was more marked in the high protein group. In vivo effects of serine were also examined. Rats fed a high protein diet enriched with serine had significantly lower total plasma homocysteine (25-30%) compared with controls. These data indicate a significant role for the liver in the regulation of plasma homocysteine levels.

Stead, L M; Brosnan, M E; Brosnan, J T

2000-01-01

296

Chemical, dimensional and morphological ultrafine particle characterization from a waste-to-energy plant.  

PubMed

Waste combustion processes are responsible of particles and gaseous emissions. Referring to the particle emission, in the last years specific attention was paid to ultrafine particles (UFPs, diameter less than 0.1 ?m), mainly emitted by combustion processes. In fact, recent findings of toxicological and epidemiological studies indicate that fine and ultrafine particles could represent a risk for health and environment. Therefore, it is necessary to quantify particle emissions from incinerators also to perform an exposure assessment for the human populations living in their surrounding areas. To these purposes, in the present work an experimental campaign aimed to monitor UFPs was carried out at the incineration plant in San Vittore del Lazio (Italy). Particle size distributions and total concentrations were measured both at the stack and before the fabric filter inlet in order to evaluate the removal efficiency of the filter in terms of UFPs. A chemical characterization of UFPs in terms of heavy metal concentration was performed through a nuclear method, i.e., Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), as well as a mineralogical investigation was carried out through a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) equipped with an Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) in order to evaluate shape, crystalline state and mineral compound of sampled particles. Maximum values of 2.7 × 10(7) part. cm(-3) and 2.0 × 10(3) part. cm(-3) were found, respectively, for number concentration before and after the fabric filter showing a very high efficiency in particle removing by the fabric filter. With regard to heavy metal concentrations, the elements with higher boiling temperature present higher concentrations at lower diameters showing a not complete evaporation in the combustion section and the consequent condensation of semi-volatile compounds on solid nuclei. In terms of mineralogical and morphological analysis, the most abundant compounds found in samples collected before the fabric filter are Na-K-Pb oxides followed by phyllosilicates, otherwise, different oxides of comparable abundance were detected in the samples collected at the stack. PMID:21802934

Buonanno, Giorgio; Stabile, Luca; Avino, Pasquale; Belluso, Elena

2011-11-01

297

Isolation and Characterization of Progenitor Cells in Uninjured, Adult Rat Lacrimal Gland  

PubMed Central

Purpose. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of progenitor cells in the uninjured, adult rat lacrimal gland (LG). Methods. The presence of progenitor cells was examined in LG sections from male rats using antibodies against selected stem cell markers and ?-smooth muscle actin (SMA), which marks myoepithelial cells (MECs), by immunofluorescence microscopy (IF). Small, immature cells were isolated after digestion of LG with collagenase and culture in RPMI 1640 for 2 weeks. Immature cells were examined for expression of stem cell markers by IF. Immature cell were grown in neuronal, epithelial, and myoepithelial cell media, and examined by light morphology and IF using antibodies to markers of different cell lineages. Results. In the intact LGs, MECs expressed the stem cell markers nestin, Musashi 1, ABCG2, Pax6, Chx 10, ?N p63, and Sox 2. All markers colocalized with SMA. Isolated immature cells contained Ki-67, nestin, Musashi 1, Pax 6, and CHX 10. In neuronal media, immature cells differentiated and assumed a neuronal cell morphology expressing neurofilament 200. In media for human corneal endothelial cells, immature cells differentiated, assumed cobblestone morphology, and labeled with the epithelial marker AE1/AE3. In RPMI media immature cells differentiated into cells with MEC-like morphology, and expressed the MEC markers SMA, ?-actinin, adenylate cyclase II, and vimentin. Conclusions. We conclude that uninjured, adult LG contains progenitor cells that may be MECs, which can be isolated and differentiated into multiple lineages.

Shatos, Marie A.; Haugaard-Kedstrom, Linda; Hodges, Robin R.; Dartt, Darlene A.

2012-01-01

298

Effects of Rapamycin on Gene expression, Morphology, and Electrophysiological Properties of Rat Hippocampal Neurons  

PubMed Central

Summary Purpose We assayed the effects of rapamycin, an immunomodulatory agent known to inhibit the activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) cascade, on candidate gene expression and single unit firing properties in cultured rat hippocampal neurons as a strategy to define the effects of rapamycin on neuronal gene transcription and excitability. Methods Rapamycin was added (100 nM) to cultured hippocampal neurons on days 3 and 14. Neuronal somatic size and dendritic length were assayed by immunohistochemistry and digital imaging. Radiolabeled mRNA was amplified from single hippocampal pyramidal neurons and used to probe cDNA arrays containing over 100 distinct candidate genes including cytoskeletal element, growth factor, transcription factor, neurotransmitter, and ion channel genes. In addition, the effects of rapamycin (200 nM) on spontaneous neuronal activity and voltage-dependent currents was assessed. Results There were no effects of rapamycin on cell size or dendrite length. Rapamycin altered expression of distinct mRNAs in each gene family on days 3 and 14 in culture. Single unit recordings from neurons exposed to rapamycin exhibited no change from baseline. When spontaneous activity was increased by blocking GABA-mediated inhibition with bicuculline, a fraction of the neurons exhibited a decreased duration of spontaneous bursts and a decrease in synaptic inputs. Rapamycin did not appear to alter voltage dependent Na+ or K+ currents underlying action potentials. Conclusions These data demonstrate that rapamycin does not produce neurotoxicity nor alter dendritic growth and complexity in vitro and does not significantly alter voltage gated sodium and potassium currents. Rapamycin does affect neuronal gene transcription in vitro. Use of rapamycin in clinical trials for patients with tuberous sclerosis complex should involve vigilance for possible effects on seizure frequency and neurocognitive function.

Ruegg, Stephan; Baybis, Marianna; Juul, Hal; Dichter, Marc; Crino, Peter B.

2012-01-01

299

Changes in Retinal Morphology, Electroretinogram and Visual Behavior after Transient Global Ischemia in Adult Rats  

PubMed Central

The retina is a light-sensitive tissue of the central nervous system that is vulnerable to ischemia. The pathological mechanism underlying retinal ischemic injury is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate structural and functional changes of different types of rat retinal neurons and visual behavior following transient global ischemia. Retinal ischemia was induced using a 4-vessel occlusion model. Compared with the normal group, the number of ?III-tubulin positive retinal ganglion cells and calretinin positive amacrine cells were reduced from 6 h to 48 h following ischemia. The number of recoverin positive cone bipolar cells transiently decreased at 6 h and 12 h after ischemia. However, the fluorescence intensity of rhodopsin positive rod cells and fluorescent peanut agglutinin positive cone cells did not change after reperfusion. An electroretinogram recording showed that the a-wave, b-wave, oscillatory potentials and the photopic negative response were completely lost during ischemia. The amplitudes of the a- and b-waves were partially recovered at 1 h after ischemia, and returned to the control level at 48 h after reperfusion. However, the amplitudes of oscillatory potentials and the photopic negative response were still reduced at 48 h following reperfusion. Visual behavior detection showed there was no significant change in the time spent in the dark chamber between the control and 48 h group, but the distance moved, mean velocity in the black and white chambers and intercompartmental crosses were reduced at 48 h after ischemia. These results indicate that transient global ischemia induces dysfunction of retinal ganglion cells and amacrine cells at molecular and ERG levels. However, transient global ischemia in a 17 minute duration does not appear to affect photoreceptors.

Zhao, Ying; Yu, Bo; Xiang, Yong-Hui; Han, Xin-Jia; Xu, Ying; So, Kwok-Fai; Xu, An-Ding; Ruan, Yi-Wen

2013-01-01

300

Hypoxia during pregnancy in rats leads to early morphological changes of atherosclerosis in adult offspring.  

PubMed

Exposure to an adverse intrauterine environment increases the risk of cardiovascular disease later in adult life. However, the time course relationship between prenatal hypoxia and the onset of atherosclerosis in offspring remains unknown. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the role of reduced fetal oxygen supply on early development of atherogenesis in the adult offspring and further assess its susceptibility to sex-, hyperlipidemia-, and postnatal hypoxemia-related differences. Based on a 4 x 2 full factorial design consisting of four factors of maternal hypoxia, sex, hyperlipidemia, and postnatal hypoxemia, characteristics of growth were determined, and histopathological observation and morphometric analysis of the thoracic aortas were performed in Sprague-Dawley rat offspring. Intrauterine growth restriction, altered body shape at birth, and accelerated postnatal weight gain occurred in the maternal hypoxia group but did not occur in the control group. In 16-mo-old maternal hypoxia offspring, the thoracic aortas exhibited lesions similar to early events in atherosclerosis that involved impaired endothelial cells, thickening and fibration of intimas, infiltration of inflammatory cells to the subendothelial space, and migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells to the intima. In contrast, no detectable pathological changes were observed in the offspring without maternal hypoxia exposure. Morphometric analysis further demonstrated that prenatal hypoxia caused a significant thickening of intima (P < 0.001) with a main effect of 5.5 mum, an approximately twofold increase compared with controls. In addition, there was a positive additive relationship between prenatal hypoxia and hyperlipidemia on the intimal thickness (P < 0.05). There were no other main effects or interaction among these four factors. In summary, our results indicate that maternal hypoxia during pregnancy leads to early pathological appearances of atherogenesis in adult offspring. This effect was enhanced with hyperlipemia but was unaffected by postnatal hypoxia or sex. PMID:19304947

Wang, Zhenhua; Huang, Ziyang; Lu, Guorong; Lin, Ling; Ferrari, Markus

2009-05-01

301

Morphological castes in a vertebrate  

PubMed Central

Morphological specialization for a specific role has, until now, been assumed to be restricted to social invertebrates. Herein we show that complete physical dimorphism has evolved between reproductives and helpers in the eusocial naked mole-rat. Dimorphism is a consequence of the lumbar vertebrae lengthening after the onset of reproduction in females. This is the only known example of morphological castes in a vertebrate and is distinct from continuous size variation between breeders and helpers in other species of cooperatively breeding vertebrates. The evolution of castes in a mammal and insects represents a striking example of convergent evolution for enhanced fecundity in societies characterized by high reproductive skew. Similarities in the selective environment between naked mole-rats and eusocial insect species highlight the selective conditions under which queen/worker castes are predicted to evolve in animal societies.

O'Riain, M. J.; Jarvis, J. U. M.; Alexander, R.; Buffenstein, R.; Peeters, C.

2000-01-01

302

Characterization of anti-tubular basement membrane antibodies in rats.  

PubMed

Autoimmune tubulointerstitial nephritis was induced in Brown-Norway (BN) rats by immunization with bovine (Bov) tubular basement membrane (TBM) in complete Freund's adjuvant. Serum antibodies thus produced reacted to a greater extent with Bov than BN TBM antigens by indirect immunofluorescence and by radioimmunoassay with particulate (P) and collagenase-solubilized (CS) TBM. The quantities of antibodies reactive with CS TBM correlated with the intensity of tubulointerstitial pathologic changes. Antibodies eluted from kidneys reactive with BN TBM by indirect immunofluorescence were 508 times more concentrated in the kidney than in the serum, compared with 15 times for Bov TBM-reactive antibodies. The reactivity of eluted antibodies to P BN TBM was inhibited by 70% after absorption with BN CS TBM. A major CS TBM antigen of 42,000 m.w. was identified by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This antigen was present in both Bov and BN TBM, and may be important in triggering autoantibody formation in this model. Lewis rats immunized under the same conditions produced antibodies reactive with BN TBM by immunofluorescence but failed to develop immune deposits in TBM of their own kidneys. Analysis of serum anti-TBM antibodies in Lewis rats revealed a selective lack of reactivity with either homologous or autologous CS TBM. These results suggest that the ability to make an immune response to one or more elements of CS TBM plays a major role in the development of autoimmune tubulointerstitial nephritis in rats. PMID:6300240

Zanetti, M; Wilson, C B

1983-05-01

303

Alterations in dendritic morphology of the prefrontal cortical and striatum neurons in the unilateral 6-OHDA-rat model of Parkinson's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the morphological changes of the dendrites of the pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the medium spiny neurons of the caudate-putamen (CPu) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc) induced by the injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). The uni- lateral 6-OHDA-induced lesion of the SNc was made in Wistar rats to produce

Oscar Solis; Daniel I. Limón; Jorge Flores-Hernández; Gonzalo Flores

2007-01-01

304

A LIGHT AND ELECTRON MICROSCOPE STUDY OF THE MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES INDUCED IN RAT LIVER CELLS BY THE AZO DYE 2-ME-DAB  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cytological changes induced in rat liver cells by the aminoazo dye 2-Me-DAB have been examined by light and electron microscopy. It is observed that this non-carcinogenic com- pound duplicates most of the morphological alterations produced by other hepatotoxins, some of which, such as the closely related aminoazo dye 3~-Me-DAB, are potent carcinogens. These non-specific effects involve both the granular

J. G. Lafontaine; C. ALLARD

1964-01-01

305

Effects of a Dietary Thermally Oxidized Fat on Thyroid Morphology and mRNA Concentrations of Thyroidal Iodide Transporter and Thyroid Peroxidase in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aim: Recent studies demonstrated that feeding oxidized fats increases the concentrations of total and free thyroxine in blood of rats and pigs. This finding suggested that oxidized fats affect the function of the thyroid gland. This study investigates the effects of a thermally oxidized dietary fat on the morphology of the thyroid gland and on the expression of proteins (Na+\\/I–

P. Skufca; C. Brandsch; F. Hirche; K. Eder

2003-01-01

306

Serotonin Concentration, Synthesis, Cell Origin, and Targets in the Rat Caput Epididymis During Sexual Maturation and Variations Associated With Adult Mating Status: Morphological and Biochemical Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The caput epididymis of some mammals contains large quantities of serotonin whose origin, targets, and physiological variations have been poorly studied. We combined morphological and biochemical techniques to begin approaching these aspects of serotonin in the rat caput epididymis. Serotonin immunostaining was detected in mast, epithelial, and neuroendocrine cells. Epithelial cells displayed immunoreactivity to 5HT1A, 5HT2A, and 5HT3 serotonin receptors.

