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Sample records for rats morphological characterization

  1. The effects of permethrin on rat ovarian tissue morphology.

    PubMed

    Kotil, Tu?ba; Yön, Nazan Deniz

    2015-03-01

    All organisms are exposed to chemical agents during their lifetime. One of these agents is a pesticide that is used as fly killer. In this study we investigated the effects of permethrin on rat ovaries using light and electron microscopy. We used 24 Wistar albino female rats and divided them into 3 groups. Dosages 20 and 40 mg/kg/day permethrin were administered by gavage for 14 days. Normal saline was given to control rats. After treatment, ovarian tissues were collected and prepared for light and electron microscopy evaluation. Negative effects of permethrin were detected on follicular and corpus luteum cell morphology in a dose dependent manner when compared with the control group. Picnotic cellular appearance and condensed chromatin were detected as evidence of apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, degenerative changes were seen in the ultrastructure of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. Thus, these findings suggested that permethrin caused degenerative effects on ovarian morphology in a dose dependent manner. PMID:25665982

  2. Proliferative and morphologic changes in rat colon following bypass surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Barkla, D. H.; Tutton, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    In this study the proliferative and morphologic changes that occur in the colon of normal and dimethylhydrazine-treated rats following surgical bypass of the middle third of the colon are reported. Proliferative changes were measured by estimating accumulated mitotic indexes following vinblastine treatment and morphologic changes were observed with the use of light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Data were collected on Days 0, 7, 14, 30, and 72 after surgery. The results show that surgical bypass produces contrasting effects in the segments proximal to and distal to the suture line. In the proximal segment there was morphologic evidence of hyperplasia, although proliferative activity was unchanged except for an increase at 7 days in normal rats. In the distal segment there was a long-lived increase in the mitotic index, although morphologic changes were not seen. The results for DMH-treated rats were similar to those in normal rats. Groups of isolated dysplastic epithelial cells were often seen in the submucosa adjacent to sutures up to 72 days after surgery. Increased lymphoid infiltration was seen in segments proximal to but not distal to the suture line. It is hypothesized that the different responses of the proximal and distal segments may be related to the different embryologic origins of those segments. It is also hypothesized that the seeding of the submucosa with epithelial cells during suturing may be a factor in tumor recurrence. Images Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 PMID:4014432

  3. Gastrointestinal morphological alterations in obese rats kept under hypercaloric diets

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Raphael Castiglioni; Mabel, Haryanne; Queiroz, Bruna Nunes; Paresque, Roberta

    2013-01-01

    Hypercaloric diets have been successfully used as experimental models of obesity. This work compared morphological characteristics of inferior gastrointestinal organs. The experiment lasted 10 weeks, during which the rats’ food consumption, body weight, distance between the mouth and neck, distance between mouth and neck, distance between neck and tail, and abdominal circumference were evaluated weekly. After the sacrifice of the rats, 20 variables referring to inferior gastrointestinal morphology were assessed. The results comprised descriptive statistics of the data, analysis of main components, linear correlation, and t-tests. Significant differences were found between the two groups for the variables of abdominal circumference, retroperitoneal fat, ratio between retroperitoneal fat/animal weight, stomach weight, ratio between animal weight/intestine weight and mesentery/animal weight, length of small intestine, length of large intestine, and lateral line of the cecum. The data allow us to state that a hypercaloric diet can be responsible an increase in fat in the abdominal cavity as well as gastrointestinal morphological alterations, principally in stomach development. PMID:23807857

  4. Gastrointestinal morphological alterations in obese rats kept under hypercaloric diets.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Raphael Castiglioni; Mabel, Haryanne; Queiroz, Bruna Nunes; Paresque, Roberta

    2013-01-01

    Hypercaloric diets have been successfully used as experimental models of obesity. This work compared morphological characteristics of inferior gastrointestinal organs. The experiment lasted 10 weeks, during which the rats' food consumption, body weight, distance between the mouth and neck, distance between mouth and neck, distance between neck and tail, and abdominal circumference were evaluated weekly. After the sacrifice of the rats, 20 variables referring to inferior gastrointestinal morphology were assessed. The results comprised descriptive statistics of the data, analysis of main components, linear correlation, and t-tests. Significant differences were found between the two groups for the variables of abdominal circumference, retroperitoneal fat, ratio between retroperitoneal fat/animal weight, stomach weight, ratio between animal weight/intestine weight and mesentery/animal weight, length of small intestine, length of large intestine, and lateral line of the cecum. The data allow us to state that a hypercaloric diet can be responsible an increase in fat in the abdominal cavity as well as gastrointestinal morphological alterations, principally in stomach development. PMID:23807857

  5. Morphological Changes in Rat Vestibular System Following Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Muriel D.

    1993-01-01

    Mammalian gravity receptors (maculas) are morphologically organized for weighted, parallel distributed processing of information. There are two basic circuits: 1) highly channeled, type I cell to calyx; and 2) distributed modifying, type II cells to calyces and processes. The latter circuit should be the more adaptable since it modifies final output. To test this hypothesis, rats were flown in microgravity for 9 days aboard a space shuttle and euthanized shortly after landing. Hair cells and ribbon synapses from maculas of 3 flight and 3 ground control rats were studied ultrastructurally in blocks of 50 serial sections. Synapses increased by approximately 41% in type I cells and by approximately 55% in type II cells in flight animals. There was a shift toward the spherular form of ribbon synapse in both types of hair cells in flight animals. Current findings tend to support the stated hypothesis and indicate that mature utricular hair cells retain synaptic plasticity, permitting adaptation to an altered gravitational environment.

  6. Morphologic effects of cysteamine on the rat adenohypophysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cairns, P.D.; McComb, D.J.; Horvath, E.; Kovacs, K.; Milligan, J.V.; Szabo, S.

    1984-12-01

    In pituitary lactotrophs of female Sprague-Dawley rats given cysteamine (300 mg/kg, per os/day) for 7 days, forming granules were increased in number and contained many separate electron-dense structures suggesting crinophagy. Compared to control values, cysteamine treatment caused no change in blood prolactin (PRL) levels, measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). 17 beta-Estradiol (50 micrograms, sc/day) for 7 days, induced lactotroph hyperplasia and increased blood PRL levels which were unaffected by simultaneous cysteamine administration. The ultrastructural changes did not reflect those due to bromocriptine suppression of secretory activity, and supported the concept that cysteamine altered lactotroph morphology by an unknown mechanism. In pituitary gonadotrophs following cysteamine treatment, increased electron lucency of luminal contents of dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum was noted; however, blood luteinizing hormone (LH) levels did not differ from those of control values. In ovariectomized rats, cysteamine suppressed castration cell formation and reduced blood LH levels, suggesting an interference with the cell's ability to respond to GnRH stimulation. The morphologic effects of cysteamine appeared to be selective to lactotrophs and gonadotrophs, and were not secondary to vascular impairment, as capillary endothelial cells were undamaged.

  7. Quantitative microscopy of mole rat eosinophil granule morphology.

    PubMed

    Amihai, Dina; Meilijson, Isaac; Terkel, Joseph; Hammel, Ilan

    2015-10-01

    Mole rat bone marrow cells and peritoneal eosinophils are used to study granule morphological maturation by quantitative microscopy. The bulk eosinophil granule content is pre-stored in unique granular structures known as crystalloid or secondary granules. Mole rat eosinophil granules exhibit the basic structure of an electron-dense crystalloid core surrounded by a lighter, homogeneous matrix. Morphometric analysis demonstrated that bone marrow-derived eosinophil sphere-like granules display a periodic, multimodal granule volume distribution. In contrast, peritoneal eosinophils display cigar-shaped granules, whose crystalloid cores are more variable in size and shape as compared to bone marrow eosinophil granules. Using a morphometric approach, we deduced that the basic granule volume quantum is similar in both cases, suggesting that the sphere-like young eosinophil granules turn into dense ellipsoidal ones by intragranular processes in which both volume and membrane surface are conserved. Crystalloid granule mediators are known to be widely associated with allergic inflammatory events, which may damage the host tissue following secretion to the extracellular environment. Based on mathematical modeling, we suggest that this deviation from sphere-like to ellipsoidal shape reflects an adaptive response of the mole rat to its unique solitary life. PMID:25971930

  8. High-intensity exercise may compromise renal morphology in rats.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, V A; Tassi, M; Nebot, E; Camiletti-Moirón, D; Ortega, E; Porres, J M; Aranda, P

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the renal effects of a high-intensity exercise (HIE) program based on strength training. 20 Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 2 experimental groups performing HIE or control over 12 weeks. Urinary volume, pH, citrate and calcium, and plasma urea, total proteins, creatinine, albumin, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase (CK), calcium, magnesium, corticosterone and testosterone were measured. We also studied renal morphology with the Fibrosis HR(®) software. Plasma urea and CK concentrations were higher in the HIE compared to the control group (p < 0.05), whereas plasma creatinine was lower (p < 0.01). Plasma corticosterone was higher (p < 0.05) and testosterone lower (p < 0.01) in the HIE group. Except for the higher urinary volume found in the HIE group (p < 0.05), no differences between groups were observed in the rest of urinary parameters analyzed. Renal interstitial connective tissue was ~30% higher in the HIE group (p < 0.05). Glomerular tufts and mesangial areas were also higher in the HIE group (all, p < 0.05). No differences between groups were observed in the glomerular area. Overall, HIE promoted a worse morphological renal profile that might be associated with a higher risk for incidence of kidney disease in the long-term. The stress induced by the type of exercise performed could be on the basis of this worse morphological renal status. PMID:24424961

  9. Morphological Correlates of Triadic Circuitry in the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus of Cats and Rats

    E-print Network

    Sherman, S. Murray

    Morphological Correlates of Triadic Circuitry in the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus of Cats and Rats Y in the lateral geniculate nucleus of cats and rats. J Neurophysiol 93: 748­757, 2005; doi: 10.1152/jn.00256.2004. We used an in vitro slice preparation of the lateral geniculate nucleus in cats and rats to study

  10. Morphology of respiratory tract lesions in rats exposed to radon progeny

    SciTech Connect

    Dagle, G.E.; Cross, F.T.; Gies, R.A.

    1992-12-31

    We will discuss the morphologic features of lesions in the respiratory tract of rats exposed to radon and radon progeny. Groups of male Wister rats were exposed to from 10 to 1000 working levels (WL) of radon progeny in the presence of less than 1 to about 15 mg m{sup {minus}3} uranium ore dust. Cumulative exposures ranged from 20 to approximately 10,000 working level months (WLM). Higher exposure levels produced radiation pneumonitis characterized by interstitial fibrosis, associated with alveolar epithelial cell hyperplasia and accumulations of alveolar macrophages containing phagocytosed uranium ore dust. Nodular fibrosis and alveolar proteinosis were correlated with deposits of uranium ore dust. Vesicular emphysema also occurred at higher exposure levels. Pulmonary adenomatosis appeared to be a preneoplastic lesion; it was composed of nodular proliferation of bronchioloalveolar epithelium without disruption of the general architecture of the parenchyma. At exposure levels where rats lived longer than 1 y, lung tumors and a few tumors of the nasal cavity developed. The principal lung tumors were pulmonary adenomas, bronchioloalveolar carcinomas, papillary adenocarcinomas, epidermoid carcinomas, and adenosquamous carcinomas. Occasionally, malignant mesotheliomas and sarcomas were also present. The malignant lung tumors were characterized by invasion and occasionally metastasized to regional lymph nodes. Lower exposure rates produced more tumors, generally of different histologic types, and more fatal tumors than higher exposure rates. The similarity to relationships of human radon progeny exposure as far as incidence and types of lung tumors establish the validity of this animal model for studying radon carcinogenesis in humans.

  11. Desensitized morphological and cytokine response after stretch-shortening muscle contractions as a feature of aging in rats.

    PubMed

    Rader, Erik P; Layner, Kayla N; Triscuit, Alyssa M; Kashon, Michael L; Gu, Ja K; Ensey, James; Baker, Brent A

    2015-12-01

    Recovery from contraction-induced injury is impaired with aging. At a young age, the secondary response several days following contraction-induced injury consists of edema, inflammatory cell infiltration, and segmental muscle fiber degeneration to aid in the clearance of damaged tissue and repair. This morphological response has not been wholly established at advanced age. Our aim was to characterize muscle fiber morphology 3 and 10days following stretch-shortening contractions (SSCs) varying in repetition number (i.e. 0, 30, 80, and 150) for young and old rats. For muscles of young rats, muscle fiber degeneration was overt at 3days exclusively after 80 or 150 SSCs and returned significantly closer to control values by 10days. For muscles of old rats, no such responses were observed. Transcriptional microarray analysis at 3days demonstrated that muscles of young rats differentially expressed up to 2144 genes while muscles of old rats differentially expressed 47 genes. Bioinformatic analysis indicated that cellular movement was a major biological process over-represented with genes that were significantly altered by SSCs especially for young rats. Protein levels in muscle for various cytokines and chemokines, key inflammatory factors for cell movement, increased 3- to 50-fold following high-repetition SSCs for young rats with no change for old rats. This age-related differential response was insightful given that for control (i.e. 0 SSCs) conditions, protein levels of circulatory cytokines/chemokines were increased with age. The results demonstrate ongoing systemic low-grade inflammatory signaling and subsequent desensitization of the cytokine/chemokine and morphological response to contraction-induced injury with aging - features which accompany age-related impairment in muscle recovery. PMID:26454037

  12. Morphological and genetic characterization of Saimiri boliviensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The taxonomy of the genus Saimiri is controversial since morphological characters, traditionally used for identification, are insufficient to distinguish species and subspecies. Genetic studies of specimens in captivity become relevant, especially considering their frequently unknown geographical or...

  13. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Morphological characterization of electrophysiologically and

    E-print Network

    Zaborszky, Laszlo

    identified basal forebrain cholinergic and neuropeptide Y-containing neurons Alvaro Duque Æ James M. Tepper Æ / Published online: 2 June 2007 Ó Springer-Verlag 2007 Abstract The basal forebrain (BF) contains cholinergic morphometry Á Three-dimensional reconstruction Á Axon collaterals Á Rat Introduction The basal forebrain (BF

  14. Recruitment order and dendritic morphology of rat phrenic motoneurons.

    PubMed

    Torikai, H; Hayashi, F; Tanaka, K; Chiba, T; Fukuda, Y; Moriya, H

    1996-03-01

    The detailed morphology of rat phrenic motoneurons (PMs) was studied in 40 electrophysiologically identified cells with intracellular injection of Neurobiotin. In 15 cells, the dendritic trees were fully analyzed by using path-distance analysis, and total surface area and volume were estimated. Based on their relative onset times (ROT; i.e., the time of firing onset relative to the onset of whole phrenic activity), PMs were classified into three types; early recruited (type E; ROT < 10%), late recruited (type L; ROT > 12.5%), and quiescent (type Q; not recruited under normal conditions). Dendrites constituted 93.3% of the surface area of cells and 38.9% of the cell volumes. The number of primary dendrites (nPD) averaged 10.1, and the mean number of terminations was 38.8. The combined diameters of primary dendrites of PMs correlated well with the total dendritic surface area and the number of dendritic terminations. Comparisons among cell types revealed that type Q cells had greater dendritic surface areas and volumes than type E or type L cells. With path-distance analysis, this difference was found to be due to differences between the cell types in the numbers of their dendrites, their combined dendritic lengths, and the number of their branches. The differences between these data and those available for cat motoneurons are discussed. The input resistance of PMs correlated with their total surface area but did not correlate with their somal surface area, indicating that, in rat, PM input resistance is a function of the entire neuronal membrane rather than of the somal surface alone. PMID:8698884

  15. Morphological and cytohistochemical evaluation of renal effects of cadmium-doped silica nanoparticles given intratracheally to rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coccini, T.; Roda, E.; Barni, S.; Manzo, L.

    2013-04-01

    Renal morphological parameters were determined in rats intratracheally instilled with model cadmium-containing silica nanoparticles (Cd-SiNPs, 1mg/rat), also exploring whether their potential modifications would be associated with toxicogenomic changes. Cd-SiNP effects, evaluated 7 and 30 days post-exposure, were assessed by (i) histopathology (Haematoxylin/Eosin Staining), (ii) characterization of apoptotic features by TUNEL staining. Data were compared with those obtained by CdCl2 (400?g/rat), SiNPs (600?g/rat), 0.1 ml saline. Area-specific cell apoptosis was observed in all treatment groups: cortex and inner medulla were the most affected regions. Apoptotic changes were apparent at 7 days post-exposure in both areas, and were still observable in inner medulla 30 days after treatment. Increase in apoptotic frequency was more pronounced in Cd-SiNP-treated animals compared to either CdCl2 or SiNPs. Histological findings showed comparable alterations in the renal glomerular (cortex) architecture occurring in all treatment groups at both time-points considered. The glomeruli appeared often collapsed, showing condensed, packed mesangial and endothelial cells. Oedematous haemorrhagic glomeruli were also observed in Cd-SiNPs-treated animals. Bare SiNPs caused morphological and apoptotic changes without modifying the renal gene expression profile. These findings support the concept that multiple assays and an integrated testing strategy should be recommended to characterize toxicological responses to nanoparticles in mammalian systems.

  16. The Morphology of the Rat Vibrissal Array: A Model for Quantifying Spatiotemporal Patterns of Whisker-Object Contact

    PubMed Central

    Gopal, Venkatesh; Solomon, Joseph H.; Hartmann, Mitra J. Z.

    2011-01-01

    In all sensory modalities, the data acquired by the nervous system is shaped by the biomechanics, material properties, and the morphology of the peripheral sensory organs. The rat vibrissal (whisker) system is one of the premier models in neuroscience to study the relationship between physical embodiment of the sensor array and the neural circuits underlying perception. To date, however, the three-dimensional morphology of the vibrissal array has not been characterized. Quantifying array morphology is important because it directly constrains the mechanosensory inputs that will be generated during behavior. These inputs in turn shape all subsequent neural processing in the vibrissal-trigeminal system, from the trigeminal ganglion to primary somatosensory (“barrel”) cortex. Here we develop a set of equations for the morphology of the vibrissal array that accurately describes the location of every point on every whisker to within ±5% of the whisker length. Given only a whisker's identity (row and column location within the array), the equations establish the whisker's two-dimensional (2D) shape as well as three-dimensional (3D) position and orientation. The equations were developed via parameterization of 2D and 3D scans of six rat vibrissal arrays, and the parameters were specifically chosen to be consistent with those commonly measured in behavioral studies. The final morphological model was used to simulate the contact patterns that would be generated as a rat uses its whiskers to tactually explore objects with varying curvatures. The simulations demonstrate that altering the morphology of the array changes the relationship between the sensory signals acquired and the curvature of the object. The morphology of the vibrissal array thus directly constrains the nature of the neural computations that can be associated with extraction of a particular object feature. These results illustrate the key role that the physical embodiment of the sensor array plays in the sensing process. PMID:21490724

  17. Effect of White Kidney Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Beldia) on Small Intestine Morphology and Function in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Nciri, Nader; Cho, Namjun; Bergaoui, Nacef; Mhamdi, Faiçal El; Ammar, Aouatef Ben; Trabelsi, Najoua; Zekri, Sami; Guémira, Fathi; Mansour, Abderraouf Ben; Sassi, Fayçal Haj; Aissa-Fennira, Fatma Ben

    2015-12-01

    The chronic ingestion of raw or undercooked kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) causes functional and morphological derangement in various tissues. The major objectives of this study were to investigate the gavage effects of a raw Beldia bean variety that is widely consumed in Tunisia, on the small intestine morphology and jejunal absorption of water, electrolytes, and glucose in Wistar rats. Twenty young male rats were randomly divided into two groups of 10 rats. The first group served as the control and was gavaged with 300?mg of a rodent pellet flour suspension (RPFS), whereas the second experimental group was challenged with 300?mg of a Beldia bean flour suspension (BBFS) for 10 days. Histological studies were performed using light and electron microcopy. The intestinal transport of water, sodium, potassium, and glucose was studied by perfusing the jejunal loops of the small bowels in vivo. The feeding experiments indicated that BBFS did not affect weight gain. Histomorphometric analyses showed that the villus heights, crypt depths, and crypt/villus ratios in the jejunum and ileum were greater in the BBFS-fed rats than controls. Electron microscopy studies demonstrated that the rats exposed to RPFS exhibited intact intestinal tracts; however, the BBFS-treated rats demonstrated intestinal alterations characterized by abnormal microvillus architectures, with short and dense or long and slender features, in addition to the sparse presence of vesicles near the brush border membrane. BBFS administration did not significantly affect glucose absorption. However, significant decreases were observed in water and electrolyte absorption compared with the uptake of the controls. In conclusion, raw Beldia beans distorted jejunum morphology and disturbed hydroelectrolytic flux. PMID:26488416

  18. Morphological evidence for local microcircuits in rat vestibular maculae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, M. D.

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that intramacular, unmyelinated segments of vestibular afferent nerve fibers and their large afferent endings (calyces) on type I hair cells branch. Many of the branches (processes) contain vesicles and are presynaptic to type II hair cells, other processes, intramacular nerve fibers, and calyces. This study used serial section transmission electron microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction methods to document the origins and distributions of presynaptic processes of afferents in the medial part of the adult rat utricular macula. The ultrastructural research focused on presynaptic processes whose origin and termination could be observed in a single micrograph. Results showed that calyces had 1) vesiculated, spine-like processes that invaginated type I cells and 2) other, elongate processes that ended on type II cells pre- as well as postsynaptically. Intramacular, unmyelinated segments of afferent nerve fibers gave origin to branches that were presynaptic to type II cells, calyces, calyceal processes, and other nerve fibers in the macula. Synapses with type II cells occurred opposite subsynaptic cisternae (C synapses); all other synapses were asymmetric. Vesicles were pleomorphic but were differentially distributed according to process origin. Small, clear-centered vesicles, approximately 40-60 nm in diameter, predominated in processes originating from afferent nerve fibers and basal parts of calyces. Larger vesicles approximately 70-120 nm in diameter having approximately 40-80 nm electron-opaque cores were dominant in processes originating from the necks of calyces. Results are interpreted to indicate the existence of a complex system of intrinsic feedforward (postsynaptic)-feedback (presynaptic) connections in a network of direct and local microcircuits. The morphological findings support the concept that maculae dynamically preprocess linear acceleratory information before its transmission to the central nervous system.

  19. Morphological characterization of furfuraldehyde resins adsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, R.; Monteiro, S.N.; D`Almeida, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    Sugar cane is one of the most traditional plantation cultivated crops in large areas in Brazil. The State University of the North of Rio de Janeiro, UENF, is currently engaged in a program aimed to exploit the potentialities of sugar cane industry as a self sustained non-polluting enterprise. One of the projects being carried out at the UENF is the transformation of sugar cane bagasse in precursor materials for the industry of furan derivatives such as the furfuraldehyde resins obtained by acid catalysis. The possibility of employing acid catalyzed furfuraldehyde resins as selective adsorbents has arisen during a comprehensive study of physical-chemical adsorption properties of these materials. The morphology of these resins depend on the synthesis method. Scanning Electron Microscopic studies of these materials which were synthesized, in bulk (FH-M) and solution (FH-D), showed differences in surface density and particle size. Using mercury porosimeter techniques and BET adsorption methods, it was found different pore size distributions and a decrement in surface area when solvent was employed in the synthesis process. By thermogravimetric analysis it was found similar weight losses (6%) of water adsorption and a small differences in thermal stabilities.

  20. Characterizing the morphology of protein binding patches.

    PubMed

    Malod-Dognin, Noël; Bansal, Achin; Cazals, Frédéric

    2012-12-01

    Let the patch of a partner in a protein complex be the collection of atoms accounting for the interaction. To improve our understanding of the structure-function relationship, we present a patch model decoupling the topological and geometric properties. While the geometry is classically encoded by the atomic positions, the topology is recorded in a graph encoding the relative position of concentric shells partitioning the interface atoms. The topological-geometric duality provides the basis of a generic dynamic programming-based algorithm comparing patches at the shell level, which may favor topological or geometric features. On the biological side, we address four questions, using 249 cocrystallized heterodimers organized in biological families. First, we dissect the morphology of binding patches and show that Nature enjoyed the topological and geometric degrees of freedom independently while retaining a finite set of qualitatively distinct topological signatures. Second, we argue that our shell-based comparison is effective to perform atomic-level comparisons and show that topological similarity is a less stringent than geometric similarity. We also use the topological versus geometric duality to exhibit topo-rigid patches, whose topology (but not geometry) remains stable upon docking. Third, we use our comparison algorithms to infer specificity-related information amidst a database of complexes. Finally, we exhibit a descriptor outperforming its contenders to predict the binding affinities of the affinity benchmark. The softwares developed with this article are availablefrom http://team.inria.fr/abs/vorpatch_compatch/. PMID:22806945

  1. Phylogenetic, morphological and behavioural analyses support host switching of Trypanosoma (Herpetosoma) lewisi from domestic rats to primates.

    PubMed

    Maia da Silva, F; Marcili, A; Ortiz, P A; Epiphanio, S; Campaner, M; Catão-Dias, J L; Shaw, J J; Camargo, E P; Teixeira, M M G

    2010-05-01

    We characterized four Brazilian trypanosomes isolated from domestic rats and three from captive non-human primates that were morphologically similar to T. lewisi, a considered non-pathogenic species restricted to rodents and transmitted by fleas, despite its potential pathogenicity for infants. These isolates were identified as T. lewisi by barcoding using V7V8 SSU rDNA sequences. In inferred phylogenetic trees, all isolates clustered tightly with reference T. lewisi and T. lewisi-like trypanosomes from Europe, Asia and Africa and despite their high sequence conservation formed a homogeneous clade separate from other species of the subgenus T. (Herpetosoma). With the aim of clearly resolving the relationships between the Brazilian isolates from domestic rats and primates, we compared sequences from more polymorphic ITS rDNA. Results corroborated that isolates from Brazilian rats and monkeys were indeed of the same species and quite close to T. lewisi isolates of humans and rats from different geographical regions. Morphology of the monkey isolates and their behaviour in culture and in experimentally infected rats were also compatible with T. lewisi. However, infection with T. lewisi is rare among monkeys. We have examined more than 200 free-ranging and 160 captive monkeys and found only three infected individuals among the monkeys held in captivity. The findings of this work suggest that proximity of monkeys and infected rats and their exposure to infected fleas may be responsible for the host switching of T. lewisi from their natural rodent species to primates. This and previous studies reporting T. lewisi in humans suggest that this trypanosome can cause sporadic and opportunistic flea-borne infection in primates. PMID:20156599

  2. Alloxan-Induced Diabetes Causes Morphological and Ultrastructural Changes in Rat Liver that Resemble the Natural History of Chronic Fatty Liver Disease in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Cassettari, Lucas Langoni; Spadella, César Tadeu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. This study evaluated the long-term effects of alloxan-induced diabetes in rat liver. Methods. Thirty nondiabetic control rats (NC) and 30 untreated diabetic (UD) rats were divided into three subgroups sacrificed after 6, 14, or 26 weeks. Clinical and laboratory parameters were assessed. Fresh liver weight and its relationship with body weight were obtained, and liver tissue was analyzed. Results. UD rats showed sustained hyperglycemia, high glycosylated hemoglobin, and low plasma insulin. High serum levels of AST and ALT were observed in UD rats after 2 weeks, but only ALT remained elevated throughout the experiment. Fresh liver weight was equal between NC and UD rats, but the fresh liver weight/body weight ratio was significantly higher in UD rats after 14 and 26 weeks. UD rats showed liver morphological changes characterized by hepatic sinusoidal enlargement and micro- and macrovesicular hepatocyte fatty degeneration with progressive liver structure loss, steatohepatitis, and periportal fibrosis. Ultrastructural changes of hepatocytes, such as a decrease in the number of intracytoplasmic organelles and degeneration of mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and nuclei, were also observed. Conclusion. Alloxan-induced diabetes triggered liver morphological and ultrastructural changes that closely resembled human disease, ranging from steatosis to steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis. PMID:25789328

  3. Morphological evidence for natural poxvirus infection in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, L. M.; Dantoni Damelio, E.; Damelio, F. E.

    1982-01-01

    Focal inflammatory and desquamating lesions were seen in the nasal mucosa of rats that were flown aboard the Soviet satellite, Cosmos 1129, in 1979 and in the ground based controls. The infection was clinically inapparent. Electron microscopic examination revealed the presence of poxvirus virions in desquamating cells. The specific poxvirus involved could not be identified. The lesions appeared to be similar to those described by others in rats experimentally infected with mousepox (infectious ectromelia) virus by the intranasal route.

  4. Effects of acrylonitrile on the pathological morphology and apoptosis of neurons in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, C Z; Tse, L A; Zhou, Y L; Fan, W; Li, M; Yu, I T S; Jin, T Y

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of acrylonitrile (ACN) on neuronal morphology and apoptosis in rats. An ACN solution was administered to Wistar rats by gavage at doses of 0, 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg, 5 days a week for 13 weeks. The morphology of neurons and the presence of apoptosis was examined by light and electron microscope, DNA electrophoresis, immunohistochemistry, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling. Significant vacuolation and the widening of the interspaces around blood vessels were observed in the groups that received the highest dose. Disordered myelin sheaths, malformed neuronal nuclei, and chromatin condensation at the periphery of the nucleus that formed crescents were also observed in the treated rats. The number of apoptotic neurons was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in the treated groups (5 mg/kg group: 1.5 ± 1.22 apoptotic neurons/slide; 10 mg/kg group: 2.5 ± 1.05 apoptotic neurons/slide; 20 mg/kg group: 2.34 ± 1.21 apoptotic neurons/slide) compared to the control group (4.5 ± 1.52 apoptotic neurons/slide). The number of Bcl-2-positive neurons and the levels of staining were increased in the treated rats compared to those of the control group. These results suggested that ACN may induce serious morphological changes in rat neurons and inhibit neuronal apoptosis in rats. PMID:25117338

  5. Morphologic Characterization of Nerves in Whole-Mount Airway Biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Canning, Brendan J.; Merlo-Pich, Emilio; Woodcock, Ashley A.; Smith, Jaclyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Neuroplasticity of bronchopulmonary afferent neurons that respond to mechanical and chemical stimuli may sensitize the cough reflex. Afferent drive in cough is carried by the vagus nerve, and vagal afferent nerve terminals have been well defined in animals. Yet, both unmyelinated C fibers and particularly the morphologically distinct, myelinated, nodose-derived mechanoreceptors described in animals are poorly characterized in humans. To date there are no distinctive molecular markers or detailed morphologies available for human bronchopulmonary afferent nerves. Objectives: Morphologic and neuromolecular characterization of the afferent nerves that are potentially involved in cough in humans. Methods: A whole-mount immunofluorescence approach, rarely used in human lung tissue, was used with antibodies specific to protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5) and, for the first time in human lung tissue, 200-kD neurofilament subunit. Measurements and Main Results: We have developed a robust technique to visualize fibers consistent with autonomic and C fibers and pulmonary neuroendocrine cells. A group of morphologically distinct, 200-kD neurofilament-immunopositive myelinated afferent fibers, a subpopulation of which did not express PGP9.5, was also identified. Conclusions: PGP9.5-immunonegative nerves are strikingly similar to myelinated airway afferents, the cough receptor, and smooth muscle–associated airway receptors described in rodents. These have never been described in humans. Full description of human airway nerves is critical to the translation of animal studies to the clinical setting. PMID:25906337

  6. Quercetin induces morphological and proliferative changes of rat’s uteri under estrogen and progesterone influences

    PubMed Central

    Shahzad, Huma; Giribabu, Nelli; Muniandy, Sekaran; Salleh, Naguib

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of 10 or 100 mg/kg/day quercetin on the uterus of ovariectomized adult female rats receiving sex-steroid replacement regime mimicking changes in hormonal profiles during the reproductive cycle. Following seven days of treatment with estrogen and progesterone with or without quercetin, uteri were harvested for histological and proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein and mRNA expression and PCNA protein distribution analyses. Our findings indicated that co-administration of 10 mg/kg/day quercetin with estrogen and progesterone caused a significant decrease in the size of uterine lumen and epithelial heights with lower PCNA protein and mRNA expression as compared to estrogen plus progesterone-only treatment (P < 0.05). Concomitant treatment with estrogen and progesterone with 100 mg/kg/day quercetin resulted in a marked increase in the number of glands with increased PCNA protein and mRNA expression. Significantly higher PCNA distribution was observed in the stroma and glands as compared to estrogen plus progesterone-only treatment (P < 0.05). In conclusion, at 10 mg/kg/day, quercetin affects uterine morphology but not proliferation, however at 100 mg/kg/day, quercetin induced significant stromal and glandular proliferation which could predispose the uterus towards neoplastic development. PMID:25337190

  7. Morphology Characterization and Geometric Modeling of Cellular Structures and Composite Materials

    E-print Network

    Milgram, Paul

    Morphology Characterization and Geometric Modeling of Cellular Structures and Composite Materials Research field: Morphology Characterization and Geometric Modeling of Cellular Structures and Composite Materials Equipment/materials: Programming and doing experiment on personal computer using MATLAB and 3D CAD

  8. Aircraft noise exposure affects rat behavior, plasma norepinephrine levels, and cell morphology of the temporal lobe.

    PubMed

    Di, Guo-Qing; Zhou, Bing; Li, Zheng-Guang; Lin, Qi-Li

    2011-12-01

    In order to investigate the physiological effects of airport noise exposure on organisms, in this study, we exposed Sprague-Dawley rats in soundproof chambers to previously recorded aircraft-related noise for 65 d. For comparison, we also used unexposed control rats. Noise was arranged according to aircraft flight schedules and was adjusted to its weighted equivalent continuous perceived noise levels (L(WECPN)) of 75 and 80 dB for the two experimental groups. We examined rat behaviors through an open field test and measured the concentrations of plasma norepinephrine (NE) by high performance liquid chromatography-fluorimetric detection (HPLC-FLD). We also examined the morphologies of neurons and synapses in the temporal lobe by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our results showed that rats exposed to airport noise of 80 dB had significantly lower line crossing number (P<0.05) and significantly longer center area duration (P<0.05) than control animals. After 29 d of airport noise exposure, the concentration of plasma NE of exposed rats was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). We also determined that the neuron and synapsis of the temporal lobe of rats showed signs of damage after aircraft noise of 80 dB exposure for 65 d. In conclusion, exposing rats to long-term aircraft noise affects their behaviors, plasma NE levels, and cell morphology of the temporal lobe. PMID:22135145

  9. Chronic Stress Alters Dendritic Morphology in Rat Medial Prefrontal Cortex

    E-print Network

    Wellman, Cara

    occur in response to chronic stress, we assessed the effects of daily restraint stress on dendritic morphol- ogy in medial prefrontal cortex. Male rats were exposed to either 3 h of restraint stress daily for 3 weeks or left unhandled except for weighing during this period. On the last day of restraint

  10. KIDNEY MORPHOLOGY AND FUNCTION IN THE YOUNG OF RATS MALNOURISHED AND EXPOSED TO NITROFEN DURING PREGNANCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The separate and combined effects of prenatal protein deficiency (65 casein) and prenatal nitrofen exposure (12.5 mg/kg on gestational days 7-21) on renal morphology in the 21-day fetal and postnatal rat were examined. Maternal protein deprivation reduced maternal feed intake, fe...

  11. Mild, Short-term Stress Alters Dendritic Morphology in Rat Medial Prefrontal Cortex

    E-print Network

    Wellman, Cara

    Mild, Short-term Stress Alters Dendritic Morphology in Rat Medial Prefrontal Cortex Sarah M. Brown1 is a target for glucocorticoids, shows neurochem- ical changes in response to stress and mediates many corticosterone injections or 3 h daily restraint stress result in dendritic changes in pyramidal neurons

  12. Morphological and functional reorganization of rat medial prefrontal cortex in neuropathic pain

    E-print Network

    Apkarian, A. Vania

    Morphological and functional reorganization of rat medial prefrontal cortex in neuropathic pain, 2008 (received for review October 3, 2008) Neuropathic pain is a chronic pain that results from lesion or dysfunction of the nervous system. Depression and cognitive decline are often coupled to chronic pain

  13. Morphologic Changes in the Pineal Parenchyma Cells of Rats Exposed to Continuous Light or Darkness

    E-print Network

    Wurtman, Richard

    Morphologic Changes in the Pineal Parenchyma Cells of Rats Exposed to Continuous Light or Darkness,Belmont, Massachusetts ONSIDERABLE evidence exists which suggests an antigonadotrophic function for the mammalian pineal, adrenal and pituitary, whereas chronic administration of an aqueous pineal extract counteracts

  14. Genotypic and Phenotypic Characterization of P23H Line 1 Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Orhan, Elise; Dalkara, Deniz; Neuillé, Marion; Lechauve, Christophe; Michiels, Christelle; Picaud, Serge; Léveillard, Thierry; Sahel, José-Alain; Naash, Muna I.; Lavail, Matthew M.; Zeitz, Christina; Audo, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Rod-cone dystrophy, also known as retinitis pigmentosa (RP), is the most common inherited degenerative photoreceptor disease, for which no therapy is currently available. The P23H rat is one of the most commonly used autosomal dominant RP models. It has been created by incorporation of a mutated mouse rhodopsin (Rho) transgene in the wild-type (WT) Sprague Dawley rat. Detailed genetic characterization of this transgenic animal has however never been fully reported. Here we filled this knowledge gap on P23H Line 1 rat (P23H-1) and provide additional phenotypic information applying non-invasive and state-of-the-art in vivo techniques that are relevant for preclinical therapeutic evaluations. Transgene sequence was analyzed by Sanger sequencing. Using quantitative PCR, transgene copy number was calculated and its expression measured in retinal tissue. Full field electroretinography (ERG) and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) were performed at 1-, 2-, 3- and 6-months of age. Sanger sequencing revealed that P23H-1 rat carries the mutated mouse genomic Rho sequence from the promoter to the 3’ UTR. Transgene copy numbers were estimated at 9 and 18 copies in the hemizygous and homozygous rats respectively. In 1-month-old hemizygous P23H-1 rats, transgene expression represented 43% of all Rho expressed alleles. ERG showed a progressive rod-cone dysfunction peaking at 6 months-of-age. SD-OCT confirmed a progressive thinning of the photoreceptor cell layer leading to the disappearance of the outer retina by 6 months with additional morphological changes in the inner retinal cell layers in hemizygous P23H-1 rats. These results provide precise genotypic information of the P23H-1 rat with additional phenotypic characterization that will serve basis for therapeutic interventions, especially for those aiming at gene editing. PMID:26009893

  15. Characterization of the spatial variability of channel morphology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moody, J.A.; Troutman, B.M.

    2002-01-01

    The spatial variability of two fundamental morphological variables is investigated for rivers having a wide range of discharge (five orders of magnitude). The variables, water-surface width and average depth, were measured at 58 to 888 equally spaced cross-sections in channel links (river reaches between major tributaries). These measurements provide data to characterize the two-dimensional structure of a channel link which is the fundamental unit of a channel network. The morphological variables have nearly log-normal probability distributions. A general relation was determined which relates the means of the log-transformed variables to the logarithm of discharge similar to previously published downstream hydraulic geometry relations. The spatial variability of the variables is described by two properties: (1) the coefficient of variation which was nearly constant (0.13-0.42) over a wide range of discharge; and (2) the integral length scale in the downstream direction which was approximately equal to one to two mean channel widths. The joint probability distribution of the morphological variables in the downstream direction was modelled as a first-order, bivariate autoregressive process. This model accounted for up to 76 per cent of the total variance. The two-dimensional morphological variables can be scaled such that the channel width-depth process is independent of discharge. The scaling properties will be valuable to modellers of both basin and channel dynamics. Published in 2002 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  16. Lamellar diblock copolymer grain boundary morphology. 1. Twist boundary characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Gido, S.P.; Gunther, J.; Thomas, E.L. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Hoffman, D. . Dept. of Mathematics and Statistics)

    1993-08-16

    Grain boundary morphologies in poly(styrene-b-butadiene) lamellar diblock copolymers were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Two types of twist grain boundaries were observed in which microphase separation of the two blocks was maintained in the grain boundary region by intermaterial dividing surfaces that approximate classically known minimal surfaces. The geometry of these interfaces was demonstrated by comparing experimental TEM images with ray tracing computer simulations of the model surfaces as the projection direction was systematically varied in both the experimental and simulated images. The two morphologies observed were found to have intermaterial dividing surfaces that approximate either Scherk's first (doubly periodic) surface or a section of the right helicoid. The helicoid section boundary was observed at low twist angles, less than or equal to about 15. The Scherk surface family of boundary morphologies, which consists of a doubly periodic array of saddle surfaces, was found over the entire twist range from 0 to 90[degree]. As the twist angle approaches 0[degree] the Scherk surface grain boundary morphology is transformed into a single screw dislocation that has an intermaterial dividing surface with the geometry of a single helicoid. Direct TEM imaging of the detailed core structure of this screw dislocation is presented. These images demonstrate that in the lamellar diblock copolymer the screw dislocation core is nonsingular. This nonsingular core structure represents a radical departure from the singular core structures observed in classical studies of dislocations in atomic crystals.

  17. Longitudinal Analysis of Calorie Restriction on Rat Taste Bud Morphology and Expression of Sweet Taste Modulators

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Huan; Daimon, Caitlin M.; Cong, Wei-na; Wang, Rui; Chirdon, Patrick; de Cabo, Rafael; Sévigny, Jean; Maudsley, Stuart; Martin, Bronwen

    2014-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is a lifestyle intervention employed to reduce body weight and improve metabolic functions primarily via reduction of ingested carbohydrates and fats. Taste perception is highly related to functional metabolic status and body adiposity. We have previously shown that sweet taste perception diminishes with age; however, relatively little is known about the effects of various lengths of CR upon taste cell morphology and function. We investigated the effects of CR on taste bud morphology and expression of sweet taste–related modulators in 5-, 17-, and 30-month-old rats. In ad libitum (AL) and CR rats, we consistently found the following parameters altered significantly with advancing age: reduction of taste bud size and taste cell numbers per taste bud and reduced expression of sonic hedgehog, type 1 taste receptor 3 (T1r3), ?-gustducin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). In the oldest rats, CR affected a significant reduction of tongue T1r3, GLP-1, and ?-gustducin expression compared with age-matched AL rats. Leptin receptor immunopositive cells were elevated in 17- and 30-month-old CR rats compared with age-matched AL rats. These alterations of sweet taste–related modulators, specifically during advanced aging, suggest that sweet taste perception may be altered in response to different lengths of CR. PMID:24077597

  18. Characterization of immunoglobulin heavy chain knockout rats.

    PubMed

    Ménoret, Séverine; Iscache, Anne-L; Tesson, Laurent; Rémy, Séverine; Usal, Claire; Osborn, Michel J; Cost, Gregory J; Brüggemann, Marianne; Buelow, Roland; Anegon, Ignacio

    2010-10-01

    The rat is a species frequently used in immunological studies but, until now, there were no models with introduced gene-specific mutations. In a recent study, we described for the first time the generation of novel rat lines with targeted mutations using zinc-finger nucleases. In this study, we compare immune development in two Ig heavy-chain KO lines; one with truncated C? and a new line with removed JH segments. Rats homozygous for IgM mutation generate truncated C? mRNA with a de novo stop codon and no C? mRNA. JH-deletion rats showed undetectable mRNA for all H-chain transcripts. No serum IgM, IgG, IgA and IgE were detected in these rat lines. In both lines, lymphoid B-cell numbers were reduced >95% versus WT animals. In rats homozygous for IgM mutation, no Ab-mediated hyperacute allograft rejection was encountered. Similarities in B-cell differentiation seen in Ig KO rats and ES cell-derived Ig KO mice are discussed. These Ig and B-cell-deficient rats obtained using zinc-finger nucleases-technology should be useful as biomedical research models and a powerful platform for transgenic animals expressing a human Ab repertoire. PMID:21038471

  19. Morphological Characterization of High Performance Polymer Fibers Via SAXS Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Benjamin; Biswas, Amit; Capel, Malcolm; Cheng, Stephen

    1996-03-01

    Two-dimensional small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) method is frequently used to characterize the morphology of high performance semicrystalline polymer fibers such as polyaramids and polyimides. These systems usually exhibit only an elongated diffuse scattering profile along the equator. We have evaluated several two-dimensional analysis techniques to extract morphological variables (sizes of the anisotropic domain and misorientation) from the 2-D SAXS data. These techniques include the Ruland method, Grubb method and simple slice method. We found that the Ruland and Grubb methods yield similar results which are also consistent with the analysis from wide-angle X-ray diffraction measurements. The validity of the slice method depends on the state of the misorientation. For systems of partial orientation, boundary values for both crystal width and length dimensions can be evaluated which are in general agreement with the values determined from the first two methods. Some theoretical derivation for the slice method will be discussed.

  20. Morphological development of thick-tufted layer v pyramidal cells in the rat somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Romand, Sandrine; Wang, Yun; Toledo-Rodriguez, Maria; Markram, Henry

    2011-01-01

    The thick-tufted layer V pyramidal (TTL5) neuron is a key neuron providing output from the neocortex. Although it has been extensively studied, principles governing its dendritic and axonal arborization during development are still not fully quantified. Using 3-D model neurons reconstructed from biocytin-labeled cells in the rat somatosensory cortex, this study provides a detailed morphological analysis of TTL5 cells at postnatal day (P) 7, 14, 21, 36, and 60. Three developmental periods were revealed, which were characterized by distinct growing rates and properties of alterations in different compartments. From P7 to P14, almost all compartments grew fast, and filopodia-like segments along apical dendrite disappeared; From P14 to P21, the growth was localized on specified segments of each compartment, and the densities of spines and boutons were significantly increased; From P21 to P60, the number of basal dendritic segments was significantly increased at specified branch orders, and some basal and oblique dendritic segments were lengthened or thickened. Development changes were therefore seen in two modes: the fast overall growth during the first period and the slow localized growth (thickening mainly on intermediates or lengthening mainly on terminals) at the subsequent stages. The lengthening may be accompanied by the retraction on different segments. These results reveal a differential regulation in the arborization of neuronal compartments during development, supporting the notion of functional compartmental development. This quantification provides new insight into the potential value of the TTL5 morphology for information processing, and for other purposes as well. PMID:21369363

  1. Morphological changes in the rat carotid body following acute sodium nitrite treatment.

    PubMed

    Atanasova, Dimitrinka Y; Lazarov, Nikolai E

    2016-01-15

    The carotid body (CB) is a small neural crest-derived chemosensory organ that detects the chemical composition of the arterial blood and responds to its changes by regulating breathing. The effects of acute nitrite treatment on the CB morphology in rats were examined by morphometry. We found that 1h after administrating a single dose of sodium nitrite, the CB underwent structural changes characterized by a prominent increase in its size with a marked, several-fold dilation of the blood vessels. The obvious CB enlargement mostly due to apparent vasodilation and glomus cell hypertrophy was at its highest one day later and persisted until the fifth day. 20 days after the treatment, the CB regained its size to the normoxic control state. Morphometric analysis revealed that the CB size increase in treated animals is statistically significant when compared to that of untreated controls. It can be inferred that the nitrite-exposed CB displays remarkable structural plasticity and enlarges its size mostly through vascular expansion. PMID:26528896

  2. Extensive morphological and immunohistochemical characterization in myotubular myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Shichiji, Minobu; Biancalana, Valérie; Fardeau, Michel; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Osawa, Makiko; Laporte, Jocelyn; Romero, Norma Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    The X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM) also called X-linked centronuclear myopathy is a rare congenital myopathy due to mutations in the MTM1 gene encoding myotubularin. The disease gives rise to a severe muscle weakness in males at birth. The main muscle morphological characteristics (significant number of small muscle fibers with centralized nuclei and type 1 fiber predominance) are usually documented, but the sequence of formation and maintenance of this particular morphological pattern has not been extensively characterized in humans. In this study, we perform a reevaluation of morphological changes in skeletal muscle biopsies in severe XLMTM. We correlate the pathologic features observed in the muscle biopsies of 15 newborns with MTM1-mutations according to the “adjusted-age” at the time of muscle biopsy, focusing on sequential analysis in the early period of the life (from 34 weeks of gestation to 3 months of age). We found a similar morphological pattern throughout the period analyzed; the proportion of myofibers with central nuclei was high in all muscle biopsies, independently of the muscle type, the age of the newborns at time of biopsy and the specific MTM1 mutation. We did not observe a period free of morphological abnormalities in human skeletal muscle as observed in myotubularin-deficient mouse models. In addition, this study demonstrated some features of delayed maturation of the muscle fibers without any increase in the number of satellite cells, associated with a marked disorganization of the muscle T-tubules and cytoskeletal network in the skeletal muscle fibers. PMID:24381816

  3. Polarized light scattering technique for morphological characterization of waterborne pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devarakonda, Venkat V.; Manickavasagam, Sivakumar

    2009-05-01

    We have recently developed an elliptically polarized light scattering (EPLS) technique to characterize the morphology of fine particles suspended in an optically non-absorbing medium such as water. This technique provides the size distribution, shape and agglomeration characteristics of suspended particles. This technique can be used to detect various types of biological pathogens such as bacteria, protozoa and viruses in potable water systems. Here we report results obtained from EPLS measurements on two strains of Bacillus spores suspended in water along with comparison with electron microscopy.

  4. Synthesis and morphology characterization of polydimethylsiloxane-containing block copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadley, Maurice

    The thin film morphology characteristics of polydimethylsiloxane-containing block copolymers have been investigated. For this investigation, a commercially available hydroxyl terminated PDMS was purchased from Gelest and attached to a carboxylic acid functional reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) agent by Steglich esterification. This produced macro-RAFT agents to which styrene monomer was polymerized. By using this approach the generation of low polydispersity polystyrene-block-polydimethylsiloxane (PS-block-PDMS) copolymers of various molecular weights spanning a wide volume fraction range in which the PDMS block remained the same in each polymerization. Synthesized block copolymers were characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Bulk and thin film characterization of PS-block-PDMS copolymers was done by small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), contact angle measurements, scanning force microscopy (SFM), and grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). The following observations have been made. For PS-rich PS-block -PDMS copolymer thin films the low surface tension of PDMS caused it to migrate to the film surface regardless of solvent choice. The surface morphology was found to depend strongly on the solubility parameter of the solvent and exhibited SFM images consistent with parallel cylinder, perforated lamellar, and lamellar surface layers with increasing solvent solubility parameter. This behavior was due to the selective swelling of the individual blocks under slightly selective, good solvent conditions. A custom solvent annealing apparatus provided similar results in which order-order transitions in the thin films were observed with increasing solvent solubility parameter. Additionally improvements in the long-range order were observed after 1 h of solvent annealing. PS-rich PS-block-PDMS copolymer thin films also displayed PDMS rich surfaces after casting. Etching of this wetting layer by exposure to ultraviolet/ozone (UVO) cleaner allowed characterization of the interior film morphology. GISAXS was also able to characterize domain orientation in the as-cast and selectively etched thin films. PDMS cylinder orientation in PS-block-PDMS copolymer was found to be dependent on solvent choice and polymer molecular weight. The likely mechanism for perpendicularly oriented PDMS cylinders in selective solvents was an order-order transition to spheres where cylinders would nucleate at the air/film surface and template a perpendicularly oriented morphology during evaporation induced ordering. Perpendicularly oriented PDMS cylinders were observed in the lower molecular weight PS-rich PS- block-PDMS thin film samples indicating a preferential molecular weight range for the formation of perpendicular domains. Solvent annealing in PS selective chlorobenzene improved the long range order, but was not a strong driving force in altering domain orientation.

  5. First morphological characterization of 'Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis' using electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Willi, Barbara; Museux, Kristina; Novacco, Marilisa; Schraner, Elisabeth M; Wild, Peter; Groebel, Katrin; Ziegler, Urs; Wolf-Jäckel, Godelind A; Kessler, Yvonne; Geret, Catrina; Tasker, Séverine; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2011-05-01

    At least three haemotropic mycoplasmas have been recognized in cats: Mycoplasma haemofelis (Mhf), 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' (CMhm) and 'Candidatus M. turicensis' (CMt). The latter was originally identified in a Swiss pet cat with haemolytic anaemia and shown to be prevalent in domestic cats and wild felids worldwide using molecular methods. So far, there has been no confirmatory morphological evidence of the existence of CMt presumably due to low blood loads during infection while CMhm has only been characterized by light microscopy with discrepant results. This study aimed to provide for the first time electron microscopic characteristics of CMt and CMhm and to compare them to Mhf. Blood samples from cats experimentally infected with CMt, CMhm and Mhf were used to determine copy numbers in blood by real-time PCR and for transmission and scanning electron microscopy. High resolution scanning electron microscopy revealed CMt and CMhm to be discoid-shaped organisms of 0.3 ?m in diameter attached to red blood cells (RBCs). In transmission electron microscopy of CMt, an oval organism of about 0.25 ?m with several intracellular electron dense structures was identified close to the surface of a RBC. CMhm and CMt exhibited similar morphology to Mhf but had a smaller diameter. This is the first study to provide morphological evidence of CMt thereby confirming its status as a distinct haemoplasma species, and to present electron microscopic features of CMhm. PMID:21183295

  6. First morphological characterization of ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis’ using electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Willi, Barbara; Museux, Kristina; Novacco, Marilisa; Schraner, Elisabeth M.; Wild, Peter; Groebel, Katrin; Ziegler, Urs; Wolf-Jäckel, Godelind A.; Kessler, Yvonne; Geret, Catrina; Tasker, Séverine; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2011-01-01

    At least three haemotropic mycoplasmas have been recognized in cats: Mycoplasma haemofelis (Mhf), ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ (CMhm) and ‘Candidatus M. turicensis’ (CMt). The latter was originally identified in a Swiss pet cat with haemolytic anaemia and shown to be prevalent in domestic cats and wild felids worldwide using molecular methods. So far, there has been no confirmatory morphological evidence of the existence of CMt presumably due to low blood loads during infection while CMhm has only been characterized by light microscopy with discrepant results. This study aimed to provide for the first time electron microscopic characteristics of CMt and CMhm and to compare them to Mhf. Blood samples from cats experimentally infected with CMt, CMhm and Mhf were used to determine copy numbers in blood by real-time PCR and for transmission and scanning electron microscopy. High resolution scanning electron microscopy revealed CMt and CMhm to be discoid-shaped organisms of 0.3 ?m in diameter attached to red blood cells (RBCs). In transmission electron microscopy of CMt, an oval organism of about 0.25 ?m with several intracellular electron dense structures was identified close to the surface of a RBC. CMhm and CMt exhibited similar morphology to Mhf but had a smaller diameter. This is the first study to provide morphological evidence of CMt thereby confirming its status as a distinct haemoplasma species, and to present electron microscopic features of CMhm. PMID:21183295

  7. Derivation and Characterization of Embryonic Stem Cells Lines Derived from Transgenic Fischer 344 and Dark Agouti Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hong, James; He, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Rat embryonic stem cell (ESC) lines are not widely available, and there are only 2 lines available for distribution. Here, ESC lines were derived and characterized from Fischer 344 (F344) rats that express marker transgenes either ?-galactosidase or human placental alkaline phosphatase (AP), nontransgenic F344 rats, and from Dark Agouti (DA) rats. The ESC lines were maintained in an undifferentiated state as characterized by colony morphology, expression of Oct4, Nanog, Sox-2, Cdx2, and Stella, staining for AP, and stage-specific embryonic antigen-1. Pluripotency was demonstrated in vitro by differentiation to embryoid bodies, followed by embryonic monsters. The Cdx2 expression by ESCs was unexpected and was confirmed via reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, immunocytochemistry. Pluripotency of ESCs was demonstrated in vivo by production of teratoma after an injection into F344 nontransgenic rats, and by an injection of male DA ESCs into F344 or Sprague-Dawley rat blastocysts and the generation of chimeric rats and germline contribution. ESCs from both F344 and DA contributed to chimeric rats, and one DA ESC line was proved to be germline competent. ESC sublines were created by transfection with a plasmid expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) under the control of a beta actin promoter and cytomegalovirus enhancer (pCX-eGFP) or by transfection with a plasmid expressing GFP under the control of a 3.1?kb portion of the rat Oct4 promoter (pN1-Oct4-GFP). In pN1-Oct4-GFP sublines, GFP gene expression and fluorescence were shown to be correlated with endogenous Oct4 gene expression. Therefore, these new ESC lines may be useful for tissue engineering and transplantation studies or for optimizing culture conditions required for self-renewal and differentiation of rat ESCs. While they made chimeric rats, further work is needed to confirm whether the transgenic F344 rat ESCs described here are germline-competent ESCs. PMID:21995453

  8. Morphological, Host Range, and Genetic Characterization of Two Coliphages

    PubMed Central

    Goodridge, Lawrence; Gallaccio, Alicia; Griffiths, Mansel W.

    2003-01-01

    Two coliphages, AR1 and LG1, were characterized based on their morphological, host range, and genetic properties. Transmission electron microscopy showed that both phages belonged to the Myoviridae; phage particles of LG1 were smaller than those of AR1 and had an isometric head 68 nm in diameter and a complex contractile tail 111 nm in length. Transmission electron micrographs of AR1 showed phage particles consisting of an elongated isometric head of 103 by 74 nm and a complex contractile tail 116 nm in length. Both phages were extensively tested on many strains of Escherichia coli and other enterobacteria. The results showed that both phages could infect many serotypes of E. coli. Among the enterobacteria, Proteus mirabilis, Shigella dysenteriae, and two Salmonella strains were lysed by the phages. The genetic material of AR1 and LG1 was characterized. Phage LG1 had a genome size of 49.5 kb compared to 150 kb for AR1. Restriction endonuclease analysis showed that several restriction enzymes could degrade DNA from both phages. The morphological, genome size, and restriction endonuclease similarities between AR1 and phage T4 were striking. Southern hybridizations showed that AR1 and T4 are genetically related. The wide host ranges of phages AR1 and LG1 suggest that they may be useful as biocontrol, therapeutic, or diagnostic agents to control and detect the prevalence of E. coli in animals and food. PMID:12957924

  9. Morphological Characterization of the Polyflux 210H Hemodialysis Filter Pores.

    PubMed

    Hedayat, A; Szpunar, J; Kumar, N A P Kiran; Peace, R; Elmoselhi, H; Shoker, A

    2012-01-01

    Background. Morphological characterization of hemodialysis membranes is necessary to improve pore design. Aim. To delineate membrane pore structure of a high flux filter, Polyflux 210H. Methods. We used a Joel JSM-6010LV scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a SU6600 Hitachi field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) to characterize the pore and fiber morphology. The maximal diameters of selected uremic toxins were calculated using the macromolecular modeling Crystallographic Object-Oriented Toolkit (COOT) software. Results. The mean pore densities on the outermost and innermost surfaces of the membrane were 36.81% and 5.45%, respectively. The membrane exhibited a tortuous structure with poor connection between the inner and outer pores. The aperture's width in the inner surface ranged between 34 and 45?nm, which is 8.76-11.60 times larger than the estimated maximum diameter of ?2-microglobulin (3.88?nm). Conclusion. The results suggest that the diameter size of inner pore apertures is not a limiting factor to middle molecules clearance, the extremely diminished density is. Increasing inner pore density and improving channel structure are strategies to improve clearance of middle molecules. PMID:23209902

  10. Morphological and biochemical assessment of the liver response to excess dietary copper in Fischer 344 rats.

    PubMed Central

    Aburto, E M; Cribb, A E; Fuentealba, I C; Ikede, B O; Kibenge, F S; Markham, F

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the amount of excess dietary copper (Cu) necessary to experimentally induce liver lesions characteristic of Cu-associated disease in Fischer 344 rats. Male weanling Fischer 344 rats of uniform age were divided into 6 groups (n = 5) and fed a rodent diet containing 18 (control), 750, 1000, 1250, 1500, and 2000 microg/g Cu added as CuSO4. Rats were euthanized after 3 months on the experimental diets and their livers processed for histology, histochemistry, Cu analysis (by atomic absorption spectrophotometry), and quantification of malondialdehyde (MDA) by the thiobarbituric acid reaction. Hepatic Cu levels were significantly higher (P < 0.01) in rats receiving over 1000 microg/g Cu compared to the controls (means for each diet: control = 4.8 microg/g, 750 microg/g Cu = 39.6 microg/g, 1000 microg/g Cu = 111.2 microg/g, 1250 microg/g Cu = 389 microg/g, 1500 microg/g Cu = 509.4 microg/g, and 2000 microg/g Cu = 766 microg/g). Histological lesions increased gradually according to the level of dietary Cu. Significant morphologic changes (necrosis, portal inflammation, hyaline remnants) and reduced growth rate occurred in rats receiving over 1250 microg/g Cu. However, no significant differences were found for MDA levels between groups. The present study demonstrates that compared to other species, very high levels of excess dietary Cu are needed to induce significant liver injury in Fischer 344 rats. Increased MDA content was not detected in rats with morphologic evidence of liver damage, suggesting that lipid peroxidation may not play a major role in this model of Cu toxicity. Images Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. PMID:11346262

  11. The morphology and morphometry of the epididymis in the greater cane rat (Thryonomys swinderianus Temmincks).

    PubMed

    Adebayo, A O; Olurode, S A

    2010-11-01

    The structure and morphometry of the epididymis in the greater cane rat were studied in this work. In assessing the morphology and characterising the morphometric values, a total of 15 adult male greater cane rats, bred and raised in captivity, were used. All the animals had brownish perineal staining, which was taken as index of sexual maturity in male cane rats, and they were maintained on elephant grass stems with water given ad libitum. From this work, the epididymis of the greater cane rat was observed to have a mean weight of 0.0365 ± 0.091 g, forming about 0.016% of the total body weight and an average volume of 0.36 ± 0.08 mL. There was a positive correlation between the epididymal weights, testicular weight, and the body weight in this animal. However, the gross divisions of the epididymis into head, body, and tail were not conspicuous in the cane rat; instead it had two divisions - the cranial and the caudal divisions. In addition, based on the histological and histomorphometric analyses, five zones were observed in the epididymal epithelium of this animal. This preliminary information on the epididymis will serve as a basis for further research on the epididymis of the greater cane rat and will contribute to the knowledge of the its reproductive biology, which will subsequently aid in the captive rearing and domestication of this animal. PMID:21120812

  12. BIOCHEMICAL, FUNCTIONAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF NEUROTOXICITY: EFFECTS OF ACUTE ADMINISTRATION OF TRIMETHYLTIN TO THE DEVELOPING RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The neurotoxic organometal, trimethyltin (TMT), was administered to rats on postnatal day (PND)5. Neurotoxicity was assessed throughout subsequent development using morphological, biochemical and functional endpoints. These consisted of brain weight measures and histology (morpho...

  13. Cognitive impairment and morphological changes in the dorsal hippocampus of very old female rats.

    PubMed

    Morel, G R; Andersen, T; Pardo, J; Zuccolilli, G O; Cambiaggi, V L; Hereñú, C B; Goya, R G

    2015-09-10

    The hippocampus, a medial temporal lobe structure necessary for the formation of spatial memory, is particularly affected by both normal and pathologic aging. In previous studies, we observed a significant age-related increase in dopaminergic neuron loss in the hypothalamus and the substantia nigra of female rats, which becomes more conspicuous at extreme ages. Here, we extend our studies by assessing spatial memory in 4-6 month-old (young), 26-month-old (old) and 29-32-month-old (senile) Sprague-Dawley female rats as well as the age-related histopathological changes in their dorsal hippocampus. Age changes in spatial memory performance were assessed with a modified version of the Barnes maze test. We employed two probe trials (PTs), one and five days after training, respectively, in order to evaluate learning ability as well as short-term and longer-term spatial memory retention. A set of relevant hippocampal cell markers was also quantitated in the animals by means of an unbiased stereological approach. The results revealed that old rats perform better than senile rats in acquisition trials and young rats perform better than both aging groups. However, during short-term PT both aging groups showed a preserved spatial memory while in longer-term PT, spatial memory showed deterioration in both aged groups. Morphological analysis showed a marked decrease (94-97%) in doublecortin neuron number in the dentate gyrus in both aged groups and a reduction in glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cell number in the stratum radiatum of aging rats. Astroglial process length and branching complexity decreased in aged rats. We conclude that while target-seeking activity and learning ability decrease in aged females, spatial memory only declines in the longer-term tests. The reduction in neuroblast number and astroglial arborescence complexity in the dorsal hippocampus are likely to play a role in the cognitive deficits of aging rats. PMID:26141841

  14. Spectroscopic and morphologic characterization of the dentin/adhesive interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemor, R. M.; Kruger, Michael B.; Wieliczka, David M.; Swafford, Jim R.; Spencer, Paulette

    1999-01-01

    The potential environmental risks associated with mercury release have forced many European countries to ban the use of dental amalgam. Alternative materials such as composite resins do not provide the clinical function for the length of time characteristically associated with dental amalgam. The weak link in the composite restoration is the dentin/adhesive bond. The purpose of this study was to correlate morphologic characterization of the dentin/adhesive bond with chemical analyses using micro- Fourier transform infrared and micro-Raman spectroscopy. A commercial dental adhesive was placed on dentin substrates cut from extracted, unerupted human third molars. Sections of the dentin/adhesive interface were investigated using infrared radiation produced at the Aladdin synchrotron source; visible radiation from a Kr+ laser was used for the micro-Raman spectroscopy. Sections of the dentin/adhesive interface, differentially stained to identify protein, mineral, and adhesive, were examined using light microscopy. Due to its limited spatial resolution and the unknown sample thickness the infrared results cannot be used quantitatively in determining the extent of diffusion. The results from the micro-Raman spectroscopy and light microscopy indicate exposed protein at the dentin/adhesive interface. Using a laser that reduces background fluorescence, the micro-Raman spectroscopy provides quantitative chemical and morphologic information on the dentin/adhesive interface. The staining procedure is sensitive to sites of pure protein and thus, complements the Raman results.

  15. BrainPrint: a discriminative characterization of brain morphology.

    PubMed

    Wachinger, Christian; Golland, Polina; Kremen, William; Fischl, Bruce; Reuter, Martin

    2015-04-01

    We introduce BrainPrint, a compact and discriminative representation of brain morphology. BrainPrint captures shape information of an ensemble of cortical and subcortical structures by solving the eigenvalue problem of the 2D and 3D Laplace-Beltrami operator on triangular (boundary) and tetrahedral (volumetric) meshes. This discriminative characterization enables new ways to study the similarity between brains; the focus can either be on a specific brain structure of interest or on the overall brain similarity. We highlight four applications for BrainPrint in this article: (i) subject identification, (ii) age and sex prediction, (iii) brain asymmetry analysis, and (iv) potential genetic influences on brain morphology. The properties of BrainPrint require the derivation of new algorithms to account for the heterogeneous mix of brain structures with varying discriminative power. We conduct experiments on three datasets, including over 3000 MRI scans from the ADNI database, 436 MRI scans from the OASIS dataset, and 236 MRI scans from the VETSA twin study. All processing steps for obtaining the compact representation are fully automated, making this processing framework particularly attractive for handling large datasets. PMID:25613439

  16. Spectroscopic and morphologic characterization of the dentin/adhesive interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemor, R. M.; Kruger, Michael B.; Wieliczka, David M.; Swafford, Jim R.; Spencer, Paulette

    1999-04-01

    The potential environmental risks associated with dental amalgams have forced many European countries to ban their use and turn to alternative materials, composite resins. The purpose of this study was to correlate morphologic characterization of the dentin/adhesive bond with chemical analyses using micro-FTIR and micro-Raman spectroscopy. A commercial dental adhesive was placed on dentin substrates cut from extracted, unerupted human third molars. Sections of the dentin/adhesive interface were investigated using IR radiation produced at the Aladdin synchrotron source; visible radiation from Kr+ laser was used for the micro-Raman spectroscopy and through the use of differentially staining in conjunction with light microscopy. Due to its limited spatial resolution and the unknown samples thickness the IR results cannot be used quantitatively in determining the extent of diffusion. The result from the micro-Raman spectroscopy and light microscopy indicate exposed protein at the dentin/adhesive interface. Using a laser that reduces background fluorescence, the micro-Raman spectroscopy provides quantitative chemical and morphologic information on the dentin/adhesive interface. The staining procedure is sensitive to sites of pure protein and complements the Raman results.

  17. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DILATED RENAL PELVIS IN THE NITROFEN-EXPOSED RAT FETUS: EFFECTS ON MORPHOLOGY AND FUNCTION (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fate of the dilated renal pelvis that is induced in fetal rats following prenatal exposure to nitrofen was evaluated. Groups of Long Evans rats were exposed to 0, 6.25, 12.5 or 25 mg/kg of nitrofen on gestation days 7-16. Renal morphology of the offspring were determined on g...

  18. Effects of Fixatives and Buffers upon the Morphology of Heart and Skeletal Muscle Mitochondria from Exhausted Rats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, James B.

    This study describes the effects of several fixatives and buffers on the morphology of mitochondria from resting and exhausted rats. Rats were run to exhaustion and adjacent portions from the left ventricle or from the soleus were treated with the following fixation procedures: (a) glutaraldehyde buffered with cacodylate, S-collidine, or phosphate…

  19. Crimp morphology in relaxed and stretched rat Achilles tendon.

    PubMed

    Franchi, Marco; Fini, Milena; Quaranta, Marilisa; De Pasquale, Viviana; Raspanti, Mario; Giavaresi, Gianluca; Ottani, Vittoria; Ruggeri, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    Fibrous extracellular matrix of tendon is considered to be an inextensible anatomical structure consisting of type I collagen fibrils arranged in parallel bundles. Under polarized light microscopy the collagen fibre bundles appear crimped with alternating dark and light transverse bands. This study describes the ultrastructure of the collagen fibrils in crimps of both relaxed and in vivo stretched rat Achilles tendon. Under polarized light microscopy crimps of relaxed Achilles tendons appear as isosceles or scalene triangles of different size. Tendon crimps observed via SEM and TEM show the single collagen fibrils that suddenly change their direction containing knots. The fibrils appear partially squeezed in the knots, bent on the same plane like bayonets, or twisted and bent. Moreover some of them lose their D-period, revealing their microfibrillar component. These particular aspects of collagen fibrils inside each tendon crimp have been termed 'fibrillar crimps' and may fulfil the same functional role. When tendon is physiologically stretched in vivo the tendon crimps decrease in number (46.7%) (P<0.01) and appear more flattened with an increase in the crimp top angle (165 degrees in stretched tendons vs. 148 degrees in relaxed tendons, P<0.005). Under SEM and TEM, the 'fibrillar crimps' are still present, never losing their structural identity in straightened collagen fibril bundles of stretched tendons even where tendon crimps are not detectable. These data suggest that the 'fibrillar crimp' may be the true structural component of the tendon crimp acting as a shock absorber during physiological stretching of Achilles tendon. PMID:17229278

  20. REPEATED STRESS ALTERS DENDRITIC SPINE MORPHOLOGY IN THE RAT MEDIAL PREFRONTAL CORTEX

    PubMed Central

    Radley, Jason J.; Rocher, Anne B.; Rodriguez, Alfredo; Ehlenberger, Douglas B.; Dammann, Mark; McEwen, Bruce S.; Morrison, John H.; Wearne, Susan L.; Hof, Patrick R.

    2009-01-01

    Anatomical alterations in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are associated with hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation, altered stress hormone levels, and psychiatric symptoms of stress-related mental illnesses. Functional imaging studies reveal impairment and shrinkage of the mPFC in such conditions, and these findings are paralleled by experimental studies showing dendritic retraction and spine loss following repeated stress in rodents. Here we extend this characterization to how repeated stress affects dendritic spine morphology in mPFC through the utilization of an automated approach which rapidly digitizes, reconstructs 3-dimensionally, and calculates geometric features of neurons. Rats were perfused after being subjected to 3 weeks of daily restraint stress (6 hours/day), and intracellular injections of Lucifer Yellow were made in layers II/III pyramidal neurons in the dorsal mPFC. To reveal spines in all angles of orientation, deconvolved high-resolution confocal laser scanning microscopy image stacks of dendritic segments were reconstructed and analyzed for spine volume, surface area, and length using a Rayburst-based automated approach (8,091 and 8,987 spines for control and stress, respectively). We found that repeated stress results in an overall decrease in mean dendritic spine volume and surface area, which was most pronounced in the distal portion of apical dendritic fields. Moreover, we observed an overall shift in the population of spines, manifested by a reduction in large spines and increase in small spines. These results suggest a failure of spines to mature and stabilize following repeated stress, and are likely to have major repercussions on function, receptor expression, and synaptic efficacy. PMID:18157834

  1. Rapid morphological change in black rats (Rattus rattus) after an island introduction

    PubMed Central

    Byrn, David; Lee, Kashawneda L.Y.; Jackson, Racheal

    2015-01-01

    Rapid morphological change has been shown in rodent populations on islands, including endemic deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus subspp.) on the California Channel Islands. Surprisingly, most of these changes were towards a smaller size. Black rats were introduced to Anacapa Island in the mid-1800s (probably in 1853) and eradicated in 2001–2002. To assess possible changes in these rats since their introduction, eleven cranial and four standard external measurements were taken from 59 Rattus rattus specimens collected from 1940–2000. All rat cranial traits changed 3.06–10.43% (724–2567 d, 0.06–0.42 h), and all became larger. When considered in haldanes, these changes are among the fastest on record in any organism, and far exceed changes found in other island rodents. These changes were confirmed by MANOVA (Wilk’s ? < 0.0005, Fd.f.15 = 2974.386, P < 0.0005), and all 11 cranial traits significantly fit linear regressions. We speculate that concurrent changes in mice may have been due in part to competition with and/or predation by rats. Future research might evaluate whether the vector of mouse evolution on Anacapa is again changing after rat eradication. PMID:25780765

  2. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes in the rat is associated with changes in vaginal hemodynamics, morphology and biochemical markers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Noel N; Stankovic, Miljan; Cushman, Tulay T; Goldstein, Irwin; Munarriz, Ricardo; Traish, Abdulmaged M

    2006-01-01

    Background Diabetes is associated with declining sexual function in women. However, the effects of diabetes on genital tissue structure, innervation and function remains poorly characterized. In control and streptozotocin-treated female rats, we investigated the effects of diabetes on vaginal blood flow, tissue morphology, and expression of arginase I, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), key enzymes that regulate smooth muscle relaxation. We further related these changes with estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) and androgen receptor (AR) expression. Results In addition to significantly elevated blood glucose levels, diabetic rats had decreased mean body weight, lower levels of plasma estradiol, and higher plasma testosterone concentration, compared to age-matched controls. Eight weeks after administration of buffer (control) or 65 mg/kg of streptozotocin (diabetic), the vaginal blood flow response to pelvic nerve stimulation was significantly reduced in diabetic rats. Histological examination of vaginal tissue from diabetic animals showed reduced epithelial thickness and atrophy of the muscularis layer. Diabetic animals also had reduced vaginal levels of eNOS and arginase I, but elevated levels of PKG, as assessed by Western blot analyses. These alterations were accompanied by a reduction in both ER? and AR in nuclear extracts of vaginal tissue from diabetic animals. Conclusion In ovariectomized (estrogen deficient) animals, previous reports from our lab and others have documented changes in blood flow, tissue structure, ER?, arginase I and eNOS that parallel those observed in diabetic rats. We hypothesize that diabetes may lead to multiple disruptions in sex steroid hormone synthesis, metabolism and action. These pathological events may cause dramatic changes in tissue structure and key enzymes that regulate cell growth and smooth muscle contractility, ultimately affecting the genital response during sexual arousal. PMID:16734901

  3. The effects of Creatine Long-Term Supplementation on Muscle Morphology and Swimming Performance in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yildiz, Ahmet; Ozdemir, Ercan; Gulturk, Sefa; Erdal, Sena

    2009-01-01

    Creatine (Cr) has been shown to increase the total muscle mass. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Cr supplementation on muscle morphology and swimming performance, using an animal model. Each rat was subjected to exercise 15-minute period daily for the 12 weeks. The rats were randomly divided into four groups: no Cr supplementation (CON), no Cr supplementation and incomplete food intake (lacking lysine and methionine in diet for rats) (INCO), Cr supplementation 1 g·kg-1·day-1 (CREAT-I) and Cr supplementation 2 g·kg-1·day-1 (CREAT-II). Three months later, all groups adult rats exercised in swimming pool chambers. Swimming time was recorded as minute for each rat. Following swimming performance period, the animals were killed by cervical dislocation and the gastrocnemius and diaphragm muscles were dissected. Serial slices of 5-7 ?m were allocated paraffin wax and histochemical staining procedure of cross-sections was carried out with heamatoxylin-eosin technics. All groups gained body weight at the end of 12 weeks but there was no statistical difference among them. Swimming time values were statistical difference between CREAT-II and CON group as well as between CREAT-I and CON group (p < 0.05). In the INCO group was determined increased connective tissue cell of the muscle sample. In contrast, in the CREAT-I and CREAT-II group, the basic histological changes were large-scale muscle fibers and hypertrophic muscle cells. These results suggest that long-term creatine supplementation increased the number of muscle fibers and enhanced endurance swimming performance in rats. Key points There is no study about the effects of creatine long-term supplementation on muscle morphology and swimming performance in rats. Long-term creatine supplementation increase muscle hypertrophy (but not body weight) and enhance endurance swimming performance in rats. The quantitative analysis indicated that the number of muscle fibers per defined area increased in creatine supplementation groups. PMID:24149591

  4. Facet Model and Mathematical Morphology for Surface Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Abidi, B.R.; Goddard, J.S.; Hunt, M.A.; Sari-Sarraf, H.

