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Sample records for rats morphological characterization

  1. Morphological and immunocytochemical characterization of electrophysiologically investigated neurons in the PVN of the rat.

    PubMed

    Egli, M; Laurent, J P; Mosimann, R; Felix, D; Imboden, H

    2000-02-15

    This study was carried out to characterize angiotensin II (ANG II) sensitive neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the rat. An approach was chosen in which a combination of an electrophysiological, a morphological, and an immunocytochemical method was focused on one single neuron. The cell's reaction to an application of ANG II and its specific antagonist Losartan (Dup753) was investigated using the technique of intracellular recording inside 450-microm-thick brain slices. A final injection of a fluorescent dye labelled the neurons. Optical sections were taken through the marked cells by a confocal laser-scanning microscope and made into a three-dimensional cell model on a computer. One-micrometer thin sections were cut from the thick slice at the level of the electrophysiologically characterized and marked cell body for immunocytochemical tests with different antibodies. Our results show an example of such a neuron inside the PVN excited by ANG II. It was possible to block this excitation with the specific ANG II receptor subtype 1 (AT1) antagonist Losartan. The result indicated that the ANG II reaction was mediated by the AT1 receptor subtype. Immunocytochemical studies show that this ANG II-sensitive neuron contains ANG II but no vasopressin. The combination of the results enables us to gain improved information on interactions of peptidergic systems. PMID:10752485

  2. Functional and morphological characterization of glutamate transporters in the rat locus coeruleus

    PubMed Central

    Medrano, M C; Gerrikagoitia, I; Martnez-Milln, L; Mendiguren, A; Pineda, J

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) in the CNS contribute to the clearance of glutamate released during neurotransmission. The aim of this study was to explore the role of EAATs in the regulation of locus coeruleus (LC) neurons by glutamate. Experimental Approach We measured the effect of different EAAT subtype inhibitors/enhancers on glutamate- and KCl-induced activation of LC neurons in rat slices. EAAT23 expression in the LC was also characterized by immunohistochemistry. Key Results The EAAT25 inhibitor DL-threo-?-benzyloxaspartic acid (100 ?M), but not the EAAT2, 4, 5 inhibitor L-trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid (100 ?M) or the EAAT2 inhibitor dihydrokainic acid (DHK; 100 ?M), enhanced the glutamate- and KCl-induced activation of the firing rate of LC neurons. These effects were blocked by ionotropic, but not metabotrobic, glutamate receptor antagonists. DHK (100 ?M) was the only EAAT inhibitor that increased the spontaneous firing rate of LC cells, an effect that was due to inhibition of EAAT2 and subsequent AMPA receptor activation. Chronic treatment with ceftriaxone (200 mgkg?1 i.p., once daily, 7 days), an EAAT2 expression enhancer, increased the actions of glutamate and DHK, suggesting a functional impact of EAAT2 up-regulation on the glutamatergic system. Immuhistochemical data revealed the presence of EAAT2 and EAAT3 surrounding noradrenergic neurons and EAAT2 on glial cells in the LC. Conclusions and Implications These results remark the importance of EAAT2 and EAAT3 in the regulation of rat LC by glutamate. Neuronal EAAT3 would be responsible for terminating the action of synaptically released glutamate, whereas glial EAAT2 would regulate tonic glutamate concentrations in this nucleus. PMID:23638698

  3. Secretory, enzymatic, and morphological characterization of rat pancreatic endocrine tumours induced by streptozotocin and nicotinamide.

    PubMed

    Lenzen, S; Klppel, G; Zielmann, S; Panten, U

    1985-07-01

    Rat pancreatic endocrine tumours were induced by administration of streptozotocin plus nicotinamide. Fifteen to eighteen months later tumours with wet weights of 0.1 to 224 mg were isolated. These tumours were compared with normal rat pancreatic islets. Insulin release from perifused tumours was stimulated by D-glucose, L-leucine, 2-ketoisocaproate, and D-glyceraldehyde, potentiated by theophylline and inhibited by norepinephrine. Compared with isolated rat pancreatic islets, however, insulin secretory responsiveness to glucose stimulation and insulin content were reduced in tumour tissue. Hypoglycaemia in tumour bearing rats and impaired diffusion of insulin out of the tumours may explain this difference. The pattern of enzyme activities observed in tumour tissue was typical for pancreatic endocrine tissue. The activities of succinate dehydrogenase, the two types of the monoamine oxidase, and alpha-glucosidase were in the normal range in tumour tissue. Only the activities of 5'nucleotidase and glutamate dehydrogenase were decreased. Immunocytochemical analysis of the tumours revealed that they contained an average of 91% B-cells. In addition 8% of D-cells were encountered. Proportions of A-cells and PP-cells ranged below 1%. Thus this endocrine tumour of the pancreas with a high proportion of functionally intact B-cells is an interesting model for studying regulation of secretion and endocrine tumour development. PMID:2992205

  4. Hip Morphology Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Barrientos, Cristián; Diaz, Jorge; Brañes, Julian; Chaparro, Felipe; Barahona, Maximiliano; Salazar, Alfonso; Hinzpeter, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Background: Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is the result of a mechanical conflict in the hip joint, and its diagnosis is based on clinical and radiological parameters. To our knowledge, there are no published studies describing the radiologic characteristics of FAI in Latin American populations. Purpose: To describe the radiological features associated with FAI in an asymptomatic Chilean population. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: We prospectively recruited asymptomatic patients with no history or symptoms of hip pathology who underwent abdomen-pelvis computed tomography (CT) for a nonorthopaedic indication. The acetabular and femoral parameters related to FAI were measured. Results: We studied 101 subjects (202 hips) with a mean age of 36.8 ± 14.4 years. The mean center-edge angle was 39.4° ± 7.2°. The crossover sign was present in 34 cases (33.7%). The mean alpha angle was 49.7° ± 8.3°. Depending on the cut points chosen for FAI-related parameters, between 39.6% and 69.3% of an asymptomatic Chilean population were found to have morphological features related to FAI. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the proposed pathological threshold values in the literature cannot be extrapolated to a Chilean population, and this must be taken into consideration when evaluating Latin American patients with hip pain. PMID:26535273

  5. Ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 3 in the ventral and lateral hypothalamic area of female rats: morphological characterization and functional implications

    PubMed Central

    Kiss, David S; Zsarnovszky, Attila; Horvath, Krisztina; Gyorffy, Andrea; Bartha, Tibor; Hazai, Diana; Sotonyi, Peter; Somogyi, Virag; Frenyo, Laszlo V; Diano, Sabrina

    2009-01-01

    Background Based on its distribution in the brain, ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 3 (NTPDase3) may play a role in the hypothalamic regulation of homeostatic systems, including feeding, sleep-wake behavior and reproduction. To further characterize the morphological attributes of NTPDase3-immunoreactive (IR) hypothalamic structures in the rat brain, here we investigated: 1.) The cellular and subcellular localization of NTPDase3; 2.) The effects of 17?-estradiol on the expression level of hypothalamic NTPDase3; and 3.) The effects of NTPDase inhibition in hypothalamic synaptosomal preparations. Methods Combined light- and electron microscopic analyses were carried out to characterize the cellular and subcellular localization of NTPDase3-immunoreactivity. The effects of estrogen on hypothalamic NTPDase3 expression was studied by western blot technique. Finally, the effects of NTPDase inhibition on mitochondrial respiration were investigated using a Clark-type oxygen electrode. Results Combined light- and electron microscopic analysis of immunostained hypothalamic slices revealed that NTPDase3-IR is linked to ribosomes and mitochondria, is predominantly present in excitatory axon terminals and in distinct segments of the perikaryal plasma membrane. Immunohistochemical labeling of NTPDase3 and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) indicated that ?-amino-butyric-acid- (GABA) ergic hypothalamic neurons do not express NTPDase3, further suggesting that in the hypothalamus, NTPDase3 is predominantly present in excitatory neurons. We also investigated whether estrogen influences the expression level of NTPDase3 in the ventrobasal and lateral hypothalamus. A single subcutaneous injection of estrogen differentially increased NTPDase3 expression in the medial and lateral parts of the hypothalamus, indicating that this enzyme likely plays region-specific roles in estrogen-dependent hypothalamic regulatory mechanisms. Determination of mitochondrial respiration rates with and without the inhibition of NTPDases confirmed the presence of NTPDases, including NTPDase3 in neuronal mitochondria and showed that blockade of mitochondrial NTPDase functions decreases state 3 mitochondrial respiration rate and total mitochondrial respiratory capacity. Conclusion Altogether, these results suggest the possibility that NTPDases, among them NTPDase3, may play an estrogen-dependent modulatory role in the regulation of intracellular availability of ATP needed for excitatory neuronal functions including neurotransmission. PMID:19383175

  6. Morphological characterization of microcellular carbon foams

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, J.H.; Sylwester, A.P.

    1989-01-01

    Low-density, microcellular carbon foams have been prepared by the high temperature degradation of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) foams in an inert atmosphere. The PAN foams are first prepared by controlled phase separation of PAN solutions followed by solvent removal. Some possible applications for low-density, microcellular carbon foams are: catalyst supports, adsorbents, porous electrodes, high temperature structural insulation, and in the fabrication of inertial confinement fusion targets. To effectively design and use these carbon foams, it is necessary to characterize their morphology. In this paper, we describe two techniques which are well suited to characterize microcellular carbon foam morphologies. 3 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Physiological and morphological development of the rat cerebellar Purkinje cell

    PubMed Central

    McKay, Bruce E; Turner, Ray W

    2005-01-01

    Cerebellar Purkinje cells integrate multimodal afferent inputs and, as the only projection neurones of the cerebellar cortex, are key to the coordination of a variety of motor- and learning-related behaviours. In the neonatal rat the cerebellum is undeveloped, but over the first few postnatal weeks both the structure of the cerebellum and cerebellar-dependent behaviours mature rapidly. Maturation of Purkinje cell physiology is expected to contribute significantly to the development of cerebellar output. However, the ontogeny of the electrophysiological properties of the Purkinje cell and its relationship to maturation of cell morphology is incompletely understood. To address this problem we performed a detailed in vitro electrophysiological analysis of the spontaneous and intracellularly evoked intrinsic properties of Purkinje cells obtained from postnatal rats (P0 to P90) using whole-cell patch clamp recordings. Cells were filled with neurobiotin to enable subsequent morphological comparisons. Three stages of physiological and structural development were identified. During the early postnatal period (P0 to ?P9) Purkinje cells were characterized by an immature pattern of Na+-spike discharge, and possessed only short multipolar dendrites. This was followed by a period of rapid maturation (from ?P12 to ?P18), consisting of changes in Na+-spike discharge, emergence of repetitive bursts of Na+ spikes terminated by Ca2+ spikes (Ca2+Na+ bursts), generation of the trimodal pattern, and a significant expansion of the dendritic tree. During the final stage (> P18 to P90) there were minor refinements of cell output and a plateau in dendritic area. Our results reveal a rapid transition of the Purkinje cell from morphological and physiological immaturity to adult characteristics over a short developmental window, with a close correspondence between changes in cell output and dendritic growth. The development of Purkinje cell intrinsic electrophysiological properties further matches the time course of other measures of cerebellar structural and functional maturation. PMID:16002452

  8. Bone morphological analyses in Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) fatty rats

    PubMed Central

    OHTA, Takeshi; KIMURA, Shuichi; HIRATA, Masaya; YAMADA, Takahisa; SUGIYAMA, Toshie

    2015-01-01

    The Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) fatty rat, a model for obese type 2 diabetes, shows bone quantitative abnormalities, namely low bone mineral density (BMD). The objective of this study was to evaluate bone morphological changes, in particular identifying the bone qualitative abnormalities, in the SDT fatty rat. Male SDT fatty rats showed increases in total trabecular area and trabecular number and decreases in trabecular thickness in cancellous bones of the proximal tibia, indicating trabecular miniaturization. The SDT fatty rat is useful for investigation of pathophysiological changes in bone quality in diabetic osteoporosis. PMID:26004433

  9. Plastic solar cell interface and morphological characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guralnick, Brett W.

    Plastic solar cell research has become an intense field of study considering these devices may be lightweight, flexible and reduce the cost of photovoltaic devices. The active layer of plastic solar cells are a combination of two organic components which blend to form an internal morphology. Due to the poor electrical transport properties of the organic components it is important to understand how the morphology forms in order to engineer these materials for increased efficiency. The focus of this thesis is a detailed study of the interfaces between the plastic solar cell layers and the morphology of the active layer. The system studied in detail is a blend of P3HT and PCBM that acts as the primary absorber, which is the electron donor, and the electron acceptor, respectively. The key morphological findings are, while thermal annealing increases the crystallinity parallel to the substrate, the morphology is largely unchanged following annealing. The deposition and mixing conditions of the bulk heterojunction from solution control the starting morphology. The spin coating speed, concentration, solvent type, and solution mixing time are all critical variables in the formation of the bulk heterojunction. In addition, including the terminals or inorganic layers in the analysis is critical because the inorganic surface properties influence the morphology. Charge transfer in the device occurs at the material interfaces, and a highly resistive transparent conducting oxide layer limits device performance. It was discovered that the electron blocking layer between the transparent conducting oxide and the bulk heterojunction is compromised following annealing. The electron acceptor material can diffuse into this layer, a location which does not benefit device performance. Additionally, the back contact deposition is important since the organic material can be damaged by the thermal evaporation of Aluminum, typically used for plastic solar cells. Depositing a thin thermal and momentum blocking layer of lithium fluoride prevents damage which ultimately leads to higher efficiencies. Finally, new materials have been synthesized with better electronic properties and stability. Characterization of the polymer properties and how they assemble is important for high device performance. One new promising polymer, Polybenzo[1,2-b:4,5- b']dithiophene-4,7-dithien-2-yl-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (PBnDT-DTBT), was characterized with PCBM and it was found that this polymer assembles similarly to previously studied polymers. The efficiency gained with this new polymer is obtained from an improvement in the materials electronic properties since the morphology closely resembles the P3HT:PCBM system.

  10. Gastrointestinal morphological alterations in obese rats kept under hypercaloric diets

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Raphael Castiglioni; Mabel, Haryanne; Queiroz, Bruna Nunes; Paresque, Roberta

    2013-01-01

    Hypercaloric diets have been successfully used as experimental models of obesity. This work compared morphological characteristics of inferior gastrointestinal organs. The experiment lasted 10 weeks, during which the rats food consumption, body weight, distance between the mouth and neck, distance between mouth and neck, distance between neck and tail, and abdominal circumference were evaluated weekly. After the sacrifice of the rats, 20 variables referring to inferior gastrointestinal morphology were assessed. The results comprised descriptive statistics of the data, analysis of main components, linear correlation, and t-tests. Significant differences were found between the two groups for the variables of abdominal circumference, retroperitoneal fat, ratio between retroperitoneal fat/animal weight, stomach weight, ratio between animal weight/intestine weight and mesentery/animal weight, length of small intestine, length of large intestine, and lateral line of the cecum. The data allow us to state that a hypercaloric diet can be responsible an increase in fat in the abdominal cavity as well as gastrointestinal morphological alterations, principally in stomach development. PMID:23807857

  11. Morphological Changes in Rat Vestibular System Following Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Muriel D.

    1993-01-01

    Mammalian gravity receptors (maculas) are morphologically organized for weighted, parallel distributed processing of information. There are two basic circuits: 1) highly channeled, type I cell to calyx; and 2) distributed modifying, type II cells to calyces and processes. The latter circuit should be the more adaptable since it modifies final output. To test this hypothesis, rats were flown in microgravity for 9 days aboard a space shuttle and euthanized shortly after landing. Hair cells and ribbon synapses from maculas of 3 flight and 3 ground control rats were studied ultrastructurally in blocks of 50 serial sections. Synapses increased by approximately 41% in type I cells and by approximately 55% in type II cells in flight animals. There was a shift toward the spherular form of ribbon synapse in both types of hair cells in flight animals. Current findings tend to support the stated hypothesis and indicate that mature utricular hair cells retain synaptic plasticity, permitting adaptation to an altered gravitational environment.

  12. Morphological and genetic characterization of Saimiri boliviensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The taxonomy of the genus Saimiri is controversial since morphological characters, traditionally used for identification, are insufficient to distinguish species and subspecies. Genetic studies of specimens in captivity become relevant, especially considering their frequently unknown geographical or...

  13. Morphologic effects of cysteamine on the rat adenohypophysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cairns, P.D.; McComb, D.J.; Horvath, E.; Kovacs, K.; Milligan, J.V.; Szabo, S.

    1984-12-01

    In pituitary lactotrophs of female Sprague-Dawley rats given cysteamine (300 mg/kg, per os/day) for 7 days, forming granules were increased in number and contained many separate electron-dense structures suggesting crinophagy. Compared to control values, cysteamine treatment caused no change in blood prolactin (PRL) levels, measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). 17 beta-Estradiol (50 micrograms, sc/day) for 7 days, induced lactotroph hyperplasia and increased blood PRL levels which were unaffected by simultaneous cysteamine administration. The ultrastructural changes did not reflect those due to bromocriptine suppression of secretory activity, and supported the concept that cysteamine altered lactotroph morphology by an unknown mechanism. In pituitary gonadotrophs following cysteamine treatment, increased electron lucency of luminal contents of dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum was noted; however, blood luteinizing hormone (LH) levels did not differ from those of control values. In ovariectomized rats, cysteamine suppressed castration cell formation and reduced blood LH levels, suggesting an interference with the cell's ability to respond to GnRH stimulation. The morphologic effects of cysteamine appeared to be selective to lactotrophs and gonadotrophs, and were not secondary to vascular impairment, as capillary endothelial cells were undamaged.

  14. Computational tool for morphological analysis of cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Leite, Maria Ruth C R; Cestari, Idagene A; Cestari, Ismar N

    2015-08-01

    This study describes the development and evaluation of a semiautomatic myocyte edge-detector using digital image processing. The algorithm was developed in Matlab 6.0 using the SDC Morphology Toolbox. Its conceptual basis is the mathematical morphology theory together with the watershed and Euclidean distance transformations. The algorithm enables the user to select cells within an image for automatic detection of their borders and calculation of their surface areas; these areas are determined by adding the pixels within each myocyte's boundaries. The algorithm was applied to images of cultured ventricular myocytes from neonatal rats. The edge-detector allowed the identification and quantification of morphometric alterations in cultured isolated myocytes induced by 72 hours of exposure to a hypertrophic agent (50 μM phenylephrine). There was a significant increase in the mean surface area of the phenylephrine-treated cells compared with the control cells (p<;0.05), corresponding to cellular hypertrophy of approximately 50%. In conclusion, this edge-detector provides a rapid, repeatable and accurate measurement of cell surface areas in a standardized manner. Other possible applications include morphologic measurement of other types of cultured cells and analysis of time-related morphometric changes in adult cardiac myocytes. PMID:26737051

  15. High-intensity exercise may compromise renal morphology in rats.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, V A; Tassi, M; Nebot, E; Camiletti-Moirn, D; Ortega, E; Porres, J M; Aranda, P

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the renal effects of a high-intensity exercise (HIE) program based on strength training. 20 Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 2 experimental groups performing HIE or control over 12 weeks. Urinary volume, pH, citrate and calcium, and plasma urea, total proteins, creatinine, albumin, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase (CK), calcium, magnesium, corticosterone and testosterone were measured. We also studied renal morphology with the Fibrosis HR() software. Plasma urea and CK concentrations were higher in the HIE compared to the control group (p < 0.05), whereas plasma creatinine was lower (p < 0.01). Plasma corticosterone was higher (p < 0.05) and testosterone lower (p < 0.01) in the HIE group. Except for the higher urinary volume found in the HIE group (p < 0.05), no differences between groups were observed in the rest of urinary parameters analyzed. Renal interstitial connective tissue was ~30% higher in the HIE group (p < 0.05). Glomerular tufts and mesangial areas were also higher in the HIE group (all, p < 0.05). No differences between groups were observed in the glomerular area. Overall, HIE promoted a worse morphological renal profile that might be associated with a higher risk for incidence of kidney disease in the long-term. The stress induced by the type of exercise performed could be on the basis of this worse morphological renal status. PMID:24424961

  16. MORPHOLOGICAL AND RHEOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF BIOBLENDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioblends are polymer blends in which at least one of the components is a biodegradable polymer. Melt extruded model bioblends, comprising a biodegradable polyester and polystyrene (PS), were investigated using rheological and morphological (TEM) methods. Blend compositions were varied from neat P...

  17. Breast cancer subtypes: morphologic and biologic characterization.

    PubMed

    Masood, Shahla

    2016-01-01

    Advances in basic science, technology and translational research have created a revolution in breast cancer diagnosis and therapy. Researchers' discoveries of genes defining variability in response to therapy and heterogeneity in clinical presentations and tumor biology are the foundation of the path to personalized medicine. The success of personalized breast cancer care depends on access to pertinent clinical information and risk factors, optimal imaging findings, well-established morphologic features, and traditional and contemporary prognostic/predictive testing. The integration of these entities provides an opportunity to identify patients who can benefit from specific therapies, and demonstrates the link between breast cancer subtypes and their association with different tumor biology. It is critical to recognize specific types of breast cancer in individual patients and design optimal personalized therapy. This article will highlight the roles of morphologic features and established tumor biomarkers on patient outcome. PMID:26756229

  18. Neurotransmitter-Specific Synaptosomes in Rat Corpus Striatum: Morphological Variations*

    PubMed Central

    Gfeller, Eduard; Kuhar, Michael J.; Snyder, Solomon H.

    1971-01-01

    This communication describes ultrastructural variations among synaptosomal fractions isolated from the corpus striatum of the rat by incomplete equilibrium sedimentation in sucrose density gradients, and attempts to relate the variations to neurotransmitter-specific synaptosomes. The concentration of synaptosomes in each fraction of the density gradient was found to be correlated with the concentration of potassium, a marker for cytoplasm occluded within synaptosomes. Monoamine oxidase activity was found to be correlated with the incidence of free mitochondria in the gradients. Synaptosomes from denser gradient fractions showed a markedly increased frequency of adherent postsynaptic elements and intraterminal mitochondria. These denser gradient fractions were rich in synaptosomes containing norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, and acetylcholine, while synaptosomes in lighter portions of the gradients were rich in ?-aminobutyric acid and other amino acids. These data suggest that significant morphological variations may exist among different neurotransmitter-specific nerve terminals in the brain. Images PMID:4395685

  19. Morphological and functional alterations in glycerol preserved rat aortic allografts.

    PubMed

    Fahner, P J; Idu, M M; Legemate, D A; Vanbavel, E; Borstlap, J; Pfaffendorf, M; van Marle, J; van Gulik, T M

    2004-11-01

    Glycerol preservation is an effective method for long-term preservation of skin allografts and has a potential use in preserving arterial allografts. We evaluated the effect of glycerol concentration and incubation period on vessel-wall integrity of rat aortic allografts. No significant differences were measured in breaking strength (2.3 +/- 0.3 N) and bursting pressure (223 +/- 32 kPa) between standard glycerolized and control segments (1.7 +/- 0.3 N, 226 +/- 17 kPa). Isometric tension measurements showed complete lack of functional contraction and relaxation capacity in allograft segments prepared according to all preservation protocols. Morphologically, thickness of the vessel-wall media diminished after preservation using low (30/50/75%) or high (70/85/98%) concentrations of glycerol, as compared to control segments (i.e. 81 +/- 2.4 microm, 95 +/- 5.6 microm and 125 +/- 3.5 microm, respectively). Confocal microscopy and Fourier analysis demonstrated that vascular collagen and elastin bundle orientation had remained unaltered. Electron microscopy showed defragmentation of luminal endothelial cells. In conclusion, glycerol preservation of rat aorta resulted in an acellular tissue matrix, which maintained biomechanical integrity and extracellular matrix characteristics. The next step in the investigation will be to test the concept of glycerol preservation of arterial allografts in a vascular transplantation model. PMID:15636056

  20. Morphology and dendritic maturation of developing principal neurons in the rat basolateral amygdala.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Steven J; Ehrlich, David E; Rainnie, Donald G

    2016-03-01

    The basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) assigns emotional valence to sensory stimuli, and many amygdala-dependent behaviors undergo marked development during postnatal life. We recently showed principal neurons in the rat BLA undergo dramatic changes to their electrophysiological properties during the first postnatal month, but no study to date has thoroughly characterized changes to morphology or gene expression that may underlie the functional development of this neuronal population. We addressed this knowledge gap with reconstructions of biocytin-filled principal neurons in the rat BLA at postnatal days 7 (P7), 14, 21, 28, and 60. BLA principal neurons underwent a number of morphological changes, including a twofold increase in soma volume from P7 to P21. Dendritic arbors expanded significantly during the first postnatal month and achieved a mature distribution around P28, in terms of total dendritic length and distance from soma. The number of primary dendrites and branch points were consistent with age, but branch points were found farther from the soma in older animals. Dendrites of BLA principal neurons at P7 had few spines, and spine density increased nearly fivefold by P21. Given the concurrent increase in dendritic material, P60 neurons had approximately 17times as many total spines as P7 neurons. Together, these developmental transitions in BLA principal neuron morphology help explain a number of concomitant electrophysiological changes during a critical period in amygdala development. PMID:25381464

  1. Characterization of a coronavirus isolated from rats with sialoadenitis.

    PubMed

    Maru, M; Sato, K

    1982-01-01

    A causative agent, provisionally designated as CARS, was isolated from the enlarged submaxillary gland of rat which was characterized as a sialoadenitis, using mouse-derived Balb/c3T3 clone A31 (3T3) cell culture. The virus could be propagated in 3T3 cell culture where it produced multinucleated giant cells and formed clear plaques. It was identified as a member of the coronavirus group from the following results: RNA content was suggested by the lack of the effect of cytosine arabinoside, the infectivity was sensitive to lipid solvents and inactivated at 56 degrees C for 5 minutes, the viral particle showed typical coronavirus morphology which was approximately 100 nm in diameter. Serologically, although CARS and sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV) actually belonged to the rat-coronavirus group, some antigenic variations existed between these two agents in the results of both neutralization and complement-fixation tests using monovalent antisera. When inoculated intranasally into susceptible rats, CARS caused clinically and histologically overt sialoadenitis as observed in the natural outbreak, and retained its virulence for rats in several passages of mouse brain and even when cell culture was used, while rats which were inoculated with SDAV were asymptomatic. PMID:6289776

  2. Morphology of respiratory tract lesions in rats exposed to radon progeny

    SciTech Connect

    Dagle, G.E.; Cross, F.T.; Gies, R.A.

    1992-12-31

    We will discuss the morphologic features of lesions in the respiratory tract of rats exposed to radon and radon progeny. Groups of male Wister rats were exposed to from 10 to 1000 working levels (WL) of radon progeny in the presence of less than 1 to about 15 mg m{sup {minus}3} uranium ore dust. Cumulative exposures ranged from 20 to approximately 10,000 working level months (WLM). Higher exposure levels produced radiation pneumonitis characterized by interstitial fibrosis, associated with alveolar epithelial cell hyperplasia and accumulations of alveolar macrophages containing phagocytosed uranium ore dust. Nodular fibrosis and alveolar proteinosis were correlated with deposits of uranium ore dust. Vesicular emphysema also occurred at higher exposure levels. Pulmonary adenomatosis appeared to be a preneoplastic lesion; it was composed of nodular proliferation of bronchioloalveolar epithelium without disruption of the general architecture of the parenchyma. At exposure levels where rats lived longer than 1 y, lung tumors and a few tumors of the nasal cavity developed. The principal lung tumors were pulmonary adenomas, bronchioloalveolar carcinomas, papillary adenocarcinomas, epidermoid carcinomas, and adenosquamous carcinomas. Occasionally, malignant mesotheliomas and sarcomas were also present. The malignant lung tumors were characterized by invasion and occasionally metastasized to regional lymph nodes. Lower exposure rates produced more tumors, generally of different histologic types, and more fatal tumors than higher exposure rates. The similarity to relationships of human radon progeny exposure as far as incidence and types of lung tumors establish the validity of this animal model for studying radon carcinogenesis in humans.

  3. Morphological characterization of furfuraldehyde resins adsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, R.; Monteiro, S.N.; D`Almeida, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    Sugar cane is one of the most traditional plantation cultivated crops in large areas in Brazil. The State University of the North of Rio de Janeiro, UENF, is currently engaged in a program aimed to exploit the potentialities of sugar cane industry as a self sustained non-polluting enterprise. One of the projects being carried out at the UENF is the transformation of sugar cane bagasse in precursor materials for the industry of furan derivatives such as the furfuraldehyde resins obtained by acid catalysis. The possibility of employing acid catalyzed furfuraldehyde resins as selective adsorbents has arisen during a comprehensive study of physical-chemical adsorption properties of these materials. The morphology of these resins depend on the synthesis method. Scanning Electron Microscopic studies of these materials which were synthesized, in bulk (FH-M) and solution (FH-D), showed differences in surface density and particle size. Using mercury porosimeter techniques and BET adsorption methods, it was found different pore size distributions and a decrement in surface area when solvent was employed in the synthesis process. By thermogravimetric analysis it was found similar weight losses (6%) of water adsorption and a small differences in thermal stabilities.

  4. Characterization of surface morphology in epitaxial growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amar, Jacques G.; Family, Fereydoon

    1996-09-01

    Simulated kinematic antiphase RHEED and HRLEED profiles are calculated along with the surface structure factor for a model of {Fe}/{Fe(100) } deposition in order to clarify the interpretation of diffraction profiles in recent experiments on {Fe}/{Fe(100) } growth. Similar calculations are also presented for a self-affine surface. While self-affine surfaces do not exhibit a characteristic RHEED peak, in the case of surfaces with a typical length scale the simulated RHEED profile exhibits a peak corresponding to the typical feature size, in agreement with recent experiments. The existence of this peak appears to be due to the large amount of shadowing present in low-angle RHEED, which limits the amount of destructive interference between layers. In contrast, simulated antiphase HRLEED patterns appear to approach an invariant profile for both self-affine and mound-like surface morphologies. For the case of small mounds, our results predict a HRLEED profile with a weak peak corresponding to the average terrace size which moves outward with increasing coverage, and eventually reaches an invariant form due to angle selection. The disappearance of the HRLEED peak for surfaces which have large mound structures is explained in terms of the antiphase condition and the range of variation of terrace sizes and provides an alternative explanation for the HRLEED results observed in Ref. [10].

  5. Desensitized morphological and cytokine response after stretch-shortening muscle contractions as a feature of aging in rats.

    PubMed

    Rader, Erik P; Layner, Kayla N; Triscuit, Alyssa M; Kashon, Michael L; Gu, Ja K; Ensey, James; Baker, Brent A

    2015-12-01

    Recovery from contraction-induced injury is impaired with aging. At a young age, the secondary response several days following contraction-induced injury consists of edema, inflammatory cell infiltration, and segmental muscle fiber degeneration to aid in the clearance of damaged tissue and repair. This morphological response has not been wholly established at advanced age. Our aim was to characterize muscle fiber morphology 3 and 10days following stretch-shortening contractions (SSCs) varying in repetition number (i.e. 0, 30, 80, and 150) for young and old rats. For muscles of young rats, muscle fiber degeneration was overt at 3days exclusively after 80 or 150 SSCs and returned significantly closer to control values by 10days. For muscles of old rats, no such responses were observed. Transcriptional microarray analysis at 3days demonstrated that muscles of young rats differentially expressed up to 2144 genes while muscles of old rats differentially expressed 47 genes. Bioinformatic analysis indicated that cellular movement was a major biological process over-represented with genes that were significantly altered by SSCs especially for young rats. Protein levels in muscle for various cytokines and chemokines, key inflammatory factors for cell movement, increased 3- to 50-fold following high-repetition SSCs for young rats with no change for old rats. This age-related differential response was insightful given that for control (i.e. 0 SSCs) conditions, protein levels of circulatory cytokines/chemokines were increased with age. The results demonstrate ongoing systemic low-grade inflammatory signaling and subsequent desensitization of the cytokine/chemokine and morphological response to contraction-induced injury with aging - features which accompany age-related impairment in muscle recovery. PMID:26454037

  6. Recruitment order and dendritic morphology of rat phrenic motoneurons.

    PubMed

    Torikai, H; Hayashi, F; Tanaka, K; Chiba, T; Fukuda, Y; Moriya, H

    1996-03-01

    The detailed morphology of rat phrenic motoneurons (PMs) was studied in 40 electrophysiologically identified cells with intracellular injection of Neurobiotin. In 15 cells, the dendritic trees were fully analyzed by using path-distance analysis, and total surface area and volume were estimated. Based on their relative onset times (ROT; i.e., the time of firing onset relative to the onset of whole phrenic activity), PMs were classified into three types; early recruited (type E; ROT < 10%), late recruited (type L; ROT > 12.5%), and quiescent (type Q; not recruited under normal conditions). Dendrites constituted 93.3% of the surface area of cells and 38.9% of the cell volumes. The number of primary dendrites (nPD) averaged 10.1, and the mean number of terminations was 38.8. The combined diameters of primary dendrites of PMs correlated well with the total dendritic surface area and the number of dendritic terminations. Comparisons among cell types revealed that type Q cells had greater dendritic surface areas and volumes than type E or type L cells. With path-distance analysis, this difference was found to be due to differences between the cell types in the numbers of their dendrites, their combined dendritic lengths, and the number of their branches. The differences between these data and those available for cat motoneurons are discussed. The input resistance of PMs correlated with their total surface area but did not correlate with their somal surface area, indicating that, in rat, PM input resistance is a function of the entire neuronal membrane rather than of the somal surface alone. PMID:8698884

  7. Testicular morphology and cauda epididymal sperm reserves of male rats exposed to Nigerian Qua Iboe Brent crude oil

    PubMed Central

    Maduabuchi, Igwebuike U.; Olumuyiwa, Shoyinka S.V.

    2007-01-01

    Potential negative effects of exposure to Nigerian Qua Iboe Brent crude oil on the reproductive system of male rats was investigated. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were used for the experiment. Exposure to Nigerian Qua Iboe Brent crude oil was achieved via oral administration of increasing doses (0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 ml/rat) every other day for 4 weeks. Cauda epididymal sperm reserves and relative weights of the testes as well as histological features of the testes of rats that received the crude oil treatment were compared to those of control rats. The results described here showed a significant (p < 0.01) dose-dependent reduction in the cauda epididymal sperm reserves of rats that received crude oil treatment relative to the control group. The morphology of testes of the crude oil-exposed rats was characterized by the presence of interstitial exudates, degeneration, and necrosis of spermatogenic and interstitial (Leydig) cells. Findings indicate that exposure of male rats to Nigerian Qua Iboe Brent crude oil may have adversely affected their reproductive systems. This may imply possible reproductive health hazards for animals and humans that may be exposed to this environmental pollutant, especially in areas where oil spillage is a common feature. PMID:17322767

  8. Substrate influences rat osteoclast morphology and expression of potassium conductances.

    PubMed Central

    Arkett, S A; Dixon, S J; Sims, S M

    1992-01-01

    1. We studied the electrophysiological properties of freshly isolated rat osteoclasts using the whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique. Membrane currents were recorded from cells plated on three substates: dentine, type I collagen and glass. 2. Based on their morphology, we defined two categories of osteoclasts. 'Rounded' osteoclasts were dome-shaped and lacked lamellipodia. 'Spread' osteoclasts were flattened and had lamellipodia. The proportion of 'rounded' osteoclasts was significantly greater when cells were plated on dentine or type I collagen than when cells were plated on glass. 3. 'Spread' osteoclasts expressed an inwardly rectifying K+ conductance regardless of the substrate on which they were plated. 4. 'Rounded' osteoclasts, on all substrates, expressed a transient, outwardly rectifying conductance that was selective for K+ based on: reversal of deactivation tail currents at -74 mV; a 60 mV shift in tail current reversal potential for 10-fold change in [K+]o; and blockade of outward current by extracellular 4-aminopyridine, charybdotoxin, and intracellular Cs+. The outward K+ current had an activation threshold of approximately -50 mV, with half-activation at -29 mV. The current also exhibited voltage-dependent inactivation, with half-inactivation at approximately -40 mV. 5. Outward K+ current in 'rounded' osteoclasts was reduced when extracellular Ca2+ was removed and upon addition of Ni2+, but was unaffected by Cd2+ or nifedipine. 6. 'Rounded' osteoclasts had large whole-cell capacitance for their apparent surface area. Capacitance was positively correlated with K+ conductance. The additional surface membrane we detected through capacitance measurements may be the 'ruffled border' of actively resorbing osteoclasts. 7. We conclude that substrate influences the expression of osteoclast phenotype, as defined by morphology and K+ conductances. 'Rounded' osteoclasts express an outwardly rectifying K+ conductance, with no apparent inwardly rectifying K+ conductance. In contrast, 'spread' osteoclasts exhibit an inwardly rectifying K+ conductance with no outwardly rectifying K+ conductance. The 'spread' phenotype may represent a motile phase, while the 'rounded' phenotype may represent a resorptive phase of osteoclastic activity. Images Fig. 1 PMID:1338794

  9. Morphological evidence for local microcircuits in rat vestibular maculae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, M. D.

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that intramacular, unmyelinated segments of vestibular afferent nerve fibers and their large afferent endings (calyces) on type I hair cells branch. Many of the branches (processes) contain vesicles and are presynaptic to type II hair cells, other processes, intramacular nerve fibers, and calyces. This study used serial section transmission electron microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction methods to document the origins and distributions of presynaptic processes of afferents in the medial part of the adult rat utricular macula. The ultrastructural research focused on presynaptic processes whose origin and termination could be observed in a single micrograph. Results showed that calyces had 1) vesiculated, spine-like processes that invaginated type I cells and 2) other, elongate processes that ended on type II cells pre- as well as postsynaptically. Intramacular, unmyelinated segments of afferent nerve fibers gave origin to branches that were presynaptic to type II cells, calyces, calyceal processes, and other nerve fibers in the macula. Synapses with type II cells occurred opposite subsynaptic cisternae (C synapses); all other synapses were asymmetric. Vesicles were pleomorphic but were differentially distributed according to process origin. Small, clear-centered vesicles, approximately 40-60 nm in diameter, predominated in processes originating from afferent nerve fibers and basal parts of calyces. Larger vesicles approximately 70-120 nm in diameter having approximately 40-80 nm electron-opaque cores were dominant in processes originating from the necks of calyces. Results are interpreted to indicate the existence of a complex system of intrinsic feedforward (postsynaptic)-feedback (presynaptic) connections in a network of direct and local microcircuits. The morphological findings support the concept that maculae dynamically preprocess linear acceleratory information before its transmission to the central nervous system.

  10. Morphological and cytohistochemical evaluation of renal effects of cadmium-doped silica nanoparticles given intratracheally to rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coccini, T.; Roda, E.; Barni, S.; Manzo, L.

    2013-04-01

    Renal morphological parameters were determined in rats intratracheally instilled with model cadmium-containing silica nanoparticles (Cd-SiNPs, 1mg/rat), also exploring whether their potential modifications would be associated with toxicogenomic changes. Cd-SiNP effects, evaluated 7 and 30 days post-exposure, were assessed by (i) histopathology (Haematoxylin/Eosin Staining), (ii) characterization of apoptotic features by TUNEL staining. Data were compared with those obtained by CdCl2 (400?g/rat), SiNPs (600?g/rat), 0.1 ml saline. Area-specific cell apoptosis was observed in all treatment groups: cortex and inner medulla were the most affected regions. Apoptotic changes were apparent at 7 days post-exposure in both areas, and were still observable in inner medulla 30 days after treatment. Increase in apoptotic frequency was more pronounced in Cd-SiNP-treated animals compared to either CdCl2 or SiNPs. Histological findings showed comparable alterations in the renal glomerular (cortex) architecture occurring in all treatment groups at both time-points considered. The glomeruli appeared often collapsed, showing condensed, packed mesangial and endothelial cells. Oedematous haemorrhagic glomeruli were also observed in Cd-SiNPs-treated animals. Bare SiNPs caused morphological and apoptotic changes without modifying the renal gene expression profile. These findings support the concept that multiple assays and an integrated testing strategy should be recommended to characterize toxicological responses to nanoparticles in mammalian systems.

