Science.gov

Sample records for rats morphological characterization

  1. Vagal afferent innervation of the rat fundic stomach: morphological characterization of the gastric tension receptor.

    PubMed

    Berthoud, H R; Powley, T L

    1992-05-01

    Although the gastric tension receptor has been characterized behaviorally and electrophysiologically quite well, its location and structure remains elusive. Therefore, the vagal afferents to the rat fundus (forestomach or nonglandular stomach) were anterogradely labeled in vivo with injections of the carbocyanine dye Dil into the nodose ganglia, and the nerves and ganglia of the enteric nervous system were labeled in toto with intraperitoneal Fluorogold injection. Dissected layers and cryostat cross sections of the fundic wall were mounted in glycerin and analyzed by means of conventional and laser scanning confocal microscopy. Particularly in the longitudinal, and to a lesser extent in the circular, smooth muscle layers, Dil-labeled fibers and terminals were abundant. These processes, which originated from fibers coursing through the myenteric ganglia and connectives, entered either muscle coat and then ran parallel to the respective muscle fibers, often for several millimeters. They ran in close association with the Fluorogold-labeled network of interstitial cells of Cajal, upon which they appeared to form multiple spiny appositions or varicosities. In the myenteric plexus, two different types of afferent vagal structures were observed. Up to 300 highly arborizing endings forming dense accumulations of small puncta similar to the esophageal intraganglionic laminar endings (Rodrigo et al., '75 Acta Anat. 92:79-100) were found in the fundic wall ipsilateral to the injected nodose ganglion. They often covered small clusters of myenteric neurons or even single isolated ganglion cells (mean = 5.8 neurons) and tended to extend throughout the neuropil of the ganglia. In a second pattern, fine varicose fibers with less profuse arborizations innervated mainly the central regions of myenteric ganglia. Camera lucida analyses established that single vagal afferent fibers had separate collaterals in both a smooth muscle layer and the myenteric ganglia. Finally, Dil

  2. Epithelioid cell cultures from rat small intestine. Characterization by morphologic and immunologic criteria.

    PubMed

    Quaroni, A; Wands, J; Trelstad, R L; Isselbacher, K J

    1979-02-01

    Rat small intestinal epithelial cell lines have been established in vitro and subcultured serially for periods up to 6 mo. These cells have an epithelioid morphology, grow as monolayers of closely opposed polygonal cells, and during the logarithmic phase of growth have a population doubling time of 19--22 h. Ultrastructural studies revealed the presence of microvilli, tight junctions, an extensive Golgi complex, and the presence of extracellular amorphous material similar in appearance to isolated basement membrane. These cells exhibit a number of features characteristic of normal cells in culture; namely, a normal rat diploid karyotype, strong density inhibition of growth, lack of growth in soft agar, and a low plating efficiency when seeded at low density. They did not produce tumors when injected in syngeneic animals. Immunochemical studies were performed to determine their origin using antisera prepared against rat small intestinal crypt cell plasma membrane, brush border membrane of villus cells and isolated sucrase-isomaltase complex. Antigenic determinants specific for small intestinal epithelial (crypt and villus) cells were demonstrated on the surface of the epithelioid cells, but they lacked immunological determinants specific for differentiated villus cells. An antiserum specifically staining extracellular material surrounding the cells cultured in vitro demonstrated cross-reactivity to basement membrane in rat intestinal frozen sections. It is concluded that the cultured epithelioid cells have features of undifferentiated small intestinal crypt cells. PMID:88453

  3. Functional and morphological characterization of glutamate transporters in the rat locus coeruleus

    PubMed Central

    Medrano, M C; Gerrikagoitia, I; Martínez-Millán, L; Mendiguren, A; Pineda, J

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) in the CNS contribute to the clearance of glutamate released during neurotransmission. The aim of this study was to explore the role of EAATs in the regulation of locus coeruleus (LC) neurons by glutamate. Experimental Approach We measured the effect of different EAAT subtype inhibitors/enhancers on glutamate- and KCl-induced activation of LC neurons in rat slices. EAAT2–3 expression in the LC was also characterized by immunohistochemistry. Key Results The EAAT2–5 inhibitor DL-threo-β-benzyloxaspartic acid (100 μM), but not the EAAT2, 4, 5 inhibitor L-trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid (100 μM) or the EAAT2 inhibitor dihydrokainic acid (DHK; 100 μM), enhanced the glutamate- and KCl-induced activation of the firing rate of LC neurons. These effects were blocked by ionotropic, but not metabotrobic, glutamate receptor antagonists. DHK (100 μM) was the only EAAT inhibitor that increased the spontaneous firing rate of LC cells, an effect that was due to inhibition of EAAT2 and subsequent AMPA receptor activation. Chronic treatment with ceftriaxone (200 mg·kg−1 i.p., once daily, 7 days), an EAAT2 expression enhancer, increased the actions of glutamate and DHK, suggesting a functional impact of EAAT2 up-regulation on the glutamatergic system. Immuhistochemical data revealed the presence of EAAT2 and EAAT3 surrounding noradrenergic neurons and EAAT2 on glial cells in the LC. Conclusions and Implications These results remark the importance of EAAT2 and EAAT3 in the regulation of rat LC by glutamate. Neuronal EAAT3 would be responsible for terminating the action of synaptically released glutamate, whereas glial EAAT2 would regulate tonic glutamate concentrations in this nucleus. PMID:23638698

  4. Hip Morphology Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Barrientos, Cristián; Diaz, Jorge; Brañes, Julian; Chaparro, Felipe; Barahona, Maximiliano; Salazar, Alfonso; Hinzpeter, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Background: Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is the result of a mechanical conflict in the hip joint, and its diagnosis is based on clinical and radiological parameters. To our knowledge, there are no published studies describing the radiologic characteristics of FAI in Latin American populations. Purpose: To describe the radiological features associated with FAI in an asymptomatic Chilean population. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: We prospectively recruited asymptomatic patients with no history or symptoms of hip pathology who underwent abdomen-pelvis computed tomography (CT) for a nonorthopaedic indication. The acetabular and femoral parameters related to FAI were measured. Results: We studied 101 subjects (202 hips) with a mean age of 36.8 ± 14.4 years. The mean center-edge angle was 39.4° ± 7.2°. The crossover sign was present in 34 cases (33.7%). The mean alpha angle was 49.7° ± 8.3°. Depending on the cut points chosen for FAI-related parameters, between 39.6% and 69.3% of an asymptomatic Chilean population were found to have morphological features related to FAI. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the proposed pathological threshold values in the literature cannot be extrapolated to a Chilean population, and this must be taken into consideration when evaluating Latin American patients with hip pain. PMID:26535273

  5. Ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 3 in the ventral and lateral hypothalamic area of female rats: morphological characterization and functional implications

    PubMed Central

    Kiss, David S; Zsarnovszky, Attila; Horvath, Krisztina; Gyorffy, Andrea; Bartha, Tibor; Hazai, Diana; Sotonyi, Peter; Somogyi, Virag; Frenyo, Laszlo V; Diano, Sabrina

    2009-01-01

    Background Based on its distribution in the brain, ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 3 (NTPDase3) may play a role in the hypothalamic regulation of homeostatic systems, including feeding, sleep-wake behavior and reproduction. To further characterize the morphological attributes of NTPDase3-immunoreactive (IR) hypothalamic structures in the rat brain, here we investigated: 1.) The cellular and subcellular localization of NTPDase3; 2.) The effects of 17β-estradiol on the expression level of hypothalamic NTPDase3; and 3.) The effects of NTPDase inhibition in hypothalamic synaptosomal preparations. Methods Combined light- and electron microscopic analyses were carried out to characterize the cellular and subcellular localization of NTPDase3-immunoreactivity. The effects of estrogen on hypothalamic NTPDase3 expression was studied by western blot technique. Finally, the effects of NTPDase inhibition on mitochondrial respiration were investigated using a Clark-type oxygen electrode. Results Combined light- and electron microscopic analysis of immunostained hypothalamic slices revealed that NTPDase3-IR is linked to ribosomes and mitochondria, is predominantly present in excitatory axon terminals and in distinct segments of the perikaryal plasma membrane. Immunohistochemical labeling of NTPDase3 and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) indicated that γ-amino-butyric-acid- (GABA) ergic hypothalamic neurons do not express NTPDase3, further suggesting that in the hypothalamus, NTPDase3 is predominantly present in excitatory neurons. We also investigated whether estrogen influences the expression level of NTPDase3 in the ventrobasal and lateral hypothalamus. A single subcutaneous injection of estrogen differentially increased NTPDase3 expression in the medial and lateral parts of the hypothalamus, indicating that this enzyme likely plays region-specific roles in estrogen-dependent hypothalamic regulatory mechanisms. Determination of mitochondrial respiration rates

  6. Morphological Characterization of Silicone Hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gido, Samuel

    2007-03-01

    Silicone hydrogel materials are used in the latest generation of extended wear soft contact lenses. To ensure comfort and eye health, these materials must simultaneously exhibit high oxygen permeability and high water permeability / hydrophilicity. The materials achieve these opposing requirements based on bicontinuous composite of nanoscale domains of oxygen permeable (silicones) and hydrophilic (water soluble polymer) materials. The microphase separated morphology of silicone hydrogel contact lens materials was imaged using field emission gun scanning transmission electron microscopy (FEGSTEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Additional morphological information was provided by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). These results all indicate a nanophase separated structure of silicone rich (oxygen permeable) and carbon rich (water soluble polymer) domains separated on a length scale of about 10 nm.

  7. Social Structure Predicts Genital Morphology in African Mole-Rats

    PubMed Central

    Seney, Marianne L.; Kelly, Diane A.; Goldman, Bruce D.; Šumbera, Radim; Forger, Nancy G.

    2009-01-01

    Background African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia) exhibit a wide range of social structures, from solitary to eusocial. We previously found a lack of sex differences in the external genitalia and morphology of the perineal muscles associated with the phallus in the eusocial naked mole-rat. This was quite surprising, as the external genitalia and perineal muscles are sexually dimorphic in all other mammals examined. We hypothesized that the lack of sex differences in naked mole-rats might be related to their unusual social structure. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared the genitalia and perineal muscles in three African mole-rat species: the naked mole-rat, the solitary silvery mole-rat, and the Damaraland mole-rat, a species considered to be eusocial, but with less reproductive skew than naked mole-rats. Our findings support a relationship between social structure, mating system, and sexual differentiation. Naked mole-rats lack sex differences in genitalia and perineal morphology, silvery mole-rats exhibit sex differences, and Damaraland mole-rats are intermediate. Conclusions/Significance The lack of sex differences in naked mole-rats is not an attribute of all African mole-rats, but appears to have evolved in relation to their unusual social structure and reproductive biology. PMID:19829697

  8. Chronological and morphological study of heart development in the rat.

    PubMed

    Marcela, Salazar García; Cristina, Revilla Monsalve María; Angel, Palomino Garibay Miguel; Manuel, Arteaga Martínez; Sofía, Díaz-Cintra; Patricia, De La Rosa-Santander; Bladimir, Roque-Ramírez; Concepción, Sánchez Gómez

    2012-08-01

    Adult and embryonic laboratory rats have been used as a mammalian model organism in biomedical research, descriptive and experimental cardiac embryology, and experimental teratology. There have been, however, considerable variations and discrepancies concerning the developmental staging of the rat embryo in the reported literature, which have resulted in several controversies and inconsistencies. Therefore, we carried out a careful anatomical and histological study of rat cardiac morphogenesis from the premorphogenetic period to the mature heart in a newborn pup. A correlation between the chronology and morphological features of the heart and embryo or newborn was made. We provide a simple and comprehensive guide relating the developmental timing and fate of the embryonic components of the heart and their morphological changes in the rat based on in vivo labeling studies in the chick. We also compare the timing of heart development in rats, humans, and mice. PMID:22715162

  9. Fractionation of human liver mitochondria: enzymic and morphological characterization of the inner and outer membranes as compared to rat liver mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Benga, G; Hodarnau, A; Tilinca, R; Porutiu, D; Dancea, S; Pop, V; Wrigglesworth, J

    1979-02-01

    The fractionation of human liver mitochondria into inner membrane, outer membrane and matrix material is reported. Compared with rat, human liver mitochondria are more fragile. Fractionation can be achieved in only 2 steps, a digitonin treatment for removal of the outer membrane and centrifugation of the inner membrane plus matrix particles through a linear sucrose gradient resulting in purified inner membranes and matrix. PMID:422680

  10. Physical and Morphological Characterization of Templated Thermosets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermel-Davidock, Theresa J.

    2005-03-01

    It has been found that by the addition of low concentrations of an amphiphilic block copolymer to an epoxy resin, novel disordered morphologies can be formed and preserved through cure. It has also been found that the addition of small amounts of block copolymer can improve the fracture resistance significantly without sacrificing the high modulus and glass transition temperature of these thermoset materials. This report will focus on characterizing the influence of the block copolymer and casting solvent on the morphology achieved in the thermoset sample and the resulting physical properties. Templated thermoset samples exhibiting two different diblock copolymer morphologies, worm-like micelles and spherical micelles were investigated. The micro-deformation mechanisms of these templated thermosets were studied via an in-situ tensile deformation technique performed in a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The micro-deformation behaviors of these samples were found to correlate well with the macroscopic mechanical properties. The toughening effect obtained in the epoxy resin was attributed to the well-dispersed worm-like morphology and the weak interfacial adhesion between the micelles and the matrix.

  11. Biochemical and morphological characterization of MAGI-1 in neuronal tissue.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hidenori; Morishita, Rika; Sudo, Kaori; Nishimura, Yoshiaki V; Inaguma, Yutaka; Iwamoto, Ikuko; Nagata, Koh-Ichi

    2012-09-01

    The membrane-associated guanylate kinase with inverted organization (MAGI) proteins consist of three members, MAGI-1, MAGI-2 (also known as S-SCAM), and MAGI-3. Although MAGI-2 has been analyzed and shown to interact with a variety of postsynaptic proteins, functional analyses and characterization of MAGI-1 in neuronal tissues have been rare. In this study, we prepared a specific antibody against MAGI-1, anti-MAGI-1, and carried out biochemical and morphological analyses of MAGI-1 in rat neuronal tissues. By Western blotting, a high level of MAGI-1 was detected in nervous tissues, especially in olfactory bulb. Biochemical fractionation clarified that MAGI-1 was relatively enriched in the synaptosomal vesicle and synaptic plasma membrane fractions, whereas MAGI-2 and MAGI-3 appeared to be in the synaptic plasma membrane and postsynaptic density fractions. Immunofluorescent analyses revealed diffuse distribution of MAGI-1 in the cell body and processes of primary cultured rat hippocampal neurons, whereas MAGI-2 and MAGI-3 were likely to be enriched at synapses. Immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated that MAGI-1 was expressed in Purkinje cells, in hypocampal neurons in CA1 region, in the glomerulus region of olfactory bulb, and at the dorsal root entry zone in embryonic rat spinal cord. These results suggest neuronal roles of MAGI-1 different from those of MAGI-2/3. PMID:22605569

  12. [Experiments using rats on Kosmos biosatellites: morphologic and biochemical studies].

    PubMed

    Il'in, E A; Kaplanskiĭ, A S; Savina, E A

    1989-01-01

    Results of morphological and biochemical investigations of rats flown on Cosmos biosatellites are discussed. It is emphasized that most changes occurring during exposure to microgravity are directly or indirectly related to lower musculoskeletal loads which in turn produce deconditioning of different physiological systems and organism as a whole. It is concluded that this deconditioning is associated with both metabolic and structural changes. PMID:2685464

  13. Proliferative and morphologic changes in rat colon following bypass surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Barkla, D. H.; Tutton, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    In this study the proliferative and morphologic changes that occur in the colon of normal and dimethylhydrazine-treated rats following surgical bypass of the middle third of the colon are reported. Proliferative changes were measured by estimating accumulated mitotic indexes following vinblastine treatment and morphologic changes were observed with the use of light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Data were collected on Days 0, 7, 14, 30, and 72 after surgery. The results show that surgical bypass produces contrasting effects in the segments proximal to and distal to the suture line. In the proximal segment there was morphologic evidence of hyperplasia, although proliferative activity was unchanged except for an increase at 7 days in normal rats. In the distal segment there was a long-lived increase in the mitotic index, although morphologic changes were not seen. The results for DMH-treated rats were similar to those in normal rats. Groups of isolated dysplastic epithelial cells were often seen in the submucosa adjacent to sutures up to 72 days after surgery. Increased lymphoid infiltration was seen in segments proximal to but not distal to the suture line. It is hypothesized that the different responses of the proximal and distal segments may be related to the different embryologic origins of those segments. It is also hypothesized that the seeding of the submucosa with epithelial cells during suturing may be a factor in tumor recurrence. Images Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 PMID:4014432

  14. Morphological evidence for parallel processing of information in rat macula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, M. D.

    1988-01-01

    Study of montages, tracings and reconstructions prepared from a series of 570 consecutive ultrathin sections shows that rat maculas are morphologically organized for parallel processing of linear acceleratory information. Type II cells of one terminal field distribute information to neighboring terminals as well. The findings are examined in light of physiological data which indicate that macular receptor fields have a preferred directional vector, and are interpreted by analogy to a computer technology known as an information network.

  15. Morphological and genetic characterization of Saimiri boliviensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The taxonomy of the genus Saimiri is controversial since morphological characters, traditionally used for identification, are insufficient to distinguish species and subspecies. Genetic studies of specimens in captivity become relevant, especially considering their frequently unknown geographical or...

  16. Morphological Changes in Rat Vestibular System Following Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Muriel D.

    1993-01-01

    Mammalian gravity receptors (maculas) are morphologically organized for weighted, parallel distributed processing of information. There are two basic circuits: 1) highly channeled, type I cell to calyx; and 2) distributed modifying, type II cells to calyces and processes. The latter circuit should be the more adaptable since it modifies final output. To test this hypothesis, rats were flown in microgravity for 9 days aboard a space shuttle and euthanized shortly after landing. Hair cells and ribbon synapses from maculas of 3 flight and 3 ground control rats were studied ultrastructurally in blocks of 50 serial sections. Synapses increased by approximately 41% in type I cells and by approximately 55% in type II cells in flight animals. There was a shift toward the spherular form of ribbon synapse in both types of hair cells in flight animals. Current findings tend to support the stated hypothesis and indicate that mature utricular hair cells retain synaptic plasticity, permitting adaptation to an altered gravitational environment.

  17. Teat Morphology Characterization With 3D Imaging.

    PubMed

    Vesterinen, Heidi M; Corfe, Ian J; Sinkkonen, Ville; Iivanainen, Antti; Jernvall, Jukka; Laakkonen, Juha

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to visualize, in a novel way, the morphological characteristics of bovine teats to gain a better understanding of the detailed teat morphology. We applied silicone casting and 3D digital imaging in order to obtain a more detailed image of the teat structures than that seen in previous studies. Teat samples from 65 dairy cows over 12 months of age were obtained from cows slaughtered at an abattoir. The teats were classified according to the teat condition scoring used in Finland and the lengths of the teat canals were measured. Silicone molds were made from the external teat surface surrounding the teat orifice and from the internal surface of the teat consisting of the papillary duct, Fürstenberg's rosette, and distal part of the teat cistern. The external and internal surface molds of 35 cows were scanned with a 3D laser scanner. The molds and the digital 3D models were used to evaluate internal and external teat surface morphology. A number of measurements were taken from the silicone molds. The 3D models reproduced the morphology of the teats accurately with high repeatability. Breed didn't correlate with the teat classification score. The rosette was found to have significant variation in its size and number of mucosal folds. The internal surface morphology of the rosette did not correlate with the external surface morphology of the teat implying that it is relatively independent of milking parameters that may impact the teat canal and the external surface of the teat. PMID:25382725

  18. Morphologic effects of cysteamine on the rat adenohypophysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cairns, P.D.; McComb, D.J.; Horvath, E.; Kovacs, K.; Milligan, J.V.; Szabo, S.

    1984-12-01

    In pituitary lactotrophs of female Sprague-Dawley rats given cysteamine (300 mg/kg, per os/day) for 7 days, forming granules were increased in number and contained many separate electron-dense structures suggesting crinophagy. Compared to control values, cysteamine treatment caused no change in blood prolactin (PRL) levels, measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). 17 beta-Estradiol (50 micrograms, sc/day) for 7 days, induced lactotroph hyperplasia and increased blood PRL levels which were unaffected by simultaneous cysteamine administration. The ultrastructural changes did not reflect those due to bromocriptine suppression of secretory activity, and supported the concept that cysteamine altered lactotroph morphology by an unknown mechanism. In pituitary gonadotrophs following cysteamine treatment, increased electron lucency of luminal contents of dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum was noted; however, blood luteinizing hormone (LH) levels did not differ from those of control values. In ovariectomized rats, cysteamine suppressed castration cell formation and reduced blood LH levels, suggesting an interference with the cell's ability to respond to GnRH stimulation. The morphologic effects of cysteamine appeared to be selective to lactotrophs and gonadotrophs, and were not secondary to vascular impairment, as capillary endothelial cells were undamaged.

  19. MORPHOLOGICAL AND RHEOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF BIOBLENDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioblends are polymer blends in which at least one of the components is a biodegradable polymer. Melt extruded model bioblends, comprising a biodegradable polyester and polystyrene (PS), were investigated using rheological and morphological (TEM) methods. Blend compositions were varied from neat P...

  20. Morphological characterization of fullerene–androsterone conjugates

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Alberto; Suárez, Margarita; Martin, Nazario

    2014-01-01

    Summary Here we report on the self-organization characteristics in water of two diastereomer pairs of fullerene–androsterone hybrids that have the hydrophobic C60 appendage in the A and D ring of the androsterone moiety, respectively. The morphology and particle size in aqueous solution were determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS), with satisfactory agreement between both techniques. In general, these fullerene derivatives are shown to organize into spherical nano-scale structures with diameters in the ranges of 10–20 and 30–50 nm, respectively. PMID:24778962

  1. Characterizing the morphology of protein binding patches.

    PubMed

    Malod-Dognin, Noël; Bansal, Achin; Cazals, Frédéric

    2012-12-01

    Let the patch of a partner in a protein complex be the collection of atoms accounting for the interaction. To improve our understanding of the structure-function relationship, we present a patch model decoupling the topological and geometric properties. While the geometry is classically encoded by the atomic positions, the topology is recorded in a graph encoding the relative position of concentric shells partitioning the interface atoms. The topological-geometric duality provides the basis of a generic dynamic programming-based algorithm comparing patches at the shell level, which may favor topological or geometric features. On the biological side, we address four questions, using 249 cocrystallized heterodimers organized in biological families. First, we dissect the morphology of binding patches and show that Nature enjoyed the topological and geometric degrees of freedom independently while retaining a finite set of qualitatively distinct topological signatures. Second, we argue that our shell-based comparison is effective to perform atomic-level comparisons and show that topological similarity is a less stringent than geometric similarity. We also use the topological versus geometric duality to exhibit topo-rigid patches, whose topology (but not geometry) remains stable upon docking. Third, we use our comparison algorithms to infer specificity-related information amidst a database of complexes. Finally, we exhibit a descriptor outperforming its contenders to predict the binding affinities of the affinity benchmark. The softwares developed with this article are availablefrom http://team.inria.fr/abs/vorpatch_compatch/. PMID:22806945

  2. Morphological characterization of furfuraldehyde resins adsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, R.; Monteiro, S.N.; D`Almeida, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    Sugar cane is one of the most traditional plantation cultivated crops in large areas in Brazil. The State University of the North of Rio de Janeiro, UENF, is currently engaged in a program aimed to exploit the potentialities of sugar cane industry as a self sustained non-polluting enterprise. One of the projects being carried out at the UENF is the transformation of sugar cane bagasse in precursor materials for the industry of furan derivatives such as the furfuraldehyde resins obtained by acid catalysis. The possibility of employing acid catalyzed furfuraldehyde resins as selective adsorbents has arisen during a comprehensive study of physical-chemical adsorption properties of these materials. The morphology of these resins depend on the synthesis method. Scanning Electron Microscopic studies of these materials which were synthesized, in bulk (FH-M) and solution (FH-D), showed differences in surface density and particle size. Using mercury porosimeter techniques and BET adsorption methods, it was found different pore size distributions and a decrement in surface area when solvent was employed in the synthesis process. By thermogravimetric analysis it was found similar weight losses (6%) of water adsorption and a small differences in thermal stabilities.

  3. Morphology of respiratory tract lesions in rats exposed to radon progeny

    SciTech Connect

    Dagle, G.E.; Cross, F.T.; Gies, R.A.

    1992-12-31

    We will discuss the morphologic features of lesions in the respiratory tract of rats exposed to radon and radon progeny. Groups of male Wister rats were exposed to from 10 to 1000 working levels (WL) of radon progeny in the presence of less than 1 to about 15 mg m{sup {minus}3} uranium ore dust. Cumulative exposures ranged from 20 to approximately 10,000 working level months (WLM). Higher exposure levels produced radiation pneumonitis characterized by interstitial fibrosis, associated with alveolar epithelial cell hyperplasia and accumulations of alveolar macrophages containing phagocytosed uranium ore dust. Nodular fibrosis and alveolar proteinosis were correlated with deposits of uranium ore dust. Vesicular emphysema also occurred at higher exposure levels. Pulmonary adenomatosis appeared to be a preneoplastic lesion; it was composed of nodular proliferation of bronchioloalveolar epithelium without disruption of the general architecture of the parenchyma. At exposure levels where rats lived longer than 1 y, lung tumors and a few tumors of the nasal cavity developed. The principal lung tumors were pulmonary adenomas, bronchioloalveolar carcinomas, papillary adenocarcinomas, epidermoid carcinomas, and adenosquamous carcinomas. Occasionally, malignant mesotheliomas and sarcomas were also present. The malignant lung tumors were characterized by invasion and occasionally metastasized to regional lymph nodes. Lower exposure rates produced more tumors, generally of different histologic types, and more fatal tumors than higher exposure rates. The similarity to relationships of human radon progeny exposure as far as incidence and types of lung tumors establish the validity of this animal model for studying radon carcinogenesis in humans.

  4. Desensitized morphological and cytokine response after stretch-shortening muscle contractions as a feature of aging in rats.

    PubMed

    Rader, Erik P; Layner, Kayla N; Triscuit, Alyssa M; Kashon, Michael L; Gu, Ja K; Ensey, James; Baker, Brent A

    2015-12-01

    Recovery from contraction-induced injury is impaired with aging. At a young age, the secondary response several days following contraction-induced injury consists of edema, inflammatory cell infiltration, and segmental muscle fiber degeneration to aid in the clearance of damaged tissue and repair. This morphological response has not been wholly established at advanced age. Our aim was to characterize muscle fiber morphology 3 and 10 days following stretch-shortening contractions (SSCs) varying in repetition number (i.e. 0, 30, 80, and 150) for young and old rats. For muscles of young rats, muscle fiber degeneration was overt at 3 days exclusively after 80 or 150 SSCs and returned significantly closer to control values by 10 days. For muscles of old rats, no such responses were observed. Transcriptional microarray analysis at 3 days demonstrated that muscles of young rats differentially expressed up to 2144 genes while muscles of old rats differentially expressed 47 genes. Bioinformatic analysis indicated that cellular movement was a major biological process over-represented with genes that were significantly altered by SSCs especially for young rats. Protein levels in muscle for various cytokines and chemokines, key inflammatory factors for cell movement, increased 3- to 50-fold following high-repetition SSCs for young rats with no change for old rats. This age-related differential response was insightful given that for control (i.e. 0 SSCs) conditions, protein levels of circulatory cytokines/chemokines were increased with age. The results demonstrate ongoing systemic low-grade inflammatory signaling and subsequent desensitization of the cytokine/chemokine and morphological response to contraction-induced injury with aging - features which accompany age-related impairment in muscle recovery. PMID:26454037

  5. Effects of methapyrilene on rat hepatic xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and liver morphology.

    PubMed

    Graichen, M E; Neptun, D A; Dent, J G; Popp, J A; Leonard, T B

    1985-02-01

    Short-term treatment of rats with hepatocarcinogens elicits a consistent pattern of phenotypic changes in hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes, the most striking of which is a marked increase in microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EH) activity. The antihistaminic drug methapyrilene induces a high incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in F-344 rats. The studies reported here were designed to assess the effects of methapyrilene on hepatic EH activity, cytochrome P-450-dependent mixed-function oxidase activities, liver morphology, and liver-derived serum enzymes. Male F-344 rats were treated with three daily oral doses of methapyrilene-HCl, up to 300 mg/kg/day, and were sacrificed 48 hr after the last dose. Hepatic microsomal EH and cytosolic DT-diaphorase activities were increased in a dose-related fashion, to 420 and 230% of control, respectively. Cytochrome P-450 content and benzphetamine-N-demethylase and ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase activities were concomitantly decreased to 35-50% of control. Serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and alanine aminotransferase activities were elevated 22- to 27-fold, and serum bile acids to 36-fold by treatment with methapyrilene. Periportal lesions, characterized by inflammation, nuclear and nucleolar enlargement, bile duct hyperplasia, and hepatocellular necrosis, were observed following methapyrilene administration. The severity of the periportal lesion correlated with elevations in the serum chemistry parameters. The increases noted in microsomal EH activity supports the suggestion that this enzyme may be a useful biochemical marker for exposure to hepatocarcinogens. PMID:2859228

  6. Morphological evidence for local microcircuits in rat vestibular maculae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, M. D.

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that intramacular, unmyelinated segments of vestibular afferent nerve fibers and their large afferent endings (calyces) on type I hair cells branch. Many of the branches (processes) contain vesicles and are presynaptic to type II hair cells, other processes, intramacular nerve fibers, and calyces. This study used serial section transmission electron microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction methods to document the origins and distributions of presynaptic processes of afferents in the medial part of the adult rat utricular macula. The ultrastructural research focused on presynaptic processes whose origin and termination could be observed in a single micrograph. Results showed that calyces had 1) vesiculated, spine-like processes that invaginated type I cells and 2) other, elongate processes that ended on type II cells pre- as well as postsynaptically. Intramacular, unmyelinated segments of afferent nerve fibers gave origin to branches that were presynaptic to type II cells, calyces, calyceal processes, and other nerve fibers in the macula. Synapses with type II cells occurred opposite subsynaptic cisternae (C synapses); all other synapses were asymmetric. Vesicles were pleomorphic but were differentially distributed according to process origin. Small, clear-centered vesicles, approximately 40-60 nm in diameter, predominated in processes originating from afferent nerve fibers and basal parts of calyces. Larger vesicles approximately 70-120 nm in diameter having approximately 40-80 nm electron-opaque cores were dominant in processes originating from the necks of calyces. Results are interpreted to indicate the existence of a complex system of intrinsic feedforward (postsynaptic)-feedback (presynaptic) connections in a network of direct and local microcircuits. The morphological findings support the concept that maculae dynamically preprocess linear acceleratory information before its transmission to the central nervous system.

  7. Morphological and cytohistochemical evaluation of renal effects of cadmium-doped silica nanoparticles given intratracheally to rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coccini, T.; Roda, E.; Barni, S.; Manzo, L.

    2013-04-01

    Renal morphological parameters were determined in rats intratracheally instilled with model cadmium-containing silica nanoparticles (Cd-SiNPs, 1mg/rat), also exploring whether their potential modifications would be associated with toxicogenomic changes. Cd-SiNP effects, evaluated 7 and 30 days post-exposure, were assessed by (i) histopathology (Haematoxylin/Eosin Staining), (ii) characterization of apoptotic features by TUNEL staining. Data were compared with those obtained by CdCl2 (400μg/rat), SiNPs (600μg/rat), 0.1 ml saline. Area-specific cell apoptosis was observed in all treatment groups: cortex and inner medulla were the most affected regions. Apoptotic changes were apparent at 7 days post-exposure in both areas, and were still observable in inner medulla 30 days after treatment. Increase in apoptotic frequency was more pronounced in Cd-SiNP-treated animals compared to either CdCl2 or SiNPs. Histological findings showed comparable alterations in the renal glomerular (cortex) architecture occurring in all treatment groups at both time-points considered. The glomeruli appeared often collapsed, showing condensed, packed mesangial and endothelial cells. Oedematous haemorrhagic glomeruli were also observed in Cd-SiNPs-treated animals. Bare SiNPs caused morphological and apoptotic changes without modifying the renal gene expression profile. These findings support the concept that multiple assays and an integrated testing strategy should be recommended to characterize toxicological responses to nanoparticles in mammalian systems.

  8. Morphologic Characterization of Nerves in Whole-Mount Airway Biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Canning, Brendan J.; Merlo-Pich, Emilio; Woodcock, Ashley A.; Smith, Jaclyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Neuroplasticity of bronchopulmonary afferent neurons that respond to mechanical and chemical stimuli may sensitize the cough reflex. Afferent drive in cough is carried by the vagus nerve, and vagal afferent nerve terminals have been well defined in animals. Yet, both unmyelinated C fibers and particularly the morphologically distinct, myelinated, nodose-derived mechanoreceptors described in animals are poorly characterized in humans. To date there are no distinctive molecular markers or detailed morphologies available for human bronchopulmonary afferent nerves. Objectives: Morphologic and neuromolecular characterization of the afferent nerves that are potentially involved in cough in humans. Methods: A whole-mount immunofluorescence approach, rarely used in human lung tissue, was used with antibodies specific to protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5) and, for the first time in human lung tissue, 200-kD neurofilament subunit. Measurements and Main Results: We have developed a robust technique to visualize fibers consistent with autonomic and C fibers and pulmonary neuroendocrine cells. A group of morphologically distinct, 200-kD neurofilament-immunopositive myelinated afferent fibers, a subpopulation of which did not express PGP9.5, was also identified. Conclusions: PGP9.5-immunonegative nerves are strikingly similar to myelinated airway afferents, the cough receptor, and smooth muscle–associated airway receptors described in rodents. These have never been described in humans. Full description of human airway nerves is critical to the translation of animal studies to the clinical setting. PMID:25906337

  9. [Morphological study of the adrenals of rats exposed on the Kosmos-690 satellite].

    PubMed

    Savina, E A; Alekseev, E I

    1979-01-01

    Adrenals of 12 rats flown aboard the biosatellite Cosmos-690 and 30 rats used in the ground-based experiments Control-1 and Control-2 were studied morphologically. The animals were sacrificed on the 2nd and 27th days after completion of the experiments (i. e., on the 12 and 37th days after irradiation at a total dose of 800 rad). A comparative study of morphological changes in the adrenals of flight and control rats did not show any distinct differences. It is therefore concluded that space flight factors did not produce a significant effect on the adrenal response to irradiation at a dose of 800 rad. PMID:423508

  10. Effect of White Kidney Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Beldia) on Small Intestine Morphology and Function in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Nciri, Nader; Cho, Namjun; Bergaoui, Nacef; El Mhamdi, Faiçal; Ben Ammar, Aouatef; Trabelsi, Najoua; Zekri, Sami; Guémira, Fathi; Ben Mansour, Abderraouf; Sassi, Fayçal Haj; Ben Aissa-Fennira, Fatma

    2015-12-01

    The chronic ingestion of raw or undercooked kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) causes functional and morphological derangement in various tissues. The major objectives of this study were to investigate the gavage effects of a raw Beldia bean variety that is widely consumed in Tunisia, on the small intestine morphology and jejunal absorption of water, electrolytes, and glucose in Wistar rats. Twenty young male rats were randomly divided into two groups of 10 rats. The first group served as the control and was gavaged with 300 mg of a rodent pellet flour suspension (RPFS), whereas the second experimental group was challenged with 300 mg of a Beldia bean flour suspension (BBFS) for 10 days. Histological studies were performed using light and electron microcopy. The intestinal transport of water, sodium, potassium, and glucose was studied by perfusing the jejunal loops of the small bowels in vivo. The feeding experiments indicated that BBFS did not affect weight gain. Histomorphometric analyses showed that the villus heights, crypt depths, and crypt/villus ratios in the jejunum and ileum were greater in the BBFS-fed rats than controls. Electron microscopy studies demonstrated that the rats exposed to RPFS exhibited intact intestinal tracts; however, the BBFS-treated rats demonstrated intestinal alterations characterized by abnormal microvillus architectures, with short and dense or long and slender features, in addition to the sparse presence of vesicles near the brush border membrane. BBFS administration did not significantly affect glucose absorption. However, significant decreases were observed in water and electrolyte absorption compared with the uptake of the controls. In conclusion, raw Beldia beans distorted jejunum morphology and disturbed hydroelectrolytic flux. PMID:26488416

  11. Glucagon release from rat pancreatic islets. A combined morphological and functional approach.

    PubMed Central

    Carpentier, J L; Malaisse-Lagae, F; Müller, W A

    1977-01-01

    The release of glucagon induced in isolated rat islets by arginine or by calcium deprivation has been subjected to combined functional and morphological quantifications. Arginine-stimulated glucagon release was associated with a significant increase of morphological events linked to exocytosis. By contrast, the paradoxical events linked to exocytosis. By contrast, the paradoxical release of glucagon provoked by calcium deprivation, although accompanied by a significant loss of granule stores, was not associated with an increase of morphologically detectable exocytosis. Images PMID:409734

  12. Characterization of the spatial variability of channel morphology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moody, J.A.; Troutman, B.M.

    2002-01-01

    The spatial variability of two fundamental morphological variables is investigated for rivers having a wide range of discharge (five orders of magnitude). The variables, water-surface width and average depth, were measured at 58 to 888 equally spaced cross-sections in channel links (river reaches between major tributaries). These measurements provide data to characterize the two-dimensional structure of a channel link which is the fundamental unit of a channel network. The morphological variables have nearly log-normal probability distributions. A general relation was determined which relates the means of the log-transformed variables to the logarithm of discharge similar to previously published downstream hydraulic geometry relations. The spatial variability of the variables is described by two properties: (1) the coefficient of variation which was nearly constant (0.13-0.42) over a wide range of discharge; and (2) the integral length scale in the downstream direction which was approximately equal to one to two mean channel widths. The joint probability distribution of the morphological variables in the downstream direction was modelled as a first-order, bivariate autoregressive process. This model accounted for up to 76 per cent of the total variance. The two-dimensional morphological variables can be scaled such that the channel width-depth process is independent of discharge. The scaling properties will be valuable to modellers of both basin and channel dynamics. Published in 2002 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  13. Lamellar diblock copolymer grain boundary morphology. 1. Twist boundary characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Gido, S.P.; Gunther, J.; Thomas, E.L. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Hoffman, D. . Dept. of Mathematics and Statistics)

    1993-08-16

    Grain boundary morphologies in poly(styrene-b-butadiene) lamellar diblock copolymers were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Two types of twist grain boundaries were observed in which microphase separation of the two blocks was maintained in the grain boundary region by intermaterial dividing surfaces that approximate classically known minimal surfaces. The geometry of these interfaces was demonstrated by comparing experimental TEM images with ray tracing computer simulations of the model surfaces as the projection direction was systematically varied in both the experimental and simulated images. The two morphologies observed were found to have intermaterial dividing surfaces that approximate either Scherk's first (doubly periodic) surface or a section of the right helicoid. The helicoid section boundary was observed at low twist angles, less than or equal to about 15. The Scherk surface family of boundary morphologies, which consists of a doubly periodic array of saddle surfaces, was found over the entire twist range from 0 to 90[degree]. As the twist angle approaches 0[degree] the Scherk surface grain boundary morphology is transformed into a single screw dislocation that has an intermaterial dividing surface with the geometry of a single helicoid. Direct TEM imaging of the detailed core structure of this screw dislocation is presented. These images demonstrate that in the lamellar diblock copolymer the screw dislocation core is nonsingular. This nonsingular core structure represents a radical departure from the singular core structures observed in classical studies of dislocations in atomic crystals.