    1999-11-13

    This paper describes an algorithm for the automatic segmentation and representation of surface structures and non-uniformities in an industrial setting. The automatic image processing and analysis algorithm is developed as part of a complete on-line web characterization system of a papermaking process at the wet end. The goal is to: (1) link certain types of structures on the surface of the web to known machine parameter values, and (2) find the connection between detected structures at the beginning of the line and defects seen on the final product. Images of the pulp mixture (slurry), carried by a fast moving table, are obtained using a stroboscopic light and a CCD camera. This characterization algorithm succeeded where conventional contrast and edge detection techniques failed due to a poorly controlled environment. The images obtained have poor contrast and contain noise caused by a variety of sources. After a number of enhancement steps, conventional segmentation methods still f ailed to detect any structures and are consequently discarded. Techniques tried include the Canny edge detector, the Sobel, Roberts, and Prewitt's filters, as well as zero crossings. The facet model algorithm, is then applied to the images with various parameter settings and is found to be successful in detecting the various topographic characteristics of the surface of the slurry. Pertinent topographic elements are retained and a filtered image computed. Carefully tailored morphological operators are then applied to detect and segment regions of interest. Those regions are then selected according to their size, elongation, and orientation. Their bounding rectangles are computed and represented. Also addressed in this paper are aspects of the real time implementation of this algorithm for on-line use. The algorithm is tested on over 500 images of slurry and is found to segment and characterize nonuniformities on all 500 images.

  5. Morphology and Molecular Mechanisms of Hepatic Injury in Rats under Simulated Weightlessness and the Protective Effects of Resistance Training

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Jun; Li, Zhili; Tian, Jijing; She, Ruiping; Wang, Desheng; Wang, Huijuan; Lv, Dongqiang; Chang, Lingling

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of long-term simulated weightlessness on liver morphology, enzymes, glycogen, and apoptosis related proteins by using two-month rat-tail suspension model (TS), and liver injury improvement by rat-tail suspension with resistance training model (TS&RT). Microscopically the livers of TS rats showed massive granular degeneration, chronic inflammation, and portal fibrosis. Mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum swelling and loss of membrane integrity were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The similar, but milder, morphological changes were observed in the livers of TS&RT rats. Serum biochemistry analysis revealed that the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were significantly higher (p<0.05) in TS rats than in controls. The levels of ALT and AST in TS&RT rats were slightly lower than in RT rats, but they were insignificantly higher than in controls. However, both TS and TS&RT rats had significantly lower levels (p<0.05) of serum glucose and hepatic glycogen than in controls. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the expressions of Bax, Bcl-2, and active caspase-3 were higher in TS rats than in TS&RT and control rats. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) showed that TS rats had higher mRNA levels (P < 0.05) of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and caspase-12 transcription than in control rats; whereas mRNA expressions of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) were slightly higher in TS rats. TS&RT rats showed no significant differences of above 4 mRNAs compared with the control group. Our results demonstrated that long-term weightlessness caused hepatic injury, and may trigger hepatic apoptosis. Resistance training slightly improved hepatic damage. PMID:26000905

  6. Construction and characterization of an infectious cDNA clone of rat hepatitis E virus.

    PubMed

    Li, Tian-Cheng; Yang, Tingting; Yoshizaki, Sayaka; Ami, Yasushi; Suzaki, Yuriko; Ishii, Koji; Haga, Kei; Nakamura, Tomofumi; Ochiai, Susumu; Takaji, Wakita; Johne, Reimar

    2015-06-01

    Rat hepatitis E virus (HEV) is related to human HEV and has been detected in wild rats worldwide. Here, the complete genome of rat HEV strain R63/DEU/2009 was cloned downstream of the T7 RNA polymerase promoter and capped genomic RNA generated by in vitro transcription was injected into nude rats. Rat HEV RNA could be detected in serum and faeces of rats injected intrahepatically, but not in those injected intravenously. Rat HEV RNA-positive faecal suspension was intravenously inoculated into nude rats and Wistar rats leading to rat HEV RNA detection in serum and faeces of nude rats, and to seroconversion in Wistar rats. In addition, rat HEV was isolated in PLC/PRF/5 cells from the rat HEV RNA-positive faecal suspension of nude rats and then passaged. The cell culture supernatant was infectious for nude rats. Genome analysis identified nine point mutations of the cell-culture-passaged virus in comparison with the originally cloned rat HEV genome. The results indicated that infectious rat HEV could be generated from the cDNA clone. As rats are widely used and well-characterized laboratory animals, studies on genetically engineered rat HEV may provide novel insights into organ tropism, replication and excretion kinetics as well as immunological changes induced by hepeviruses. PMID:25634930

  7. The dynamics of morphological changes in the pyloric endocrine cells of rats with uremia.

    PubMed

    Kasacka, I; Azzadin, A; Malla, H

    2002-01-01

    Disturbances in renal homeostatic function lead to changes in endocrine cell secretory activity. The aim of this study was the histomorphological estimation of dependence of gastric APUD system cell morphology and function on the time after subtotal nephrectomy in Wistar rats. Fragments of gastric pylorus were collected 1. 2, 4, and 6 weeks after nephrectomy. Paraffin sections were stained with H+E and by silver impregnation. Immunohistochemical reactions with the use of specific antibodies against calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), synaptophysin (SPh). somatostatin (ST), and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) were also performed. Immunoreactivity of the examined substances in the pyloric mucosa in the first week after nephrectomy was lower than in the control group. However, in the following time intervals, endocrine cells showed stronger immunostaining in comparison with the control rats. The results suggest that chronic renal failure can modulate secretory activity of APUD system cells. PMID:12056633

  8. Phase separation in thermal systems: LB study and morphological characterization

    E-print Network

    Yanbiao Gan; Aiguo Xu; Guangcai Zhang; Yingjun Li

    2011-06-10

    We investigate thermal and isothermal symmetric liquid-vapor separations via a FFT-Thermal Lattice Boltzmann (FFT-TLB) model. Structure factor, domain size and Minkowski functionals are employed to characterize the density and velocity fields as well as to understand the configurations and the kinetic processes. Compared with the isothermal phase separation, the freedom in temperature prolongs the Spinodal Decomposition (SD) stage and induces different rheological and morphological behaviors in the thermal system. After the transient procedure, both the thermal and isothermal separations show power-law scalings in domain growth; while the exponent for thermal system is lower than that for isothermal system. With respect to the density of field, the isothermal system presents more likely bicontinuous configurations with narrower interfaces, while the thermal system presents more likely configurations with scattered bubbles. Heat creation, conduction and lower interfacial stresses are main reasons for the differences in thermal system. Different from the case with isothermal phase separation, the release of latent heat causes the changing of local temperature which results in new local mechanical balance. When the Prandtl number becomes smaller, the system approaches thermodynamical equilibrium more quickly. The increasing of mean temperature makes lower the interfacial stress in the following way: $\\sigma=\\sigma_{0}[(T_{c}-T)/(T_{c}-T_{0})]^{3/2}$, where $T_{c}$ is the critical temperature and $\\sigma_{0}$ is the interfacial stress at a reference temperature $T_{0}$, which is the main reason for lower growth exponent in thermal case.

  9. Expression of sonic hedgehog regulates morphological changes of rat developing cerebellum in hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Hasebe, Miki; Ohta, Etsuko; Imagawa, Tomohiro; Uehara, Masato

    2008-10-01

    Although thyroid hormones are crucial for cerebellar development, and several thyroid hormone-dependent genes are known to be correlated with morphological development of the cerebellum, the precise mechanisms of morphological cerebellar changes in hypothyroidism (HT) remain unknown. To investigate these mechanisms in experimental rat HT induced by the anti-thyroid drug methimazole (MMI-HT rat), we carried out gene expression analysis (sonic hedgehog (Shh), reelin, and Bax) using quantitative real-time PCR. Histological examination revealed cerebellar abnormalities, including reductions in the thickness of the molecular layer and delayed disappearance of the external granular layer (EGL), as well as excess bulges or sublobules in the internal granular layer (IGL). At Postnatal Day (P) 6, Shh expression in MMI-HT rat was comparable to that in controls, thus suggesting that Shh expression was sufficient to form the lobes in the initial phase. However, Shh expression decreased in the later phases, as compared with age-matched controls. This demonstrated that stronger and sustained signaling is necessary for partitioning of the cardinal lobes into lobes and sublobes. Although reelin expression was not clearly different from that in controls, Bax expression decreased at P 15. The attrition of Bax at P 15 as well as Shh in the later phase may be related to irregularities in the IGL and the relatively large numbers of internal granular cells. Taken together, these results suggest that Shh expression is related to the morphological cerebellar changes in experimental hypothyroidism and that sustained signaling by Shh may play a key role in normal development, particularly lobulation, in the cerebellum. PMID:18827446

  10. Quantitation and characterization of rat tissue metallothioneins by gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, L.Y.; McCormick, C.C.

    1986-03-05

    A discontinuous gradient gel electrophoretic system was developed to quantitate and characterize metallothionein (MT) in rat tissue. Vertical slab separating gels (1.5 mm x 14 cm x 12 cm) consisted of a linear polyacrylamide gradient 7.5 to 30% T and 5% Bis. The stacking gels (3% T and 20% Bis) were photopolymerized using riboflavin as the catalyst. Liver cytosols were prepared from rats which received (i.p.) various amounts of Zn (5 mg/kg BW) or Cd (2.5 mg/kg BW). Purified MT was prepared by gel filtration and DEAE ion-exchange chromatography. Cytosols were heated (80/sup 0/C, 2 min) and centrifuged to obtain a supernatant. An appropriate amount of supernatant and various amounts of MT standard were electrophoresed (constant current, 20 mA per slab) for 9 hours. Gels were stained with Commassie Blue (R-250, 0.25%) for 12 hours and destained. Gels were scanned by densitometer and peaks heights were determined. Significantly linear standard curves (..mu..g MT vs. peak height) were established for both MTI and MTII. (Cd, Zn)-MTI migrated slower than Zn-MTI while mobilities for both (Cd, Zn)- and Zn-MTII were the same. The accumulation of MTI was consistently less than MTII in liver from both Zn- and Cd-injected rats. Their results suggest that electrophoretic analysis is an excellent system not only for quantitation but also for characterization of MT in rat tissue.

  11. Effects of ospemifene on breast tissue morphology and proliferation: a comparative study versus other selective estrogen receptor modulators in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Kangas, L; Härkönen, P; Väänänen, K; Keskitalo, J; Eigéliené, N

    2014-05-01

    Ospemifene is a tissue-selective estrogen agonist/antagonist that was recently approved for the treatment of dyspareunia associated with vulvar and vaginal atrophy, which occurs in up to approximately 50% of postmenopausal women. The current analyses were conducted to determine whether ospemifene exhibits estrogenic activity in the mammary glands of ovariectomized rats and to compare potential estrogenic activity with selective estrogen receptor modulators (tamoxifen, raloxifene, and toremifene). Three separate studies with differing durations (6, 9, and 28?days) were conducted using similar procedures in ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats. Estradiol treatment and sham-treated ovariectomized rats were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Cell proliferation was examined using labeled 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine; cytoplasmic prolactin was characterized with antibody staining. The morphology of the mammary gland was studied by histological staining of sections from the right fourth mammary glands, and the excised gland from the left side was used for counting the lobulus number. Neither ospemifene nor selective estrogen receptor modulators substantially induced 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine staining, altered the morphology of the mammary glands, or changed prolactin immunostaining in ovariectomized rats compared with the ovariectomized controls. With the exception of toremifene, the selective estrogen receptor modulators did not cause a substantial induction in mammary gland lobuli. Estradiol had effects opposite to those of the selective estrogen receptor modulators in these studies. Ospemifene exhibited no substantial estrogenic activity in the mammary gland of ovariectomized rats. Activity in the mammary gland of ovariectomized rats with ospemifene was comparable to raloxifene and tamoxifen. PMID:24526372

  12. Functional, morphological and biomolecular assessment of posttraumatic neuro-muscular recovery in the rat forelimb model.

    PubMed

    Geuna, S; Tos, P; Raimondo, S; Lee, J M; Gambarotta, G; Nicolino, S; Fornaro, M; Papalia, I; Perroteau, I; Battiston, B

    2007-01-01

    Over the last five years, we have used the rat forelimb model for investigating neuromuscular recovery after microsurgical nerve reconstruction of median and ulnar nerves by end-to-side neurorrhaphy and muscle-vein-combined tubulization (using both straight and Y-shaped guides). The outcome of nerve repair at different postoperative times was assessed by functional, morphological and biomolecular analysis. Results showed that both end-to-side and tubulization repair of rat median and ulnar nerves led to successful axonal regeneration along the severed nerve trunk as well as to a partial recovery of the lost function as assessed by grasping test. Biomolecular analysis by means of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) demonstrated early overexpression during nerve regeneration of the gliotrophic factor NRG1 and two of its receptors: erbB2 and erbB3. Finally, our experience also suggests that the rat forelimb experimental model is particularly appropriate for the study of microsurgical reconstruction of major mixed nerve trunks. Furthermore, since the forelimb model is less compromising for the animal, it should be preferred to the hindlimb model for many research purposes. PMID:17985570

  13. Morphologic changes in rat urothelial cells during carcinogenesis. I. Histologic and cytologic changes

    SciTech Connect

    King, E.B.; Vanderlaan, M.; Jensen, R.H.; Kromhout, L.K.; Hoffman, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    The methods of either image or flow cytometry applied to developing bladder tumors in rats requires satisfactory cell samples and a system for cell classification that is related to the lesions from which the cells are derived. Seven- to eight-week-old male Fisher 344 rats were fed 0.05% of the carcinogen N-butyl-4-N-hydroxybutylnitrosamine (BBN) in drinking water for 10 wk and then returned to tap water. Animals were killed at 14, 26, 34, 45 and 62 wk after the start of carcinogen feeding. Overnight urines were collected before killing; urine sediments were Papanicolaou stained and evaluated. Histological features were hyperplasia at 14 wk, followed by slowly progressing papillary transitional cell tumors that eventually led to invasive carcinoma and were similar to those reported for this animal model. Treated animals had cytologic features of repair at 14 and 26 wk and neoplastic features at 45 and 62 wk. Both reparative and neoplastic changes were found at 34 wk. Cells were much more numerous in urines from treated rats (> 1000 per sample) than in urines from controls (< 1000 per sample). Although exfoliated cells in urine samples were generally of poor quality, as many as 11% of cells were adequately preserved. Dissociated bladder cells provided an optimal sample representative of the lesions from which they were derived; cells were of excellent quality for detailed morphologic and quantitative studies.

  14. Specific Reactions of Different Striatal Neuron Types in Morphology Induced by Quinolinic Acid in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Shuhua; Wu, Jiajia; Chen, Si; OuYang, Lisi; Lei, Wanlong

    2014-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurological degenerative disease and quinolinic acid (QA) has been used to establish HD model in animals through the mechanism of excitotoxicity. Yet the specific pathological changes and the underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. We aimed to reveal the specific morphological changes of different striatal neurons in the HD model. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were subjected to unilaterally intrastriatal injections of QA to mimic the HD model. Behavioral tests, histochemical and immunhistochemical stainings as well as Western blots were applied in the present study. The results showed that QA-treated rats had obvious motor and cognitive impairments when compared with the control group. Immunohistochemical detection showed a great loss of NeuN+ neurons and Darpp32+ projection neurons in the transition zone in the QA group when compared with the control group. The numbers of parvalbumin (Parv)+ and neuropeptide Y (NPY)+ interneurons were both significantly reduced while those of calretinin (Cr)+ and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)+ were not changed notably in the transition zone in the QA group when compared to the controls. Parv+, NPY+ and ChAT+ interneurons were not significantly increased in fiber density while Cr+ neurons displayed an obvious increase in fiber density in the transition zone in QA-treated rats. The varicosity densities of Parv+, Cr+ and NPY+ interneurons were all raised in the transition zone after QA treatment. In conclusion, the present study revealed that QA induced obvious behavioral changes as well as a general loss of striatal projection neurons and specific morphological changes in different striatal interneurons, which may help further explain the underlying mechanisms and the specific functions of various striatal neurons in the pathological process of HD. PMID:24632560

  15. Electrophysiological characterization of spinal neurons in different models of diabetes type 1- and type 2-induced neuropathy in rats.

    PubMed

    Schuelert, N; Gorodetskaya, N; Just, S; Doods, H; Corradini, L

    2015-04-16

    Diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) is a devastating complication of diabetes. The underlying pathogenesis of DPN is still elusive and an effective treatment devoid of side effects presents a challenge. There is evidence that in type-1 and -2 diabetes, metabolic and morphological changes lead to peripheral nerve damage and altered central nociceptive transmission, which may contribute to neuropathic pain symptoms. We characterized the electrophysiological response properties of spinal wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons in three diabetic models. The streptozotocin (STZ) model was used as a drug-induced model of type-1 diabetes, and the BioBreeding/Worcester (BB/Wor) and Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat models were used for genetic DPN models. Data were compared to the respective control group (BB/Wor diabetic-resistant, Zucker lean (ZL) and saline-injected Wistar rat). Response properties of WDR neurons to mechanical stimulation and spontaneous activity were assessed. We found abnormal response properties of spinal WDR neurons in all diabetic rats but not controls. Profound differences between models were observed. In BB/Wor diabetic rats evoked responses were increased, while in ZDF rats spontaneous activity was increased and in STZ rats mainly after discharges were increased. The abnormal response properties of neurons might indicate differential pathological, diabetes-induced, changes in spinal neuronal transmission. This study shows for the first time that specific electrophysiological response properties are characteristic for certain models of DPN and that these might reflect the diverse and complex symptomatology of DPN in the clinic. PMID:25686525

  16. Morphological and Phagocytic Profile of Microglia in the Developing Rat Cerebellum1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    VanRyzin, Jonathan W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Microglia are being increasingly recognized as playing important roles in neurodevelopment. The cerebellum matures postnatally, undergoing major growth, but the role of microglia in the developing cerebellum is not well understood. Using the laboratory rat we quantified and morphologically categorized microglia throughout the vermis and across development using a design-based unbiased stereology method. We found that microglial morphology changed from amoeboid to ramified during the first 3 postnatal weeks in a region specific manner. These morphological changes were accompanied by the sudden appearance of phagocytic cups during the third postnatal week from P17 to P19, with an approximately fourfold increase compared with the first week, followed by a prompt decline at the end of the third week. The microglial phagocytic cups were significantly higher in the granular layer (?69%) than in the molecular layer (ML; ?31%) during a 3 d window, and present on ?67% of microglia with thick processes and ?33% of microglia with thin processes. Similar proportions of phagocytic cups associated to microglia with either thick or thin processes were found in the ML. We observed cell nuclei fragmentation and cleaved caspase-3 expression within some microglial phagocytic cups, presumably from dying granule neurons. At P17 males showed an approximately twofold increase in microglia with thin processes compared with females. Our findings indicate a continuous process of microglial maturation and a nonuniform distribution of microglia in the cerebellar cortex that implicates microglia as an important cellular component of the developing cerebellum. PMID:26464992

  17. Insights into Embryo Defenses of the Invasive Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata: Egg Mass Ingestion Affects Rat Intestine Morphology and Growth

    PubMed Central

    Gimeno, Eduardo J.; Heras, Horacio

    2014-01-01

    Background The spread of the invasive snail Pomacea canaliculata is expanding the rat lungworm disease beyond its native range. Their toxic eggs have virtually no predators and unusual defenses including a neurotoxic lectin and a proteinase inhibitor, presumably advertised by a warning coloration. We explored the effect of egg perivitellin fluid (PVF) ingestion on the rat small intestine morphology and physiology. Methodology/Principal Findings Through a combination of biochemical, histochemical, histopathological, scanning electron microscopy, cell culture and feeding experiments, we analyzed intestinal morphology, growth rate, hemaglutinating activity, cytotoxicity and cell proliferation after oral administration of PVF to rats. PVF adversely affects small intestine metabolism and morphology and consequently the standard growth rate, presumably by lectin-like proteins, as suggested by PVF hemaglutinating activity and its cytotoxic effect on Caco-2 cell culture. Short-term effects of ingested PVF were studied in growing rats. PVF-supplemented diet induced the appearance of shorter and wider villi as well as fused villi. This was associated with changes in glycoconjugate expression, increased cell proliferation at crypt base, and hypertrophic mucosal growth. This resulted in a decreased absorptive surface after 3 days of treatment and a diminished rat growth rate that reverted to normal after the fourth day of treatment. Longer exposure to PVF induced a time-dependent lengthening of the small intestine while switching to a control diet restored intestine length and morphology after 4 days. Conclusions/Significance Ingestion of PVF rapidly limits the ability of potential predators to absorb nutrients by inducing large, reversible changes in intestinal morphology and growth rate. The occurrence of toxins that affect intestinal morphology and absorption is a strategy against predation not recognized among animals before. Remarkably, this defense is rather similar to the toxic effect of plant antipredator strategies. This defense mechanism may explain the near absence of predators of apple snail eggs. PMID:24945629

  18. The Surface Morphology Characterization of Electroless Nickel Immersion Gold Under Bump Metallurgy (UBM) Using SEM

    SciTech Connect

    Arshad, M. K. Md; Isa, M. N. Md; Sohiful, Z. M. A.

    2007-05-09

    This paper presents the surface morphology characterization at each process step in electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG) deposition using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The characterization start at initial bond pad, followed by cleaning, activation, first zincation, zinc removal, second zincation, electroless nickel and lastly immersion gold process. The result shows that the surface morphology of initial bond pad starts to change with deposition of zinc layer and further changes with deposition of nickel and gold layer.

  19. Morphological Control and Characterization of Monodispersed Ceria Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Minamidate, Y.; Yin, S.; Devaraju, M. K.; Sato, T.

    2010-11-24

    The morphological control of cerium oxide particles was carried out by a homogeneous precipitation followed by calcination in air at 400 deg. C. The effects of pre-aging temperature, aging time and precipitation reagents on the morphologies of final products were investigated. When urea was used as a precipitation reagent, monodispersed spherical and flake-like cerium carbonate hydroxide precursor was precipitated in the solution at 90 deg. C for 2 h after pre-aging at 25 deg. C - 50 deg. C for 24-72 h. On the other hand, monodispersed nanosize rod-like cerium hydroxide particles were obtained using triethanolamine as precipitation reagent. Ceria particles with the same morphologies and slightly smaller particle size than those of as-prepared cerium precursor could be obtained after calcination in air at 400 deg. C. Physical-chemical characteristics of the monodispersed cerium oxide particles were evaluated.

  20. Structural Characterization of Layered Morphologies in Precise Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigg, Edward; Gaines, Taylor; Wagener, Kenneth; Winey, Karen

    2015-03-01

    Layered morphologies have been observed in precise polyethylene-based copolymers that contain acid, charged, or polar functional groups precisely spaced along a linear alkane chain. Sufficiently long alkane segments form structures resembling orthorhombic polyethylene crystals, while the functional groups form 2-D layers that disrupt the alkane crystal structure to varying degrees. Here, layered morphologies in precise copolymers containing acrylic acid, phosphonic acid, imidazolium bromide, and sulfone groups are studied via X-ray scattering. Specifically, the composition profiles of the layered structures are obtained by Fourier synthesis, and the coherence length is investigated using peak width analysis. This analysis indicates that the layers of functional groups are frequently bordered by two crystallites, which suggests different dynamics relative to layers bordered by one crystalline and one amorphous microdomain. Detailed understanding of the structure of the layered morphologies will allow for a systematic investigation of proton and ion conductivity mechanisms, which are expected to occur through the high-dielectric layers.

  1. Distribution and characterization of tumor-associated macrophages/microglia in rat C6 glioma

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, ZHI-MING; YANG, ZICHENG; ZHANG, ZHIREN

    2015-01-01

    Immunity responses and immunotherapy are novel areas of research for the pathological development and treatment of glioma, the most common brain cancer. Characterization of the subpopulations of infiltrated immune cells may aid in our understanding of the tumor immune response and contribute to the identification of cellular targets for selective immunotherapy. Using a rat C6 glioma model, the present study observed a significant heterogeneity of active macrophages and microglia, including cluster of differentiation 8 (CD8)+, endothelial monocyte-activating polypeptide II (EMAPII)+ and ED1+ cells, mostly in the areas of compact tumor growth and inside or around the pannecrosis. Moreover, the CD8+ cells were similar to reactive ED1+ and EMAPII+ microglia/macrophages in morphology and distribution, but different from the W3/13+ T cells. These observations suggest that different subtypes of macrophages and microglia are involved in glioma development and thus, may be potential targets for immunotherapeutic antitumor strategies.

  2. Molecular and morphological characterization of Eimeria in game birds.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coccidiosis is generally known as a disease of economic importance in chickens. However, Eimeria species also negatively impacts the game bird industry. Here we present data generated from litter samples collected from two farms experiencing coccidiosis in chukars and pheasants. From morphological...

  3. Chronic aerobic swimming exercise promotes functional and morphological changes in rat ileum

    PubMed Central

    da Cunha Araujo, Layanne Cabral; de Souza, Iara Leão Luna; Vasconcelos, Luiz Henrique César; de Freitas Brito, Aline; Queiroga, Fernando Ramos; Silva, Alexandre Sérgio; da Silva, Patrícia Mirella; de Andrade Cavalcante, Fabiana; da Silva, Bagnólia Araújo

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported the gastrointestinal (GI) effects promoted by the physical exercise. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the influence of swimming exercise on the contractile reactivity, lipid peroxidation and morphology of rat ileum. Wistar rats were divided into sedentary (SED) and groups exercised for two (EX2), four (EX4), six (EX6) or eight (EX8) weeks, 5 days/week. Animals were killed; the ileum was removed and suspended in organ baths where the isotonic contractions were recorded. Lipid peroxidation was evaluated by MDA (malondialdehyde) measurement with TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) assay and morphology by histological staining. Cumulative concentration-response curves to KCl were attenuated, as the Emax values were changed from 100% (SED) to 63.1±3.9 (EX2), 48.8±3.8 (EX4), 19.4±1.8 (EX6) and 59.4±2.8% (EX8). Similarly, cumulative concentration-response curves to carbamylcholine hydrochloride (CCh) were attenuated, as the Emax values were changed from 100% (SED) to 74.1±5.4 (EX2), 75.9±5.2 (EX4) and 62.9±4.6 (EX6), but not in the EX8 (89.7±3.4%). However, CCh potency was increased in this latter, as the EC50 was altered from 1.0±0.1×10?6 (SED) to 2.1±0.4×10?7 (EX8). MDA concentration was altered only in EX4 (44.3±4.4) compared with SED (20.6±3.6 ?mol/l). Circular layer was reduced in SED when compared with the exercised groups. Conversely, longitudinal layer was increased. In conclusion, chronic swimming exercise reduces the ileum contraction, equilibrates the oxidative damage and promotes changes in tissue size to establish an adaptation to the exercise. PMID:26424698

  4. Chronic aerobic swimming exercise promotes functional and morphological changes in rat ileum.

    PubMed

    da Cunha Araujo, Layanne Cabral; de Souza, Iara Leão Luna; Vasconcelos, Luiz Henrique César; de Freitas Brito, Aline; Queiroga, Fernando Ramos; Silva, Alexandre Sérgio; da Silva, Patrícia Mirella; de Andrade Cavalcante, Fabiana; da Silva, Bagnólia Araújo

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported the gastrointestinal (GI) effects promoted by the physical exercise. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the influence of swimming exercise on the contractile reactivity, lipid peroxidation and morphology of rat ileum. Wistar rats were divided into sedentary (SED) and groups exercised for two (EX2), four (EX4), six (EX6) or eight (EX8) weeks, 5 days/week. Animals were killed; the ileum was removed and suspended in organ baths where the isotonic contractions were recorded. Lipid peroxidation was evaluated by MDA (malondialdehyde) measurement with TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) assay and morphology by histological staining. Cumulative concentration-response curves to KCl were attenuated, as the Emax values were changed from 100% (SED) to 63.1±3.9 (EX2), 48.8±3.8 (EX4), 19.4±1.8 (EX6) and 59.4±2.8% (EX8). Similarly, cumulative concentration-response curves to carbamylcholine hydrochloride (CCh) were attenuated, as the Emax values were changed from 100% (SED) to 74.1±5.4 (EX2), 75.9±5.2 (EX4) and 62.9±4.6 (EX6), but not in the EX8 (89.7±3.4%). However, CCh potency was increased in this latter, as the EC50 was altered from 1.0±0.1×10(-6) (SED) to 2.1±0.4×10(-7) (EX8). MDA concentration was altered only in EX4 (44.3±4.4) compared with SED (20.6±3.6 ?mol/l). Circular layer was reduced in SED when compared with the exercised groups. Conversely, longitudinal layer was increased. In conclusion, chronic swimming exercise reduces the ileum contraction, equilibrates the oxidative damage and promotes changes in tissue size to establish an adaptation to the exercise. PMID:26424698

  5. Experimental pulmonary fibrosis induced by paraquat plus oxygen in rats: a morphologic and biochemical sequential study.

    PubMed

    Selman, M; Montaño, M; Ramos, C; Barrios, R; Pérez-Tamayo, R

    1989-04-01

    Changes in lung structure and collagen metabolism were studied at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 weeks in a model of pulmonary fibrosis induced in rats with paraquat plus hyperoxia. Morphologic examination of the lungs revealed that the earliest lesions consisted of severe and irreversible endothelial and alveolar epithelial cell damage. Afterward, an inflammatory process took place, initially dominated by polymorphonuclear leukocytes and then by mononuclear cells, but with the constant presence of granulocytes. From the fourth week on there were fibroblast proliferation and a moderate increase of mast cells. In the early stages alveolitis was focal, but from the second week the lungs were diffusely affected with severe distortion of the architecture. Collagen content was moderately increased in the first 2 weeks and then showed a progressive increment until the end of the experiment. Collagen synthesis was significantly elevated from the fourth week, coinciding with interstitial fibroblast proliferation, although there were some animals that showed increased collagen production from the first week. Collagenolytic activity occurred in 3 stages: at 2 weeks there was increased collagen degradation, at 3, 4, and 6 weeks the values showed a trimodal behavior, and at 8 weeks almost all experimental rats presented an important decrease of collagenolysis. Thus, the development of lung fibrosis was associated first with increased rates of collagen synthesis and later with a decrease of collagen degradation. PMID:2707380

  6. Morphologic analysis correlates with gene expression changes in cultured F344 rat mesothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Crosby, L M; Hyder, K S; DeAngelo, A B; Kepler, T B; Gaskill, B; Benavides, G R; Yoon, L; Morgan, K T

    2000-12-15

    The gene expression pattern of mesothelial cells in vitro was determined after 4 or 12 h exposure to the rat mesothelial, kidney, and thyroid carcinogen and oxidative stressor potassium bromate (KBrO(3)). Gene expression changes observed using cDNA arrays indicated oxidative stress, mitotic arrest, and apoptosis in treated immortalized rat peritoneal mesothelial cells. Increases occurred in oxidative stress responsive genes HO-1, QR, HSP70, GADD45, GADD153, p21(WAF1/CIP16), GST's, GAPDH, TPX, and GPX-1(0); transcriptional regulators c-jun, c-fos, jun B, c-myc, and IkappaB; protein repair components Rdelta, RC10-II, C3, RC-7, HR6B ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme and ubiquitin; DNA repair components PCNA, msh2, and O-6 methylguanine DNA methyltransferase; lipid peroxide excision enzyme PLA2; and apoptogenic components TNFalpha, iNOS1 and FasL. Decreases occurred in bcl-2 (antiapoptotic), bax alpha, bad, and bok (proapoptotic) and cell cycle control elements (cyclins). Cyclin G and p14ink4b (which inhibit entry into cell cycle) were increased. Numerous signal transduction, cell membrane transport, membrane-associated receptor, and fatty acid biosynthesis and repair components were altered. Morphologic endpoints examined were number of mitotic figures, number of apoptotic cells, and antibody-specific localization of HO-1 (which demonstrated increased HO-1 protein expression). PCR analysis confirmed HO-1, p21(waf1/cip1), HSP70, GPX1, GADD45, QR, mdr1, PGHS, and cyclin D1 changes. A model for KBrO(3)-induced carcinogenicity in the F344 rat mesothelium is proposed, whereby KBrO(3) generates a redox signal that activates p53 and results in transcriptional activation of oxidative stress and repair genes, dysregulation of growth control, and imperfect DNA repair leading to carcinogenesis. PMID:11133343

  7. [Morphological and molecular characterization of isolates of Macrophomina phaseolina associated with sugarcane in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Leyva-Mir, Santos G; Velázquez-Martínez, Guadalupe C; Tlapal-Bolaños, Bertha; Tovar-Pedraza, Juan M; Rosas-Saito, Greta H; Alvarado-Gómez, Omar G

    2015-01-01

    Charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina is an important disease of sugarcane in Mexico. This study was carried out to characterize isolates of M. phaseolina obtained from sugarcane by the combination of morphological and molecular analyses. The morphological characterization of 10 isolates was performed using scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. To confirm the morphological identification, rDNA from two representative isolates was extracted, and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced using specific primers MpKF1 and MpKR1. Based on their morphological characteristics, all isolates were identified as M. phaseolina. Moreover, the analysis of two ITS sequences showed 100% similarity with the M. phaseolina sequences deposited in the GenBank. To our knowledge, this is the first study in the world aimed at characterizing isolates of M. phaseolina obtained from sugarcane. PMID:25979147

  8. Characterization of status epilepticus induced by two organophosphates in rats

    PubMed Central

    Todorovic, Marko; Cowan, Morgan; Balint, Corinne; Sun, Chengsan; Kapur, Jaideep

    2012-01-01

    Organophosphates (OP) inhibit the enzyme cholinesterase and cause accumulation of acetylcholine, and are known to cause seizures and status epilepticus (SE) in humans. The animal models of SE caused by organophosphate analogs of insecticides are not well characterized. SE caused by OPs paraoxon and diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) in rats was characterized by electroencephalogram (EEG), behavioral observations and response to treatment with the benzodiazepine diazepam administered at various stages of SE. A method for SE induction using intrahippocampal infusion of paraoxon was also tested. Infusion of 200 nmol paraoxon into the hippocampus caused electrographic seizures in 43/52 (82.7%) animals tested; and of these animals, 14/43 (30%) had self-sustaining seizures that lasted 4–18 hours after the end of paraoxon infusion. SE was also induced by peripheral subcutaneous injection of diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP, 1.25 mg/kg) or paraoxon (1.00 mg/kg) to rats pretreated with atropine (2 mg/kg) and 2-pralidoxime (2-PAM,50 mg/kg) 30 minutes prior to OP injection. SE occurred in 78% paraoxon–treated animals and in 79% of DFP-treated animals. Diazepam (10 mg/kg) was administered 10 min and 30 min after the onset of continuous EEG seizures induced by paraoxon and it terminated SE in a majority of animals at both time points. DFP-induced SE was terminated in 60% animals when diazepam was administered 10 minutes after the onset of continuous EEG seizure activity but diazepam did not terminate SE in any animal when it was administered 30 minutes after the onset of continuous seizures. These studies demonstrate that both paraoxon and DFP can induce SE in rats but refractoriness to diazepam is a feature of DFP induced SE. PMID:22578704

  9. Biochemical, Histopathological and Morphological Profiling of a Rat Model of Early Immune Stimulation: Relation to Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Kubesova, Anna; Tejkalova, Hana; Syslova, Kamila; Kacer, Petr; Vondrousova, Jana; Tyls, Filip; Fujakova, Michaela; Palenicek, Tomas; Horacek, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Perinatal immune challenge leads to neurodevelopmental dysfunction, permanent immune dysregulation and abnormal behaviour, which have been shown to have translational validity to findings in human neuropsychiatric disorders (e.g. schizophrenia, mood and anxiety disorders, autism, Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease). The aim of this animal study was to elucidate the influence of early immune stimulation triggered by systemic postnatal lipopolysaccharide administration on biochemical, histopathological and morphological measures, which may be relevant to the neurobiology of human psychopathology. In the present study of adult male Wistar rats we examined the brain and plasma levels of monoamines (dopamine, serotonin), their metabolites, the levels of the main excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters glutamate and ?-aminobutyric acid and the levels of tryptophan and its metabolites from the kynurenine catabolic pathway. Further, we focused on histopathological and morphological markers related to pathogenesis of brain diseases - glial cell activation, neurodegeneration, hippocampal volume reduction and dopaminergic synthesis in the substantia nigra. Our results show that early immune stimulation in adult animals alters the levels of neurotransmitters and their metabolites, activates the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism and leads to astrogliosis, hippocampal volume reduction and a decrease of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the substantia nigra. These findings support the crucial pathophysiological role of early immune stimulation in the above mentioned neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:25602957

  10. Stasis and convergence characterize morphological evolution in eupolypod II ferns

    PubMed Central

    Sundue, Michael A.; Rothfels, Carl J.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Patterns of morphological evolution at levels above family rank remain underexplored in the ferns. The present study seeks to address this gap through analysis of 79 morphological characters for 81 taxa, including representatives of all ten families of eupolypod II ferns. Recent molecular phylogenetic studies demonstrate that the evolution of the large eupolypod II clade (which includes nearly one-third of extant fern species) features unexpected patterns. The traditional ‘athyrioid’ ferns are scattered across the phylogeny despite their apparent morphological cohesiveness, and mixed among these seemingly conservative taxa are morphologically dissimilar groups that lack any obvious features uniting them with their relatives. Maximum-likelihood and maximum-parsimony character optimizations are used to determine characters that unite the seemingly disparate groups, and to test whether the polyphyly of the traditional athyrioid ferns is due to evolutionary stasis (symplesiomorphy) or convergent evolution. The major events in eupolypod II character evolution are reviewed, and character and character state concepts are reappraised, as a basis for further inquiries into fern morphology. Methods Characters were scored from the literature, live plants and herbarium specimens, and optimized using maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood, onto a highly supported topology derived from maximum-likelihood and Bayesian analysis of molecular data. Phylogenetic signal of characters were tested for using randomization methods and fitdiscrete. Key Results The majority of character state changes within the eupolypod II phylogeny occur at the family level or above. Relative branch lengths for the morphological data resemble those from molecular data and fit an ancient rapid radiation model (long branches subtended by very short backbone internodes), with few characters uniting the morphologically disparate clades. The traditional athyrioid ferns were circumscribed based upon a combination of symplesiomorphic and homoplastic characters. Petiole vasculature consisting of two bundles is ancestral for eupolypods II and a synapomorphy for eupolypods II under deltran optimization. Sori restricted to one side of the vein defines the recently recognized clade comprising Rhachidosoraceae through Aspleniaceae, and sori present on both sides of the vein is a synapomorphy for the Athyriaceae sensu stricto. The results indicate that a chromosome base number of x =41 is synapomorphic for all eupolypods, a clade that includes over two-thirds of extant fern species. Conclusions The integrated approach synthesizes morphological studies with current phylogenetic hypotheses and provides explicit statements of character evolution in the eupolypod II fern families. Strong character support is found for previously recognized clades, whereas few characters support previously unrecognized clades. Sorus position appears to be less complicated than previously hypothesized, and linear sori restricted to one side of the vein support the clade comprising Aspleniaceae, Diplaziopsidaceae, Hemidictyaceae and Rachidosoraceae – a lineage only recently identified. Despite x =41 being a frequent number among extant species, to our knowledge it has not previously been demonstrated as the ancestral state. This is the first synapomorphy proposed for the eupolypod clade, a lineage comprising 67 % of extant fern species. This study provides some of the first hypotheses of character evolution at the family level and above in light of recent phylogenetic results, and promotes further study in an area that remains open for original observation. PMID:24197753

  11. Synthesis and characterization of different morphological SnS nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaki, Sunil H.; Chaudhary, Mahesh D.; Deshpande, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    SnS in three nano forms possessing different morphologies such as particles, whiskers and ribbons were synthesised by chemical route. The morphology variation was brought about in the chemical route synthesis by varying a synthesis parameter such as temperature and influencing the synthesis by use of surfactant. The elemental composition determination by energy dispersive analysis of x-rays (EDAX) showed that all three synthesized SnS nanomaterials were tin deficient. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) study of the three SnS nanomaterials showed that all of them possess orthorhombic structure. The Raman spectra of the three SnS nanomaterials showed that all three samples possess three common distinguishable peaks. In them two peaks lying at 98 ± 1 cm-1 and 224 ± 4 cm-1 are the characteristic Ag mode of SnS. The third peak lying at 302 ± 1 cm-1 is associated with secondary Sn2S3 phase. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the respective morphologies. The optical analysis showed that they possess direct as well as indirect optical bandgap. The electrical transport properties study on the pellets prepared from the different nanomaterials of SnS showed them to be semiconducting and p-type in nature. The current-voltage (I-V) plots of the silver (Ag)/SnS nanomaterials pellets for dark and incandescent illumination showed that all configurations showed good ohmic behaviour except Ag/SnS nanoribbons pellet configuration under illumination. All the obtained results are discussed in detail.

  12. Adaptation-dependent plasticity of rod bipolar cell axon terminal morphology in the rat retina.

    PubMed

    Behrens, U D; Kasten, P; Wagner, H J

    1998-11-01

    We chose synaptic terminals of rat rod bipolar cells as a model system to study activity-related changes in the overall morphology and the fine structure of synaptic sites. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy in conjunction with three-dimensional reconstruction and electron microscopy, we examined the effect of light and dark adaptation on axon terminals identified by protein kinase C (PKC) immunoreactivity. Rod bipolar cell axon terminals consisted of 2-3 polymorphic boutons situated close to the ganglion cell layer and a single ovoid swelling located more distally. Both components of the terminal complex showed adaptation-dependent differences in the distribution of PKC immunoreactivity and in their morphology. In light-adapted rod bipolar cell axon terminals, PKC immunoreactivity was homogeneously distributed throughout the cytoplasm, whereas terminals from dark-adapted animals showed PKC immunoreactivity preferentially localised in the submembrane compartment and a reduced staining of the more central cytoplasm. In three-dimensional reconstructions of optical sections and at the ultrastructural level, the shape of light-adapted axon terminals was round and smooth and exhibited more convexly curved synaptic membranes. In contrast, dark-adapted terminals had irregular contours, numerous dimples and a concave synaptic curvature. No spinules of bipolar cell terminals were observed in dark-adapted material. These observations are discussed in the context of activity-related morphological plasticity of central nervous system synapses and of the functions of PKC in the cycle of vesicle fusion and retrieval at the tonically active ribbon synapses of the rod bipolar axon terminal. PMID:9799440

  13. Soluble polysaccharide and biomass of red microalga Porphyridium sp. alter intestinal morphology and reduce serum cholesterol in rats.

    PubMed

    Dvir, I; Chayoth, R; Sod-Moriah, U; Shany, S; Nyska, A; Stark, A H; Madar, Z; Arad, S M

    2000-10-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the red microalga Porphyridium sp. on gastrointestinal physiology and lipid metabolism in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Diets containing dietary fibre from pelleted red microalgal cells (biomass) or their sulfated polysaccharide, pectin or cellulose (control) were fed to rats for a period of 30 d. All three fibre-supplemented diets increased the length of both the small intestine and colon, with a significantly greater effect in rats fed the algal polysaccharide. The polysaccharide also increased mucosa and muscularis cross-sectional area of the jejunum, and caused hypertrophy in the muscularis layer. The algal biomass significantly lowered gastrointestinal transit time by 44% in comparison with the control rats. Serum and mucosal cholecystokinin levels were lower in rats on the pectin and polysaccharide diets, while cholecystokinin levels in rats fed algal biomass were not different from those in the control animals. In comparison with the control diet, all the experimental diets significantly lowered serum cholesterol levels (22-29%). Feeding of non-fermentable algal polysaccharide or biomass significantly increased faecal weight and bile acid excretion compared with pectin-fed or control rats. The algal polysaccharide and biomass were thus shown to be potent hypocholesterolaemic agents active at low concentrations in the diet. Both metabolic and morphological changes were observed following consumption of algae, suggesting several possible mechanisms by which the alga affects lipid metabolism. The results presented in the present study encourage the use of red microalga as a functional food. PMID:11103217

  14. Programming of rat adrenal medulla by neonatal hyperleptinemia: adrenal morphology, catecholamine secretion, and leptin signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Trevenzoli, I H; Pinheiro, C R; Conceição, E P S; Oliveira, E; Passos, M C F; Lisboa, P C; Moura, E G

    2010-05-01

    Leptin serum concentration in early life is an important factor for adequate future development of the offspring. Previously, we demonstrated that hyperleptinemia on lactation programmed for hyperleptinemia, central leptin resistance with lower expression of the long form of leptin receptor at hypothalamus, and higher medullary catecholamine levels with cardiovascular consequences at adulthood. The central objective of this study was to determine the direct effect of leptin on adrenal medullary function of adult rats that were leptin treated during lactation. Adrenal morphology was also accessed. Recombinant murine leptin was injected in the pups during the first 10 days of life (group L, leptin-programmed) or at adulthood during 6 days (group LC). The controls of both experiments received saline (groups C and CC). Both treatments resulted in hyperleptinemia at 150 days old (+78% and 2-fold increase, respectively; P < 0.05). Programmed animals showed hypertrophy of adrenal and higher adrenal catecholamine content at 150 days old (3-fold increase, P < 0.05), and no changes were observed in the LC group. However, LC rats had lower adrenal content of tyrosine hydroxylase (-17%, P < 0.05). Leptin-programmed rats had a lower response to leptin in vitro stimulation (-22%, P < 0.05) and lower expression of key proteins of the leptin signaling pathway, leptin receptor and janus tyrosine kinase 2 in the medullas (-61% and -29%, respectively, P < 0.05). However, they presented higher expression of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (+2-fold, P < 0.05). Leptin treatment at adulthood did not affect these parameters. The higher catecholamine synthesis and secretion in the leptin-programmed rats observed in our previous study does not seem to be a consequence of the direct effect of leptin on the medullas. We suggest that the hyperleptinemia of the programmed animals increases adrenal medullary function through sympathetic nervous system activation. In conclusion, high leptin levels on lactation program the activity of the sympathoadrenal system at adulthood that may contribute to the development of adult chronic diseases such as hypertension. PMID:20304765

  15. Morphological-anatomical characterization and identification of Tomentella ectomycorrhizas.

    PubMed

    Jakucs, Erzsébet; Eros-Honti, Zsolt

    2008-09-01

    Over the last two decades, much information has been gathered on the ectomycorrhizal fungus community composition of plant associations of boreal, temperate, and tropical regions. Worldwide, Tomentella ectomycorrhizas (ECM) are often common and dominant in the mycorrhizosphere of coniferous and deciduous forests. They are present under different environmental conditions and associate with diverse plant hosts. Tomentella sporocarps, however, are rarely found aboveground, so Tomentella species are often missing from fungus community studies based on fruit-body presence. Tomentella is a resupinate genus of Thelephoraceae (Basidiomycota) forming black-brown, brown, yellow, or ochre ECM on the roots of gymnosperm and angiosperm trees, distinguished by typical morphological-anatomical characteristics (clamped hyphae, angular mantle, surface network, special rhizomorphs and cystidia). In this paper, we review the taxonomic position and morphological-anatomical characteristics of Tomentella ECM. A short summary of the microscopic features used for distinguishing tomentelloids during morphotyping and identification is presented in order to support molecular and ecological studies of ectomycorrhizal fungus communities. PMID:18622633

  16. Characterization of deltamethrin metabolism by rat plasma and liver microsomes

    SciTech Connect

    Anand, Sathanandam S. . E-mail: sanand@rx.uga.edu; Bruckner, James V.; Haines, Wendy T.; Muralidhara, Srinivasa; Fisher, Jeffrey W.; Padilla, Stephanie

    2006-04-15

    Deltamethrin, a widely used type II pyrethroid insecticide, is a relatively potent neurotoxicant. While the toxicity has been extensively examined, toxicokinetic studies of deltamethrin and most other pyrethroids are very limited. The aims of this study were to identify, characterize, and assess the relative contributions of esterases and cytochrome P450s (CYP450s) responsible for deltamethrin metabolism by measuring deltamethrin disappearance following incubation of various concentrations (2 to 400 {mu}M) in plasma (esterases) and liver microsomes (esterases and CYP450s) prepared from adult male rats. While the carboxylesterase metabolism in plasma and liver was characterized using an inhibitor, tetra isopropyl pyrophosphoramide (isoOMPA), CYP450 metabolism was characterized using the cofactor, NADPH. Michaelis-Menten rate constants were calculated using linear and nonlinear regression as applicable. The metabolic efficiency of these pathways was estimated by calculating intrinsic clearance (Vmax/Km). In plasma, isoOMPA completely inhibited deltamethrin biotransformation at concentrations (2 and 20 {mu}M of deltamethrin) that are 2- to 10-fold higher than previously reported peak blood levels in deltamethrin-poisoned rats. For carboxylesterase-mediated deltamethrin metabolism in plasma, Vmax = 325.3 {+-} 53.4 nmol/h/ml and Km = 165.4 {+-} 41.9 {mu}M. Calcium chelation by EGTA did not inhibit deltamethrin metabolism in plasma or liver microsomes, indicating that A-esterases do not metabolize deltamethrin. In liver microsomes, esterase-mediated deltamethrin metabolism was completely inhibited by isoOMPA, confirming the role of carboxylesterases. The rate constants for liver carboxylesterases were Vmax = 1981.8 {+-} 132.3 nmol/h/g liver and Km = 172.5 {+-} 22.5 {mu}M. Liver microsomal CYP450-mediated biotransformation of deltamethrin was a higher capacity (Vmax = 2611.3 {+-} 134.1 nmol/h/g liver) and higher affinity (Km = 74.9 {+-} 5.9 {mu}M) process than carboxylesterase (plasma or liver) detoxification. Genetically engineered individual rat CYP450s (Supersomes) were used to identify specific CYP450 isozyme(s) involved in the deltamethrin metabolism. CYP1A2, CYP1A1, and CYP2C11 in decreasing order of importance quantitatively, metabolized deltamethrin. Intrinsic clearance by liver CYP450s (35.5) was more efficient than that by liver (12.0) or plasma carboxylesterases (2.4)

  17. Characterization of Closed Head Impact Injury in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Yi; Akula, Praveen; Kelso, Matthew; Gu, Linxia

    2015-01-01

    The closed head impact (CHI) rat models are commonly used for studying the traumatic brain injury. The impact parameters vary considerably among different laboratories, making the comparison of research findings difficult. In this work, numerical CHI experiments were conducted to investigate the sensitivities of intracranial responses to various impact parameters (e.g., impact depth, velocity, and position; impactor diameter, material, and shape). A three-dimensional finite element rat head model with anatomical details was subjected to impact loadings. Results revealed that impact depth and impactor shape were the two leading factors affecting intracranial responses. The influence of impactor diameter was region-specific and an increase in impactor diameter could substantially increase tissue strains in the region which located directly beneath the impactor. The lateral impact could induce higher strains in the brain than the central impact. An indentation depth instead of impact depth would be appropriate to characterize the influence of a large deformed rubber impactor. The experimentally observed velocity-dependent injury severity could be attributed to the “overshoot” phenomenon. This work could be used to better design or compare CHI experiments. PMID:26451365

  18. Alterations in Rat Fetal Morphology Following Abuse Patterns of Toluene Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Scott E.; Irtenkauf, Susan; Hannigan, John H.; Stefanski, Adrianne L.

    2009-01-01

    Toluene is a commonly abused organic solvent. Inhalant abusers are increasingly women in their prime childbearing years. Children born to mothers who abused solvents during pregnancy may exhibit characteristics of a “fetal solvent syndrome” which may include dysmorphic features. This study examined the teratological effects of an abuse pattern of binge toluene exposure during gestation on skeletal and soft tissue abnormalities, body weight, and body size in fetal rats. Pregnant Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed for 30 min, twice daily, from gestational day (GD) 8 through GD20 to either air (0 ppm), 8,000 ppm, 12,000 ppm, or 16,000 ppm toluene. Two-thirds of each litter was prepared for skeletal examination using Alizarin Red S staining while the remaining third of each litter was fixed in Bouin’s solution for Wilson’s soft tissue evaluation. Exposure to toluene at all levels significantly reduced growth, including decreases in placental weight, fetal weight, and crown-rump length. In addition, numerous gross morphological anomalies were observed such as short or missing digits and missing limbs. Skeletal examination revealed that ossification of the extremities was significantly reduced as a result of toluene exposure at all levels. Specific skeletal defects included misshapen scapula, missing and supernumerary vertebrae and ribs, and fused digits. Soft tissue anomalies were also observed at all toluene levels and there was a dose-dependent increase in the number of anomalies which included cryptorchidism, displaced abdominal organs, gastromegaly, distended/hypoplastic bladder, and delayed cardiac development, among others. These results indicate that animals exposed prenatally to levels and patterns of toluene typical of inhalant abuse are at increased risk for skeletal and soft tissue abnormalities. PMID:19429395

  19. Alterations in rat fetal morphology following abuse patterns of toluene exposure.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Scott E; Irtenkauf, Susan; Hannigan, John H; Stefanski, Adrianne L

    2009-04-01

    Toluene is a commonly abused organic solvent. Inhalant abusers are increasingly women in their prime childbearing years. Children born to mothers who abused solvents during pregnancy may exhibit characteristics of a "fetal solvent syndrome" which may include dysmorphic features. This study examined the teratological effects of an abuse pattern of binge toluene exposure during gestation on skeletal and soft tissue abnormalities, body weight, and body size in fetal rats. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed for 30 min, twice daily, from gestational day (GD) 8 through GD20 to either air (0 ppm), 8000 ppm, 12,000 ppm, or 16,000 ppm toluene. Two-thirds of each litter was prepared for skeletal examination using Alizarin Red S staining while the remaining third of each litter was fixed in Bouin's solution for Wilson's soft tissue evaluation. Exposure to toluene at all levels significantly reduced growth, including decreases in placental weight, fetal weight, and crown-rump length. In addition, numerous gross morphological anomalies were observed such as short or missing digits and missing limbs. Skeletal examination revealed that ossification of the extremities was significantly reduced as a result of toluene exposure at all levels. Specific skeletal defects included misshapen scapula, missing and supernumerary vertebrae and ribs, and fused digits. Soft tissue anomalies were also observed at all toluene levels and there was a dose-dependent increase in the number of anomalies which included cryptorchidism, displaced abdominal organs, gastromegaly, distended/hypoplastic bladder, and delayed cardiac development, among others. These results indicate that animals exposed prenatally to levels and patterns of toluene typical of inhalant abuse are at increased risk for skeletal and soft tissue abnormalities. PMID:19429395

  20. Preliminary Morphological and Immunohistochemical Changes in Rat Hippocampus Following Postnatal Exposure to Sodium Arsenite

    PubMed Central

    Kaler, Saroj; Dhar, Pushpa; Bhattacharya, Arnab; Mehra, Raj D.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of arsenic exposure during rapid brain growth period (RBGP) (postnatal period 4-11) on pyramidal neurons of cornu ammonis (specifically CA1 and CA3 regions) and granule cells of dentate gyrus (DG) of rat hippocampus were studied. Wistar rat pups, subdivided into the control (group I) and the experimental groups (group II, III, and IV), received distilled water and sodium arsenite (aqueous solution of 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mg/kg body weight, respectively) by intraperitoneal (i.p.) route. On postnatal day (PND) 12, the animals were sacrificed and brain tissue obtained. Paraffin sections (8 ?m thick) stained with Cresyl Violet (CV) were observed for morphological and morphometric parameters. Arsenic induced programmed cell death (apoptosis) was studied using Terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP biotin Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) technique on the paraffin sections. Microscopy revealed decreased number and isolation of pyramidal neurons in superficial layers, misalignments of pyramidal cells in stratum pyramidale (SP) of CA1 and CA3 in experimental group III and IV, and presence of polymorphic cells in subgranular zone of ectal limb of dentate gyrus (suggestive of arsenic induced proliferation and migration of granule cells in the dentate gyrus). Morphometric assessments quantified and confirmed the microscopic findings. The mean nuclear area of pyramidal cells was increased and cell density was decreased in the CA1, CA3, and DG of experimental groups in comparison to the control group. Increase in the TUNEL positive cells in DG was observed in the experimental group IV, suggestive of increased apoptosis. These observations confirm vulnerability of pyramidal (CA1, CA3) and granule cells (DG) of hippocampus during RBGP. PMID:24082510

  1. Photothermal and morphological characterization of PLA/PCL polymer blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa-Pacheco, Z. N.; Jiménez-Pérez, J. L.; Sabino, M. A.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Loaiza, M.

    2015-09-01

    Nowadays, some synthetic polymers have been replaced by biodegradable polymers in order to avoid environmental contamination. Among these biodegradables polymers, aliphatic polyesters such as polylactic acid (PLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL) have been widely used. In the present study, solvent-casting films of PLA, PCL and polymer blends with and without compatibilizer (PLA grafted with maleic anhydride) were prepared. The thermal diffusivity ( ?) of each sample was obtained by using the open photoacoustic cell technique. Morphology and thermal properties were determined by using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), respectively. The blends showed lower thermal diffusivity compared to pure polymers. However, when the compatibilizer was used, the highest value of thermal diffusivity was obtained. Also, cold crystallization with the highest value of enthalpy of fusion was observed for the compatibilized sample, which was revealed by DSC. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the thermal diffusivity of these biodegradable polymer blends is reported.

  2. Morphological and textural characterization of functionalized particulate silica xerogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Miranda, Lazaro A.; Mohallem, Nelcy D. S.; de Magalhães, Welington F.

    2006-03-01

    The functionalization of xerogels for use in chromatography and catalysis was carried out by solubilization of amorphous silica using a soxhlet extractor. Xerogels were prepared by sol-gel method using tetraethoxysilane, TEOS, ethanol, and water in a 1/3/10 molar ratio with HCl and HF as catalysts. The samples were prepared in monolithic form and dried at 70 °C and 550 °C for 1 h each. After functionalization, changes in textural and morphological characteristics of xerogels were investigated by means of nitrogen gas adsorption, positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). As the analysis methods are based on different physical principles, the results are complementary, leading to a good knowledge of the texture of the samples studied.

  3. Morphological and ultrastructural characterization of sea urchin immune cells.

    PubMed

    Deveci, Remziye; ?ener, Ecem; ?zzeto?lu, Sava?

    2015-05-01

    The free circulating coelomocytes in the coelomic cavity of echinoderms are considered to be immune effectors by phagocytosis, encapsulation, cytotoxicity, and by the production of antimicrobial agents. Although echinoderms (especially sea urchin embryo) have been used as a model organisms in biology, no uniform criteria exist for classification of coelomocytes in echinoderms, and few studies have reported about the biological functions of their coelomocytes. Hence, we study the coelomocytes in the echinoid sea urchin, Paracentrotus lividus, and describe their morphological and ultrastructural features using light and transmission electron microscopes. We classify the coelomocytes of P. lividus into red spherule and colorless spherule cells, small cells, vibratile cells, and phagocytic cells; petaloid and filopodial cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing ultrastructural details of the coelomocytes of P. lividus. PMID:25645676

  4. Morphological, Mechanical and Structural Characterization of Damselfly Wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talucdher, ABSM Rupan Ali

    The damselfly belongs to the same insect family as the dragonfly that inspired the development of Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs). Understanding the morphological, mechanical and structural properties of wings, veins and membranes of fly would provide guidelines to develop efficient MAVs. Lack of test methodologies inhibited the progress. The objective of this research was to develop the above methodologies and then measure the properties of veins, membranes and wings of damselflies. The research yielded four test methodologies: fluorescence spectroscopic analysis to map the morphology of vein; axial nanoindentation test to measure indentation properties; micro tension test to measure tensile properties of microscopic components; and a unique vibration test of wings to measure natural frequency, stiffness and air damping factor. Axial indentation test contrasts the transverse indentation used in the past, whose results were corrupted by surface roughness and flexibility of veins. Veins were found to be made of two layered, elliptical tubular members. The thickness of inner and outer layers was about 8 and 5 microm, respectively and corresponding indentation moduli were 8.42 and 16.00 GPa. The modulus of veins agreed with those of human bones. The tensile modulus and strength of veins ranged from 14 to 17 GPa and 232 to 285 MPa, respectively. The damselfly wing was found to vibrate under bending and torsional deformations, the natural frequency (in air) ranged from 130 to 178 Hz, the wing stiffness ranged from 0.18 to 0.30 N/m with the air damping ratio from 0.67 to 0.79. Pathway to develop a material of matching properties is also presented.

  5. Characterization of p75{sup +} ectomesenchymal stem cells from rat embryonic facial process tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Xiujie; Liu, Luchuan; Deng, Manjing; Zhang, Li; Liu, Rui; Xing, Yongjun; Zhou, Xia; Nie, Xin

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ectomesenchymal stem cells (EMSCs) were found to migrate to rat facial processes at E11.5. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We successfully sorted p75NTR positive EMSCs (p75{sup +} EMSCs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p75{sup +} EMSCs up to nine passages showed relative stable proliferative activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined the in vitro multilineage potential of p75{sup +} EMSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p75{sup +}EMSCs provide an in vitro model for tooth morphogenesis. -- Abstract: Several populations of stem cells, including those from the dental pulp and periodontal ligament, have been isolated from different parts of the tooth and periodontium. The characteristics of such stem cells have been reported as well. However, as a common progenitor of these cells, ectomesenchymal stem cells (EMSCs), derived from the cranial neural crest have yet to be fully characterized. The aim of this study was to better understand the characteristics of EMSCs isolated from rat embryonic facial processes. Immunohistochemical staining showed that EMSCs had migrated to rat facial processes at E11.5, while the absence of epithelial invagination or tooth-like epithelium suggested that any epithelial-mesenchymal interactions were limited at this stage. The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), a typical neural crest marker, was used to select p75NTR-positive EMSCs (p75{sup +} EMSCs), which were found to show a homogeneous fibroblast-like morphology and little change in the growth curve, proliferation capacity, and cell phenotype during cell passage. They also displayed the capacity to differentiate into diverse cell types under chemically defined conditions in vitro. p75{sup +} EMSCs proved to be homogeneous, stable in vitro and potentially capable of multiple lineages, suggesting their potential for application in dental or orofacial tissue engineering.

  6. The Effect of Cochinchina momordica Seed Extract on Gastric Acid Secretion and Morphologic Change in Aged Rat Stomach

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Hyun Jin; Nam, Ryoung Hee; Chang, Hyun; Kim, Joo-Hyon; Park, Ji Hyun; Kang, Jung Mook; Lee, Dong Ho; Jung, Hyun Chae

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Cochinchina momordica seed extract (SK-MS10) has a gastric protective effect. We aimed to assess the effect of SK-MS10 on gastric acid secretion with morphologic changes in the aged rat. Methods Acid secretions were evaluated in the male F344 rats of four different ages (6-, 31-, 74-week, and 2-year). The 31-week-old rats were divided to three groups and continuously administered chow containing vehicle, SK-MS10 and lansoprazole, respectively. At the age of 74 weeks and 2 years, basal and stimulated acid was measured and the expression of mRNA and protein of H+-K+-ATPase were determined. The area of connective tissue of lamina propria was measured. Results Basal and stimulated gastric acid significantly decreased and connective tissue of lamina propria increased with age. The expression of mRNA and protein of H+-K+-ATPase significantly decreased with age. However, 74-week-old rats in the SK-MS10 group had higher stimulated gastric acid secretion than those in the vehicle and lansoprazole groups. In 2-year-old rats of SK-MS10 group, there was no increase of connective tissue. Conclusions As SK-MS10 kept the capacity of acid secretion as well as connective tissue area to comparable to young rats, it might valuable to perform further research regarding mechanism of SK-MS10 as an antiaging agent in the stomach. PMID:24073314

  7. Isolation and characterization of a new fungal species, Chrysosporium ophiodiicola, from a mycotic granuloma of a black rat snake (Elaphe obsoleta obsoleta).

    PubMed

    Rajeev, S; Sutton, D A; Wickes, B L; Miller, D L; Giri, D; Van Meter, M; Thompson, E H; Rinaldi, M G; Romanelli, A M; Cano, J F; Guarro, J

    2009-04-01

    Isolation and characterization of the new species Chrysosporium ophiodiicola from a mycotic granuloma of a black rat snake (Elaphe obsoleta obsoleta) are reported. Analysis of the sequences of different fragments of the ribosomal genes demonstrated that this species belongs to the Onygenales and that this species is genetically different from other morphologically similar species of Chrysosporium. This new species is unique in having both narrow and cylindrical-to-slightly clavate conidia and a strong, pungent odor. PMID:19109465

  8. Morphological changes of the myenteric plexus during early postnatal development of the rat.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, K H; Hänsgen, A; Mestres, P

    1999-09-01

    The enteric nervous system needs to adapt itself constantly to the postnatal changes of the developing gut. The aim of this study was to examine the morphological changes between the distal and proximal segments of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract during the first two postnatal weeks. Myenteric plexus from the duodenum, proximal and distal colon of 1-, 7- and 14-day-old rat pups was dissected and examined under the scanning electron microscope. Wholemounts from the same regions and postnatal stages were stained with cuprolinic blue. Neuronal numbers per ganglionic area were counted and neuronal sizes were measured. Furthermore, segments of the above-mentioned areas were embedded in resin and semithin sections were cut. The thickness of the circular and longitudinal muscle layers was measured. The morphology of the myenteric plexus depends on localization as well as on the age of the animal. While in younger animals the myenteric plexus is usually densely packed, the network expands with increasing age. Similarly, the thickness of the circular and the longitudinal muscle layers increases. Nerve cell numbers per ganglionic area increase from duodenum to distal colon and decrease from the 1-day (P1) to the 14-day-old (P14) animal. The longest diameters and the area of the nerve cells decrease from duodenum to distal colon and increase with age of the animal. The intensity of the cuprolinic blue staining varies also according to age and segment of the gut. During the first two postnatal weeks the three-dimensional architecture of the myenteric plexus as well as the size and densities of the enteric neurons change according to the increasing gut length and the thickness of the muscle layer. The differences between duodenum and colon might reflect the different physiological properties of the proximal and distal gut as well as a varying grade of maturity, which is also supported by a variation in the cuprolinic blue staining intensity. PMID:10456982

  9. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Meloidogyne mayaguensis Isolates from Florida

    PubMed Central

    Brito, J.; Powers, T. O.; Mullin, P. G.; Inserra, R. N.; Dickson, D. W.

    2004-01-01

    The discovery of Meloidogyne mayaguensis is confirmed in Florida; this is the first report for the continental United States. Meloidogyne mayaguensis is a virulent species that can reproduce on host cultivars bred for nematode resistance. The perineal patterns of M. mayaguensis isolates from Florida show morphological variability and often are similar to M. incognita. Useful morphological characters for the separation of M. mayaguensis from M. incognita from Florida are the male stylet length values (smaller for M. mayaguensis than M. incognita) and J2 tail length values (greater for M. mayaguensis than M. incognita). Meloidogyne mayaguensis values for these characters overlap with those of M. arenaria and M. javanica from Florida. Enzyme analyses of Florida M. mayaguensis isolates show two major bands (VS1-S1 phenotype) of esterase activity, and one strong malate dehydrogenase band (Rm 1.4) plus two additional weak bands that migrated close together. Their detection requires larger amounts of homogenates from several females. Amplification of two separate regions of mitochondrial DNA resulted in products of a unique size. PCR primers embedded in the COII and 16S genes produced a product size of 705 bp, and amplification of the 63-bp repeat region resulted in a single product of 322 bp. Nucleotide sequence comparison of these mitochondrial products together with sequence from 18S rDNA and ITS1 from the nuclear genome were nearly identical with the corresponding regions from a M. mayaguensis isolate from Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, the type locality of the species. Meloidogyne mayaguensis reproduced on cotton, pepper, tobacco, and watermelon but not on peanut. Preliminary results indicate the M. mayaguensis isolates from Florida can reproduce on tomato containing the Mi gene. Molecular techniques for the identification of M. mayaguensis will be particularly useful in cases of M. mayaguensis populations mixed with M. arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica, which are the most economically important root-knot nematode species in Florida, and especially when low (<25) numbers of specimens of these species are recovered from the soil. PMID:19262811

  10. Picroside II Inhibits Neuronal Apoptosis and Improves the Morphology and Structure of Brain Tissue following Cerebral Ischemic Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tingting; Zhao, Li; Guo, Yunliang; Zhang, Meizeng; Pei, Haitao

    2015-01-01

    This paper aimed to explore the protective effects of picroside II against the neuronal apoptosis and changes in morphology and structure that follow cerebral ischemic injury in rats. A focal cerebral ischemic model was established by inserting a monofilament thread to achieve middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in 60 Wistar rats, and intraperitoneal injections of picroside II (20 mg/kg) were administered. The neurobehavioral functions were evaluated with the modified neurological severity score (mNSS) test. The cerebral infarct volumes were measured with tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. The morphology and ultrastructure of the cortical brain tissues were observed with hematoxylin-eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The apoptotic cells were counted with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling and flow cytometry, and pERK1/2 expression was determined by immunohistochemical assay and Western blot. The results indicated that neurological behavioral malfunctions and cerebral infarcts were present in the MCAO rats. In the model group, the damage to the structures of the neurons and the blood brain barrier (BBB) in the cortex was more severe, and the numbers of apoptotic cells, the early apoptotic ratio (EAR) and pERK1/2 expression were significantly increased in this group compared to the control group (P<0.05). In the treatment group, the neurological behavioral function and the morphology and ultrastructure of the neurons and the BBB were improved including the number of Mi increased and relative area of condensed chromosome and basement (BM) thickness descreased, and the cerebral infarct volume, the number of apoptotic cells, the EAR and pERK1/2 expression were significantly decreased compared to the model group (P<0.05). These results suggest that picroside II reduced apoptosis and improved the morphology and ultrastructure of the neurons and the BBB and that these effects resulted in the recovery of the neurobehavioral function of rats with cerebral ischemia. PMID:25927985

  11. Masticatory muscle function and craniofacial morphology. An experimental study in the growing rat fed a soft diet.

    PubMed

    Kiliaridis, S

    1986-01-01

    The present series of investigations was performed in order to study the relationship between masticatory function and craniofacial morphology, and to elucidate the mechanism underlying possible functional changes in the craniofacial growth in rats fed a soft diet. The experimental model chosen was comprised of young rats with altered masticatory function, induced by changing the consistency of the diet. Possible influences on the craniofacial growth were studied longitudinally by x-ray cephalometry, and the bone graft reaction in the facial skeletal regions of rats was assessed in sutures and cortical bone by vital stain, micro-radiography and routine histology. The attrition and eruption rate of the rat incisors were measured "clinically", and the effect of an increased attrition was tested cephalometrically, to see whether it influences the craniofacial growth. In order to evaluate the forces developed by the masticatory muscles the active tetanic tension was measured after electrical stimulation. The muscle fibre composition and the fibre size of the masseter and digastric muscles were examined after enzyme histochemical analysis. The craniofacial morphology and the growth pattern of the rats fed a soft diet were found to be changed to a more orthocranial one, while a decreased bone apposition was found in the angle of the mandible and the upper viscerocranium, with an alteration in the cranial sutures. The morphological changes observed were independent of the attrition and eruption rate of the rat incisors but seem to be related to the low masticatory forces developed by the rats fed a soft diet. The alteration in the "biting" force level was possibly due to the masticatory muscles changes in the muscle fibre types and the smaller size of the fibres, caused by the decreased functional demand on the rats fed a soft diet. Thus, it seems that the alteration in the masticatory function caused structural changes in the masticatory muscles, as well as changes in their contractive capacity. These may be considered as the results of prolonged centrally decided functional alteration brought about by changing the consistency of the diet. The reduced functional forces and the changes in the masticatory muscle contraction caused a low functional strain on the bone and less tension on the periosteal membrane. This tension in the periosteal membrane has also been shown to regulate the displacement of bones in the craniofacial region. The change in the masticatory function may have induced changes in the interosseous movements, which can be underlying reason for the obliterative osteogenesis in the internasal suture.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3465055

  12. Aminophylline exacerbates status epilepticus-induced neuronal damages in immature rats: a morphological, motor and behavioral study.

    PubMed

    Hung, Pi-Lien; Lai, Ming-Chi; Yang, San Nan; Wang, Chih-Lu; Liou, Chia-Wei; Wu, Chia-Lu; Wang, Tzu-Jou; Huang, Li-Tung

    2002-05-01

    Adenosine is an endogenous modulator that has an inhibitory effect on neuronal activity. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of aminophylline, an adenosine receptor antagonist, on the long-term effects of status epilepticus (SE) in the developing brain. Four groups of rats at the postnatal age of 12 days were intraperitoneally administered with saline, aminophylline (50 mg/kg), lithium-pilocarpine (Li-PC) (3 mEq/kg-60 mg/kg), and Li-PC plus aminophylline, respectively. The four groups were tested for spatial memory using the Morris water maze task at P80 and motor performance by the Rotarod test at P100. The brains were then analyzed with cresyl violet stain for histological lesions and evaluated for mossy fiber sprouting with the Timm stain. At the acute stage, all rats subjected to Li-PC developed SE and no seizures were elicited in the saline-treated or aminophylline-treated rats. The seizure duration was longer in the Li-PC plus aminophylline group (346.9+/-32.7 min) as compared with that in the Li-PC group (265.2+/-9.8 min). The difference of mortality was not significant. Rats without seizures exhibited no motor imbalance, spatial deficits, or morphological changes. The rats with Li-PC-induced SE demonstrated spatial memory deficits without motor incoordination or morphological changes. However, the rats subjected to Li-PC plus aminophylline exhibited motor impairment and morphological changes, including neuronal cell loss in CA1 area and increased mossy fiber sprouting in CA3 area. In addition, the rats of Li-PC plus aminophylline had greater spatial memory deficits than that seen in rats with Li-PC. We concluded that an adenosine receptor antagonist, such as aminophylline, had synergistic effects on the SE-induced long-term deficit of cognition and motor performance in the developing brain. The present study may provide experimental evidence and lead to novel therapeutic interventions. PMID:12076843

  13. Morphological and biochemical examination of Cosmos 1887 rat heart tissue. Part 1: Ultrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpott, D. E.; Popova, I. A.; Kato, K.; Stevenson, J.; Miquel, J.; Sapp, W.

    1990-01-01

    Morphological changes were observed in the left ventricle of rat heart tissue from animals flown on the Cosmos 1887 biosatellite for 12.5 days. These tissues were compared to the synchronous and vivarium control hearts. While many normal myofibrils were observed, others exhibited ultrastructural alterations, i.e., damaged and irregular-shaped mitochondria and generalized myofibrillar edema. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the volume density data revealed a statistically significant increase in glycogen and a significant decrease in mitochondria compared to the synchronous and vivarium controls. Point counting indicated an increase in lipid and myeloid bodies and a decrease in microtubules, but these changes were not statistically significant. In addition, the flight animals exhibited some patchy loss of protofibrils (actin and myosin filaments) and some abnormal supercontracted myofibrils that were not seen in the controls. This study was undertaken to gain insight into the mechanistic aspects of cardiac changes in both animals and human beings as a consequence of space travel. Cardiac hypotrophy and fluid shifts have been observed after actual or simulated weightlessness and raise concerns about the functioning of the heart and circulatory system during and after travel in space.

  14. 3D Reconstruction and Standardization of the Rat Vibrissal Cortex for Precise Registration of Single Neuron Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Egger, Robert; Narayanan, Rajeevan T.; Helmstaedter, Moritz; de Kock, Christiaan P. J.; Oberlaender, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) structure of neural circuits is commonly studied by reconstructing individual or small groups of neurons in separate preparations. Investigation of structural organization principles or quantification of dendritic and axonal innervation thus requires integration of many reconstructed morphologies into a common reference frame. Here we present a standardized 3D model of the rat vibrissal cortex and introduce an automated registration tool that allows for precise placement of single neuron reconstructions. We (1) developed an automated image processing pipeline to reconstruct 3D anatomical landmarks, i.e., the barrels in Layer 4, the pia and white matter surfaces and the blood vessel pattern from high-resolution images, (2) quantified these landmarks in 12 different rats, (3) generated an average 3D model of the vibrissal cortex and (4) used rigid transformations and stepwise linear scaling to register 94 neuron morphologies, reconstructed from in vivo stainings, to the standardized cortex model. We find that anatomical landmarks vary substantially across the vibrissal cortex within an individual rat. In contrast, the 3D layout of the entire vibrissal cortex remains remarkably preserved across animals. This allows for precise registration of individual neuron reconstructions with approximately 30 µm accuracy. Our approach could be used to reconstruct and standardize other anatomically defined brain areas and may ultimately lead to a precise digital reference atlas of the rat brain. PMID:23284282

  15. Morphological and chemical characterization of microfabricated fibres for biological applications.

    PubMed

    Gold, J; Kasemo, B

    1997-05-01

    Monodisperse fibres and particulates of different materials with controllable three-dimensional shape, size and chemical composition are of interest in research on toxic respirable fibres as well as wear debris around orthopaedic implants. We have previously demonstrated the production of well-controlled, metal and oxide microfabricated fibres having dimensions 0.1 to 10 microm. While our previous results focused on how controlled fibres can be prepared by microfabrication methods, this paper evaluates property-production relationships for microfabricated fibres. Here we have briefly reviewed the production of 0.1 microm x 0.5 microm x 10 microm microfabricated fibres made by electron beam lithography from evaporated titanium or silicon oxide films using a double lift-off method. We have also analysed the properties of these fibres with respect to morphology and chemical composition, and how they are affected by variations in the production process. Two different solution types have been used to place fibres into liquid suspension and to clean and sterilize them for biological testing. One method involves the use of organic solvents; the other a hydroxide solution and water. While fibre dimensions appear to be material-specific, differences can be corrected for by compensation of the size of the lithographic pattern. Similarly the crystallinity of fibres is material-specific, as is to be expected of evaporated thin films, but should be possible to modify by varying deposition parameters or heat treating, for example. Of the cleaning methods used, the one using an aqueous hydroxide solution is preferred over solvent cleaning, as it is easier to perform and appears to be more effective at removing resist from the fibre suspension. PMID:15348746

  16. Morphological and molecular characterization of Fusarium spp pathogenic to pecan tree in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lazarotto, M; Milanesi, P M; Muniz, M F B; Reiniger, L R S; Beltrame, R; Harakava, R; Blume, E

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of Fusarium spp associated with pecan tree (Carya illinoinensis) diseases in Brazil has been observed in recent laboratory analyses in Rio Grande do Sul State. Thus, in this study, we i) obtained Fusarium isolates from plants with disease symptoms; ii) tested the pathogenicity of these Fusarium isolates to pecan; iii) characterized and grouped Fusarium isolates that were pathogenic to the pecan tree based on morphological characteristics; iv) identified Fusarium spp to the species complex level through TEF-1? sequencing; and v) compared the identification methods used in the study. Fifteen isolates collected from the inflorescences, roots, and seeds of symptomatic plants (leaf necrosis or root rot) were used for pathogenicity tests. Morphological characterization was conducted using only pathogenic isolates, for a total of 11 isolates, based on the mycelial growth rate, sporulation, colony pigmentation, and conidial length and width variables. Pathogenic isolates were grouped based on morphological characteristics, and molecular characterization was performed by sequencing TEF-1? genes. Pathogenic isolates belonging to the Fusarium chlamydosporum species complex, Fusarium graminearum species complex, Fusarium proliferatum, and Fusarium oxysporum were identified based on the TEF-1? region. Morphological characteristics were used to effectively differentiate isolates and group the isolates according to genetic similarity, particularly conidial width, which emerged as a key morphological descriptor in this study. PMID:25501150

  17. Morphological characterization of carbon-nanofiber-reinforced epoxy nanocomposites using ultra-small angle scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Justice, R.S.; Anderson, D.P.; Brown, J.M.; Arlen, M.J.; Colleary, A.J.; Lafdi, K.; Schaefer, D.W.