  11. Abnormal neuronal morphology and neurochemistry in the auditory brainstem of Fmr1 knockout rats.

    PubMed

    Ruby, K; Falvey, K; Kulesza, R J

    2015-09-10

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is an inherited neurodevelopmental disorder affecting nearly one in 5000 newborn males and is a leading genetic cause of autism spectrum disorder. In addition to developmental delays and intellectual impairment, FXS is characterized by seizures, attention deficit, and hypersensitivity to visual, tactile and auditory stimuli. The Fmr1 gene encodes Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), which is abundant in neurons, binds select mRNAs and functions as a negative regulator of mRNA translation. A deficiency in FMRP, as in FXS and Fmr1 knockout (KO) animals, results in neuronal dysmorphology and altered synaptic function. Additionally, there is evidence for disruption of GABAergic circuits in subjects lacking FMRP. Our previous studies demonstrated widespread expression of FMRP in human auditory brainstem neurons. Given this observation, we hypothesized that FMRP is highly expressed in rat auditory brainstem neurons and that the auditory hypersensitivity characteristic of FXS results from dysfunction of brainstem networks secondary to decreased expression of FMRP. In our investigation of postnatal day 50 (P50) control rats, we found that FMRP was widely expressed in neurons of the superior olivary complex (SOC). In P50 Fmr1 KO rats, many SOC neurons had a smaller soma when compared to controls, indicative of abnormal neuronal morphology. Additionally, neurons in the medial superior olive (MSO) were more round in Fmr1 KO rats. There was also reduced expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67) in neurons of the superior paraolivary nucleus (SPON) and a reduction in the number of calretinin-immunoreactive terminals associated with neurons of the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB). Together, these findings support the conclusion that the auditory dysfunction characteristic of FXS arises, at least in part, from defective brainstem networks. PMID:26166728

  12. Effect of White Kidney Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Beldia) on Small Intestine Morphology and Function in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Nciri, Nader; Cho, Namjun; Bergaoui, Nacef; Mhamdi, Faial El; Ammar, Aouatef Ben; Trabelsi, Najoua; Zekri, Sami; Gumira, Fathi; Mansour, Abderraouf Ben; Sassi, Fayal Haj; Aissa-Fennira, Fatma Ben

    2015-12-01

    The chronic ingestion of raw or undercooked kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) causes functional and morphological derangement in various tissues. The major objectives of this study were to investigate the gavage effects of a raw Beldia bean variety that is widely consumed in Tunisia, on the small intestine morphology and jejunal absorption of water, electrolytes, and glucose in Wistar rats. Twenty young male rats were randomly divided into two groups of 10 rats. The first group served as the control and was gavaged with 300?mg of a rodent pellet flour suspension (RPFS), whereas the second experimental group was challenged with 300?mg of a Beldia bean flour suspension (BBFS) for 10 days. Histological studies were performed using light and electron microcopy. The intestinal transport of water, sodium, potassium, and glucose was studied by perfusing the jejunal loops of the small bowels in vivo. The feeding experiments indicated that BBFS did not affect weight gain. Histomorphometric analyses showed that the villus heights, crypt depths, and crypt/villus ratios in the jejunum and ileum were greater in the BBFS-fed rats than controls. Electron microscopy studies demonstrated that the rats exposed to RPFS exhibited intact intestinal tracts; however, the BBFS-treated rats demonstrated intestinal alterations characterized by abnormal microvillus architectures, with short and dense or long and slender features, in addition to the sparse presence of vesicles near the brush border membrane. BBFS administration did not significantly affect glucose absorption. However, significant decreases were observed in water and electrolyte absorption compared with the uptake of the controls. In conclusion, raw Beldia beans distorted jejunum morphology and disturbed hydroelectrolytic flux. PMID:26488416

  13. Biochemical and morphologic characterization of acrylamide peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Lehning, E J; Persaud, A; Dyer, K R; Jortner, B S; LoPachin, R M

    1998-08-01

    To determine whether reduced Na+/K+-ATPase activity might be involved in acrylamide (ACR)-induced peripheral axon swelling and degeneration, rubidium (Rb+) transport was measured as an index of enzyme function. x-ray microanalysis was used to quantify elemental Rb uptake and accumulation in internodal myelinated axons, mitochondria, Schwann cells, and myelin of rat tibial nerve cryosections. Results demonstrated impairment of Rb uptake in tibial axons from orally intoxicated (2.8 mM ACR for 34 days), moderately affected rats. In severely affected oral rats (49 days), complete inhibition of Rb transport and frank axon degeneration were evident. However, in moderate-to-severely affected rats exposed to ACR via ip injection (50 mg/kg/day for 11 days), neither structural nor enzymatic changes were present in tibial fibers. These findings in nerve cryosections suggested inhibition of axolemmal Na+ pump activity and degeneration were dependent upon route of ACR administration. This possibility was substantiated by a quantitative longitudinal morphometric study of conventionally fixed tibial nerve. Oral ACR treatment (2.8 mM ACR for 15-49 days) was associated with progressive axon degeneration, which was preceded by atrophy. Axonal swellings were rarely (<1%) observed. In contrast, ip ACR injection (50 mg/kg/day for 5-11 days) produced classic behavioral neurotoxicity but did not alter axon morphology in tibial nerve. Thus, fiber degeneration and decreased Na+ pump activity were consequences of subchronic oral ACR administration. This parallel expression suggests a mechanistic relationship. However, the corresponding general neurotoxicological significance is unclear since, behavioral toxicity induced by ip ACR develops without structural and enzymatic changes in tibial nerve. PMID:9707497

  14. Morphologic Characterization of Nerves in Whole-Mount Airway Biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Canning, Brendan J.; Merlo-Pich, Emilio; Woodcock, Ashley A.; Smith, Jaclyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Neuroplasticity of bronchopulmonary afferent neurons that respond to mechanical and chemical stimuli may sensitize the cough reflex. Afferent drive in cough is carried by the vagus nerve, and vagal afferent nerve terminals have been well defined in animals. Yet, both unmyelinated C fibers and particularly the morphologically distinct, myelinated, nodose-derived mechanoreceptors described in animals are poorly characterized in humans. To date there are no distinctive molecular markers or detailed morphologies available for human bronchopulmonary afferent nerves. Objectives: Morphologic and neuromolecular characterization of the afferent nerves that are potentially involved in cough in humans. Methods: A whole-mount immunofluorescence approach, rarely used in human lung tissue, was used with antibodies specific to protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5) and, for the first time in human lung tissue, 200-kD neurofilament subunit. Measurements and Main Results: We have developed a robust technique to visualize fibers consistent with autonomic and C fibers and pulmonary neuroendocrine cells. A group of morphologically distinct, 200-kD neurofilament-immunopositive myelinated afferent fibers, a subpopulation of which did not express PGP9.5, was also identified. Conclusions: PGP9.5-immunonegative nerves are strikingly similar to myelinated airway afferents, the cough receptor, and smooth muscle–associated airway receptors described in rodents. These have never been described in humans. Full description of human airway nerves is critical to the translation of animal studies to the clinical setting. PMID:25906337

  15. Morphology and crystalline characterization of abalone shell and mimetic mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiajun; Xu, Yizhuang; Zhao, Ying; Huang, Yaping; Wang, Dujin; Jiang, Lei; Wu, Jinguang; Xu, Duanfu

    2003-05-01

    The microstructure and crystallization habit of natural abalone shells were characterized with the methods of SEM and XRD, etc. The soluble proteins extracted from the abalone shell play an important role on controlling the morphology and transformation of the mineral phase in the abalone shell. In vitro crystallization experiments of calcium carbonate showed that the addition of the soluble protein accelerates the transformation from vaterite to calcite.

  16. Benzodithiophene based ?-conjugated macrocycles: synthesis, morphology and electrochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Bedi, Anjan; Zade, Sanjio S

    2014-10-01

    A 7,8-didodecyloxybenzo[1,2-b:4,3-b']dithiophene (BdT-Dod) containing a macrocycle was synthesized from a thiophene capped BdT-Dod comonomer through a Ti(iv) mediated McMurry reaction and characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Additionally, the morphological characterization was performed by AFM and SEM to investigate the self-aggregation properties. The macrocycle underwent self-assembly in the solid state to form fibers on the Si/SiO2 surface with a length in the ?m range and a thickness of about 400 nm. PMID:25130594

  17. Skin morphology and its role in thermoregulation in mole-rats, Heterocephalus glaber and Cryptomys hottentotus

    PubMed Central

    DALY, T. JOSEPH M.; BUFFENSTEIN, ROCHELLE

    1998-01-01

    The skin structure of 2 Bathyergid rodents, the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) and the common mole-rat (Cryptomys hottentotus) is compared, to investigate whether thermoregulatory differences may be attributed to different skin features. Histological and ultrastructural studies of the dorsal skin of these closely related species show morphological and structural similarities but differences in the degree of skin folding, thickness of the integument and dermal infrastructure were evident. The skin of the common mole-rat conforms with expected morphological/histological arrangements that are commonly found in mammalian skin. Many features of the skin of the naked mole-rat, such as the lack of an insulating layer and the loosely folded morphological arrangement contribute to poikilothermic responses to changing temperatures of this mammal. Further evidence for poikilothermy in the naked mole-rat is indicated by the presence of pigment containing cells in the dermis, rather than the epidermis, as commonly occurs in homeotherms. Lack of fur is compensated by a thicker epidermal layer and a marked reduction in sweat glands. Differences in skin morphology thus contribute substantially to the different thermoregulatory abilities of the 2 Bathyergids. The skin morphology is related to the poor thermoinsulatory ability of the animals while simultaneously facilitating heat transfer from the environment to the animal by thigmothermy and/or other behavioural means. PMID:10029182

  18. Morphological evidence for natural poxvirus infection in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, L. M.; Dantoni Damelio, E.; Damelio, F. E.

    1982-01-01

    Focal inflammatory and desquamating lesions were seen in the nasal mucosa of rats that were flown aboard the Soviet satellite, Cosmos 1129, in 1979 and in the ground based controls. The infection was clinically inapparent. Electron microscopic examination revealed the presence of poxvirus virions in desquamating cells. The specific poxvirus involved could not be identified. The lesions appeared to be similar to those described by others in rats experimentally infected with mousepox (infectious ectromelia) virus by the intranasal route.

  19. Characterization of the spatial variability of channel morphology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moody, J.A.; Troutman, B.M.

    2002-01-01

    The spatial variability of two fundamental morphological variables is investigated for rivers having a wide range of discharge (five orders of magnitude). The variables, water-surface width and average depth, were measured at 58 to 888 equally spaced cross-sections in channel links (river reaches between major tributaries). These measurements provide data to characterize the two-dimensional structure of a channel link which is the fundamental unit of a channel network. The morphological variables have nearly log-normal probability distributions. A general relation was determined which relates the means of the log-transformed variables to the logarithm of discharge similar to previously published downstream hydraulic geometry relations. The spatial variability of the variables is described by two properties: (1) the coefficient of variation which was nearly constant (0.13-0.42) over a wide range of discharge; and (2) the integral length scale in the downstream direction which was approximately equal to one to two mean channel widths. The joint probability distribution of the morphological variables in the downstream direction was modelled as a first-order, bivariate autoregressive process. This model accounted for up to 76 per cent of the total variance. The two-dimensional morphological variables can be scaled such that the channel width-depth process is independent of discharge. The scaling properties will be valuable to modellers of both basin and channel dynamics. Published in 2002 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  20. Rapid morphological characterization of isolated mitochondria using Brownian motion

    PubMed Central

    Palanisami, Akilan; Fang, Jie; Lowder, Thomas W.; Kunz, Hawley; Miller, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial morphology has been associated with numerous pathologies including cancer, diabetes, obesity and heart disease. However, the connection is poorly understoodin part due to the difficulty of characterizing the morphology. This impedes the use of morphology as a tool for disease detection/monitoring. Here, we use the Brownian motion of isolated mitochondria to characterize their size and shape in a high throughput fashion. By using treadmill exercise training, mitochondria from heart and gastrocnemius of Balb/c mice were modulated in size and used to investigate the protocol. Consistent with previous reports, the heart mitochondria of untrained mice increased 5% in diameter immediately after a single bout of moderate exercise (1.091 0.004 ?m) as compared to completely sedentary controls (1.040 0.022 ?m). In addition, no change was observed in the size of gastrocnemius mitochondria (1.025 0.018 ?m), which was also in agreement with previous studies. The method was also successfully applied to smaller Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria. PMID:26435755

  1. Observation of the morphology and calcium content of vestibular otoconia in rats after simulated weightlessness

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiangping; Peng, Zhenhui; Yang, Miaoli; Zhang, Xianghong; Wei, Junrong; Xu, Min; Zheng, Qing Yin

    2010-01-01

    Conclusions Reduction in bone formation may have been the main reason for the lower calcium content of the otoconia after simulated weightlessness in rats. The head-ward distribution of blood volume may explain the morphological changes observed in the middle and inner ears. Objective To observe morphological changes in the vestibular organs and measure the calcium content of otoconia in rats after simulated weightlessness. Material and methods We used a tail suspension model of simulated weightlessness and then investigated changes in the vestibular organs using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis. Results In comparison to untreated rats, the vestibular otoconia of the rats subjected to simulated weightlessness were small, irregularly shaped or fissured, and were arranged loosely and out of order. In addition, the calcium content of the otoconia was markedly decreased. PMID:16298783

  2. Extensive morphological and immunohistochemical characterization in myotubular myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Shichiji, Minobu; Biancalana, Valrie; Fardeau, Michel; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Osawa, Makiko; Laporte, Jocelyn; Romero, Norma Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    The X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM) also called X-linked centronuclear myopathy is a rare congenital myopathy due to mutations in the MTM1 gene encoding myotubularin. The disease gives rise to a severe muscle weakness in males at birth. The main muscle morphological characteristics (significant number of small muscle fibers with centralized nuclei and type 1 fiber predominance) are usually documented, but the sequence of formation and maintenance of this particular morphological pattern has not been extensively characterized in humans. In this study, we perform a reevaluation of morphological changes in skeletal muscle biopsies in severe XLMTM. We correlate the pathologic features observed in the muscle biopsies of 15 newborns with MTM1-mutations according to the adjusted-age at the time of muscle biopsy, focusing on sequential analysis in the early period of the life (from 34 weeks of gestation to 3 months of age). We found a similar morphological pattern throughout the period analyzed; the proportion of myofibers with central nuclei was high in all muscle biopsies, independently of the muscle type, the age of the newborns at time of biopsy and the specific MTM1 mutation. We did not observe a period free of morphological abnormalities in human skeletal muscle as observed in myotubularin-deficient mouse models. In addition, this study demonstrated some features of delayed maturation of the muscle fibers without any increase in the number of satellite cells, associated with a marked disorganization of the muscle T-tubules and cytoskeletal network in the skeletal muscle fibers. PMID:24381816

  3. Alloxan-Induced Diabetes Causes Morphological and Ultrastructural Changes in Rat Liver that Resemble the Natural History of Chronic Fatty Liver Disease in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Cassettari, Lucas Langoni; Spadella, César Tadeu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. This study evaluated the long-term effects of alloxan-induced diabetes in rat liver. Methods. Thirty nondiabetic control rats (NC) and 30 untreated diabetic (UD) rats were divided into three subgroups sacrificed after 6, 14, or 26 weeks. Clinical and laboratory parameters were assessed. Fresh liver weight and its relationship with body weight were obtained, and liver tissue was analyzed. Results. UD rats showed sustained hyperglycemia, high glycosylated hemoglobin, and low plasma insulin. High serum levels of AST and ALT were observed in UD rats after 2 weeks, but only ALT remained elevated throughout the experiment. Fresh liver weight was equal between NC and UD rats, but the fresh liver weight/body weight ratio was significantly higher in UD rats after 14 and 26 weeks. UD rats showed liver morphological changes characterized by hepatic sinusoidal enlargement and micro- and macrovesicular hepatocyte fatty degeneration with progressive liver structure loss, steatohepatitis, and periportal fibrosis. Ultrastructural changes of hepatocytes, such as a decrease in the number of intracytoplasmic organelles and degeneration of mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and nuclei, were also observed. Conclusion. Alloxan-induced diabetes triggered liver morphological and ultrastructural changes that closely resembled human disease, ranging from steatosis to steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis. PMID:25789328

  4. Abnormal bone collagen morphology and decreased bone strength in growth hormone-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Lange, Martin; Qvortrup, Klaus; Svendsen, Ole Lander; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Nowak, Jette; Petersen, Michael M; ØLgaard, Klaus; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2004-07-01

    Patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) have an increased risk of bone fractures. In these patients, the well-described decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) may, however, not alone explain the increase in fracture rate. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to evaluate collagen morphology and bone mineralisation in cortical bone as well as bone strength in GHD rats to try to clarify the explanation for the increased fracture rate. The Dw-4 rat was used as a model for GHD. This strain of rats has an autosomal recessive disorder, reducing GH synthesis to approximately 10% and growth rate to approximately 40-50% when compared to normal control rats. Five male Dw-4 rats were examined at age 12 weeks and five healthy Lewis rats served as age-matched controls. The animals were examined for (1) bone mineral status by dual energy X-ray absorptometry (DXA) and ash weight/bone volume, (2) biomechanical properties, (3) serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), and (4) collagen morphology of cortical bone from the right femurs was examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. A significant decrease was found in serum IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and biomechanical properties in GHD rats compared to controls (P < 0.009). While DXA-derived BMD was decreased, no significant difference was found in ash weight/bone volume. Electron microscopy showed a significant decrease in the number and a significant increase in the diameter of collagen microfibrils in GHD rats as compared to their controls (P < 0.009). In conclusion, we report for the first time that collagen morphology in bone is markedly altered in rats with isolated GHD. Whether similar conditions are present in GHD patients need further investigations. The changes described, however, may provide a co-explanation for the increased fracture rate in GHD. PMID:15207754

  5. Characterization of rat cecum cellulolytic bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, L; Macy, J M

    1982-01-01

    Cellulose-degrading bacteria previously isolated from the ceca of rats have been characterized and identified. The most commonly isolated type was rods identified as Bacteroides succinogenes. These bacteria fermented only cellulose (e.g., pebble-milled Whatman no. 1 filter paper), cellobiose, and in 43 of 47 strains, glucose, with succinic and acetic acids as the major products. The only organic growth factors found to be required by selected strains were p-aminobenzoic acid, cyanocobalamine, thiamine, and a straight-chain and a branched-chain volatile fatty acid. These vitamin requirements differ from those of rumen strains of B. succinogenes, indicating the rat strains may form a distinct subgroup within the species. The mole percent guanine plus cytosine was 45%, a value lower than those (48 to 51%) found for three rumen strains of B. succinogenes included in this study. Cellulolytic cocci were isolated less frequently than the rods and were identified as Rumminococcus flavefaciens. Most strains fermented only cellulose and cellobiose, and their major fermentation products were also succinic and acetic acids. Their required growth factors were not identified but were supplied by rumen fluid. Images PMID:7159086

  6. Quercetin induces morphological and proliferative changes of rats uteri under estrogen and progesterone influences

    PubMed Central

    Shahzad, Huma; Giribabu, Nelli; Muniandy, Sekaran; Salleh, Naguib

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of 10 or 100 mg/kg/day quercetin on the uterus of ovariectomized adult female rats receiving sex-steroid replacement regime mimicking changes in hormonal profiles during the reproductive cycle. Following seven days of treatment with estrogen and progesterone with or without quercetin, uteri were harvested for histological and proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein and mRNA expression and PCNA protein distribution analyses. Our findings indicated that co-administration of 10 mg/kg/day quercetin with estrogen and progesterone caused a significant decrease in the size of uterine lumen and epithelial heights with lower PCNA protein and mRNA expression as compared to estrogen plus progesterone-only treatment (P < 0.05). Concomitant treatment with estrogen and progesterone with 100 mg/kg/day quercetin resulted in a marked increase in the number of glands with increased PCNA protein and mRNA expression. Significantly higher PCNA distribution was observed in the stroma and glands as compared to estrogen plus progesterone-only treatment (P < 0.05). In conclusion, at 10 mg/kg/day, quercetin affects uterine morphology but not proliferation, however at 100 mg/kg/day, quercetin induced significant stromal and glandular proliferation which could predispose the uterus towards neoplastic development. PMID:25337190

  7. Polarized light scattering technique for morphological characterization of waterborne pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devarakonda, Venkat V.; Manickavasagam, Sivakumar

    2009-05-01

    We have recently developed an elliptically polarized light scattering (EPLS) technique to characterize the morphology of fine particles suspended in an optically non-absorbing medium such as water. This technique provides the size distribution, shape and agglomeration characteristics of suspended particles. This technique can be used to detect various types of biological pathogens such as bacteria, protozoa and viruses in potable water systems. Here we report results obtained from EPLS measurements on two strains of Bacillus spores suspended in water along with comparison with electron microscopy.

  8. Synthesis and morphology characterization of polydimethylsiloxane-containing block copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadley, Maurice

    The thin film morphology characteristics of polydimethylsiloxane-containing block copolymers have been investigated. For this investigation, a commercially available hydroxyl terminated PDMS was purchased from Gelest and attached to a carboxylic acid functional reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) agent by Steglich esterification. This produced macro-RAFT agents to which styrene monomer was polymerized. By using this approach the generation of low polydispersity polystyrene-block-polydimethylsiloxane (PS-block-PDMS) copolymers of various molecular weights spanning a wide volume fraction range in which the PDMS block remained the same in each polymerization. Synthesized block copolymers were characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Bulk and thin film characterization of PS-block-PDMS copolymers was done by small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), contact angle measurements, scanning force microscopy (SFM), and grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). The following observations have been made. For PS-rich PS-block -PDMS copolymer thin films the low surface tension of PDMS caused it to migrate to the film surface regardless of solvent choice. The surface morphology was found to depend strongly on the solubility parameter of the solvent and exhibited SFM images consistent with parallel cylinder, perforated lamellar, and lamellar surface layers with increasing solvent solubility parameter. This behavior was due to the selective swelling of the individual blocks under slightly selective, good solvent conditions. A custom solvent annealing apparatus provided similar results in which order-order transitions in the thin films were observed with increasing solvent solubility parameter. Additionally improvements in the long-range order were observed after 1 h of solvent annealing. PS-rich PS-block-PDMS copolymer thin films also displayed PDMS rich surfaces after casting. Etching of this wetting layer by exposure to ultraviolet/ozone (UVO) cleaner allowed characterization of the interior film morphology. GISAXS was also able to characterize domain orientation in the as-cast and selectively etched thin films. PDMS cylinder orientation in PS-block-PDMS copolymer was found to be dependent on solvent choice and polymer molecular weight. The likely mechanism for perpendicularly oriented PDMS cylinders in selective solvents was an order-order transition to spheres where cylinders would nucleate at the air/film surface and template a perpendicularly oriented morphology during evaporation induced ordering. Perpendicularly oriented PDMS cylinders were observed in the lower molecular weight PS-rich PS- block-PDMS thin film samples indicating a preferential molecular weight range for the formation of perpendicular domains. Solvent annealing in PS selective chlorobenzene improved the long range order, but was not a strong driving force in altering domain orientation.

  9. Crack layer morphology and toughness characterization in steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chudnovsky, A.; Bessendorf, M.

    1983-01-01

    Both the macro studies of crack layer propagation are presented. The crack extension resistance parameter R sub 1 based on the morphological study of microdefects is introduced. Experimental study of the history dependent nature of G sub c supports the representation of G sub c as a product of specific enthalpy of damage (material constant) and R sub 1. The latter accounts for the history dependence. The observation of nonmonotonic crack growth under monotonic changes of J as well as statistical features of the critical energy release rate (variance of G sub c) indicate the validity of the proposed damage characterization.

  10. Effects of developmental hyperserotonemia on the morphology of rat dentate nuclear neurons.

    PubMed

    Hough, L H; Segal, S

    2016-05-13

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social cognition, disordered communication, restricted interests and repetitive behaviors. Furthermore, abnormalities in basic motor control, skilled motor gestures, and motor learning, are common in ASD. These characteristics have been attributed to a possible defect in the pre- and postnatal development of specific neural networks including the dentate-thalamo-cortical pathway, which is involved in motor learning, automaticity of movements, and higher cognitive functions. The current study utilized custom diolistic labeling and unbiased stereology to characterize morphological alterations in neurons of the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum in developing rat pups exposed to abnormally high levels of the serotonergic agonist 5-methyloxytryptamine (5-MT) pre-and postnatally. Occurring in as many as 30% of autistic subjects, developmental hyperserotonemia (DHS) is the most consistent neurochemical finding reported in autism and has been implicated in the pathophysiology of ASD. This exposure produced dramatic changes in dendritic architecture and synaptic features. We observed changes in the dendritic branching morphology which did not lead to significant differences (p>0.5) in total dendritic length. Instead, DHS groups presented with dendritic trees that display changes in arborescence, that appear to be short reaching with elaborately branched segments, presenting with significantly fewer (p>0.001) dendritic spines and a decrease in numeric density when compared to age-matched controls. These negative changes may be implicated in the neuropathological and functional/behavioral changes observed in ASD, such as delays in motor learning, difficulties in automaticity of movements, and deficits in higher cognitive functions. PMID:26892293

  11. Aircraft noise exposure affects rat behavior, plasma norepinephrine levels, and cell morphology of the temporal lobe.

    PubMed

    Di, Guo-Qing; Zhou, Bing; Li, Zheng-Guang; Lin, Qi-Li

    2011-12-01

    In order to investigate the physiological effects of airport noise exposure on organisms, in this study, we exposed Sprague-Dawley rats in soundproof chambers to previously recorded aircraft-related noise for 65 d. For comparison, we also used unexposed control rats. Noise was arranged according to aircraft flight schedules and was adjusted to its weighted equivalent continuous perceived noise levels (L(WECPN)) of 75 and 80 dB for the two experimental groups. We examined rat behaviors through an open field test and measured the concentrations of plasma norepinephrine (NE) by high performance liquid chromatography-fluorimetric detection (HPLC-FLD). We also examined the morphologies of neurons and synapses in the temporal lobe by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our results showed that rats exposed to airport noise of 80 dB had significantly lower line crossing number (P<0.05) and significantly longer center area duration (P<0.05) than control animals. After 29 d of airport noise exposure, the concentration of plasma NE of exposed rats was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). We also determined that the neuron and synapsis of the temporal lobe of rats showed signs of damage after aircraft noise of 80 dB exposure for 65 d. In conclusion, exposing rats to long-term aircraft noise affects their behaviors, plasma NE levels, and cell morphology of the temporal lobe. PMID:22135145

  12. Characterization of ocular gland morphology and tear composition of pinnipeds

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Robin Kelleher; Doane, Marshall G.; Knop, Erich; Knop, Nadja; Dubielzig, Richard R.; Colitz, Carmen M. H.; Argeso, Pablo; Sullivan, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The importance of tear film integrity to ocular health in terrestrial mammals is well established, however, in marine mammals, the role of the tear film in protection of the ocular surface is not known. In an effort to better understand the function of tears in maintaining health of the marine mammal eye surface, we examined ocular glands of the California sea lion, and began to characterize the biochemical nature of the tear film of pinnipeds. Procedures Glands dissected from California sea lion eyelids and adnexa were examined for gross morphology, sectioned for microscopic analysis, and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The tear film was examined using interferometry. Tears were collected from humans and pinnipeds for analysis of protein and carbohydrate content. Results The sea lion has sebaceous glands in the lid, but these glands are different in size and orientation compared to typical meibomian glands of terrestrial mammals. Two other accessory ocular glands located dorsotemporally and medially appeared to be identical in morphology, with tubulo-acinar morphology. An outer lipid layer on the ocular surface of the sea lion was not detected using interferometry, consistent with the absence of typical meibomian glands. Similar to human tears, the tears of pinnipeds contain several proteins but the ratio of carbohydrate to protein was greater than that in human tears. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the ocular gland architecture and biochemical nature of the tear film of pinnipeds have evolved to adapt to the challenges of an aquatic environment. PMID:23067374

  13. Morphological characterization of adult mouse Leydig cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Qi; Cao, Wen-Guang

    2016-01-22

    The morphology and function of Leydig cells are changed during the development, mature and senility of Leydig cells along the life span of males. This study was to observe the growth morphology of adult mouse Leydig cells in culture, aiming to provide a reference for furthermore understanding of the biological function of Leydig cells by invitro model. Testes of two-month-old mice were decapsulated and then the Leydig cells were isolated by collagenase digestion and were cultured in DMEM/F12 supplemented with 10% FBS. The Leydig cells were identified by HSD3B staining and RT-PCR. After 48-h Leydig cell culture, both the nucleus and the cytoplasm were very clear under the optical microscope. The nucleus was big and round and the cytoplasm was filled with abundant lipid drops with a strong refractivity. After 5-day culture, Leydig cells were fully elongated in spindle, triangular, polygonal, oval or irregular shapes. Some cells grew in aggregation, and some cells grew independently. Leydig cells in aggregation elongated many cellular tentacles for intercellular connections, which formed an epithelium-like appearance. After HSD3B staining, the individual Leydig cells were stained with different extents, demonstrated that the heterogeneity of HSD3B activity in individual Leydig cells in primary culture. RT-PCR results showed that Leydig cells in culture after 5 days could express Leydig cell-specific transcriptions, HSD3B6, CYP17A1 and StAR. These results showed the morphological characterization of adult mouse Leydig cells in culture, which will lay a foundation to elucidate the relationship between the morphology and function of Leydig cells. PMID:26686420

  14. Morphological, Host Range, and Genetic Characterization of Two Coliphages

    PubMed Central

    Goodridge, Lawrence; Gallaccio, Alicia; Griffiths, Mansel W.

    2003-01-01

    Two coliphages, AR1 and LG1, were characterized based on their morphological, host range, and genetic properties. Transmission electron microscopy showed that both phages belonged to the Myoviridae; phage particles of LG1 were smaller than those of AR1 and had an isometric head 68 nm in diameter and a complex contractile tail 111 nm in length. Transmission electron micrographs of AR1 showed phage particles consisting of an elongated isometric head of 103 by 74 nm and a complex contractile tail 116 nm in length. Both phages were extensively tested on many strains of Escherichia coli and other enterobacteria. The results showed that both phages could infect many serotypes of E. coli. Among the enterobacteria, Proteus mirabilis, Shigella dysenteriae, and two Salmonella strains were lysed by the phages. The genetic material of AR1 and LG1 was characterized. Phage LG1 had a genome size of 49.5 kb compared to 150 kb for AR1. Restriction endonuclease analysis showed that several restriction enzymes could degrade DNA from both phages. The morphological, genome size, and restriction endonuclease similarities between AR1 and phage T4 were striking. Southern hybridizations showed that AR1 and T4 are genetically related. The wide host ranges of phages AR1 and LG1 suggest that they may be useful as biocontrol, therapeutic, or diagnostic agents to control and detect the prevalence of E. coli in animals and food. PMID:12957924

  15. Analysis of rat cytosolic 9-cis-retinol dehydrogenase activity and enzymatic characterization of rat ADHII.

    PubMed

    Popescu, G; Napoli, J L

    2000-01-01

    We report the characterization of two enzymes that catalyze NAD(+)-dependent 9-cis-retinol dehydrogenase activity in rat liver cystol. Alcohol dehydrogenase class I (ADHI) contributes > 80% of the NA D+-dependent 9-cis-retinol dehydrogenase activity recovered, whereas alcohol dehydrogenase class II (ADHII), not identified previously at the protein level, nor characterized enzymatically in rat, accounts for approximately 2% of the activity. Rat ADHII exhibits properties different from those described for human ADHII. Moreover, rat ADHII-catalyzed rates of ethanol dehydrogenation are markedly lower than octanol or retinoid dehydrogenation rates. Neither ethanol nor 4-methylpyrazole inhibits the 9-cis-retinol dehydrogenase activity of rat ADHII. We propose that ADHII represents the previously observed additional retinoid oxidation activity of rat liver cytosol which occurred in the presence of either ethanol or 4-methylpyrazole. We also show that human and rat ADHII differ considerably in enzymatic properties. PMID:10606766

  16. KIDNEY MORPHOLOGY AND FUNCTION IN THE YOUNG OF RATS MALNOURISHED AND EXPOSED TO NITROFEN DURING PREGNANCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The separate and combined effects of prenatal protein deficiency (65 casein) and prenatal nitrofen exposure (12.5 mg/kg on gestational days 7-21) on renal morphology in the 21-day fetal and postnatal rat were examined. Maternal protein deprivation reduced maternal feed intake, fe...

  17. Morphologic changes in uranyl nitrate-induced acute renal failure in saline- and water-drinking rats

    SciTech Connect

    Haley, D.P.

    1982-02-01

    The sequential changes in renal morphology that occurred for 5 subsequent days after a subcutaneous injection of uranyl nitrate (10 mg. per kg.) were examined in saline- and water-drinking rats using light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The cortical proximal tubule exhibited diffuse focal brush border loss and increased vacuolization by 1 hour after administration of the nephrotoxin. By 5 days, the P2 and P3 segments were completely necrotic. Cells of P1 segments accumulated large vacuoles throughout their cytoplasm, and distal nephron segments exhibited considerable cellular swelling and vacuolization. Scanning electron microscopy revealed abnormalities in glomerular epithelial cells similar to those seen in humans with chronic renal disease and in experimental animal models characterized by proteinuria. There was essentially no difference in the morphologic response of saline- and water-drinking rats. Although uranyl nitrate administered at this dosage resulted in the relatively slow development of tubular necrosis, changes in renal morphology could be seen within an hour and progressed insidiously throughout the study with little evidence of regeneration.

  18. Longitudinal Analysis of Calorie Restriction on Rat Taste Bud Morphology and Expression of Sweet Taste Modulators

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Huan; Daimon, Caitlin M.; Cong, Wei-na; Wang, Rui; Chirdon, Patrick; de Cabo, Rafael; Svigny, Jean; Maudsley, Stuart; Martin, Bronwen

    2014-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is a lifestyle intervention employed to reduce body weight and improve metabolic functions primarily via reduction of ingested carbohydrates and fats. Taste perception is highly related to functional metabolic status and body adiposity. We have previously shown that sweet taste perception diminishes with age; however, relatively little is known about the effects of various lengths of CR upon taste cell morphology and function. We investigated the effects of CR on taste bud morphology and expression of sweet tasterelated modulators in 5-, 17-, and 30-month-old rats. In ad libitum (AL) and CR rats, we consistently found the following parameters altered significantly with advancing age: reduction of taste bud size and taste cell numbers per taste bud and reduced expression of sonic hedgehog, type 1 taste receptor 3 (T1r3), ?-gustducin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). In the oldest rats, CR affected a significant reduction of tongue T1r3, GLP-1, and ?-gustducin expression compared with age-matched AL rats. Leptin receptor immunopositive cells were elevated in 17- and 30-month-old CR rats compared with age-matched AL rats. These alterations of sweet tasterelated modulators, specifically during advanced aging, suggest that sweet taste perception may be altered in response to different lengths of CR. PMID:24077597

  19. Morphological development of thick-tufted layer v pyramidal cells in the rat somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Romand, Sandrine; Wang, Yun; Toledo-Rodriguez, Maria; Markram, Henry

    2011-01-01

    The thick-tufted layer V pyramidal (TTL5) neuron is a key neuron providing output from the neocortex. Although it has been extensively studied, principles governing its dendritic and axonal arborization during development are still not fully quantified. Using 3-D model neurons reconstructed from biocytin-labeled cells in the rat somatosensory cortex, this study provides a detailed morphological analysis of TTL5 cells at postnatal day (P) 7, 14, 21, 36, and 60. Three developmental periods were revealed, which were characterized by distinct growing rates and properties of alterations in different compartments. From P7 to P14, almost all compartments grew fast, and filopodia-like segments along apical dendrite disappeared; From P14 to P21, the growth was localized on specified segments of each compartment, and the densities of spines and boutons were significantly increased; From P21 to P60, the number of basal dendritic segments was significantly increased at specified branch orders, and some basal and oblique dendritic segments were lengthened or thickened. Development changes were therefore seen in two modes: the fast overall growth during the first period and the slow localized growth (thickening mainly on intermediates or lengthening mainly on terminals) at the subsequent stages. The lengthening may be accompanied by the retraction on different segments. These results reveal a differential regulation in the arborization of neuronal compartments during development, supporting the notion of functional compartmental development. This quantification provides new insight into the potential value of the TTL5 morphology for information processing, and for other purposes as well. PMID:21369363

  20. Morphological changes in the rat carotid body following acute sodium nitrite treatment.

    PubMed

    Atanasova, Dimitrinka Y; Lazarov, Nikolai E

    2016-01-15

    The carotid body (CB) is a small neural crest-derived chemosensory organ that detects the chemical composition of the arterial blood and responds to its changes by regulating breathing. The effects of acute nitrite treatment on the CB morphology in rats were examined by morphometry. We found that 1h after administrating a single dose of sodium nitrite, the CB underwent structural changes characterized by a prominent increase in its size with a marked, several-fold dilation of the blood vessels. The obvious CB enlargement mostly due to apparent vasodilation and glomus cell hypertrophy was at its highest one day later and persisted until the fifth day. 20 days after the treatment, the CB regained its size to the normoxic control state. Morphometric analysis revealed that the CB size increase in treated animals is statistically significant when compared to that of untreated controls. It can be inferred that the nitrite-exposed CB displays remarkable structural plasticity and enlarges its size mostly through vascular expansion. PMID:26528896

  1. BrainPrint: a discriminative characterization of brain morphology.

    PubMed

    Wachinger, Christian; Golland, Polina; Kremen, William; Fischl, Bruce; Reuter, Martin

    2015-04-01

    We introduce BrainPrint, a compact and discriminative representation of brain morphology. BrainPrint captures shape information of an ensemble of cortical and subcortical structures by solving the eigenvalue problem of the 2D and 3D Laplace-Beltrami operator on triangular (boundary) and tetrahedral (volumetric) meshes. This discriminative characterization enables new ways to study the similarity between brains; the focus can either be on a specific brain structure of interest or on the overall brain similarity. We highlight four applications for BrainPrint in this article: (i) subject identification, (ii) age and sex prediction, (iii) brain asymmetry analysis, and (iv) potential genetic influences on brain morphology. The properties of BrainPrint require the derivation of new algorithms to account for the heterogeneous mix of brain structures with varying discriminative power. We conduct experiments on three datasets, including over 3000 MRI scans from the ADNI database, 436 MRI scans from the OASIS dataset, and 236 MRI scans from the VETSA twin study. All processing steps for obtaining the compact representation are fully automated, making this processing framework particularly attractive for handling large datasets. PMID:25613439

  2. Spectroscopic and morphologic characterization of the dentin/adhesive interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemor, R. M.; Kruger, Michael B.; Wieliczka, David M.; Swafford, Jim R.; Spencer, Paulette

    1999-01-01

    The potential environmental risks associated with mercury release have forced many European countries to ban the use of dental amalgam. Alternative materials such as composite resins do not provide the clinical function for the length of time characteristically associated with dental amalgam. The weak link in the composite restoration is the dentin/adhesive bond. The purpose of this study was to correlate morphologic characterization of the dentin/adhesive bond with chemical analyses using micro- Fourier transform infrared and micro-Raman spectroscopy. A commercial dental adhesive was placed on dentin substrates cut from extracted, unerupted human third molars. Sections of the dentin/adhesive interface were investigated using infrared radiation produced at the Aladdin synchrotron source; visible radiation from a Kr+ laser was used for the micro-Raman spectroscopy. Sections of the dentin/adhesive interface, differentially stained to identify protein, mineral, and adhesive, were examined using light microscopy. Due to its limited spatial resolution and the unknown sample thickness the infrared results cannot be used quantitatively in determining the extent of diffusion. The results from the micro-Raman spectroscopy and light microscopy indicate exposed protein at the dentin/adhesive interface. Using a laser that reduces background fluorescence, the micro-Raman spectroscopy provides quantitative chemical and morphologic information on the dentin/adhesive interface. The staining procedure is sensitive to sites of pure protein and thus, complements the Raman results.

  3. Spectroscopic and morphologic characterization of the dentin/adhesive interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemor, R. M.; Kruger, Michael B.; Wieliczka, David M.; Swafford, Jim R.; Spencer, Paulette

    1999-04-01

    The potential environmental risks associated with dental amalgams have forced many European countries to ban their use and turn to alternative materials, composite resins. The purpose of this study was to correlate morphologic characterization of the dentin/adhesive bond with chemical analyses using micro-FTIR and micro-Raman spectroscopy. A commercial dental adhesive was placed on dentin substrates cut from extracted, unerupted human third molars. Sections of the dentin/adhesive interface were investigated using IR radiation produced at the Aladdin synchrotron source; visible radiation from Kr+ laser was used for the micro-Raman spectroscopy and through the use of differentially staining in conjunction with light microscopy. Due to its limited spatial resolution and the unknown samples thickness the IR results cannot be used quantitatively in determining the extent of diffusion. The result from the micro-Raman spectroscopy and light microscopy indicate exposed protein at the dentin/adhesive interface. Using a laser that reduces background fluorescence, the micro-Raman spectroscopy provides quantitative chemical and morphologic information on the dentin/adhesive interface. The staining procedure is sensitive to sites of pure protein and complements the Raman results.

  4. Calpain inhibition attenuated morphological and molecular changes in skeletal muscle of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis rats.

    PubMed

    Park, Sookyoung; Nozaki, Kenkichi; Guyton, M Kelly; Smith, Joshua A; Ray, Swapan K; Banik, Naren L

    2012-11-01

    Muscle weakness and atrophy are important manifestations of multiple sclerosis (MS). To investigate the pathophysiological mechanisms of skeletal muscle change in MS, we induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in Lewis male rats and examined morphological and molecular changes in skeletal muscle. We also treated EAE rats with calpepetin, a calpain inhibitor, to examine its beneficial effects on skeletal muscle damage. Morphological changes in muscle tissue of EAE rats included smaller and irregularly shaped muscle fibers and fibrosis. Western blot analysis demonstrated increased calpain:calpastatin ratio, inflammation-related transcription factors (nuclear factor-?B:inhibitor of ?B ? ratio), and proinflammatory enzymes (cyclooxygenase-2). TUNEL-positive myonuclei in skeletal muscle cells of EAE rats indicated cell death. In addition, markers of apoptotic cell death (Bax:Bcl-2 ratio and caspase-12 protein levels) were elevated. Expression of muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases (muscle atrophy F-box and muscle ring finger protein 1), was upregulated in muscle tissue of EAE-vehicle animals. Both prophylactic and therapeutic treatment with calpeptin partially attenuated muscle changes noted in EAE animals. These results indicate that morphological and molecular changes including apoptotic cell death and protein breakdown develop in skeletal muscle of EAE animals and that these changes can be reversed by calpain inhibition. PMID:22715087

  5. Housing Complexity Alters GFAP-Immunoreactive Astrocyte Morphology in the Rat Dentate Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Salois, Garrick; Smith, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Rats used in research are typically housed singly in cages with limited sensory stimulation. There is substantial evidence that housing rats in these conditions lead to numerous neuroanatomical and behavioral abnormalities. Alternatively, rats can be housed in an enriched environment in which rats are housed in groups and given room for exercise and exploration. Enriched environments result in considerable neuroplasticity in the rodent brain. In the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, enriched environments evoke especially profound neural changes, including increases in the number of neurons and the number of dendritic spines. However, whether changes in astrocytes, a type of glia increasingly implicated in mediating neuroplasticity, are concurrent with these neural changes remains to be investigated. In order to assess morphological changes among astrocytes of the rat dentate gyrus, piSeeDB was used to optically clear 250 μm sections of tissue labeled using GFAP immunohistochemistry. Confocal imaging and image analysis were then used to measure astrocyte morphology. Astrocytes from animals housed in EE demonstrated a reduced distance between filament branch points. Furthermore, the most complex astrocytes were significantly more complex among animals housed in EE compared to standard environments. PMID:26989515

  6. Screening, morphological and molecular characterization of fungi producing cystathionine ?-lyase.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Ashraf S; Khalaf, Salwa A; Abdel-Hamid, Gamal; El-Batrik, Mohamed I

    2015-03-01

    The potency for production of cystathionine ?-lyase (CGL) by the fungal isolates was screened. Among the tested twenty-two isolates, Aspergillus carneus was the potent CGL producer (6.29 U/mg), followed by A. ochraceous (6.03 U/mg), A. versicolor (2.51 U/mg), A. candidus (2.12 U/mg), A. niveus and Penicillium notatum (2.0 U/mg). The potent six isolates producing CGL was characterized morphologically, A. carneus KF723837 was further molecularly characterized based on the sequence of 18S-28S rDNA. Upon sulfur starvation, the yield of A. carneus extracellular CGL was increased by about 1.7- and 4.1-fold comparing to non-sulfur starved and L-methionine free medium, respectively. Also, the uptake of L-methionine was duplicated upon sulfur starvation, assuming the activation of specific transporters for L-methionine and efflux of CGL. Also, the intracellular thiols and GDH activity of A. carneus was strongly increased by S starvation, revealing the activation of in vivo metabolic antioxidant systems. Upon irradiation of A. carneus by 2.0 kGy of ?-rays, the activity of CGL was increased by two-fold, regarding to control, with an obvious decreases on its yield upon further doses. Practically, CGL activity from the solid A. carneus cultures, using rice bran as substrate, was increased by 1.2-fold, comparing to submerged cultures, under optimum conditions. PMID:25740443

  7. Morphological and biochemical assessment of the liver response to excess dietary copper in Fischer 344 rats.

    PubMed Central

    Aburto, E M; Cribb, A E; Fuentealba, I C; Ikede, B O; Kibenge, F S; Markham, F

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the amount of excess dietary copper (Cu) necessary to experimentally induce liver lesions characteristic of Cu-associated disease in Fischer 344 rats. Male weanling Fischer 344 rats of uniform age were divided into 6 groups (n = 5) and fed a rodent diet containing 18 (control), 750, 1000, 1250, 1500, and 2000 microg/g Cu added as CuSO4. Rats were euthanized after 3 months on the experimental diets and their livers processed for histology, histochemistry, Cu analysis (by atomic absorption spectrophotometry), and quantification of malondialdehyde (MDA) by the thiobarbituric acid reaction. Hepatic Cu levels were significantly higher (P < 0.01) in rats receiving over 1000 microg/g Cu compared to the controls (means for each diet: control = 4.8 microg/g, 750 microg/g Cu = 39.6 microg/g, 1000 microg/g Cu = 111.2 microg/g, 1250 microg/g Cu = 389 microg/g, 1500 microg/g Cu = 509.4 microg/g, and 2000 microg/g Cu = 766 microg/g). Histological lesions increased gradually according to the level of dietary Cu. Significant morphologic changes (necrosis, portal inflammation, hyaline remnants) and reduced growth rate occurred in rats receiving over 1250 microg/g Cu. However, no significant differences were found for MDA levels between groups. The present study demonstrates that compared to other species, very high levels of excess dietary Cu are needed to induce significant liver injury in Fischer 344 rats. Increased MDA content was not detected in rats with morphologic evidence of liver damage, suggesting that lipid peroxidation may not play a major role in this model of Cu toxicity. Images Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. PMID:11346262

  8. Facet Model and Mathematical Morphology for Surface Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Abidi, B.R.; Goddard, J.S.; Hunt, M.A.; Sari-Sarraf, H.