FRANCISCO JIMENEZ-TREJO; MIGUEL TAPIA-RODRIGUEZ; DANIEL B. C. QUEIROZ; PATRICIA PADILLA; MARIA CHRISTINA W. AVELLAR; PATRICIA RIVAS MANZANO; GABRIEL MANJARREZ-GUTIERREZ; GABRIEL GUTIERREZ-OSPINA

307

Characterization of myosin isoforms in satellite cell cultures from adult rat diaphragm, soleus and tibialis anterior muscles  

PubMed Central

Satellite cells were isolated by enzymatic dissociation and Percoll gradient centrifugation from adult rat diaphragm, soleus, and tibialis anterior muscles with fairly reproducible yields. Diaphragm and soleus muscle yielded approximately five times more satellite cells than tibialis anterior muscle. According to light microscopic criteria, no morphological differences existed between the satellite cell cultures of different origin. Contrary to the donor muscles, myotubes from the 10-day-cultured satellite cells contained a uniform myosin heavy chain (MHC) pattern with predominance of an immunochemically identified embryonic heavy chain. The three types of cultures displayed a typical embryonic light chain (LC) pattern with LC1emb, LC1f, LC2f, and traces of LC3f. The isomyosin pattern was characterized by four embryonic isomyosins, eMl–eM4, with similar distributions in the three cultures. In summary, these myosin analyses provide no evidence for the existence of satellite cell diversity among three rat muscles of different fiber-type composition, at least not under the applied in vitro conditions.

Dusterhoft, Sabine; Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora; Pette, Dirk

2014-01-01

308

Morphological, biochemical, and histopathological indices and contaminant burdens of cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) at three hazardous waste sites near Houston, Texas, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Male cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) were studied at three industrial waste sites near Houston, Texas, to determine whether various morphological, biochemical, and histopathological indices provided evidence of contaminant exposure and toxic insult. Only modest changes were detected in cotton rats residing at waste sites compared with reference sites. No single parameter was consistently altered, except hepatic cytochrome P-450 concentration which was lower ( [Formula: see text] ) at two waste sites, and tended to be lower ( [Formula: see text] ) at a third waste site. Elevated petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations were detected in rats at one waste site, but contaminant burdens of rats from the other sites were unremarkable. Unlike rats captured in summer, those trapped in winter exhibited hepatocellular hypertrophy and up to a 65% increase in liver: body weight ratio, cytochrome P-450 concentration, and activities of aniline hydroxylase, aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase, and glutathione S-transferase. Although genotoxicity has been previously documented in cotton rats residing at two of the waste sites, biomarkers in the present study provided little evidence of exposure and damage

Rattner, B. A.; Flickinger, E. L.; Hoffman, D. J.

1993-01-01

309

Biological effects of short-term, high-concentration exposure to methyl isocyanate. V. Morphologic evaluation of rat and guinea pig lungs.  

PubMed Central

The morphologic changes induced in the lungs of rats and guinea pigs exposed to high concentrations of MIC vapor (100, 600, and 1000 ppm in the rat and 25, 125, 225, and 675 ppm in the guinea pig) for a short time (15 min) in a static exposure chamber were evaluated at varying postexposure periods (0, 1, 2, 4, and 16 hr). The 675 ppm-exposed guinea pigs were evaluated only immediately following removal from the chamber. Attention was primarily focused on the intrapulmonary conducting airways and the parenchyma (gas exchange region) of the lungs. The severity of morphologic changes observed by light microscopy was directly correlated with exposure concentration and time postexposure in both species. Specifically, degenerative changes were observed in the bronchial, bronchiolar, and alveolar epithelium in both species. Quantitative differences were observed; 100 ppm of MIC in the rat resulted in much less damage than did 125 ppm of MIC in the guinea pig. Morphologic evidence of sloughing of large sheets of conducting airway epithelium with fibrin buildup and increased mucus production resulted in plugging of major airways and atelectasis. These observations support the hypothesis that tissue hypoxia was a major contributing factor resulting in death. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8.

Fowler, E H; Dodd, D E; Troup, C M

1987-01-01

310

Spiny neurons of area CA3c in rat hippocampal slices have similar electrophysiological characteristics and synaptic responses despite morphological variation.  

PubMed

Area CA3c is an area of morphologically diverse neurons. In addition to the presence of interneurons and pyramidal cells that are similar to those found in other subfields of area CA3, many neurons of area CA3c are different. They do not resemble interneurons, since they bear numerous spines, yet they also differ substantially from pyramidal cells in their morphology. To determine if the variants of area CA3c spiny cells are distinct physiologically as well as morphologically, intracellular recordings were made to record the electrophysiological properties of area CA3c cells in rat hippocampal slices, and each cell was identified morphologically following intracellular dye injection. The results show that the spiny cells, regardless of their often extensive morphological variation, have relatively uniform, pyramidal-like electrophysiological properties. The aspiny cells are quite different from the spiny cells morphologically (i.e., in their paucity or complete lack of spines), and are also extremely different electrophysiologically, exhibiting features of "fast-spiking" cells. Thus, spiny cells in area CA3c correspond to cells with pyramidal-like electrophysiology, and the aspiny cells in area CA3c correspond to cells with interneuronal physiological properties. This correlation between structure and function appears to be a rule that pertains to each of the subfields of the hippocampus. PMID:8364685

Scharfman, H E

1993-01-01

311

Cloning and characterization of a calcium-activated chloride channel in rat uterus.  

PubMed

In a search for genes involved in regulation of uterine contractility, we cloned a novel calcium-activated chloride channel gene, named rat Clca4, from pregnant rat uterus. The gene shares approximately 83% and 70% nucleotide homology with mouse Clca6 and human CLCA4, respectively, and was expressed primarily in rat uterus. The transcripts were upregulated at Gestational Day 22 (prior to parturition), implying a functional involvement in parturition. Western blot analysis showed that rat CLCA4 protein was present in uterus, lung, and heart, but not in any other tissues examined. Confocal microscopy revealed that rat CLCA4 is localized in cell membrane and could not be removed by alkaline or PBS washing. Transient transfection of rat CLCA4-enhanced green fluorescent protein in Chinese hamster ovary cells resulted in production of characteristic Cl(-) currents that could be activated by Ca(2+) and ionomycin but inhibited by niflumic acid, a CLCA-channel blocker. The identification and characterization of rat Clca4 help decipher the contribution of Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) conductance in myometrial contractility. PMID:19144963

Song, Junfang; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Qi, Zhi; Sun, Gang; Chi, Shaopeng; Zhu, Zhaohui; Ren, Jiangong; Qiu, Zhaojun; Liu, Ka; Myatt, Leslie; Ma, Runlin Z

2009-04-01

312

Characterization of two cryptic species, Culicoides stigma and C.parroti (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), based on barcode regions and morphology.  

PubMed

Biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are insect vectors of economically important veterinary diseases such as African horse sickness, bluetongue, and Schmallenberg virus. The identification of Culicoides based on morphological features can be difficult. Three species of biting midges, Culicoides nubeculosus, C. stigma, and C. parroti have emerged in the laboratory from mud collected around watering troughs on a farm in northern France. Emerging Culicoides were characterized morphologically and molecularly using molecular markers. The closely related species C. stigma and C.parroti showed highly divergent sequences for both mitochondrial (cytochrome B and cytochrome oxidase I) and ribosomal DNA first internal transcribed spacer. A RFLP based on a single restriction using the same enzyme (HaeIII) for both cytochrome C oxidase I and cytochrome B is proposed to identify these species. PMID:24581354

Augot, Denis; Ninio, Camille; Akhoundi, Mohammad; Lehrter, Véronique; Couloux, Arnaud; Jouet, Damien; Depaquit, Jérôme

2013-12-01

313

Characterization of rat T-cell clones with bacterial specificity.  

PubMed Central

We have isolated 10 rat T-cell clones from the spleen or lymph nodes of seven different donors. These rats were immunized with 2-5 x 10(8) killed Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) bacteria, injected either subcutaneously (s.c.) in complete Freund's adjuvant or intraperitoneally (i.p.) in saline. Clones studied to date have demonstrated a T-helper (Th) phenotype W3/13+, W3/25+, OX8- and OX22-. Clones were not stimulated in vitro by purified Aa-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or heterologous Gram-negative bacteria, but proliferated when stimulated by bacteria representative of each of the three serological groups of Actinobacillus, indicating specificity for an Actinobacillus-common antigen other than LPS. One clone (A4) proliferated vigorously when stimulated with concanavalin A (Con A) in vitro, produced interleukin-2 (IL-2) and was provisionally classified as a Th1 type. This appears to be one of the few Th1-type rat clones reported. All other clones tested did not produce IL-2, exhibited B-cell help to some extent, did not induce delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) when injected into the footpads of naive rats along with the specific antigen, and were classified as Th2 type. Adoptive transfer of 10(6) cells of one Th2-type Aa-specific clone into syngeneic recipients resulted in a specific splenocyte in vitro response to Aa 12-14 weeks after cell transfer, indicating survival of cloned cells in recipient animals. The use of such clones in studies of experimental periodontal disease is discussed.

Eastcott, J W; Yamashita, K; Taubman, M A; Smith, D J

1990-01-01

314

Characterization of Glucose Uptake by Cultured Rat Podocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nonmetabolizable glucose analogue [3H]-2-deoxy-D-glucose (3H-2DG) was used to study glucose transport in cultured rat podocytes. Intracellular accumulation of 3H-2DG was linear up to 20 min and was inhibited by cytochalasin B (80% inhibition) and by phlorizin (20% inhibition). Pretreatment with insulin stimulated the 3H-2DG uptake 1.5-fold. A Hill analysis of the rate of glucose transport yielded a Vmax value

Barbara Lewko; Ewa Bryl; Jacek M. Witkowski; Nicole Endlich; Brunhilde Hähnel; Claudia Koksch; Stefan Angielski; Wilhelm Kriz; Jan Stepinski

2005-01-01

315

Culture and characterization of rat mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons.  

PubMed

Dopaminergic neuronal cell degeneration is the principal characteristic feature of the neuropathology of Parkinson's disease. Cultures of mesencephalic neurons are widely used as a source of dopaminergic neurons for the study of mechanisms implicated in dopaminergic cell death and for the evaluation of potential dopaminergic neuroprotective agents, including neurotrophic factors. This chapter presents a detailed protocol for the preparation of rat mesencephalic cell cultures and their application to evaluating the neuroprotective action of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. PMID:22367804

Skaper, Stephen D; Mercanti, Giulia; Facci, Laura

2012-01-01

316

Cloning and characterization of 5' upstream promoter region of rat WAP gene.  

PubMed

Regulatory regions of genes encoding milk proteins are frequently used to produce in the mammary gland of transgenic animals a variety of pharmaceutically and medically important human proteins. One such example is the whey acidic protein (WAP) promoter region, identified so far in the genome of mouse, rat, rabbit, camel, pig, brushtail possum and Tammar wallaby. The aim of the present study was cloning and characterization of the 5' upstream promoter region of rat WAP gene. Using Genome Walking procedure, we cloned the region extending from -849 to -3671 bp. We have shown that there are two conserved regions highly similar to hypersensitive sites present in mouse and rabbit upstream region of WAP gene with binding sites for STAT5 transcription factor, essential for expression of WAP gene in mammary glands during lactation. We characterized dispersed and tandem repeats in the upstream region of rat WAP gen localized not far away from the translation initiation site. PMID:15652158

Jura, Jacek; Jura, Jolanta; Murzyn, Krzysztof; Wegrzyn, Paulina; Zarebski, Adrian

2005-01-21

317

Morphological and molecular characterization of Frankia sp. isolates from nodules of Alnus nepalensis Don  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nodules collected from Alnus nepalensis growing in mixed forest stands at three different sites around Shillong, were crushed in various culture media to obtain isolates of Frankia. The isolates were found to have typical Frankia morphology as revealed by the scanning electron microscope. Seedlings inoculated with isolates or crushed nodules formed nitrogen fixing nodules. Frankia specific DNA probes amplified the

G. Ganesh; A. K. Misra; C. Chapelon; P. Normand

1994-01-01

318

Altered pancreatic morphology in the offspring of pregnant rats given reduced dietary protein is time and gender specific.  