    2010-07-01

    Studies of the properties of nanocomposites reinforced with vapor-grown carbon nanofibers (VGCFs) can be found throughout the literature. Electrical, mechanical, viscoelastic, and rheological properties are just a few of the characteristics that have been well discussed. Although these properties depend on morphology, morphological characterization is rare. Due to its 2-dimensional nature, microscopy is of limited value when analyzing network morphologies. This work will show how the characterization of the three-dimensional geometry and network formation of VGCFs can be determined using ultra-small angle scattering techniques. Ultra-small angle x-ray and neutron scattering (USAXS and USANS) were used to characterize the morphology of carbon nanofibers suspended in epoxy. Using a simplified tube model, we estimate the dimensions of suspended fibers. The assumption of tubular fibers accounts for the increased surface area observed with USAXS that is not accounted for using a solid rod model. Furthermore, USANS was used to search for a structural signature associated with the electrical percolation threshold. USANS extends to longer dimensional scales than USAXS, which measures a smaller range of momentum transfer. To determine the electrical percolation threshold, AC impedance spectroscopy was employed to verify that an electrically conductive, percolated network forms at VGCNF loadings of 0.8% < CNF wt% < 1.2%. These values correlate with the USANS data, where a morphological transition is seen at {approx}1.2% loading.

  18. Characterization of a Novel Lysozyme-Like 4 Gene in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Narmadha, Ganapathy; Muneswararao, Katakam; Rajesh, Angireddy; Yenugu, Suresh

    2011-01-01

    Lysozyme-like proteins (LYZLs) belong to the class of c-type lysozymes and are not well characterized in many species including the rat. In this study, using in silico and molecular biology techniques, we report the identification, cloning and characterization of rat Lyzl4 gene and also determine the expression pattern of Lyzl1, Lyzl3 and Lyzl6. The rat Lyzl genes were found to be distributed on three chromosomes and all of them retained the characteristic eight cysteine signature of c-type lysozyme. Homology modeling of rat LYZL4 indicated that its structure is similar to that of the mouse SLLP1. In the male reproductive tract of rat, Lyzl gene expression was confined to the testis. Lyzl1 and Lyzl4 were found to be expressed in tissues beyond the male reproductive tract, whereas Lyzl3 and Lyzl6 were not. Lyzl expression in the developing (10–60 day old) rats was androgen dependent in the testis. Immunodetection using antibodies against rat LYZL4 revealed the presence of LYZL4 protein in the germinal layer of the testes and on the sperm tail. Recombinant LYZL4 did not exhibit antibacterial, muramidase and isopeptidase activities characteristic to c-type lysozyme. To the best of our knowledge, for the first time we report the characterization of Lyzl genes in the rat. Results of our study indicate that rat LYZL proteins may have an important role in male reproductive tract function. PMID:22110709

  19. Laser Patterning of Diamond. Part I. Characterization of Surface Morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Smedley, J.; Bohon, Jen; Wu, Qiong; Rao, Triveni

    2009-06-24

    As the use of diamond as a material for electronic and research applications increases, methods of patterning diamond will be required. In this work, single- and polycrystalline synthetic diamond samples were exposed to laser beams of different energies, wavelengths, and pulse durations. The effects of this exposure were characterized using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The threshold ablation energy density for 266 nm radiation with {approx} 30 ps pulse duration was measured to be {approx} 14 J/cm{sup 2}. The threshold for {approx} 10 ns pulses at the same wavelength was similar, but the ablated area displayed larger surface damage. The surface damage and the threshold energy increase significantly for 532 and 1064 nm radiations. Ablation performed using 213 nm radiation produced the most uniform surface. Changes in the ablated surface are presented in detail.

  20. Laser patterning of diamond. Part I. Characterization of surface morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedley, John; Bohon, Jen; Wu, Qiong; Rao, Triveni

    2009-06-01

    As the use of diamond as a material for electronic and research applications increases, methods of patterning diamond will be required. In this work, single- and polycrystalline synthetic diamond samples were exposed to laser beams of different energies, wavelengths, and pulse durations. The effects of this exposure were characterized using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The threshold ablation energy density for 266 nm radiation with ˜30 ps pulse duration was measured to be ˜14 J/cm2. The threshold for ˜10 ns pulses at the same wavelength was similar, but the ablated area displayed larger surface damage. The surface damage and the threshold energy increase significantly for 532 and 1064 nm radiations. Ablation performed using 213 nm radiation produced the most uniform surface. Changes in the ablated surface are presented in detail.

  1. Synthesis And Characterization Of Silver Sulfide Nanoparticles Of Various Morphologies Using Chitosan As Stabilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashmi, Lubna; Malik, M. M.; Qureshi, M. S.; Dubey, R. N.; Alim, Ishrat; Siddiqui, A. H.

    2010-10-01

    Synthesis of Silver Sulfide nanoparticles of various morphologies were successfully done through colloidal synthesis technique at relatively low temperature using Chitosan bio polymer as stabilizer. The effect of change in stabilizer concentration, reagent concentrations and reaction temperature at constant pH on morphology and optical properties of synthesized products are also studied. It was found that reagent concentration and temperature both played important role in change in morphology of synthesized product. The crystal structure studies of synthesized products were carried out by powder X-ray diffraction technique which reveals the formation of Acanthite monoclinic Ag2S crystal structure and SAD was taken for only two samples whose analysis using XRD was difficult. The optical properties and quantum confinement effect of the products were confirmed by means of spectroscopic measurements. Morphologies obtained were characterized by SEM. Further the functionality and effectiveness of stabilization process were established by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  2. Biopharmaceutical Characterization of Nebulized Antimicrobial Agents in Rats: 2. Colistin

    PubMed Central

    Gontijo, Aline Vidal Lacerda; Grégoire, Nicolas; Lamarche, Isabelle; Gobin, Patrice; Marchand, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of colistin following intrapulmonary administration of colistin sulfate in rats. Colistin was infused or delivered in nebulized form at a dose of 0.35 mg/kg of body weight in rats, and plasma drug concentrations were measured for 4 h after administration. Bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) were also conducted at 0.5, 2, and 4 h after intravenous (i.v.) administration and administration via nebulized drug to estimate epithelial lining fluid (ELF) drug concentrations. Unbound colistin plasma concentrations at distribution equilibrium (2 h postdosing) were almost identical after i.v. infusion and nebulized drug inhalation. ELF drug concentrations were undetectable in BAL samples after i.v. administration, but they were about 1,800 times higher than unbound plasma drug levels at 2 h and 4 h after administration of the nebulized drug. Simultaneous pharmacokinetic modeling of plasma and ELF drug concentrations was performed with a model characterized by a fixed physiological volume of ELF (VELF), a passive diffusion clearance (QELF) between plasma and ELF, and a nonlinear influx transfer from ELF to the central compartment, which was assessed by reducing the nebulized dose of colistin by 10-fold (0.035 mg kg?1). The km was estimated to be 133 ?g ml?1, and the Vmax, in-to-Km ratio was equal to 2.5 × 10?3 liter h?1 kg?1, which was 37 times higher than the QELF (6.7 × 10?5 liter h?1 kg?1). This study showed that with the higher ELF drug concentrations after administration via nebulized aerosol than after intravenous administration, for antibiotics with low permeability such as colistin, nebulization offers a real potential over intravenous administration for the treatment of pulmonary infections. PMID:24798284

  3. Characterization of network morphology in anion binding hydrogels used for wastewater remediation

    E-print Network

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    Characterization of network morphology in anion binding hydrogels used for wastewater remediation wastewater effluents. The sorbent used was crosslinked polyamine (PAA$HCl) polymeric hydrogels. The surface of crosslinking. q 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Hydrogel; Atomic force microscopy; Wastewater

  4. Morphologic and proteomic characterization of exosomes released by cultured extravillous trophoblast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Atay, Safinur; Gercel-Taylor, Cicek; Kesimer, Mehmet; Taylor, Douglas D.

    2011-05-01

    Exosomes represent an important intercellular communication vehicle, mediating events essential for the decidual microenvironment. While we have demonstrated exosome induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, to date, no extensive characterization of trophoblast-derived exosomes has been provided. Our objective was to provide a morphologic and proteomic characterization of these exosomes. Exosomes were isolated from the conditioned media of Swan71 human trophoblast cells by ultrafiltration and ultracentrifugation. These were analyzed for density (sucrose density gradient centrifugation), morphology (electron microscopy), size (dynamic light scattering) and protein composition (Ion Trap mass spectrometry and western immunoblotting). Based on density gradient centrifugation, microvesicles from Sw71 cells exhibit a density between 1.134 and 1.173 g/ml. Electron microscopy demonstrated that microvesicles from Sw71 cells exhibit the characteristic cup-shaped morphology of exosomes. Dynamic light scattering showed a bell-shaped curve, indicating a homogeneous population with a mean size of 165 nm {+-} 0.5 nm. Ion Trap mass spectrometry demonstrated the presence of exosome marker proteins (including CD81, Alix, cytoskeleton related proteins, and Rab family). The MS results were confirmed by western immunoblotting. Based on morphology, density, size and protein composition, we defined the release of exosomes from extravillous trophoblast cells and provide their first extensive characterization. This characterization is essential in furthering our understanding of 'normal' early pregnancy.

  5. Immunoexpression of intermediate filaments and morphological changes in the liver and bile duct of rats infected with Fasciola hepatica.

    PubMed

    Kolodziejczyk, L; Laszczy?ska, M; Masiuk, M; Grabowska, M; Skrzydlewska, E

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the immunoexpression of the intermediate filament proteins, cytokeratin and desmin, and the morphological changes in the liver of rats during experimental fasciolosis at 4, 7 and 10 weeks post-infection. Rats were infected with 30 Fasciola hepatica metacercariae. Paraffin sections of the liver were stained using H & E, PAS and azan stains. Immunohistochemical reactions were performed using antibodies against cytokeratin and desmin. The experimental F. hepatica infection led to fibrosis and cirrhosis of the liver, and to inflammation of the common bile ducts. The expression of cytokeratin was increased in the epithelial cells of both the liver bile ductules at 4, 7 and 10 weeks post-infection and in the common bile ducts at 7 and 10 weeks post-infection compared to uninfected rats; expression in the common bile ducts was more intense. The myofibroblasts of the liver and smooth myocytes of the interlobular bile ducts and common bile ducts, showed a slight increase in desmin expression compared to the uninfected rats. The increased expression of cytokeratins in the hyperplastic rat common bile duct epithelium during the biliary phase of fasciolosis at 7 and 10 weeks post-infection may be explained by mechanical irritation by the parasite and an inflammatory reaction in the bile duct epithelium and in periductal fibrous tissue. PMID:25923046

  6. Functional and Morphological Changes in Endocrine Pancreas following Cola Drink Consumption in Rats

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Aim We report the effects of long-term cola beverage drinking on glucose homeostasis, endocrine pancreas function and morphology in rats. Methods Wistar rats drank: water (group W), regular cola beverage (group C, sucrose sweetened) or “light” cola beverage (group L, artificially sweetened). After 6 months, 50% of the animals in each group were euthanized and the remaining animals consumed water for the next 6 months when euthanasia was performed. Biochemical assays, insulinemia determination, estimation of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), morphometry and immunohistochemistry evaluations were performed in pancreas. Results Hyperglycemia (16%, p<0.05), CoQ10 (coenzyme-Q10) decrease (?52%,p<0.01), strong hypertriglyceridemia (2.8-fold, p<0.01), hyperinsulinemia (2.4 fold, p<0.005) and HOMA-IR increase (2.7 fold, p<0.01) were observed in C. Group C showed a decrease in number of ? cells (?42%, p<0.01) and ? cells (?58%, p<0.001) and a moderate increase in ? cells’ size after wash-out (+14%, p<0.001). Group L showed reduction in ? cells’ size (?9%, p<0.001) and only after wash-out (L12) a 19% increase in size (p<0.0001) with 35% decrease in number of ? cells (p<0.01). Groups C and L showed increase in ?/?-cell ratio which was irreversible only in C (?/? = +38% in C6,+30% in C12, p<0.001vs.W6). Regular cola induced a striking increase in the cytoplasmic expression of Trx1 (Thioredoxin-1) (2.25-fold in C6 vs. W6; 2.7-fold in C12 vs. W12, p<0.0001) and Prx2 (Peroxiredoxin-2) (3-fold in C6 vs. W6; 2-fold in C12 vs. W12, p<0.0001). Light cola induced increase in Trx1 (3-fold) and Prx2 (2-fold) after wash-out (p<0.0001, L12 vs. W12). Conclusion Glucotoxicity may contribute to the loss of ? cell function with depletion of insulin content. Oxidative stress, suggested by increased expression of thioredoxins and low circulating levels of CoQ10, may follow sustained hyperglycemia. A likely similar panorama may result from the effects of artificially sweetened cola though via other downstream routes. PMID:25790473

  7. Morphological characterization of pecteneal hyalocytes in the developing quail retina

    PubMed Central

    Llombart, Cristina; Nacher, Víctor; Ramos, David; Luppo, Mariana; Carretero, Ana; Navarro, Marc; Melgarejo, Verònica; Armengol, Clara; Rodríguez-Baeza, Alfonso; Mendes-Jorge, Luisa; Ruberte, Jesús

    2009-01-01

    The periphery of the vitreous body contains a population of cells termed hyalocytes. Despite the existence for more than one century of publications devoted to the pecten oculi, a convoluted coil of blood vessels that seems to be the primary source of nutrients for the avian avascular retina, little information can be found concerning the pecteneal hyalocytes. These cells are situated on the inner limiting membrane in close relationship with the convolute blood vessels. To characterize the origin and macrophagic activity of pecteneal hyalocytes, we have analysed two different stages of quail eye development using histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. Pecteneal hyalocytes express the QH1 epitope and cKit, confirming that these cells belong to the haematopoietic system. They also express vimentin, an intermediate filament protein present in cells of mesenchymal origin and very important for differentiation of fully active macrophages. However, similarly as described in porcine hyalocytes, pecteneal hyalocytes express the glial fibrillary acidic protein, a recognized neuroglial marker. Pecteneal hyalocytes did not express other neuroglial markers, such as glutamine synthetase or S100. Acidic phosphatase was activated and Lep100 was found in secondary lysosomes, confirming phagocytic activity of pecteneal hyalocytes during ocular development. Pecteneal hyalocytes strongly react with RCA-I, WFA, WGA, PNA, SNA, LEA and SBA lectins, whereas other avian macrophages from thymus and the bursa of Fabricius did not bind PNA, SNA and LEA lectins. Interestingly, WGA lectin reacts with all kinds of avian macrophages, including pecteneal hyalocytes, probably reflecting the specific binding of WGA to components of the phagocytic and endocytic pathways. In conclusion, pecteneal hyalocytes are a special subtype of blood-borne macrophages that express markers not specifically associated with the haematopoietic system. PMID:19566699

  8. Hemodynamic characterization of chronic bile duct-ligated rats: effect of pentobarbital sodium

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.S.; Girod, C.; Braillon, A.; Hadengue, A.; Lebrec, D.

    1986-08-01

    Systemic and splanchnic hemodynamics of the chronic bile duct-ligated rat were characterized by radioactive microspheres. Conscious and pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized, bile duct-ligated and sham-operated rats had cardiac output and regional organ blood flows determined. The conscious bile duct-ligated rat compared with the sham-operated showed a hyperdynamic circulation with an increased cardiac output and portal tributary blood flow. Pentobarbital sodium anesthesia induced marked hemodynamic changes in both sham-operated and bile duct-ligated rats. The latter group was especially sensitive to its effects; thus, comparison of cardiac output and portal tributary blood flow between anesthetized bile duct-ligated and sham-operated rats showed no significant differences. The authors conclude that the rat with cirrhosis due to chronic bile duct ligation is an excellent model for hemodynamic investigations but should be studied in the conscious state, since pentobarbital sodium anesthesia eliminated the hyperdynamic circulation.

  9. Morphological characterization of selected balloon films and its effects on balloon performances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Said, Magdi A.

    1994-01-01

    Morphological characterization of several polyethylene balloon films have been studied using various techniques. The objective is to determine, if any, differentiating structural or morphological features that can be related to the performance of these balloon film materials. The results of the study indicate that the films are composed of either linear low denstiy polyethylene (LLDPE) or low density polyethylene (LDPE). A selective examination of these data imply that films limited degree of branching and larger crystallites size (same % crystallinity) showed good mechanical properties that appear to correlate with their high level of success in balloon flights.

  10. Characterization of pellet morphology during submerged growth of Streptomyces tendae by image analysis.

    PubMed

    Reichl, U; King, R; Gilles, E D

    1992-01-20

    Many filamentous bacteria and fungi tend to form pellets, or mixtures of dispersed mycelium and pellets in liquid fermentation broths. In some cases, a specific kind of morphology is required for optimum product yield. When quantitative analysis and characterization of the pellet morphology are needed, an image processing system can be used. It allows a fast and reproducible analysis of the frequency distribution of pellet size, mean pellet size, contents of pellets, or their shape. The use of such a system allows for an on-line analysis. For a demonstration of the method, results of two fermentations of Streptomyces tendae are shown. PMID:18600927

  11. Modulation of morphological changes of endometrial surface epithelium by administration of composite root extract in albino rat.

    PubMed

    Sarma, H N; Mahanta, H C

    2000-07-01

    In the present investigation, we attempted to study the modulation of morphological changes of endometrial surface epithelium by Scanning Electron Microscope (SCEM) in the adult albino rat after oral administration of roots extract. The origin of this experiment lies in the fact that the dry powdered roots of five plants, i.e., Plumbago rosea, Borassus flabellifer, Carica papaya (male), Dolichos lablab, and Shorea robusta in mixed form, has been traditionally used by the folk women of this region through oral route during the first seven days of a menstrual cycle to prevent conception. Ethanolic crude extract of these roots in composite form which has been referred to here as composite root extract (CRE) was administered to the adult female albino rat in a dose of 1000 mg/kg body weight/day through oral route continuously for 12 days starting from proestrous. The observations under SCEM showed that administration of the CRE induced morphological changes of the endometrial surface epithelium in albino rat uterus. The characteristic smooth regular pattern of normal epithelium appears to have been changed at places by haphazardly oriented groups of cells and loss of microvilli indicating a disorganized picture. This structural disparity has been thought to affect the smooth functioning of nidatory preparation in the endometrium. PMID:11024229

  12. Subtype Identification in Acutely Dissociated Rat Nodose Ganglion Neurons Based on Morphologic Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiao-Long; Xu, Wen-Xiao; Yan, Zhen-Yu; Qian, Zhao; Xu, Bing; Liu, Yang; Han, Li-Min; Gao, Rui-Chen; Li, Jun-Nan; Yuan, Mei; Zhao, Chong-Bao; Qiao, Guo-fen; Li, Bai-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Nodose ganglia are composed of A-, Ah- and C-type neurons. Despite their important roles in regulating visceral afferent function, including cardiovascular, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal homeostasis, information about subtype-specific expression, molecular identity, and function of individual ion transporting proteins is scarce. Although experiments utilizing the sliced ganglion preparation have provided valuable insights into the electrophysiological properties of nodose ganglion neuron subtypes, detailed characterization of their electrical phenotypes will require measurements in isolated cells. One major unresolved problem, however, is the difficulty to unambiguously identify the subtype of isolated nodose ganglion neurons without current-clamp recording, because the magnitude of conduction velocity in the corresponding afferent fiber, a reliable marker to discriminate subtypes in situ, can no longer be determined. Here, we present data supporting the notion that application of an algorithm regarding to microscopic structural characteristics, such as neuron shape evaluated by the ratio between shortest and longest axis, neuron surface characteristics, like membrane roughness, and axon attachment, enables specific and sensitive subtype identification of acutely dissociated rat nodose ganglion neurons, by which the accuracy of identification is further validated by electrophysiological markers and overall positive predictive rates is 89.26% (90.04%, 76.47%, and 98.21% for A-, Ah, and C-type, respectively). This approach should aid in gaining insight into the molecular correlates underlying phenotypic heterogeneity of nodose ganglia. Additionally, several critical points that help for neuron identification and afferent conduction calibration are also discussed. PMID:23904796

  13. Exposure to non-ionizing radiation provokes changes in rat thyroid morphology and expression of HSP-90.

    PubMed

    Misa-Agustiño, Maria J; Jorge-Mora, Teresa; Jorge-Barreiro, Francisco J; Suarez-Quintanilla, Juan; Moreno-Piquero, Eduardo; Ares-Pena, Francisco J; López-Martín, Elena

    2015-09-01

    Non-ionizing radiation at 2.45?GHz may modify the morphology and expression of genes that codify heat shock proteins (HSP) in the thyroid gland. Diathermy is the therapeutic application of non-ionizing radiation to humans for its beneficial effects in rheumatological and musculo-skeletal pain processes. We used a diathermy model on laboratory rats subjected to maximum exposure in the left front leg, in order to study the effects of radiation on the nearby thyroid tissue. Fifty-six rats were individually exposed once or repeatedly (10 times in two weeks) for 30?min to 2.45?GHz radiation in a commercial chamber at different non-thermal specific absorption rates (SARs), which were calculated using the finite difference time domain technique. We used immunohistochemistry methods to study the expression of HSP-90 and morphological changes in thyroid gland tissues. Ninety minutes after radiation with the highest SAR, the central and peripheral follicles presented increased size and the thickness of the peripheral septa had decreased. Twenty-four hours after radiation, only peripheral follicles radiated at 12?W were found to be smaller. Peripheral follicles increased in size with repeated exposure at 3?W power. Morphological changes in the thyroid tissue may indicate a glandular response to acute or repeated stress from radiation in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Further research is needed to determine if the effect of this physical agent over time may cause disease in the human thyroid gland. PMID:25649190

  14. Intestinal morphology adjustments caused by dietary restriction improves the nutritional status during the aging process of rats.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Belém, Mônica; Cirilo, Carla Possani; de Santi-Rampazzo, Ana Paula; Schoffen, João Paulo Ferreira; Comar, Jurandir Fernando; Natali, Maria Raquel Marçal; de Almeida Araújo, Eduardo José

    2015-09-01

    During the aging process, the body's systems change structurally and loss of function can occur. Ingesting a smaller amount of food has been considered a plausible proposal for increased longevity with the quality of life. However, the effects of dietary restriction (DR) during aging are still poorly understood, especially for organs of the digestive system. This study aimed to describe the body weight, oxidative status and possible morphological changes of the intestinal wall of rats submitted to DR during the aging process (7 to 18months old). Twelve 7-month-old male Wistar rats fed ad libitum since birth were assigned to two groups: control group (CG, n=6) fed ad libitum from 7 to 18months old; and dietary restriction group (DRG, n=6) fed 50% of the amount of chow consumed by the CG from 7 to 18months old. The body weight, feed and water intake were monitored throughout the experiment. Blood, periepididymal adipose tissue (PAT) and retroperitoneal adipose tissue (RAT), and the small intestine were collected at 18months old. The blood was collected to evaluate its components and oxidative status. Sections from the duodenum and ileum were stained with HE, PAS and AB pH2.5 for morphometric analyses of the intestinal wall components, and to count intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs), goblet cells and cells in mitosis in the epithelium. DR rats showed a reduction in weight, naso-anal length, PAT, RAT and intestinal length; however, they consumed more water. Blood parameters indicate that the DR rats remained well nourished. In addition, they showed lower lipid peroxidation. Hypertrophy of the duodenal mucosa and atrophy of the ileal mucosa were observed. The number of goblet cells and IELs was reduced, but the mitotic index remained unaltered in both duodenum and ileum. In conclusion, 50% dietary restriction for rats from 7 to 18months old contributed to improving their nutritional parameters but, to achieve this, adjustments were required in the structure of the body weight and morphology of the small intestine. PMID:25959567

  15. [MORPHOLOGICAL AND VISCOELASTIC PROPERTIES OF ISIAH RATS MYOCARDIUM DURING THE DEVELOPMENT OF ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION].

    PubMed

    Smoluk, L T; Kuznetsov, D A; Lisin, R V; Mukhlynina, E A; Markel, A L; Protsenko, Yu L

    2015-05-01

    The comprehensive study of morphometrical parameters and viscoelastic properties of right ventricle and left ventricle papillary muscles of ISIAH rats during the development of arterial hypertension has been carried out. It is established the significant increase of the index of heart mass to body mass and to tibia length of ISIAH rats in comparison with WAG rats of the same age. There are no any significant differences of "stress-strain" dependences of all experimental groups. PMID:26263682

  16. Genesis of Delaminated-Zeolite Morphology: 3-D Characterization of Changes by STEM Tomography.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Ilke; Roehling, John D; Ogino, Isao; Batenburg, K Joost; Zones, Stacey I; Gates, Bruce C; Katz, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    Zeolite delamination increases the external surface area available for catalyzing the conversion of bulky molecules, but a fundamental understanding of the delamination process remains unknown. Here we report morphological changes accompanying delamination on the length scale of individual zeolite clusters determined by 3-D imaging in scanning transmission electron microscopy. The results are tomograms that demonstrate delamination as it proceeds on the nanoscale through two distinct key steps: a chemical treatment that leads to a swelled material and a subsequent calcination that leads to curling and peeling off of delaminated zeolite sheets over hundreds of nanometers. These results characterize the direct, local, 3-D morphological changes accompanying delaminated materials synthesis and, with corroboration by mercury porosimetry, provide unique insight into the morphology of these materials, which is difficult to obtain with any other technique. PMID:26266740

  17. [Effect of phenobarbital stimulation on morphological and cytoenzymatic changes in the liver of benzene intoxicated rats (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Jonek, J J; Kami?ski, M; Grzybek, H; Panz, B; Gruszeczka, B

    1976-01-01

    The experiments were carried out on male Wistar-Rats. They were divided into 2 groups. The rats of the control groups were treated to Phenobarbital intraperitoneally for 3 consecutive days. The animals of the experimental group were additionaly injected with Benzen intraperitoneally on the 4th day of experiment. It has been found that Phenobarbital brought about the formation of 2 types of bright and dark cells in the liver. The action of Phenobarbital is carried on by Benzene. The authors discuss morphological and functional evaluation of bright and dark cells from the point of view of stimulating action of Phenobarbital as well as the course of Benzene biotransformation in liver cells. PMID:179262

  18. Isolation and characterization of probiotic properties of Lactobacilli isolated from rat fecal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Jena, Prasant Kumar; Trivedi, Disha; Thakore, Kirati; Chaudhary, Harshita; Giri, Sib Sankar; Seshadri, Sriram

    2013-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterize lactobacilli isolates from the feces of male Wistar rats. Various physiological features of the candidate probiotic isolates were preliminarily investigated, including tolerance to simulated gastric juice and bile salts, antimicrobial activity, antibiotic susceptibility and in vitro aggregation. Based on their morphological and biochemical characteristics, four potential probiotic isolates (CS2, CS3, CS4, and CS7) were screened. The isolates showed good tolerance to stimulated gastric juice and bile salts. CS4 and CS7 exhibited strong antibacterial activities against the pathogens tested as assessed in neutral pH culture supernatants. All lactobacilli isolates were susceptible to all the tested antibiotics, except vancomycin. Moreover, the isolate CS4 and CS7 were found to possess stronger cell surface traits such as hydrophobicity, auto-aggregation and co-aggregation capacity. In addition, CS4 and CS7 had greater ?-galactosidase activities than the others. Biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene sequencing confirmed that CS2, CS3, CS4 and CS7 are Lactobacillus intestinalis PJ2, L. sakei PJ3, L. helveticus PJ4, and L. plantarum PJ7, respectively. Based on the obtained results, L. helveticus PJ4 and L. plantarum PJ7 are ideal in vitro probiotic candidates and require further in vivo evaluation. PMID:23773019

  19. Phenotypic characterization of type II collagen-induced arthritis in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    SONG, HOU-PAN; LI, XIN; YU, RONG; ZENG, GUANG; YUAN, ZHEN-YI; WANG, WEI; HUANG, HUI-YONG; CAI, XIONG

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine a more specific, efficient and simple method for the induction of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in rats. Different strains of rats were injected at the base of the tail with bovine type II collagen (CII) emulsified in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA). The onset and severity of arthritis were evaluated by clinical assessment. The established CIA model was analyzed using a comprehensive examination of clinical, hematological, histological and radiological parameters. The results demonstrated that Wistar rats were the most susceptible strain to CIA followed by Wistar Furth rats, with Sprague Dawley rats being the least susceptible. Following primary and booster immunization, female Wistar rats developed severe arthritis, with an incidence of >83% and low variability in clinical signs. The development of arthritis was accompanied by a significantly elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate compared with that in the control rats. The radiographic examination revealed bone matrix resorption, considerable soft tissue swelling, periosteal new bone formation and bone erosion in the arthritic joints of the CIA rats. Histopathologically, the synovial joints of CIA rats were characterized by synovial hyperplasia, pannus formation, marked cellular infiltration, bone and cartilage erosion and narrowing of the joint space. The administration of an intradermal injection of only 200 µg bovine CII emulsified in IFA at the base of the tail therefore leads to the successful development of a CIA rat model. This well-characterized CIA rat model could be specifically used to study the pathophysiology of human rheumatoid arthritis as well as to test and develop anti-arthritic agents for humans.

  20. Effects of testicular transfixation on seminiferous tubule morphology and sperm parameters of prepubertal, pubertal, and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Carina T; De Souza, Diogo B; Costa, Waldemar S; Pereira-Sampaio, Marco A; Sampaio, Francisco J B

    2015-10-15

    Orchiopexy is performed as part of cryptorchidism and testicular torsion treatment. The inflammation caused by the needle and suture penetration has been suggested to be one of the possible causes of subfertility after parenchymal transfixation of the testicles. The purpose of the present study was to investigate testicular alterations after parenchymal transfixation sutures at different ages in rats. Prepubertal, pubertal, and adult rats were submitted to parenchymal suturing (without tying the knots, thus avoiding local ischemic injury) of the right testicle, which was maintained for 4 hours. All animals were subjected to euthanasia on completion of 14 weeks of life. The right testicles were studied as the sutured testicles, whereas the left organs were studied as contralateral. One age-matched control group of rats that was not submitted to any procedure was used for comparison. During euthanasia, sperm were collected from the tail of the epididymal and evaluated for concentration, motility, and viability. Samples from testicular tissue were collected for morphologic analysis. Sperm analysis indicated that only the adult operated animals presented reductions in motility (38.2% of adult vs. 54.1% of control; P = 0.02) and viability (16.6% of adult vs. 24.6% of control; P = 0.003). Several morphologic alterations were noted both in sutured and in contralateral testes at all ages. For instance, the seminiferous epithelium volumetric density of right testicles was reduced from 50.4% in controls to 32.3% in prepubertal operated animals, 45.3% in pubertal operated animals, and 39.4% in adult operated animals (P < 0.05). The seminiferous epithelium volumetric density was also reduced to 39.9% and 39.0% in contralateral testicles of animals operated before and after puberty, respectively (P < 0.05). The animals operated on before puberty and in adulthood showed more testicular morphologic alterations, as seminiferous tubule volumetric density, seminiferous tubule length, and tubular diameter were reduced only in prepubertal and/or adult operated animals. Testicular transfixation in rats led to important morphologic modifications in the ipsilateral and contralateral organs. These alterations were observed regardless of the age when surgery was performed, but they were milder in animals operated on during puberty. Orchiopexy techniques that do not involve the application of testicular transfixation sutures should be recommended. PMID:26187328

  1. GLUTAMATE NEUROTOXICITY IN THE DEVELOPING RAT COCHLEA: PHYSIOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL APPROACHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The neurotoxic effects of exogenous glutamate were studied in the rat cochlea. lutamate-treated rats (4g/kg/day ip, postnatal days 2 through 9) exhibited electrophysiologically-measured elevations in high frequency thresholds usually associated with hair cell loss in the basal re...

  2. Echocardiographic assessment of cardiac morphology and function in mutant dwarf rats.

    PubMed

    Longobardi, S; Cittadini, A; Strömer, H; Katz, S E; Grossman, J D; Clark, R G; Morgan, J P; Douglas, P S

    2000-10-01

    Although the mutant dwarf rat has been proposed as a model of growth hormone (GH) deficiency, few studies have addressed its cardiovascular abnormalities. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate cardiac structure and function in mutant dwarf rats in vivo before and after chronic GH administration, by means of transthoracic Doppler echocardiography. To this purpose, forty 90-day-old female dwarf rats were randomized to receive either GH treatment or placebo. Twenty age-and sex-matched Lewis rats (200-250 g) served as the control group. All rats underwent echocardiograms before receiving any drug and after 3 weeks of therapy. Echocardiographically detected left ventricular mass indexed to tibial length was reduced by 41% in dwarf rats compared to the control group. Such relative cardiac atrophy was also evident at the myocyte level, and was fully reversible after GH therapy. In contrast to the control group, dwarf rats also showed a reduction of left ventricular diastolic volumes normalized to tibial length and impaired cardiac performance as suggested by the reduction of cardiac index, abnormal stress-shortening relations, and a significant elevation of total peripheral vascular resistance. All these abnormalities were reversible upon GH therapy for 3 weeks. In conclusion, GH plays an important role in maintaining a normal cardiac structure and function. Since the observed changes are similar to those seen in GH-deficient men, the mutant dwarf rat represents a faithful animal model of GH deficiency. PMID:11042020

  3. Mammary gland morphology and gene expression signature of prepubertal male and female rats following exposure to exogenous estradiol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to characterize the actions of xenoestrogens, it is essential to possess a solid portrait of the physiological effects of exogenous estradiol. We assessed effects of three doses of exogenous estradiol (E2) (0.1, 1.0 and 10 micrograms/kg/day) on the mammary gland morphology and gene expressi...

  4. Loss of perforated synapses in the dentate gyrus: morphological substrate of memory deficit in aged rats.

    PubMed Central

    Geinisman, Y; de Toledo-Morrell, L; Morrell, F

    1986-01-01

    Most, but not all, aged rats exhibit a profound deficit in spatial memory when tested in a radial maze--a task known to depend on the integrity of the hippocampal formation. In this study, animals were divided into three groups based on their spatial memory capacity: young adult rats with good memory, aged rats with impaired memory, and aged rats with good memory. Memory-impaired aged animals showed a loss of perforated axospinous synapses in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation in comparison with either young adults or aged rats with good memory. This finding suggests that the loss of perforated axospinous synapses in the hippocampal formation underlies the age-related deficit in spatial memory. Images PMID:3458260

  5. [Functional morphology of suprachiasmatic nuclei neurons of rat hypothalamus after the combined influence of x-irradiation and light exposure].

    PubMed

    Gerasimov, A V

    2003-01-01

    For estimation of light radiomodification and cellular neuroadaptation of the circadian pacemarker, the morphological changes of suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) neurons of rat hypothalamus after 48-hours bright light exposure, the single 5 Gy whole-body X-irradiation and their combination were subjected to analysis. The dynamics of reactive and reparative changes has got a phasic character. Temporary desynchronous changes were developed in the course of the early period. Age morphological changes after X-ray and combined irradiation were discovered in the remote period. The plastic diapason of ventrolateral division (SCNv) is more considerable in comparison with dorsomedial division (SCNd). The synergism of X-irradiation and light exposure was discovered in SCNd. PMID:14608668

  6. Morphological and functional manifestations of rat adrenal-cortex response to sodium bromide administration under hypodynamic stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirichek, L. T.; Zholudeva, V. I.

    1979-01-01

    Functional and morphological manifestations of adrenal cortex response to hypodynamia (2-hr immobilization on an operating table) under the influence of bromine preparations were studied. The sodium bromide was administered intraperitoneally in 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg doses once and repeatedly during ten days. The adrenal gland was evaluated functionally by ascorbic acid and cholesterol content and morphologically by coloring it with hematoxylin-eosin and Sudans for lipid revealing at freezing. Results are displayed in two tables and microphotographs. They are summarized as follows: the bromine weakens the functional state of the adrenal cortex in intact rats, causing changes similar to those under stress. During immobilization combined with preliminary bromine administration, a less pronounced stress reaction is noticeable.

  7. Pattern recognition characterizations of micromechanical and morphological materials states via analytical quantitative ultrasonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, J. H., Jr.; Lee, S. S.

    1986-01-01

    One potential approach to the quantitative acquisition of discriminatory information that can isolate a single structural state is pattern recognition. The pattern recognition characterizations of micromechanical and morphological materials states via analytical quantiative ultrasonics are outlined. The concepts, terminology, and techniques of statistical pattern recognition are reviewed. Feature extraction and classification and states of the structure can be determined via a program of ultrasonic data generation.

  8. Morphological Changes within the Rat Lateral Ventricle after the Administration of Proteasome Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Wójcik, S?awomir; Spodnik, Jan Henryk; Dziewi?tkowski, Jerzy; Spodnik, Edyta; Mory?, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    The broad variety of substances that inhibit the action of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS)—known as proteasome inhibitors—have been used extensively in previous studies, and they are currently frequently proposed as a novel form of cancer treatment and as a protective factor in intracerebral hemorrhage treatment. The experimental data on the safest route of proteasome inhibitor administration, their associated side effects, and the possible ways of minimizing these effects have recently become a very important topic. The aim of our present study was to determine the effects of administering of MG-132, lactacystin and epoxomicin, compounds belonging to three different classes of proteasome inhibitors, on the ependymal walls of the lateral ventricle. Observations were made 2 and 8 weeks after the intraventricular administration of the studied substances dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) into the lateral ventricle of adult Wistar rats. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of brain sections stained with histochemical and inmmunofluorescence techniques showed that the administration of proteasome inhibitors caused a partial occlusion of the injected ventricle in all of the studied animals. The occlusion was due to ependymal cells damage and subsequent ependymal discontinuity, which caused direct contact between the striatum and the lateral nuclei of the septum, mononuclear cell infiltration and the formation of a glial scar between these structures (with the activation of astroglia, microglia and oligodendroglia). Morphologically, the ubiquitin-positive aggregates corresponded to aggresomes, indicating impaired activity of the UPS and the accumulation and aggregation of ubiquitinated proteins that coincided with the occurrence of glial scars. The most significant changes were observed in the wall covering the striatum in animals that were administered epoxomicin, and milder changes were observed in animals administered lactacystin and MG-132. Interestingly, DMSO administration also caused damage to some of the ependymal cells, but the aggresome-like structures were not formed. Our results indicate that all of the studied classes of proteasome inhibitors are detrimental to ependymal cells to some extent, and may cause severe changes in the ventricular system. The safety implications of their usage in therapeutic strategies to attenuate intracerebral hemorrhagic injury and in brain cancer treatment will require further studies. PMID:26479862

  9. Characterization of renal hyperemia in portal hypertensive rats

    SciTech Connect

    Premen, A.J.; Banchs, V.; Go, V.L.W.; Benoit, J.N.; Granger, D.N.

    1986-03-01

    In anesthetized sham-operated control (C) and portal vein stenosed (PVS) rats, renal blood flow (RBF) was measured with radioactive microspheres on days 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 following surgery. On day 2, only a small increase in RBF (19%) was produced in PVS versus C rats. However, by day 4, a significant increase in RBF (35%) was observed in PVS versus C animals. By day 6, the renal hyperemia in PVS rats reached a maximal value that was 42% higher than in C rats. Thereafter (on days 8 and 10), the renal hyperemia remained at the maximal value. In a separate group of 10-day PVS rats, glucagon antiserum failed to attenuate the 44% increase in RBF observed in PVS versus C rats. Radioimmunoassay of C and PVS plasma (10-day samples) revealed that vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, substance P, cholecystokinin/gastrin, neurotensin, pancreatic polypeptide, beta-endorphin, and peptide histidine-isoleucine amide are not elevated in arterial plasma of PVS rats. These data indicate that the renal hyperemia induced by chronic portal hypertension is manifested within 4 days after the hypertensive insult. Our studies also suggest that at least 9 blood-borne gastrointestinal peptides are not directly involved in the renal response to portal vein stenosis.

  10. Toxic Effects of Maternal Zearalenone Exposure on Intestinal Oxidative Stress, Barrier Function, Immunological and Morphological Changes in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Min; Gao, Rui; Meng, Qingwei; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Bi, Chongpeng; Shan, Anshan

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of maternal zearalenone (ZEN) exposure on the intestine of pregnant Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and its offspring. Ninety-six pregnant SD rats were randomly divided into four groups and were fed with diets containing ZEN at concentrations of 0.3 mg/kg, 48.5 mg/kg, 97.6 mg/kg or 146.0 mg/kg from gestation days (GD) 1 to 7. All rats were fed with mycotoxin-free diet until their offspring were weaned at three weeks of age. The small intestinal fragments from pregnant rats at GD8, weaned dams and pups were collected and studied for toxic effects of ZEN on antioxidant status, immune response, expression of junction proteins, and morphology. The results showed that ZEN induced oxidative stress, affected the villous structure and reduced the expression of junction proteins claudin-4, occludin and connexin43 (Cx43) in a dose-dependent manner in pregnant rats. Different effects on the expression of cytokines were also observed both in mRNA and protein levels in these pregnant groups. Ingestion of high levels of ZEN caused irreversible damage in weaned dams, such as oxidative stress, decreased villi hight and low expression of junction proteins and cytokines. Decreased expression of jejunal interleukin-8 (IL-8) and increased expression of gastrointestinal glutathione peroxidase (GPx2) mRNA were detected in weaned offspring, indicating long-term damage caused by maternal ZEN. We also found that the Nrf2 expression both in mRNA and protein levels were up-regulated in the ZEN-treated groups of pregnant dams and the high-dose of ZEN group of weaned dams. The data indicate that modulation of Nrf2-mediated pathway is one of mechanism via which ZEN affects gut wall antioxidant and inflammatory responses. PMID:25180673

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF RESPIRATORY DISEASE IN RATS FOLLOWING NEONATAL INOCULATION WITH A RAT-ADAPTED INFLUENZA VIRUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Neonatal F344 rats were infected with a rat-adapted influenza virus (RAIV) as a potential model to study the combined effects of early life viral respiratory infection with air pollutant dosimetry and toxic responses, as well as on the development of respiratory disease and incre...

  12. HemoHIM improves ovarian morphology and decreases expression of nerve growth factor in rats with steroid-induced polycystic ovaries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Ho; Lee, Hae June; Kim, Joong Sun; Moon, Changjong; Kim, Jong Choon; Bae, Chun Sik; Park, Hae Ran; Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung Kee

    2009-12-01

    Estradiol valerate (EV)-induced polycystic ovaries (PCOs) in rats cause the anovulation and cystic ovarian morphology. We investigated whether treatment with HemoHIM influences the ovarian morphology and the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) in an EV-induced PCO rat model. PCO was induced by a single intramuscular injection of EV (4 mg, dissolved in sesame oil) in adult cycling rats. HemoHIM was either administered orally (100 mg/kg of body weight/day) for 35 consecutive days or injected intraperitoneally (50 mg/kg of body weight) every other day after EV injection. Ovarian morphology was almost normalized, and NGF was normalized in the PCO + HemoHIM group. HemoHIM lowered the high numbers of antral follicles and increased the number of corpora lutea in PCOs. The results are consistent with a beneficial effect of HemoHIM in the prevention and treatment of PCO syndrome. PMID:20041792

  13. Characterization of rat c-myc and adjacent regions.

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, K; Makino, R; Kawamura, H; Arisawa, A; Yoneda, K

    1987-01-01

    Rat genomic regions covering c-myc were cloned from the DNA of both normal liver and two lines of Morris hepatomas, one of which had c-myc amplification. The three restriction maps showed perfect agreement within the overlapping regions. The 7 kb regions, which included the entire normal rat c-myc and the region 2.2 kb upstream, and one from the hepatomas, were sequenced and found to be identical. The coding regions of exons 2 and 3 were highly conserved between rat, mouse and man, but some differences in amino acids were noted. Exon 1 and the non-coding region of exon 3 showed limited homology between the three species. Rat exon 1 contained several nonsense codons in each frame and no ATG codon, indicating there to be no coding capacity in this exon. The 2.2 kb upstream regions and the introns compared showed unusual conservation between the rat and human genes. Some motifs, previously proposed as having a functional role in human c-myc, were also found in equivalent positions of the rat sequence. Nucleas S1 protection mapping revealed the second promoter to be preferentially used in most tissues or in hepatoma cells, and the second poly A addition signal to be the only one functional in all the RNA sources examined. Images PMID:3306601

  14. Testicular morphology of male rats exposed to Phaleria macrocarpa (Mahkota dewa) aqueous extract

    PubMed Central

    Parhizkar, Saadat; Zulkifli, Suriani Binti; Dollah, Mohammad Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): This study was designed to investigate the effect of Phaleria macrocarpa aqueous extract (PM) on spermatogenesis by observing the histological changes of testes in adult male rats. Materials and Methods: PM was prepared by boiling the dried slices of P. macrocarpa fruits followed by filtering, centrifugation and freeze-drying to obtain the powder form. Eighteen Sprague Dawley adult male rats were divided into three groups (six in each group), designated as treatment (240 mg/kg PM), negative control (distilled water) and positive control (4mg/kg testosterone) and administered via intragastric gavage for seven weeks. In the sixth week of supplementation period, each male rat was introduced to five female rats. Afterward, all rats were sacrificed and the testes were removed for histological studies. Results: PM significantly increased the number of cell and the thickness of seminiferous tubules of male rats (P<0.05). However, there was no significant effect on the volume and size of testes. The mean of spermatogonia cells numbers of PM groups differed significantly from the negative and positive groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: PM showed potential value as an attractive alternative for improving sexual strength by increasing the number of spermatogonia cell and the thickness of the seminiferous tubules. Perhaps, PM could be suggested to be one of the herbal remedies that can improve men fertility. The results may have some clinical implication in the management of infertility. PMID:24967068

  15. Multiscale analysis of morphology and mechanics in tail tendon from the ZDSD rat model of type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Armando Diaz; Gallant, Maxime A.; Burr, David B.; Wallace, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) impacts multiple organ systems including the circulatory, renal, nervous and musculoskeletal systems. In collagen-based tissues, one mechanism that may be responsible for detrimental mechanical impacts of T2D is the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) leading to increased collagen stiffness and decreased toughness, resulting in brittle tissue behavior. The purpose of this study was to investigate tendon mechanical properties from normal and diabetic rats at two distinct length scales, testing the hypothesis that increased stiffness and strength and decreased toughness at the fiber level would be associated with alterations in nanoscale morphology and mechanics. Individual fascicles from female Zucker diabetic Sprague-Dawley (ZDSD) rats had no differences in fascicle-level mechanical properties but had increased material-level strength and stiffness versus control rats (CD). At the nanoscale, collagen fibril D-spacing was shifted towards higher spacing values in diabetic ZDSD fibrils. The distribution of nanoscale modulus values was also shifted to higher values. Material-level strength and stiffness from whole fiber tests were increased in ZDSD tails. Correlations between nanoscale and microscale properties indicate a direct positive relationship between the two length scales, most notably in the relationship between nanoscale and microscale modulus. These findings indicate that diabetes-induced changes in material strength and modulus were driven by alterations at the nanoscale. PMID:24360194

  16. Stasis and convergence characterize morphological evolution in eupolypod II ferns Michael A. Sundue1,* and Carl J. Rothfels,2

    E-print Network

    Stasis and convergence characterize morphological evolution in eupolypod II ferns Michael A. Sundue rank remain underexplored in the ferns. The present studyseeksto addressthis gap through analysis of 79 morphological characters for 81 taxa, includ- ing representatives of all ten families of eupolypod II ferns

  17. Biochemical and morphological changes in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells induced by treatment of rats with p-Nonylphenol

    PubMed Central

    Abnosi, Mohammad Hossein; Shojafar, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): In previous investigations, we have shown para-nonylphenol (p-NP) caused significant reduction of proliferation and differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro. In this study, we first treat the rats with p-NP, then carried out the biochemical and morphological studies on MSCs. Materials and Methods: Proliferation property of cells was evaluated with the help of MTT assay, trypan blue, population doubling number, and colony forming assay. Differentiation property was evaluated with quantitative alizarin red assay, measurement of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity as well as intracellular calcium content. In addition; morphological study, TUNEL test, activated caspase assay, and comet assay were performed to evaluate the mechanism of the cell death. Results: The results showed significant reduction in the colony-forming-ability and population-doubling-number of extracted cells when compared to control ones. In addition, it was revealed that the p-NP treatment of rats caused significant reduction in nuclear diameter, cytoplasm shrinkage, and induction of caspase-dependent-apoptosis. Also there was significant reduction in ALP activity, intracellular calcium content, and intracellular matrix following osteogenic differentiation. Conclusion: As MSCs are the cellular back up for bone remodeling and repair, we suggest more investigations to be conducted regarding the correlation between the increasing number of patients suffering from osteoporosis and p-NP toxicity. Also, we strongly recommend WHO and local health organization to prevent industries of using p-NP in formulation of industrial products which may cause changes in proliferation and differentiation properties of stem cells. PMID:26019793

  18. Repeated fluvoxamine treatment recovers juvenile stress-induced morphological changes and depressive-like behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Lyttle, Kerise; Ohmura, Yu; Konno, Kohtarou; Yoshida, Takayuki; Izumi, Takeshi; Watanabe, Masahiko; Yoshioka, Mitsuhiro

    2015-08-01

    Human studies have suggested that early life stress such as child abuse could enhance susceptibility to depressive disorders. Moreover, the abnormalities of the prefrontal cortex have been associated with depression. Although clinical studies have implied the negative effects of early life stress on brain development, the causality and the detailed morphogenetic changes has not been clearly elucidated. In the present study, we determined the effect of juvenile stress exposure on the presentation of depressive-like behavior and the neural mechanisms involved using a rodent model. Rat pups were exposed to footshock stress during postnatal days 21-25 followed by repeated oral administration of fluvoxamine (0 or 10mg/kg/d × 14 days), which is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. At the postadolescent stage forced swim test assessment of depressive-like behavior and Golgi-Cox staining of medial prefrontal cortex pyramidal neurons followed by morphological analyses were carried out. Post-adolescent behavioral and morphological studies identified the presentation of increased depressive-like behaviors and reduced spine densities and dendritic lengths of layer II/III pyramidal neuron in the infralimbic cortex, but not in the prelimbic cortex of rats exposed to juvenile stress. Repeated fluvoxamine treatment recovered the increased depressive-like behavior and reduced spine densities/dendritic lengths observed in rats exposed to footshock stress. Cortical thicknesses in the infralimbic cortex and prelimbic cortex were also reduced by juvenile stress, but these reductions were not recovered by fluvoxamine treatment. The results demonstrate cortical sensitivities to stress exposures during the juvenile stage which mediate behavioral impairments, and provide a clue to find therapeutics for early life stress-induced emotional dysfunctions. PMID:25960352

  19. Arterial morphology responds differently to Captopril then N-acetylcysteine in a monocrotaline rat model of pulmonary hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molthen, Robert; Wu, Qingping; Baumgardt, Shelley; Kohlhepp, Laura; Shingrani, Rahul; Krenz, Gary

    2010-03-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an incurable condition inevitably resulting in death because of increased right heart workload and eventual failure. PH causes pulmonary vascular remodeling, including muscularization of the arteries, and a reduction in the typically large vascular compliance of the pulmonary circulation. We used a rat model of monocrotaline (MCT) induced PH to evaluated and compared Captopril (an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor with antioxidant capacity) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC, a mucolytic with a large antioxidant capacity) as possible treatments. Twenty-eight days after MCT injection, the rats were sacrificed and heart, blood, and lungs were studied to measure indices such as right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH), hematocrit, pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), vessel morphology and biomechanics. We implemented microfocal X-ray computed tomography to image the pulmonary arterial tree at intravascular pressures of 30, 21, 12, and 6 mmHg and then used automated vessel detection and measurement algorithms to perform morphological analysis and estimate the distensibility of the arterial tree. The vessel detection and measurement algorithms quickly and effectively mapped and measured the vascular trees at each intravascular pressure. Monocrotaline treatment, and the ensuing PH, resulted in a significantly decreased arterial distensibility, increased PVR, and tended to decrease the length of the main pulmonary trunk. In rats with PH induced by monocrotaline, Captopril treatment significantly increased arterial distensibility and decrease PVR. NAC treatment did not result in an improvement, it did not significantly increase distensibility and resulted in further increase in PVR. Interestingly, NAC tended to increase peripheral vascular density. The results suggest that arterial distensibility may be more important than distal collateral pathways in maintaining PVR at normally low values.

  20. Changes in small intestinal morphology and digestive enzyme activity with oral administration of copper-loaded chitosan nanoparticles in rats.

    PubMed

    Han, Xin-Yan; Du, Wen-Li; Huang, Qi-Chun; Xu, Zi-Rong; Wang, Yi-Zheng

    2012-03-01

    The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of copper-loaded chitosan nanoparticles on the small intestinal morphology and activities of digestive enzyme and mucosal disaccharase in rats. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats, with average body weight of 82 g, were randomly allotted to five groups (n?=?8). All rats were received a basal diet (control) or the same basal diet added with 80 mg/kg BW CuSO(4), 80 mg/kg BW chitosan (CS-I), 80 mg/kg BW copper-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (CSN-I), 160 mg/kg BW copper-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (CSN-II), respectively. The experiment lasted 21 days. The results showed that the villus heights of the small intestinal mucosa in groups CSN-I and CSN-II were higher than those of the control, group CuSO(4) or CS-I. The crypt depth of duodenum and ileum mucosa in group CSN-I or CSN-II was depressed. Compared with the control, there were no significant effects of CuSO(4) or CS-I on the villus height and crypt depth of small intestinal mucosa. Supplementation with CSN improved the activities of trypsin, amylase and lipase in the small intestinal contents and maltase, sucrase and lactase of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum mucosa while there were no significant effects of CuSO(4) on the digestive enzyme activities of the small content compared with the control. The results indicated that intestinal morphology, activities of digestive enzyme in digesta and mucosal disaccharase were beneficially changed by treatment of copper-loaded chitosan nanoparticles. PMID:21882065

  1. Morphological and electrophysiological features of motor neurons and putative interneurons in the dorsal vagal complex of rats and mice

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hong; Glatzer, Nicholas R.; Williams, Kevin W.; Derbenev, Andrei V.; Liu, Dan; Smith, Bret N.

    2009-01-01

    The dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) contains preganglionic motor neurons that control viscera along the subdiaphragmatic digestive tract, but may also contain neurons that do not project to the viscera. Neurons that expressed EGFP 60-72 h subsequent to PRV-152 inoculation of vagal terminals in the stomach wall were targeted for whole-cell patch-clamp recording and biocytin filling in transverse brainstem slices from rats and their quantitative morphological and electrophysiological characteristics were compared with uninfected cells. Over 90% of PRV-152 labeled neurons were also labeled subsequent to intraperitoneal injection of FluoroGold, indicating most were preganglionic motor neurons. In reconstructed neurons with an identifiable axon trajectory, two cellular subtypes were distinguished. The axon projected ventrolaterally from the DMV in 44 of 49 cells and these were likely to be vagal motor neurons. Axons of other neurons ramified within the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) or DMV. These cells were smaller and otherwise morphologically distinct from putative motor neurons. Transgenic mice with GFP-expressing inhibitory neurons (i.e., GIN mice) were used to identify a GABAergic subset vagal neurons. These neurons had locally-ramifying axons and formed a morphologically distinct subset of DMV cells, which were similar in size and axon trajectory to GABAergic neurons in the NTS. Most neurons in the DMV therefore possess morphological features of motor neurons, but locally projecting cells and inhibitory neurons with distinct morphological features are also found within the DMV. These cells likely contribute to regulation of vagal function. PMID:19619517

  2. Characterization of Dystrophin Deficient Rats: A New Model for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Tesson, Laurent; Remy, Séverine; Thepenier, Virginie; François, Virginie; Le Guiner, Caroline; Goubin, Helicia; Dutilleul, Maéva; Guigand, Lydie; Toumaniantz, Gilles; De Cian, Anne; Boix, Charlotte; Renaud, Jean-Baptiste; Cherel, Yan; Giovannangeli, Carine; Concordet, Jean-Paul; Anegon, Ignacio; Huchet, Corinne

    2014-01-01

    A few animal models of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) are available, large ones such as pigs or dogs being expensive and difficult to handle. Mdx (X-linked muscular dystrophy) mice only partially mimic the human disease, with limited chronic muscular lesions and muscle weakness. Their small size also imposes limitations on analyses. A rat model could represent a useful alternative since rats are small animals but 10 times bigger than mice and could better reflect the lesions and functional abnormalities observed in DMD patients. Two lines of Dmd mutated-rats (Dmdmdx) were generated using TALENs targeting exon 23. Muscles of animals of both lines showed undetectable levels of dystrophin by western blot and less than 5% of dystrophin positive fibers by immunohistochemistry. At 3 months, limb and diaphragm muscles from Dmdmdx rats displayed severe necrosis and regeneration. At 7 months, these muscles also showed severe fibrosis and some adipose tissue infiltration. Dmdmdx rats showed significant reduction in muscle strength and a decrease in spontaneous motor activity. Furthermore, heart morphology was indicative of dilated cardiomyopathy associated histologically with necrotic and fibrotic changes. Echocardiography showed significant concentric remodeling and alteration of diastolic function. In conclusion, Dmdmdx rats represent a new faithful small animal model of DMD. PMID:25310701

  3. Electrophysiological and morphological properties of neurons in the prepositus hypoglossi nucleus that express both ChAT and VGAT in a double-transgenic rat model.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yasuhiko; Zhang, Yue; Yanagawa, Yuchio

    2015-04-01

    Although it has been proposed that neurons that contain both acetylcholine (ACh) and ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are present in the prepositus hypoglossi nucleus (PHN), these neurons have not been characterized because of the difficulty in identifying them. In the present study, PHN neurons that express both choline acetyltransferase and the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) were identified using double-transgenic rats, in which the cholinergic and inhibitory neurons express the fluorescent proteins tdTomato and Venus, respectively. To characterize the neurons that express both tdTomato and Venus (D+ neurons), the afterhyperpolarization (AHP) profiles and firing patterns of these neurons were investigated via whole-cell recordings of brainstem slice preparations. Regarding the three AHP profiles and four firing patterns that the D+ neurons exhibited, an AHP with an afterdepolarization and a firing pattern that exhibited a delay in the generation of the first spike were the preferential properties of these neurons. In the three morphological types classified, the multipolar type that exhibited radiating dendrites was predominant among the D+ neurons. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that the VGAT-immunopositive axonal boutons that expressed tdTomato were primarily located in the dorsal cap of inferior olive (IO) and the PHN. Although the PHN receives cholinergic inputs from the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, D+ neurons were absent from these brain areas. Together, these results suggest that PHN neurons that co-express ACh and GABA exhibit specific electrophysiological and morphological properties, and innervate the dorsal cap of the IO and the PHN. PMID:25808645

  4. Morphological characterization of Cryptosporidium parvum life-cycle stages in an in vitro model system.

    PubMed

    Borowski, H; Thompson, R C A; Armstrong, T; Clode, P L

    2010-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that mainly affects the ileum of humans and livestock, with the potential to cause severe enteric disease. We describe the complete life cycle of C. parvum in an in vitro system. Infected cultures of the human ileocecal epithelial cell line (HCT-8) were observed over time using electron microscopy. Additional data are presented on the morphology, development and behavioural characteristics of the different life-cycle stages as well as determining their time of occurrence after inoculation. Numerous stages of C. parvum and their behaviour have been visualized and morphologically characterized for the first time using scanning electron microscopy. Further, parasite-host interactions and the effect of C. parvum on host cells were also visualized. An improved understanding of the parasite's biology, proliferation and interactions with host cells will aid in the development of treatments for the disease. PMID:19691870

  5. Mathematical morphology: detection and characterization of directed axonal growth in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, M. A.; Ballarin, V. L.; Rapacioli, M.; Rodríguez Celín, A.; Sánchez, V.; Flores, V.

    2011-12-01

    Neurite growth in vitro, neuritogenesis, is a widespread methodology in the field of developmental neurobiology. Morphological analysis of growing neurites is usually a difficult task because of their thinness and their low contrast that makes it difficult to observe clearly their shape, number, length and spatial orientation. This paper presents the use of the granulometric size distribution function to obtain, automatically, information about the shape, size and spatial orientation of growing axons in tissue cultures. The results presented show the efficiency of the granulometric size distribution for this application. The automatic detection of growing axons and the precise characterization of a relevant parameter, indicative of the axonal growth spatial orientation, was obtained by this morphological tool. The developed algorithms facilitates the analysis of these images by automatically quantifying the angle of deviation of the direction of growth, which is important given the large number of images that need to be processed for this type of study.

  6. Integral-geometry characterization of photobiomodulation effects on retinal vessel morphology

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Marconi; Natoli, Riccardo; Valter, Kriztina; Provis, Jan; Maddess, Ted

    2014-01-01

    The morphological characterization of quasi-planar structures represented by gray-scale images is challenging when object identification is sub-optimal due to registration artifacts. We propose two alternative procedures that enhances object identification in the integral-geometry morphological image analysis (MIA) framework. The first variant streamlines the framework by introducing an active contours segmentation process whose time step is recycled as a multi-scale parameter. In the second variant, we used the refined object identification produced in the first variant to perform the standard MIA with exact dilation radius as multi-scale parameter. Using this enhanced MIA we quantify the extent of vaso-obliteration in oxygen-induced retinopathic vascular growth, the preventative effect (by photobiomodulation) of exposure during tissue development to near-infrared light (NIR, 670 nm), and the lack of adverse effects due to exposure to NIR light. PMID:25071966

  7. Metabolic and morphologic properties of single muscle fibers in the rat after spaceflight, Cosmos 1887

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miu, B.; Martin, T. P.; Roy, R. R.; Oganov, V.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E.; Marini, J. F.; Leger, J. J.; Bodine-Fowler, S. C.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1990-01-01

    The adaptation of a slow (soleus, Sol) and a fast (medial gastrocnemius, MG) skeletal muscle to spaceflight was studied in five young male rats. The flight period was 12.5 days and the rats were killed approximately 48 h after returning to 1 g. Five other rats that were housed in cages similar to those used by the flight rats were maintained at 1 g for the same period of time to serve as ground-based controls. Fibers were classified as dark or light staining for myosin adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase). On the average, the fibers in the Sol of the flight rats atrophied twice as much as those in the MG. Further, the fibers located in the deep (close to the bone and having the highest percentage of light ATPase and high oxidative fibers in the muscle cross section) region of the MG atrophied more than the fibers located in the superficial (away from the bone and having the lowest percentage of light ATPase and high oxidative fibers in the muscle cross-section) region of the muscle. Based on quantitative histochemical assays of single muscle fibers, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity per unit volume was unchanged in fibers of the Sol and MG. However, in the Sol, but not the MG, the total amount of SDH activity in a 10-microns-thick section of a fiber decreased significantly in response to spaceflight. Based on population distributions, it appears that the alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) activities were elevated in the dark ATPase fibers in the Sol, whereas the light fibers in the Sol and both fiber types in the MG did not appear to change. The ratio of GPD to SDH activities increased in the dark (but not light) fibers of the Sol and was unaffected in the MG. Immunohistochemical analyses indicate that approximately 40% of the fibers in the Sol of flight rats expressed a fast myosin heavy chain compared with 22% in control rats. Further, 31% of the fibers in the Sol of flight rats expressed both fast and slow myosin heavy chains compared with 8% in control rats. Immunohistochemical changes in the MG were minimal. These data suggest that the magnitude and direction of enzymatic activity and cell volume changes are dependent on the muscle, the region of the muscle, and the type of myosin expressed in the fibers. Further, the ability of fibers to maintain normal or even elevated activities per unit volume of some metabolic enzymes is remarkable considering the marked and rapid decrease in fiber volume.

  8. Effect of warfarin on cell kinetics, epithelial morphology and tumour incidence in induced colorectal cancer in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Goeting, N; Trotter, G A; Cooke, T; Kirkham, N; Taylor, I

    1985-01-01

    The effect of low dose warfarin and high dose warfarin on epithelial cell kinetics (as determined by stathmokinetic techniques), and preneoplastic morphological changes was studied during azoxymethane induced carcinogenesis in the rat. Warfarin, at either low or high dose, had no effect on crypt cell production rate (CCPR) at any time interval whereas tumour incidence in both low dose warfarin and high dose warfarin groups was significantly reduced. Morphological changes were observed using scanning electron microscopy, which by conventional histology were shown to be adenoma precursors. In the control group the number of microadenomas increased with time after starting azoxymethane. In warfarin treated animals, the number of microadenomas also increased with time, but the actual incidence was reduced when compared with controls. These results suggest that the effects of warfarin on tumour development is unrelated to its anticoagulant effect, because increased dose did not result in greater tumour reduction. Furthermore, there was no overall change in CCPR when warfarin was administered. Warfarin may exert a specific effect, by preventing neoplastic change in cells which have undergone morphologically undetectable changes associated with early carcinogenesis. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:4018647

  9. Optimization and pharmacological characterization of a refined cisplatin-induced rat model of peripheral neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Han, Felicity Yaqin; Wyse, Bruce D; Smith, Maree T

    2014-12-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is the major dose-limiting side-effect of many front-line anticancer drugs. This study was designed to establish and pharmacologically characterize a refined rat model of cisplatin-induced CIPN. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received four (n=18) or five (n=18) single intraperitoneal bolus doses of cisplatin at 3?mg/kg, or saline (control group), once-weekly. Body weight and general health were assessed over a 49-day study period. von Frey filaments and the Hargreaves test were used to define the time course for the development of mechanical allodynia and thermal hypoalgesia in the hindpaws and for efficacy assessment of analgesic/adjuvant agents. The general health of rats administered four cisplatin doses was superior to that of rats administered five doses. Mechanical allodynia was fully developed (paw withdrawal thresholds?6?g) in the bilateral hindpaws from day 32 to 49 for both cisplatin dosing regimens. They also showed significant thermal hypoalgesia in the bilateral hindpaws. In cisplatin-treated rats with paw withdrawal thresholds of up to 6?g, single bolus doses of gabapentin and morphine produced dose-dependent analgesia, whereas meloxicam and amitriptyline lacked efficacy. We have established and pharmacologically characterized a refined rat model of CIPN that is suitable for efficacy profiling of compounds from analgesic discovery programmes. PMID:25325291

  10. Morphological and molecular characterization of Frankia sp. isolates from nodules of Alnus nepalensis Don.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, G; Misra, A K; Chapelon, C; Normand, P

    1994-01-01

    Nodules collected from Alnus nepalensis growing in mixed forest stands at three different sites around Shillong, were crushed in various culture media to obtain isolates of Frankia. The isolates were found to have typical Frankia morphology as revealed by the scanning electron microscope. Seedlings inoculated with isolates or crushed nodules formed nitrogen fixing nodules. Frankia specific DNA probes amplified the DNA of the tested isolate AnpUS4. Partial nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that AnpUS4 was phylogenetically distinct from all other Frankia strains characterized so far. PMID:7511370

  11. Morphological characterization of some representative species of the genus Loxoblemmus (Orthoptera: Gryllidae; Gryllinae; Gryllini) from India.

    PubMed

    Mal, Jhabar; Nagar, Rajendra; Swaminathan, R

    2015-01-01

    Morphological characterization of some common species of the genus Loxoblemmus (Gryllidae: Gryllinae) from India is presented. In all, 5 species were identified that included two, Loxoblemmus equestris Saussure and Loxoblemmus haani Saussure, from the sub-humid regions of Rajasthan (South West India) and Madhya Pradesh (Central India); while three species, Loxoblemmus taicoun Saussure, Loxoblemmus jacobsoni Chopard and Loxoblemmus intermedius Chopard from the humid hilly regions of Meghalaya and Assam (North East India). Of the 5 reported species, based on the comparative linear measurements, L. haani is relatively larger than the other species encountered. PMID:25947856

  12. Effectiveness of morphological and spectral heartbeat characterization on arrhythmia clustering for Holter recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Hoyos, Cristian; Peluffo-Ordóñez, Diego Hernán.; Rodríguez-Sotelo, Jose Luis; Castellanos-Domínguez, Germán.

    2015-01-01

    Heartbeat characterization is an important issue in cardiac assistance diagnosis systems. In particular, wide sets of features are commonly used in long term electrocardiographic signals. Then, if such a feature space does not represent properly the arrhythmias to be grouped, classification or clustering process may fail. In this work a suitable feature set for different heartbeat types is studied, involving morphology, representation and time-frequency features. To determine what kind of features generate better clusters, feature selection procedure is used and assessed by means clustering validity measures. Then the feature subset is shown to produce fine clustering that yields into high sensitivity and specificity values for a broad range of heartbeat types.

  13. Genomic Organization, Tissue Distribution and Functional Characterization of the Rat Pate Gene Cluster

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, Angireddy; Yenugu, Suresh

    2012-01-01

    The cysteine rich prostate and testis expressed (Pate) proteins identified till date are thought to resemble the three fingered protein/urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor proteins. In this study, for the first time, we report the identification, cloning and characterization of rat Pate gene cluster and also determine the expression pattern. The rat Pate genes are clustered on chromosome 8 and their predicted proteins retained the ten cysteine signature characteristic to TFP/Ly-6 protein family. PATE and PATE-F three dimensional protein structure was found to be similar to that of the toxin bucandin. Though Pate gene expression is thought to be prostate and testis specific, we observed that rat Pate genes are also expressed in seminal vesicle and epididymis and in tissues beyond the male reproductive tract. In the developing rats (20–60 day old), expression of Pate genes seem to be androgen dependent in the epididymis and testis. In the adult rat, androgen ablation resulted in down regulation of the majority of Pate genes in the epididymides. PATE and PATE-F proteins were found to be expressed abundantly in the male reproductive tract of rats and on the sperm. Recombinant PATE protein exhibited potent antibacterial activity, whereas PATE-F did not exhibit any antibacterial activity. Pate expression was induced in the epididymides when challenged with LPS. Based on our results, we conclude that rat PATE proteins may contribute to the reproductive and defense functions. PMID:22479333

  14. Establishment and characterization of a rat model of hyperphosphatemia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, C; Shao, Y; Zhu, Q-G; Li, Y; Jin, C-L; Wang, H-P; Zhou, L; Yu, C; Zhao, Y K; Yuan, G J; Hu, X-P; Zhang, L; Wang, H

    2015-01-01

    We established a rat model of hyperphosphatemia and investigated the systemic effects of high phosphorus (P). Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into high (HP), low (LP), and normal (NP) P groups (N = 12 each), which received injections of fructose diphosphate sodium, or were fed self-manufactured low phosphorus or normal diets, respectively. In each group, 4 rats were sacrificed at the first, third, and sixth week to detect the serum (Scr) and urinary creatinine and P, and calcium (Ca) levels. The HP group's serum P and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) were significantly higher than those in the other groups at the first, third, and sixth weeks, (P < 0.05); the LP group's serum P was lower than the NP group's at the third week (P < 0.05), while at the sixth week, the serum P and iPTH were lower (P < 0.05). No significant differences were detected for blood Ca+ (P > 0.05). The HP group's Scr increased (P < 0.01), whereas the fractional excretion decreased (P < 0.05) significantly. Thighbone and lumbar spine bone densities differed significantly between groups in the third week (P < 0.05); LP group densities were lower than NP group measures (P < 0.05). Crystallized stones were not observed microscopically following hematoxylin and eosin staining of the kidney. We successfully established a hyperphosphatemia rat model, and high blood P was found to significantly influence renal function and bone density. These results might provide a foundation to study the effects of hyperphosphatemia in rats. PMID:26400339

  15. MORPHOLOGIC ANALYSIS CORRELATES WITH GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN CULTURED F344 RAT MESOTHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The gene expression pattern of mesothelial cells in vitro was determined after 4 or 12 h exposure to the rat mesothelial, kidney and thyroid carcinogen, and oxidative stressor potassium bromate (KBr03). Gene expression changes observed using cDNA arrays indicated oxidative stres...

  16. Massage-induced morphological changes of dense connective tissue in rat's tendon.

    PubMed

    Kassolik, Krzysztof; Andrzejewski, Waldemar; Dziegiel, Piotr; Jelen, Michal; Fulawka, Lukasz; Brzozowski, Marcin; Kurpas, Donata; Gworys, Bohdan; Podhorska-Okolow, Marzenna

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the experiment was to determine if possible changes in connective tissue induced by massage could have a positive effect justifing the use of massage in all post-traumatic connective tissue conditions, e.g. tendon injuries. The investigations were performed in a group of 18 Buffalo rats. The rats were divided into two groups (experimental and control). To standardize the massage procedure, it was performed with an algometer probe of 0.5 cm2 with constant pressure force of 1 kG (9,81 N). To analyse the number and diameter of collagen fibrils, two electron micrographs were performed for each rat of the collected segments of tendons of rat tail lateral extensor muscle. After image digitalization and calibration, the measurements were carried out using iTEM 5.0 software. The number of fibrils, their diameter and area were measured in a cross-sectional area. An increase of the number of collagen fibrils was observed in the tendons of massaged animals compared to the control group. Our study demonstrated that massage may cause a beneficial effect on metabolic activity of tendon's fibroblasts and, in consequence, may be applied for more effective use of massage for the prevention of tendon injury as well as after the injury has occurred. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2013, Vol. 51, No. 1, 103-106). PMID:23690224

  17. Cosmos 1887: morphology, histochemistry, and vasculature of the growing rat tibia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, S. B.; Morey-Holton, E. R.; Durnova, G. N.; Kaplansky, A. S.

    1990-01-01

    Light microscopy, electron microscopy, and enzyme histochemistry were used to study the effects of spaceflight on metaphyseal and cortical bone of the rat tibia. Cortical cross-sectional area and perimeter were not altered by a 12.5-day spaceflight in 3-month-old male rats. The endosteal osteoblast population and the vasculature near the periosteal surface in flight rats compared with ground controls showed more pronounced changes in cortical bone than in metaphyseal bone. The osteoblasts demonstrated greater numbers of transitional Golgi vesicles, possibly caused by a decreased cellular metabolic energy source, but no difference in the large Golgi saccules or the cell membrane-associated alkaline phosphatase activity. The periosteal vasculature in the diaphysis of flight rats often showed lipid accumulations within the lumen of the vessels, occasional degeneration of the vascular wall, and degeneration of osteocytes adjacent to vessels containing intraluminal deposits. These changes were not found in the metaphyseal region of flight animals. The focal vascular changes may be due to ischemia of bone or a developing fragility of the vessel walls as a result of spaceflight.

  18. MORPHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF PROLONGED EXPOSURE TO OZONE AND SULFURIC ACID AEROSOL ON THE RAT LUNG

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study was to determine the pulmonary effects of a combination of ozone (0.5 ppm) and sulfuric acid aerosol (1 mg/cu. m.) and to assess the possibility of interactive effects. Groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were continously exposed to the pollutants, either indi...