    1999-11-13

    This paper describes an algorithm for the automatic segmentation and representation of surface structures and non-uniformities in an industrial setting. The automatic image processing and analysis algorithm is developed as part of a complete on-line web characterization system of a papermaking process at the wet end. The goal is to: (1) link certain types of structures on the surface of the web to known machine parameter values, and (2) find the connection between detected structures at the beginning of the line and defects seen on the final product. Images of the pulp mixture (slurry), carried by a fast moving table, are obtained using a stroboscopic light and a CCD camera. This characterization algorithm succeeded where conventional contrast and edge detection techniques failed due to a poorly controlled environment. The images obtained have poor contrast and contain noise caused by a variety of sources. After a number of enhancement steps, conventional segmentation methods still f ailed to detect any structures and are consequently discarded. Techniques tried include the Canny edge detector, the Sobel, Roberts, and Prewitt's filters, as well as zero crossings. The facet model algorithm, is then applied to the images with various parameter settings and is found to be successful in detecting the various topographic characteristics of the surface of the slurry. Pertinent topographic elements are retained and a filtered image computed. Carefully tailored morphological operators are then applied to detect and segment regions of interest. Those regions are then selected according to their size, elongation, and orientation. Their bounding rectangles are computed and represented. Also addressed in this paper are aspects of the real time implementation of this algorithm for on-line use. The algorithm is tested on over 500 images of slurry and is found to segment and characterize nonuniformities on all 500 images.

  9. Crimp morphology in relaxed and stretched rat Achilles tendon.

    PubMed

    Franchi, Marco; Fini, Milena; Quaranta, Marilisa; De Pasquale, Viviana; Raspanti, Mario; Giavaresi, Gianluca; Ottani, Vittoria; Ruggeri, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    Fibrous extracellular matrix of tendon is considered to be an inextensible anatomical structure consisting of type I collagen fibrils arranged in parallel bundles. Under polarized light microscopy the collagen fibre bundles appear crimped with alternating dark and light transverse bands. This study describes the ultrastructure of the collagen fibrils in crimps of both relaxed and in vivo stretched rat Achilles tendon. Under polarized light microscopy crimps of relaxed Achilles tendons appear as isosceles or scalene triangles of different size. Tendon crimps observed via SEM and TEM show the single collagen fibrils that suddenly change their direction containing knots. The fibrils appear partially squeezed in the knots, bent on the same plane like bayonets, or twisted and bent. Moreover some of them lose their D-period, revealing their microfibrillar component. These particular aspects of collagen fibrils inside each tendon crimp have been termed 'fibrillar crimps' and may fulfil the same functional role. When tendon is physiologically stretched in vivo the tendon crimps decrease in number (46.7%) (P<0.01) and appear more flattened with an increase in the crimp top angle (165 degrees in stretched tendons vs. 148 degrees in relaxed tendons, P<0.005). Under SEM and TEM, the 'fibrillar crimps' are still present, never losing their structural identity in straightened collagen fibril bundles of stretched tendons even where tendon crimps are not detectable. These data suggest that the 'fibrillar crimp' may be the true structural component of the tendon crimp acting as a shock absorber during physiological stretching of Achilles tendon. PMID:17229278

  10. Characterization of Inducible Cyclooxygenase in Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    BREDER, CHRISTOPHER D.; DEWITT, DAVID; KRAIG, RICHARD P.

    2009-01-01

    Considerable debate exists regarding the cellular source of prostaglandins in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). At least two forms of prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase, or cyclooxygenase (COX), the principal enzyme in the biosynthesis of these mediators, are known to exist. Both forms have been identified in the CNS, but only the distribution of COX 1 has been mapped in detail. In this study, we used Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry to describe the biochemical characterization and anatomical distribution of the second, mitogen-inducible form of this enzyme, COX 2 in the rat brain. COX 2-like immunoreactive (COX 2-ir) staining occurred in dendrites and cell bodies of neurons, structures that are typically postsynaptic. It was noted in distinct portions of specific cortical laminae and subcortical nuclei. The distribution in the CNS was quite different from COX 1. COX 2-ir neurons were primarily observed in the cortex and allocortical structures, such as the hippocampal formation and amygdala. Within the amygdala, neurons were primarily observed in the caudal and posterior part of the deep and cortical nuclei. In the diencephalon, COX 2-ir cells were also observed in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and in the nuclei of the anteroventral region surrounding the third ventricle, including the vascular organ of the lamina terminalis. COX 2-ir neurons were also observed in the subparafascicular nucleus, the medial zona incerta, and pretectal area. In the brainstem, COX 2-ir neurons were observed in the dorsal raphe nucleus, the nucleus of the brachium of the inferior colliculus, and in the region of the subcoeruleus. The distribution of COX 2-ir neurons in the CNS suggests that COX 2 may be involved in processing and integration of visceral and special sensory input and in elaboration of the autonomic, endocrine, and behavioral responses. PMID:7608344

  11. The morphology and morphometry of the epididymis in the greater cane rat (Thryonomys swinderianus Temmincks).

    PubMed

    Adebayo, A O; Olurode, S A

    2010-11-01

    The structure and morphometry of the epididymis in the greater cane rat were studied in this work. In assessing the morphology and characterising the morphometric values, a total of 15 adult male greater cane rats, bred and raised in captivity, were used. All the animals had brownish perineal staining, which was taken as index of sexual maturity in male cane rats, and they were maintained on elephant grass stems with water given ad libitum. From this work, the epididymis of the greater cane rat was observed to have a mean weight of 0.0365 ± 0.091 g, forming about 0.016% of the total body weight and an average volume of 0.36 ± 0.08 mL. There was a positive correlation between the epididymal weights, testicular weight, and the body weight in this animal. However, the gross divisions of the epididymis into head, body, and tail were not conspicuous in the cane rat; instead it had two divisions - the cranial and the caudal divisions. In addition, based on the histological and histomorphometric analyses, five zones were observed in the epididymal epithelium of this animal. This preliminary information on the epididymis will serve as a basis for further research on the epididymis of the greater cane rat and will contribute to the knowledge of the its reproductive biology, which will subsequently aid in the captive rearing and domestication of this animal. PMID:21120812

  12. Morphological and Molecular Alterations in 1,2 Dimethylhydrazine and Azoxymethane Induced Colon Carcinogenesis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pere, Martina; Cerar, Anton

    2011-01-01

    The dimethyhydrazine (DMH) or azoxymethane (AOM) model is a well-established, well-appreciated, and widely used model of experimental colon carcinogenesis. It has many morphological as well as molecular similarities to human sporadic colorectal cancer (CC), which are summarized and discussed in this paper. In addition, the paper combines present knowledge of morphological and molecular features in the multistep development of CC recognized in the DMH/AOM rat model. This understanding is necessary in order to accurately identify and interpret alterations that occur in the colonic mucosa when evaluating natural or pharmacological compounds in DMH/AOM rat colon carcinogenesis. The DMH/AOM model provides a wide range of options for investigating various initiating and environmental factors, the role of specific dietary and genetic factors, and therapeutic options in CC. The limitations of this model and suggested areas in which more research is required are also discussed. PMID:21253581

  13. Genotypic and Phenotypic Characterization of P23H Line 1 Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Orhan, Elise; Dalkara, Deniz; Neuillé, Marion; Lechauve, Christophe; Michiels, Christelle; Picaud, Serge; Léveillard, Thierry; Sahel, José-Alain; Naash, Muna I.; Lavail, Matthew M.; Zeitz, Christina; Audo, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Rod-cone dystrophy, also known as retinitis pigmentosa (RP), is the most common inherited degenerative photoreceptor disease, for which no therapy is currently available. The P23H rat is one of the most commonly used autosomal dominant RP models. It has been created by incorporation of a mutated mouse rhodopsin (Rho) transgene in the wild-type (WT) Sprague Dawley rat. Detailed genetic characterization of this transgenic animal has however never been fully reported. Here we filled this knowledge gap on P23H Line 1 rat (P23H-1) and provide additional phenotypic information applying non-invasive and state-of-the-art in vivo techniques that are relevant for preclinical therapeutic evaluations. Transgene sequence was analyzed by Sanger sequencing. Using quantitative PCR, transgene copy number was calculated and its expression measured in retinal tissue. Full field electroretinography (ERG) and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) were performed at 1-, 2-, 3- and 6-months of age. Sanger sequencing revealed that P23H-1 rat carries the mutated mouse genomic Rho sequence from the promoter to the 3’ UTR. Transgene copy numbers were estimated at 9 and 18 copies in the hemizygous and homozygous rats respectively. In 1-month-old hemizygous P23H-1 rats, transgene expression represented 43% of all Rho expressed alleles. ERG showed a progressive rod-cone dysfunction peaking at 6 months-of-age. SD-OCT confirmed a progressive thinning of the photoreceptor cell layer leading to the disappearance of the outer retina by 6 months with additional morphological changes in the inner retinal cell layers in hemizygous P23H-1 rats. These results provide precise genotypic information of the P23H-1 rat with additional phenotypic characterization that will serve basis for therapeutic interventions, especially for those aiming at gene editing. PMID:26009893

  14. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of P23H line 1 rat model.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Elise; Dalkara, Deniz; Neuill, Marion; Lechauve, Christophe; Michiels, Christelle; Picaud, Serge; Lveillard, Thierry; Sahel, Jos-Alain; Naash, Muna I; Lavail, Matthew M; Zeitz, Christina; Audo, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Rod-cone dystrophy, also known as retinitis pigmentosa (RP), is the most common inherited degenerative photoreceptor disease, for which no therapy is currently available. The P23H rat is one of the most commonly used autosomal dominant RP models. It has been created by incorporation of a mutated mouse rhodopsin (Rho) transgene in the wild-type (WT) Sprague Dawley rat. Detailed genetic characterization of this transgenic animal has however never been fully reported. Here we filled this knowledge gap on P23H Line 1 rat (P23H-1) and provide additional phenotypic information applying non-invasive and state-of-the-art in vivo techniques that are relevant for preclinical therapeutic evaluations. Transgene sequence was analyzed by Sanger sequencing. Using quantitative PCR, transgene copy number was calculated and its expression measured in retinal tissue. Full field electroretinography (ERG) and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) were performed at 1-, 2-, 3- and 6-months of age. Sanger sequencing revealed that P23H-1 rat carries the mutated mouse genomic Rho sequence from the promoter to the 3' UTR. Transgene copy numbers were estimated at 9 and 18 copies in the hemizygous and homozygous rats respectively. In 1-month-old hemizygous P23H-1 rats, transgene expression represented 43% of all Rho expressed alleles. ERG showed a progressive rod-cone dysfunction peaking at 6 months-of-age. SD-OCT confirmed a progressive thinning of the photoreceptor cell layer leading to the disappearance of the outer retina by 6 months with additional morphological changes in the inner retinal cell layers in hemizygous P23H-1 rats. These results provide precise genotypic information of the P23H-1 rat with additional phenotypic characterization that will serve basis for therapeutic interventions, especially for those aiming at gene editing. PMID:26009893

  15. The Morphologic Effects of Dieldrin and Methyl Mercuric Chloride on Pars Recta Segments of Rat Kidney Proximal Tubules

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Bruce A.

    1972-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to evaluate the morphologic effects in rat kidney resulting from chronic exposure to low doses of the pesticide dieldrin, methyl mercuric chloride (CH3HgCl) and the combination of dieldrin plus CH3HgCl. Histologic and ultrastructural changes were confined to the proximal tubules. Alterations in these tubules were consistent and reproducible for each regimen and did not become more severe with duration of exposure. The straight segment of the proximal tubule (pars recta) was more severely affected by dieldrin and CH3HgCl than the convoluted portion. Female rats were more markedly affected than males. Pars recta tubule cells of male and female rats exposed to dieldrin showed an increase of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER). Male rats displayed a greater increase in SER than females. Pars recta tubule cells of animals given CH3HgCl also exhibited increased amounts of SER, degenerating mitochondria and cell death. Pars recta tubules of females were dilated and contained within the lumens many spherical, hematoxylin-positive staining, cytoplasmic masses, which were visible by light microscopy. These masses were characterized ultrastructurally by the presence of an SER aggregate in an area of material similar to cell matrix. In addition, cells of the pars recta of female animals contained electron-dense membranous cytosomes not present in control animals. Pars recta cells of males showed an increase in SER, but the dense membranous cytosomes observed in the pars recta cells of female rats were not seen. Rats exposed to dieldrin plus CH3CgCl showed less morphologic alteration of the pars recta tubules than animals given methyl mercuric chloride; however, increased amounts of SER and more degeneration in tubule cells were observed in these animals when compared to control animals. The findings are discussed in relation to the conversion of CH3HgCl to inorganic mercury in vivo and the known toxicity of inorganic mercury to the pars recta. Decreased tubular alteration in males and dieldrin-treated animals may be explained by sexual differences in renal enzyme levels or activities and the induction of microsomal enzyme systems by dieldrin. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9 PMID:5080703

  16. [Age related morphological features of rat peripheral lymphoid organs at various levels of antigenic load].

    PubMed

    Kochlamazachvili, B K; Gogiashvili, L E; Dzhandieri, K N

    2013-12-01

    Peripheral lymphoid organs from 2 different groups of laboratory rat's was studied (30 animals in each group). 1) Gnotobionts received from experimental - biological models Iffa-Credo laboratory (Lyon, France), 2) Ordinary conventional animals from the same laboratory, contained in standard conditions of vivarium microbial environment (control group). Animals from each group were subdivided into 2 aged categories (15 in each group): mature (8-12 month, 200,0 - 250,0 g) and aged (I period of old age 24-32 month; 300,0-450 g.) animals. Histological, electron-microscopic and morphmetric methods of studies were used. Correlations between morphological peculiarities and cellular composition of the rat's lymphoid tissue with antigenic load and age were determined. Namely, gnotobiont rat's lymphoid tissue contains less mature population, hence inactive lymphoid cells compared with conventional animals. However, with age this processes in both animal groups acquire a similar orientation. PMID:24423686

  17. BIOCHEMICAL, FUNCTIONAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF NEUROTOXICITY: EFFECTS OF ACUTE ADMINISTRATION OF TRIMETHYLTIN TO THE DEVELOPING RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The neurotoxic organometal, trimethyltin (TMT), was administered to rats on postnatal day (PND)5. Neurotoxicity was assessed throughout subsequent development using morphological, biochemical and functional endpoints. These consisted of brain weight measures and histology (morpho...

  18. Structure-function relationships in rat brainstem subnucleus interpolaris: XII. neonatal deafferentation effects on cell morphology.

    PubMed

    Jacquin, M F; Renehan, W E

    1995-01-01

    In the developing whisker-barrel neuraxis, it is known that pattern formation, receptive fields, axon projections, and even cell survival are under the control of peripheral signals transmitted through the infraorbital nerve. However, afferent influences upon the development of single-cell morphologies have not received thorough study. Intracellular recording, antidromic activation, receptive field mapping, dye injection, and computer-assisted cell reconstruction methods were used to assess the morphology of trigeminal (V) brainstem neurons in adult rats whose infraorbital nerves were transected at birth. Projection and local-circuit neurons in the spinal V subnucleus interpolaris (SpVi; n = 43) and local-circuit neurons in the adjacent subnucleus caudalis (SpVc; n = 11) were compared with similar cell types in normal control rats, as well as with spinal V neurons located outside of the deafferented region in experimental rats. SpVi cells displayed abnormally convergent and discontinuous receptive fields that included greater-than-normal numbers of vibrissae and other receptor organs. However, their morphologies did not differ significantly from normal on any quantitative measure, including soma size, number of proximal dendrites, or dendritic tree area, perimeter, or shape. Moreover, SpVi cells near deafferented brainstem territories did not display dendritic tree polarity toward or away from the deafferented region. In SpVc, laminae I-V cells had responses and morphologies that were indistinguishable from those of controls. Thus, (1) altered receptive fields of neonatally deafferented SpVi neurons are not attributable to changes in their morphology; (2) SpVc cells are resilient following deafferentation; and (3) the development of SpV dendrites and local axon collaterals is controlled by factors other than those directly conveyed by primary afferents. PMID:8834299

  19. [Morphology of the rat placenta in experimental, hormone-induced, prolonged pregnancy. II. Plancenta in intrauterine macerated dead rat fetuses].

    PubMed

    Emmrich, P; Bhrdel, P; Willgerodt, H

    1975-01-01

    In course of overdue pregnancy in rats, produced by application of synthetic gestagens the intrauterine death rate rises, when the gestation time is more than 23 days. Placentas of 47 macereted fetus rats we have investigated. The pathologic-anatomical picture of the placenta characterized by collaps and following regression of the peripheral fetal blood system. Furthermore, there are narrowing processes in great fetal vessels. In the maternal sinus occurs fibrin. The labyrinth of the placenta inclines by production of collagen fibers to a homogenous structure. The trophoblastic epithel is less differentiated. These findings in rat placentas we have compared with those in human placentas in cases of fetal maceration. The worth of these changes for differentiation of intravital against postmortal regressive processes is evident. PMID:1149695

  20. Effects of Fixatives and Buffers upon the Morphology of Heart and Skeletal Muscle Mitochondria from Exhausted Rats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, James B.

    This study describes the effects of several fixatives and buffers on the morphology of mitochondria from resting and exhausted rats. Rats were run to exhaustion and adjacent portions from the left ventricle or from the soleus were treated with the following fixation procedures: (a) glutaraldehyde buffered with cacodylate, S-collidine, or phosphate…

  1. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DILATED RENAL PELVIS IN THE NITROFEN-EXPOSED RAT FETUS: EFFECTS ON MORPHOLOGY AND FUNCTION (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fate of the dilated renal pelvis that is induced in fetal rats following prenatal exposure to nitrofen was evaluated. Groups of Long Evans rats were exposed to 0, 6.25, 12.5 or 25 mg/kg of nitrofen on gestation days 7-16. Renal morphology of the offspring were determined on g...

  2. Effects of growth hormone on intestinal morphology of genetically dwarf rats.

    PubMed Central

    Beer, V J; Warren, M A; Cope, G H; Baillie, H S

    1995-01-01

    Three groups of Lewis rat were studied: dwarf rats, genetically deficient in growth hormone; rehabilitated dwarf rats treated with exogenous growth hormone (GH); and normal wild-type rats. The small intestine of each animal was removed and simple random transverse sections were taken from the proximal and distal regions. The profile areas of villi, crypt and muscle were estimated by point count analysis and combined with intestinal length measurements to obtain absolute volumes. Villus and primary mucosal surface areas were estimated from intersection counts and linear measurements were made of epithelial cell height. Distally, villous volume and surface area were reduced by 42% and 39%, respectively, in the dwarfs compared with controls. These features were significantly smaller (P < 0.01) in dwarfs distally than proximally. Crypt volume and epithelial cell height were decreased equally in both proximal and distal regions of the intestine of dwarf rats. Following GH administration both features increased, crypt volume overshooting control values. These results indicate that GH deficiency has a subtle effect on intestinal morphology and that the intestine is more sensitive distally than proximally. Reconstitution with GH is capable of reversing many of these changes. Images Fig PMID:7649824

  3. Rapid morphological change in black rats (Rattus rattus) after an island introduction

    PubMed Central

    Byrn, David; Lee, Kashawneda L.Y.; Jackson, Racheal

    2015-01-01

    Rapid morphological change has been shown in rodent populations on islands, including endemic deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus subspp.) on the California Channel Islands. Surprisingly, most of these changes were towards a smaller size. Black rats were introduced to Anacapa Island in the mid-1800s (probably in 1853) and eradicated in 2001–2002. To assess possible changes in these rats since their introduction, eleven cranial and four standard external measurements were taken from 59 Rattus rattus specimens collected from 1940–2000. All rat cranial traits changed 3.06–10.43% (724–2567 d, 0.06–0.42 h), and all became larger. When considered in haldanes, these changes are among the fastest on record in any organism, and far exceed changes found in other island rodents. These changes were confirmed by MANOVA (Wilk’s λ < 0.0005, Fd.f.15 = 2974.386, P < 0.0005), and all 11 cranial traits significantly fit linear regressions. We speculate that concurrent changes in mice may have been due in part to competition with and/or predation by rats. Future research might evaluate whether the vector of mouse evolution on Anacapa is again changing after rat eradication. PMID:25780765

  4. Morphological and functional changes in the rat heart after X irradiation: Strain differences

    SciTech Connect

    Yeung, T.K.; Lauk, S.; Simmonds, R.H.; Hopewell, J.W.; Trott, K.R. )

    1989-09-01

    The hearts of mature male rats of the Wistar and Sprague-Dawley strains were locally irradiated with single doses of 17.5 and 20.0 Gy of X rays, respectively. These two dose levels had previously been shown to result in a comparable latent period between irradiation and the death of rats of these two strains from cardiac failure. Morphological changes in the myocardium and modifications in cardiac function were assessed in the animals at 28, 70, and 100 days after irradiation. The first radiation-induced change which was observed in the myocardium was a rapid decline in capillary density and a loss of alkaline phosphatase activity by the capillary endothelial cells. The capillary density was reduced to approximately 50% of that of unirradiated control values at 28 days and to approximately 40% of the control values between 70 and 100 days after irradiation. The loss of enzyme activity was also detected at 28 days. Examination of histological sections showed an increase by 70 days in the areas with negative enzyme activity up to approximately 70% of the myocardium. The reduction in capillary density and the loss of enzyme activity occurred before any marked pathological changes were seen in the myocardium. The pathological lesions seen in the myocardium at 100 days after irradiation were qualitatively and quantitatively the same in the two strains of rat. Measurements of cardiac output in Sprague-Dawley rats showed a gradual decline in output after irradiation; however, measurements in Wistar rats showed a progressive increase in cardiac output over the same period of time. It was shown by rubidium extraction that there was an increase in the percentage of the total cardiac output distributed to the ventricular muscle of Sprague-Dawley rats, while similar measurements in Wistar rats showed no significant change.

  5. Chronic administration of resveratrol prevents morphological changes in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of aged rats.

    PubMed

    Monserrat Hernández-Hernández, Elizabeth; Serrano-García, Carolina; Antonio Vázquez-Roque, Rubén; Díaz, Alfonso; Monroy, Elibeth; Rodríguez-Moreno, Antonio; Florán, Benjamin; Flores, Gonzalo

    2016-05-01

    Resveratrol may induce its neuroprotective effects by reducing oxidative damage and chronic inflammation apart from improving vascular function and activating longevity genes, it also has the ability to promote the activity of neurotrophic factors. Morphological changes in dendrites of the pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus have been reported in the brain of aging humans, or in humans with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. These changes are reflected particularly in the decrement of both the dendritic tree and spine density. Here we evaluated the effect of resveratrol on the dendrites of pyramidal neurons of the PFC (Layers 3 and 5), CA1- and CA3-dorsal hippocampus (DH) as well as CA1-ventral hippocampus, dentate gyrus (DG), and medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens of aged rats. 18-month-old rats were administered resveratrol (20 mg/kg, orally) daily for 60 days. Dendritic morphology was studied by the Golgi-Cox stain procedure, followed by Sholl analysis on 20-month-old rats. In all resveratrol-treated rats, a significant increase in dendritic length and spine density in pyramidal neurons of the PFC, CA1, and CA3 of DH was observed. Interestingly, the enhancement in dendritic length was close to the soma in pyramidal neurons of the PFC, whereas in neurons of the DH and DG, the increase in dendritic length was further from the soma. Our results suggest that resveratrol induces modifications of dendritic morphology in the PFC, DH, and DG. These changes may explain the therapeutic effect of resveratrol in aging and in Alzheimer's disease. Synapse, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Synapse 70:206-217, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26789275

  6. Maternal deprivation decelerates postnatal morphological lung development of F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Hupa, Katharina Luise; Schmiedl, Andreas; Pabst, Reinhard; Von Hrsten, Stephan; Stephan, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Intensive medical care at premature born infants is often associated with separation of neonates from their mothers. Here, early artificial prolonged separation of rat pups from their dams (Maternal Deprivation, MD) was used to study potential impact on morphological lung maturation. Furthermore, we investigated the influence of an endogenous deficiency of the neuropeptide-cleaving dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4), since the effects of MD are known to be partly mediated via neuropeptidergic effects, hypothesizing that MD will lead to a retardation of postnatal lung development, DPP4-dependendly. We used wild type and CD26/DPP4 deficient rats. For MD, the dam was placed each day into a separate cage for 2 h, while the pups remained in the nest on their own. Morphological lung maturation and cell proliferation at the postnatal days 7, 10, 14, and 21 were determined morphometrically. Maternally deprived wild types showed a retarded postnatal lung development compared with untreated controls in both substrains. During alveolarization, an increased thickness of alveolar septa and a decreased surface of septa about 50% were found. At the end of the morphological lung maturation, the surface of the alveolar septa was decreased at about 25% and the septal thickness remained increased about 20%. The proliferation rate was also decreased about 50% on day 14. However, the MD induced effects were less pronounced in DPP4-deficient rats, due to a significant deceleration already induced by DPP4-deficiency. Thus, MD as a model for postnatal stress experience influences remarkably postnatal development of rats, which is significantly modulated by the DPP4-system. PMID:24357522

  7. The effects of Creatine Long-Term Supplementation on Muscle Morphology and Swimming Performance in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yildiz, Ahmet; Ozdemir, Ercan; Gulturk, Sefa; Erdal, Sena

    2009-01-01

    Creatine (Cr) has been shown to increase the total muscle mass. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Cr supplementation on muscle morphology and swimming performance, using an animal model. Each rat was subjected to exercise 15-minute period daily for the 12 weeks. The rats were randomly divided into four groups: no Cr supplementation (CON), no Cr supplementation and incomplete food intake (lacking lysine and methionine in diet for rats) (INCO), Cr supplementation 1 gkg-1day-1 (CREAT-I) and Cr supplementation 2 gkg-1day-1 (CREAT-II). Three months later, all groups adult rats exercised in swimming pool chambers. Swimming time was recorded as minute for each rat. Following swimming performance period, the animals were killed by cervical dislocation and the gastrocnemius and diaphragm muscles were dissected. Serial slices of 5-7 ?m were allocated paraffin wax and histochemical staining procedure of cross-sections was carried out with heamatoxylin-eosin technics. All groups gained body weight at the end of 12 weeks but there was no statistical difference among them. Swimming time values were statistical difference between CREAT-II and CON group as well as between CREAT-I and CON group (p < 0.05). In the INCO group was determined increased connective tissue cell of the muscle sample. In contrast, in the CREAT-I and CREAT-II group, the basic histological changes were large-scale muscle fibers and hypertrophic muscle cells. These results suggest that long-term creatine supplementation increased the number of muscle fibers and enhanced endurance swimming performance in rats. Key points There is no study about the effects of creatine long-term supplementation on muscle morphology and swimming performance in rats. Long-term creatine supplementation increase muscle hypertrophy (but not body weight) and enhance endurance swimming performance in rats. The quantitative analysis indicated that the number of muscle fibers per defined area increased in creatine supplementation groups. PMID:24149591

  8. Derivation and Characterization of Embryonic Stem Cells Lines Derived from Transgenic Fischer 344 and Dark Agouti Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hong, James; He, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Rat embryonic stem cell (ESC) lines are not widely available, and there are only 2 lines available for distribution. Here, ESC lines were derived and characterized from Fischer 344 (F344) rats that express marker transgenes either ?-galactosidase or human placental alkaline phosphatase (AP), nontransgenic F344 rats, and from Dark Agouti (DA) rats. The ESC lines were maintained in an undifferentiated state as characterized by colony morphology, expression of Oct4, Nanog, Sox-2, Cdx2, and Stella, staining for AP, and stage-specific embryonic antigen-1. Pluripotency was demonstrated in vitro by differentiation to embryoid bodies, followed by embryonic monsters. The Cdx2 expression by ESCs was unexpected and was confirmed via reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, immunocytochemistry. Pluripotency of ESCs was demonstrated in vivo by production of teratoma after an injection into F344 nontransgenic rats, and by an injection of male DA ESCs into F344 or Sprague-Dawley rat blastocysts and the generation of chimeric rats and germline contribution. ESCs from both F344 and DA contributed to chimeric rats, and one DA ESC line was proved to be germline competent. ESC sublines were created by transfection with a plasmid expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) under the control of a beta actin promoter and cytomegalovirus enhancer (pCX-eGFP) or by transfection with a plasmid expressing GFP under the control of a 3.1?kb portion of the rat Oct4 promoter (pN1-Oct4-GFP). In pN1-Oct4-GFP sublines, GFP gene expression and fluorescence were shown to be correlated with endogenous Oct4 gene expression. Therefore, these new ESC lines may be useful for tissue engineering and transplantation studies or for optimizing culture conditions required for self-renewal and differentiation of rat ESCs. While they made chimeric rats, further work is needed to confirm whether the transgenic F344 rat ESCs described here are germline-competent ESCs. PMID:21995453

  9. Characterization of cloned aortic smooth muscle cells from young rats.

    PubMed

    Lemire, J M; Covin, C W; White, S; Giachelli, C M; Schwartz, S M

    1994-05-01

    Clones were derived by dilute plating from cultured aortic smooth muscle cells of 12-day-old rats. Clones Pup I to III resemble uncloned smooth muscle cultures from aortas of rat pups and from adult rat neointimas. They have a cobblestone morphology and proliferate in plasma-derived serum. By Northern analysis they contain platelet-derived growth factor B chain (PDGF-B) mRNA and high levels of CYPIA1, elastin, and osteopontin mRNAs, and they lack platelet-derived growth factor alpha-receptor (PDGF-alpha R) mRNA. In contrast, Pup V resembles smooth muscle cultures derived from uninjured adult rat arteries. It has an elongated morphology and proliferates poorly in plasma-derived serum. This clone expresses PDGF-alpha R mRNA, low levels of elastin and osteopontin mRNAs, and lacks CYPIA1 and PDGF-B mRNAs. Pup IV and VI have most of the properties of Pup I to III. We conclude that uncloned pup cultures are heterogeneous, but that the growth properties and gene expression pattern described for the uncloned culture is characteristic of individual clones within the population. PMID:8178930

  10. Characterization of cloned aortic smooth muscle cells from young rats.

    PubMed Central

    Lemire, J. M.; Covin, C. W.; White, S.; Giachelli, C. M.; Schwartz, S. M.

    1994-01-01

    Clones were derived by dilute plating from cultured aortic smooth muscle cells of 12-day-old rats. Clones Pup I to III resemble uncloned smooth muscle cultures from aortas of rat pups and from adult rat neointimas. They have a cobblestone morphology and proliferate in plasma-derived serum. By Northern analysis they contain platelet-derived growth factor B chain (PDGF-B) mRNA and high levels of CYPIA1, elastin, and osteopontin mRNAs, and they lack platelet-derived growth factor alpha-receptor (PDGF-alpha R) mRNA. In contrast, Pup V resembles smooth muscle cultures derived from uninjured adult rat arteries. It has an elongated morphology and proliferates poorly in plasma-derived serum. This clone expresses PDGF-alpha R mRNA, low levels of elastin and osteopontin mRNAs, and lacks CYPIA1 and PDGF-B mRNAs. Pup IV and VI have most of the properties of Pup I to III. We conclude that uncloned pup cultures are heterogeneous, but that the growth properties and gene expression pattern described for the uncloned culture is characteristic of individual clones within the population. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8178930

  11. The rat STSL locus: characterization, chromosomal assignment, and genetic variations in sitosterolemic hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hongwei; Pandit, Bhaswati; Klett, Eric; Lee, Mi-Hye; Lu, Kangmo; Helou, Khalil; Ikeda, Ikuo; Egashira, Nami; Sato, Masao; Klein, Richard; Batta, Ashok; Salen, Gerald; Patel, Shailendra B

    2003-01-01

    Background Elevated plant sterol accumulation has been reported in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP) and the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat. Additionally, a blood pressure quantitative trait locus (QTL) has been mapped to rat chromosome 6 in a New Zealand genetically hypertensive rat strain (GH rat). ABCG5 and ABCG8 (encoding sterolin-1 and sterolin-2 respectively) have been shown to be responsible for causing sitosterolemia in humans. These genes are organized in a head-to-head configuration at the STSL locus on human chromosome 2p21. Methods To investigate whether mutations in Abcg5 or Abcg8 exist in SHR, SHRSP, WKY and GH rats, we initiated a systematic search for the genetic variation in coding and non-coding region of Abcg5 and Abcg8 genes in these strains. We isolated the rat cDNAs for these genes and characterized the genomic structure and tissue expression patterns, using standard molecular biology techniques and FISH for chromosomal assignments. Results Both rat Abcg5 and Abcg8 genes map to chromosome band 6q12. These genes span ~40 kb and contain 13 exons and 12 introns each, in a pattern identical to that of the STSL loci in mouse and man. Both Abcg5 and Abcg8 were expressed only in liver and intestine. Analyses of DNA from SHR, SHRSP, GH, WKY, Wistar, Wistar King A (WKA) and Brown Norway (BN) rat strains revealed a homozygous G to T substitution at nucleotide 1754, resulting in the coding change Gly583Cys in sterolin-1 only in rats that are both sitosterolemic and hypertensive (SHR, SHRSP and WKY). Conclusions The rat STSL locus maps to chromosome 6q12. A non-synonymous mutation in Abcg5, Gly583Cys, results in sitosterolemia in rat strains that are also hypertensive (WKY, SHR and SHRSP). Those rat strains that are hypertensive, but not sitosterolemic (e.g. GH rat) do not have mutations in Abcg5 or Abcg8. This mutation allows for expression and apparent apical targeting of Abcg5 protein in the intestine. These rat strains may therefore allow us to study the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the human disease of sitosterolemia. PMID:12783625

  12. Morphological characterization of Setaria worms collected from cattle.

    PubMed

    Sundar, S T Bino; D'Souza, Placid E

    2015-09-01

    Morphological characters of Setaria sp. collected from cattle and buffaloes were studied. Three species Setaria digitata, Setaria cervi and Setaria labiatopapillosa were identified in the present study. Out of the 500 cattle screened 187 were found to harbour worms. 56.8% (106) of animals with S. digitata, 24.13% (45) had S. cervi and 18.96% (36) had S. labiatopapillosa. Morphological characters of male and female worms of all the three species were studied in detail. PMID:26345074

  13. Morphology and Molecular Mechanisms of Hepatic Injury in Rats under Simulated Weightlessness and the Protective Effects of Resistance Training

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Jun; Li, Zhili; Tian, Jijing; She, Ruiping; Wang, Desheng; Wang, Huijuan; Lv, Dongqiang; Chang, Lingling

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of long-term simulated weightlessness on liver morphology, enzymes, glycogen, and apoptosis related proteins by using two-month rat-tail suspension model (TS), and liver injury improvement by rat-tail suspension with resistance training model (TS&RT). Microscopically the livers of TS rats showed massive granular degeneration, chronic inflammation, and portal fibrosis. Mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum swelling and loss of membrane integrity were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The similar, but milder, morphological changes were observed in the livers of TS&RT rats. Serum biochemistry analysis revealed that the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were significantly higher (p<0.05) in TS rats than in controls. The levels of ALT and AST in TS&RT rats were slightly lower than in RT rats, but they were insignificantly higher than in controls. However, both TS and TS&RT rats had significantly lower levels (p<0.05) of serum glucose and hepatic glycogen than in controls. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the expressions of Bax, Bcl-2, and active caspase-3 were higher in TS rats than in TS&RT and control rats. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) showed that TS rats had higher mRNA levels (P < 0.05) of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and caspase-12 transcription than in control rats; whereas mRNA expressions of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) were slightly higher in TS rats. TS&RT rats showed no significant differences of above 4 mRNAs compared with the control group. Our results demonstrated that long-term weightlessness caused hepatic injury, and may trigger hepatic apoptosis. Resistance training slightly improved hepatic damage. PMID:26000905

  14. Hepatic morphological changes and oxidative stress in chronic streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Evelson, Pablo; Susemihl, Carlota; Villarreal, Irene; Llesuy, Susana; Rodrguez, Ricardo; Peredo, Horacio; Lemberg, Abraham; Perazzo, Juan; Filinger, Ester

    2005-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) is a biological entity quoted as responsible for several pathologies including diabetes. Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been also associated to human cirrhosis. The present work was designed to study the occurrence of OS as well as morphologic alterations in rat livers following induction of DM. Two groups of rats were used: Control and Diabetic. DM was induced in the second group by streptozotocin (STZ) in a single dose of 60 mg/kg, injected i.p. The occurrence of OS was determined in liver homogenates by measuring the hydroperoxide-initiated chemiluminescence and the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase). Liver sinusoids were morphometrically analyzed. In conclusion, livers from the diabetic group did not show evidence of the occurrence of OS, as it would be expected, but dilation of hepatic sinusoids was documented and it was significantly different from control group. PMID:16010244

  15. Loading effects on rat craniomandibular morphology: a system for gravity studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ranbir; Carvalho, Thais; Gerstner, Geoffrey E.

    2005-02-01

    Gravity effects on muscle and bone are a major impediment to long-term space travel. We introduce a model for studying these effects, the craniomandibular system. Some advantages of this system include: (1) craniomandibular morphology is determined by epigenetic factors including gravity, (2) relatively light forces can significantly alter its morphology, and (3) soft diet and tooth loss produce effects that are similar to those produced in lower limbs by weightlessness. In the study, implants made either of gold (experimental group) or lightweight acrylic (controls) were attached to adult rats' mandibles. After 13 weeks, the animals' skulls and mandibles were dissected. Pair-wise comparisons indicated that the experimental animals showed significantly shortened and narrowed cranial bases, and significant changes in the posterior zygomatic arch region. These results indicate that simulated macrogravity influences bone remodeling in the adult craniomandibular system.

  16. Morphological changes in cultures of hippocampus following prenatal irradiation in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Hamdorf, G.; Shahar, A.; Cervos-Navarro, J.; Scheffler, A.; Sparenberg, A.; Skoberla, A. )

    1990-07-01

    The effect of prenatal irradiation was studied in organotypic cultures of hippocampus, prepared from newborn rats that had been exposed to whole-body irradiation of 1 Gy from a {sup 60}Co-source at day 13 of pregnancy. Light and electron microscopic observations showed remarkable damage to neuronal mitochondria accompanied by extensive swelling, vacuolation of the Golgi complex, and formation of multilamellar bodies and vesicles of the lysosomal type. In contrast to neuronal alterations, no delay in synaptogenesis or onset of myelination was observed based upon the absence of significant morphological changes in synapses and myelin sheaths. Using this tissue culture model it could be confirmed that prenatal exposure to irradiation, even at low doses, induces specific morphological changes in the brain.

  17. Morphological Control and Characterization of Monodispersed Ceria Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Minamidate, Y.; Yin, S.; Devaraju, M. K.; Sato, T.

    2010-11-24

    The morphological control of cerium oxide particles was carried out by a homogeneous precipitation followed by calcination in air at 400 deg. C. The effects of pre-aging temperature, aging time and precipitation reagents on the morphologies of final products were investigated. When urea was used as a precipitation reagent, monodispersed spherical and flake-like cerium carbonate hydroxide precursor was precipitated in the solution at 90 deg. C for 2 h after pre-aging at 25 deg. C - 50 deg. C for 24-72 h. On the other hand, monodispersed nanosize rod-like cerium hydroxide particles were obtained using triethanolamine as precipitation reagent. Ceria particles with the same morphologies and slightly smaller particle size than those of as-prepared cerium precursor could be obtained after calcination in air at 400 deg. C. Physical-chemical characteristics of the monodispersed cerium oxide particles were evaluated.

  18. [Morphological and Ultrastructural Features in the Characterization of Microsporidia].