  14. Rapid morphological characterization of isolated mitochondria using Brownian motion†

    PubMed Central

    Palanisami, Akilan; Fang, Jie; Lowder, Thomas W.; Kunz, Hawley; Miller, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial morphology has been associated with numerous pathologies including cancer, diabetes, obesity and heart disease. However, the connection is poorly understood—in part due to the difficulty of characterizing the morphology. This impedes the use of morphology as a tool for disease detection/monitoring. Here, we use the Brownian motion of isolated mitochondria to characterize their size and shape in a high throughput fashion. By using treadmill exercise training, mitochondria from heart and gastrocnemius of Balb/c mice were modulated in size and used to investigate the protocol. Consistent with previous reports, the heart mitochondria of untrained mice increased 5% in diameter immediately after a single bout of moderate exercise (1.091 ± 0.004 μm) as compared to completely sedentary controls (1.040 ± 0.022 μm). In addition, no change was observed in the size of gastrocnemius mitochondria (1.025 ± 0.018 μm), which was also in agreement with previous studies. The method was also successfully applied to smaller Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria. PMID:26435755

  15. Does the morphology of the ear of the Chinese bamboo rat (Rhizomys sinensis) show "Subterranean" characteristics?

    PubMed

    Pleštilová, Lucie; Hrouzková, Ema; Burda, Hynek; Šumbera, Radim

    2016-05-01

    In spite of the growing interest in rodents with subterranean activity in general and the spalacids (Spalacidae) in particular, little is known about the biology of most members of this clade, such as the Chinese bamboo rat (Rhizomys sinensis). Here, we analyzed the ear morphology of R. sinensis with respect to hearing specialization for subterranean or aboveground modes of communication. It is well-known that ecology and style of life of a particular species can be reflected in morphology of its ear, its hearing and vocalization, so we expect that such information could provide us insight into its style of life and its sensory environment. The ratio between the eardrum and stapedial footplate areas, which influences the efficiency of middle ear sound transmission, suggests low hearing sensitivity, as is typical for subterranean species. The cochlea had 3.25 coils and resembled species with good low frequency hearing typical for subterranean mammals. The length of the basilar membrane was 18.9 ± 0.8 mm and its width slowly increased towards the cochlear apex from 60 to 85 μm. The mean density of outer hair cells was 344 ± 22 and of inner hair cells 114 ± 7.3 per 1 mm length of the organ of Corti, and increased apically. These values (except for relatively low hair cell density) usually characterize ears specialized for low frequency hearing. There was no evidence for an acoustic fovea. Apart of low hair cell density which is common in aboveground animals, this species has also relatively large auricles, suggesting the importance of sound localization during surface activity. The ear of the Chinese bamboo rat thus contains features typical for both aboveground and subterranean mammals and suggests that this spalacid has fossorial habits combined with regular aboveground activity. PMID:26880690

  16. Characterization of prostanoid receptors on rat neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Wise, H; Jones, R L

    1994-01-01

    1. The effects of various prostanoid agonists have been compared on the increase in intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+]i) and the aggregation reaction of rat peritoneal neutrophils induced by N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (FMLP). 2. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and the specific IP-receptor agonist, cicaprost, both inhibited the FMLP-induced increase in [Ca2+]i (IC50 33 nM and 18 nM respectively) and the FMLP-induced aggregation reaction (IC50 5.6 nM and 7.9 nM respectively). PGD2, PGF2 alpha, and the TP-receptor agonist, U 46619, were inactive at the highest concentration tested (1 microM). 3. The EP1-receptor agonist, 17-phenyl-omega-trinor PGE2, and the EP3-receptor agonists, GR 63799X and sulprostone, had no inhibitory effect on FMLP-stimulated rat neutrophils. 4. PGE1 (EP/IP-receptor agonist) and iloprost (IP-receptor agonist) inhibited the FMLP-induced increase in [Ca2+]i with IC50 values of 34 nM and 38 nM respectively. The EP2-receptor agonists, butaprost and misoprostol (1 microM), inhibited both FMLP-stimulated [Ca2+]i and aggregation. However another EP2-receptor agonist, AH 13205, was inactive in both assays. 5. Prostanoid receptors present on rat neutrophils were further characterized by measuring [3H]-adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate ([3H]-cyclic AMP) accumulation. Only those agonists capable of stimulating [3H]-cyclic AMP accumulation were able to inhibit both FMLP-stimulated [Ca2+]i and aggregation. 6. These results indicate that rat neutrophils possess inhibitory IP and EP-receptors; the relative potencies of PGE2, misoprostol and butaprost are those expected for the EP2-receptor subtype. No evidence for DP, FP, TP or EP1 and EP3-receptors was obtained. PMID:7834211

  17. Extensive morphological and immunohistochemical characterization in myotubular myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Shichiji, Minobu; Biancalana, Valérie; Fardeau, Michel; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Osawa, Makiko; Laporte, Jocelyn; Romero, Norma Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    The X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM) also called X-linked centronuclear myopathy is a rare congenital myopathy due to mutations in the MTM1 gene encoding myotubularin. The disease gives rise to a severe muscle weakness in males at birth. The main muscle morphological characteristics (significant number of small muscle fibers with centralized nuclei and type 1 fiber predominance) are usually documented, but the sequence of formation and maintenance of this particular morphological pattern has not been extensively characterized in humans. In this study, we perform a reevaluation of morphological changes in skeletal muscle biopsies in severe XLMTM. We correlate the pathologic features observed in the muscle biopsies of 15 newborns with MTM1-mutations according to the “adjusted-age” at the time of muscle biopsy, focusing on sequential analysis in the early period of the life (from 34 weeks of gestation to 3 months of age). We found a similar morphological pattern throughout the period analyzed; the proportion of myofibers with central nuclei was high in all muscle biopsies, independently of the muscle type, the age of the newborns at time of biopsy and the specific MTM1 mutation. We did not observe a period free of morphological abnormalities in human skeletal muscle as observed in myotubularin-deficient mouse models. In addition, this study demonstrated some features of delayed maturation of the muscle fibers without any increase in the number of satellite cells, associated with a marked disorganization of the muscle T-tubules and cytoskeletal network in the skeletal muscle fibers. PMID:24381816

  18. Three-dimensional reconstruction and morphological characterization of pituitary macroadenomas

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Lin; Jing, Jun-Jie; Zhang, Shang-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim was to investigate the relationship between the tumor (clinicopathologic and radiological) characteristics and the morphological parameters of pituitary macroadenoma or giant adenoma patients using a three-dimensional (3D) reconstructed model. Material and methods Magnetic resoanance imaging (MRI) was performed preoperatively; tumor grade was determined by the Knosp-Steiner classification and tumor morphology by the SIPAP classification. Pituitary adenomas and adjacent structures were reconstructed three-dimensionally by volume rendering. Results Fifty-two and 6 patients underwent surgery via the transnasal transsphenoidal or pterional approach, respectively. Knosp-Steiner grades I to IV adenomas were observed in 5.2%, 25.9%, 22.4% and 46.6% of the patients, respectively. The 3D model was reconstructed in all cases with superb delineation of tumor morphology and the spatial relationship between the tumor and adjacent tissues. Pituitary adenomas were categorized into intrasellar (13.8%), suprasellar (20.7%), infrasellar (17.2%), and lobulated adenomas (48.3%). Suprasellar adenomas had the smallest (2.27 ±3.22 cm3) and lobulated adenomas the largest volume (24.61 ±30.50 cm3). Intrasellar adenomas were all functioning, while 75%, 60% and 60.7%, respectively, of suprasellar, infrasellar and lobulated adenomas were nonfunctioning, with a significant association between tumor morphology and secretory function (p = 0.005). Conclusions Three-dimensional reconstruction of pituitary macroadenomas offers a simplified morphological classification of pituitary adenomas and may be helpful for neurosurgeons to categorize and characterize pituitary adenomas. PMID:27279851

  19. Morphological evidence for natural poxvirus infection in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, L. M.; Dantoni Damelio, E.; Damelio, F. E.

    1982-01-01

    Focal inflammatory and desquamating lesions were seen in the nasal mucosa of rats that were flown aboard the Soviet satellite, Cosmos 1129, in 1979 and in the ground based controls. The infection was clinically inapparent. Electron microscopic examination revealed the presence of poxvirus virions in desquamating cells. The specific poxvirus involved could not be identified. The lesions appeared to be similar to those described by others in rats experimentally infected with mousepox (infectious ectromelia) virus by the intranasal route.

  20. Crack layer morphology and toughness characterization in steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chudnovsky, A.; Bessendorf, M.

    1983-01-01

    Both the macro studies of crack layer propagation are presented. The crack extension resistance parameter R sub 1 based on the morphological study of microdefects is introduced. Experimental study of the history dependent nature of G sub c supports the representation of G sub c as a product of specific enthalpy of damage (material constant) and R sub 1. The latter accounts for the history dependence. The observation of nonmonotonic crack growth under monotonic changes of J as well as statistical features of the critical energy release rate (variance of G sub c) indicate the validity of the proposed damage characterization.

  1. Polarized light scattering technique for morphological characterization of waterborne pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devarakonda, Venkat V.; Manickavasagam, Sivakumar

    2009-05-01

    We have recently developed an elliptically polarized light scattering (EPLS) technique to characterize the morphology of fine particles suspended in an optically non-absorbing medium such as water. This technique provides the size distribution, shape and agglomeration characteristics of suspended particles. This technique can be used to detect various types of biological pathogens such as bacteria, protozoa and viruses in potable water systems. Here we report results obtained from EPLS measurements on two strains of Bacillus spores suspended in water along with comparison with electron microscopy.

  2. Synthesis and morphology characterization of polydimethylsiloxane-containing block copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadley, Maurice

    The thin film morphology characteristics of polydimethylsiloxane-containing block copolymers have been investigated. For this investigation, a commercially available hydroxyl terminated PDMS was purchased from Gelest and attached to a carboxylic acid functional reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) agent by Steglich esterification. This produced macro-RAFT agents to which styrene monomer was polymerized. By using this approach the generation of low polydispersity polystyrene-block-polydimethylsiloxane (PS-block-PDMS) copolymers of various molecular weights spanning a wide volume fraction range in which the PDMS block remained the same in each polymerization. Synthesized block copolymers were characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Bulk and thin film characterization of PS-block-PDMS copolymers was done by small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), contact angle measurements, scanning force microscopy (SFM), and grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). The following observations have been made. For PS-rich PS-block -PDMS copolymer thin films the low surface tension of PDMS caused it to migrate to the film surface regardless of solvent choice. The surface morphology was found to depend strongly on the solubility parameter of the solvent and exhibited SFM images consistent with parallel cylinder, perforated lamellar, and lamellar surface layers with increasing solvent solubility parameter. This behavior was due to the selective swelling of the individual blocks under slightly selective, good solvent conditions. A custom solvent annealing apparatus provided similar results in which order-order transitions in the thin films were observed with increasing solvent solubility parameter. Additionally improvements in the long-range order were observed after 1 h of solvent annealing. PS-rich PS-block-PDMS copolymer thin films also displayed PDMS

  3. The morphological changes in transplanted tumors in rats at plasmonic photothermal therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucharskaya, Alla B.; Maslyakova, Galina N.; Navolokin, Nikita A.; Dikht, Nataliya I.; Terentyuk, Georgy S.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Genina, Elina A.; Khlebtsov, Boris N.; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of work was to study the morphological changes in transplanted liver tumors of rats after plasmonic photothermal therapy (PPTT). The gold nanorods functionalized with thiolated polyethylene glycol were injected intravenously to rats with transplanted liver cancer PC-1. A day after injection the tumors were irradiated by the infrared 808-nm diode laser. The withdrawal of the animals from the experiment and sampling of tumor tissue for morphological study were performed 24 hours after the laser exposure. The standard histological and immunohistochemical staining with antibodies to proliferation marker Ki-67 and apoptosis marker BAX were used for morphological study of transplanted tumors. The plasmonic photothermal therapy had pronounced damaging effect in rats with transplanted liver tumors expressed in degenerative and necrotic changes in the tumor cells. The decrease of proliferation marker Ki-67 and increase of expression of apoptosis marker BAX were observed in tumor cells after PPTT.

  4. Structural characterization of semicrystalline polymer morphologies by imaging-SANS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radulescu, A.; Fetters, L. J.; Richter, D.

    2012-02-01

    Control and optimization of polymer properties require the global knowledge of the constitutive microstructures of polymer morphologies in various conditions. The microstructural features can be typically explored over a wide length scale by combining pinhole-, focusing- and ultra-small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) techniques. Though it proved to be a successful approach, this involves major efforts related to the use of various scattering instruments and large amount of samples and the need to ensure the same crystallization kinetics for the samples investigated at various facilities, in different sample cell geometries and at different time intervals. With the installation and commissioning of the MgF2 neutron lenses at the KWS-2 SANS diffractometer installed at the Heinz Maier-Leibnitz neutron source (FRMII reactor) in Garching, a wide Q-range, between 10-4Å-1 and 0.5Å-1, can be covered at a single instrument. This enables investigation of polymer microstructures over a length scale from lnm up to 1μm, while the overall polymer morphology can be further examined up to 100μm by optical microscopy (including crossed polarizers). The study of different semi-crystalline polypropylene-based polymers in solution is discussed and the new imaging-SANS approach allowing for an unambiguous and complete structural characterization of polymer morphologies is presented.

  5. Distribution and morphology of nitrergic neurons across functional domains of the rat primary somatosensory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira-Campos, Anaelli A.; Finamore, Deborah M.; Imbiriba, Luis A.; Houzel, Jean C.; Franca, João G.

    2012-01-01

    The rat primary somatosensory cortex (S1) is remarkable for its conspicuous vertical compartmentalization in barrels and septal columns, which are additionally stratified in horizontal layers. Whereas excitatory neurons from each of these compartments perform different types of processing, the role of interneurons is much less clear. Among the numerous types of GABAergic interneurons, those producing nitric oxide (NO) are especially puzzling, since this gaseous messenger can modulate neural activity, synaptic plasticity, and neurovascular coupling. We used a quantitative morphological approach to investigate whether nitrergic interneurons, which might therefore be considered both as NO volume diffusers and as elements of local circuitry, display features that could relate to barrel cortex architecture. In fixed brain sections, nitrergic interneurons can be revealed by histochemical processing for NADPH-diaphorase (NADPHd). Here, the dendritic arbors of nitrergic neurons from different compartments of area S1 were 3D reconstructed from serial 200 μm thick sections, using 100x objective and the Neurolucida system. Standard morphological parameters were extracted for all individual arbors and compared across columns and layers. Wedge analysis was used to compute dendritic orientation indices. Supragranular (SG) layers displayed the highest density of nitrergic neurons, whereas layer IV contained nitrergic neurons with largest soma area. The highest nitrergic neuronal density was found in septa, where dendrites were previously characterized as more extense and ramified than in barrels. Dendritic arbors were not confined to the boundaries of the column nor layer of their respective soma, being mostly double-tufted and vertically oriented, except in SG layers. These data strongly suggest that nitrergic interneurons adapt their morphology to the dynamics of processing performed by cortical compartments. PMID:23133407

  6. Morphological Characterization of the Polyflux 210H Hemodialysis Filter Pores

    PubMed Central

    Hedayat, A.; Szpunar, J.; Kumar, N. A. P. Kiran; Peace, R.; Elmoselhi, H.; Shoker, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Morphological characterization of hemodialysis membranes is necessary to improve pore design. Aim. To delineate membrane pore structure of a high flux filter, Polyflux 210H. Methods. We used a Joel JSM-6010LV scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a SU6600 Hitachi field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) to characterize the pore and fiber morphology. The maximal diameters of selected uremic toxins were calculated using the macromolecular modeling Crystallographic Object-Oriented Toolkit (COOT) software. Results. The mean pore densities on the outermost and innermost surfaces of the membrane were 36.81% and 5.45%, respectively. The membrane exhibited a tortuous structure with poor connection between the inner and outer pores. The aperture's width in the inner surface ranged between 34 and 45 nm, which is 8.76–11.60 times larger than the estimated maximum diameter of β2-microglobulin (3.88 nm). Conclusion. The results suggest that the diameter size of inner pore apertures is not a limiting factor to middle molecules clearance, the extremely diminished density is. Increasing inner pore density and improving channel structure are strategies to improve clearance of middle molecules. PMID:23209902

  7. Effects of developmental hyperserotonemia on the morphology of rat dentate nuclear neurons.

    PubMed

    Hough, L H; Segal, S

    2016-05-13

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social cognition, disordered communication, restricted interests and repetitive behaviors. Furthermore, abnormalities in basic motor control, skilled motor gestures, and motor learning, are common in ASD. These characteristics have been attributed to a possible defect in the pre- and postnatal development of specific neural networks including the dentate-thalamo-cortical pathway, which is involved in motor learning, automaticity of movements, and higher cognitive functions. The current study utilized custom diolistic labeling and unbiased stereology to characterize morphological alterations in neurons of the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum in developing rat pups exposed to abnormally high levels of the serotonergic agonist 5-methyloxytryptamine (5-MT) pre-and postnatally. Occurring in as many as 30% of autistic subjects, developmental hyperserotonemia (DHS) is the most consistent neurochemical finding reported in autism and has been implicated in the pathophysiology of ASD. This exposure produced dramatic changes in dendritic architecture and synaptic features. We observed changes in the dendritic branching morphology which did not lead to significant differences (p>0.5) in total dendritic length. Instead, DHS groups presented with dendritic trees that display changes in arborescence, that appear to be short reaching with elaborately branched segments, presenting with significantly fewer (p>0.001) dendritic spines and a decrease in numeric density when compared to age-matched controls. These negative changes may be implicated in the neuropathological and functional/behavioral changes observed in ASD, such as delays in motor learning, difficulties in automaticity of movements, and deficits in higher cognitive functions. PMID:26892293

  8. Characterization of muscarinic receptors in rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Blankesteijn, W M; Siero, H L; Rodrigues de Miranda, J F; van Megen, Y J; Russel, F G

    1993-01-01

    Muscarinic receptors in mammalian kidney seem to be involved in diuresis. In this study we give a detailed characterization of receptors in rat kidney. Specific binding of [3H](-)-quinuclidinylbenzilate ([3H]QNB) to membranes of rat kidney cortex was saturable and of high affinity. A dissociation constant of 0.063 +/- 0.003 nM and a receptor density of 1.46 +/- 0.07 pmol/g wet weight were obtained. The dissociation kinetics could be best described by assuming a mono-exponential function (k-1 = (0.52 +/- 0.1) x 10(-4) s-1). The binding of [3H]QNB reached a maximum in 60 min at 0.6 nM at 37 degrees C. Competition experiments with the enantiomers of benzetimide confirmed the muscarinic nature of the [3H]QNB binding sites. The inhibition constants of pirenzepine (0.23 +/- 0.02 microM), (+-)-hexahydrosiladifenidol (0.040 +/- 0.002 microM), AF-DX 116 (1.45 +/- 0.07 microM), methoctramine (1.67 +/- 0.02 microM) and gallamine (78 +/- 3 microM) classified this receptor as an M3 receptor. Inhibition of [3H]QNB binding by the agonists methylfurtrethonium, arecoline, isoarecoline methiodide, arecaidine propargyl ester and McN-A-343 displayed monophasic inhibition curves. With (+/-)-cis-2-methyl-4-dimethylaminomethyl-1,3- dioxolane methiodide in two out of four experiments a small (11%) population of high affinity agonist sites could be detected. The potassium sparing diuretic amiloride inhibited [3H]QNB binding (36 +/- 3 microM). Although in a way related to the amiloride binding site, the muscarinic receptors in rat kidney are unlikely to be the primary target of diuretic action of this drug. PMID:8420789

  9. Characterization of rat cecum cellulolytic bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, L; Macy, J M

    1982-01-01

    Cellulose-degrading bacteria previously isolated from the ceca of rats have been characterized and identified. The most commonly isolated type was rods identified as Bacteroides succinogenes. These bacteria fermented only cellulose (e.g., pebble-milled Whatman no. 1 filter paper), cellobiose, and in 43 of 47 strains, glucose, with succinic and acetic acids as the major products. The only organic growth factors found to be required by selected strains were p-aminobenzoic acid, cyanocobalamine, thiamine, and a straight-chain and a branched-chain volatile fatty acid. These vitamin requirements differ from those of rumen strains of B. succinogenes, indicating the rat strains may form a distinct subgroup within the species. The mole percent guanine plus cytosine was 45%, a value lower than those (48 to 51%) found for three rumen strains of B. succinogenes included in this study. Cellulolytic cocci were isolated less frequently than the rods and were identified as Rumminococcus flavefaciens. Most strains fermented only cellulose and cellobiose, and their major fermentation products were also succinic and acetic acids. Their required growth factors were not identified but were supplied by rumen fluid. Images PMID:7159086

  10. Aircraft noise exposure affects rat behavior, plasma norepinephrine levels, and cell morphology of the temporal lobe.

    PubMed

    Di, Guo-Qing; Zhou, Bing; Li, Zheng-Guang; Lin, Qi-Li

    2011-12-01

    In order to investigate the physiological effects of airport noise exposure on organisms, in this study, we exposed Sprague-Dawley rats in soundproof chambers to previously recorded aircraft-related noise for 65 d. For comparison, we also used unexposed control rats. Noise was arranged according to aircraft flight schedules and was adjusted to its weighted equivalent continuous perceived noise levels (L(WECPN)) of 75 and 80 dB for the two experimental groups. We examined rat behaviors through an open field test and measured the concentrations of plasma norepinephrine (NE) by high performance liquid chromatography-fluorimetric detection (HPLC-FLD). We also examined the morphologies of neurons and synapses in the temporal lobe by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our results showed that rats exposed to airport noise of 80 dB had significantly lower line crossing number (P<0.05) and significantly longer center area duration (P<0.05) than control animals. After 29 d of airport noise exposure, the concentration of plasma NE of exposed rats was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). We also determined that the neuron and synapsis of the temporal lobe of rats showed signs of damage after aircraft noise of 80 dB exposure for 65 d. In conclusion, exposing rats to long-term aircraft noise affects their behaviors, plasma NE levels, and cell morphology of the temporal lobe. PMID:22135145

  11. Aircraft noise exposure affects rat behavior, plasma norepinephrine levels, and cell morphology of the temporal lobe*

    PubMed Central

    Di, Guo-qing; Zhou, Bing; Li, Zheng-guang; Lin, Qi-li

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the physiological effects of airport noise exposure on organisms, in this study, we exposed Sprague-Dawley rats in soundproof chambers to previously recorded aircraft-related noise for 65 d. For comparison, we also used unexposed control rats. Noise was arranged according to aircraft flight schedules and was adjusted to its weighted equivalent continuous perceived noise levels (L WECPN) of 75 and 80 dB for the two experimental groups. We examined rat behaviors through an open field test and measured the concentrations of plasma norepinephrine (NE) by high performance liquid chromatography-fluorimetric detection (HPLC-FLD). We also examined the morphologies of neurons and synapses in the temporal lobe by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our results showed that rats exposed to airport noise of 80 dB had significantly lower line crossing number (P<0.05) and significantly longer center area duration (P<0.05) than control animals. After 29 d of airport noise exposure, the concentration of plasma NE of exposed rats was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). We also determined that the neuron and synapsis of the temporal lobe of rats showed signs of damage after aircraft noise of 80 dB exposure for 65 d. In conclusion, exposing rats to long-term aircraft noise affects their behaviors, plasma NE levels, and cell morphology of the temporal lobe. PMID:22135145

  12. Physiological, Morphological and Neurochemical Characterization of Neurons Modulated by Movement

    PubMed Central

    Dessem, Dean

    2011-01-01

    The role of individual neurons and their function in neuronal circuits is fundamental to understanding the neuronal mechanisms of sensory and motor functions. Most investigations of sensorimotor mechanisms rely on either examination of neurons while an animal is static1,2 or record extracellular neuronal activity during a movement.3,4 While these studies have provided the fundamental background for sensorimotor function, they either do not evaluate functional information which occurs during a movement or are limited in their ability to fully characterize the anatomy, physiology and neurochemical phenotype of the neuron. A technique is shown here which allows extensive characterization of individual neurons during an in vivo movement. This technique can be used not only to study primary afferent neurons but also to characterize motoneurons and sensorimotor interneurons. Initially the response of a single neuron is recorded using electrophysiological methods during various movements of the mandible followed by determination of the receptive field for the neuron. A neuronal tracer is then intracellularly injected into the neuron and the brain is processed so that the neuron can be visualized with light, electron or confocal microscopy (Fig. 1). The detailed morphology of the characterized neuron is then reconstructed so that neuronal morphology can be correlated with the physiological response of the neuron (Figs. 2,3). In this communication important key details and tips for successful implementation of this technique are provided. Valuable additional information can be determined for the neuron under study by combining this method with other techniques. Retrograde neuronal labeling can be used to determine neurons with which the labeled neuron synapses; thus allowing detailed determination of neuronal circuitry. Immunocytochemistry can be combined with this method to examine neurotransmitters within the labeled neuron and to determine the chemical phenotypes of

  13. Morphologic changes in uranyl nitrate-induced acute renal failure in saline- and water-drinking rats

    SciTech Connect

    Haley, D.P.

    1982-02-01

    The sequential changes in renal morphology that occurred for 5 subsequent days after a subcutaneous injection of uranyl nitrate (10 mg. per kg.) were examined in saline- and water-drinking rats using light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The cortical proximal tubule exhibited diffuse focal brush border loss and increased vacuolization by 1 hour after administration of the nephrotoxin. By 5 days, the P2 and P3 segments were completely necrotic. Cells of P1 segments accumulated large vacuoles throughout their cytoplasm, and distal nephron segments exhibited considerable cellular swelling and vacuolization. Scanning electron microscopy revealed abnormalities in glomerular epithelial cells similar to those seen in humans with chronic renal disease and in experimental animal models characterized by proteinuria. There was essentially no difference in the morphologic response of saline- and water-drinking rats. Although uranyl nitrate administered at this dosage resulted in the relatively slow development of tubular necrosis, changes in renal morphology could be seen within an hour and progressed insidiously throughout the study with little evidence of regeneration.

  14. BrainPrint: A Discriminative Characterization of Brain Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Wachinger, Christian; Golland, Polina; Kremen, William; Fischl, Bruce; Reuter, Martin

    2015-01-01

    We introduce BrainPrint, a compact and discriminative representation of brain morphology. BrainPrint captures shape information of an ensemble of cortical and subcortical structures by solving the eigenvalue problem of the 2D and 3D Laplace-Beltrami operator on triangular (boundary) and tetrahedral (volumetric) meshes. This discriminative characterization enables new ways to study the similarity between brains; the focus can either be on a specific brain structure of interest or on the overall brain similarity. We highlight four applications for BrainPrint in this article: (i) subject identification, (ii) age and sex prediction, (iii) brain asymmetry analysis, and (iv) potential genetic influences on brain morphology. The properties of BrainPrint require the derivation of new algorithms to account for the heterogeneous mix of brain structures with varying discriminative power. We conduct experiments on three datasets, including over 3000 MRI scans from the ADNI database, 436 MRI scans from the OASIS dataset, and 236 MRI scans from the VETSA twin study. All processing steps for obtaining the compact representation are fully automated, making this processing framework particularly attractive for handling large datasets. PMID:25613439

  15. Spectroscopic and morphologic characterization of the dentin/adhesive interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemor, R. M.; Kruger, Michael B.; Wieliczka, David M.; Swafford, Jim R.; Spencer, Paulette

    1999-01-01

    The potential environmental risks associated with mercury release have forced many European countries to ban the use of dental amalgam. Alternative materials such as composite resins do not provide the clinical function for the length of time characteristically associated with dental amalgam. The weak link in the composite restoration is the dentin/adhesive bond. The purpose of this study was to correlate morphologic characterization of the dentin/adhesive bond with chemical analyses using micro- Fourier transform infrared and micro-Raman spectroscopy. A commercial dental adhesive was placed on dentin substrates cut from extracted, unerupted human third molars. Sections of the dentin/adhesive interface were investigated using infrared radiation produced at the Aladdin synchrotron source; visible radiation from a Kr+ laser was used for the micro-Raman spectroscopy. Sections of the dentin/adhesive interface, differentially stained to identify protein, mineral, and adhesive, were examined using light microscopy. Due to its limited spatial resolution and the unknown sample thickness the infrared results cannot be used quantitatively in determining the extent of diffusion. The results from the micro-Raman spectroscopy and light microscopy indicate exposed protein at the dentin/adhesive interface. Using a laser that reduces background fluorescence, the micro-Raman spectroscopy provides quantitative chemical and morphologic information on the dentin/adhesive interface. The staining procedure is sensitive to sites of pure protein and thus, complements the Raman results.

  16. Analysis of rat cytosolic 9-cis-retinol dehydrogenase activity and enzymatic characterization of rat ADHII.

    PubMed

    Popescu, G; Napoli, J L

    2000-01-01

    We report the characterization of two enzymes that catalyze NAD(+)-dependent 9-cis-retinol dehydrogenase activity in rat liver cystol. Alcohol dehydrogenase class I (ADHI) contributes > 80% of the NA D+-dependent 9-cis-retinol dehydrogenase activity recovered, whereas alcohol dehydrogenase class II (ADHII), not identified previously at the protein level, nor characterized enzymatically in rat, accounts for approximately 2% of the activity. Rat ADHII exhibits properties different from those described for human ADHII. Moreover, rat ADHII-catalyzed rates of ethanol dehydrogenation are markedly lower than octanol or retinoid dehydrogenation rates. Neither ethanol nor 4-methylpyrazole inhibits the 9-cis-retinol dehydrogenase activity of rat ADHII. We propose that ADHII represents the previously observed additional retinoid oxidation activity of rat liver cytosol which occurred in the presence of either ethanol or 4-methylpyrazole. We also show that human and rat ADHII differ considerably in enzymatic properties. PMID:10606766

  17. Culture and characterization of rat hair follicle stem cells.

    PubMed

    Quan, Renfu; Zheng, Xuan; Ni, Yueming; Xie, Shangju; Li, Changming

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish methods for isolation, culture, expansion, and characterization of rat hair follicle stem cells (rHFSCs). Hair follicles were harvested from 1-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats and digested with dispase and collagenase IV. The bulge of the hair follicle was dissected under a microscope and cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium/F12 supplemented with KnockOut™ Serum Replacement serum substitute, penicillin-streptomycin, L-glutamine, non-essential amino acids, epidermal growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, polyhydric alcohol, and hydrocortisone. The rHFSCs were purified using adhesion to collagen IV. Cells were characterized by detecting marker genes with immunofluorescent staining and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The proliferation and vitality of rHFSCs at different passages were evaluated. The cultured rHFSCs showed typical cobblestone morphology with good adhesion and colony-forming ability. Expression of keratin 15, integrin α6, and integrin β1 were shown by immunocytochemistry staining. On day 1-2, the cells were in the latent phase. On day 5-6, the cells were in the logarithmic phase. Cell vitality gradually decreased from the 7th passage. Real-time PCR showed that the purified rHFSCs had good vitality and proliferative capacity and contained no keratinocytes. Highly purified rHFSCs can be obtained using tissue culture and adhesion to collagen IV. The cultured cells had good proliferative capacity and could therefore be a useful cell source for tissue-engineered hair follicles, vessels, and skin. PMID:25407732

  18. Functional and morphological assessment of a standardized crush injury of the rat median nerve.

    PubMed

    Ronchi, G; Nicolino, S; Raimondo, S; Tos, P; Battiston, B; Papalia, I; Varejão, A S P; Giacobini-Robecchi, M G; Perroteau, I; Geuna, S

    2009-04-30

    The availability of effective experimental models for investigating nerve regeneration and designing new strategies for promoting this unique repair process is important. The aim of this study was to standardize a rat median nerve crush injury model using a non-serrated clamp exerting a compression force of 17.02 MPa for a duration of 30s. Results showed that functional recovery, evaluated by grasping test, was already detectable at day-12 and progressively increased until day-28 after which animal performance plateaued until the end of testing (day-42), reaching a range of 75-80% of pre-operative values. Morphological analysis on the median nerve segments, distal to the crush lesion, which were withdrawn at the end of the experiment showed that regenerated nerve fibers are significantly more numerous and densely packed; they are also smaller and have a thinner myelin sheath compared to controls. Together, these results provide a baseline characterization of the crush median nerve injury experimental model for its employment in the investigation of nerve regeneration research, especially when a reproducible regeneration process is required, such as for the study of biological mechanisms of peripheral nerve fiber regeneration or development of new therapeutic agents for promoting posttraumatic nerve repair. PMID:19428511

  19. Facet Model and Mathematical Morphology for Surface Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Abidi, B.R.; Goddard, J.S.; Hunt, M.A.; Sari-Sarraf, H.

    1999-11-13

    This paper describes an algorithm for the automatic segmentation and representation of surface structures and non-uniformities in an industrial setting. The automatic image processing and analysis algorithm is developed as part of a complete on-line web characterization system of a papermaking process at the wet end. The goal is to: (1) link certain types of structures on the surface of the web to known machine parameter values, and (2) find the connection between detected structures at the beginning of the line and defects seen on the final product. Images of the pulp mixture (slurry), carried by a fast moving table, are obtained using a stroboscopic light and a CCD camera. This characterization algorithm succeeded where conventional contrast and edge detection techniques failed due to a poorly controlled environment. The images obtained have poor contrast and contain noise caused by a variety of sources. After a number of enhancement steps, conventional segmentation methods still f ailed to detect any structures and are consequently discarded. Techniques tried include the Canny edge detector, the Sobel, Roberts, and Prewitt's filters, as well as zero crossings. The facet model algorithm, is then applied to the images with various parameter settings and is found to be successful in detecting the various topographic characteristics of the surface of the slurry. Pertinent topographic elements are retained and a filtered image computed. Carefully tailored morphological operators are then applied to detect and segment regions of interest. Those regions are then selected according to their size, elongation, and orientation. Their bounding rectangles are computed and represented. Also addressed in this paper are aspects of the real time implementation of this algorithm for on-line use. The algorithm is tested on over 500 images of slurry and is found to segment and characterize nonuniformities on all 500 images.

  20. Dendritic morphology of neurons in medial prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and nucleus accumbens in adult SH rats.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Fremioth; Gómez-Villalobos, María de Jesús; Juarez, Ismael; Quevedo, Lucía; Flores, Gonzalo

    2011-03-01

    We have studied, in spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats at different ages (2, 4, and 8 months old), the dendritic morphological changes of the pyramidal neurons of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus and medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) induced by the chronic effect of high-blood pressure. As control animals, we used Wistar-Kioto (WK) rats. Blood pressure was measured every 2 months to confirm the increase in arterial blood pressure. Spontaneous locomotor activity was assessed, and then brains were removed to study the dendritic morphology by the Golgi-Cox stain method followed by Sholl analysis. SH animals at 4 and 8 months of age showed decreased spine density in pyramidal neurons from the mPFC and in medium spiny cells from the NAcc. At 8 months of age as well the pyramidal neurons from the hippocampus exhibited a reduction in the number of dendritic spines. An increase in locomotion in a novel environment at all ages in the SH rats was observed. Our results indicate that high-blood pressure alters the neuronal dendrite morphology of the mPFC, hippocampus, and NAcc. The increased locomotion behavior supports the idea that dopaminergic transmission is altered in the SH rats. This could enhance our understanding of the consequences of chronic high-blood pressure on brain structure, which may implicate cognitive impairment in hypertensive patients. PMID:20665725

  1. Mammary gland morphology and gene expression signature of weanling male and female rats following exposure to exogenous estradiol.

    PubMed

    Miousse, Isabelle R; Gomez-Acevedo, Horacio; Sharma, Neha; Vantrease, Jamie; Hennings, Leah; Shankar, Kartik; Cleves, Mario A; Badger, Thomas M; Ronis, Martin Jj

    2013-09-01

    In order to characterize the actions of xenoestrogens, it is essential to possess a solid portrait of the physiological effects of exogenous estradiol. We assessed effects of three doses of exogenous estradiol (E2) (0.1, 1.0 and 10 µg/kg/day) given between postnatal days 21 and 33 on the mammary gland morphology and gene expression profiles of male and female rats compared to vehicle-treated controls. The male mammary gland was more responsive to E2 treatment than in females, with 509 genes regulated >2-fold in a dose-dependent manner in males and only 174 in females. In males, E2 treatment significantly (P < 0.01) increased the number of terminal end buds (TEBs) and the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein (P < 0.05), both of which are indicators of proliferation. This change was linked to a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the expression of the gene encoding amphiregulin, which is known to induce TEB formation. There was also a dose-dependent increase (P < 0.001) in the estrogen-regulated gene encoding the progesterone receptor. In intact females, despite lack of changes in mammary morphology, we observed a dose-dependent increase (P < 0.05) in the expression of genes encoding three milk proteins: whey acidic protein, casein beta and casein kappa. There was a significant (P < 0.05) downregulation of both estrogen receptors in response to E2 treatment. These results suggest that mammary glands of male rats are very sensitive to exogenous E2 during development post-weaning. The dose-dependent increase observed in amphiregulin and progesterone receptor gene expression was linked to morphological changes and represents a reliable and sensitive tool to evaluate estrogenicity. In contrast, intact weanling female rats were less responsive. PMID:23925648

  2. Housing Complexity Alters GFAP-Immunoreactive Astrocyte Morphology in the Rat Dentate Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Salois, Garrick; Smith, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Rats used in research are typically housed singly in cages with limited sensory stimulation. There is substantial evidence that housing rats in these conditions lead to numerous neuroanatomical and behavioral abnormalities. Alternatively, rats can be housed in an enriched environment in which rats are housed in groups and given room for exercise and exploration. Enriched environments result in considerable neuroplasticity in the rodent brain. In the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, enriched environments evoke especially profound neural changes, including increases in the number of neurons and the number of dendritic spines. However, whether changes in astrocytes, a type of glia increasingly implicated in mediating neuroplasticity, are concurrent with these neural changes remains to be investigated. In order to assess morphological changes among astrocytes of the rat dentate gyrus, piSeeDB was used to optically clear 250 μm sections of tissue labeled using GFAP immunohistochemistry. Confocal imaging and image analysis were then used to measure astrocyte morphology. Astrocytes from animals housed in EE demonstrated a reduced distance between filament branch points. Furthermore, the most complex astrocytes were significantly more complex among animals housed in EE compared to standard environments. PMID:26989515

  3. Morphological specialisations of rat cranial nerve transitional zones.

    PubMed

    Fraher, J P; O'Leary, D

    1994-02-01

    Near their CNS-PNS transitional zones (TZs), many rat cranial nerve rootlets are subdivided to a marked degree by a reticulum of fine cytoplasmic processes. Some of the resulting compartments contain only a single myelinated fibre or a bundle of collagen fibrils. The compartments are aligned with the astrocytic tunnels in which the fibres lie as they traverse the CNS-PNS transitional zone. This marked subdivision may help to insulate individual fibres from one another, preventing functional interaction between them. Rootlet sheath cells commonly are closely apposed to, or interdigitate with, astrocyte processes of the TZ. These features may help to strengthen the delicate TZ. The TZ of the trochlear nerve includes a long, generally avascular, central tissue projection (CTP) into the proximal part of the nerve. This is connected to the brainstem and cerebellum by astrocytic bridges. In contrast to the CTP, which is generally avascular, these contain abundant blood vessels which may facilitate metabolic exchange in the trochlear TZ. PMID:8157484

  4. Effects of Maternal Marginal Iodine Deficiency on Dendritic Morphology in the Hippocampal CA1 Pyramidal Neurons in Rat Offspring.