  19. Electrophysiological characterization of vagal afferents relevant to mucosal nociception in the rat upper oesophagus

    PubMed Central

    Lennerz, J K M; Dentsch, C; Bernardini, N; Hummel, T; Neuhuber, W L; Reeh, P W

    2007-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates a nociceptive role of vagal afferents. A distinct oesophageal innervation in the rat, with muscular and mucosal afferents travelling predominantly in the recurrent (RLN) and superior laryngeal nerve (SLN), respectively, enabled characterization of mucosal afferents with nociceptive properties, using novel isolated oesophagus–nerve preparations. SLN and RLN single-fibre recordings identified 55 and 14 units, respectively, with none conducting faster than 8.7 m s?1. Mucosal response characteristics in the SLN distinguished mechanosensors (n= 13), mechanosensors with heat sensitivity (18) from those with cold sensitivity (19) and a mechanoinsensitive group (5). The mechanosensitive fibres, all slowly adapting, showed a unimodal distribution of mechanical thresholds (1.4–128 mN, peak ?5.7 mN). No difference in response characteristics of C and A? fibres was encountered. Mucosal proton stimulation (pH 5.4 for 3 min), mimicking gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), revealed in 31% of units a desensitizing response that peaked around 20 s and faded within 60 s. Cold stimulation (15°C) was proportionally encoded but the response showed slow adaptation. In contrast, the noxious heat (48°C) response showed no obvious adaptation with discharge rates reflecting the temperature's time course. Polymodal (69%) mucosal units, > 30% proton sensitive, were found in each fibre category and were considered nociceptors; they are tentatively attributed to vagal nerve endings type I, IV and V, previously morphologically described. All receptive fields were mapped and the distribution indicates that the posterior upper oesophagus may serve as a ‘cutbank’, detecting noxious matters, ingested or regurgitated, and triggering nocifensive reflexes such as bronchoconstriction in GORD. PMID:17478536

  20. Synthesis, characterization and electrocatalytic activity of copper sulfide nanocrystals with different morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Jing; Jiang, Jizhou; Huang, Lei; Jiang, Haipeng; Huang, Kaixun

    2011-06-01

    Copper sulfide nanocrystals (CuS NCs) with different morphologies were synthesized via solvothermal method using copper acetate and sulfur chloride as precursors. Hereinto, CuS NCs with geometrical symmetry was prepared in 95% ethanol. The crystal structures were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), electron diffraction (SAED), UV-vis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The typical nanostructure was constructed of eight intersectant nanoflakes with half hexagon shape. The influences of solvent, sulfur sources, water/ethanol volume ratio and reaction temperature on the morphology of products were investigated. Moreover, the possible formation process about geometrical symmetry-like CuS nanocrystals was proposed based on the time-dependent experiments. The electrode modified by CuS NCs of different morphologies showed excellent electrocatalytic activities to Methyl Orange (MO). The good analytical performance makes CuS NCs/chitosan/GC modified electrode (CuS NCs/CS/GCE) as promising electrochemical sensor for Methyl Orange.

  1. Radiosensitivity study and radiation effects on morphology characterization of grey oyster mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju

    SciTech Connect

    Rashid, Rosnani Abdul; Awang, Mat Rasol; Mohamad, Azhar; Mutaat, Hassan Hamdani; Maskom, Mohd Meswan; Daud, Fauzi; Senafi, Sahidan

    2014-09-03

    Radiosensitive dosage and morphology characterization of irradiated grey oyster mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju by gamma rays was investigated due to effects of irradiation. In order to establish the effect, mycelium of P. sajor-caju was irradiated by gamma rays at dose 0.1 to 8.0 kGy with dose rate 0.227 Gy sec{sup ?1}. The irradiation of mycelia was carried out at the radiation facility in Malaysian Nuclear Agency. The radiosensitivity study was performed by evaluating the percentage of survival irradiated mycelia. The lethal dose of the mycelium P. sajor-caju was determined at 4.0 kGy and LD{sub 50} to be equal at 2.2 kGy. The radiation effects on morphology were evaluated based on growth rate of irradiated mycelia, mycelia types, colonization period on substrate, morphology of fruit bodies and yields. The results shown growth rate of irradiated mycelium was slightly lower than the control and decreased as the dose increased. Irradiation was found can induced the primordia formation on PDA and the BE of irradiated seed is higher than to control. The irradiation is proven to be useful for generating new varieties of mushroom with commercial value to the industry.

  2. Radiosensitivity study and radiation effects on morphology characterization of grey oyster mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Rosnani Abdul; Daud, Fauzi; Senafi, Sahidan; Awang, Mat Rasol; Mohamad, Azhar; Mutaat, Hassan Hamdani; Maskom, Mohd Meswan

    2014-09-01

    Radiosensitive dosage and morphology characterization of irradiated grey oyster mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju by gamma rays was investigated due to effects of irradiation. In order to establish the effect, mycelium of P. sajor-caju was irradiated by gamma rays at dose 0.1 to 8.0 kGy with dose rate 0.227 Gy sec-1. The irradiation of mycelia was carried out at the radiation facility in Malaysian Nuclear Agency. The radiosensitivity study was performed by evaluating the percentage of survival irradiated mycelia. The lethal dose of the mycelium P. sajor-caju was determined at 4.0 kGy and LD50 to be equal at 2.2 kGy. The radiation effects on morphology were evaluated based on growth rate of irradiated mycelia, mycelia types, colonization period on substrate, morphology of fruit bodies and yields. The results shown growth rate of irradiated mycelium was slightly lower than the control and decreased as the dose increased. Irradiation was found can induced the primordia formation on PDA and the BE of irradiated seed is higher than to control. The irradiation is proven to be useful for generating new varieties of mushroom with commercial value to the industry.

  3. Statistical characterization of the foremoon particle and wave morphology: ARTEMIS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Y.; Halekas, J. S.; Poppe, A. R.; Tsugawa, Y.; Kurita, S.; McFadden, J. P.

    2015-06-01

    Although the zeroth-order picture of the Moon-solar wind interaction involves no upstream perturbation, the presence of the Moon does affect the upstream plasma in a variety of ways. In this paper, a large volume of data obtained by the dual-probe Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS) mission are used to characterize the large-scale morphology of the "foremoon," which is defined as the region upstream of the Moon and its wake that contains Moon-related particles and waves. Solar wind ions reflected from the unshielded surface and by crustal magnetic fields, together with heavy ions of lunar surface/exospheric origin, are picked up by the solar wind magnetic and electric fields. Partially coinciding with populations of these Moon-related ions, ˜0.01 Hz and ˜1 Hz magnetic field fluctuations are observed. The morphology of the Moon-related ion and wave distributions is well organized by the upstream magnetic field direction. In addition, the low-frequency wave distributions depend on the upstream Alfvén Mach numbers, suggesting that propagation effects also play a role in determining the wave foremoon morphology. Occurrence of modified electron velocity distributions and higher-frequency, electromagnetic, and electrostatic waves is primarily controlled by magnetic connection to the Moon and its wake. These statistical results observationally demonstrate the large-scale properties of the foremoon and upstream-parameter control thereof.

  4. Simultaneous Characterization of Metabolic, Cardiac, Vascular and Renal Phenotypes of Lean and Obese SHHF Rats

    PubMed Central

    Youcef, Gina; Olivier, Arnaud; L'Huillier, Clément P. J.; Labat, Carlos; Fay, Renaud; Tabcheh, Lina; Toupance, Simon; Rodriguez-Guéant, Rosa-Maria; Bergerot, Damien; Jaisser, Frédéric; Lacolley, Patrick; Zannad, Faiez; Laurent Vallar; Pizard, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS) are prone to develop heart failure (HF). However, the deleterious effects of MetS on the continuum of events leading to cardiac remodeling and subsequently to HF are not fully understood. This study characterized simultaneously MetS and cardiac, vascular and renal phenotypes in aging Spontaneously Hypertensive Heart Failure lean (SHHF+/? regrouping +/+ and +/cp rats) and obese (SHHFcp/cp, “cp” defective mutant allele of the leptin receptor gene) rats. We aimed to refine the milestones and their onset during the progression from MetS to HF in this experimental model. We found that SHHFcp/cp but not SHHF+/? rats developed dyslipidemia, as early as 1.5 months of age. This early alteration in the lipidic profile was detectable concomitantly to impaired renal function (polyuria, proteinuria but no glycosuria) and reduced carotid distensibility as compared to SHHF+/? rats. By 3 months of age SHHFcp/cp animals developed severe obesity associated with dislipidemia and hypertension defining the onset of MetS. From 6 months of age, SHHF+/? rats developed concentric left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) while SHHFcp/cp rats developed eccentric LVH apparent from progressive dilation of the LV dimensions. By 14 months of age only SHHFcp/cp rats showed significantly higher central systolic blood pressure and a reduced ejection fraction resulting in systolic dysfunction as compared to SHHF+/?. In summary, the metabolic and hemodynamic mechanisms participating in the faster decline of cardiac functions in SHHFcp/cp rats are established long before their physiological consequences are detectable. Our results suggest that the molecular mechanisms triggered within the first three months after birth of SHHFcp/cp rats should be targeted preferentially by therapeutic interventions in order to mitigate the later HF development. PMID:24831821

  5. Cold stress induced morphological microglial activation and increased IL-1? expression in astroglial cells in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Sugama, Shuei; Takenouchi, Takato; Fujita, Masayo; Kitani, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Makoto

    2011-04-01

    The present study investigated the possible impact of cold stress on the immune functions of the brain. Wistar rats were exposed to 4°C for 2h prior to analysis of immunohistochemical analysis of OX-42 and IL-1?, which are markers of microglia and inflammation, respectively. Exposure to cold stress induced morphological microglial activation in as early as 30 min, and the activation lasted up to 2h following the stress. In addition, increased IL-1?-immunoreactivity was detected in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. However, IL-1? was not co-localized with microglia, and was predominantly expressed in astroglia. The present study provides the first evidence that cold stress contributes to neuro-immunomodulation in the brain through microglial activation and expression of IL-1? in astroglia. PMID:21115202

  6. Morphological and molecular characterization of Tylencholaimellus persicus sp. n. (Dorylaimida: Tylencholaimellidae) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Adeldoost, Yaser; Heydari, Ramin; Pedram, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Tylencholaimellus persicus sp. n. is described and illustrated based on morphological and molecular characters. The new species is characterized by its 613-885 ?m long body, expanded lip region separated from body contour by a sharp constriction, forming a large disk-like structure, odontostyle and odontophore respectively 12-14 and 6.5-8.0 ?m long, female genital system mono-opisthodelphic with relatively long anterior uterine sac (AUS; 50-80 ?m in length), position of vulva relative to the body length (V = 36.5-41.5), broadly rounded tail, abundant males in population with 22-25 ?m long spicules and one ventromedian copulatory supplement. The new species is compared with five known species of the genus that have a perioral disc, rounded tail and AUS: T. coronatus, T. incertus, T. montanus, T. ozarkensis and T. projectus. Compared to these five species, the new species has an expanded lip region separated from body contour by a sharp constriction, but can further be separated by a combination of morphological and morphometric characters such as odontostyle length, tail shape, differences in ratios c´ and V and male characters. Because of having similar general morphology, the new species was also compared with a species of genus Margollus, M. bokanicus, and the differences between the two species are discussed. In addition to morphological and morphometric data, molecular phylogenetic analyses were performed using partial sequences of the 18S SSU and 28S LSU D2/D3 rDNA segments, in which the new species forms a clade with four species/isolates of Tylencholaimellus in the SSU tree and one isolate of Tylencholaimus in the LSU tree using Bayesian inference (BI). PMID:26624652

  7. Three-dimensional EBSD characterization of thermo-mechanical fatigue crack morphology in compacted graphite iron

    SciTech Connect

    Pirgazi, Hadi; Ghodrat, Sepideh; Kestens, Leo A.I.

    2014-04-01

    In cylinder heads made of compacted graphitic iron (CGI), heating and cooling cycles can lead to localized cracking due to thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF). To meticulously characterize the complex crack path morphology of CGI under TMF condition, in relation to microstructural features and to find out how and by which mechanisms the cracks predominantly develop, three-dimensional electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD) was employed. Based on the precise quantitative microstructural analysis, it is found that graphite particles not only play a crucial role in the crack initiation, but also are of primary significance for crack propagation, i.e. crack growth is enhanced by the presence of graphite particles. Furthermore, the density of graphite particles on the fracture plane is more than double as high as in any other arbitrary plane of the structure. The obtained results did not indicate a particular crystallographic preference of fracture plane, i.e. the crystal plane parallel to the fracture plane was nearly of random orientation. - Highlights: • Crystallographic features of a thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF) crack were studied. • Wide-field 3D EBSD is used to characterize the TMF crack morphology. • Data processing was applied on a large length scale of the order of millimeters. • Graphite density in the fracture plane is much higher than any other random plane. • It is revealed that crack growth is enhanced by the presence of graphite particles.

  8. Characterization of 3D joint space morphology using an electrostatic model (with application to osteoarthritis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Qian; Thawait, Gaurav; Gang, Grace J.; Zbijewski, Wojciech; Reigel, Thomas; Brown, Tyler; Corner, Brian; Demehri, Shadpour; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.

    2015-02-01

    Joint space morphology can be indicative of the risk, presence, progression, and/or treatment response of disease or trauma. We describe a novel methodology of characterizing joint space morphology in high-resolution 3D images (e.g. cone-beam CT (CBCT)) using a model based on elementary electrostatics that overcomes a variety of basic limitations of existing 2D and 3D methods. The method models each surface of a joint as a conductor at fixed electrostatic potential and characterizes the intra-articular space in terms of the electric field lines resulting from the solution of Gauss’ Law and the Laplace equation. As a test case, the method was applied to discrimination of healthy and osteoarthritic subjects (N = 39) in 3D images of the knee acquired on an extremity CBCT system. The method demonstrated improved diagnostic performance (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, AUC > 0.98) compared to simpler methods of quantitative measurement and qualitative image-based assessment by three expert musculoskeletal radiologists (AUC = 0.87, p-value = 0.007). The method is applicable to simple (e.g. the knee or elbow) or multi-axial joints (e.g. the wrist or ankle) and may provide a useful means of quantitatively assessing a variety of joint pathologies.

  9. CLONING, EXPRESSION, AND CHARACTERIZATION OF RAT S-ADENOSYL-L-METHIONINE: ARSENIC (III) METHYLTRANSFERASE (CYT19)

    EPA Science Inventory

    CLONING, EXPRESSION, AND CHARACTERIZATION OF RAT S-ADENOSYL-L-METHIONINE: ARSENIC(III) METHYLTRANSFERASE (cyt19)

    Stephen B. Waters1 , Felicia Walton1 , Miroslav Styblo1 , Karen Herbin-Davis2, and David J. Thomas2 1 School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chape...

  10. The characterization and metabolism of rat hepatic nascent HLD subfractions

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    Nascent HDL was isolated from recirculating rat liver perfusates and separated by heparin-sepharose chromatography into a non-retained fraction (A) and a fraction (B) that eluted with 0.5 M NaCl. Fractions A and B contained 70% and 30% of the nascent HDL protein, respectively. Livers perfused by the single-pass technique produced fractions A and B in the same ratio as livers perfused by recirculation. The apolipoprotein compositions were similar to those in the recirculating perfusion; however, both fractions A and B had more triglyceride (greater than 50% of total lipid). In a preliminary study designed to investigate whether nascent HDL-apo E was secreted by Kupffer cells or hepatocytes, label was targeted to Kupffer cells by perfusing rat livers with {sup 3}H-acetylated LDL or {sup 3}H-amino acids incorporated into large multilamellar vesicles. For metabolic studies, nascent HDL and nascent VLDL were isolated from rat livers that had been perfused with {sup 3}H-glycerol to label the triglyceride.

  11. Morphological and morphometric characterization of direct transdifferentiation of support cells into hair cells in ototoxin-exposed neonatal utricular explants.

    PubMed

    Werner, Mimmi; Van De Water, Thomas R; Hammarsten, Peter; Arnoldsson, Göran; Berggren, Diana

    2015-03-01

    We have studied aminoglycoside-induced vestibular hair-cell renewal using long-term culture of utricular macula explants from 4-day-old rats. Explanted utricles were exposed to 1 mM of gentamicin for 48 h, during 2nd and 3rd days in vitro (DIV), and then recovering in unsupplemented medium. Utricles were harvested at specified time points from the 2nd through the 28th DIV. The cellular events that occurred within hair cell epithelia during the culture period were documented from serial sectioned specimens. Vestibular hair cells (HCs) and supporting cells (SCs) were systematically counted using light microscopy (LM) with the assistance of morphometric software. Ultrastructural observations were made from selected specimens with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). After 7 DIV, i.e. four days after gentamicin exposure, the density of HCs was 11% of the number of HCs observed in non-gentamicin-exposed control explants. At 28 DIV the HC density was 61% of the number of HCs observed in the control group explant specimens. Simultaneously with this increase in HCs there was a corresponding decline in the number of SCs within the epithelium. The proportion of HCs in relation to SCs increased significantly in the gentamicin-exposed explant group during the 5th to the 28th DIV period of culture. There were no significant differences in the volume estimations of the gentamicin-exposed and the control group explants during the observed period of culture. Morphological observations showed that gentamicin exposure induced extensive loss of HCs within the epithelial layer, which retained their intact apical and basal linings. At 7 to 14 DIV (i.e. 3-11 days after gentamicin exposure) a pseudostratified epithelium with multiple layers of disorganized cells was observed. At 21 DIV new HCs were observed that also possessed features resembling SCs. After 28 DIV a new luminal layer of HCs with several layers of SCs located more basally characterized the gentamicin-exposed epithelium. No mitoses were observed within the epithelial layer of any explants. Our conclusion is that direct transdifferentiation of SCs into HCs was the only process contributing to the renewal of HCs after gentamicin exposure in these explants of vestibular inner ear epithelia obtained from the labyrinths of 4-day-old rats. PMID:25576788

  12. Hippocampal Morphology in a Rat Model of Depression: The Effects of Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Sierakowiak, Adam; Mattsson, Anna; Gómez-Galán, Marta; Feminía, Teresa; Graae, Lisette; Aski, Sahar Nikkhou; Damberg, Peter; Lindskog, Mia; Brené, Stefan; Åberg, Elin

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating in vivo and ex vivo evidences show that humans suffering from depression have decreased hippocampal volume and altered spine density. Moreover, physical activity has an antidepressant effect in humans and in animal models, but to what extent physical activity can affect hippocampal volume and spine numbers in a model for depression is not known. In this study we analyzed whether physical activity affects hippocampal volume and spine density by analyzing a rodent genetic model of depression, Flinders Sensitive Line Rats (FSL), with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and ex vivo Golgi staining. We found that physical activity in the form of voluntary wheel running during 5 weeks increased hippocampal volume. Moreover, runners also had larger numbers of thin spines in the dentate gyrus. Our findings support that voluntary wheel running, which is antidepressive in FSL rats, is associated with increased hippocampal volume and spine numbers. PMID:25674191

  13. Surface morphology and morphometry of rat alveolar macrophages after ozone exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Dormans, J.A.; Rombout, P.J.; van Loveren, H. )

    1990-09-01

    As the ultrastructural data on the effects of ozone on pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM) are lacking, transmission (TEM) and scanning (SEM) electron microscopy were performed on rat PAM present in alveolar lavages following exposure to ozone. Rats were continuously exposed for 7 d to ozone concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 1.50 mg/m3 for 7 d followed by a 5-d recovery period. Additionally, morphometry on lung sections was performed to quantitate PAM. In a second experiment rats were continuously exposed to 1.50 mg O3/m3 for 1, 3, 5, or 7 d. To study the influence of concurrent ozone exposure and lung infection, due to Listeria monocytogenes, rats were exposed for 7 d to 1.50 mg O3/m3 after a Listeria infection. The surface area of lavaged control PAM was uniformly covered with ruffles as shown by SEM and TEM. Exposure to 0.5 mg ozone/m3 for 7 d resulted in cells partly covered with microvilli and blebs in addition to normal ruffles. The number of large size PAM increased with an increase in ozone concentration. After 1 d of exposure, normal-appearing as well as many small macrophages with ruffles and scattered lymphocytes were seen. Lavage samples taken after 5 or 7 d of exposure showed an identical cell composition to that taken after 3 d of exposure. After Listeria infection alone, lavage samples consisted of mainly lymphocytes and some macrophages. Small quantitative changes, such as an increase in the number of polymorphonuclear neutrophils and large-size PAM, occurred in lavages after ozone exposure and infection with L. monocytogenes. Morphometric examination of lung sections revealed a concentration-related increase in the number of PAM, even in animals exposed to 0.25 mg ozone/m3 for 7 d. Centriacinar regions were more severely affected than other regions of lung tissue.

  14. Effect of curcumin on rat sperm morphology after the freeze-thawing process

    PubMed Central

    Soleimanzadeh, Ali; Saberivand, Adel

    2013-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, induced by the cryopreservation process, can be responsible for mammalian sperm damage. Curcumin is known as an effective antioxidant against oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of curcumin on sperm count, motility and viability, semen total antioxidant capacity and DNA integrity of rat spermatozoa during semen freeze-thawing process. Sperm collected from 10 adult rats were divided into two groups (n=10 for each group): control and a test group supplemented with 2.5 mM curcumin. After freezing-thawing, the number of spermatozoa, motility, viability, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and DNA integrity of the sperm were analyzed. Motility, viability and DNA integrity of sperm were significantly preserved in treatment groups compared to the control (p < 0.05) after freezing-thawing. Following cryopreservation, TAC was significantly preserved in thawing semen supplemented with curcumin compared to the control group (p<0.05). Based on our results, it is concluded that curcumin addition during freezing resulted in positive effects on sperm parameters after thawing in adult rats. PMID:25653795

  15. Morphological characteristics and identification of islet-like cells derived from rat adipose-derived stem cells cocultured with pancreas adult stem cells.

    PubMed

    Hefei, Wang; Yu, Ren; Haiqing, Wu; Xiao, Wang; Jingyuan, Wang; Dongjun, Liu

    2015-03-01

    Diabetes is a significant public health problem that can be treated with insulin therapy; however, therapies designed to cure diabetes are limited. The goal of the current study was to assess the potential for curative treatment of diabetes using adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). To achieve this goal, the differentiation of rat ADSCs into pancreatic islet-like cells induced by coculture with pancreatic adult stem cells (PASCs) was characterized. Differentiation of ADSCs into islet-like cells induced by coculturing was determined morphologically, as well as by the assessment of islet cell markers using dithizone staining, immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, qPCR, and western blotting. The results showed that ADSCs formed islet-like round cell masses after coculture with PASCs. These differentiated cells were shown to be positive for islet cell markers, including dithizone incorporation; PDX1, CK19 and Nestin by immunohistochemistry, and insulin, PDX1 and glucagon expression by RT-PCR. Differentiated ADSCs induced by coculturing also expressed insulin at the mRNA and protein level, with the level of insulin mRNA expression in cocultured ADSCs being 0.05 times greater than that of PASCs (P?

  16. Sensory and motor characterization in the postnatal valproate rat model of autism.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Stacey; Millette, Alexandre; Devine, Darragh P

    2012-01-01

    Although autism is diagnosed according to three core features of social deficits, communication impairments, and repetitive or stereotyped behaviors, other behavioral features such as sensory and motor impairments are present in more than 70% of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Exposure of rat pups to the teratogen valproate during sensitive periods of brain development has been shown to elicit behavioral features associated with autism diagnosis and has been proposed as a valid animal model of the disorder. The purpose of this study was to characterize sensory and motor performance in rats postnatally treated with valproate. Thirty-four rat pups were injected with either valproate (150 mg/kg) or saline on postnatal days 6-12. Auditory and tactile startle as well as auditory sensory gating was assessed during both the juvenile and adolescent stages of development; motor testing was conducted during late adolescence and included a sunflower seed eating task and a vermicelli handling task. Valproate-treated rats were underresponsive to auditory stimuli, showed deficits in auditory sensory gating, and demonstrated impairments in motor speed and performance. These findings suggest that postnatal valproate treatment elicits sensory and motor features often seen in individuals with ASD. Further, the hyposensitivity seen in postnatally valproate-treated rats contrasted with hypersensitivity previously reported in prenatally valproate-exposed rats. This suggests that timing of teratogenic exposure during early brain development may be important to consider when investigating the neurobiological basis of sensorimotor impairments in ASD. PMID:22627078

  17. Identification and characterization of rat Bcl9l gene in silico.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Yuriko; Katoh, Masaru

    2005-03-01

    Drosophila wingless (wg), shaggy (sgg), armadillo (arm), legless (lgs), pygopus (pygo), pangolin (pan), and engrailed (en) are segment polarity genes implicated in Wg-Arm (WNT-beta-catenin) pathway. Drosophila lgs encodes nuclear scaffold protein functioning as positive regulator for Wg-Arm pathway. Cancer-associated genes BCL9 and BCL9L are human homologs for Drosophila lgs. Here, we identified and characterized rat Bcl9l gene by using bioinformatics. Rat Bcl9l gene, consisting of eight exons, was located within AC124034.4 and AC105645.5 genome sequences. Bcl9l gene was linked to Blr1 gene at rat chromosome 8q22 in the tail-to-tail manner with an interval less than 2 kb. Rat Bcl9l gene was found to encode a 1494-aa Bcl9l protein, which showed 97.7% and 94.2% total-amino-acid identity with mouse Bcl9l and human BCL9L, respectively. B9H1-B9H6 domains, originally identified as conserved regions among mammalian BCL9 and BCL9L homologs, were also identified within rat Bcl9l. B9H1 and B9H2 domains corresponded to HD1 and HD2 domains of Drosophila lgs, functioning as binding regions for Pygo and Arm, respectively. B9H4 domain was characterized by multiple Ser-Pro repeats. Thr 954 within B9H4 domain of rat Bcl9l was conserved in mammalian BCL9 and BCL9L homologs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that mammalian Bcl9l homologs were more related to human BCL9 than to Drosophila lgs. This is the first report on rat Bcl9l gene. PMID:15703843

  18. Molecular and morphological characterization of local apple cultivars in Southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Romero, L F; Suárez, M P; Dapena, E; Rallo, P

    2015-01-01

    The number of local and traditional fruit cultivars in Andalusia (Southern Spain) has decreased dramatically since the 1970s when new commercial cultivars from breeding programs were introduced, replacing old varieties, and thus decreasing genetic diversity. The present study was included in a genetic resources project with the objective of identifying and preserving traditional fruit tree cultivars in Southern Spain. The goal of this study was to begin the characterization of 29 apple accessions (Malus x domestica Borkh) belonging to 13 traditional cultivar denominations. For molecular characterization studies, 12 simple sequence repeat markers previously developed for apple species were used. Morphological characterization was performed using 33 fruit traits. A total of 115 alleles were amplified for the 12 loci, ranging from 7 (CH01h01, CH01h10, and GD 12) to 13 alleles per locus (CH02c11). Forty-one alleles were unique to specific genotypes. The locus with the highest number of detected unique alleles was CH01f03b with 6 alleles. Expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.74 for CH01h10 to 0.88 for CH02c11, with an average of 0.82. Observed heterozygosity varied from 0.45 for CH01h01 to 1.0 for CH02d08, with an average of 0.86. Three homonyms were found for accessions belonging to varieties 'Maguillo', 'Pero Minguela', and 'Castellana'. The most discriminant morphological characters studied revealed no homonyms or synonyms among cultivar denominations, although they are useful for describing varietal characteristics that have not been previously defined. PMID:25730088

  19. Chronic treatment with glucocorticoids alters rat hippocampal and prefrontal cortical morphology in parallel with endogenous agmatine and arginine decarboxylase levels

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Meng-Yang; Wang, Wei-Ping; Huang, Jingjing; Regunathan, Soundar

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the possible effect of chronic treatment with glucocorticoids on the morphology of the rat brain and levels of endogenous agmatine and arginine decarboxylase (ADC) protein, the enzyme essential for agmatine synthesis. Seven-day treatment with dexamethasone, at a dose (10 and 50 µg/kg/day) associated to stress effects contributed by glucocorticoids, did not result in obvious morphologic changes in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, as measured by immunocytochemical staining with ?-tubulin III. However, 21-day treatment (50 µg/kg/day) produced noticeable structural changes such as the diminution and disarrangement of dendrites and neurons in these areas. Simultaneous treatment with agmatine (50 mg/kg/day) prevented these morphological changes. Further measurement with HPLC showed that endogenous agmatine levels in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus were significantly increased after 7-day treatments with dexamethasone in a dose-dependent manner. On the contrary, 21-day treatment with glucocorticoids robustly reduced agmatine levels in these regions. The treatment-caused biphasic alterations of endogenous agmatine levels were also seen in the striatum and hypothalamus. Interestingly, treatment with glucocorticoids resulted in a similar change of ADC protein levels in most brain areas to endogenous agmatine levels: an increase after 7-day treatment versus a reduction after 21-day treatment. These results demonstrated that agmatine has neuroprotective effects against structural alterations caused by glucocorticoids in vivo. The parallel alterations in the endogenous agmatine levels and ADC expression in the brain after treatment with glucocorticoids indicate the possible regulatory effect of these stress hormones on the synthesis and metabolism of agmatine in vivo. PMID:17760863

  20. Chemical and morphological characterization of sugarcane bagasse submitted to a delignification process for enhanced enzymatic digestibility

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In recent years, biorefining of lignocellulosic biomass to produce multi-products such as ethanol and other biomaterials has become a dynamic research area. Pretreatment technologies that fractionate sugarcane bagasse are essential for the successful use of this feedstock in ethanol production. In this paper, we investigate modifications in the morphology and chemical composition of sugarcane bagasse submitted to a two-step treatment, using diluted acid followed by a delignification process with increasing sodium hydroxide concentrations. Detailed chemical and morphological characterization of the samples after each pretreatment condition, studied by high performance liquid chromatography, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, is reported, together with sample crystallinity and enzymatic digestibility. Results Chemical composition analysis performed on samples obtained after different pretreatment conditions showed that up to 96% and 85% of hemicellulose and lignin fractions, respectively, were removed by this two-step method when sodium hydroxide concentrations of 1% (m/v) or higher were used. The efficient lignin removal resulted in an enhanced hydrolysis yield reaching values around 100%. Considering the cellulose loss due to the pretreatment (maximum of 30%, depending on the process), the total cellulose conversion increases significantly from 22.0% (value for the untreated bagasse) to 72.4%. The delignification process, with consequent increase in the cellulose to lignin ratio, is also clearly observed by nuclear magnetic resonance and diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy experiments. We also demonstrated that the morphological changes contributing to this remarkable improvement occur as a consequence of lignin removal from the sample. Bagasse unstructuring is favored by the loss of cohesion between neighboring cell walls, as well as by changes in the inner cell wall structure, such as damaging, hole formation and loss of mechanical resistance, facilitating liquid and enzyme access to crystalline cellulose. Conclusions The results presented herewith show the efficiency of the proposed method for improving the enzymatic digestibility of sugarcane bagasse and provide understanding of the pretreatment action mechanism. Combining the different techniques applied in this work warranted thorough information about the undergoing morphological and chemical changes and was an efficient approach to understand the morphological effects resulting from sample delignification and its influence on the enhanced hydrolysis results. PMID:22122978

  1. Characterization of Diabetic Neuropathy in the Zucker Diabetic Sprague-Dawley Rat: A New Animal Model for Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Eric P.; Coppey, Lawrence J.; Holmes, Amey; Lupachyk, Sergey; Dake, Brian L.; Oltman, Christine L.; Peterson, Richard G.; Yorek, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Recently a new rat model for type 2 diabetes the Zucker diabetic Sprague-Dawley (ZDSD/Pco) was created. In this study we sought to characterize the development of diabetic neuropathy in ZDSD rats using age-matched Sprague-Dawley rats as a control. Rats were examined at 34 weeks of age 12 weeks after the onset of hyperglycemia in ZDSD rats. At this time ZDSD rats were severely insulin resistant with slowing of both motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities. ZDSD rats also had fatty livers, elevated serum free fatty acids, triglycerides, and cholesterol, and elevated sciatic nerve nitrotyrosine levels. The corneas of ZDSD rats exhibited a decrease in subbasal epithelial corneal nerves and sensitivity. ZDSD rats were hypoalgesic but intraepidermal nerve fibers in the skin of the hindpaw were normal compared to Sprague-Dawley rats. However, the number of Langerhans cells was decreased. Vascular reactivity of epineurial arterioles, blood vessels that provide circulation to the sciatic nerve, to acetylcholine and calcitonin gene-related peptide was impaired in ZDSD rats. These data indicate that ZDSD rats develop many of the neural complications associated with type 2 diabetes and are a good animal model for preclinical investigations of drug development for diabetic neuropathy. PMID:25371906

  2. Effects of leptin on sperm count and morphology in Sprague-Dawley rats and their reversibility following a 6-week recovery period.

    PubMed

    Almabhouh, F A; Osman, K; Siti Fatimah, I; Sergey, G; Gnanou, J; Singh, H J

    2015-09-01

    Altered epididymal sperm count and morphology following leptin treatment has been reported recently. This study examined the effects of 42 days of leptin treatment on sperm count and morphology and their reversibility during a subsequent 56-day recovery period. Twelve-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomised into four leptin and four saline-treated control groups (n = 6). Intraperitoneal injections of leptin were given daily (60 ?g Kg(-1) body weight) for 42 days. Controls received 0.1 ml of 0.9% saline. Leptin-treated animals and their respective age-matched controls were euthanised on either day 1, 21, 42 or 56 of recovery for collection of epididymal spermatozoa. Sperm concentration was determined using a Makler counting chamber. Spermatozoa were analysed for 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine and DNA fragmentation (Comet assay). Data were analysed using anova. Sperm concentration was significantly lower but fraction of abnormal spermatozoa, and levels of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine were significantly higher in leptin-treated rats on day 1 of recovery. Comet assays revealed significant DNA fragmentation in leptin-treated rats. These differences were reduced by day 56 of recovery. It appears that 42 days of leptin treatment to Sprague-Dawley rats has significant adverse effects on sperm count and morphology that reverse following discontinuation of leptin treatment. PMID:25269426

  3. Characterization of biliary conjugates of 4,4'-methylenedianiline in male versus female rats

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Kan; Cole, Richard B.; Santa Cruz, Vicente; Blakeney, Ernest W.; Kanz, Mary F.; Dugas, Tammy R.

    2008-10-15

    4,4'-Methylenedianiline (4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane; DAPM) is an aromatic diamine used in the production of numerous polyurethane foams and epoxy resins. Previous studies in rats revealed that DAPM initially injures biliary epithelial cells of the liver, that the toxicity is greater in female than in male rats, and that the toxic metabolites of DAPM are excreted into bile. Since male and female rats exhibit differences in the expression of both phase I and phase II enzymes, our hypothesis was that female rats either metabolize DAPM to more toxic metabolites or have a decreased capacity to conjugate metabolites to less toxic intermediates. Our objective was thus to isolate, characterize, and quantify DAPM metabolites excreted into bile in both male and female bile duct-cannulated Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were gavaged with [{sup 14}C]-DAPM, and the collected bile was subjected to reversed-phase HPLC with radioisotope detection. Peaks eluting from HPLC were collected and analyzed using electrospray MS and NMR spectroscopy. HPLC analysis indicated numerous metabolites in both sexes, but male rats excreted greater amounts of glutathione and glucuronide conjugates than females. Electrospray MS and NMR spectra of HPLC fractions revealed that the most prominent metabolite found in bile of both sexes was a glutathione conjugate of an imine metabolite of a 4'-nitroso-DAPM. Seven other metabolites were identified, including acetylated, cysteinyl-glycine, glutamyl-cysteine, glycine, and glucuronide conjugates. While our prior studies demonstrated increased covalent binding of DAPM in the liver and bile of female compared to male rats, in these studies, SDS-PAGE with autoradiography revealed 4-5 radiolabeled protein bands in the bile of rats treated with [{sup 14}C]-DAPM. In addition, these bands were much more prominent in female than in male rats. These studies thus suggest that a plausible mechanism for the increased sensitivity of female rats to DAPM toxicity may be decreased conjugation of reactive DAPM metabolites, leading to greater levels of protein adduct formation.

  4. Predicting X-ray absorption spectra of semiconducting polymers for electronic structure and morphology characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Gregory; Patel, Shrayesh; Pemmaraju, C. Das; Kramer, Edward; Prendergast, David; Chabinyc, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Core-level X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) reveals important information on the electronic structure of materials and plays a key role in morphology characterization. Semiconducting polymers are the active component in many organic electronics. Their electronic properties are critically linked to device performance, and a proper understanding of semiconducting polymer XAS is crucial. Techniques such as resonant X-ray scattering rely on core-level transitions to gain materials contrast and probe orientational order. However, it is difficult to identify these transitions based on experiments alone, and complementary simulations are required. We show that first-principles calculations can capture the essential features of experimental XAS of semiconducting polymers, and provide insight into which molecular model, such as oligomers or periodic boundary conditions, are best suited for XAS calculations. Simulated XAS can reveal contributions from individual atoms and be used to visualize molecular orbitals. This allows for improved characterization of molecular orientation and scattering analysis. These predictions lay the groundwork for understanding how chemical makeup is linked to electronic structure, and to properly utilize experiments to characterize semiconducting polymers.

  5. Characterization of the morphological variations of astrocytes in culture following ethanol exposure.

    PubMed

    Barret, L; Soubeyran, A; Usson, Y; Eysseric, H; Saxod, R

    1996-01-01

    The nervous system is one of the main targets of ethanol toxicity and it has been suggested that astrocytes might play an important role as their integrity is essential for the normal growth and functioning of neurons. Morphological variations of astrocyte cultures were therefore examined after exposure to various doses of ethanol (0.5, 1 and 2%) for different durations (24, 48, 72 and 96 h). The percentage of cell viability and the cell density were calculated and the changes in astrocyte morphology were assessed by an image analysis system (Samba 2005) allowing the characterization of 5 parameters (perimeter, surface, elongation factor, convexity factor and the form factor) of a great number of cells (over 6500). This was necessary because of the high variability in normal cultured astrocyte morphology. A two-way statistical approach (2-factors ANOVA completed by stepwise discriminant analysis) was adopted to emphasize the differences between control and exposed cells. In such conditions, ethanol treated cells became more elongated, less circular and more concave and did not grow like non-exposed cells. The mean pooled values of these parameters tended to be modified as a function of the dose of ethanol. The relationships between parameters clearly separated the groups as a function of the different doses. Finally no significant difference was observed in cell viability and cell density despite lower scores in the groups exposed to the highest dose of ethanol for the longest time. Our results suggest that ethanol might affect astrocytes in two different but probably complementary ways by modifying the cell shape and by altering normal cell development. PMID:8856744

  6. Clinical, Morphological, and Molecular Characterization of Penicillium canis sp. nov., Isolated from a Dog with Osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Deanna A.; Swenson, Cheryl L.; Bailey, Chris J.; Wiederhold, Nathan P.; Nelson, Nathan C.; Thompson, Elizabeth H.; Wickes, Brian L.; French, Stephanie; Fu, Jianmin; Vilar-Saavedra, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Infections caused by Penicillium species are rare in dogs, and the prognosis in these cases is poor. An unknown species of Penicillium was isolated from a bone lesion in a young dog with osteomyelitis of the right ilium. Extensive diagnostic evaluation did not reveal evidence of dissemination. Resolution of lameness and clinical stability of disease were achieved with intravenous phospholipid-complexed amphotericin B initially, followed by long-term combination therapy with terbinafine and ketoconazole. A detailed morphological and molecular characterization of the mold was undertaken. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer revealed the isolate to be closely related to Penicillium menonorum and Penicillium pimiteouiense. Additional sequence analysis of ?-tubulin, calmodulin, minichromosome maintenance factor, DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and pre-rRNA processing protein revealed the isolate to be a novel species; the name Penicillium canis sp. nov. is proposed. Morphologically, smooth, ovoid conidia, a greenish gray colony color, slow growth on all media, and a failure to form ascomata distinguish this species from closely related Penicillium species. PMID:24789186

  7. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of a Fungus, Hirsutella sp., Isolated from Planthoppers and Psocids in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, Andrea V.; Simurro, María E.; Balatti, Pedro A.

    2013-01-01

    A mycosed planthopper, Oliarus dimidiatus Berg (Hemiptera: Cixiidae), and two psocids, Heterocaecilius sp. (Psocodea: Pseudocaeciliidae) and Ectopsocus sp. (Ectopsocidae), were collected from Los Hornos and La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina between February and September 2007. Observations of mycelia growing on the host revealed that the putative fungal parasite had synnemata supporting monophialidic conidiogenous cells. Likewise, in vitro fungal cultures presented characteristics typical of the fungus Hirsutella citriformis Speare (Ascomycota: Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae). The identity of the isolated fungi characterized based on morphological aspects was complemented by means of the internal transcribed spacer sequences. The sequences of both isolates were highly homologous to those of Cordyceps sp. (Fries) Link and Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Berkely) G.H. Sung, J.M. Sung, Hywel-Jones, and Spatafora (Ophiocordycipitaceae). We additionally confirmed that both isolates had the ability to infect and kill adults of Delphacodes kuscheli Fennah (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) after 10 days. Therefore, based on the morphology of the isolated fungi, their ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequence, and their ability to parasite insects, we conclude that the fungi isolated belong to the genus Hirsutella and might have biotechnological potential. PMID:23885970

  8. Characterization of Morphological and Cellular Events Underlying Oral Regeneration in the Sea Anemone, Nematostella vectensis.

    PubMed

    Amiel, Aldine R; Johnston, Hereroa T; Nedoncelle, Karine; Warner, Jacob F; Ferreira, Solène; Röttinger, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Cnidarians, the extant sister group to bilateria, are well known for their impressive regenerative capacity. The sea anemone Nematostella vectensis is a well-established system for the study of development and evolution that is receiving increased attention for its regenerative capacity. Nematostella is able to regrow missing body parts within five to six days after its bisection, yet studies describing the morphological, cellular, and molecular events underlying this process are sparse and very heterogeneous in their experimental approaches. In this study, we lay down the basic framework to study oral regeneration in Nematostella vectensis. Using various imaging and staining techniques we characterize in detail the morphological, cellular, and global molecular events that define specific landmarks of this process. Furthermore, we describe in vivo assays to evaluate wound healing success and the initiation of pharynx reformation. Using our described landmarks for regeneration and in vivo assays, we analyze the effects of perturbing either transcription or cellular proliferation on the regenerative process. Interestingly, neither one of these experimental perturbations has major effects on wound closure, although they slightly delay or partially block it. We further show that while the inhibition of transcription blocks regeneration in a very early step, inhibiting cellular proliferation only affects later events such as pharynx reformation and tentacle elongation. PMID:26633371

  9. Characterization of Morphological and Cellular Events Underlying Oral Regeneration in the Sea Anemone, Nematostella vectensis

    PubMed Central

    Amiel, Aldine R.; Johnston, Hereroa T.; Nedoncelle, Karine; Warner, Jacob F.; Ferreira, Solène; Röttinger, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Cnidarians, the extant sister group to bilateria, are well known for their impressive regenerative capacity. The sea anemone Nematostella vectensis is a well-established system for the study of development and evolution that is receiving increased attention for its regenerative capacity. Nematostella is able to regrow missing body parts within five to six days after its bisection, yet studies describing the morphological, cellular, and molecular events underlying this process are sparse and very heterogeneous in their experimental approaches. In this study, we lay down the basic framework to study oral regeneration in Nematostella vectensis. Using various imaging and staining techniques we characterize in detail the morphological, cellular, and global molecular events that define specific landmarks of this process. Furthermore, we describe in vivo assays to evaluate wound healing success and the initiation of pharynx reformation. Using our described landmarks for regeneration and in vivo assays, we analyze the effects of perturbing either transcription or cellular proliferation on the regenerative process. Interestingly, neither one of these experimental perturbations has major effects on wound closure, although they slightly delay or partially block it. We further show that while the inhibition of transcription blocks regeneration in a very early step, inhibiting cellular proliferation only affects later events such as pharynx reformation and tentacle elongation. PMID:26633371

  10. Molecular and morphological characterization of Veleshkinema iranicum n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Hexatylina, Sphaerularioidea) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Miraeiz, Esmaeil; Heydari, Ramin; Álvarez-Ortega, Sergio; Pedram, Majid; Atighi, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Veleshkinema  iranicum n. gen., n. sp. is described and illustrated based on morphological, morphometric and molecular characters. The new genus is characterized by having slender females and males, stylet with asymmetrical knobs, dorsal gland orifice just posterior to subventral knob, lip region with flattened apex and eight sectors, pharynx with a non-muscular and non-valvular median bulb, pharyngeal glands slightly overlapping intestine dorsally, visible cellular cardia, female with a single gonad having a quadricolumellate crustaformeria with 8-10 cells in each column, no postvulval uterine sac and rounded and offset spermatheca containing spheroid sperm cells, males with arcuate tylenchoid spicules and subterminal bursa. The new genus is morphologically compared with four genera: Abursanema, Deladenus, Prothallonema and Sphaerularia. Molecular phylogenetic studies of the new genus using 808 bp partial sequences of SSU ribosomal RNA gene placed the new genus in a clade with Sphaerularia spp. In phylogenetic analyses using 756 bp partial sequences of the 28S ribosomal RNA gene (D2-D3 segments), the new genus formed a monophyletic group with Abursanema iranicum and Sphaerularia spp. PMID:26623744

  11. Morphological investigation and physical characterization of ancient fragments of pyrogenic carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pusceddu, E.; Criscuoli, I.; Miglietta, F.

    2013-12-01

    In the latest years, the attention toward the use of pyrogenic carbon as a climate mitigation strategy has increasingly grown. Biochar (BC) contains substantial amount (60-90%) of pyrogenic carbon, which is a recalcitrant material and it is hardly decomposed by biotic and abiotic oxidation. The carbon mitigation potential of biochar is associated to the fact that carbon is not easily released back into the atmosphere, even after very long incubation time in the soil. Several studies have been addressing the understanding of the fate of pyrogenic carbon in the soil in a quantitative way, but only a few actually considered materials that were produced in the past and they were not fully able to estimate the fraction of carbon that was oxidized on centennial time scales. In this paper, an old deposits of biochar in soils of the Eastern Alps (Trentino, Val di Pejo) was dated at 1859 by means of a dendroanthracological approach. Carbon decomposition in those soils was then investigated to calculate the fraction of carbon that was lost over 155 years. Part of this study is focused on the morphological and physical characterization of several fragments of biochar, using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Such study enabled the identification of specific morphological features of tracheids in the old biochar, which were tentatively associated to a differential oxidation of the structures that were created during carbonization from lignin and cellulose.

  12. Clinical, morphological, and molecular characterization of Penicillium canis sp. nov., isolated from a dog with osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Langlois, Daniel K; Sutton, Deanna A; Swenson, Cheryl L; Bailey, Chris J; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Nelson, Nathan C; Thompson, Elizabeth H; Wickes, Brian L; French, Stephanie; Fu, Jianmin; Vilar-Saavedra, Paulo; Peterson, Stephen W

    2014-07-01

    Infections caused by Penicillium species are rare in dogs, and the prognosis in these cases is poor. An unknown species of Penicillium was isolated from a bone lesion in a young dog with osteomyelitis of the right ilium. Extensive diagnostic evaluation did not reveal evidence of dissemination. Resolution of lameness and clinical stability of disease were achieved with intravenous phospholipid-complexed amphotericin B initially, followed by long-term combination therapy with terbinafine and ketoconazole. A detailed morphological and molecular characterization of the mold was undertaken. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer revealed the isolate to be closely related to Penicillium menonorum and Penicillium pimiteouiense. Additional sequence analysis of ?-tubulin, calmodulin, minichromosome maintenance factor, DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and pre-rRNA processing protein revealed the isolate to be a novel species; the name Penicillium canis sp. nov. is proposed. Morphologically, smooth, ovoid conidia, a greenish gray colony color, slow growth on all media, and a failure to form ascomata distinguish this species from closely related Penicillium species. PMID:24789186

  13. Morphology, structure and function characterization of PEI modified magnetic nanoparticles gene delivery system.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiang; Cui, Haixin; Chen, Wenjie; Wang, Yan; Cui, Bo; Sun, Changjiao; Meng, Zhigang; Liu, Guoqiang

    2014-01-01

    Modified magnetic nanoparticles are used as non-viral gene carriers in biological applications. To achieve successful gene delivery, it is critical that nanoparticles effectually assemble with nucleic acids. However, relatively little work has been conducted on the assemble mechanisms between nanoparticles and DNA, and its effects on transfection efficiency. Using biophysical and biochemical characterization, along with Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we investigate the morphologies, assembling structures and gene delivering abilities of the PEI modified magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) gene delivery system. In this gene delivery system, MNP/DNA complexes are formed via binding of DNA onto the surface of MNPs. MNPs are favorable to not only increase DNA concentration but also prevent DNA degradation. Magnetofection experiments showed that MNPs has low cytotoxicity and introduces highly stable transfection in mammalian somatic cells. In addition, different binding ratios between MNPs and DNA result in various morphologies of MNP/DNA complexes and have an influence on transfection efficiency. Dose-response profile indicated that transfection efficiency positively correlate with MNP/DNA ratio. Furthermore, intracellular tracking demonstrate that MNPs move though the cell membranes, deliver and release exogenous DNA into the nucleus. PMID:24911360

  14. Morphology, Structure and Function Characterization of PEI Modified Magnetic Nanoparticles Gene Delivery System

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiang; Cui, Haixin; Chen, Wenjie; Wang, Yan; Cui, Bo; Sun, Changjiao; Meng, Zhigang; Liu, Guoqiang

    2014-01-01

    Modified magnetic nanoparticles are used as non-viral gene carriers in biological applications. To achieve successful gene delivery, it is critical that nanoparticles effectually assemble with nucleic acids. However, relatively little work has been conducted on the assemble mechanisms between nanoparticles and DNA, and its effects on transfection efficiency. Using biophysical and biochemical characterization, along with Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we investigate the morphologies, assembling structures and gene delivering abilities of the PEI modified magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) gene delivery system. In this gene delivery system, MNP/DNA complexes are formed via binding of DNA onto the surface of MNPs. MNPs are favorable to not only increase DNA concentration but also prevent DNA degradation. Magnetofection experiments showed that MNPs has low cytotoxicity and introduces highly stable transfection in mammalian somatic cells. In addition, different binding ratios between MNPs and DNA result in various morphologies of MNP/DNA complexes and have an influence on transfection efficiency. Dose–response profile indicated that transfection efficiency positively correlate with MNP/DNA ratio. Furthermore, intracellular tracking demonstrate that MNPs move though the cell membranes, deliver and release exogenous DNA into the nucleus. PMID:24911360

  15. Effects of ozone and neutrophils on function and morphology of the isolated rat lung

    SciTech Connect

    Joad, J.P.; Bric, J.M.; Pino, M.V.; Hyde, D.M.; McDonald, R.J. )

    1993-06-01

    Since whole-animal studies suggest that neutrophils play a role in ozone-induced impairment of pulmonary function and increases in airway reactivity, this study was designed to study more precisely the interaction of neutrophils and ozone using the isolated perfused rat lung. Sprague-Dawley rat lungs (n = 60) were ventilated for 3 h with 95% air and 5% CO2 alone or mixed with 1 ppm ozone and perfused with buffer alone or with neutrophils (8 x 10(7)). RL, Cdyn, Ppa, airway reactivity to methacholine, lung/body weight, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) protein concentration, and airway lesions were analyzed using a two-way GLM or Kruskal-Wallis test (p < or = 0.05 significant). Both ozone and neutrophils increased RL and decreased Cdyn. Ozone but not neutrophils increased airway reactivity to methacholine. Neutrophils but not ozone increased lung weight/body weight and BALF protein concentration. Ozone damaged airway epithelium. In distal bronchioles, neutrophils enhanced this damage. We conclude that (1) ozone impaired pulmonary function, increased airway reactivity, and damaged airway epithelium without causing measurable microvascular leak; (2) neutrophils impaired pulmonary function, probably a result of microvascular leak, but did not change airway reactivity or damage airway epithelium; and (3) neutrophils had no effect on ozone-induced airway reactivity but had an additive effect on ozone-induced pulmonary function impairment and a synergistic effect on ozone-induced airway epithelial injury.

  16. Comparison of functional and morphological deficits in the rat after gestational exposure to ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, S.; Kimler, B.F.

    1988-07-01

    Ionizing radiation is a precise tool for altering formation of the developing cerebral cortex of the fetal rat. Whole body exposure of the pregnant rat on gestational day 13, 15 or 17 to 1.0 Gy of gamma radiation resulted in maximum thinning of the cortex on days 15 and 17. In the preweaning period, functional tests (negative geotaxis, reflex suspension, continuous corridor and gait) were most affected by irradiation gestational day 15, as was body weight. When a lower dose of radiation (0.75 Gy) was used on gestational day 15, the damage to the cortex was much less but behavioral changes were still present. Frontal, parietal and occipital areas of the cortex were approximately equally affected. Using stepwise multiple regression analysis, the linkage of functional tests and cortical thickness was examined. Functional variables which were most commonly included as predictors of frontal and parietal cortex were negative geotaxis and continuous corridor. Occipital cortical layers were not predicted by behavioral variables. In predicting function using cortical variables, frontal cortex was better than parietal and occipital cortex was the poorest predictor.

  17. Morphologic, cytometric and functional characterization of the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) hemocytes.

    PubMed

    Castellanos-Martínez, S; Prado-Alvarez, M; Lobo-da-Cunha, A; Azevedo, C; Gestal, C

    2014-05-01

    The hemocytes of Octopus vulgaris were morphologically and functionally characterized. Light and electron microscopy (TEM and SEM), and flow cytometry analyses revealed the existence of two hemocyte populations. Large granulocytes showed U-shaped nucleus, a mean of 11.6 ?m±1.2 in diameter with basophilic granules, polysaccharide and lysosomic deposits in the cytoplasm. Small granulocytes measured a mean of 8.1 ?m±0.7 in diameter, and have a round nucleus occupying almost the entire cell and few or not granules in the cytoplasm. Flow cytometry analysis showed that large granulocytes are the principal cells that develop phagocytosis of latex beads (rising up to 56%) and ROS after zymosan stimulation. Zymosan induced the highest production of both ROS and NO. This study is the first tread towards understanding the O. vulgaris immune system by applying new tools to provide a most comprehensive morpho-functional study of their hemocytes. PMID:24296436

  18. Morphological and chemical characterizations of the interface of a hydroxyapatite-coated implant.

    PubMed

    Mimura, Kiichirou; Watanabe, Kouichi; Okawa, Seigo; Kobayashi, Masayoshi; Miyakawa, Osamu

    2004-09-01

    The present study aimed at morphological and chemical characterization of the coating-substrate interface of a commercially available dental implant coated with plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA). For this purpose, elements in the chemically and mechanically exposed substrate surfaces were analyzed by EPMA and XPS. A thin titanium oxide film containing Ca and P was found at the interface. When the implant was subjected to mechanical stress, a mixed mode of cohesive and interfacial fractures occurred. The cohesive fracture was due to separation of the oxide film from the substrate, while the interfacial fracture was due to exfoliation of the coating from the oxide film bonded to the substrate. Analysis showed diffusion of Ca into the metal substrate, hence indicating the presence of chemical bond at the interface. However, mechanical interlocking seemed to play the major role in the interfacial bond. PMID:15510865

  19. Morphological and molecular characterization of Pratylenchus lentis n. sp. (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae) from Sicily

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, F.; Handoo, Z. A.; Di Vito, M.

    2008-01-01

    Pratylenchus lentis n. sp. parasitizing roots of lentil in Sicily, Italy, is described and illustrated. The new species is characterized by a relatively high lip region with three annuli, mean stylet length of 16 ?m, with anteriorly flattened knobs, cylindrical body with a relatively anterior vulva, large and ovoid spermatheca full of sperm, plump tail with truncate, irregularly annulated terminus, and by the presence of males. Molecular ITS-RFLP and sequencing analyses of the new species showed clear differences from other most morphologically similar species, such as P. thornei and P. mediterraneus. Preliminary host range tests revealed that chickpea, pea, faba bean and durum wheat are good hosts of P. lentis n. sp., whereas common bean, alfalfa and barley are less robust hosts and tomato, bell pepper, eggplant, melon and sunflower are poor hosts for the nematode. PMID:19440258

  20. Biochemical Characterization of a Nuclear Factor That Binds to NF1-like Elements in the Rat p53 Promoter

    E-print Network

    Park, Jong-Sang

    in the Rat p53 Promoter Minhyung Lee, Sunhee Yu, and Jong-sang Park* Department of Chemistry, Seoul National mediated the transcription of the rat p53 gene. A 40-kDa protein was shown to bind to these elements, which characterization; NF1-like element; p53 tumor suppressor; transcription regulation p53 is a phosphonuclear protein

  1. Characterization of the relationship between spontaneous locomotor activity and cardiovascular parameters in conscious freely moving rats.

    PubMed

    Zaretsky, Dmitry V; Zaretskaia, Maria V; DiMicco, Joseph A

    2016-02-01

    In freely behaving rats, variations in heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) are coupled closely with changes in locomotor activity (Act). We have attempted to characterize this relationship mathematically. In 10- and 16-week-old rats, HR, BP and Act were recorded telemetrically every minute for 2days under 12h:12h light-dark cycling. After examining data for individual rats, we found that the relationship between Act and HR could be approximated by the negative exponential function HR(Act)=HRmax-(HRmax-HRmin)?exp(-Act/Acte), where HRmax, HRmin, and Acte are constants. These constants were calculated separately for light and dark periods by non-linear curve fitting. HR corresponding to maximal locomotion was similar during the light and dark phases, while HR at rest during the dark phase was higher than during the light phase. The range of HR variability associated with Act during the dark phase was similar in young and older animals, but minimal HR was significantly lower in older rats. The relationship between Act and BP was approximated with a similar function. We have found no differences between BP at rest and at maximal locomotion between light and dark and between 10-week and 16-week-old rats. Our results indicate that in rats, cardiovascular parameters are coupled to locomotion to a high degree; however both the HR and the BP reach maximal values when locomotor activity is relatively low. We also found that the phase of daily cycle affects HR in conscious rats independent of locomotor activity. PMID:26603274

  2. Preliminary Characterization of a Leptin Receptor Knockout Rat Created by CRISPR/Cas9 System.

    PubMed

    Bao, Dan; Ma, Yuanwu; Zhang, Xu; Guan, Feifei; Chen, Wei; Gao, Kai; Qin, Chuan; Zhang, Lianfeng

    2015-01-01

    Leptin receptor, which is encoded by the diabetes (db) gene and is highly expressed in the choroid plexus, regulatesenergy homeostasis, the balance between food intake and energy expenditure, fertility and bone mass. Here, using CRISPR/Cas9 technology, we created the leptin receptor knockout rat. Homozygous leptin receptor null rats are characterized by obesity, hyperphagia, hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia and dyslipidemia. Due to long-term poor glycemic control, the leptin receptor knockout rats also develop some diabetic complications such as pancreatic, hepatic and renal lesions. In addition, the leptin receptor knockout rats show a significant decrease in bone volume and bone mineral density of the femur compared with their wild-type littermates. Our model has rescued some deficiency of the existing rodent models, such as the transient hyperglycemia of db/db mice in the C57BL/6J genetic background and the delayed onset of glucose intolerance in the Zucker rats, and it is proven to be a useful animal model for biomedical and pharmacological research on obesity and diabetes. PMID:26537785

  3. Biochemical and biophysical characterization of recombinant rat apolipoprotein E: similarities to human apolipoprotein E3.

    PubMed

    Tran, Tuyen N; Kim, Sea H; Gallo, Carlos; Amaya, Max; Kyees, Jessica; Narayanaswami, Vasanthy

    2013-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is an anti-atherogenic protein that plays a critical role in maintaining plasma cholesterol and triglyceride homeostasis by virtue of its ability to act as a ligand for the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) family of proteins. In this study, we characterized the biochemical and biophysical features of recombinant rat apoE, in comparison with those of human apoE3. Rat apoE was overexpressed in Escherichia coli using a codon optimized system and purified by affinity chromatography. SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC of rat apoE confirmed the purity, while immunoblot verified the identity and cross-reactivity with the LDLr-binding region of apoE3. The ?-helical content was calculated to be ~45% by circular dichroism spectroscopy. The protein exists in a predominantly tetrameric form in lipid-free state. Chemical denaturation studies reveal that the unfolding pattern is biphasic with mid points of denaturation corresponding to 0.8 and 2.2 M guanidine hydrochloride, suggesting the presence of two domains. Rat apoE converts DMPC vesicles to smaller DMPC/apoE complexes with a first order rate constant of 0.12 min(-1). It has the ability to bind the LDLr and to heparin. Our studies indicate that although its sequence resembles apoE4, an isoform of apoE3, rat apoE displays the biophysical behavior of apoE3. PMID:23103361

  4. Preliminary Characterization of a Leptin Receptor Knockout Rat Created by CRISPR/Cas9 System

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Dan; Ma, Yuanwu; Zhang, Xu; Guan, Feifei; Chen, Wei; Gao, Kai; Qin, Chuan; Zhang, Lianfeng

    2015-01-01

    Leptin receptor, which is encoded by the diabetes (db) gene and is highly expressed in the choroid plexus, regulatesenergy homeostasis, the balance between food intake and energy expenditure, fertility and bone mass. Here, using CRISPR/Cas9 technology, we created the leptin receptor knockout rat. Homozygous leptin receptor null rats are characterized by obesity, hyperphagia, hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia and dyslipidemia. Due to long-term poor glycemic control, the leptin receptor knockout rats also develop some diabetic complications such as pancreatic, hepatic and renal lesions. In addition, the leptin receptor knockout rats show a significant decrease in bone volume and bone mineral density of the femur compared with their wild-type littermates. Our model has rescued some deficiency of the existing rodent models, such as the transient hyperglycemia of db/db mice in the C57BL/6J genetic background and the delayed onset of glucose intolerance in the Zucker rats, and it is proven to be a useful animal model for biomedical and pharmacological research on obesity and diabetes. PMID:26537785

  5. Morphology of the lingual papillae in the brush-tailed rat kangaroo.

    PubMed

    Emura, Shoichi; Okumura, Toshihiko; Chen, Huayue

    2014-01-01

    We examined the dorsal lingual surface of an adult brush-tailed rat kangaroo (Bettongia penicillata) by scanning electron microscopy. The filiform and fungiform papillae on the lingual apex and body consisted of a main papilla and secondary papillae. The connective tissue core of the filiform papillae on the lingual apex was cylindrical in shape with a crushed top. The connective tissue core of the filiform papillae on the lingual body had one large and several small processes. The fungiform papillae were round in shape. The connective tissue core of the fungiform papillae had several depressions on its top. The surface of the vallate papillae was rough and the papillae were surrounded by a groove and a pad. Several long conical papillae derived from the posterolateral margin of the tongue where foliate papillae have been shown to be distributed in many other animal species. The long conical papillae were very similar to those of the koala and opossum. PMID:24815106

  6. Morphologic and histochemical studies of bone cells from SL-3 rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, S. B.

    1985-01-01

    Previous studies of rat bone following space flight indicate a significant reduction in new bone formation as a result of hypogravity. In the present study of animals from SL-3 flight, the cellular activity of the bone forming cells, the osteoblasts, was investigated. Measurements of alkaline and acid phosphatase, Golgi activity, secretory granule size, and lysosomal activity, all indicated very little difference between flight and flight-simulated controls. However, there was a tendency for osteoblasts in compact bone of flight animals to show a smaller cytoplasmic volume compared to non-flight controls. If, as in previous studies, a significant reduction in bone formation occurred, it could be due to a normal level of procollagen degradation within these smaller osteoblasts, resulting in less collagen secretion per cell.

  7. Morphological changes of cell proliferation and apoptosis in rat jejunal mucosa at different ages

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Li, Jian; Li, Qing; Zhang, Jian; Duan, Xiang-Lin

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study the changes of cell proliferation and apoptosis in rat jejunal epithelium at different ages. METHODS: Cell proliferation and apoptosis of the jejunal mucosal and glandulous epithelia from birth to postnatal 12th month were observed using immunocytochemistry (ICC), and TUNEL method. The height of villus, the thickness of muscle layer and the number of goblet cells in jejunal mucosal and glandulous epithelia were measured by BeiHang analytic software and analyzed by STAT. RESULTS: (1) Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) positive cells of jejunal glandulous recess were found and increased in number from birth to the postnatal 3rd month. The number of PCNA positive cells peaked in the postnatal 3rd month, and decreased from then on. (2) The number of apoptotic cells also peaked in the postnatal 3rd month, showing a similar trend to that of the PCNA positive cells. (3) The height of jejunal villus increased after birth, peaked in the postnatal 3rd month and decreased from then on. The jejunal muscle layer became thicker in the postnatal 3rd week and the postnatal 12th month. The number of goblet cells of the jejunal mucosal and glandulous epithelia had a linear correlation with age. CONCLUSION: (1) PCNA positive cells are distributed in the jejunal glandulous recess. (2) Apoptotic cell number peaks in the postnatal 3rd month, indicating that cell proliferation and apoptosis are developed with the formation of digestive metabolism as rat grows to maturity. (3) The thickness of jejunal muscle layer increases to a maximum in the postnatal 3rd week, which may be related to the change in diet from milk to solid food. (4) The number of goblet cells increases rapidly in the postnatal 3rd week, probably due to ingestion of solid food. PMID:12970906

  8. Morphology and Proteome Characterization of the Salivary Glands of the Western Chinch Bug (Hemiptera: Blissidae).

    PubMed

    Ramm, Crystal; Wayadande, Astri; Baird, Lisa; Nandakumar, Renu; Madayiputhiya, Nandakumar; Amundsen, Keenan; Donze-Reiner, Teresa; Baxendale, Frederick; Sarath, Gautam; Heng-Moss, Tiffany

    2015-08-01

    The western chinch bug, Blissus occiduus Barber, is a serious pest of buffalograss, Buchloe dactyloides (Nuttall) due to physical and chemical damage caused during the feeding process. Although previous work has investigated the feeding behaviors of chinch bugs in the Blissus complex, no study to date has explored salivary gland morphology and the associated salivary complex of this insect. Whole and sectioned B. occiduus salivary glands were visualized using light and scanning electron microscopy to determine overall structure and cell types of the salivary glands and their individual lobes. Microscopy revealed a pair of trilobed principal glands and a pair of tubular accessory glands of differing cellular types. To link structure with function, the salivary gland proteome was characterized using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The salivary proteome analysis resulted in B. occiduus sequences matching 228 nonhomologous protein sequences of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris), with many specific to the proteins present in the salivary proteome of A. pisum. A number of sequences were assigned the molecular function of hydrolase and oxido-reductase activity, with one specific protein sequence revealing a peroxidase-like function. This is the first study to characterize the salivary proteome of B. occiduus and the first of any species in the family Blissidae. PMID:26470353

  9. Studies on the mechanism of 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea (CCNU)-induced hepatotoxicity. II. Biochemical and morphological characterization of the injury and its prevention by phenobarbital.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, A E; Grissom, M; el-Azhary, R; Haque, A; Boor, P J; Costanzi, J

    1987-01-01

    The present study characterizes the biochemical, morphological, and histological sites of CCNU-induced hepatotoxicity and investigates the effect of modifiers of drug metabolism on this toxicity. A single oral dose (100 mg/kg) of CCNU caused four- and ninefold increases in serum GOT and GPT respectively 48 h after administration in rats. A 25-fold rise in serum bilirubin, a total loss of bile flow, and a decrease in BSP clearance were also observed. Cytochrome P-450 content and EM-N-demethylase activity were significantly decreased to 88% and 66% of control values respectively. A histopathological time course study of CCNU-induced injury showed a progression of acute inflammation, edema, and fibrin deposition in portal areas over 24 h with necrosis and sloughing of bile duct epithelium at 24 and 36 h. Treatment of rats with PB (40 mg/kg/day for 4 days, i.p.) 24 h prior to CCNU administration protected against CCNU-induced hepatotoxicity. Thus, the levels of serum GOT, GPT, and bilirubin were only 2.5 and 4 times higher than in untreated or PB-treated controls. Histopathological examination also showed reduced severity of bile duct lesions in PB-pretreated animals. In rats receiving both PB and CCNU, bile flow was restored and BSP clearance was increased compared to the CCNU-treated rats. The mixed-function oxidase activity in PB + CCNU-treated rats was not significantly different from that in PB-treated controls. It is concluded that pretreatment of rats with PB can markedly suppress the hepatotoxic manifestations, including histopathological changes, the rise in serum bilirubin, and the cholestasis observed in CCNU-treated rats. PMID:3105904

  10. Partial kindling induces neurogenesis, activates astrocytes and alters synaptic morphology in the dentate gyrus of freely moving adult rats.

    PubMed

    Kraev, I V; Godukhin, O V; Patrushev, I V; Davies, H A; Popov, V I; Stewart, M G

    2009-08-18

    A partial kindling procedure was used to investigate the correlation between focal seizure development and changes in dendritic spine morphology, ongoing neurogenesis and reactive astrogliosis in the adult rat dentate gyrus (DG). The processes of neurogenesis and astrogliosis were investigated using markers for doublecortin (DCX), 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Our data demonstrate that mild focal seizures induce a complex series of cellular events in the DG one day after cessation of partial rapid kindling stimulation consisting (in comparison to control animals that were electrode implanted but unkindled), firstly, of an increase in the number of postmitotic BrdU labeled cells, and secondly, an increase in the number of DCX labeled cells, mainly in subgranular zone. Ultrastructural changes were examined using qualitative electron microscope analysis and 3-D reconstructions of both dendritic spines and postsynaptic densities. Typical features of kindling in comparison to control tissue included translocation of mitochondria to the base of the dendritic spine stalks; a migration of multivesicular bodies into mushroom dendritic spines, and most notably formation of "giant" spinules originating from the head of the spines of DG neurons. These morphological alterations arise at seizure stages 2-3 (focal seizures) in the absence of signs of the severe generalized seizures that are generally recognized as potentially harmful for neuronal cells. We suggest that an increase in ongoing neurogenesis, reactive astrogliosis and dendritic spine reorganization in the DG is the crucial step in the chain of events leading to the progressive development of seizure susceptibility in hippocampal circuits. PMID:19447163

  11. Combined Effects of Ephedrine-Containing Dietary Supplements, Caffeine, and Nicotine on Morphology and Ultrastructure of Rat Hearts.

    PubMed

    Brown, Christopher E; Trauth, Stanley E; Grippo, Richard S; Gurley, Bill J; Grippo, Anne A

    2012-09-01

    Cigarette smokers have an increased risk for coronary artery disease. Nicotine present in cigarettes can adversely affect the cardiovascular system via stimulation of both sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons. Caffeine, another cardiovascular and central nervous system (CNS) stimulant, is commonly found in Ephedra and Ephedra-free dietary supplements. These caffeine-containing supplements also have been linked to cardiovascular toxicities. Although no longer on the U.S market, Ephedra-containing supplements are another source of cardiovascular and CNS stimulants, namely the ephedrine alkaloids. Together caffeine, nicotine, and ephedrine can individually stress the cardiovascular system, and an overlap of these agents is predicted in smokers and dieters. To understand the collective effects of these stimulants on the heart morphology and ultrastructure, rats were exposed to synthetic combinations of nicotine (0.2?mg/kg/day), ephedrine (0-30?mg/kg/day), and/or caffeine (0-24?mg/kg/day) as well as an extract from a caffeine-containing Ephedra supplement (Metabolife 356). After exposure for 3 days, the hearts were removed and examined for hypersensitivity myocarditis and myocardial necrosis. None of the drugs tested alone affected heart tissue morphology, nor were atypical cardiac cells observed. However, in combination, significant interactions were found between caffeine and ephedrine; the interventricular septum was most susceptible, with a significant increase in atypical cardiac cells observed. Nicotine pretreatment caused greater susceptibility to cardiotoxicity associated with combinations of caffeine + ephedrine or Metabolife, particularly in the left ventricle wall. These results indicate that sympathomimetic combinations present in Ephedra supplements may have produced cardiotoxicity reported in consumers of these products. Moreover, the presence of nicotine exacerbates these toxic effects. PMID:24761270

  12. Characterization of gastrointestinal absorption of digoxin involving influx and efflux transporter in rats: application of mdr1a knockout (-/-) rats into absorption study of multiple transporter substrate.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Motoya; Komura, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Tomonori; Enya, Seiji; Nagao, Akemi; Takubo, Hiroaki; Kogayu, Motohiro

    2014-11-01

    1.? This study was aimed to characterize gastrointestinal absorption of digoxin using wild-type (WT) and multidrug resistance protein 1a [mdr1a; P-glycoprotein (P-gp)] knockout (-/-) rats. 2.? In WT rats, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of oral digoxin increased after oral pretreatment with quinidine at 30?mg/kg compared with non-treatment, but the increasing ratio tended to decrease at a high dose of 100?mg/kg. In mdr1a (-/-) rats, however, quinidine pretreatment caused a dose-dependent decrease in the AUC. 3.? Quinidine pretreatment did not alter the hepatic availability of digoxin, indicating that the changes in the digoxin AUC were attributable to inhibition of the absorption process by quinidine; i.e. inhibition of influx by quinidine in mdr1a (-/-) rats and inhibition of efflux and influx by quinidine in WT rats. 4.? An in situ rat intestinal closed loop study using naringin implied that organic anion transporting peptide (Oatp) 1a5 may be a responsible transporter in the absorption of digoxin. 5.? These findings imply that the rat absorption behavior of digoxin is possibly governed by Oatp1a5-mediated influx and P-gp-mediated efflux. The mdr1a (-/-) rat is therefore a useful in vivo tool to investigate drug absorption associated with multiple transporters including P-gp. PMID:24839994

  13. Isolation, propagation, and characterization of rat liver serosal mesothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Faris, R. A.; McBride, A.; Yang, L.; Affigne, S.; Walker, C.; Cha, C. J.

    1994-01-01

    Although rat liver epithelial cell (RLEC) lines have been developed by a number of laboratories, the identity of the clonogenic nonparenchymal progenitors is unknown. To provide insight into the derivation of RLEC, we immunoisolated serosal liver mesothelial cells (LMC) and bile duct epithelial cells and attempted to propagate each epithelial cell population using culture conditions routinely employed to establish RLEC lines. Briefly, the selective reactivity of LMC with two bile duct cell surface markers, OC.2 and BD.2, was exploited to develop an immunocytochemical technique to isolate LMC. Livers were collagenase dissociated, the mesothelial capsule was "peeled" and digested with pronase to destroy contaminating hepatocytes, and rare biliary ductal epithelial cells were immunodepleted using OC.2. LMC were subsequently isolated by selective binding to magnetic beads adsorbed with BD.2 and cultured in supplemented Waymouths 752/1 media containing 10% fetal calf serum. Proliferating BD.2+ LMC rapidly formed epithelial-like monolayers that could be continuously subcultured after trypsinization. In contrast, attempts to establish cell lines from purified OC.2+ bile duct epithelial cells were unsuccessful. Results from reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed that LMC expressed Wilms' tumor transcripts, a lineage marker for mesodermally-derived cells. In summary, our findings clearly demonstrate that LMC can be continuously propagated using culture conditions routinely employed to establish RLEC lines, an observation that supports the contention that some RLEC lines may be derived from LMC. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7992846

  14. Golgi fractions prepared from rat liver homogenates. II. Biochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, J J; Ehrenreich, J H; Siekevitz, P; Palade, G E

    1973-10-01

    The three Golgi fractions isolated from rat liver homogenates by the procedure given in the companion paper account for 6-7% of the protein of the total microsomal fraction used as starting preparation. The lightest, most homogeneous Golgi fraction (GF(1)) lacks typical "microsomal" activities, e.g., glucose-6-phosphatase, NADPH-cytochrome c-reductase, and cytochrome P-450. The heaviest, most heterogeneous fraction (GF(3)) is contaminated by endoplasmic reticulum membranes to the extent of approximately 15% of its protein. The three fractions taken together account for nearly all the UDP-galactose: N-acetyl-glucosamine galactosyltransferase of the parent microsomal fraction, and for approximately 70% of the activity of the original homogenate. Omission of the ethanol treatment of the animals reduces the recovery by half. The transferase activity is associated with the membranes of the Golgi elements, not with their content. Galactose is transferred not only to N-acetyl-glucosamine but also to an unidentified lipid-soluble component. PMID:4356572

  15. Synthesis via a Microwave-Assisted Wet Chemical Method and Characterization of Bi2Te3 with Various Morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Song; Cai, Kefeng; Shen, Shirley

    2015-09-01

    Bi2Te3 with various morphologies, such as microrods, nanoplates, and nanoflowers, has been successfully fabricated by a microwave-assisted method in ethylene glycol solution without any surfactant. The structures and morphologies of the obtained products have been characterized by powder x-ray diffraction and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Based on time-dependent experiments, a possible formation mechanism of the Bi2Te3 has been proposed. The concentration of KOH in the solution controls the rate of the disproportionation reaction of Te and plays an important role in the formation of the various morphologies of Bi2Te3. The electrical properties of bulk Bi2Te3 materials obtained by cold pressing and then vacuum heat treatment of the Bi2Te3 nanostructures with various morphologies have also been investigated. The highest power factor among the studied samples, ˜17.3 ?W cm-1 K-2, was achieved using Bi2Te3 nanoflowers.

  16. Voluntary exercise partially reverses neonatal alcohol-induced deficits in mPFC layer II/III dendritic morphology of male adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, G F; Criss, K J; Klintsova, A Y

    2015-08-01

    Developmental alcohol exposure in humans can produce a wide range of deficits collectively referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). FASD-related impairments in executive functioning later in life suggest long-term damage to the prefrontal cortex (PFC). In rodent neonates, moderate to high levels of alcohol exposure decreased frontal lobe brain size and altered medial PFC pyramidal neuron dendritic morphology. Previous research in our lab demonstrated that neonatal alcohol exposure decreased basilar dendritic complexity but did not affect spine density in Layer II/III pyramidal neurons in 26- to 30-day-old rats. The current study adds to the literature by evaluating the effect of neonatal alcohol exposure on mPFC Layer II/III basilar dendritic morphology in adolescent male rats. Additionally, it examines the potential for voluntary exercise to mitigate alcohol-induced deficits on mPFC dendritic complexity. An animal model of binge drinking during the third trimester of pregnancy was used. Rats were intubated with alcohol (alcohol-exposed, AE; 5.25 g kg(-1) day(-1)) on postnatal days (PD) 4-9; two control groups were included (suckle control and sham-intubated). Rats were anesthetized and perfused with heparinized saline solution on PD 42, and brains were processed for Golgi-Cox staining. Developmental alcohol exposure decreased spine density and dendritic complexity of basilar dendrites of Layer II/III neurons in the medial PFC (mPFC) compared to dendrites of control animals. Voluntary exercise increased spine density and dendritic length in AE animals resulting in elimination of the differences between AE and SH rats. Thus, voluntary exercise during early adolescence selectively rescued alcohol-induced morphological deficits in the mPFC. PMID:25967699

  17. The energy costs of sexual dimorphism in mole-rats are morphological not behavioural

    PubMed Central

    Scantlebury, M; Speakman, J.R; Bennett, N.C

    2005-01-01

    Different reproductive strategies of males and females may lead to the evolution of differences in their energetic costs of reproduction, overall energetic requirements and physiological performances. Sexual dimorphism is often associated with costly behaviours (e.g. large males might have a competitive advantage in fighting, which is energetically expensive). However, few studies of mammals have directly compared the energy costs of reproductive activities between sexes. We compared the daily energy expenditure (DEE) and resting metabolic rate (RMR) of males and females of two species of mole-rat, Bathyergus janetta and Georychus capensis (the former is sexually dimorphic in body size and the latter is not) during a period of intense digging when males seek females. We hypothesized that large body size might be indicative of greater digging or fighting capabilities, and hence greater mass-independent DEE values in males of the sexually dimorphic species. In contrast to this prediction, although absolute values of DEE were greater in B. janetta males, mass-independent values were not. No differences were apparent between sexes in G. capensis. By comparison, although RMR values were greater in B. janetta than G. capensis, no differences were apparent between the sexes for either species. The energy cost of dimorphism is most likely to be the cost of maintenance of a large body size, and not the cost of behaviours performed when an individual is large. PMID:16519235

  18. Morphological studies of bone and tendon. [in post-spaceflight rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, Stephen B.; Morey-Holton, Emily R.; Durnova, G. N.; Kaplanskii, A. S.