    PubMed

    Yaman, Mustafa; Alg?, Gnl; Gner, Beyza Gonca

    2015-03-01

    The members of the Microsporidia are single-celled, eukaryotic, obligate intracellular parasites. They infect a wide range of invertebrate and vertebrate hosts. The studies on Microsporidia are of considerable interest because of that they cause desirable and undesirable infections in different animals. That situation requires identification of these organisms correctly. The identification of Microsporidia needs relatively more complex studies. Morphological and ultrastructural studies play important role in the identification of these organisms. In the present study, a working knowledge on the morphological and ultrastructural features of Microsporidia are given. PMID:25917585

  19. Diabetes-induced changes in the morphology and nociceptinergic innervation of the rat uterus.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Saeed; Nurulain, Syed M; Rashed, Hameed; Lotfy, Mohamed; Emerald, Starling Bright; Koturan, Surya; Tekes, Kornlia; Adeghate, Ernest

    2016-02-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is about 6% across the globe. This prevalence has been reported to increase in the near future. This means that the number of women with DM who would like to get pregnant and have children will also increase. The present study is aimed at investigating the morphological changes observed in the uterus after the onset of DM. The study also examined the pattern of distribution of nociceptin (NC), a neuropeptide involved in the regulation of pain, a major physiological factor during parturition. The study shows a severe atrophy of uteri as early as 15days post DM and continued until the termination of the eight-week study. This atrophy was confirmed by light microscopy. Electron microscopy study showed atrophy of the columnar cells of the endometrium, reduced myofibril number and destruction of smooth muscle cells in the myometrium of diabetic rats compared to control. Immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopystudies clearly demonstrated the presence of NC in the endometrium, myometrium and on the myofibrils of the smooth muscles of both control and diabetic rat uteri. In addition, NC-positive neurons and varicose fibres were observed in the myometrium of both normal and diabetic rats. However, the expression of NC decreased after the onset of DM. Morphometric analysis showed that the number of NC-labeled cells was significantly (p<0.05) lower in diabetic rat uteri compared to those of control. In conclusion, DM-induced uterine atrophy is associated with a decrease in the expression of NC in cells, neurons and myofibrils of the rat uterus. PMID:26589323

  20. Molecular and morphological characterization of Eimeria in game birds.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coccidiosis is generally known as a disease of economic importance in chickens. However, Eimeria species also negatively impacts the game bird industry. Here we present data generated from litter samples collected from two farms experiencing coccidiosis in chukars and pheasants. From morphological...

  1. Functional and morphological changes of the brain in rats exposed to intermittent hypobaric hypoxia after the repetitive magnesium administration.

    PubMed

    Maresová, D; Jandová, K; Bortelová, J; Trojan, S; Trnková, B

    2005-01-01

    Intermittent hypobaric hypoxia induces functional and morphological changes of the brain in 25-day-old rats. Administration of magnesium has partial pro-convulsion effect in hypoxia not exposed rats and it practically does not influence the excitability of cortical neurones in rats exposed to intermittent hypoxia. Magnesium administration decreases the number of NADPH-diaphorase neurones in rats exposed to hypoxia in all studied areas of the hippocampus and dentate gyrus. In control rats this effect was only in CA1, CA3 and in the ventral blade of the dentate gyrus. Increased concentration of magnesium in cells of the hypoxia exposed rats after the repeated magnesium administration was found. PMID:16007910

  2. Morphological studies of metastatic mammary rat tumors after laser immunotherapy treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordquist, Robert E.; Nordquist, John A.; Agee, James C.; Blomquist, Chad M.; Chen, Wei R.

    1998-05-01

    Laser immunotherapy, using a combination of 805 nm diode laser, photosensitizer indocyanine green and immunoadjuvant glycated chitosan, has shown an induced anti-tumor immune response in treatment of metastatic rat tumors. In additional to an apparent systemic, long-term humoral immunological reaction, there could also be laser induced local cellular immune responses. A morphological study was performed to study the immune cells and their infiltration to tumor tissue after this laser immunotherapy treatment. Tumor-bearing rats were terminated at designated times after the treatment; both the tumor and the surrounding normal tissue were collected. The tissue samples were observed under electron microscope. The number and types of infiltrating cells at the tumor site were studied after treatment to determine the contribution of these cells in the elimination of tumors. The tumor cell structural changes resulted from laser-tissue photothermal interaction was investigated. The morphology of tumor development and activities of immune cells including both lymphocytes and plasma cells could shed light on the mode of action of laser treatment of tumors.

  3. The Surface Morphology Characterization of Electroless Nickel Immersion Gold Under Bump Metallurgy (UBM) Using SEM

    SciTech Connect

    Arshad, M. K. Md; Isa, M. N. Md; Sohiful, Z. M. A.

    2007-05-09

    This paper presents the surface morphology characterization at each process step in electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG) deposition using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The characterization start at initial bond pad, followed by cleaning, activation, first zincation, zinc removal, second zincation, electroless nickel and lastly immersion gold process. The result shows that the surface morphology of initial bond pad starts to change with deposition of zinc layer and further changes with deposition of nickel and gold layer.

  4. Morphological Analysis of the Enamel Organ in Rats Treated with Fluoxetine

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Igor Henrique Morais; Leão, Jair Carneiro; Evêncio, Liriane Baratella; Porter, Stephen Ross; de Castro, Raul Manhães

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: Previous studies have evaluated the presence of serotonin in the dental epithelia and mesenchyme during odontogenesis, suggesting its participation in tooth development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Here, we used fluoxetine, a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor, at a dose of 10 mg/kg, administered for 20 days during pregnancy in 12 Wistar rats to examine the influence of this drug on the development of the enamel organ of the upper first molars of rat fetuses at 17 days of intra-uterine life (i.u.l.), and at one, five and ten days postpartum. The pregnant rats were anesthetized with xylazine at 10 mg/kg and ketamine at 25 mg/kg. The fetuses were removed and beheaded; their jaws were removed, and the upper jaws were exposed. The tissues were fixed in Bouin’s fixative, decalcified in 5% nitric acid for 4 – 12 h, conventionally processed for microscopy, and embedded in paraffin. Serial sections of approximately 5 μm were obtained and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, as well as periodic acid-Schiff. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Morphological analysis showed no structural changes in the experimental group compared to the controls, suggesting that, at the dose used, fluoxetine does not interfere with serotonin-mediated development of the enamel organ or the process of amelogenesis. PMID:20126347

  5. Specific reactions of different striatal neuron types in morphology induced by quinolinic acid in rats.

    PubMed

    Feng, Qiqi; Ma, Yuxin; Mu, Shuhua; Wu, Jiajia; Chen, Si; Ouyang, Lisi; Lei, Wanlong

    2014-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurological degenerative disease and quinolinic acid (QA) has been used to establish HD model in animals through the mechanism of excitotoxicity. Yet the specific pathological changes and the underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. We aimed to reveal the specific morphological changes of different striatal neurons in the HD model. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were subjected to unilaterally intrastriatal injections of QA to mimic the HD model. Behavioral tests, histochemical and immunhistochemical stainings as well as Western blots were applied in the present study. The results showed that QA-treated rats had obvious motor and cognitive impairments when compared with the control group. Immunohistochemical detection showed a great loss of NeuN+ neurons and Darpp32+ projection neurons in the transition zone in the QA group when compared with the control group. The numbers of parvalbumin (Parv)+ and neuropeptide Y (NPY)+ interneurons were both significantly reduced while those of calretinin (Cr)+ and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)+ were not changed notably in the transition zone in the QA group when compared to the controls. Parv+, NPY+ and ChAT+ interneurons were not significantly increased in fiber density while Cr+ neurons displayed an obvious increase in fiber density in the transition zone in QA-treated rats. The varicosity densities of Parv+, Cr+ and NPY+ interneurons were all raised in the transition zone after QA treatment. In conclusion, the present study revealed that QA induced obvious behavioral changes as well as a general loss of striatal projection neurons and specific morphological changes in different striatal interneurons, which may help further explain the underlying mechanisms and the specific functions of various striatal neurons in the pathological process of HD. PMID:24632560

  6. Specific Reactions of Different Striatal Neuron Types in Morphology Induced by Quinolinic Acid in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Shuhua; Wu, Jiajia; Chen, Si; OuYang, Lisi; Lei, Wanlong

    2014-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurological degenerative disease and quinolinic acid (QA) has been used to establish HD model in animals through the mechanism of excitotoxicity. Yet the specific pathological changes and the underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. We aimed to reveal the specific morphological changes of different striatal neurons in the HD model. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were subjected to unilaterally intrastriatal injections of QA to mimic the HD model. Behavioral tests, histochemical and immunhistochemical stainings as well as Western blots were applied in the present study. The results showed that QA-treated rats had obvious motor and cognitive impairments when compared with the control group. Immunohistochemical detection showed a great loss of NeuN+ neurons and Darpp32+ projection neurons in the transition zone in the QA group when compared with the control group. The numbers of parvalbumin (Parv)+ and neuropeptide Y (NPY)+ interneurons were both significantly reduced while those of calretinin (Cr)+ and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)+ were not changed notably in the transition zone in the QA group when compared to the controls. Parv+, NPY+ and ChAT+ interneurons were not significantly increased in fiber density while Cr+ neurons displayed an obvious increase in fiber density in the transition zone in QA-treated rats. The varicosity densities of Parv+, Cr+ and NPY+ interneurons were all raised in the transition zone after QA treatment. In conclusion, the present study revealed that QA induced obvious behavioral changes as well as a general loss of striatal projection neurons and specific morphological changes in different striatal interneurons, which may help further explain the underlying mechanisms and the specific functions of various striatal neurons in the pathological process of HD. PMID:24632560

  7. Stasis and convergence characterize morphological evolution in eupolypod II ferns

    PubMed Central

    Sundue, Michael A.; Rothfels, Carl J.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Patterns of morphological evolution at levels above family rank remain underexplored in the ferns. The present study seeks to address this gap through analysis of 79 morphological characters for 81 taxa, including representatives of all ten families of eupolypod II ferns. Recent molecular phylogenetic studies demonstrate that the evolution of the large eupolypod II clade (which includes nearly one-third of extant fern species) features unexpected patterns. The traditional ‘athyrioid’ ferns are scattered across the phylogeny despite their apparent morphological cohesiveness, and mixed among these seemingly conservative taxa are morphologically dissimilar groups that lack any obvious features uniting them with their relatives. Maximum-likelihood and maximum-parsimony character optimizations are used to determine characters that unite the seemingly disparate groups, and to test whether the polyphyly of the traditional athyrioid ferns is due to evolutionary stasis (symplesiomorphy) or convergent evolution. The major events in eupolypod II character evolution are reviewed, and character and character state concepts are reappraised, as a basis for further inquiries into fern morphology. Methods Characters were scored from the literature, live plants and herbarium specimens, and optimized using maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood, onto a highly supported topology derived from maximum-likelihood and Bayesian analysis of molecular data. Phylogenetic signal of characters were tested for using randomization methods and fitdiscrete. Key Results The majority of character state changes within the eupolypod II phylogeny occur at the family level or above. Relative branch lengths for the morphological data resemble those from molecular data and fit an ancient rapid radiation model (long branches subtended by very short backbone internodes), with few characters uniting the morphologically disparate clades. The traditional athyrioid ferns were circumscribed based upon a combination of symplesiomorphic and homoplastic characters. Petiole vasculature consisting of two bundles is ancestral for eupolypods II and a synapomorphy for eupolypods II under deltran optimization. Sori restricted to one side of the vein defines the recently recognized clade comprising Rhachidosoraceae through Aspleniaceae, and sori present on both sides of the vein is a synapomorphy for the Athyriaceae sensu stricto. The results indicate that a chromosome base number of x =41 is synapomorphic for all eupolypods, a clade that includes over two-thirds of extant fern species. Conclusions The integrated approach synthesizes morphological studies with current phylogenetic hypotheses and provides explicit statements of character evolution in the eupolypod II fern families. Strong character support is found for previously recognized clades, whereas few characters support previously unrecognized clades. Sorus position appears to be less complicated than previously hypothesized, and linear sori restricted to one side of the vein support the clade comprising Aspleniaceae, Diplaziopsidaceae, Hemidictyaceae and Rachidosoraceae – a lineage only recently identified. Despite x =41 being a frequent number among extant species, to our knowledge it has not previously been demonstrated as the ancestral state. This is the first synapomorphy proposed for the eupolypod clade, a lineage comprising 67 % of extant fern species. This study provides some of the first hypotheses of character evolution at the family level and above in light of recent phylogenetic results, and promotes further study in an area that remains open for original observation. PMID:24197753

  8. Morphological and Phagocytic Profile of Microglia in the Developing Rat Cerebellum1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    VanRyzin, Jonathan W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Microglia are being increasingly recognized as playing important roles in neurodevelopment. The cerebellum matures postnatally, undergoing major growth, but the role of microglia in the developing cerebellum is not well understood. Using the laboratory rat we quantified and morphologically categorized microglia throughout the vermis and across development using a design-based unbiased stereology method. We found that microglial morphology changed from amoeboid to ramified during the first 3 postnatal weeks in a region specific manner. These morphological changes were accompanied by the sudden appearance of phagocytic cups during the third postnatal week from P17 to P19, with an approximately fourfold increase compared with the first week, followed by a prompt decline at the end of the third week. The microglial phagocytic cups were significantly higher in the granular layer (∼69%) than in the molecular layer (ML; ∼31%) during a 3 d window, and present on ∼67% of microglia with thick processes and ∼33% of microglia with thin processes. Similar proportions of phagocytic cups associated to microglia with either thick or thin processes were found in the ML. We observed cell nuclei fragmentation and cleaved caspase-3 expression within some microglial phagocytic cups, presumably from dying granule neurons. At P17 males showed an approximately twofold increase in microglia with thin processes compared with females. Our findings indicate a continuous process of microglial maturation and a nonuniform distribution of microglia in the cerebellar cortex that implicates microglia as an important cellular component of the developing cerebellum. PMID:26464992

  9. Vasopressin-induced morphological changes in polarized rat hepatocyte multiplets: dual calcium-dependent effects.

    PubMed

    Serrire, Valrie; Tran, Dien; Stelly, Nicole; Claret, Michel; Alonso, Grard; Tordjmann, Thierry; Guillon, Gilles

    2008-01-01

    Calcium-mobilizing hormones and neurotransmitters are known to affect cell morphology and function including cell differentiation or division. In this study, we examined vasopressin (AVP)-induced morphological changes in a polarized system of rat hepatocytes. Light and electron microscope observations showed that AVP induced microvilli formation and a remodeling of the isolated hepatocyte F-actin submembrane cytoskeleton, these two events being correlated. We showed that these effects were rapid, reversible, observed at nanomolar AVP concentration and mediated by the V(1a) receptor. On polarized multicellular systems of hepatocytes, we observed a rapid reduction of the bile canaliculi lumen at the apical pole and micovilli formation at the basolateral domain with an enlarged F-actin cytoskeleton. Neither activation of protein kinase C nor A via phorbol ester or dibutyryl cAMP induced such rapid morphological changes, at variance with ionomycin, suggesting that AVP-induced intracellular calcium rise plays a crucial role in those effects. By using spectrofluorimetry and cytochemistry, we showed that calcium release from intracellular stores was involved in bile canaliculus contraction, while calcium entry from the extracellular space controlled microvilli formation. Taken together, AVP and calcium-mobilizing agonists differentially regulate physiological hepatocyte plasma membrane events at the basal and the apical domains via topographically specialized calcium-dependent mechanisms. PMID:17555812

  10. The effects of chronic restraint on the morphology of ventral CA1 neurons in female Long Evans rats.

    PubMed

    Rico, Alexander Morales; Mendoza, Anayeli López; Durán, Dolores Adriana Bravo; Torres, Héctor de la Luz; Mendoza, Guadalupe Arias; Gómez, Adriana Berenice Silva

    2015-01-01

    Women are more likely than men to develop psychopathology as a result of stress, but there is little research regarding the effects of a stressful condition and its treatment in female non-human animals, perhaps because of inherent hormonal activity. Recent studies have demonstrated that there are structural and functional differences between the dorsal and ventral hippocampus, but the effects of stress on the morphology of CA1 and CA3 neurons have been studied primarily in the dorsal hippocampus. This study assessed the effects of stress induced by restricted movement on the morphology of ventral hippocampal CA1 neurons in male and female rats. Male and female Long Evans (LE) rats were subjected to restraint stress for 6 h every day for 25 days. One group of rats was used to study the dendritic morphology of CA1 ventral hippocampal neurons using the Golgi-Cox stain. A second group of rats was used to analyze learning and memory using the Morris water maze. Stressed female rats exhibited a decrease in the density of basilar dendritic spines, an increase in the number of apical dendritic intersections and deficits in spatial memory. There were no apparent effects of stress on male rats. Our data support previous findings of a dimorphic response to chronic stress and indicate that the ventral hippocampus is not particularly susceptible to the effects of stress. PMID:25287136

  11. Morphological characteristics of waste polyethylene/polypropylene plastics during pyrolysis and representative morphological signal characterizing pyrolysis stages.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Chen, D; Yuan, G; Ma, X; Dai, X

    2013-02-01

    In this work, the morphological characteristics of waste polyethylene (PE)/polypropylene (PP) plastics during their pyrolysis process were investigated, and based on their basic image changing patterns representative morphological signals describing the pyrolysis stages were obtained. PE and PP granules and films were used as typical plastics for testing, and influence of impurities was also investigated. During pyrolysis experiments, photographs of the testing samples were taken sequentially with a high-speed infrared camera, and the quantitative parameters that describe the morphological characteristics of these photographs were explored using the "Image Pro Plus (v6.3)" digital image processing software. The experimental results showed that plastics pyrolysis involved four stages: melting, two stages of decomposition which are characterized with bubble formation caused by volatile evaporating, and ash deposition; and each stage was characterized with its own phase changing behaviors and morphological features. Two stages of decomposition are the key step of pyrolysis since they took up half or more of the reaction time; melting step consumed another half of reaction time in experiments when raw materials were heated up from ambient temperatures; and coke-like deposition appeared as a result of decomposition completion. Two morphological signals defined from digital image processing, namely, pixel area of the interested reaction region and bubble ratio (BR) caused by volatile evaporating were found to change regularly with pyrolysis stages. In particular, for all experimental scenarios with plastics films and granules, the BR curves always exhibited a slowly drop as melting started and then a sharp increase followed by a deep decrease corresponding to the first stage of intense decomposition, afterwards a second increase - drop section corresponding to the second stage of decomposition appeared. As ash deposition happened, the BR dropped to zero or very low values. When impurities were involved, the shape of BR curves showed that intense decomposition started earlier but morphological characteristics remained the same. In addition, compared to parameters such as pressure, the BR reflects reaction stages better and its change with pyrolysis process of PE/PP plastics with or without impurities was more intrinsically process correlated; therefore it can be adopted as a signal for pyrolysis process characterization, as well as offering guide to process improvement and reactor design. PMID:23177018

  12. Morphological and molecular characterization of healthy human ascending aorta.

    PubMed

    Forte, A; Della Corte, A; Grossi, M; Finicelli, M; Bancone, C; Provenzano, R; Pepino, P; Nappi, G A; De Feo, M; Galderisi, U; Cotrufo, M; Cipollaro, M

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the characteristics of the normal human aorta has been constrained by lack of data on fresh aortic tissue, especially from healthy individuals. In this study, the gene expression and morphological characteristics of the thoracic ascending aorta (AA) of healthy organ donors have been evaluated, with the aim of providing reference data for the analysis of pathological AAs. We analysed by RT-PCR the differential expression of mRNAs coding for myocardin, smoothelin, alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) and the ED-A isoform of fibronectin (ED-A FN) in AA specimens from donors, integrating the results with immunohistochemical analysis of the same targets. Morphological and morphometric characteristics of the AAs were also evaluated. In order to account for possible regional variations in wall structure, the convexity of the aortic profile was compared to the concavity. No differences in gene expression occurred for any of the target genes between the concavity and the convexity of AAs. Immunohistochemistry revealed a different distribution of total FN and of its ED-A isoform in the media and in the intima. Smoothelin is expressed by the majority of cells in the media, with some positive cells also in the intima. Alpha-SMA is expressed in all the tunicae. Immunohistochemistry also revealed in the convexity of 50% of AAs the presence of discrete areas in the subadventital media with altered structure and cell morphology and with altered gene expression, resulting positive for ED-A FN and alpha-SMA, but not for smoothelin, indicating the occurrence of early lesions also in macroscopically healthy AAs. PMID:22127602

  13. Synthesis and characterization of different morphological SnS nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaki, Sunil H.; Chaudhary, Mahesh D.; Deshpande, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    SnS in three nano forms possessing different morphologies such as particles, whiskers and ribbons were synthesised by chemical route. The morphology variation was brought about in the chemical route synthesis by varying a synthesis parameter such as temperature and influencing the synthesis by use of surfactant. The elemental composition determination by energy dispersive analysis of x-rays (EDAX) showed that all three synthesized SnS nanomaterials were tin deficient. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) study of the three SnS nanomaterials showed that all of them possess orthorhombic structure. The Raman spectra of the three SnS nanomaterials showed that all three samples possess three common distinguishable peaks. In them two peaks lying at 98 ± 1 cm-1 and 224 ± 4 cm-1 are the characteristic Ag mode of SnS. The third peak lying at 302 ± 1 cm-1 is associated with secondary Sn2S3 phase. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the respective morphologies. The optical analysis showed that they possess direct as well as indirect optical bandgap. The electrical transport properties study on the pellets prepared from the different nanomaterials of SnS showed them to be semiconducting and p-type in nature. The current-voltage (I-V) plots of the silver (Ag)/SnS nanomaterials pellets for dark and incandescent illumination showed that all configurations showed good ohmic behaviour except Ag/SnS nanoribbons pellet configuration under illumination. All the obtained results are discussed in detail.

  14. Quantitation and characterization of rat tissue metallothioneins by gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, L.Y.; McCormick, C.C.

    1986-03-05

    A discontinuous gradient gel electrophoretic system was developed to quantitate and characterize metallothionein (MT) in rat tissue. Vertical slab separating gels (1.5 mm x 14 cm x 12 cm) consisted of a linear polyacrylamide gradient 7.5 to 30% T and 5% Bis. The stacking gels (3% T and 20% Bis) were photopolymerized using riboflavin as the catalyst. Liver cytosols were prepared from rats which received (i.p.) various amounts of Zn (5 mg/kg BW) or Cd (2.5 mg/kg BW). Purified MT was prepared by gel filtration and DEAE ion-exchange chromatography. Cytosols were heated (80/sup 0/C, 2 min) and centrifuged to obtain a supernatant. An appropriate amount of supernatant and various amounts of MT standard were electrophoresed (constant current, 20 mA per slab) for 9 hours. Gels were stained with Commassie Blue (R-250, 0.25%) for 12 hours and destained. Gels were scanned by densitometer and peaks heights were determined. Significantly linear standard curves (..mu..g MT vs. peak height) were established for both MTI and MTII. (Cd, Zn)-MTI migrated slower than Zn-MTI while mobilities for both (Cd, Zn)- and Zn-MTII were the same. The accumulation of MTI was consistently less than MTII in liver from both Zn- and Cd-injected rats. Their results suggest that electrophoretic analysis is an excellent system not only for quantitation but also for characterization of MT in rat tissue.

  15. [Morphological and molecular characterization of isolates of Macrophomina phaseolina associated with sugarcane in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Leyva-Mir, Santos G; Velzquez-Martnez, Guadalupe C; Tlapal-Bolaos, Bertha; Tovar-Pedraza, Juan M; Rosas-Saito, Greta H; Alvarado-Gmez, Omar G

    2015-01-01

    Charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina is an important disease of sugarcane in Mexico. This study was carried out to characterize isolates of M. phaseolina obtained from sugarcane by the combination of morphological and molecular analyses. The morphological characterization of 10 isolates was performed using scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. To confirm the morphological identification, rDNA from two representative isolates was extracted, and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced using specific primers MpKF1 and MpKR1. Based on their morphological characteristics, all isolates were identified as M. phaseolina. Moreover, the analysis of two ITS sequences showed 100% similarity with the M. phaseolina sequences deposited in the GenBank. To our knowledge, this is the first study in the world aimed at characterizing isolates of M. phaseolina obtained from sugarcane. PMID:25979147

  16. Construction and characterization of an infectious cDNA clone of rat hepatitis E virus.

    PubMed

    Li, Tian-Cheng; Yang, Tingting; Yoshizaki, Sayaka; Ami, Yasushi; Suzaki, Yuriko; Ishii, Koji; Haga, Kei; Nakamura, Tomofumi; Ochiai, Susumu; Takaji, Wakita; Johne, Reimar

    2015-06-01

    Rat hepatitis E virus (HEV) is related to human HEV and has been detected in wild rats worldwide. Here, the complete genome of rat HEV strain R63/DEU/2009 was cloned downstream of the T7 RNA polymerase promoter and capped genomic RNA generated by in vitro transcription was injected into nude rats. Rat HEV RNA could be detected in serum and faeces of rats injected intrahepatically, but not in those injected intravenously. Rat HEV RNA-positive faecal suspension was intravenously inoculated into nude rats and Wistar rats leading to rat HEV RNA detection in serum and faeces of nude rats, and to seroconversion in Wistar rats. In addition, rat HEV was isolated in PLC/PRF/5 cells from the rat HEV RNA-positive faecal suspension of nude rats and then passaged. The cell culture supernatant was infectious for nude rats. Genome analysis identified nine point mutations of the cell-culture-passaged virus in comparison with the originally cloned rat HEV genome. The results indicated that infectious rat HEV could be generated from the cDNA clone. As rats are widely used and well-characterized laboratory animals, studies on genetically engineered rat HEV may provide novel insights into organ tropism, replication and excretion kinetics as well as immunological changes induced by hepeviruses. PMID:25634930

  17. Synthesis and Morphological Characterization of Block Copolymers for Improved Biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Schricker, Scott; Palacio, Manuel; Thirumamagal, B.T.S.; Bhushan, Bharat

    2010-01-01

    Biocompatible polymers are known to act as scaffolds for the regeneration and growth of bone. Block copolymers are of interest as scaffold materials because a number of the blocks are biocompatible, and their nanostructure is easily tunable with synthetic techniques. In this paper, we report the synthesis of a novel class of biomaterials from block copolymers containing a hydrophobic block of methyl methacrylate and a hydrophilic block of either acrylic acid, dimethyl acrylamide, or 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate. The block copolymers were synthesized using a combination of reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization and click chemistry. Since the surface morphology is critical for successful cell growth, atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies were conducted for selected block copolymers. The topography, phase angle and friction maps were obtained in dry and physiological buffer environments to study the morphology. Results of AFM imaging identified the presence of polymer domains corresponding to the copolymer components. The distribution of nanoscale features in these block copolymers are comparable to those found on other surfaces that exhibit favorable cell adhesion and growth. In physiological buffer medium, the hydrophilic component of the block copolymer (acrylic acid or hydroxyethyl methacrylate) appear to be present in greater amounts on the surface as a consequence of water absorption and swelling. PMID:20207483

  18. Purification and characterization of rat liver glycosylasparaginase.

    PubMed Central

    Tollersrud, O K; Aronson, N N

    1989-01-01

    1. Rat liver glycosylasparaginase [N4-(beta-N-acetylglucosaminyl)-L-asparaginase, EC 3.5.1.26] was purified to homogeneity by using salt fractionation, CM-cellulose and DEAE-cellulose chromatography, gel filtration on Ultrogel AcA-54, concanavalin A-Sepharose affinity chromatography, heat treatment at 70 degrees C and preparative SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. The purified enzyme had a specific activity of 3.8 mumol of N-acetylglucosamine/min per mg with N4-(beta-N-acetylglucosaminyl)-L-asparagine as substrate. 2. The native enzyme had a molecular mass of 49 kDa and was composed of two non-identical subunits joined by strong non-covalent forces and having molecular masses of 24 and 20 kDa as determined by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. 3. The 20 kDa subunit contained one high-mannose-type oligosaccharide chain, and the 24 kDa subunit had one high-mannose-type and one complex-type oligosaccharide chain. 4. N-Terminal sequence analysis of each subunit revealed a frayed N-terminus of the 24 kDa subunit and an apparent N-glycosylation of Asn-15 in the same subunit. 5. The enzyme exhibited a broad pH maximum above 7. Two major isoelectric forms were found at pH 6.4 and 6.6. 6. Glycosylasparaginase was stable at 75 degrees C and in 5% (w/v) SDS at pH 7.0. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:2775174

  19. Optical characterization and composition of abdominal wall muscle from rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Lus; Lage, Armindo; Pais Clemente, M.; Tuchin, Valery

    2009-06-01

    Complete optical characterization of biological tissue is desirable to develop clinical methods using optical technologies. Particularly, to develop optical clearing methods in biological tissues, it is necessary to know the composition of the tissue, the percentage of each constituent and corresponding refractive indexes. To obtain such information for rat muscle, we used a simple method to characterize tissue constituents for both content percentage and refractive index. The study consisted on measuring mass with a precision weighting scale and the refractive index with an Abbe refractometer during tissue dehydration. With the collected data, we used a theoretical model to calculate the refractive index and percentage for both interstitial fluid and solid part of the rat muscle. The results obtained are in good agreement with data published by other authors, and were considered of vital information for the optical clearing studies that we planned to perform.

  20. Insights into Embryo Defenses of the Invasive Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata: Egg Mass Ingestion Affects Rat Intestine Morphology and Growth

    PubMed Central

    Gimeno, Eduardo J.; Heras, Horacio

    2014-01-01

    Background The spread of the invasive snail Pomacea canaliculata is expanding the rat lungworm disease beyond its native range. Their toxic eggs have virtually no predators and unusual defenses including a neurotoxic lectin and a proteinase inhibitor, presumably advertised by a warning coloration. We explored the effect of egg perivitellin fluid (PVF) ingestion on the rat small intestine morphology and physiology. Methodology/Principal Findings Through a combination of biochemical, histochemical, histopathological, scanning electron microscopy, cell culture and feeding experiments, we analyzed intestinal morphology, growth rate, hemaglutinating activity, cytotoxicity and cell proliferation after oral administration of PVF to rats. PVF adversely affects small intestine metabolism and morphology and consequently the standard growth rate, presumably by lectin-like proteins, as suggested by PVF hemaglutinating activity and its cytotoxic effect on Caco-2 cell culture. Short-term effects of ingested PVF were studied in growing rats. PVF-supplemented diet induced the appearance of shorter and wider villi as well as fused villi. This was associated with changes in glycoconjugate expression, increased cell proliferation at crypt base, and hypertrophic mucosal growth. This resulted in a decreased absorptive surface after 3 days of treatment and a diminished rat growth rate that reverted to normal after the fourth day of treatment. Longer exposure to PVF induced a time-dependent lengthening of the small intestine while switching to a control diet restored intestine length and morphology after 4 days. Conclusions/Significance Ingestion of PVF rapidly limits the ability of potential predators to absorb nutrients by inducing large, reversible changes in intestinal morphology and growth rate. The occurrence of toxins that affect intestinal morphology and absorption is a strategy against predation not recognized among animals before. Remarkably, this defense is rather similar to the toxic effect of plant antipredator strategies. This defense mechanism may explain the near absence of predators of apple snail eggs. PMID:24945629

  1. Photothermal and morphological characterization of PLA/PCL polymer blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa-Pacheco, Z. N.; Jiménez-Pérez, J. L.; Sabino, M. A.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Loaiza, M.

    2015-09-01

    Nowadays, some synthetic polymers have been replaced by biodegradable polymers in order to avoid environmental contamination. Among these biodegradables polymers, aliphatic polyesters such as polylactic acid (PLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL) have been widely used. In the present study, solvent-casting films of PLA, PCL and polymer blends with and without compatibilizer (PLA grafted with maleic anhydride) were prepared. The thermal diffusivity ( α) of each sample was obtained by using the open photoacoustic cell technique. Morphology and thermal properties were determined by using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), respectively. The blends showed lower thermal diffusivity compared to pure polymers. However, when the compatibilizer was used, the highest value of thermal diffusivity was obtained. Also, cold crystallization with the highest value of enthalpy of fusion was observed for the compatibilized sample, which was revealed by DSC. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the thermal diffusivity of these biodegradable polymer blends is reported.

  2. Morphological and ultrastructural characterization of sea urchin immune cells.

    PubMed

    Deveci, Remziye; ?ener, Ecem; ?zzeto?lu, Sava?

    2015-05-01

    The free circulating coelomocytes in the coelomic cavity of echinoderms are considered to be immune effectors by phagocytosis, encapsulation, cytotoxicity, and by the production of antimicrobial agents. Although echinoderms (especially sea urchin embryo) have been used as a model organisms in biology, no uniform criteria exist for classification of coelomocytes in echinoderms, and few studies have reported about the biological functions of their coelomocytes. Hence, we study the coelomocytes in the echinoid sea urchin, Paracentrotus lividus, and describe their morphological and ultrastructural features using light and transmission electron microscopes. We classify the coelomocytes of P. lividus into red spherule and colorless spherule cells, small cells, vibratile cells, and phagocytic cells; petaloid and filopodial cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing ultrastructural details of the coelomocytes of P. lividus. PMID:25645676

  3. Morphological, Mechanical and Structural Characterization of Damselfly Wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talucdher, ABSM Rupan Ali

    The damselfly belongs to the same insect family as the dragonfly that inspired the development of Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs). Understanding the morphological, mechanical and structural properties of wings, veins and membranes of fly would provide guidelines to develop efficient MAVs. Lack of test methodologies inhibited the progress. The objective of this research was to develop the above methodologies and then measure the properties of veins, membranes and wings of damselflies. The research yielded four test methodologies: fluorescence spectroscopic analysis to map the morphology of vein; axial nanoindentation test to measure indentation properties; micro tension test to measure tensile properties of microscopic components; and a unique vibration test of wings to measure natural frequency, stiffness and air damping factor. Axial indentation test contrasts the transverse indentation used in the past, whose results were corrupted by surface roughness and flexibility of veins. Veins were found to be made of two layered, elliptical tubular members. The thickness of inner and outer layers was about 8 and 5 microm, respectively and corresponding indentation moduli were 8.42 and 16.00 GPa. The modulus of veins agreed with those of human bones. The tensile modulus and strength of veins ranged from 14 to 17 GPa and 232 to 285 MPa, respectively. The damselfly wing was found to vibrate under bending and torsional deformations, the natural frequency (in air) ranged from 130 to 178 Hz, the wing stiffness ranged from 0.18 to 0.30 N/m with the air damping ratio from 0.67 to 0.79. Pathway to develop a material of matching properties is also presented.

  4. Morphological changes of rats muscles at various postmortem intervals by scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhigang, L; Xufu, Y; Fei, X; Xuemei, P

    1999-12-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the morphological changes of muscle in the process of rigor mortis. The quadriceps of 40 rats at various postmortem intervals were observed under the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the light microscope by phosphotungstic acid-haematoxylin (PTAH) stain. The results showed that the striations of muscle were blurred within 4 h, but they became apparent from 6 h to 24 h after death. The authors suggest that this phenomenon be associated with the increased resistance of muscle against the postmortal changes. The observations by scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy have revealed that the muscles do contract in the process of rigor mortis because the distance between two Z lines shortens and the 1 band narrows, compared with those in anaesthetised animals. The basic biochemical process for the formation of rigor mortis is the same as that of muscle contraction except that the former happens postmortem and the latter antemortem. PMID:12894904

  5. Age-Related Changes in the Morphology and Mechanics of Arterial Wall in the Rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Takanori; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Kozaburo

    This study was done to know the effects of aging on arterial mechanics from the viewpoint of tissue remodeling. Rats at growing (8 and 16weeks), maturated (32weeks) and middle (64weeks) ages were used. After blood pressure and blood flow were measured in the abdominal aorta and common carotid artery, respectively, the carotid artery was excised to obtain pressure-diameter relations and wall dimensions. Although blood pressure increased during growth and blood flow gradually increased with age, wall hoop stress and wall shear stress showed no significant changes except for a decrease in wall shear stress during growth, which was attributable to morphological changes of wall. Wall stiffness and elastic properties at in vivo pressure did not significantly change until maturation; however, they increased by middle age.

  6. Alteration in cellular morphology, density and distribution in rat vocal fold mucosa following injury

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Changying; Yamashita, Masaru; Waselchuk, Emily A.; Raasch, Jennifer L.; Bless, Diane M.; Welham, Nathan V.

    2010-01-01

    The vocal fold mucosa plays an important role in voice production. Its cellular composition and density frequently change under various pathological conditions, often contributing to altered extracellular matrix production, tissue viscoelasticity, and voice quality. In this study, cellular changes in the rat mucosa following a unilateral stripping injury were investigated and analyzed semi-quantitatively. Distinctive and sequential changes in cellular morphology, composition, and density were observed in the mucosa post-injury. Cellular recruitment was a major event during the early stage of injury and reached its peak level by day 5 post-injury. Several types of cells, including neutrophil-like cells, epithelial cells and fibroblast-like cells, were sequentially recruited. The sequential emergence of reactive cell populations following injury and subsequent reconstruction of the mucosa suggests their involvement in vocal fold tissue repair and scar formation processes. PMID:20002898

  7. Characterization and subcellular distribution of somatogenic receptor in rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Husman, B.; Andersson, G.; Norstedt, G.; Gustafsson, J.A.

    1985-06-01

    Binding of (/sup 125/I)iodobovine GH ((/sup 125/I)iodo-bGH) to rat liver microsomes and Golgi/endosomal fractions isolated from male and female rats has been characterized. Binding of bGH to a pure somatogenic site was suggested by the finding that 50% inhibition of (/sup 125/I)iodo-bGH binding required 5-130 ng bGH, rGH, or hGH/incubation, while around 500 ng rat PRL/incubation were needed to obtain the same effect. Binding of (/sup 125/I)iodo-bGH to microsomes and Golgi/endosomes was time, temperature, and protein dependent. Maximal specific binding occurred at 15-16 and 15-20 h at 22 C in Golgi and microsomal membranes, respectively. Subcellular distribution studies demonstrated in the Golgi/endosomal fractions compared to the total particulate fraction, while residual microsomes devoid of Golgi/endosomal-derived components were approximately 2-fold enriched. Low levels of somatogenic receptors were detected in lysosome-enriched fractions. Removal of endogenous ligand by treating Golgi/endosomal membranes with 3M MgCl/sub 2/ increased specific binding of bGH about 2- to 3-fold. These results indicate that approximately 50% of specific somatogenic binding sites in the low density fractions represent internalized ligand-receptor complexes. The level of rat liver somatogenic receptors did not show a pronounced sex differentiation; however, an endocrine dependence of somatogenic receptor levels is suggested by the finding that livers from rats in the late stages of pregnancy had a level of somatogenic receptors exceeding that of nonpregnant rats.

  8. Radioprotection of the rat parotid gland by WR-2721: morphology at 60 days post-irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, N.E.; Sodicoff, M.; Liss, J.; Davis, M.; Sinesi, M.

    1980-04-01

    The ultrastructure of rat parotid glands protected by S-2(3-aminopropylamino) ethyl phosphorothioate (WR-2721) was evaluate 60 days following a single dose of 3.2 kR of x-irradiation and compared with that of similarly irradiated but non-protected glands. Non-protected glands suffered a drastic reduction in the amount of acinar tissue while ducts and blood vessels exhibited only minor morphological changes. The evidence of acinar loss was provided by the presence of excessive and redundant basal laminae around surviving acini, and large condensations of empty basal laminal profiles in the spaces between surviving structures. The blood vessels present at 60 days post-irradiation showed no evidence of damage. However, there were additional layers of basal lamina around occasional capillaries, which others have interpreted as evidence of previous endothelial repair. The WR-2721 protected glands showed similar signs of damage but to a much lesser degree. Therefore, this paper shows that WR-2721 is effective in protecting the rat parotid gland, specifically the radiosensitive acinar cells.

  9. Differential cytokine activity and morphology during wound healing in the neonatal and adult rat skin

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, W; Wehrmann, M

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Wound-healing mechanisms change during transition from prenatal to postnatal stage. Cytokines are known to play a key role in this process. The current study investigated the differential cytokine activity and healing morphology during healing of incisional skin wounds in rats of the ages neonatal (p0), 3 days old (p3) and adult, after six different healing times (2 hrs to 30 days). All seven tested cytokines (Transforming Growth Factor (TGF) ?, TGF?1, ??2 and ??3, IGF 1, Platelet Derived Growth Factor A (PDGF A), basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF) exhibited higher expression in the adult wounds than at the ages p0 and p3. Expression typically peaked between 12 hrs and 3 days post-wounding, and was not detectable any more at days 10 and 30. The neonate specimen showed more rapid re-epithelialization, far less inflammation and scarring, and larger restitution of original tissue architecture than their adult counterparts, resembling a prenatal healing pattern. The results may encourage the use of neonatal rat skin as a wound-healing model for further studies, instead of the more complicated prenatal animal models. Secondly, the data may recommend inhibition of PDGF A, basic FGF or TGF-?1 as therapeutic targets in efforts to optimize wound healing in the adult organism. PMID:18205704

  10. Arterial morphology and blood volumes of rats following 10-14 weeks of tail suspension.

    PubMed

    Chew, H G; Segal, S S

    1997-10-01

    We hypothesized that the structure of systemic arteries would be altered following 10-14 wk of hindlimb unloading (tail suspension) in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Tail suspension resulted in atrophy of the soleus muscle (P < or = 0.01) but no significant differences in the mass of the extensor digitorum muscle, heart, or adrenal glands. In anesthetized rats, there was no difference between groups in arterial pressure (approximately 60 mm Hg). The corresponding maximal (topical papaverine) external diameter (ED) of femoral arteries (N = 5 per group) was reduced (P < or = 0.05) in tail suspended (TS, 511 +/- 47 microm, mean +/- SD) compared with cage sedentary (CS, 615 +/- 89 microm) and food restricted weight-paired (FR, 643 +/- 61 microm) groups. Neither hematocrit, red cell, plasma, nor total blood volume differed among groups. Following systemic vasodilation with papaverine, progressive arterial inflation with liquid silicon rubber (Microfil) revealed a reduction in both ED and distensibility of the femoral artery (P < or = 0.05). To determine the effects of tail suspension on systemic arterial morphology, the vasculature of additional rats was perfusion fixed at 80 mm Hg during vasodilation. Cross sections (thickness, 8 microm) of the carotid, axillary, iliac, and femoral arteries were then evaluated. Whereas the internal diameter of femoral arteries was smaller in TS than in CS (P < 0.05), no differences were observed for other vessels among groups. Further, arterial wall thickness increased systemically (overall, P < 0.05; carotid, 24%, P < 0.01; femoral, 28%, P < 0.01) following tail suspension. These findings illustrate adaptation in the structure of conduit arteries to prolonged tail suspension, with diameter altered regionally and wall thickness increased systemically. We suggest that chronic changes in activity patterns can influence arterial structure. PMID:9346160

  11. Morphologic analysis correlates with gene expression changes in cultured F344 rat mesothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Crosby, L M; Hyder, K S; DeAngelo, A B; Kepler, T B; Gaskill, B; Benavides, G R; Yoon, L; Morgan, K T

    2000-12-15

    The gene expression pattern of mesothelial cells in vitro was determined after 4 or 12 h exposure to the rat mesothelial, kidney, and thyroid carcinogen and oxidative stressor potassium bromate (KBrO(3)). Gene expression changes observed using cDNA arrays indicated oxidative stress, mitotic arrest, and apoptosis in treated immortalized rat peritoneal mesothelial cells. Increases occurred in oxidative stress responsive genes HO-1, QR, HSP70, GADD45, GADD153, p21(WAF1/CIP16), GST's, GAPDH, TPX, and GPX-1(0); transcriptional regulators c-jun, c-fos, jun B, c-myc, and IkappaB; protein repair components Rdelta, RC10-II, C3, RC-7, HR6B ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme and ubiquitin; DNA repair components PCNA, msh2, and O-6 methylguanine DNA methyltransferase; lipid peroxide excision enzyme PLA2; and apoptogenic components TNFalpha, iNOS1 and FasL. Decreases occurred in bcl-2 (antiapoptotic), bax alpha, bad, and bok (proapoptotic) and cell cycle control elements (cyclins). Cyclin G and p14ink4b (which inhibit entry into cell cycle) were increased. Numerous signal transduction, cell membrane transport, membrane-associated receptor, and fatty acid biosynthesis and repair components were altered. Morphologic endpoints examined were number of mitotic figures, number of apoptotic cells, and antibody-specific localization of HO-1 (which demonstrated increased HO-1 protein expression). PCR analysis confirmed HO-1, p21(waf1/cip1), HSP70, GPX1, GADD45, QR, mdr1, PGHS, and cyclin D1 changes. A model for KBrO(3)-induced carcinogenicity in the F344 rat mesothelium is proposed, whereby KBrO(3) generates a redox signal that activates p53 and results in transcriptional activation of oxidative stress and repair genes, dysregulation of growth control, and imperfect DNA repair leading to carcinogenesis. PMID:11133343

  12. Morphological and molecular characterization of fungal pathogen, Magnaphorthe oryzae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Nor'Aishah; Rafii, Mohd Y.; Rahim, Harun A.; Ali, Nusaibah Syd; Mazlan, Norida; Abdullah, Shamsiah

    2016-02-01

    Rice is arguably the most crucial food crops supplying quarter of calories intake. Fungal pathogen, Magnaphorthe oryzae promotes blast disease unconditionally to gramineous host including rice species. This disease spurred an outbreaks and constant threat to cereal production. Global rice yield declining almost 10-30% including Malaysia. As Magnaphorthe oryzae and its host is model in disease plant study, the rice blast pathosystem has been the subject of intense interest to overcome the importance of the disease to world agriculture. Therefore, in this study, our prime objective was to isolate samples of Magnaphorthe oryzae from diseased leaf obtained from MARDI Seberang Perai, Penang, Malaysia. Molecular identification was performed by sequences analysis from internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of nuclear ribosomal RNA genes. Phylogenetic affiliation of the isolated samples were analyzed by comparing the ITS sequences with those deposited in the GenBank database. The sequence of the isolate demonstrated at least 99% nucleotide identity with the corresponding sequence in GenBank for Magnaphorthe oryzae. Morphological observed under microscope demonstrated that the structure of conidia followed similar characteristic as M. oryzae. Finding in this study provide useful information for breeding programs, epidemiology studies and improved disease management.