PubMed

Restriction of dietary protein during gestation and lactation in the rat results in a reduction in beta cell mass, insulin content and release in the offspring, and glucose intolerance when the offspring reach adulthood. The present study was designed to identify if a particular developmental window existed during prenatal development when endocrine pancreatic development was most susceptible to nutritional insult. Pregnant rats received a low-protein (8%, LP), but isocalorific diet from conception to parturition, during the first 2 weeks of gestation (LP (1-2)), the second week only (LP (2)), or the third week (LP (3)). At other times, they received a 20% protein (C) diet, while control animals received this diet continuously. When the offspring were examined at 130 days age, animals that had received LP diet had a significantly impaired glucose tolerance compared with control-fed animals. Pancreatic morphology was examined in the offspring on postnatal days 1 and 21. The LP diet resulted in a significant decrease in the numbers of large (more than 10 000 microm(2)) and medium (between 5000 and 10 000 microm(2)) sized islets present at postnatal day 1 for all LP treatments. Consequently, mean islet area and the mean number of beta cells were reduced. The impact of LP diet was most pronounced in LP (2) for females and in LP (3) for males, and this was greater than for continuous LP exposure. Insulin and Glut-2 mRNA expression were impacted negatively by LP in early and late gestation, but increased following administration in mid-gestation. Total pancreatic insulin content was not altered by LP treatment. Pdx-1, a transcription factor associated with both beta cell development and insulin gene transcription, was decreased in female offspring following LP (1-2) and LP (3), but not in males. Pancreatic expression of nestin mRNA, and the abundance of nestin-immunoreactive cells within islets, was decreased by all LP treatments. By postnatal day 21, the mean islet area and number of beta cells had largely recovered. However, insulin and Glut-2 mRNAs were elevated in offspring exposed to LP diet, particularly in females. The studies show that LP dietary insult in early, middle, or late gestation, all result in a relative deficiency of beta cells following birth, due to a failure to develop larger islets, but that females were particularly susceptible in mid-gestation and males in late gestation. PMID:17065391

Chamson-Reig, Astrid; Thyssen, Sandra M; Arany, Edith; Hill, David J

2006-10-01

319

Characterization of SV40 Tag rats as a model to study prostate cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer in men. Animal models that closely mimic clinical disease in humans are invaluable tools in the fight against prostate cancer. Recently, a Simian Virus-40 T-antigen (SV-40 Tag) targeted probasin promoter rat model was developed. This model, however, has not been extensively characterized; hence we have investigated the ontogeny of prostate

Curt E Harper; Brijesh B Patel; Leah M Cook; Jun Wang; Tomoyuki Shirai; Isam A Eltoum; Coral A Lamartiniere

2009-01-01

320

Phenotypical and functional characterization of alveolar macrophage subpopulations in the lungs of NO2-exposed rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Alveolar macrophages (AM) are known to play an important role in the regulation of inflammatory reactions in the lung, e.g. during the development of chronic lung diseases. Exposure of rats to NO2 has recently been shown to induce a shift in the activation type of AM that is characterized by reduced TNF-? and increased IL-10 production. So far it

Holger Garn; Anette Siese; Sabine Stumpf; Anka Wensing; Harald Renz; Diethard Gemsa

2006-01-01

321

CLONING, EXPRESSION, AND CHARACTERIZATION OF RAT S-ADENOSYL-L-METHIONINE: ARSENIC (III) METHYLTRANSFERASE (CYT19)  

EPA Science Inventory

CLONING, EXPRESSION, AND CHARACTERIZATION OF RAT S-ADENOSYL-L-METHIONINE: ARSENIC(III) METHYLTRANSFERASE (cyt19) Stephen B. Waters1 , Felicia Walton1 , Miroslav Styblo1 , Karen Herbin-Davis2, and David J. Thomas2 1 School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chape...

322

Simultaneous characterization of metabolic, cardiac, vascular and renal phenotypes of lean and obese SHHF rats.  

PubMed

Individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS) are prone to develop heart failure (HF). However, the deleterious effects of MetS on the continuum of events leading to cardiac remodeling and subsequently to HF are not fully understood. This study characterized simultaneously MetS and cardiac, vascular and renal phenotypes in aging Spontaneously Hypertensive Heart Failure lean (SHHF(+/?) regrouping (+/+) and (+/cp) rats) and obese (SHHF(cp/cp), "cp" defective mutant allele of the leptin receptor gene) rats. We aimed to refine the milestones and their onset during the progression from MetS to HF in this experimental model. We found that SHHF(cp/cp )but not SHHF(+/?) rats developed dyslipidemia, as early as 1.5 months of age. This early alteration in the lipidic profile was detectable concomitantly to impaired renal function (polyuria, proteinuria but no glycosuria) and reduced carotid distensibility as compared to SHHF(+/?) rats. By 3 months of age SHHFcp/cp animals developed severe obesity associated with dislipidemia and hypertension defining the onset of MetS. From 6 months of age, SHHF(+/?) rats developed concentric left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) while SHHF(cp/cp) rats developed eccentric LVH apparent from progressive dilation of the LV dimensions. By 14 months of age only SHHF(cp/cp) rats showed significantly higher central systolic blood pressure and a reduced ejection fraction resulting in systolic dysfunction as compared to SHHF(+/?). In summary, the metabolic and hemodynamic mechanisms participating in the faster decline of cardiac functions in SHHF(cp/cp) rats are established long before their physiological consequences are detectable. Our results suggest that the molecular mechanisms triggered within the first three months after birth of SHHF(cp/cp) rats should be targeted preferentially by therapeutic interventions in order to mitigate the later HF development. PMID:24831821

Youcef, Gina; Olivier, Arnaud; L'Huillier, Clément P J; Labat, Carlos; Fay, Renaud; Tabcheh, Lina; Toupance, Simon; Rodriguez-Guéant, Rosa-Maria; Bergerot, Damien; Jaisser, Frédéric; Lacolley, Patrick; Zannad, Faiez; Laurent Vallar; Pizard, Anne

2014-01-01

323

Identification and characterization of rat Ror1 and Ror2 genes in silico.  

PubMed

Frizzled-1 (FZD1), FZD2, FZD3, FZD4, FZD5, FZD6, FZD7, FZD8, FZD9 and FZD10 are seven-transmembrane-type WNT receptors with extracellular Frizzled (Fz) domain. ROR1, ROR2 and MUSK are receptor-type tyrosine kinases with extracellular Fz domain, while MFRP is type II transmembrane protein with extracellular Fz domain. ROR1, ROR2, MUSK and MFRP are predicted to transduce or regulate WNT signaling. Here, we identified and characterized rat Ror1 and Ror2 genes by using bioinformatics. Rat Ror1 gene was located within AC108320.4, AC098031.5 and AC129856.4 genome sequences, while rat Ror2 gene was located within AC139870.3 and AC123431.4 genome sequences. Exon-intron structure was conserved between rat Ror1 and Ror2 genes, consisting of nine exons. Rat Ror1 mRNA was expressed in fetal ventricle, while rat Ror2 mRNA was expressed in cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, dorsolateral prostate, and chondrosarcoma. Rat Ror1 (937 aa) and Ror2 (943 aa) showed 56.5% total-amino-acid identity. Rat Ror1 and Ror2 were type I transmembrane proteins with extracellular Immunoglobulin-like (Ig), Fz, Kringle (KR) domains, and cytoplasmic Juxta-membrane (JM), Tyrosine kinase (TK), and Ror homology C-terminal (RORHC) domains. Casein kinase Iepsilon-binding RORHC domain was conserved among vertebrate Ror1 and Ror2 homologs, but not in Drosophila Ror. Thr 582 within TK domain was conserved among mammalian Ror family members, and was predicted as Casein kinase I phosphorylation site. This is the first report on rat Ror1 and Ror2 genes as well as on molecular evolution of Ror1 and Ror2 homologs. PMID:15702250

Katoh, Masuko; Katoh, Masaru

2005-03-01

324

Simultaneous Characterization of Metabolic, Cardiac, Vascular and Renal Phenotypes of Lean and Obese SHHF Rats  

PubMed Central

Individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS) are prone to develop heart failure (HF). However, the deleterious effects of MetS on the continuum of events leading to cardiac remodeling and subsequently to HF are not fully understood. This study characterized simultaneously MetS and cardiac, vascular and renal phenotypes in aging Spontaneously Hypertensive Heart Failure lean (SHHF+/? regrouping +/+ and +/cp rats) and obese (SHHFcp/cp, “cp” defective mutant allele of the leptin receptor gene) rats. We aimed to refine the milestones and their onset during the progression from MetS to HF in this experimental model. We found that SHHFcp/cp but not SHHF+/? rats developed dyslipidemia, as early as 1.5 months of age. This early alteration in the lipidic profile was detectable concomitantly to impaired renal function (polyuria, proteinuria but no glycosuria) and reduced carotid distensibility as compared to SHHF+/? rats. By 3 months of age SHHFcp/cp animals developed severe obesity associated with dislipidemia and hypertension defining the onset of MetS. From 6 months of age, SHHF+/? rats developed concentric left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) while SHHFcp/cp rats developed eccentric LVH apparent from progressive dilation of the LV dimensions. By 14 months of age only SHHFcp/cp rats showed significantly higher central systolic blood pressure and a reduced ejection fraction resulting in systolic dysfunction as compared to SHHF+/?. In summary, the metabolic and hemodynamic mechanisms participating in the faster decline of cardiac functions in SHHFcp/cp rats are established long before their physiological consequences are detectable. Our results suggest that the molecular mechanisms triggered within the first three months after birth of SHHFcp/cp rats should be targeted preferentially by therapeutic interventions in order to mitigate the later HF development.

Youcef, Gina; Olivier, Arnaud; L'Huillier, Clement P. J.; Labat, Carlos; Fay, Renaud; Tabcheh, Lina; Toupance, Simon; Rodriguez-Gueant, Rosa-Maria; Bergerot, Damien; Jaisser, Frederic; Lacolley, Patrick; Zannad, Faiez; Laurent Vallar; Pizard, Anne

2014-01-01

325

Spatial and Temporal Morphological Changes in the Subarachnoid Space after Graded Spinal Cord Contusion in the Rat  

PubMed Central

Abstract Spontaneous repair or treatment-induced recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) is very limited and might be related to extramedullary alterations that have only briefly been documented. Here we report on the morphological changes of the spinal subarachnoid space (SAS) in a clinically relevant model of SCI. Anesthetized rats were subjected either to mild or severe spinal cord contusion at T9. Spine blocks from the site of injury and adjacent segments were harvested at acute (1?h and 1 day [d]), subacute (3 and 7 d), and chronic (1 and 3 months) stages post-injury. Histopathology and morphometry at each decalcified vertebral level were assessed. At acute and subacute stages, reduction of SAS lumen was observed after both mild and severe injuries. Acutely, after severe injuries, SAS occlusion was associated mainly with cord swelling and subarachnoid hematomas; a trend for dural sac constriction was observed for mild injuries. At 7 d, cord swelling diminished in both instances, but dural sac constriction increased for severe injuries. At early stages, in the epicenter and vicinity, histopathology revealed compression of neurovascular elements within the SAS, which was more intense in severe than in mild injuries. In the chronic stage, SAS lumen increased notably, mostly from cord atrophy, despite dural sac constriction. Myelograms complemented observations made on SAS lumen permeability. Post-traumatic arachnoiditis occurred mainly in animals with severe injury. In conclusion, early extramedullary SAS changes described here might be expected to produce alterations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics and cord blood perfusion, thereby contributing to the pathophysiology of SCI and becoming novel targets for treatment.

Reyes-Alva, Horacio J.; Franco-Bourland, Rebecca E.; Martinez-Cruz, Angelina; Grijalva, Israel; Madrazo, Ignacio

2013-01-01

326

Structural and morphological characterization of molecular beam epitaxy grown Si/Ge multilayer using x-ray scattering techniques  

SciTech Connect

Si/Ge multilayers are of great technological importance as is evident from the research studies of the past two decades. Here, we have presented a method for the morphological and structural characterization of such MBE grown epitaxial Si/Ge superlattice structures using simultaneous analysis of x-ray reflectivity and x-ray diffraction data, respectively. The consistent analysis of the data collected in the Indian Beamline at Photon Factory Synchrotron have allowed for the determination of electron density and strain profile as a function of depth.

Sharma, M.; Sanyal, M. K.; Mukhopadhyay, M. K.; Bera, M. K.; Saha, B.; Chakraborty, P. [Surface Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)

2011-11-15

327

An inverse light scattering technique for morphological characterization of irregular particles based on the Gaussian-random-sphere model  

PubMed Central

The Gaussian-random-sphere model is employed for morphological characterization of nonspherical, irregular particles using an inverse light scattering technique. The synthetic measurement data consist of reduced scattering spectra caused by an aggregate of irregular particles randomly oriented in turbid media and are generated using the discrete dipole approximation. The proposed method simultaneously retrieves the concentration and shape parameters of particles using the data collected at multiple wavelengths. The performance of the inverse algorithm is tested using noise-corrupted data, in which up to 50% noise may be added to the observed scattering spectra.