    1992-01-01

    The Soviet biosatellite Cosmos 2044 carried adult rats on a spaceflight that lasted 13.8 days and was intended to repeat animal studies carrier out on Cosmos 1887. Skeletal tissue and tendon from animals flown on Cosmos 2044 were studied by light and electron microscopy, histochemistry, and morphometric techniques. Studies were confined to the bone cells and vasculature from the weight-bearing tibias. Results indicated that vascular changes at the periosteal and subperiosteal region of the tibia were not apparent by light microscopy or histochemistry. However, electron microscopy indicated that vascular influsions were present in bone samples from the flight animals. A unique combination of microscopy and histochemical techniques indicated that the endosteal osteoblasts from this same middiaphyseal region demonstrated a slight (but not statisticallly significant) reduction in bone cell activity. Electron-microscopic studies of the tendons from metatarsal bones showed a collagen fibril disorganization as a result of spaceflight. Thus changes described for Cosmos 1887 were present in Cosmos 2044, but the changes ascribed to spaceflight were not as evident.

  19. Phylogenetic, Morphological, and Pathogenic Characterization of Alternaria Species Associated with Fruit Rot of Blueberry in California.

    PubMed

    Zhu, X Q; Xiao, C L

    2015-12-01

    Fruit rot caused by Alternaria spp. is one of the most important factors affecting the postharvest quality and shelf life of blueberry fruit. The aims of this study were to characterize Alternaria isolates using morphological and molecular approaches and test their pathogenicity to blueberry fruit. Alternaria spp. isolates were collected from decayed blueberry fruit in the Central Valley of California during 2012 and 2013. In total, 283 isolates were obtained and five species of Alternaria, including Alternaria alternata, A. tenuissima, A. arborescens, A. infectoria, and A. rosae, were identified based on DNA sequences of the plasma membrane ATPase, Alt a1 and Calmodulin gene regions in combination with morphological characters of the culture and sporulation. Of the 283 isolates, 61.5% were identified as A. alternata, 32.9% were A. arborescens, 5.0% were A. tenuissima, and only one isolate of A. infectoria and one isolate of A. rosae were found. These fungi were able to grow at temperatures from 0 to 35°C, and mycelial growth was arrested at 40°C. Optimal radial growth occurred between 20 to 30°C. Pathogenicity tests showed that all five Alternaria spp. were pathogenic on blueberry fruit at 0, 4, and 20°C, with A. alternata, A. arborescens, and A. tenuissima being the most virulent species, followed by A. infectoria and A. rosae. Previously A. tenuissima has been reported to be the primary cause of Alternaria fruit rot of blueberry worldwide. Our results indicated that the species composition of Alternaria responsible for Alternaria fruit rot in blueberry can be dependent on geographical region. A. alternata, A. arborescens, A. infectoria, and A. rosae are reported for the first time on blueberry in California. This is also the first report of A. infectoria and A. rosae infecting blueberry fruit. PMID:26267542

  20. Characterization of Rolled and Erect Leaf 1 in regulating leave morphology in rice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiaoling; Xie, Qingjun; Gao, Ju; Wang, Wenyi; Sun, Bo; Liu, Bohan; Zhu, Haitao; Peng, Haifeng; Zhao, Haibing; Liu, Changhong; Wang, Jiang; Zhang, Jingliu; Zhang, Guiquan; Zhang, Zemin

    2015-09-01

    Leaf morphology, particularly in crop, is one of the most important agronomic traits because it influences the yield through the manipulation of photosynthetic capacity and transpiration. To understand the regulatory mechanism of leaf morphogenesis, an Oryza sativa dominant mutant, rolled and erect leaf 1 (rel1) has been characterized. This mutant has a predominant rolled leaf, increased leaf angle, and reduced plant height phenotype that results in a reduction in grain yield. Electron microscope observations indicated that the leaf incurvations of rel1 dominant mutants result from the alteration of the size and number of bulliform cells. Molecular cloning revealed that the rel1 dominant mutant phenotype is caused by the activation of the REL1 gene, which encodes a novel unknown protein, despite its high degree of conservation among monocot plants. Moreover, the downregulation of the REL1 gene in the rel1 dominant mutant restored the phenotype of this dominant mutant. Alternatively, overexpression of REL1 in wild-type plants induced a phenotype similar to that of the dominant rel1 mutant, indicating that REL1 plays a positive role in leaf rolling and bending. Consistent with the observed rel1 phenotype, the REL1 gene was predominantly expressed in the meristem of various tissues during plant growth and development. Nevertheless, the responsiveness of both rel1 dominant mutants and REL1-overexpressing plants to exogenous brassinosteroid (BR) was reduced. Moreover, transcript levels of BR response genes in the rel1 dominant mutants and REL1-overexpressing lines were significantly altered. Additionally, seven REL1-interacting proteins were also identified from a yeast two-hybrid screen. Taken together, these findings suggest that REL1 regulates leaf morphology, particularly in leaf rolling and bending, through the coordination of BR signalling transduction. PMID:26142419

  1. Physiological and morphological characterization of GABAergic neurons in the medial amygdala.

    PubMed

    Bian, Xiling

    2013-05-01

    GABAergic neurons in the medial amygdala (MeA) have been indicated in information processing in reproductive behavior and fear/anxiety. However, basic knowledge of their physiological and morphological properties is still very limited, probably due to the technical challenge to selectively record the GABAergic neurons. In this study, I characterized properties of the MeA GABAergic neurons by performing whole-cell patch clamp recordings from brain slices of adult knock-in mice selectively expressing green fluorescence protein (GFP) in GABAergic neurons. The majority (73%) of GABAergic neurons exhibiting low threshold calcium spike were classified as type I neurons, with morphological properties of being bitufted or stellate, and dendrites either aspiny or covered by various shapes of spines. Axonal collaterals of some neurons were observed near somata as well as in other amygdaloid nuclei. Neurons incapable of generate low threshold calcium spikes were divided into two types. Type II neurons (11%) exhibited hyperpolarization-activated sag and higher input resistance (>400 M?). Most Type II neurons exhibited asymmetric dendritic trees extending towards the superficial layer covered with long neck dendritic spines. The axons of type II neurons formed large collaterals and projected to other amygdaloid nuclei. Type III neurons (16%) lack prominent hyperpolarization-activated sag and possessed lower input resistance (<400 M?). These neurons were local interneurons with smooth multipolar dendritic trees. Since both MeA and nearby amygdaloid nuclei are involved in fear/anxiety processing, two types of MeA GABAergic projection neurons and a third type of interneurons that might participate in anxiety-related behavior were revealed by my present study. PMID:23524192

  2. Exosomes: improved methods to characterize their morphology, RNA content, and surface protein biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yueting; Deng, Wentao; Klinke, David J

    2015-10-01

    As a type of secreted membrane vesicle, exosomes are an emerging mode of cell-to-cell communication. Yet as exosome samples are commonly contaminated with other extracellular vesicles, the biological roles of exosomes in regulating immunity and promoting oncogenesis remain controversial. Wondering whether existing methods could distort our view of exosome biology, we compared two direct methods for imaging extracellular vesicles and quantified the impact of different production and storage conditions on the quality of exosome samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was compared to transmission electron microscopy (TEM) as alternatives to examine the morphology of exosomes. Using SEM, we were able to distinguish exosomes from other contaminating extracellular vesicles based on the size distribution. More importantly, freezing of samples prior to SEM imaging made it more difficult to distinguish exosomes from extracellular vesicles secreted during cell death. In addition to morphology, the quality of RNA contained within the exosomes was characterized under different storage conditions, where freezing of samples also degraded RNA. Finally, we developed a new flow cytometry approach to assay transmembrane proteins on exosomes. While high-copy-number proteins could be readily detected, detecting low-copy-number proteins was improved using a lipophilic tracer that clustered exosomes. To illustrate this, we observed that exosomes derived from SKBR3 cells, a cell model for human HER2+ breast cancer, contained both HER1 and HER2 but at different levels of abundance. Collectively, these new methods will help to ensure a consistent framework to identify specific roles that exosomes play in regulating cell-to-cell communication. PMID:26332016

  3. Characterization of Rolled and Erect Leaf 1 in regulating leave morphology in rice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiaoling; Xie, Qingjun; Gao, Ju; Wang, Wenyi; Sun, Bo; Liu, Bohan; Zhu, Haitao; Peng, Haifeng; Zhao, Haibing; Liu, Changhong; Wang, Jiang; Zhang, Jingliu; Zhang, Guiquan; Zhang, Zemin

    2015-01-01

    Leaf morphology, particularly in crop, is one of the most important agronomic traits because it influences the yield through the manipulation of photosynthetic capacity and transpiration. To understand the regulatory mechanism of leaf morphogenesis, an Oryza sativa dominant mutant, rolled and erect leaf 1 (rel1) has been characterized. This mutant has a predominant rolled leaf, increased leaf angle, and reduced plant height phenotype that results in a reduction in grain yield. Electron microscope observations indicated that the leaf incurvations of rel1 dominant mutants result from the alteration of the size and number of bulliform cells. Molecular cloning revealed that the rel1 dominant mutant phenotype is caused by the activation of the REL1 gene, which encodes a novel unknown protein, despite its high degree of conservation among monocot plants. Moreover, the downregulation of the REL1 gene in the rel1 dominant mutant restored the phenotype of this dominant mutant. Alternatively, overexpression of REL1 in wild-type plants induced a phenotype similar to that of the dominant rel1 mutant, indicating that REL1 plays a positive role in leaf rolling and bending. Consistent with the observed rel1 phenotype, the REL1 gene was predominantly expressed in the meristem of various tissues during plant growth and development. Nevertheless, the responsiveness of both rel1 dominant mutants and REL1-overexpressing plants to exogenous brassinosteroid (BR) was reduced. Moreover, transcript levels of BR response genes in the rel1 dominant mutants and REL1-overexpressing lines were significantly altered. Additionally, seven REL1-interacting proteins were also identified from a yeast two-hybrid screen. Taken together, these findings suggest that REL1 regulates leaf morphology, particularly in leaf rolling and bending, through the coordination of BR signalling transduction. PMID:26142419

  4. Sleep deprivation induces differential morphological changes in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex in young and old rats.

    PubMed

    Acosta-Peña, Eva; Camacho-Abrego, Israel; Melgarejo-Gutiérrez, Montserrat; Flores, Gonzalo; Drucker-Colín, René; García-García, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is a fundamental state necessary for maintenance of physical and neurological homeostasis throughout life. Several studies regarding the functions of sleep have been focused on effects of sleep deprivation on synaptic plasticity at a molecular and electrophysiological level, and only a few studies have studied sleep function from a structural perspective. Moreover, during normal aging, sleep architecture displays some changes that could affect normal development in the elderly. In this study, using a Golgi-Cox staining followed by Sholl analysis, we evaluate the effects of 24 h of total sleep deprivation on neuronal morphology of pyramidal neurons from Layer III of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the dorsal hippocampal CA1 region from male Wistar rats at two different ages (3 and 22 months). We found no differences in total dendritic length and branching length in both analyzed regions after sleep deprivation. Spine density was reduced in the CA1 of young-adults, and interestingly, sleep deprivation increased spine density in PFC of aged animals. Taken together, our results show that 24 h of total sleep deprivation have different effects on synaptic plasticity and could play a beneficial role in cognition during aging. PMID:25179486

  5. Assessment of morphological and functional changes in organs of rats after intramuscular introduction of iron nanoparticles and their agglomerates.

    PubMed

    Sizova, Elena; Miroshnikov, Sergey; Yausheva, Elena; Polyakova, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    The research was performed on male Wistar rats based on assumptions that new microelement preparations containing metal nanoparticles and their agglomerates had potential. Morphological and functional changes in tissues in the injection site and dynamics of chemical element metabolism (25 indicators) in body were assessed after repeated intramuscular injections (total, 7) with preparation containing agglomerate of iron nanoparticles. As a result, iron depot was formed in myosymplasts of injection sites. The quantity of muscle fibers having positive Perls' stain increased with increasing number of injections. However, the concentration of the most chemical elements and iron significantly decreased in the whole skeletal muscle system (injection sites are not included). Consequently, it increased up to the control level after the sixth and the seventh injections. Among the studied organs (liver, kidneys, and spleen), Caspase-3 expression was revealed only in spleen. The expression had a direct dependence on the number of injections. Processes of iron elimination from preparation containing nanoparticles and their agglomerates had different intensity. PMID:25789310

  6. Biological effects of short-term, high-concentration exposure to methyl isocyanate. V. Morphologic evaluation of rat and guinea pig lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, E.H.; Dodd, D.E.; Troup, C.M.

    1987-06-01

    The morphologic changes induced in the lungs of rats and guinea pigs exposed to high concentrations of MIC vapor (100, 600, and 1000 ppm in the rat and 25, 125, 225, and 675 ppm in the guinea pig) for a short time (15 min) in a static exposure chamber were evaluated at varying postexposure periods (0, 1, 2, and 4, and 16 hr). The 675 ppm-exposed guinea pigs were evaluated only immediately following removal from the chamber. Attention was primarily focused on the intrapulmonary conducting airways and the parenchyma (gas exchange region) of the lungs. The severity of morphologic changes observed by light microscopy was directly correlated with exposure concentration and time postexposure in both species. Specifically, degenerative changes were observed in the bronchial, bronchiolar, and alveolar epithelium in both species. Quantitative differences were observed; 100 ppm of MIC in the rat resulted in much less damage than did 125 ppm of MIC in the guinea pig. Morphologic evidence of sloughing of large sheets of conducting airway epithelium with fibrin buildup and increased mucus production resulted in plugging of major airways and atelectasis. These observations support the hypothesis that tissue hypoxia was a major contributing factor resulting in death.

  7. Characterization and subcellular localization of Tektin 3 in rat spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Takiguchi, Hiroe; Murayama, Emi; Kaneko, Takane; Kurio, Hitoshi; Toshimori, Kiyotaka; Iida, Hiroshi

    2011-08-01

    Mammalian sperm flagella have filament-forming Tektin proteins (Tektin 1-5) reported to be involved in the stability and structural complexity of flagella. Male mice null for Tektin3 produce spermatozoa with reduced forward progression and increased flagellar structural bending defects. The subcellular localization of Tektin3 (TEKT3) in spermatozoa, however, has not been clarified at the ultrastructural level. To elucidate the molecular localization of TEKT3 in flagella of rat spermatozoa, we performed extraction studies followed by immunoblot analysis, immunofluorescence microscopy, and immunogold electron microscopy. Extraction of sperm flagella from the cauda epididymis resulted in complete removal of axonemal tubulins, while TEKT3 was resistant to extraction with the same S-EDTA (1% SDS, 75?mM NaCl, 24?mM EDTA, pH 7.6) solution, suggesting that TEKT3 might be present in the peri-axonemal component and not directly associated with axonemal tubulins. Resistance to S-EDTA extraction might be due to disulfide bond formation during epididymal maturation since concentrations of DTT greater than 5?mM drastically promoted release of TEKT3 from flagella. Immunofluorescence microscopy and pre-embedding immunoelectron microscopy revealed that TEKT3 was predominantly associated with the surface of mitochondria and outer dense fibers in the middle piece. In addition, TEKT3 was found to be present at the equatorial segment region of the acrosome membrane in sperm heads. TEKT3 might not only work as a flagellar constituent required for flagellar stability and sperm motility but also may be involved in acrosome-related events, such as the acrosome reaction or sperm-egg fusion. PMID:21744413

  8. Isolation and characterization of islet stellate cells in rat

    PubMed Central

    Zha, Min; Li, Fengfei; Xu, Wei; Chen, Bijun; Sun, Zilin

    2014-01-01

    The central role of PSCs in pancreatic fibrogenesis is well established. However, the mechanism responsible for the islet fibrosis presenting in the late stage of T2DM has not been fully elucidated. This study was designed to determine whether the endocrine pancreatic islets contain cells resembling PSCs. PSCs were isolated from pancreas using standard explants techniques. A similar method was used to acquire ISCs. Adherent ISCs with a stellate, angular morphology migrated from the edge of cultured islets within 48 h of primary culture. ISCs contained fewer lipid droplets than equivalent PSCs, and their rapid disappearance accompanied by the increased expression of ?-SMA suggested that ISCs were more rapidly activated than PSCs in vitro. They expressed ?-SMA, vimentin, GFAP and were positive for ECM components col-I, col-III and FN, all of which are characteristics of classical PSCs. However, ISCs differed from PSCs by having reduced rates of proliferation and migration in vitro. Our in vitro study shows that isolated islets contain a population of stellate cells which are phenotypically similar but not identical to PSCs. In view of the established role of PSCs in pancreatic fibrosis, we suggest that these may contribute to islet fibrosis in T2DM. PMID:25483957

  9. Morphological and mechanical characterization of composite calcite/SWCNT-COOH single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvaresi, Matteo; Falini, Giuseppe; Pasquini, Luca; Reggi, Michela; Fermani, Simona; Gazzadi, Gian Carlo; Frabboni, Stefano; Zerbetto, Francesco

    2013-07-01

    A growing number of classes of organic (macro)molecular materials have been trapped into inorganic crystalline hosts, such as calcite single crystals, without significantly disrupting their crystalline lattices. Inclusion of an organic phase plays a key role in enhancing the mechanical properties of the crystals, which are believed to share structural features with biogenic minerals. Here we report the synthesis and mechanical characterization of composite calcite/SWCNT-COOH single crystals. Once entrapped into the crystals SWCNT-COOH appeared both as aggregates of entangled bundles and nanoropes. Their observation was possible only after crystal etching, fracture or FIB (focused ion beam) cross-sectioning. SWCNT-COOHs occupied a small volume fraction and were randomly distributed into the host crystal. They did not strongly affect the crystal morphology. However, although the Young's modulus of composite calcite/SWCNT-COOH single crystals was similar to that of pure calcite their hardness increased by about 20%. Thus, SWCNT-COOHs provide an obstacle against the dislocation-mediated propagation of plastic deformation in the crystalline slip systems, in analogy with the well-known hardness increase in fiber-reinforced composites.A growing number of classes of organic (macro)molecular materials have been trapped into inorganic crystalline hosts, such as calcite single crystals, without significantly disrupting their crystalline lattices. Inclusion of an organic phase plays a key role in enhancing the mechanical properties of the crystals, which are believed to share structural features with biogenic minerals. Here we report the synthesis and mechanical characterization of composite calcite/SWCNT-COOH single crystals. Once entrapped into the crystals SWCNT-COOH appeared both as aggregates of entangled bundles and nanoropes. Their observation was possible only after crystal etching, fracture or FIB (focused ion beam) cross-sectioning. SWCNT-COOHs occupied a small volume fraction and were randomly distributed into the host crystal. They did not strongly affect the crystal morphology. However, although the Young's modulus of composite calcite/SWCNT-COOH single crystals was similar to that of pure calcite their hardness increased by about 20%. Thus, SWCNT-COOHs provide an obstacle against the dislocation-mediated propagation of plastic deformation in the crystalline slip systems, in analogy with the well-known hardness increase in fiber-reinforced composites. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr01568h

  10. Chemical, dimensional and morphological ultrafine particle characterization from a waste-to-energy plant

    SciTech Connect

    Buonanno, Giorgio; Stabile, Luca; Avino, Pasquale; Belluso, Elena

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > Particle size distributions and total concentrations measurement at the stack and before the fabric filter of an incinerator. > Chemical characterization of UFPs in terms of heavy metal concentration through a nuclear method. > Mineralogical investigation through a Transmission Electron Microscope equipped with an Energy Dispersive Spectrometer. > Heavy metal concentrations on UFPs as function of the boiling temperature. > Different mineralogical and morphological composition amongst samples collected before the fabric filter and at the stack. - Abstract: Waste combustion processes are responsible of particles and gaseous emissions. Referring to the particle emission, in the last years specific attention was paid to ultrafine particles (UFPs, diameter less than 0.1 {mu}m), mainly emitted by combustion processes. In fact, recent findings of toxicological and epidemiological studies indicate that fine and ultrafine particles could represent a risk for health and environment. Therefore, it is necessary to quantify particle emissions from incinerators also to perform an exposure assessment for the human populations living in their surrounding areas. To these purposes, in the present work an experimental campaign aimed to monitor UFPs was carried out at the incineration plant in San Vittore del Lazio (Italy). Particle size distributions and total concentrations were measured both at the stack and before the fabric filter inlet in order to evaluate the removal efficiency of the filter in terms of UFPs. A chemical characterization of UFPs in terms of heavy metal concentration was performed through a nuclear method, i.e. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), as well as a mineralogical investigation was carried out through a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) equipped with an Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) in order to evaluate shape, crystalline state and mineral compound of sampled particles. Maximum values of 2.7 x 10{sup 7} part. cm{sup -3} and 2.0 x 10{sup 3} part. cm{sup -3} were found, respectively, for number concentration before and after the fabric filter showing a very high efficiency in particle removing by the fabric filter. With regard to heavy metal concentrations, the elements with higher boiling temperature present higher concentrations at lower diameters showing a not complete evaporation in the combustion section and the consequent condensation of semi-volatile compounds on solid nuclei. In terms of mineralogical and morphological analysis, the most abundant compounds found in samples collected before the fabric filter are Na-K-Pb oxides followed by phyllosilicates, otherwise, different oxides of comparable abundance were detected in the samples collected at the stack.

  11. Study of laser uncaging induced morphological alteration of rat cortical neurites using atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jian; Tu, Chunlong; Liang, Yitao; Zhou, Jian; Ye, Xuesong

    2015-09-30

    Activity-dependent structural remodeling is an important aspect of neuronal plasticity. In the previous researches, neuronal structure variations resulting from external interventions were detected by the imaging instruments such as the fluorescence microscopy, the scanning/transmission electron microscopy (SEM/TEM) and the laser confocal microscopy. In this article, a new platform which combined the photochemical stimulation with atomic force microscopy (AFM) was set up to detect the activity-dependent structural remodeling. In the experiments, the cortical neurites on the glass coverslips were stimulated by locally uncaged glutamate under the ultraviolet (UV) laser pulses, and a calcium-related structural collapse of neurites (about 250 nm height decrease) was observed by an AFM. This was the first attempt to combine the laser uncaging with AFM in living cell researches. With the advantages of highly localized stimulation (<5 ?m), super resolution imaging (<3.8 nm), and convenient platform building, this system was suitable for the quantitative observation of the neuron mechanical property variations and morphological alterations modified by neural activities under different photochemical stimulations, which would be helpful for studying physiological and pathological mechanisms of structural and functional changes induced by the biomolecule acting. PMID:26149288

  12. Photochemically induced cystic lesion in the rat spinal cord. I. Behavioral and morphological analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, T.; Prado, R.; Watson, B.D.; Gonzalez-Carvajal, M.; Holets, V.R. )

    1990-08-01

    The present study describes the production of a spinal cord lesion which is initiated by vascular occlusion resulting from the interaction between the photosensitizing dye erythrosin B and an argon laser beam. The lesion has characteristics similar to those of the central cavity thought to lead to the production of post-traumatic syringomyelia (PTS) in humans. The present study examines the behavioral and morphological characteristics of this injury over a 28-day period. Histological analysis revealed a cavity extending from the dorsal horns to lamina VIII, with some lateral and ventral pathways being spared. The cavity volume reached a maximum 7 days after lesion induction. Behavioral changes were assessed using six different tests of motor and reflex function (motor function, climbing, waterbath, inclined plane, withdrawal to pain, and withdrawal to extension). Lesioned animals exhibited flaccid paralysis for 3-5 days, which resolved afterward. The photochemically induced cavity should provide a reproducible model for examining the effects of cystic spinal cord injury on locomotor and reflex function.

  13. Pharmacokinetic characterization of decursinol derived from Angelica gigas Nakai in rats.

    PubMed

    Song, Jin Sook; Chae, Jung-Woo; Lee, Kyeong-Ryoon; Lee, Byung Hoi; Choi, Eun Jeong; Ahn, Sung Hoon; Kwon, Kwang-il; Bae, Myung Ae

    2011-10-01

    Decursinol is a major coumarin derived from the roots of Angelica gigas and has various pharmacological effects against inflammation, angiogenesis, nociceptive pain and Alzheimer's disease. In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to characterize the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of decursinol. Decursinol exhibited high stability to oxidative and glucuronic metabolism in human and rat liver microsomes. In Caco-2 cell monolayers, decursinol showed high permeability (>14?×?10(-6) cm/s) at all tested concentrations in the absorptive direction, which saturated at 100 ?M. Secretion increased in a concentration-dependent manner, with an efflux ratio of more than 2 at 50 ?M, indicating the participation of an active efflux transporter such as P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance protein 2 or breast cancer resistance protein. The fraction of decursinol not bound to plasma proteins was 25-26% in the rat and 9-18% in humans. In human plasma, but not rat plasma, the percentage of unbound decursinol was concentration dependent. Following intravenous administration in rats, non-linear elimination of decursinol was observed with K(m) and V(max) values of 2.1??g/mL and 2.5 mg·h(-1)·kg(-1), respectively. Following oral administration, decursinol exhibited high oral bioavailability (>45%) and rapid absorption (T(max), 0.4-0.9?h) over the dose range studied. In addition, dose-dependent absorption and elimination were observed at 20?mg/kg. PMID:21657833

  14. Morphological properties and residual strain along the small intestine in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jing-Bo; Sha, Hong; Zhuang, Feng-Yuan; Gregersen, Hans

    2002-01-01

    AIM: Residual stress and strain are important for gastrointestinal function and relate to the geometric configuration, the loading conditions and the zero-stress state of the gastrointestinal tract. The purpose of this project is to provide morphometric data and residual strains for the rat small intestine (n = 11). METHODS: To approach the no-load state, the intestine was surgically excised, transferred to an organ bath and cut transversely into short ring-shaped segments. Each ring was cut radially for obtaining the zero-stress state. The residual stress can be characterised by an opening angle. The strain difference between the zero-stress state and the no-load state is called residual strain. RESULTS: Large morphometric variations were found along the small intestine. The wall thickness was highest in the proximal duodenum and decreased in distal direction along the axis of the small intestine (P < 0.001). The circumferential length of the inner and outer surfaces decreased rapidly along the length of duodenum by 30%-50% (P < 0.001). The wall area and lumen area showed a similar pattern (P < 0.001). In zero-stress state the rings always opened up after making the cut. The experiments resulted in larger inner circumferential length and smaller outer circumferential length when compared to the no-load state. The wall thickness and wall area did not differ between the no-load and zero-stress state. The opening angle and tangent rotation angle increased along the length of the duodenum and had its highest value 30% down the intestine. Further down the intestine it decreased again (P < 0.001). The serosal residual strain was tensile with the highest value close to the ligament of Treitz (P < 0.001). The mucosal residual strain was compressive in all segments of the small intestine with average values between -0.25 and -0.4 and with the lowest values close to the ligament of Treitz (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Axial variation in morphometric properties and residual strains were found in the small intestine. Existence of large residual strains indicates that the zero-stress state must be considered in future biomechanical studies in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:11925615

  15. Morphological characterization of filamentous microorganisms in submerged cultures by on-line digital image analysis and pattern recognition.

    PubMed

    Treskatis, S K; Orgeldinger, V; Wolf, H; Gilles, E D

    1997-01-20

    The morphology of filamentous microorganisms in submerged culture is of great interest. On the one hand, morphology influences rheology and mass transfer in the fermentation broth. On the other hand, morphology could be a visible expression of physiology and metabolism of the microorganisms. An algorithm for the morphological characterization and the estimation of biomass of filamentous microorganisms by means of digital image analysis has been developed. After measurement of eight features the objects in the broth are classified into different morphological classes, i.e., pellet aggregates, rough pellets, smooth pellets, mycelial flocks, and medium components. The classification is based on the measured object parameters and a knowledge base, which was generated in a preceding training phase. The method was tested on Streptomyces tendae Tü 901/8c. A typical batch fermentation in a defined medium is presented. It could be shown that both morphology and physiology have been changed in the course of the fermentation, especially during the transition from trophophase to idiophase. In order to supervise the fermentation processes continuously, an on-line image analysis system has been developed. Sampling, dilution, and image acquisition of the culture were performed under the control of a personal computer. (c) 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:18633964

  16. Characterization of triiodothyronine transport and accumulation in rat erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Osty, J; Jego, L; Francon, J; Blondeau, J P

    1988-11-01

    The transport of L-T3 was studied in washed rat erythrocytes. L-T3 uptake was temperature sensitive: the initial velocity of uptake at low substrate concentration was 40 times higher at 37 C than at 0C whereas, at equilibrium, the ratio of cell-associated to extracellular L-T3 was about 7 times lower at 37 C than at 0 C. When [125I]L-T3-loaded erythrocytes were diluted into a serum albumin-containing medium, the efflux of L-T3 proceeded at a rate similar to that of influx. A large excess of unlabeled L-T3 in the medium blocked influx and efflux of labeled L-T3, indicating a saturable carrier-mediated transport process across the plasma membrane. the transport obeyed simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics with an apparent Km of 53 nM and a Vmax of 4.3 pmol/min.10(8) cells at 0 C. The Km increased only slightly with temperature whereas the Vmax was 100 times higher at 37 than at 0 C. The Arrhenius activation energy of uptake was 21 Cal/mol. The nonsaturable adsorption of L-T3 to the cells did not exceed 1% of the equilibrium levels at 0 C and 10% at 37 C. Uptake of L-T3 was very specific: unlabeled L-T4, D-T3, triiodothyroacetic acid, rT3, and DL-thyronine inhibited uptake with inhibition constant (Ki) values which were 35, 60, 65, 110, and 250 times, respectively, greater than the Km of L-T3. [125I]L-T4 uptake was negligible. L-T3 uptake and L-T4 inhibition of L-T3 uptake were pH dependent. It is suggested that only the unionized 4'-OH forms of the hormones were recognized by the transport system. At equilibrium, L-T3 was accumulated within the cell (apparent intracellular concentration approximately 50 times higher than that in the medium at 37 C). However, uptake was not dependent on the transmembrane Na+ gradient, suggesting facilitated rather than active transport. Analysis of L-T3 binding to erythrocyte cytosolic proteins suggested that they were implicated in the intracellular trapping of L-T3. At a concentration of 5 x 10(9) erythrocytes/ml (approximately the blood concentration), the amount of L-T3 accumulated in the cells was 13.5 times higher than the extracellular amount. We conclude that L-T3 is solely transported by a saturable, stereospecific, and Na+-independent carrier system. The intracellular accumulation and the rapid transmembrane movements of L-T3 suggest that erythrocytes might play a role in the interorgan transport of L-T3. PMID:3168926

  17. Characterization of microstructural morphology of austempered ductile iron by electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Guo, X L; Su, H Q; Wu, B Y; Liu, Z G

    1998-02-15

    Mechanical properties of austempered ductile iron (ADI) are mainly controlled by its unique microstructure. The objectives of this paper are to characterize the microstructural morphology and the phase distribution of ADI using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and to determine the mechanism of strengthening and toughening of ADI. The experimental results show that, in the microstructure of ADI composing of upper bainite, retained austenite, graphitic nodule, and a small amount of martensite, the upper bainite is composed of sub-units of ferrite in the shape of "wheat ears" on which the "wheat grains" grow at an angle of about 60 degrees to the long axis of the "wheat ears." The retained austenite is connected with each other in the shape of a continuous net. The wheat-ear like bainite with a homogeneous distribution in the continuous austenite net plays an important role to the strengthening and toughening of ADI. The metastable austenite appears in the shape of a large plate in which the martensite is preferentially formed. The appearance of martensite can be suppressed at the time when retained austenite remains stable, which is of benefit to the continuity and homogeneity of austenite net. PMID:9523764

  18. Characterizing sea ice surface morphology using high-resolution IceBridge data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petty, A.; Farrell, S. L.; Newman, T.; Kurtz, N. T.; Richter-Menge, J.; Tsamados, M.; Feltham, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Sea ice pressure ridges form when ice floes collide while drifting under the combined forces of atmospheric drag, oceanic drag and ice-ice interaction. Sea ice ridges, in-turn, affect the resultant form drag on the sea ice cover and thus impact the fluxes of momentum and heat between the atmosphere and ocean. Here we present initial results of a new sea ice ridge detection approach that utilizes high resolution, three-dimensional ice/snow surface elevation data from the NASA Operation IceBridge Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) laser altimeter merged with coincident high-resolution imagery from the Digital Mapping System (DMS). We derive novel information regarding sea ice deformation across a variety of ice types and regimes. Statistical information regarding sea ice ridges (height/frequency/orientation) and floe edges (freeboard height) are presented for several IceBridge flight lines. These novel characterizations of sea ice surface morphology will be used to validate and inform drag parameterizations in state-of-the-art sea ice models. Furthermore, they will advance our ability to quantify uncertainties introduced by pressure ridges in the estimation of sea ice freeboard/thickness from airborne and satellite altimeters.

  19. Characterizing sea ice surface morphology using high-resolution IceBridge data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petty, Alek; Farrell, Sinead; Newman, Thomas; Kurtz, Nathan; Richter-Menge, Jacqueline; Tsamados, Michel; Feltham, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Sea ice pressure ridges form when ice floes collide while drifting under the combined forces of atmospheric drag, oceanic drag and ice-ice interaction. Sea ice ridges, in-turn, affect the resultant form drag on the sea ice cover and thus impact the fluxes of momentum and heat between the atmosphere and ocean. Here we present initial results of a new sea ice ridge detection approach that utilizes high resolution, three-dimensional ice/snow surface elevation data from the NASA Operation IceBridge Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) laser altimeter merged with coincident high-resolution imagery from the Digital Mapping System (DMS). We derive novel information regarding sea ice deformation across a variety of ice types and regimes. Statistical information regarding sea ice ridges (height/frequency/orientation) and floe edges (freeboard height) are presented for several IceBridge flight lines. These novel characterizations of sea ice surface morphology will be used to validate and inform drag parameterizations in state-of-the-art sea ice models. Furthermore, they will advance our ability to quantify uncertainties introduced by pressure ridges in the estimation of sea ice freeboard/thickness from airborne and satellite altimeters.

  20. Morphological and mechanical characterization of composite calcite/SWCNT-COOH single crystals.

    PubMed

    Calvaresi, Matteo; Falini, Giuseppe; Pasquini, Luca; Reggi, Michela; Fermani, Simona; Gazzadi, Gian Carlo; Frabboni, Stefano; Zerbetto, Francesco

    2013-08-01

    A growing number of classes of organic (macro)molecular materials have been trapped into inorganic crystalline hosts, such as calcite single crystals, without significantly disrupting their crystalline lattices. Inclusion of an organic phase plays a key role in enhancing the mechanical properties of the crystals, which are believed to share structural features with biogenic minerals. Here we report the synthesis and mechanical characterization of composite calcite/SWCNT-COOH single crystals. Once entrapped into the crystals SWCNT-COOH appeared both as aggregates of entangled bundles and nanoropes. Their observation was possible only after crystal etching, fracture or FIB (focused ion beam) cross-sectioning. SWCNT-COOHs occupied a small volume fraction and were randomly distributed into the host crystal. They did not strongly affect the crystal morphology. However, although the Young's modulus of composite calcite/SWCNT-COOH single crystals was similar to that of pure calcite their hardness increased by about 20%. Thus, SWCNT-COOHs provide an obstacle against the dislocation-mediated propagation of plastic deformation in the crystalline slip systems, in analogy with the well-known hardness increase in fiber-reinforced composites. PMID:23787771

  1. Surface morphology and electrochemical characterization of electrodeposited Ni-Mo nanocomposites as cathodes for hydrogen evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhachmi Guettaf, Temam; Hachemi Ben, Temam; Said, Benramache

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we study the influences of current density on surface morphology and electrochemical characterization of electrodeposited Ni-Mo. The Ni-Mo composite coatings are deposited on pretreated copper substrates by electrolytic deposition. The Ni-Mo solution is taken from nickel sulfate fluid and ammonium heptamolybdate with 10 g/l. The Ni-Mo composite coatings are deposited at a temperature of 303 K with an applied current density of jdep = 10 A/dm2-30 A/dm2. We find that the corrosion resistance is improved by incorporating Mo particles into Ni matrix in 0.6-M NaCl solution. From the potentiodynamic polarization curve of electrodeposited Ni-Mo it is confirmed that the corrosion resistance decreases with increasing applied current density. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses of Ni-Mo coatings indicate three phases of MoNi4, Mo1.24Ni0.76, and Ni3Mo phases crystallites of nickel and molybdenum. The scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) tests indicate that Ni-Mo coatings present cracks and pores.

  2. Postpartum cervical repair in mice: a morphological characterization and potential role for angiogenic factors.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Robert; Ohashi, Takako; Mowa, Chishimba

    2015-10-01

    The cervix undergoes marked mechanical trauma during delivery of the baby at birth. As such, a timely and complete tissue repair postpartum is necessary to prevent obstetrical complications, such as cervicitis, ectropion, hemorrhage, repeated miscarriages or abortions and possibly preterm labor and malignancies. However, our knowledge of normal cervical repair is currently incomplete and factors that influence repair are unclear. Here, we characterize the morphological and angiogenic profile of postpartum repair in mice cervix during the first 48 h of postpartum. The key findings presented here are: (1) cervical epithelial folds and size are diminished during the first 48 h of postpartum repair, (2) hypoxic inducible factor 1a, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and VEGF receptor 1 expression are pronounced early in postpartum cervical repair, and (3) VEGF receptor 2 gene and protein expressions are variable. We conclude that postpartum cervical repair involves gross and microscopic changes and is linked to expression of angiogenic factors. Future studies will assess the suitability of these factors, identified in the present study, as potential markers for determining the phase of postpartum cervical repair in obstetrical complications, such as cervical lacerations. PMID:25943091

  3. Electrical, Mechanical, and Morphological Characterization of Carbon Nanotube filled Polymeric Nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorga, Russell; Clarke, Laura; McCullen, Seth; Ojha, Satyajeet; Roberts, Wesley

    2006-03-01

    This work focuses on the inclusion of conductive nanotubes into polymeric matrices with the end goal of creating conductive nanocomposites. This investigation has been carried out by uniform dispersion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in aqueous solutions of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyethylene oxide (PEO), which are inherently nonconductive polymers. To fabricate these structures we are using the electrospinning process encompassing an array of collection methods including parallel bars and a static plate. Carbon nanotubes are known to have excellent electrical conductivity and mechanical properties. This investigation shows that the inclusion of carbon nanotubes increases the electronic conduction in these polymers and enhances the mechanical properties of the composites. Dispersion of these nanotubes is the key factor in this process; gum Arabic and surfactants have been utilized for the dispersion of these nanotubes. Conductivity measurements have been carried out by two point probe method and by performing sensitive current and conductance measurements with a femtoammeter. Further morphological characterization has been performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).^1 Department of Textile Engineering, Chemistry, and Science ^2 Department of Physics

  4. Structural and morphological characterizations of ZnO nanopowder synthesized by hydrothermal route using inorganic reactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djouadi, D.; Meddouri, M.; Chelouche, A.; Hammiche, L.; Aksas, A.

    2014-12-01

    Zinc oxide nanoscale powder has been synthesized by a hydrothermal route using zinc sulfate and sodium hydroxide. The as-prepared powder was annealed at 600 °C for 2 h and then characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and infra-red Fourier transformed spectroscopy. XRD measurements have shown a ZnO hexagonal wurtzite polycrystalline structure with good crystallinity and the formation of a new sodium pyrosulfate phase in the as-prepared powder. The annealing improves the crystalline quality of the powder and transforms the sodium pyrosulfate phase to a sodium sulfate one. The thermal treatment does not affect the lattice parameters and the Zn-O bond length but improves the random orientation of the ZnO crystallites growth. ZnO crystallites have an interconnected-nano-needles morphology forming irregular shaped aggregates. The size of the crystallites is about 20 nm. EDX analysis has shown the presence of C and S in addition to Zn and O. FTIR spectra confirm the formation of ZnO and sodium sulfate. The synthesized ZnO powder has a very high crystalline quality and the used method is a very advantageous one for the fabrication of nanosized metal oxides from inorganic reactants for photo-catalysis applications.

  5. Co-precipitation synthesis and characterization of faceted MoS2 nanorods with controllable morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vattikuti, S. V. Prabhakar; Byon, Chan; Reddy, Ch. Venkata; Shim, Jaesool; Venkatesh, B.

    2015-06-01

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanopowder has been prepared using a co-precipitation method. This paper describes the thermal effect on the morphology enhancement of MoS2 sphere-like structures into nanorods with a winding structure. For the reduction in precursors, the as-obtained MoS2 nanopowder was calcinated at 250, 400, 600, and 800 °C for 1 h in an N2 environment. The calcined samples were characterized using a particle size analyzer, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy with X-ray analysis (EDAX) and transmission electron microscopy, HRTEM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results show the MoS2 sphere-like structure with diameter in the range of 50-100 nm and rod-like winding structure with diameter in the range of 20-150 nm, and a few tens of micrometers in length with a high degree of size homogeneity. The FT-IR spectra show the obtained bands at 480 and 900 cm-1 are corresponding to the Mo-S bond and the S-S bond. The TG-DTA curves confirm the thermal stability of the prepared samples. It is observed that the band gap energy for the MoS2 nanorods is lower than for the nanospherical structure MoS2, which leads to achieve high electron and hole recombination rate.

  6. Molecular Characterization of Growth Hormone-producing Tumors in the GC Rat Model of Acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Martín-Rodríguez, Juan F; Muñoz-Bravo, Jose L; Ibañez-Costa, Alejandro; Fernandez-Maza, Laura; Balcerzyk, Marcin; Leal-Campanario, Rocío; Luque, Raúl M; Castaño, Justo P; Venegas-Moreno, Eva; Soto-Moreno, Alfonso; Leal-Cerro, Alfonso; Cano, David A

    2015-01-01

    Acromegaly is a disorder resulting from excessive production of growth hormone (GH) and consequent increase of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I), most frequently caused by pituitary adenomas. Elevated GH and IGF-I levels results in wide range of somatic, cardiovascular, endocrine, metabolic, and gastrointestinal morbidities. Subcutaneous implantation of the GH-secreting GC cell line in rats leads to the formation of tumors. GC tumor-bearing rats develop characteristics that resemble human acromegaly including gigantism and visceromegaly. However, GC tumors remain poorly characterized at a molecular level. In the present work, we report a detailed histological and molecular characterization of GC tumors using immunohistochemistry, molecular biology and imaging techniques. GC tumors display histopathological and molecular features of human GH-producing tumors, including hormone production, cell architecture, senescence activation and alterations in cell cycle gene expression. Furthermore, GC tumors cells displayed sensitivity to somatostatin analogues, drugs that are currently used in the treatment of human GH-producing adenomas, thus supporting the GC tumor model as a translational tool to evaluate therapeutic agents. The information obtained would help to maximize the usefulness of the GC rat model for research and preclinical studies in GH-secreting tumors. PMID:26549306

  7. Molecular Characterization of Growth Hormone-producing Tumors in the GC Rat Model of Acromegaly

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Rodríguez, Juan F.; Muñoz-Bravo, Jose L.; Ibañez-Costa, Alejandro; Fernandez-Maza, Laura; Balcerzyk, Marcin; Leal-Campanario, Rocío; Luque, Raúl M.; Castaño, Justo P.; Venegas-Moreno, Eva; Soto-Moreno, Alfonso; Leal-Cerro, Alfonso; Cano, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Acromegaly is a disorder resulting from excessive production of growth hormone (GH) and consequent increase of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I), most frequently caused by pituitary adenomas. Elevated GH and IGF-I levels results in wide range of somatic, cardiovascular, endocrine, metabolic, and gastrointestinal morbidities. Subcutaneous implantation of the GH-secreting GC cell line in rats leads to the formation of tumors. GC tumor-bearing rats develop characteristics that resemble human acromegaly including gigantism and visceromegaly. However, GC tumors remain poorly characterized at a molecular level. In the present work, we report a detailed histological and molecular characterization of GC tumors using immunohistochemistry, molecular biology and imaging techniques. GC tumors display histopathological and molecular features of human GH-producing tumors, including hormone production, cell architecture, senescence activation and alterations in cell cycle gene expression. Furthermore, GC tumors cells displayed sensitivity to somatostatin analogues, drugs that are currently used in the treatment of human GH-producing adenomas, thus supporting the GC tumor model as a translational tool to evaluate therapeutic agents. The information obtained would help to maximize the usefulness of the GC rat model for research and preclinical studies in GH-secreting tumors. PMID:26549306

  8. Morphologic changes in rat urothelial cells during carcinogenesis. II. Image cytometry

    SciTech Connect

    Young, I.T.; Vanderlaan, M.; Kromhout, L.; Jensen, R.; Grover, A.; King, E.

    1984-01-01

    Improved early detection of neoplasia by screening of urothelial cells requires an understanding of the features distinguishing normal and neoplastic cell populations. The authors have begun a program of study based upon a rate model system for the controlled observation of early-stage lesions produced by the carcinogen N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)- nitrosamine. Cells dissociated directly from normal and malignant urothelium were characterized by conventional cytopathology techniques and by quantitative microscopy (for nuclear texture and nuclear and cytoplasmic size, shape, and stain content) to derive a comprehensive picture of bladder tumor development. By following the changes that occur in the dissociated urothelial cells the authors have found that the nuclear area, total nuclear stain, nuclear shape, and the nuclear chromatin change significantly over a 48-wk interval as the lesions progress toward malignancy. 24 references, 10 figures, 1 table.

  9. Characterization of epidermal growth factor receptors on plasma membranes isolated from rat gastric mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Hori, R.; Nomura, H.; Iwakawa, S.; Okumura, K. )

    1990-06-01

    The binding of human epidermal growth factor (hEGF), beta-urogastrone, to plasma membranes isolated from rat gastric mucosa was studied to characterize gastric EGF receptors. The binding of ({sup 125}I)hEGF was temperature dependent, reversible, and saturable. A single class of binding sites for EGF with a dissociation constant of 0.42 nM and maximal binding capacity of 42 fmol/mg protein was suggested. There was little change in the binding of ({sup 125}I)hEGF upon addition of peptide hormones (secretin, insulin), antiulcer drugs (cimetidine), or an ulcer-inducing reagent (aspirin). Cross-linking of ({sup 125}I)hEGF to gastric plasma membranes with the use of disuccinimidyl suberate resulted in the labeling of a protein of 150 kDa. These results indicate the presence of EGF receptors on plasma membranes of rat gastric mucosa.

  10. Characterization of convulsions induced by a hexanic extract of Spilanthes acmella var. oleracea in rats.

    PubMed

    Moreira, V M; Maia, J G; de Souza, J M; Bortolotto, Z A; Cavalheiro, E A

    1989-01-01

    To characterize the convulsions induced by a hexanic extract of Spilanthes acmella var. oleracea, male Wistar rats were injected ip with 50 to 150 mg/kg of the extract and EEG and behavior were observed for periods as long as 2 h. Following the lower doses (50 and 75 mg/kg) only minor behavioral changes such as grooming and wet dog shakes were observed. Higher doses (100 to 150 mg/kg) induced full tonic-clonic convulsions in a dose-dependent manner which were accompanied by typical electrographic seizures in the EEG. These results confirm that the hexane extract of Spilanthes acmella var. oleracea is able to induce generalized convulsions in rats and can be used as a tool in the development of new models of epilepsy. PMID:2758174

  11. Characterization and tissue distribution of conjugated metabolites of pyrene in the rat

    PubMed Central

    SAENGTIENCHAI, Aksorn; IKENAKA, Yoshinori; DARWISH, Wageh Sobhy; NAKAYAMA, Shouta M.M.; MIZUKAWA, Hazuki; ISHIZUKA, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    Pyrene (PY) is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) that is often used as a biomarker for human and wildlife exposure to PAHs. As the metabolites of PAHs, similar to their parent compounds, pose public health risks, it is necessary to study their characteristics and tissue-specific distribution. The present study was performed to experimentally characterize PY metabolites and analyze the tissue-specific distribution of the conjugated metabolites after oral administration of PY to rats. PY metabolites, such as pyrenediol-disulfate (PYdiol-diS), pyrenediol-sulfate (PYdiol-S), pyrene-1-sufate (PYOS), pyrene-1-glucuronide (PYOG) and 1-hydroxypyrene (PYOH), were detected in rat urine. Although glucuronide conjugate was the predominant metabolite, the metabolite composition varied among tissues. Interestingly, the proportion of PYOH was high in the large intestine. Furthermore, PYOH was the only PY metabolite detected in feces. PMID:26028020

  12. Characterization of the role of HCN channels in ?3-adrenoceptor mediated rat bladder relaxation

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Mahendra; Yoshimura, Naoki; Smith, Phillip P.; Chancellor, Michael; Tyagi, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    Objective The second messenger cAMP is involved in both ?3 adrenoceptor (?3-AR) mediated detrusor relaxation and the kinetics of Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels. Here we characterized the effect HCN channel activation and possible interaction with ?3-AR in bladder. Materials and Methods Bladder tissues from Sprague-Dawley rats and Human organ donors were obtained for studying species-specific expression of HCN channels by real-time qPCR and Western Blot. Effect of ?3-agonist on rat bladder strips (0.5 × 0.5 × 7 mm in size) was studied during activation and blockade of HCN channels by Lamotrigine and ZD7288, respectively. Results Expression of all four genes encoding for HCN channels (HCN1-4) was detected separately in bladder mucosa and detrusor from human and rat bladders. Species based differences were evident from relatively higher expression of HCN4 isoform in human bladder and that of HCN1 in rat bladder. Western blot confirmed the findings at mRNA level. Cumulative application ?3-AR agonist CL316,243 produced a concentration dependent decrease in resting tension of rat bladder strips expressed as integral of mechanical activity. Pre-incubation of HCN channel blocker ZD 7288 opposed the relaxant effect of CL316,243, whereas co-administration of lamotrigine with CL316,243 at equal molar concentrations caused an additive decrease in resting tension. Cumulative addition of ZD7288 and lamotrigine in absence of CL316,243 showed opposing effects on detrusor contractility. Conclusions Species-specific differences were noted in expression of HCN channels in bladder. Opposing effects ZD7288 and Lamotrigine in the action of ?3-AR agonist demonstrate possible functional interaction of HCN channels and ?3-AR in detrusor contractility.

  13. Self-assembled light lanthanide oxalate architecture with controlled morphology, characterization, growing mechanism and optical property

    SciTech Connect

    He, Hongmei; Zhang, Youjin; Zhu, Wei; Zheng, Ao

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} Flower-like Sm{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}.10H{sub 2}O was gained with Na{sub 3}Cit assisted precipitation method. {yields} The mechanism of the flower-like Sm{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}.10H{sub 2}O formation was proposed. {yields} The Sm{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}.10H{sub 2}O and Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples exhibited obviously different PL spectra. {yields} Ln{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}.nH{sub 2}O (Ln = Gd, Dy, Lu, Y) also were achieved by the simple method. -- Abstract: Flower-like Sm{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}.10H{sub 2}O had been synthesized by a facile complex agent assisted precipitation method. The flower-like Sm{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}.10H{sub 2}O was characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis and photoluminescence. The possible growth mechanism of the flower-like Sm{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}.10H{sub 2}O was proposed. To extend this method, other Ln{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}.nH{sub 2}O (Ln = Gd, Dy, Lu, Y) with different morphologies also had been prepared by adjusting different rare earth precursors. Further studies revealed that besides the reaction conditions and the additive amount of complex agents, the morphologies of the as-synthesised lanthanide oxalates were also determined by the rare earth ions. The Sm{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}.10H{sub 2}O and Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples exhibited different photoluminescence spectra, which was relevant to Sm{sup 3+} energy level structure of 4f electrons. The method may be applied in the synthesis of other lanthanide compounds, and the work could explore the potential optical materials.

  14. Characterization and enrichment of hepatic progenitor cells in adult rat liver

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Ai-Lan; Zhou, Xia-Qiu; Zhang, Wei; Yu, Hong; Xie, Qin

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To detect the markers of oval cells in adult rat liver and to enrich them for further analysis of characterization in vitro. METHODS: Rat model for hepatic oval cell proliferation was established with 2-acetylaminofluorene and two third partial hepatectomy (2-AAF/PH). Paraffin embedded rat liver sections from model (11 d after hepatectomy) and control groups were stained with HE and OV6, cytokeratin19 (CK19), albumin, alpha fetoprotein (AFP), connexin43, and c-kit antibodies by immunohistochemistry. Oval cell proliferation was measured with BrdU incorporation test. C-kit positive oval cells were enriched by using magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) .The sorted oval cells were cultured in a low density to observe colony formation and to examine their characterization in vitro by immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR. RESULTS: A 2-AAF/PH model was successfully established to activate the oval cell compartment in rat liver. BrdU incorporation test of oval cell was positive. The hepatic oval cells coexpressed oval cell specific marker OV6, hepatocyte-marker albumin and cholangiocyte-marker CK19. They also expressed AFP and connexin 43. C-kit, one hematopoietic stem cell receptor, was expressed in hepatic oval cells at high levels. By using c-kit antibody in conjunction with MACS, we developed a rapid oval cell isolation protocol. The sorted cells formed colony when cultured in vitro. Cells in the colony expressed albumin or CK19 or coexpressed both and BrdU incorporation test was positive. RT-PCR on colony showed expression of albumin and CK19 gene. CONCLUSION: Hepatic oval cells in the 2-AAF/PH model had the properties of hepatic stem/progenitor cells. Using MACS, we established a method to isolate oval cells. The sorted hepatic oval cells can form colony in vitro which expresses different combinations of phenotypic markers and genes from both hepatocytes and cholangiocyte lineage. PMID:15133858

  15. Modified neocortical and cerebellar protein expression and morphology in adult rats following prenatal inhibition of the kynurenine pathway.

    PubMed

    Pisar, Mazura; Forrest, Caroline M; Khalil, Omari S; McNair, Kara; Vincenten, Maria C J; Qasem, Susana; Darlington, L Gail; Stone, Trevor W

    2014-08-12

    Inhibition of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism during gestation can lead to changes in synaptic transmission, neuronal morphology and plasticity in the rat hippocampus. This suggests a role for the kynurenine pathway in early brain development, probably caused by kynurenine modulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors which are activated by the tryptophan metabolite quinolinic acid and blocked by kynurenic acid. We have now examined samples of neocortex and cerebellum of adult animals to assess the effects of a prenatally administered kynurenine-3-monoxygenase inhibitor (Ro61-8048) on protein and mRNA expression, dendritic structure and immuno-histochemistry. No changes were seen in mRNA expression using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Changes were detected in the expression of several proteins including the GluN2A subunit, unco-ordinated-5H3 (unc5H3), doublecortin, cyclo-oxygenase, sonic hedgehog and Disrupted in schizophrenia-1 (DISC1), although no differences in immunoreactive cell numbers were observed. In the midbrain, dependence receptor expression was also changed. The numbers and lengths of individual dendritic regions were not changed but there were significant increases in the overall complexity values of apical and basal dendritic trees. The data support the hypothesis that constitutive kynurenine metabolism plays a critical role in early, embryonic brain development, although fewer effects are produced in the neocortex and cerebellum than in the hippocampus and the nature of the changes seen are qualitatively different. The significant changes in DISC1 and unc5H3 may be relevant to cerebellar dysfunction and schizophrenia respectively, in which these proteins have been previously implicated. PMID:24956103

  16. Morphology and Performance of Polymer Solar Cell Characterized by DPD Simulation and Graph Theory.

    PubMed

    Du, Chunmiao; Ji, Yujin; Xue, Junwei; Hou, Tingjun; Tang, Jianxin; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Li, Youyong

    2015-01-01

    The morphology of active layers in the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells is critical to the performance of organic photovoltaics (OPV). Currently, there is limited information for the morphology from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Meanwhile, there are limited approaches to predict the morphology /efficiency of OPV. Here we use Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) to determine 3D morphology of BHJ solar cells and show DPD to be an efficient approach to predict the 3D morphology. Based on the 3D morphology, we estimate the performance indicator of BHJ solar cells by using graph theory. Specifically, we study poly (3-hexylthiophene)/[6, 6]-phenyl-C61butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT/PCBM) BHJ solar cells. We find that, when the volume fraction of PCBM is in the region 0.4???0.5, P3HT/PCBM will show bi-continuous morphology and optimum performance, consistent with experimental results. Further, the optimum temperature (413 K) for the morphology and performance of P3HT/PCBM is in accord with annealing results. We find that solvent additive plays a critical role in the desolvation process of P3HT/PCBM BHJ solar cell. Our approach provides a direct method to predict dynamic 3D morphology and performance indicator for BHJ solar cells. PMID:26581407

  17. Morphology and Performance of Polymer Solar Cell Characterized by DPD Simulation and Graph Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Chunmiao; Ji, Yujin; Xue, Junwei; Hou, Tingjun; Tang, Jianxin; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Li, Youyong

    2015-11-01

    The morphology of active layers in the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells is critical to the performance of organic photovoltaics (OPV). Currently, there is limited information for the morphology from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Meanwhile, there are limited approaches to predict the morphology /efficiency of OPV. Here we use Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) to determine 3D morphology of BHJ solar cells and show DPD to be an efficient approach to predict the 3D morphology. Based on the 3D morphology, we estimate the performance indicator of BHJ solar cells by using graph theory. Specifically, we study poly (3-hexylthiophene)/[6, 6]-phenyl-C61butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT/PCBM) BHJ solar cells. We find that, when the volume fraction of PCBM is in the region 0.4???0.5, P3HT/PCBM will show bi-continuous morphology and optimum performance, consistent with experimental results. Further, the optimum temperature (413 K) for the morphology and performance of P3HT/PCBM is in accord with annealing results. We find that solvent additive plays a critical role in the desolvation process of P3HT/PCBM BHJ solar cell. Our approach provides a direct method to predict dynamic 3D morphology and performance indicator for BHJ solar cells.

  18. Morphology and Performance of Polymer Solar Cell Characterized by DPD Simulation and Graph Theory

    PubMed Central

    Du, Chunmiao; Ji, Yujin; Xue, Junwei; Hou, Tingjun; Tang, Jianxin; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Li, Youyong

    2015-01-01

    The morphology of active layers in the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells is critical to the performance of organic photovoltaics (OPV). Currently, there is limited information for the morphology from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Meanwhile, there are limited approaches to predict the morphology /efficiency of OPV. Here we use Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) to determine 3D morphology of BHJ solar cells and show DPD to be an efficient approach to predict the 3D morphology. Based on the 3D morphology, we estimate the performance indicator of BHJ solar cells by using graph theory. Specifically, we study poly (3-hexylthiophene)/[6, 6]-phenyl-C61butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT/PCBM) BHJ solar cells. We find that, when the volume fraction of PCBM is in the region 0.4???0.5, P3HT/PCBM will show bi-continuous morphology and optimum performance, consistent with experimental results. Further, the optimum temperature (413 K) for the morphology and performance of P3HT/PCBM is in accord with annealing results. We find that solvent additive plays a critical role in the desolvation process of P3HT/PCBM BHJ solar cell. Our approach provides a direct method to predict dynamic 3D morphology and performance indicator for BHJ solar cells. PMID:26581407

  19. Quantitative characterization of the influence of the nanoscale morphology of nanostructured surfaces on bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajay Vikram; Vyas, Varun; Patil, Rajendra; Sharma, Vimal; Scopelliti, Pasquale Emanuele; Bongiorno, Gero; Podestà, Alessandro; Lenardi, Cristina; Gade, Wasudev Namdev; Milani, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial infection of implants and prosthetic devices is one of the most common causes of implant failure. The nanostructured surface of biocompatible materials strongly influences the adhesion and proliferation of mammalian cells on solid substrates. The observation of this phenomenon has led to an increased effort to develop new strategies to prevent bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation, primarily through nanoengineering the topology of the materials used in implantable devices. While several studies have demonstrated the influence of nanoscale surface morphology on prokaryotic cell attachment, none have provided a quantitative understanding of this phenomenon. Using supersonic cluster beam deposition, we produced nanostructured titania thin films with controlled and reproducible nanoscale morphology respectively. We characterized the surface morphology; composition and wettability by means of atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. We studied how protein adsorption is influenced by the physico-chemical surface parameters. Lastly, we characterized Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus adhesion on nanostructured titania surfaces. Our results show that the increase in surface pore aspect ratio and volume, related to the increase of surface roughness, improves protein adsorption, which in turn downplays bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. As roughness increases up to about 20 nm, bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation are enhanced; the further increase of roughness causes a significant decrease of bacterial adhesion and inhibits biofilm formation. We interpret the observed trend in bacterial adhesion as the combined effect of passivation and flattening effects induced by morphology-dependent protein adsorption. Our findings demonstrate that bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on nanostructured titanium oxide surfaces are significantly influenced by nanoscale morphological features. The quantitative information, provided by this study about the relation between surface nanoscale morphology and bacterial adhesion points towards the rational design of implant surfaces that control or inhibit bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. PMID:21966403

  20. Adolescent exposure to cocaine increases anxiety-like behavior and induces morphologic and neurochemical changes in the hippocampus of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Zhu, W; Mao, Z; Zhu, C; Li, M; Cao, C; Guan, Y; Yuan, J; Xie, G; Guan, X

    2016-01-28

    Repeated exposure to cocaine during adolescence may affect both physical and psychological conditions in the brain, and increase the risk of psychiatric disorders and addiction behaviors in adulthood. Adolescence represents a critical development period for the hippocampus. Moreover, different regions of the hippocampus are involved in different functions. Dorsal hippocampus (dHP) has been implicated in learning and memory, whereas ventral hippocampus (vHP) plays an important role in emotional processing. In this study, the rats that were exposed to cocaine during adolescence (postnatal days, P28-P42) showed higher anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze test in adulthood (P80), but displayed normal spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze test. Furthermore, repeated exposure to cocaine during adolescence lead to alterations in morphology of pyramidal neurons, activities of astrocytes, and levels of proteins that involved in synaptic transmission, apoptosis, inflammation and addiction in both dHP and vHP of adult rats. These findings suggest that repeated exposure to cocaine during adolescence in rats may elicit morphologic and neurochemical changes in the hippocampus when the animals reach adulthood. These changes may contribute to the increased susceptibility for psychiatric disorders and addiction seen in adults. PMID:26621120

  1. Characterization of the pseudocapsule of soft-tissue sarcomas. An experimental study in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Gitelis, S.; Thomas, R.; Templeton, A.; Schajowicz, F. )

    1989-09-01

    The effect of preoperative radiation therapy on the pseudocapsule of experimental rat soft-tissue sarcomas has not been histologically evaluated in a controlled study. The irradiated animal showed marked thickening of the capsular structure surrounding the sarcoma. Everywhere morphologically distinct from the tumor, there was no evidence of tumor invasion into or through this capsular structure. The membrane was consistently thicker and more hyalinized than in the control animals. The nonirradiated animals showed a minimal pseudocapsular structure with a characteristic tumor penetration. Irradiation produced distinct histologic changes in the pseudocapsule. Although assumed on the basis of clinical observations alone, irradiation-induced pseudocapsule has not previously been demonstrated in an experimental model of soft-tissue sarcoma.

  2. Morphological redescription and molecular characterization of three species of Travassosinematidae (Nematoda: Oxyurida: Thelastomatoidea) from Gryllotalpa africana Beauv (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae)

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Neetu; Chaudhary, Anshu; Singh, Hridaya Shanker

    2013-01-01

    Binema mirzaia (Basir, 1942a) Basir, 1956, Cameronia nisari (Parveen and Jairajpuri, 1985) Adamson and Van Waerebeke, 1992a and Mirzaiella meerutensis Singh and Malti, 2003 are redescribed morphologically along with molecular identification from the intestine of mole cricket Gryllotalpa africana. Molecular characterization was carried out using the D2–D3 expansion domains of the 18S ribosomal DNA region. This study first time presents molecular data for the above three nematode species. PMID:24143052

  3. Influence of vanadyl sulphate [VOSO4] on biochemical activity and morphology of control and streptozotocin-diabetic rat liver Golgi complexes.

    PubMed

    Dabro?, Wojciech; Goc, Anna; Turyna, Bohdan; Kordowiak, Anna M

    2004-01-01

    The authors describe the influence of vanadyl sulphate on liver Golgi complexes in control and streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats. VOSO4, one of inorganic vanadium compounds widely used in animal models and human diabetes, acts as an insulin-mimetic drug and is relatively well known as a complex activated or inhibited on many enzymes involved in carbohydrate or lipid metabolic pathways. A relatively small in scope investigation was performed on subcellular levels, while changes of Golgi complexes under vanadium influence have not been described with the exception of our previous investigations with four organic derivatives. This paper presents the action of vanadyl sulphate used in 3mM in 0.5% NaCl as a drinking solution for 7 days on control and STZ-diabetic rat liver Golgi complexes. Changes induced by this vanadium compound were greater in the controls as compared to the diabetic rats, what was true for both biochemical and morphological data. Physiological and biochemical analyses showed a partial normalization of the investigated parameters in diabetic animals after short time treatment with vanadyl ions, although STZ-diabetic, vanadium treated rats were affected by two types of adverse effects exterted by these compounds. The controls manifested more numerous and advanced subcellular changes. The moderately developed Golgi apparatus showed no major changes. In the control group, subcellular changes were seen sporadically. More extended Golgi complexes showed certain anomalies. PMID:15195703

  4. Characterization of rat basophilic leukemia cell surface proteins using monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Buonocore-Buzzelli, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    Rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cells express both immunoglobulin E (IgE) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) receptors. In this study, mouse monoclonal antibodies were produced against the RBL cell and screened for their ability to precipitate specific bands from {sup 125}I surface labeled cells. Fourteen hybridomas were selected and divided into five groups since many of the hybridomas precipitated bands of identical molecular weight. One or more of the hybridomas from each group, and the cell surface antigens they identified, were further characterized. Binding of all the monoclonal antibodies to the RBL-2H3 cell surface was saturable and of high affinity. In cross inhibition studies, two of the antibodies were found to bind to identical or neighboring epitopes, presumably on the same cell surface molecule. Binding studies using other cell populations demonstrated that the monoclonal antibodies react not only with commonly expressed rat cell surface molecules but also with molecules specifically expressed on rat mast cells and basophils. None of the antibodies were found to induce or inhibit serotonin release from the RBL cells. Western blotting showed most of the antibodies to react with bands whose molecular weights resembled those seen by immuno-precipitation. Antibodies 8 and 12, although from the same group, were found to react with different subunits of the same cell surface protein. Sequential immunoprecipitation and peptide mapping confirmed that the antigens defined by these antibodies were structurally related.

  5. Characterization of dopamine receptor subtypes involved in experimentally induced gastric and duodenal ulcers in rats.

    PubMed

    Desai, J K; Goyal, R K; Parmar, N S

    1999-02-01

    There are conflicting reports about the role of dopamine in gastric and duodenal ulcers. This investigation was undertaken to characterize the specific subtypes of dopamine receptor involved in gastric and duodenal ulceration. Administration of dopamine D1 agonist fenoldopam and dopamine D2 antagonist sulpiride elicited a significant decrease in acid secretion, total acid output, pepsin output and histamine content in the gastric juice, and reduced ulcer-index values, in pylorus-ligated rats. However, dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH 39166 ((-)-trans-6,7,7a,8,9,13b-hexahydro-3-chloro-2-hydroxy-N-methyl-5H -benzo (d) naptho -(2,1-b) azepine) and the D2 receptor agonist quinpirole led to significant augmentation of these parameters compared with respective controls. In the restraint plus water-immersion stress model the score for intraluminal bleeding and the cumulative gastric lesion length was significantly lower for rats treated with fenoldopam and sulpiride. The opposite effects were observed after pretreatment of rats with SCH 39166 and quinpirole. In the cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer model the mean ulcer area and the score for intensity were significantly lower for fenoldopam and sulpiride and higher for SCH 39166 and quinpirole. Our data suggest that the dopamine D1 and D2 receptors have opposite effects on gastric and duodenal ulcers. Whereas stimulation of dopamine D1 receptors inhibits the formation of gastric and duodenal ulcers, stimulation of dopamine D2 receptors has a pro-ulcerogenic effect. PMID:10217318

  6. Characterization of the rat neutral and basic amino acid transporter utilizing anti-peptide antibodies.

    PubMed

    Mosckovitz, R; Yan, N; Heimer, E; Felix, A; Tate, S S; Udenfriend, S

    1993-05-01

    High-titer, site-specific antibodies have been produced against the rat kidney broad-spectrum, sodium-independent neutral and basic amino acid transporter (NBAA-Tr) whose cDNA we cloned earlier. These antibodies have allowed us to characterize the transporter protein in normal rat tissues and in various cellular and in vitro expression systems. Western analysis detected 84- to 87-kDa glycosylated species enriched in rat renal and jejunal epithelial cell brush border membranes. In vitro translation of NBAA-Tr complementary RNA in the rabbit reticulocyte lysate system yielded a 78-kDa protein, a molecular mass that was predicted by the amino acid sequence deduced from the cloned cDNA. Translation in the presence of rough microsomal membranes yielded a glycosylated 89-kDa species. Glycosylated 87- to 89-kDa species were also expressed in Xenopus oocytes microinjected with NBAA-Tr complementary RNA and in COS-7 cells transfected with NBAA-Tr cDNA. Localization of NBAA-Tr in renal and intestinal brush border membranes is consistent with its proposed role in transepithelial transport of amino acids. PMID:8483918

  7. Chemical, dimensional and morphological ultrafine particle characterization from a waste-to-energy plant.

    PubMed

    Buonanno, Giorgio; Stabile, Luca; Avino, Pasquale; Belluso, Elena

    2011-11-01

    Waste combustion processes are responsible of particles and gaseous emissions. Referring to the particle emission, in the last years specific attention was paid to ultrafine particles (UFPs, diameter less than 0.1 ?m), mainly emitted by combustion processes. In fact, recent findings of toxicological and epidemiological studies indicate that fine and ultrafine particles could represent a risk for health and environment. Therefore, it is necessary to quantify particle emissions from incinerators also to perform an exposure assessment for the human populations living in their surrounding areas. To these purposes, in the present work an experimental campaign aimed to monitor UFPs was carried out at the incineration plant in San Vittore del Lazio (Italy). Particle size distributions and total concentrations were measured both at the stack and before the fabric filter inlet in order to evaluate the removal efficiency of the filter in terms of UFPs. A chemical characterization of UFPs in terms of heavy metal concentration was performed through a nuclear method, i.e., Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), as well as a mineralogical investigation was carried out through a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) equipped with an Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) in order to evaluate shape, crystalline state and mineral compound of sampled particles. Maximum values of 2.7 × 10(7) part. cm(-3) and 2.0 × 10(3) part. cm(-3) were found, respectively, for number concentration before and after the fabric filter showing a very high efficiency in particle removing by the fabric filter. With regard to heavy metal concentrations, the elements with higher boiling temperature present higher concentrations at lower diameters showing a not complete evaporation in the combustion section and the consequent condensation of semi-volatile compounds on solid nuclei. In terms of mineralogical and morphological analysis, the most abundant compounds found in samples collected before the fabric filter are Na-K-Pb oxides followed by phyllosilicates, otherwise, different oxides of comparable abundance were detected in the samples collected at the stack. PMID:21802934

  8. Qualitatively different effect of repeated stress during adolescence on principal neuron morphology across lateral and basal nuclei of the rat amygdala.

    PubMed

    Padival, M A; Blume, S R; Vantrease, J E; Rosenkranz, J A

    2015-04-16

    Repeated stress can elicit symptoms of depression and anxiety. The amygdala is a significant contributor to the expression of emotion and the basolateral amygdala (BLA) is a major target for the effects of stress on emotion. The adolescent time period may be particularly susceptible to the effects of stress on emotion. While repeated stress has been demonstrated to modify the morphology of BLA neurons in adult rats, little is known about its effects on BLA neurons during adolescence. This study tests the effects of repeated stress during adolescence on BLA neuronal morphology, and whether these are similar to the effects of stress during adulthood. The BLA includes the basal (BA) and lateral (LAT) nuclei, which are differentially responsive to stress in adults. Therefore, effects of stress during adolescence were compared between the BA and LAT nuclei. Morphological features of reconstructed BLA neurons were examined using Golgi-Cox-stained tissue from control or repeated restraint stress-exposed rats. We found subtle dendritic growth coupled with loss of spines after repeated stress during adolescence. The magnitude and dendritic location of these differences varied between the BA and LAT nuclei in strong contrast to the stress-induced increases in spine number seen in adults. These results demonstrate that repeated stress during adolescence has markedly different effects on BLA neuronal morphology, and the extent of these changes is BLA nucleus-dependent. Moreover, altered neuroanatomy was associated with age-dependent effects of repeated stress on generalization of fear, and may point to the necessity for different approaches to target stress-induced changes in adolescents. PMID:25701125

  9. Molecular and morphological characterization of myxozoan actinospore types from a commercial catfish pond in the Mississippi delta.

    PubMed

    Rosser, Thomas G; Griffin, Matt J; Quiniou, Sylvie M A; Greenway, Terrence E; Khoo, Lester H; Wise, David J; Pote, Linda M

    2014-12-01

    The actinospore diversity of infected Dero digitata was surveyed (May 2011) from a channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) production pond in the Mississippi Delta region for the elucidation of unknown myxozoan life cycles. At present, only 2 myxozoan life cycles have been molecularly confirmed in channel catfish, linking the actinospore stage from an aquatic oligochaete (D. digitata ) and the myxospore stage from the catfish. In this study D. digitata (n = 2,592) were isolated from oligochaetes collected from the bottom sediment of a channel catfish production pond. After 1 wk of daily observation, a total of 6 genetically different actinospore types were observed. The collective groups were classified as 2 aurantiactinomyxons, 2 helioactinomyxons, 1 raabeia, and 1 triactinomyxon. Overall prevalence of myxozoan infections in the isolated oligochaetes was 4.4%. Actinospores were photographed and measured for morphological characterization. Four previously undescribed actinospore types were identified and characterized molecularly and morphologically. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the raabeia and one of the helioactinomyxon (type 1) actinospores were closely related to the group of myxozoans known to parasitize ictalurids in North America. To date, no myxospores have been linked to the newly sequenced actinospores reported in this survey. The morphological and molecular data generated from this study will assist in the identification of myxospore counterparts for these actinospore stages and aid in the elucidation of unknown myxozoan life cycles in closed production systems. PMID:25003942

  10. Spinal Cord Transection-Induced Allodynia in Rats – Behavioral, Physiopathological and Pharmacological Characterization

    PubMed Central

    M'Dahoma, Saïd; Bourgoin, Sylvie; Kayser, Valérie; Barthélémy, Sandrine; Chevarin, Caroline; Chali, Farah; Orsal, Didier; Hamon, Michel

    2014-01-01

    In humans, spinal cord lesions induce not only major motor and neurovegetative deficits but also severe neuropathic pain which is mostly resistant to classical analgesics. Better treatments can be expected from precise characterization of underlying physiopathological mechanisms. This led us to thoroughly investigate (i) mechanical and thermal sensory alterations, (ii) responses to acute treatments with drugs having patent or potential anti-allodynic properties and (iii) the spinal/ganglion expression of transcripts encoding markers of neuronal injury, microglia and astrocyte activation in rats that underwent complete spinal cord transection (SCT). SCT was performed at thoracic T8–T9 level under deep isoflurane anaesthesia, and SCT rats were examined for up to two months post surgery. SCT induced a marked hyper-reflexia at hindpaws and strong mechanical and cold allodynia in a limited (6 cm2) cutaneous territory just rostral to the lesion site. At this level, pressure threshold value to trigger nocifensive reactions to locally applied von Frey filaments was 100-fold lower in SCT- versus sham-operated rats. A marked up-regulation of mRNAs encoding ATF3 (neuronal injury) and glial activation markers (OX-42, GFAP, P2×4, P2×7, TLR4) was observed in spinal cord and/or dorsal root ganglia at T6-T11 levels from day 2 up to day 60 post surgery. Transcripts encoding the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-? were also markedly but differentially up-regulated at T6–T11 levels in SCT rats. Acute treatment with ketamine (50 mg/kg i.p.), morphine (3–10 mg/kg s.c.) and tapentadol (10–20 mg/kg i.p.) significantly increased pressure threshold to trigger nocifensive reaction in the von Frey filaments test, whereas amitriptyline, pregabalin, gabapentin and clonazepam were ineffective. Because all SCT rats developed long lasting, reproducible and stable allodynia, which could be alleviated by drugs effective in humans, thoracic cord transection might be a reliable model for testing innovative therapies aimed at reducing spinal cord lesion-induced central neuropathic pain. PMID:25019623

  11. Development and characterization of an exposure platform suitable for physico-chemical, morphological and toxicological characterization of printer-emitted particles (PEPs).