    PubMed

    Min, Hui; Wang, Yi; Dong, Jing; Wang, Yuan; Yu, Ye; Shan, Zhongyan; Xi, Qi; Teng, Weiping; Chen, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Although the salt iodization programmes are taken to control iodine deficiency (ID), some regions are still suffering from marginal ID. During pregnancy, marginal ID frequently leads to subtle insufficiency of thyroid hormones, characterized as low serum T4 levels. Therefore, the present research was to explore the effects of maternal marginal ID exposure on dendritic arbor growth in the hippocampal CA1 region and the underlying mechanisms. We established Wistar rat models with ID diet during pregnancy and lactation. The overall daily iodine intakes of the rats were estimated as 7.0, 5.0 and 1.5 μg/day in the control, marginal ID and severe ID groups, respectively. To study the morphological alterations of pyramidal neurons, Golgi-Cox procedure was conducted in the hippocampus. Sholl analyses demonstrated a slight decrease in the total length and branching numbers of basal dendrites on postnatal day (PN) 7, PN14 and PN21 in marginal ID group relative to the controls. However, there was no overt morphological change observed in apical dendrites. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis indicated that phosphorylation of MAP2, stathmin and JNK1 was down-regulated in marginal ID group. We speculate that the pups treated with maternal marginal ID subjected to subtle changes in dendritic growth of CA1 pyramidal neurons, which may be associated with the dysregulation of MAP2 and stathmin in a JNK1-dependent manner. PMID:27017219

  5. Morphological and Histopathological Changes in Orofacial Structures of Experimentally Developed Acromegaly-Like Rats: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Iikubo, Masahiro; Kojima, Ikuho; Sakamoto, Maya; Kobayashi, Akane; Ikeda, Hidetoshi; Sasano, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Tongue enlargement and mandibular prognathism are clinically recognized in almost all patients with acromegaly. An acromegaly-like rat model recently developed by exogenous administration of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) was used to investigate morphological and histopathological changes in orofacial structures and to clarify whether these changes were reversible. Exogenous administration of IGF-I evoked specific enlargement of the tongue with identifiable histopathological changes (increased muscle bundle width, increased space between muscle bundles, and increased epithelial thickness), elongation of the mandibular alveolar bone and ascending ramus, and lateral expansion of the mandibular dental arch. Regarding histopathological changes in the mandibular condyle, the cartilaginous layer width, bone matrix ratio, and number of osteoblasts were all significantly greater in this rat model. After normalization of the circulating IGF-I level, tongue enlargement and histopathological changes in the tongue and mandibular condyle were reversible, whereas morphological skeletal changes in the mandible remained. PMID:22518118

  6. Genotypic and Phenotypic Characterization of P23H Line 1 Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Orhan, Elise; Dalkara, Deniz; Neuillé, Marion; Lechauve, Christophe; Michiels, Christelle; Picaud, Serge; Léveillard, Thierry; Sahel, José-Alain; Naash, Muna I.; Lavail, Matthew M.; Zeitz, Christina; Audo, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Rod-cone dystrophy, also known as retinitis pigmentosa (RP), is the most common inherited degenerative photoreceptor disease, for which no therapy is currently available. The P23H rat is one of the most commonly used autosomal dominant RP models. It has been created by incorporation of a mutated mouse rhodopsin (Rho) transgene in the wild-type (WT) Sprague Dawley rat. Detailed genetic characterization of this transgenic animal has however never been fully reported. Here we filled this knowledge gap on P23H Line 1 rat (P23H-1) and provide additional phenotypic information applying non-invasive and state-of-the-art in vivo techniques that are relevant for preclinical therapeutic evaluations. Transgene sequence was analyzed by Sanger sequencing. Using quantitative PCR, transgene copy number was calculated and its expression measured in retinal tissue. Full field electroretinography (ERG) and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) were performed at 1-, 2-, 3- and 6-months of age. Sanger sequencing revealed that P23H-1 rat carries the mutated mouse genomic Rho sequence from the promoter to the 3’ UTR. Transgene copy numbers were estimated at 9 and 18 copies in the hemizygous and homozygous rats respectively. In 1-month-old hemizygous P23H-1 rats, transgene expression represented 43% of all Rho expressed alleles. ERG showed a progressive rod-cone dysfunction peaking at 6 months-of-age. SD-OCT confirmed a progressive thinning of the photoreceptor cell layer leading to the disappearance of the outer retina by 6 months with additional morphological changes in the inner retinal cell layers in hemizygous P23H-1 rats. These results provide precise genotypic information of the P23H-1 rat with additional phenotypic characterization that will serve basis for therapeutic interventions, especially for those aiming at gene editing. PMID:26009893

  7. Amygdala Kindling Alters Estrus Cycle and Ovarian Morphology in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Juan; Zhang, Lingwu; Wang, Feng; Liu, Dan

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the effects of amygdala kindling on estrus cycle and ovarian morphology. Thirty-five female rats at the age of 8 weeks were randomly designated to electrode kindled, sham-kindled, and normal controls. Kindled rats were implanted with kindling electrodes in the left basolateral amygdala and kindled by brief suprathreshold stimulations with a bipolar electrode. Estrous cycles were daily monitored through vaginal smears. Electrographic and behavioral seizures were recorded and ovarian morphology was evaluated by light and electron microscopies. Our results showed that the kindled rats lost their ovarian periodicity displayed significant ovarian enlargement. H&E staining revealed increased number of growing follicles and total follicles, as well as polycysts in the ovaries of the kindled animals compared to sham and control animals. Ultrastructural study detected numerous apoptotic granulosa cells in growing follicles and thecal cell hyperplasia with secretary granules in the thecal cells in the kindled rats. The results suggest that amygdala kindling is a risk factor for the development of polycystic ovary syndrome. PMID:25285307

  8. Amygdala Kindling Alters Estrus Cycle and Ovarian Morphology in the Rat.

    PubMed

    Pan, Juan; Zhang, Lingwu; Wang, Feng; Liu, Dan; Li, P Andy; Sun, Tao

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the effects of amygdala kindling on estrus cycle and ovarian morphology. Thirty-five female rats at the age of 8 weeks were randomly designated to electrode kindled, sham-kindled, and normal controls. Kindled rats were implanted with kindling electrodes in the left basolateral amygdala and kindled by brief suprathreshold stimulations with a bipolar electrode. Estrous cycles were daily monitored through vaginal smears. Electrographic and behavioral seizures were recorded and ovarian morphology was evaluated by light and electron microscopies. Our results showed that the kindled rats lost their ovarian periodicity displayed significant ovarian enlargement. H&E staining revealed increased number of growing follicles and total follicles, as well as polycysts in the ovaries of the kindled animals compared to sham and control animals. Ultrastructural study detected numerous apoptotic granulosa cells in growing follicles and thecal cell hyperplasia with secretary granules in the thecal cells in the kindled rats. The results suggest that amygdala kindling is a risk factor for the development of polycystic ovary syndrome. PMID:25285307

  9. Cognitive impairment and morphological changes in the dorsal hippocampus of very old female rats.

    PubMed

    Morel, G R; Andersen, T; Pardo, J; Zuccolilli, G O; Cambiaggi, V L; Hereñú, C B; Goya, R G

    2015-09-10

    The hippocampus, a medial temporal lobe structure necessary for the formation of spatial memory, is particularly affected by both normal and pathologic aging. In previous studies, we observed a significant age-related increase in dopaminergic neuron loss in the hypothalamus and the substantia nigra of female rats, which becomes more conspicuous at extreme ages. Here, we extend our studies by assessing spatial memory in 4-6 month-old (young), 26-month-old (old) and 29-32-month-old (senile) Sprague-Dawley female rats as well as the age-related histopathological changes in their dorsal hippocampus. Age changes in spatial memory performance were assessed with a modified version of the Barnes maze test. We employed two probe trials (PTs), one and five days after training, respectively, in order to evaluate learning ability as well as short-term and longer-term spatial memory retention. A set of relevant hippocampal cell markers was also quantitated in the animals by means of an unbiased stereological approach. The results revealed that old rats perform better than senile rats in acquisition trials and young rats perform better than both aging groups. However, during short-term PT both aging groups showed a preserved spatial memory while in longer-term PT, spatial memory showed deterioration in both aged groups. Morphological analysis showed a marked decrease (94-97%) in doublecortin neuron number in the dentate gyrus in both aged groups and a reduction in glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cell number in the stratum radiatum of aging rats. Astroglial process length and branching complexity decreased in aged rats. We conclude that while target-seeking activity and learning ability decrease in aged females, spatial memory only declines in the longer-term tests. The reduction in neuroblast number and astroglial arborescence complexity in the dorsal hippocampus are likely to play a role in the cognitive deficits of aging rats. PMID:26141841

  10. Dietary high-fat lard intake induces thyroid dysfunction and abnormal morphology in rats

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Shan-shan; Zhao, Yuan-fei; Song, Yong-feng; Xu, Chao; Yang, Jian-mei; Xuan, Shi-meng; Yan, Hui-li; Yu, Chun-xiao; Zhao, Meng; Xu, Jin; Zhao, Jia-jun

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Excess dietary fat intake can induce lipotoxicity in non-adipose tissues. The aim of this study was to observe the effects of dietary high-fat lard intake on thyroid in rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat lard diet for 24 weeks, and then the rats were fed a normal control diet (acute dietary modification) or the high-fat lard diet for another 6 weeks. The serum lipid profile, total thyroxine (TT4), free thyroxine (FT4) and thyrotropin (TSH) levels were determined at the 12, 18, 24 and 30 weeks. High-frequency ultrasound scanning of the thyroid glands was performed at the 24 or 30 weeks. After the rats were sacrificed, the thyroid glands were collected for histological and immunohistochemical analyses. Results: The high-fat lard diet significantly increased triglyceride levels in both the serum and thyroid, and decreased serum TT4 and FT4 levels in parallel with elevated serum TSH levels. Ultrasonic imaging revealed enlarged thyroid glands with lowered echotexture and relatively heterogeneous features in the high-fat lard fed rats. The thyroid glands from the high-fat lard fed rats exhibited enlarged follicle cavities and flattened follicular epithelial cells under light microscopy, and dilated endoplasmic reticulum cisternae, twisted nuclei, fewer microvilli and secretory vesicles under transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, the thyroid glands from the high-fat lard fed rats showed markedly low levels of thyroid hormone synthesis-related proteins TTF-1 and NIS. Acute dietary modification by withdrawal of the high-fat lard diet for 6 weeks failed to ameliorate the high-fat lard diet-induced thyroid changes. Conclusion: Dietary high-fat lard intake induces significant thyroid dysfunction and abnormal morphology in rats, which can not be corrected by short-term dietary modification. PMID:25263336

  11. Are morphologic and functional consequences of status epilepticus in infant rats progressive?

    PubMed

    Kubová, H; Mareš, P

    2013-04-01

    The present study examined whether status epilepticus (SE) induced by LiCl-pilocarpine in immature rats (postnatal day [P]12) interferes with normal development; leads to progressive epileptogenesis, or cognitive decline and to pathology similar to that seen in human temporal lobe epilepsy. We correlated the extent of pathologic changes with the severity of functional alterations or epilepsy. SE-induced changes were compared with those of rats with SE induced at P25. Animals of both ages were exposed to a battery of behavioral tests for up to 3months after SE. Rats with SE at P12 showed mild retardation of psychomotor development and delayed habituation, whereas rats with SE at P25 showed no habituation. Assessment in adulthood using the Morris water maze test revealed that SE at both P12 and P25 led to cognitive impairment and that the severity of the impairment increased with age. A handling test revealed increased aggression in rats with SE at P25, but not in rats with SE at P12. Epilepsy was diagnosed with continuous video-electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring for up to 7d. P25 rats were monitored at 5months after SE and seizures were detected in 83.3% of animals. P12 animals were divided into two groups and monitored at 5 or 7months after SE. Both the severity and incidence of spontaneous recurrent seizures tended to progress with time, and their incidence increased from 50% to 87.5% at 5 and 7months, respectively. Morphometric analysis and stereologic assessment of hilar neurons performed after video-EEG monitoring revealed atrophy of temporal brain structures, enlargement of lateral ventricles, and loss of hilar neurons in both age groups. In P12 rats, morphologic damage also tended to progress over time. Performance of animals in the Morris water maze correlated with the severity of damage, but not with seizure parameters. PMID:23305765

  12. BIOCHEMICAL, FUNCTIONAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF NEUROTOXICITY: EFFECTS OF ACUTE ADMINISTRATION OF TRIMETHYLTIN TO THE DEVELOPING RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The neurotoxic organometal, trimethyltin (TMT), was administered to rats on postnatal day (PND)5. Neurotoxicity was assessed throughout subsequent development using morphological, biochemical and functional endpoints. These consisted of brain weight measures and histology (morpho...

  13. Flunarizine limits hypoxia-ischemia induced morphologic injury in immature rat brain.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, F S; Buchanan, K; Hudson, C; Johnston, M V

    1986-01-01

    We examined the impact of pre-treatment with the calcium antagonist flunarizine on the development of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in the immature rat. Unilateral carotid artery ligation and subsequent exposure to 2 hours of 8% oxygen in 7-day-old rats was used as a model for perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. This procedure leads to atrophy in the cerebral hemisphere ipsilateral to carotid occlusion, with prominent foci of neuronal infarction in the caudate-putamen (striatum). The morphologic injury develops after 1 1/2 hours of hypoxia; and there is an equivalent time threshold for duration of hypoxic exposure needed to acutely stimulate dopamine release in the ipsilateral striatum. Parenteral administration of 30 mg/kg of flunarizine before hypoxic exposure limited both the release of dopamine acutely and the extent of morphologic damage observed two weeks after the insult. Oral administration of 30 mg/kg of flunarizine in a different vehicle prevented morphologic damage but had no effect on stimulated dopamine release. The drug vehicle for the parenteral preparation also prevented tissue injury, but to a lesser degree than flunarizine. However the parenteral vehicle was equipotent with parenteral flunarizine in limiting acute stimulation of dopamine release. The results demonstrate that flunarizine has potent neuroprotective properties against morphologic brain injury from hypoxia-ischemia, acting by a mechanism which is independent of effects on dopamine release. PMID:3715946

  14. Vortioxetine promotes early changes in dendritic morphology compared to fluoxetine in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fenghua; du Jardin, Kristian Gaarn; Waller, Jessica A; Sanchez, Connie; Nyengaard, Jens R; Wegener, Gregers

    2016-02-01

    Preclinical studies reveal that the multimodal antidepressant vortioxetine enhances long-term potentiation and dendritic branching compared to a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). In the present study, we investigated vortioxetine׳s effects on spines and dendritic morphology in rat hippocampus at two time points compared to the SSRI, fluoxetine. Rats were dosed for 1 and 4 weeks with vortioxetine and fluoxetine at doses relevant for antidepressant activity. Dendritic morphology of pyramidal neurons (i.e., dendritic length, dendritic branch, spine number and density, and Sholl analysis) was examined in Golgi-stained sections from hippocampal CA1. After 1 week of treatment, vortioxetine significantly increased spine number (apical and basal dendrites), spine density (only basal), dendritic length (only apical), and dendritic branch number (apical and basal), whereas fluoxetine had no effect. After 4 weeks of treatment, vortioxetine significantly increased all measures of dendritic spine morphology as did fluoxetine except for spine density of basal dendrites. The number of intersections in the apical and basal dendrites was also significantly increased for both treatments after 4 weeks compared to control. In addition, 4 weeks of vortioxetine treatment, but not fluoxetine, promoted a decrease in spine neck length. In conclusion, 1-week vortioxetine treatment induced changes in spine number and density and dendritic morphology, whereas an equivalent dose of fluoxetine had no effects. Decreased spine neck length following 4-week vortioxetine treatment suggests a transition to mature spine morphology. This implies that vortioxetine׳s effects on spine and dendritic morphology are mediated by mechanisms that go beyond serotonin reuptake inhibition. PMID:26711685

  15. Effects of Fixatives and Buffers upon the Morphology of Heart and Skeletal Muscle Mitochondria from Exhausted Rats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, James B.

    This study describes the effects of several fixatives and buffers on the morphology of mitochondria from resting and exhausted rats. Rats were run to exhaustion and adjacent portions from the left ventricle or from the soleus were treated with the following fixation procedures: (a) glutaraldehyde buffered with cacodylate, S-collidine, or phosphate…

  16. [Effect of dietary protein on the function and morphology of diaphragm in rats with experimental emphysema].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Shen, L

    2001-11-01

    The effects of dietary protein on the function and morphology of diaphragm of rats with emphysema were observed in 50 SD rats, 10 rats in each group. The emphysema in groups E(emphysema control), HP(emphysema with high protein diet) and LP(emphysema with low protein diet) was induced by intra-tracheal instillation of elastase (750 U/kg BW). The control rat (C1, C2) were instilled with normal saline. After 6 weeks of experiment, the total lung volume and the average area of alveolus was significantly increased in the group E compared with group C1 (P < 0.05) and the number of alveolus per unit area was also reduced obviously (P < 0.05). The average contractile force of diaphragm at a stimulus rate of 20 Hz expressed as a ratio of the maximal contractile force (F20/Fmax) was increased significantly in group E compared with group C (P < 0.01). The cross-sectional area of slow-twitch fibers increased significantly in group E. After 10 weeks of oral supplementation with 24% casein(HP) or 8% casein (LP) to the rats with emphysema, the contractility of the diaphragm in group LP was lower than that in the control group and the HP group. It was concluded that high protein diet might be beneficial to maintain the function of diaphragm in patients with emphysema. PMID:12561617

  17. Rapid morphological change in black rats (Rattus rattus) after an island introduction

    PubMed Central

    Byrn, David; Lee, Kashawneda L.Y.; Jackson, Racheal

    2015-01-01

    Rapid morphological change has been shown in rodent populations on islands, including endemic deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus subspp.) on the California Channel Islands. Surprisingly, most of these changes were towards a smaller size. Black rats were introduced to Anacapa Island in the mid-1800s (probably in 1853) and eradicated in 2001–2002. To assess possible changes in these rats since their introduction, eleven cranial and four standard external measurements were taken from 59 Rattus rattus specimens collected from 1940–2000. All rat cranial traits changed 3.06–10.43% (724–2567 d, 0.06–0.42 h), and all became larger. When considered in haldanes, these changes are among the fastest on record in any organism, and far exceed changes found in other island rodents. These changes were confirmed by MANOVA (Wilk’s λ < 0.0005, Fd.f.15 = 2974.386, P < 0.0005), and all 11 cranial traits significantly fit linear regressions. We speculate that concurrent changes in mice may have been due in part to competition with and/or predation by rats. Future research might evaluate whether the vector of mouse evolution on Anacapa is again changing after rat eradication. PMID:25780765

  18. Rapid morphological change in black rats (Rattus rattus) after an island introduction.

    PubMed

    Pergams, Oliver R W; Byrn, David; Lee, Kashawneda L Y; Jackson, Racheal

    2015-01-01

    Rapid morphological change has been shown in rodent populations on islands, including endemic deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus subspp.) on the California Channel Islands. Surprisingly, most of these changes were towards a smaller size. Black rats were introduced to Anacapa Island in the mid-1800s (probably in 1853) and eradicated in 2001-2002. To assess possible changes in these rats since their introduction, eleven cranial and four standard external measurements were taken from 59 Rattus rattus specimens collected from 1940-2000. All rat cranial traits changed 3.06-10.43% (724-2567 d, 0.06-0.42 h), and all became larger. When considered in haldanes, these changes are among the fastest on record in any organism, and far exceed changes found in other island rodents. These changes were confirmed by MANOVA (Wilk's λ < 0.0005, F d.f.15 = 2974.386, P < 0.0005), and all 11 cranial traits significantly fit linear regressions. We speculate that concurrent changes in mice may have been due in part to competition with and/or predation by rats. Future research might evaluate whether the vector of mouse evolution on Anacapa is again changing after rat eradication. PMID:25780765

  19. Chronic administration of resveratrol prevents morphological changes in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of aged rats.

    PubMed

    Monserrat Hernández-Hernández, Elizabeth; Serrano-García, Carolina; Antonio Vázquez-Roque, Rubén; Díaz, Alfonso; Monroy, Elibeth; Rodríguez-Moreno, Antonio; Florán, Benjamin; Flores, Gonzalo

    2016-05-01

    Resveratrol may induce its neuroprotective effects by reducing oxidative damage and chronic inflammation apart from improving vascular function and activating longevity genes, it also has the ability to promote the activity of neurotrophic factors. Morphological changes in dendrites of the pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus have been reported in the brain of aging humans, or in humans with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. These changes are reflected particularly in the decrement of both the dendritic tree and spine density. Here we evaluated the effect of resveratrol on the dendrites of pyramidal neurons of the PFC (Layers 3 and 5), CA1- and CA3-dorsal hippocampus (DH) as well as CA1-ventral hippocampus, dentate gyrus (DG), and medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens of aged rats. 18-month-old rats were administered resveratrol (20 mg/kg, orally) daily for 60 days. Dendritic morphology was studied by the Golgi-Cox stain procedure, followed by Sholl analysis on 20-month-old rats. In all resveratrol-treated rats, a significant increase in dendritic length and spine density in pyramidal neurons of the PFC, CA1, and CA3 of DH was observed. Interestingly, the enhancement in dendritic length was close to the soma in pyramidal neurons of the PFC, whereas in neurons of the DH and DG, the increase in dendritic length was further from the soma. Our results suggest that resveratrol induces modifications of dendritic morphology in the PFC, DH, and DG. These changes may explain the therapeutic effect of resveratrol in aging and in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26789275

  20. Morphology characterization of organic solar cell materials and blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roehling, John Daniel

    The organization of polymers and fullerenes, both in their pure states and mixed together, have a large impact on their macroscopic properties. For mixtures used in organic solar cells, the morphology of the mixture has a very large impact upon the mixture's ability to efficiently convert sunlight into useful electrical energy. Understanding how the morphology can change under certain processing conditions and in turn, affect the characteristics of the solar cell is therefore important to improving the function of organic solar cells. Conventional poly(3-hexylthiophene):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) solar cells have served as a staple system to study organic solar cell function for nearly a decade. Much of the understanding of how to make these "poorly"conductive organic materials efficiently convert sunlight into electricity has come from the study of P3HT:PCBM. It has long been understood that in order for a polymer:fullerene (electron donor and acceptor, respectively) mixture to function well as a solar cell, two major criteria for the morphology must be met; first, the interface between the two materials must be large to efficiently create charges, and secondly, there must be continous pathways through the "pure" materials for charges to be efficiently collected at the electrodes. This makes it advantageous for OPV materials to phase-separate into interconnected domains with very small domain sizes, a structure that P3HT:PCBM seems to naturally self-assemble. Despite P3HT:PCBM's ability to reach an optimal morphology, a complete understanding of exactly how the morphology affects device performance has not been realized. Completely different morphological models can end up predicting the same device performance characteristics. Much of the problem comes from the assumed morphology within a particular model, which can often be incorrect. The problem lies in the fact that obtaining real, accurate morphological information is difficult. An often

  1. Structural Characterization of Layered Morphologies in Precise Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigg, Edward; Gaines, Taylor; Wagener, Kenneth; Winey, Karen

    2015-03-01

    Layered morphologies have been observed in precise polyethylene-based copolymers that contain acid, charged, or polar functional groups precisely spaced along a linear alkane chain. Sufficiently long alkane segments form structures resembling orthorhombic polyethylene crystals, while the functional groups form 2-D layers that disrupt the alkane crystal structure to varying degrees. Here, layered morphologies in precise copolymers containing acrylic acid, phosphonic acid, imidazolium bromide, and sulfone groups are studied via X-ray scattering. Specifically, the composition profiles of the layered structures are obtained by Fourier synthesis, and the coherence length is investigated using peak width analysis. This analysis indicates that the layers of functional groups are frequently bordered by two crystallites, which suggests different dynamics relative to layers bordered by one crystalline and one amorphous microdomain. Detailed understanding of the structure of the layered morphologies will allow for a systematic investigation of proton and ion conductivity mechanisms, which are expected to occur through the high-dielectric layers.

  2. Morphological Control and Characterization of Monodispersed Ceria Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Minamidate, Y.; Yin, S.; Devaraju, M. K.; Sato, T.

    2010-11-24

    The morphological control of cerium oxide particles was carried out by a homogeneous precipitation followed by calcination in air at 400 deg. C. The effects of pre-aging temperature, aging time and precipitation reagents on the morphologies of final products were investigated. When urea was used as a precipitation reagent, monodispersed spherical and flake-like cerium carbonate hydroxide precursor was precipitated in the solution at 90 deg. C for 2 h after pre-aging at 25 deg. C - 50 deg. C for 24-72 h. On the other hand, monodispersed nanosize rod-like cerium hydroxide particles were obtained using triethanolamine as precipitation reagent. Ceria particles with the same morphologies and slightly smaller particle size than those of as-prepared cerium precursor could be obtained after calcination in air at 400 deg. C. Physical-chemical characteristics of the monodispersed cerium oxide particles were evaluated.

  3. Morphology and Molecular Mechanisms of Hepatic Injury in Rats under Simulated Weightlessness and the Protective Effects of Resistance Training

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Jun; Li, Zhili; Tian, Jijing; She, Ruiping; Wang, Desheng; Wang, Huijuan; Lv, Dongqiang; Chang, Lingling

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of long-term simulated weightlessness on liver morphology, enzymes, glycogen, and apoptosis related proteins by using two-month rat-tail suspension model (TS), and liver injury improvement by rat-tail suspension with resistance training model (TS&RT). Microscopically the livers of TS rats showed massive granular degeneration, chronic inflammation, and portal fibrosis. Mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum swelling and loss of membrane integrity were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The similar, but milder, morphological changes were observed in the livers of TS&RT rats. Serum biochemistry analysis revealed that the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were significantly higher (p<0.05) in TS rats than in controls. The levels of ALT and AST in TS&RT rats were slightly lower than in RT rats, but they were insignificantly higher than in controls. However, both TS and TS&RT rats had significantly lower levels (p<0.05) of serum glucose and hepatic glycogen than in controls. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the expressions of Bax, Bcl-2, and active caspase-3 were higher in TS rats than in TS&RT and control rats. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) showed that TS rats had higher mRNA levels (P < 0.05) of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and caspase-12 transcription than in control rats; whereas mRNA expressions of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) were slightly higher in TS rats. TS&RT rats showed no significant differences of above 4 mRNAs compared with the control group. Our results demonstrated that long-term weightlessness caused hepatic injury, and may trigger hepatic apoptosis. Resistance training slightly improved hepatic damage. PMID:26000905

  4. Morphology and Molecular Mechanisms of Hepatic Injury in Rats under Simulated Weightlessness and the Protective Effects of Resistance Training.

    PubMed

    Du, Fang; Ding, Ye; Zou, Jun; Li, Zhili; Tian, Jijing; She, Ruiping; Wang, Desheng; Wang, Huijuan; Lv, Dongqiang; Chang, Lingling

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of long-term simulated weightlessness on liver morphology, enzymes, glycogen, and apoptosis related proteins by using two-month rat-tail suspension model (TS), and liver injury improvement by rat-tail suspension with resistance training model (TS&RT). Microscopically the livers of TS rats showed massive granular degeneration, chronic inflammation, and portal fibrosis. Mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum swelling and loss of membrane integrity were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The similar, but milder, morphological changes were observed in the livers of TS&RT rats. Serum biochemistry analysis revealed that the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were significantly higher (p<0.05) in TS rats than in controls. The levels of ALT and AST in TS&RT rats were slightly lower than in RT rats, but they were insignificantly higher than in controls. However, both TS and TS&RT rats had significantly lower levels (p<0.05) of serum glucose and hepatic glycogen than in controls. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the expressions of Bax, Bcl-2, and active caspase-3 were higher in TS rats than in TS&RT and control rats. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) showed that TS rats had higher mRNA levels (P < 0.05) of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and caspase-12 transcription than in control rats; whereas mRNA expressions of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) were slightly higher in TS rats. TS&RT rats showed no significant differences of above 4 mRNAs compared with the control group. Our results demonstrated that long-term weightlessness caused hepatic injury, and may trigger hepatic apoptosis. Resistance training slightly improved hepatic damage. PMID:26000905

  5. Molecular and morphological characterization of Eimeria in game birds.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coccidiosis is generally known as a disease of economic importance in chickens. However, Eimeria species also negatively impacts the game bird industry. Here we present data generated from litter samples collected from two farms experiencing coccidiosis in chukars and pheasants. From morphological...

  6. Loading effects on rat craniomandibular morphology: a system for gravity studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ranbir; Carvalho, Thais; Gerstner, Geoffrey E.

    2005-02-01

    Gravity effects on muscle and bone are a major impediment to long-term space travel. We introduce a model for studying these effects, the craniomandibular system. Some advantages of this system include: (1) craniomandibular morphology is determined by epigenetic factors including gravity, (2) relatively light forces can significantly alter its morphology, and (3) soft diet and tooth loss produce effects that are similar to those produced in lower limbs by weightlessness. In the study, implants made either of gold (experimental group) or lightweight acrylic (controls) were attached to adult rats' mandibles. After 13 weeks, the animals' skulls and mandibles were dissected. Pair-wise comparisons indicated that the experimental animals showed significantly shortened and narrowed cranial bases, and significant changes in the posterior zygomatic arch region. These results indicate that simulated macrogravity influences bone remodeling in the adult craniomandibular system.

  7. Morphological changes in cultures of hippocampus following prenatal irradiation in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Hamdorf, G.; Shahar, A.; Cervos-Navarro, J.; Scheffler, A.; Sparenberg, A.; Skoberla, A. )

    1990-07-01

    The effect of prenatal irradiation was studied in organotypic cultures of hippocampus, prepared from newborn rats that had been exposed to whole-body irradiation of 1 Gy from a {sup 60}Co-source at day 13 of pregnancy. Light and electron microscopic observations showed remarkable damage to neuronal mitochondria accompanied by extensive swelling, vacuolation of the Golgi complex, and formation of multilamellar bodies and vesicles of the lysosomal type. In contrast to neuronal alterations, no delay in synaptogenesis or onset of myelination was observed based upon the absence of significant morphological changes in synapses and myelin sheaths. Using this tissue culture model it could be confirmed that prenatal exposure to irradiation, even at low doses, induces specific morphological changes in the brain.

  8. Diabetes-induced changes in the morphology and nociceptinergic innervation of the rat uterus.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Saeed; Nurulain, Syed M; Rashed, Hameed; Lotfy, Mohamed; Emerald, Starling Bright; Koturan, Surya; Tekes, Kornélia; Adeghate, Ernest

    2016-02-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is about 6% across the globe. This prevalence has been reported to increase in the near future. This means that the number of women with DM who would like to get pregnant and have children will also increase. The present study is aimed at investigating the morphological changes observed in the uterus after the onset of DM. The study also examined the pattern of distribution of nociceptin (NC), a neuropeptide involved in the regulation of pain, a major physiological factor during parturition. The study shows a severe atrophy of uteri as early as 15 days post DM and continued until the termination of the eight-week study. This atrophy was confirmed by light microscopy. Electron microscopy study showed atrophy of the columnar cells of the endometrium, reduced myofibril number and destruction of smooth muscle cells in the myometrium of diabetic rats compared to control. Immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy studies clearly demonstrated the presence of NC in the endometrium, myometrium and on the myofibrils of the smooth muscles of both control and diabetic rat uteri. In addition, NC-positive neurons and varicose fibres were observed in the myometrium of both normal and diabetic rats. However, the expression of NC decreased after the onset of DM. Morphometric analysis showed that the number of NC-labeled cells was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in diabetic rat uteri compared to those of control. In conclusion, DM-induced uterine atrophy is associated with a decrease in the expression of NC in cells, neurons and myofibrils of the rat uterus. PMID:26589323

  9. Cerebrovascular and blood-brain barrier morphology in spontaneously hypertensive rats: effect of treatment with choline alphoscerate.

    PubMed

    Tayebati, Seyed Khosrow; Amenta, Francesco; Tomassoni, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Cholinergic precursors increasing choline availability and acetylcholine synthesis/release may represent a therapeutic approach for countering cognitive impairment occurring in adult-onset dementia disorders. Choline alphoscerate (alpha-gliceryl-phosphoryl-choline, GPC) is among cholinergic precursors the most effective in enhancing acetylcholine biosynthesis and release in animal models. This study was designed to assess if a long-term treatment with GPC modify cerebrovascular components [perivascular astrocytes, blood-brain barrier (BBB) and microvessels] and endothelial inflammatory markers expression in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) used as a model of brain vascular injury. Male SHR aged 32 weeks and age-matched normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats were treated for 4 weeks with GPC (150 mg/kg/day) or a vehicle. Intracerebral arteries of different brain areas, perivascular astrocytes, BBB and endothelial inflammatory markers were assessed by quantitative morphological and immunohistochemical techniques. No significant changes in the size of perivascular astrocytes were observed in SHR versus normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats, whereas the expression of the BBB marker aquaporin-4 increased in SHR. This phenomenon was countered by GPC treatment. On the contrary, GPC has no vasodilator effect on brain micro-vessels. Endothelial markers and vascular adhesion molecules expression were not homogeneously affected by hypertension and GPC treatment in intracerebral vessels. The observation that treatment with GPC reversed BBB changes and countered to some extent micro-vessels changes occurring in SHR could explain data of clinical trials reporting an improvement of cognitive function in subjects suffering from cerebrovascular disorders and treated with GPC. These preclinical data suggest that the compound could have a cerebrovascular protective effect deserving a further characterization. PMID:25714975

  10. High Morphologic Plasticity of Microglia/Macrophages Following Experimental Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shu-Sheng; Lin, Li; Liu, Yue; Wang, Jie; Chu, Jiang; Zhang, Teng; Ning, Lin-Na; Shi, Yan; Fang, Ying-Yan; Zeng, Peng; Wang, Jian-Zhi; Qiu, Ming-Yi; Tian, Qing

    2016-01-01

    As current efforts have limited effects on the clinical outcome of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), the mechanisms including microglia/macrophages that involved inflammation need further investigation. Here, 0.4 units of collagenase VII were injected into the left caudate putamen (CPu) to duplicate ICH rat models. In the brains of ICH rats, microglia/macrophages, the nearest cells to the hemorrhagic center, were observed as ameboid and Prussian-blue positive. Furthermore, the ameboid microglia/macrophages were differentiation (CD) 68 and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) positive, and neither CD206 nor chitinase3-like 3 (Ym1) positive, suggesting their strong abilities of phagocytosis and secretion of IL-1β. According to the distance to the hemorrhagic center, we selected four areas—I, II, III, and IV—to analyze the morphology of microglia/macrophages. The processes decreased successively from region I to region IV. Microglia/macrophages in region IV had no processes. The processes in region I were radially distributed, however, they showed obvious directivity towards the hemorrhagic center in regions II and III. Region III had the largest density of compactly arrayed microglia/macrophages. All these in vivo results present the high morphologic plasticity of microglia/macrophages and their functions in the pathogenesis of ICHs. PMID:27455236

  11. Synthesis and characterization of different morphological SnS nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaki, Sunil H.; Chaudhary, Mahesh D.; Deshpande, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    SnS in three nano forms possessing different morphologies such as particles, whiskers and ribbons were synthesised by chemical route. The morphology variation was brought about in the chemical route synthesis by varying a synthesis parameter such as temperature and influencing the synthesis by use of surfactant. The elemental composition determination by energy dispersive analysis of x-rays (EDAX) showed that all three synthesized SnS nanomaterials were tin deficient. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) study of the three SnS nanomaterials showed that all of them possess orthorhombic structure. The Raman spectra of the three SnS nanomaterials showed that all three samples possess three common distinguishable peaks. In them two peaks lying at 98 ± 1 cm-1 and 224 ± 4 cm-1 are the characteristic Ag mode of SnS. The third peak lying at 302 ± 1 cm-1 is associated with secondary Sn2S3 phase. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the respective morphologies. The optical analysis showed that they possess direct as well as indirect optical bandgap. The electrical transport properties study on the pellets prepared from the different nanomaterials of SnS showed them to be semiconducting and p-type in nature. The current-voltage (I-V) plots of the silver (Ag)/SnS nanomaterials pellets for dark and incandescent illumination showed that all configurations showed good ohmic behaviour except Ag/SnS nanoribbons pellet configuration under illumination. All the obtained results are discussed in detail.

  12. Effect of prenatal exposure of alcohol in the morphology of developing rat embryo.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, S R; Dhungel, S; Rai, D; Jha, C B; Saxena, A K; Maskey, D

    2008-03-01

    The objective this study was to observe the morphological changes in developing rat embryo exposed to alcohol in utero. Virgin female Wistar rats in experimental group (n=15) were given 20% (v/v) alcohol two weeks before mating and throughout the gestational period through oral route. The controls (n=15) were also maintained and were given the tap water. On gestational day 15 (GD15) and 19 (GD19), five rats from each group were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and the abdomen was incised to expose the uterine horn. The number of implantation sites and resorptions were counted and recorded. The body weight and length of the fetuses were also recorded. The litter size and body weight of the newborn were also recorded at the time of birth from the remaining dam. The incidence of resorption was higher in alcohol treated group than in control which was found to be 25% and 8.7% at days 15 and 19 respectively. The body weight and length of fetuses were found to be decreased and was significant at GD15 (p<0.001 for weight and p<0.05 for length). Similarly, the litter size and body weight of newborn were also found to be decreased significantly (p<0.05 for litter size and p<0.01 for body weight). The present study shows that the maternal consumption of alcohol during pregnancy has adverse effect on fetal viability and development of growing embryo. PMID:18700630

  13. [Morphological studies of rat adrenal glands after space flight on "Kosmos-1667"].

    PubMed

    Prodan, N G; Bara'nska, V

    1989-01-01

    Histological and histomorphometric examinations of rat adrenals after a 7-day flight revealed the following changes: blood congestion in the cortex and medulla, progressive delipoidization of the cortex, slight enlargement of the nuclear volume of glomerular and fascicular zones, vacuolization of the cytoplasm of medulla cells, reduction of the area of noradrenocyte islets and cell nuclei of the medulla; the adrenal weight remained however unchanged. It is concluded that an early period of adaptation to microgravity was accompanied by a weak stress-reaction. Upon return to Earth the rats developed an acute gravitational stress. From the morphological point of view the stress manifested as: increased volume of nuclei in fascicular cells, decreased content of lipids in them, and greater vacuolization of the cytoplasm of medulla cells. The lack of medulla hypertrophy, reduction of the area of noradrenocyte islets and nuclei of medulla cells suggest that 7-day exposure to microgravity did not exert of stimulating effect on the sympathetic system of rats. PMID:2625973

  14. Neuroprotective effects of testosterone on dendritic morphology following partial motoneuron depletion: Efficacy in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Randall E.; Coons, Kellie D.; Sengelaub, Dale R.

    2009-01-01

    Motoneuron loss is a significant medical problem, capable of causing severe movement disorders and even death. We have previously demonstrated that partial depletion of motoneurons induces dendritic atrophy in remaining motoneurons, with a concomitant reduction in motor activation. Treatment of male rats with testosterone attenuates the regressive changes following partial motoneuron depletion. To test whether testosterone has similar effects in females, we examined potential neuroprotective effects in motoneurons innervating muscles of the quadriceps of female rats. Motoneurons were selectively killed by intramuscular injection of cholera toxin-conjugated saporin. Simultaneously, some saporin-injected rats were given implants containing testosterone or left untreated. Four weeks later, surviving motoneurons were labeled with cholera toxin-conjugated HRP, and dendritic arbors were reconstructed in 3 dimensions. Compared to normal females, partial motoneuron depletion resulted in decreased dendritic length in remaining quadriceps motoneurons, and this atrophy was greatly attenuated by testosterone treatment. These findings suggest that testosterone has neuroprotective effects on morphology in both males and females, further supporting a role for testosterone as a neurotherapeutic agent in the injured nervous system. PMID:19735695

  15. Low and high dietary folic acid levels perturb postnatal cerebellar morphology in growing rats.

    PubMed

    Partearroyo, Teresa; Pérez-Miguelsanz, Juliana; Peña-Melián, Ángel; Maestro-de-Las-Casas, Carmen; Úbeda, Natalia; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2016-06-01

    The brain is particularly sensitive to folate metabolic disturbances, because methyl groups are critical for brain functions. This study aimed to investigate the effects of different dietary levels of folic acid (FA) on postnatal cerebellar morphology, including the architecture and organisation of the various layers. A total of forty male OFA rats (a Sprague-Dawley strain), 5 weeks old, were classified into the following four dietary groups: FA deficient (0 mg/kg FA); FA supplemented (8 mg/kg FA); FA supra-supplemented (40 mg/kg FA); and control (2 mg/kg FA) (all n 10 per group). Rats were fed ad libitum for 30 d. The cerebellum was quickly removed and processed for histological and immunohistochemical analysis. Slides were immunostained for glial fibrillary acidic protein (to label Bergmann glia), calbindin (to label Purkinje cells) and NeuN (to label post-mitotic neurons). Microscopic analysis revealed two types of defect: partial disappearance of fissures and/or neuronal ectopia, primarily in supra-supplemented animals (incidence of 80 %, P≤0·01), but also in deficient and supplemented groups (incidence of 40 %, P≤0·05), compared with control animals. The primary fissure was predominantly affected, sometimes accompanied by defects in the secondary fissure. Our findings show that growing rats fed an FA-modified diet, including both deficient and supplemented diets, have an increased risk of disturbances in cerebellar corticogenesis. Defects caused by these diets may have functional consequences in later life. The present study is the first to demonstrate that cerebellar morphological defects can arise from deficient, as well as high, FA levels in the diet. PMID:27153204

  16. Characterization of (+/-)-methadone uptake by rat lung.

    PubMed Central

    Chi, C H; Dixit, B N

    1977-01-01

    1. By use of a sensitive and specific fluorescence assay procedure it was shown that after subcutaneous administration to rats, (+/-)-methadone was concentrated in the lung. Lung to serum ratios ranging from 25 to 60 were obtained indicating that the rat lung tissue was capable of extracting (+/-)-methadone against a concentration gradient. 2. This phenomenon was investigated in vitro with rat lung slices incubated in Krebs-Ringer phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). The uptake was expressed in terms of tissue to medium concentration ratios (T/M ratio). 3. The principal observations were: (i) Studies on the time-course of the uptake showed that the T/M ratios of (+/-)-methadone increased rapidly during the first 60 min of incubation and then more slowly, with a plateau occurring at 180 min; (ii) The T/M ratio of (+/-)-methadone progressively increased from 9.5 to 17 as the pH of the incubation medium was varied from 6.2 to 7.5; (iii) When the concentration of (+/-)-methadone in the incubation medium was varied from 0.005 to 0.5 mM, the T/M ratio decreased rapidly suggesting self-saturation of the transport process. Beyond the medium concentration of 0.5 mM, the T/M ratio declined very slowly. 4. These results suggested that at low concentrations, (+/-)-methadone was transported predominantly by a self-saturable process while at higher concentrations it was transported by a process of simple diffusion. 5. At low concentrations (0.01 mM) the uptake of (+)-methadone was higher than that of (-)-isomer indicating stereo-specificity of the uptake process. The uptake of (+/-)-methadone at low concentration (0.01 mM) was significantly inhibited by low temperature, lack of O2, lack of glucose, lack of Na+ in the incubation medium, and by exposure of the tissue to high temperature (approximately 100 degrees C). The uptake was also inhibited by relatively high concentration of iodoacetate (1.0 mM) and of naloxone (1.0 mM). 6. Kinetic analysis of data showed that the diffusion constant

  17. Three-dimensional morphology of the pericellular matrix of intervertebral disc cells in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Li; Guilak, Farshid; Setton, Lori A

    2007-01-01

    Intervertebral disc cells are surrounded by a pericellular matrix that is biochemically and morphologically distinct from other extracellular matrix regions. Although the function of the pericellular matrix is not fully understood, prior studies of pericellular matrix-chondrocyte regions in articular cartilage (termed ‘chondrons’) suggest that the size, shape, and mechanical properties of the pericellular matrix significantly influence the micromechanical environment of the contained cells. A first step in understanding the role of the pericellular matrix in the intervertebral disc is to quantify the three-dimensional morphology and zonal variations of these regions across the disc. In this study, three-dimensional reconstructions and morphometric measurements of pericellular matrix-cell regions were obtained in situ using fluorescence confocal microscopy of en bloc sections of nucleus pulposus and anulus fibrosus of the rat disc immunolabeled for type VI collagen. The morphology of the pericellular matrix and cells varied significantly across regions, with distinct pericellular matrix aspect ratios (largest/smallest diameter) showing shapes that were generally large and rounded in the nucleus pulposus (average of 1.9), and ellipsoidal and discoidal in the inner (2.4) and outer anulus fibrosus (2.8). The average pericellular matrix volume per cell was found to be significantly larger in the nucleus (6424 µm3) than that of inner (1903 µm3) and outer (1433 µm3) anulus. Pericellular matrix regions containing 1 or 2 cells were the dominant subgroup in the rat intervertebral disc at both 1 and 12 months of age. Multicellular pericellular matrix regions were present more often in the younger nucleus pulposus and outer anulus fibrosus. The orientation of the pericellular matrix regions further varied significantly across the disc, reflecting local collagen matrix architecture. These studies provide new information on the organization and shape of intervertebral

  18. Morphological and Phagocytic Profile of Microglia in the Developing Rat Cerebellum1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    VanRyzin, Jonathan W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Microglia are being increasingly recognized as playing important roles in neurodevelopment. The cerebellum matures postnatally, undergoing major growth, but the role of microglia in the developing cerebellum is not well understood. Using the laboratory rat we quantified and morphologically categorized microglia throughout the vermis and across development using a design-based unbiased stereology method. We found that microglial morphology changed from amoeboid to ramified during the first 3 postnatal weeks in a region specific manner. These morphological changes were accompanied by the sudden appearance of phagocytic cups during the third postnatal week from P17 to P19, with an approximately fourfold increase compared with the first week, followed by a prompt decline at the end of the third week. The microglial phagocytic cups were significantly higher in the granular layer (∼69%) than in the molecular layer (ML; ∼31%) during a 3 d window, and present on ∼67% of microglia with thick processes and ∼33% of microglia with thin processes. Similar proportions of phagocytic cups associated to microglia with either thick or thin processes were found in the ML. We observed cell nuclei fragmentation and cleaved caspase-3 expression within some microglial phagocytic cups, presumably from dying granule neurons. At P17 males showed an approximately twofold increase in microglia with thin processes compared with females. Our findings indicate a continuous process of microglial maturation and a nonuniform distribution of microglia in the cerebellar cortex that implicates microglia as an important cellular component of the developing cerebellum. PMID:26464992

  19. Tracheal Morphologic and Protein Alterations FollowingShort-Term Cigarette Mainstream Smoke Exposure to Rats.

    PubMed

    Carter, Charleata A; Misra, Manoj; Maronpot, Robert R

    2012-09-01

    A short-term 5-day nose-only cigarette smoke exposure study was conducted in Fisher 344 rats to identify smoke-induced tracheal protein changes. Groups of 10 male and female 5 week old rats were assigned to 1 of 4 exposure groups. Animals received filtered air, or 75, 200 or 400 mg total particulate matter (TPM)/m(3) of diluted 3R4F Kentucky reference cigarette mainstream smoke. Exposures were conducted for 3 hrs/day, for 5 consecutive days. Tracheas from half the rats were processed for pathology, and tracheas from the other half of the rats frozen immediately for proteomics. We hypothesized that smoke will activate tracheal inflammatory, apoptotic, proliferative, and stress-induced pathways. Mucosal epithelial toxicity from the inhaled material was evidenced by cilia shortening and loss of tracheal mucosal epithelium in smoke-exposed animals. Mucosal thinning occurred in all smoke-exposed groups with hyperplastic reparative responses in the 200 and 400 mg TPM/m(3) groups. Tracheal lysates from control vs. treated animals were screened for 800 proteins using antibody-based microarray technology and subsequently the most changed proteins evaluated by Western blot. Tracheal proteins expressed at high levels that were markedly increased or decreased by smoke exposure depended on dose and gender and included caspase 5, ERK 1/2 and p38. Signaling pathways common between the morphologic and protein changes were stress, apoptosis, cell cycle control, cell proliferation and survival. Changes in identified proteins affected by smoke exposure were associated with tracheal mucosal pathology, may induce functional tracheal changes, and could serve as early indicators of tracheal damage and associated disease. PMID:22988338

  20. Photothermal and morphological characterization of PLA/PCL polymer blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa-Pacheco, Z. N.; Jiménez-Pérez, J. L.; Sabino, M. A.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Loaiza, M.