  13. Characterization of surface and pore morphologies on nanoporous organosilicate films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeeun; Lee, Heeju; Song, Sanghoon; Cha, Wonsuk; Kim, Hyunjung; Park, Gunwoo; Min, Sungkyu; Lee, Taehoon; Rhee, Heewoo; Kim, Gwangwoo

    2008-03-01

    We have fabricated nanoporous organosilicate films with reactive porogen trimethoxysilyl - propyl - cyclodextrin(TMSCD). With same amount of porogen loading, the films with reactive porogen. TMSCD have shown higher mechanical strength than those with other non-reactive porogen. We have measured the pore morphologies depending on the types of porogens and loading densities along the pore generation processes by the grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering, x-ray reflectivity, and ellipsometry. We measured the porosity of the film as a function of time and the annealing condition. We determined the actual porosity by measuring electron density of the films. In low loading density (10%˜40%) pore size is very small and pore distribution is uniform. In high loading density (>50%) the pores start to aggregate. We found that the porosity of the films can be affected easily by moisture. The results will be discussed with the mechanical properties along the optimized conditions for the films with ultra low dielectric constant.

  14. Effect of dietary protein on morphologic development of rat mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Alvarez Sanz, M C; Liu, J M; Huang, H H; Hawrylewicz, E J

    1986-08-01

    Isocaloric diets, containing 8% casein [low protein (LP)], 19.5% casein [normal protein (NP)], or 31% casein [high protein (HP)] and 10% corn oil, were fed to adult virgin female Sprague-Dawley rats prior to conception and were continued through mating, gestation, and lactation. Female pups, 8 per litter, were fed on their mother's diet for the duration of the study. The pups' sexual maturation occurred at 33, 35, and 70 days of age for the HP, NP, and LP groups, respectively. At 7 weeks of age, duct development in the mammary gland was markedly delayed in the LP group. No significant differences in the extent of ductal development were noted between the HP and NP groups. Morphologic development into terminal end buds, alveolar buds, lobules, and terminal ducts was determined for each diet group at 7 weeks and at sexual maturity plus 3 weeks (SM+3) of age. At 7 weeks, the terminal end bud was the dominant structure in the LP group and was significantly greater in number than in the HP and NP groups. The latter groups were dominated by the alveolar bud structures. At SM+3, the number of terminal end buds decreased, and the alveolar buds increased in the LP group; however, the numbers were still significantly different than in the HP and NP groups. This study indicates that dietary protein affects mammary duct proliferation and morphologic development. PMID:3461209

  15. Biochemical, Histopathological and Morphological Profiling of a Rat Model of Early Immune Stimulation: Relation to Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Kubesova, Anna; Tejkalova, Hana; Syslova, Kamila; Kacer, Petr; Vondrousova, Jana; Tyls, Filip; Fujakova, Michaela; Palenicek, Tomas; Horacek, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Perinatal immune challenge leads to neurodevelopmental dysfunction, permanent immune dysregulation and abnormal behaviour, which have been shown to have translational validity to findings in human neuropsychiatric disorders (e.g. schizophrenia, mood and anxiety disorders, autism, Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease). The aim of this animal study was to elucidate the influence of early immune stimulation triggered by systemic postnatal lipopolysaccharide administration on biochemical, histopathological and morphological measures, which may be relevant to the neurobiology of human psychopathology. In the present study of adult male Wistar rats we examined the brain and plasma levels of monoamines (dopamine, serotonin), their metabolites, the levels of the main excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid and the levels of tryptophan and its metabolites from the kynurenine catabolic pathway. Further, we focused on histopathological and morphological markers related to pathogenesis of brain diseases - glial cell activation, neurodegeneration, hippocampal volume reduction and dopaminergic synthesis in the substantia nigra. Our results show that early immune stimulation in adult animals alters the levels of neurotransmitters and their metabolites, activates the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism and leads to astrogliosis, hippocampal volume reduction and a decrease of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the substantia nigra. These findings support the crucial pathophysiological role of early immune stimulation in the above mentioned neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:25602957

  16. Synthesis, Characterization (Molecular-Morphological) and Theoretical Morphology Predictions of Poly(cyclohexadiene) Containing Linear Triblock Terpolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Rajeev; Dadmun, Mark D; Sumpter, Bobby G; Mays, Jimmy; Avgeropoulos, Apostolos; Zafeiropoulos, N.E.; Misichoronis, K.; Rangou, S.; Ashcraft, E.

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis via anionic polymerization of six linear triblock terpolymers with various sequences of blocks such as PS (polystyrene), PB (polybutadiene), PI (polyisoprene) and PCHD (poly(1,3-cyclohexadiene)) is reported. The synthesis of the terpolymers was accomplished by the use of anionic polymerization with high vacuum techniques and sequential monomer addition. Molecular characterization of the samples was performed via size exclusion chromatography and membrane osmometry to measure polydispersity indices and the number-average molecular weights, respectively. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was adopted to verify the type of microstructure for the polydienes as well as to calculate the molar composition. Structural characterization was performed via transmission electron microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering and several morphologies were observed including one which has not been reported previously. Real-space self-consistent field theory (SCFT) without a priori knowledge about the symmetry of the periodic structures was used to elucidate the thermodynamics of the synthesized triblock copolymers.

  17. Sucralose sweetener in vivo effects on blood constituents radiolabeling, red blood cell morphology and radiopharmaceutical biodistribution in rats.

    PubMed

    Rocha, G S; Pereira, M O; Benarroz, M O; Frydman, J N G; Rocha, V C; Pereira, M J; Fonseca, A S; Medeiros, A C; Bernardo-Filho, M

    2011-01-01

    Effects of sucralose sweetener on blood constituents labelled with technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) on red blood cell (RBC) morphology, sodium pertechnetate (Na(99m)TcO(4)) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid labeled with (99m)Tc ((99m)Tc-DTPA) biodistribution in rats were evaluated. Radiolabeling on blood constituents from Wistar rats was undertaken for determining the activity percentage (%ATI) on blood constituents. RBC morphology was also evaluated. Na(99m)TcO(4) and (99m)Tc-DTPA biodistribution was used to determine %ATI/g in organs. There was no alteration on RBC blood constituents and morphology %ATI. Sucralose sweetener was capable of altering %ATI/g of the radiopharmaceuticals in different organs. These findings are associated to the sucralose sweetener in specific organs. PMID:20801049

  18. Morphological and chemical characterization of microfabricated fibres for biological applications.

    PubMed

    Gold, J; Kasemo, B

    1997-05-01

    Monodisperse fibres and particulates of different materials with controllable three-dimensional shape, size and chemical composition are of interest in research on toxic respirable fibres as well as wear debris around orthopaedic implants. We have previously demonstrated the production of well-controlled, metal and oxide microfabricated fibres having dimensions 0.1 to 10 microm. While our previous results focused on how controlled fibres can be prepared by microfabrication methods, this paper evaluates property-production relationships for microfabricated fibres. Here we have briefly reviewed the production of 0.1 microm x 0.5 microm x 10 microm microfabricated fibres made by electron beam lithography from evaporated titanium or silicon oxide films using a double lift-off method. We have also analysed the properties of these fibres with respect to morphology and chemical composition, and how they are affected by variations in the production process. Two different solution types have been used to place fibres into liquid suspension and to clean and sterilize them for biological testing. One method involves the use of organic solvents; the other a hydroxide solution and water. While fibre dimensions appear to be material-specific, differences can be corrected for by compensation of the size of the lithographic pattern. Similarly the crystallinity of fibres is material-specific, as is to be expected of evaporated thin films, but should be possible to modify by varying deposition parameters or heat treating, for example. Of the cleaning methods used, the one using an aqueous hydroxide solution is preferred over solvent cleaning, as it is easier to perform and appears to be more effective at removing resist from the fibre suspension. PMID:15348746

  19. Restraint Stress-Induced Morphological Changes at the Blood-Brain Barrier in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sántha, Petra; Veszelka, Szilvia; Hoyk, Zsófia; Mészáros, Mária; Walter, Fruzsina R.; Tóth, Andrea E.; Kiss, Lóránd; Kincses, András; Oláh, Zita; Seprényi, György; Rákhely, Gábor; Dér, András; Pákáski, Magdolna; Kálmán, János; Kittel, Ágnes; Deli, Mária A.

    2016-01-01

    Stress is well-known to contribute to the development of both neurological and psychiatric diseases. While the role of the blood-brain barrier is increasingly recognized in the development of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier has been linked to stress-related psychiatric diseases only recently. In the present study the effects of restraint stress with different duration (1, 3, and 21 days) were investigated on the morphology of the blood-brain barrier in male adult Wistar rats. Frontal cortex and hippocampus sections were immunostained for markers of brain endothelial cells (claudin-5, occluding, and glucose transporter-1) and astroglia (GFAP). Staining pattern and intensity were visualized by confocal microscopy and evaluated by several types of image analysis. The ultrastructure of brain capillaries was investigated by electron microscopy. Morphological changes and intensity alterations in brain endothelial tight junction proteins claudin-5 and occludin were induced by stress. Following restraint stress significant increases in the fluorescence intensity of glucose transporter-1 were detected in brain endothelial cells in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. Significant reductions in GFAP fluorescence intensity were observed in the frontal cortex in all stress groups. As observed by electron microscopy, 1-day acute stress induced morphological changes indicating damage in capillary endothelial cells in both brain regions. After 21 days of stress thicker and irregular capillary basal membranes in the hippocampus and edema in astrocytes in both regions were seen. These findings indicate that stress exerts time-dependent changes in the staining pattern of tight junction proteins occludin, claudin-5, and glucose transporter-1 at the level of brain capillaries and in the ultrastructure of brain endothelial cells and astroglial endfeet, which may contribute to neurodegenerative processes, cognitive and behavioral dysfunctions. PMID:26834555

  20. Characterization and morphology of prepared titanium dioxide nanofibers by electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Park, Ju-Young; Lee, In-Hwa

    2010-05-01

    Dispersed titanium dioxide in polymer nanofibers were prepared by sol-gel processing and electrospinning techniques using titanium isopropoxide (TiP)/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) solution. The prepared titanium dioxide nanofibers were characterized by FE-SEM, TEM, XRD, and FT-IR. Pure titanium dioxide nanofibers were obtained from calcination of inorganic-organic composite fiber. The diameter of titanium oxide nanofibers were in the range of 70 nm to 150 nm. Prepared titanium dioxide nanofibers show rough surface and rather small diameter compare with TiP/PVP composite nanofibers. After calcined at 500 degrees C, TiO2 nanofibers convert into anatase and rutile mixed phased from amorphous structure. Calcination of these composite fibers above 600 degrees C resulted in pure rutile TiO2 nanofibers. PMID:20358966

  1. Laser patterning of diamond. Part I. Characterization of surface morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedley, John; Bohon, Jen; Wu, Qiong; Rao, Triveni

    2009-06-01

    As the use of diamond as a material for electronic and research applications increases, methods of patterning diamond will be required. In this work, single- and polycrystalline synthetic diamond samples were exposed to laser beams of different energies, wavelengths, and pulse durations. The effects of this exposure were characterized using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The threshold ablation energy density for 266 nm radiation with 30 ps pulse duration was measured to be 14 J/cm2. The threshold for 10 ns pulses at the same wavelength was similar, but the ablated area displayed larger surface damage. The surface damage and the threshold energy increase significantly for 532 and 1064 nm radiations. Ablation performed using 213 nm radiation produced the most uniform surface. Changes in the ablated surface are presented in detail.

  2. Characterization of spinal afferent neurons projecting to different chambers of the rat heart.

    PubMed

    Guić, Maja Marinović; Kosta, Vana; Aljinović, Jure; Sapunar, Damir; Grković, Ivica

    2010-01-29

    The pattern of distribution of spinal afferent neurons (among dorsal root ganglia-DRGs) that project to anatomically and functionally different chambers of the rat heart, as well as their morphological and neurochemical characteristics were investigated. Retrograde tracing using a patch loaded with Fast blue (FB) was applied to all four chambers of the rat heart and labeled cardiac spinal afferents were characterized by using three neurochemical markers. The majority of cardiac projecting neurons were found from T1 to T4 DRGs, whereas the peak was at T2 DRG. There was no difference in the total number of FB-labeled neurons located in ipsilateral and contralateral DRGs regardless of the chambers marked with the patch. However, significantly more FB-labeled neurons projected to the ventricles compared to the atria (859 vs. 715). The proportion of isolectin B(4) binding in FB-labeled neurons was equal among all neurons projecting to different heart chambers (2.4%). Neurofilament 200 positivity was found in greater proportions in DRG neurons projecting to the left side of the heart, whereas calretinin-immunoreactivity was mostly represented in neurons projecting to the left atrium. Spinal afferent neurons projecting to different chambers of the rat heart exhibit a variety of neurochemical phenotypes depending on binding capacity for isolectin B(4) and immunoreactivity for neurofilament 200 and calretinin, and thus represent important baseline data for future studies. PMID:20018227

  3. Cloning and characterization of rat casein kinase 1epsilon.

    PubMed

    Takano, A; Shimizu, K; Kani, S; Buijs, R M; Okada, M; Nagai, K

    2000-07-14

    Genes differentially expressed in the subjective day and night in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) were surveyed by differential display. A gene homologous to human casein kinase 1epsilon (CK1epsilon) was isolated, which initially appeared to be expressed in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in a circadian manner. We here describe the cDNA cloning of the rat CK1epsilon and characterization of the protein products. The rCK1epsilon is predominantly expressed in the brain including the SCN, binds and phosphorylates mPer1, mPer2, and mPer3 in vitro, and translocates mPer1 and mPer3, but not mPer2, to the cell nucleus depending on its kinase activity when coexpressed with these Per proteins in COS-7 cells. PMID:10899319

  4. Soluble polysaccharide and biomass of red microalga Porphyridium sp. alter intestinal morphology and reduce serum cholesterol in rats.

    PubMed

    Dvir, I; Chayoth, R; Sod-Moriah, U; Shany, S; Nyska, A; Stark, A H; Madar, Z; Arad, S M

    2000-10-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the red microalga Porphyridium sp. on gastrointestinal physiology and lipid metabolism in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Diets containing dietary fibre from pelleted red microalgal cells (biomass) or their sulfated polysaccharide, pectin or cellulose (control) were fed to rats for a period of 30 d. All three fibre-supplemented diets increased the length of both the small intestine and colon, with a significantly greater effect in rats fed the algal polysaccharide. The polysaccharide also increased mucosa and muscularis cross-sectional area of the jejunum, and caused hypertrophy in the muscularis layer. The algal biomass significantly lowered gastrointestinal transit time by 44% in comparison with the control rats. Serum and mucosal cholecystokinin levels were lower in rats on the pectin and polysaccharide diets, while cholecystokinin levels in rats fed algal biomass were not different from those in the control animals. In comparison with the control diet, all the experimental diets significantly lowered serum cholesterol levels (22-29%). Feeding of non-fermentable algal polysaccharide or biomass significantly increased faecal weight and bile acid excretion compared with pectin-fed or control rats. The algal polysaccharide and biomass were thus shown to be potent hypocholesterolaemic agents active at low concentrations in the diet. Both metabolic and morphological changes were observed following consumption of algae, suggesting several possible mechanisms by which the alga affects lipid metabolism. The results presented in the present study encourage the use of red microalga as a functional food. PMID:11103217

  5. Morphological characterization of pecteneal hyalocytes in the developing quail retina

    PubMed Central

    Llombart, Cristina; Nacher, Vctor; Ramos, David; Luppo, Mariana; Carretero, Ana; Navarro, Marc; Melgarejo, Vernica; Armengol, Clara; Rodrguez-Baeza, Alfonso; Mendes-Jorge, Luisa; Ruberte, Jess

    2009-01-01

    The periphery of the vitreous body contains a population of cells termed hyalocytes. Despite the existence for more than one century of publications devoted to the pecten oculi, a convoluted coil of blood vessels that seems to be the primary source of nutrients for the avian avascular retina, little information can be found concerning the pecteneal hyalocytes. These cells are situated on the inner limiting membrane in close relationship with the convolute blood vessels. To characterize the origin and macrophagic activity of pecteneal hyalocytes, we have analysed two different stages of quail eye development using histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. Pecteneal hyalocytes express the QH1 epitope and cKit, confirming that these cells belong to the haematopoietic system. They also express vimentin, an intermediate filament protein present in cells of mesenchymal origin and very important for differentiation of fully active macrophages. However, similarly as described in porcine hyalocytes, pecteneal hyalocytes express the glial fibrillary acidic protein, a recognized neuroglial marker. Pecteneal hyalocytes did not express other neuroglial markers, such as glutamine synthetase or S100. Acidic phosphatase was activated and Lep100 was found in secondary lysosomes, confirming phagocytic activity of pecteneal hyalocytes during ocular development. Pecteneal hyalocytes strongly react with RCA-I, WFA, WGA, PNA, SNA, LEA and SBA lectins, whereas other avian macrophages from thymus and the bursa of Fabricius did not bind PNA, SNA and LEA lectins. Interestingly, WGA lectin reacts with all kinds of avian macrophages, including pecteneal hyalocytes, probably reflecting the specific binding of WGA to components of the phagocytic and endocytic pathways. In conclusion, pecteneal hyalocytes are a special subtype of blood-borne macrophages that express markers not specifically associated with the haematopoietic system. PMID:19566699

  6. Characterization of pruriceptive trigeminothalamic tract neurons in rats

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Hannah R.

    2014-01-01

    Rodent models of facial itch and pain provide a valuable tool for distinguishing between behaviors related to each sensation. In rats, pruritogens applied to the face elicit scratching using the hindlimb while algogens elicit wiping using the forelimb. We wished to determine the role of trigeminothalamic tract (VTT) neurons in carrying information regarding facial itch and pain to the forebrain. We have characterized responses to facially applied pruritogens (serotonin, BAM822, chloroquine, histamine, capsaicin, and cowhage) and noxious stimuli in 104 VTT neurons recorded from anesthetized rats. Each VTT neuron had a mechanically sensitive cutaneous receptive field on the ipsilateral face. All pruriceptive VTT neurons also responded to noxious mechanical and/or thermal stimulation. Over half of VTT neurons responsive to noxious stimuli also responded to at least one pruritogen. Each tested pruritogen, with the exception of cowhage, produced an increase in discharge rate in a subset of VTT neurons. The response to each pruritogen was characterized, including maximum discharge rate, response duration, and spike timing dynamics. Pruriceptive VTT neurons were recorded from throughout superficial and deep layers of the spinal trigeminal nucleus and were shown to project via antidromic mapping to the ventroposterior medial nucleus or posterior thalamic nuclei. These results indicate that pruriceptive VTT neurons are a subset of polymodal nociceptive VTT neurons and characterize a system conducive to future experiments regarding the similarities and differences between facial itch and pain. PMID:24478156

  7. Morphological characterization of carbon-nanofiber-reinforced epoxy nanocomposites using ultra-small angle scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Justice, R.S.; Anderson, D.P.; Brown, J.M.; Arlen, M.J.; Colleary, A.J.; Lafdi, K.; Schaefer, D.W.

    2010-07-01

    Studies of the properties of nanocomposites reinforced with vapor-grown carbon nanofibers (VGCFs) can be found throughout the literature. Electrical, mechanical, viscoelastic, and rheological properties are just a few of the characteristics that have been well discussed. Although these properties depend on morphology, morphological characterization is rare. Due to its 2-dimensional nature, microscopy is of limited value when analyzing network morphologies. This work will show how the characterization of the three-dimensional geometry and network formation of VGCFs can be determined using ultra-small angle scattering techniques. Ultra-small angle x-ray and neutron scattering (USAXS and USANS) were used to characterize the morphology of carbon nanofibers suspended in epoxy. Using a simplified tube model, we estimate the dimensions of suspended fibers. The assumption of tubular fibers accounts for the increased surface area observed with USAXS that is not accounted for using a solid rod model. Furthermore, USANS was used to search for a structural signature associated with the electrical percolation threshold. USANS extends to longer dimensional scales than USAXS, which measures a smaller range of momentum transfer. To determine the electrical percolation threshold, AC impedance spectroscopy was employed to verify that an electrically conductive, percolated network forms at VGCNF loadings of 0.8% < CNF wt% < 1.2%. These values correlate with the USANS data, where a morphological transition is seen at {approx}1.2% loading.

  8. Morphological and molecular characterization of Fusarium spp pathogenic to pecan tree in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lazarotto, M; Milanesi, P M; Muniz, M F B; Reiniger, L R S; Beltrame, R; Harakava, R; Blume, E

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of Fusarium spp associated with pecan tree (Carya illinoinensis) diseases in Brazil has been observed in recent laboratory analyses in Rio Grande do Sul State. Thus, in this study, we i) obtained Fusarium isolates from plants with disease symptoms; ii) tested the pathogenicity of these Fusarium isolates to pecan; iii) characterized and grouped Fusarium isolates that were pathogenic to the pecan tree based on morphological characteristics; iv) identified Fusarium spp to the species complex level through TEF-1α sequencing; and v) compared the identification methods used in the study. Fifteen isolates collected from the inflorescences, roots, and seeds of symptomatic plants (leaf necrosis or root rot) were used for pathogenicity tests. Morphological characterization was conducted using only pathogenic isolates, for a total of 11 isolates, based on the mycelial growth rate, sporulation, colony pigmentation, and conidial length and width variables. Pathogenic isolates were grouped based on morphological characteristics, and molecular characterization was performed by sequencing TEF-1α genes. Pathogenic isolates belonging to the Fusarium chlamydosporum species complex, Fusarium graminearum species complex, Fusarium proliferatum, and Fusarium oxysporum were identified based on the TEF-1α region. Morphological characteristics were used to effectively differentiate isolates and group the isolates according to genetic similarity, particularly conidial width, which emerged as a key morphological descriptor in this study. PMID:25501150

  9. Influence of exposure regimen on nitrogen dioxide-induced morphological changes in the rat lung

    SciTech Connect

    Rombout, P.J.A.; Dormans, J.A.M.A.; Marra, M.; van Esch, G.J.

    1986-12-01

    Experiments were performed to study the influence of concentration, exposure pattern, and length of exposure on the degree and extent of morphological alterations in the NO/sub 2//sup -/ exposed rat lung. Four weeks of continuous exposure to 20 mg NO/sub 2//m/sup 3/ consecutively revealed damage and loss of cilia, replacement of desquamated type I pneumocytes by type II pneumocytes resulting in a cuboidal epithelial lining, an influx of alveolar macrophages, and hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the bronchiolar epithelium. The animals recovered almost completely from the induced lesions within 8 days. Continuous exposure to 1, 2.5, or 5 mg/m/sup 3/ displayed minimal alterations in the 5 mg/m/sup 3/ group. The effects increased with exposure time. Intermittent or continuous exposure to 20 mg NO/sub 2//m/sup 3/ resulted in minor differences after 4 weeks. The onset of the lesions was delayed and the massive influx of alveolar macrophages in the continuously exposed animals failed to appear in the intermittently exposed animals. This work demonstrates that in subacute experiments: (1) Concentration plays a more important role in inducing pulmonary lesions than exposure time when the product of concentration and time is kept constant. This effect is stronger during intermittent exposure than during continuous exposure. (2) Continuous exposure seems to be a more important factor with regard to a macrophage response than intermittent exposure. (3) The rat lung has a large capacity to repair almost completely from damage caused by short-term NO/sub 2/ exposure.

  10. Preliminary Morphological and Immunohistochemical Changes in Rat Hippocampus Following Postnatal Exposure to Sodium Arsenite

    PubMed Central

    Kaler, Saroj; Dhar, Pushpa; Bhattacharya, Arnab; Mehra, Raj D.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of arsenic exposure during rapid brain growth period (RBGP) (postnatal period 4-11) on pyramidal neurons of cornu ammonis (specifically CA1 and CA3 regions) and granule cells of dentate gyrus (DG) of rat hippocampus were studied. Wistar rat pups, subdivided into the control (group I) and the experimental groups (group II, III, and IV), received distilled water and sodium arsenite (aqueous solution of 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mg/kg body weight, respectively) by intraperitoneal (i.p.) route. On postnatal day (PND) 12, the animals were sacrificed and brain tissue obtained. Paraffin sections (8 ?m thick) stained with Cresyl Violet (CV) were observed for morphological and morphometric parameters. Arsenic induced programmed cell death (apoptosis) was studied using Terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP biotin Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) technique on the paraffin sections. Microscopy revealed decreased number and isolation of pyramidal neurons in superficial layers, misalignments of pyramidal cells in stratum pyramidale (SP) of CA1 and CA3 in experimental group III and IV, and presence of polymorphic cells in subgranular zone of ectal limb of dentate gyrus (suggestive of arsenic induced proliferation and migration of granule cells in the dentate gyrus). Morphometric assessments quantified and confirmed the microscopic findings. The mean nuclear area of pyramidal cells was increased and cell density was decreased in the CA1, CA3, and DG of experimental groups in comparison to the control group. Increase in the TUNEL positive cells in DG was observed in the experimental group IV, suggestive of increased apoptosis. These observations confirm vulnerability of pyramidal (CA1, CA3) and granule cells (DG) of hippocampus during RBGP. PMID:24082510

  11. Chronic aerobic swimming exercise promotes functional and morphological changes in rat ileum

    PubMed Central

    da Cunha Araujo, Layanne Cabral; de Souza, Iara Leão Luna; Vasconcelos, Luiz Henrique César; de Freitas Brito, Aline; Queiroga, Fernando Ramos; Silva, Alexandre Sérgio; da Silva, Patrícia Mirella; de Andrade Cavalcante, Fabiana; da Silva, Bagnólia Araújo

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported the gastrointestinal (GI) effects promoted by the physical exercise. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the influence of swimming exercise on the contractile reactivity, lipid peroxidation and morphology of rat ileum. Wistar rats were divided into sedentary (SED) and groups exercised for two (EX2), four (EX4), six (EX6) or eight (EX8) weeks, 5 days/week. Animals were killed; the ileum was removed and suspended in organ baths where the isotonic contractions were recorded. Lipid peroxidation was evaluated by MDA (malondialdehyde) measurement with TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) assay and morphology by histological staining. Cumulative concentration-response curves to KCl were attenuated, as the Emax values were changed from 100% (SED) to 63.1±3.9 (EX2), 48.8±3.8 (EX4), 19.4±1.8 (EX6) and 59.4±2.8% (EX8). Similarly, cumulative concentration-response curves to carbamylcholine hydrochloride (CCh) were attenuated, as the Emax values were changed from 100% (SED) to 74.1±5.4 (EX2), 75.9±5.2 (EX4) and 62.9±4.6 (EX6), but not in the EX8 (89.7±3.4%). However, CCh potency was increased in this latter, as the EC50 was altered from 1.0±0.1×10−6 (SED) to 2.1±0.4×10−7 (EX8). MDA concentration was altered only in EX4 (44.3±4.4) compared with SED (20.6±3.6 μmol/l). Circular layer was reduced in SED when compared with the exercised groups. Conversely, longitudinal layer was increased. In conclusion, chronic swimming exercise reduces the ileum contraction, equilibrates the oxidative damage and promotes changes in tissue size to establish an adaptation to the exercise. PMID:26424698

  12. Characterization of the pharmacokinetics of dioscin in rat.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Tang, Yunbiao; Fawcett, John Paul; Gu, Jingkai; Zhong, Dafang

    2005-07-01

    Dioscin (diosgenyl 2,4-di-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside) is an important constituent of some traditional Chinese medicines with several bioactivities. We have investigated the pharmacokinetics of dioscin in rat after intravenous and oral administrations. Compartmental methods were used to perform pharmacokinetic data analysis. The dose-dependent pharmacokinetics of dioscin was characterized after intravenous administrations (0.064, 0.16, 0.4 and 1.0mg/kg) to rats. There was significant decrease in clearance with increasing dose (4.67+/-0.09 ml/min/kg (0.064 mg/kg) versus 3.49+/-0.23 ml/min/kg (1.0 mg/kg), P<0.05), and the plot of reciprocal clearance values versus the doses was linear (r=0.909, P<0.05). After an I.V. dose of 1mg/kg, simultaneous oral gavage of activated charcoal did not change the pharmacokinetic parameters indicating enterohepatic recycling of dioscin is not important in rat. The absolute oral bioavailability was very low (0.2%). In tissue distribution and bile excretion studies after I.V. and oral administrations, dioscin was shown to undergo a prolonged absorption from the intestinal tract and slow elimination from organs, and only a small amount of drug was recovered in bile. The cumulative amounts of dioscin in feces and urine indicated that the parent drug is mainly excreted in the feces. PMID:15894036

  13. Dexamethasone induces different morphological changes in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus of rats.

    PubMed

    Silva-Gómez, Adriana Berenice; Aguilar-Salgado, Yuritze; Reyes-Hernández, Diego Octavio; Flores, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    Dexamethasone (DEX), a synthetic glucocorticoid widely used in neurological illnesses because of its antiinflammatory properties, has many serious side effects, including severe psychiatric symptoms such as psychoses. The hippocampus is divided in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) and ventral hippocampus (VH) with each region having a subfield of CA1 and CA3 pyramidal layers. Great interest has recently emerged showing that the DH and VH are functionally different. In our work we determined whether, and what, changes occurred, after five days of DEX (0.2mg/kg) treatment, on the dendritic morphology of the CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons of the DH and VH of adult Sprague-Dawley rats. The dendritic morphology and characteristics were measured by using the Golgi-Cox procedure followed by a Sholl analysis. DEX decreased the number of dendritic spines of both apical and basolateral dendrites. Interestingly, this decrease was more pronounced in the VH. Only the VH neurons were affected by DEX with a decrease in their total dendritic length (TDL). An interesting point is that the VH neurons are longer that the DH neurons among the groups injected with saline only as the control. The length per branch order was only altered in the apical dendritic tree of the CA1 neurons. These data taken together show that the VH is more susceptible to DEX and its neurons are larger than the DH neurons. These results support previous observations related to differences between the DH and VH and suggest differences in the expression of the glucocorticoid receptors in connectivity and the space to elongate their dendritic arbor. PMID:23274838

  14. Morphological changes of the myenteric plexus during early postnatal development of the rat.

    PubMed

    Schfer, K H; Hnsgen, A; Mestres, P

    1999-09-01

    The enteric nervous system needs to adapt itself constantly to the postnatal changes of the developing gut. The aim of this study was to examine the morphological changes between the distal and proximal segments of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract during the first two postnatal weeks. Myenteric plexus from the duodenum, proximal and distal colon of 1-, 7- and 14-day-old rat pups was dissected and examined under the scanning electron microscope. Wholemounts from the same regions and postnatal stages were stained with cuprolinic blue. Neuronal numbers per ganglionic area were counted and neuronal sizes were measured. Furthermore, segments of the above-mentioned areas were embedded in resin and semithin sections were cut. The thickness of the circular and longitudinal muscle layers was measured. The morphology of the myenteric plexus depends on localization as well as on the age of the animal. While in younger animals the myenteric plexus is usually densely packed, the network expands with increasing age. Similarly, the thickness of the circular and the longitudinal muscle layers increases. Nerve cell numbers per ganglionic area increase from duodenum to distal colon and decrease from the 1-day (P1) to the 14-day-old (P14) animal. The longest diameters and the area of the nerve cells decrease from duodenum to distal colon and increase with age of the animal. The intensity of the cuprolinic blue staining varies also according to age and segment of the gut. During the first two postnatal weeks the three-dimensional architecture of the myenteric plexus as well as the size and densities of the enteric neurons change according to the increasing gut length and the thickness of the muscle layer. The differences between duodenum and colon might reflect the different physiological properties of the proximal and distal gut as well as a varying grade of maturity, which is also supported by a variation in the cuprolinic blue staining intensity. PMID:10456982

  15. Testicular morphology in spontaneously hypertensive rat model: oxidant status and stereological implications.

    PubMed

    Azu, O O

    2015-03-01

    Studies by researchers suggest that reductions in blood flow to the testis could play an important role in the pathogenesis of male infertility. As this oxygen-dependent organ functions in a state of near anoxia, such a decrease in blood flow may very likely have profound effects on the tissue morphology that ultimately would predispose to various forms of hypo-spermatogenesis with consequent compromise in reproductive capability. With varying opinions expressed by experts as to the actual culprit or potential pathway and/or effects of pathophysiology of testicular haemodynamics, it still remains debatable whether the observed degenerative changes in testicular tissue are the result of major or minor reductions in flow or the consequence of other vascular pathologies or even extraneous factors. Again, increasing age and male gender have been identified as the single independent risk factors for the occurrence of cardiovascular pathologies with sexual dimorphism highly debated. The investigation of these factors occurring under hypertensive states using the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) as an experimental model has attracted substantial attention in recent past. This review examines the relationships and potential morphologic changes in the testicular tissue under conditions of perturbations in blood flow as seen in the SHR with a view to the proper understanding of the role(s) of various factors that contributes to male subfertility. A suggestion to the use of stereological methods for quantitating various measurements in a highly active and dynamic structure like the testis with its arterial system has been added as this may facilitate a better understanding of the mechanisms implicated under hypertensive conditions. PMID:24471984

  16. Multi-level femoral morphology and mechanical properties of rats of different ages.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Gong, He; Zhu, Dong; Ma, Renshi; Fang, Juan; Fan, Yobo

    2015-07-01

    A macro-micro-nano-multi-level study was conducted to explore age-related structural and mechanical properties of bone, as well as the effects of aging on bone properties. A total of 70 male Wistar rats were used, ranging in the ages of 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 14, 15, 16, and 17 months (n = 7/age group). After micro-computed tomography (CT) scanning, longitudinal cortical bone specimens with a length of 5mm were cut along the femoral shaft axis from left femur shafts for mechanical testing, and the cross-sectional areas were measured. The macro-mechanical properties obtained in mechanical testing and microarchitecture parameters measured by micro-CT were significantly correlated with the animal age (r(2) = 0.96, p < 0.001). Scanning electron microscopy was used for detecting the microarchitecture features of the fractured surfaces, which exhibited age-related plate-fibrous-mixed fibrous-plate texture, resulting in changes in macro-mechanical properties (r(2) > 0.90, p < 0.001). The mineral phase of the left femoral shaft and head was analyzed by atomic force microscopy. Longitudinal and transverse trabecular bone tissues, as well as longitudinal cortical bone tissue, were used for nanoindentation test, and the chemical composition was evaluated by quantitative chemical analyses. The correlations between mineral content and bone material properties (i.e., elastic properties of the bone tissue and size and roughness of bone mineral grains) were highly significant (r > 0.95, p < 0.001). Multi-level femur morphology, mechanical property, and mineral content were significantly correlated with the animal age. The correlations between bone mineral content and bone material morphological and mechanical properties may partly explain the increase in bone fragility with aging, which will provide a theoretical basis for the investigation of age-related bone properties in clinics. PMID:25857690

  17. Morphological and neurochemical features of cultured primary skin fibroblasts of Fischer 344 rats following striatal implantation.

    PubMed

    Kawaja, M D; Gage, F H

    1992-03-01

    In order to assess the feasibility of using primary skin fibroblasts as a donor population for genetic modification and subsequent intracerebral grafting, the present study examines the structural and neurochemical characteristics of intrastriatal grafts of isogeneic primary fibroblasts over a period of 6 months. In culture, primary skin fibroblasts obtained from a female Fischer 344 rat display robust growth, but once confluent these cells exhibit contact inhibition. Following the implantation of cultured primary cells within the striatum of other adult rats from the same inbred strain, isologous grafts stain immunohistochemically for fibronectin at 1 week, and this immunostaining persists up to 6 months. Immunoreactivity for laminin is intense within the grafts from 1 to 8 weeks, but decreases by 6 months. Astrocytes within the striatum respond dramatically to the implantation of primary fibroblasts, such that immunohistochemical staining for glial fibrillary acidic protein increases markedly from 1 to 8 weeks after implantation. Although the intensity of immunostaining for glial fibrillary acidic protein diminishes among striatal astrocytes between 8 weeks and 6 months, the astrocytic border between the grafts and striatal neuropil remains intensely immunoreactive. Capillaries within the grafts stain immunohistochemically for glucose transporter (a facilitated glucose uptake carrier) as early as 3 weeks after implantation. Following intravenous infusions of peroxidase, capillaries within fibroblast grafts do not permit the extravasation of this macromolecule at 8 weeks and 6 months. Thus, capillaries formed within intracerebral grafts of primary skin fibroblasts exhibit a functional impermeable barrier to macromolecules similar to those capillaries of the host striatum. At the ultrastructural level, grafts possess numerous fibroblasts and have an extracellular matrix filled with collagen. Reactive astrocytic processes filled with intermediate filaments are found throughout the grafts. Hypertrophied astrocytes and their processes also appear to form a continuous border between the grafts and striatal neuropil. Grafts of primary fibroblasts also possess an extensive vasculature that is composed of capillaries with nonfenestrated endothelial cells; the occurrence of reactive astrocytic processes closely associated with or enveloping capillaries is variable. These results provide direct morphological and neurochemical evidence for the long-term survival of isologous fibroblasts after implantation within the rat striatum. From these data, we propose that isologous skin fibroblasts can be considered as donor candidates for successful intracerebral grafting following gene transfer. PMID:1573056

  18. Morphologic and proteomic characterization of exosomes released by cultured extravillous trophoblast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Atay, Safinur; Gercel-Taylor, Cicek; Kesimer, Mehmet; Taylor, Douglas D.

    2011-05-01

    Exosomes represent an important intercellular communication vehicle, mediating events essential for the decidual microenvironment. While we have demonstrated exosome induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, to date, no extensive characterization of trophoblast-derived exosomes has been provided. Our objective was to provide a morphologic and proteomic characterization of these exosomes. Exosomes were isolated from the conditioned media of Swan71 human trophoblast cells by ultrafiltration and ultracentrifugation. These were analyzed for density (sucrose density gradient centrifugation), morphology (electron microscopy), size (dynamic light scattering) and protein composition (Ion Trap mass spectrometry and western immunoblotting). Based on density gradient centrifugation, microvesicles from Sw71 cells exhibit a density between 1.134 and 1.173 g/ml. Electron microscopy demonstrated that microvesicles from Sw71 cells exhibit the characteristic cup-shaped morphology of exosomes. Dynamic light scattering showed a bell-shaped curve, indicating a homogeneous population with a mean size of 165 nm {+-} 0.5 nm. Ion Trap mass spectrometry demonstrated the presence of exosome marker proteins (including CD81, Alix, cytoskeleton related proteins, and Rab family). The MS results were confirmed by western immunoblotting. Based on morphology, density, size and protein composition, we defined the release of exosomes from extravillous trophoblast cells and provide their first extensive characterization. This characterization is essential in furthering our understanding of 'normal' early pregnancy.