    PubMed

    Pirela, Sandra V; Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; Bello, Dhimiter; Thomas, Treye; Castranova, Vincent; Demokritou, Philip

    2014-06-01

    An association between laser printer use and emissions of particulate matter (PM), ozone and volatile organic compounds has been reported in recent studies. However, the detailed physico-chemical, morphological and toxicological characterization of these printer-emitted particles (PEPs) and possible incorporation of engineered nanomaterials into toner formulations remain largely unknown. In this study, a printer exposure generation system suitable for the physico-chemical, morphological, and toxicological characterization of PEPs was developed and used to assess the properties of PEPs from the use of commercially available laser printers. The system consists of a glovebox type environmental chamber for uninterrupted printer operation, real-time and time-integrated particle sampling instrumentation for the size fractionation and sampling of PEPs and an exposure chamber for inhalation toxicological studies. Eleven commonly used laser printers were evaluated and ranked based on their PM emission profiles. Results show PM peak emissions are brand independent and varied between 3000 to 1?300?000?particles/cm³, with modal diameters ranging from 49 to 208?nm, with the majority of PEPs in the nanoscale (<100?nm) size. Furthermore, it was shown that PEPs can be affected by certain operational parameters and printing conditions. The release of nanoscale particles from a nano-enabled product (printer toner) raises questions about health implications to users. The presented PEGS platform will help in assessing the toxicological profile of PEPs and the link to the physico-chemical and morphological properties of emitted PM and toner formulations. PMID:24862974

  12. Development and characterization of an exposure platform suitable for physico-chemical, morphological and toxicological characterization of printer-emitted particles (PEPs)

    PubMed Central

    Pirela, Sandra V.; Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; Bello, Dhimiter; Thomas, Treye; Castranova, Vincent; Demokritou, Philip

    2015-01-01

    An association between laser printer use and emissions of particulate matter (PM), ozone and volatile organic compounds has been reported in recent studies. However, the detailed physico-chemical, morphological and toxicological characterization of these printer-emitted particles (PEPs) and possible incorporation of engineered nanomaterials into toner formulations remain largely unknown. In this study, a printer exposure generation system suitable for the physico-chemical, morphological, and toxicological characterization of PEPs was developed and used to assess the properties of PEPs from the use of commercially available laser printers. The system consists of a glovebox type environmental chamber for uninterrupted printer operation, real-time and time-integrated particle sampling instrumentation for the size fractionation and sampling of PEPs and an exposure chamber for inhalation toxicological studies. Eleven commonly used laser printers were evaluated and ranked based on their PM emission profiles. Results show PM peak emissions are brand independent and varied between 3000 to 1 300 000 particles/cm3, with modal diameters ranging from 49 to 208 nm, with the majority of PEPs in the nanoscale (<100 nm) size. Furthermore, it was shown that PEPs can be affected by certain operational parameters and printing conditions. The release of nanoscale particles from a nano-enabled product (printer toner) raises questions about health implications to users. The presented PEGS platform will help in assessing the toxicological profile of PEPs and the link to the physico-chemical and morphological properties of emitted PM and toner formulations. PMID:24862974

  13. Characterization of rat serum amyloid A4 (SAA4): A novel member of the SAA superfamily

    SciTech Connect

    Rossmann, Christine; Windpassinger, Christian; Brunner, Daniela; Kovacevic, Alenka; Schweighofer, Natascha; Malli, Roland; Schuligoi, Rufina; Prokesch, Andreas; Kluve-Beckerman, Barbara; Graier, Wolfgang F.; Kratky, Dagmar; Sattler, Wolfgang; Malle, Ernst

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • The full length rat SAA4 (rSAA4) mRNA was characterized by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. • rSAA4 mRNA has 1830 bases including a GA dinucleotide tandem repeat in the 5?UTR. • Three consecutive C/EBP promoter elements are crucial for transcription of rSAA4. • rSAA4 is abundantly expressed in the liver on mRNA and protein level. - Abstract: The serum amyloid A (SAA) family of proteins is encoded by multiple genes, which display allelic variation and a high degree of homology in mammals. The SAA1/2 genes code for non-glycosylated acute-phase SAA1/2 proteins, that may increase up to 1000-fold during inflammation. The SAA4 gene, well characterized in humans (hSAA4) and mice (mSaa4) codes for a SAA4 protein that is glycosylated only in humans. We here report on a previously uncharacterized SAA4 gene (rSAA4) and its product in Rattus norvegicus, the only mammalian species known not to express acute-phase SAA. The exon/intron organization of rSAA4 is similar to that reported for hSAA4 and mSaa4. By performing 5?- and 3?RACE, we identified a 1830-bases containing rSAA4 mRNA (including a GA-dinucleotide tandem repeat). Highest rSAA4 mRNA expression was detected in rat liver. In McA-RH7777 rat hepatoma cells, rSAA4 transcription was significantly upregulated in response to LPS and IL-6 while IL-1?/? and TNF? were without effect. Luciferase assays with promoter-truncation constructs identified three proximal C/EBP-elements that mediate expression of rSAA4 in McA-RH7777 cells. In line with sequence prediction a 14-kDa non-glycosylated SAA4 protein is abundantly expressed in rat liver. Fluorescence microscopy revealed predominant localization of rSAA4-GFP-tagged fusion protein in the ER.

  14. Automatic morphological characterization of nanobubbles with a novel image segmentation method and its application in the study of nanobubble coalescence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huimin; Bi, Shusheng; Guo, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Summary Nanobubbles (NBs) on hydrophobic surfaces in aqueous solvents have shown great potential in numerous applications. In this study, the morphological characterization of NBs in AFM images was carried out with the assistance of a novel image segmentation method. The method combines the classical threshold method and a modified, active contour method to achieve optimized image segmentation. The image segmentation results obtained with the classical threshold method and the proposed, modified method were compared. With the modified method, the diameter, contact angle, and radius of curvature were automatically measured for all NBs in AFM images. The influence of the selection of the threshold value on the segmentation result was discussed. Moreover, the morphological change in the NBs was studied in terms of density, covered area, and volume occurring during coalescence under external disturbance. PMID:25977866

  15. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Exophiala polymorpha sp. nov. Isolated from Sporotrichoid Lymphocutaneous Lesions in a Patient with Myasthenia Gravis.

    PubMed

    Yong, Lee K; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Sutton, Deanna A; Sandoval-Denis, Marcelo; Lindner, Jonathan R; Fan, Hongxin; Sanders, Carmita; Guarro, Josep

    2015-09-01

    Exophiala species are capable of causing cutaneous and subcutaneous infections in immunocompromised patients. An Exophiala isolate was cultured from a biopsy specimen of a lesion on the forearm of a patient with myasthenia gravis. The patient also had lesions on the palm and distal aspects of the hand, which were successfully treated with a long-term course of itraconazole. A detailed morphological and molecular characterization of the isolate was undertaken. Phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region and portions of the ?-tubulin and translation elongation factor 1-alpha genes indicated that the isolate was a novel species closely related to but genetically distinct from species within the Exophiala spinifera clade; the name Exophiala polymorpha sp. nov. is proposed. Morphologically, E. polymorpha most closely resembles E. xenobiotica but it differs in possessing phialides bearing prominent, wide collarettes, and it does not produce chlamydospores. PMID:26085612

  16. Morphology of crystalline–amorphous olefin block copolymers in solution characterized by small-angle neutron scattering and microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Radulescu, Aurel; Goerigk, Günter; Fetters, Lewis; Richter, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    The single-chain properties and self-assembly behavior in dilute solution of olefin block copolymers obtained by chain-shuttling technology and consisting of alternating crystallizable and amorphous ethylene/1-octene blocks were investigated by pinhole and focusing small-angle neutron scattering techniques, optical microscopy in bright-field and crossed-polarizer modes, and differential scanning calorimetry. The complex hydrocarbon soluble (precipitant free) macro-aggregates formed with decreasing temperature are characterized by spherulitic textures. The spherulites yield, on one hand, a morphology that depends on the chain structure properties and, on the other hand, multiple structural levels with a hierarchical organization that ranges from 10?Å up to tens of micrometres. This morphology displays peculiarities dictated by the polydisperse character of these materials. PMID:26664344

  17. Characterizing the Morphologies of Mechanically Manipulated Multiwall Carbon Nanotube Films by Small-Angle X-ray Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Wang,B.; Bennett, R.; Verploegen, E.; Hart, A.; Cohen, R.

    2007-01-01

    We used small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) to quantitatively characterize the morphological characteristics of pristine and mechanically manipulated multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) films. We determined that CNT diameters measured near the edges of a film were smaller compared to those measured in the interior. Uniaxially compressed MWCNT films exhibited a buckling deformation that was observable both in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and SAXS. CNT films were also converted into cellular foams of CNTs through capillarity-induced densification. By examining spatially- and time-resolved SAXS data for the cellular foams, we identified low angle features in the scattering curves that correspond to the average spacing between CNTs, demonstrating that SAXS is a useful method for monitoring the packing density of CNTs in a film. For all of the morphologies that were examined (aligned, disordered, compressed, and densified), SAXS data showed good correspondence with SEM images.

  18. Effects of early and late adverse experiences on morphological characteristics of Sprague-Dawley rat liver subjected to stress during adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Vásquez, Bélgica; Sandoval, Cristian; Smith, Ricardo Luiz; del Sol, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    The literature indicates that early rupture of the maternal bond and social isolation are variables involved in social and emotional behaviors and in increase in anxiety, particularly in stressful situations. The liver plays a role in the adaptation to stress, yet the possible morphologic changes that its structure can suffer have been studied very little. Therefore, the aim here was to ascertain, through the model of altering the early mother-infant bond and the late social bond through isolation, the effect on the stereologic characteristics of the liver in adult Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to intermittent chronic stress. Twenty-five newborn female rats were used, distributed into 5 groups, under standardized lactation and feeding conditions. The experimental groups were exposed to early (E1), late (E2), and early-late (E3) adverse experiences and then subjected to intermittent chronic stress in adulthood. The liver of each animal was isolated, and the stereologic characteristics of Nv, Vv, and Sv of the hepatocytes were determined. The results from the experimental groups were significantly higher than those obtained in the control groups. The highest values were found in group E3 (Nv = 4.43 ± 0.89 x 105/mm3, Vv = 68.74 ± 2.01%, Sv = 68.78 ± 3.77 mm2/mm3). Considering these results, the hepatic morphology can be affected by exposure to chronic stress; however, when the individuals have been subjected to previous adverse experiences, the changes are more evident. PMID:25197335

  19. Solvothermal synthesis and characterization of ceria with solid and hollow spherical and multilayered morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Lei; Li, Junping; Feng, Zhihai; Sun, Dongfeng; Wang, Tingyu; Li, Ruixing; Xu, Yaohui

    2014-12-01

    Ceria powders with different morphologies were synthesized using a facile template-free solvothermal process combined with calcination. The influence of solvothermal temperature and time on the powder was studied. Solid spheres, hollow spheres, and multilayered structures were controlled by adjusting the solvothermal conditions. The possible mechanisms for the formation of the precursors under the solvothermal conditions employed and the evolution of the powder from solid spherical to multilayered structures were discussed. Ethylene glycol played a key role in the morphology evolution of the powder. Cerium catalyzed the Guerbet-like reaction and reacted with ethylene glycol to produce ceria (CeO2), Ce(HCOO)3, and Ce(OH)CO3. The redox-assisted dissolution-recrystallization process significantly contributed to the morphology transformation from solid spheres to multilayered structures. Moreover, the samples synthesized at different temperatures for 24 h possessed excellent adsorption capacities towards the removal of acid orange 7 when compared with commercial ceria.

  20. IN UTERO 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN (TCDD) ALTERSREPRODUCTIVE MORPHOLOGY AND FUNCTION IN FEMALE RAT OFFSPRING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, it was demonstrated that administration of TCDD during gestation permanently alters 'the reproductive potential of male rat and male hamster offspring. he objectives of this study were to determine if perinatal TCDD treatment altered sex differentiation and reproductive...

  1. Optical and Morphological Characterization of (ZnO)x(CdO)1-x Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaillant, L.; Vigil, O.; Contreras-Puente, G.; Mejía-García, C.

    The optical and morphological properties of (ZnO)x(CdO)1-x semiconductor thin films with x composition in the range 0 ? x ? 0.5 are studied by the photoluminescence optical technique (PL), and the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The evolution of the band associated with oxygen content in the films is observed and described as a function of the film composition and the thermal annealing. The surface morphology is presented, where two different binary semiconducting species can be discerned in proportions dependent on the films composition.

  2. Isolation and characterization of Candida albicans morphological mutants derepressed for the formation of filamentous hypha-type structures

    SciTech Connect

    Gil, C.; Pomes, R.; Nombela, C. )

    1990-05-01

    Several Candida albicans morphological mutants were obtained by a procedure based on a combined treatment with nitrous acid plus UV irradiation and a double-enrichment step to increase the proportion of mutants growing as long filamentous structures. Altered cell morphogenesis in these mutants correlated with an altered colonial phenotype. Two of these mutants, C. albicans NEL102 and NEL103, were selected and characterized. Mutant blastoconidia initiated budding but eventually gave rise to filamentous hypha-type formations. These filaments were long and septate, and they branched very regularly at positions near septa. Calcofluor white (which is known to bind chitin-rich areas) stained septa, branching zones, and filament tips very intensely, as observed under the fluorescence microscope. Wild-type hybrids were obtained by fusing protoplasts of strain NEL102 with B14, another morphological mutant previously described as being permanently pseudomycelial, indicating that genetic determinants responsible for the two altered phenotypes are different. The mutants characterized in this work seemed to sequentially express the morphogenic characteristics of C. albicans, from blastoconidia to hyphae, in the absence of any inducer. Further characterization of these strains could be relevant to gain understanding of the genetic control of dimorphism in this species.

  3. Sclerostin antibody preserves the morphology and structure of osteocytes and blocks the severe skeletal deterioration after motor-complete spinal cord injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Qin, Weiping; Li, Xiaodong; Peng, Yuanzhen; Harlow, Lauren M; Ren, Yinshi; Wu, Yingjie; Li, Jiliang; Qin, Yiwen; Sun, Jie; Zheng, Shijia; Brown, Tom; Feng, Jian Q; Ke, Hua Zhu; Bauman, William A; Cardozo, Christopher C

    2015-11-01

    Unloading, neural lesions, and hormonal disorders after acute motor-complete spinal cord injury (SCI) cause one of the most severe forms of bone loss, a condition that has been refractory to available interventions tested to date. Thus, these features related to acute SCI provide a unique opportunity to study complex bone problems, potential efficacious interventions, and mechanisms of action that are associated with these dramatic pathological changes. This study was designed to explore the therapeutic potential of sclerostin antibody (Scl-Ab) in a rat model of bone loss after motor-complete SCI, and to investigate mechanisms underlying bone loss and Scl-Ab action. SCI rats were administered Scl-Ab (25 mg/kg/week) or vehicle beginning 7 days after injury then weekly for 7 weeks. SCI resulted in significant decreases in bone mineral density (-25%) and trabecular bone volume (-67%) at the distal femur; Scl-Ab completely prevented these deteriorations of bone in SCI rats, concurrent with markedly increased bone formation. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that SCI reduced numbers of osteocytes and dendrites concomitant with a morphology change from a spindle to round shape; Scl-Ab corrected these abnormalities in osteocytes. In ex vivo cultures of bone marrow cells, Scl-Ab inhibited osteoclastogenesis, and promoted osteoblastogenesis accompanied by increases in mRNA levels of LRP5, osteoprotegerin (OPG), and the OPG/RANKL ratio, and a decrease in DKK1 mRNA. Our findings provide the first evidence that robust bone loss after acute motor-complete SCI can be blocked by Scl-Ab, at least in part, through the preservation of osteocyte morphology and structure and related bone remodeling. Our findings support the inhibition of sclerostin as a promising approach to mitigate the striking bone loss that ensues after acute motor-complete SCI, and perhaps other conditions associated with disuse osteoporosis as a consequence of neurological disorders. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:25974843

  4. Human, rat and chicken small intestinal Na+-Cl?-creatine transporter: functional, molecular characterization and localization

    PubMed Central

    Peral, M J; García-Delgado, M; Calonge, M L; Durán, J M; De La Horra, M C; Wallimann, T; Speer, O; Ilundáin, A A

    2002-01-01

    In spite of all the fascinating properties of oral creatine supplementation, the mechanism(s) mediating its intestinal absorption has(have) not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to characterize intestinal creatine transport. [14C]Creatine uptake was measured in chicken enterocytes and rat ileum, and expression of the creatine transporter CRT was examined in human, rat and chicken small intestine by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Northern blot, in situ hybridization, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. Results show that enterocytes accumulate creatine against its concentration gradient. This accumulation was electrogenic, Na+- and Cl?-dependent, with a probable stoichiometry of 2 Na+: 1 Cl?: 1 creatine, and inhibited by ouabain and iodoacetic acid. The kinetic study revealed a Km for creatine of 29 ?m. [14C]Creatine uptake was efficiently antagonized by non-labelled creatine, guanidinopropionic acid and cyclocreatine. More distant structural analogues of creatine, such as GABA, choline, glycine, ?-alanine, taurine and betaine, had no effect on intestinal creatine uptake, indicating a high substrate specificity of the creatine transporter. Consistent with these functional data, messenger RNA for CRT was detected only in the cells lining the intestinal villus. The sequences of partial clones, and of the full-length cDNA clone, isolated from human and rat small intestine were identical to previously cloned CRT cDNAs. Immunological analysis revealed that CRT protein was mainly associated with the apical membrane of the enterocytes. This study reports for the first time that mammalian and avian enterocytes express CRT along the villus, where it mediates high-affinity, Na+- and Cl?-dependent, apical creatine uptake. PMID:12433955

  5. Heterologous expression, purification and characterization of rat class theta glutathione transferase T2-2.

    PubMed

    Jemth, P; Stenberg, G; Chaga, G; Mannervik, B

    1996-05-15

    Rat glutathione transferase (GST) T2-2 of class Theta (rGST T2-2), previously known as GST 12-12 and GST Yrs-Yrs, has been heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli XLI-Blue. The corresponding cDNA was isolated from a rat hepatoma cDNA library, ligated into and expressed from the plasmid pKK-D. The sequence is the same as that of the previously reported cDNA of GST Yrs-Yrs. The enzyme was purified using ion-exchange chromatography followed by affinity chromatography with immobilized ferric ions, and the yield was approx. 200 mg from a 1 litre bacterial culture. The availability of a stable recombinant rGST T2-2 has paved the way for a more accurate characterization of the enzyme. The functional properties of the recombinant rGST T2-2 differ significantly from those reported earlier for the enzyme isolated from rat tissues. These differences probably reflect the difficulties in obtaining fully active enzyme from sources where it occurs in relatively low concentrations, which has been the case in previous studies. 1-Chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, a substrate often used with GSTs of classes Alpha, Mu and Pi, is a substrate also for rGST T2-2, but the specific activity is relatively low. The Km value for glutathione was determined with four different electrophiles and was found to be in the range 0.3 mM-0.8 mM. The Km values for some electrophilic substrates were found to be in the micromolar range, which is low compared with those determined for GSTs of other classes. The highest catalytic efficiency was obtained with menaphthyl sulphate, which gave a Kcat/Km value of 2.3 x 10(6) s-1.M-1 and a rate enhancement over the uncatalysed reaction of 3 x 10(10). PMID:8645195

  6. SERUM HORMONE CHARACTERIZATION AND EXOGENEOUS HORMONE RESCUE OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE-INDUCED PREGNANCY LOSS IN THE F344 RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    SERUM HORMONE CHARACTERIZATION AND EXOGENEOUS HORMONE RESCUE OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE-INDUCED
    PREGNANCY LOSS IN THE F344 RAT
    Susan R. Bielmeier*, Deborah S. Best^, and Michael G. Narotsky^

    ABSTRACT
    Previously, we demonstrated that bromodichloromethane (BDCM), a d...

  7. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF AN ACID, BILE SALT-INDEPENDENT, RETINYL ESTER HYDROLASE FROM RAT LIVER MICROSOMES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous work in this laboratory has revealed the presence of both acidic and neutral bile-salt independent retinyl ester hydrolase activities in rat liver homogenates. Here we present the purification, identification and characterization of an acid retinyl ester hydrolase activity from solubilized ...

  8. MORPHOLOGICAL AND HISTOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SEMINIFEROUS EPITHELIAL AND LEYDIG CELLS OF THE TURKEY.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unlike mammals, there is little fundamental information about spermatogenesis in birds. This study was undertaken to clarify the morphology, histochemistry, and lectin affinity of the seminiferous epithelial cells and Leydig cells in the pre-pubertal (8- to I5-wk old) and adult (40-to 44-wk old) do...

  9. Morphological characterization of the antennal sensilla of the dogwood borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The external morphology of the dogwood borer antennae and their sensilla was investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy. Male and female antennaes were clavate before tapering to an apical point and consisted of three main segments; the scape, pedicel, and flagellum. Although, there...

  10. Characterization of P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance proteins in rat kidney and intestinal cell lines.

    PubMed

    van de Water, Femke M; Boleij, Johanna M; Peters, Janny G P; Russel, Frans G M; Masereeuw, Rosalinde

    2007-01-01

    The activity of P-glycoprotein (Pgp/MDR1/ABCB1) and multidrug resistance proteins (MRP/ABCC) influence the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of many drugs. Few suitable cell lines for the study of drug transport exist. Additional non-human cell lines may help clarify species differences and contribute to the current knowledge of drug transport. The aim of the present study was to characterize three rat epithelial cell lines for transporter expression and activity. Transporter expression was assessed in intestinal IEC-6 and renal GERP and NRK-52E cells using RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Pgp and Mrp transport activity were analyzed by measuring calcein accumulation and glutathione-S-bimane efflux, respectively. The three cell lines showed Pgp expression and Pgp-dependent transport, both decreasing with culture time after reaching confluency. Besides Pgp, cells expressed Mrp1, Mrp3, Mrp4, and Mrp5, while Mrp2 and Mrp6 were absent. In addition, they showed temperature- and Mrp-dependent efflux of glutathione-S-bimane. Exposure to a panel of different inhibitors showed that this efflux was probably mediated by Mrp4. In conclusion, the three rat epithelial cell lines investigated showed Pgp and Mrp expression and transport. Mrp dependent transport was most likely mediated by Mrp4. In future, these cell lines may be used as in vitro models to study drug transport. PMID:17088052

  11. Characterization of rat model of acute anterior uveitis using optical coherence tomography angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Woo June; Pepple, Kathryn L.; Zhi, Zhongwei; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2015-03-01

    Uveitis, or ocular inflammation, is a cause of severe visual impairment. Rodent models of uveitis are powerful tools used to investigate the pathological mechanisms of ocular inflammation and to study the efficacy of new therapies prior to human testing. In this paper, we report the utility of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) angiography in characterizing the inflammatory changes induced in the anterior segment of a rat model of uveitis. Acute anterior uveitis (AAU) was induced in two rats by intravitreal injection of a killed mycobacterial extract. One of them received a concurrent periocular injection of steroids to model a treatment effect. OCT imaging was performed prior to inflammation induction on day 0 (baseline), and 2 days post-injection (peak inflammation). Baseline and inflamed images were compared. OCT angiography identified swelling of the cornea, inflammatory cells in the anterior and posterior chambers, a fibrinous papillary membrane, and dilation of iris vessels in the inflamed eyes when compared to baseline images. Steroid treatment was shown to prevent the changes associated with inflammation. This is a novel application of anterior OCT imaging in animal models of uveitis, and provides a high resolution, in vivo assay for detecting and quantifying ocular inflammation and the response to new therapies.

  12. Biomechanical Characterization of a Model of Noninvasive, Traumatic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury in the Rat.

    PubMed

    Maerz, Tristan; Kurdziel, Michael D; Davidson, Abigail A; Baker, Kevin C; Anderson, Kyle; Matthew, Howard W T

    2015-10-01

    The onset of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) remains prevalent following traumatic joint injury such as anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture, and animal models are important for studying the pathomechanisms of PTOA. Noninvasive ACL injury using the tibial compression model in the rat has not been characterized, and it may represent a more clinically relevant model than the common surgical ACL transection model. This study employed four loading profiles to induce ACL injury, in which motion capture analysis was performed, followed by quantitative joint laxity testing. High-speed, high-displacement loading repeatedly induces complete ACL injury, which causes significant increases in anterior-posterior and varus laxity. No loading protocol induced valgus laxity. Tibial internal rotation and anterior subluxation occurs up to the point of ACL failure, after which the tibia rotates externally as it subluxes over the femoral condyles. High displacement was more determinative of ACL injury compared to high speed. Low-speed protocols induced ACL avulsion from the femoral footprint whereas high-speed protocols caused either midsubstance rupture, avulsion, or a combination injury of avulsion and midsubstance rupture. This repeatable, noninvasive ACL injury protocol can be utilized in studies assessing PTOA or ACL reconstruction in the rat. PMID:25777293

  13. Characterization of Endoneurial Fibroblast-like Cells from Human and Rat Peripheral Nerves

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Laurence; Védrenne, Nicolas; Vallat, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    Endoneurial fibroblast-like cells (EFLCs) are one of the cell populations present in the peripheral nervous system. The role and immunophenotypic characteristics of EFLCs are not well known and led us to perform a histological and cytological study of EFLCs in normal human and rat peripheral nerves. We found that all EFLCs express CD34, neural/glial antigen 2 (NG2), and prolyl-4-hydrolase-beta. In addition, half of the EFLCs in normal peripheral nerves express platelet-derived growth factor receptor-? (PDGFR-?) and some also express the intermediate filament nestin in vivo (at a lower level than Schwann cells, which express high levels of nestin). Using cell cultures of purified EFLCs, we characterized subpopulations of EFLCs expressing PDGFR-? alone or PDGFR-? and nestin. Experimental nerve lesions in rat resulted in an increase in nestin-positive EFLCs, which returned to normal levels after 8 days. This suggests that some EFLCs could have a different proliferative and/or regenerative potential than others, and these EFLCs may play a role in the initial phase of nerve repair. These “activated” EFLCs share some immunophenotypic similarities with pericytes and Interstitial cells of Cajal, which have progenitor cell potentials. This raises the questions as to whether a proportion of EFLCs have a possible role as endoneurial progenitor cells. PMID:24670794

  14. Chronic In Vivo Imaging of Ponto-Cerebellar Mossy Fibers Reveals Morphological Stability during Whisker Sensory Manipulation in the Adult Rat123

    PubMed Central

    Rylkova, Daria; Crank, Aidan R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The cerebellum receives extensive disynaptic input from the neocortex via the basal pontine nuclei, the neurons of which send mossy fiber (MF) axons to the granule cell layer of the contralateral cerebellar hemisphere. Although this cortico-cerebellar circuit has been implicated in tasks such as sensory discrimination and motor learning, little is known about the potential role of MF morphological plasticity in the function of the cerebellar granule cell layer. To address this issue, we labeled MFs with EGFP via viral infection of the basal pons in adult rats and performed in vivo two-photon imaging of MFs in Crus I/II of the cerebellar hemisphere over a period of several weeks. Following the acquisition of baseline images, animals were housed in control, enriched, or deprived sensory environments. Morphological dynamics were assessed by tracing MF axons and their terminals, and by tracking the stability of filopodia arising from MF terminal rosettes. MF axons and terminals were found to be remarkably stable. Parameters derived neither from measurements of axonal arbor geometry nor from the morphology of individual rosettes and their filopodial extensions significantly changed under control conditions over 4 weeks of imaging. Increasing whisker stimulation by manipulating the sensory environment or decreasing such stimulation by whisker trimming also failed to alter MF structure. Our studies indicate that pontine MF axons projecting to Crus I/II in adult rats do not undergo significant structural rearrangements over the course of weeks, and that this stability is not altered by the sustained manipulation of whisker sensorimotor experience. PMID:26693178

  15. Light-Emitting Diodes and Cool White Fluorescent Light Similarly Suppress Pineal Gland Melatonin and Maintain Retinal Function and Morphology in the Rat. Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holley, Daniel C.; Heeke, D.; Mele, G.

    1999-01-01

    Currently, the light sources most commonly used in animal habitat lighting are cool white fluorescent or incandescent lamps. We evaluated a novel light-emitting diode (LED) light source for use in animal habitat lighting by comparing its effectiveness to cool white fluorescent light (CWF) in suppressing pineal gland melatonin and maintaining normal retinal physiology and morphology in the rat. Results of pineal melatonin suppression experiments showed equal suppression of pineal melatonin concentrations for LED light and CWF light at five different light illuminances (100, 40, 10, 1 and 0.1 lux). There were no significant differences in melatonin suppression between LED and CWF light when compared to unexposed controls. Retinal physiology was evaluated using electroretinography. Results show no differences in a-wave implicit times and amplitudes or b-wave implicit times and amplitudes between 100-lux LED-exposed rats and 100-lux CWF-exposed rats. Results of retinal histology assessment show no differences in retinal thickness rod outer segment length and number of rod nuclei between rats exposed to 100-lux LED and 100-lux CWF for days. Furthermore, the retinal pigmented epithelium and rod outer segments of all eyes observed were in good condition and of normal thickness. This study indicates that LED light does not cause retinal damage and can suppress pineal melatonin at similar intensities as a conventional CWF light source. These data suggest that LED light sources may be suitable replacements for conventional light sources used in the lighting of rodent vivariums while providing many mechanical and economical advantages.

  16. Facile in situ characterization of gold nanoparticles on electrode surfaces by electrochemical techniques: average size, number density and morphology determination.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Laborda, Eduardo; Salter, Chris; Crossley, Alison; Compton, Richard G

    2012-10-21

    A fast and cheap in situ approach is presented for the characterization of gold nanoparticles from electrochemical experiments. The average size and number of nanoparticles deposited on a glassy carbon electrode are determined from the values of the total surface area and amount of gold obtained by lead underpotential deposition and by stripping of gold in hydrochloric acid solution, respectively. The morphology of the nanoparticle surface can also be analyzed from the "fingerprint" in lead deposition/stripping experiments. The method is tested through the study of gold nanoparticles deposited on a glassy carbon substrate by seed-mediated growth method which enables an easy control of the nanoparticle size. The procedure is also applied to the characterization of supplied gold nanoparticles. The results are in satisfactory agreement with those obtained via scanning electron microscopy. PMID:22946092

  17. Starch-directed green synthesis, characterization and morphology of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Khan, Zaheer; Singh, Taruna; Hussain, Javed Ijaz; Obaid, Abdullah Yousif; Al-Thabaiti, Shaeel Ahmed; El-Mossalamy, E H

    2013-02-01

    Silver nanoparticles were prepared by a simple chemical reduction method using ascorbic acid and starch as reducing and stabilizing agents, respectively. The effect of starch, silver ions and ascorbic acid was studied on the morphology of the silver nano-particles using UV-visible spectrophotometry. The initial reaction time min and amount of starch were important parameters for the growth of Ag-nanoparticles. The morphology was evaluated from transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The truncated triangle nano-plates (from 17 to 30 nm), polyhedron, spherical with some irregular shaped Ag-nanoparticles were formed in presence of starch. Particles are aggregated in an irregular manner, leads to the formation of butterfly-like structures of silver. Starch acts as a stabilizing, shape-directing and capping agent during the growth processes. Silver nanoparticles adsorbed electrostatically on the outer OH groups of amylose left-handed helical conformation in solution. PMID:23104028

  18. Morphological characterization of ? phase in poly-(vinylidenefluoride) film prepared by spin cast method

    SciTech Connect

    Mehtani, Hitesh Kumar Kumar, Rishi Raina, K. K.

    2014-04-24

    Poly-(Vinylidene fluoride) PVDF film was prepared by spin casting method to control the pore size of the matrix. The morphological spherulitic structure was confirmed Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) after gold sputtering and the presence of ? phase was ensured in spin cast PVDF film by the FTIR spectroscopy. The ? phase is very important in the application because it improve the properties like piezoelectricity by modifying PVDF crystallinity.

  19. Morphological characterization of cherry rootstock candidates selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Koc, Aysen; Celik, Zumrut; Akbulut, Mustafa; Bilgener, Sukriye; Ercisli, Sezai; Gunes, Mehmet; Gercekcioglu, Resul; Esitken, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    The use of rootstocks particularly for sweet cherry cultivars is of great importance for successful and sustainable production. Choosing the right cherry rootstocks is just as important as choosing the right cultivar. In this study, 110 sweet cherry, 30 sour cherry, and 41 mahaleb types displaying rootstock potential for sweet cherry cultivars were selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey. The morphologic characteristics of the studied genotypes were compared with the standard clonal rootstocks PHL-A, MaxMa 14, Montmorency, Weiroot 158, Gisela 5, Gisela 6, and SL 64. A total of 42 morphological UPOV characteristics were evaluated in the selected genotypes and clonal rootstocks. The obtained data were analyzed by using principal component analysis and it revealed that eigenvalues of the first 3 components were able to represent 36.43% of total variance. The most significant positive correlations of the plant vigor were determined with leaf blade length and petiole thickness. According to the diversity analysis of coefficients, the 05 C 002 and 08 C 039 genotypes were identified as being similar (6.66), while the 05 C 002 and 55 S 012 genotypes were determined as the most distant genotypes (325.84) in terms of morphology. PMID:24453921

  20. Morphological Characterization of Cherry Rootstock Candidates Selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Koc, Aysen; Celik, Zumrut; Akbulut, Mustafa; Bilgener, Sukriye; Ercisli, Sezai; Gunes, Mehmet; Gercekcioglu, Resul; Esitken, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    The use of rootstocks particularly for sweet cherry cultivars is of great importance for successful and sustainable production. Choosing the right cherry rootstocks is just as important as choosing the right cultivar. In this study, 110 sweet cherry, 30 sour cherry, and 41 mahaleb types displaying rootstock potential for sweet cherry cultivars were selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey. The morphologic characteristics of the studied genotypes were compared with the standard clonal rootstocks PHL-A, MaxMa 14, Montmorency, Weiroot 158, Gisela 5, Gisela 6, and SL 64. A total of 42 morphological UPOV characteristics were evaluated in the selected genotypes and clonal rootstocks. The obtained data were analyzed by using principal component analysis and it revealed that eigenvalues of the first 3 components were able to represent 36.43% of total variance. The most significant positive correlations of the plant vigor were determined with leaf blade length and petiole thickness. According to the diversity analysis of coefficients, the 05?C 002 and 08?C 039 genotypes were identified as being similar (6.66), while the 05?C 002 and 55?S 012 genotypes were determined as the most distant genotypes (325.84) in terms of morphology. PMID:24453921

  1. Morphological and microscopic characterization of five commonly-used testacean traditional Chinese medicines.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Song, Wei; Zhou, Ping; Li, Ping; Li, Huijun

    2015-07-01

    Testacean traditional Chinese medicine (TTCM), derived from the outer shell of sea or freshwater mollusks, is a special and important category of Chinese medicinal materials. To ensure the effective use of TTCM, a comparative identification study was performed on five commonly-used testacean drugs, including Haliotidis Concha, Arcae Concha, Meretricis Concha, Ostreae Concha and Margaritifera Concha (Shijueming, Walengzi, Geqiao, Muli and Zhenzhumu in Chinese, respectively). Typical morphological photographs of the crude drugs were acquired, and the key microscopic characteristics of the derived powders under normal light microscope and polarized light microscope were summarized. The major results can be concluded as follows: (1) the original species involved in the five TTCMs could be distinguished by their respective interspecies morphological characteristics; (2) the key identification characteristics of the five powdered crude drugs were mainly crystal fragments, with the fragment features under both normal light and polarized light microscope providing powerful points for differentiating the five commonly-used testacean drugs. This study demonstrated that it is feasible to provide authentication for these five kinds of TTCMs by the combination of morphology with microscopy. PMID:26579467

  2. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Bambusa tulda with a Note on Flowering

    PubMed Central

    BHATTACHARYA, SAMIK; DAS, MALAY; BAR, RADHARAMAN; PAL, AMITA

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Flowering incidence in Bambusa tulda has a high socio-economic impact. The aim of the present study was to describe the species for morphological characters (vegetative and reproductive) as well as molecular markers in order to enable species identification at various stages of the life cycle. • Methods Thirty-two key morphological characters (15 culm and 17 culm-sheath) were studied along with detailed inflorescence and floral characters. Incidence of sporadic flowering was recorded. Genomic DNA was isolated from leaves collected from 17 eco-geographical locations and RAPD profiles were generated. • Key Results The description of culm, culm-sheath, inflorescence and floral morphology are in agreement with the prior taxonomic description by Gamble in 1896, but in this communication a more detailed description and illustrations are presented. No seed set was recorded following sporadic flowering, probably due to prezygoting isolating mechanisms (herkogamy or protandry). All 17 populations surveyed generated identical RAPD profiles. • Conclusions Sporadic flowering may occur in B. tulda, but may not necessarily be followed by gregarious flowering, and does not result in seed production. PMID:16845134

  3. Detection of tumorigenesis in urinary bladder with optical coherence tomography: optical characterization of morphological changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, T.-Q.; Zeidel, M. L.; Pan, Yingtian

    2002-12-01

    Most transitional cell tumorigenesis involves three stages of subcellular morphological changes: hyperplasia, dysplasia and neoplasia. Previous studies demonstrated that owing to its high spatial resolution and intermediate penetration depth, current OCT technology including endoscopic OCT could delineate the urothelium, submucosa and the upper muscular layers of the bladder wall. In this paper, we will discuss the sensitivity and limitations of OCT in diagnosing and staging bladder cancer. Based on histomorphometric evaluations of nuclear morphology, we modeled the resultant backscattering changes and the characteristic changes in OCT image contrast. In the theoretical modeling, we assumed that nuclei were the primary sources of scattering and were uniformly distributed in the uroepithelium, and compared with the results of the corresponding prior OCT measurements. According to our theoretical modeling, normal bladder shows a thin, uniform and low scattering urothelium, so does an inflammatory lesion except thickening in the submucosa. Compared with a normal bladder, a hyperplastic lesion exhibits a thickened, low scattering urothelium whereas a neoplastic lesion shows a thickened urothelium with increased backscattering. These results support our previous animal study that OCT has the potential to differentiate inflammation, hyperplasia, and neoplasia by quantifying the changes in urothelial thickening and backscattering. The results also suggest that OCT might not have the sensitivity to differentiate the subtle morphological changes between hyperplasia and dysplasia based on minor backscattering differences.

  4. Morphological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural characterization of the skin of turbot (Psetta maxima L.).

    PubMed

    Faílde, L D; Bermúdez, R; Vigliano, F; Coscelli, G A; Quiroga, M I

    2014-10-01

    This study was undertaken to identify the normal morphologic, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features of skin of the turbot (Psetta maxima L.). In the turbot skin, three morphologically distinct layers were identified: epidermis, dermis and hypodermis. The epidermis was non-keratinizing, stratified squamous epithelium that varies in thickness from 5 to 14 cells and 60 to 100?m in size. Goblet cells were seen randomly distributed between malpighian cells in the epidermal layer. These mucous cells were mainly located in the upper third of the epidermis and displayed a spherical to elongated morphology. Dermis was divided in two well-differentiated layers, the superficial stratum laxum and the deeper stratum compactum. Hypodermis was a loose layer mainly composed by adipocytes but we could observe variable amounts of fibroblast, collagen and blood vessels. In turbot two pigmentary layers could be identified: the pigmentary layer of dermis was located between basement membrane and dermis and the pigmentary layer of hypodermis immediately above the muscular layer. Three different types of chromatophores were present: melanophores, iridophores and xanthophores. The main differences observed between groups of fish with different colouration were in the amount of melanophores and xanthophores. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of normal cutaneous biology prior to consideration of specific cutaneous alterations and diseases in turbot. PMID:25059111

  5. Morphological and microscopic characterization of five commonly-used testacean traditional Chinese medicines

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ying; Song, Wei; Zhou, Ping; Li, Ping; Li, Huijun

    2015-01-01

    Testacean traditional Chinese medicine (TTCM), derived from the outer shell of sea or freshwater mollusks, is a special and important category of Chinese medicinal materials. To ensure the effective use of TTCM, a comparative identification study was performed on five commonly-used testacean drugs, including Haliotidis Concha, Arcae Concha, Meretricis Concha, Ostreae Concha and Margaritifera Concha (Shijueming, Walengzi, Geqiao, Muli and Zhenzhumu in Chinese, respectively). Typical morphological photographs of the crude drugs were acquired, and the key microscopic characteristics of the derived powders under normal light microscope and polarized light microscope were summarized. The major results can be concluded as follows: (1) the original species involved in the five TTCMs could be distinguished by their respective interspecies morphological characteristics; (2) the key identification characteristics of the five powdered crude drugs were mainly crystal fragments, with the fragment features under both normal light and polarized light microscope providing powerful points for differentiating the five commonly-used testacean drugs. This study demonstrated that it is feasible to provide authentication for these five kinds of TTCMs by the combination of morphology with microscopy. PMID:26579467

  6. Thermally sensitive block copolymer particles prepared via aerosol flow reactor method: Morphological characterization and behavior in water

    PubMed Central

    Nykänen, Antti; Rahikkala, Antti; Hirvonen, Sami-Pekka; Aseyev, Vladimir; Tenhu, Heikki; Mezzenga, Raffaele; Raula, Janne; Kauppinen, Esko; Ruokolainen, Janne

    2012-01-01

    This work describes properties of thermo-sensitive submicron sized particles having the same chemical composition but different morphologies. These particles have been prepared with an aerosol technique using dimethylformamide solutions of linear polystyrene-block-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-block-polystyrene, PS-b-PNIPAM-b-PS. The particles were characterized by cryo-electron microscopy, microcalorimetry, and light scattering. Block-copolymers self-assembled within the particles forming onion-like, gyroid-like, and spherical morphologies having poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) matrix and physically cross-linking polystyrene domains. The particles were dispersed in aqueous media and their behavior in water was studied both below and above the lower critical solution temperature of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide). We found out that the particles with spherical and gyroid-like morphologies swell considerably in water at 20 °C, whereas at 40 °C the particles resemble more of those studied without water treatment. Light scattering experiments showed that the particles gradually aggregate and precipitate with time at 40 °C. Microcalorimetric studies revealed for all three studied morphologies that PNIPAM undergoes a two-step transition due to the different hydration levels of PNIPAM inside and outside the particles. Thicknesses of the PS and PNIPAM layers within the onion-like particles were analyzed using the TEM micrographs by fitting a model of electron density to the integrated electron intensity data. The surface layer of the particles was found out to be PNIPAM, which was supported by light scattering and microcalorimetry. It was also found out from the TEM micrograph analysis that the width of the outmost PS layer is considerably thinner than the one in the dry state prior to immersion in water, and a degradation scheme is proposed to explain these results. PMID:23150721

  7. Preparation and characterization of transparent nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} films possessing well-defined morphologies

    SciTech Connect

    Doherty, S.; Fitzmaurice, D.

    1996-06-20

    We describe the preparation, characterization, and potential-dependent optical absorption spectroscopy of transparent nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} films possessing well-defined morphologies. Regarding preparation, Langmuir-Blodgett techniques are used to deposit between one and four monolayers of TiO{sub 2} nanocrystallites on conducting glass. As the average spacing between the nanocrystallites constituting a deposited monolayer may be controlled, the degree of nanoporosity of the resulting nanocrystalline film can be determined. Subsequent firing fuses the constituent crystallites of the deposited monolayers and ensures an ohmic contact with the conducting substrate. Characterization by electron microscopy and optical absorption spectroscopy has been undertaken. The former reveals the above films to be nanoporous or close-packed arrays of anatase nanocrystallites. The latter has allowed determination of an absorption coefficient for anatase at 326 nm. Measurement of potential-dependent optical absorption spectra has also proved possible. Results obtained suggest that the degree of charge accumulation possible at a given applied potential is dependent on the morphology of the nanocrystalline film. 20 refs., 9 figs.

  8. Depth profiling and morphological characterization of AlN thin films deposited on Si substrates using a reactive sputter magnetron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macchi, Carlos; Bürgi, Juan; García Molleja, Javier; Mariazzi, Sebastiano; Piccoli, Mattia; Bemporad, Edoardo; Feugeas, Jorge; Sennen Brusa, Roberto; Somoza, Alberto

    2014-08-01

    It is well-known that the characteristics of aluminum nitride thin films mainly depend on their morphologies, the quality of the film-substrate interfaces and the open volume defects. A study of the depth profiling and morphological characterization of AlN thin films deposited on two types of Si substrates is presented. Thin films of thicknesses between 200 and 400 nm were deposited during two deposition times using a reactive sputter magnetron. These films were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction and imaging techniques (SEM and TEM). To analyze the composition of the films, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was applied. Positron annihilation spectroscopy, specifically Doppler broadening spectroscopy, was used to gather information on the depth profiling of open volume defects inside the films and the AlN films-Si substrate interfaces. The results are interpreted in terms of the structural changes induced in the films as a consequence of changes in the deposition time (i.e., thicknesses) and of the orientation of the substrates.

  9. Experiment K-6-16. Morphological examination of rat testes. The effect of Cosmos 1887 flight on spermatogonial population and testosterone level in rat testes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpott, D. E.; Kato, K.; Stevenson, J.; Vasques, M.; Sapp, W.; Williams, C.; Popova, I. A.; Serova, L. V.

    1990-01-01

    Testes from rats flown on Cosmos 1887 for twelve and a half days were compared to basal control, synchronous control and vivarium maintained rats. When the mean weights of flight testes, normalized for weight/100 gms, were compared to the vivarium controls they were 6.7 percent lighter. Although the flight testes were lighter than the synchronous, the difference is not significant. Counts of spermatogonial cells from 5 animals in each group revealed a 4 percent decrease in flight compared to vivarium controls. In both cases the t-Test significance was less than 0.02. The serum testosterone levels of all animals (flight, synchronous and vivarium) were significantly below the basal controls.

  10. Connexin36 identified at morphologically mixed chemical/electrical synapses on trigeminal motoneurons and at primary afferent terminals on spinal cord neurons in adult mouse and rat

    PubMed Central

    Bautista, W.; McCrea, D. A.; Nagy, J. I.

    2014-01-01

    Morphologically mixed chemical/electrical synapses at axon terminals, with the electrical component formed by gap junctions, is common in the CNS of lower vertebrates. In mammalian CNS, evidence for morphologically mixed synapses has been obtained in only a few locations. Here, we used immunofluorescence approaches to examine the localization of the neuronally expressed gap junction forming protein connexin36 (Cx36) in relation to the axon terminal marker vesicular glutamate transporter1 (vglut1) in spinal cord and trigeminal motor nucleus (Mo5) of rat and mouse. In adult rodents, immunolabelling for Cx36 appeared exclusively as Cx36-puncta, and was widely distributed at all rostro-caudal levels in most spinal cord laminae and in the Mo5. A high proportion of Cx36-puncta was co-localized with vglut1, forming morphologically mixed synapses on motoneurons, in intermediate spinal cord lamina, and in regions of medial lamina VII, where vglut1-containing terminals associated with Cx36 converged on neurons adjacent to the central canal. Unilateral transection of lumbar dorsal roots reduced immunolabelling of both vglut1 and Cx36 in intermediate laminae and lamina IX. Further, vglut1-terminals displaying Cx36-puncta were contacted by terminals labelled for glutamic acid decarboxylase65, which is known to be contained in presynaptic terminals on large diameter primary afferents. Developmentally, mixed synapses begin to emerge in the spinal cord only after the second to third postnatal week and thereafter increase to adult levels. Our findings demonstrate that axon terminals of primary afferent origin form morphologically mixed synapses containing Cx36 in broadly distributed areas of adult rodent spinal cord and Mo5. PMID:24406437

  11. Quercetin Induces Dose-Dependent Differential Morphological and Proliferative Changes in Rat Uteri in the Presence and in the Absence of Estrogen.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Huma; Giribabu, Nelli; Sekaran, Muniandy; Salleh, Naguib

    2015-12-01

    Quercetin could have profound effects on uterine morphology and proliferation, which are known to be influenced by estrogen. This study investigated the effect of quercetin on these uterine parameters in the presence and in the absence of estrogen. Ovariectomized adult female rats received peanut oil, quercetin (10, 50, and 100?mg/kg/day), estrogen, or estrogen+quercetin (10, 50, or 100?mg/kg/day) treatment for 7 consecutive days. At the end of the treatment, uteri were harvested for histological and molecular biological analyses. Distribution of proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein in the uterus was observed by immunohistochemistry. Levels of expression of PCNA protein and mRNA in uterine tissue homogenates were determined by Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Our findings indicated that administration of 10?mg/kg/day of quercetin either alone or with estrogen resulted in decreased uterine expression of PCNA protein and mRNA with the percentage of PCNA-positive cells in uterine luminal and glandular epithelia markedly reduced compared with estrogen-only treatment. Changes in uterine morphology were the opposite of changes observed following estrogen treatment. Treatment with 100?mg/kg/day of quercetin either alone or with estrogen resulted in elevated PCNA protein and mRNA expression. In addition, the percentages of PCNA-positive cells in the epithelia, which line the lumen and glands, were increased with morphological features mimicking changes that occur following estrogen treatment. Following 50?mg/kg/day quercetin treatment, the changes observed were in between those changes that occur following 10 and 100?mg/kg/day quercetin treatment. In conclusion, changes in uterine morphology and proliferation following 10?mg/kg/day quercetin treatment could be attributed to quercetin's antiestrogenic properties, while changes that occur following 100?mg/kg/day quercetin treatment could be attributed to quercetin's estrogenic properties. PMID:26135605

  12. FATE OF ADRIAMYCIN-INDUCED DILATED RENAL PELVIS IN THE FETAL RAT: FUNCTIONAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL EFFECTS IN THE OFFSPRING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previously the authors reported that gestational exposure to Adriamycin, an anthracycline antibiotic used in the treatment of neoplasms, reduced renal function in the neonatal rat, and the authors suggested that alterations in the development of the renal papilla might be respons...

  13. High-Frequency Stimulation of the Rat Entopeduncular Nucleus Does Not Provide Functional or Morphological Neuroprotection from 6-Hydroxydopamine

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, D. Luke; Collier, Timothy J.; Cole-Strauss, Allyson; Wohlgenant, Susan L.; Lipton, Jack W.; Steece-Collier, Kathy; Manfredsson, Fredric P.; Kemp, Christopher J.; Sortwell, Caryl E.

    2015-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is the most common neurosurgical treatment for Parkinson’s disease (PD). Whereas the globus pallidus interna (GPi) has been less commonly targeted than the subthalamic nucleus (STN), a recent clinical trial suggests that GPi DBS may provide better outcomes for patients with psychiatric comorbidities. Several laboratories have demonstrated that DBS of the STN provides neuroprotection of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) dopamine neurons in preclinical neurotoxin models of PD and increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). However, whether DBS of the entopeduncular nucleus (EP), the homologous structure to the GPi in the rat, has similar neuroprotective potential in preclinical models has not been investigated. We investigated the impact of EP DBS on forelimb use asymmetry and SNpc degeneration induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and on BDNF levels. EP DBS in male rats received unilateral, intrastriatal 6-OHDA and ACTIVE or INACTIVE stimulation continuously for two weeks. Outcome measures included quantification of contralateral forelimb use, stereological assessment of SNpc neurons and BDNF levels. EP DBS 1) did not ameliorate forelimb impairments induced by 6-OHDA, 2) did not provide neuroprotection for SNpc neurons and 3) did not significantly increase BDNF levels in any of the structures examined. These results are in sharp contrast to the functional improvement, neuroprotection and BDNF-enhancing effects of STN DBS under identical experimental parameters in the rat. The lack of functional response to EP DBS suggests that stimulation of the rat EP may not represent an accurate model of clinical GPi stimulation. PMID:26222442

  14. First report, morphological and molecular characterization of Xiphinema elongatum and X. pachtaicum (Nematoda, Longidoridae) from Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Getaneh, Gezahegne; Bert, Wim; Decraemer, Wilfrida

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A total of six soil samples were collected around rhizosphere of citrus plants during 2010 from Melkassa Agricultural Research Center experimental station, Ethiopia. From these samples two most important ecto-plant parasitic nematodes of the genus Xiphinema were found and analysed. The genus Xiphinema is a large group of the phylum nematoda which constitutes more than 260 species. They are polyphagous root- ectoparasites of many crop plants and some species of this genus cause damage by direct feeding on root tips and transmit nepoviruses. The delimitation and discrimination of two species in the genus is presented, described herein as Xiphinema elongatum and Xiphinema pachtaicum. Morphological and morphometric data were done using light microscopy and results of both species were fit within the previously described nematode species of Xiphinema elongatum and Xiphinema pachtaicum. 18S rDNA were analysed using Bayesian inference (BI) method to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships of the studied Xiphinema sp. (KP407872 Xiphinema elongatum and KP407873 Xiphinema pachtaicum) with other Xiphinema species. The 18S rDNA sequence of Xiphinema pachtaicum was alike to previously described species from the GenBank but Xiphinema elongatum exhibited very small levels of nucleotides differences (0.4%) which might be possible intra-specific divergence. Though this region of rDNA has less resolution on complex species, its combination with morphological and morphometric analyses, suggests these species as Xiphinema elongatum and Xiphinema pachtaicum with the GenBank accession number of KP407872 and KP407873, respectively. Short notes, morphological measurements, illustrations, and molecular data are given to these species. These species are reported for the first time from Ethiopia and it provides new geographical information of these organisms. PMID:25878528

  15. Characterization of Some Morphological Parameters of Orbicularis Oculi Motor Neurons in the Monkey

    PubMed Central

    McNeal, DW; Ge, J; Herrick, JL; Stilwell-Morecraft, KS; Morecraft, RJ

    2008-01-01

    The primate facial nucleus is a prominent brainstem structure that is composed of cell bodies giving rise to axons forming the facial nerve. It is musculotopically organized, but we know little about the morphological features of its motor neurons. Using the Lucifer yellow intracellular filling method, we examined 17 morphological parameters of motor neurons innervating the monkey orbicularis oculi (OO) muscle, which plays an important role in eye lid closure and voluntary and emotional facial expressions. All somata were multipolar and remained confined to the intermediate subnucleus, as did the majority of its aspiny dendritic branches. We found a mean maximal cell diameter of 54 ?m in the transverse dimension, cell diameter of 60 ?m in the rostrocaudal dimension, somal surface area of 17,500 ?m2 and somal volume of 55,643 ?m3. Eight neurons were used in the analysis of dendritic parameters based upon complete filling of the distal segments of the dendritic tree. We found a mean number of 16 dendritic segments, an average dendritic length of 1,036 ?m, diameter of 7 ?m, surface area of 12,757 ?m2 and total volume of 16,923 ?m3. Quantitative analysis of the dendritic branch segments demonstrated that the average number, diameter and volume gradually diminished from proximal to distal segments. A Sholl analysis revealed that the highest number of dendritic intersections occurred 60 ?m distal to the somal center with a gradual reduction of intersections occurring distally. These observations advance our understanding of the morphological organization of the primate facial nucleus and provide structural features for comparative studies, interpreting afferent influence on OO function and for designing studies pinpointing structural alterations in OO motor neurons that may accompany disorders affecting facial movement. PMID:18055128

  16. Morphological characterization of carbonaceous aggregates in soot and free fall aerosol samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachdeva, Kamna; Attri, Arun K.

    The morphological characteristics of BC aggregates present in the soot and carbonaceous aerosol (CA) samples were investigated. The process of soot formation under laboratory conditions took into account the commonly used practice of burning fuel in the households in India. The fractal morphology was determined by using box counting algorithm and maximum projected area of the aggregates by using their digital electron microscopic images. Former provided the estimates of perimeter fractal dimension (PD f) of each aggregate, and later estimated the average density fractal dimension (DD f) of aggregate groups. Numbers of particles constituting the aggregates, using projected area approach, were significantly higher than the estimates based on pixel counting. The measured average diameter of the primary particles in aggregates, ranged between 24 and 57 nm. The fractal dimensions, PD f, for the laboratory-generated soot aggregates varied from 1.36 to 1.88. The PD f for aggregates derived from diesel-vehicles and biomass burning showed significant variation: biomass, 1.27; diesel vehicle, 1.82 and 1.7. The size and the dimensions estimated for the free fall CA samples showed large deviation. The ratio L/ Rg (length/radius of gyration) for soot aggregates (gasoline, kerosene, diesel, mustard oil and hexane) ranged from 3.5 to 4.8. Surface morphology of these aggregates, using scanning electron microscope (SEM), showed the presence of spherical "charred cenosphere" like particles in gasoline and free fall aerosol aggregates. FTIR investigations revealed the presence of a large number of organic groups (OC) associated with carbonaceous aggregates present in soot and free fall aerosol samples.

  17. Agrobacterium rhizogenes-transformed Roots of Coffee (Coffea arabica): Conditions for Long-term Proliferation, and Morphological and Molecular Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Alpizar, E.; Dechamp, E.; Lapeyre-Montes, F.; Guilhaumon, C.; Bertrand, B.; Jourdan, C.; Lashermes, P.; Etienne, H.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims The aims of this study were to set up proliferation conditions for hairy roots of Coffea arabica regenerated after transformation by Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain A4-RS, and to carry out the morphological and molecular characterization of hairy root clones maintained over the long term. Methods Auxin supply, light conditions and sucrose concentration were modified with the aim of establishing efficient root proliferation conditions. The morphological variability among 62 established hairy root clones was phenotyped by scanning the roots and analysing the images using ‘whinRHIZO’ software procedures. PCR analysis of integration in transformed root cells of rol and aux oncogenes from the T-DNA of the Ri plasmid was used to study the molecular variability among clones. Key Results Auxin supply was necessary to obtain and stimulate growth and branching, and IBA applied at 0·5 µm was the most efficient auxin. Significant differences were shown among the 62 clones for total root length and for the percentage of fine roots. These variables were stable across subcultures and could hence be used for efficient characterization of hairy root clones. The majority of hairy root clones (86 %) exhibited non-significant phenotype differences with non-transformed roots. Eight clones were significantly different from the non-transformed controls in that they possessed a low proportion of fine roots. Two other hairy root clones grew significantly faster than the other clones. The PCR analysis revealed a low variability in the integration of rol and aux oncogenes in transformed root cells. The TR-DNA was never integrated as aux1 and aux2 genes were not found, although rolB and rolC genes from the TL-DNA were always present. Conclusions The discovery of low morphological variability among coffee hairy roots together with the identification of morphological variables allowing easy identification of phenotypically altered clones represent two important results. They make hairy roots a possible, and efficient, tool for functional-genomic studies of coffee root genes. PMID:18316320

  18. Morphological and electrochemical characterization of electrodeposited Zn–Ag nanoparticle composite coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Punith Kumar, M.K.; Srivastava, Chandan

    2013-11-15

    Silver nanoparticles with an average size of 23 nm were chemically synthesized and used to fabricate Zn–Ag composite coatings. The Zn–Ag composite coatings were generated by electrodeposition method using a simple sulfate plating bath dispersed with 0.5, 1 and 1.5 g/l of Ag nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and texture co-efficient calculations revealed that Ag nanoparticles appreciably influenced the morphology, micro-structure and texture of the deposit. It was also noticed that agglomerates of Ag nanoparticles, in the case of high bath load conditions, produced defects and dislocations on the deposit surface. Ag nanoparticles altered the corrosion resistance property of Zn–Ag composite coatings as observed from Tafel polarization, electrochemical impedance analysis and an immersion test. Reduction in corrosion rate with increased charge transfer resistance was observed for Zn–Ag composite coatings when compared to a pure Zn coating. However, the particle concentration in the plating bath and their agglomeration state directly influenced the surface morphology and the subsequent corrosion behavior of the deposits. - Highlights: • Synthesis of Ag nanoparticles with an average size of 23 nm • Fabrication of Zn/nano Ag composite coating on mild steel • Composite coatings showed better corrosion resistance. • Optimization of particle concentration is necessary.

  19. Morphological Characterization and Assessment of Genetic Variability, Character Association, and Divergence in Soybean Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Malek, M. A.; Rafii, Mohd Y.; Shahida Sharmin Afroz, Most.; Nath, Ujjal Kumar; Mondal, M. Monjurul Alam

    2014-01-01

    Genetic diversity is important for crop improvement. An experiment was conducted during 2011 to study genetic variability, character association, and genetic diversity among 27 soybean mutants and four mother genotypes. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences among the mutants and mothers for nine morphological traits. Eighteen mutants performed superiorly to their mothers in respect to seed yield and some morphological traits including yield attributes. Narrow differences between phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variation (PCV and GCV) for most of the characters revealed less environmental influence on their expression. High values of heritability and genetic advance with high GCV for branch number, plant height, pod number, and seed weight can be considered as favorable attributes for soybean improvement through phenotypic selection and high expected genetic gain can be achieved. Pod and seed number and maturity period appeared to be the first order traits for higher yield and priority should be given in selection due to their strong associations and high magnitudes of direct effects on yield. Cluster analysis grouped 31 genotypes into five groups at the coefficient value of 235. The mutants/genotypes from cluster I and cluster II could be used for hybridization program with the mutants of clusters IV and V in order to develop high yielding mutant-derived soybean varieties for further improvement. PMID:25197722

  20. Prevalence and Morphological Characterization of Cheilospirura hamulosa, Diesing, 1861 (Nematoda: Acuarioidea), from Partridges in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Maryam; Rouhani, Soheila; Mobedi, Iraj; Rostami, Ali; Khazan, Hoshang; Ahoo, Mohammad Bagher

    2015-01-01

    This study reports data on the prevalence, morphology, and morphometry of the nematode Cheilospirura hamulosa on the basis of light and stereoscopic microscopy and also camera lucida. Specimens were recovered after necropsies of 100 partridges (Alectoris chukar) from Taleqan County in Alborz Province, Iran. The prevalence of C. hamulosa in partridges was of 30% with a mean intensity of 3.9 and range of infection of 1–12. The mean length and width of females were 17.5 ± 2.14 and 0.39 ± 0.04?mm, while those of males were 12.2 ± 0.67 and 0.3 ± 0.06?mm, respectively. The characteristic digitiform tail was observed in females, and the unequal spicules, caudal alae, and ten pairs of caudal papillae were seen in males. The taxonomic characteristic longitudinal cordons and muscular and glandular oesophagus were observed in both sexes. Ratio between cordons and body length in males and females was 1?:?1.33 and 1?:?1.68, respectively. Ratio between long and short spicules in males was 1?:?2.3. The average size of embryonated eggs was 51.25 × 29.5??m. In the present study, C. hamulosa (Nematoda: Acuarioidea) is recorded for the first time from partridges in Iran. Therefore, the morphological characters described in this study will be useful in the future diagnostic and taxonomic studies of Acuarioidea family. PMID:26693346

  1. Morphological characterization and assessment of genetic variability, character association, and divergence in soybean mutants.

    PubMed

    Malek, M A; Rafii, Mohd Y; Shahida Sharmin Afroz, Most; Nath, Ujjal Kumar; Mondal, M Monjurul Alam

    2014-01-01

    Genetic diversity is important for crop improvement. An experiment was conducted during 2011 to study genetic variability, character association, and genetic diversity among 27 soybean mutants and four mother genotypes. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences among the mutants and mothers for nine morphological traits. Eighteen mutants performed superiorly to their mothers in respect to seed yield and some morphological traits including yield attributes. Narrow differences between phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variation (PCV and GCV) for most of the characters revealed less environmental influence on their expression. High values of heritability and genetic advance with high GCV for branch number, plant height, pod number, and seed weight can be considered as favorable attributes for soybean improvement through phenotypic selection and high expected genetic gain can be achieved. Pod and seed number and maturity period appeared to be the first order traits for higher yield and priority should be given in selection due to their strong associations and high magnitudes of direct effects on yield. Cluster analysis grouped 31 genotypes into five groups at the coefficient value of 235. The mutants/genotypes from cluster I and cluster II could be used for hybridization program with the mutants of clusters IV and V in order to develop high yielding mutant-derived soybean varieties for further improvement. PMID:25197722

  2. Prefronto-subcortical imbalance characterizes poor decision-making: neurochemical and neural functional evidences in rats.

    PubMed

    Fitoussi, Aurélie; Le Moine, Catherine; De Deurwaerdère, Philippe; Laqui, Matéo; Rivalan, Marion; Cador, Martine; Dellu-Hagedorn, Françoise

    2015-11-01

    A major challenge of decision-making research in recent years has been to develop models of poor decision-making to identify its neural bases. Toward this goal, we developed a Rat Gambling Task that discerns good and poor decision-makers in a complex and conflicting situation such as the human Iowa Gambling Task. Nothing is known about the role of the monoaminergic modulatory systems in shaping these phenotypes. Moreover, functional and temporal contributions of brain areas during poor compared to good decision-making remains elusive. Good and poor decision-makers were identified in the Rat Gambling Task. We investigated neurobiological correlates of decision-making capacities in (1) dopamine and serotonin turnovers using post-mortem tissue measurements, (2) the neural circuits differentially recruited during decision-making within the prefronto-subcortical network using cellular Fos immunodetection. Imbalance in monoamine metabolism was revealed in poor decision-makers, i.e. a higher infralimbic vs. lower amygdala serotonergic metabolism. Moreover, good decision-making recruited a wide prefronto-subcortical network but once good choices had been made, a disengagement of key prefrontal areas (insular and infralimbic cortices notably) and the amygdala was observed. By contrast, poor decision-making was associated with a strikingly low recruitment of the prefronto-subcortical network, together with sustained amygdala activity. Our results identify two complementary neurobiological substrates characterizing poor decision-makers: imbalanced monoaminergic systems at rest, congruent with their previously identified complex behavioral phenotype, and an aberrant low recruitment of key brain areas for executive functions and affective valence during the process of decision-making. These biomarkers could sustain vulnerability to developing poor decision-making related disorders. PMID:25134683

  3. Characterization of beta-adrenergic receptors and adenylate cyclase activity in rat brown fat

    SciTech Connect

    Baresi, L.A.; Morley, J.E.; Scarpace, P.J.

    1986-03-01

    Catecholamines stimulate thermogenesis in rat brown fat through a mechanism which involves binding to the beta-adrenergic receptor (BAR), stimulation of adenylate cyclase (AC) and culminating with uncoupling of mitochondrial respiration from ATP synthesis. The authors characterized BAR, AC and cytochrome (cyt) c oxidase in CDF (F-344) interscapular brown fat. Scatchard analysis of (/sup 125/)Iodopindolol binding yields a straight line consistent with a single class of antagonist binding sites with 41.8 +/- 12.0 fmol BAR/mg protein and a K/sub d/ of 118 +/- 15 pM. Binding was both specific and stereospecific. Competition with 1-propranolol (K/sub d/ = 6.7 nM) was 15 times more potent than d-propranolol (K/sub d/ = 103 nM). Competition with isoproterenol (K/sub d/ = 79 nM) was 10 times more potent than epinephrine (K/sub d/ = 820 nM) which was 35 times more potent than norepinephrine (K/sub d/ = 2.9 x 10/sup -5/ M) suggesting predominate beta/sub 2/-type BAR. Cyt c oxidase activity was assessed in brown fat mitochrondrial preparations. The ratio of BAR to cyt c activity was 959 +/- 275 nmol BAR/mol cyc c/min. Isoproterenol (0.1 mM) stimulated AC activity was 24 times GTP (0.1 mM) stimulated AC (98.5 vs 40.7 pmol cAMP/min/mg). NaF-stimulated AC was nine times basal activity (90.5 vs 11.3 pmol cAMP/min/mg). These data demonstrate the presence of a beta-/sub 2/-type BAR coupled to adenylate cyclase in rat brown fat.

  4. Characterization of Chemically Induced Ovarian Carcinomas in an Ethanol-Preferring Rat Model: Influence of Long-Term Melatonin Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chuffa, Luiz Gustavo A.; Fioruci-Fontanelli, Beatriz A.; Mendes, Leonardo O.; Fávaro, Wagner J.; Pinheiro, Patricia Fernanda F.; Martinez, Marcelo; Martinez, Francisco Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer deaths among women, and chronic alcoholism may exert co-carcinogenic effects. Because melatonin (mel) has oncostatic properties, we aimed to investigate and characterize the chemical induction of ovarian tumors in a model of ethanol-preferring rats and to verify the influence of mel treatment on the overall features of these tumors. After rats were selected to receive ethanol (EtOH), they were surgically injected with 100 µg of 7,12-dimethyl-benz[a]anthracene (DMBA) plus sesame oil directly under the left ovarian bursa. At 260 days old, half of the animals received i.p. injections of 200 µg mel/100 g b.w. for 60 days. Four experimental groups were established: Group C, rats bearing ovarian carcinomas (OC); Group C+EtOH, rats voluntarily consuming 10% (v/v) EtOH and bearing OC; Group C+M, rats bearing OC and receiving mel; and Group C+EtOH+M, rats with OC consuming EtOH and receiving mel. Estrous cycle and nutritional parameters were evaluated, and anatomopathological analyses of the ovarian tumors were conducted. The incidence of ovarian tumors was higher in EtOH drinking animals 120 days post-DMBA administration, and mel efficiently reduced the prevalence of some aggressive tumors. Although mel promoted high EtOH consumption, it was effective in synchronizing the estrous cycle and reducing ovarian tumor mass by 20%. While rats in the C group displayed cysts containing serous fluid, C+EtOH rats showed solid tumor masses. After mel treatment, the ovaries of these rats presented as soft and mobile tissues. EtOH consumption increased the incidence of serous papillary carcinomas and sarcomas but not clear cell carcinomas. In contrast, mel reduced the incidence of sarcomas, endometrioid carcinomas and cystic teratomas. Combination of DMBA with EtOH intake potentiated the incidence of OC with malignant histologic subtypes. We concluded that mel reduces ovarian masses and the incidence of adenocarcinomas in ethanol-deprived rats. PMID:24367487

  5. Characterization of chemically induced ovarian carcinomas in an ethanol-preferring rat model: influence of long-term melatonin treatment.

    PubMed

    Chuffa, Luiz Gustavo A; Fioruci-Fontanelli, Beatriz A; Mendes, Leonardo O; Fávaro, Wagner J; Pinheiro, Patricia Fernanda F; Martinez, Marcelo; Martinez, Francisco Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer deaths among women, and chronic alcoholism may exert co-carcinogenic effects. Because melatonin (mel) has oncostatic properties, we aimed to investigate and characterize the chemical induction of ovarian tumors in a model of ethanol-preferring rats and to verify the influence of mel treatment on the overall features of these tumors. After rats were selected to receive ethanol (EtOH), they were surgically injected with 100 µg of 7,12-dimethyl-benz[a]anthracene (DMBA) plus sesame oil directly under the left ovarian bursa. At 260 days old, half of the animals received i.p. injections of 200 µg mel/100 g b.w. for 60 days. Four experimental groups were established: Group C, rats bearing ovarian carcinomas (OC); Group C+EtOH, rats voluntarily consuming 10% (v/v) EtOH and bearing OC; Group C+M, rats bearing OC and receiving mel; and Group C+EtOH+M, rats with OC consuming EtOH and receiving mel. Estrous cycle and nutritional parameters were evaluated, and anatomopathological analyses of the ovarian tumors were conducted. The incidence of ovarian tumors was higher in EtOH drinking animals 120 days post-DMBA administration, and mel efficiently reduced the prevalence of some aggressive tumors. Although mel promoted high EtOH consumption, it was effective in synchronizing the estrous cycle and reducing ovarian tumor mass by 20%. While rats in the C group displayed cysts containing serous fluid, C+EtOH rats showed solid tumor masses. After mel treatment, the ovaries of these rats presented as soft and mobile tissues. EtOH consumption increased the incidence of serous papillary carcinomas and sarcomas but not clear cell carcinomas. In contrast, mel reduced the incidence of sarcomas, endometrioid carcinomas and cystic teratomas. Combination of DMBA with EtOH intake potentiated the incidence of OC with malignant histologic subtypes. We concluded that mel reduces ovarian masses and the incidence of adenocarcinomas in ethanol-deprived rats. PMID:24367487

  6. Morphological, molecular and functional differences of adult bone marrow- and adipose-derived stem cells isolated from rats of different ages

    SciTech Connect

    Mantovani, Cristina; Department of Integrative Medical Biology and Surgical and Perioperative Science, Umea University, Umea; Department of Surgical and Perioperative Science, Umea University, Umea ; Raimondo, Stefania; Haneef, Maryam S.; Geuna, Stefano; Terenghi, Giorgio; Shawcross, Susan G.; Wiberg, Mikael; Department of Surgical and Perioperative Science, Umea University, Umea

    2012-10-01

    Adult mesenchymal stem cells have self-renewal and multiple differentiation potentials, and play important roles in regenerative medicine. However, their use may be limited by senescence or age of the donor, leading to changes in stem cell functionality. We investigated morphological, molecular and functional differences between bone marrow-derived (MSC) and adipose-derived (ASC) stem cells isolated from neonatal, young and old rats compared to Schwann cells from the same animals. Immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR, proliferation assays, western blotting and transmission electron microscopy were used to investigate expression of senescence markers. Undifferentiated and differentiated ASC and MSC from animals of different ages expressed Notch-2 at similar levels; protein-38 and protein-53 were present in all groups of cells with a trend towards increased levels in cells from older animals compared to those from neonatal and young rats. Following co-culture with adult neuronal cells, dMSC and dASC from animals of all ages elicited robust neurite outgrowth. Mitotracker{sup Registered-Sign} staining was consistent with ultrastructural changes seen in the mitochondria of cells from old rats, indicative of senescence. In conclusion, this study showed that although the cells from aged animals expressed markers of senescence, aged MSC and ASC differentiated into SC-like cells still retain potential to support axon regeneration. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aged MSC and ASC differentiated into Schwann-like cells support axon regeneration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p53 expression does not appreciably influence the biology of Schwann or stem cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Notch 2 expression was similar in cells derived from animals of different ages. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proliferation rates of dMSC varied little over time or with animal age.

  7. Genetic and morphological characterization of Trichuris myocastoris found in Myocastor coypus in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Rylková, K; T?mová, E; Brožová, A; Jankovská, I; Vadlejch, J; ?adková, Z; Frýdlová, J; Pe?inková, P; Langrová, I; Chodová, D; Nechybová, S; Schá?ková, Š

    2015-11-01

    Trichuris sp. individuals were collected from Myocastor coypus from fancy breeder farms in the Czech Republic. Using morphological and biometrical methods, 30 female and 30 male nematodes were identified as Trichuris myocastoris. This paper presents the first molecular description of this species. The ribosomal DNA (rDNA) region, consisting of internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-1, 5.8 gene and ITS-2, was sequenced. Based on an analysis of 651 bp, T. myocastoris was found to be different from any other Trichuris species for which published sequencing of the ITS region is available. The phylogenetic relationships were estimated using the maximum parsimony methods and Bayesian analyses. T. myocastoris was found to be significantly closely related to Trichuris of rodents than those of ruminants. PMID:26174489

  8. Morphological and molecular characterization of Magnaporthe oryzae (fungus) from infected rice leaf samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muni, Nurulhidayah Mat; Nadarajah, Kalaivani

    2014-09-01

    Magnaporthe oryzae is a plant-pathogenic fungus that causes a serious disease affecting rice called rice blast. Outbreaks of rice blast have been a threat to the global production of rice. This fungal disease is estimated to cause production losses of US55 million each year in South and Southeast Asia. It has been used as a primary model for elucidating various aspects of the host-pathogen interaction with its host. We have isolated five isolates of Magnaporthe oryzae from diseased leaf samples obtained from the field at Kompleks Latihan MADA, Kedah, Malaysia. We have identified the isolates using morphological and microscopic studies on the fungal spores and the lesions on the diseased leaves. Amplification of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) was carried out with universal primers ITS1 and ITS4. The sequence of each isolates showed at least 99% nucleotide identity with the corresponding sequence in GenBank for Magnaporthe oryzae.

  9. Morphologic and Genotypic Characterization of Psoroptes Mites from Water Buffaloes in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Amer, Said; Abd El Wahab, Taher; El Naby Metwaly, Abd; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Species delimitation of Psoroptes spp. and identity of the parasite in water buffaloes remain poorly defined. In this study, Psoroptes infestation on three water buffalo farms in Egypt was examined based on morphometric characteristics, especially the opisthosomal setae of adult male mites. Clinical investigations showed that 28% (196/700) of the sampled animals had mange infestation. Microscopic examinations of 80 skin scrapings indicated the occurrence of Psoroptes mites in 17 (21.3%) samples, Sarcoptes mites in 27 (33.7%) samples, and the concurrence of both in 36 (45.0%) samples. Morphologically, the Psoroptes parasite was identified as Psoroptes natalensis. DNA sequence analysis of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) in 11 representative samples confirmed the diagnosis and suggested the presence of a distinct variety of Psoroptes natalensis in Egypt. PMID:26517834

  10. Characterization of crystallite morphology for doped strontium fluoride nanophosphors by TEM and XRD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, J. H.; Lee, M. E.; Yagoub, M. Y. A.; Swart, H. C.; Coetsee, E.

    2016-01-01

    Crystallite morphology for Eu-doped and undoped SrF2 nanophosphors have been determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The values for average crystallite size obtained by the application of the Scherrer equation and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) values for XRD peaks are compared to the results obtained using the hollow cone dark field (HCDF) TEM imaging technique. In the case of the TEM analysis, a bimodal crystallite size distribution was revealed with one of the distributions having a measured range of crystallite sizes which was in good agreement with the XRD data. HCDF in combination with FIB specimen preparation was found to be a promising technique for the determination of crystallite size distributions in nanophosphors which might facilitate a better understanding of their scintillation properties.