    2015-09-01

    Nowadays, some synthetic polymers have been replaced by biodegradable polymers in order to avoid environmental contamination. Among these biodegradables polymers, aliphatic polyesters such as polylactic acid (PLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL) have been widely used. In the present study, solvent-casting films of PLA, PCL and polymer blends with and without compatibilizer (PLA grafted with maleic anhydride) were prepared. The thermal diffusivity ( α) of each sample was obtained by using the open photoacoustic cell technique. Morphology and thermal properties were determined by using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), respectively. The blends showed lower thermal diffusivity compared to pure polymers. However, when the compatibilizer was used, the highest value of thermal diffusivity was obtained. Also, cold crystallization with the highest value of enthalpy of fusion was observed for the compatibilized sample, which was revealed by DSC. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the thermal diffusivity of these biodegradable polymer blends is reported.

  1. Faceted Surface Grain Morphology of Rapidly Solidified Alumina: Characterization and Potential Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Harimkar, Sandip; Kenik, Edward A; Shim, Sanghoon; Dahotre, Narendra B

    2009-01-01

    This communication reports on the characterization of novel surface microstructure formed in rapidly solidified porous alumina ceramic. Advanced characterization techniques such as Orientation Imaging Microscopy (OIM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) are used to understand the crystallographic and morphological aspects of the resultant microstructure. Potential applications of laser surface modified alumina ceramics are presented.

  2. Morphological, Mechanical and Structural Characterization of Damselfly Wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talucdher, ABSM Rupan Ali

    The damselfly belongs to the same insect family as the dragonfly that inspired the development of Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs). Understanding the morphological, mechanical and structural properties of wings, veins and membranes of fly would provide guidelines to develop efficient MAVs. Lack of test methodologies inhibited the progress. The objective of this research was to develop the above methodologies and then measure the properties of veins, membranes and wings of damselflies. The research yielded four test methodologies: fluorescence spectroscopic analysis to map the morphology of vein; axial nanoindentation test to measure indentation properties; micro tension test to measure tensile properties of microscopic components; and a unique vibration test of wings to measure natural frequency, stiffness and air damping factor. Axial indentation test contrasts the transverse indentation used in the past, whose results were corrupted by surface roughness and flexibility of veins. Veins were found to be made of two layered, elliptical tubular members. The thickness of inner and outer layers was about 8 and 5 microm, respectively and corresponding indentation moduli were 8.42 and 16.00 GPa. The modulus of veins agreed with those of human bones. The tensile modulus and strength of veins ranged from 14 to 17 GPa and 232 to 285 MPa, respectively. The damselfly wing was found to vibrate under bending and torsional deformations, the natural frequency (in air) ranged from 130 to 178 Hz, the wing stiffness ranged from 0.18 to 0.30 N/m with the air damping ratio from 0.67 to 0.79. Pathway to develop a material of matching properties is also presented.

  3. Characterization of equine hyalocytes: their immunohistochemical properties, morphologies and distribution

    PubMed Central

    SANO, Yuto; MATSUDA, Kazuya; OKAMOTO, Minoru; TAKEHANA, Kazushige; HIRAYAMA, Kazuko; TANIYAMA, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    In horse, the characterizations of hyalocytes under the steady state are still unclear. Therefore, we investigated characterizations of hyalocytes in normal equine eyes by their immunohistochemical phenotype, histomorphology and distribution. Thirty-one eyes from 18 horses, divided into 4 groups (G) by age, were used: early (G1) and late gestation (G2) fetuses, 1- to 3-year-old (G3) and 8- to 24-year-old (G4) horses. Equine hyalocytes were histologically classified into 4 types, and they immunohistochemically expressed MHC II and CD163. Hyalocytes were detected on and/or around ciliary processes and pars plana in G2, G3 and G4, but were not located on retina and optic papilla. A significant increase in distribution was found between G2 and both G3 and G4, and the largest distribution was found at ciliary processes in these groups. Equine hyalocytes were characterized as residential ocular macrophage and MHC II antigen-bearing cell, accompanied by a pleomorphic appearance and located in the contiguous ciliary body. Our data provided characterizations of hyalocytes in normal equine eyes and may well contribute to improving the understanding of pathogenesis of equine ocular disease. PMID:26888584

  4. Characterization of equine hyalocytes: their immunohistochemical properties, morphologies and distribution.

    PubMed

    Sano, Yuto; Matsuda, Kazuya; Okamoto, Minoru; Takehana, Kazushige; Hirayama, Kazuko; Taniyama, Hiroyuki

    2016-07-01

    In horse, the characterizations of hyalocytes under the steady state are still unclear. Therefore, we investigated characterizations of hyalocytes in normal equine eyes by their immunohistochemical phenotype, histomorphology and distribution. Thirty-one eyes from 18 horses, divided into 4 groups (G) by age, were used: early (G1) and late gestation (G2) fetuses, 1- to 3-year-old (G3) and 8- to 24-year-old (G4) horses. Equine hyalocytes were histologically classified into 4 types, and they immunohistochemically expressed MHC II and CD163. Hyalocytes were detected on and/or around ciliary processes and pars plana in G2, G3 and G4, but were not located on retina and optic papilla. A significant increase in distribution was found between G2 and both G3 and G4, and the largest distribution was found at ciliary processes in these groups. Equine hyalocytes were characterized as residential ocular macrophage and MHC II antigen-bearing cell, accompanied by a pleomorphic appearance and located in the contiguous ciliary body. Our data provided characterizations of hyalocytes in normal equine eyes and may well contribute to improving the understanding of pathogenesis of equine ocular disease. PMID:26888584

  5. Characterization of rat prothymocyte with monoclonal antibodies recognizing rat lymphocyte membrane antigenic determinants

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, M.L.; Greiner, D.L.; McCarthy, K.F.

    1987-01-01

    Utilizing the technique of fluorescence-activated cell sorting and monoclonal antibodies directed at rat membrane antigens, various subpopulations of Lewis bone marrow cells were isolated and subsequently transfused into sublethally irradiated, histocompatible NBr recipient rats by either intravenous of intrathymic inoculation. Recipient rats were sacrificed and cell suspensions from thymus and other lymphoid tissue were examined for the presence of the RT7.1 marker on Lewis thymus-derived lymphocytes by fluorescence-activated cell analysis. From these studies, the population of Lewis bone-marrow cells that could resonstitute T cells in the NBr rats was found to be Ox-22 negative, Ox-7 positive, W3/13 positive, and Ox-18 positive. Further analysis characterized the prothymocyte as being Ox-7 upper 20% positive and W3/13 weakly positive. In addition, this marrow-cell population was able to protect lethally irradiated Lewis rats (9.5 GY) in 30-day survival tests. These studies have indicated that the prothymocyte either has been derived from the Ox-22 negative, Ox-7 upper 20% positive, and W3/13 positive marrow cells or, like the hematopoietic stem cell, this cell has also been characterized by this phenotype.

  6. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Meloidogyne mayaguensis Isolates from Florida

    PubMed Central

    Brito, J.; Powers, T. O.; Mullin, P. G.; Inserra, R. N.; Dickson, D. W.

    2004-01-01

    The discovery of Meloidogyne mayaguensis is confirmed in Florida; this is the first report for the continental United States. Meloidogyne mayaguensis is a virulent species that can reproduce on host cultivars bred for nematode resistance. The perineal patterns of M. mayaguensis isolates from Florida show morphological variability and often are similar to M. incognita. Useful morphological characters for the separation of M. mayaguensis from M. incognita from Florida are the male stylet length values (smaller for M. mayaguensis than M. incognita) and J2 tail length values (greater for M. mayaguensis than M. incognita). Meloidogyne mayaguensis values for these characters overlap with those of M. arenaria and M. javanica from Florida. Enzyme analyses of Florida M. mayaguensis isolates show two major bands (VS1-S1 phenotype) of esterase activity, and one strong malate dehydrogenase band (Rm 1.4) plus two additional weak bands that migrated close together. Their detection requires larger amounts of homogenates from several females. Amplification of two separate regions of mitochondrial DNA resulted in products of a unique size. PCR primers embedded in the COII and 16S genes produced a product size of 705 bp, and amplification of the 63-bp repeat region resulted in a single product of 322 bp. Nucleotide sequence comparison of these mitochondrial products together with sequence from 18S rDNA and ITS1 from the nuclear genome were nearly identical with the corresponding regions from a M. mayaguensis isolate from Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, the type locality of the species. Meloidogyne mayaguensis reproduced on cotton, pepper, tobacco, and watermelon but not on peanut. Preliminary results indicate the M. mayaguensis isolates from Florida can reproduce on tomato containing the Mi gene. Molecular techniques for the identification of M. mayaguensis will be particularly useful in cases of M. mayaguensis populations mixed with M. arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica, which are the

  7. Morphological and molecular characterization of fungal pathogen, Magnaphorthe oryzae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Nor'Aishah; Rafii, Mohd Y.; Rahim, Harun A.; Ali, Nusaibah Syd; Mazlan, Norida; Abdullah, Shamsiah

    2016-02-01

    Rice is arguably the most crucial food crops supplying quarter of calories intake. Fungal pathogen, Magnaphorthe oryzae promotes blast disease unconditionally to gramineous host including rice species. This disease spurred an outbreaks and constant threat to cereal production. Global rice yield declining almost 10-30% including Malaysia. As Magnaphorthe oryzae and its host is model in disease plant study, the rice blast pathosystem has been the subject of intense interest to overcome the importance of the disease to world agriculture. Therefore, in this study, our prime objective was to isolate samples of Magnaphorthe oryzae from diseased leaf obtained from MARDI Seberang Perai, Penang, Malaysia. Molecular identification was performed by sequences analysis from internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of nuclear ribosomal RNA genes. Phylogenetic affiliation of the isolated samples were analyzed by comparing the ITS sequences with those deposited in the GenBank database. The sequence of the isolate demonstrated at least 99% nucleotide identity with the corresponding sequence in GenBank for Magnaphorthe oryzae. Morphological observed under microscope demonstrated that the structure of conidia followed similar characteristic as M. oryzae. Finding in this study provide useful information for breeding programs, epidemiology studies and improved disease management.

  8. Insights into Embryo Defenses of the Invasive Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata: Egg Mass Ingestion Affects Rat Intestine Morphology and Growth

    PubMed Central

    Gimeno, Eduardo J.; Heras, Horacio

    2014-01-01

    Background The spread of the invasive snail Pomacea canaliculata is expanding the rat lungworm disease beyond its native range. Their toxic eggs have virtually no predators and unusual defenses including a neurotoxic lectin and a proteinase inhibitor, presumably advertised by a warning coloration. We explored the effect of egg perivitellin fluid (PVF) ingestion on the rat small intestine morphology and physiology. Methodology/Principal Findings Through a combination of biochemical, histochemical, histopathological, scanning electron microscopy, cell culture and feeding experiments, we analyzed intestinal morphology, growth rate, hemaglutinating activity, cytotoxicity and cell proliferation after oral administration of PVF to rats. PVF adversely affects small intestine metabolism and morphology and consequently the standard growth rate, presumably by lectin-like proteins, as suggested by PVF hemaglutinating activity and its cytotoxic effect on Caco-2 cell culture. Short-term effects of ingested PVF were studied in growing rats. PVF-supplemented diet induced the appearance of shorter and wider villi as well as fused villi. This was associated with changes in glycoconjugate expression, increased cell proliferation at crypt base, and hypertrophic mucosal growth. This resulted in a decreased absorptive surface after 3 days of treatment and a diminished rat growth rate that reverted to normal after the fourth day of treatment. Longer exposure to PVF induced a time-dependent lengthening of the small intestine while switching to a control diet restored intestine length and morphology after 4 days. Conclusions/Significance Ingestion of PVF rapidly limits the ability of potential predators to absorb nutrients by inducing large, reversible changes in intestinal morphology and growth rate. The occurrence of toxins that affect intestinal morphology and absorption is a strategy against predation not recognized among animals before. Remarkably, this defense is rather similar to

  9. Synthesis, Characterization (Molecular-Morphological) and Theoretical Morphology Predictions of Poly(cyclohexadiene) Containing Linear Triblock Terpolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Rajeev; Dadmun, Mark D; Sumpter, Bobby G; Mays, Jimmy; Avgeropoulos, Apostolos; Zafeiropoulos, N.E.; Misichoronis, K.; Rangou, S.; Ashcraft, E.

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis via anionic polymerization of six linear triblock terpolymers with various sequences of blocks such as PS (polystyrene), PB (polybutadiene), PI (polyisoprene) and PCHD (poly(1,3-cyclohexadiene)) is reported. The synthesis of the terpolymers was accomplished by the use of anionic polymerization with high vacuum techniques and sequential monomer addition. Molecular characterization of the samples was performed via size exclusion chromatography and membrane osmometry to measure polydispersity indices and the number-average molecular weights, respectively. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was adopted to verify the type of microstructure for the polydienes as well as to calculate the molar composition. Structural characterization was performed via transmission electron microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering and several morphologies were observed including one which has not been reported previously. Real-space self-consistent field theory (SCFT) without a priori knowledge about the symmetry of the periodic structures was used to elucidate the thermodynamics of the synthesized triblock copolymers.

  10. Effect of quercetine on survival and morphological properties of cultured embryonic rat spinal motoneurones.

    PubMed

    Ternaux, Jean-Pierre; Portalier, Paule

    2002-10-25

    Quercetine a flavonoid compound present in many plants and in the extract of Ginkgo biloba was shown to enhance the survival of purified rat spinal embryonic motoneurones, sampled at day embryonic 15 and maintained in culture for several days. Survival of embryonic spinal motoneurones is dose dependent and concentrations of quercetine ranging from 1 to 10 microM increase by 25% the number of living motoneurones in the culture. Excepted a slight significant decrease in the number of branches at day 3 and a small reduction of total neuritic length, no drastic changes in the motoneurones morphologies were observed in presence of quercetine. Results are discussed in term of neuronal protective effect of quercetine. PMID:12377378

  11. Quantitative morphological characterization of bicontinuous Pickering emulsions via interfacial curvatures.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Matthew; Stratford, Kevin; Thijssen, Job H J

    2016-05-14

    Bicontinuous Pickering emulsions (bijels) are a physically interesting class of soft materials with many potential applications including catalysis, microfluidics and tissue engineering. They are created by arresting the spinodal decomposition of a partially-miscible liquid with a (jammed) layer of interfacial colloids. Porosity L (average interfacial separation) of the bijel is controlled by varying the radius (r) and volume fraction (ϕ) of the colloids (L∝r/ϕ). However, to optimize the bijel structure with respect to other parameters, e.g. quench rate, characterizing by L alone is insufficient. Hence, we have used confocal microscopy and X-ray CT to characterize a range of bijels in terms of local and area-averaged interfacial curvatures; we further demonstrate that bijels are bicontinuous using an image-analysis technique known as 'region growing'. In addition, the curvatures of bijels have been monitored as a function of time, which has revealed an intriguing evolution up to 60 minutes after bijel formation, contrary to previous understanding. PMID:27035101

  12. Postnatal changes in the distribution and morphology of rat substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Tepper, J M; Damlama, M; Trent, F

    1994-05-01

    Significant changes in the neurophysiology and neuropharmacology of nigral dopaminergic neurons take place in the first postnatal month. In order to correlate these changes with the postnatal development of dopaminergic neuron morphology and substantia nigra cytoarchitecture, brains from Sprague-Dawley rat pups of age postnatal days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 and adult rats were sectioned and processed for tyrosine hydroxylase immunocytochemistry. At postnatal day 1, pars compacta and pars reticulata were not clearly delineated; tyrosine hydroxylase positive neurons and a dense plexus of fibers were scattered throughout the substantia nigra. By day 7 the density of tyrosine hydroxylase positive neurons decreased markedly in ventral substantia nigra, and a dopaminergic pars compacta and a non-dopaminergic pars reticulata could be more clearly distinguished. By day 14 the substantia nigra appeared essentially as it does in the adult. Cell counts during development revealed that the number of tyrosine hydroxylase positive neurons/section in both pars compacta and pars reticulata decreased significantly from postnatal day 1 to postnatal day 14, while those in pars lateralis did not change. Tyrosine hydroxylase-positive somatic size increased modestly but significantly from postnatal day 1 to day 14 as did the diameter of the proximal and distal dendrites. However, even at day 1, the morphology of tyrosine hydroxylase positive neurons appeared essentially the same as in adults. Dendritic arborizations were well developed. The dendrites were non-varicose and modestly branched, with some of the longer ventrally directed dendrites passing through pars reticulata into the crus cerebri.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7915412

  13. MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES OF RAT PLACENTA IN DIFFERENT PERIODS OF PREGNANCY UNDER MODELED PREECLAMPSIA.

    PubMed

    Sharashenidze, A; Kikalishvili, L; Turmanidze, T; Sanikidze, T

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the morphological changes of rat placenta in II, III week of pregnancy under modeled preeclampsia. Modeling of preeclampsia was performed in the rats, as follows: lumen of the abdominal aorta below the renal artery was narrowed by the silk tread on the third of its diameter (0.2 mm). The placenta tissue was studied by histological and immunohistochemical methods (AE1/AE3, CD133, Ki-67). The study has shown that in the experimental model of preeclampsia at the end of II, III week of pregnancy the number of glycogen cells in the placenta trophyspongium layer is reduced compared with the control. There was shown sharp dilatation of the blood sinuses and lacuna, sometimes along the events of stasis. The volume of nucleated erythrocytes in fetal capillaries of the labyrinth layer is reduced compared with the control, especially in IIIweek of pregnancy. In the preparations marked by the CD133 marker, unlike to the norm of III week of pregnancy, the visualization of positive endothelial cells is complicated. The study of the preparations marked by Ki-67 marker reveals that the proliferated activity in the hypoxic placenta tissue is sharply reduced. The exception is those blood tubes, to which umbilical blood vessels are finally formed. It can be concluded that due to hypoxia placenta proliferation of placental blood vessels is disturbed that contributes to the disorder of placental blood circulation, reduce its metabolism in complications of pregnancy. PMID:27249447

  14. Rearing conditions differently affect the motor performance and cerebellar morphology of prenatally stressed juvenile rats.

    PubMed

    Ulupinar, Emel; Erol, Kevser; Ay, Hakan; Yucel, Ferruh

    2015-02-01

    The cerebellum is one of the most vulnerable parts of the brain to environmental changes. In this study, the effect of diverse environmental rearing conditions on the motor performances of prenatally stressed juvenile rats and its reflection to the cerebellar morphology were investigated. Prenatally stressed Wistar rats were grouped according to different rearing conditions (Enriched=EC, Standard=SC and Isolated=IC) after weaning. Six weeks later, male and female offspring from different litters were tested behaviorally. In rotarod and string suspension tests, females gained better scores than males. Significant gender and housing effects were observed especially on the motor functions requiring fine skills with the best performance by enriched females, but the worst by enriched males. The susceptibility of cerebellar macro- and micro-neurons to environmental conditions was compared using stereological methods. In female groups, no differences were observed in the volume proportions of cerebellar layers, soma sizes and the numerical densities of granule or Purkinje cells. However, a significant interaction between housing and gender was observed in the granule to Purkinje cell ratio of males, due to the increased numerical densities of the granule cells in enriched males. These data imply that proper functioning of the cerebellum relies on its well organized and evolutionarily conserved structure and circuitry. Although early life stress leads to long term behavioral and neurobiological consequences in the offspring, diverse rearing conditions can alter the motor skills of animals and synaptic connectivity between Purkinje and granular cells in a gender dependent manner. PMID:25315128

  15. In situ morphology of the foramen ovale in the fetal and neonatal rat.

    PubMed

    Momma, K; Ito, T; Ando, M

    1992-12-01

    In situ cross-sectional morphology of the foramen ovale was studied after rapid whole-body freezing of the fetal and neonatal rat. In the fetus, the foramen ovale was open widely toward the left atrium with a thin, short primum septum. The opening area of the foramen ovale was 40% of the cross-section of the thoracic inferior vena cava, and the ratio of the long diameter to the short diameter was 2 to 1. After birth, the primum septum became longer, thicker, and straighter, with less leftward bowing. The opening of the foramen ovale diminished in the first 2 d and closed completely 3 d after birth. Postnatal thickening of the primum septum was very remarkable, increasing by 400% in the first 2d, while only minimal change was noticed in the right and the left atrial walls. The length of the primum septum was short and was only 90% of the diameter of the fossa ovalis in the fetus. It increased and reached 97% and 111% of the diameter of the fossa ovalis 1 and 2 d after birth, respectively. The septum secundum also grew rapidly after birth, and its length and width increased by 40% and 29% after 1 and 2 d, respectively. These observations indicate a sudden, explosive growth of the atrial septum in the early neonatal period in the rat. PMID:1287556

  16. Characterization and subcellular distribution of somatogenic receptor in rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Husman, B.; Andersson, G.; Norstedt, G.; Gustafsson, J.A.

    1985-06-01

    Binding of (/sup 125/I)iodobovine GH ((/sup 125/I)iodo-bGH) to rat liver microsomes and Golgi/endosomal fractions isolated from male and female rats has been characterized. Binding of bGH to a pure somatogenic site was suggested by the finding that 50% inhibition of (/sup 125/I)iodo-bGH binding required 5-130 ng bGH, rGH, or hGH/incubation, while around 500 ng rat PRL/incubation were needed to obtain the same effect. Binding of (/sup 125/I)iodo-bGH to microsomes and Golgi/endosomes was time, temperature, and protein dependent. Maximal specific binding occurred at 15-16 and 15-20 h at 22 C in Golgi and microsomal membranes, respectively. Subcellular distribution studies demonstrated in the Golgi/endosomal fractions compared to the total particulate fraction, while residual microsomes devoid of Golgi/endosomal-derived components were approximately 2-fold enriched. Low levels of somatogenic receptors were detected in lysosome-enriched fractions. Removal of endogenous ligand by treating Golgi/endosomal membranes with 3M MgCl/sub 2/ increased specific binding of bGH about 2- to 3-fold. These results indicate that approximately 50% of specific somatogenic binding sites in the low density fractions represent internalized ligand-receptor complexes. The level of rat liver somatogenic receptors did not show a pronounced sex differentiation; however, an endocrine dependence of somatogenic receptor levels is suggested by the finding that livers from rats in the late stages of pregnancy had a level of somatogenic receptors exceeding that of nonpregnant rats.

  17. Time Course of Morphological Alterations of Fungiform Papillae and Taste Buds Following Chorda Tympani Transection in Neonatal Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sollars, Suzanne I.; Smith, Peter C.; Hill, David L.

    2016-01-01

    The time course of structural changes in fungiform papillae was analyzed in rats that received unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection at 10 days of age. Morphological differences between intact and denervated sides of the tongue were first observed at 8 days postsection, with an increase in the number of fungiform papillae that did not have a pore. In addition, the first papilla with a filiform-like appearance was noted on the denervated side at 8 days postsectioning. By 11 days after surgery, the total number of papillae and the number of papillae with a pore were significantly lower on the transected side of the tongue as compared to the intact side. At 50 days postsection, there was an average of 70.5 fungiform papillae on the intact side and a mean of only 20.8 fungiform papillae the denervated side. Of those few remaining papillae on the cut side, an average of 13.5 papillae were categorized as filiform-like, while no filiform-like papillae occurred on the intact side. Significant reduction in taste bud volume was noted at 4 days posttransection and further decrements in taste bud volume were noted at 8 and 30 days postsection. Electron microscopy of the lingual branch of the trigeminal nerve from adult rats that received neonatal chorda tympani transection showed normal numbers of both myelinated and unmyelinated fibers. Thus, in addition to the well-characterized dependence of taste bud maintenance on the chorda tympani nerve, the present study shows an additional role of the chorda tympani nerve in papilla maintenance during early postnatal development. PMID:11984844

  18. Neonatal exposure to monosodium glutamate induces morphological alterations in suprachiasmatic nucleus of adult rat.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Castañeda, Julio César; Vigueras-Villaseñor, Rosa María; Chávez-Saldaña, Margarita; Rojas, Patricia; Gutiérrez-Pérez, Oscar; Rojas, Carolina; Arteaga-Silva, Marcela

    2016-02-01

    Neonatal exposure to monosodium glutamate (MSG) induces circadian disorders in several physiological and behavioural processes regulated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of neonatal exposure to MSG on locomotor activity, and on morphology, cellular density and expression of proteins, as evaluated by optical density (OD), of vasopressin (VP)-, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)- and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-immunoreactive cells in the SCN. Male Wistar rats were used: the MSG group was subcutaneously treated from 3 to 10 days of age with 3.5 mg/g/day. Locomotor activity was evaluated at 90 days of age using 'open-field' test, and the brains were processed for immunohistochemical studies. MSG exposure induced a significant decrease in locomotor activity. VP- and VIP-immunoreactive neuronal densities showed a significant decrease, while the somatic OD showed an increase. Major axes and somatic area were significantly increased in VIP neurons. The cellular and optical densities of GFAP-immunoreactive sections of SCN were significantly increased. These results demonstrated that newborn exposure to MSG induced morphological alterations in SCN cells, an alteration that could be the basis for behavioural disorders observed in the animals. PMID:26799547

  19. [Effect of low stress environment on bone density and geome-morphology of rat femur].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingxi; Zhao, Wenzhi; Zhang, Jun; Li, Shouju; Li, Jingnian; Sun, Xiaojiang

    2005-12-01

    6-week old rats were subjected to sciatic nerve resection and the right hindlimbs were then under a low stress environment. Bone mineral density (BMD) of different regions and geome-morphological parameters of femurs were measured. The results showed that the increase in the diameter, subperiosteal area and bone mineral density of femurs were suppressed obviously under low stress environment. But the sensitivity of BMD of different regions of the femur to the low stress environment was different. The suppression of the increase in femoral BMD was composed of an early impairment in the gain of BMD at the femoral metaphysis, which is rich in trabecular bone, and a sustained reduction in the gain of BMD at the femoral diaphysis, which is rich in cortical bone. The results of geome-morphology suggested that the early reduction in the increase of BMD at the metaphysis was due to an enhancement of bone resorption, whereas the suppression of gain in cortical bone mass and size is the result of a sustained reduction of periosteal bone formation. PMID:16422090

  20. Biochemical, Histopathological and Morphological Profiling of a Rat Model of Early Immune Stimulation: Relation to Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Kubesova, Anna; Tejkalova, Hana; Syslova, Kamila; Kacer, Petr; Vondrousova, Jana; Tyls, Filip; Fujakova, Michaela; Palenicek, Tomas; Horacek, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Perinatal immune challenge leads to neurodevelopmental dysfunction, permanent immune dysregulation and abnormal behaviour, which have been shown to have translational validity to findings in human neuropsychiatric disorders (e.g. schizophrenia, mood and anxiety disorders, autism, Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease). The aim of this animal study was to elucidate the influence of early immune stimulation triggered by systemic postnatal lipopolysaccharide administration on biochemical, histopathological and morphological measures, which may be relevant to the neurobiology of human psychopathology. In the present study of adult male Wistar rats we examined the brain and plasma levels of monoamines (dopamine, serotonin), their metabolites, the levels of the main excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid and the levels of tryptophan and its metabolites from the kynurenine catabolic pathway. Further, we focused on histopathological and morphological markers related to pathogenesis of brain diseases - glial cell activation, neurodegeneration, hippocampal volume reduction and dopaminergic synthesis in the substantia nigra. Our results show that early immune stimulation in adult animals alters the levels of neurotransmitters and their metabolites, activates the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism and leads to astrogliosis, hippocampal volume reduction and a decrease of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the substantia nigra. These findings support the crucial pathophysiological role of early immune stimulation in the above mentioned neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:25602957

  1. Histopathological and morphological studies on natural Cysticercus fasciolaris infection in liver of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Moudgil, Aman Dev; Singla, Lachhman Das; Gupta, Kuldip; Daundkar, Prashant S; Vemu, Bhaskar

    2016-06-01

    Descriptive morphology of multifocal hepatic cysts found in eight of forty five (17.78 %) Wistar rats sacrificed during pharmacological studies related to herbal formulations was studied. The creamish to white cysts were of varying sizes, ranging from 3-8 mm in diameter. Morphological studies of these cysts depicted the presence of metacestodes of Taenia taeniaeformis i.e. Cysticercus fasciolaris inside them. The scolex of metacestode revealed four suckers and rostellum armed with two distinct rows of characteristic pen knife shaped hooks (characteristics of taeniid cestodes). The average size of large hooks was 392.92 ± 10.12 µ and that of small hooks was 240.64 ± 14.26 µ. The average size of suckers was 304.36 ± 12.33 µ. Histopathology of hepatic tissue surrounding the cysts revealed zones of fatty change, inflammation, granulation tissue and metaplasia. However, the histopathology of stomach and small intestines didn't show any significant lesions. PMID:27413289

  2. Levonorgestrel decreases cilia beat frequency of human fallopian tubes and rat oviducts without changing morphological structure.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Weihong; Zhu, Qian; Yan, Mingxing; Li, Cheng; Yuan, Jiangjing; Qin, Guojuan; Zhang, Jian

    2015-02-01

    Levonorgestrel, a derivative of progesterone, effectively protects women against unwanted pregnancy as an emergency contraceptive. Previous studies have not been successful in determining the mechanism by which levonorgestrel acts. In the present study we analysed cilia beat action and cilia morphology following levonorgestrel exposure in vitro and in vivo using both light and electron microscopy. There was a significant decrease in the ciliary beat frequency (CBF) of human fallopian tubes between mucosal explants bathed in 5 μmol/L levonorgestrel and those bathed in medium alone (P < 0.05). There was a tendency for CBF to decrease more in the ampulla than in isthmus, but there were no differences between the proliferative and secretory phases. In rat oviducts, levonorgestrel produced a similar reduction in CBF (~ 10%) compared with the saline control group (P < 0.05). Histological and ultrastructural analysis demonstrated no changes in the percentage of ciliated cells or in the classic '9 + 2' structure of cilia following levonorgestrel treatment in either system. Thus, levonorgestrel reduces CBF without damaging cilia morphology. Decreases in CBF may indicate a pathological role for levonorgestrel in the transportation of the ovum and zygote in the fallopian tube. PMID:25399777

  3. Effects of adult dysthyroidism on the morphology of hippocampal granular cells in rats.

    PubMed

    Martí-Carbonell, Maria Assumpció; Garau, Adriana; Sala-Roca, Josefina; Balada, Ferran

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for normal brain development and very important in the normal functioning of the brain. Thyroid hormones action in the adult brain has not been widely studied. The effects of adult hyperthyroidism are not as well understood as adult hypothyroidism, mainly in hippocampal granular cells. The purpose of the present study is to assess the consequences of adult hormone dysthyroidism (excess/deficiency of TH) on the morphology of dentate granule cells in the hippocampus by performing a quantitative study of dendritic arborizations and dendritic spines using Golgi impregnated material. Hypo-and hyperthyroidism were induced in rats by adding 0.02 percent methimazole and 1 percent L-thyroxine, respectively, to drinking water from 40 days of age. At 89 days, the animals' brains were removed and stained by a modified Golgi method and blood samples were collected in order to measure T4 serum levels. Neurons were selected and drawn using a camera lucida. Our results show that both methimazole and thyroxine treatment affect granule cell morphology. Treatments provoke alterations in the same direction, namely, reduction of certain dendritic-branching parameters that are more evident in the methimazole than in the thyroxine group. We also observe a decrease in spine density in both the methimazole and thyroxine groups. PMID:23093010

  4. Morphological and Immunohistochemical Characterization of Canine Osteosarcoma Spheroid Cell Cultures.

    PubMed

    Gebhard, C; Gabriel, C; Walter, I

    2016-06-01

    Spheroid cell culture emerges as powerful in vitro tool for experimental tumour research. In this study, we established a scaffold-free three-dimensional spheroid system built from canine osteosarcoma (OS) cells (D17). Spheroids (7, 14 and 19 days of cultivation) and monolayer cultures (2 and 7 days of cultivation) were evaluated and compared on light and electron microscopy. Monolayer and spheroid cultures were tested for vimentin, cytokeratin, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin and collagen I by means of immunohistochemistry. The spheroid cell culture exhibited a distinct network of collagen I in particular after 19-day cultivation, whereas in monolayer cultures, collagen I was arranged as a lamellar basal structure. Necrotic centres of large spheroids, as observed in 14- and 19-day cultures, were characterized by significant amounts of osteocalcin. Proliferative activity as determined by Ki-67 immunoreactivity showed an even distribution in two-dimensional cultures. In spheroids, proliferation was predominating in the peripheral areas. Metastasis-associated markers ezrin and S100A4 were shown to be continuously expressed in monolayer and spheroid cultures. We conclude that the scaffold-free spheroid system from canine OS cells has the ability to mimic the architecture of the in vivo tumour, in particular cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. PMID:26287450

  5. Effect of the environment on the dendritic morphology of the rat auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Mitali; Muñoz-Llancao, Pablo; Roychowdhury, Swagata; Nichols, Justin A.; Jakkamsetti, Vikram; Porter, Benjamin; Byrapureddy, Rajasekhar; Salgado, Humberto; Kilgard, Michael P.; Aboitiz, Francisco; Dagnino-Subiabre, Alexies; Atzori, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify morphological correlates of environment-induced changes at excitatory synapses of the primary auditory cortex (A1). We used the Golgi-Cox stain technique to compare pyramidal cells dendritic properties of Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to different environmental manipulations. Sholl analysis, dendritic length measures, and spine density counts were used to monitor the effects of sensory deafness and an auditory version of environmental enrichment (EE). We found that deafness decreased apical dendritic length leaving basal dendritic length unchanged, whereas EE selectively increased basal dendritic length without changing apical dendritic length. On the contrary, deafness decreased while EE increased spine density in both basal and apical dendrites of A1 layer 2/3 (LII/III) neurons. To determine whether stress contributed to the observed morphological changes in A1, we studied neural morphology in a restraint-induced model that lacked behaviorally relevant acoustic cues. We found that stress selectively decreased apical dendritic length in the auditory but not in the visual primary cortex. Similar to the acoustic manipulation, stress-induced changes in dendritic length possessed a layer specific pattern displaying LII/III neurons from stressed animals with normal apical dendrites but shorter basal dendrites, while infragranular neurons (layers V and VI) displayed shorter apical dendrites but normal basal dendrites. The same treatment did not induce similar changes in the visual cortex, demonstrating that the auditory cortex is an exquisitely sensitive target of neocortical plasticity, and that prolonged exposure to different acoustic as well as emotional environmental manipulation may produce specific changes in dendritic shape and spine density. PMID:19771593

  6. Restraint Stress-Induced Morphological Changes at the Blood-Brain Barrier in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sántha, Petra; Veszelka, Szilvia; Hoyk, Zsófia; Mészáros, Mária; Walter, Fruzsina R.; Tóth, Andrea E.; Kiss, Lóránd; Kincses, András; Oláh, Zita; Seprényi, György; Rákhely, Gábor; Dér, András; Pákáski, Magdolna; Kálmán, János; Kittel, Ágnes; Deli, Mária A.

    2016-01-01

    Stress is well-known to contribute to the development of both neurological and psychiatric diseases. While the role of the blood-brain barrier is increasingly recognized in the development of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier has been linked to stress-related psychiatric diseases only recently. In the present study the effects of restraint stress with different duration (1, 3, and 21 days) were investigated on the morphology of the blood-brain barrier in male adult Wistar rats. Frontal cortex and hippocampus sections were immunostained for markers of brain endothelial cells (claudin-5, occluding, and glucose transporter-1) and astroglia (GFAP). Staining pattern and intensity were visualized by confocal microscopy and evaluated by several types of image analysis. The ultrastructure of brain capillaries was investigated by electron microscopy. Morphological changes and intensity alterations in brain endothelial tight junction proteins claudin-5 and occludin were induced by stress. Following restraint stress significant increases in the fluorescence intensity of glucose transporter-1 were detected in brain endothelial cells in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. Significant reductions in GFAP fluorescence intensity were observed in the frontal cortex in all stress groups. As observed by electron microscopy, 1-day acute stress induced morphological changes indicating damage in capillary endothelial cells in both brain regions. After 21 days of stress thicker and irregular capillary basal membranes in the hippocampus and edema in astrocytes in both regions were seen. These findings indicate that stress exerts time-dependent changes in the staining pattern of tight junction proteins occludin, claudin-5, and glucose transporter-1 at the level of brain capillaries and in the ultrastructure of brain endothelial cells and astroglial endfeet, which may contribute to neurodegenerative processes, cognitive and

  7. Maternal separation and early stress cause long-lasting effects on dopaminergic and endocannabinergic systems and alters dendritic morphology in the nucleus accumbens and frontal cortex in rats.