  19. Characterization of status epilepticus induced by two organophosphates in rats

    PubMed Central

    Todorovic, Marko; Cowan, Morgan; Balint, Corinne; Sun, Chengsan; Kapur, Jaideep

    2012-01-01

    Organophosphates (OP) inhibit the enzyme cholinesterase and cause accumulation of acetylcholine, and are known to cause seizures and status epilepticus (SE) in humans. The animal models of SE caused by organophosphate analogs of insecticides are not well characterized. SE caused by OPs paraoxon and diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) in rats was characterized by electroencephalogram (EEG), behavioral observations and response to treatment with the benzodiazepine diazepam administered at various stages of SE. A method for SE induction using intrahippocampal infusion of paraoxon was also tested. Infusion of 200 nmol paraoxon into the hippocampus caused electrographic seizures in 43/52 (82.7%) animals tested; and of these animals, 14/43 (30%) had self-sustaining seizures that lasted 418 hours after the end of paraoxon infusion. SE was also induced by peripheral subcutaneous injection of diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP, 1.25 mg/kg) or paraoxon (1.00 mg/kg) to rats pretreated with atropine (2 mg/kg) and 2-pralidoxime (2-PAM,50 mg/kg) 30 minutes prior to OP injection. SE occurred in 78% paraoxontreated animals and in 79% of DFP-treated animals. Diazepam (10 mg/kg) was administered 10 min and 30 min after the onset of continuous EEG seizures induced by paraoxon and it terminated SE in a majority of animals at both time points. DFP-induced SE was terminated in 60% animals when diazepam was administered 10 minutes after the onset of continuous EEG seizure activity but diazepam did not terminate SE in any animal when it was administered 30 minutes after the onset of continuous seizures. These studies demonstrate that both paraoxon and DFP can induce SE in rats but refractoriness to diazepam is a feature of DFP induced SE. PMID:22578704

  20. Morphology of pancreatic islets: a time course of pre-diabetes in Zucker fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Augstein, Petra; Salzsieder, Eckhard

    2009-01-01

    The Zucker fatty rat (fa/fa; ZR) is considered as a model for pre-diabetes, as characterised by a genetic defect in the leptin receptor, which results in hyperphagia, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperlipoproteinaemia, and obesity. These animals become glucose intolerant but do not develop type 2 diabetes. As a consequence of increased adiposity and insulin resistance, the endocrine pancreas of ZR undergoes adaptive and compensatory changes. Measurements of the time course of the pathological changes by the histological analysis of the pancreatic islet in combination with metabolic parameters are an effective way to reveal disease progression. A loss in glucose tolerance occurs in ZR by 10 weeks of age and progressively worsens by 19 weeks of age. This process is accompanied by impaired islet histology, changes of beta-cell mass, and impaired islet function. The early expression of insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in ZR results in morphological and functional changes of pancreatic islets despite their capability to maintain normoglycaemia. PMID:19504250

  1. Changes in testicular morphology and steroidogenesis in adult rats exposed to Atrazine.

    PubMed

    Victor-Costa, Anna Bolivar; Bandeira, Simone Miranda Carozzi; Oliveira, Andr Gustavo; Mahecha, Germn Arturo Bohrquez; Oliveira, Cleida Aparecida

    2010-06-01

    Atrazine is an herbicide considered as a potent endocrine disruptor, causing adverse effects on both gender of mammalian and non-mammalian species. Despite the known adverse effects of Atrazine, little is known about its action on male genital system, especially in adults. We evaluated the effects of Atrazine (50 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg) in the 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) expression, plasmatic and testicular estrogen and testosterone levels, androgen receptor expression and morphological changes in adult rat testes. Atrazine at doses higher than 50 mg/kg resulted in decreased body weight, increased adrenal weight and transient increase in testis weight, followed by testis atrophy. A reduction in testosterone but increase in estradiol levels was observed. We showed for the first time that testicular 3beta-HSD protein was decreased, whereas in the adrenal it was unchanged. The results suggest that 3beta-HSD inhibition may represent an alternative mechanism through which Atrazine affects the testicular androgenesis, leading to changes in spermatogenesis. PMID:20045047

  2. Morphological and biochemical examination of Cosmos 1887 rat heart tissue. Part 1: Ultrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpott, D. E.; Popova, I. A.; Kato, K.; Stevenson, J.; Miquel, J.; Sapp, W.

    1990-01-01

    Morphological changes were observed in the left ventricle of rat heart tissue from animals flown on the Cosmos 1887 biosatellite for 12.5 days. These tissues were compared to the synchronous and vivarium control hearts. While many normal myofibrils were observed, others exhibited ultrastructural alterations, i.e., damaged and irregular-shaped mitochondria and generalized myofibrillar edema. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the volume density data revealed a statistically significant increase in glycogen and a significant decrease in mitochondria compared to the synchronous and vivarium controls. Point counting indicated an increase in lipid and myeloid bodies and a decrease in microtubules, but these changes were not statistically significant. In addition, the flight animals exhibited some patchy loss of protofibrils (actin and myosin filaments) and some abnormal supercontracted myofibrils that were not seen in the controls. This study was undertaken to gain insight into the mechanistic aspects of cardiac changes in both animals and human beings as a consequence of space travel. Cardiac hypotrophy and fluid shifts have been observed after actual or simulated weightlessness and raise concerns about the functioning of the heart and circulatory system during and after travel in space.

  3. The Effect of Cochinchina momordica Seed Extract on Gastric Acid Secretion and Morphologic Change in Aged Rat Stomach

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Hyun Jin; Nam, Ryoung Hee; Chang, Hyun; Kim, Joo-Hyon; Park, Ji Hyun; Kang, Jung Mook; Lee, Dong Ho; Jung, Hyun Chae

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Cochinchina momordica seed extract (SK-MS10) has a gastric protective effect. We aimed to assess the effect of SK-MS10 on gastric acid secretion with morphologic changes in the aged rat. Methods Acid secretions were evaluated in the male F344 rats of four different ages (6-, 31-, 74-week, and 2-year). The 31-week-old rats were divided to three groups and continuously administered chow containing vehicle, SK-MS10 and lansoprazole, respectively. At the age of 74 weeks and 2 years, basal and stimulated acid was measured and the expression of mRNA and protein of H+-K+-ATPase were determined. The area of connective tissue of lamina propria was measured. Results Basal and stimulated gastric acid significantly decreased and connective tissue of lamina propria increased with age. The expression of mRNA and protein of H+-K+-ATPase significantly decreased with age. However, 74-week-old rats in the SK-MS10 group had higher stimulated gastric acid secretion than those in the vehicle and lansoprazole groups. In 2-year-old rats of SK-MS10 group, there was no increase of connective tissue. Conclusions As SK-MS10 kept the capacity of acid secretion as well as connective tissue area to comparable to young rats, it might valuable to perform further research regarding mechanism of SK-MS10 as an antiaging agent in the stomach. PMID:24073314

  4. Morphological and serum hyaluronic acid, laminin and type IV collagen changes in dimethylnitrosamine-induced hepatic fibrosis of rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun-Hui; Piao, Dong-Ming; Xu, Wen-Xie; Yin, Zheng-Ri; Jin, Jing-Shun; Shen, Zhe-Shi

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the morphological and serum hyaluronic acid (HA), laminin (LN), and type IV collagen changes in hepatic fibrosis of rats induced by dimethylnitrosamine (DMN). METHODS: The rat model of liver fibrosis was induced by DMN. Serum HA, type IV collagen, and LN were measured by ELISA. The liver/weight index and morphological changes were examined under electron microscope on d 7, 14, 21, and 28 by immunohistochemical alpha smooth muscle actin ?-SMA staining as well as Sirius-red and HE staining. RESULTS: The levels of serum HA, type IV collagen and LN significantly increased from d 7 to d 28 (P = 0.043). The liver/weight index increased on d 7 and decreased on d 28. In the model group, the rat liver stained with HE and Sirius-red showed evident hemorrhage and necrosis in the central vein of hepatic 10 lobules on d 7. Thin fibrotic septa were formed joining central areas of the liver on d 14. The number of ?-SMA positive cells was markedly increased in the model group. Transitional hepatic stellate cells were observed under electron microscope. All rats in the model group showed micronodular fibrosis in the hepatic parenchyma and a network of ?-SMA positive cells. Typical myofibroblasts were embedded in the core of a fibrous septum. Compared to the control group, the area-density percentage of collagen fibrosis and pathologic grading were significantly different in the model group (P<0.05) on different d (7, 14, and 28). The area-density percentage of collagen fibrosis in hepatic tissue had a positive correlation with the levels of serum HA, LN, and type IV collagen. CONCLUSION: The morphological and serum HA, type IV collagen, and LN are changed in DMN-induced liver fibrosis in rats. PMID:16437688

  5. Picroside II Inhibits Neuronal Apoptosis and Improves the Morphology and Structure of Brain Tissue following Cerebral Ischemic Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tingting; Zhao, Li; Guo, Yunliang; Zhang, Meizeng; Pei, Haitao

    2015-01-01

    This paper aimed to explore the protective effects of picroside II against the neuronal apoptosis and changes in morphology and structure that follow cerebral ischemic injury in rats. A focal cerebral ischemic model was established by inserting a monofilament thread to achieve middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in 60 Wistar rats, and intraperitoneal injections of picroside II (20 mg/kg) were administered. The neurobehavioral functions were evaluated with the modified neurological severity score (mNSS) test. The cerebral infarct volumes were measured with tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. The morphology and ultrastructure of the cortical brain tissues were observed with hematoxylin-eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The apoptotic cells were counted with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling and flow cytometry, and pERK1/2 expression was determined by immunohistochemical assay and Western blot. The results indicated that neurological behavioral malfunctions and cerebral infarcts were present in the MCAO rats. In the model group, the damage to the structures of the neurons and the blood brain barrier (BBB) in the cortex was more severe, and the numbers of apoptotic cells, the early apoptotic ratio (EAR) and pERK1/2 expression were significantly increased in this group compared to the control group (P<0.05). In the treatment group, the neurological behavioral function and the morphology and ultrastructure of the neurons and the BBB were improved including the number of Mi increased and relative area of condensed chromosome and basement (BM) thickness descreased, and the cerebral infarct volume, the number of apoptotic cells, the EAR and pERK1/2 expression were significantly decreased compared to the model group (P<0.05). These results suggest that picroside II reduced apoptosis and improved the morphology and ultrastructure of the neurons and the BBB and that these effects resulted in the recovery of the neurobehavioral function of rats with cerebral ischemia. PMID:25927985

  6. Generation and characterization of rat liver stem cell lines and their engraftment in a rat model of liver failure

    PubMed Central

    Kuijk, Ewart W.; Rasmussen, Shauna; Blokzijl, Francis; Huch, Meritxell; Gehart, Helmuth; Toonen, Pim; Begthel, Harry; Clevers, Hans; Geurts, Aron M.; Cuppen, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    The rat is an important model for liver regeneration. However, there is no in vitro culture system that can capture the massive proliferation that can be observed after partial hepatectomy in rats. We here describe the generation of rat liver stem cell lines. Rat liver stem cells, which grow as cystic organoids, were characterized by high expression of the stem cell marker Lgr5, by the expression of liver progenitor and duct markers, and by low expression of hepatocyte markers, oval cell markers, and stellate cell markers. Prolonged cultures of rat liver organoids depended on high levels of WNT-signalling and the inhibition of BMP-signaling. Upon transplantation of clonal lines to a Fah−/− Il2rg−/− rat model of liver failure, the rat liver stem cells engrafted into the host liver where they differentiated into areas with FAH and Albumin positive hepatocytes. Rat liver stem cell lines hold potential as consistent reliable cell sources for pharmacological, toxicological or metabolic studies. In addition, rat liver stem cell lines may contribute to the development of regenerative medicine in liver disease. To our knowledge, the here described liver stem cell lines represent the first organoid culture system in the rat. PMID:26915950

  7. Generation and characterization of rat liver stem cell lines and their engraftment in a rat model of liver failure.

    PubMed

    Kuijk, Ewart W; Rasmussen, Shauna; Blokzijl, Francis; Huch, Meritxell; Gehart, Helmuth; Toonen, Pim; Begthel, Harry; Clevers, Hans; Geurts, Aron M; Cuppen, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    The rat is an important model for liver regeneration. However, there is no in vitro culture system that can capture the massive proliferation that can be observed after partial hepatectomy in rats. We here describe the generation of rat liver stem cell lines. Rat liver stem cells, which grow as cystic organoids, were characterized by high expression of the stem cell marker Lgr5, by the expression of liver progenitor and duct markers, and by low expression of hepatocyte markers, oval cell markers, and stellate cell markers. Prolonged cultures of rat liver organoids depended on high levels of WNT-signalling and the inhibition of BMP-signaling. Upon transplantation of clonal lines to a Fah(-/-) Il2rg(-/-) rat model of liver failure, the rat liver stem cells engrafted into the host liver where they differentiated into areas with FAH and Albumin positive hepatocytes. Rat liver stem cell lines hold potential as consistent reliable cell sources for pharmacological, toxicological or metabolic studies. In addition, rat liver stem cell lines may contribute to the development of regenerative medicine in liver disease. To our knowledge, the here described liver stem cell lines represent the first organoid culture system in the rat. PMID:26915950

  8. Blast exposure in rats with body shielding is characterized primarily by diffuse axonal injury.

    PubMed

    Garman, Robert H; Jenkins, Larry W; Switzer, Robert C; Bauman, Richard A; Tong, Lawrence C; Swauger, Peter V; Parks, Steven A; Ritzel, David V; Dixon, C Edward; Clark, Robert S B; Bayir, Hlya; Kagan, Valerian; Jackson, Edwin K; Kochanek, Patrick M

    2011-06-01

    Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the signature insult in combat casualty care. Survival with neurological damage from otherwise lethal blast exposures has become possible with body armor use. We characterized the neuropathologic alterations produced by a single blast exposure in rats using a helium-driven shock tube to generate a nominal exposure of 35 pounds per square inch (PSI) (positive phase duration ? 4 msec). Using an IACUC-approved protocol, isoflurane-anesthetized rats were placed in a steel wedge (to shield the body) 7 feet inside the end of the tube. The left side faced the blast wave (with head-only exposure); the wedge apex focused a Mach stem onto the rat's head. The insult produced ? 25% mortality (due to impact apnea). Surviving and sham rats were perfusion-fixed at 24 h, 72 h, or 2 weeks post-blast. Neuropathologic evaluations were performed utilizing hematoxylin and eosin, amino cupric silver, and a variety of immunohistochemical stains for amyloid precursor protein (APP), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1), ED1, and rat IgG. Multifocal axonal degeneration, as evidenced by staining with amino cupric silver, was present in all blast-exposed rats at all time points. Deep cerebellar and brainstem white matter tracts were most heavily stained with amino cupric silver, with the morphologic staining patterns suggesting a process of diffuse axonal injury. Silver-stained sections revealed mild multifocal neuronal death at 24 h and 72 h. GFAP, ED1, and Iba1 staining were not prominently increased, although small numbers of reactive microglia were seen within areas of neuronal death. Increased blood-brain barrier permeability (as measured by IgG staining) was seen at 24 h and primarily affected the contralateral cortex. Axonal injury was the most prominent feature during the initial 2 weeks following blast exposure, although degeneration of other neuronal processes was also present. Strikingly, silver staining revealed otherwise undetected abnormalities, and therefore represents a recommended outcome measure in future studies of blast TBI. PMID:21449683

  9. Synthesis, structural and morphological characterization of the perovskite LaYbO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera Ramírez, A.; Charry Pastrana, F. E.; Roa Rojas, J.; Landinez Tellez, D. A.; Fajardo, F.

    2016-02-01

    In this work we report synthesis of the LaYbO3 ceramics material by the solid state reaction technique and its structural and morphological characterization from X-ray diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy experiments. Rietveld refinement of the diffraction patterns reveals that this material crystallizes in an orthorhombic perovskite, Pnma space group (#62) with lattice parameters a=6.0233Å, b=8.2080Å and c=5.7203Å. Systematic monitoring of the synthesis process is carried out through analysis of results of X-ray diffraction. The surface morphology of the samples was qualitatively analysed as a function of the sintering process.

  10. Characterization of pellet morphology during submerged growth of Streptomyces tendae by image analysis.

    PubMed

    Reichl, U; King, R; Gilles, E D

    1992-01-20

    Many filamentous bacteria and fungi tend to form pellets, or mixtures of dispersed mycelium and pellets in liquid fermentation broths. In some cases, a specific kind of morphology is required for optimum product yield. When quantitative analysis and characterization of the pellet morphology are needed, an image processing system can be used. It allows a fast and reproducible analysis of the frequency distribution of pellet size, mean pellet size, contents of pellets, or their shape. The use of such a system allows for an on-line analysis. For a demonstration of the method, results of two fermentations of Streptomyces tendae are shown. PMID:18600927

  11. 3D Reconstruction and Standardization of the Rat Vibrissal Cortex for Precise Registration of Single Neuron Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Egger, Robert; Narayanan, Rajeevan T.; Helmstaedter, Moritz; de Kock, Christiaan P. J.; Oberlaender, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) structure of neural circuits is commonly studied by reconstructing individual or small groups of neurons in separate preparations. Investigation of structural organization principles or quantification of dendritic and axonal innervation thus requires integration of many reconstructed morphologies into a common reference frame. Here we present a standardized 3D model of the rat vibrissal cortex and introduce an automated registration tool that allows for precise placement of single neuron reconstructions. We (1) developed an automated image processing pipeline to reconstruct 3D anatomical landmarks, i.e., the barrels in Layer 4, the pia and white matter surfaces and the blood vessel pattern from high-resolution images, (2) quantified these landmarks in 12 different rats, (3) generated an average 3D model of the vibrissal cortex and (4) used rigid transformations and stepwise linear scaling to register 94 neuron morphologies, reconstructed from in vivo stainings, to the standardized cortex model. We find that anatomical landmarks vary substantially across the vibrissal cortex within an individual rat. In contrast, the 3D layout of the entire vibrissal cortex remains remarkably preserved across animals. This allows for precise registration of individual neuron reconstructions with approximately 30 m accuracy. Our approach could be used to reconstruct and standardize other anatomically defined brain areas and may ultimately lead to a precise digital reference atlas of the rat brain. PMID:23284282

  12. Functional and Morphological Changes in Endocrine Pancreas following Cola Drink Consumption in Rats

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Aim We report the effects of long-term cola beverage drinking on glucose homeostasis, endocrine pancreas function and morphology in rats. Methods Wistar rats drank: water (group W), regular cola beverage (group C, sucrose sweetened) or “light” cola beverage (group L, artificially sweetened). After 6 months, 50% of the animals in each group were euthanized and the remaining animals consumed water for the next 6 months when euthanasia was performed. Biochemical assays, insulinemia determination, estimation of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), morphometry and immunohistochemistry evaluations were performed in pancreas. Results Hyperglycemia (16%, p<0.05), CoQ10 (coenzyme-Q10) decrease (−52%,p<0.01), strong hypertriglyceridemia (2.8-fold, p<0.01), hyperinsulinemia (2.4 fold, p<0.005) and HOMA-IR increase (2.7 fold, p<0.01) were observed in C. Group C showed a decrease in number of α cells (−42%, p<0.01) and β cells (−58%, p<0.001) and a moderate increase in α cells’ size after wash-out (+14%, p<0.001). Group L showed reduction in β cells’ size (−9%, p<0.001) and only after wash-out (L12) a 19% increase in size (p<0.0001) with 35% decrease in number of α cells (p<0.01). Groups C and L showed increase in α/β-cell ratio which was irreversible only in C (α/β = +38% in C6,+30% in C12, p<0.001vs.W6). Regular cola induced a striking increase in the cytoplasmic expression of Trx1 (Thioredoxin-1) (2.25-fold in C6 vs. W6; 2.7-fold in C12 vs. W12, p<0.0001) and Prx2 (Peroxiredoxin-2) (3-fold in C6 vs. W6; 2-fold in C12 vs. W12, p<0.0001). Light cola induced increase in Trx1 (3-fold) and Prx2 (2-fold) after wash-out (p<0.0001, L12 vs. W12). Conclusion Glucotoxicity may contribute to the loss of β cell function with depletion of insulin content. Oxidative stress, suggested by increased expression of thioredoxins and low circulating levels of CoQ10, may follow sustained hyperglycemia. A likely similar panorama may result from the effects of artificially sweetened cola though via other downstream routes. PMID:25790473

  13. Characterization of rat exploratory behavior using the exploration box test.

    PubMed

    Otter, M H; Matto, V; Sõukand, R; Skrebuhhova, T; Allikmets, L; Harro, J

    1997-12-01

    A method to measure various aspects of exploratory behavior was further characterized using standard pharmacological treatments known to induce anxiety, or anxiolysis, or locomotor activation. FG 7142, an anxiogenic beta-carboline, induced a dose-dependent reduction in the rat exploratory behavior. A single FG 7142 (20 mg/kg) treatment before behavioral testing had a carry-over effect on rats' behavioral performance on the two subsequent days. When FG 7142 (20 mg/kg) was administered during five consecutive days before behavioral testing, its anxiogenic-like effect first deepened, but waned off by the fifth session. Diazepam at the dose of 0.5 mg/kg had no effect of its own, but blocked the anxiogenic-like effect of FG 7142 (10 mg/kg) treatment. At a higher dose (1 mg/kg), diazepam treatment reduced exploratory behavior, but this effect was not carried over to the drug-free sessions on the subsequent day. Buspirone and gepirone (both 1 mg/kg), the 5-HT1A receptor agonists, had no effect. D-Amphetamine, a locomotion-enhancing drug which has anxiogenic-like properties in several tests of exploratory behavior, increased the activity of rats at the dose of 0.5 mg/kg, but at the dose of 1 mg/kg the only effect was a reduction in the number of rearings: this effect was not carried over to the subsequent retest. On the basis of the results described in this article and elsewhere, we suggest that this technique can be useful for separating a true anxiogenic drug from other compounds which influence exploratory activity. PMID:9580470

  14. The rat GPRC6A: cloning and characterization.

    PubMed

    Wellendorph, Petrine; Burhenne, Nicole; Christiansen, Bolette; Walter, Bettina; Schmale, Hartwig; Bruner-Osborne, Hans

    2007-07-15

    GPRC6A is a novel member of family C of G protein-coupled receptors with so far elusive biological function. GPRC6A has been described in human and mouse as a promiscuous l-alpha-amino acid receptor. We now report the cloning, expression analysis and, functional characterization of the rat orthologue of GPRC6A. Full-length cloning of rat GPRC6A (rGPRC6A) was accomplished using amplification of cDNA from taste tissue, and the identity of rGPRC6A confirmed at both the genomic and the protein level by similarity studies. Using selective primers, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction showed that the mRNA is widely but weakly distributed, except for a high expression in the soft palate, the so-called geschmacksstreifen. On the protein level, rGPRC6A was shown to be glycosylated and most likely oligomeric, and using immunochemistry we observed that rGPRC6A is expressed at the plasma membrane of mammalian cell lines. Utilizing co-expression of rGPRC6A and the promiscuous Galpha(q)(G66D) protein in an engineered cell-based inositol phosphate turnover assay, we were able to study the ligand profile of the receptor. We found that l-ornithine is the most potent and efficacious l-amino acid agonist with an EC(50) value of 264 microM, followed by several other aliphatic, neutral, and basic amino acids. Furthermore, the divalent cation Mg(2+) was found to be a positive modulator of the l-ornithine response. The presented quantitative pharmacological data underlines the evolutionary conservation of GPRC6A to the rat and signifies the physiological importance and emerging pharmacological potential of GPRC6A. PMID:17478059

  15. Volitional Weight-Lifting in Rats Promotes Adaptation via Performance and Muscle Morphology prior to Gains in Muscle Mass

    PubMed Central

    Rader, Erik P; Miller, G Roger; Chetlin, Robert D; Wirth, Oliver; Baker, Brent A

    2014-01-01

    Investigation of volitional animal models of resistance training has been instrumental in our understanding of adaptive training. However, these studies have lacked reactive force measurements, a precise performance measure, and morphological analysis at a distinct phase of training when initial strength gains precede muscle hypertrophy. Our aim was to expose rats to one month of training (70 or 700 g load) on a custom-designed weight-lifting apparatus for analysis of reactive forces and muscle morphology prior to muscle hypertrophy. Exclusively following 700 g load training, forces increased by 21% whereas muscle masses remained unaltered. For soleus (SOL) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles, 700 g load training increased muscle fiber number per unit area by ?20% and decreased muscle fiber area by ?20%. Additionally, number of muscle fibers per section increased by 18% for SOL muscles. These results establish that distinct morphological alterations accompany early strength gains in a volitional animal model of load-dependent adaptive resistance training. PMID:25392697

  16. Genesis of Delaminated-Zeolite Morphology: 3-D Characterization of Changes by STEM Tomography.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Ilke; Roehling, John D; Ogino, Isao; Batenburg, K Joost; Zones, Stacey I; Gates, Bruce C; Katz, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    Zeolite delamination increases the external surface area available for catalyzing the conversion of bulky molecules, but a fundamental understanding of the delamination process remains unknown. Here we report morphological changes accompanying delamination on the length scale of individual zeolite clusters determined by 3-D imaging in scanning transmission electron microscopy. The results are tomograms that demonstrate delamination as it proceeds on the nanoscale through two distinct key steps: a chemical treatment that leads to a swelled material and a subsequent calcination that leads to curling and peeling off of delaminated zeolite sheets over hundreds of nanometers. These results characterize the direct, local, 3-D morphological changes accompanying delaminated materials synthesis and, with corroboration by mercury porosimetry, provide unique insight into the morphology of these materials, which is difficult to obtain with any other technique. PMID:26266740

  17. Characterization of Nanocomposite filler Morphology using Ultra Small-Angle X-ray Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Justice, Ryan S.; Schaefer, Dale W.

    2010-10-22

    Loading polymer matrices with nanoscale fillers is widely believed to have the potential to push polymer properties to extreme values. Realization of anticipated properties, however, has proven elusive. Recent nanocomposite research suggests better characterization of the large-scale morphology will provide insight explaining these shortfalls. This work will present ultra-small angle X-ray scattering as a viable tool for elucidating the hierarchical filler morphology that exists within polymer nanocomposites. Scattering analysis tools developed by our group will be applied to scattering data from nanocomposites filled with carbon nanotubes, layered silicates, and colloidal silica. The relationship between imaging data and scattering data will be discussed in the context of filler dispersion. Finally, the impact of large-scale filler morphology on mechanical and electrical properties will be discussed.

  18. Characterization of Closed Head Impact Injury in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Yi; Akula, Praveen; Kelso, Matthew; Gu, Linxia

    2015-01-01

    The closed head impact (CHI) rat models are commonly used for studying the traumatic brain injury. The impact parameters vary considerably among different laboratories, making the comparison of research findings difficult. In this work, numerical CHI experiments were conducted to investigate the sensitivities of intracranial responses to various impact parameters (e.g., impact depth, velocity, and position; impactor diameter, material, and shape). A three-dimensional finite element rat head model with anatomical details was subjected to impact loadings. Results revealed that impact depth and impactor shape were the two leading factors affecting intracranial responses. The influence of impactor diameter was region-specific and an increase in impactor diameter could substantially increase tissue strains in the region which located directly beneath the impactor. The lateral impact could induce higher strains in the brain than the central impact. An indentation depth instead of impact depth would be appropriate to characterize the influence of a large deformed rubber impactor. The experimentally observed velocity-dependent injury severity could be attributed to the overshoot phenomenon. This work could be used to better design or compare CHI experiments. PMID:26451365

  19. Immunoexpression of intermediate filaments and morphological changes in the liver and bile duct of rats infected with Fasciola hepatica.

    PubMed

    Kolodziejczyk, L; Laszczy?ska, M; Masiuk, M; Grabowska, M; Skrzydlewska, E

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the immunoexpression of the intermediate filament proteins, cytokeratin and desmin, and the morphological changes in the liver of rats during experimental fasciolosis at 4, 7 and 10 weeks post-infection. Rats were infected with 30 Fasciola hepatica metacercariae. Paraffin sections of the liver were stained using H & E, PAS and azan stains. Immunohistochemical reactions were performed using antibodies against cytokeratin and desmin. The experimental F. hepatica infection led to fibrosis and cirrhosis of the liver, and to inflammation of the common bile ducts. The expression of cytokeratin was increased in the epithelial cells of both the liver bile ductules at 4, 7 and 10 weeks post-infection and in the common bile ducts at 7 and 10 weeks post-infection compared to uninfected rats; expression in the common bile ducts was more intense. The myofibroblasts of the liver and smooth myocytes of the interlobular bile ducts and common bile ducts, showed a slight increase in desmin expression compared to the uninfected rats. The increased expression of cytokeratins in the hyperplastic rat common bile duct epithelium during the biliary phase of fasciolosis at 7 and 10 weeks post-infection may be explained by mechanical irritation by the parasite and an inflammatory reaction in the bile duct epithelium and in periductal fibrous tissue. PMID:25923046

  20. Astrocyte morphology, heterogeneity, and density in the developing African giant rat (Cricetomys gambianus).

    PubMed

    Olude, Matthew A; Mustapha, Oluwaseun A; Aderounmu, Oluwatunde A; Olopade, James O; Ihunwo, Amadi O

    2015-01-01

    Astrocyte morphologies and heterogeneity were described in male African giant rats (AGR; Cricetomys gambianus, Waterhouse) across three age groups (five neonates, five juveniles, and five adults) using Silver impregnation method and immunohistochemistry against glial fibrillary acidic protein. Immunopositive cell signaling, cell size and population were least in neonates, followed by adults and juveniles, respectively. In neonates, astrocyte processes were mostly detected within the glia limitans of the mid and hind brain; their cell bodies measuring 32 4.8 ?m in diameter against 91 5.4 ?m and 75 1.9 ?m in juveniles and adults, respectively. Astrocyte heterogeneity in juvenile and adult groups revealed eight subtypes to include fibrous astrocytes chiefly in the corpus callosum and brain stem, protoplasmic astrocytes in the cortex and dentate gyrus (DG); radial glia were found along the olfactory bulb (OB) and subventricular zone (SVZ); velate astrocytes were mainly found in the cerebellum and hippocampus; marginal astrocytes close to the pia mater; Bergmann glia in the molecular layer of the cerebellum; perivascular and periventricular astrocytes in the cortex and third ventricle, respectively. Cell counts from twelve anatomical regions of the brain were significantly higher in juveniles than in adults (p ? 0.01) using unpaired student t-test in the cerebral cortex, pia, corpus callosum, rostral migratory stream, DG, and cerebellum. Highest astrocyte count was found in the DG, while the least count was in the brain stem and sub cortex. Astrocytes along the periventricular layer of the OB are believed to be part of the radial glia system that transport newly formed cells towards the hippocampus and play roles in neurogenesis migration and homeostasis in the AGR. Therefore, astrocyte heterogeneity was examined across age groups in the AGR to determine whether age influences astrocytes population in different regions of the AGR brain and discuss possible functional roles. PMID:26074782

  1. Astrocyte morphology, heterogeneity, and density in the developing African giant rat (Cricetomys gambianus)

    PubMed Central

    Olude, Matthew A.; Mustapha, Oluwaseun A.; Aderounmu, Oluwatunde A.; Olopade, James O.; Ihunwo, Amadi O.

    2015-01-01

    Astrocyte morphologies and heterogeneity were described in male African giant rats (AGR; Cricetomys gambianus, Waterhouse) across three age groups (five neonates, five juveniles, and five adults) using Silver impregnation method and immunohistochemistry against glial fibrillary acidic protein. Immunopositive cell signaling, cell size and population were least in neonates, followed by adults and juveniles, respectively. In neonates, astrocyte processes were mostly detected within the glia limitans of the mid and hind brain; their cell bodies measuring 32 ± 4.8 μm in diameter against 91 ± 5.4 μm and 75 ± 1.9 μm in juveniles and adults, respectively. Astrocyte heterogeneity in juvenile and adult groups revealed eight subtypes to include fibrous astrocytes chiefly in the corpus callosum and brain stem, protoplasmic astrocytes in the cortex and dentate gyrus (DG); radial glia were found along the olfactory bulb (OB) and subventricular zone (SVZ); velate astrocytes were mainly found in the cerebellum and hippocampus; marginal astrocytes close to the pia mater; Bergmann glia in the molecular layer of the cerebellum; perivascular and periventricular astrocytes in the cortex and third ventricle, respectively. Cell counts from twelve anatomical regions of the brain were significantly higher in juveniles than in adults (p ≤ 0.01) using unpaired student t-test in the cerebral cortex, pia, corpus callosum, rostral migratory stream, DG, and cerebellum. Highest astrocyte count was found in the DG, while the least count was in the brain stem and sub cortex. Astrocytes along the periventricular layer of the OB are believed to be part of the radial glia system that transport newly formed cells towards the hippocampus and play roles in neurogenesis migration and homeostasis in the AGR. Therefore, astrocyte heterogeneity was examined across age groups in the AGR to determine whether age influences astrocytes population in different regions of the AGR brain and discuss possible functional roles. PMID:26074782

  2. Characterization of vasopressin receptors of rat urinary bladder and spleen

    SciTech Connect

    Thibonnier, M.; Snajdar, R.M.; Rapp, J.P.

    1986-07-01

    By use of tritiated arginine-8-vasopressin (AVP), vasopressin specific binding sites were detected on Sprague-Dawley rat urinary bladder and spleen. In both tissues, one class of high-affinity binding sites was characterized with an equilibrium dissociation constant of 1.61 +/- 0.22 and 1.91 nM and a maximal binding capacity of 155 and 110 fmol/mg of protein, for bladder and spleen, respectively. In both tissues, several experimental arguments suggest that these receptors belong to the V/sub 1/-vascular type. AVP (10/sup -12/-10/sup -5/ M) did not modify the basal cyclic AMP production in either tissue. As cyclic AMP is known to respond to V/sub 2/ stimulation, the data suggest that the receptors measured are the V/sub 1/ type. The exploration of vasopressin receptors regulation should facilitate the comprehension of the role played by AVP in different models of experimental hypertension.

  3. Repeated administration of a synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist differentially affects cortical and accumbal neuronal morphology in adolescent and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, A F; Reyes, B A S; Ramalhosa, F; Sousa, N; Van Bockstaele, E J

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrate a differential trajectory for cannabinoid receptor expression in cortical and sub-cortical brain areas across postnatal development. In the present study, we sought to investigate whether chronic systemic exposure to a synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist causes morphological changes in the structure of dendrites and dendritic spines in adolescent and adult pyramidal neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and medium spiny neurons (MSN) in the nucleus accumbens (Acb). Following systemic administration of WIN 55,212-2 in adolescent (PN 37-40) and adult (P55-60) male rats, the neuronal architecture of pyramidal neurons and MSN was assessed using Golgi-Cox staining. While no structural changes were observed in WIN 55,212-2-treated adolescent subjects compared to control, exposure to WIN 55,212-2 significantly increased dendritic length, spine density and the number of dendritic branches in pyramidal neurons in the mPFC of adult subjects when compared to control and adolescent subjects. In the Acb, WIN 55,212-2 exposure significantly decreased dendritic length and number of branches in adult rat subjects while no changes were observed in the adolescent groups. In contrast, spine density was significantly decreased in both the adult and adolescent groups in the Acb. To determine whether regional developmental morphological changes translated into behavioral differences, WIN 55,212-2-induced aversion was evaluated in both groups using a conditioned place preference paradigm. In adult rats, WIN 55,212-2 administration readily induced conditioned place aversion as previously described. In contrast, adolescent rats did not exhibit aversion following WIN 55,212-2 exposure in the behavioral paradigm. The present results show that synthetic cannabinoid administration differentially impacts cortical and sub-cortical neuronal morphology in adult compared to adolescent subjects. Such differences may underlie the disparate development effects of cannabinoids on behavior. PMID:25348266

  4. Morphological characterization of respiratory neurons in the pre-Bötzinger complex.

    PubMed

    Zavala-Tecuapetla, Cecilia; Tapia, Dagoberto; Rivera-Angulo, Ana Julia; Galarraga, Elvira; Peña-Ortega, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Although the pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötC) was defined as the inspiratory rhythm generator long ago, the functional-anatomical characterization of its neuronal components is still being achieved. Recent advances have identified the expression of molecular markers in the preBötC neurons that, however, are not exclusive to specific respiratory neuron subtypes and have not always been related to specific cell morphologies. Here, we evaluated the morphology and the axonal projections of electrophysiologically defined respiratory neurons in the preBötC using whole-cell recordings and intracellular biocytin labeling. We found that respiratory pacemaker neurons are larger than expiratory neurons and that inspiratory neurons are smaller than pacemaker and expiratory neurons. Other morphological features such as somata shapes or dendritic branching patterns were not found to be significantly different among the preBötC neurons sampled. We also found that both pacemaker and inspiratory nonpacemaker neurons, but not expiratory neurons, show extensive axonal projections to the contralateral preBötC and show signs of electrical coupling. Overall, our data suggest that there are morphological differences between subtypes of preBötC respiratory neurons. It will be important to take such differences in consideration since morphological differences would influence synaptic responses and action potential propagation. PMID:24746042

  5. Morphological characterization and viability assessment of Trichoderma reesei by image analysis.

    PubMed

    Lecault, Véronique; Patel, Nilesh; Thibault, Jules

    2007-01-01

    The production of cellulase from the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is a critical step in the industrial process leading to cellulose ethanol. As a result of the lack of quantitative analysis tools, the intimate relationship that exists between the morphological and physiological states of the microorganism, the shear field in the bioreactor, and the process performance is not yet fully understood. A semiautomatic image analysis protocol was developed to characterize the mycelium morphology and to estimate its percentage viability during the fermentation process based on four morphological types (unbranched, branched, entangled, and clumped microorganisms). Pictures taken under bright field microscopy combined with images of fluorescein diacetate stained fungi were used to assess the morphological parameters and the percentage viability of microorganisms simultaneously. The method was tested during the course of fed-batch fermentation in a reciprocating plate bioreactor. The use of the image analysis protocol was found to be successful in quantifying the variations in the morphology and the viability of T. reesei throughout the fermentation. PMID:17373824

  6. Establishment and Characterization of Rat Portal Myofibroblast Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Fausther, Michel; Goree, Jessica R.; Lavoie, lise G.; Graham, Alicia L.; Svigny, Jean; Dranoff, Jonathan A.

    2015-01-01

    The major sources of scar-forming myofibroblasts during liver fibrosis are activated hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and portal fibroblasts (PF). In contrast to well-characterized HSC, PF remain understudied and poorly defined. This is largely due to the facts that isolation of rodent PF for functional studies is technically challenging and that PF cell lines had not been established. To address this, we have generated two polyclonal portal myofibroblast cell lines, RGF and RGF-N2. RGF and RGF-N2 were established from primary PF isolated from adult rat livers that underwent culture activation and subsequent SV40-mediated immortalization. Specifically, Ntpdase2/Cd39l1-sorted primary PF were used to generate the RGF-N2 cell line. Both cell lines were functionally characterized by RT-PCR, immunofluorescence, immunoblot and bromodeoxyuridine-based proliferation assay. First, immortalized RGF and RGF-N2 cells are positive for phenotypic myofibroblast markers alpha smooth muscle actin, type I collagen alpha-1, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1, PF-specific markers elastin, type XV collagen alpha-1 and Ntpdase2/Cd39l1, and mesenchymal cell marker ecto-5-nucleotidase/Cd73, while negative for HSC-specific markers desmin and lecithin retinol acyltransferase. Second, both RGF and RGF-N2 cell lines are readily transfectable using standard methods. Finally, RGF and RGF-N2 cells attenuate the growth of Mz-ChA-1 cholangiocarcinoma cells in co-culture, as previously demonstrated for primary PF. Immortalized rat portal myofibroblast RGF and RGF-N2 cell lines express typical markers of activated PF-derived myofibroblasts, are suitable for DNA transfection, and can effectively inhibit cholangiocyte proliferation. Both RGF and RGF-N2 cell lines represent novel in vitro cellular models for the functional studies of portal (myo)fibroblasts and their contribution to the progression of liver fibrosis. PMID:25822334

  7. Characterization of p75{sup +} ectomesenchymal stem cells from rat embryonic facial process tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Xiujie; Liu, Luchuan; Deng, Manjing; Zhang, Li; Liu, Rui; Xing, Yongjun; Zhou, Xia; Nie, Xin

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ectomesenchymal stem cells (EMSCs) were found to migrate to rat facial processes at E11.5. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We successfully sorted p75NTR positive EMSCs (p75{sup +} EMSCs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p75{sup +} EMSCs up to nine passages showed relative stable proliferative activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined the in vitro multilineage potential of p75{sup +} EMSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p75{sup +}EMSCs provide an in vitro model for tooth morphogenesis. -- Abstract: Several populations of stem cells, including those from the dental pulp and periodontal ligament, have been isolated from different parts of the tooth and periodontium. The characteristics of such stem cells have been reported as well. However, as a common progenitor of these cells, ectomesenchymal stem cells (EMSCs), derived from the cranial neural crest have yet to be fully characterized. The aim of this study was to better understand the characteristics of EMSCs isolated from rat embryonic facial processes. Immunohistochemical staining showed that EMSCs had migrated to rat facial processes at E11.5, while the absence of epithelial invagination or tooth-like epithelium suggested that any epithelial-mesenchymal interactions were limited at this stage. The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), a typical neural crest marker, was used to select p75NTR-positive EMSCs (p75{sup +} EMSCs), which were found to show a homogeneous fibroblast-like morphology and little change in the growth curve, proliferation capacity, and cell phenotype during cell passage. They also displayed the capacity to differentiate into diverse cell types under chemically defined conditions in vitro. p75{sup +} EMSCs proved to be homogeneous, stable in vitro and potentially capable of multiple lineages, suggesting their potential for application in dental or orofacial tissue engineering.