Hajihashemi, M. Reza; Jiang, Huabei

2012-01-01

328

Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Paramecium (Viridoparamecium nov. subgen.) chlorelligerum Kahl, 1935 (Ciliophora)  

PubMed Central

We redescribe Paramecium chlorelligerum, a forgotten species, which Kahl (1935) briefly but precisely described in the addendum to his ciliate monographs as a Paramecium with symbiotic green algae. The redescription is based on classical morphological methods and the analysis of the small subunit (SSU) rDNA. Morphologically, P. chlorelligerum differs from P. (Chloroparamecium) bursaria, the second green species in the genus, by having a special swimming shape, the length of the caudal cilia, the size of the micronucleus, the size of the symbiotic algae, the contractile vacuoles (with collecting vesicles vs. collecting canals), and the number of excretory pores /contractile vacuole (1 vs. 2--3). The molecular investigations show that P. chlorelligerum forms a distinct branch distant from the P. (Chloroparamecium) bursaria clade. Thus, we classify P. chlorelligerum in a new subgenus: Paramecium (Viridoparamecium) chlorelligerum. The symbiotic alga belongs to the little-known genus Meyerella, as yet recorded only from the plankton of a North American lake.

KREUTZ, MARTIN; STOECK, THORSTEN; FOISSNER, WILHELM

2013-01-01

329

Purification and characterization of an autoregulatory substance capable of regulating the morphological transition in Candida albicans  

PubMed Central

The yeast Candida albicans has a distinguishing feature, dimorphism, which is the ability to switch between two morphological forms: a budding yeast form and a multicellular invasive filamentous form. This ability has been postulated to contribute to the virulence of this organism. Studies on the morphological transition from a filamentous to a budding yeast form in C. albicans have shown that this organism excretes an autoregulatory substance into the culture medium. This substance was extracted and purified by normal-phase and reversed-phase HPLC. The autoregulatory substance was structurally identified as 3,7,11-trimethyl-2,6,10-dodecatrienoate (farnesoic acid) by NMR and mass spectrometry. Growth experiments suggest that this substance does not inhibit yeast cell growth but inhibits filamentous growth. These findings have implications for developmental signaling by the fungus and might have medicinal value in the development of antifungal therapies.

Oh, Ki-Bong; Miyazawa, Hiroshi; Naito, Toshimichi; Matsuoka, Hideaki

2001-01-01

330

Starch-directed green synthesis, characterization and morphology of silver nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticles were prepared by a simple chemical reduction method using ascorbic acid and starch as reducing and stabilizing agents, respectively. The effect of starch, silver ions and ascorbic acid was studied on the morphology of the silver nano-particles using UV-visible spectrophotometry. The initial reaction time min and amount of starch were important parameters for the growth of Ag-nanoparticles. The morphology was evaluated from transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The truncated triangle nano-plates (from 17 to 30 nm), polyhedron, spherical with some irregular shaped Ag-nanoparticles were formed in presence of starch. Particles are aggregated in an irregular manner, leads to the formation of butterfly-like structures of silver. Starch acts as a stabilizing, shape-directing and capping agent during the growth processes. Silver nanoparticles adsorbed electrostatically on the outer OH groups of amylose left-handed helical conformation in solution. PMID:23104028

Khan, Zaheer; Singh, Taruna; Hussain, Javed Ijaz; Obaid, Abdullah Yousif; Al-Thabaiti, Shaeel Ahmed; El-Mossalamy, E H

2013-02-01

331

Characterization of a new mPGES-1 inhibitor in rat models of inflammation.  

PubMed

Microsomal prostaglandin E synthase (mPGES)-1 inhibition has been proposed as an alternative to cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition in the treatment of pain and inflammation. This novel approach could potentially mitigate the gastro-intestinal and cardiovascular side effects seen after long-term treatment with traditional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and Coxibs respectively. Several human mPGES-1 inhibitors have been developed in the recent years. However, they were all shown to be considerably less active on rodent mPGES-1, precluding the study of mPGES-1 inhibition in rodent models of inflammation and pain. The aim of this study was to characterize the new mPGES-1 inhibitor compound II, a pyrazolone that has similar potency on rat and human recombinant mPGES-1, in experimental models of inflammation. In cell culture, compound II inhibited PGE2 production in synovial fibroblasts from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RASF) and in rat peritoneal macrophages. In vivo, compound II was first characterized in the rat air pouch model of inflammation where treatment inhibited intra-pouch PGE2 production. Compound II was also investigated in a rat adjuvant-induced arthritis model where it attenuated both the acute and delayed inflammatory responses. In conclusion, compound II represents a valuable pharmacological tool for the study of mPGES-1 inhibition in rat models. PMID:23528231

Leclerc, Patrick; Pawelzik, Sven-Christian; Idborg, Helena; Spahiu, Linda; Larsson, Charlotte; Stenberg, Patric; Korotkova, Marina; Jakobsson, Per-Johan

2013-01-01

332

Morphological characterization of guggal (Commiphora wightii) provenances from extremely arid parts of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commiphora wightii is one of the major guggal gum-resin producing species in India. It has never been brought under cultivation and the species is now considered endangered. Growth performances and morphological parameters were assessed during 2008 and 2009 at Jaisalmer, in the hyper arid part of India, for five provenances of Commiphora wightii, viz., Dantiwara, Mangaliawas, Kukma-Bhuj, Bhind-Murena, and Jaisalmer

N. K. Sinha; R. S. Mertia; B. K. Kandpal; R. N. Kumawat; P. Santra; Daleep Singh

2012-01-01

333

Characterization of Corneal Keratocyte Morphology and Mechanical Activity within 3-D Collagen Matrices  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to assess quantitatively the differences in morphology, cytoskeletal organization and mechanical behavior between quiescent corneal keratocytes and activated fibroblasts in a 3-D culture model. Primary cultures of rabbit corneal keratocytes and fibroblasts were plated inside type I collagen matrices in serum-freemedia or 10% FBS, and allowed to spread for 1–5 days. Following F-actin labeling using phalloidin, and immunolabeling of tubulin, ?-smooth muscle actin or connexin 43, fluorescent and reflected light (for collagen fibrils) 3-D optical section images were acquired using laser confocal microscopy. In other experiments, dynamic imaging was performed using differential interference contrast microscopy, and finite element modeling was used to map ECM deformations. Corneal keratocytes developed a stellate morphology with numerous cell processes that ran a tortuous path between and along collagen fibrils without any apparent impact on their alignment. Fibroblasts on the other hand, had a more bipolar morphology with pseudopodial processes (p ? 0.001). Time lapse imaging of keratocytes revealed occasional extension and retraction of dendritic processes with only transient displacements of collagen fibrils, whereas fibroblasts exerted stronger myosin II-dependent contractile forces (P < 0.01), causing increased compaction and alignment of collagen at the ends of the pseudopodia (P < 0.001). At high cell density, both keratocytes and fibroblasts appeared to form a 3-D network connected via gap junctions. Overall, this experimental model provides a unique platform for quantitative investigation of the morphological, cytoskeletal and contractile behavior of corneal keratocytes (i.e. their mechanical phenotype) in a 3-D microenvironment.

Lakshman, Neema; Kim, Areum; Petroll, W. Matthew

2010-01-01

334

Morphological characterization of β phase in poly-(vinylidenefluoride) film prepared by spin cast method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Poly-(Vinylidene fluoride) PVDF film was prepared by spin casting method to control the pore size of the matrix. The morphological spherulitic structure was confirmed Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) after gold sputtering and the presence of ? phase was ensured in spin cast PVDF film by the FTIR spectroscopy. The ? phase is very important in the application because it improve the properties like piezoelectricity by modifying PVDF crystallinity.

Mehtani, Hitesh Kumar; Kumar, Rishi; Raina, K. K.

2014-04-01

335

Shaping melons: agronomic and genetic characterization of QTLs that modify melon fruit morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The consistency of quantitative trait locus (QTL) effects among genetic backgrounds is a key factor for introgressing QTLs\\u000a from initial mapping experiments into applied breeding programs. We have selected four QTLs (fs6.4, fw4.3, fw4.4 and fw8.1) involved in melon fruit morphology that had previously been detected in a collection of introgression lines derived from\\u000a the cross between a Spanish cultivar,

Iria Fernandez-Silva; Eduard Moreno; Ali Essafi; Mohamed Fergany; Jordi Garcia-Mas; Ana Montserrat Martín-Hernandez; Jose María Álvarez; Antonio J. Monforte

2010-01-01

336

Morphological Characterization of the Hemocytes of the Clam, Ruditapes decussatus(Mollusca: Bivalvia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemocytes play an important role in internal defence in molluscs. The morphology of hemolymph cells was studied for the first time inRuditapes decussatus.Two main types of hemocytes (hyalinocytes and granulocytes) exist inR. decussatus.Three types of granulocytes were identified by light microscopy, in accordance with the presence of basophilic or acidophilic granules or a mixture of both in the cytoplasm. The

Carmen López; M. J. Carballal; Carlos Azevedo; Antonio Villalba

1997-01-01

337

Morphological Characterization of Cherry Rootstock Candidates Selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey  

PubMed Central

The use of rootstocks particularly for sweet cherry cultivars is of great importance for successful and sustainable production. Choosing the right cherry rootstocks is just as important as choosing the right cultivar. In this study, 110 sweet cherry, 30 sour cherry, and 41 mahaleb types displaying rootstock potential for sweet cherry cultivars were selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey. The morphologic characteristics of the studied genotypes were compared with the standard clonal rootstocks PHL-A, MaxMa 14, Montmorency, Weiroot 158, Gisela 5, Gisela 6, and SL 64. A total of 42 morphological UPOV characteristics were evaluated in the selected genotypes and clonal rootstocks. The obtained data were analyzed by using principal component analysis and it revealed that eigenvalues of the first 3 components were able to represent 36.43% of total variance. The most significant positive correlations of the plant vigor were determined with leaf blade length and petiole thickness. According to the diversity analysis of coefficients, the 05?C 002 and 08?C 039 genotypes were identified as being similar (6.66), while the 05?C 002 and 55?S 012 genotypes were determined as the most distant genotypes (325.84) in terms of morphology.

Koc, Aysen; Celik, Zumrut; Akbulut, Mustafa; Bilgener, Sukriye; Ercisli, Sezai; Gunes, Mehmet; Gercekcioglu, Resul; Esitken, Ahmet

2013-01-01

338

Fermentation Characterization of Chinese Yam Polysaccharide and Its Effects on the Gut Microbiota of Rats  

PubMed Central

Rat was used to characterize Chinese Yam polysaccharides (CYPs). In Exp. 1, maximum volume and rate of gas production in CYP 3-supplemented group were higher than other CYP-supplemented groups and control group, while pH values and NH3 contents in CYP 2-, CYP 3-, and CYP 4-supplemented groups were lower than control group. Contents of acetate, propionate and butyrate increased by supplementing CYP 3 or CYP 4 compared to other groups, except for glucose-supplemented group. Contents of isobutyrate for CYPs groups decreased compared to control group. CYP 3 enhanced beneficial gut microbiota, but suppressed bacterial pathogens. In Exp. 2, contents of acetate and butyrate in cecal digesta of rats fed 0.25 or 0.5 g/kg CYP 3 were higher than other groups on day 7. pH values in 0.25 and 0.5 g/kg groups were lower than 1.0 g/kg group. Contents of acetate in 0.25 and 0.5 g/kg groups were greater than other 2 groups on day 21. Gut microflora in CYP 3-supplemented rats had greater diversity than non-supplemented rats. CYP 3 enriched beneficial gut microbiota, but suppressed bacterial pathogens in rat cecum. These findings suggested that CYP 3 is a good source of carbon and energy, and may improve bacterial community diversity and modulate short-chain fatty acid production in hindgut of rats.

Kong, X. F.; Zhang, Y. Z.; Wu, X.; Yin, Y. L.; Tan, Z. L.; Feng, Y.; Yan, F. Y.; Bo, M. J.; Huang, R. L.; Li, T. J.

2009-01-01

339

A New Experimental Polytrauma Model in Rats: Molecular Characterization of the Early Inflammatory Response  

PubMed Central

Background. The molecular mechanisms of the immune response after polytrauma are highly complex and far from fully understood. In this paper, we characterize a new standardized polytrauma model in rats based on the early molecular inflammatory and apoptotic response. Methods. Male Wistar rats (250?g, 6–10/group) were anesthetized and exposed to chest trauma (ChT), closed head injury (CHI), or Tib/Fib fracture including a soft tissue trauma (Fx?+?STT) or to the following combination of injuries: (1) ChT; (2) ChT?+?Fx?+?STT; (3) ChT?+?CHI; (4) CHI; (5) polytrauma (PT?=?ChT?+?CHI?+?Fx?+?STT). Sham-operated rats served as negative controls. The inflammatory response was quantified at 2 hours and 4 hours after trauma by analysis of “key” inflammatory mediators, including selected cytokines and complement components, in serum and bronchoalveolar (BAL) fluid samples. Results. Polytraumatized (PT) rats showed a significant systemic and intrapulmonary release of cytokines, chemokines, and complement anaphylatoxins, compared to rats with isolated injuries or selected combinations of injuries. Conclusion. This new rat model appears to closely mimic the early immunological response of polytrauma observed in humans and may provide a valid basis for evaluation of the complex pathophysiology and future therapeutic immune modulatory approaches in experimental polytrauma.