    PubMed

    Romano-López, Antonio; Méndez-Díaz, Mónica; García, Fabio García; Regalado-Santiago, Citlalli; Ruiz-Contreras, Alejandra E; Prospéro-García, Oscar

    2016-08-01

    A considerable amount experimental studies have shown that maternal separation (MS) is associated with adult offspring abnormal behavior and cognition disorder. Accordingly, this experimental procedure has been proposed as a predictor for alcohol and drug dependence based on the neurodevelopmental soon after birth. Endocannabinoid system (eCBs) has been implicated in reward processes, including drug abuse and dependence. MS and associated stress causes changes in the eCBs that seem to facilitate alcohol consumption. In this study, we seek to evaluate potential morphological changes in neurons of the frontal cortex (FCx) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc), in the expression of receptors and enzymes of the endocannabinoid and dopamine systems and in second messengers, such as Akt, in adult rats subjected to MS and early stress (MS + ES; 2 × 180 min daily) vs. nonseparated rats (NMS). Results showed that MS + ES induces higher D2R expression and lower D3R, FAAH, and MAGL expression compared with NMS rats. Alterations in total dendritic length were also detected and were characterized by increases in the NAcc while there were decreases in the FCx. We believe MS + ES-induced changes in the dopaminergic and endocannabinergic systems and in the neuronal microstructure might be contributing to alcohol seeking behavior and, potential vulnerability to other drugs in rats. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 819-831, 2016. PMID:26539755

  8. Morphological and molecular characterization of Fusarium spp pathogenic to pecan tree in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lazarotto, M; Milanesi, P M; Muniz, M F B; Reiniger, L R S; Beltrame, R; Harakava, R; Blume, E

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of Fusarium spp associated with pecan tree (Carya illinoinensis) diseases in Brazil has been observed in recent laboratory analyses in Rio Grande do Sul State. Thus, in this study, we i) obtained Fusarium isolates from plants with disease symptoms; ii) tested the pathogenicity of these Fusarium isolates to pecan; iii) characterized and grouped Fusarium isolates that were pathogenic to the pecan tree based on morphological characteristics; iv) identified Fusarium spp to the species complex level through TEF-1α sequencing; and v) compared the identification methods used in the study. Fifteen isolates collected from the inflorescences, roots, and seeds of symptomatic plants (leaf necrosis or root rot) were used for pathogenicity tests. Morphological characterization was conducted using only pathogenic isolates, for a total of 11 isolates, based on the mycelial growth rate, sporulation, colony pigmentation, and conidial length and width variables. Pathogenic isolates were grouped based on morphological characteristics, and molecular characterization was performed by sequencing TEF-1α genes. Pathogenic isolates belonging to the Fusarium chlamydosporum species complex, Fusarium graminearum species complex, Fusarium proliferatum, and Fusarium oxysporum were identified based on the TEF-1α region. Morphological characteristics were used to effectively differentiate isolates and group the isolates according to genetic similarity, particularly conidial width, which emerged as a key morphological descriptor in this study. PMID:25501150

  9. Identification and characterization of rat Ankrd6 gene in silico.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Masuko; Katoh, Masaru

    2005-02-01

    WNT signals are transduced to the beta-catenin pathway or the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway. Drosophila Frizzled (Fz), Starry night (Stan), Van Gogh (Vang), Prickle (Pk) and Diego (Dgo) are PCP signaling molecules. Human FZD1, FZD2, FZD3, FZD4, FZD5, FZD6, FZD7, FZD8, FZD9 and FZD10 are Fz homologs. Human CELSR1, CELSR2 and CELSR3 are Stan homologs. Human VANGL1 and VANGL2 are Vang homologs. Human PRICKLE1 and PRICKLE2 are Pk homologs. Human ANKRN6 is a Dgo homolog. Here, we identified and characterized rat Ankrd6 gene by using bioinformatics. Ankrd6 gene, consisting of 15 exons, was located within AC105547.5 genome sequence derived from rat chromosome 5q21. Rat Ankrd6 mRNA was expressed in corpus-striatum, eye, lung, and kidney. Rat Ankrd6 (714 aa) with six ankyrin (Ank) repeats and two coiled-coil regions showed 95.0, 84.2 and 53.4% total-amino-acid identity with mouse, human and zebrafish orthologs, respectively. Ser 340 of rat Ankrd6, conserved among mammalian Ankrd6 orthologs, was a protein kinase A (PKA) phosphotylation and 14-3-3 interaction site. Ank repeats are putative binding domains for Prickle1, Prickle2, Vangl1, and Vangl2. Central coiled-coil region is located within binding domain for Casein kinase I epsilon (CkIe). C-terminal coiled-coil region is located within binding domain for Axin1 and Axin2. Fourth to sixth Ank repeats of vertebrate Ankrd6 orthologs (codon 141-239) were highly conserved in Drosophila Dgo; however, two coiled-coil regions of vertebrate Ankrd6 orthologs were absent in Drosophila Dgo. Due to the molecular evolution, functions of vertebrate Ankrd6 orthologs were predicted to partially differ from those of Drosophila Dgo. PMID:15647854

  10. Morphologic and proteomic characterization of exosomes released by cultured extravillous trophoblast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Atay, Safinur; Gercel-Taylor, Cicek; Kesimer, Mehmet; Taylor, Douglas D.

    2011-05-01

    Exosomes represent an important intercellular communication vehicle, mediating events essential for the decidual microenvironment. While we have demonstrated exosome induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, to date, no extensive characterization of trophoblast-derived exosomes has been provided. Our objective was to provide a morphologic and proteomic characterization of these exosomes. Exosomes were isolated from the conditioned media of Swan71 human trophoblast cells by ultrafiltration and ultracentrifugation. These were analyzed for density (sucrose density gradient centrifugation), morphology (electron microscopy), size (dynamic light scattering) and protein composition (Ion Trap mass spectrometry and western immunoblotting). Based on density gradient centrifugation, microvesicles from Sw71 cells exhibit a density between 1.134 and 1.173 g/ml. Electron microscopy demonstrated that microvesicles from Sw71 cells exhibit the characteristic cup-shaped morphology of exosomes. Dynamic light scattering showed a bell-shaped curve, indicating a homogeneous population with a mean size of 165 nm {+-} 0.5 nm. Ion Trap mass spectrometry demonstrated the presence of exosome marker proteins (including CD81, Alix, cytoskeleton related proteins, and Rab family). The MS results were confirmed by western immunoblotting. Based on morphology, density, size and protein composition, we defined the release of exosomes from extravillous trophoblast cells and provide their first extensive characterization. This characterization is essential in furthering our understanding of 'normal' early pregnancy.

  11. Characterization of pruriceptive trigeminothalamic tract neurons in rats

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Hannah R.

    2014-01-01

    Rodent models of facial itch and pain provide a valuable tool for distinguishing between behaviors related to each sensation. In rats, pruritogens applied to the face elicit scratching using the hindlimb while algogens elicit wiping using the forelimb. We wished to determine the role of trigeminothalamic tract (VTT) neurons in carrying information regarding facial itch and pain to the forebrain. We have characterized responses to facially applied pruritogens (serotonin, BAM8–22, chloroquine, histamine, capsaicin, and cowhage) and noxious stimuli in 104 VTT neurons recorded from anesthetized rats. Each VTT neuron had a mechanically sensitive cutaneous receptive field on the ipsilateral face. All pruriceptive VTT neurons also responded to noxious mechanical and/or thermal stimulation. Over half of VTT neurons responsive to noxious stimuli also responded to at least one pruritogen. Each tested pruritogen, with the exception of cowhage, produced an increase in discharge rate in a subset of VTT neurons. The response to each pruritogen was characterized, including maximum discharge rate, response duration, and spike timing dynamics. Pruriceptive VTT neurons were recorded from throughout superficial and deep layers of the spinal trigeminal nucleus and were shown to project via antidromic mapping to the ventroposterior medial nucleus or posterior thalamic nuclei. These results indicate that pruriceptive VTT neurons are a subset of polymodal nociceptive VTT neurons and characterize a system conducive to future experiments regarding the similarities and differences between facial itch and pain. PMID:24478156

  12. Ischemic preconditioning attenuates functional, metabolic, and morphologic injury from ischemic acute renal failure in the rat.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, J; Williams, B T; Banerjee, A; Harken, A H; Burke, T J; Cairns, C B; Shapiro, J I

    1999-03-01

    Ischemic preconditioning has been shown to ameliorate injury due to subsequent ischemia in several organs. However, relatively little is known about preconditioning and the kidney. To address this, rats were randomized to control (C, N = 14), 2 min of ischemic preconditioning (P2 N = 10), 3 periods of 2 min of ischemia separated by 5 min periods of reflow (P2,3 N = 7), or three 5 min periods of ischemia separated by 5 min of reflow (P5,3 N = 6) prior to 45 min of bilateral renal ischemia followed by 24 hours of reperfusion. We observed a lower serum creatinine after 24 hours of reflow in P2, P2, 3 but not P5, 3 rats compared with C. Histology was examined in the C and P2, 3 groups and demonstrated less severe injury in the P2, 3 group. To gain insight into the mechanism by which preconditioning ameliorated ischemic injury, we performed near IR spectroscopy and 31P NMR spectroscopy. Based on near IR spectroscopy, the P2, 3 group had closer coupling of cytochrome aa3 redox state with that of hemoglobin during reflow. In the 31P NMR studies, the changes in ATP and pHi were similar during ischemia, but the P2, 3 group recovered ATP and pHi faster than C. These data suggest that ischemic preconditioning may ameliorate ischemic renal injury as assessed by functional, metabolic and morphological methods. The mechanism(s) by which this occurs requires additional study. PMID:10088174

  13. Alterations in Rat Fetal Morphology Following Abuse Patterns of Toluene Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Scott E.; Irtenkauf, Susan; Hannigan, John H.; Stefanski, Adrianne L.

    2009-01-01

    Toluene is a commonly abused organic solvent. Inhalant abusers are increasingly women in their prime childbearing years. Children born to mothers who abused solvents during pregnancy may exhibit characteristics of a “fetal solvent syndrome” which may include dysmorphic features. This study examined the teratological effects of an abuse pattern of binge toluene exposure during gestation on skeletal and soft tissue abnormalities, body weight, and body size in fetal rats. Pregnant Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed for 30 min, twice daily, from gestational day (GD) 8 through GD20 to either air (0 ppm), 8,000 ppm, 12,000 ppm, or 16,000 ppm toluene. Two-thirds of each litter was prepared for skeletal examination using Alizarin Red S staining while the remaining third of each litter was fixed in Bouin’s solution for Wilson’s soft tissue evaluation. Exposure to toluene at all levels significantly reduced growth, including decreases in placental weight, fetal weight, and crown-rump length. In addition, numerous gross morphological anomalies were observed such as short or missing digits and missing limbs. Skeletal examination revealed that ossification of the extremities was significantly reduced as a result of toluene exposure at all levels. Specific skeletal defects included misshapen scapula, missing and supernumerary vertebrae and ribs, and fused digits. Soft tissue anomalies were also observed at all toluene levels and there was a dose-dependent increase in the number of anomalies which included cryptorchidism, displaced abdominal organs, gastromegaly, distended/hypoplastic bladder, and delayed cardiac development, among others. These results indicate that animals exposed prenatally to levels and patterns of toluene typical of inhalant abuse are at increased risk for skeletal and soft tissue abnormalities. PMID:19429395

  14. Influence of exposure regimen on nitrogen dioxide-induced morphological changes in the rat lung

    SciTech Connect

    Rombout, P.J.A.; Dormans, J.A.M.A.; Marra, M.; van Esch, G.J.

    1986-12-01

    Experiments were performed to study the influence of concentration, exposure pattern, and length of exposure on the degree and extent of morphological alterations in the NO/sub 2//sup -/ exposed rat lung. Four weeks of continuous exposure to 20 mg NO/sub 2//m/sup 3/ consecutively revealed damage and loss of cilia, replacement of desquamated type I pneumocytes by type II pneumocytes resulting in a cuboidal epithelial lining, an influx of alveolar macrophages, and hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the bronchiolar epithelium. The animals recovered almost completely from the induced lesions within 8 days. Continuous exposure to 1, 2.5, or 5 mg/m/sup 3/ displayed minimal alterations in the 5 mg/m/sup 3/ group. The effects increased with exposure time. Intermittent or continuous exposure to 20 mg NO/sub 2//m/sup 3/ resulted in minor differences after 4 weeks. The onset of the lesions was delayed and the massive influx of alveolar macrophages in the continuously exposed animals failed to appear in the intermittently exposed animals. This work demonstrates that in subacute experiments: (1) Concentration plays a more important role in inducing pulmonary lesions than exposure time when the product of concentration and time is kept constant. This effect is stronger during intermittent exposure than during continuous exposure. (2) Continuous exposure seems to be a more important factor with regard to a macrophage response than intermittent exposure. (3) The rat lung has a large capacity to repair almost completely from damage caused by short-term NO/sub 2/ exposure.

  15. Chronic aerobic swimming exercise promotes functional and morphological changes in rat ileum

    PubMed Central

    da Cunha Araujo, Layanne Cabral; de Souza, Iara Leão Luna; Vasconcelos, Luiz Henrique César; de Freitas Brito, Aline; Queiroga, Fernando Ramos; Silva, Alexandre Sérgio; da Silva, Patrícia Mirella; de Andrade Cavalcante, Fabiana; da Silva, Bagnólia Araújo

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported the gastrointestinal (GI) effects promoted by the physical exercise. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the influence of swimming exercise on the contractile reactivity, lipid peroxidation and morphology of rat ileum. Wistar rats were divided into sedentary (SED) and groups exercised for two (EX2), four (EX4), six (EX6) or eight (EX8) weeks, 5 days/week. Animals were killed; the ileum was removed and suspended in organ baths where the isotonic contractions were recorded. Lipid peroxidation was evaluated by MDA (malondialdehyde) measurement with TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) assay and morphology by histological staining. Cumulative concentration-response curves to KCl were attenuated, as the Emax values were changed from 100% (SED) to 63.1±3.9 (EX2), 48.8±3.8 (EX4), 19.4±1.8 (EX6) and 59.4±2.8% (EX8). Similarly, cumulative concentration-response curves to carbamylcholine hydrochloride (CCh) were attenuated, as the Emax values were changed from 100% (SED) to 74.1±5.4 (EX2), 75.9±5.2 (EX4) and 62.9±4.6 (EX6), but not in the EX8 (89.7±3.4%). However, CCh potency was increased in this latter, as the EC50 was altered from 1.0±0.1×10−6 (SED) to 2.1±0.4×10−7 (EX8). MDA concentration was altered only in EX4 (44.3±4.4) compared with SED (20.6±3.6 μmol/l). Circular layer was reduced in SED when compared with the exercised groups. Conversely, longitudinal layer was increased. In conclusion, chronic swimming exercise reduces the ileum contraction, equilibrates the oxidative damage and promotes changes in tissue size to establish an adaptation to the exercise. PMID:26424698

  16. Multi-level femoral morphology and mechanical properties of rats of different ages.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Gong, He; Zhu, Dong; Ma, Renshi; Fang, Juan; Fan, Yobo

    2015-07-01

    A macro-micro-nano-multi-level study was conducted to explore age-related structural and mechanical properties of bone, as well as the effects of aging on bone properties. A total of 70 male Wistar rats were used, ranging in the ages of 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 14, 15, 16, and 17 months (n = 7/age group). After micro-computed tomography (CT) scanning, longitudinal cortical bone specimens with a length of 5mm were cut along the femoral shaft axis from left femur shafts for mechanical testing, and the cross-sectional areas were measured. The macro-mechanical properties obtained in mechanical testing and microarchitecture parameters measured by micro-CT were significantly correlated with the animal age (r(2) = 0.96, p < 0.001). Scanning electron microscopy was used for detecting the microarchitecture features of the fractured surfaces, which exhibited age-related plate-fibrous-mixed fibrous-plate texture, resulting in changes in macro-mechanical properties (r(2) > 0.90, p < 0.001). The mineral phase of the left femoral shaft and head was analyzed by atomic force microscopy. Longitudinal and transverse trabecular bone tissues, as well as longitudinal cortical bone tissue, were used for nanoindentation test, and the chemical composition was evaluated by quantitative chemical analyses. The correlations between mineral content and bone material properties (i.e., elastic properties of the bone tissue and size and roughness of bone mineral grains) were highly significant (r > 0.95, p < 0.001). Multi-level femur morphology, mechanical property, and mineral content were significantly correlated with the animal age. The correlations between bone mineral content and bone material morphological and mechanical properties may partly explain the increase in bone fragility with aging, which will provide a theoretical basis for the investigation of age-related bone properties in clinics. PMID:25857690

  17. Morphological characterization of keratoconus-affected human corneas by SHG imaging and correlation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercatelli, R.; Ratto, F.; Tatini, F.; Rossi, F.; Menabuoni, L.; Nicoletti, R.; Pini, R.; Pavone, Frederick; Cicchi, R.

    2016-03-01

    Keratoconus is an ophthalmic disease in which the cornea acquires an abnormal conical shape that prevents the correct focusing on the retina, causing visual impairment. The late diagnosis of keratoconus is among the principal causes of corneal transplantation surgery. In this study, we characterize the morphology of keratoconic corneas by means of the correlation of SHG images, finding that keratoconus can be diagnosed by analyzing the inclination of lamellae below Bowman's membrane. In addition, imaging performed with both sagittal and "en face" geometry demonstrated that this morphological features can be highlighted both ex vivo and in vivo.

  18. Morphological characterization of selected balloon films and its effects on balloon performances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Said, Magdi A.

    1994-01-01

    Morphological characterization of several polyethylene balloon films have been studied using various techniques. The objective is to determine, if any, differentiating structural or morphological features that can be related to the performance of these balloon film materials. The results of the study indicate that the films are composed of either linear low denstiy polyethylene (LLDPE) or low density polyethylene (LDPE). A selective examination of these data imply that films limited degree of branching and larger crystallites size (same % crystallinity) showed good mechanical properties that appear to correlate with their high level of success in balloon flights.

  19. Morphological study of the effects of ozone on rat lung. II. Long-term exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Hiroshima, K.; Kohno, T.; Ohwada, H.; Hayashi, Y.

    1989-04-01

    To evaluate the morphological changes observed in animals after prolonged ozone exposure, 56 male rats were exposed to a high ambient level of ozone (0.5 ppm) 6 hr a day, 6 days a week, for 2, 3, 5, and 12 months and examined by light and electron microscopy. Bronchitis and peribronchitis were observed throughout the exposure periods, and connective tissue around the bronchi thickened as a result of fibrosis. Some bronchiolar ciliated cells were in a degenerated condition and others in a reparative phase. Hyperplastic nodules were not found in the bronchioles, but hyperplasia of the bronchiolar epithelium was observed. Hyperplasia of lymphoid nodules around small vessels was prominent after 2 months of exposure. After 3 months of exposure, alveolar ducts were lined by type 2 cells, and after 12 months, by the bronchiolar epithelium consisting of both ciliated and nonciliated cells. Alveolar macrophages accumulated in the centriacinar alveoli. Fibrous strands were seen to be deposited in alveolar ducts after 3 months, and in bronchioles after 5 months. This fibrosis was due to an increment in collagen fibers. The degree of fibrosis increased with the length of ozone exposure.

  20. Morphological and biochemical examination of Cosmos 1887 rat heart tissue. Part 1: Ultrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpott, D. E.; Popova, I. A.; Kato, K.; Stevenson, J.; Miquel, J.; Sapp, W.

    1990-01-01

    Morphological changes were observed in the left ventricle of rat heart tissue from animals flown on the Cosmos 1887 biosatellite for 12.5 days. These tissues were compared to the synchronous and vivarium control hearts. While many normal myofibrils were observed, others exhibited ultrastructural alterations, i.e., damaged and irregular-shaped mitochondria and generalized myofibrillar edema. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the volume density data revealed a statistically significant increase in glycogen and a significant decrease in mitochondria compared to the synchronous and vivarium controls. Point counting indicated an increase in lipid and myeloid bodies and a decrease in microtubules, but these changes were not statistically significant. In addition, the flight animals exhibited some patchy loss of protofibrils (actin and myosin filaments) and some abnormal supercontracted myofibrils that were not seen in the controls. This study was undertaken to gain insight into the mechanistic aspects of cardiac changes in both animals and human beings as a consequence of space travel. Cardiac hypotrophy and fluid shifts have been observed after actual or simulated weightlessness and raise concerns about the functioning of the heart and circulatory system during and after travel in space.

  1. The Effect of Cochinchina momordica Seed Extract on Gastric Acid Secretion and Morphologic Change in Aged Rat Stomach

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Hyun Jin; Nam, Ryoung Hee; Chang, Hyun; Kim, Joo-Hyon; Park, Ji Hyun; Kang, Jung Mook; Lee, Dong Ho; Jung, Hyun Chae

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Cochinchina momordica seed extract (SK-MS10) has a gastric protective effect. We aimed to assess the effect of SK-MS10 on gastric acid secretion with morphologic changes in the aged rat. Methods Acid secretions were evaluated in the male F344 rats of four different ages (6-, 31-, 74-week, and 2-year). The 31-week-old rats were divided to three groups and continuously administered chow containing vehicle, SK-MS10 and lansoprazole, respectively. At the age of 74 weeks and 2 years, basal and stimulated acid was measured and the expression of mRNA and protein of H+-K+-ATPase were determined. The area of connective tissue of lamina propria was measured. Results Basal and stimulated gastric acid significantly decreased and connective tissue of lamina propria increased with age. The expression of mRNA and protein of H+-K+-ATPase significantly decreased with age. However, 74-week-old rats in the SK-MS10 group had higher stimulated gastric acid secretion than those in the vehicle and lansoprazole groups. In 2-year-old rats of SK-MS10 group, there was no increase of connective tissue. Conclusions As SK-MS10 kept the capacity of acid secretion as well as connective tissue area to comparable to young rats, it might valuable to perform further research regarding mechanism of SK-MS10 as an antiaging agent in the stomach. PMID:24073314

  2. Favism: effect of divicine on rat erythrocyte sulfhydryl status, hexose monophosphate shunt activity, morphology, and membrane skeletal proteins.

    PubMed

    McMillan, D C; Bolchoz, L J; Jollow, D J

    2001-08-01

    Favism is an acute anemic crisis that can occur in susceptible individuals who ingest fava beans. The fava bean pyrimidine aglycone divicine has been identified as a hemotoxic constituent; however, its mechanism of toxicity remains unknown. We have shown recently that divicine can induce a favic-like response in rats and that divicine is directly toxic to rat red cells. In the present study, we have examined the effect of hemotoxic concentrations of divicine on rat erythrocyte sulfhydryl status, hexose monophosphate (HMP) shunt activity, morphology, and membrane skeletal proteins. In vitro exposure of rat red cells to divicine markedly stimulated HMP shunt activity and resulted in depletion of reduced glutathione with concomitant formation of glutathione-protein mixed-disulfides. Examination of divicine-treated red cells by scanning electron microscopy revealed transformation of the cells to an extreme echinocytic morphology. SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting analysis of the membrane skeletal proteins indicated that hemotoxicity was associated with the apparent loss of skeletal protein bands 2.1, 3, and 4.2, and the appearance of membrane-bound hemoglobin. Treatment of divicine-damaged red cells with dithiothreitol reversed the protein changes, which indicated that the observed alterations were due primarily to the formation of disulfide-linked hemoglobin-skeletal protein adducts. The data suggest that oxidative modification of hemoglobin and membrane skeletal proteins by divicine may be key events in the mechanism underlying favism. PMID:11452148

  3. Trigonella foenum graecum seed extract protects kidney function and morphology in diabetic rats via its antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Xue, Wanli; Lei, Jing; Li, Xuanshe; Zhang, Ruijuan

    2011-07-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Because Trigonella foenum graecum has been reported to have antidiabetic and antioxidative effects, we hypothesized that T foenum graecum seed aqueous extract (TE) restores the kidney function of diabetic rats via its antioxidant activity. Rats were fed diets enriched with sucrose (50%, wt/wt), lard (30%, wt/wt), and cholesterol (2.5%, wt/wt) for 8 weeks to induce insulin resistance. After a DN model was induced by streptozotocin, the rats were administered a low (440 mg/kg), medium (870 mg/kg), or high (1740 mg/kg) dose of TE by oral intragastric intubation for 6 weeks. In TE-treated DN rats, blood glucose, kidney/body weight ratio, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, 24-hour content of urinary protein, and creatinine clearance were significantly decreased compared with nontreated DN rats. Diabetic rats showed decreased activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase, increased concentrations of malondialdehyde in the serum and kidney, and increased levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in urine and renal cortex DNA. Treatment with TE restored the altered parameters in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, all of the ultramorphologic abnormalities in the kidney of diabetic rats, including the uneven thickening of the glomerular base membrane, were markedly ameliorated by TE treatment. We conclude that TE confers protection against functional and morphologic injuries in the kidneys of diabetic rats by increasing activities of antioxidants and inhibiting accumulation of oxidized DNA in the kidney, suggesting a potential drug for the prevention and therapy of DN. PMID:21840472

  4. Blast exposure in rats with body shielding is characterized primarily by diffuse axonal injury.

    PubMed

    Garman, Robert H; Jenkins, Larry W; Switzer, Robert C; Bauman, Richard A; Tong, Lawrence C; Swauger, Peter V; Parks, Steven A; Ritzel, David V; Dixon, C Edward; Clark, Robert S B; Bayir, Hülya; Kagan, Valerian; Jackson, Edwin K; Kochanek, Patrick M

    2011-06-01

    Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the signature insult in combat casualty care. Survival with neurological damage from otherwise lethal blast exposures has become possible with body armor use. We characterized the neuropathologic alterations produced by a single blast exposure in rats using a helium-driven shock tube to generate a nominal exposure of 35 pounds per square inch (PSI) (positive phase duration ∼ 4 msec). Using an IACUC-approved protocol, isoflurane-anesthetized rats were placed in a steel wedge (to shield the body) 7 feet inside the end of the tube. The left side faced the blast wave (with head-only exposure); the wedge apex focused a Mach stem onto the rat's head. The insult produced ∼ 25% mortality (due to impact apnea). Surviving and sham rats were perfusion-fixed at 24 h, 72 h, or 2 weeks post-blast. Neuropathologic evaluations were performed utilizing hematoxylin and eosin, amino cupric silver, and a variety of immunohistochemical stains for amyloid precursor protein (APP), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1), ED1, and rat IgG. Multifocal axonal degeneration, as evidenced by staining with amino cupric silver, was present in all blast-exposed rats at all time points. Deep cerebellar and brainstem white matter tracts were most heavily stained with amino cupric silver, with the morphologic staining patterns suggesting a process of diffuse axonal injury. Silver-stained sections revealed mild multifocal neuronal death at 24 h and 72 h. GFAP, ED1, and Iba1 staining were not prominently increased, although small numbers of reactive microglia were seen within areas of neuronal death. Increased blood-brain barrier permeability (as measured by IgG staining) was seen at 24 h and primarily affected the contralateral cortex. Axonal injury was the most prominent feature during the initial 2 weeks following blast exposure, although degeneration of other neuronal processes was also present

  5. Generation and characterization of rat liver stem cell lines and their engraftment in a rat model of liver failure

    PubMed Central

    Kuijk, Ewart W.; Rasmussen, Shauna; Blokzijl, Francis; Huch, Meritxell; Gehart, Helmuth; Toonen, Pim; Begthel, Harry; Clevers, Hans; Geurts, Aron M.; Cuppen, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    The rat is an important model for liver regeneration. However, there is no in vitro culture system that can capture the massive proliferation that can be observed after partial hepatectomy in rats. We here describe the generation of rat liver stem cell lines. Rat liver stem cells, which grow as cystic organoids, were characterized by high expression of the stem cell marker Lgr5, by the expression of liver progenitor and duct markers, and by low expression of hepatocyte markers, oval cell markers, and stellate cell markers. Prolonged cultures of rat liver organoids depended on high levels of WNT-signalling and the inhibition of BMP-signaling. Upon transplantation of clonal lines to a Fah−/− Il2rg−/− rat model of liver failure, the rat liver stem cells engrafted into the host liver where they differentiated into areas with FAH and Albumin positive hepatocytes. Rat liver stem cell lines hold potential as consistent reliable cell sources for pharmacological, toxicological or metabolic studies. In addition, rat liver stem cell lines may contribute to the development of regenerative medicine in liver disease. To our knowledge, the here described liver stem cell lines represent the first organoid culture system in the rat. PMID:26915950

  6. Morphological characterization of respiratory neurons in the pre-Bötzinger complex.

    PubMed

    Zavala-Tecuapetla, Cecilia; Tapia, Dagoberto; Rivera-Angulo, Ana Julia; Galarraga, Elvira; Peña-Ortega, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Although the pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötC) was defined as the inspiratory rhythm generator long ago, the functional-anatomical characterization of its neuronal components is still being achieved. Recent advances have identified the expression of molecular markers in the preBötC neurons that, however, are not exclusive to specific respiratory neuron subtypes and have not always been related to specific cell morphologies. Here, we evaluated the morphology and the axonal projections of electrophysiologically defined respiratory neurons in the preBötC using whole-cell recordings and intracellular biocytin labeling. We found that respiratory pacemaker neurons are larger than expiratory neurons and that inspiratory neurons are smaller than pacemaker and expiratory neurons. Other morphological features such as somata shapes or dendritic branching patterns were not found to be significantly different among the preBötC neurons sampled. We also found that both pacemaker and inspiratory nonpacemaker neurons, but not expiratory neurons, show extensive axonal projections to the contralateral preBötC and show signs of electrical coupling. Overall, our data suggest that there are morphological differences between subtypes of preBötC respiratory neurons. It will be important to take such differences in consideration since morphological differences would influence synaptic responses and action potential propagation. PMID:24746042

  7. Morphological characterization and viability assessment of Trichoderma reesei by image analysis.

    PubMed

    Lecault, Véronique; Patel, Nilesh; Thibault, Jules

    2007-01-01

    The production of cellulase from the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is a critical step in the industrial process leading to cellulose ethanol. As a result of the lack of quantitative analysis tools, the intimate relationship that exists between the morphological and physiological states of the microorganism, the shear field in the bioreactor, and the process performance is not yet fully understood. A semiautomatic image analysis protocol was developed to characterize the mycelium morphology and to estimate its percentage viability during the fermentation process based on four morphological types (unbranched, branched, entangled, and clumped microorganisms). Pictures taken under bright field microscopy combined with images of fluorescein diacetate stained fungi were used to assess the morphological parameters and the percentage viability of microorganisms simultaneously. The method was tested during the course of fed-batch fermentation in a reciprocating plate bioreactor. The use of the image analysis protocol was found to be successful in quantifying the variations in the morphology and the viability of T. reesei throughout the fermentation. PMID:17373824

  8. Functional and Morphological Changes in Endocrine Pancreas following Cola Drink Consumption in Rats

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Aim We report the effects of long-term cola beverage drinking on glucose homeostasis, endocrine pancreas function and morphology in rats. Methods Wistar rats drank: water (group W), regular cola beverage (group C, sucrose sweetened) or “light” cola beverage (group L, artificially sweetened). After 6 months, 50% of the animals in each group were euthanized and the remaining animals consumed water for the next 6 months when euthanasia was performed. Biochemical assays, insulinemia determination, estimation of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), morphometry and immunohistochemistry evaluations were performed in pancreas. Results Hyperglycemia (16%, p<0.05), CoQ10 (coenzyme-Q10) decrease (−52%,p<0.01), strong hypertriglyceridemia (2.8-fold, p<0.01), hyperinsulinemia (2.4 fold, p<0.005) and HOMA-IR increase (2.7 fold, p<0.01) were observed in C. Group C showed a decrease in number of α cells (−42%, p<0.01) and β cells (−58%, p<0.001) and a moderate increase in α cells’ size after wash-out (+14%, p<0.001). Group L showed reduction in β cells’ size (−9%, p<0.001) and only after wash-out (L12) a 19% increase in size (p<0.0001) with 35% decrease in number of α cells (p<0.01). Groups C and L showed increase in α/β-cell ratio which was irreversible only in C (α/β = +38% in C6,+30% in C12, p<0.001vs.W6). Regular cola induced a striking increase in the cytoplasmic expression of Trx1 (Thioredoxin-1) (2.25-fold in C6 vs. W6; 2.7-fold in C12 vs. W12, p<0.0001) and Prx2 (Peroxiredoxin-2) (3-fold in C6 vs. W6; 2-fold in C12 vs. W12, p<0.0001). Light cola induced increase in Trx1 (3-fold) and Prx2 (2-fold) after wash-out (p<0.0001, L12 vs. W12). Conclusion Glucotoxicity may contribute to the loss of β cell function with depletion of insulin content. Oxidative stress, suggested by increased expression of thioredoxins and low circulating levels of CoQ10, may follow sustained hyperglycemia. A likely similar panorama may result from the effects of artificially

  9. Pattern recognition characterizations of micromechanical and morphological materials states via analytical quantitative ultrasonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. H., Jr.; Lee, S. S.

    1986-01-01

    One potential approach to the quantitative acquisition of discriminatory information that can isolate a single structural state is pattern recognition. The pattern recognition characterizations of micromechanical and morphological materials states via analytical quantiative ultrasonics are outlined. The concepts, terminology, and techniques of statistical pattern recognition are reviewed. Feature extraction and classification and states of the structure can be determined via a program of ultrasonic data generation.

  10. Multifractal characterization of morphology of human red blood cells membrane skeleton.

    PubMed

    Ţălu, Ş; Stach, S; Kaczmarska, M; Fornal, M; Grodzicki, T; Pohorecki, W; Burda, K

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show applicability of multifractal analysis in investigations of the morphological changes of ultra-structures of red blood cells (RBCs) membrane skeleton measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Human RBCs obtained from healthy and hypertensive donors as well as healthy erythrocytes irradiated with neutrons (45 μGy) were studied. The membrane skeleton of the cells was imaged using AFM in a contact mode. Morphological characterization of the three-dimensional RBC surfaces was realized by a multifractal method. The nanometre scale study of human RBCs surface morphology revealed a multifractal geometry. The generalized dimensions Dq and the singularity spectrum f(α) provided quantitative values that characterize the local scale properties of their membrane skeleton organization. Surface characterization was made using areal ISO 25178-2: 2012 topography parameters in combination with AFM topography measurement. The surface structure of human RBCs is complex with hierarchical substructures resulting from the organization of the erythrocyte membrane skeleton. The analysed AFM images confirm a multifractal nature of the surface that could be useful in histology to quantify human RBC architectural changes associated with different disease states. In case of very precise measurements when the red cell surface is not wrinkled even very fine differences can be uncovered as was shown for the erythrocytes treated with a very low dose of ionizing radiation. PMID:27002485

  11. Differentially expressed genes and morphological changes during lengthened immobilization in rat soleus muscle.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Won; Kwon, Oh Yun; Kim, Myoung Hee

    2007-02-01

    To examine the effect of lengthened immobilization on the expression of genes and concomitant morphological changes in soleus muscle, rat hindlimbs were immobilized at the ankle in full dorsiflexion by plaster cast. After removing the muscle (after 1 hr, 1, 4, and 7 days of immobilization), morphology and differential gene expression were analyzed through electron microscopy and differential display reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (DDRT-PCR), respectively. At the myotendinous junction (MTJ), a large cytoplasmic space appeared after 1 hr of immobilization and became enlarged over time, together with damaged Z lines. Interfibrillar space was detected after 1 day of immobilization, but diminished after 7 days. At the muscle belly, Z-line streaming and widening were observed following 1 hr of immobilization. Disorganization of myofilaments (misalignment of adjacent sarcomeres, distortion, or absence of Z lines) was detected after 4 days. Furthermore, mitochondrial swelling and cristae disruption were observed after 1 day of stretching. A set of 15 differentially expressed candidate genes was identified through DDRT-PCR. Of 11 known genes, seven (Atp5g3, TOM22, INrf2, Slc25a4, Hdac6, Tpm1, and Sv2b) were up and three (Podxl, Myh1, and Surf1) were down-regulated following immobilization. In the case of Acyp2, 1-day stretching-specific expression was observed. Atp5g3, Slc25a4, TOM22, and Surf1 are mitochondrial proteins related to energy metabolism, except TOM22, which has a chaperone-like activity located in the mitochondrial outer membrane. Together with these, INrf2, Hdac6, Podxl, and Acyp2 are related more or less to stress-induced apoptosis, indicating the responses to apoptotic changes in mitochondria caused by stretching. The expression of both Tpm1 and Myh1, fast twitch isoforms, suggests adaption to the immobilization. These results altogether indicate that lengthened immobilization regulates the expression of several stress/apoptosis-related and

  12. Characterization of deltamethrin metabolism by rat plasma and liver microsomes

    SciTech Connect

    Anand, Sathanandam S. . E-mail: sanand@rx.uga.edu; Bruckner, James V.; Haines, Wendy T.; Muralidhara, Srinivasa; Fisher, Jeffrey W.; Padilla, Stephanie

    2006-04-15

    Deltamethrin, a widely used type II pyrethroid insecticide, is a relatively potent neurotoxicant. While the toxicity has been extensively examined, toxicokinetic studies of deltamethrin and most other pyrethroids are very limited. The aims of this study were to identify, characterize, and assess the relative contributions of esterases and cytochrome P450s (CYP450s) responsible for deltamethrin metabolism by measuring deltamethrin disappearance following incubation of various concentrations (2 to 400 {mu}M) in plasma (esterases) and liver microsomes (esterases and CYP450s) prepared from adult male rats. While the carboxylesterase metabolism in plasma and liver was characterized using an inhibitor, tetra isopropyl pyrophosphoramide (isoOMPA), CYP450 metabolism was characterized using the cofactor, NADPH. Michaelis-Menten rate constants were calculated using linear and nonlinear regression as applicable. The metabolic efficiency of these pathways was estimated by calculating intrinsic clearance (Vmax/Km). In plasma, isoOMPA completely inhibited deltamethrin biotransformation at concentrations (2 and 20 {mu}M of deltamethrin) that are 2- to 10-fold higher than previously reported peak blood levels in deltamethrin-poisoned rats. For carboxylesterase-mediated deltamethrin metabolism in plasma, Vmax = 325.3 {+-} 53.4 nmol/h/ml and Km = 165.4 {+-} 41.9 {mu}M. Calcium chelation by EGTA did not inhibit deltamethrin metabolism in plasma or liver microsomes, indicating that A-esterases do not metabolize deltamethrin. In liver microsomes, esterase-mediated deltamethrin metabolism was completely inhibited by isoOMPA, confirming the role of carboxylesterases. The rate constants for liver carboxylesterases were Vmax = 1981.8 {+-} 132.3 nmol/h/g liver and Km = 172.5 {+-} 22.5 {mu}M. Liver microsomal CYP450-mediated biotransformation of deltamethrin was a higher capacity (Vmax = 2611.3 {+-} 134.1 nmol/h/g liver) and higher affinity (Km = 74.9 {+-} 5.9 {mu}M) process than

  13. Immunoexpression of intermediate filaments and morphological changes in the liver and bile duct of rats infected with Fasciola hepatica.

    PubMed

    Kolodziejczyk, L; Laszczyńska, M; Masiuk, M; Grabowska, M; Skrzydlewska, E

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the immunoexpression of the intermediate filament proteins, cytokeratin and desmin, and the morphological changes in the liver of rats during experimental fasciolosis at 4, 7 and 10 weeks post-infection. Rats were infected with 30 Fasciola hepatica metacercariae. Paraffin sections of the liver were stained using H & E, PAS and azan stains. Immunohistochemical reactions were performed using antibodies against cytokeratin and desmin. The experimental F. hepatica infection led to fibrosis and cirrhosis of the liver, and to inflammation of the common bile ducts. The expression of cytokeratin was increased in the epithelial cells of both the liver bile ductules at 4, 7 and 10 weeks post-infection and in the common bile ducts at 7 and 10 weeks post-infection compared to uninfected rats; expression in the common bile ducts was more intense. The myofibroblasts of the liver and smooth myocytes of the interlobular bile ducts and common bile ducts, showed a slight increase in desmin expression compared to the uninfected rats. The increased expression of cytokeratins in the hyperplastic rat common bile duct epithelium during the biliary phase of fasciolosis at 7 and 10 weeks post-infection may be explained by mechanical irritation by the parasite and an inflammatory reaction in the bile duct epithelium and in periductal fibrous tissue. PMID:25923046

  14. Astrocyte morphology, heterogeneity, and density in the developing African giant rat (Cricetomys gambianus)

    PubMed Central

    Olude, Matthew A.; Mustapha, Oluwaseun A.; Aderounmu, Oluwatunde A.; Olopade, James O.; Ihunwo, Amadi O.

    2015-01-01

    Astrocyte morphologies and heterogeneity were described in male African giant rats (AGR; Cricetomys gambianus, Waterhouse) across three age groups (five neonates, five juveniles, and five adults) using Silver impregnation method and immunohistochemistry against glial fibrillary acidic protein. Immunopositive cell signaling, cell size and population were least in neonates, followed by adults and juveniles, respectively. In neonates, astrocyte processes were mostly detected within the glia limitans of the mid and hind brain; their cell bodies measuring 32 ± 4.8 μm in diameter against 91 ± 5.4 μm and 75 ± 1.9 μm in juveniles and adults, respectively. Astrocyte heterogeneity in juvenile and adult groups revealed eight subtypes to include fibrous astrocytes chiefly in the corpus callosum and brain stem, protoplasmic astrocytes in the cortex and dentate gyrus (DG); radial glia were found along the olfactory bulb (OB) and subventricular zone (SVZ); velate astrocytes were mainly found in the cerebellum and hippocampus; marginal astrocytes close to the pia mater; Bergmann glia in the molecular layer of the cerebellum; perivascular and periventricular astrocytes in the cortex and third ventricle, respectively. Cell counts from twelve anatomical regions of the brain were significantly higher in juveniles than in adults (p ≤ 0.01) using unpaired student t-test in the cerebral cortex, pia, corpus callosum, rostral migratory stream, DG, and cerebellum. Highest astrocyte count was found in the DG, while the least count was in the brain stem and sub cortex. Astrocytes along the periventricular layer of the OB are believed to be part of the radial glia system that transport newly formed cells towards the hippocampus and play roles in neurogenesis migration and homeostasis in the AGR. Therefore, astrocyte heterogeneity was examined across age groups in the AGR to determine whether age influences astrocytes population in different regions of the AGR brain and discuss possible

  15. Characterization of Closed Head Impact Injury in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Yi; Akula, Praveen; Kelso, Matthew; Gu, Linxia

    2015-01-01

    The closed head impact (CHI) rat models are commonly used for studying the traumatic brain injury. The impact parameters vary considerably among different laboratories, making the comparison of research findings difficult. In this work, numerical CHI experiments were conducted to investigate the sensitivities of intracranial responses to various impact parameters (e.g., impact depth, velocity, and position; impactor diameter, material, and shape). A three-dimensional finite element rat head model with anatomical details was subjected to impact loadings. Results revealed that impact depth and impactor shape were the two leading factors affecting intracranial responses. The influence of impactor diameter was region-specific and an increase in impactor diameter could substantially increase tissue strains in the region which located directly beneath the impactor. The lateral impact could induce higher strains in the brain than the central impact. An indentation depth instead of impact depth would be appropriate to characterize the influence of a large deformed rubber impactor. The experimentally observed velocity-dependent injury severity could be attributed to the “overshoot” phenomenon. This work could be used to better design or compare CHI experiments. PMID:26451365

  16. Characterization of homocysteine metabolism in the rat kidney.

    PubMed Central

    House, J D; Brosnan, M E; Brosnan, J T

    1997-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have provided strong evidence that an elevated plasma homocysteine concentration is an important independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We have shown, in the rat, that the kidney is a major site for the removal and subsequent metabolism of plasma homocysteine [Bostom, Brosnan, Hall, Nadeau and Selhub (1995) Atherosclerosis 116, 59-62]. To characterize the role of the kidney in homocysteine metabolism further, we measured the disappearance of homocysteine in isolated renal cortical tubules of the rat. Renal tubules metabolized homocysteine primarily through the transulphuration pathway, producing cystathionine and cysteine (78% of homocysteine disappearance). Methionine production accounted for less than 2% of the disappearance of homocysteine. Cystathionine, and subsequently cysteine, production rates, as well as the rate of disappearance of homocysteine, were sensitive to the level of serine in the incubation medium, as increased serine concentrations permitted higher rates of cystathionine and cysteine production. On the basis of enrichment profiles of cystathionine beta-synthase and cystathionine gamma-lyase, in comparison with marker enzymes of known location, we concluded that cystathionine beta-synthase was enriched in the outer cortex, specifically in cells of the proximal convoluted tubule. Cystathionine gamma-lyase exhibited higher enrichment patterns in the inner cortex and outer medulla, with strong evidence of an enrichment in cells of the proximal straight tubule. These studies indicate that factors that influence the transulphuration of homocysteine may influence the renal clearance of this amino acid. PMID:9359866

  17. Characterization of vasopressin receptors of rat urinary bladder and spleen

    SciTech Connect

    Thibonnier, M.; Snajdar, R.M.; Rapp, J.P.