  8. Multifractal characterization of morphology of human red blood cells membrane skeleton.

    PubMed

    Ţălu, Ş; Stach, S; Kaczmarska, M; Fornal, M; Grodzicki, T; Pohorecki, W; Burda, K

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show applicability of multifractal analysis in investigations of the morphological changes of ultra-structures of red blood cells (RBCs) membrane skeleton measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Human RBCs obtained from healthy and hypertensive donors as well as healthy erythrocytes irradiated with neutrons (45 μGy) were studied. The membrane skeleton of the cells was imaged using AFM in a contact mode. Morphological characterization of the three-dimensional RBC surfaces was realized by a multifractal method. The nanometre scale study of human RBCs surface morphology revealed a multifractal geometry. The generalized dimensions Dq and the singularity spectrum f(α) provided quantitative values that characterize the local scale properties of their membrane skeleton organization. Surface characterization was made using areal ISO 25178-2: 2012 topography parameters in combination with AFM topography measurement. The surface structure of human RBCs is complex with hierarchical substructures resulting from the organization of the erythrocyte membrane skeleton. The analysed AFM images confirm a multifractal nature of the surface that could be useful in histology to quantify human RBC architectural changes associated with different disease states. In case of very precise measurements when the red cell surface is not wrinkled even very fine differences can be uncovered as was shown for the erythrocytes treated with a very low dose of ionizing radiation. PMID:27002485

  9. Subtype Identification in Acutely Dissociated Rat Nodose Ganglion Neurons Based on Morphologic Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiao-Long; Xu, Wen-Xiao; Yan, Zhen-Yu; Qian, Zhao; Xu, Bing; Liu, Yang; Han, Li-Min; Gao, Rui-Chen; Li, Jun-Nan; Yuan, Mei; Zhao, Chong-Bao; Qiao, Guo-fen; Li, Bai-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Nodose ganglia are composed of A-, Ah- and C-type neurons. Despite their important roles in regulating visceral afferent function, including cardiovascular, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal homeostasis, information about subtype-specific expression, molecular identity, and function of individual ion transporting proteins is scarce. Although experiments utilizing the sliced ganglion preparation have provided valuable insights into the electrophysiological properties of nodose ganglion neuron subtypes, detailed characterization of their electrical phenotypes will require measurements in isolated cells. One major unresolved problem, however, is the difficulty to unambiguously identify the subtype of isolated nodose ganglion neurons without current-clamp recording, because the magnitude of conduction velocity in the corresponding afferent fiber, a reliable marker to discriminate subtypes in situ, can no longer be determined. Here, we present data supporting the notion that application of an algorithm regarding to microscopic structural characteristics, such as neuron shape evaluated by the ratio between shortest and longest axis, neuron surface characteristics, like membrane roughness, and axon attachment, enables specific and sensitive subtype identification of acutely dissociated rat nodose ganglion neurons, by which the accuracy of identification is further validated by electrophysiological markers and overall positive predictive rates is 89.26% (90.04%, 76.47%, and 98.21% for A-, Ah, and C-type, respectively). This approach should aid in gaining insight into the molecular correlates underlying phenotypic heterogeneity of nodose ganglia. Additionally, several critical points that help for neuron identification and afferent conduction calibration are also discussed. PMID:23904796

  10. Modulation of morphological changes of endometrial surface epithelium by administration of composite root extract in albino rat.

    PubMed

    Sarma, H N; Mahanta, H C

    2000-07-01

    In the present investigation, we attempted to study the modulation of morphological changes of endometrial surface epithelium by Scanning Electron Microscope (SCEM) in the adult albino rat after oral administration of roots extract. The origin of this experiment lies in the fact that the dry powdered roots of five plants, i.e., Plumbago rosea, Borassus flabellifer, Carica papaya (male), Dolichos lablab, and Shorea robusta in mixed form, has been traditionally used by the folk women of this region through oral route during the first seven days of a menstrual cycle to prevent conception. Ethanolic crude extract of these roots in composite form which has been referred to here as composite root extract (CRE) was administered to the adult female albino rat in a dose of 1000 mg/kg body weight/day through oral route continuously for 12 days starting from proestrous. The observations under SCEM showed that administration of the CRE induced morphological changes of the endometrial surface epithelium in albino rat uterus. The characteristic smooth regular pattern of normal epithelium appears to have been changed at places by haphazardly oriented groups of cells and loss of microvilli indicating a disorganized picture. This structural disparity has been thought to affect the smooth functioning of nidatory preparation in the endometrium. PMID:11024229

  11. Exposure to non-ionizing radiation provokes changes in rat thyroid morphology and expression of HSP-90.

    PubMed

    Misa-Agustio, Maria J; Jorge-Mora, Teresa; Jorge-Barreiro, Francisco J; Suarez-Quintanilla, Juan; Moreno-Piquero, Eduardo; Ares-Pena, Francisco J; Lpez-Martn, Elena

    2015-09-01

    Non-ionizing radiation at 2.45?GHz may modify the morphology and expression of genes that codify heat shock proteins (HSP) in the thyroid gland. Diathermy is the therapeutic application of non-ionizing radiation to humans for its beneficial effects in rheumatological and musculo-skeletal pain processes. We used a diathermy model on laboratory rats subjected to maximum exposure in the left front leg, in order to study the effects of radiation on the nearby thyroid tissue. Fifty-six rats were individually exposed once or repeatedly (10 times in two weeks) for 30?min to 2.45?GHz radiation in a commercial chamber at different non-thermal specific absorption rates (SARs), which were calculated using the finite difference time domain technique. We used immunohistochemistry methods to study the expression of HSP-90 and morphological changes in thyroid gland tissues. Ninety minutes after radiation with the highest SAR, the central and peripheral follicles presented increased size and the thickness of the peripheral septa had decreased. Twenty-four hours after radiation, only peripheral follicles radiated at 12?W were found to be smaller. Peripheral follicles increased in size with repeated exposure at 3?W power. Morphological changes in the thyroid tissue may indicate a glandular response to acute or repeated stress from radiation in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Further research is needed to determine if the effect of this physical agent over time may cause disease in the human thyroid gland. PMID:25649190

  12. Intestinal morphology adjustments caused by dietary restriction improves the nutritional status during the aging process of rats.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Belm, Mnica; Cirilo, Carla Possani; de Santi-Rampazzo, Ana Paula; Schoffen, Joo Paulo Ferreira; Comar, Jurandir Fernando; Natali, Maria Raquel Maral; de Almeida Arajo, Eduardo Jos

    2015-09-01

    During the aging process, the body's systems change structurally and loss of function can occur. Ingesting a smaller amount of food has been considered a plausible proposal for increased longevity with the quality of life. However, the effects of dietary restriction (DR) during aging are still poorly understood, especially for organs of the digestive system. This study aimed to describe the body weight, oxidative status and possible morphological changes of the intestinal wall of rats submitted to DR during the aging process (7 to 18months old). Twelve 7-month-old male Wistar rats fed ad libitum since birth were assigned to two groups: control group (CG, n=6) fed ad libitum from 7 to 18months old; and dietary restriction group (DRG, n=6) fed 50% of the amount of chow consumed by the CG from 7 to 18months old. The body weight, feed and water intake were monitored throughout the experiment. Blood, periepididymal adipose tissue (PAT) and retroperitoneal adipose tissue (RAT), and the small intestine were collected at 18months old. The blood was collected to evaluate its components and oxidative status. Sections from the duodenum and ileum were stained with HE, PAS and AB pH2.5 for morphometric analyses of the intestinal wall components, and to count intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs), goblet cells and cells in mitosis in the epithelium. DR rats showed a reduction in weight, naso-anal length, PAT, RAT and intestinal length; however, they consumed more water. Blood parameters indicate that the DR rats remained well nourished. In addition, they showed lower lipid peroxidation. Hypertrophy of the duodenal mucosa and atrophy of the ileal mucosa were observed. The number of goblet cells and IELs was reduced, but the mitotic index remained unaltered in both duodenum and ileum. In conclusion, 50% dietary restriction for rats from 7 to 18months old contributed to improving their nutritional parameters but, to achieve this, adjustments were required in the structure of the body weight and morphology of the small intestine. PMID:25959567

  13. Effect of Boswellia serrata gum resin on the morphology of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells in aged rat.

    PubMed

    Hosseini-sharifabad, Mohammad; Esfandiari, Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    Experimental evidence indicates that administration of Boswellia resin, known as olibanum or Frankincense, increases memory power. It is reported that beta boswellic acid, the major component of Boswellia serrata gum resin, could enhance neurite outgrowth and branching in hippocampal neurons. We therefore studied whether Boswellia treatment produces morphological changes in the superior region of cornu ammonis (CA1) in aged rats. Sixteen male Wistar rats, 24months of age, were randomly divided in experimental and control groups. The experimental group was orally administered Boswellia serrata gum resin (100mg/kg per day for 8weeks) and the control group received a similar volume of water. The Cavalieri principle was employed to estimate the volumes of CA1 hippocampal field, and a quantitative Golgi study was used to analysis of dendritic arborizations of CA1 pyramidal cells. Comparisons revealed that Boswellia-treated aged rats had greater volumes than control animals in stratum pyramidale and stratum radiatum lacunosum-moleculare. The neurons of CA1 in experimental rats had more dendritic segments (40.254.20) than controls (30.94.55), P=0.001. The total dendritic length of CA1 neurons was approximately 20% larger in the experimental group compared to control. Results also indicated that the aged rats treated with Boswellia resin had more numerical branching density in the apical dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons. The results of the present study show that long-term administration of Boswellia resin can attenuate age-related dendritic regression in CA1 pyramidal cells in rat hippocampus. PMID:24515442

  14. A statistics-guided approach to precise characterization of nanowire morphology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Hwang, Youngdeok; Qian, Peter Z G; Wang, Xudong

    2010-02-23

    Precise control of nanomaterial morphology is critical to the development of advanced nanodevices with various functionalities. In this paper, we developed an efficient and effective statistics-guided approach to accurately characterizing the lengths, diameters, orientations, and densities of nanowires. Our approach has been successfully tested on a zinc oxide nanowire sample grown by hydrothermal methods. This approach has three key components. First, we introduced a novel geometric model to recover the true lengths and orientations of nanowires from their projective scanning electron microscope images, where a statistical resampling method is used to mitigate the practical difficulty of relocating the same sets of nanowires at multiple projecting angles. Second, we developed a sequential uniform sampling method for efficiently acquiring representative samples in characterizing diameters and growing density. Third, we proposed a statistical imputation method to incorporate the uncertainty in the determination of nanowire diameters arising from nonspherical cross-section spinning. This approach enables precise characterization of several fundamental aspects of nanowire morphology, which served as an excellent example to overcome nanoscale characterization challenges by using novel statistical means. It might open new opportunities in advancing nanotechnology and might also lead to the standardization of nanocharacterization in many aspects. PMID:20102154

  15. Biopharmaceutical Characterization of Nebulized Antimicrobial Agents in Rats: 2. Colistin

    PubMed Central

    Gontijo, Aline Vidal Lacerda; Grégoire, Nicolas; Lamarche, Isabelle; Gobin, Patrice; Marchand, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of colistin following intrapulmonary administration of colistin sulfate in rats. Colistin was infused or delivered in nebulized form at a dose of 0.35 mg/kg of body weight in rats, and plasma drug concentrations were measured for 4 h after administration. Bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) were also conducted at 0.5, 2, and 4 h after intravenous (i.v.) administration and administration via nebulized drug to estimate epithelial lining fluid (ELF) drug concentrations. Unbound colistin plasma concentrations at distribution equilibrium (2 h postdosing) were almost identical after i.v. infusion and nebulized drug inhalation. ELF drug concentrations were undetectable in BAL samples after i.v. administration, but they were about 1,800 times higher than unbound plasma drug levels at 2 h and 4 h after administration of the nebulized drug. Simultaneous pharmacokinetic modeling of plasma and ELF drug concentrations was performed with a model characterized by a fixed physiological volume of ELF (VELF), a passive diffusion clearance (QELF) between plasma and ELF, and a nonlinear influx transfer from ELF to the central compartment, which was assessed by reducing the nebulized dose of colistin by 10-fold (0.035 mg kg−1). The km was estimated to be 133 μg ml−1, and the Vmax, in-to-Km ratio was equal to 2.5 × 10−3 liter h−1 kg−1, which was 37 times higher than the QELF (6.7 × 10−5 liter h−1 kg−1). This study showed that with the higher ELF drug concentrations after administration via nebulized aerosol than after intravenous administration, for antibiotics with low permeability such as colistin, nebulization offers a real potential over intravenous administration for the treatment of pulmonary infections. PMID:24798284

  16. Changes in Serum Cytokine Concentration : A Morphological Study of Liver Cirrhosis Induced by Common Bile Duct Ligation in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byung Seok; Kim, Nam Jae; Jeong, Hyun Yong; Lee, Heon Young; Kang, Dae Young; Noh, Seung Moo

    2003-01-01

    Background Liver cirrhosis is a diffuse hepatic fibrosis and nodule formation. The transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) are very important cytokines in hepatic fibrogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the changes of the serum cytokines and morphological changes following common bile duct ligation in experimental rats. Methods Common bile ducts of fifty male Sprague-Dawley rats were ligated and seven male rats were set aside as controls. Five rats each were sacrificed in 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 experimental weeks. Light microscopic studies and liver function tests were performed during the above experimental weeks. The levels of serum TGF-?1 and IL-10 were analyzed by ELISA. Also, alpha smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) immunohistochemical stains were performed. Results On the eighth week after common bile duct ligation, most hepatic lobular areas had been replaced by proliferated bile ducts and fibrous tissue (typical biliary cirrhosis). Serum TGF-?1 levels between the control group and the common bile duct ligation group showed statistically significant changes. The ?-SMA was stained at proliferated bile ducts. These findings were correlated with each other. Conclusion Thus, this experiment may clarify our understanding of the mechanism in liver fibrogenesis. Also, indicated is a need to explore the therapeutic potential of these cytokines as anti-fibrotic agents. PMID:12760262

  17. Functional characterization of muscarinic autoreceptors in rat and human neocortex.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Christoph; Eltze, Manfrid; Lambrecht, Günter; Zentner, Josef; Feuerstein, Thomas J; Jackisch, Rolf

    2009-08-01

    Electrically evoked overflow of [(3)H]acetylcholine in slices of rat neocortex and of human neocortex (freshly obtained during neurosurgical treatment of epilepsy or deep-seated tumors) was used to functionally characterize the muscarinic receptor subtype, which mediates autoinhibition of acetylcholine release in these tissues. In the rat neocortex, the following pK(B) values [CI(95)] were calculated from the shifts to the right of the concentration-response curves of the full agonist oxotremorine in presence of subtype preferring muscarinic receptor antagonists: tripitramine: 9.1 [8.8, 9.4], tripinamide: 8.6 [8.5, 8.7], AQ-RA 741 (11-[[4-[4-(diethylamino)butyl]-1-piperidinyl]acetyl]-5,11-dihydro-6H-pyrido(2,3-b)[1,4]benzodiazepine-6-one): 8.2 [8.0, 8.4], himbacine: 8.0 [7.9, 8.1], 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methobromide: 8.0 [7.8, 8.1], methoctramine: 7.5 [7.4, 7.6], AF-DX 116 (11[[2-[(diethyl-amino)methyl]-1-piperidinyl] acetyl] 5,11-dihydro-6H-pyrido(2,3-b)[1,4]benzodiazepine-6-one): 7.1 [7.0, 7.3], hexahydro-sila-difenidol: 6.8 [6.7, 6.9], pirenzepine: 6.6 [6.4, 6.7], and 3,6a,11,14-tetrahydro-9-methoxy-2-methyl-12H-isoquino[1,2-b]pyrrolo[3,2-f] [1,3]benzoxazine-1-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (PD 102807): 6.0 [5.8, 6.2]. In the human neocortex the following values were found: tripitramine: 9.4 [9.3, 9.6], tripinamide: 9.0 [8.9, 9.2], AF-DX 116: 6.7 [6.4, 6.9], hexahydro-sila-difenidol: 6.6 [6.2, 6.9], and PD 102807: 6.5 [6.3, 6.6]. In correlation plots, these pK(B) values correspond best to published binding data on native or recombinant M(2) receptors but not to those on M(1), M(3), M(4), and M(5) receptors, suggesting that muscarinic autoreceptors of both the rat and human neocortex belong to the M(2) subtype. This observation lends further support to the development of M(2) receptor selective brain penetrating antagonists for application in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:19493162

  18. Echocardiographic assessment of cardiac morphology and function in mutant dwarf rats.

    PubMed

    Longobardi, S; Cittadini, A; Strmer, H; Katz, S E; Grossman, J D; Clark, R G; Morgan, J P; Douglas, P S

    2000-10-01

    Although the mutant dwarf rat has been proposed as a model of growth hormone (GH) deficiency, few studies have addressed its cardiovascular abnormalities. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate cardiac structure and function in mutant dwarf rats in vivo before and after chronic GH administration, by means of transthoracic Doppler echocardiography. To this purpose, forty 90-day-old female dwarf rats were randomized to receive either GH treatment or placebo. Twenty age-and sex-matched Lewis rats (200-250 g) served as the control group. All rats underwent echocardiograms before receiving any drug and after 3 weeks of therapy. Echocardiographically detected left ventricular mass indexed to tibial length was reduced by 41% in dwarf rats compared to the control group. Such relative cardiac atrophy was also evident at the myocyte level, and was fully reversible after GH therapy. In contrast to the control group, dwarf rats also showed a reduction of left ventricular diastolic volumes normalized to tibial length and impaired cardiac performance as suggested by the reduction of cardiac index, abnormal stress-shortening relations, and a significant elevation of total peripheral vascular resistance. All these abnormalities were reversible upon GH therapy for 3 weeks. In conclusion, GH plays an important role in maintaining a normal cardiac structure and function. Since the observed changes are similar to those seen in GH-deficient men, the mutant dwarf rat represents a faithful animal model of GH deficiency. PMID:11042020

  19. GLUTAMATE NEUROTOXICITY IN THE DEVELOPING RAT COCHLEA: PHYSIOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL APPROACHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The neurotoxic effects of exogenous glutamate were studied in the rat cochlea. lutamate-treated rats (4g/kg/day ip, postnatal days 2 through 9) exhibited electrophysiologically-measured elevations in high frequency thresholds usually associated with hair cell loss in the basal re...

  20. Morphological Changes within the Rat Lateral Ventricle after the Administration of Proteasome Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Wjcik, S?awomir; Spodnik, Jan Henryk; Dziewi?tkowski, Jerzy; Spodnik, Edyta; Mory?, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    The broad variety of substances that inhibit the action of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS)known as proteasome inhibitorshave been used extensively in previous studies, and they are currently frequently proposed as a novel form of cancer treatment and as a protective factor in intracerebral hemorrhage treatment. The experimental data on the safest route of proteasome inhibitor administration, their associated side effects, and the possible ways of minimizing these effects have recently become a very important topic. The aim of our present study was to determine the effects of administering of MG-132, lactacystin and epoxomicin, compounds belonging to three different classes of proteasome inhibitors, on the ependymal walls of the lateral ventricle. Observations were made 2 and 8 weeks after the intraventricular administration of the studied substances dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) into the lateral ventricle of adult Wistar rats. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of brain sections stained with histochemical and inmmunofluorescence techniques showed that the administration of proteasome inhibitors caused a partial occlusion of the injected ventricle in all of the studied animals. The occlusion was due to ependymal cells damage and subsequent ependymal discontinuity, which caused direct contact between the striatum and the lateral nuclei of the septum, mononuclear cell infiltration and the formation of a glial scar between these structures (with the activation of astroglia, microglia and oligodendroglia). Morphologically, the ubiquitin-positive aggregates corresponded to aggresomes, indicating impaired activity of the UPS and the accumulation and aggregation of ubiquitinated proteins that coincided with the occurrence of glial scars. The most significant changes were observed in the wall covering the striatum in animals that were administered epoxomicin, and milder changes were observed in animals administered lactacystin and MG-132. Interestingly, DMSO administration also caused damage to some of the ependymal cells, but the aggresome-like structures were not formed. Our results indicate that all of the studied classes of proteasome inhibitors are detrimental to ependymal cells to some extent, and may cause severe changes in the ventricular system. The safety implications of their usage in therapeutic strategies to attenuate intracerebral hemorrhagic injury and in brain cancer treatment will require further studies. PMID:26479862

  1. Loss of perforated synapses in the dentate gyrus: morphological substrate of memory deficit in aged rats.

    PubMed Central

    Geinisman, Y; de Toledo-Morrell, L; Morrell, F

    1986-01-01

    Most, but not all, aged rats exhibit a profound deficit in spatial memory when tested in a radial maze--a task known to depend on the integrity of the hippocampal formation. In this study, animals were divided into three groups based on their spatial memory capacity: young adult rats with good memory, aged rats with impaired memory, and aged rats with good memory. Memory-impaired aged animals showed a loss of perforated axospinous synapses in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation in comparison with either young adults or aged rats with good memory. This finding suggests that the loss of perforated axospinous synapses in the hippocampal formation underlies the age-related deficit in spatial memory. Images PMID:3458260

  2. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor channel blockers prevent pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions and morphological changes in rat brain neurons.

    PubMed

    Zaitsev, Aleksey V; Kim, Kira Kh; Vasilev, Dmitry S; Lukomskaya, Nera Ya; Lavrentyeva, Valeria V; Tumanova, Natalia L; Zhuravin, Igor A; Magazanik, Lev G

    2015-03-01

    Alterations in inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmission play a central role in the etiology of epilepsy, with overstimulation of glutamate receptors influencing epileptic activity and corresponding neuronal damage. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, which belong to a class of ionotropic glutamate receptors, play a primary role in this process. This study compared the anticonvulsant properties of two NMDA receptor channel blockers, memantine and 1-phenylcyclohexylamine (IEM-1921), in a pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) model of seizures in rats and investigated their potencies in preventing PTZ-induced morphological changes in the brain. The anticonvulsant properties of IEM-1921 (5 mg/kg) were more pronounced than those of memantine at the same dose. IEM-1921 and memantine decreased the duration of convulsions by 82% and 37%, respectively. Both compounds were relatively effective at preventing the tonic component of seizures but not myoclonic seizures. Memantine significantly reduced the lethality caused by PTZ-induced seizures from 42% to 11%, and all animals pretreated with IEM-1921 survived. Morphological examination of the rat brain 24 hr after administration of PTZ revealed alterations in the morphology of 20-25% of neurons in the neocortex and the hippocampus, potentially induced by excessive glutamate. The expression of the excitatory amino acid transporter 1 protein was increased in the hippocampus of the PTZ-treated rats. However, dark neurons did not express caspase-3 and were immunopositive for the neuronal nuclear antigen protein, indicating that these neurons were alive. Both NMDA antagonists prevented neuronal abnormalities in the brain. These results suggest that NMDA receptor channel blockers might be considered possible neuroprotective agents for prolonged seizures or status epilepticus leading to neuronal damage. PMID:25359451

  3. Perinatal glucocorticoid treatment produces molecular, functional, and morphological changes in the anterior pituitary gland of the adult male rat.

    PubMed

    Theogaraj, E; John, C D; Christian, H C; Morris, J F; Smith, S F; Buckingham, J C

    2005-11-01

    Stress or glucocorticoid (GC) treatment in perinatal life can induce long-term changes in the sensitivity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis to the feedback actions of GCs and, hence, in GC secretion. These changes have been ascribed largely to changes in the sensitivity of the limbic system, and possibly the hypothalamus, to GCs. Surprisingly, the possibility that early life stress/GC treatment may also exert irreversible effects at the pituitary level has scarcely been addressed. Accordingly, we have examined the effects of pre- and neonatal dexamethasone treatment on the adult male pituitary gland, focusing on the following: 1) the integrity of the acute annexin 1 (ANXA1)-dependent inhibitory actions of GCs on ACTH secretion, a process requiring ANXA1 release from folliculostellate (FS) cells; and 2) the morphology of FS cells and corticotrophs. Dexamethasone was given to pregnant (d 16-19) or lactating (d 1-7 postpartum) rats via the drinking water (1 microg/ml); controls received normal drinking water. Pituitary tissue from the offspring was examined ex vivo at d 90. Both treatment regimens reduced ANXA1 expression, as assessed by Western blotting and quantitative immunogold labeling. In particular, the amount of ANXA1 located on the outer surface of the FS cells was reduced. By contrast, IL-6 expression was increased, particularly by the prenatal treatment. Pituitary tissue from untreated control rats responded to dexamethasone with an increase in cell surface ANXA1 and a reduction in forskolin-induced ACTH release. In contrast, pituitary tissue from rats treated prenatally or neonatally with dexamethasone was unresponsive to the steroid, although, like control tissue, it responded readily to ANXA1, which readily inhibited forskolin-driven ACTH release. Prenatal dexamethasone treatment reduced the size but not the number of FS cells. It also caused a marked reduction in corticotroph number and impaired granule margination without affecting other aspects of corticotroph morphology. Similar but less marked effects on pituitary cell morphology and number were evident in tissue from neonatally treated rats. Our study shows that, when administered by a noninvasive process, perinatal GC treatment exerts profound effects on the adult pituitary gland, impairing the ANXA1-dependent GC regulation of ACTH release and altering the cell profile and morphology. PMID:16099861

  4. Mammary gland morphology and gene expression signature of prepubertal male and female rats following exposure to exogenous estradiol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to characterize the actions of xenoestrogens, it is essential to possess a solid portrait of the physiological effects of exogenous estradiol. We assessed effects of three doses of exogenous estradiol (E2) (0.1, 1.0 and 10 micrograms/kg/day) on the mammary gland morphology and gene expressi...

  5. Morphological and functional manifestations of rat adrenal-cortex response to sodium bromide administration under hypodynamic stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirichek, L. T.; Zholudeva, V. I.

    1979-01-01

    Functional and morphological manifestations of adrenal cortex response to hypodynamia (2-hr immobilization on an operating table) under the influence of bromine preparations were studied. The sodium bromide was administered intraperitoneally in 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg doses once and repeatedly during ten days. The adrenal gland was evaluated functionally by ascorbic acid and cholesterol content and morphologically by coloring it with hematoxylin-eosin and Sudans for lipid revealing at freezing. Results are displayed in two tables and microphotographs. They are summarized as follows: the bromine weakens the functional state of the adrenal cortex in intact rats, causing changes similar to those under stress. During immobilization combined with preliminary bromine administration, a less pronounced stress reaction is noticeable.

  6. Morphological characterization of Cryptosporidium parvum life-cycle stages in an in vitro model system.

    PubMed

    Borowski, H; Thompson, R C A; Armstrong, T; Clode, P L

    2010-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that mainly affects the ileum of humans and livestock, with the potential to cause severe enteric disease. We describe the complete life cycle of C. parvum in an in vitro system. Infected cultures of the human ileocecal epithelial cell line (HCT-8) were observed over time using electron microscopy. Additional data are presented on the morphology, development and behavioural characteristics of the different life-cycle stages as well as determining their time of occurrence after inoculation. Numerous stages of C. parvum and their behaviour have been visualized and morphologically characterized for the first time using scanning electron microscopy. Further, parasite-host interactions and the effect of C. parvum on host cells were also visualized. An improved understanding of the parasite's biology, proliferation and interactions with host cells will aid in the development of treatments for the disease. PMID:19691870

  7. Integral-geometry characterization of photobiomodulation effects on retinal vessel morphology

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Marconi; Natoli, Riccardo; Valter, Kriztina; Provis, Jan; Maddess, Ted

    2014-01-01

    The morphological characterization of quasi-planar structures represented by gray-scale images is challenging when object identification is sub-optimal due to registration artifacts. We propose two alternative procedures that enhances object identification in the integral-geometry morphological image analysis (MIA) framework. The first variant streamlines the framework by introducing an active contours segmentation process whose time step is recycled as a multi-scale parameter. In the second variant, we used the refined object identification produced in the first variant to perform the standard MIA with exact dilation radius as multi-scale parameter. Using this enhanced MIA we quantify the extent of vaso-obliteration in oxygen-induced retinopathic vascular growth, the preventative effect (by photobiomodulation) of exposure during tissue development to near-infrared light (NIR, 670 nm), and the lack of adverse effects due to exposure to NIR light. PMID:25071966

  8. Mathematical morphology: detection and characterization of directed axonal growth in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, M. A.; Ballarin, V. L.; Rapacioli, M.; Rodrguez Celn, A.; Snchez, V.; Flores, V.

    2011-12-01

    Neurite growth in vitro, neuritogenesis, is a widespread methodology in the field of developmental neurobiology. Morphological analysis of growing neurites is usually a difficult task because of their thinness and their low contrast that makes it difficult to observe clearly their shape, number, length and spatial orientation. This paper presents the use of the granulometric size distribution function to obtain, automatically, information about the shape, size and spatial orientation of growing axons in tissue cultures. The results presented show the efficiency of the granulometric size distribution for this application. The automatic detection of growing axons and the precise characterization of a relevant parameter, indicative of the axonal growth spatial orientation, was obtained by this morphological tool. The developed algorithms facilitates the analysis of these images by automatically quantifying the angle of deviation of the direction of growth, which is important given the large number of images that need to be processed for this type of study.

  9. Is the morphological characterization of valley networks on Earth portable to Mars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenders, R.; Lindenbergh, R. C.; Menenti, M.

    2013-09-01

    The climate under which the Martian valley networks formed is still under debate, was it wet or dry, cold or warm. The morphology of the valley networks on Mars shows similarities to those of river networks on Earth. Climate has an influence on the morphology of river networks on Earth. The volume of sediment, the volume of water, and source of water—groundwater or rainfall—are influenced by climate. To compare different watersheds we characterize the watersheds using a limited number of key parameters. The parameters considered here are: volume of erosion, outlet channel and/or valley dimension, slopes, evolution of channel cross-section downstream. We consider four regions, two on Earth and two on Mars, identify the genetic processes, and give time duration constraints.

  10. Morphological and Metabolic Changes in the Nigro-Striatal Pathway of Synthetic Proteasome Inhibitor (PSI)-Treated Rats: A MRI and MRS Study

    PubMed Central

    Delli Pizzi, Stefano; Rossi, Cosmo; Di Matteo, Vincenzo; Esposito, Ennio; Guarnieri, Simone; Mariggi, Maria Addolorata; Franciotti, Raffaella; Caulo, Massimo; Thomas, Astrid; Onofrj, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Systemic administration of a Synthetic Proteasome Inihibitor (PSI) in rats has been described as able to provide a model of Parkinsons disease (PD), characterized by behavioral and biochemical modifications, including loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN), as assessed by post-mortem studies. With the present study we aimed to assess in-vivo by Magnetic Resonance (MR) possible morphological and metabolic changes in the nigro-striatal pathway of PSI-treated rats. 10 animals were subcutaneously injected with PSI 6.0 mg/kg dissolved in DMSO 100%. Injections were made thrice weekly over the course of two weeks. 5 more animals injected with DMSO 100% with the same protocol served as controls. The animals underwent MR sessions before and at four weeks after the end of treatment with either PSI or vehicle. MR Imaging was performed to measure SN volume and Proton MR Spectroscopy (1H-MRS) was performed to measure metabolites changes at the striatum. Animals were also assessed for motor function at baseline and at 4 and 6 weeks after treatment. Dopamine and dopamine metabolite levels were measured in the striata at 6 weeks after treatment. PSI-treated animals showed volumetric reduction of the SN (p<0.02) at 4 weeks after treatment as compared to baseline. Immunofluorescence analysis confirmed MRI changes in SN showing a reduction of tyrosine hydroxylase expression as compared to neuron-specific enolase expression. A reduction of N-acetyl-aspartate/total creatine ratio (p?=?0.05) and an increase of glutamate-glutamine-? amminobutirrate/total creatine were found at spectroscopy (p?=?0.03). At 6 weeks after treatment, PSI-treated rats also showed motor dysfunction compared to baseline (p?=?0.02), accompanied by dopamine level reduction in the striatum (p?=?0.02). Treatment with PSI produced morphological and metabolic modifications of the nigro-striatal pathway, accompanied by motor dysfunction. MR demonstrated to be a powerful mean to assess in-vivo the nigro-striatal pathway morphology and metabolism in the PSI-based PD animal model. PMID:23431380

  11. Influence of ageing and physical activity on vascular morphology in rat skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Behnke, Bradley J; Prisby, Rhonda D; Lesniewski, Lisa A; Donato, Anthony J; Olin, Hillary M; Delp, Michael D

    2006-01-01

    Key structural and functional properties of the skeletal muscle vasculature that underlie diminished vascular conductance with ageing remain obscure. The purpose of this investigation was to test the hypotheses that (1) reduced levels of spontaneous physical activity in old rats are associated with skeletal muscle vascular remodelling (e.g. arterial rarefaction), and (2) consequent to a vascular remodelling, calculated shear stress is maintained in feed arteries of aged muscle at levels commensurate with that in young. Activity during daily light and dark cycles (1212 h) was measured at 30-s intervals for 2 weeks in young (6 months; n = 9) and old (24 months; n = 9) Fisher 344 rats via telemetry. Subsequently, the gastrocnemius complex and soleus muscles were excised and all feed arteries were counted, isolated, cannulated and maximally dilated for measurement of luminal diameter. Resting blood flow was also measured to estimate vessel wall shear-stress in the feed arteries perforating the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles. Overall, young rats were ?1.6 times more active during dark periods and ?4 times more active during light periods than old rats. In addition, young rats had approximately one additional feed artery perforating both the soleus (young, 3.3 0.2; old, 2.6 0.2 vessels; P < 0.05) and gastrocnemius (young, 8.8 0.1; old, 7.5 0.2 vessels, P < 0.05) muscles compared with old rats. However, average vessel wall shear stress at rest was similar between young and old rats (soleus: Y, 65 5; O, 64 5 dynes cm?2; gastrocnemius: Y, 329 22; O, 327 27 dynes cm?2) resulting from a larger vessel diameter in arteries from old rats. In conclusion, lower activity levels of old rats likely contribute to resistance artery rarefaction and, consequently, this provides a plausible mechanism for the altered blood flow patterns observed during exercise in aged skeletal muscle. PMID:16644803

  12. Toxic Effects of Maternal Zearalenone Exposure on Intestinal Oxidative Stress, Barrier Function, Immunological and Morphological Changes in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Min; Gao, Rui; Meng, Qingwei; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Bi, Chongpeng; Shan, Anshan

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of maternal zearalenone (ZEN) exposure on the intestine of pregnant Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and its offspring. Ninety-six pregnant SD rats were randomly divided into four groups and were fed with diets containing ZEN at concentrations of 0.3 mg/kg, 48.5 mg/kg, 97.6 mg/kg or 146.0 mg/kg from gestation days (GD) 1 to 7. All rats were fed with mycotoxin-free diet until their offspring were weaned at three weeks of age. The small intestinal fragments from pregnant rats at GD8, weaned dams and pups were collected and studied for toxic effects of ZEN on antioxidant status, immune response, expression of junction proteins, and morphology. The results showed that ZEN induced oxidative stress, affected the villous structure and reduced the expression of junction proteins claudin-4, occludin and connexin43 (Cx43) in a dose-dependent manner in pregnant rats. Different effects on the expression of cytokines were also observed both in mRNA and protein levels in these pregnant groups. Ingestion of high levels of ZEN caused irreversible damage in weaned dams, such as oxidative stress, decreased villi hight and low expression of junction proteins and cytokines. Decreased expression of jejunal interleukin-8 (IL-8) and increased expression of gastrointestinal glutathione peroxidase (GPx2) mRNA were detected in weaned offspring, indicating long-term damage caused by maternal ZEN. We also found that the Nrf2 expression both in mRNA and protein levels were up-regulated in the ZEN-treated groups of pregnant dams and the high-dose of ZEN group of weaned dams. The data indicate that modulation of Nrf2-mediated pathway is one of mechanism via which ZEN affects gut wall antioxidant and inflammatory responses. PMID:25180673

  13. Characterization of muscarinic receptors in the rat nucleus tractus solitarius.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, B P; Anderson, G F; Barraco, R A

    1995-05-19

    Crude membrane preparations from the dorsomedial medulla and whole heart of adult rats were used to characterize muscarinic receptors (mChRs) in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). Isotherm binding assays with [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate ([3H]QNB) indicated a uniform population of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in both tissues with a Kd of 60.3 pM and a Bmax of 401 fmol/mg protein for NTS membranes while heart membranes had a Kd of 56.6 pM and a Bmax of 193 fmol/mg protein. Competitive binding assays with selective muscarinic antagonists on NTS membranes using 80 pM [3H]QNB showed the following relative Ki values consistent with M2 mChRs: atropine, 1.9 nM; methoctramine, 7.7 nM; 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methobromide, 9.4 nM; AF-DX 116, 87.6 nM; and pirenzepine, 657 nM. Similarly, two agonists, carbachol and oxotremorine, showed Ki values of 1.82 microM and 0.379 microM, respectively. All of the competitive binding assays exhibited Hill coefficients close to 1.0 and InPlot analysis showed a single binding site for each agonist and antagonist examined. PMID:7659280

  14. Functional characterization of rat submaxillary gland muscarinic receptors using microphysiometry

    PubMed Central

    Meloy, Trena D; Daniels, Donald V; Hegde, Sharath S; Eglen, Richard M; Ford, Anthony P D W

    2001-01-01

    Muscarinic cholinoceptors (MChR) in freshly dispersed rat salivary gland (RSG) cells were characterized using microphysiometry to measure changes in acidification rates. Several non-selective and selective muscarinic antagonists were used to elucidate the nature of the subtypes mediating the response to carbachol. The effects of carbachol (pEC50=5.74±0.02 s.e.mean; n=53) were highly reproducible and most antagonists acted in a surmountable, reversible fashion. The following antagonist rank order, with apparent affinity constants in parentheses, was noted: 4-DAMP (8.9)=atropine (8.9)>tolterodine (8.5)>oxybutynin (7.9)>S-secoverine (7.2)>pirenzepine (6.9)>himbacine (6.8)>AQ-RA 741 (6.6)>methoctramine (5.9). These studies validate the use of primary isolated RSG cells in microphysiometry for pharmacological analysis. These data are consistent with, and extend, previous studies using alternative functional methods, which reported a lack of differential receptor pharmacology between bladder and salivary gland tissue. The antagonist affinity profile significantly correlated with the profile at human recombinant muscarinic M3 and M5 receptors. Given a lack of antagonists that discriminate between M3 and M5, definitive conclusion of which subtype(s) is present within RSG cells cannot be determined. PMID:11264256

  15. Morphological characterization of some representative species of the genus Loxoblemmus (Orthoptera: Gryllidae; Gryllinae; Gryllini) from India.

    PubMed

    Mal, Jhabar; Nagar, Rajendra; Swaminathan, R

    2015-01-01

    Morphological characterization of some common species of the genus Loxoblemmus (Gryllidae: Gryllinae) from India is presented. In all, 5 species were identified that included two, Loxoblemmus equestris Saussure and Loxoblemmus haani Saussure, from the sub-humid regions of Rajasthan (South West India) and Madhya Pradesh (Central India); while three species, Loxoblemmus taicoun Saussure, Loxoblemmus jacobsoni Chopard and Loxoblemmus intermedius Chopard from the humid hilly regions of Meghalaya and Assam (North East India). Of the 5 reported species, based on the comparative linear measurements, L. haani is relatively larger than the other species encountered. PMID:25947856

  16. Effectiveness of morphological and spectral heartbeat characterization on arrhythmia clustering for Holter recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Hoyos, Cristian; Peluffo-Ordez, Diego Hernn.; Rodrguez-Sotelo, Jose Luis; Castellanos-Domnguez, Germn.

    2015-01-01

    Heartbeat characterization is an important issue in cardiac assistance diagnosis systems. In particular, wide sets of features are commonly used in long term electrocardiographic signals. Then, if such a feature space does not represent properly the arrhythmias to be grouped, classification or clustering process may fail. In this work a suitable feature set for different heartbeat types is studied, involving morphology, representation and time-frequency features. To determine what kind of features generate better clusters, feature selection procedure is used and assessed by means clustering validity measures. Then the feature subset is shown to produce fine clustering that yields into high sensitivity and specificity values for a broad range of heartbeat types.

  17. Correlation between electrophysiological and morphological characteristics during maturation of rat supraoptic neurons.

    PubMed

    Chevaleyre, V; Moos, F C; Desarmnien, M G

    2001-03-01

    The neurohypophysial peptides oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) are well known for their role in reproductive functions and fluid balance regulation, respectively. During development, these peptides are thought to act as trophic factors on both peripheral and central structures. However, despite this early developmental function, the maturation of their secreting neurons remains poorly investigated. In this study, we have characterized the electrical and morphological characteristics displayed by OT and AVP supraoptic (SO) neurons between embryonic day 21 and postnatal day 20. Transient changes in passive membrane properties, correlated with a transient increase in the dendritic arborization, were observed at the beginning of the second postnatal week (PW2). The action potential matured mostly during PW1 and its threshold progressively hyperpolarized in parallel with the resting membrane potential. During PW1, SO neurons displayed unique characteristics with a low-threshold Ca(2+)-dependent depolarizing potential and a prominent hyperpolarization-activated current (I(h) ). This latter is involved in a depolarizing sag during hyperpolarization and an after hyperpolarizing potential following a depolarization. During this period, maintaining E(Cl) unchanged by the use of gramicidin-perforated patch recordings revealed excitatory GABAergic potentials, that became inhibitory during PW2, whilst glutamatergic potential appeared. The electrical activity was very erratic in young neurons and progressively differentiated in the typical firing observed in mature neurons (tonic and phasic for OT and AVP neurons, respectively) during PW2--3. These results show that the development of electrical properties of SO neurons is correlated with the maturation of their dendritic arborization. PMID:11285011

  18. Electrophysiological and morphological properties of pre-autonomic neurones in the rat hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Javier E

    2001-01-01

    The cellular properties of pre-autonomic neurones in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) were characterized by combining in vivo retrograde tracing techniques, in vitro patch-clamp recordings and three-dimensional reconstruction of recorded neurones in adult hypothalamic slices. The results showed that PVN pre-autonomic neurones constitute a heterogeneous neuronal population. Based on morphological criteria, neurones were classified into three subgroups. Type A neurones (52 %) were located in the ventral parvocellular (PaV) subnucleus, and showed an oblique orientation with respect to the third ventricle (3V). Type B neurones (25 %) were located in the posterior parvocellular (PaPo) subnucleus, and were oriented perpendicularly with respect to the 3V. Type C neurones (23 %) were located in both the PaPo (82 %) and the PaV (18 %) subnuclei, and displayed a concentric dendritic configuration. A morphometric analysis revealed significant differences in the dendritic configuration among neuronal types. Type B neurones had the most complex dendritic arborization, with longer and more branching dendritic trees. Several electrophysiological properties, including cell input resistance and action potential waveforms, differed between cell types, suggesting that the expression and/or properties of a variety of ion channels differ between neuronal types. Common features of PVN pre-autonomic neurones included the expression of a low-threshold spike and strong inward rectification. These properties distinguished them from neighbouring magnocellular vasopressin neurones. In summary, these results indicate that PVN pre-autonomic neurones constitute a heterogeneous neuronal population, and provide a cellular basis for the study of their involvement in the pathophysiology of hypertension and congestive heart failure disorders. PMID:11711570

  19. Testicular morphology of male rats exposed to Phaleria macrocarpa (Mahkota dewa) aqueous extract

    PubMed Central

    Parhizkar, Saadat; Zulkifli, Suriani Binti; Dollah, Mohammad Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): This study was designed to investigate the effect of Phaleria macrocarpa aqueous extract (PM) on spermatogenesis by observing the histological changes of testes in adult male rats. Materials and Methods: PM was prepared by boiling the dried slices of P. macrocarpa fruits followed by filtering, centrifugation and freeze-drying to obtain the powder form. Eighteen Sprague Dawley adult male rats were divided into three groups (six in each group), designated as treatment (240 mg/kg PM), negative control (distilled water) and positive control (4mg/kg testosterone) and administered via intragastric gavage for seven weeks. In the sixth week of supplementation period, each male rat was introduced to five female rats. Afterward, all rats were sacrificed and the testes were removed for histological studies. Results: PM significantly increased the number of cell and the thickness of seminiferous tubules of male rats (P<0.05). However, there was no significant effect on the volume and size of testes. The mean of spermatogonia cells numbers of PM groups differed significantly from the negative and positive groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: PM showed potential value as an attractive alternative for improving sexual strength by increasing the number of spermatogonia cell and the thickness of the seminiferous tubules. Perhaps, PM could be suggested to be one of the herbal remedies that can improve men fertility. The results may have some clinical implication in the management of infertility. PMID:24967068

  20. Repeated immobilization stress alters rat hippocampal and prefrontal cortical morphology in parallel with endogenous agmatine and arginine decarboxylase levels.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Meng-Yang; Wang, Wei-Ping; Huang, Jingjing; Feng, Yang-Zheng; Regunathan, Soundar; Bissette, Garth

    2008-12-01

    Agmatine, an endogenous amine derived from decarboxylation of L-arginine catalyzed by arginine decarboxylase, has been proposed as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the brain. In the present study, we examined whether agmatine has neuroprotective effects against repeated immobilization-induced morphological changes in brain tissues and possible effects of immobilization stress on endogenous agmatine levels and arginine decarboxylase expression in rat brains. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 2h immobilization stress daily for 7 days. This paradigm significantly increased plasma corticosterone levels, and the glutamate efflux in the hippocampus as measured by in vivo microdialysis. Immunohistochemical staining with beta-tubulin III showed that repeated immobilization caused marked morphological alterations in the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex that were prevented by simultaneous treatment with agmatine (50mg/kg/day), i.p.). Likewise, endogenous agmatine levels measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum and hypothalamus were significantly increased by immobilization, as compared to controls. The increased endogenous agmatine levels, ranging from 92 to 265% of controls, were accompanied by a significant increase of arginine decarboxylase protein levels in the same regions. These results demonstrate that the administration of exogenous agmatine protects the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex against neuronal insults caused by repeated immobilization. The parallel increase in endogenous brain agmatine and arginine decarboxylase protein levels triggered by repeated immobilization indicates that the endogenous agmatine system may play an important role in adaptation to stress as a potential neuronal self-protection mechanism. PMID:18832001

  1. The morphologic relationship of light and dark cells of the collecting tubule in potassium-depleted rats.

    PubMed Central

    Ordnez, N. G.; Spargo, B. H.