Weckbach, Sebastian; Perl, Mario; Heiland, Tim; Braumuller, Sonja; Stahel, Philip F.; Flierl, Michael A.; Ignatius, Anita; Gebhard, Florian; Huber-Lang, Markus

2012-01-01

340

Zinc as an antiperoxidative agent following iodine-131 induced changes on the antioxidant system and on the morphology of red blood cells in rats.  

PubMed

Iodine-131 ((131)I) irradiation is the first line treatment for Graves' disease and thyroid carcinoma. In such cases, (131)I gets accumulated in the thyroid, and is released in the form of radioiodinated triiodothyronine (T3) and tetraiodothronine (T4). Various reports describe changes in the blood picture after radioiodine treatment. Zinc, on the other hand, has been reported to maintain the integrity of red blood cells (RBC) under certain toxic conditions. The present study was conducted to evaluate the adverse effects of (131)I on the antioxidant defense system and morphology of RBC and also to assess the possible protection by zinc under irradiation by (131)I. Thirty two female Wistar rats were equally segregated into four main groups. Animals with Group I served as normal controls; Group II animals were administered a dose of 3.7 MBq of (131)I (carrier free) intraperitoneally, Group III rats were supplemented with zinc (227 mg/L drinking water) and Group IV rats were given a combined treatment of (131)I and zinc, in a similar way as in Group II and IV rats. After seven days of (131)I treatment, RBC lysate was prepared and its antioxidant status assessed. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the lysate of RBC was increased. On the contrary, the activity of catalase was found to be significantly decreased. The activity of glutathione reductase (GR) remained unchanged. Marked changes in the shape of RBC from normal discocytes to echinocytes, spherocytes, stomatocytes and acanthocytes were also observed in the blood of the rats treated with (131)I. Zinc supplementation to (131)I treated rats, significantly attenuated the adverse effects caused by (131)I on the levels of MDA, GSH, SOD and catalase. In conclusion, the study revealed significant oxidant/antioxidant changes in RBC following (131)I administration in rats, while zinc was shown to act as a radioprotector agent. PMID:16617389

Dani, Vijayta; Dhawan, Davinder

2006-01-01

341

Cloning, characterization, and expression of the rat relaxin gene.  

PubMed

Relaxin, a hormone in the insulin superfamily, is synthesized by the corpus luteum of the rat ovary. Expression of relaxin precursor mRNA in rats is sharply induced after day 10 of pregnancy and plateaus on days 15 to 20 (parturition occurs on day 23). In an effort to understand this induction, we cloned the gene and carried out promoter analyses by transient transfection and chromatin immunoprecipitation methods. The single gene is 2.9 kilobases and is composed of two exons and one intron. There are alternative splice acceptor sites, 3 base pairs apart, which account for the inclusion of an extra codon in about 10% of the transcripts. The induction of transcription by day 15 was observed by the binding of polymerase II and histone H3 acetylation at the promoter region. There is a functional STAT binding site, about 3.8 kb upstream from the transcriptional start site, that is occupied by STAT3 on day 6 of pregnancy, when relaxin expression is minimal; on day 15, when expression is maximal, STAT3 is replaced by STAT5a. These data are consistent with STAT5 playing a role in the induction of relaxin expression. PMID:14659888

Soloff, Melvyn S; Gal, Sangwan; Hoare, Sarasija; Peters, Carl A; Hunzicker-Dunn, Mary; Anderson, Garland D; Wood, Thomas G

2003-12-24

342

Characterization of ultrasound-induced pulmonary capillary hemorrhage in rats.  

PubMed

Routine pulmonary ultrasound for diagnosis of disease or injury relies on interpretation of image features, such as comet-tail artifacts, which can also be indicative of the poorly understood phenomenon of ultrasound-induced pulmonary capillary hemorrhage (PCH). Evans blue extraction and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were evaluated for assessment of PCH induced by ultrasound scanning. Rats anesthetized with ketamine with or without xylazine received sham or scanning for 5min with a 7.6MHz linear array. Evans blue extraction and BAL albumin measurements failed to demonstrate significant increases for scanning, even though the induction of comet-tail artifacts was significant. BAL cell counts had an insignificant increase relative to shams at a near-threshold mechanical index (MI) of 0.52 (P=0.07), but a highly significant increase at MI=0.9 (P=0.001). The possibility of xylazine-induced elevated albumin was tested, but no significant decrease was found for sham or scanned rats with ketamine-only anesthesia. Interestingly, without xylazine, the widths of comet-tail artifacts in the ultrasound images were significantly smaller (P=0.001) and cell counts in BAL fluid also were reduced (P=0.014). The BAL cell-count method provides a valuable additional means of PCH quantification. PMID:24583360

Miller, Douglas L; Suresh, M V; Dou, Chunyan; Yu, B; Raghavendran, Krishnan

2014-05-01

343

Characterization of ethiofos absorption in the rat small intestine.  

PubMed

The absorption characteristics of ethiofos were studied using the rat in situ intestine circulating perfusion technique. Slow absorption kinetics were observed for ethiofos with varying rates of absorption and metabolism/degradation in situ as a function of buffer and absorption enhancers. In most cases less than 10 per cent of the radiolabeled compound is lost from the circulating perfusate in 90 min. In addition, over the same time period greater than 40 per cent of the intact parent compound was lost by degradation. Much of the difference can be accounted for in the formation of the free thiol metabolite. WR-1065, suggesting ester hydrolysis or metabolic activity. Good stability was observed in all perfusate systems ex vivo indicating that the degradation occurs in situ. The disodium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was shown to be an effective absorption enhancer of ethiofos. The enhancement of intestinal absorption by EDTA was dose-dependent resulting in a 20-fold increase in blood levels of ethiofos in the portal blood. Follow-up studies in the rhesus monkey confirm this observation. Salicylate and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) also resulted in absorption enhancement although to a lesser degree than that seen after EDTA treatment. Addition of several alkaline phosphatase inhibitors did not significantly improve absorption of ethiofos in the rat small intestine. Proposed mechanism(s) for intestinal absorption and absorption enhancement of ethiofos are discussed. PMID:1651790

Geary, R S; Swynnerton, N F; Timmons, S F; Mangold, D J

1991-05-01

344

Characterization of cysteine string protein in rat parotid acinar cells.  

PubMed

Cysteine string proteins (CSPs) are secretory vesicle chaperone proteins that contain: (i) a heavily palmitoylated cysteine string (comprised of 14 cysteine residues, responsible for the localization of CSP to secretory vesicle membranes), (ii) an N-terminal J-domain (DnaJ domain of Hsc70, 70kDa heat-shock cognate protein family of co-chaperones), and (iii) a linker domain (important in mediating CSP effects on secretion). In this study, we investigated the localization of CSP1 in rat parotid acinar cells and evaluated the role of CSP1 in parotid secretion. RT-PCR and western blotting revealed that CSP1 was expressed and associated with Hsc70 in rat parotid acinar cells. Further, CSP1 associated with syntaxin 4, but not with syntaxin 3, on the apical plasma membrane. Introduction of anti-CSP1 antibody into SLO-permeabilized acinar cells enhanced isoproterenol (IPR)-induced amylase release. Introduction of GST-CSP11-112, containing both the J-domain and the adjacent linker region, enhanced IPR-induced amylase release, whereas neither GST-CSP11-82, containing the J-domain only, nor GST-CSP183-112, containing the linker region only, did produce detectable enhancement. These results indicated that both the J-domain and the linker domain of CSP1 are necessary to function an important role in acinar cell exocytosis. PMID:23942053

Shimomura, Hiromi; Imai, Akane; Nashida, Tomoko

2013-10-01

345

Characterization of preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions in the rat pancreas.  

PubMed Central

Nodules of acinar cells with increased proliferative potential develop in the pancreas of carcinogen-treated rats and in untreated aged rats. Large nodules are classed as adenomas. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of nodule cells were compared with normal pancreas and transplantable acinar cell carcinomas by several methods. Nuclei of acinar cells from normal pancreas, adenomas, and three carcinomas in situ had normal diploid DNA content as determined by flow cytometry. One of two primary carcinomas had a hypodiploid DNA content. Two of three transplantable carcinomas were aneuploid with a DNA content in the tetraploid range. Explants from nodules and adenomas failed to grow in soft agar, whereas several carcinomas were positive in this assay. A primary carcinoma was serially transplanted, but transplantation of nodules or adenomas failed. Transfection of DNA from carcinomas in situ yielded a higher frequency of NIH 3T3 transformants than DNA from adenomas. DNAs from the transformants did not contain ras sequences. These studies indicate that cells from nodules and adenomas have low growth potential and lack critical phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of transformed malignant cells that were present in some primary and transplanted carcinomas. Images Figure 2

Longnecker, D. S.; Pettengill, O. S.; Davis, B. H.; Schaeffer, B. K.; Zurlo, J.; Hong, H. L.; Kuhlmann, E. T.

1991-01-01

346

Characterization of cadmium proteinuria in man and rat.  

PubMed Central

In workers chronically exposed to cadmium and without signs of renal insufficiency, plasma proteins with molecular weight ranging from 11,800 to 450,000 are excreted in greater amount in urine. Increased urinary excretion of low and high molecular weight proteins can occur independently. Because of its greater stability in urine and provided a sensitive immunological technique is used, the determination of retinol-binding protein is a more practical and reliable test of proximal tubular function than beta 2-microglobulin. The evaluation of renal function of workers removed from cadmium exposure indicates that cadmium-induced renal lesions, albeit of slow progression, are not reversible when exposures ceases. In workers chronically exposed to cadmium or removed from cadmium exposure, metallothionein in urine is directly correlated with cadmium in urine but not with cadmium in blood or years of cadmium exposure. The association between cadmium in urine and metallothionein in urine is independent of the status of renal function and the intensity of current exposure to cadmium. Whereas the repeated IP injection of high doses of cadmium to rat gives rise to a mixed or tubular type proteinuria, the prolonged oral administration of cadmium results mainly in the development of a glomerular type proteinuria. The former is usually reversible after cessation of treatment whereas the latter is not. Circulating antiglomerular basement membrane antibodies have been found in man and in rat chronically exposed to cadmium. The pathogenic significance of this finding deserves further investigation. Images FIGURE 5.

Lauwerys, R R; Bernard, A; Roels, H A; Buchet, J P; Viau, C

1984-01-01

347

Characterization of Normal and Infarcted Rat Myocardium Using a Combination of Small-Animal PET and Clinical MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combination of small-animal PET and MRI data provides quantitative in vivo insights into cardiac pathophysiology, inte- grating information on biology and morphology. We sought to determine the feasibility of PET and MRI for the quantification of ischemic injury in the rat model. Methods: Fourteen healthy male Wistar rats were studied with 18F-FDG PET and cine MRI. Myocardial viability was

Takahiro Higuchi; Stephan G. Nekolla; Antanas Jankaukas; Axel W. Weber; Marc C. Huisman; Sybille Reder; Sibylle I. Ziegler; Markus Schwaiger; Frank M. Bengel

2007-01-01

348

Isolation, morphological and molecular characterization of phytate-hydrolysing fungi by 18S rDNA sequence analysis  

PubMed Central

Phytate is the primary storage form of phosphate in plants. Monogastric animals like poultry, pigs and fishes have very low or no phytase activities in their digestive tracts therefore, are incapable to efficiently utilize phytate phosphorus from the feed. Phytase from microbial sources are supplemented to feedstuff of these to increase the uptake of phytate phosphorus. In the present work efforts were made to isolate and characterize proficient phytase producing fungi from soil. Phytase producing fungi were isolated using phytate specific medium. Fungal isolates were selected according to their higher phytase activities. These isolates were further characterized and identified by morphological and microscopic analysis and confirmed by amplification of 18S rRNA gene, using specific primers. This gene was subsequently sequenced and phylogenetic affiliations were assigned. Fungal isolates were identified as various species of Aspergillus. Phytases from these fungi could be utilized as a feed additive in poultry and swine industries.

Gontia-Mishra, Iti; Deshmukh, Dhanshree; Tripathi, Niraj; Bardiya-Bhurat, Khushboo; Tantwai, Keerti; Tiwari, Sharad

2013-01-01

349

Characterization of Glucocorticoid Response Element of Rat Angiotensin II Type 1A Receptor Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The responsiveness of the rat angiotensin II type 1a and type 1b receptor (AT1a-R and AT1b-R) genes to glucocorticoid was examined in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and the glucocorticoid response element (GRE) of the AT1a-R gene was characterized. Glucocorticoid induced an increase in AT1a-R mRNA levels, whereas AT1b-R mRNA levels were unaffected. The nuclear run-off assay indicated that

S. Murasawa; H. Matsubara; M. Kanasaki; K. Kijima; K. Maruyama; Y. Nio; N. Okubo; H. Tsukaguchi; Y. Mori; M. Inada

1995-01-01

350

Identification and characterization of Wfdc gene expression in the male reproductive tract of the rat.  