    1986-07-01

    By use of tritiated arginine-8-vasopressin (AVP), vasopressin specific binding sites were detected on Sprague-Dawley rat urinary bladder and spleen. In both tissues, one class of high-affinity binding sites was characterized with an equilibrium dissociation constant of 1.61 +/- 0.22 and 1.91 nM and a maximal binding capacity of 155 and 110 fmol/mg of protein, for bladder and spleen, respectively. In both tissues, several experimental arguments suggest that these receptors belong to the V/sub 1/-vascular type. AVP (10/sup -12/-10/sup -5/ M) did not modify the basal cyclic AMP production in either tissue. As cyclic AMP is known to respond to V/sub 2/ stimulation, the data suggest that the receptors measured are the V/sub 1/ type. The exploration of vasopressin receptors regulation should facilitate the comprehension of the role played by AVP in different models of experimental hypertension.

  18. Sex-specific effects of early life stress on social interaction and prefrontal cortex dendritic morphology in young rats.

    PubMed

    Farrell, M R; Holland, F H; Shansky, R M; Brenhouse, H C

    2016-09-01

    Early life stress has been linked to depression, anxiety, and behavior disorders in adolescence and adulthood. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is implicated in stress-related psychopathology, is a target for stress hormones, and mediates social behavior. The present study investigated sex differences in early-life stress effects on juvenile social interaction and adolescent mPFC dendritic morphology in rats using a maternal separation (MS) paradigm. Half of the rat pups of each sex were separated from their mother for 4h a day between postnatal days 2 and 21, while the other half remained with their mother in the animal facilities and were exposed to minimal handling. At postnatal day 25 (P25; juvenility), rats underwent a social interaction test with an age and sex matched conspecific. Distance from conspecific, approach and avoidance behaviors, nose-to-nose contacts, and general locomotion were measured. Rats were euthanized at postnatal day 40 (P40; adolescence), and randomly selected infralimbic pyramidal neurons were filled with Lucifer yellow using iontophoretic microinjections, imaged in 3D, and then analyzed for dendritic arborization, spine density, and spine morphology. Early-life stress increased the latency to make nose-to-nose contact at P25 in females but not males. At P40, early-life stress increased infralimbic apical dendritic branch number and length and decreased thin spine density in stressed female rats. These results indicate that MS during the postnatal period influenced juvenile social behavior and mPFC dendritic arborization in a sex-specific manner. PMID:27180166

  19. Establishment and Characterization of Rat Portal Myofibroblast Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Fausther, Michel; Goree, Jessica R.; Lavoie, Élise G.; Graham, Alicia L.; Sévigny, Jean; Dranoff, Jonathan A.

    2015-01-01

    The major sources of scar-forming myofibroblasts during liver fibrosis are activated hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and portal fibroblasts (PF). In contrast to well-characterized HSC, PF remain understudied and poorly defined. This is largely due to the facts that isolation of rodent PF for functional studies is technically challenging and that PF cell lines had not been established. To address this, we have generated two polyclonal portal myofibroblast cell lines, RGF and RGF-N2. RGF and RGF-N2 were established from primary PF isolated from adult rat livers that underwent culture activation and subsequent SV40-mediated immortalization. Specifically, Ntpdase2/Cd39l1-sorted primary PF were used to generate the RGF-N2 cell line. Both cell lines were functionally characterized by RT-PCR, immunofluorescence, immunoblot and bromodeoxyuridine-based proliferation assay. First, immortalized RGF and RGF-N2 cells are positive for phenotypic myofibroblast markers alpha smooth muscle actin, type I collagen alpha-1, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1, PF-specific markers elastin, type XV collagen alpha-1 and Ntpdase2/Cd39l1, and mesenchymal cell marker ecto-5’-nucleotidase/Cd73, while negative for HSC-specific markers desmin and lecithin retinol acyltransferase. Second, both RGF and RGF-N2 cell lines are readily transfectable using standard methods. Finally, RGF and RGF-N2 cells attenuate the growth of Mz-ChA-1 cholangiocarcinoma cells in co-culture, as previously demonstrated for primary PF. Immortalized rat portal myofibroblast RGF and RGF-N2 cell lines express typical markers of activated PF-derived myofibroblasts, are suitable for DNA transfection, and can effectively inhibit cholangiocyte proliferation. Both RGF and RGF-N2 cell lines represent novel in vitro cellular models for the functional studies of portal (myo)fibroblasts and their contribution to the progression of liver fibrosis. PMID:25822334

  20. Characterization and Expression of Senescence Marker in Prolonged Passages of Rat Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ridzuan, Noridzzaida; Al Abbar, Akram; Yip, Wai Kien; Maqbool, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    The present study is aimed at optimizing the in vitro culture protocol for generation of rat bone marrow- (BM-) derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and characterizing the culture-mediated cellular senescence. The initial phase of generation and characterization was conducted using the adherent cells from Sprague Dawley (SD) rat's BM via morphological analysis, growth kinetics, colony forming unit capacity, immunophenotyping, and mesodermal lineage differentiation. Mesenchymal stem cells were successfully generated and characterized as delineated by the expressions of CD90.1, CD44H, CD29, and CD71 and lack of CD11b/c and CD45 markers. Upon induction, rBM-MSCs differentiated into osteocytes and adipocytes and expressed osteocytes and adipocytes genes. However, a decline in cell growth was observed at passage 4 onwards and it was further deciphered through apoptosis, cell cycle, and senescence assays. Despite the enhanced cell viability at later passages (P4-5), the expression of senescence marker, β-galactosidase, was significantly increased at passage 5. Furthermore, the cell cycle analysis has confirmed the in vitro culture-mediated cellular senescence where cells were arrested at the G0/G1 phase of cell cycle. Although the currently optimized protocols had successfully yielded rBM-MSCs, the culture-mediated cellular senescence limits the growth of rBM-MSCs and its potential use in rat-based MSC research. PMID:27579045

  1. Characterization and Expression of Senescence Marker in Prolonged Passages of Rat Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Ridzuan, Noridzzaida; Al Abbar, Akram; Yip, Wai Kien; Maqbool, Maryam; Ramasamy, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    The present study is aimed at optimizing the in vitro culture protocol for generation of rat bone marrow- (BM-) derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and characterizing the culture-mediated cellular senescence. The initial phase of generation and characterization was conducted using the adherent cells from Sprague Dawley (SD) rat's BM via morphological analysis, growth kinetics, colony forming unit capacity, immunophenotyping, and mesodermal lineage differentiation. Mesenchymal stem cells were successfully generated and characterized as delineated by the expressions of CD90.1, CD44H, CD29, and CD71 and lack of CD11b/c and CD45 markers. Upon induction, rBM-MSCs differentiated into osteocytes and adipocytes and expressed osteocytes and adipocytes genes. However, a decline in cell growth was observed at passage 4 onwards and it was further deciphered through apoptosis, cell cycle, and senescence assays. Despite the enhanced cell viability at later passages (P4-5), the expression of senescence marker, β-galactosidase, was significantly increased at passage 5. Furthermore, the cell cycle analysis has confirmed the in vitro culture-mediated cellular senescence where cells were arrested at the G0/G1 phase of cell cycle. Although the currently optimized protocols had successfully yielded rBM-MSCs, the culture-mediated cellular senescence limits the growth of rBM-MSCs and its potential use in rat-based MSC research. PMID:27579045

  2. Subtype Identification in Acutely Dissociated Rat Nodose Ganglion Neurons Based on Morphologic Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiao-Long; Xu, Wen-Xiao; Yan, Zhen-Yu; Qian, Zhao; Xu, Bing; Liu, Yang; Han, Li-Min; Gao, Rui-Chen; Li, Jun-Nan; Yuan, Mei; Zhao, Chong-Bao; Qiao, Guo-fen; Li, Bai-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Nodose ganglia are composed of A-, Ah- and C-type neurons. Despite their important roles in regulating visceral afferent function, including cardiovascular, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal homeostasis, information about subtype-specific expression, molecular identity, and function of individual ion transporting proteins is scarce. Although experiments utilizing the sliced ganglion preparation have provided valuable insights into the electrophysiological properties of nodose ganglion neuron subtypes, detailed characterization of their electrical phenotypes will require measurements in isolated cells. One major unresolved problem, however, is the difficulty to unambiguously identify the subtype of isolated nodose ganglion neurons without current-clamp recording, because the magnitude of conduction velocity in the corresponding afferent fiber, a reliable marker to discriminate subtypes in situ, can no longer be determined. Here, we present data supporting the notion that application of an algorithm regarding to microscopic structural characteristics, such as neuron shape evaluated by the ratio between shortest and longest axis, neuron surface characteristics, like membrane roughness, and axon attachment, enables specific and sensitive subtype identification of acutely dissociated rat nodose ganglion neurons, by which the accuracy of identification is further validated by electrophysiological markers and overall positive predictive rates is 89.26% (90.04%, 76.47%, and 98.21% for A-, Ah, and C-type, respectively). This approach should aid in gaining insight into the molecular correlates underlying phenotypic heterogeneity of nodose ganglia. Additionally, several critical points that help for neuron identification and afferent conduction calibration are also discussed. PMID:23904796

  3. Characterization of p75{sup +} ectomesenchymal stem cells from rat embryonic facial process tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Xiujie; Liu, Luchuan; Deng, Manjing; Zhang, Li; Liu, Rui; Xing, Yongjun; Zhou, Xia; Nie, Xin

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ectomesenchymal stem cells (EMSCs) were found to migrate to rat facial processes at E11.5. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We successfully sorted p75NTR positive EMSCs (p75{sup +} EMSCs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p75{sup +} EMSCs up to nine passages showed relative stable proliferative activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined the in vitro multilineage potential of p75{sup +} EMSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p75{sup +}EMSCs provide an in vitro model for tooth morphogenesis. -- Abstract: Several populations of stem cells, including those from the dental pulp and periodontal ligament, have been isolated from different parts of the tooth and periodontium. The characteristics of such stem cells have been reported as well. However, as a common progenitor of these cells, ectomesenchymal stem cells (EMSCs), derived from the cranial neural crest have yet to be fully characterized. The aim of this study was to better understand the characteristics of EMSCs isolated from rat embryonic facial processes. Immunohistochemical staining showed that EMSCs had migrated to rat facial processes at E11.5, while the absence of epithelial invagination or tooth-like epithelium suggested that any epithelial-mesenchymal interactions were limited at this stage. The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), a typical neural crest marker, was used to select p75NTR-positive EMSCs (p75{sup +} EMSCs), which were found to show a homogeneous fibroblast-like morphology and little change in the growth curve, proliferation capacity, and cell phenotype during cell passage. They also displayed the capacity to differentiate into diverse cell types under chemically defined conditions in vitro. p75{sup +} EMSCs proved to be homogeneous, stable in vitro and potentially capable of multiple lineages, suggesting their potential for application in dental or orofacial tissue engineering.

  4. Structural and morphological characterization of hemozoin produced by Schistosoma mansoni and Rhodnius prolixus.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marcus F; Kycia, Stefan W; Gomez, Ariel; Kosar, Aaron J; Bohle, D Scott; Hempelmann, Ernst; Menezes, Diego; Vannier-Santos, Marcos André; Oliveira, Pedro L; Ferreira, Sérgio T

    2005-11-01

    Hemozoin (Hz) is a heme crystal produced upon the digestion of hemoglobin (Hb) by blood-feeding organisms as a main mechanism of heme disposal. The structure of Hz consists of heme dimers bound by reciprocal iron-carboxylate interactions and stabilized by hydrogen bonds. We have recently described heme crystals in the blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni, and in the kissing bug, Rhodnius prolixus. Here, we characterized the structures and morphologies of the heme crystals from those two organisms and compared them to synthetic beta-hematin (betaH). Synchrotron radiation X-ray powder diffraction showed that all heme crystals share the same unit cell and structure. The heme crystals isolated from S. mansoni and R. prolixus consisted of very regular units assembled in multicrystalline spherical structures exhibiting remarkably distinct surface morphologies compared to betaH. In both organisms, Hz formation occurs inside lipid droplet-like particles or in close association to phospholipid membranes. These results show, for the first time, the structural and morphological characterization of natural Hz samples obtained from these two blood-feeding organisms. Moreover, Hz formation occurring in close association to a hydrophobic environment seems to be a common trend for these organisms and may be crucial to produce very regular shaped phases, allowing the formation of multicrystalline assemblies in the guts of S. mansoni and R. prolixus. PMID:16229843

  5. Systemically alendronate was incorporated into dental tissues but did not cause morphological or mechanical changes in rats teeth.

    PubMed

    Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Lucisano, Marília Pacífico; Da Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra; Da Silva, Roberto Santana; Serra, Mônica Campos; Gerlach, Raquel Fernanda; Neto, Francisco Carlos Rehder; Carneiro, Zumira Aparecida; Zamarioli, Ariane; Morse, Leslie; Battaglino, Ricardo

    2012-09-01

    This study evaluated the effect of the systemic use of sodium alendronate in rats in vivo. Forty-five Wistar rats aged 36 to 42 days and weighing 200 to 230 g were randomly assigned to a control group (n = 20), which received distilled water, and an experimental group (n = 25), which received 2 weekly doses of 1 mg/kg of chemically pure sodium alendronate. The animals were killed after 60 days of treatment. The tibias were removed for analysis of bone mineral density by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Then, the maxillary incisors were extracted for analysis of the mineralized dental tissues using fluorescence spectroscopy (FS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), bright field microscopy (BFM), and cross-sectional microhardness (CSMH) testing. DXA and CSMH data were subjected to statistical analysis by Kruskal-Wallis test (5% significance level). The experimental group presented higher bone mineral density than the control group by DXA. FS analysis revealed presence of alendronate in the mineralized dental tissues of the specimens of the experimental group. Significant morphological differences were not found by SEM and BFM. Enamel and dentin (100 and 300 μm from the dentinoenamel junction) CSMH data did not show significant difference between the control and experimental groups. Based on the obtained results, we conclude that while alendronate increased the bone mineral density and was incorporated into the mineralized dental tissues it did not cause significant alterations in the morphology and microhardness of rat incisor enamel and dentin. PMID:22508272

  6. Fat tissue morphology of long-term sex steroid deficiency and estrogen treatment in female rats.

    PubMed

    Santana, Aluana Carlos; Soares da Costa, Carlos Alberto; Armada, Luciana; de Paula Lopes Gonzalez, Gabrielle; dos Santos Ribeiro, Mariana; de Sousa dos Santos, Aline; de Carvalho, Jorge Jose; do Nascimento Saba, Celly Cristina A

    2011-03-15

    After long-term estradiol deficiency, female rats displayed body mass gain accompanied by an increase in the size of adipocytes, an increase in hyperglycemia, and a decrease in insulinemia. The effects were reversed by daily estradiol treatment. Adiposity was suggested by the increased vascular endothelial growth factor expression in castrated rats, whereas the proliferative effect of estradiol was suggested by the increased fibronectin expression in treated rats. PMID:21315340

  7. Isolation and Characterization of a New Fungal Species, Chrysosporium ophiodiicola, from a Mycotic Granuloma of a Black Rat Snake (Elaphe obsoleta obsoleta)▿

    PubMed Central

    Rajeev, S.; Sutton, D. A.; Wickes, B. L.; Miller, D. L.; Giri, D.; Van Meter, M.; Thompson, E. H.; Rinaldi, M. G.; Romanelli, A. M.; Cano, J. F.; Guarro, J.

    2009-01-01

    Isolation and characterization of the new species Chrysosporium ophiodiicola from a mycotic granuloma of a black rat snake (Elaphe obsoleta obsoleta) are reported. Analysis of the sequences of different fragments of the ribosomal genes demonstrated that this species belongs to the Onygenales and that this species is genetically different from other morphologically similar species of Chrysosporium. This new species is unique in having both narrow and cylindrical-to-slightly clavate conidia and a strong, pungent odor. PMID:19109465

  8. Integral-geometry characterization of photobiomodulation effects on retinal vessel morphology

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Marconi; Natoli, Riccardo; Valter, Kriztina; Provis, Jan; Maddess, Ted

    2014-01-01

    The morphological characterization of quasi-planar structures represented by gray-scale images is challenging when object identification is sub-optimal due to registration artifacts. We propose two alternative procedures that enhances object identification in the integral-geometry morphological image analysis (MIA) framework. The first variant streamlines the framework by introducing an active contours segmentation process whose time step is recycled as a multi-scale parameter. In the second variant, we used the refined object identification produced in the first variant to perform the standard MIA with exact dilation radius as multi-scale parameter. Using this enhanced MIA we quantify the extent of vaso-obliteration in oxygen-induced retinopathic vascular growth, the preventative effect (by photobiomodulation) of exposure during tissue development to near-infrared light (NIR, 670 nm), and the lack of adverse effects due to exposure to NIR light. PMID:25071966

  9. A comprehensive physico-chemical, mineralogical and morphological characterization of Indian mineral wastes.

    PubMed

    Gedam, Vidyadhar V; Jha, Rajesh; Labhasetwar, Pawan; Engelsen, Christian J

    2013-08-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive characterization of mineral waste such as fly ash, bottom ash, slag and construction demolition (C&D) collected from four different thermal power plants, three steel plants and three C&D waste generation sites in India. To determine utilisation potential and environmental concerns, as received fly ash, bottom ash, slag and C&D waste were analysed for physico-chemical, mineralogical and morphological properties. The physico-chemical properties analysed include pH, moisture content, acid insoluble residue, loss on ignition(LOI), carbon content, fineness, chloride content, sulphate content, reactive silica content, XRF and heavy metal analysis. Morphological and mineralogical characteristics were investigated using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray. Particle size distribution was obtained using particle size analyser. The material analysed has different compositions and were selected with a view to determine their suitability for different applications in cement and concrete industry and for further research studies. PMID:23255170

  10. Intestinal morphology adjustments caused by dietary restriction improves the nutritional status during the aging process of rats.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Belém, Mônica; Cirilo, Carla Possani; de Santi-Rampazzo, Ana Paula; Schoffen, João Paulo Ferreira; Comar, Jurandir Fernando; Natali, Maria Raquel Marçal; de Almeida Araújo, Eduardo José

    2015-09-01

    During the aging process, the body's systems change structurally and loss of function can occur. Ingesting a smaller amount of food has been considered a plausible proposal for increased longevity with the quality of life. However, the effects of dietary restriction (DR) during aging are still poorly understood, especially for organs of the digestive system. This study aimed to describe the body weight, oxidative status and possible morphological changes of the intestinal wall of rats submitted to DR during the aging process (7 to 18months old). Twelve 7-month-old male Wistar rats fed ad libitum since birth were assigned to two groups: control group (CG, n=6) fed ad libitum from 7 to 18months old; and dietary restriction group (DRG, n=6) fed 50% of the amount of chow consumed by the CG from 7 to 18months old. The body weight, feed and water intake were monitored throughout the experiment. Blood, periepididymal adipose tissue (PAT) and retroperitoneal adipose tissue (RAT), and the small intestine were collected at 18months old. The blood was collected to evaluate its components and oxidative status. Sections from the duodenum and ileum were stained with HE, PAS and AB pH2.5 for morphometric analyses of the intestinal wall components, and to count intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs), goblet cells and cells in mitosis in the epithelium. DR rats showed a reduction in weight, naso-anal length, PAT, RAT and intestinal length; however, they consumed more water. Blood parameters indicate that the DR rats remained well nourished. In addition, they showed lower lipid peroxidation. Hypertrophy of the duodenal mucosa and atrophy of the ileal mucosa were observed. The number of goblet cells and IELs was reduced, but the mitotic index remained unaltered in both duodenum and ileum. In conclusion, 50% dietary restriction for rats from 7 to 18months old contributed to improving their nutritional parameters but, to achieve this, adjustments were required in the structure of the body

  11. Morphologic and radioautographic studies of bone formation in relation to titanium implants using the rat tibia as a model.

    PubMed

    Clokie, C M; Warshawsky, H

    1995-01-01

    A rat tibia model was developed to analyze bone formation leading to osseointegration with threaded titanium implants. Miniaturized titanium implants were placed in the anterior aspect of the upper tibia of rats weighing 350 g. Twenty-four rats were involved; 12 rats were sacrificed at 6 weeks, and another two rats were sacrificed weekly for 6 weeks following implantation. Four days prior to sacrifice, the animals were injected intraperitoneally with 3H-proline (10 microCi/g body weight). The rats were fixed by perfusion with 5% glutaraldehyde, and the tibia were decalcified and embedded in Epon. The implants were removed from the embedded bone by fracturing, and the specimens re-embedded. Sections were prepared for light and electron microscopy and radioautography. Morphologic observations indicated that implant placement resulted in bone necrosis and resorption. This was followed by bone growth from the old bone surfaces filling the threads with vascular channels and new lamellar bone. Osseointegration was complete at 6 weeks in all animals examined. Electron microscopy at various places along the bone-titanium interface showed an amorphous layer, a granular electron-dense layer, or a layer of uncalcified collagen fibrils. At each week after surgery, radioautography showed the position and thickness of new bone labeled with 3H-proline during the last 4 days. Radiolabeled new bone was deposited only on previously existing bone and extended toward the available space. Since there was no apparent relationship between the implant and the new bone, it was suggested that titanium is biocompatible, but not necessarily osteoinductive. PMID:7744434

  12. GLUTAMATE NEUROTOXICITY IN THE DEVELOPING RAT COCHLEA: PHYSIOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL APPROACHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The neurotoxic effects of exogenous glutamate were studied in the rat cochlea. lutamate-treated rats (4g/kg/day ip, postnatal days 2 through 9) exhibited electrophysiologically-measured elevations in high frequency thresholds usually associated with hair cell loss in the basal re...

  13. Morphological Changes within the Rat Lateral Ventricle after the Administration of Proteasome Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wójcik, Sławomir; Spodnik, Jan Henryk; Dziewiątkowski, Jerzy; Spodnik, Edyta; Moryś, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    The broad variety of substances that inhibit the action of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS)-known as proteasome inhibitors-have been used extensively in previous studies, and they are currently frequently proposed as a novel form of cancer treatment and as a protective factor in intracerebral hemorrhage treatment. The experimental data on the safest route of proteasome inhibitor administration, their associated side effects, and the possible ways of minimizing these effects have recently become a very important topic. The aim of our present study was to determine the effects of administering of MG-132, lactacystin and epoxomicin, compounds belonging to three different classes of proteasome inhibitors, on the ependymal walls of the lateral ventricle. Observations were made 2 and 8 weeks after the intraventricular administration of the studied substances dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) into the lateral ventricle of adult Wistar rats. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of brain sections stained with histochemical and inmmunofluorescence techniques showed that the administration of proteasome inhibitors caused a partial occlusion of the injected ventricle in all of the studied animals. The occlusion was due to ependymal cells damage and subsequent ependymal discontinuity, which caused direct contact between the striatum and the lateral nuclei of the septum, mononuclear cell infiltration and the formation of a glial scar between these structures (with the activation of astroglia, microglia and oligodendroglia). Morphologically, the ubiquitin-positive aggregates corresponded to aggresomes, indicating impaired activity of the UPS and the accumulation and aggregation of ubiquitinated proteins that coincided with the occurrence of glial scars. The most significant changes were observed in the wall covering the striatum in animals that were administered epoxomicin, and milder changes were observed in animals administered lactacystin and MG-132. Interestingly

  14. Loss of perforated synapses in the dentate gyrus: morphological substrate of memory deficit in aged rats.

    PubMed Central

    Geinisman, Y; de Toledo-Morrell, L; Morrell, F

    1986-01-01

    Most, but not all, aged rats exhibit a profound deficit in spatial memory when tested in a radial maze--a task known to depend on the integrity of the hippocampal formation. In this study, animals were divided into three groups based on their spatial memory capacity: young adult rats with good memory, aged rats with impaired memory, and aged rats with good memory. Memory-impaired aged animals showed a loss of perforated axospinous synapses in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation in comparison with either young adults or aged rats with good memory. This finding suggests that the loss of perforated axospinous synapses in the hippocampal formation underlies the age-related deficit in spatial memory. Images PMID:3458260

  15. Morphologic characterization of isolated bovine early preantral follicles during short-term individual in vitro culture.

    PubMed

    Jorssen, E P A; Langbeen, A; Marei, W F A; Fransen, E; De porte, H F M; Leroy, J L M R; Bols, P E J

    2015-07-15

    To provide new insights in the molecular mechanism controlling preantral follicular development and to unravel the needs to support in vitro follicular development of early-stage preantral follicles (PAFs), there is a need for alternative in vitro bovine follicle culture methods. In this study, we aimed to characterize follicular dynamics using an IVC system of isolated and individually cultured bovine early PAFs during 10 days to generate individual follicle follow-up data. Preantral follicles (<50 μm) were isolated from slaughterhouse ovaries and cultured individually for 10 days. Individual follicle morphology, growth, survival, quality, and cell proliferation were evaluated in time by combining noninvasive and invasive assessment methods. The PAFs were light microscopically evaluated during culture to assess follicular dynamics, stained with neutral red to determine follicle viability, stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling to evaluate cell proliferation and follicle quality, and processed for histologic evaluation to assess follicle morphology. On the basis of their morphology, follicles were subdivided in three categories, with category 1 follicles showing the best morphologic features. On Day 0, only category 1 follicles were selected, but follicle categories were reassigned on evaluation Days 1, 2, 4, 7, or 10. Although 67% of the follicles survived 10 days of IVC, the number of follicles exhibiting a normal morphology decreased significantly from Day 7 onward and the apoptotic index increased significantly from Day 10. Both category 1 and 2 follicles showed a significant increase in follicular diameter (Day 10: 21.80 ± 0.86 and 11.82 ± 0.80, respectively). This increase in follicular diameter showed to be correlated with an increase in the total cell number. In conclusion, this culture system showed to support follicular development until Day 10, although the proportion of follicles

  16. Biopharmaceutical Characterization of Nebulized Antimicrobial Agents in Rats: 2. Colistin

    PubMed Central

    Gontijo, Aline Vidal Lacerda; Grégoire, Nicolas; Lamarche, Isabelle; Gobin, Patrice; Marchand, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of colistin following intrapulmonary administration of colistin sulfate in rats. Colistin was infused or delivered in nebulized form at a dose of 0.35 mg/kg of body weight in rats, and plasma drug concentrations were measured for 4 h after administration. Bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) were also conducted at 0.5, 2, and 4 h after intravenous (i.v.) administration and administration via nebulized drug to estimate epithelial lining fluid (ELF) drug concentrations. Unbound colistin plasma concentrations at distribution equilibrium (2 h postdosing) were almost identical after i.v. infusion and nebulized drug inhalation. ELF drug concentrations were undetectable in BAL samples after i.v. administration, but they were about 1,800 times higher than unbound plasma drug levels at 2 h and 4 h after administration of the nebulized drug. Simultaneous pharmacokinetic modeling of plasma and ELF drug concentrations was performed with a model characterized by a fixed physiological volume of ELF (VELF), a passive diffusion clearance (QELF) between plasma and ELF, and a nonlinear influx transfer from ELF to the central compartment, which was assessed by reducing the nebulized dose of colistin by 10-fold (0.035 mg kg−1). The km was estimated to be 133 μg ml−1, and the Vmax, in-to-Km ratio was equal to 2.5 × 10−3 liter h−1 kg−1, which was 37 times higher than the QELF (6.7 × 10−5 liter h−1 kg−1). This study showed that with the higher ELF drug concentrations after administration via nebulized aerosol than after intravenous administration, for antibiotics with low permeability such as colistin, nebulization offers a real potential over intravenous administration for the treatment of pulmonary infections. PMID:24798284

  17. Mammary gland morphology and gene expression signature of prepubertal male and female rats following exposure to exogenous estradiol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to characterize the actions of xenoestrogens, it is essential to possess a solid portrait of the physiological effects of exogenous estradiol. We assessed effects of three doses of exogenous estradiol (E2) (0.1, 1.0 and 10 micrograms/kg/day) on the mammary gland morphology and gene expressi...

  18. Characterization and Distribution of Reelin-Positive Interneuron Subtypes in the Rat Barrel Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Pohlkamp, Theresa; Dávid, Csaba; Cauli, Bruno; Gallopin, Thierry; Bouché, Elisabeth; Karagiannis, Anastassios; May, Petra; Herz, Joachim; Frotscher, Michael; Staiger, Jochen F.; Bock, Hans H.

    2014-01-01

    GABAergic inhibitory interneurons (IN) represent a heterogeneous population with different electrophysiological, morphological, and molecular properties. The correct balance between interneuronal subtypes is important for brain function and is impaired in several neurological and psychiatric disorders. Here we show the data of 123 molecularly and electrophysiologically characterized neurons of juvenile rat barrel cortex acute slices, 48 of which expressed Reelin (Reln). Reln mRNA was exclusively detected in Gad65/67-positive cells but was found in interneuronal subtypes in different proportions: all cells of the adapting-Somatostatin (SST) cluster expressed Reln, whereas 63% of the adapting-neuropeptide Y (NPY, 50% of the fast-spiking Parvalbumin (PVALB), and 27% of the adapting/bursting-Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) cluster were Reln-positive. Silhouette analysis revealed a high impact of the parameter Reln on cluster quality. By analyzing the co-localization of RELN immunoreactivity with those of different IN-markers, we found that RELN is produced layer-independently in SST-, NPY-, and NOS1-expressing INs, whereas co-localization of RELN and VIP was mostly absent. Of note, RELN co-localized with PVALB, predominantly in INs of layers IV/V (>30%). Our findings emphasize RELN's role as an important IN-marker protein and provide a basis for the functional characterization of Reln-expressing INs and its role in the regulation of inhibitory IN networks. PMID:23803971

  19. Effectiveness of morphological and spectral heartbeat characterization on arrhythmia clustering for Holter recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Hoyos, Cristian; Peluffo-Ordóñez, Diego Hernán.; Rodríguez-Sotelo, Jose Luis; Castellanos-Domínguez, Germán.

    2015-01-01

    Heartbeat characterization is an important issue in cardiac assistance diagnosis systems. In particular, wide sets of features are commonly used in long term electrocardiographic signals. Then, if such a feature space does not represent properly the arrhythmias to be grouped, classification or clustering process may fail. In this work a suitable feature set for different heartbeat types is studied, involving morphology, representation and time-frequency features. To determine what kind of features generate better clusters, feature selection procedure is used and assessed by means clustering validity measures. Then the feature subset is shown to produce fine clustering that yields into high sensitivity and specificity values for a broad range of heartbeat types.

  20. Morphological characterization of some representative species of the genus Loxoblemmus (Orthoptera: Gryllidae; Gryllinae; Gryllini) from India.

    PubMed

    Mal, Jhabar; Nagar, Rajendra; Swaminathan, R

    2015-01-01

    Morphological characterization of some common species of the genus Loxoblemmus (Gryllidae: Gryllinae) from India is presented. In all, 5 species were identified that included two, Loxoblemmus equestris Saussure and Loxoblemmus haani Saussure, from the sub-humid regions of Rajasthan (South West India) and Madhya Pradesh (Central India); while three species, Loxoblemmus taicoun Saussure, Loxoblemmus jacobsoni Chopard and Loxoblemmus intermedius Chopard from the humid hilly regions of Meghalaya and Assam (North East India). Of the 5 reported species, based on the comparative linear measurements, L. haani is relatively larger than the other species encountered. PMID:25947856

  1. Morphological characterization of cells in concentrated suspensions using multispectral diffuse optical tomography

    PubMed Central

    Hajihashemi, Mohammad Reza; Li, Xiaoqi; Jiang, Huabei

    2013-01-01

    Based on a non-spherical model of particle scattering, we investigate the capabilities and limitations of a T-matrix based inverse algorithm to morphologically characterize cells in concentrated suspensions. Here the cells are modeled as randomly orientated spheroidal particles with homogenous dielectric properties and suspended in turbid media. The inverse algorithm retrieves the geometrical parameters and the concentration of cells simultaneously by inverting the reduced scattering coefficient spectra obtained from multispectral diffuse optical tomography (MS-DOT). Both round and spheroidal cells are tested and the role of multiple and higher order scattering of particles on the performance of the algorithm is evaluated using different concentrations of cells. PMID:23372258

  2. Morphological and molecular characterization of Frankia sp. isolates from nodules of Alnus nepalensis Don.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, G; Misra, A K; Chapelon, C; Normand, P

    1994-01-01

    Nodules collected from Alnus nepalensis growing in mixed forest stands at three different sites around Shillong, were crushed in various culture media to obtain isolates of Frankia. The isolates were found to have typical Frankia morphology as revealed by the scanning electron microscope. Seedlings inoculated with isolates or crushed nodules formed nitrogen fixing nodules. Frankia specific DNA probes amplified the DNA of the tested isolate AnpUS4. Partial nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that AnpUS4 was phylogenetically distinct from all other Frankia strains characterized so far. PMID:7511370

  3. A multi-scale morphological characterization of extended TeV survey sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzburg, S.; Pühlhofer, G.; Santangelo, A.

    2012-12-01

    A recurrent topic in very high energy γ-ray astronomy is the morphological characterization of extended sources, which are lacking a clear counterpart in other wavelengths. Whithout a counterpart, the shape of such a source is not known a priori. Therefore blind/unbiased approaches are required to describe such a newly detected source in terms of detached emission regions (``features'') or eventually even separate objects. Ideally, the search takes into account the observation statistic and the instrument response (e.g. the exposure and the point spread function). And finally, a detection significance for the features needs to be provided.

  4. Effects of testicular transfixation on seminiferous tubule morphology and sperm parameters of prepubertal, pubertal, and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Carina T; De Souza, Diogo B; Costa, Waldemar S; Pereira-Sampaio, Marco A; Sampaio, Francisco J B

    2015-10-15

    Orchiopexy is performed as part of cryptorchidism and testicular torsion treatment. The inflammation caused by the needle and suture penetration has been suggested to be one of the possible causes of subfertility after parenchymal transfixation of the testicles. The purpose of the present study was to investigate testicular alterations after parenchymal transfixation sutures at different ages in rats. Prepubertal, pubertal, and adult rats were submitted to parenchymal suturing (without tying the knots, thus avoiding local ischemic injury) of the right testicle, which was maintained for 4 hours. All animals were subjected to euthanasia on completion of 14 weeks of life. The right testicles were studied as the sutured testicles, whereas the left organs were studied as contralateral. One age-matched control group of rats that was not submitted to any procedure was used for comparison. During euthanasia, sperm were collected from the tail of the epididymal and evaluated for concentration, motility, and viability. Samples from testicular tissue were collected for morphologic analysis. Sperm analysis indicated that only the adult operated animals presented reductions in motility (38.2% of adult vs. 54.1% of control; P = 0.02) and viability (16.6% of adult vs. 24.6% of control; P = 0.003). Several morphologic alterations were noted both in sutured and in contralateral testes at all ages. For instance, the seminiferous epithelium volumetric density of right testicles was reduced from 50.4% in controls to 32.3% in prepubertal operated animals, 45.3% in pubertal operated animals, and 39.4% in adult operated animals (P < 0.05). The seminiferous epithelium volumetric density was also reduced to 39.9% and 39.0% in contralateral testicles of animals operated before and after puberty, respectively (P < 0.05). The animals operated on before puberty and in adulthood showed more testicular morphologic alterations, as seminiferous tubule volumetric density, seminiferous tubule length

  5. Morphological and functional manifestations of rat adrenal-cortex response to sodium bromide administration under hypodynamic stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirichek, L. T.; Zholudeva, V. I.

    1979-01-01

    Functional and morphological manifestations of adrenal cortex response to hypodynamia (2-hr immobilization on an operating table) under the influence of bromine preparations were studied. The sodium bromide was administered intraperitoneally in 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg doses once and repeatedly during ten days. The adrenal gland was evaluated functionally by ascorbic acid and cholesterol content and morphologically by coloring it with hematoxylin-eosin and Sudans for lipid revealing at freezing. Results are displayed in two tables and microphotographs. They are summarized as follows: the bromine weakens the functional state of the adrenal cortex in intact rats, causing changes similar to those under stress. During immobilization combined with preliminary bromine administration, a less pronounced stress reaction is noticeable.

  6. Electrophysiological and morphological heterogeneity of neurons in slices of rat suprachiasmatic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Pennartz, C M; De Jeu, M T; Geurtsen, A M; Sluiter, A A; Hermes, M L

    1998-02-01

    1. Whole cell patch clamp recordings of neurons in slices of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) were made in order to assess their electrophysiological and morphological heterogeneity. This assessment was accomplished by (i) quantification of intrinsic membrane properties recorded in current clamp mode, (ii) studying frequency distributions of these properties, (iii) grouping of cells based on visual inspection of data records, and (iv) use of cluster analysis methods. 2. Marked heterogeneity was found in the resting membrane potential, input resistance, time constant, rate of frequency adaptation, size of rebound depolarization (low-threshold Ca2+ potential) and regularity of firing. The frequency distribution of these membrane properties deviated significantly from a normal distribution. Other parameters, including spike amplitude and width, amplitude and rising slope of the spike after-hyperpolarization (AHP) and amplitude of the spike train AHP, showed considerable variability as well but generally obeyed a normal distribution. 3. Visual inspection of the data led to partitioning of cells into three clusters, viz. cluster I characterized by monophasic spike AHPs and irregular firing in the frequency range from 1.5 to 5.0 Hz; cluster II with biphasic spike AHPs and regular firing in the same range; and cluster III with large rebound depolarizations and biphasic spike AHPs. In a post hoc analysis, these clusters also appeared to differ in other membrane properties. This grouping was confirmed by hierarchical tree clustering and multidimensional scaling. 4. The light microscopic properties of recorded neurons were studied by biocytin labelling. Neurons had monopolar, bipolar or multipolar branching patterns and were often varicose. Axons sometimes originated from distal dendritic segments and usually branched into multiple collaterals. Many cells with extra-SCN projections also possessed intranuclear axon collaterals. We found no morphological differences between

  7. Characterization of a Novel Lysozyme-Like 4 Gene in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Narmadha, Ganapathy; Muneswararao, Katakam; Rajesh, Angireddy; Yenugu, Suresh

    2011-01-01

    Lysozyme-like proteins (LYZLs) belong to the class of c-type lysozymes and are not well characterized in many species including the rat. In this study, using in silico and molecular biology techniques, we report the identification, cloning and characterization of rat Lyzl4 gene and also determine the expression pattern of Lyzl1, Lyzl3 and Lyzl6. The rat Lyzl genes were found to be distributed on three chromosomes and all of them retained the characteristic eight cysteine signature of c-type lysozyme. Homology modeling of rat LYZL4 indicated that its structure is similar to that of the mouse SLLP1. In the male reproductive tract of rat, Lyzl gene expression was confined to the testis. Lyzl1 and Lyzl4 were found to be expressed in tissues beyond the male reproductive tract, whereas Lyzl3 and Lyzl6 were not. Lyzl expression in the developing (10–60 day old) rats was androgen dependent in the testis. Immunodetection using antibodies against rat LYZL4 revealed the presence of LYZL4 protein in the germinal layer of the testes and on the sperm tail. Recombinant LYZL4 did not exhibit antibacterial, muramidase and isopeptidase activities characteristic to c-type lysozyme. To the best of our knowledge, for the first time we report the characterization of Lyzl genes in the rat. Results of our study indicate that rat LYZL proteins may have an important role in male reproductive tract function. PMID:22110709

  8. Effects of Salt Loading on the Morphology of Astrocytes in the Ventral Glia Limitans of the Rat Supraoptic Nucleus.

    PubMed

    Choe, K Y; Prager-Khoutorsky, M; Farmer, W T; Murai, K K; Bourque, C W

    2016-04-01

    In the ventral glial limitans (VGL) of the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the rat, a unique astrocyte type is found with an ability to undergo striking morphological plasticity in response to a wide range of physiological stimulations such as chronic hypernatraemia. This includes a thinning of the VGL, which contains the somata and proximal processes of these astrocytes, as well as an almost complete withdrawal of their vertically-oriented distal processes. Currently, there is little information available on the types of astrocytes that reside in the SON-VGL and which of these exhibit state-dependent structural plasticity. To address this, we enabled the visualisation of single SON-VGL glia using two novel cell labelling techniques with fluorescence microscopy. First, we used an inducible genetic reporter mouse line that allowed the specific labelling of a low density of astrocytes expressing glutamate and aspartate transporter (GLAST)/excitatory amino acid transporter 1. This approach revealed a high degree of variability in the morphology of mouse SON-VGL astrocytes, in contrast to what has been reported for cortical astrocytes. Next, we used the DiOlistlic labelling approach to label single glial cells with DiI in the SON-VGL of rats. Astrocytes observed using this approach shared the morphological features of GLAST-expressing astrocytes in the mouse SON-VGL. Specific structural aspects of these cells were modified by chronic hypernatraemia achieved by 7-day salt loading. Notably, the average area of cells exhibiting protoplasmic features was significantly reduced in the horizontal plane, and the size of varicosities present on fibrous projections was significantly enlarged. These observations indicate that novel cell labelling methods can significantly advance our understanding of SON-VGL cells and reveal specific forms of morphological plasticity that can be driven by chronic hypernatraemia. PMID:26813227

  9. The morphological changes in lymphoid organs and peripheral blood indicators in rats after peroral administration of gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucharskaya, A. B.; Pakhomy, S. S.; Zlobina, O. V.; Maslyakova, G. N.; Matveeva, O. V.; Bugaeva, I. O.; Navolokin, N. A.; Khlebtsov, B. N.; Bogatyrev, V. A.; Khlebtsov, N. G.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2016-03-01

    The wide application of nanotechnologies in medicine requires the careful study of various aspects of their potential safety. The effects of prolonged peroral administration of gold nanoparticles on morphological changes in lymphoid organs and indicators of peripheral blood of laboratory animals were investigated in experiment. The gold nanospheres functionalized with thiolated polyethylene glycol sizes 2, 15 and 50 nm were administered orally for 15 days to outbred white rats at a dosage of 190 μg/kg of animal body weight. The standard histological and hematological staining were used for morphological study of lymphoid organs and bone marrow smears. The size-dependent decrease of the number of neutrophils and lymphocytes was noted in the study of peripheral blood, especially pronounced after administration of gold nanoparticles with size of 50 nm. The stimulation of myelocytic germ of hematopoiesis was recorded at morphological study of the bone marrow. The signs of strengthening of the processes of differentiation and maturation of cellular elements were found in lymph nodes, which were showed as the increasing number of immunoblasts and large lymphocytes. The quantitative changes of cellular component morphology of lymphoid organs due to activation of migration, proliferation and differentiation of immune cells indicate the presence of immunostimulation effect of gold nanoparticles.