  11. Morphological and molecular characterization of Pratylenchus lentis n. sp. (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae) from Sicily

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pratylenchus lentis n. sp. parasitizing roots of lentil in Sicily, Italy, is described and illustrated. The new species is characterized by a high lip region with three annuli, stylet mean length of 16 micrometers with anteriorly flattened knobs, cylindrical body with a relatively anterior vulva, l...

  12. MORPHOLOGICAL AND GENOMIC CHARACTERIZATION OF THE POLYDNAVIRUS ASSOCIATED WITH THE PARASITOID WASP, GLYPTAPANTELES INDIENSIS (HYMENOPTERA: BRACONIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glyptapanteles indiensis polydnavirus (GiPDV) is essential for successful parasitization of the larval stage of the lepidopteran Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth) by the endoparasitic wasp, Glyptapanteles indiensis. This virus has not been characterized. Ultrastructural studies of GiPDV showed that th...

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF FUNGI FROM HYPERSALINE ENVIRONMENTS OF SOLAR SALTERNS USING MORPHOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Cabo Rojo Solar Salterns located on the southwest coast of Puerto Rico are composed of two main ecosystems (i.e., salt ponds and microbial mats). Even though these locations are characterized by high solar radiation (mean light intensity of 39 mol photons m-2d-1) they harbor ...

  14. Purple carrot extract protects against cadmium intoxication in multiple organs of rats: Genotoxicity, oxidative stress and tissue morphology analyses.

    PubMed

    Claudio, Samuel Rangel; Gollucke, Andrea Pittelli Boiago; Yamamura, Hirochi; Morais, Damila Rodrigues; Bataglion, Giovana Anceski; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Peres, Rogerio Correa; Oshima, Celina Tizuko Fujiyama; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if purple carrot extract is able to protect against the noxious activities induced by cadmium exposure in multiple organs of rats. For this purpose, histopathological analysis, genotoxicity and oxidative status were investigated in this setting. A total of twenty Wistar rats weighing 250g on the average, and 8 weeks age were distributed into four groups (n=5), as follows: Control group (non-treated group, CTRL); Cadmium group (Cd) and Purple carrot extract groups at 400mg/L or 800mg/L. Histopathological analysis revealed that liver from animals treated with purple carrot extract improved tissue degeneration induced by cadmium intoxication. Genetic damage was reduced in blood and hepatocytes as depicted by comet and micronucleus assays in animals treated with purple carrot extract. SOD-CuZn and cytocrome C gene expression increased in groups treated with purple carrot extract. Purple carrot extract also reduced the 8OHdG levels in liver cells when compared to cadmium group. Taken together, our results demonstrate that purple carrot extract is able to protect against cadmium intoxication by means of reducing tissue regeneration, genotoxicity and oxidative stress in multiple organs of Wistar rats. PMID:26653742

  15. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Phasmarhabditis huizhouensis sp. nov. (Nematoda: Rhabditidae), a New Rhabditid Nematode from South China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ren-E; Ye, Weimin; Ren, Xiaoliang; Zhao, Zhongying

    2015-01-01

    The genus Phasmarhabditis is an economically important group of rhabditid nematodes, to which the well-known slug-parasite P. hermaphrodita belongs. Despite the commercial use of Phasmarhabditis species as an attractive and promising approach for pest control, the taxonomy and systematics of this group of rhabditids are poorly understood, largely because of the lack of diagnostic morphological features and DNA sequences for distinguishing species or inferring phylogenetic relationship. During a nematode sampling effort for identifying free-living relatives of Caenorhabditis elegans in Huizhou City, Guangdong, China, a novel species belonging to the genus Phasmarhabditis was isolated from rotting leaves. Detailed morphology of the gonochoristic P. huizhouensis sp. nov. was described and illustrated. The adult female has a robust body, a relatively short and wide buccal capsule conjoined by a rhabditiform pharynx. Females are characterized by a short cupola-shaped tail end bearing a slender pointed tip, with the junction flanked by a pair of 'rod-like' phasmids. Males have an open peloderan bursa that is supported by 9 pairs of genital papillae and 1 terminal pair of phasmids. P. huizhouensis sp. nov. is morphologically very similar to the type species Phasmarhabditis papillosa but is distinguishable by its male caudal traits. The new species is readily differentiated from other taxa in the genus by its female tail shape. Molecular phylogenetic inferences based on small subunit (SSU) and the D2-D3 domain of large subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA genes reveal that P. huizhouensis sp. nov. forms a unique branch in both phylogenies which is genetically related to P. hermaphrodita and other parasites such as Angiostoma spp. The host associations of P. huizhouensis sp. nov. and its ability to parasitize slugs are unknown. PMID:26674768

  16. Morphological evidence for a neurotensinergic periaqueductal gray-rostral ventromedial medulla-spinal dorsal horn descending pathway in rat

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian; Zhang, Hua; Feng, Yu-Peng; Meng, Hua; Wu, Li-Ping; Wang, Wen; Li, Hui; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Jin-Shan; Li, Yun-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Neurotensin (NT) is an endogenous neuropeptide that exerts potent opioid-independent analgesic effects, most likely via the type 2 NT receptor (NTR2). Previous morphological and electrophysiological studies suggested that the NT-NTR2 system is primarily localized in structures that constitute the descending pain control pathway, such as the periaqueductal gray (PAG), the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM), and the spinal dorsal horn (SDH). However, relevant morphological evidence for this neurotensinergic (NTergic) circuit is lacking. Thus, the aim of the present study was to morphologically elucidate the potential sites and connections in the NT-NTR2 system that are involved in the descending pain control pathway. Based on light and electron microscopy combined with anterograde and retrograde tracing, we found evidence that NTR2-immunoreactive (IR) neurons in the RVM receive NT-IR projections originating from the PAG; express NT, serotonin (5-HT), or both; and send projections that terminate in laminae I and II of the SDH. These results suggest that NTR2 may contribute to pain control by binding to NT in the PAG-RVM-SDH pathway. In conclusion, our data provide morphological evidence for an NTergic PAG-RVM-SDH pathway, implicating novel mechanisms of NT-induced analgesia. PMID:25346662

  17. Four cell types with distinctive membrane properties and morphologies in lamina I of the spinal dorsal horn of the adult rat

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Steven A; Koninck, Yves De

    2002-01-01

    Lamina I of the spinal dorsal horn plays an important role in the processing and relay of nociceptive information. Signal processing depends, in part, on neuronal membrane properties. Intrinsic membrane properties of lamina I neurons were therefore investigated using whole cell patch clamp recordings in a slice preparation of adult rat spinal cord. Based on responses to somatic current injection, four cell types were identified: tonic, which fire comparatively slowly but continuously throughout stimulation; phasic, which fire a high frequency burst of variable duration; delayed onset, which fire irregularly and with a marked delay to the first spike; and single spike, which typically fire only one action potential even when strongly depolarised. Classification by spiking pattern was further refined by identification of characteristic stimulus-response curves and quantification of several response parameters. Objectivity of the classification was confirmed by cluster analysis. Responses to stimulus trains and synaptic input as well as the kinetics of spontaneous synaptic events revealed differences in the signal processing characteristics of the cell types: tonic and delayed onset cells appeared to act predominantly as integrators whereas phasic and single spike cells acted as coincidence detectors. Intracellular labelling revealed a significant correlation between morphological and physiological cell types: tonic cells were typically fusiform, phasic cells were pyramidal, and delayed onset and single spike cells were multipolar. Thus, there are multiple physiological cells types in lamina I with specific morphological correlates and distinctive signal processing characteristics that confer significant differences in the transduction of input into spike trains. PMID:11897852

  18. Morphological, Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of Twelve Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria and Their Response to Various Zinc Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Dadook, Mohammad; Mehrabian, Sedigheh; Salehi, Mitra; Irian, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    Background: Zinc is an essential micronutrient used in the form of zinc sulfate in fertilizers in the agriculture production system. Nitrogen-fixing microorganisms are also of considerable value in promoting soil fertility. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the degree of sensitivity to varying concentrations of zinc, in the form of ZnSO4, in different strains of Azotobacter chroococcum in a laboratory environment. Materials and Methods: To isolate A. chroococcum strains, soil samples were collected from wheat, corn and asparagus rhizospheres and cultured in media lacking nitrogen at 30?C for 48 hours. Strains were identified based on morphological and biochemical characteristics. The presence of the nitrogenase enzyme system was confirmed by testing for the presence of the nifH gene using PCR analysis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and optimal zinc concentration for the growth of each strain was determined. Results: A total of 12 bacterial strains were isolated from six different soil samples. A. chroococcum strains were morphologically and biochemically characterized. The presence of the nifH gene was confirmed in all the strains. MIC and the optimal zinc concentration for bacterial growth were 50 ppm and 20 ppm, respectively. Conclusions: It was concluded that increasing the concentration of zinc in the agricultural soil is harmful to beneficial microorganisms and reduces the soil fertility. A 20-ppm zinc concentration in soil is suggested to be optimal. PMID:25147702

  19. Hexamethylenetetramine-Precipitated ?-Ni(OH)2 as Precursors for NiO Nanoparticles: Structural and Morphological Characterization.

    PubMed

    Yufanyi, Divine M; Ndibewu, Peter P; Heveling, Josef

    2015-09-01

    Influenced by their morphology, nanocrystalline nickel hydroxide and nickel oxide have important technical applications. A simple novel procedure allows for the preparation of ?-Ni(OH)2 from nickel nitrate using hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) as the precipitating agent. The product obtained is free of water, but contains intercalated nitrate and HMTA. Hydroxide samples prepared in this manner decompose in a single step at 350 degrees C and can be used as precursors for NiO. The hydroxide and oxide samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and nitrogen physisorption. Depending on the solvent system used during synthesis, a-Ni(OH)2 has a leaf-like or a flower-like morphology. The nickel oxides obtained from these samples consist of nanocubes (average particle size: 15 nm) and nanorods (length: 30-60 nm), respectively. The oxide samples are mesoporous and the corresponding surface areas are 40 and 35 m2/g. PMID:26716250

  20. Surface morphology, microstructure, raman characterization and magnetic ordering of oxidized Fe-sputtered films on silicon substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasmin, A.; Rillera, H.; Semblante, O.; Sarmago, R.

    2012-09-01

    Iron oxide (Fe2O3) nanostructures are synthesized by thermal oxidation of Fe-sputtered films in a carbon-rich environment. Nanocrystals and nanoparticle networks are observed to grow on oxidized Fe thin films. Xray diffraction (XRD) characterization of samples reveals the existence of rhombohedral Fe2O3 crystal structure. Raman spectroscopy of annealed films shows the existence of Fe3O4 phase on network like structures which is brought about by the surface stress between the two iron oxide phases. Atomic force microscope (AFM) phase image of the Fe2O3 film shows a large scale magnetic ordering which does not depend on the surface morphology of the sample.

  1. Morphological and voltammetric characterization of different concentrations of spin coated Nafion-Ru(bpy)2+3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuason, B. S. B.; Tiong-Palisoc, S.; Tiamzon-Natividad, M.

    2015-06-01

    Different concentrations of Ru(bpy)2+3 were successfully deposited on ITO coated glass substrates employing a simple method using a spin coater. The surface morphology was determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The transport mechanism and the diffusion coefficient of the redox mediators within the films were characterized using cyclic voltammetry (CV). The concentrations were varied by dissolving different amounts of the redox mediator in methanol and 5% Nafion. SEM micrographs showed that the roughness of the surface increased with concentration of redox mediator. CV showed successful incorporation of Ru(bpy)2+3. The order of the magnitude of the diffusion coefficients confirmed that the redox mediators were immobilized within the Nafion thin film. The resulting amount of redox mediator immobilized can be manipulated by simply varying the concentration of the casting solution.

  2. Characterization of the Etna volcanic emissions through an active biomonitoring technique (moss-bags): part 2--morphological and mineralogical features.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, S; D'Alessandro, W

    2015-01-01

    Volcanic emissions were studied at Mount Etna (Italy) by using moss-bags technique. Mosses were exposed around the volcano at different distances from the active vents to evaluate the impact of volcanic emissions in the atmosphere. Morphology and mineralogy of volcanic particulate intercepted by mosses were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). Particles emitted during passive degassing activity from the two active vents, Bocca Nuova and North East Crater (BNC and NEC), were identified as silicates, sulfates and halide compounds. In addition to volcanic particles, we found evidences also of geogenic, anthropogenic and marine spray input. The study has shown the robustness of this active biomonitoring technique to collect particles, very useful in active volcanic areas characterized by continuous degassing and often not easily accessible to apply conventional sampling techniques. PMID:25311770

  3. Characterization of mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase 1? subcomplex 10 variants in cardiac muscles from normal Wistar rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats: Implications in the pathogenesis of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liying; Jin, Xian; Xia, Li; Wang, Xiaoling; Yu, Yun; Liu, Cunfei; Shao, Dongmin; Fang, Ningyuan; Meng, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been increasingly associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. In the present study, NADH dehydrogenase 1? subcomplex 10 (Ndufa10) was characterized from the left ventricular muscles of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and normal Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. Western blot analysis demonstrated that there was a shift in the molecular weight (MW) and in the isoelectric point (pI) of the Ndufa10 protein from SHRs and WKY rats. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed that the replacement of an aspartate residue with asparagine at amino acid position 120 was the biochemical difference between the two Ndufa10 isoforms. Further analysis using the bacterially expressed proteins Ndufa10?120N (WKY) and Ndufa10?120D (SHR) revealed that the shift in the pI and MW of the two Ndufa10 isoforms was solely caused by the amino acid mutation, and not by post?translational modifications. Since deficiencies of the mitochondrial complex I are the most common defects in the oxidative phosphorylation system, further studies are required to study the difference between the activities of the two Ndufa10 variants, and their role in the pathogenesis of hypertension. PMID:26648553

  4. Can prenatal exposure to a 900 MHz electromagnetic field affect the morphology of the spleen and thymus, and alter biomarkers of oxidative damage in 21-day-old male rats?

    PubMed

    Hanc?, H; Türedi, S; Topal, Z; Mercantepe, T; Bozkurt, I; Kaya, H; Ersöz, ?; Ünal, B; Odac?, E

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the effects of a 900 Megahertz (MHz) electromagnetic field (EMF), applied during the prenatal period, on the spleen and thymus of 21-day-old male rat pups. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control and EMF groups. We applied 900 MHz EMF for 1 h/day to the EMF group of pregnant rats. Newborn male rat pups were removed from their mothers and sacrificed on postnatal day 21. Spleen and thymus tissues were excised and examined. Compared to the control group, thymus tissue malondialdehyde levels were significantly higher in the group exposed to EMF, while glutathione levels were significantly decreased. Increased malondialdehyde and glutathione levels were observed in splenic tissue of rats exposed to EMF, while a significant decrease occurred in superoxide dismutase values compared to controls. Transmission electron microscopy showed pathological changes in cell morphology in the thymic and splenic tissues of newborn rats exposed to EMF. Exposure to 900 MHz EMF during the prenatal period can cause pathological and biochemical changes that may compromise the development of the male rat thymus and spleen. PMID:25985826

  5. Morphological and molecular characterization of actinosporeans infecting oligochaete Branchiura sowerbyi from Chinese carp ponds.

    PubMed

    Xi, Bing-Wen; Zhou, Zhi-Gang; Xie, Jun; Pan, Liang-Kun; Yang, Ya-Lin; Ge, Xian-Ping

    2015-06-01

    We surveyed the actinosporean stages of fish myxosporeans at fish farms in Jiangsu Province, China, from 2011 to 2014. During the surveys, we identified 7 actinosporean types from 4 collective groups: echinactinomyxon (1 type), triactinomyxon (1 type), aurantiactinomyxon (1 type), and neoactinomyxum (4 types), released by the oligochaete Branchiura sowerbyi. The morphological characteristics and DNA sequences of these types are described here. Based on 18S rDNA sequence analysis, the actinosporean of echinactinomyxon type CZ with 4 branches at the end of the caudal processes was identified as Myxobolus wulii, and the neoactinomyxum type JD was identified as Thelohanellus wangi Yuan, Xi, Wang, Xie, Zhang, 2015 (JX458816), a recently nominated species from the gills of allogynogenetic gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio. In addition, actinosporeans of aurantiactinomyxon type JD, neoactinomyxum type CZ-1, neoactinomyxum type CZ-2, and neoactinomyxum type CZ-3 showed high genetic similarity to T. wuhanensis (96.3-96.5%), T. nikolskii (98.0-99.1%), T. wuhanensis (97.8-98.9%), and T. hovorkai (98.7-98.9%), respectively. Phylogenetic analyses showed that these actinosporeans were robustly clustered in the Thelohanellus spp. clade. PMID:26036829

  6. Morphological and molecular characterization of Thelohanellus hoffmanni sp. nov. (Myxozoa) infecting goldfish Carassius auratus auratus.

    PubMed

    Lewisch, Eva; Soliman, Hatem; Schmidt, Peter; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2015-06-29

    A new species of the genus Thelohanellus Kudo, 1933 (Myxosporea, Bivalvulida) was isolated from the fins of goldfish Carassius auratus auratus (Linnaeus 1758). The fish had been imported from China by an Austrian retailer. Nodules from the margins of the fins contained pyriform myxospores with a singular polar capsule. In valvular view, the spores measured 12.2 µm in length and 6.4 µm in width. In sutural view, the thickness was 2.9 µm. The polar capsule measured 4.2 × 3.1 µm and contained a polar filament with 8 to 9 coils. Histological sections showed plasmodia of 0.2 to 4.0 mm diameter with the earlier developmental stages of the parasite in the periphery and the mature spores closer to the center. In the transmission electron microscope examination, the different developmental stages could be observed. Morphological data, host specificity, tissue tropism, and molecular analysis of the small subunit rDNA identify this parasite as a new species of Thelohanellus, which we have named Thelohanellus hoffmanni sp. nov. PMID:26119298

  7. Characterization of Morphology and Composition of Inorganic Fillers in Dental Alginates

    PubMed Central

    Guiraldo, Ricardo Danil; Berger, Sandrine Bittencourt; Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek; Consani, Simonides; de Carvalho, Rodrigo Varella; Lopes, Murilo Baena; Meneghel, Luciana Lira; da Silva, Fabiane Borges; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho

    2014-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy microanalysis (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Archimedes' Principle were used to determine the characteristics of inorganic filler particles in five dental alginates, including Cavex ColorChange (C), Hydrogum 5 (H5), Hydrogum (H), Orthoprint (O), and Jeltrate Plus (JP). The different alginate powders (0.5?mg) were fixed on plastic stubs (n = 5) and sputter coated with carbon for EDX analysis, then coated with gold, and observed using SEM. Volume fractions were determined by weighing a sample of each material in water before and after calcining at 450°C for 3?h. The alginate materials were mainly composed of silicon (Si) by weight (C—81.59%, H—79.89%, O—78.87%, H5—77.95%, JP—66.88%, wt). The filler fractions in volume (vt) were as follows: H5—84.85%, JP—74.76%, H—70.03%, O—68.31%, and C—56.10%. The tested materials demonstrated important differences in the inorganic elemental composition, filler fraction, and particle morphology. PMID:25165690

  8. Morphological and genetic characterization of an emerging Azorean horse breed: the Terceira Pony

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Maria S.; Mendonça, Duarte; Rojer, Horst; Cabral, Verónica; Bettencourt, Sílvia X.; da Câmara Machado, Artur

    2015-01-01

    The Terceira Pony is a horse indigenous to Terceira Island in the Azores. These horses were very important during the colonization of the island. Due to their very balanced proportions and correct gaits, and with an average withers height of 1.28 m, the Terceira Pony is often confused with a miniature pure-bred Lusitano. This population was officially recognized as the fourth Portuguese equine breed by the national authorities in January, 2014. The aim of this study was to analyze the morphology and the genetic diversity by means of microsatellite markers of this emerging horse breed. The biometric data consisted of 28 body measurements and nine angles from 30 animals (11 sires, 19 dams). The Terceira Pony is now a recognized horse breed and is gaining in popularity amongst breeders and the younger riding classes. The information obtained from this study will be very useful for conservation and management purposes, including maximizing the breed’s genetic diversity, and solidifying the desirable phenotypic traits. PMID:25774165

  9. Characterization of morphology and composition of inorganic fillers in dental alginates.

    PubMed

    Guiraldo, Ricardo Danil; Berger, Sandrine Bittencourt; Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek; Consani, Simonides; de Carvalho, Rodrigo Varella; Lopes, Murilo Baena; Meneghel, Luciana Lira; da Silva, Fabiane Borges; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho

    2014-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy microanalysis (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Archimedes' Principle were used to determine the characteristics of inorganic filler particles in five dental alginates, including Cavex ColorChange (C), Hydrogum 5 (H5), Hydrogum (H), Orthoprint (O), and Jeltrate Plus (JP). The different alginate powders (0.5 mg) were fixed on plastic stubs (n = 5) and sputter coated with carbon for EDX analysis, then coated with gold, and observed using SEM. Volume fractions were determined by weighing a sample of each material in water before and after calcining at 450(°)C for 3 h. The alginate materials were mainly composed of silicon (Si) by weight (C-81.59%, H-79.89%, O-78.87%, H5-77.95%, JP-66.88%, wt). The filler fractions in volume (vt) were as follows: H5-84.85%, JP-74.76%, H-70.03%, O-68.31%, and C-56.10%. The tested materials demonstrated important differences in the inorganic elemental composition, filler fraction, and particle morphology. PMID:25165690

  10. A strain of Plasmodium vivax characterized by prolonged incubation: morphological and biological characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Garnham, P. C. C.; Bray, R. S.; Bruce-Chwatt, L. J.; Draper, C. C.; Killick-Kendrick, R.; Sergiev, P. G.; Tiburskaja, N. A.; Shute, P. G.; Maryon, M.

    1975-01-01

    Numerous strains of P. vivax, distinguishable chiefly by their biological characteristics, are known to exist. Two main varieties are recognized: the so-called temperate and tropical strains. The most extreme example of the former—designated by Nikolaev as P. vivax hibernans—constantly exhibited an extremely long incubation period. The strain is no longer in existence and no type material has been preserved. In its place, a North Korean strain with a generally long incubation period has been studied and compared with the well-known tropical Madagascar strain, which frequently but not constantly has a short incubation period. The data presented here concern the behaviour of various strains from the USSR and the morphological characteristics of the North Korean and Madagascar strains. Splenectomized chimpanzees were used as the host of these parasites, particularly in regard to exoerythrocytic schizogony. Attempts were also made, by late biopsies of the liver of the apes, to elucidate the prolonged latency of the North Korean strain. Although there was no evidence of specifically dormant forms, it is probable that certain sporozoites fail to develop in the normal time and that they are reactivated by an unknown factor a year or more after inoculation. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 2 PMID:764993

  11. Synthesis and characterization of different MnO2 morphologies for lithium-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hyun-A.; Jang, Hyuk; Hwang, Hyein; Choi, Mincheol; Lim, Dongwook; Shim, Sang Eun; Baeck, Sung-Hyeon

    2014-09-01

    Manganese dioxide (MnO2) was synthesized in the forms of nanorods, nanoparticles, and mesoporous structures and the characteristics of these materials were investigated. Crystallinities were studied by x-ray diffraction and morphologies by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Average pore sizes and specific surface areas were analyzed using the Barret-Joyner-Halenda and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller methods, respectively. Samples were also studied by cyclic voltammetry using 1M aqueous KOH solution saturated with either O2 or N2 as electrolytes to investigate their ORR (oxygen reduction reaction) and OER (oxygen evolution reaction) activities. Of the samples produced, mesoporous MnO2 exhibited the highest ORR and OER catalytic activities. Mesoporous MnO2 supported on a gas diffusion layer was also used as a catalyst on the air electrode (cathode) of a lithium-air battery in organic electrolyte. The charge-discharge behavior of mesoporous MnO2 was investigated at a current density 0.2 mAcm-2 in a pure oxygen environment. Mesoporous MnO2 electrodes showed stable cycleability up to 65 cycles at a cell capacity of 700 mAhg-1.

  12. Single spore isolation and morphological characterization of local Malaysian isolates of rice blast fungus Magnoporthe grisea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Ankitta; Ratnam, Wickneswari; Bhuiyan, Md Atiqur Rahman; Ponaya, Ariane; Jena, Khisord K.

    2015-09-01

    Rice blast is a destructive disease, caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe grisea. It causes considerable damage to rice and leads to crop loss in rice growing regions worldwide. Although fungicides can be used to control rice blast, they generate additional cost in rice production and contamination of environment and food. Therefore, the use of resistant varieties is thought to be one of the most economically and environmentally efficient ways of crop protection from the disease. Six new local Malaysian isolates of M. grisea were isolated using single spore isolation method. Five isolates were from infected leaf samples collected from Kompleks Latihan MADA, Kedah and one was from Kelantan. These isolates were identified using morphological characteristics and microscopic studies and later confirmed by ITSequences. These isolates were induced to sporulate and used for greenhouse screening on two differential rice varieties: Mahsuri (susceptible) and Pongsu Seribu 2 (resistant). Among the 6 isolates, isolate number 3 was found to be the most virulent showing high sporulation while isolate number 4 was very slow growing, and the least virulent.

  13. Characterization of Adaptation by Morphology in a Planar Biological Network of Plasmodial Slime Mold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Masateru; Okamoto, Riki; Takamatsu, Atsuko

    2011-07-01

    Growth processes of a planar biological network of plasmodium of a true slime mold, Physarum polycephalum, were analyzed quantitatively. The plasmodium forms a transportation network through which protoplasm conveys nutrients, oxygen, and cellular organelles similarly to blood in a mammalian vascular network. To analyze the network structure, vertices were defined at tube bifurcation points. Then edges were defined for the tubes connecting both end vertices. Morphological analysis was attempted along with conventional topological analysis, revealing that the growth process of the plasmodial network structure depends on environmental conditions. In an attractive condition, the network is a polygonal lattice with more than six edges per vertex at the early stage and the hexagonal lattice at a later stage. Through all growing stages, the tube structure was not highly developed but an unstructured protoplasmic thin sheet was dominantly formed. The network size is small. In contrast, in the repulsive condition, the network is a mixture of polygonal lattice and tree-graph. More specifically, the polygonal lattice has more than six edges per vertex in the early stage, then a tree-graph structure is added to the lattice network at a later stage. The thick tube structure was highly developed. The network size, in the meaning of Euclidean distance but not topological one, grows considerably. Finally, the biological meaning of the environment-dependent network structure in the plasmodium is discussed.

  14. Morphological evolution and structural characterization of bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pushpendra; Srivastava, Punita; Singh, Jai; Belwal, Ritu; Pandey, Mukesh Kumar; Hui, K. S.; Hui, K. N.; Singh, Kedar

    2013-07-01

    Atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials with a layered structure, such as graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), have been attracting a large amount of attention due to their unique properties and fascinating application in several devices for energy harvesting. Recently, single and few-layer Bi2Te3 2D nanosheets have attracted great attention. In this paper, the morphological evolution of Bi2Te3 2D nanosheets to nanotubes, which were fabricated by bottom-up assembly at low temperature by a controlled wet-chemical growth mechanism, is reported. The products are ultrathin nanosheets with thicknesses down to a few quintuple layers, and single, double and multiwall nanotubes with lengths of up to 2 µm. As a new member, Bi2Te3 nanotubes have extremely large surface-to-volume ratios and can be electrically gated more efficiently than the bulk form to enhance surface state effects potentially in transport measurements. The method presented herein allows the mass production of identical tubes that can be easily integrated into device structures for futuristic applications.

  15. Dendritic morphology, synaptic transmission, and activity of mature granule cells born following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Fei; Song, Xueying; Zhu, Dexiao; Wang, Xiaochen; Hao, Aijun; Nadler, J. Victor; Zhan, Ren-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    To understand the potential role of enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) in the development of epilepsy, we quantitatively analyzed the geometry of apical dendrites, synaptic transmission, and activation levels of normotopically distributed mature newborn granule cells in the rat. SE in male Sprague-Dawley rats (between 6 and 7 weeks old) lasting for more than 2 h was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of pilocarpine. The complexity, spine density, miniature post-synaptic currents, and activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) expression of granule cells born 5 days after SE were studied between 10 and 17 weeks after CAG-GFP retroviral vector-mediated labeling. Mature granule cells born after SE had dendritic complexity similar to that of granule cells born naturally, but with denser mushroom-like spines in dendritic segments located in the outer molecular layer. Miniature inhibitory post-synaptic currents (mIPSCs) were similar between the controls and rats subjected to SE; however, smaller miniature excitatory post-synaptic current (mEPSC) amplitude with a trend toward less frequent was found in mature granule cells born after SE. After maturation, granule cells born after SE did not show denser Arc expression in the resting condition or 2 h after being activated by pentylenetetrazol-induced transient seizure activity than vicinal GFP-unlabeled granule cells. Thus our results suggest that normotopic granule cells born after pilocarpine-induced SE are no more active when mature than age-matched, naturally born granule cells. PMID:26500490

  16. PAF biosynthesis: Characterization of alkylacetyl-GP phosphohydrolase in rat spleens

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, B.; Lee, T.C.; Snyder, F. )

    1987-05-01

    The authors have characterized an alkylacetyl-GP phosphohydrolase in rat spleen microsomes that catalyzes the conversion of alkylacetyl-GP to alkylacetyl-G, a precursor of PAF. This enzyme has an optimal pH of 7.0, an apparent K{sub m} of 31.8 {mu}M, and is widely distributed in various tissues. Studies on substrate specificities, cation requirements, and the subcellular distribution of the alkylacetyl-GP phosphohydrolase suggest that this enzyme can be distinguished from a nonspecific phosphomonoesterase or phosphatidate phosphohydrolase. Like alkyllyso-GP:acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, the alkylacetyl-GP phosphohydrolase shows no notable substrate selectivities with regard to variations in alkyl chain length at the sn-1 position or short-chain acyl groups (with the exception of C{sub 3:0}) at the sn-2 position of the glycerol molecule. The enzymatic activity of alkylacetyl-GP phosphohydrolase is 30- to 90-fold higher than alkyllyso-GP:acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase in most tissues. Also, alkylacetyl-GP phosphohydrolase can degrade alkyllyso-GP. Thus, our findings imply that specificities of the molecular species of PAF synthesized de novo are determined by the DTT-insensitive alkylacetyl-G:CDP-choline cholinephosphotransferase, the final step of the pathway. Furthermore, alkyllyso-GP:acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase appears to be the rate-limiting step in the de novo synthesis of alkylacetyl-G.

  17. Characterization of melatonin binding sites in the Harderian gland and median eminence of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Gonzalez, M.A.; Calvo, J.R.; Rubio, A.; Goberna, R.; Guerrero, J.M. )

    1991-01-01

    The characterization of specific melatonin binding sites in the Harderian gland (HG) and median eminence (ME) of the rat was studied using ({sup 125}I)melatonin. Binding of melatonin to membrane crude preparations of both tissues was dependent on time and temperature. Thus, maximal binding was obtained at 37{degree}C after 30-60 min incubation. Binding was also dependent on protein concentration. The specific binding of ({sup 125}I)melatonin was saturable, exhibiting only the class of binding sites in both tissues. The dissociation constants (Kd) were 170 and 190 pM for ME and HG, respectively. The concentration of the binding sites in ME was 8 fmol/mg protein, and in the HG 4 fmol/mg protein. In competition studies, binding of ({sup 125}I)melatonin to ME or HG was inhibited by increasing concentration of native melatonin; 50% inhibition was observed at about 702 and 422 nM for ME and HG, respectively. Additionally, the ({sup 125}I)melatonin binding to the crude membranes was not affected by the addition of different drugs such as norepinephrine, isoproterenol, phenylephrine, propranolol, or prazosin. The results confirm the presence of melatonin binding sites in median eminence and show, for the first time, the existence of melatonin binding sites in the Harderian gland.

  18. Isolation and characterization of a novel gene sfig in rat skeletal muscle up-regulated by spaceflight (STS-90)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kano, Mihoko; Kitano, Takako; Ikemoto, Madoka; Hirasaka, Katsuya; Asanoma, Yuki; Ogawa, Takayuki; Takeda, Shinichi; Nonaka, Ikuya; Adams, Gregory R.; Baldwin, Kenneth M.; Oarada, Motoko; Kishi, Kyoichi; Nikawa, Takeshi

    2003-01-01

    We obtained the skeletal muscle of rats exposed to weightless conditions during a 16-day-spaceflight (STS-90). By using a differential display technique, we identified 6 up-regulated and 3 down-regulated genes in the gastrocnemius muscle of the spaceflight rats, as compared to the ground control. The up-regulated genes included those coding Casitas B-lineage lymphoma-b, insulin growth factor binding protein-1, titin and mitochondrial gene 16 S rRNA and two novel genes (function unknown). The down-regulated genes included those encoding RNA polymerase II elongation factor-like protein, NADH dehydrogenase and one novel gene (function unknown). In the present study, we isolated and characterized one of two novel muscle genes that were remarkably up-regulated by spaceflight. The deduced amino acid sequence of the spaceflight-induced gene (sfig) comprises 86 amino acid residues and is well conserved from Drosophila to Homo sapiens. A putative leucine-zipper structure located at the N-terminal region of sfig suggests that this gene may encode a transcription factor. The up-regulated expression of this gene, confirmed by Northern blot analysis, was observed not only in the muscles of spaceflight rats but also in the muscles of tail-suspended rats, especially in the early stage of tail-suspension when gastrocnemius muscle atrophy initiated. The gene was predominantly expressed in the kidney, liver, small intestine and heart. When rat myoblastic L6 cells were grown to 100% confluence in the cell culture system, the expression of sfig was detected regardless of the cell differentiation state. These results suggest that spaceflight has many genetic effects on rat skeletal muscle.

  19. High-Content Assays for Characterizing the Viability and Morphology of 3D Cancer Spheroid Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Mitlo, Trisha; Hesley, Jayne; Luke, Steve; Owens, Windsor; Cromwell, Evan F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract There is an increasing interest in using three-dimensional (3D) spheroids for modeling cancer and tissue biology to accelerate translation research. Development of higher throughput assays to quantify phenotypic changes in spheroids is an active area of investigation. The goal of this study was to develop higher throughput high-content imaging and analysis methods to characterize phenotypic changes in human cancer spheroids in response to compound treatment. We optimized spheroid cell culture protocols using low adhesion U-bottom 96- and 384-well plates for three common cancer cell lines and improved the workflow with a one-step staining procedure that reduces assay time and minimizes variability. We streamlined imaging acquisition by using a maximum projection algorithm that combines cellular information from multiple slices through a 3D object into a single image, enabling efficient comparison of different spheroid phenotypes. A custom image analysis method was implemented to provide multiparametric characterization of single-cell and spheroid phenotypes. We report a number of readouts, including quantification of marker-specific cell numbers, measurement of cell viability and apoptosis, and characterization of spheroid size and shape. Assay performance was assessed using established anticancer cytostatic and cytotoxic drugs. We demonstrated concentration–response effects for different readouts and measured IC50 values, comparing 3D spheroid results to two-dimensional cell cultures. Finally, a library of 119 approved anticancer drugs was screened across a wide range of concentrations using HCT116 colon cancer spheroids. The proposed methods can increase performance and throughput of high-content assays for compound screening and evaluation of anticancer drugs with 3D cell models. PMID:26317884

  20. High-content assays for characterizing the viability and morphology of 3D cancer spheroid cultures.

    PubMed

    Sirenko, Oksana; Mitlo, Trisha; Hesley, Jayne; Luke, Steve; Owens, Windsor; Cromwell, Evan F

    2015-09-01

    There is an increasing interest in using three-dimensional (3D) spheroids for modeling cancer and tissue biology to accelerate translation research. Development of higher throughput assays to quantify phenotypic changes in spheroids is an active area of investigation. The goal of this study was to develop higher throughput high-content imaging and analysis methods to characterize phenotypic changes in human cancer spheroids in response to compound treatment. We optimized spheroid cell culture protocols using low adhesion U-bottom 96- and 384-well plates for three common cancer cell lines and improved the workflow with a one-step staining procedure that reduces assay time and minimizes variability. We streamlined imaging acquisition by using a maximum projection algorithm that combines cellular information from multiple slices through a 3D object into a single image, enabling efficient comparison of different spheroid phenotypes. A custom image analysis method was implemented to provide multiparametric characterization of single-cell and spheroid phenotypes. We report a number of readouts, including quantification of marker-specific cell numbers, measurement of cell viability and apoptosis, and characterization of spheroid size and shape. Assay performance was assessed using established anticancer cytostatic and cytotoxic drugs. We demonstrated concentration-response effects for different readouts and measured IC50 values, comparing 3D spheroid results to two-dimensional cell cultures. Finally, a library of 119 approved anticancer drugs was screened across a wide range of concentrations using HCT116 colon cancer spheroids. The proposed methods can increase performance and throughput of high-content assays for compound screening and evaluation of anticancer drugs with 3D cell models. PMID:26317884

  1. Characterization of protein factor(s) in rat bronchoalveolar lavage fluid that enhance insulin transport via transcytosis across primary rat alveolar epithelial cell monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Bahhady, Rana; Kim, Kwang-Jin; Borok, Zea; Crandall, Edward D.; Shen, Wei-Chiang

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize factor(s) in rat bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) that enhance(s) insulin transport across primary rat alveolar epithelial cell monolayers (RAECM) in primary culture. BALF was concentrated 7.5-fold using the Centricon device and the retentate was used to characterize the factor(s) involved in enhancing apical-to-basolateral transport of intact 125I-insulin across various epithelial cell monolayers. These factor(s) enhanced transport of intact insulin across type II cell-like RAECM (3-fold increase) and type I cell-like RAECM (2-fold increase), but not across Caco-2 or MDCK cell monolayers. The insulin transport-enhancing factor(s) were temperature- and trypsin-sensitive. The mechanism of enhancement did not seem to involve paracellular transport or fluid-phase endocytosis, since fluxes of sodium fluorescein and FITC-dextran (70 kDa) were not affected by the factor(s) in the apical bathing fluid. BALF enhancement of intact 125I-insulin transport was abolished at 4°C and in the presence of monensin, suggesting involvement of transcellular pathways. Sephacryl S-200 purification of BALF retentate, followed by LC-MS/MS, indicated that the high molecular weight (>100 kDa) fractions (which show some homology to alpha-1-inhibitor III, murinoglobulin gamma 2, and pregnancy-zone protein) appear to facilitate transcellular transport of insulin across RAECM. PMID:18406118

  2. Morphological, Optical and Electrical Characterization of Solution Processed MWNT-PEDOT:PSS Nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansal, Malti; Srivastava, Ritu; Lal, C.; Kamalasanan, M. N.; Tanwar, L. S.

    Carbon nanotubes have been the subject of extensive research during the past decade because of their exceptional properties. These tiny nanostructures have eventually paved their way into the exciting and promising field of organic electronics, which is expected to dominate the area of low cost and flexible electronics in the near future. We have prepared multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNT) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulphonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS) based nanocomposites using different concentrations of MWNTs. These nanocomposites have been characterized using SEM, AFM, absorption spectroscopy, and electrical characterization methods. The SEM micrographs clearly reveal that the nanotubes are quasi uniformly dispersed in huge quantities throughout the polymer matrix. They also show the wetting of the nanotubes by the polymer. It is observed that the solution processed MWNT-PEDOT:PSS nanocomposite based films exhibit improved, higher current, and lower turn-on voltage as compared to pure PEDOT:PSS based films. On the basis of percolation theory, a low electrical percolation threshold value of 0.1 wt% was obtained for this nanocomposite system, signifying the formation of a continuous conductive network at a very low MWNT concentration. The ease of fabrication of the nanocomposite (solution processed), higher current, lower turn-on voltage and low electrical percolation threshold value, make it an excellent candidate for flexible electronics applications, which will dominate the electronics scenario in the near future.

  3. Compositional, morphological, and hysteresis characterization of magnetic airborne particulate matter in Rome, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagnotti, Leonardo; Taddeucci, Jacopo; Winkler, Aldo; Cavallo, Andrea

    2009-08-01

    The magnetic properties of tree leaves may be used to delineate the abundance and dispersal of anthropogenic airborne particulate matter (PM) in urban environments. In the city of Rome, Italy, circulating vehicles are the main source of magnetic PM, already characterized as prevalently low-coercivity, magnetite-like particles. To further constrain the nature and origin of such magnetic particles, we carried out coupled field emission scanning electron microscopy and a variety of rock magnetic analyses on PM specimens from Quercus ilex leaves and from potential PM sources in circulating motor vehicles in Rome. Fe-rich particles are mostly 0.1-5 ?m in size, with irregular shapes and moss-like surface. Particles from disk brakes and diesel and gasoline exhaust pipes show distinct compositional and magnetic hysteresis signatures, suggesting that the magnetic PM collected on tree leaves consists of a mixture of particle populations deriving mostly from the abrasion of disk brakes and, to a lesser extent, from fuel combustion residuals emitted by diesel and gasoline exhausts. The contribution of fine superparamagnetic particles to the overall magnetic assemblage has been evaluated with specific rock magnetic analyses. The combined magnetic and microtextural-compositional analyses provide an effective and original tool to characterize urban PM air pollution.

  4. Characterization of carbonaceous combustion residues. I. Morphological, elemental and spectroscopic features.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Milena B; Skjemstad, Jan O; Johnson, Bruce B; Wells, John D; Brooks, Peter

    2003-06-01

    Scanning electron microscopy, surface area determination, elemental analysis, organic matter extraction and solid-state cross polarization/magic angle spinning and Bloch decay/magic angle spinning 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were used to investigate distinctive features among carbonaceous combustion residues. Black carbon (BC) samples included diesel soot, urban dust, carbon black, chimney soot, vegetation fire residues, wood and straw charcoals. Particles varied from small spheres (<50 nm) in fossil BC (>100 m(2)/g), to large layered structures in plant-derived BC (generally <8 m(2)/g). Chimney soot also included large (>1 micrometer) liquid-like structures, while spherules >100 nm were unique to urban dust. The ratios of amorphous to soot carbon (SC) (isolated by thermal degradation) were not necessarily correlated with the degree of aromaticity estimated from H/C ratios. In particular, values of SC in diesel soot were clearly overestimated. Solvent-extractable organic matter (SEOM) was <2% for charcoals and carbon black, but >13% for urban dust, chimney and diesel soot. SEOM is thought to clog pores or to form large waxy globules, hence reducing surface areas. The ratio of polar/nonpolar SEOM was generally <7 for fossil BC, but >30 for plant-derived BC. NMR analysis revealed essentially one chemical shift in the aromatic C region of charcoals, while diesel soot also showed important aliphatic contributions. Aliphatic and oxygenated C predominated over aryl C in urban dust and chimney soot. These morphological and chemical characteristics of the BC samples are discussed in terms of their environmental implications. PMID:12668037

  5. Characterization of diamond thin films: Diamond phase identification, surface morphology, and defect structures

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, B.E.; Glass, J.T.

    1989-03-01

    Thin carbon films grown from a low pressure methane-hydrogen gas mixture by microwave plasma enhanced CVD have been examined by Auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, electron and x-ray diffraction, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and electron microscopy. They were determined to be similar to natural diamond in terms of composition, structure, and bonding. The surface morphology of the diamond films was a function of position on the sample surface and the methane concentration in the feedgas. Well-faceted diamond crystals were observed near the center of the sample whereas a less faceted, cauliflower texture was observed near the edge of the sample, presumably due to variations in temperature across the surface of the sample. Regarding methane concentration effects, threefold /111/ faceted diamond crystals were predominant on a film grown at 0.3% CH/sub 4/ in H/sub 2/ while fourfold /100/ facets were observed on films grown in 1.0% and 2.0% CH/sub 4/ in H/sub 2/. Transmission electron microscopy of the diamond films has shown that the majority of diamond crystals have a very high defect density comprised of /111/ twins, /111/ stacking faults, and dislocations. In addition, cross-sectional TEM has revealed a 50 A epitaxial layer of ..beta..--SiC at the diamond-silicon interface of a film grown with 0.3% CH/sub 4/ in H/sub 2/ while no such layer was observed on a diamond film grown in 2.0% CH/sub 4/ in H/sub 2/.

  6. Nanoridges that characterize the surface morphology of flowers require the synthesis of cutin polyester

    PubMed Central

    Li-Beisson, Yonghua; Pollard, Mike; Sauveplane, Vincent; Pinot, Franck; Ohlrogge, John; Beisson, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Distinctive nanoridges on the surface of flowers have puzzled plant biologists ever since their discovery over 75 years ago. Although postulated to help attract insect pollinators, the function, chemical nature, and ontogeny of these surface nanostructures remain uncertain. Studies have been hampered by the fact that no ridgeless mutants have been identified. Here, we describe two mutants lacking nanoridges and define the biosynthetic pathway for 10,16-dihydroxypalmitate, a major cutin monomer in nature. Using gene expression profiling, two candidates for the formation of floral cutin were identified in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana: the glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 6 (GPAT6) and a member of a cytochrome P450 family with unknown biological function (CYP77A6). Plants carrying null mutations in either gene produced petals with no nanoridges and no cuticle could be observed by either scanning or transmission electron microscopy. A strong reduction in cutin content was found in flowers of both mutants. In planta overexpression suggested GPAT6 preferentially uses palmitate derivatives in cutin synthesis. Comparison of cutin monomer profiles in knockouts for CYP77A6 and the fatty acid ?-hydroxylase CYP86A4 provided genetic evidence that CYP77A6 is an in-chain hydroxylase acting subsequently to CYP86A4 in the synthesis of 10,16-dihydroxypalmitate. Biochemical activity of CYP77A6 was demonstrated by production of dihydroxypalmitates from 16-hydroxypalmitate, using CYP77A6-expressing yeast microsomes. These results define the biosynthetic pathway for an abundant and widespread monomer of the cutin polyester, show that the morphology of floral surfaces depends on the synthesis of cutin, and identify target genes to investigate the function of nanoridges in flower biology. PMID:19959665

  7. Morphological characterization of adult Fascioloides magna (Trematoda: Fasciolidae): first SEM report.

    PubMed

    Naem, Soraya; Budke, Christine M; Craig, Thomas M

    2012-02-01

    Five adult Fascioloides magna specimens were recovered from the livers of naturally infected calves from Texas, USA. Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the morphological characteristics of the trematodes. These mature flukes measured 35-100 mm in length by 15-25 mm in width and had an oval dorsoventrally flattened body, with no anterior cone. The tegument was armed with sharp spines. Around the oral and ventral suckers, some of the spines were small, with a sharp point, while others had serrated edges with 15-22 sharp points. The surface of the oral sucker was covered by an interesting pattern of tegument, small dome-shaped and ciliated papillae. The ventral sucker showed a smooth surface and two unknown spine-like structures. There were fewer spines at the base of the genital pore than on other parts of the anterior end of the worm. At the anterior end of the ventral side, well-developed spines were observed, while at the posterior end of the ventral side, the spines were small, mostly with one or three points and blunted edges. At the posterior end of the dorsal side, the spines became progressively fewer, smaller, and shorter. Around the excretory pore, the tegument was folded, with no spines, and small groups of dome-shaped and ciliated papillae were present. The cirrus organ showed a smooth surface, with small pores on the dorsal side and small groups of tiny spines between the folds. The eggs measured 168?×?101 ?m and had a protoplasmic appendage at the pole opposite the operculum. At the posterior end of the dorsal side, and toward the right, a pore with a very thin rim was present, which could be the terminus of Laurer's canal. PMID:21842384

  8. Ellis-van Creveld Syndrome in Grey Alpine Cattle: Morphologic, Immunophenotypic, and Molecular Characterization.

    PubMed

    Muscatello, L V; Benazzi, C; Dittmer, K E; Thompson, K G; Murgiano, L; Drögemüller, C; Avallone, G; Gentile, A; Edwards, J F; Piffer, C; Bolcato, M; Brunetti, B

    2015-09-01

    Ellis-van Creveld (EvC) syndrome is a human autosomal recessive disorder caused by a mutation in either the EVC or EVC2 gene, and presents with short limbs, polydactyly, and ectodermal and heart defects. The aim of this study was to understand the pathologic basis by which deletions in the EVC2 gene lead to chondrodysplastic dwarfism and to describe the morphologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular hallmarks of EvC syndrome in cattle. Five Grey Alpine calves, with a known mutation in the EVC2 gene, were autopsied. Immunohistochemistry was performed on bone using antibodies to collagen II, collagen X, sonic hedgehog, fibroblast growth factor 2, and Ki67. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed to analyze EVC1 and EVC2 gene expression. Autopsy revealed long bones that were severely reduced in length, as well as genital and heart defects. Collagen II was detected in control calves in the resting, proliferative, and hypertrophic zones and in the primary and secondary spongiosa, with a loss of labeling in the resting zone of 2 dwarfs. Collagen X was expressed in hypertrophic zone in the controls but was absent in the EvC cases. In affected calves and controls, sonic hedgehog labeled hypertrophic chondrocytes and primary and secondary spongiosa similarly. FGF2 was expressed in chondrocytes of all growth plate zones in the control calves but was lost in most EvC cases. The Ki67 index was lower in cases compared with controls. EVC and EVC2 transcripts were detected. Our data suggest that EvC syndrome of Grey Alpine cattle is a disorder of chondrocyte differentiation, with accelerated differentiation and premature hypertrophy of chondrocytes, and could be a spontaneous model for the equivalent human disease. PMID:26077781

  9. Morphological and physical characterization of the capsular layer of Vibrio cholerae O139.

    PubMed

    Meno, Y; Waldor, M K; Mekalanos, J J; Amako, K

    1998-10-01

    The morphological and physical characteristics of the capsule of Vibrio cholerae O139 were examined. An electron microscopic study using the freeze-substitution technique showed that all of the V. cholerae strains of the O139 serogroup examined have a very thin fibrous layer on the outside of the outer membrane. In contrast, the mutants of strain O139, strain MO10T4 (which lacks capsule synthesis), and strain Bengal-2R1 (which fails to synthesize both the capsule and the O-antigen of lipopolysaccharide) were all found to have lost the surface layer. In addition, the capsule layer could also not be observed on the surface of V. cholerae strain O1. To determine the biological characteristics of the capsule of strains of the O139 serogroup, we investigated the serum killing activity and bacterial phagocytosis by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. The O139 strains were more resistant to the serum killing activity than were the V. cholerae O1 strain and the O139 mutant strains, thus suggesting that the existence of the capsule gave a serum-resistant character to the O139 strains. The surface character of the O139 strains had the same hydrophobic character as did that of the O139 mutant strains and the O1 strain. In addition, all the V. cholerae O1 and O139 strains examined, including the mutant strains, were effectively ingested by the human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. The number of ingested bacteria was not significantly different among the strains, and the ingestion of the acapsular O139 mutants thus showed that the capsule does not play an antiphagocytic role. These data suggest that the capsule of V. cholerae O139 has a physiological function different from that of the ordinal hydrophilic capsule that is found in invasive bacteria such as Klebsiella pneumoniae. PMID:9818353

  10. Radiological, chemical and morphological characterizations of phosphate rock and phosphogypsum from phosphoric acid factories in SW Spain.

    PubMed

    Rentería-Villalobos, Marusia; Vioque, Ignacio; Mantero, Juan; Manjón, Guillermo

    2010-09-15

    In this work, radiological, chemical, and also morphological characterization was performed in phosphate rock and phosphogypsum samples, in order to understand the behavior of toxic elements. Characterization was carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), gamma spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX). Our results show that the phosphate rock was mainly composed of fluorapatite, calcite, perovskite, quartz, magnetite, pyrite and kaolinite, whereas phosphogypsum only exhibited dihydrated calcium sulfate. The activity concentration of U-series radioisotopes in phosphate rock was around 1640 Bq/kg. (226)Ra and (210)Pb tend to be distributed into phosphogypsum by up to 80%, whereas the fraction of U-isotopes is 10%. The most abundant trace elements in phosphate rock were Sr, Cr, V, Zn, Y, Ni and Ba. Some elements, such as Ba, Cd, Cu, La, Pb, Se, Sr, Th and Y, were enriched in the phosphogypsum. This enrichment may be attributed to an additional input associated to the sulfuric acid used for the phosphoric acid production. Furthermore, results from SEM-EDX demonstrated that toxic elements are not distributed homogeneously into phosphogypsum. Most of these elements are concentrated in particles <20 microm of high porosity, and could be easily mobilized by leaching and/or erosion. PMID:20537794

  11. Renal effects of intracerebroventricularly injected tachykinins in the conscious saline-loaded rat: receptor characterization

    PubMed Central

    Ding Yuan, Yi; Couture, Réjean

    1997-01-01

    The effects of intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) injected substance P (SP), neurokinin A (NKA) and [MePhe7]neurokinin B (NKB) were investigated on renal excretion of water, sodium and potassium in the conscious saline-loaded rat. The central effects of [MePhe7]NKB were characterized with selective tachykinin antagonists for NK1 (RP 67580), NK2 (SR 48968) and NK3 (R 820) receptors.Whereas SP or NKA (65 or 650?pmol) failed to modify the renal responses, [MePhe7]NKB (65–6500?pmol) produced dose-dependent and long-lasting (30–45?min) decreases in renal excretion of water (maximal reduction at 65?pmol: from 66.14±7.62 to 21.07±3.79??l min?1), sodium (maximal reduction at 65?pmol: from 10.19±2.0 to 1.75±0.48??mol min?1) and potassium (maximal reduction at 65?pmol: from 4.31±1.38 to 0.71±0.27??mol min?1). While 650?pmol [MePhe7]NKB elevated urinary osmolality, neither 65?pmol nor 6.5?nmol [MePhe7]NKB altered this parameter.Both the antidiuresis and antinatriuresis induced by [MePhe7]NKB (65?pmol) were significantly blocked by the prior i.c.v. injection of R 820 (1.3?nmol, 5?min earlier), although the potassium excretion was only partially reduced. However, R 820 did not affect the antidiuresis and antinatriuresis elicited by endothelin-1 (1?pmol, i.c.v.). On its own, R 820 decreased renal potassium excretion with no effect on urinary osmolality and renal excretion of water and sodium. The i.c.v. co-injection of RP 67580 and SR 48968 (6.5?nmol each, 5?min earlier) failed to modify the renal responses to [MePhe7]NKB in a similar study.The central effects of [MePhe7]NKB (65?pmol) on renal excretion were blocked by the prior i.v. administration of a linear peptide vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist (50??g kg?1, 5?min earlier).These results suggest that the central NK3 receptor, probably located in the hypothalamus, is implicated in the renal control of water and electrolyte homeostasis through the release of vasopressin in the conscious saline-loaded rat. PMID:9138683

  12. Pharmacological characterization and anatomical localization of prejunctional beta-adrenoceptors in the rat kidney.

    PubMed Central

    Lakhlani, P. P.; Amenta, F.; Napoleone, P.; Felici, L.; Eikenburg, D. C.

    1994-01-01

    1. The subtype and anatomical localization of beta-adrenoceptors mediating facilitation of stimulus-induced overflow of noradrenaline ('prejunctional beta-adrenoceptors') are not conclusively known to date. The present study was undertaken to characterize these receptors by use of pharmacological methods as well as to define their localization (prejunctional or postjunctional) with radio-ligand binding and autoradiography techniques combined with surgical denervation of the sympathetic innervation to the rat kidney. 2. Exposure of the kidney to (-)-isoprenaline, the nonselective beta-adrenoceptor agonist, resulted in a dose-dependent facilitation of stimulus-induced neurotransmitter overflow. This response was inhibited by propranolol, the beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptor antagonist, with a pA2 of 9.20 suggesting that the prejunctional beta-adrenoceptors are not of the beta 3-subtype. 3. The rank order of potency and potency ratios of beta-adrenoceptor agonists at renal prejunctional beta-adrenoceptors (EC50 for agonist/EC50 for (-)-isoprenaline) were: (-)-isoprenaline (1) > procaterol (2) > salbutamol (3) > adrenaline (10) > (+)-isoprenaline (25). However, dobutamine, the beta 1-adrenoceptor agonist, failed to enhance stimulus-induced overflow of noradrenaline. These results are indicative of the presence of beta 2-adrenoceptors as prejunctional beta-adrenoceptors. 4. Facilitation elicited by (-)-isoprenaline and procaterol, the selective beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist, was inhibited by ICI 118,551, the selective beta 2-adrenoceptor antagonist, with pKb values of 9.20 and 9.35, respectively at renal prejunctional beta-adrenoceptors. Similarly, the pKb values of metoprolol, the selective beta 1-adrenoceptor antagonist, at renal prejunctional beta-adrenoceptors were determined to be 6.25 and 6.18 against (-)-isoprenaline and procaterol, respectively. These results suggest the presence of a homogeneous population of beta 2-adrenoceptors as prejunctional beta-adrenoceptors. 5. Radio-ligand binding analysis of renal beta-adrenoceptors revealed the prevalence of the beta 1-subtype as compared to the beta 2-subtype (63% vs 37%). However, surgical denervation of the rat kidney, resulting in more than 90% reduction in renal noradrenaline content, selectively reduced the beta 2-adrenoceptor population by 80%, implying the presence of beta 2-adrenoceptors on renal sympathetic nerve terminals. 6. Autoradiographic analysis demonstrated the presence of beta 1-adrenoceptors on cortical structures such as glomeruli and tubules. beta-Adrenoceptors were found to be present on tubules (minor population), collecting tubules in outer medulla and the adventitia and adventitial-medial border of intraparenchymal branches of the renal artery.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8032617

  13. Visualization of perivascular spaces in the human brain at 7T: sequence optimization and morphology characterization.

    PubMed

    Zong, Xiaopeng; Park, Sang Hyun; Shen, Dinggang; Lin, Weili

    2016-01-15

    Noninvasive imaging of perivascular spaces (PVSs) may provide useful insights into their role in normal brain physiology and diseases. Fast MRI sequences with sub-millimeter spatial resolutions and high contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) are required for accurate delineation of PVS in human. To achieve the optimal condition for PVS imaging at 7T, we carried out detailed simulation and experimental studies to characterize the dependence of CNR on imaging sequences (T1 versus T2-weighted) and sequence parameters. In addition, PVSs were segmented semi-automatically, which revealed much larger numbers of PVSs in young healthy subjects (age 21-37years) than previously reported. To the best of our knowledge, our study provides, for the first time, detailed length, volume, and diameter distributions of PVS in the white matter and subcortical nuclei, which can serve as a reference for future studies of PVS abnormalities under diseased conditions. PMID:26520772

  14. Isolation, primary culture, morphological and molecular characterization of circulating tumor cells in gynecological cancers

    PubMed Central

    Kolostova, Katarina; Spicka, Jan; Matkowski, Rafal; Bobek, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    The focus of the study was to implement a new workflow for circulating tumor cells (CTCs) characterization that would allow the analysis of CTCs on a cytomorphological and molecular level in patients with diagnosed gynecological cancer. Our findings may be useful in future cancer patient management. The study introduces a size-based enrichment (MetaCell®) method for the separation of viable CTCs, followed by CTCs culturing in vitro and gene expression characterization. It is based on the observation of CTCs and DTCs (Disseminated Tumor Cells) in several case studies of ovarian, endometrial and cervical cancer by means of cytomorphology and gene expression profiling. The viability of the enriched CTCs was estimated using vital and lethal fluorescence nuclear staining. This type of staining may be predictive for the success rate of subsequent CTC growth in vitro. To identify CTCs in the enriched CTC fraction, cytomorphological evaluations based on vital fluorescence staining were followed by gene expression analysis of tumor-associated (TA) genes. Cytokeratin expression (KRT7, KRT19) was analyzed in combination with MUC1, MUC16, CD24, CD44 and ALDH1. Gene expression analysis has shown that short-term in vitro culture enhanced the differentiation process of the captured CTCs growing on a membrane. On the other hand, redundant white blood cells captured on the membrane were eliminated during a short-term culture. The most frequently elevated genes in ovarian cancer (serous type) are EPCAM, KRT19 and MUC1. It has been demonstrated that CTC presence revealed by cytomorphological evaluation may be usefully complemented by TA-gene expression analysis, to increase the sensitivity of the analysis. PMID:26328005

  15. Cloning and molecular characterization of the ontogeny of a rat ileal sodium-dependent bile acid transporter.

    PubMed

    Shneider, B L; Dawson, P A; Christie, D M; Hardikar, W; Wong, M H; Suchy, F J

    1995-02-01

    Sodium-dependent bile acid transport in the rat ileum is abruptly expressed at weaning. Degenerate oligonucleotides, based on amino acid sequence identities between the rat liver and hamster ileal transporters, were used to amplify a rat ileal probe. A 1.2-kb cDNA clone, which contains the full coding region (348 amino acids, 38 kD), was isolated by hybridization screening. In vitro translation yielded a 38-kD protein which glycosylated to 48 kD. Sodium-dependent uptake of taurocholate was observed in oocytes injected with cRNA. Northern blot analysis revealed a 5.0-kb mRNA in ileum, kidney, and cecum. A 48-kD protein was detected in ileal brush border membranes and localized to the apical border of villus ileal enterocytes. mRNA and protein expression, which were negligible before weaning, increased dramatically at weaning. Nuclear transcription rates for the transporter increased 15-fold between postnatal days 7 and 28. The apparent molecular weight of the transporter also increased between days 19 and 28. In summary, the developmental regulation of the rat ileal sodium-dependent bile acid cotransporter is characterized by transcriptionally regulated increases in mRNA and protein levels at the time of weaning with changes in apparent molecular weight of the protein after weaning. PMID:7860756

  16. Morphological and Phase Controlled Tungsten Based Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Characterization of Scheelites, Wolframites, and Oxides Nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Sanchez, Bernadette A; Boyle, Timothy J; Pratt, Harry D; Rodriguez, Mark A; Brewer, Luke N; Dunphy, Darren R

    2008-11-11

    For the first time tungsten based nanoparticles (WNPs) of scheelite (MWO(4); M = Ca, Sr, Ba, Pb), wolframite (MWO(4); M = Mn, Fe, Zn & (Mg(0.60)Mn(0.17)Fe(0.26))WO(4)), and the oxide (WO(3) and W(18)O(49)) were synthesized from solution precipitation (i.e.,trioctylamine or oleic acid) and solvothermal (i.e., benzyl alcohol) routes. The resultant WNPs were prepared directly from tungsten (VI) ethoxide (W(OCH(2)CH(3))(6), 1) and stoichiometeric mixtures of the following precursors: [Ca(N(SiMe(3))(2))(2)](2) (2), Pb(N(SiMe(3))(2))(2) (3), Mn[(mu-Mes)(2)Mn(Mes)](2) (4), [Fe(mu-Mes)(Mes)](2) (5), Fe(CO)(5) (6), H(+)[Ba(2)(mu(3)-ONep)(mu-ONep)(2)(ONep)(ONep)(3)(py)](-) (2) (7), H(+)[Sr(5)(mu(4)-O)(mu(3)-ONep)(4)(mu-ONep)(4)(ONep)(py)(4)](-) (8), and [Zn(Et)(ONep)(py)](2) (9) where Mes = C(6)H(2)(CH(3))(3)-2,4,6, ONep = OCH(2)CMe(3), Et = CH(2)CH(3), and py = pyridine. Through these routes, the WNP morphologies were found to be manipulated by the processing conditions, while precursor selection influenced the final phase observed. For the solution precipitation route, 1 yielded (5 x 100 nm) W(18)O(49) rods while stochiometeric reactions between 1 and (2 - 9) generated homogenous sub 30 nm nano-dots, -diamonds, -rods, and -wires for the MWO(4) systems. For the solvothermal route, 1 was found to produce wires of WO(3) with aspect ratios of 20 while (1 & 2) formed 10 - 60 nm CaWO(4) nanodots. Room temperature photoluminescent (PL) emission properties of select WNPs were also examined with fluorescence spectroscopy (lambda(ex) = 320 nm). Broad PL emissions = 430, 420, 395, 420 nm were noted for 5 x 100 nm W(18)O(49) rods, 5 x 15 nm, CaWO(4) rods, 10 - 30 nm CaWO(4) dots, and 10 nm BaWO(4) diamonds, respectively. PMID:19911034

  17. Morphological and Phase Controlled Tungsten Based Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Characterization of Scheelites, Wolframites, and Oxides Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Sanchez, Bernadette A.; Boyle, Timothy J.; Pratt, Harry D.; Rodriguez, Mark A.; Brewer, Luke N.; Dunphy, Darren R.

    2009-01-01

    For the first time tungsten based nanoparticles (WNPs) of scheelite (MWO4; M = Ca, Sr, Ba, Pb), wolframite (MWO4; M = Mn, Fe, Zn & (Mg0.60Mn0.17Fe0.26)WO4), and the oxide (WO3 and W18O49) were synthesized from solution precipitation (i.e.,trioctylamine or oleic acid) and solvothermal (i.e., benzyl alcohol) routes. The resultant WNPs were prepared directly from tungsten (VI) ethoxide (W(OCH2CH3)6, 1) and stoichiometeric mixtures of the following precursors: [Ca(N(SiMe3)2)2]2 (2), Pb(N(SiMe3)2)2 (3), Mn[(?-Mes)2Mn(Mes)]2 (4), [Fe(?-Mes)(Mes)]2 (5), Fe(CO)5 (6), H+[Ba2(?3-ONep)(?-ONep)2(ONep)(ONep)3(py)]?2 (7), H+[Sr5(?4-O)(?3-ONep)4(?-ONep)4(ONep)(py)4]? (8), and [Zn(Et)(ONep)(py)]2 (9) where Mes = C6H2(CH3)3-2,4,6, ONep = OCH2CMe3, Et = CH2CH3, and py = pyridine. Through these routes, the WNP morphologies were found to be manipulated by the processing conditions, while precursor selection influenced the final phase observed. For the solution precipitation route, 1 yielded (5 × 100 nm) W18O49 rods while stochiometeric reactions between 1 and (2 – 9) generated homogenous sub 30 nm nano-dots, -diamonds, -rods, and -wires for the MWO4 systems. For the solvothermal route, 1 was found to produce wires of WO3 with aspect ratios of 20 while (1 & 2) formed 10 – 60 nm CaWO4 nanodots. Room temperature photoluminescent (PL) emission properties of select WNPs were also examined with fluorescence spectroscopy (?ex = 320 nm). Broad PL emissions = 430, 420, 395, 420 nm were noted for 5 × 100 nm W18O49 rods, 5 × 15 nm, CaWO4 rods, 10 – 30 nm CaWO4 dots, and 10 nm BaWO4 diamonds, respectively. PMID:19911034

  18. Composite bone cements loaded with a bioactive and ferrimagnetic glass-ceramic. Part I: Morphological, mechanical and calorimetric characterization.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Matteo; Miola, Marta; Bretcanu, Oana; Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara; Gerbaldo, Roberto; Laviano, Francesco; Verné, Enrica

    2014-02-01

    Hyperthermia is a technique for destroying cancer cells which involves the exposition of body's tissue to a controlled heat, normally between 41? and 46?. It has been reported that ferro- or ferrimagnetic materials can heat locally, if they are placed (after being implanted) under an alternating magnetic field, damaging only tumoral cells and not the healthy ones. The power loss produced by the magnetic materials can be dissipated in the form of heat. This phenomenon has to be regulated in order to obtain a controlled temperature inside the tissues. The material that was produced and characterized in this work is composed of two phases: a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) matrix in which a ferrimagnetic biocompatible/bioactive glass ceramic is dispersed. This composite material is intended to be applied as bone filler for the hyperthermic treatment of bone tumors. The ferrimagnetic bioactive glass-ceramic belongs to the system SiO2-Na2O-CaO-P2O5-FeO-Fe2O3 and contains magnetite (FeO*Fe2O3) inside an amorphous bioactive residual phase. The composite material possesses structural, magnetic and bioactivity properties. The structural ones are conferred by PMMA which acts as filler for the bone defect or its damaged area. Bioactivity is conferred by the composition of the residual amorphous phase of the glass-ceramic and magnetic properties are conferred by magnetite crystals embedded in the bioactive glass-ceramic. The characterization involved the following tests: morphological and chemical characterization (scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersion spectrometry-micro computed tomography analysis), calorimetric tests and mechanical test (compression and flexural four point test). In vitro assessment of biological behavior will be the object of the part II of this work. PMID:24505077

  19. METABOLOMIC EVALUATION OF RAT LIVER AND TESTIS TO CHARACTERIZE THE TOXICITY OF TRIAZOLE FUNGICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of two triazole fungicides, myclobutanil and triadimefon, on endogenous rat metabolite profiles in blood serum, liver, and testis was assessed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed daily by gavage for...

  20. Morphological and biochemical changes in soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles of rats orbited in Spacelab 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, D. A.; Slocum, T.; Bain, J. L. W.; Sedlak, F. R.; Elis, S.; Satyanarayana, T.

    1985-01-01

    Muscle atrophy in rats exposed to hypogravity for seven days aboard Spacelab 3 is examined. Hindlimb muscles were harvested 12-16 days postflight, and prepared for enzyme studies and electron microscopy. Simple cell shrinkage was found, with a mean fiber area decrease of 35.8 percent for soleus and 24.9 percent for extensor digitorum longus (EDL) flight muscle fibers, as compared with control muscle fibers. EDL and soleus muscles showed increases in alkaline myofibrillar ATPase, alpha glycerophosphate dehydrogenase, and glycogen, and a decrease in NADH dehydrogenase staining. The 26 percent increase in calcium activated protease suggests that the focal degradation of myofibrils is the key process of myofibril breakdown. The presence in the flight soleus muscles of one percent necrotic fibers is unexplained. The observed shift towards histochemical fast-muscle type properties is consistent with previous findings.

  1. Effects of low level laser in the morphology of the skeletal muscle fiber during compensatory hypertrophy in plantar muscle of rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terena, Stella Maris Lins; Fernandes, Kristianne Porta Santos; Kalil, Sandra; Alves, Agnelo Neves; Mesquita Ferrari, Raquel Agnelli

    2015-06-01

    The hypertrophy is known as an increase the cross-sectional area of the muscle as a result of a muscular work against an overload, and it is compensatory because the overload is induced by functional elimination of synergistic muscles. The importance of study the compensatory hypertrophy is understand how this process can be influenced by the irradiation with regard to the weight and muscle cross-sectional area, to assist in the rehabilitation process and the effectiveness functional return. The aim was evaluate the effects of low-level laser irradiation on morphological aspects of muscle tissue, comparing the weight and cross-sectional area in rat skeletal muscle. Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control, hypertrophy group without irradiation (right plantar muscle) and hypertrophy group and irradiation (left plantar muscle), both analyzed after 7 and 14 days. The irradiation was performed daily immediately after the surgery. The parameters were: ? = 780nm, beam spot of 0.04 cm2, output power of 40mW, power density of 1W/cm2, energy density of 10J / cm2 and 10s exposure time with a total energy of 3.2 J. The results revealed that low level laser irradiation an increase the weight of the plantaris muscle after 7 and 14 days with a difference of 7.06% and 11.51% respectively. In conclusion, low level laser irradiation has an effect on compensatory hypertrophy to produce increased muscle weight and promoted an increase in cross-sectional area of muscle fibers in the compensatory hypertrophy model after 14 days with parameters cited above.

  2. Sex-dependent behavioral effects and morphological changes in the hippocampus after prenatal invasive interventions in rats: implications for animal models of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    von Wilmsdorff, Martina; Sprick, Ulrich; Bouvier, Marie-Luise; Schulz, Daniela; Schmitt, Andrea; Gaebel, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Although schizophrenia affects both human genders, there are gender-dependent differences with respect to age of onset, clinical characteristics, course and prognosis of the disease. METHODS To investigate sex-dependent differences in motor coordination and activity as well as in cognitive and social behavior, we repeatedly tested female (n = 14) and male (n = 12) Fisher rats (postnatal days, PD 56–174) that had received intracerebroventricular injections of kainic acid as well as female (n = 15) and male (n = 16) control animals. The hippocampus was examined histologically. RESULTS Compared to male controls, in the alcove test both female controls and female animals with prenatal intervention spent less time in a dark box before entering an unknown illuminated area. Again, animals that received prenatal injection (particularly females) made more perseveration errors in the T-maze alternation task compared to controls. Female rats exhibited a higher degree of activity than males, suggesting these effects to be sex-dependent. Finally, animals that received prenatal intervention maintained longer lasting social contacts. Histological analyses showed pyramidal cells in the hippocampal area CA3 (in both hemispheres) of control animals to be longer than those found in treated animals. Sex-dependent differences were found in the left hippocampi of control animals and animals after prenatal intervention. CONCLUSION These results demonstrate important differences between males and females in terms of weight gain, response to fear, working memory and social behavior. We also found sex-dependent differences in the lengths of hippocampal neurons. Further studies on larger sample sets with more detailed analyses of morphological changes are required to confirm our data. PMID:20186306

  3. Morphology and molecular characterization of the epiphytic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum cf. rhathymum in temperate waters off Jeju Island, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, An Suk; Jeong, Hae Jin; Jang, Tae Young; Kang, Nam Seon; Lee, Sung Yeon; Yoo, Yeong Du; Kim, Hyung Seop

    2013-03-01

    Prorocentrum spp. are planktonic and/or benthic species. Benthic Prorocentrum species are of primary concern to scientists and the public because some of them are toxic. We established clonal cultures of 3 strains of Prorocentrum species that were collected from the thalli of a macroalga in the coastal waters off Jeju Island, located at the southern end of Korea. The Korean strains of P. cf. rhathymum, which are morphologically almost identical to the Virgin Island strain of P. rhathymum, were different from P. mexicanum because the former dinoflagellate has one simple collar-like spine in the periflagellar area, while the latter dinoflagellate has a 2- or 3-horned spine. In addition, the sequences of the small subunit (SSU) rDNA of the Korean strains were identical to those of the Malaysian and Floridian strains of P. rhathymum, while the sequences of the large subunit (LSU) rDNA of the Korean strains were 0.1-0.9% different from those of the Iranian and Malaysian strains of P. rhathymum. In phylogenetic trees based on the SSU rDNA sequences, the Korean strains of P. rhathymum formed a clade with the Malaysian and Floridian strains of P. rhathymum and the Vietnamese and Polynesian strains of P. mexicanum. However, in phylogenetic trees based on the LSU rDNA sequences, the Korean strains of P. rhathymum formed a clade with the Iranian strain of P. rhathymum and the Spanish and Mexican strains of P. mexicanum. Therefore, the molecular characterization of the Korean strains does not allow us to clearly classify them as P. rhathymum, nor P. mexicanum, although their morphology has so far been reported to be closer to that of P. rhathymum than P. mexicanum and thus we designated them as P. cf. rhathymum.

  4. Morphological and Phylogenetic Characterization of New Gephyrocapsa Isolates Suggests Introgressive Hybridization in the Emiliania/Gephyrocapsa Complex (Haptophyta).

    PubMed

    Bendif, El Mahdi; Probert, Ian; Young, Jeremy R; von Dassow, Peter

    2015-07-01

    The coccolithophore genus Gephyrocapsa contains a cosmopolitan assemblage of pelagic species, including the bloom-forming Gephyrocapsa oceanica, and is closely related to the emblematic coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi within the Noëlaerhabdaceae. These two species have been extensively studied and are well represented in culture collections, whereas cultures of other species of this family are lacking. We report on three new strains of Gephyrocapsa isolated into culture from samples from the Chilean coastal upwelling zone using a novel flow cytometric single-cell sorting technique. The strains were characterized by morphological analysis using scanning electron microscopy and phylogenetic analysis of 6 genes (nuclear 18S and 28S rDNA, plastidial 16S and tufA, and mitochondrial cox1 and cox3 genes). Morphometric features of the coccoliths indicate that these isolates are distinct from G. oceanica and best correspond to G. muellerae. Surprisingly, both plastidial and mitochondrial gene phylogenies placed these strains within the E. huxleyi clade and well separated from G. oceanica isolates, making Emiliania appear polyphyletic. The only nuclear sequence difference, 1bp in the 28S rDNA region, also grouped E. huxleyi with the new Gephyrocapsa isolates and apart from G. oceanica. Specifically, the G. muellerae morphotype strains clustered with the mitochondrial ? clade of E. huxleyi, which, like G. muellerae, has been associated with cold (temperate and sub-polar) waters. Among putative evolutionary scenarios that could explain these results we discuss the possibility that E. huxleyi is not a valid taxonomic unit, or, alternatively the possibility of past hybridization and introgression between each E. huxleyi clade and older Gephyrocapsa clades. In either case, the results support the transfer of Emiliania to Gephyrocapsa. These results have important implications for relating morphological species concepts to ecological and evolutionary units of diversity. PMID:26037697

  5. Unsupervised lineage-based characterization of primate precursors reveals high proliferative and morphological diversity in the OSVZ.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Michael; Betizeau, Marion; Waltispurger, Julie; Pfister, Sabina Sara; Douglas, Rodney J; Kennedy, Henry; Dehay, Colette

    2016-02-15

    Generation of the primate cortex is characterized by the diversity of cortical precursors and the complexity of their lineage relationships. Recent studies have reported miscellaneous precursor types based on observer classification of cell biology features including morphology, stemness, and proliferative behavior. Here we use an unsupervised machine learning method for Hidden Markov Trees (HMTs), which can be applied to large datasets to classify precursors on the basis of morphology, cell-cycle length, and behavior during mitosis. The unbiased lineage analysis automatically identifies cell types by applying a lineage-based clustering and model-learning algorithm to a macaque corticogenesis dataset. The algorithmic results validate previously reported observer classification of precursor types and show numerous advantages: It predicts a higher diversity of progenitors and numerous potential transitions between precursor types. The HMT model can be initialized to learn a user-defined number of distinct classes of precursors. This makes it possible to 1) reveal as yet undetected precursor types in view of exploring the significant features of precursors with respect to specific cellular processes; and 2) explore specific lineage features. For example, most precursors in the experimental dataset exhibit bidirectional transitions. Constraining the directionality in the HMT model leads to a reduction in precursor diversity following multiple divisions, thereby suggesting that one impact of bidirectionality in corticogenesis is to maintain precursor diversity. In this way we show that unsupervised lineage analysis provides a valuable methodology for investigating fundamental features of corticogenesis. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:535-563, 2016. © 2015 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26053631

  6. Fractal-based morphological image processing approach to analyzing complex structures characterized by closed domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe

    2002-05-01

    Fractal geometry concerns the study of non-Euclidean geometrical figures generated by a recursive sequence of mathematical operations. These figures show self-similar features in the sense that their shape, at a certain scale, is equal to, or at least 'similar' to, the same shape of the figure at a different scale or resolution. This property of scale invariance often occurs also in some natural events. The basis of the method is the very comparison of the space covering of one of those geometrical constructions, the 'Sierpinski Carpet,' and the particles location and size distribution in the portion of surface acquired in the images. Fractal analysis method, consists in the study of the size distribution structure and disposition modalities. Such an approach was presented in this paper with reference to the characterization of airborne dust produced in working environment through the evaluation of particle size disposition and distribution over a surface. Such a behavior, in fact, was assumed to be strictly correlated with 1) material surface physical characteristics and 2) on the modalities by which the material is 'shot' on the dust sample holder (glass support). To get this goal, a 2D-Fractal extractor has been used, calibrated to different area thresholding values, as a result binary sample image changes, originating different fractal resolutions plotted for the residual background area (Richardson plot). Changing the lower size thresholding value of the 2D-Fractal extractor algorithm, means to change the starting point of fractal measurements; in such way, it has been looked for possible differences of powders in the lower dimensional classes. The rate by which the lowest part of the plot goes down to residual area equal to zero, together with fractal dimensions (low and high, depending on average material curve) and their precision (R2) of 'zero curve' (Richardson Plot with area thresholding value equal to zero, i.e. whole fractal distribution), can be used as criterions to classify the materials and working actions producing dust. For the intrinsic structure of the procedure and algorithms the proposed 2D Fractal Analysis, originally developed for particles, can be successfully applied to many others sectors as biology (cell and tissues), medical imaging, food industry, advanced materials characterization, nanoparticles, composite materials, alloys, etc.