PubMed

WFDC (Whey Acidic Protein Four Disulfide Core)-containing proteins have been reported in many species, yet they remain uncharacterized in the rat. In this study, we report the identification and characterization of four rat Wfdc genes, Wfdc6a, Wfdc8, Wfdc11 and Wfdc16. Their expression profile in a variety of tissues including the male reproductive tract is analyzed. Wfdc8, Wfdc11 and Wfdc16 expression is confined to the epididymis, while Wfdc6a is expressed widely. Since gene expression in the male reproductive tract is largely androgen-dependent, Wfdc expression was analyzed in the developing (20-60-day-old) and castrated rats. Their expression pattern in developing rats does not correlate with changes in testosterone. Wfdc genes are, however, down-regulated in castrated adult rats, indicating that their dependence on androgens for expression is more pronounced in the adult than in the developing rat. To test the anti-microbial potential of WFDC8, a recombinant WFDC8 C-terminal protein was produced, which exhibited potent anti-bacterial activity against Eschericia coli. Induction of anti-microbial genes is one of the responses during infections in many organ systems. To determine if WFDCs form the components of male reproductive tract innate immunity, Wfdc8 expression pattern was observed in rats challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). For the first time we report the induction of Wfdc8 gene expression in LPS-treated rats, indicating their contributions to the innate immune functions of the male reproductive tract. PMID:21796715

Rajesh, Angireddy; Madhubabu, Golla; Yenugu, Suresh

2011-09-01

351

Cloning, expression, and functional characterization of the rat Pax6 5a orthologous splicing variant.  

PubMed

Pax6 functions as a pleiotropic regulator in eye development and neurogenesis. Its splice variant Pax6 5a has been cloned in many vertebrate species including human and mouse, but never in rat. This study focused on the cloning and characterization of the Pax6 5a orthologous splicing variant in rat. It was cloned from Sprague-Dawley rats 10days post coitum (E10) by RT-PCR and was sequenced for comparison with Pax6 sequences in the GenBank by BLAST. The rat Pax6 5a was revealed to contain an additional 42bp insertion at the paired domain. At the nucleotide level, the rat Pax6 5a coding sequence (1311bp) had a higher degree of homology to the mouse (96% identical) than to the human (93% identical) sequence. At the amino acid (aa) level, rat PAX6 5a shares 99.8% identity with the mouse sequence and 99.5% with the human sequence. The splice variant is preferentially expressed in the rat E10 embryonic headfolds and not in the trunk of neurula. Its effects on the proliferation of rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) were preliminarily evaluated by the MTT assay. Both pLEGFP-Pax6 5a-transfected cells and pLEGFP-Pax6-transfected cells exhibited a similar growth curve (P>0.05), suggesting that the Pax6 5a has a similar effect on the proliferation of rMSCs as Pax6. PMID:24952136

Wei, Fei; Li, Min; Cheng, Sai-Yu; Wen, Liang; Liu, Ming-Hua; Shuai, Jie

2014-08-15

352

Characterization of plasma unsaturated lysophosphatidylcholines in human and rat.  

PubMed Central

Unsaturated lysophosphatidylcholines (lysoPtdCho) bound to albumin circulate in blood plasma and seem to be a novel transport system for carrying polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to tissues that are rich in these fatty acids, such as the brain. The potential of these lysoPtdCho as a significant source of PUFA for cells has been assessed by comparing their plasma concentration with that of unsaturated non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) bound to albumin. In humans, the PUFA concentration was 25.9+/-3.1 nmol/ml for these lysoPtdCho, compared with 33.4+/-9.6 nmol/ml for NEFA; in rats the equivalent values are 14.2+/-0.6 and 13.1+/-1.1 nmol/ml respectively (means+/-S.E.M.). The lysoPtdCho arachidonic acid content was 2-fold (human) and 5-fold (rat) higher than that of NEFA. In human and rat plasma, unsaturated lysoPtdCho were associated mainly with albumin rather than lipoproteins. The rate and extent of the acyl group shift from the sn-2 to sn-1 position of these lysoPtdCho were studied by the incubation of 1-lyso, 2-[(14)C]C(18:2)n-6-glycerophosphocholine (GPC) with plasma. The rapid isomerization of this lipid occurred at pH 7 (20% isomerization within 2 min) and was not prevented by its association with albumin. The position of the acyl group in the lysoPtdCho circulating in plasma was studied by collecting blood directly in organic solvents containing 1-lyso,2-[(14)C]C(18:2)n-6-GPC as a marker of isomerization that occurred during sampling and analysis. Approx. 50% of the PUFA was located at the sn-2 position, demonstrating that substantial concentrations of 2-acyl-lysoPtdCho are present in plasma and are available for tissue uptake, where they can be reacylated at the sn-1 position to form membrane phospholipids.

Croset, M; Brossard, N; Polette, A; Lagarde, M

2000-01-01

353

Morphological and functional deterioration of the rat thyroid following chronic exposure to low-dose PCB118.  

PubMed

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental pollutants that can severely disrupt the synthesis and secretion of endocrine hormones. To investigate the effects of 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB118) on thyroid structure and function, 40 male Wistar rats were divided into 4 equal treatment groups and administered vehicle or one of three doses of PCB118. The experimental groups received intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 10, 100, or 1000?g/kg/day PCB118, 5 days per week for 13 weeks, whereas the control group was injected with corn oil (vehicle). Serum concentrations of free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured by radioimmunoassays. Histopathological and ultrastructural changes in the thyroid were observed under light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The mRNA expression levels of the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) and thyroglobulin (TG) were quantified by real-time PCR. Increasing doses of PCB118 resulted in progressively lower FT3, FT4 and TSH concentrations in serum. Injection of PCB118 at all doses led to histopathological deterioration of the thyroid characterized by follicular hyperplasia and expansion, shedding of epithelial cells and fibrinoid necrosis. Follicle cells exhibited swollen or vacuolated endoplasmic reticula, as revealed by TEM. Exposure to PCB118 also caused significant decreases in NIS and TG mRNA expression levels. Chronic exposure to low-dose PCB118 and other PCB congeners may be a significant risk factor for thyroid diseases. PMID:23557935

Tang, Jin-Mei; Li, Wen; Xie, Yu-Chun; Guo, Hong-Wei; Cheng, Pei; Chen, Huan-Huan; Zheng, Xu-Qin; Jiang, Lin; Cui, Dai; Liu, Yun; Ding, Guo-Xian; Duan, Yu

2013-11-01

354

Design and characterization of hybrid morphology nanoarrays as plasmonic Raman probes for antimicrobial detection.  

PubMed

Advances in nanofabrication have allowed the production of new and more reproducible substrates for the Raman detection of trace antimicrobials in water. The superior substrate uniformity combined with the ability to control surface morphology represents a significant step forward in the design of substrates with improved enhancement factors and trace-detection capabilities. The work presented herein successfully combines electron-beam lithography (EBL) and reactive ion-etching (RIE) protocols for the construction, testing, and validation of plasmonic hybrid morphology nanoarrays for the detection of arsenic antimicrobials in water. The fabricated substrates consist of 2500 ?m(2) Ag-coated silicon dioxide (SiO2)/Si pillar nanoarrays of alternating hexagonal and elliptical features. Control of simple fabrication parameters such as inter-particle spacing (gap) and its orientation relative to the laser polarization vector (parallel or orthogonal) result in over a tenfold improvement in the apparent Raman response under optimized conditions. At a 633 nm excitation frequency, the best substrate performance was observed on parallel-oriented features with a 200 nm gap, with over one order of magnitude increase in the apparent surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signal relative to standard silver-polydimethylsiloxane (Ag-PDMS) nanocomposites. Monitoring of the characteristic As-C stretching band at 594 cm(-1) allowed the detection of arsenic antimicrobials in water well within the parts per million range. Calculated surface-enhancement factors (SEF) for this substrate, employing 532, 785, and 633 nm excitation wavelengths, was within five, six, and seven orders of magnitude, respectively. The effect of substrate morphology and nanofabrication process on the Raman enhancement factor is presented. PMID:24160884

Olavarría-Fullerton, Jenifier; Velez, Raymond A; Wells, Sabrina; Sepaniak, Michael J; Hernández-Rivera, Samuel P; De Jesús, Marco A

2013-11-01

355

Statistical characterization of bedform morphology in the Fraser Estuary, British Columbia, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The morphological characteristics of estuarine dunes reflect the bidirectional nature of fluid flow that results from the interaction of fluvial discharge and tidal forces, as well as residual currents attributed to the mixing of fresh and saline water. Bedform height, length, periodicity, and crestline sinuosity are functions of this flow interaction and in turn contribute to flow resistance. While numerous studies have documented bedform characteristics in sand bedded channels, little has been done in terms of detailed three-dimensional morphological and statistical analysis of the bedform field under conditions of variable flow on the channel scale. This field study quantifies bedform height, length, periodicity, and sinuosity, and examines the changes induced by tidal variability in the Fraser Estuary, British Columbia, Canada. Results were obtained from data collected on an hourly basis over one diurnal tidal cycle during the 2010 freshet over a dune field approximately 1 km long and 0.5 km wide, using a multibeam echosounder to generate high-resolution bed topography. The results show that bedforms have low lee-angle morphology common in large sand-bedded rivers. Dune height and length increase as the tide falls, are highest at low tide, and decrease as the tide rises. At low tide, mean bedform aspect ratio (L/H) is 22, but decreases with mean bedform dimensions. Variance in bed topography decreases with mean bedform height. Alongstream bed topography profiles are well correlated up to ~30 m across the channel, suggesting the bedforms are highly three dimensional. Ongoing analysis focuses on statistical assessment of the relative proportions of translation and deformation in the bedform field over the tidal cycle.

Hendershot, M. L.; Venditti, J. G.; Kostaschuk, R. A.; Bradley, R. W.; Allison, M. A.; Church, M. A.

2012-12-01

356

Purification and characterization of rat liver nuclear thyroid hormone receptors  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear thyroid hormone receptor hormone receptor was purified to 904 pmol of L-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) binding capacity per mg of protein with 2.5-5.2% recovery. Assuming that one T3 molecule binds to the 49,000-Da unit of the receptor, the authors reproducibly obtained 6.4-14.7 ..mu..g of receptor protein with 4.2-4.9% purity from 4-5 kg of rat liver. Elution of receptor from the heparin-Sepharose column was performed using 10 mM pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. This effect was specific for pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, since related compounds were not effective. Purified receptor bound T3 with high affinity, and the order of affinity of iodothyronine analogues to purified receptor was identical to that observed with crude receptor preparations. Purified receptor had a sedimentation coefficient of 3.4 S, Stokes radius of 34 A, and calculated molecular mass of 49,000. Among several bands identified by silver staining after electrophoresis in NaDodSO/sub 4//polyacrylamide gels, one 49,000-Da protein showed photoaffinity labeling with (/sup 125/I)thyroxine that was displaceable with excess unlabeled T3. The tryptic fragment and endogenous proteinase-digested fragment of the affinity-labeled receptor showed saturable binding in 27,000-Da and 36,000-Da peptides, respectively. These molecular masses are in agreement with estimates from gel filtration and gradient sedimentation, indicating that affinity labeling occurred at the hormone binding domain of nuclear thyroid hormone receptor. This procedure reproducibly provides classical native rat liver T3 nuclear receptor in useful quantity and purity and of the highest specific activity so far reported.

Ichikawa, K.; DeGroot, L.J.

1987-05-01

357

Al3+ doped V2O5 nanostructure: Synthesis and structural, morphological and optical characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AlxV2-xO5(x = 0,2mol%) nanorods were synthesized at room temperature by facile surfactant free non-aqueous route. The phase pure orthorhombic structure and nanorods-like morphology have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and High resolution scanning electron microscopy. EDXS spectrum confirms the purity and presence of Al into V2O5 lattice. Optical absorption from DRS UV-Vis spectra showed the band gap broadening due to quantum confinement effect. The results ensure that the dopant cation (Al3+) successfully intercalated with the host cation (V5+) and the products are promising for electrochromic and catalytic applications.

Venkatesan, A.; Chandar, N. Krishna; Kumar, M. Krishna; Arjunan, S.; Kumar, R. Mohan; Jayavel, R.

2013-02-01

358

Characterization of Two ENU-Induced Mutations Affecting Mouse Skeletal Morphology  

PubMed Central

Using the N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis screen, we have identified two skeletal morphology mutants, Skm1 and Skm2. Positional cloning and candidate gene sequencing localized the causative point mutations within the genes coding for natriuretic peptide receptor C (NPR-C) and filamin b (FLNB), respectively. Mice that carry a mutation in Npr3 exhibit a skeletal overgrowth phenotype, resulting in an elongated body and kyphosis. Skm2 mice, carrying a mutation in Flnb, present with scoliosis and lordosis. These mutant mice will serve as useful models for the study of vertebral malformations.

Dauphinee, Shauna M.; Eva, Megan M.; Yuki, Kyoko E.; Herman, Melissa; Vidal, Silvia M.; Malo, Danielle

2013-01-01

359

Characterization of two ENU-induced mutations affecting mouse skeletal morphology.  