  10. Morphological characterization of soot aerosol particles during LACIS Experiment in November (LExNo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiselev, A.; Wennrich, C.; Stratmann, F.; Wex, H.; Henning, S.; Mentel, T. F.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Schneider, J.; Walter, S.; Lieberwirth, I.

    2010-06-01

    Combined mobility and aerodynamic measurements were used to characterize the morphology of soot particles in an experimental campaign on the hygroscopic growth and activation of an artificial biomass burning aerosol. A custom-made, single-stage low-pressure impactor and two aerosol mass spectrometers (AMS) operating in the free molecular regime were used to measure the vacuum aerodynamic diameter of mobility-selected artificial soot particles that were produced in a spark discharge generator and then modified by condensation of ammonium hydrogen sulfate or levoglucosan as a coating to change their hydroscopic activity. Transmission electron microscope images revealed a relationship between the electrical mobility diameter and the diameter of the enveloping sphere, thus enabling evaluation of the effective density of soot agglomerates. A fractal description of the morphology of the soot aggregates allowed for evaluation of the average mass of the hygroscopic material per particle. The average mass of the hygroscopic material per particle was also measured directly with the two AMS instruments, and the agreement between the two methods was found satisfactory. This tandem approach allows detection of small changes in the particle effective density and morphology caused by condensation of organic material.

  11. Radiosensitivity study and radiation effects on morphology characterization of grey oyster mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju

    SciTech Connect

    Rashid, Rosnani Abdul; Awang, Mat Rasol; Mohamad, Azhar; Mutaat, Hassan Hamdani; Maskom, Mohd Meswan; Daud, Fauzi; Senafi, Sahidan

    2014-09-03

    Radiosensitive dosage and morphology characterization of irradiated grey oyster mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju by gamma rays was investigated due to effects of irradiation. In order to establish the effect, mycelium of P. sajor-caju was irradiated by gamma rays at dose 0.1 to 8.0 kGy with dose rate 0.227 Gy sec{sup −1}. The irradiation of mycelia was carried out at the radiation facility in Malaysian Nuclear Agency. The radiosensitivity study was performed by evaluating the percentage of survival irradiated mycelia. The lethal dose of the mycelium P. sajor-caju was determined at 4.0 kGy and LD{sub 50} to be equal at 2.2 kGy. The radiation effects on morphology were evaluated based on growth rate of irradiated mycelia, mycelia types, colonization period on substrate, morphology of fruit bodies and yields. The results shown growth rate of irradiated mycelium was slightly lower than the control and decreased as the dose increased. Irradiation was found can induced the primordia formation on PDA and the BE of irradiated seed is higher than to control. The irradiation is proven to be useful for generating new varieties of mushroom with commercial value to the industry.

  12. Morphologic, Phylogenetic and Chemical Characterization of a Brackish Colonial Picocyanobacterium (Coelosphaeriaceae) with Bioactive Properties.

    PubMed

    Häggqvist, Kerstin; Toruńska-Sitarz, Anna; Błaszczyk, Agata; Mazur-Marzec, Hanna; Meriluoto, Jussi

    2016-04-01

    Despite their cosmopolitan distribution, knowledge on cyanobacteria in the family Coelosphaeriaceae is limited. In this study, a single species culture of a coelosphaeran cyanobacterium isolated from a brackish rock pool in the Baltic Sea was established. The strain was characterized by morphological features, partial 16S rRNA sequence and nonribosomal oligopeptide profile. The bioactivity of fractionated extracts against several serine proteases, as well as protein-serine/threonine phosphatases was studied. Phylogenetic analyses of the strain suggested a close relationship with Snowella litoralis, but its morphology resembled Woronichinia compacta. The controversial morphologic and phylogenetic results demonstrated remaining uncertainties regarding species division in this cyanobacteria family. Chemical analyses of the strain indicated production of nonribosomal oligopeptides. In fractionated extracts, masses and ion fragmentation spectra of seven possible anabaenopeptins were identified. Additionally, fragmentation spectra of cyanopeptolin-like peptides were collected in several of the fractions. The nonribosomal oligopeptide profile adds another potential identification criterion in future inter- and intraspecies comparisons of coelosphaeran cyanobacteria. The fractionated extracts showed significant activity against carboxypeptidase A and trypsin. Inhibition of these important metabolic enzymes might have impacts at the ecosystem level in aquatic habitats with high cyanobacteria densities. PMID:27077885

  13. Morphologic, Phylogenetic and Chemical Characterization of a Brackish Colonial Picocyanobacterium (Coelosphaeriaceae) with Bioactive Properties

    PubMed Central

    Häggqvist, Kerstin; Toruńska-Sitarz, Anna; Błaszczyk, Agata; Mazur-Marzec, Hanna; Meriluoto, Jussi

    2016-01-01

    Despite their cosmopolitan distribution, knowledge on cyanobacteria in the family Coelosphaeriaceae is limited. In this study, a single species culture of a coelosphaeran cyanobacterium isolated from a brackish rock pool in the Baltic Sea was established. The strain was characterized by morphological features, partial 16S rRNA sequence and nonribosomal oligopeptide profile. The bioactivity of fractionated extracts against several serine proteases, as well as protein-serine/threonine phosphatases was studied. Phylogenetic analyses of the strain suggested a close relationship with Snowella litoralis, but its morphology resembled Woronichinia compacta. The controversial morphologic and phylogenetic results demonstrated remaining uncertainties regarding species division in this cyanobacteria family. Chemical analyses of the strain indicated production of nonribosomal oligopeptides. In fractionated extracts, masses and ion fragmentation spectra of seven possible anabaenopeptins were identified. Additionally, fragmentation spectra of cyanopeptolin-like peptides were collected in several of the fractions. The nonribosomal oligopeptide profile adds another potential identification criterion in future inter- and intraspecies comparisons of coelosphaeran cyanobacteria. The fractionated extracts showed significant activity against carboxypeptidase A and trypsin. Inhibition of these important metabolic enzymes might have impacts at the ecosystem level in aquatic habitats with high cyanobacteria densities. PMID:27077885

  14. Morphological characterization of silica obtained by calcination of methacrylic and epoxy - silica hybrid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tescione, F.; Lionetto, F.; Corcione, C. Esposito; Buonocore, G. G.; Striani, R.; Lavorgna, M.; Frigione, M.

    2016-05-01

    The work is addressed to investigating the potentiality of calcination of organic-inorganic (O-I) hybrids as a feasible approach to produce silica particles, at mild temperature conditions and with tailored morphology. Two different innovative hybrid systems were obtained through sol-gel process with a siloxane content ranging from 6 to 26wt%. The two O-I hybrids differed for i) the organic matrix (methacrylic or epoxy), ii) its crosslinking mechanism (photopolymerization for methacrylic systems or thermal cold-cure for epoxy systems) and iii) the rate ratio between sol-gel and crosslinking reactions. Different characterization techniques were used to understand the effect of composition and curing method on the morphology of the silica obtained from O-I hybrids after calcination in air. The results confirm the morphology and properties of silica particles in terms of surface and porosity may be tailored over a wide range by varying the composition and nature of organic and inorganic precursors of hybrids.

  15. Radiosensitivity study and radiation effects on morphology characterization of grey oyster mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Rosnani Abdul; Daud, Fauzi; Senafi, Sahidan; Awang, Mat Rasol; Mohamad, Azhar; Mutaat, Hassan Hamdani; Maskom, Mohd Meswan

    2014-09-01

    Radiosensitive dosage and morphology characterization of irradiated grey oyster mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju by gamma rays was investigated due to effects of irradiation. In order to establish the effect, mycelium of P. sajor-caju was irradiated by gamma rays at dose 0.1 to 8.0 kGy with dose rate 0.227 Gy sec-1. The irradiation of mycelia was carried out at the radiation facility in Malaysian Nuclear Agency. The radiosensitivity study was performed by evaluating the percentage of survival irradiated mycelia. The lethal dose of the mycelium P. sajor-caju was determined at 4.0 kGy and LD50 to be equal at 2.2 kGy. The radiation effects on morphology were evaluated based on growth rate of irradiated mycelia, mycelia types, colonization period on substrate, morphology of fruit bodies and yields. The results shown growth rate of irradiated mycelium was slightly lower than the control and decreased as the dose increased. Irradiation was found can induced the primordia formation on PDA and the BE of irradiated seed is higher than to control. The irradiation is proven to be useful for generating new varieties of mushroom with commercial value to the industry.

  16. Toxic Effects of Maternal Zearalenone Exposure on Intestinal Oxidative Stress, Barrier Function, Immunological and Morphological Changes in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Min; Gao, Rui; Meng, Qingwei; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Bi, Chongpeng; Shan, Anshan

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of maternal zearalenone (ZEN) exposure on the intestine of pregnant Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and its offspring. Ninety-six pregnant SD rats were randomly divided into four groups and were fed with diets containing ZEN at concentrations of 0.3 mg/kg, 48.5 mg/kg, 97.6 mg/kg or 146.0 mg/kg from gestation days (GD) 1 to 7. All rats were fed with mycotoxin-free diet until their offspring were weaned at three weeks of age. The small intestinal fragments from pregnant rats at GD8, weaned dams and pups were collected and studied for toxic effects of ZEN on antioxidant status, immune response, expression of junction proteins, and morphology. The results showed that ZEN induced oxidative stress, affected the villous structure and reduced the expression of junction proteins claudin-4, occludin and connexin43 (Cx43) in a dose-dependent manner in pregnant rats. Different effects on the expression of cytokines were also observed both in mRNA and protein levels in these pregnant groups. Ingestion of high levels of ZEN caused irreversible damage in weaned dams, such as oxidative stress, decreased villi hight and low expression of junction proteins and cytokines. Decreased expression of jejunal interleukin-8 (IL-8) and increased expression of gastrointestinal glutathione peroxidase (GPx2) mRNA were detected in weaned offspring, indicating long-term damage caused by maternal ZEN. We also found that the Nrf2 expression both in mRNA and protein levels were up-regulated in the ZEN-treated groups of pregnant dams and the high-dose of ZEN group of weaned dams. The data indicate that modulation of Nrf2-mediated pathway is one of mechanism via which ZEN affects gut wall antioxidant and inflammatory responses. PMID:25180673

  17. Effects of cigarette smoke on the Meckel's cartilage of rat fetus: morphologic, morphometric and stereologic study.

    PubMed

    Brandini, Daniela Atili; Sala, Miguel Angel; Lopes, Ruberval Armando; Semprini, Marisa; Contrera, Mary Garcia Duarte

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cigarette smoke on the development of the embryo mandible (Meckel's) cartilage in rat fetuses. When inhaled by female Wistar rats between the 9th and the 12th day of pregnancy, cigarette smoke (5 cigarettes a day) caused intrauterine growth retardation, providing smaller fetuses and placentas. In fetuses from the experimental group, the histopathologic examination revealed a poorly developed Meckel's cartilage with smaller chondroblasts showing a scanty cytoplasm with spherical and paler central nuclei, as well as more abundant cartilage matrix. Morphometric analysis revealed that Meckel's cartilage lacunae were smaller in the fetuses from the experimental group, although not showing any remarkable alteration in shape. The results suggested that inhalation of cigarette smoke by pregnant rats during the organogenic period induced growth retardation and delayed cellular differentiation in rat fetal Meckel's cartilage. PMID:16113936

  18. Characterization of 3D Joint Space Morphology Using an Electrostatic Model (with Application to Osteoarthritis)

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Qian; Thawait, Gaurav; Gang, Grace J.; Zbijewski, Wojciech; Reigel, Thomas; Brown, Tyler; Corner, Brian; Demehri, Shadpour; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.

    2015-01-01

    Joint space morphology can be indicative of the risk, presence, progression, and/or treatment response of disease or trauma. We describe a novel methodology of characterizing joint space morphology in high-resolution 3D images [e.g., cone-beam CT (CBCT)] using a model based on elementary electrostatics that overcomes a variety of basic limitations of existing 2D and 3D methods. The method models each surface of a joint as a conductor at fixed electrostatic potential and characterizes the intra-articular space in terms of the electric field lines resulting from the solution of Gauss’ Law and the Laplace equation. As a test case, the method was applied to discrimination of healthy and osteoarthritic subjects (N = 39) in 3D images of the knee acquired on an extremity CBCT system. The method demonstrated improved diagnostic performance (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, AUC > 0.98) compared to simpler methods of quantitative measurement and qualitative image-based assessment by three expert musculoskeletal radiologists (AUC = 0.87, p-value = 0.007). The method is applicable to simple (e.g., the knee or elbow) or multi-axial joints (e.g., the wrist or ankle) and may provide a useful means of quantitatively assessing a variety of joint pathologies. PMID:25575100

  19. Three-dimensional EBSD characterization of thermo-mechanical fatigue crack morphology in compacted graphite iron

    SciTech Connect

    Pirgazi, Hadi; Ghodrat, Sepideh; Kestens, Leo A.I.

    2014-04-01

    In cylinder heads made of compacted graphitic iron (CGI), heating and cooling cycles can lead to localized cracking due to thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF). To meticulously characterize the complex crack path morphology of CGI under TMF condition, in relation to microstructural features and to find out how and by which mechanisms the cracks predominantly develop, three-dimensional electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD) was employed. Based on the precise quantitative microstructural analysis, it is found that graphite particles not only play a crucial role in the crack initiation, but also are of primary significance for crack propagation, i.e. crack growth is enhanced by the presence of graphite particles. Furthermore, the density of graphite particles on the fracture plane is more than double as high as in any other arbitrary plane of the structure. The obtained results did not indicate a particular crystallographic preference of fracture plane, i.e. the crystal plane parallel to the fracture plane was nearly of random orientation. - Highlights: • Crystallographic features of a thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF) crack were studied. • Wide-field 3D EBSD is used to characterize the TMF crack morphology. • Data processing was applied on a large length scale of the order of millimeters. • Graphite density in the fracture plane is much higher than any other random plane. • It is revealed that crack growth is enhanced by the presence of graphite particles.

  20. Characterization of 3D joint space morphology using an electrostatic model (with application to osteoarthritis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Qian; Thawait, Gaurav; Gang, Grace J.; Zbijewski, Wojciech; Reigel, Thomas; Brown, Tyler; Corner, Brian; Demehri, Shadpour; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.

    2015-02-01

    Joint space morphology can be indicative of the risk, presence, progression, and/or treatment response of disease or trauma. We describe a novel methodology of characterizing joint space morphology in high-resolution 3D images (e.g. cone-beam CT (CBCT)) using a model based on elementary electrostatics that overcomes a variety of basic limitations of existing 2D and 3D methods. The method models each surface of a joint as a conductor at fixed electrostatic potential and characterizes the intra-articular space in terms of the electric field lines resulting from the solution of Gauss’ Law and the Laplace equation. As a test case, the method was applied to discrimination of healthy and osteoarthritic subjects (N = 39) in 3D images of the knee acquired on an extremity CBCT system. The method demonstrated improved diagnostic performance (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, AUC > 0.98) compared to simpler methods of quantitative measurement and qualitative image-based assessment by three expert musculoskeletal radiologists (AUC = 0.87, p-value = 0.007). The method is applicable to simple (e.g. the knee or elbow) or multi-axial joints (e.g. the wrist or ankle) and may provide a useful means of quantitatively assessing a variety of joint pathologies.

  1. Wide housing space and chronic exercise enhance physical fitness and adipose tissue morphology in rats.

    PubMed

    Scariot, Pedro Paulo Menezes; de Barros Manchado-Gobatto, Fúlvia; Torsoni, Adriana Souza; Torsoni, Marcio Alberto; dos Reis, Ivan Gustavo Masselli; Beck, Wladimir Rafael; Gobatto, Claudio Alexandre

    2015-05-01

    The current cages commonly used in animal experiments can prevent rats from engaging in most forms of natural locomotion behaviors. These animals tend to exhibit sedentary habits. Here, we show that a combination of wide housing space and training exercise helps to reduce white adipose mass and to increase brown adipose mass. Thus, this combination is a useful strategy for truly enhancing the physical fitness of captive rats commonly used in exercise-related interventional studies and to maximize their welfare. PMID:25906078

  2. Simultaneous Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Tatera indica in Southwestern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Somayeh; Parvizi, Parviz

    2016-01-01

    Background: Interest in Tatera indica rodent arises mostly because it is believed that this species is survived among four subspecies reported from Iran, two of which exist in Khuzestan Province. In addition, it might has a role as reservoir hosts of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in the transmission of Leishmania major in some of the widespread Asian foci including southwestern Iran. Methods: Diagnostic morphological and molecular markers for T. indica were sought by characterizing from individual specimens, such as some taxonomic features and mitochondrial cytochrome b gene that had previously proven useful for the taxonomy of rodents. Wild rodents were caught using live wooden and wire traps. The specimens were identified morphologically using external criteria and molecularly by sequencing of Cyt b gene and phylogenetic analyses. Results: Forty one T. indica were collected and identified morphologically in Khuzestan Province, Iran. Two morphotypes of T. indica were found and classified but sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial Cyt b gene did not support any subspecies between two morphotypes of T. indica. Because all 21 sequences of both morphotypes of T. indica had no variation with only one common and novel haplotype (GenBank accession No KP001566). Conclusion: This is the first time that T. indica was characterized molecularly in Iran. There is no molecular evidence for T. indica morphotypes or subspecies, and so a population genetics approach using several polymorphic genes might be employed using species-specific molecular markers. In addition, more specimens of T. indica species in large geographical locations should be tested. PMID:27047972

  3. Testicular morphology of male rats exposed to Phaleria macrocarpa (Mahkota dewa) aqueous extract

    PubMed Central

    Parhizkar, Saadat; Zulkifli, Suriani Binti; Dollah, Mohammad Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): This study was designed to investigate the effect of Phaleria macrocarpa aqueous extract (PM) on spermatogenesis by observing the histological changes of testes in adult male rats. Materials and Methods: PM was prepared by boiling the dried slices of P. macrocarpa fruits followed by filtering, centrifugation and freeze-drying to obtain the powder form. Eighteen Sprague Dawley adult male rats were divided into three groups (six in each group), designated as treatment (240 mg/kg PM), negative control (distilled water) and positive control (4mg/kg testosterone) and administered via intragastric gavage for seven weeks. In the sixth week of supplementation period, each male rat was introduced to five female rats. Afterward, all rats were sacrificed and the testes were removed for histological studies. Results: PM significantly increased the number of cell and the thickness of seminiferous tubules of male rats (P<0.05). However, there was no significant effect on the volume and size of testes. The mean of spermatogonia cells numbers of PM groups differed significantly from the negative and positive groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: PM showed potential value as an attractive alternative for improving sexual strength by increasing the number of spermatogonia cell and the thickness of the seminiferous tubules. Perhaps, PM could be suggested to be one of the herbal remedies that can improve men fertility. The results may have some clinical implication in the management of infertility. PMID:24967068

  4. Binge Drinking of Ethanol during Adolescence Induces Oxidative Damage and Morphological Changes in Salivary Glands of Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Fagundes, Nathalia Carolina Fernandes; Fernandes, Luanna Melo Pereira; Paraense, Ricardo Sousa de Oliveira; de Farias-Junior, Paulo Mecenas Alves; Teixeira, Francisco Bruno; Alves-Junior, Sergio Melo; Pinheiro, João de Jesus Viana; Crespo-López, Maria Elena; Maia, Cristiane Socorro Ferraz; Lima, Rafael Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates morphological and biochemistry effects of binge ethanol consumption in parotid (PG) and submandibular (SG) salivary glands of rats from adolescence to adulthood. Female Wistar rats (n = 26) received ethanol at 3 g/kg/day (20% w/v) for 3 consecutive days/week from the 35th until the 62nd day of life. Animals were treated in two periods: 1 week (G1) and 4 weeks (G2), with a control (treated with distilled water) and an ethanol group to each period. In morphological analysis, morphometric and immunohistochemistry evaluation for smooth muscle actin (αSMA), cytokeratin-18 (CK-18), and vimentin (VIM) were made. Biochemical changes were analyzed by concentration of nitrites and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA). The difference between groups in each analysis was evaluated by Mann-Whitney U test or Student's t-test (p ≤ 0.05). PG showed, at one week of ethanol exposure, lower CK-18 and α-SMA expression, as well as MDA levels. After four weeks, lower CK-18 and higher MDA levels were observed in PG exposed to ethanol, in comparison to control group. SG showed lower α-SMA expression after 1 and 4 weeks of ethanol exposure as well as higher MDA levels after 1 week. Ethanol binge consumption during adolescence promotes tissue and biochemical changes with only one-week binge in acinar and myoepithelial PG cells. PMID:27579155

  5. Quantitative and morphological analysis of dentate granule cells with recurrent basal dendrites from normal and epileptic rats.

    PubMed

    Dashtipour, Khashayar; Yan, Xiao-Xin; Dinh, Trinh T; Okazaki, Maxine M; Nadler, J Victor; Ribak, Charles E

    2002-01-01

    Granule cells with recurrent basal dendrites (RBDs) were previously reported in both control and epileptic rats. RBDs are dendrites that arise from the basal half of granule cell bodies and curve toward and extend into the molecular layer. They are increased in frequency in the pilocarpine model of epilepsy. The present study was undertaken to analyze the distribution and morphology of granule cells with RBDs and the synaptic connections of RBDs. Granule cells were labeled by retrograde transport of biocytin. Those with an RBD were found throughout the granule cell layer, but were most numerous at the hilar border. The morphology of these cells varied in the different depths of the granule cell layer; the angle of their cell body's long axis was mainly vertical at the hilar margin, and changed to virtually horizontal close to the molecular layer border. Quantitative data on the distribution of granule cells with RBDs and the angle of the cell body's long axis confirmed these descriptions. At the electron microscopic level, RBDs showed the typical features of dendrites and formed numerous axodendritic and axospinous synapses with labeled and unlabeled axon terminals. These results showed that RBDs of granule cells from epileptic rats are postsynaptic to axon terminals, including mossy fibers, and thus are involved in a similar synaptic circuitry as apical dendrites of granule cells from these animals. PMID:12000120

  6. Binge Drinking of Ethanol during Adolescence Induces Oxidative Damage and Morphological Changes in Salivary Glands of Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Fagundes, Nathalia Carolina Fernandes; Fernandes, Luanna Melo Pereira; Paraense, Ricardo Sousa de Oliveira; Teixeira, Francisco Bruno; Alves-Junior, Sergio Melo; Pinheiro, João de Jesus Viana; Crespo-López, Maria Elena

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates morphological and biochemistry effects of binge ethanol consumption in parotid (PG) and submandibular (SG) salivary glands of rats from adolescence to adulthood. Female Wistar rats (n = 26) received ethanol at 3 g/kg/day (20% w/v) for 3 consecutive days/week from the 35th until the 62nd day of life. Animals were treated in two periods: 1 week (G1) and 4 weeks (G2), with a control (treated with distilled water) and an ethanol group to each period. In morphological analysis, morphometric and immunohistochemistry evaluation for smooth muscle actin (αSMA), cytokeratin-18 (CK-18), and vimentin (VIM) were made. Biochemical changes were analyzed by concentration of nitrites and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA). The difference between groups in each analysis was evaluated by Mann-Whitney U test or Student's t-test (p ≤ 0.05). PG showed, at one week of ethanol exposure, lower CK-18 and α-SMA expression, as well as MDA levels. After four weeks, lower CK-18 and higher MDA levels were observed in PG exposed to ethanol, in comparison to control group. SG showed lower α-SMA expression after 1 and 4 weeks of ethanol exposure as well as higher MDA levels after 1 week. Ethanol binge consumption during adolescence promotes tissue and biochemical changes with only one-week binge in acinar and myoepithelial PG cells. PMID:27579155

  7. Repeated immobilization stress alters rat hippocampal and prefrontal cortical morphology in parallel with endogenous agmatine and arginine decarboxylase levels

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Meng-Yang; Wang, Wei-Ping; Huang, Jingjing; Feng, Yang-Zheng; Regunathan, Soundar; Bissette, Garth

    2008-01-01

    Agmatine, an endogenous amine derived from decarboxylation of L-arginine catalyzed by arginine decarboxylase, has been proposed as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the brain. In the present study we examined whether agmatine has neuroprotective effects against repeated immobilization-induced morphological changes in brain tissues and possible effects of immobilization stress on endogenous agmatine levels and arginine decarboxylase expression in rat brains. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to two hour immobilization stress daily for seven days. This paradigm significantly increased plasma corticosterone levels, and the glutamate efflux in the hippocampus as measured by in vivo microdialysis. Immunohistochemical staining with β-tubulin III showed that repeated immobilization caused marked morphological alterations in the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex that were prevented by simultaneous treatment with agmatine (50 mg/kg/day, i.p.). Likewise, endogenous agmatine levels measured by high performance liquid chromatography in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum and hypothalamus were significantly increased by immobilization, as compared to controls. The increased endogenous agmatine levels, ranging from 92% to 265% of controls, were accompanied by a significant increase of arginine decarboxylase protein levels in the same regions. These results demonstrate that administration of exogenous agmatine protects the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex against neuronal insults caused by repeated immobilization. The parallel increase in endogenous brain agmatine and arginine decarboxylase protein levels triggered by repeated immobilization indicates that the endogenous agmatine system may play an important role in adaptation to stress as a potential neuronal self-protection mechanism. PMID:18832001

  8. Cortical Bone Morphological and Trabecular Bone Microarchitectural Changes in the Mandible and Femoral Neck of Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Pei-Yu; Tsai, Ming-Tzu; Wang, Shun-Ping; Chen, Ying-Ju; Wu, Jay; Hsu, Jui-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study used microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy on the trabecular bone microarchitecture and cortical bone morphology in the femoral neck and mandible of female rats. Materials and Methods Twelve female Wister rats were divided into two groups: the control and ovariectomized groups. The rats in the ovariectomized group received ovariectomy at 8 weeks of age; all the rats were sacrificed at 20 weeks of age, and their mandibles and femurs were removed and scanned using micro-CT. Four microstructural trabecular bone parameters were measured for the region below the first mandibular molar and the femoral neck region: bone volume fraction (BV/TV), trabecular thickness (TbTh), trabecular separation (TbSp), and trabecular number (TbN). In addition, four cortical bone parameters were measured for the femoral neck region: total cross-sectional area (TtAr), cortical area (CtAr), cortical bone area fraction (CtAr/TtAr), and cortical thickness (CtTh). The CtTh at the masseteric ridge was used to assess the cortical bone morphology in the mandible. The trabecular bone microarchitecture and cortical bone morphology in the femoral necks and mandibles of the control group were compared with those of the ovariectomized group. Furthermore, Spearman’s correlation (rs) was conducted to analyze the correlation between the osteoporosis conditions of the mandible and femoral neck. Results Regarding the trabecular bone microarchitectural parameters, the BV/TV of the trabecular bone microarchitecture in the femoral necks of the control group (61.199±11.288%, median ± interquartile range) was significantly greater than that of the ovariectomized group (40.329±5.153%). Similarly, the BV/TV of the trabecular bone microarchitecture in the mandibles of the control group (51.704±6.253%) was significantly greater than that of the ovariectomized group (38.486±9.111%). Furthermore, the TbSp of the femoral necks in the ovariectomized group

  9. Electroacupuncture improves microcirculation and neuronal morphology in the spinal cord of a rat model of intervertebral disc extrusion

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Dai-xun; Lu, Zhi-song; Li, Ge-bin; Sun, Sheng-yong; Mu, Xiang; Lee, Peter; Chen, Wu

    2015-01-01

    Most studies on spinal cord neuronal injury have focused on spinal cord tissue histology and the expression of nerve cell damage and repair-related genes. The importance of the microcirculation is often ignored in spinal cord injury and repair research. Therefore, in this study, we established a rat model of intervertebral disc extrusion by inserting a silica gel pad into the left ventral surface of T13. Electroacupuncture was used to stimulate the bilateral Zusanli point (ST36) and Neiting point (ST44) for 14 days. Compared with control animals, blood flow in the first lumbar vertebra (L1) was noticeably increased in rats given electroacupuncture. Microvessel density in the T13 segment of the spinal cord was increased significantly as well. The number of normal neurons was higher in the ventral horn of the spinal cord. In addition, vacuolation in the white matter was lessened. No obvious glial cell proliferation was visible. Furthermore, hindlimb motor function was improved significantly. Collectively, our results suggest that electroacupuncture can improve neuronal morphology and microcirculation, and promote the recovery of neurological functions in a rat model of intervertebral disc extrusion. PMID:25883622

  10. HemoHIM improves ovarian morphology and decreases expression of nerve growth factor in rats with steroid-induced polycystic ovaries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Ho; Lee, Hae June; Kim, Joong Sun; Moon, Changjong; Kim, Jong Choon; Bae, Chun Sik; Park, Hae Ran; Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung Kee

    2009-12-01

    Estradiol valerate (EV)-induced polycystic ovaries (PCOs) in rats cause the anovulation and cystic ovarian morphology. We investigated whether treatment with HemoHIM influences the ovarian morphology and the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) in an EV-induced PCO rat model. PCO was induced by a single intramuscular injection of EV (4 mg, dissolved in sesame oil) in adult cycling rats. HemoHIM was either administered orally (100 mg/kg of body weight/day) for 35 consecutive days or injected intraperitoneally (50 mg/kg of body weight) every other day after EV injection. Ovarian morphology was almost normalized, and NGF was normalized in the PCO + HemoHIM group. HemoHIM lowered the high numbers of antral follicles and increased the number of corpora lutea in PCOs. The results are consistent with a beneficial effect of HemoHIM in the prevention and treatment of PCO syndrome. PMID:20041792

  11. Arterial morphology responds differently to Captopril then N-acetylcysteine in a monocrotaline rat model of pulmonary hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molthen, Robert; Wu, Qingping; Baumgardt, Shelley; Kohlhepp, Laura; Shingrani, Rahul; Krenz, Gary

    2010-03-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an incurable condition inevitably resulting in death because of increased right heart workload and eventual failure. PH causes pulmonary vascular remodeling, including muscularization of the arteries, and a reduction in the typically large vascular compliance of the pulmonary circulation. We used a rat model of monocrotaline (MCT) induced PH to evaluated and compared Captopril (an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor with antioxidant capacity) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC, a mucolytic with a large antioxidant capacity) as possible treatments. Twenty-eight days after MCT injection, the rats were sacrificed and heart, blood, and lungs were studied to measure indices such as right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH), hematocrit, pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), vessel morphology and biomechanics. We implemented microfocal X-ray computed tomography to image the pulmonary arterial tree at intravascular pressures of 30, 21, 12, and 6 mmHg and then used automated vessel detection and measurement algorithms to perform morphological analysis and estimate the distensibility of the arterial tree. The vessel detection and measurement algorithms quickly and effectively mapped and measured the vascular trees at each intravascular pressure. Monocrotaline treatment, and the ensuing PH, resulted in a significantly decreased arterial distensibility, increased PVR, and tended to decrease the length of the main pulmonary trunk. In rats with PH induced by monocrotaline, Captopril treatment significantly increased arterial distensibility and decrease PVR. NAC treatment did not result in an improvement, it did not significantly increase distensibility and resulted in further increase in PVR. Interestingly, NAC tended to increase peripheral vascular density. The results suggest that arterial distensibility may be more important than distal collateral pathways in maintaining PVR at normally low values.

  12. Changes in small intestinal morphology and digestive enzyme activity with oral administration of copper-loaded chitosan nanoparticles in rats.

    PubMed

    Han, Xin-Yan; Du, Wen-Li; Huang, Qi-Chun; Xu, Zi-Rong; Wang, Yi-Zheng

    2012-03-01

    The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of copper-loaded chitosan nanoparticles on the small intestinal morphology and activities of digestive enzyme and mucosal disaccharase in rats. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats, with average body weight of 82 g, were randomly allotted to five groups (n = 8). All rats were received a basal diet (control) or the same basal diet added with 80 mg/kg BW CuSO(4), 80 mg/kg BW chitosan (CS-I), 80 mg/kg BW copper-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (CSN-I), 160 mg/kg BW copper-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (CSN-II), respectively. The experiment lasted 21 days. The results showed that the villus heights of the small intestinal mucosa in groups CSN-I and CSN-II were higher than those of the control, group CuSO(4) or CS-I. The crypt depth of duodenum and ileum mucosa in group CSN-I or CSN-II was depressed. Compared with the control, there were no significant effects of CuSO(4) or CS-I on the villus height and crypt depth of small intestinal mucosa. Supplementation with CSN improved the activities of trypsin, amylase and lipase in the small intestinal contents and maltase, sucrase and lactase of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum mucosa while there were no significant effects of CuSO(4) on the digestive enzyme activities of the small content compared with the control. The results indicated that intestinal morphology, activities of digestive enzyme in digesta and mucosal disaccharase were beneficially changed by treatment of copper-loaded chitosan nanoparticles. PMID:21882065

  13. Repeated fluvoxamine treatment recovers juvenile stress-induced morphological changes and depressive-like behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Lyttle, Kerise; Ohmura, Yu; Konno, Kohtarou; Yoshida, Takayuki; Izumi, Takeshi; Watanabe, Masahiko; Yoshioka, Mitsuhiro

    2015-08-01

    Human studies have suggested that early life stress such as child abuse could enhance susceptibility to depressive disorders. Moreover, the abnormalities of the prefrontal cortex have been associated with depression. Although clinical studies have implied the negative effects of early life stress on brain development, the causality and the detailed morphogenetic changes has not been clearly elucidated. In the present study, we determined the effect of juvenile stress exposure on the presentation of depressive-like behavior and the neural mechanisms involved using a rodent model. Rat pups were exposed to footshock stress during postnatal days 21-25 followed by repeated oral administration of fluvoxamine (0 or 10mg/kg/d × 14 days), which is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. At the postadolescent stage forced swim test assessment of depressive-like behavior and Golgi-Cox staining of medial prefrontal cortex pyramidal neurons followed by morphological analyses were carried out. Post-adolescent behavioral and morphological studies identified the presentation of increased depressive-like behaviors and reduced spine densities and dendritic lengths of layer II/III pyramidal neuron in the infralimbic cortex, but not in the prelimbic cortex of rats exposed to juvenile stress. Repeated fluvoxamine treatment recovered the increased depressive-like behavior and reduced spine densities/dendritic lengths observed in rats exposed to footshock stress. Cortical thicknesses in the infralimbic cortex and prelimbic cortex were also reduced by juvenile stress, but these reductions were not recovered by fluvoxamine treatment. The results demonstrate cortical sensitivities to stress exposures during the juvenile stage which mediate behavioral impairments, and provide a clue to find therapeutics for early life stress-induced emotional dysfunctions. PMID:25960352

  14. The Characterization of Obese Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Rat Model Suitable for Exercise Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Shuwei; Jiang, Zhongli

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop a new polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) rat model suitable for exercise intervention. Method Thirty six rats were randomly divided into three experimental groups: PCOS rats with high-fat diet (PF, n = 24), PCOS rats with ordinary diet (PO, n = 6), and control rats with ordinary diet (CO, n = 6). Two kinds of PCOS rat model were made by adjustment diet structure and testosterone injection for 28 days. After a successful animal model, PF model rats were randomly assigned to three groups: exercise with a continuation of high-fat diet (PF-EF, n = 6), sedentary with a continuation of high-fat diet (PF-SF, n = 6), exercise with an ordinary diet (PF-EO, n = 6). Fasting blood glucose (FBG) and insulin (FINS), estrogen (E2), progesterone (P), and testosterone (T) in serum were determined by RIA, and ovarian morphology was evaluated by Image-Pro plus 6.0. Results Body weight, Lee index, FINS increased significantly in PF rat model. Serum levels of E2 and T were significantly higher in PF and PO than in CO. Ovary organ index and ovarian areas were significant lower in PF than in CO. After intervention for 2 weeks, the levels of 1 h postprandial blood glucose (PBG1), 2 h postprandial blood glucose (PBG2), FINS and the serum levels of T decreased significantly in PF-EF rats and PF-EO rats. The ratio of FBG/FINS was significant higher in PF-EO rats than in PF-SF rats. Ovarian morphology showed that the numbers of preantral follicles and atretic follicles decreased significantly, and the numbers of antral follicles and corpora lutea increased significantly in the rats of PF-EF and PF-EO. Conclusion By combination of high-fat diet and testosterone injection, the obese PCOS rat model is conformable with the lifestyle habits of fatty foods and insufficient exercise, and has metabolic and reproductive characteristics of human PCOS. This model can be applied to study exercise intervention. PMID:24905232

  15. Morphological and electrophysiological features of motor neurons and putative interneurons in the dorsal vagal complex of rats and mice

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hong; Glatzer, Nicholas R.; Williams, Kevin W.; Derbenev, Andrei V.; Liu, Dan; Smith, Bret N.

    2009-01-01

    The dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) contains preganglionic motor neurons that control viscera along the subdiaphragmatic digestive tract, but may also contain neurons that do not project to the viscera. Neurons that expressed EGFP 60-72 h subsequent to PRV-152 inoculation of vagal terminals in the stomach wall were targeted for whole-cell patch-clamp recording and biocytin filling in transverse brainstem slices from rats and their quantitative morphological and electrophysiological characteristics were compared with uninfected cells. Over 90% of PRV-152 labeled neurons were also labeled subsequent to intraperitoneal injection of FluoroGold, indicating most were preganglionic motor neurons. In reconstructed neurons with an identifiable axon trajectory, two cellular subtypes were distinguished. The axon projected ventrolaterally from the DMV in 44 of 49 cells and these were likely to be vagal motor neurons. Axons of other neurons ramified within the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) or DMV. These cells were smaller and otherwise morphologically distinct from putative motor neurons. Transgenic mice with GFP-expressing inhibitory neurons (i.e., GIN mice) were used to identify a GABAergic subset vagal neurons. These neurons had locally-ramifying axons and formed a morphologically distinct subset of DMV cells, which were similar in size and axon trajectory to GABAergic neurons in the NTS. Most neurons in the DMV therefore possess morphological features of motor neurons, but locally projecting cells and inhibitory neurons with distinct morphological features are also found within the DMV. These cells likely contribute to regulation of vagal function. PMID:19619517

  16. Metabolic and morphologic properties of single muscle fibers in the rat after spaceflight, Cosmos 1887

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miu, B.; Martin, T. P.; Roy, R. R.; Oganov, V.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E.; Marini, J. F.; Leger, J. J.; Bodine-Fowler, S. C.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1990-01-01

    The adaptation of a slow (soleus, Sol) and a fast (medial gastrocnemius, MG) skeletal muscle to spaceflight was studied in five young male rats. The flight period was 12.5 days and the rats were killed approximately 48 h after returning to 1 g. Five other rats that were housed in cages similar to those used by the flight rats were maintained at 1 g for the same period of time to serve as ground-based controls. Fibers were classified as dark or light staining for myosin adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase). On the average, the fibers in the Sol of the flight rats atrophied twice as much as those in the MG. Further, the fibers located in the deep (close to the bone and having the highest percentage of light ATPase and high oxidative fibers in the muscle cross section) region of the MG atrophied more than the fibers located in the superficial (away from the bone and having the lowest percentage of light ATPase and high oxidative fibers in the muscle cross-section) region of the muscle. Based on quantitative histochemical assays of single muscle fibers, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity per unit volume was unchanged in fibers of the Sol and MG. However, in the Sol, but not the MG, the total amount of SDH activity in a 10-microns-thick section of a fiber decreased significantly in response to spaceflight. Based on population distributions, it appears that the alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) activities were elevated in the dark ATPase fibers in the Sol, whereas the light fibers in the Sol and both fiber types in the MG did not appear to change. The ratio of GPD to SDH activities increased in the dark (but not light) fibers of the Sol and was unaffected in the MG. Immunohistochemical analyses indicate that approximately 40% of the fibers in the Sol of flight rats expressed a fast myosin heavy chain compared with 22% in control rats. Further, 31% of the fibers in the Sol of flight rats expressed both fast and slow myosin heavy chains compared with 8% in

  17. Marginal copper intakes and rat aorta endothelium morphology by scanning electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, K.G.D.; Allen, C.B. )

    1989-02-15

    Marginal copper deficiency influences rat aorta structure and arterial superoxide dismutase. Weanling female Sprague Dawley rats were fed a 20% casein, 66% sucrose, 5% corn oil AIN Based diet containing either marginal (1.8 ppm) copper (CuM) or adequate (10.0 ppm) copper (CuA) with adequate but not excessive zinc. Females were bred at 65 days and weaned male pups consumed the diet of their respective dams, both with and without added 0.7% dietary cholesterol plus 0.35% dietary cholic acid (C+CA), for 88 days post weaning. CuM fed male offspring were without clinical signs of copper deprivation despite changes in tissue copper indices. C+CA feeding significantly raised plasma cholesterol in both CuA and CuM rats. Anesthetized rats were perfused with 2.5% glutaraldehyde at physiological pressure. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of aortic endothelium showed endothelial changes in CuM rats. Degree of endothelial changes was in order CuM + C+CA > CuM, CuA, CuA+C+CA. Major changes observed by SEM were endothelial bulging into lumen and adherence of leukocytes and platelets. CuM diets, particularly in hypercholesterolemia, may cause endothelial damage.