  7. Morphological characterization of the glandular system in the salamander Plethodon shermani (Caudata, Plethodontidae).

    PubMed

    von Byern, Janek; Dicke, Ursula; Heiss, Egon; Grunwald, Ingo; Gorb, Stanislav; Staedler, Yannick; Cyran, Norbert

    2015-10-01

    Amphibians have evolved a wide variety of mechanisms that provide a certain degree of protection against predators, including camouflage, tail autonomy, encounter behavior and noxious or toxic skin secretions. In addition to these strategies, some amphibians release a glue-like secretion onto the surface of their skin when threatened. While some information regarding the origin and production of these adhesive secretions is available for frogs such as Notaden bennetti, these aspects are only partially understood in salamanders. We contribute to an earlier study and provide additional information regarding the origin, production, and characterization of the adhesive secretion in the red-legged salamander (Plethodon shermani) at a microanatomical level. When stressed, this salamander secretes a milky, viscous liquid from its dorsal and ventral skin. This secretion is extremely adhesive and hardens within seconds upon exposure to air. This study describes two cutaneous gland types (mucous and granular) in the dorsal and ventral epithelial tissue that differ considerably in their secretory content. While the smaller mucous glands contains flocculent to granular material, mostly acidic glycoproteins, the granular glands synthesize various granules of differing size and density that consist of basic proteinaceous material. The results strongly indicate that the secretions of both gland types from the dorsal as well as the ventral side form the adhesive mucus in Plethodon shermani, consisting of basic and acidic glycoproteins, glycoconjugates with mannose and ?-L-fucose residues as well as lipid components. PMID:26163863

  8. Synthesis of nano Cu2O on cotton: morphological, physical, biological and optical sensing characterizations.

    PubMed

    Sedighi, Ali; Montazer, Majid; Samadi, Nasrin

    2014-09-22

    In this paper, Cu2O nanoparticles were in situ synthesized on cotton fabric through a new simple and cost-effective chemical reduction method using copper sulfate, sodium hydroxide and ammonia. Cotton fabric participates as a reducing agent in reduction of copper sulfate and facilitates synthesis of cuprous oxide in nano-scale as a stabilizer. The produced cotton/nano Cu2O composite were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Interaction of Cu2O with cotton fabric in addition to alteration of cotton functional groups were studied by Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy. The intermediate solution, copper-amine complex, was analyzed by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The mechanical properties of the cotton/nano Cu2O composite were studied using Instron indicated a higher tensile strain. The antibacterial activity of the fabric samples showed considerable behavior against S. aureus and E. coli. Further, the treated fabric became highly hydrophobic and sensed ammonia and hydrogen peroxide chromatically. PMID:24906783

  9. Morphological and biochemical characterization of the membranous hepatitis C virus replication compartment.

    PubMed

    Paul, David; Hoppe, Simone; Saher, Gesine; Krijnse-Locker, Jacomine; Bartenschlager, Ralf

    2013-10-01

    Like all other positive-strand RNA viruses, hepatitis C virus (HCV) induces rearrangements of intracellular membranes that are thought to serve as a scaffold for the assembly of the viral replicase machinery. The most prominent membranous structures present in HCV-infected cells are double-membrane vesicles (DMVs). However, their composition and role in the HCV replication cycle are poorly understood. To gain further insights into the biochemcial properties of HCV-induced membrane alterations, we generated a functional replicon containing a hemagglutinin (HA) affinity tag in nonstructural protein 4B (NS4B), the supposed scaffold protein of the viral replication complex. By using HA-specific affinity purification we isolated NS4B-containing membranes from stable replicon cells. Complementing biochemical and electron microscopy analyses of purified membranes revealed predominantly DMVs, which contained viral proteins NS3 and NS5A as well as enzymatically active viral replicase capable of de novo synthesis of HCV RNA. In addition to viral factors, co-opted cellular proteins, such as vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein A (VAP-A) and VAP-B, that are crucial for viral RNA replication, as well as cholesterol, a major structural lipid of detergent-resistant membranes, are highly enriched in DMVs. Here we describe the first isolation and biochemical characterization of HCV-induced DMVs. The results obtained underline their central role in the HCV replication cycle and suggest that DMVs are sites of viral RNA replication. The experimental approach described here is a powerful tool to more precisely define the molecular composition of membranous replication factories induced by other positive-strand RNA viruses, such as picorna-, arteri- and coronaviruses. PMID:23885072

  10. A novel insulin mimetic vanadium-flavonol complex: synthesis, characterization and in vivo evaluation in STZ-induced rats.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Subramanian Iyyam; Subramanian, Sorimuthu Pillai; Kandaswamy, Muthusamy

    2013-05-01

    Since 1985, when Heyliger et al., first demonstrated a serendipitous discovery that oral administration of 0.8 mg/ml of sodium orthovanadate in drinking water to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats resulted in normoglycemia, numerous extensive studies have been pursued on the anti-diabetic and insulinomimetic actions of vanadium. The acceptance of vanadium compounds as promising therapeutic antidiabetic agents has been slowed due to the concern for chronic toxicity associated with vanadium accumulation. In order to circumvent the toxic effects of vanadium, we have taken up a combinational approach wherein a novel vanadium-flavonol complex was synthesized, characterized and its toxic as well as insulin mimetic potential was evaluated in STZ-induced experimental diabetes in rats. The results indicate that the complex is non-toxic and possess anti-diabetic activity. PMID:23466606

  11. Suprachiasmatic nuclei of the fetal rat: characterization of a functional circadian clock using /sup 14/C-labeled deoxyglucose

    SciTech Connect

    Reppert, S.M.; Schwartz, W.J.

    1984-07-01

    The circadian clock located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) was characterized in the fetal rat by using /sup 14/C-labeled deoxyglucose to monitor glucose utilization (metabolic activity) of the nuclei. A clear day-night oscillation of metabolic activity was detectable in the fetal SCN from the 19th through the 21st days of gestation; the nuclei were metabolically active during the subjective day and metabolically inactive during the subjective night. During the subjective day on gestational day 21, the fetal SCN were found to manifest high metabolic activity for most of the subjective day. The authors were able to acutely dissociate SCN metabolic activity in the mother rat from that in the fetus by exposing the pregnant animals to light during the normal dark period of diurnal lighting on gestational day 20. The results show the utility of the deoxyglucose method for directly investigating prenatally the function of the biological clock located in the SCN.

  12. Characterization of rat leydig cell gonadotropin receptor structure by affinity cross-linking

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Q.Y.; Hwang, J.; Menon, K.M.J.

    1986-05-01

    The gonadotropin receptor from rat leydig cell has been characterized with respect to binding kinetics and physiological regulation. The present study was intended to examine the structure of the receptor. Leydig cell suspension was prepared by either collagenase digestion or by mechanical disruption of the testis. The cells were incubated with /sup 125/I-hCG and the unreacted hCG was removed by centrifugation. The /sup 125/I-hCG was then covalently linked to the cell surface receptor using cleavable (dithiobis (succinimidyl propionate)) and non-cleavable (disuccinimidyl suberate) cross-linking reagents. The extracted cross-linked membrane proteins were resolved on SDS-polyacrylamide gels under reducing and non-reducing conditions and subjected to autoradiographic analysis. Under non-reducing conditions, two labeled species with M/sub r/ = 87,000 and 120,000 were detected. However, only one labeled band was detected under reducing conditions with M/sub r/ = 64,000. The binding of /sup 125/I-hCG to the receptor was inhibited by hCG and LH, but not by a number of peptides and proteins. The data suggest that hCG receptor in leydig cell is an oligomeric complex consisting of four subunits, ..cap alpha cap alpha beta gamma... The ..beta.. and ..gamma.. subunits are each linked to an ..cap alpha.. subunit through disulfide linkage and the hormone binds to each ..cap alpha.. subunit. The two dimers formed (..cap alpha beta cap alpha gamma..) are associated by noncovalent interactions.

  13. Characterization of the adenosine receptors of the rat superior cervical ganglion.

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, G. P.; Stone, T. W.; Brown, F.

    1993-01-01

    1. Adenosine analogues caused hyperpolarization and inhibition of the depolarizing response to muscarine of the rat isolated superior cervical ganglion (SCG) measured by a 'grease gap' recording technique. The receptors mediating these responses have been characterized by use of a range of selective adenosine analogues and adenosine receptor antagonists. 2. In decreasing order of potency N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), 2-chloroadenosine (2CA), adenosine, 2-phenylaminoadenosine (PAA), caused concentration-dependent hyperpolarizations whilst N6-(9-fluorenylmethyl)adenosine (PD 117,413) was inactive at up to 100 microM. 3. The order of potency of adenosine analogues in depressing depolarization caused by a submaximal concentration of muscarine (100 nM) was: CPA > R-PIA = 2CA > NECA > S-PIA > BZA > adenosine > PAA, where R- and S-PIA = R(-)- and S(+)-N6-(2-phenylisopropyl)adenosine, NECA = 5'N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine and BZA = N6-benzyladenosine. PD 117,413 was inactive at concentrations up to 100 microM. The maximum inhibitions of the muscarine-induced depolarization by CPA, 2CA, NECA and BZA were similar. R-PIA, S-PIA and PAA produced similar maximal inhibitions which were significantly smaller than those produced by CPA. 4. Hyperpolarizations caused by adenosine were antagonized by the P1-purinoceptor selective antagonist 1,3-dimethyl-8-phenylxanthine (8PT) and by the selective A1-adenosine receptor antagonist, 1,3-dipropyl-8-(4-((2-aminoethyl)amino)carbonylmethyloxyphenyl++ +)xanthine (XAC). Hyperpolarizations caused by CPA, adenosine and PAA were antagonized by the A1-selective antagonist, 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX) but not by the A2-selective antagonist, 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine (DMPX).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8242261

  14. Biopharmaceutical Characterization of Nebulized Antimicrobial Agents in Rats: 1. Ciprofloxacin, Moxifloxacin, and Grepafloxacin

    PubMed Central

    Gontijo, Aline Vidal Lacerda; Brillault, Julien; Grégoire, Nicolas; Lamarche, Isabelle; Gobin, Patrice; Marchand, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the biopharmaceutical characteristics of three fluoroquinolones (FQs), ciprofloxacin (CIP), moxifloxacin (MXF), and grepafloxacin (GRX), after delivery via a nebulized aerosol to rats. Bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) were conducted 0.5, 2, 4, and 6 h after FQ intravenous administration and nebulized aerosol delivery to estimate epithelial lining fluid (ELF) drug concentrations. Plasma drug concentrations were also measured, and profiles of drug concentrations versus time after intravenous administration and nebulized aerosol delivery were virtually superimposable, attesting for rapid and complete systemic absorption of FQs. ELF drug concentrations were systematically higher than corresponding plasma drug concentrations, whatever the route of administration, and average ELF-to-unbound plasma drug concentration ratios post-distribution equilibrium did not change significantly between the ways of administration and were equal: 4.0 ± 5.3 for CIP, 12.6 ± 7.3 for MXF, and 19.1 ± 10.5 for GRX (means ± standard deviations). The impact of macrophage lysis on estimated ELF drug concentrations was significant for GRX but reduced for MXF and CIP; therefore, simultaneous pharmacokinetic modeling of plasma and ELF drug concentrations was only performed for the latter two drugs. The model was characterized by a fixed volume of ELF (VELF), passive diffusion clearance (QELF), and active efflux clearance (CLout) between plasma and ELF, indicating active efflux transport systems. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that ELF drug concentrations of these three FQs are several times higher than plasma drug concentrations, probably due to the presence of efflux transporters at the pulmonary barrier level, but no biopharmaceutical advantage of FQ nebulization was observed compared with intravenous administration. PMID:24798283

  15. Identification and characterization of human FOXN6, mouse Foxn6, and rat Foxn6 genes in silico.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Masuko; Katoh, Masaru

    2004-07-01

    Forkhead-box (FOX) transcription factors are implicated in carcinogenesis through gene amplification, retroviral integration, or chromosomal translocation. FOXN1, FOXN2 (HTLF), FOXN3 (CHES1), FOXN4 and FOXN5 (FOXR1) constitute the FOXN family. Here, we identified and characterized human FOXN6 (FOXR2) and rodent Foxn6 (Foxr2) orthologs by using bioinformatics. Human FOXN6 gene was identified within human genome sequence RP11-167P23 (AL159987.19), mouse Foxn6 gene within mouse genome sequence RP23-180D16 (AL672293.14), and rat Foxn6 gene within rat genome sequence CH230-264B14 (AC106980.5). FOXN6, RRAGB (RAGB), and KLF8 genes were clustered at human chromosome Xp11.21. Foxn6, Rragb, and Klf8 genes were also clustered at mouse chromosome XF3 as well as at rat chromosome Xq14. Human FOXN6 mRNA was expressed in breast cancer cell line and primary breast cancer. Mouse Foxn6 mRNA was expressed in E9.5 embryo. Human FOXN6 (286 aa) showed 57.7% total-amino-acid identity with human FOXN5, 53.8% total-amino-acid identity with mouse Foxn6 (277 aa), and 52.4% total-amino-acid identity with rat Foxn6 (277 aa). Codon 167-248 of human FOXN6 was the Forkhead domain. FN56 domain (codon 1-69 of FOXN6) was identified as a novel domain conserved among FOXN6 and FOXN5 orthologs. Mammalian FOXN6 orthologs were found consisting of FN56 and FOX domains. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that FOXN family proteins are classified into three subfamilies: i) FOXN6 and FOXN5 orthologs; ii) FOXN1 and FOXN4 orthologs; iii) FOXN2 and FOXN3 orthologs. This is the first report on human FOXN6, mouse Foxn6, and rat Foxn6 genes. PMID:15202009

  16. Autoradiographic localization and characterization of atrial natriuretic peptide binding sites in the rat central nervous system and adrenal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, T.R.; Wildey, G.M.; Manaker, S.; Glembotski, C.C.

    1986-07-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP) have recently been identified in both heart and CNS. These peptides possess potent natriuretic, diuretic, and vasorelaxant activities, and are all apparently derived from a single prohormone. Specific ANP binding sites have been characterized in the adrenal zona glomerulosa and kidney cortex, and one study reported ANP binding sites in the CNS. However, a detailed examination of the localization of ANP binding sites throughout the brain has not been reported. In this study, quantitative autoradiography was employed to examine the distribution of ANP receptors in the rat CNS. The binding of (3-/sup 125/I-iodotyrosyl28) rat ANP-28 to binding sites in the rat CNS was saturable, specific for ANP-related peptides, and displayed high affinity (Kd = 600 pM). When the relative concentrations of ANP binding sites were determined throughout the rat brain, the highest levels of ANP binding were localized to the circumventricular organs, including the area postrema and subfornical organ, and the olfactory apparatus. Moderate levels of ANP binding sites were present throughout the midbrain and brain stem, while low levels were found in the forebrain, diencephalon, basal ganglia, cortex, and cerebellum. The presence of ANP binding sites in the subfornical organ and the area postrema, regions considered to be outside the blood-brain barrier, suggests that peripheral ANP levels may regulate some aspects of CNS control of salt and water balance. The possible functions of ANP binding sites in other regions of the rat brain are not known, but, like many other peptides, ANP may act as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator at these loci.

  17. A survey of approaches for morphological, optical, and transport characterization of Fe3O4 and ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamula Tartalja, Danica; Sre?kovi?, Milesa

    2014-09-01

    Nanoparticles’ structure, size, morphology, and surface conditions have significant influence on their performance and considerable impact on their application in biosystems. In this study some methods of nanoparticle analysis including structural x-ray diffraction, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy size distribution and morphology characterization, superconducting quantum interference device and Faraday method magnetic and temperature dependence of specific resistance measurements, infrared spectroscopy, and laser light scattering based estimation of particle size distribution are surveyed. These methods illustrate the importance of a versatile approach to nanoparticle characterization, as the basis for their selection for particular applications. Since the methods of synthesis crucially affect the nanoparticle characteristics, the presented characterization techniques could also help to choose the most appropriate one.

  18. Morphological characterization and conservation of bovine spermatogenic cells by refrigeration at 4°C and freezing using different cryoprotective molecules.

    PubMed

    Martins, C F; Silva, A E D Feliciano; Dode, M N; Rumpf, R; Cumpa, H C B; Silva, C G; Pivato, I

    2015-08-01

    The objectives of this study were study a practical method to characterize bovine spermatogenic cells and test the efficiency cells conservation by refrigeration at 4°C and cryopreservation in different solutions using two cooling curves. Cellular identification was performing by analysis of shape, size and morphology, associated with nucleus positioning and nuclear-cytoplasm ratio (NCR). Cellular samples were kept at 4°C for a period of 96 h in refrigeration solution and every 24h plasma membrane and DNA integrity were evaluated. Cryopreservation of cells was carried out using solutions containing 10% Dimethyl sulfoxide, 5% Dimethylformamide, 7% Glycerol and 7% Ethylene glycol, using a controlled and non-controlled cooling curve. Results of cellular characterization demonstrated that spermatocytes II presented a cylindrical shape, NCR of 1:1.5 and diameter ranging from 14.5 to 17.5 ?m. Round spermatids presented diameter ranging from 7.6 to 13.4 ?m, acrosomal cap and NCR of 1:2. Elongation and elongated spermatids showed to marked divergence in shape. There was a daily significant loss of viability of cooled cells until third day of storage, however they presented 72.77±5.16% viability after 4 days of storage at 4°C. There was no difference among the cryoprotectant solutions and cooling curves. In conclusion we demonstrated that association of microscopes and staining was a practical method to identify bovine spermatogenic cells. Furthermore, refrigeration at 4°C is an important strategy to preserve over 70% of viable cells after 4 days and cryopreservation, regardless of cryoprotectant solution or cooling curve used, can maintain over 50% of cells viable. PMID:26049113

  19. Morphological and functional demonstration of rat dura mater mast cell-neuron interactions in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rozniecki, J J; Dimitriadou, V; Lambracht-Hall, M; Pang, X; Theoharides, T C

    1999-12-01

    Mast cells derive from a distinct bone marrow precursor and mature in tissues under the influence of stem cell factor, nerve growth factor (NGF) and certain interleukins. Intracranial mast cells first appear in the meninges and are located perivascularly close to neurons. They can be activated by antidromic stimulation of the trigeminal nerve, as well as by acute immobilization stress. Substance P (SP) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) are particularly potent in stimulating mast cell release of vasoactive, inflammatory and nociceptive molecules. These findings have suggested that mast cells may be involved in neuroinflammatory conditions, such as migraines. In this study, dura mast cells were shown to have characteristics of connective tissue mast cells (CTMC) as they contained histamine, heparin and rat mast cell protease I (RMCP-I). Mast cells were localized close to SP-positive neurons immunocytochemically and mast cell-neuron contacts were also documented using scanning electron microscopy. Dura stimulated by SP and carbachol in situ released histamine. Preincubation of dura with estradiol slightly augmented histamine release by SP, an effect possibly mediated through estrogen receptors identified on dura mast cells. Acute stress by immobilization led to dura mast cell degranulation which was prevented by pretreatment with a neutralizing antibody to CRH or a CRH receptor antagonist. The present results further clarify the biology of intracranial mast cells and support their involvement in the pathophysiology of migraines which are precipitated or worsened by stress. PMID:10592282

  20. The influence of chronic intake of saccharin on rat hepatic and pancreatic function and morphology: gender differences

    PubMed Central

    Andreji?, Bojana M.; Mijatovi?, Vesna M.; Samojlik, Isidora N.; Horvat, Olga J.; ?alasan, Jelena D.; ?olai, Matilda A.

    2013-01-01

    There are opposite hypotheses on the effect of saccharin. Our aim was reviewing the influence of chronically ingested saccharin on the function and histological structure of liver and pancreas and all this in light of gender differences. The rats were divided into control group – (Group C) and saccharin-treated group – (Group S) which was given a normal diet and 0.0005% saccharin in drinking water for 6 weeks. Liver and pancreas were histologically processed and quantitative histological analysis was performed. Glucose blood levels and plasma activities of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT), body weight, and food intake were analyzed. Quantitative histological analysis determined that the values of diameter and volume density of both Langerhans islets and exocrine acini were significantly higher in S group, especially in males. AST levels were significantly higher in treated group. Glucose levels were higher in treated group, mainly due to the values of the female subgroup. Food intake was significantly higher in control group, while weight gain was higher in treated group. Treated males had significantly higher food intake and weight gain in comparison with treated females. The data presented here suggests that chronic saccharin intake affects the examined parameters. Reported facts reflect various metabolic, hormonal and neural responses in males and females. PMID:23725505

  1. Preparation and morphological and optical characterization of azo-polymer-based SiO2 sonogel hybrid composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales-Saavedra, Omar G.; Ontiveros-Barrera, Fernando G.; Torres-Zúñiga, Vicente; Guadalupe-Bañuelos, José; Ortega-Martínez, Roberto; Rivera, Ernesto; García, Tonatiuh

    2009-08-01

    The well-established catalyst-free sonogel route was successfully implemented to fabricate highly pure, optically active, solid state polymeric azo- dye/SiO2-based hybrid composites. Bulk samples exhibit controllable geometrical shapes and monolithic structure with variable dopant concentrations. Since the implemented azo-dye chromophores exhibit a push-pull structure, hybrid film samples were spin-coated on ITO-covered glass substrates; molecular alignment was then performed via electrical poling in order to explore the quadratic nonlinear optical performance of this kind of composite. Comprehensive morphological, spectroscopic and optical characterization of the samples were performed with several experimental techniques: atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction and infrared, Raman, photoluminescent and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopies. The linear refractive indices of both bulk and thin film samples were measured according to the Brewster angle technique and a numerical analysis of the transmission spectral data, respectively. Regardless of the low glass transition temperatures of the studied polymers, some hybrid film samples were able to display stable nonlinear optical activity such as second harmonic generation. Results show that the chromophores were satisfactorily embedded into the highly pure SiO2 sonogel network without significant guest-host molecular interactions, thus preserving their optical properties and producing sol-gel hybrid glasses suitable for optical applications.

  2. Newly Characterized Region of CP190 Associates with Microtubules and Mediates Proper Spindle Morphology in Drosophila Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Plevock, Karen M.; Galletta, Brian J.; Slep, Kevin C.; Rusan, Nasser M.

    2015-01-01

    CP190 is a large, multi-domain protein, first identified as a centrosome protein with oscillatory localization over the course of the cell cycle. During interphase it has a well-established role within the nucleus as a chromatin insulator. Upon nuclear envelope breakdown, there is a striking redistribution of CP190 to centrosomes and the mitotic spindle, in addition to the population at chromosomes. Here, we investigate CP190 in detail by performing domain analysis in cultured Drosophila S2 cells combined with protein structure determination by X-ray crystallography, in vitro biochemical characterization, and in vivo fixed and live imaging of cp190 mutant flies. Our analysis of CP190 identifies a novel N-terminal centrosome and microtubule (MT) targeting region, sufficient for spindle localization. This region consists of a highly conserved BTB domain and a linker region that serves as the MT binding domain. We present the 2.5 Å resolution structure of the CP190 N-terminal 126 amino acids, which adopts a canonical BTB domain fold and exists as a stable dimer in solution. The ability of the linker region to robustly localize to MTs requires BTB domain-mediated dimerization. Deletion of the linker region using CRISPR significantly alters spindle morphology and leads to DNA segregation errors in the developing Drosophila brain neuroblasts. Collectively, we highlight a multivalent MT-binding architecture in CP190, which confers distinct subcellular cytoskeletal localization and function during mitosis. PMID:26649574

  3. Morphological characterization of a newly established human osteosarcoma cell line, HS-Os-1, revealing its distinct osteoblastic nature.

    PubMed

    Sonobe, H; Mizobuchi, H; Manabe, Y; Furihata, M; Iwata, J; Hikita, T; Oka, T; Ohtsuki, Y; Goto, T

    1991-01-01

    A newly established human osteosarcoma cell line, HS-Os-1, from an osteoblastic tumor arising in the left humerus of an 11-year-old girl was morphologically characterized in vitro and in vivo. HS-Os-1 cells in a monolayer have been maintained for more than 2 years since the initial cultivation, and were round or polygonal in shape with marked pleomorphism. Their cytoplasm was strongly positive for specific markers of osteoblasts, such as alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin. Tumors induced in nude mice by HS-Os-1 cell inoculation at passage 12 or 23 revealed typical histological features of osteoblastic osteosarcoma, similar to those observed in the original tumor, producing prominent osteoid matrix with calcification. Ultrastructurally, HS-Os-1 cells in vitro and tumor cells in vivo showed similar well-developed, markedly dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum, polysomes and microfilaments in their cytoplasm. Additionally, many collagen fibers associated with deposition of electron-dense material were detected in the stroma featuring osteoid matrix. Thus, the HS-Os-1 cell line was shown to exhibit its osteoblastic nature in vitro and in vivo, and therefore might become an extremely useful tool for various pathomorphological investigations on human osteosarcomas. PMID:1679269

  4. Morphological and cytogenetic characterization and N-myc oncogene analysis of a newly established neuroblastoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Nojima, T; Abe, S; Furuta, Y; Nagashima, K; Alam, A F; Takada, N; Sasaki, F; Hata, Y

    1991-07-01

    A permanent cell line established from a xenograft of neuroblastoma which occurred in a 5-year-old girl was investigated for its morphological and biological characteristics. The cultured cells were tumorigenic in nude mice. Microscopically, each tumor consisted of small round to polygonal cells with irregular nuclei and prominent nucleoli, corresponding to the features of the primary and xenografted tumor cells. Electron microscopic examination revealed that both the transplanted tumor cells and the cultured cells contained scanty microtubules and dense-core neurosecretory granules. Chromosome analysis of this cell line showed monosomy for chromosomes 1, 10, 19 and X, and structural rearrangements involving chromosomes 8, 17 and 20, in addition to numerous double minutes. The N-myc oncogene was found to be amplified 40- to 80-fold in the transplanted and cultured tumor cells, as well as in the primary tumor cells. In situ hybridization with a digoxigenin-labeled uridine-triphosphate N-myc RNA probe detected abundant mRNA in the tumor cells. This neuroblastoma line may become a valuable in vitro experimental model system for studies aimed at better characterization of neuroblastoma. PMID:1755317

  5. Morphological and molecular characterization of Eimeria haematodi, coccidian parasite (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in a rainbow lorikeet (Trichoglossus haematodus).

    PubMed

    Yang, Rongchang; Brice, Belinda; Ryan, Una

    2015-06-01

    Eimeria haematodi was first described in 1977 from the rainbow lorikeet (Trichoglossus haematodus) in Papua New Guinea. In the present study, we re-describe this coccidian species morphologically and molecularly from a rainbow lorikeet bird in Western Australia (WA). The oocysts were ovoid to slightly piriform and measured 28.5-37.8 by 25.8-33.0?µm (33.3 by 28.1?µm). Oocyst wall was approximately 1.5?µm thick and bilayered. Micropyle (5-7?µm) and oocyst residuum (8.0-10.0?µm) present; polar granule was absent. Sporocysts ellipsoidal, 11.8-13.6 by 8.0-9.6?µm (12.2 by 8.3?µm), with thin convex Stieda body and granular sporocyst residuum (4.0-5.0?µm). Molecular characterization of E. haematodi was conducted at 18S ribosomal RNA and the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase gene (COI) loci. At the 18S ribosomal RNA locus, E. haematodi shared 98.1% genetic similarity to E. alabamensis from cattle in New South Wales, Australia. At COI locus, E. haematodi was closest (92.3% similarity) to E. praecox from domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) from Canada and China. PMID:25795281

  6. A Comparative Study on the Mechanical, Thermal and Morphological Characterization of Poly(lactic acid)/Epoxidized Palm Oil Blend

    PubMed Central

    Giita Silverajah, V. S.; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan; Hassan, Hazimah Abu; Woei, Chieng Buong

    2012-01-01

    In this work, poly(lactic acid) (PLA) a fully biodegradable thermoplastic polymer matrix was melt blended with three different epoxidized palm oil (EPO). The aim of this research was to enhance the flexibility, mechanical and thermal properties of PLA. The blends were prepared at various EPO contents of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 wt% and characterized. The SEM analysis evidenced successful modification on the neat PLA brittle morphology. Tensile tests indicate that the addition of 1 wt% EPO is sufficient to improve the strength and flexibility compared to neat PLA. Additionally, the flexural and impact properties were also enhanced. Further, DSC analysis showed that the addition of EPO results in a decrease in Tg, which implies an increase in the PLA chain mobility. In the presence of 1 wt% EPO, TGA results revealed significant increase in the thermal stability by 27%. Among the three EPOs used, EPO(3) showed the best mechanical and thermal properties compared to the other EPO’s, with an optimum loading of 1 wt%. Conclusively, EPO showed a promising outcome to overcome the brittleness and improve the overall properties of neat PLA, thus can be considered as a potential plasticizer. PMID:22754338

  7. A comparative study on the mechanical, thermal and morphological characterization of poly(lactic acid)/epoxidized Palm Oil blend.

    PubMed

    Giita Silverajah, V S; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan; Hassan, Hazimah Abu; Woei, Chieng Buong

    2012-01-01

    In this work, poly(lactic acid) (PLA) a fully biodegradable thermoplastic polymer matrix was melt blended with three different epoxidized palm oil (EPO). The aim of this research was to enhance the flexibility, mechanical and thermal properties of PLA. The blends were prepared at various EPO contents of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 wt% and characterized. The SEM analysis evidenced successful modification on the neat PLA brittle morphology. Tensile tests indicate that the addition of 1 wt% EPO is sufficient to improve the strength and flexibility compared to neat PLA. Additionally, the flexural and impact properties were also enhanced. Further, DSC analysis showed that the addition of EPO results in a decrease in T(g), which implies an increase in the PLA chain mobility. In the presence of 1 wt% EPO, TGA results revealed significant increase in the thermal stability by 27%. Among the three EPOs used, EPO(3) showed the best mechanical and thermal properties compared to the other EPO's, with an optimum loading of 1 wt%. Conclusively, EPO showed a promising outcome to overcome the brittleness and improve the overall properties of neat PLA, thus can be considered as a potential plasticizer. PMID:22754338

  8. Gene Expression Profiling in Liver and Testis of Rats to Characterize the Toxicity of Triazole Fungicides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four triazole fungicides were studied using toxicogenomic techniques to identify potential mechanisms of action. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed for 14 days by gavage with fluconazole, myclobutanil, propiconazole, or triadimefon. Following exposure, serum was collected ...

  9. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING IN LIVER AND TESTIS OF RATS TO CHARACTERIZE THE TOXICITY OF TRIAZOLE FUNGICIDES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four triazole fungicides were studied using toxicogenomic techniques to identify potential mechanisms of action. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed for 14 days by gavage with fluconazole, myclobutanil, propiconazole, or triadimefon. Following exposure, serum was collected ...

  10. Expression of CHI3L1 and CHIT1 in Osteoarthritic Rat Cartilage Model. A Morphological Study

    PubMed Central

    Di Rosa, M.; Szychlinska, M.A.; Tibullo, D.; Malaguarnera, L.

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease, which affects millions of people around the world. It occurs when the protective cartilage at the end of bones wears over time, leading to loss of flexibility of the joint, pain and stiffness. The cause of osteoarthritis is unknown, but its development is associated with different factors, such as metabolic, genetic, mechanical and inflammatory ones. In recent years the biological role of chitinases has been studied in relation to different inflammatory diseases and more in particular the elevated levels of human cartilage glycoprotein 39 (CHI3L1) and chitotriosidase (CHIT1) have been reported in a variety of diseases including chronic inflammation and degenerative disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate, by immunohistochemistry, the distribution of CHI3L1 and CHIT1 in osteoarthritic and normal rat articular cartilage, to discover their potential role in the development of this disease. The hypothesis was that the expression of chitinases could increase in OA disease. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that CHI3L1 and CHIT1 staining was very strong in osteoarthritic cartilage, especially in the superficial areas of the cartilage most exposed to mechanical load, while it was weak or absent in normal cartilage. These findings suggest that these two chitinases could be functionally associated with the development of osteoarthritis and could be used as markers, so in the future they could have a role in the daily clinical practice to stage the severity of the disease. However, the longer-term in vivoand in vitro studies are needed to understand the exact mechanism of these molecules, their receptors and activities on cartilage tissue. PMID:25308850

  11. Presence of functional vasopressin receptors in spinal ventral horn neurons of young rats: a morphological and electrophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Tribollet, E; Ogier, R; Barberis, C; Raggenbass, M

    2003-05-01

    The objective of the present work was double. (i) Light microscopic autoradiography was used to determine the distribution of vasopressin and oxytocin binding sites in the spinal cord of rats. (ii) Whole-cell recordings were performed in lumbar spinal cord slices in order to assess whether these receptors are functional, whether they are located pre- or postsynaptically and whether they are present in motoneurons. In newborns, vasopressin binding sites of the V1a type were present in all laminae of the central gray at all segmental levels, whereas oxytocin binding sites were found only in the superficial layers of the dorsal horn. In adults, binding sites for both neuropeptides were also present, but were less dense. The dissociation constants for vasopressin were similar in newborns and adults. Whole-cell recordings showed that in identified motoneurons vasopressin exerted a direct effect, by inducing a membrane depolarization or by generating a sustained inward current, and an indirect effect, by enhancing glycinergic and GABAergic inhibitory transmission. Vasopressin-induced facilitation of inhibitory transmission could also be demonstrated in unidentified ventral horn neurons. All these effects were mediated by V1a but not V1b receptors. In some neurons, glycinergic transmission was also facilitated by a selective oxytocin receptor agonist. Our data, together with data obtained previously in brainstem motor nuclei, suggest that vasopressin of hypothalamic origin could play a role in motricity. The neuropeptide could act as a neuromodulator, because it would not directly activate motoneurons, but rather render them more responsive to incoming excitatory inputs. Vasopressin may thus act as a regulator of muscular force. PMID:12752783

  12. Coronal in vivo forward-imaging of rat brain morphology with an ultra-small optical coherence tomography fiber probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yijing; Bonin, Tim; Löffler, Susanne; Hüttmann, Gereon; Tronnier, Volker; Hofmann, Ulrich G.

    2013-02-01

    A well-established navigation method is one of the key conditions for successful brain surgery: it should be accurate, safe and online operable. Recent research shows that optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a potential solution for this application by providing a high resolution and small probe dimension. In this study a fiber-based spectral-domain OCT system utilizing a super-luminescent-diode with the center wavelength of 840 nm providing 14.5 ?m axial resolution was used. A composite 125 ?m diameter detecting probe with a gradient index (GRIN) fiber fused to a single mode fiber was employed. Signals were reconstructed into grayscale images by horizontally aligning A-scans from the same trajectory with different depths. The reconstructed images can display brain morphology along the entire trajectory. For scans of typical white matter, the signals showed a higher reflection of light intensity with lower penetration depth as well as a steeper attenuation rate compared to the scans typical for gray matter. Micro-structures such as axon bundles (70 ?m) in the caudate nucleus are visible in the reconstructed images. This study explores the potential of OCT to be a navigation modality in brain surgery.

  13. [Morphologic and molecular characterization of Phomopsis longicolla(teleomorph unknown: Diaporthales) from tempered and subtropical regions of Argentina].

    PubMed

    Hernández, Facundo E; Pioli, Rosanna N; Peruzzo, Alejandra M; Formento, Ángela N; Pratta, Guillermo R

    2015-09-01

    Diaporthe (teleomorpho)-Phomopsis - (anamorph) (DP) is a fungal group of great genetic diversity with over 900 species associated to a wide host range that includes cultivated and uncultivated species, forest, fruit trees and weeds. DP isolates are hemibiotrophs and have different sources of primary inoculum as stubble and seeds to restart cycles of parasitism - saprophytism. They colonize host tissues from early plant stages and establish different nutritional relationships, acting as endophytic and necrotrophic fungi. The plasticity of the Phomopsis genus has favored its expansion to different agro-ecosystems and various hosts constituting an epidemiological risk. The objective was to validate the identity and evaluate the biological relationships among 12 isolates of P longicolla and D. phaseolorum var. sojae (anamorph P phaseoli var. sojae) obtained in different tempered and subtropical agro-environments of Argentina, in order to analyze the variability and strategies for preserving fungal biodiversity. Macromorphological attributes (such as texture and color of colonies, stroma shape and distribution, pycnidia and perythecia shape and distribution) and micro-morphological characteristics (such as size and shape of conidia, asci and ascospores) allowed identifying three new isolates as P longicolla. A complementary molecular analysis was also made to overcome the limitations derived from the morphological analysis, thus the AFP.8413 isolate was finally identified as P longicolla. The molecular characterization was useful to identify the evaluated isolates and to group them in four taxa of the Diaporthe-Phomopsis complex: ten isolates were included in P. longicolla, one isolate was included in D. phaseolorum var. sojae (anamorph P. phaseoli var. sojae), one isolate was identified as D. phaseolorum var. caulivora and two isolates were included in D. phaseolorum var. meridionalis. The use of phenotipic and molecular tools have contributed to an accurate identification of P longicolla, and comprehension about the biological relationships (homo or heterothallic hibridizations) among D. phaseolorum varieties (P phaseoli) and species of Diaporthe-Phomopsis. This allowed also a better understanding of the mechanisms of fungic plasticity, to colonize and expand their host range and genetic variability, promoting thus their biodiversity conservation. Rev. Biol. Trop. 63 (3): 871-884. Epub 2015 September 01. PMID:26666139

  14. Characterization of L-type calcium channel activity in atrioventricular nodal myocytes from rats with streptozotocin-induced Diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Yuill, Kathryn H; Al Kury, Lina T; Howarth, Frank Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular complications are common in patients with Diabetes mellitus (DM). In addition to changes in cardiac muscle inotropy, electrical abnormalities are also commonly observed in these patients. We have previously shown that spontaneous cellular electrical activity is altered in atrioventricular nodal (AVN) myocytes, isolated from the streptozotocin (STZ) rat model of type-1 DM. In this study, utilizing the same model, we have characterized the changes in L-type calcium channel activity in single AVN myocytes. Ionic currents were recorded from AVN myocytes isolated from the hearts of control rats and from those with STZ-induced diabetes. Patch-clamp recordings were used to assess the changes in cellular electrical activity in individual myocytes. Type-1 DM significantly altered the cellular characteristics of L-type calcium current. A reduction in peak ICaL density was observed, with no corresponding changes in the activation parameters of the current. L-type calcium channel current also exhibited faster time-dependent inactivation in AVN myocytes from diabetic rats. A negative shift in the voltage dependence of inactivation was also evident, and a slowing of restitution parameters. These findings demonstrate that experimentally induced type-1 DM significantly alters AVN L-type calcium channel cellular electrophysiology. These changes in ion channel activity may contribute to the abnormalities in cardiac electrical function that are associated with high mortality levels in patients with DM. PMID:26603460

  15. Characterization of Defects in Ion Transport and Tissue Development in Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR)-Knockout Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tuggle, Katherine L.; Birket, Susan E.; Cui, Xiaoxia; Hong, Jeong; Warren, Joe; Reid, Lara; Chambers, Andre; Ji, Diana; Gamber, Kevin; Chu, Kengyeh K.; Tearney, Guillermo; Tang, Li Ping; Fortenberry, James A.; Du, Ming; Cadillac, Joan M.; Bedwell, David M.; Rowe, Steven M.; Sorscher, Eric J.; Fanucchi, Michelle V.

    2014-01-01

    Animal models for cystic fibrosis (CF) have contributed significantly to our understanding of disease pathogenesis. Here we describe development and characterization of the first cystic fibrosis rat, in which the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR) was knocked out using a pair of zinc finger endonucleases (ZFN). The disrupted Cftr gene carries a 16 base pair deletion in exon 3, resulting in loss of CFTR protein expression. Breeding of heterozygous (CFTR+/?) rats resulted in Mendelian distribution of wild-type, heterozygous, and homozygous (CFTR?/?) pups. Nasal potential difference and transepithelial short circuit current measurements established a robust CF bioelectric phenotype, similar in many respects to that seen in CF patients. Young CFTR?/? rats exhibited histological abnormalities in the ileum and increased intracellular mucus in the proximal nasal septa. By six weeks of age, CFTR?/? males lacked the vas deferens bilaterally. Airway surface liquid and periciliary liquid depth were reduced, and submucosal gland size was abnormal in CFTR?/? animals. Use of ZFN based gene disruption successfully generated a CF animal model that recapitulates many aspects of human disease, and may be useful for modeling other CF genotypes, including CFTR processing defects, premature truncation alleles, and channel gating abnormalities. PMID:24608905

  16. Characterization of microalgal carotenoids by mass spectrometry and their bioavailability and antioxidant properties elucidated in rat model.

    PubMed

    Ranga Rao, A; Raghunath Reddy, R L; Baskaran, V; Sarada, R; Ravishankar, G A

    2010-08-11

    Of the total carotenoids in respective algal samples, beta-carotene in Spirulina platensis was 69.5%, astaxanthin and its esters in Haematococcus pluvialis was 81.38%, and lutein in Botryococcus braunii was 74.6%. The carotenoids were characterized by mass spectrometry. A time-course study of carotenoids in rats after administration of microalgal biomass showed peak levels in plasma, liver, and eyes at 2, 4, and 6 h, respectively. Beta-carotene accumulation in Spirulina-fed rats was maximum in eye tissues at 6 h. Similarly, levels of astaxanthin and lutein in Haematococcus- and Botryococcus-fed rats were also maximal in eye tissues. Astaxanthin from H. pluvialis showed better bioavailability than beta-carotene and lutein. The antioxidant enzymes, catalase, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and TBARS were significantly high in plasma at 2 h and in liver at 4 h, evidently offering protection from free radicals. This study implies that microalgae can be a good source of carotenoids of high bioavailability and nutraceutical value. PMID:20681642

  17. Detection and genetic characterization of Seoul Virus from commensal brown rats in France

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hantaviruses are single-stranded RNA viruses, which are transmitted to humans primarily via inhalation of aerosolised virus in contaminated rodent urine and faeces. Whilst infected reservoir hosts are asymptomatic, human infections can lead to two clinical manifestations, haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS), with varying degrees of clinical severity. The incidence of rodent and human cases of Seoul virus (SEOV) in Europe has been considered to be low, and speculated to be driven by the sporadic introduction of infected brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) via ports. Methods Between October 2010 and March 2012, 128 brown rats were caught at sites across the Lyon region in France. Results SEOV RNA was detected in the lungs of 14% (95% CI 8.01 – 20.11) of brown rats tested using a nested pan-hantavirus RT-PCR (polymerase gene). Phylogenetic analysis supports the inclusion of the Lyon SEOV within Lineage 7 with SEOV strains originating from SE Asia and the previously reported French & Belgian SEOV strains. Sequence data obtained from the recent human SEOV case (Replonges) was most similar to that obtained from one brown rat trapped in a public park in Lyon city centre. We obtained significantly improved recovery of virus genome sequence directly from SEOV infected lung material using a simple viral enrichment approach and NGS technology. Conclusions The detection of SEOV in two wild caught brown rats in the UK and the multiple detection of SEOV infected brown rats in the Lyon region of France, suggests that SEOV is circulating in European brown rats. Under-reporting and difficulties in identifying the hantaviruses associated with HFRS may mask the public health impact of SEOV in Europe. PMID:24555484

  18. Behavioral characterization of non-copulating male rats with high spontaneous yawning frequency rate.

    PubMed

    Portillo, Wendy; Camacho, Francisco; Eguibar, Jose R; Paredes, Raúl G

    2010-12-25

    An important number of Sprague-Dawley males selected by strict inbreeding process for their high spontaneous yawing frequency (HY) fail to copulate after repeated exposure to receptive females. These HY males that fail to mate are called non-copulators (HYNC). The causes of this behavioral deficit are still unknown. The aim of the present study was to make a detailed behavioral characterization of these animals by evaluating: their partner preference between a sexually receptive female as opposed to a sexually active male; their ability to detect food related odors and their preference for sexually relevant chemosensory cues between bedding from estrous females, bedding from sexually active males and clean bedding. We also evaluated whether these males had alterations in motor function using a rotarod or in their general reward system mediated by opioids by injecting them with 1mg/kg of morphine to evaluate if they develop conditioned place preference (CPP). At the end of these behavioral tests, we measured their plasmatic levels of testosterone (T). Together, these results will contribute to elucidate the causes of their deficient copulatory performance. Both HYNC and HY copulators (HYC) males showed a clear preference for receptive females as opposed to sexually active males. As well, both groups of animals had a similar ability to detect food related odors. HYC males had a clear preference for estrous female odors as opposed to male or clean bedding, but HYNC males spend the same amount of time sniffing estrous, anestrous, male and clean bedding. In both, HYC and HYNC, morphine induced CPP suggesting that in these males the reward system is functional. No differences were found in motor coordination or in T levels between HY and HYNC males. The behavioral deficit in HYNC male rats cannot be explained by an alteration in: partner preference, food related odor recognition, motor coordination, general reward system, or differences in plasmatic levels of T. However, HYNC males present clear deficits in recognizing sexually relevant odors. These results could, at least in part, explain the deficient execution of copulatory pattern in HYNC males. PMID:20510299

  19. Proliferating cells in the adolescent rat amygdala: Characterization and response to stress.

    PubMed

    Saul, M L; Helmreich, D L; Rehman, S; Fudge, J L

    2015-12-17

    The amygdala is a heterogeneous group of nuclei that plays a role in emotional and social learning. As such, there has been increased interest in its development in adolescent animals, a period in which emotional/social learning increases dramatically. While many mechanisms of amygdala development have been studied, the role of cell proliferation during adolescence has received less attention. Using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) injections in adolescent and adult rats, we previously found an almost fivefold increase in BrdU-positive cells in the amygdala of adolescents compared to adults. Approximately one third of BrdU-labeled cells in the amygdala contained the putative neural marker doublecortin (DCX), suggesting a potential for neurogenesis. To further investigate this possibility in adolescents, we examined the proliferative dynamics of DCX/BrdU-labeled cells. Surprisingly, DCX/BrdU-positive cells were found to comprise a stable subpopulation of BrdU-containing cells across survivals up to 56days, and there was no evidence of neural maturation by 28days after BrdU injection. Additionally, we found that approximately 50% of BrdU+ cells within the adolescent amygdala contain neural-glial antigen (NG2) and are therefore presumptive oligodendrocyte precursors (OPCs). We next characterized the response to a short-lived stressor (3-day repeated variable stress, RVS). The total BrdU-labeled cell number decreased by ?30% by 13days following RVS (10days post-BrdU injection) as assessed by stereologic counting methods, but the DCX/BrdU-labeled subpopulation was relatively resistant to RVS effects. In contrast, NG2/BrdU-labeled cells were strongly influenced by RVS. We conclude that typical neurogenesis is not a feature of the adolescent amygdala. These findings point to several possibilities, including the possibility that DCX/BrdU cells are late-developing neural precursors, or a unique subtype of NG2 cell that is relatively resistant to stress. In contrast, many proliferating OPCs are significantly impacted by a short-lived stressor, suggesting consequences for myelination in the developing amygdala. PMID:26476262

  20. Characterization of tachykinin receptors in the uterus of the oestrogen-primed rat

    PubMed Central

    Magraner, Josefina; Pinto, Francisco M; Anselmi, Elsa; Hernandez, Mariano; Perez-Afonso, Ricardo; Martín, Julio D; Advenier, Charles; Candenas, M Luz

    1998-01-01

    The aim of our study was to characterize the tachykinin receptor population in the oestrogen-primed rat uterus. For this purpose, we investigated the receptor type(s) responsible for tachykinin-induced contraction of longitudinally-arranged smooth muscle layer. The effects of substance P (SP), neurokinin A (NKA), neurokinin B (NKB) and several of their analogues with well-defined selectivities for tachykinin NK1, NK2 and NK3 receptors were studied and their inhibition by the selective nonpeptide tachykinin receptor antagonists (S)1-(2-[3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1-(3-isopropoxyphenylacetyl)piperidin-3-yl]ethyl)-4-phenyl-1-azoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane chloride (SR 140333, NK1-selective), (S)-N-methyl-N[4-(4-acetylamino-4-phenylpiperidino)-2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)butyl]benzamide (SR 48968, NK2-selective) and (R)-(N)-(1-(3-(1-benzoyl-3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)piperidin-3-yl)propyl)-?4-phenylpiperidin-?4-yl)-N-?methylacetamide (SR 142801, NK3-selective) was evaluated. Additionally, expression of tachykinin receptor mRNA was examined by using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).SP, NKA, [Nle10]-NKA(4-10), the analogue with selectivity at the tachykinin NK2 receptor type, and NKB elicited concentration-dependent contractions of the rat uterus. The pD2 values were 5.95±0.19; 6.73±0.21; 7.53±0.12 and 5.76±0.21, respectively. The selective agonist for the tachykinin NK1 receptor [Sar9Met(O2)11]-SP produced a small phasic response in the nanomolar concentration range. The selective tachykinin NK3 receptor agonist [MePhe7]-NKB failed to induce any significant contraction.In the presence of the neutral endopeptidase inhibitor phosphoramidon (1??M), the log concentration-response curves to exogenous tachykinins and their analogues were shifted significantly leftwards. The pD2 values were 6.12±0.10, 8.04±0.07, 7.89±0.03 and 6.59±0.07 for SP, NKA, [Nle10]-NKA(4-10) and NKB, respectively. In the presence of phosphoramidon (1??M), [Sar9Met(O2)11]-SP (1?nM–0.3??M) induced concentration-dependent contractions of increasing amplitude when only one concentration of drug was applied to each uterine strip and the pD2 value was 7.61±0.89. [MePhe7]-NKB induced small, inconsistent contractions and, therefore, a pD2 value could not be calculated.In experiments performed in the presence of phosphoramidon (1??M), SR 48968 (3?nM–0.1??M) caused parallel and rightward shifts in the log concentration-response curves of NKA. The calculated pKB value was 9.16±0.08 and the slope of the Schild regression was 1.28±0.24. SR 48968 (0.1??M) also antagonized responses to SP with an apparent pKB value of 7.63±0.13. SR 48968 (0.1??M) inhibited contractions elicited by NKB (1?nM–3??M) and [Nle10]-NKA(4–10) (0.1?nM–3??M) but had no effect on the response evoked by [Sar9Met(O2)11]-SP (0.1??M).SR 140333 (0.1??M) inhibited responses to SP with an apparent pKB value of 7.19±0.22. This compound did not significantly affect responses to NKA, [Nle10]-NKA(4-10) and NKB, but suppressed [Sar9Met(O2)11]-SP (0.1??M)-induced contraction. SR 142801 (0.1??M) had no effect on responses to natural tachykinins or their analogues.Total RNA was extracted from some of the uteri used in functional studies. RT-PCR assays revealed single bands corresponding to the expected product sizes encoding cDNA for tachykinin NK1 (587 base pairs) and NK2 receptors (491 base pairs) (n=6 different animals). A very low abundance transcript corresponding to the 325 base pairs product expected for the tachykinin NK3 receptor was detected.The present data show that functionally active tachykinin NK1 and NK2 receptors are expressed in the oestrogen-primed rat uterus. The NK2 receptor type seems to be the most important one involved in the contractile responses elicited by tachykinin

  1. Characterization of the Immunogenicity and Allergenicity of Two Cow's Milk Hydrolysates--A Study in Brown Norway Rats.

    PubMed

    Bøgh, K L; Barkholt, V; Madsen, C B

    2015-05-01

    Hypoallergenic infant formulas based on hydrolysed milk proteins are used in the diet for cow's milk allergic infants. For a preclinical evaluation of the immunogenicity and allergenicity of new protein ingredients for such hypoallergenic infant formulas as well as for the investigation of which characteristics of hydrolysates that contribute to allergenicity, in vivo models are valuable tools. In this study, we examine the immunogenicity and allergenicity of two hydrolysates in a Brown Norway (BN) rat model, using i.p. dosing, which allows for the use of small quantities. Intact BLG, hydrolysed BLG and a hydrolysed whey product suitable for use in extensively hydrolysed formulas were thoroughly characterized for protein chemical features and administered to BN rats by i.p. immunization with or without adjuvant. Sera were analysed for specific IgG and IgE for evaluation of sensitizing capacity, immunogenicity and antibody-binding capacity. For evaluation of eliciting capacity a skin test was performed. The study showed that the hydrolysates had no residual allergenicity, lacking the capacity to sensitize and elicit reactions in the BN rats. Dosing with or without adjuvant induced a large difference in immunogenicity. Only antibodies from rats sensitized to intact BLG with adjuvant were able to bind the hydrolysates, and the whey-based hydrolysate only showed immunogenicity when dosed with adjuvant. This study showed that hydrolysates can be evaluated by an i.p. animal model, but that the choice of in vitro tests used for evaluation of antibody responses may greatly influence the result as well as may the use of adjuvant. PMID:25619117

  2. Novel alpha-D-mannosidase of rat sperm plasma membranes: characterization and potential role in sperm-egg interactions

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    During the course of a study of glycoprotein processing mannosidases in the rat epididymis, we have made an intriguing discovery regarding the presence of a novel alpha-D-mannosidase on the rat sperm plasma membranes. Unlike the sperm acrosomal "acid" mannosidase which has a pH optimum of 4.4, the newly discovered alpha-D-mannosidase has a pH optimum of 6.2, and 6.5 when assayed in sperm plasma membranes and intact spermatozoa, respectively. In addition, the two enzymes show different substrate specificity. The acrosomal alpha-D-mannosidase is active mainly towards synthetic substrate, p-nitrophenyl alpha-D- mannopyranoside, whereas the sperm plasma membrane alpha-D-mannosidase shows activity mainly towards mannose-containing oligosaccharides. Evidence is presented which suggest that the sperm plasma membrane alpha-D-mannosidase is different from several processing mannosidases previously characterized from the rat liver. The newly discovered alpha- D-mannosidase appears to be an intrinsic plasma membrane component, since washing of the purified membranes with buffered 0.4 M NaCl did not release the enzyme in soluble form. The enzyme requires nonionic detergent (Triton X-100) for complete solubilization. The enzyme is activated by Co2+ and Mn2+. However, Cu2+ and Zn2+ are potent inhibitors of the sperm plasma membrane alpha-D-mannosidase. At a concentration of 0.1 mM, these divalent cations caused nearly complete inactivation of the sperm enzyme. In addition methyl-alpha-D-mannoside, methyl-alpha-D-glucoside, mannose, 2-deoxy-D-glucose, and D-mannosamine are inhibitors of the sperm surface alpha-D-mannosidase. The physiological role of the newly discovered enzyme is not yet known. Several published reports in three species, including the rat, suggest that the sperm surface alpha-D-mannosidase may have a role in binding to mannose-containing saccharides presumably present on the zona pellucida. PMID:2768341

  3. Pharmacologic characterization in the rat of a potent analgesic lacking respiratory depression, IBNtxA.

    PubMed

    Grinnell, Steven G; Majumdar, Susruta; Narayan, Ankita; Le Rouzic, Valerie; Ansonoff, Michael; Pintar, John E; Pasternak, Gavril W

    2014-09-01

    IBNtxA (3'-iodobenzoyl-6?-naltrexamide) is a potent analgesic in mice lacking many traditional opioid side effects. In mice, it displays no respiratory depression, does not produce physical dependence with chronic administration, and shows no cross-tolerance to morphine. It has limited effects on gastrointestinal transit and shows no reward behavior. Biochemical studies indicate its actions are mediated through a set of ?-opioid receptor clone MOR-1 splice variants associated with exon 11 that lack exon 1 and contain only six transmembrane domains. Like the mouse and human, rats express exon 11-associated splice variants that also contain only six transmembrane domains, raising the question of whether IBNtxA would have a similar pharmacologic profile in rats. When given systemically, IBNtxA is a potent analgesic in rats, with an ED50 value of 0.89 mg/kg s.c., approximately 4-fold more potent than morphine. It shows no analgesic cross-tolerance in morphine-pelleted rats. IBNtxA displays no respiratory depression as measured by blood oxygen saturation. In contrast, oximetry shows that an equianalgesic dose of morphine lowers blood oxygen saturation values by 30%. IBNtxA binding is present in a number of brain regions, with the thalamus standing out with very high levels and the cerebellum with low levels. As in mice, IBNtxA is a potent analgesic in rats with a favorable pharmacologic profile and reduced side effects. PMID:24970924

  4. Activation of adult rat CNS endothelial cells by opioid-induced toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling induces proinflammatory, biochemical, morphological, and behavioral sequelae.

    PubMed

    Grace, P M; Ramos, K M; Rodgers, K M; Wang, X; Hutchinson, M R; Lewis, M T; Morgan, K N; Kroll, J L; Taylor, F R; Strand, K A; Zhang, Y; Berkelhammer, D; Huey, M G; Greene, L I; Cochran, T A; Yin, H; Barth, D S; Johnson, K W; Rice, K C; Maier, S F; Watkins, L R

    2014-11-01

    CNS immune signaling contributes to deleterious opioid effects including hyperalgesia, tolerance, reward, and dependence/withdrawal. Such effects are mediated by opioid signaling at toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), presumptively of glial origin. Whether CNS endothelial cells express TLR4 is controversial. If so, they would be well positioned for activation by blood-borne opioids, contributing to opioid-induced pro-inflammatory responses. These studies examined adult primary rat CNS endothelial cell responses to (-)-morphine or its mu opioid receptor (MOR)-inactive metabolite morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G), both known TLR4 agonists. We demonstrate that adult rat CNS endothelial cells express functional TLR4. M3G activated nuclear factor kappaB (NF-?B), increased tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) mRNAs, and released prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) from these cells. (-)-Morphine-induced upregulation of TNF? mRNA and PGE2 release were unmasked by pre-treatment with nalmefene, a MOR antagonist without TLR4 activity (unlike CTAP, shown to have both MOR- and TLR4-activity), suggestive of an interplay between MOR and TLR4 co-activation by (-)-morphine. In support, MOR-dependent Protein Kinase A (PKA) opposed TLR4 signaling, as PKA inhibition (H-89) also unmasked (-)-morphine-induced TNF? and COX2 mRNA upregulation. Intrathecal injection of CNS endothelial cells, stimulated in vitro with M3G, produced TLR4-dependent tactile allodynia. Further, cortical suffusion with M3G in vivo induced TLR4-dependent vasodilation. Finally, endothelial cell TLR4 activation by lipopolysaccharide and/or M3G was blocked by the glial inhibitors AV1013 and propentofylline, demonstrating endothelial cells as a new target of such drugs. These data indicate that (-)-morphine and M3G can activate CNS endothelial cells via TLR4, inducing proinflammatory, biochemical, morphological, and behavioral sequelae. CNS endothelial cells may have previously unanticipated roles in opioid-induced effects, in phenomena blocked by presumptive glial inhibitors, as well as TLR4-mediated phenomena more broadly. PMID:25241065

  5. Activation of adult rat CNS endothelial cells by opioid-induced toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling induces proinflammatory, biochemical, morphological, and behavioral sequelae

    PubMed Central

    Grace, Peter M.; Ramos, Khara M.; Rodgers, Krista M.; Wang, Xiaohui; Hutchinson, Mark R.; Lewis, Makenzie T.; Morgan, Kelly N.; Kroll, Juliet L.; Taylor, Frederick R.; Strand, Keith A.; Zhang, Yingning; Berkelhammer, Debra; Huey, Madeline G.; Greene, Lisa I.; Cochran, Thomas A.; Yin, Hang; Barth, Daniel S.; Johnson, Kirk W.; Rice, Kenner; Maier, Steven F.; Watkins, Linda R.

    2014-01-01

    CNS immune signaling contributes to deleterious opioid effects including hyperalgesia, tolerance, reward, and dependence/withdrawal. Such effects are mediated by opioid signaling at TLR4, presumptively of glial origin. Whether CNS endothelial cells express TLR4 is controversial. If so, they would be well positioned for activation by blood-borne opioids, contributing to opioid-induced pro-inflammatory responses. These studies examined adult primary rat CNS endothelial cell responses to (-)-morphine or its mu-opioid receptor (MOR) inactive metabolite morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G), both known TLR4 agonists. We demonstrate that adult rat CNS endothelial cells express functional TLR4. M3G activated NF?B, increased tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) mRNAs, and released prostaglandin E2 from these cells. (-)-Morphine-induced upregulation of TNF? mRNA and prostaglandin E2 release were unmasked by pre-treatment with nalmefene, a MOR antagonist without TLR4 activity (unlike CTAP, shown to have both MOR- and TLR4-activity), suggestive of an interplay between MOR and TLR4 co-activation by (-)-morphine. In support, MOR-dependent Protein Kinase A (PKA) opposed TLR4 signaling, as PKA inhibition (H-89) also unmasked (-)-morphine-induced TNF? and COX2 mRNA upregulation. Intrathecal injection of CNS endothelial cells, stimulated in vitro with M3G, produced TLR4-dependent tactile allodynia. Further, cortical suffusion with M3G in vivo induced TLR4-dependent vasodilation. Finally, endothelial cell TLR4 activation by lipopolysaccharide and/or M3G was blocked by the glial inhibitors AV1013 and propentofylline, demonstrating endothelial cells as a new target of such drugs. These data indicate that (-)-morphine and M3G can activate CNS endothelial cells via TLR4, inducing proinflammatory, biochemical, morphological, and behavioral sequalae. CNS endothelial cells may have previously unanticipated roles in opioid-induced effects, in phenomena blocked by presumptive glial inhibitors, as well as TLR4-mediated phenomena more broadly. PMID:25241065

  6. [Age and the course of nephrotoxic nephritis in rats].

    PubMed

    Samo?lova, Z T; Kliukina, S S

    1978-12-01

    In experiments on two groups of mongrel rats (4 weeks old and 4 months old) with induced nephrotoxic nephritis it was revealed that in comparison with adult rats the course of nephritis in ratlings was characterized by lesser proteinuria, selective in nature, by lesser reducticn of endogenous creatinine clearance and diuresis. The acido- and ammo-niogenesis decreased in ratlings and adult rats to the same extent. Morphological changes in the kidneys of ratlings were less pronounced than in adult animals, and were mostly localized in the convoluted tubules. The level of DNA-synthetic activity of the epithelial nuclei of the glomeruli prevailed over this index of the convoluted tubules epithelium. The weight index of the kidneys increased less in ratlings with nephritis than in adult rats. beta-lipoproteinemia in ratlings increased 8 times. Normalization of the urine and blood indices occurred more rapidly in ratlings than in adult rats. PMID:31956

  7. Functional characterization of des-IGF-1 action at excitatory synapses in the CA1 region of rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Melinda M; Adams, Michelle M; Ariwodola, Olusegun J; Sonntag, William E; Weiner, Jeff L

    2005-07-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and growth hormone play a major role in the growth and development of tissues throughout the mammalian body. Plasma IGF-1 concentrations peak during puberty and decline with age. We have determined that chronic treatments to restore plasma IGF-1 concentrations to adult levels attenuate spatial learning deficits in aged rats, but little is known of the acute actions of IGF-1 in the brain. To this end, we utilized hippocampal slices from young Sprague-Dawley rats to characterize the acute effects of des-IGF-1 on excitatory synaptic transmission in the CA1 region. We observed a 40% increase in field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) slope with application of des-IGF-1 (40 ng/ml) and used whole cell patch-clamp recordings to determine that this enhancement was due to a postsynaptic mechanism involving alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) but not N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Furthermore, the enhancement was completely blocked by the broad-spectrum tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genistein (220 microM), and significantly reduced by the PI3K blockers wortmannin (1 microM) and 2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one (10 microM), suggesting that the effect was predominantly dependent on PI3K activation. This characterization of the acute actions of des-IGF-1 at hippocampal excitatory synapses may provide insight into the mechanism by which long-term increases in plasma IGF-1 impart cognitive benefits in aged rats. Increases in AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission may contribute directly to cognitive improvement or initiate long-term changes in synthesis of proteins such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor that are important to learning and memory. PMID:15985695

  8. Characterization of beta-adrenergic receptors in dispersed rat testicular interstitial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Poyet, P.; Labrie, F.

    1987-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that beta-adrenergic agents stimulate steroidogenesis and cyclic AMP formation in mouse Leydig cells in culture. To obtain information about the possible presence and the characteristics of a beta-adrenergic receptor in rat testicular interstitial cells, the potent beta-adrenergic antagonist (/sup 125/I)cyanopindolol (CYP) was used as ligand. Interstitial cells prepared by collagenase dispersion from rat testis were incubated with the ligand for 2 h at room temperature. (/sup 125/I)cyanopindolol binds to a single class of high affinity sites at an apparent KD value of 15 pM. A number of sites of 6,600 sites/cell is measured when 0.1 microM (-) propranolol is used to determine non-specific binding. The order of potency of a series of agonists competing for (/sup 125/I)cyanopindolol binding is consistent with the interaction of a beta 2-subtype receptor: zinterol greater than (-) isoproterenol greater than (-) epinephrine = salbutamol much greater than (-) norepinephrine. In addition, it was observed that the potency of a large series of specific beta 1 and beta 2 synthetic compounds for displacing (/sup 125/I)cyanopindolol in rat interstitial cells is similar to the potency observed for these compounds in a typical beta 2-adrenergic tissue, the rat lung. For example, the potency of zinterol, a specific beta 2-adrenergic agonist, is 10 times higher in interstitial cells and lung than in rat heart, a typical beta 1-adrenergic tissue. Inversely, practolol, a typical beta 1-antagonist, is about 50 times more potent in rat heart than in interstitial cells and lung.

  9. Characterizing mutagenesis in the hprt gene of rat alveolar epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, K.E.; Deyo, L.C.; Howard, B.W.

    1995-12-31

    A clonal selection assay was developed for mutation in the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) gene of rat alveolar epithelial cells. Studies were conducted to establish methods for isolation and long-term culture of rat alveolar epithelial cells. When isolated by pronase digestion purified on a Nycodenz gradient and cultured in media containing 7.5% fetal bovine serum (FBS), pituitary extract, EGF, insulin, and IGF-1, rat alveolar epithelial cells could be maintained in culture for several weeks with cell doubling times of 2-4 days. The rat alveolar epithelial cell cultures were exposed in vitro to the mutagens ethylnitrosourea (ENU) and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, and mutation in the hprt gene was selected for by culture in the presence of the toxic purine analog, 6-thioguanine (6TG). In vitro exposure to ENU or H{sub 2}O produced a dose-dependent increase in hprt mutation frequency in the alveolar epithelial cells. To determine if the assay system could be used to evaluate mutagenesis in alveolar type II cells after in vivo mutagen or carcinogen exposure, cells were isolated from rats treated previously with ENU or {alpha}-quartz. A significant increase in hprt mutation frequency was detected in alveolar epithelial cells obtained from rats exposed to ENU or {alpha}-quartz; the latter observation is the first demonstration that crystalline silica exposure is mutagenic in vivo. In summary, these studies show that rat alveolar epithelial cells isolated by pronase digestion and Nycodenz separation techniques and cultured in a defined media can be used in a clonal selection assay for mutation in the hprt gene. This assay demonstrates that ENU and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in vitro and ENU and {alpha}-quartz in vivo are mutagenic for rat alveolar epithelial cells. This model should be useful for investigating the genotoxic effects of chemical and physical agents on an important lung cell target for neoplastic transformation. 41 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Characterization of kidney sulfotransferases during lead-induced nephrotoxicity in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Templer, L.A.; Kong, J.; Ronis, M.J.J.; Ringer, D.P.

    1996-03-08

    Kidney sulfotransferases (ST) have been shown to be involved in the biotransformation of steroid and thyroid hormones as well as xenobiotics varying from carcinogenic heterocyclic amines to drugs such as acetaminophen. In order to examine the impact of lead-induced nephrotoxicity on kidney aryl, estrogen and DHEA STs during growth and development, time-impregnated female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed ad libitum to lead acetate (0.6%) in drinking water from gestational day 5 and continuing in male and female pups until they were sacrificed at day 85. Cytosols from male rat kidneys showed levels of estrogen ST activity (59% of females) that were significantly lowered (P{le}0.05) after lead exposure (6-20% of male). Aryl ST activity was relatively unchanged in male rats after rat kidney cytosol. Immunochemical analysis of cytosols from normal males and females with the antiserums to the three STs substantiated the presence of only the aryl and estrogen STs. Immunohistochemical techniques localized the aryl and estrogen STs primarily to the S3 section of the proximal tubules. These findings indicate that kidney STs may be differently modulated during lead exposure.

  11. Characterization and visualization of rat and guinea pig brain. kappa. opioid receptors: Evidence for. kappa. sub 1 and. kappa. sub 2 opioid receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Zukin, R.S.; Eghbali, M.; Olive, D.; Unterwald, E.M.; Tempel, A. )

    1988-06-01

    {kappa} opioid receptors ({kappa} receptors) have been characterized in homogenates of guinea pig and rat brain under in vitro binding conditions. {kappa} receptors were labeled by using the tritiated prototypic {kappa} opioid ethylketocyclazocine under conditions in which {mu} and {delta} opioid binding was suppressed. In the case of guinea pig brain membranes, a single population of high-affinity {kappa} opioid receptor sites was observed. In contrast, in the case of rat brain, two populations of {kappa} sites were observed. To test the hypothesis that the high- and low-affinity {kappa} sites represent two distinct {kappa} receptor subtypes, a series of opioids were tested for their abilities to compete for binding to the two sites. U-69,593 and Cambridge 20 selectively displaced the high-affinity {kappa} site in both guinea pig and rat tissue, but were inactive at the rat-brain low-affinity site. Other {kappa} opioid drugs competed for binding to both sites, but with different rank orders of potency. Quantitative light microscopy in vitro autoradiography was used to visualize the neuroanatomical pattern of {kappa} receptors in rat and guinea pig brain. The distribution patterns of the two {kappa} receptor subtypes of rat brain were clearly different. Collectively, these data provide direct evidence for the presence of two {kappa} receptor subtypes; the U-69,593-sensitive, high-affinity {kappa}{sub 1} site predominates in guinea pig brain, and the U-69,593-insensitive, low-affinity {kappa}{sub 2} site predominates in rat brain.

  12. Characterization of synaptically elicited GABAB responses using patch-clamp recordings in rat hippocampal slices.

    PubMed Central

    Otis, T S; De Koninck, Y; Mody, I

    1993-01-01

    1. Tight-seal, whole-cell voltage clamp recording techniques were used to characterize monosynaptically evoked GABAB currents in adult rat brain slices maintained at 34-35 degrees C. Responses were recorded from granule cells of the dentate gyrus following the blockade of 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX)-, D-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (D-AP5)- and picrotoxin-sensitive fast synaptic transmission, so that the remaining synaptic currents could be studied in isolation. 2. Under these conditions, stimulation in the molecular layer elicited a slow outward current which was blocked by the selective GABAB antagonist CGP 35348 in a concentration-dependent manner (200-800 microM). This current was absent in recordings made with pipettes containing 10-15 mM of the lidocaine derivative QX-314 or when caesium was substituted for K+. 3. Increasing the [K+]o e-fold (from 2.5 to 6.8 mM) shifted the reversal potential of the GABAB current from -97.9 to -73.2 mV, as predicted by the Nernst equation. Peak conductance was constant, but in 6.8 mM [K+]o at voltages hyperpolarized to EK (equilibrium potential for potassium), a small outward rectification was evident. 4. The time course of the current could be described by fourth-power exponential activation kinetics with double exponential inactivation. At 34-35 degrees C, the average activation time constant (tau m) was 45.2 ms, while the two inactivation time constants (tau h1 and tau h2) were 110.2 and 516.2 ms, with corresponding weighting factors (wh1 and wh2) of 0.84 and 0.16, respectively. The Q10 (temperature coefficient) values for these time constants were between 1.82 and 2.31. Neither tau m, nor tau h1 and tau h2 were voltage dependent in the range from -45 to -95 mV. 5. Paired-pulse depression of the GABAB current was studied by giving identical conditioning and test stimuli over a wide range (50-5000 ms) of interstimulus intervals (ISIs). The maximal depression (48%) occurred at 200 ms ISI, and the depression lasted for over 5 s. The magnitude of paired-pulse depression was not dependent on the postsynaptic membrane potential. 6. Application of the competitive antagonist CGP 35348 such that the peak current was diminished by approximately 50% had no effect on the activation or inactivation kinetics of the current. Similarly, during paired-pulse depression the kinetics of test currents were identical to those of conditioning currents. These findings support the hypothesis that the mechanism responsible for paired-pulse depression involves a reduction in neurotransmitter release without postsynaptic alterations in K+ channel activation/inactivation kinetics.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8246190

  13. Characterization of solubilized human and rat brain US -endorphin-receptor complex

    SciTech Connect

    Helmeste, D.M.; Li, C.H.

    1986-01-01

    Opioid receptors have been solubilized from human striatal and rat whole-brain membranes by use of 3-((3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio)-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS). Tritiated human US -endorphin (TH-US /sub h/-EP) binding revealed high-affinity competition by morphine, naloxone, and various US -EP analogues. Lack of high-affinity competition by (+/-)-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-(2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)cyclohexyl)benzeneacetamide methanesulfonate (U50-488, Upjohn) indicated that k sites were not labeled by TH-US -/sub h/-EP under these conditions. Affinities were similar in both soluble and membrane preparations except for (Met)enkephalin, which appears to be rapidly degraded by the solubilized extract. Size differences between human and rat solubilized TH-US /sub h/-EP-receptor complexes were revealed by exclusion chromatography.

  14. Purification and characterization of a 4-hydroxybiphenyl UDP-glucuronosyltransferase from rat liver microsomes

    SciTech Connect

    Styczynski, B.; Green, M.; Coffman, B.; Puig, J.; Tephly, T. )

    1991-03-11

    A phenobarbital-inducible rat liver microsomal UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (4-HBP UDPGT) which catalyzes the glucuronidation of 4-hydroxybiphenyl has been purified to homogeneity. The apparent subunit molecular weight of this protein is 52,500 as determined by SDS-PAGE. 4-HBP UDPGT was shown to react with 4-hydroxybiphenyl, p-nitrophenol and 4-methylumbelliferone, but did not react with morphine, testosteron or chloramphenicol. Upon treatment with Endoglycosidase H, the 4-HBP UDPGT underwent about a 2,000 dalton decrease in subunit molecular weight, suggesting that this protein in N-glycosylated. Western blot analysis has revealed immunorecognition of 4-HBP UDPGT by antibodies raised in rabbit against rat 3{alpha}- and 17{beta}-hydroxysteroid UDPGTs. Additionally, the authors have obtained the N-terminal amino acid sequence of 4-HBP UDPGT. These data provide evidence which suggests that this protein is different from another UDPGT previously shown to react with 4-hydroxybiphenyl, testosterone and chloramphenicol.

  15. Generation and Characterization of Rat Monoclonal Antibodies Against Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor.

    PubMed

    Osaki, Tomohiro; Wang, Cai-Xia; Tachibana, Taro; Azuma, Masayuki; Kitamura, Masaya; Nakanishi, Takeshi

    2015-12-01

    Overexpression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene and dysregulation of EGFR signaling are observed in various cancer cells, and EGFR is a validated target for cancer therapy. In the present study, we report on the generation of two rat anti-EGFR antibodies (clones 2C2D3 and 4H7F4) by using the rat lymph node method. Flow cytometric analysis and immunofluorescence showed that both antibodies specifically bound to EGFR on the surface of cancer cells. Competitive analysis demonstrated that the epitope of each antibody had no overlap with that of the therapeutic anti-EGFR antibody cetuximab. These results suggest that 2C2D3 and 4H7F4 are potentially useful in EGFR-targeted cancer therapy. PMID:26683181