PubMed

Using the N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis screen, we have identified two skeletal morphology mutants, Skm1 and Skm2. Positional cloning and candidate gene sequencing localized the causative point mutations within the genes coding for natriuretic peptide receptor C (NPR-C) and filamin b (FLNB), respectively. Mice that carry a mutation in Npr3 exhibit a skeletal overgrowth phenotype, resulting in an elongated body and kyphosis. Skm2 mice, carrying a mutation in Flnb, present with scoliosis and lordosis. These mutant mice will serve as useful models for the study of vertebral malformations. PMID:23979929

Dauphinee, Shauna M; Eva, Megan M; Yuki, Kyoko E; Herman, Melissa; Vidal, Silvia M; Malo, Danielle

2013-10-01

360

CHARACTERIZATION OF BILIARY CONJUGATES OF 4,4'-METHYLENEDIANILINE IN MALE VERSUS FEMALE RATS  

PubMed Central

4,4’-Methylenedianiline (4,4’-diaminodiphenylmethane; DAPM) is an aromatic diamine used in the production of numerous polyurethane foams and epoxy resins. Previous studies in rats revealed that DAPM initially injures biliary epithelial cells of the liver, that the toxicity is greater in female than in male rats, and that the toxic metabolites of DAPM are excreted into bile. Since male and female rats exhibit differences in the expression of both phase I and phase II enzymes, our hypothesis was that female rats either metabolize DAPM to more toxic metabolites or have a decreased capacity to conjugate metabolites to less toxic intermediates. Our objective was thus to isolate, characterize, and quantify DAPM metabolites excreted into bile in both male and female bile duct-cannulated Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were gavaged with [14C]-DAPM, and the collected bile was subjected to reversed-phase HPLC with radioisotope detection. Peaks eluting from HPLC were collected and analyzed using electrospray MS, NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy. HPLC analysis indicated numerous metabolites in both sexes, but male rats excreted greater amounts of glutathione and glucuronide conjugates than females. Electrospray MS and NMR spectra of HPLC fractions revealed that the most prominent metabolite found in bile of both sexes was a glutathione conjugate of an imine metabolite of a 4’-nitroso-DAPM. Seven other metabolites were identified, including acetylated, cysteinyl-glycine, glutamyl-cysteine, glycine, and glucuronide conjugates. While our prior studies demonstrated increased covalent binding of DAPM in the liver and bile of female compared to male rats, in these studies, SDS-PAGE with autoradiography revealed 4–5 radiolabeled protein bands in the bile of rats treated with [14C]-DAPM. In addition, these bands were much more prominent in female than in male rats. These studies thus suggest that a plausible mechanism for the increased sensitivity of female rats to DAPM toxicity may be decreased conjugation of reactive DAPM metabolites, leading to greater levels of protein adduct formation.

Chen, Kan; Cole, Richard B.; Cruz, Vicente Santa; Blakeney, Ernest W.; Kanz, Mary F.; Dugas, Tammy R.

2008-01-01

361

Characterization of biliary conjugates of 4,4'-methylenedianiline in male versus female rats.  

PubMed

4,4'-Methylenedianiline (4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane; DAPM) is an aromatic diamine used in the production of numerous polyurethane foams and epoxy resins. Previous studies in rats revealed that DAPM initially injures biliary epithelial cells of the liver, that the toxicity is greater in female than in male rats, and that the toxic metabolites of DAPM are excreted into bile. Since male and female rats exhibit differences in the expression of both phase I and phase II enzymes, our hypothesis was that female rats either metabolize DAPM to more toxic metabolites or have a decreased capacity to conjugate metabolites to less toxic intermediates. Our objective was thus to isolate, characterize, and quantify DAPM metabolites excreted into bile in both male and female bile duct-cannulated Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were gavaged with [(14)C]-DAPM, and the collected bile was subjected to reversed-phase HPLC with radioisotope detection. Peaks eluting from HPLC were collected and analyzed using electrospray MS and NMR spectroscopy. HPLC analysis indicated numerous metabolites in both sexes, but male rats excreted greater amounts of glutathione and glucuronide conjugates than females. Electrospray MS and NMR spectra of HPLC fractions revealed that the most prominent metabolite found in bile of both sexes was a glutathione conjugate of an imine metabolite of a 4'-nitroso-DAPM. Seven other metabolites were identified, including acetylated, cysteinyl-glycine, glutamyl-cysteine, glycine, and glucuronide conjugates. While our prior studies demonstrated increased covalent binding of DAPM in the liver and bile of female compared to male rats, in these studies, SDS-PAGE with autoradiography revealed 4-5 radiolabeled protein bands in the bile of rats treated with [(14)C]-DAPM. In addition, these bands were much more prominent in female than in male rats. These studies thus suggest that a plausible mechanism for the increased sensitivity of female rats to DAPM toxicity may be decreased conjugation of reactive DAPM metabolites, leading to greater levels of protein adduct formation. PMID:18692083

Chen, Kan; Cole, Richard B; Santa Cruz, Vicente; Blakeney, Ernest W; Kanz, Mary F; Dugas, Tammy R

2008-10-15

362

Characterization of deltamethrin metabolism by rat plasma and liver microsomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deltamethrin, a widely used type II pyrethroid insecticide, is a relatively potent neurotoxicant. While the toxicity has been extensively examined, toxicokinetic studies of deltamethrin and most other pyrethroids are very limited. The aims of this study were to identify, characterize, and assess the relative contributions of esterases and cytochrome P450s (CYP450s) responsible for deltamethrin metabolism by measuring deltamethrin disappearance following

Sathanandam S.. Anand; James V. Bruckner; Wendy T. Haines; Srinivasa Muralidhara; Jeffrey W. Fisher; Stephanie Padilla

2006-01-01

363

Defensive-like behaviors induced by ultrasound: further pharmacological characterization in Lister-hooded rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  In rats, dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG) stimulation elicits escape behavior that is thought to be related to fear and panic.\\u000a A noninvasive technique—exposure to ultrasound—has been reported to stimulate the dPAG and induce escape followed by freezing\\u000a in Lister-hooded (LH) rats.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  Further characterize pharmacologically the ultrasound-induced defensive behaviors test with anxiolytics acting via different\\u000a mechanisms.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  LH rats, treated

Laurent B. Nicolas; Steffen Klein; Eric P. Prinssen

2007-01-01

364

Morphological and Physiological Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes Subjected to High Hydrostatic Pressure  

PubMed Central

High hydrostatic pressure is a new food preservation technology known for its capacity to inactivate spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. That inactivation is usually assessed by the number of colonies growing on solid media after treatment. Under normal conditions the method does not permit recovery of damaged cells and may underestimate the number of cells that will remain viable and grow after a few days in high-pressure-processed foodstuffs. This study investigated the damage inflicted on Listeria monocytogenes cells treated by high pressure for 10 min at 400 MPa in pH 5.6 citrate buffer. Under these conditions, no cell growth occurred after 48 h on plate count agar. Scanning electron microscopy, light scattering by flow cytometry, and cell volume measurements were compared to evaluate the morphological changes in cells after pressurization. All these methods revealed that cellular morphology was not really affected. Esterase activity, as assessed either by enzymatic activity assays or by carboxy fluorescein diacetate fluorescence monitored by flow cytometry, was dramatically lowered, but not totally obliterated, under the effects of treatment. The measurement of propidium iodide uptake followed by flow cytometry demonstrated that membrane integrity was preserved in a small part of the population, although the membrane potential measured by analytical methods or evaluated by oxonol uptake was reduced from ?86 to ?5 mV. These results showed that such combined methods as fluorescent dyes monitored by flow cytometry and physiological activity measurements provide valuable indications of cellular viability.

Ritz, M.; Tholozan, J. L.; Federighi, M.; Pilet, M. F.

2001-01-01

365

Morphological characterization and molecular fingerprinting of Nostoc strains by multiplex RAPD.  

PubMed

Morphological parameters studied for the twenty selected Nostoc strains were mostly found to be consistent with the earlier reports. But the shape of akinetes observed in this study was a little deviation from the existing descriptions and heterocyst frequency was also found to be different in different strains in spite of growing in the same nitrogen free media. Multiplex RAPD produced reproducible and completely polymorphic amplification profiles for all the strains including some strain specific unique bands which are intended to be useful for identification of those strains. At least one to a maximum of two unique bands was produced by different dual primer combinations. For ten strains out of twenty, strain specific bands were found to be generated. Cluster analysis revealed a vast heterogeneity among these Nostoc strains and no specific clustering based on geographical origin was found except a few strains. It was also observed that morphological data may not necessarily correspond to the genetic data in most of the cases. CCC92 (Nostoc muscorum) and CCC48 (Nostoc punctiforme) showed a high degree of similarity which was well supported by high bootstrap value. The level of similarity of the strains ranged from 0.15 to 0.94. Cluster analysis based on multiplex RAPD showed a good fit revealing the discriminatory power of this technique. PMID:23610928

Hillol, Chakdar; Pabbi, Sunil

2012-01-01

366

Morphological and optical characterization of thermally evaporated copper sulphide thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin films of Cu2S on opaque gold layers and quartz substrates at the temperature of 393 K were deposited by a thermal evaporation technique. The surface morphology of the Cu2S thin films at different thicknesses is investigated by AFM. It is seen that all the films are composed of highly coordinated spherical nano-sized particles well adhered to the substrate. The transmittance and reflectance spectra of Cu2S thin films on the quartz substrate were recorded by a UV-visible spectrophotometer. The results show that the thermally evaporated Cu2S thin films have the characteristic transmittance and reflectance suitable for optoelectronic applications. The stoichiometry and surface morphology of a grown Cu2S thin film were confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The dependence of the refractive index and the extinction coefficient on the photon energy for both the surface film and the opaque gold layer have been determined by ellipsometry. From the spectral behaviour of the absorption coefficient at two distinct absorption regions, a dual-band scheme of optical absorption for a Cu2S thin film is described. The indirect and direct edges of Cu2S are found to be about at 0.91 eV and 2.68 eV, respectively.

Derin, Hüseyin

2013-04-01

367

Electrophysiological and Morphological Characterization of Propriospinal Interneurons in the Thoracic Spinal Cord  

PubMed Central

Propriospinal interneurons in the thoracic spinal cord have vital roles not only in controlling respiratory and trunk muscles, but also in providing possible substrates for recovery from spinal cord injury. Intracellular recordings were made from such interneurons in anesthetized cats under neuromuscular blockade and with the respiratory drive stimulated by inhaled CO2. The majority of the interneurons were shown by antidromic activation to have axons descending for at least two to four segments, mostly contralateral to the soma. In all, 81% of the neurons showed postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) to stimulation of intercostal or dorsal ramus nerves of the same segment for low-threshold (?5T) afferents. A monosynaptic component was present for the majority of the peripherally evoked excitatory PSPs. A central respiratory drive potential was present in most of the recordings, usually of small amplitude. Neurons depolarized in either inspiration or expiration, sometimes variably. The morphology of 17 of the interneurons and/or of their axons was studied following intracellular injection of Neurobiotin; 14 axons were descending, 6 with an additional ascending branch, and 3 were ascending (perhaps actually representing ascending tract cells); 15 axons were crossed, 2 ipsilateral, none bilateral. Collaterals were identified for 13 axons, showing exclusively unilateral projections. The collaterals were widely spaced and their terminations showed a variety of restricted locations in the ventral horn or intermediate area. Despite heterogeneity in detail, both physiological and morphological, which suggests heterogeneity of function, the projections mostly fitted a consistent general pattern: crossed axons, with locally weak, but widely distributed terminations.

Saywell, S. A.; Ford, T. W.; Meehan, C. F.; Todd, A. J.

2011-01-01

368

Characterization of the morphology of Pt clusters incorporated in a KL zeolite by vapor phase and incipient wetness impregnation. Influence of Pt particle morphology on aromatization activity and deactivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two series of Pt\\/KL catalysts with varying metal loading were synthesized by the methods of incipient wetness impregnation (IWI) and vapor phase impregnation (VPI) to compare the effects of the different morphologies that result when the metal loading and, in particular, the preparation method are varied. Catalysts were characterized by a variety of techniques. TEM and DRIFTS studies indicated that

Gary Jacobs; Firoz Ghadiali; Adriana Pisanu; Armando Borgna; Walter E. Alvarez; Daniel E. Resasco

1999-01-01

369

A dual-modality optical coherence tomography and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy system for simultaneous morphological and biochemical tissue characterization  

PubMed Central

Most pathological conditions elicit changes in the tissue optical response that may be interrogated by one or more optical imaging modalities. Any single modality typically only furnishes an incomplete picture of the tissue optical response, hence an approach that integrates complementary optical imaging modalities is needed for a more comprehensive non-destructive and minimally-invasive tissue characterization. We have developed a dual-modality system, incorporating optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), that is capable of simultaneously characterizing the 3-D tissue morphology and its biochemical composition. The Fourier domain OCT subsystem, at an 830 nm center wavelength, provided high-resolution morphological volumetric tissue images with an axial and lateral resolution of 7.3 and 13.4 µm, respectively. The multispectral FLIM subsystem, based on a direct pulse-recording approach (upon 355 nm laser excitation), provided two-dimensional superficial maps of the tissue autofluorescence intensity and lifetime at three customizable emission bands with 100 µm lateral resolution. Both subsystems share the same excitation/illumination optical path and are simultaneously raster scanned on the sample to generate coregistered OCT volumes and FLIM images. The developed OCT/FLIM system was capable of a maximum A-line rate of 59 KHz for OCT and a pixel rate of up to 30 KHz for FLIM. The dual-modality system was validated with standard fluorophore solutions and subsequently applied to the characterization of two biological tissue types: postmortem human coronary atherosclerotic plaques, and in vivo normal and cancerous hamster cheek pouch epithelial tissue.