  18. Chemical and morphological characterization of sugarcane bagasse submitted to a delignification process for enhanced enzymatic digestibility

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In recent years, biorefining of lignocellulosic biomass to produce multi-products such as ethanol and other biomaterials has become a dynamic research area. Pretreatment technologies that fractionate sugarcane bagasse are essential for the successful use of this feedstock in ethanol production. In this paper, we investigate modifications in the morphology and chemical composition of sugarcane bagasse submitted to a two-step treatment, using diluted acid followed by a delignification process with increasing sodium hydroxide concentrations. Detailed chemical and morphological characterization of the samples after each pretreatment condition, studied by high performance liquid chromatography, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, is reported, together with sample crystallinity and enzymatic digestibility. Results Chemical composition analysis performed on samples obtained after different pretreatment conditions showed that up to 96% and 85% of hemicellulose and lignin fractions, respectively, were removed by this two-step method when sodium hydroxide concentrations of 1% (m/v) or higher were used. The efficient lignin removal resulted in an enhanced hydrolysis yield reaching values around 100%. Considering the cellulose loss due to the pretreatment (maximum of 30%, depending on the process), the total cellulose conversion increases significantly from 22.0% (value for the untreated bagasse) to 72.4%. The delignification process, with consequent increase in the cellulose to lignin ratio, is also clearly observed by nuclear magnetic resonance and diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy experiments. We also demonstrated that the morphological changes contributing to this remarkable improvement occur as a consequence of lignin removal from the sample. Bagasse unstructuring is favored by the loss of cohesion between neighboring cell walls, as

  19. Morphological Study of the Articular Disc and Capillary of the Retrodiscal Tissue in a Type 2 Spontaneous Diabetes Mellitus Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Mamoru; Toda, Isumi; Kawashima, Wataru; Yoshimoto, Gaku; Fang, Yi-Ru; Xu, Yuan Jin; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Lei; Takemura, Akimichi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate morphological changes at the articular disc of the temporomandibular joint and capillary of the retrodiscal tissue in a rat model for type 2 spontaneous diabetes mellitus (DM) (i.e., Goto-Kakizaki [GK] rats) compared to normal Wistar rats. A total of 20 experimental rats were used in this study; the rats were categorized into the normal (n = 10 male 8-week-old Wistar rats) and DM (n = 10 male 8-week-old GK rats) groups. Hematoxylin-eosin stained specimens were obtained from 5 rats from each group. Image analyses of the hematoxylin-eosin stained specimens were conducted using light micrographs, which allowed comparisons of the thickness of the anterior, central, and posterior parts of the articular disc. Afterwards, the microvascular corrosion cast specimens were obtained from 5 rats from each group. The diameter of the capillary of the retrodiscal tissue was determined by analyzing scanning electron micrographs of the microvascular corrosion cast specimens. Student's t-test was used to test for statistical significant differences between the 2 groups. Differences were considered significant when p < 0.01. We found that the thickness of the anterior, central, and posterior parts of the articular disc, and the diameter of the capillary of the retrodiscal tissue was significantly lower in the DM vs. normal group. Therefore, we consider that DM-associated the hyperglycemia causes atrophy of the articular disc and microangiopathy of the capillary of the retrodiscal tissue in GK rats. PMID:27319300

  20. [Morphological characterization of experimental parodontitis during its treatment with a phyto-preparation uno de gato].

    PubMed

    Miminoshvili, Sh M; Gvamichava, T A; Mdinaradze, N L

    2007-06-01

    Examination of new methods of treatment of parodontitis is stipulated by the significant increase in the number of patients with parodontitis. Experiments were conducted on white outbred male rats weighing 150-200 gr, which were divided into three groups. The first group was a reference one (n=20). The second group includes induced parodontitis (n=15) and the third group includes induced parodontitis with the treatment of uno de gato (n=19). We simulated parodontitis in the following way: on the lower nippers in the field of a neck we attached a ligature causing mechanical damage. We used a intramuscular injection of Nembutal as a means of narcotization (0.1 ml-10 g per mass). The present work is dedicated to morphological studies of the structures of damaged parodontium during its treatment with a phyto-preparation uno de gato. The undertaken treatment has demonstrated partial restoration of the mucous tunic of the gum. Newly formed capillaries were found in the connective tissue. The fibroblasts are mostly mature and collagen-producing. Thus, the study has demonstrated that there is a certain tendency of the tissue restoration and the treatment has produced the best therapeutic results. PMID:17660608

  1. Exposure to non-ionizing radiation provokes changes in rat thyroid morphology and expression of HSP-90.

    PubMed

    Misa-Agustiño, Maria J; Jorge-Mora, Teresa; Jorge-Barreiro, Francisco J; Suarez-Quintanilla, Juan; Moreno-Piquero, Eduardo; Ares-Pena, Francisco J; López-Martín, Elena

    2015-09-01

    Non-ionizing radiation at 2.45 GHz may modify the morphology and expression of genes that codify heat shock proteins (HSP) in the thyroid gland. Diathermy is the therapeutic application of non-ionizing radiation to humans for its beneficial effects in rheumatological and musculo-skeletal pain processes. We used a diathermy model on laboratory rats subjected to maximum exposure in the left front leg, in order to study the effects of radiation on the nearby thyroid tissue. Fifty-six rats were individually exposed once or repeatedly (10 times in two weeks) for 30 min to 2.45 GHz radiation in a commercial chamber at different non-thermal specific absorption rates (SARs), which were calculated using the finite difference time domain technique. We used immunohistochemistry methods to study the expression of HSP-90 and morphological changes in thyroid gland tissues. Ninety minutes after radiation with the highest SAR, the central and peripheral follicles presented increased size and the thickness of the peripheral septa had decreased. Twenty-four hours after radiation, only peripheral follicles radiated at 12 W were found to be smaller. Peripheral follicles increased in size with repeated exposure at 3 W power. Morphological changes in the thyroid tissue may indicate a glandular response to acute or repeated stress from radiation in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Further research is needed to determine if the effect of this physical agent over time may cause disease in the human thyroid gland. PMID:25649190

  2. Morphological effects of cytidin-diphosphate-choline on rats with lesions of the substantia nigra: study using horse radish peroxidase method.

    PubMed

    Stanzani, S

    1981-09-15

    Morphological effects of Cytidin-diphosphate-Choline (CDP-choline) (Ni-cholin) on rat brain with Substantia nigra lesions were studied by using the horse radish peroxidase method (HRP). Three groups of animals were studied. Post-lesion axonal and cellular regeneration was detected only in the group of rats treated with CDP-choline q.d. i.m. for 15 days. PMID:7306424

  3. Effect of scorpion toxin on the enterochromaffin-like cells in normal and Trypanosoma cruzi-infected rats: a morphological study.

    PubMed

    Toppa, N H; Leite, V H; Barbosa, A J; Chiari, E; Gonzaga, H M; Freire-Maia, L; Cunha-Melo, J R

    1989-01-01

    Intravenous injection of scorpion toxin (Tityus serrulatus) in normal and Trypanosoma cruzi infected rats did not cause ultrastructural morphologic changes on enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells of the stomach, although it induced a significant increase of the gastric secretion. Our data seem to indicate that gastric ECL cells structure is not affected by stimulation with scorpion toxin or by acute infection with T. cruzi in the rat. PMID:2510237

  4. Morphological analysis of tissue reaction caused by a new endodontic paste in subcutaneous tissue of rats

    PubMed Central

    Marques, André AF; Sponchiado, Emilio C; Garcia, Lucas FR; Garrido, Angela DB; França, Suzelei C; Lia, Raphael CC

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To assess the biocompatibility of an experimental endodontic paste based on the ethyl acetate fraction of Pothomorphe umbellata + calcium hydroxide, using propylene glycol as vehicle, in connective tissue of rats. Materials and Methods: Fifteen rats had four polyethylene tubes implanted in their backs, with each one containing the experimental paste. The tube side was considered the control group. After 7, 21, and 42 days, animals were euthanized. Results: Intense inflammatory reaction was noticed after 7 days for experimental paste and it was moderate for control group. At 21 days, the inflammatory reaction was moderate for experimental paste and discrete for control group; and at 42 days, it was discrete for experimental paste and control group. Statistical analysis (Dunn's test, P < 0.01) demonstrated significant difference between the fibrous capsule area at 7 and 42 days (P > 0.01) for experimental paste. Conclusions: Experimental endodontic paste presented satisfactory tissue reaction in the connective tissue of rats. PMID:22025840

  5. [Morphological features of the rat stellate ganglion during early postnatal development].

    PubMed

    Korzina, M B; Korobkin, A A; Vasil'eva, O A; Masliukov, P M

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the anatomical characteristics of the stellate ganglion (SG) and the morphometric characteristics of its neurons in rats of different age groups (newborn, 10-, 20-, 30-, 60- and 180-day-old) using anatomical and histological methods. The results obtained indicated that in rats since birth there were three variants of branch origin from the medial margin of SG. No differences were observed in these variants between right and left SG. The sizes of both SG and its neurons increased during the first two months of postnatal development. The density of neurons in SG sections decreased from the moment of birth until the six months of age. The number of SG neurons did not change significantly in the postnatal ontogenesis. Thus, SG in rats is anatomically formed by the moment of birth, while the sizes and morphometric characteristics of SG neurons become finally stabilized by the second month of age. PMID:20572389

  6. Transmural progression of morphologic changes during ischemic contracture and reperfusion in the normal and hypertrophied rat heart.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, P. G.; Bishop, S. P.; Digerness, S. B.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the functional and morphologic changes that occur during ischemic contracture and reperfusion in the normal and hypertrophied heart. Hearts from Sprague-Dawley, spontaneously hypertensive (SHR), and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats were evaluated using a modified Langendorff perfusion apparatus. After obtaining control data, hearts were potassium-arrested, made ischemic, and studied at various time points. Regional coronary flow was assessed with the use of radiolabeled microspheres or Microfil dye infusion, and morphologic changes were evaluated by means of light and electron microscopy. Sarcomere length changes and qualitative morphologic changes during global ischemia demonstrate a transmural progression of ischemic damage starting at the endocardium and extending, with time, epicardially. The progression of ischemic changes in hypertrophied hearts of SHRs was similar to that of normal hearts; however, hypertrophied hearts developed ischemic contracture sooner than normal hearts. In addition, the development of contraction band change after ischemic contracture occurred only when hearts were reperfused and was related to the development of no-reflow. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:2959155

  7. Ocular gene transfer of active TGF-beta induces changes in anterior segment morphology and elevated IOP in rats.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Jennifer V; Golesic, Elizabeth; Gauldie, Jack; West-Mays, Judith A

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) is known to play a crucial role in wound healing and fibrotic tissue remodeling. A large body of evidence suggests a role for this cytokine in the pathogenesis of glaucoma; however, the mechanisms by which it affects anterior segment morphology are not well understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of TGF-beta overexpression on anterior segment morphology and subsequent effects on intraocular pressure. Methods. Adenoviral gene transfer was used to deliver active TGF-beta1 to the rat eye. Measurements of intraocular pressure were taken with a tonometer on days 0, 14, 21, and 29. Histologic analysis was undertaken to examine anterior segment morphology, and markers of matrix deposition and fibrosis were used. Results. Gene transfer of TGF-beta in the anterior segment resulted in the formation of peripheral anterior synechiae (PAS), which consisted of a fibroproliferative region of corneal endothelial cells, matrix accumulation, and decrease in trabecular meshwork expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin. These features were accompanied by ocular hypertension. Conclusions. Gene transfer of TGF-beta into the anterior segment induces aberrant PAS associated with the transition of corneal endothelial cells and subsequent matrix deposition. These features are highly reminiscent of human iridocorneal endothelial (ICE) syndrome. Gene transfer of TGF-beta can, therefore, be used to induce anatomic changes in the anterior segment in a rodent model that result in ocular hypertension. PMID:19696167

  8. Effects of Hindlimb Unweighting on MBP and GDNF Expression and Morphology in Rat Dorsal Root Ganglia Neurons.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Heng; Ren, Ning-Tao; Zhou, Fang-Qiang; Li, Jie; Lei, Wei; Liu, Ning; Bi, Long; Wu, Zi-Xiang; Zhang, Ran; Zhang, Yong-Gang; Cui, Geng

    2016-09-01

    With the development of technology and space exploration, studies on long-duration space flights have shown that microgravity induces damage to multiple organs, including the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). However, very little is known about the effects of long-term microgravity on DRG neurons. This study investigated the effects of microgravity on lumbar 5 (L5) DRG neurons in rats using the hindlimb unweighting (HU) model. Male (M) and female (F) Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into M- and F-control (CON) groups and M- and F-HU groups, respectively (n = 10). At the end of HU treatment for 4 weeks, morphological changes were detected. Myelin basic protein (MBP) and degenerated myelin basic protein (dgen-MBP) expressions were analyzed by immunofluorescence and western blot assays. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) protein and mRNA expressions were also analyzed by immunohistochemistry, western blot, and RT-PCR analysis, respectively. Compared with the corresponding CON groups, the HU groups exhibited slightly loose junctions between DRG neurons, some separated ganglion cells and satellite cells, and lightly stained Nissl bodies that were of smaller size and had a scattered distribution. High levels of dgen-MBP and low MBP expressions were appeared and GDNF expressions were significantly decreased in both HU groups. Changes were more pronounced in the F-HU group than in the M-HU group. In conclusion, HU treatment induced damage of L5 DRG neurons, which was correlated with decreased total MBP protein expression, increased dgen-MBP expression, and reduced GDNF protein and mRNA expression. Importantly, these changes were more severe in F-HU rats compared with M-HU rats. PMID:27230884

  9. Predicting X-ray absorption spectra of semiconducting polymers for electronic structure and morphology characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Gregory; Patel, Shrayesh; Pemmaraju, C. Das; Kramer, Edward; Prendergast, David; Chabinyc, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Core-level X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) reveals important information on the electronic structure of materials and plays a key role in morphology characterization. Semiconducting polymers are the active component in many organic electronics. Their electronic properties are critically linked to device performance, and a proper understanding of semiconducting polymer XAS is crucial. Techniques such as resonant X-ray scattering rely on core-level transitions to gain materials contrast and probe orientational order. However, it is difficult to identify these transitions based on experiments alone, and complementary simulations are required. We show that first-principles calculations can capture the essential features of experimental XAS of semiconducting polymers, and provide insight into which molecular model, such as oligomers or periodic boundary conditions, are best suited for XAS calculations. Simulated XAS can reveal contributions from individual atoms and be used to visualize molecular orbitals. This allows for improved characterization of molecular orientation and scattering analysis. These predictions lay the groundwork for understanding how chemical makeup is linked to electronic structure, and to properly utilize experiments to characterize semiconducting polymers.

  10. Examination of High Resolution Channel Topography to Determine Suitable Metrics to Characterize Morphological Complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, R. L.; Gaeuman, D.

    2015-12-01

    Complex bed morphology is deemed necessary to restore salmonid habitats, yet quantifiable metrics that capture channel complexity have remained elusive. This work utilizes high resolution topographic data from the 40 miles of the Trinity River of northern California to determine a suitable metric for characterizing morphological complexity at the reach scale. The study area is segregated into reaches defined by individual riffle pool units or aggregates of several consecutive units. Potential measures of complexity include rugosity and depth statistics such as standard deviation and interquartile range, yet previous research has shown these metrics are scale dependent and subject to sampling density-based bias. The effect of sampling density on the present analysis has been reduced by underrepresenting the high resolution topographic data as a 3'x 3' raster so that all areas are equally sampled. Standard rugosity, defined as the three-dimensional surface area divided by projected area, has been shown to be dependent on average depth. We therefore define R*, a empirically depth-corrected rugosity metric in which rugosity is corrected using an empirical relationship based on linear regression between the standard rugosity metric and average depth. By removing the dependence on depth using a regression based on the study reach, R* provides a measure reach scale complexity relative to the entire study area. The interquartile range of depths is also depth-dependent, so we defined a non-dimensional metric (IQR*) as the interquartile range dividing by median depth. These are calculated to develop rankings of channel complexity which, are found to closely agree with perceived channel complexity observed in the field. Current efforts combine these measures of morphological complexity with salmonid habitat suitability to evaluate the effects of channel complexity on the various life stages of salmonids. Future work will investigate the downstream sequencing of channel

  11. Morphological and electromechanical characterization of ionic liquid/Nafion polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Matthew; Leo, Donald

    2005-05-01

    Ionic liquids have shown promise as replacements for water in ionic polymer transducers. Ionic liquids are non-volatile and have a larger electrochemical stability window than water. Therefore, transducers employing ionic liquids can be operated for long periods of time in air and can be actuated with higher voltages. Furthermore, transducers based on ionic liquids do not exhibit the characteristic back relaxation that is common with water-swollen materials. However, the physics of transduction in the ionic liquid-swollen materials is not well understood. In this paper, the morphology of Nafion/ionic liquid composites is characterized using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The electromechanical transduction behavior of the composites is also investigated. For this testing, five different counterions and two ionic liquids are used. The results reveal that both the morphology and transduction performance of the composites is affected by the identity of the ionic liquid, the cation, and the swelling level of ionic liquid within the membrane. Specifically, speed of response is found to be lower for the membranes that were exchanged with the smaller lithium and potassium ions. The response speed is also found to increase with increased content of ionic liquid. Furthermore, for the two ionic liquids studied, the actuators swollen with the less viscous ionic liquid exhibited a slower response. The slower speed of response corresponds to less contrast between the ionically conductive phase and the inert phase of the polymer. This suggests that disruption of the clustered morphology in the ionic liquid-swollen membranes as compared to water-swollen membranes attenuates ion mobility within the polymer. This attenuation is attributed to swelling of the non-conductive phase by the ionic liquids.

  12. Immunocytochemical and biochemical characterization of the Heymann nephritis antigenic complex in rat L2 yolk sac cells.

    PubMed Central

    Lundstrom, M.; Orlando, R. A.; Saedi, M. S.; Woodward, L.; Kurihara, H.; Farquhar, M. G.

    1993-01-01

    Heymann nephritis in the rat is the most widely used model of human membranous glomerulonephritis. Glycoprotein (gp)330, a large (M(r) > 550,000) membrane-associated glycoprotein, has been identified as the main antigen in this autoimmune disease. Studies of gp330 and receptor-associated protein (RAP), its 44-kd subunit, have been restricted largely to rat kidney, as no stable cultured cell line has been available that expresses gp330. We have recently identified a rat yolk sac carcinoma cell line (L2) that expresses both gp330 and RAP. In this report, we have carried out detailed morphological, immunocytochemical, and biochemical studies characterizing the biosynthesis and localization of gp330 and RAP in the L2 rat yolk sac cell line. At the electron microscope level, the L2 cells are seen to be attached by cell junctions, and their predominant morphological features include extensive networks of rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and numerous clathrin-coated pits found on the cell membrane. By immunocytochemistry, gp330 was localized primarily to clathrin-coated pits at the cell surface, whereas RAP was localized predominantly to the lumen of the rough ER. Pulse-chase experiments indicated that gp330 spends a prolonged time maturing in the ER of L2 cells, as transport of gp330 to the Golgi complex (based on acquisition of endoglycosidase H resistance) is slow (t1/2 = 90 to 120 minutes). Gp330 reached the L2 cell surface beginning at 2 hours after synthesis, where it could be detected by cell surface immunoprecipitation. RAP was found to be an N-linked glycoprotein, and it remained endoglycosidase H-sensitive up to 4 hours after synthesis. Co-precipitation and co-sedimentation experiments demonstrated that gp330 and RAP form a large heterodimer (M(r) approximately 669,000) immediately after biosynthesis and are further assembled into a large hetero-oligomer in the ER. These findings demonstrate that the localization and the kinetics of assembly of gp330 and RAP

  13. Characterization of Morphological and Cellular Events Underlying Oral Regeneration in the Sea Anemone, Nematostella vectensis

    PubMed Central

    Amiel, Aldine R.; Johnston, Hereroa T.; Nedoncelle, Karine; Warner, Jacob F.; Ferreira, Solène; Röttinger, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Cnidarians, the extant sister group to bilateria, are well known for their impressive regenerative capacity. The sea anemone Nematostella vectensis is a well-established system for the study of development and evolution that is receiving increased attention for its regenerative capacity. Nematostella is able to regrow missing body parts within five to six days after its bisection, yet studies describing the morphological, cellular, and molecular events underlying this process are sparse and very heterogeneous in their experimental approaches. In this study, we lay down the basic framework to study oral regeneration in Nematostella vectensis. Using various imaging and staining techniques we characterize in detail the morphological, cellular, and global molecular events that define specific landmarks of this process. Furthermore, we describe in vivo assays to evaluate wound healing success and the initiation of pharynx reformation. Using our described landmarks for regeneration and in vivo assays, we analyze the effects of perturbing either transcription or cellular proliferation on the regenerative process. Interestingly, neither one of these experimental perturbations has major effects on wound closure, although they slightly delay or partially block it. We further show that while the inhibition of transcription blocks regeneration in a very early step, inhibiting cellular proliferation only affects later events such as pharynx reformation and tentacle elongation. PMID:26633371

  14. Morphological, physiological, and molecular characterization of actinomycetes isolated from dry soil, rocks, and monument surfaces.

    PubMed

    Eppard, M; Krumbein, W E; Koch, C; Rhiel, E; Staley, J T; Stackebrandt, E

    1996-07-01

    In an extended study on the biodiversity of rock-dwelling bacteria, the colony and cell morphology, physiology, protein patterns, and 16S rDNA sequences of 17 bacterial strains isolated from different surfaces of rocks, stones, and monuments and from various geographical locations were characterized. All except one strain, which was found to be a Bacillus, were members of the order Actinomycetales. The majority of the strains either were closely related to Geodermatophilus obscurus, which was also analyzed in this study, or formed a closely related sister taxon. All of these strains were isolated from the surface of marble in Namibia and Greece and from limestone from the Negev desert, Israel. One strain, G10, of Namibia origin was equidistantly related to Geodermatophilus obscurus, Frankia alni, Sporichthya polymorpha, and Acidothermus cellulolyticus. Three strains from rock varnish in the Mojave desert, California, were found to be highly related to Arthrobacter (formerly Micrococcus) agilis. All clusters could be confirmed from results of studies on morphological and physiological properties and from banding patterns of whole cell proteins. Based on the results of tests, four additional strains were assigned to the lineage defined by strain G10. PMID:8661940

  15. Morphological investigation and physical characterization of ancient fragments of pyrogenic carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pusceddu, E.; Criscuoli, I.; Miglietta, F.

    2013-12-01

    In the latest years, the attention toward the use of pyrogenic carbon as a climate mitigation strategy has increasingly grown. Biochar (BC) contains substantial amount (60-90%) of pyrogenic carbon, which is a recalcitrant material and it is hardly decomposed by biotic and abiotic oxidation. The carbon mitigation potential of biochar is associated to the fact that carbon is not easily released back into the atmosphere, even after very long incubation time in the soil. Several studies have been addressing the understanding of the fate of pyrogenic carbon in the soil in a quantitative way, but only a few actually considered materials that were produced in the past and they were not fully able to estimate the fraction of carbon that was oxidized on centennial time scales. In this paper, an old deposits of biochar in soils of the Eastern Alps (Trentino, Val di Pejo) was dated at 1859 by means of a dendroanthracological approach. Carbon decomposition in those soils was then investigated to calculate the fraction of carbon that was lost over 155 years. Part of this study is focused on the morphological and physical characterization of several fragments of biochar, using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Such study enabled the identification of specific morphological features of tracheids in the old biochar, which were tentatively associated to a differential oxidation of the structures that were created during carbonization from lignin and cellulose.

  16. Morphological and molecular characterization of a fungus, Hirsutella sp., isolated from planthoppers and psocids in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Andrea V; Simurro, María E; Balatti, Pedro A

    2013-01-01

    A mycosed planthopper, Oliarus dimidiatus Berg (Hemiptera: Cixiidae), and two psocids, Heterocaecilius sp. (Psocodea: Pseudocaeciliidae) and Ectopsocus sp. (Ectopsocidae), were collected from Los Hornos and La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina between February and September 2007. Observations of mycelia growing on the host revealed that the putative fungal parasite had synnemata supporting monophialidic conidiogenous cells. Likewise, in vitro fungal cultures presented characteristics typical of the fungus Hirsutella citriformis Speare (Ascomycota: Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae). The identity of the isolated fungi characterized based on morphological aspects was complemented by means of the internal transcribed spacer sequences. The sequences of both isolates were highly homologous to those of Cordyceps sp. (Fries) Link and Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Berkely) G.H. Sung, J.M. Sung, Hywel-Jones, and Spatafora (Ophiocordycipitaceae). We additionally confirmed that both isolates had the ability to infect and kill adults of Delphacodes kuscheli Fennah (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) after 10 days. Therefore, based on the morphology of the isolated fungi, their ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequence, and their ability to parasite insects, we conclude that the fungi isolated belong to the genus Hirsutella and might have biotechnological potential. PMID:23885970

  17. Characterization of Morphological and Cellular Events Underlying Oral Regeneration in the Sea Anemone, Nematostella vectensis.

    PubMed

    Amiel, Aldine R; Johnston, Hereroa T; Nedoncelle, Karine; Warner, Jacob F; Ferreira, Solène; Röttinger, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Cnidarians, the extant sister group to bilateria, are well known for their impressive regenerative capacity. The sea anemone Nematostella vectensis is a well-established system for the study of development and evolution that is receiving increased attention for its regenerative capacity. Nematostella is able to regrow missing body parts within five to six days after its bisection, yet studies describing the morphological, cellular, and molecular events underlying this process are sparse and very heterogeneous in their experimental approaches. In this study, we lay down the basic framework to study oral regeneration in Nematostella vectensis. Using various imaging and staining techniques we characterize in detail the morphological, cellular, and global molecular events that define specific landmarks of this process. Furthermore, we describe in vivo assays to evaluate wound healing success and the initiation of pharynx reformation. Using our described landmarks for regeneration and in vivo assays, we analyze the effects of perturbing either transcription or cellular proliferation on the regenerative process. Interestingly, neither one of these experimental perturbations has major effects on wound closure, although they slightly delay or partially block it. We further show that while the inhibition of transcription blocks regeneration in a very early step, inhibiting cellular proliferation only affects later events such as pharynx reformation and tentacle elongation. PMID:26633371

  18. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of a Fungus, Hirsutella sp., Isolated from Planthoppers and Psocids in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, Andrea V.; Simurro, María E.; Balatti, Pedro A.

    2013-01-01

    A mycosed planthopper, Oliarus dimidiatus Berg (Hemiptera: Cixiidae), and two psocids, Heterocaecilius sp. (Psocodea: Pseudocaeciliidae) and Ectopsocus sp. (Ectopsocidae), were collected from Los Hornos and La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina between February and September 2007. Observations of mycelia growing on the host revealed that the putative fungal parasite had synnemata supporting monophialidic conidiogenous cells. Likewise, in vitro fungal cultures presented characteristics typical of the fungus Hirsutella citriformis Speare (Ascomycota: Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae). The identity of the isolated fungi characterized based on morphological aspects was complemented by means of the internal transcribed spacer sequences. The sequences of both isolates were highly homologous to those of Cordyceps sp. (Fries) Link and Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Berkely) G.H. Sung, J.M. Sung, Hywel-Jones, and Spatafora (Ophiocordycipitaceae). We additionally confirmed that both isolates had the ability to infect and kill adults of Delphacodes kuscheli Fennah (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) after 10 days. Therefore, based on the morphology of the isolated fungi, their ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequence, and their ability to parasite insects, we conclude that the fungi isolated belong to the genus Hirsutella and might have biotechnological potential. PMID:23885970

  19. A morphological and quantitative characterization of early floral development in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.).

    PubMed

    Foster, Toshi; Johnston, Robyn; Seleznyova, Alla

    2003-08-01

    Apple is an important crop and a focus of research worldwide. However, some aspects of floral commitment and morphogenesis remain unclear. A detailed characterization of bourse shoot apex development was undertaken to provide a framework for future genetic, molecular and physiological studies. Eight morphologically distinct stages of shoot apex development, prior to winter dormancy, were defined. Based on measurements of meristem diameter, two stages of vegetative development were recognized. Vegetative meristems were flat, and either narrow (stage 0) or broad (stage 1). Pronounced doming of the apex marked stage 2. During stage 3, the domed meristem initiated four to six lateral floral meristems and subtending bracts before converting to a terminal floral meristem (stage 4). The terminal floral meristem proceeded directly with bractlet and sepal initiation, while lateral floral meristems initiated bractlets (stage 5). Sepal initiation began on the basal lateral flower (stage 6) and continued in an acropetal direction until all floral meristems had completed sepal initiation (stage 7). In this study, only stage 0 and stage 7 apices were observed in dormant buds, indicating that stages 1-6 are transient. The results suggest that broadening of the apex (stage 1) is the first morphological sign of commitment to flowering. PMID:12805080

  20. Morphological Characterization of Organized Extracellular Matrix Deposition by Ascorbic Acid-Stimulated Human Corneal Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaoqing; Hutcheon, Audrey E. K.; Melotti, Suzanna A.; Zieske, James D.; Trinkaus-Randall, Vickery; Ruberti, Jeffrey W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the structure and morphology of extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesized by untransformed, cultured human corneal fibroblasts in long-term cultures. Methods Human corneal stromal keratocytes were expanded in transwell culture in the presence of fetal bovine serum and a stable derivative of Vitamin C. The cells were allowed to synthesize a fibrillar ECM for up to five weeks. Constructs were assessed via light (phase contrast and differential interference contrast) and transmission (standard and quick freeze/deep etch) microscopy. Results Electron micrographs revealed stratified constructs with multiple parallel layers of cells and an extracellular matrix comprising parallel arrays of small, polydisperse fibrils (27–51 nm) which often alternate in direction. Differential interference contrast images demonstrated oriented ECM fibril arrays parallel to the plane of the construct while quick-freeze deep etch micrographs showed the details of the matrix interaction with fibroblasts via arrays of membrane surface structures. Conclusions Human keratocytes, cultured in a stable Vitamin C derivative, are capable of assembling extracellular matrix which comprise parallel arrays of ECM fibrils. The resulting constructs, which are highly cellular, exhibit morphology similar to the developing mammalian stroma where organized matrix is derived. The appearance of arrays of structures on the cell membranes suggest a role in the local organization of synthesized ECM. This model could provide critical insight into the fundamental processes which govern the genesis of organized connective tissues such as the cornea and may provide a scaffolding suitable for tissue-engineering a biomimetic stroma. PMID:17724187

  1. Acquired cystic disease-associated renal cell carcinoma: further characterization of the morphologic and immunopathologic features.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Soomin; Kwon, Ghee Young; Cho, Yong Mee; Jun, Sun-Young; Choi, Chan; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Park, Yong Wook; Park, Weon Seo; Shim, Jung Won

    2013-12-01

    Acquired cystic disease-associated renal cell carcinoma (ACD-RCC) is a subtype of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with unique morphologic features found exclusively in the background of end-stage renal disease. We analyzed the clinicopathologic features and immumoreactive profiles of 12 cases of ACD-RCC to further characterize this recently recognized entity. Review of histologic slides was performed in conjunction with immunohistochemical staining directed to the contemporary diagnostic antibodies and the putative target therapy-related markers. Histologically, the tumors showed characteristic inter-or intracellular microlumens and eosinophilic tumor cells. Intratumoral hemosiderin deposition and degenerating foamy tumor cells were consistent findings which were not previously described. Immunohistochemically, all the tumors were positive for alpha-methylacyl-CoA-racemase, CD10, pan-cytokeratin, PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) and c-met, while negative for carbonic anhydrase-9, CD57, CD68, c-kit, pax-2, platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR)-α or vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-2. Heterogenous staining was found for CK7 and kidney-specific cadherin. Positive reaction to c-met suggests its utility as a plausible therapeutic target in ACD-RCC. Thus, we present the unique morphologic and immunopathologic features of ACD-RCC, which may be helpful in both diagnostic and therapeutic aspects. PMID:23471757

  2. Clinical, Morphological, and Molecular Characterization of Penicillium canis sp. nov., Isolated from a Dog with Osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Deanna A.; Swenson, Cheryl L.; Bailey, Chris J.; Wiederhold, Nathan P.; Nelson, Nathan C.; Thompson, Elizabeth H.; Wickes, Brian L.; French, Stephanie; Fu, Jianmin; Vilar-Saavedra, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Infections caused by Penicillium species are rare in dogs, and the prognosis in these cases is poor. An unknown species of Penicillium was isolated from a bone lesion in a young dog with osteomyelitis of the right ilium. Extensive diagnostic evaluation did not reveal evidence of dissemination. Resolution of lameness and clinical stability of disease were achieved with intravenous phospholipid-complexed amphotericin B initially, followed by long-term combination therapy with terbinafine and ketoconazole. A detailed morphological and molecular characterization of the mold was undertaken. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer revealed the isolate to be closely related to Penicillium menonorum and Penicillium pimiteouiense. Additional sequence analysis of β-tubulin, calmodulin, minichromosome maintenance factor, DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and pre-rRNA processing protein revealed the isolate to be a novel species; the name Penicillium canis sp. nov. is proposed. Morphologically, smooth, ovoid conidia, a greenish gray colony color, slow growth on all media, and a failure to form ascomata distinguish this species from closely related Penicillium species. PMID:24789186

  3. Precipitation Synthesis, Characterization, Morphological Control, and Photocatalyst Application of ZnWO4 Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinpour-Mashkani, S. Mostafa; Maddahfar, Mahnaz; Sobhani-Nasab, Ali

    2016-07-01

    Zinc tungstate nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by a precipitation method in the presence of different polymeric surfactants. This study aimed to investigate the effect of different solvents and polymeric surfactants such as carboxymethyl cellulose, polyethylene glycol, and polyvinyl alcohol on the morphology, particle size, and crystal structure of the final product. The as-synthesized products were characterized by powder x-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy techniques. Furthermore, the hysteresis loop of the zinc tungstate nanoparticles at room temperature revealed paramagnetic behavior. Photocatalysis results revealed that maximum methyl orange decolorization of 85% was achieved with ZnWO4 nanoparticles in 240 min under visible-light irradiation. The saturation magnetization, remanent magnetization, and coercivity of the ZnWO4 nanoparticles were 0.003 emu/g, 0.0005 emu/g, and 110 Oe, respectively.

  4. Morphological and chemical characterizations of the interface of a hydroxyapatite-coated implant.

    PubMed

    Mimura, Kiichirou; Watanabe, Kouichi; Okawa, Seigo; Kobayashi, Masayoshi; Miyakawa, Osamu

    2004-09-01

    The present study aimed at morphological and chemical characterization of the coating-substrate interface of a commercially available dental implant coated with plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA). For this purpose, elements in the chemically and mechanically exposed substrate surfaces were analyzed by EPMA and XPS. A thin titanium oxide film containing Ca and P was found at the interface. When the implant was subjected to mechanical stress, a mixed mode of cohesive and interfacial fractures occurred. The cohesive fracture was due to separation of the oxide film from the substrate, while the interfacial fracture was due to exfoliation of the coating from the oxide film bonded to the substrate. Analysis showed diffusion of Ca into the metal substrate, hence indicating the presence of chemical bond at the interface. However, mechanical interlocking seemed to play the major role in the interfacial bond. PMID:15510865

  5. Morphologic, cytometric and functional characterization of the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) hemocytes.

    PubMed

    Castellanos-Martínez, S; Prado-Alvarez, M; Lobo-da-Cunha, A; Azevedo, C; Gestal, C

    2014-05-01

    The hemocytes of Octopus vulgaris were morphologically and functionally characterized. Light and electron microscopy (TEM and SEM), and flow cytometry analyses revealed the existence of two hemocyte populations. Large granulocytes showed U-shaped nucleus, a mean of 11.6 μm±1.2 in diameter with basophilic granules, polysaccharide and lysosomic deposits in the cytoplasm. Small granulocytes measured a mean of 8.1 μm±0.7 in diameter, and have a round nucleus occupying almost the entire cell and few or not granules in the cytoplasm. Flow cytometry analysis showed that large granulocytes are the principal cells that develop phagocytosis of latex beads (rising up to 56%) and ROS after zymosan stimulation. Zymosan induced the highest production of both ROS and NO. This study is the first tread towards understanding the O. vulgaris immune system by applying new tools to provide a most comprehensive morpho-functional study of their hemocytes. PMID:24296436

  6. Precipitation Synthesis, Characterization, Morphological Control, and Photocatalyst Application of ZnWO4 Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinpour-Mashkani, S. Mostafa; Maddahfar, Mahnaz; Sobhani-Nasab, Ali

    2016-04-01

    Zinc tungstate nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by a precipitation method in the presence of different polymeric surfactants. This study aimed to investigate the effect of different solvents and polymeric surfactants such as carboxymethyl cellulose, polyethylene glycol, and polyvinyl alcohol on the morphology, particle size, and crystal structure of the final product. The as-synthesized products were characterized by powder x-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy techniques. Furthermore, the hysteresis loop of the zinc tungstate nanoparticles at room temperature revealed paramagnetic behavior. Photocatalysis results revealed that maximum methyl orange decolorization of 85% was achieved with ZnWO4 nanoparticles in 240 min under visible-light irradiation. The saturation magnetization, remanent magnetization, and coercivity of the ZnWO4 nanoparticles were 0.003 emu/g, 0.0005 emu/g, and 110 Oe, respectively.

  7. Morphological and molecular characterization of Pratylenchus lentis n. sp. (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae) from Sicily

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, F.; Handoo, Z. A.; Di Vito, M.

    2008-01-01

    Pratylenchus lentis n. sp. parasitizing roots of lentil in Sicily, Italy, is described and illustrated. The new species is characterized by a relatively high lip region with three annuli, mean stylet length of 16 μm, with anteriorly flattened knobs, cylindrical body with a relatively anterior vulva, large and ovoid spermatheca full of sperm, plump tail with truncate, irregularly annulated terminus, and by the presence of males. Molecular ITS-RFLP and sequencing analyses of the new species showed clear differences from other most morphologically similar species, such as P. thornei and P. mediterraneus. Preliminary host range tests revealed that chickpea, pea, faba bean and durum wheat are good hosts of P. lentis n. sp., whereas common bean, alfalfa and barley are less robust hosts and tomato, bell pepper, eggplant, melon and sunflower are poor hosts for the nematode. PMID:19440258

  8. MORPHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF PROLONGED EXPOSURE TO OZONE AND SULFURIC ACID AEROSOL ON THE RAT LUNG

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study was to determine the pulmonary effects of a combination of ozone (0.5 ppm) and sulfuric acid aerosol (1 mg/cu. m.) and to assess the possibility of interactive effects. Groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were continously exposed to the pollutants, either indi...

  9. MORPHOLOGIC ANALYSIS CORRELATES WITH GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN CULTURED F344 RAT MESOTHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The gene expression pattern of mesothelial cells in vitro was determined after 4 or 12 h exposure to the rat mesothelial, kidney and thyroid carcinogen, and oxidative stressor potassium bromate (KBr03). Gene expression changes observed using cDNA arrays indicated oxidative stres...

  10. Cosmos 1887: morphology, histochemistry, and vasculature of the growing rat tibia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, S. B.; Morey-Holton, E. R.; Durnova, G. N.; Kaplansky, A. S.

    1990-01-01

    Light microscopy, electron microscopy, and enzyme histochemistry were used to study the effects of spaceflight on metaphyseal and cortical bone of the rat tibia. Cortical cross-sectional area and perimeter were not altered by a 12.5-day spaceflight in 3-month-old male rats. The endosteal osteoblast population and the vasculature near the periosteal surface in flight rats compared with ground controls showed more pronounced changes in cortical bone than in metaphyseal bone. The osteoblasts demonstrated greater numbers of transitional Golgi vesicles, possibly caused by a decreased cellular metabolic energy source, but no difference in the large Golgi saccules or the cell membrane-associated alkaline phosphatase activity. The periosteal vasculature in the diaphysis of flight rats often showed lipid accumulations within the lumen of the vessels, occasional degeneration of the vascular wall, and degeneration of osteocytes adjacent to vessels containing intraluminal deposits. These changes were not found in the metaphyseal region of flight animals. The focal vascular changes may be due to ischemia of bone or a developing fragility of the vessel walls as a result of spaceflight.