Park, Jesung; Jo, Javier A.; Shrestha, Sebina; Pande, Paritosh; Wan, Qiujie; Applegate, Brian E.

2010-01-01

370

Effects of "Bu Shen Huo Xue Decoction" on the Endometrial Morphology and Expression of Leukaemia Inhibitory Factor in the Rat Uterus during the Oestrous Cycle  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to explore the positive effects of Bu Shen Huo Xue Decoction (BSHXF) on assisted reproduction. The study aimed to evaluate whether BSHXD could improve endometrial morphology and increase the expression of LIF in a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) long protocol-induced rat model during metestrus, diestrus, proestrus, and oestrus. The BSHXD group presented significantly increased endometrium thickness and decreased MVD compared with the GnRHa long protocol group. In addition, the expression of LIF was significantly higher in the BSHXD group. There were no significant differences between the control group and the BSHXD group in terms of MVD and LIF expression. These results suggested that BSHXD can improve the endometrium development, reduce the abnormal angiogenesis, and increase the expression of receptivity markers in a GnRHa long protocol-induced rat model during the oestrous cycle, which might result in an endometrial environment better suited for female reproduction.

Yu, Yanyan; Tong, Qing; Ren, Ying; Jin, Zhe

2013-01-01

371

Characterization of permeability and morphological perturbations induced by nisin on phosphatidylcholine membranes.  

PubMed Central

Nisin is an antimicrobial peptide used as food preservative. To gain some insights into the hypothesis that its bactericidal activity is due to the perturbation of the lipid fraction of the bacterial plasmic membrane, we have investigated the effect of nisin on model phosphatidylcholine (PC) membranes. We show that nisin affects the PC membrane permeability, and this perturbation is modulated by the lipid composition. Nisin-induced leakage from PC vesicles is inhibited by the presence of cholesterol. This inhibition is associated with the formation of a liquid ordered phase in the presence of cholesterol, which most likely reduces nisin affinity for the membrane. Conversely, phosphatidylglycerol (PG), an anionic lipid, promotes nisin-induced leakage, and this promotion is associated with an increased affinity of the peptide for the bilayer because nisin is a cationic peptide. When the electrostatic interactions are encouraged by the presence of 70 mol% PG in PC, the inhibitory effect of cholesterol is not observed anymore. Nisin drastically modifies the morphology of the dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) multilamellar dispersion without causing a significant change in the gel-to-liquid crystalline phase transition of the lipid. The morphological changes are observed from (31)P and (2)H NMR and cryo-electron microscopy. From the NMR point of view, the interactions giving rise to a broad signal (quadrupolar interactions and chemical shift anisotropy for (2)H NMR and (31)P NMR, respectively) are partly averaged out in the presence of nisin. This phenomenon is interpreted by the formation of curved lipid planes that lead to the lipid lateral diffusion occurring in the intermediate motional regime. By cryo-electron microscopy, large amorphous aggregates containing small dense globular particles are observed for samples quenched from 25 and 50 degrees C. Long thread-like structures are also observed in the fluid phase. A structural description of DPPC/nisin complex, consistent with the experimental observation, is proposed. The presence of 30 mol% cholesterol in DPPC completely inhibits the morphological changes induced by nisin. Therefore, it is concluded that nisin can significantly perturb PC bilayers from both the permeability and the structural points of view, and these perturbations are modulated by the lipidic species in the bilayer.

El Jastimi, R; Edwards, K; Lafleur, M

1999-01-01

372

Morphological characterization of a cell population responsible for natural killer activity.  

PubMed Central

Large granular lymphocytes (LGL) were observed in the peripheral blood, spleen, lung and, to a lesser extent, bone marrow and lymph nodes, but not in the thymus of C3H/HeN mice 8 weeks old. The organ distribution of natural-killer (NK) cytotoxicity closely followed that of LGL. Nude mice had higher LGL percentages and NK activity than normal mice. In addition, the age distribution of LGL from the peripheral blood followed that of NK activity. Employing discontinuous Percoll density gradients the percentage of LGL and the NK cytotoxicity of the low density fractions could be enriched in comparison with the original populations of lymphocytes from peripheral blood and spleen, but not from thymus. These results suggest that, as recently shown for humans and rats, in mice too LGL are associated with NK activity. Images Figure 1 Figure 2

Luini, W; Boraschi, D; Alberti, S; Aleotti, A; Tagliabue, A

1981-01-01

373

Ultrasound method applied to characterize healthy femoral diaphysis of Wistar rats in vivo  

PubMed Central

A simple experimental protocol applying a quantitative ultrasound (QUS) pulse-echo technique was used to measure the acoustic parameters of healthy femoral diaphyses of Wistar rats in vivo. Five quantitative parameters [apparent integrated backscatter (AIB), frequency slope of apparent backscatter (FSAB), time slope of apparent backscatter (TSAB), integrated reflection coefficient (IRC), and frequency slope of integrated reflection (FSIR)] were calculated using the echoes from cortical and trabecular bone in the femurs of 14 Wistar rats. Signal acquisition was performed three times in each rat, with the ultrasound signal acquired along the femur's central region from three positions 1 mm apart from each other. The parameters estimated for the three positions were averaged to represent the femur diaphysis. The results showed that AIB, FSAB, TSAB, and IRC values were statistically similar, but the FSIR values from Experiments 1 and 3 were different. Furthermore, Pearson's correlation coefficient showed, in general, strong correlations among the parameters. The proposed protocol and calculated parameters demonstrated the potential to characterize the femur diaphysis of rats in vivo. The results are relevant because rats have a bone structure very similar to humans, and thus are an important step toward preclinical trials and subsequent application of QUS in humans.

Fontes-Pereira, A.; Matusin, D.P.; Rosa, P.; Schanaider, A.; von Kruger, M.A.; Pereira, W.C.A.

2014-01-01

374

Pharmacokinetic characterization of phosphatidylserine liposomes in the rat.  

PubMed Central

1. The plasma decay, tissue uptake and biotransformation of radiolabelled phosphatidylserine (PS) liposomes have been investigated in rats following bolus i.v. injection (2 mg kg-1). 2. PS plasma concentration showed a biexponential decay with half-lives of 0.85 and 40 min. The following interpretation of the biphasic decay is proposed: (1) The rapid initial decline is due to the irreversible uptake of PS liposomes by the mononuclear phagocyte system, as demonstrated by the almost exclusive accumulation of PS in liver and spleen. (2) The slow decay phase reflects the elimination of that fraction of PS that has been incorporated into high density plasma lipoproteins (HDL). A kinetic model has been developed to describe these phenomena and a good agreement has been observed between experimental data and theoretical values. 3. Evidence has been obtained that a large fraction of PS is hydrolyzed at the injection site, probably by phospholipase A2 and other hydrolytic enzymes released by platelets. Hydrolysis at the injection site has also been observed following intraperitoneal and intramuscular injections. 4. As shown by the comparative analysis of the biotransformation products found in tissues after administration of either [3H]-glycerol-PS or [14C]-serine-PS, parenterally administered PS follows two distinct metabolic pathways: (1) decarboxylation to phosphatidylethanolamine and (2) extensive hydrolytic degradation with release of the individual components of the molecule. These pathways probably reflect the two main mechanisms of PS uptake, incorporation into the plasma membrane and internalization by endocytosis, respectively.

Palatini, P.; Viola, G.; Bigon, E.; Menegus, A. M.; Bruni, A.

1991-01-01

375

Characterization of the surface morphology of durum wheat starch granules using atomic force microscopy.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the structure and properties of microscopic surfaces of durum wheat starch granules is essential for understanding the functional and physico-chemical properties. The nanoscale surface undulations on the starch granules inside durum wheat macroscopically influence the milling properties. The objective of this study was to visualize the surface morphology and the size of starch grains of vitreous and nonvitreous durum wheat kernels using atomic force microscopy. The distribution of starch granules in the vitreous and nonvitreous durum wheat starch samples were examined and compared. The results of our study confirm the 'blocklet' model of the ultrastructure of the starch granule surface. Image contrast enhancement using UV/ozone treatment of microtomed starch samples improved the imaging of growth rings on the starch samples. The observation of growth rings in the nonvitreous starch granule surfaces indicates that amylopectin is more common than amylose in nonvitreous starch when compared with vitreous starch. PMID:17937388

Neethirajan, S; Thomson, D J; Jayas, D S; White, N D G

2008-02-01

376

Morphologic and phylogenetic characterization of Conidiobolus lamprauges recovered from infected sheep.  

PubMed

Conidiobolus lamprauges, a soil and plant entomophthoralean fungus, has been reported only in a horse and, more recently, in sheep with rhinopharyngeal entomophthoramycosis. Thus, little information is available to enable proper identification of this pathogen and its differentiation from other saprotrophic and pathogenic Conidiobolus species. Using classical mycological tools and molecular methodologies, we report for the first time the taxonomic and phylogenetic description of three C. lamprauges isolates recovered from sheep with rhinopharyngeal entomophthoramycosis. The distinctive clinical and pathological features of C. lamprauges are compared with those of other Conidiobolus spp. affecting sheep, as well as with those of the stramenopilan ovine agent Pythium insidiosum. The comparative morphological attributes of Conidiobolus spp. are also diagramed; along with the sequence data generated, they should assist laboratories in the identification of these uncommon species. PMID:20007391

Vilela, Raquel; Silva, Silvana M S; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Dominguez, Eduardo; Mendoza, Leonel

2010-02-01

377

Characterization of gas-aerosol interaction kinetics using morphology dependent stimulated Raman scattering. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

A research program on the influence of aerosol surface structure on the kinetics of gas-aerosol interactions is proposed. The experiments involve measuring changes in gas phase chemical reaction rates as a function of exposure to a specific aerosol. Aerosols with differing surface properties will be generated by changing the composition and/or temperature of the material making up the aerosol. Kinetic data generated can be used directly in atmospheric modelling calculations. The surface structure of the aerosol will be measured, both before and after reaction, using morphology-dependent enhancement of simulated Raman scattering (MDSRS). Information about the detailed dynamics of gas-aerosol interactions can be obtained by correlating the change in the reaction rate with change in surface structure and by monitoring the change in aerosol surface structure during the course of the reaction. Studies will focus on the condensation and oxidation of sulfur species (sulfur dioxide and dimethyl sulfide) on water aerosols.

Aker, P.M.

1992-12-31

378

Characterization of gas-aerosol interaction kinetics using morphology dependent stimulated Raman scattering  

SciTech Connect

A research program on the influence of aerosol surface structure on the kinetics of gas-aerosol interactions is proposed. The experiments involve measuring changes in gas phase chemical reaction rates as a function of exposure to a specific aerosol. Aerosols with differing surface properties will be generated by changing the composition and/or temperature of the material making up the aerosol. Kinetic data generated can be used directly in atmospheric modelling calculations. The surface structure of the aerosol will be measured, both before and after reaction, using morphology-dependent enhancement of simulated Raman scattering (MDSRS). Information about the detailed dynamics of gas-aerosol interactions can be obtained by correlating the change in the reaction rate with change in surface structure and by monitoring the change in aerosol surface structure during the course of the reaction. Studies will focus on the condensation and oxidation of sulfur species (sulfur dioxide and dimethyl sulfide) on water aerosols.

Aker, P.M.

1992-01-01

379

Morphological characterization of the hemocytes of the clam, Ruditapes decussatus (Mollusca: Bivalvia).  

PubMed

Hemocytes play an important role in internal defence in molluscs. The morphology of hemolymph cells was studied for the first time in Ruditapes decussatus. Two main types of hemocytes (hyalinocytes and granulocytes) exist in R. decussatus. Three types of granulocytes were identified by light microscopy, in accordance with the presence of basophilic or acidophilic granules or a mixture of both in the cytoplasm. The existence of hyalinocytes and granulocytes was confirmed by electron microscopy. Some monoclonal antibodies (MABs) raised against hemocytes of Crassostrea gigas showed cross-reactivity with the total population of hemocytes of R. decussatus; however, none of the MABs raised against hemocytes of Mytilus edulis showed cross-reactivity. The MABs assayed did not allow us to distinguish hemocyte subpopulations. PMID:9028928

López, C; Carballal, M J; Azevedo, C; Villalba, A

1997-01-01

380

Surface morphological, mechanical and thermal characterization of electron beam irradiated fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface morphology of henequen irradiated by electron beam has been investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Also, the extents to which electron beam irradiation affected the tensile and thermal properties of henequen fiber were investigated with Instron tensile tests and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The AFM studies showed that the pectin, waxy and primary layers (P) of henequen fiber, which ha