    1976-01-01

    The luminal surface of collecting tubule cells in the inner stripe of the renal medulla in normal and potassium-depleted rats was studied by scanning electron microscopy. In normal rats the luminal surfaces were of two types. One cell type was sparsely covered with small bulbous microvilli and had either a single or double cilium. This type corresponds to the light cell seen in transmission electron microscopy. The second cell type was covered by prominent microplicae and represents the dark cell observed in transmission electron microscopy. In potassium-depleted animals, numerous cells with a morphologic appearance of intermediate forms were identified. By scanning electron microscopy, the luminal surface of these cells was covered by a mixed population of villi and microplicae in different stages of development and often showed cilia, which were previously considered to exist only on light cells. On the basis of these morphologic findings, we conclude that the dark and light cells are not different cell types but rather represent different forms of a single type of cell. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:941981

  2. The Characterization of Obese Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Rat Model Suitable for Exercise Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Shuwei; Jiang, Zhongli

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop a new polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) rat model suitable for exercise intervention. Method Thirty six rats were randomly divided into three experimental groups: PCOS rats with high-fat diet (PF, n = 24), PCOS rats with ordinary diet (PO, n = 6), and control rats with ordinary diet (CO, n = 6). Two kinds of PCOS rat model were made by adjustment diet structure and testosterone injection for 28 days. After a successful animal model, PF model rats were randomly assigned to three groups: exercise with a continuation of high-fat diet (PF-EF, n = 6), sedentary with a continuation of high-fat diet (PF-SF, n = 6), exercise with an ordinary diet (PF-EO, n = 6). Fasting blood glucose (FBG) and insulin (FINS), estrogen (E2), progesterone (P), and testosterone (T) in serum were determined by RIA, and ovarian morphology was evaluated by Image-Pro plus 6.0. Results Body weight, Lee index, FINS increased significantly in PF rat model. Serum levels of E2 and T were significantly higher in PF and PO than in CO. Ovary organ index and ovarian areas were significant lower in PF than in CO. After intervention for 2 weeks, the levels of 1 h postprandial blood glucose (PBG1), 2 h postprandial blood glucose (PBG2), FINS and the serum levels of T decreased significantly in PF-EF rats and PF-EO rats. The ratio of FBG/FINS was significant higher in PF-EO rats than in PF-SF rats. Ovarian morphology showed that the numbers of preantral follicles and atretic follicles decreased significantly, and the numbers of antral follicles and corpora lutea increased significantly in the rats of PF-EF and PF-EO. Conclusion By combination of high-fat diet and testosterone injection, the obese PCOS rat model is conformable with the lifestyle habits of fatty foods and insufficient exercise, and has metabolic and reproductive characteristics of human PCOS. This model can be applied to study exercise intervention. PMID:24905232

  3. Radiosensitivity study and radiation effects on morphology characterization of grey oyster mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Rosnani Abdul; Daud, Fauzi; Senafi, Sahidan; Awang, Mat Rasol; Mohamad, Azhar; Mutaat, Hassan Hamdani; Maskom, Mohd Meswan

    2014-09-01

    Radiosensitive dosage and morphology characterization of irradiated grey oyster mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju by gamma rays was investigated due to effects of irradiation. In order to establish the effect, mycelium of P. sajor-caju was irradiated by gamma rays at dose 0.1 to 8.0 kGy with dose rate 0.227 Gy sec-1. The irradiation of mycelia was carried out at the radiation facility in Malaysian Nuclear Agency. The radiosensitivity study was performed by evaluating the percentage of survival irradiated mycelia. The lethal dose of the mycelium P. sajor-caju was determined at 4.0 kGy and LD50 to be equal at 2.2 kGy. The radiation effects on morphology were evaluated based on growth rate of irradiated mycelia, mycelia types, colonization period on substrate, morphology of fruit bodies and yields. The results shown growth rate of irradiated mycelium was slightly lower than the control and decreased as the dose increased. Irradiation was found can induced the primordia formation on PDA and the BE of irradiated seed is higher than to control. The irradiation is proven to be useful for generating new varieties of mushroom with commercial value to the industry.

  4. Radiosensitivity study and radiation effects on morphology characterization of grey oyster mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju

    SciTech Connect

    Rashid, Rosnani Abdul; Awang, Mat Rasol; Mohamad, Azhar; Mutaat, Hassan Hamdani; Maskom, Mohd Meswan; Daud, Fauzi; Senafi, Sahidan

    2014-09-03

    Radiosensitive dosage and morphology characterization of irradiated grey oyster mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju by gamma rays was investigated due to effects of irradiation. In order to establish the effect, mycelium of P. sajor-caju was irradiated by gamma rays at dose 0.1 to 8.0 kGy with dose rate 0.227 Gy sec{sup −1}. The irradiation of mycelia was carried out at the radiation facility in Malaysian Nuclear Agency. The radiosensitivity study was performed by evaluating the percentage of survival irradiated mycelia. The lethal dose of the mycelium P. sajor-caju was determined at 4.0 kGy and LD{sub 50} to be equal at 2.2 kGy. The radiation effects on morphology were evaluated based on growth rate of irradiated mycelia, mycelia types, colonization period on substrate, morphology of fruit bodies and yields. The results shown growth rate of irradiated mycelium was slightly lower than the control and decreased as the dose increased. Irradiation was found can induced the primordia formation on PDA and the BE of irradiated seed is higher than to control. The irradiation is proven to be useful for generating new varieties of mushroom with commercial value to the industry.

  5. Statistical characterization of the foremoon particle and wave morphology: ARTEMIS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Y.; Halekas, J. S.; Poppe, A. R.; Tsugawa, Y.; Kurita, S.; McFadden, J. P.

    2015-06-01

    Although the zeroth-order picture of the Moon-solar wind interaction involves no upstream perturbation, the presence of the Moon does affect the upstream plasma in a variety of ways. In this paper, a large volume of data obtained by the dual-probe Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS) mission are used to characterize the large-scale morphology of the "foremoon," which is defined as the region upstream of the Moon and its wake that contains Moon-related particles and waves. Solar wind ions reflected from the unshielded surface and by crustal magnetic fields, together with heavy ions of lunar surface/exospheric origin, are picked up by the solar wind magnetic and electric fields. Partially coinciding with populations of these Moon-related ions, 0.01 Hz and 1 Hz magnetic field fluctuations are observed. The morphology of the Moon-related ion and wave distributions is well organized by the upstream magnetic field direction. In addition, the low-frequency wave distributions depend on the upstream Alfvn Mach numbers, suggesting that propagation effects also play a role in determining the wave foremoon morphology. Occurrence of modified electron velocity distributions and higher-frequency, electromagnetic, and electrostatic waves is primarily controlled by magnetic connection to the Moon and its wake. These statistical results observationally demonstrate the large-scale properties of the foremoon and upstream-parameter control thereof.

  6. Hemodynamic characterization of chronic bile duct-ligated rats: effect of pentobarbital sodium

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.S.; Girod, C.; Braillon, A.; Hadengue, A.; Lebrec, D.

    1986-08-01

    Systemic and splanchnic hemodynamics of the chronic bile duct-ligated rat were characterized by radioactive microspheres. Conscious and pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized, bile duct-ligated and sham-operated rats had cardiac output and regional organ blood flows determined. The conscious bile duct-ligated rat compared with the sham-operated showed a hyperdynamic circulation with an increased cardiac output and portal tributary blood flow. Pentobarbital sodium anesthesia induced marked hemodynamic changes in both sham-operated and bile duct-ligated rats. The latter group was especially sensitive to its effects; thus, comparison of cardiac output and portal tributary blood flow between anesthetized bile duct-ligated and sham-operated rats showed no significant differences. The authors conclude that the rat with cirrhosis due to chronic bile duct ligation is an excellent model for hemodynamic investigations but should be studied in the conscious state, since pentobarbital sodium anesthesia eliminated the hyperdynamic circulation.

  7. Morphological characterization of the ovarian preantral follicle population of collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Lima, G L; Santos, E A A; Luz, V B; Rodrigues, A P R; Silva, A R

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this research was to characterize the preantral ovarian follicular population in collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) using light and electron microscopy. Ovaries from six mature females were collected and further fixed for histological and ultrastructural analysis. A total of 33273.45 ± 5789.99 preantral follicles (PFs) were estimated for the population in each ovary. Most preantral follicles were primordial (91.56%), followed by primary (6.29%) and secondary (2.15%) ones. Most PFs were morphologically normal (94.4%), and only a few were atretic (5.6%). At histology assessment, amounts of lipid droplets were observed into the oocyte cytoplasm, which was confirmed through ultrastructural analysis. This work characterizes for the first time the ovarian population of preantral follicles, total and per category, in collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu). The general follicles featured at primordial, primary and secondary categories are very similar to those described for other species. PMID:23278244

  8. Multiscale analysis of morphology and mechanics in tail tendon from the ZDSD rat model of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Armando Diaz; Gallant, Maxime A; Burr, David B; Wallace, Joseph M

    2014-02-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) impacts multiple organ systems including the circulatory, renal, nervous and musculoskeletal systems. In collagen-based tissues, one mechanism that may be responsible for detrimental mechanical impacts of T2D is the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) leading to increased collagen stiffness and decreased toughness, resulting in brittle tissue behavior. The purpose of this study was to investigate tendon mechanical properties from normal and diabetic rats at two distinct length scales, testing the hypothesis that increased stiffness and strength and decreased toughness at the fiber level would be associated with alterations in nanoscale morphology and mechanics. Individual fascicles from female Zucker diabetic Sprague-Dawley (ZDSD) rats had no differences in fascicle-level mechanical properties but had increased material-level strength and stiffness versus control rats (CD). At the nanoscale, collagen fibril D-spacing was shifted towards higher spacing values in diabetic ZDSD fibrils. The distribution of nanoscale modulus values was also shifted to higher values. Material-level strength and stiffness from whole fiber tests were increased in ZDSD tails. Correlations between nanoscale and microscale properties indicate a direct positive relationship between the two length scales, most notably in the relationship between nanoscale and microscale modulus. These findings indicate that diabetes-induced changes in material strength and modulus were driven by alterations at the nanoscale. PMID:24360194

  9. Electroacupuncture improves microcirculation and neuronal morphology in the spinal cord of a rat model of intervertebral disc extrusion

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Dai-xun; Lu, Zhi-song; Li, Ge-bin; Sun, Sheng-yong; Mu, Xiang; Lee, Peter; Chen, Wu

    2015-01-01

    Most studies on spinal cord neuronal injury have focused on spinal cord tissue histology and the expression of nerve cell damage and repair-related genes. The importance of the microcirculation is often ignored in spinal cord injury and repair research. Therefore, in this study, we established a rat model of intervertebral disc extrusion by inserting a silica gel pad into the left ventral surface of T13. Electroacupuncture was used to stimulate the bilateral Zusanli point (ST36) and Neiting point (ST44) for 14 days. Compared with control animals, blood flow in the first lumbar vertebra (L1) was noticeably increased in rats given electroacupuncture. Microvessel density in the T13 segment of the spinal cord was increased significantly as well. The number of normal neurons was higher in the ventral horn of the spinal cord. In addition, vacuolation in the white matter was lessened. No obvious glial cell proliferation was visible. Furthermore, hindlimb motor function was improved significantly. Collectively, our results suggest that electroacupuncture can improve neuronal morphology and microcirculation, and promote the recovery of neurological functions in a rat model of intervertebral disc extrusion. PMID:25883622

  10. HemoHIM improves ovarian morphology and decreases expression of nerve growth factor in rats with steroid-induced polycystic ovaries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Ho; Lee, Hae June; Kim, Joong Sun; Moon, Changjong; Kim, Jong Choon; Bae, Chun Sik; Park, Hae Ran; Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung Kee

    2009-12-01

    Estradiol valerate (EV)-induced polycystic ovaries (PCOs) in rats cause the anovulation and cystic ovarian morphology. We investigated whether treatment with HemoHIM influences the ovarian morphology and the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) in an EV-induced PCO rat model. PCO was induced by a single intramuscular injection of EV (4 mg, dissolved in sesame oil) in adult cycling rats. HemoHIM was either administered orally (100 mg/kg of body weight/day) for 35 consecutive days or injected intraperitoneally (50 mg/kg of body weight) every other day after EV injection. Ovarian morphology was almost normalized, and NGF was normalized in the PCO + HemoHIM group. HemoHIM lowered the high numbers of antral follicles and increased the number of corpora lutea in PCOs. The results are consistent with a beneficial effect of HemoHIM in the prevention and treatment of PCO syndrome. PMID:20041792

  11. Repeated fluvoxamine treatment recovers juvenile stress-induced morphological changes and depressive-like behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Lyttle, Kerise; Ohmura, Yu; Konno, Kohtarou; Yoshida, Takayuki; Izumi, Takeshi; Watanabe, Masahiko; Yoshioka, Mitsuhiro

    2015-08-01

    Human studies have suggested that early life stress such as child abuse could enhance susceptibility to depressive disorders. Moreover, the abnormalities of the prefrontal cortex have been associated with depression. Although clinical studies have implied the negative effects of early life stress on brain development, the causality and the detailed morphogenetic changes has not been clearly elucidated. In the present study, we determined the effect of juvenile stress exposure on the presentation of depressive-like behavior and the neural mechanisms involved using a rodent model. Rat pups were exposed to footshock stress during postnatal days 21-25 followed by repeated oral administration of fluvoxamine (0 or 10mg/kg/d 14 days), which is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. At the postadolescent stage forced swim test assessment of depressive-like behavior and Golgi-Cox staining of medial prefrontal cortex pyramidal neurons followed by morphological analyses were carried out. Post-adolescent behavioral and morphological studies identified the presentation of increased depressive-like behaviors and reduced spine densities and dendritic lengths of layer II/III pyramidal neuron in the infralimbic cortex, but not in the prelimbic cortex of rats exposed to juvenile stress. Repeated fluvoxamine treatment recovered the increased depressive-like behavior and reduced spine densities/dendritic lengths observed in rats exposed to footshock stress. Cortical thicknesses in the infralimbic cortex and prelimbic cortex were also reduced by juvenile stress, but these reductions were not recovered by fluvoxamine treatment. The results demonstrate cortical sensitivities to stress exposures during the juvenile stage which mediate behavioral impairments, and provide a clue to find therapeutics for early life stress-induced emotional dysfunctions. PMID:25960352

  12. Protective Effects of Co-Administration of Gallic Acid and Cyclosporine on Rat Myocardial Morphology Against Ischemia/Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Dianat, Mahin; Sadeghi, Najmeh; Badavi, Mohammad; Panahi, Marziyeh; Taheri Moghadam, Mahin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Irreversible myocardial ischemic injury begins 20 minutes after the onset of coronary occlusion. Then the infarcted cells show signs of necrosis and death. Objectives: This study investigated the effects of co-administration of Gallic acid (antioxidant) with cyclosporine (mitochondrial permeability transition pore [mPTP] inhibitor) on myocardial morphology of rats during ischemia and reperfusion. Materials and Methods: Fifty-four male Wistar rats (250-300 g), were randomly divided into 9 groups: sham, control (Ca received saline, 1 mL/kg, Cb: perfused with cyclosporine CsA 0.2 M), 3 groups pretreated with Gallic acid in saline (G1a:7.5, G2a:15, and G3a: 30 mg/kg/day, and gavage daily for 10 days, n = 6), and the other three groups were pretreated with Gallic acid then perfused using CsA, (G1b:7.5, G2b:15, and G3b: 30 mg/kg/day) at the first 13 minutes of reperfusion period. After 10 days pretreatment, the rat hearts were isolated and transferred to Langendorff apparatus and exposed to 30 minutes ischemia following 60 minutes reperfusion. Afterward, the hearts were preserved in 10% formalin for histological studies at the end of the experiment. Finally, hematoxylin and eosin and Massons trichrome staining techniques were used for evaluating the changes in myocardial architecture, degradation of myofibers, and collagen integrity. The differences were analyzed using Pearson test. Results: Cell degenerative changes, pyknotic nuclei, contraction bands, edema, and loosening of collagen in between muscle fibers were observed during ischemia-reperfusion. Myocardial architecture and cellular morphology were recovered in co-administration groups, especially in (Gallic acid 15 mg/kg + CsA, P < 0.001). Conclusions: The results suggest the important role of the antioxidant system potentiation in the prevention of myocardial damage. PMID:25625048

  13. Biochemical and morphological changes in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells induced by treatment of rats with p-Nonylphenol

    PubMed Central

    Abnosi, Mohammad Hossein; Shojafar, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): In previous investigations, we have shown para-nonylphenol (p-NP) caused significant reduction of proliferation and differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro. In this study, we first treat the rats with p-NP, then carried out the biochemical and morphological studies on MSCs. Materials and Methods: Proliferation property of cells was evaluated with the help of MTT assay, trypan blue, population doubling number, and colony forming assay. Differentiation property was evaluated with quantitative alizarin red assay, measurement of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity as well as intracellular calcium content. In addition; morphological study, TUNEL test, activated caspase assay, and comet assay were performed to evaluate the mechanism of the cell death. Results: The results showed significant reduction in the colony-forming-ability and population-doubling-number of extracted cells when compared to control ones. In addition, it was revealed that the p-NP treatment of rats caused significant reduction in nuclear diameter, cytoplasm shrinkage, and induction of caspase-dependent-apoptosis. Also there was significant reduction in ALP activity, intracellular calcium content, and intracellular matrix following osteogenic differentiation. Conclusion: As MSCs are the cellular back up for bone remodeling and repair, we suggest more investigations to be conducted regarding the correlation between the increasing number of patients suffering from osteoporosis and p-NP toxicity. Also, we strongly recommend WHO and local health organization to prevent industries of using p-NP in formulation of industrial products which may cause changes in proliferation and differentiation properties of stem cells. PMID:26019793

  14. Arterial morphology responds differently to Captopril then N-acetylcysteine in a monocrotaline rat model of pulmonary hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molthen, Robert; Wu, Qingping; Baumgardt, Shelley; Kohlhepp, Laura; Shingrani, Rahul; Krenz, Gary

    2010-03-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an incurable condition inevitably resulting in death because of increased right heart workload and eventual failure. PH causes pulmonary vascular remodeling, including muscularization of the arteries, and a reduction in the typically large vascular compliance of the pulmonary circulation. We used a rat model of monocrotaline (MCT) induced PH to evaluated and compared Captopril (an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor with antioxidant capacity) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC, a mucolytic with a large antioxidant capacity) as possible treatments. Twenty-eight days after MCT injection, the rats were sacrificed and heart, blood, and lungs were studied to measure indices such as right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH), hematocrit, pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), vessel morphology and biomechanics. We implemented microfocal X-ray computed tomography to image the pulmonary arterial tree at intravascular pressures of 30, 21, 12, and 6 mmHg and then used automated vessel detection and measurement algorithms to perform morphological analysis and estimate the distensibility of the arterial tree. The vessel detection and measurement algorithms quickly and effectively mapped and measured the vascular trees at each intravascular pressure. Monocrotaline treatment, and the ensuing PH, resulted in a significantly decreased arterial distensibility, increased PVR, and tended to decrease the length of the main pulmonary trunk. In rats with PH induced by monocrotaline, Captopril treatment significantly increased arterial distensibility and decrease PVR. NAC treatment did not result in an improvement, it did not significantly increase distensibility and resulted in further increase in PVR. Interestingly, NAC tended to increase peripheral vascular density. The results suggest that arterial distensibility may be more important than distal collateral pathways in maintaining PVR at normally low values.

  15. Identification and characterization of the rat homologue of LAIR-1.

    PubMed

    Lebbink, Robert Jan; de Ruiter, Talitha; Kaptijn, Guido J A; Meyaard, Linde

    2005-06-01

    Leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor-1 (LAIR-1) is a cell-surface molecule that functions as an inhibitory receptor on various immune cells in both humans and mice. We have cloned a LAIR-1 homologue from the rat that we have named rat LAIR-1. The LAIR-1 gene maps to rat chromosome 1q12 in a region showing conserved synteny with human chromosome 19q13.4 and mouse chromosome 7, where the leukocyte receptor cluster is located. Rat LAIR-1 shows 40 and 71% protein sequence identity with human LAIR-1 and mouse LAIR-1, respectively, has a single Ig-like domain and contains two immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif-like sequences in its cytoplasmic tail. Soluble rat LAIR-1 fusion proteins bind to the same adherent cell lines as human LAIR-1 and mouse LAIR-1, indicating that a putative ligand for all the LAIR-1 molecules is expressed on these cells. Furthermore, we show that rat and mouse LAIR-1 bind the same molecule expressed on human HT29 cells. Since many autoimmune diseases are studied in rat models, identification of rat LAIR-1 allows for in vivo studies on the function of LAIR molecules in these systems. PMID:15902436

  16. Morphological and electrophysiological features of motor neurons and putative interneurons in the dorsal vagal complex of rats and mice

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hong; Glatzer, Nicholas R.; Williams, Kevin W.; Derbenev, Andrei V.; Liu, Dan; Smith, Bret N.

    2009-01-01

    The dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) contains preganglionic motor neurons that control viscera along the subdiaphragmatic digestive tract, but may also contain neurons that do not project to the viscera. Neurons that expressed EGFP 60-72 h subsequent to PRV-152 inoculation of vagal terminals in the stomach wall were targeted for whole-cell patch-clamp recording and biocytin filling in transverse brainstem slices from rats and their quantitative morphological and electrophysiological characteristics were compared with uninfected cells. Over 90% of PRV-152 labeled neurons were also labeled subsequent to intraperitoneal injection of FluoroGold, indicating most were preganglionic motor neurons. In reconstructed neurons with an identifiable axon trajectory, two cellular subtypes were distinguished. The axon projected ventrolaterally from the DMV in 44 of 49 cells and these were likely to be vagal motor neurons. Axons of other neurons ramified within the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) or DMV. These cells were smaller and otherwise morphologically distinct from putative motor neurons. Transgenic mice with GFP-expressing inhibitory neurons (i.e., GIN mice) were used to identify a GABAergic subset vagal neurons. These neurons had locally-ramifying axons and formed a morphologically distinct subset of DMV cells, which were similar in size and axon trajectory to GABAergic neurons in the NTS. Most neurons in the DMV therefore possess morphological features of motor neurons, but locally projecting cells and inhibitory neurons with distinct morphological features are also found within the DMV. These cells likely contribute to regulation of vagal function. PMID:19619517

  17. Morphological and molecular characterization of Tylencholaimellus persicus sp. n. (Dorylaimida: Tylencholaimellidae) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Adeldoost, Yaser; Heydari, Ramin; Pedram, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Tylencholaimellus persicus sp. n. is described and illustrated based on morphological and molecular characters. The new species is characterized by its 613-885 ?m long body, expanded lip region separated from body contour by a sharp constriction, forming a large disk-like structure, odontostyle and odontophore respectively 12-14 and 6.5-8.0 ?m long, female genital system mono-opisthodelphic with relatively long anterior uterine sac (AUS; 50-80 ?m in length), position of vulva relative to the body length (V = 36.5-41.5), broadly rounded tail, abundant males in population with 22-25 ?m long spicules and one ventromedian copulatory supplement. The new species is compared with five known species of the genus that have a perioral disc, rounded tail and AUS: T. coronatus, T. incertus, T. montanus, T. ozarkensis and T. projectus. Compared to these five species, the new species has an expanded lip region separated from body contour by a sharp constriction, but can further be separated by a combination of morphological and morphometric characters such as odontostyle length, tail shape, differences in ratios c and V and male characters. Because of having similar general morphology, the new species was also compared with a species of genus Margollus, M. bokanicus, and the differences between the two species are discussed. In addition to morphological and morphometric data, molecular phylogenetic analyses were performed using partial sequences of the 18S SSU and 28S LSU D2/D3 rDNA segments, in which the new species forms a clade with four species/isolates of Tylencholaimellus in the SSU tree and one isolate of Tylencholaimus in the LSU tree using Bayesian inference (BI). PMID:26624652

  18. Metabolic and morphologic properties of single muscle fibers in the rat after spaceflight, Cosmos 1887

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miu, B.; Martin, T. P.; Roy, R. R.; Oganov, V.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E.; Marini, J. F.; Leger, J. J.; Bodine-Fowler, S. C.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1990-01-01

    The adaptation of a slow (soleus, Sol) and a fast (medial gastrocnemius, MG) skeletal muscle to spaceflight was studied in five young male rats. The flight period was 12.5 days and the rats were killed approximately 48 h after returning to 1 g. Five other rats that were housed in cages similar to those used by the flight rats were maintained at 1 g for the same period of time to serve as ground-based controls. Fibers were classified as dark or light staining for myosin adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase). On the average, the fibers in the Sol of the flight rats atrophied twice as much as those in the MG. Further, the fibers located in the deep (close to the bone and having the highest percentage of light ATPase and high oxidative fibers in the muscle cross section) region of the MG atrophied more than the fibers located in the superficial (away from the bone and having the lowest percentage of light ATPase and high oxidative fibers in the muscle cross-section) region of the muscle. Based on quantitative histochemical assays of single muscle fibers, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity per unit volume was unchanged in fibers of the Sol and MG. However, in the Sol, but not the MG, the total amount of SDH activity in a 10-microns-thick section of a fiber decreased significantly in response to spaceflight. Based on population distributions, it appears that the alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) activities were elevated in the dark ATPase fibers in the Sol, whereas the light fibers in the Sol and both fiber types in the MG did not appear to change. The ratio of GPD to SDH activities increased in the dark (but not light) fibers of the Sol and was unaffected in the MG. Immunohistochemical analyses indicate that approximately 40% of the fibers in the Sol of flight rats expressed a fast myosin heavy chain compared with 22% in control rats. Further, 31% of the fibers in the Sol of flight rats expressed both fast and slow myosin heavy chains compared with 8% in control rats. Immunohistochemical changes in the MG were minimal. These data suggest that the magnitude and direction of enzymatic activity and cell volume changes are dependent on the muscle, the region of the muscle, and the type of myosin expressed in the fibers. Further, the ability of fibers to maintain normal or even elevated activities per unit volume of some metabolic enzymes is remarkable considering the marked and rapid decrease in fiber volume.

  19. Characterization of 3D joint space morphology using an electrostatic model (with application to osteoarthritis).

    PubMed

    Cao, Qian; Thawait, Gaurav; Gang, Grace J; Zbijewski, Wojciech; Reigel, Thomas; Brown, Tyler; Corner, Brian; Demehri, Shadpour; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H

    2015-02-01

    Joint space morphology can be indicative of the risk, presence, progression, and/or treatment response of disease or trauma. We describe a novel methodology of characterizing joint space morphology in high-resolution 3D images (e.g. cone-beam CT (CBCT)) using a model based on elementary electrostatics that overcomes a variety of basic limitations of existing 2D and 3D methods. The method models each surface of a joint as a conductor at fixed electrostatic potential and characterizes the intra-articular space in terms of the electric field lines resulting from the solution of Gauss' Law and the Laplace equation. As a test case, the method was applied to discrimination of healthy and osteoarthritic subjects (N = 39) in 3D images of the knee acquired on an extremity CBCT system. The method demonstrated improved diagnostic performance (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, AUC > 0.98) compared to simpler methods of quantitative measurement and qualitative image-based assessment by three expert musculoskeletal radiologists (AUC = 0.87, p-value = 0.007). The method is applicable to simple (e.g. the knee or elbow) or multi-axial joints (e.g. the wrist or ankle) and may provide a useful means of quantitatively assessing a variety of joint pathologies. PMID:25575100

  20. Three-dimensional EBSD characterization of thermo-mechanical fatigue crack morphology in compacted graphite iron

    SciTech Connect

    Pirgazi, Hadi; Ghodrat, Sepideh; Kestens, Leo A.I.

    2014-04-01

    In cylinder heads made of compacted graphitic iron (CGI), heating and cooling cycles can lead to localized cracking due to thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF). To meticulously characterize the complex crack path morphology of CGI under TMF condition, in relation to microstructural features and to find out how and by which mechanisms the cracks predominantly develop, three-dimensional electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD) was employed. Based on the precise quantitative microstructural analysis, it is found that graphite particles not only play a crucial role in the crack initiation, but also are of primary significance for crack propagation, i.e. crack growth is enhanced by the presence of graphite particles. Furthermore, the density of graphite particles on the fracture plane is more than double as high as in any other arbitrary plane of the structure. The obtained results did not indicate a particular crystallographic preference of fracture plane, i.e. the crystal plane parallel to the fracture plane was nearly of random orientation. - Highlights: • Crystallographic features of a thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF) crack were studied. • Wide-field 3D EBSD is used to characterize the TMF crack morphology. • Data processing was applied on a large length scale of the order of millimeters. • Graphite density in the fracture plane is much higher than any other random plane. • It is revealed that crack growth is enhanced by the presence of graphite particles.

  1. Characterization of 3D Joint Space Morphology Using an Electrostatic Model (with Application to Osteoarthritis)

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Qian; Thawait, Gaurav; Gang, Grace J.; Zbijewski, Wojciech; Reigel, Thomas; Brown, Tyler; Corner, Brian; Demehri, Shadpour; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.

    2015-01-01

    Joint space morphology can be indicative of the risk, presence, progression, and/or treatment response of disease or trauma. We describe a novel methodology of characterizing joint space morphology in high-resolution 3D images [e.g., cone-beam CT (CBCT)] using a model based on elementary electrostatics that overcomes a variety of basic limitations of existing 2D and 3D methods. The method models each surface of a joint as a conductor at fixed electrostatic potential and characterizes the intra-articular space in terms of the electric field lines resulting from the solution of Gauss’ Law and the Laplace equation. As a test case, the method was applied to discrimination of healthy and osteoarthritic subjects (N = 39) in 3D images of the knee acquired on an extremity CBCT system. The method demonstrated improved diagnostic performance (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, AUC > 0.98) compared to simpler methods of quantitative measurement and qualitative image-based assessment by three expert musculoskeletal radiologists (AUC = 0.87, p-value = 0.007). The method is applicable to simple (e.g., the knee or elbow) or multi-axial joints (e.g., the wrist or ankle) and may provide a useful means of quantitatively assessing a variety of joint pathologies. PMID:25575100

  2. Characterization of 3D joint space morphology using an electrostatic model (with application to osteoarthritis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Qian; Thawait, Gaurav; Gang, Grace J.; Zbijewski, Wojciech; Reigel, Thomas; Brown, Tyler; Corner, Brian; Demehri, Shadpour; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.

    2015-02-01

    Joint space morphology can be indicative of the risk, presence, progression, and/or treatment response of disease or trauma. We describe a novel methodology of characterizing joint space morphology in high-resolution 3D images (e.g. cone-beam CT (CBCT)) using a model based on elementary electrostatics that overcomes a variety of basic limitations of existing 2D and 3D methods. The method models each surface of a joint as a conductor at fixed electrostatic potential and characterizes the intra-articular space in terms of the electric field lines resulting from the solution of Gauss’ Law and the Laplace equation. As a test case, the method was applied to discrimination of healthy and osteoarthritic subjects (N = 39) in 3D images of the knee acquired on an extremity CBCT system. The method demonstrated improved diagnostic performance (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, AUC > 0.98) compared to simpler methods of quantitative measurement and qualitative image-based assessment by three expert musculoskeletal radiologists (AUC = 0.87, p-value = 0.007). The method is applicable to simple (e.g. the knee or elbow) or multi-axial joints (e.g. the wrist or ankle) and may provide a useful means of quantitatively assessing a variety of joint pathologies.

  3. Biochemical and morphological studies on the percutaneous uptake of (14C) ethylenediamine in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, R.S.; Anuszkiewicz, C.M.; Chu, S.C.; Garman, R.H.; McKelvey, J.A.; Tallant, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    Male Wistar rats were exposed to aqueous (/sup 14/C)ethylenediamine (EDA) solutions (10, 25, or 50%) percutaneously over a 7 x 7 cm area on the back with occlusion for 24 h. For each rat dosed, three types of studies were conducted: (1) plasma kinetics, (2) material balance, and (3) histological evaluation, including autoradiography of the skin sample from the dosing area. Adequate kinetic measurements were obtained only from animals treated with 25 and 50% EDA, but not from the 10% treatment group, due to analytical limitations. The uptake of (/sup 14/C)EDA percutaneously by the rat was relatively slow in comparison with uptake following peroral or endotracheal administration. The absorption of EDA by the animals was estimated to be greater than 61, 55, and 12%, respectively, for the 50, 25, and 10% treatment groups. A large portion (11-32%) of the dose was left on/in the dosing area. Urinary excretion was the predominant route for the disposition of EDA. The recovery of the administered dose was low (70-83%), possibly due to volatilization of EDA from the skin during dosing and holding. Histologic examination of skin sections (dosing areas) revealed a normal, intact epidermis in rats dosed with 10% EDA, but full-thickness epidermal necrosis in rats dosed with 25% or 50% EDA solutions. The damage of the epidermis apparently enhanced the penetration of EDA. Autoradiographic preparations revealed a concentration of the (/sup 14/C)EDA radiolabel over the keratin layer and hair shafts.

  4. Morphological effects of autoclaved diet on the myenteric neurons of rats

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalez, Patrícia O; Clebis, Naianne K; Mari, Renata B; Gagliardo, Karina M; Stabille, Sandra R; Faria, Haroldo G; Liberti, Edson A; Jr, José Roberto Kfoury

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of autoclaved diet on the jejunum neurons of the myenteric plexus of rats during their growth. METHODS: The experimental groups were made up of rats going through weaning whose mothers received either an autoclaved or a non-autoclaved diet during gestation and lactation, and rats that were fed the same diet as their mothers during the post-weaning period. In order to measure the neurons’ body profile and to quantify the number of neurons per area, preparations were stained by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-diaphorase method. RESULTS: No significant changes were observed in rats’ body weight or in the number of neurons regardless of the diet used (P > 0.05). There was a decrease in the jejunum-ileum length in rats treated with an autoclaved diet (P < 0.05). An increase in the neuronal cross-sectional area was seen in rats that had received the autoclaved diet, an effect that was significant for animals undergoing weaning. In addition, all observed factors showed significant differences when related to the age of the animals. CONCLUSION: The autoclaved diet did not alter the quantity of neurons, but increased their cell body area, suggesting changes similar to those observed in protein deficiency. PMID:22147981

  5. Marginal copper intakes and rat aorta endothelium morphology by scanning electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, K.G.D.; Allen, C.B. )

    1989-02-15

    Marginal copper deficiency influences rat aorta structure and arterial superoxide dismutase. Weanling female Sprague Dawley rats were fed a 20% casein, 66% sucrose, 5% corn oil AIN Based diet containing either marginal (1.8 ppm) copper (CuM) or adequate (10.0 ppm) copper (CuA) with adequate but not excessive zinc. Females were bred at 65 days and weaned male pups consumed the diet of their respective dams, both with and without added 0.7% dietary cholesterol plus 0.35% dietary cholic acid (C+CA), for 88 days post weaning. CuM fed male offspring were without clinical signs of copper deprivation despite changes in tissue copper indices. C+CA feeding significantly raised plasma cholesterol in both CuA and CuM rats. Anesthetized rats were perfused with 2.5% glutaraldehyde at physiological pressure. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of aortic endothelium showed endothelial changes in CuM rats. Degree of endothelial changes was in order CuM + C+CA > CuM, CuA, CuA+C+CA. Major changes observed by SEM were endothelial bulging into lumen and adherence of leukocytes and platelets. CuM diets, particularly in hypercholesterolemia, may cause endothelial damage.

  6. Ketogenic diets cause opposing changes in synaptic morphology in CA1 hippocampus and dentate gyrus of late-adult rats.

    PubMed

    Balietti, Marta; Giorgetti, Belinda; Fattoretti, Patrizia; Grossi, Yessica; Di Stefano, Giuseppina; Casoli, Tiziana; Platano, Daniela; Solazzi, Moreno; Orlando, Fiorenza; Aicardi, Giorgio; Bertoni-Freddari, Carlo

    2008-06-01

    Ketogenic diets (KDs) have beneficial effects on several diseases, such as epilepsy, mitochondriopathies, cancer, and neurodegeneration. However, little is known about their effects on aging individuals. In the present study, late-adult (19-month-old) rats were fed for 8 weeks with two medium chain triglycerides (MCT)-KDs, and the following morphologic parameters reflecting synaptic plasticity were evaluated in stratum moleculare of hippocampal CA1 region (SM CA1) and outer molecular layer of hippocampal dentate gyrus (OML DG): average area (S), numeric density (Nv(s)), and surface density (Sv) of synapses, and average volume (V), numeric density (Nv(m)), and volume density (Vv) of synaptic mitochondria. In SM CA1, MCT-KDs induced the early appearance of the morphologic patterns typical of old animals (higher S and V, and lower Nv(s) and Nv(m)). On the contrary, in OML DG, Sv and Vv of MCT-KDs-fed rats were higher (as a result of higher Nv(s) and Nv(m)) versus controls; these modifications are known to improve synaptic function and metabolic supply. The opposite effects of MCT-KDs might reflect the different susceptibility to aging processes: OML DG is less vulnerable than SM CA1, and the reactivation of ketone bodies uptake and catabolism might occur more efficiently in this region, allowing the exploitation of their peculiar metabolic properties. Present findings provide the first evidence that MCT-KDs may cause opposite morphologic modifications, being potentially harmful for SM CA1 and potentially advantageous for OML DG. This implies risks but also promising potentialities for their therapeutic use during aging. PMID:18593281

  7. Immunocytochemical and biochemical characterization of the Heymann nephritis antigenic complex in rat L2 yolk sac cells.

    PubMed Central

    Lundstrom, M.; Orlando, R. A.; Saedi, M. S.; Woodward, L.; Kurihara, H.; Farquhar, M. G.

    1993-01-01

    Heymann nephritis in the rat is the most widely used model of human membranous glomerulonephritis. Glycoprotein (gp)330, a large (M(r) > 550,000) membrane-associated glycoprotein, has been identified as the main antigen in this autoimmune disease. Studies of gp330 and receptor-associated protein (RAP), its 44-kd subunit, have been restricted largely to rat kidney, as no stable cultured cell line has been available that expresses gp330. We have recently identified a rat yolk sac carcinoma cell line (L2) that expresses both gp330 and RAP. In this report, we have carried out detailed morphological, immunocytochemical, and biochemical studies characterizing the biosynthesis and localization of gp330 and RAP in the L2 rat yolk sac cell line. At the electron microscope level, the L2 cells are seen to be attached by cell junctions, and their predominant morphological features include extensive networks of rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and numerous clathrin-coated pits found on the cell membrane. By immunocytochemistry, gp330 was localized primarily to clathrin-coated pits at the cell surface, whereas RAP was localized predominantly to the lumen of the rough ER. Pulse-chase experiments indicated that gp330 spends a prolonged time maturing in the ER of L2 cells, as transport of gp330 to the Golgi complex (based on acquisition of endoglycosidase H resistance) is slow (t1/2 = 90 to 120 minutes). Gp330 reached the L2 cell surface beginning at 2 hours after synthesis, where it could be detected by cell surface immunoprecipitation. RAP was found to be an N-linked glycoprotein, and it remained endoglycosidase H-sensitive up to 4 hours after synthesis. Co-precipitation and co-sedimentation experiments demonstrated that gp330 and RAP form a large heterodimer (M(r) approximately 669,000) immediately after biosynthesis and are further assembled into a large hetero-oligomer in the ER. These findings demonstrate that the localization and the kinetics of assembly of gp330 and RAP into the Heymann nephritis antigenic complex are similar in both L2 cells and rat kidney. They also provide new information on the intracellular processing of these two molecules and their delivery to the cell surface. Thus, the L2 cell system should facilitate further characterization of the functions and interactions of gp330 and RAP, which may shed light on the cellular and molecular mechanisms of Heymann nephritis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8238258

  8. Atrial natriuretic polypeptide in the fetal rat: ontogeny and characterization.

    PubMed

    Dolan, L M; Dobrozsi, D J

    1987-08-01

    The presence of immunoreactive atrial natriuretic polypeptide (ANP) has been demonstrated in fetal atria early in gestation but further definition of fetal ANP has not been reported. To characterize the principal molecular forms of fetal ANP and to compare fetal ANP to that of the adult of the same species, we extracted the atria of pregnant adult and 20-day fetal rats, the hearts of 14-day fetuses, and intact 12-day fetuses in 1 M acetic acid. Tissue collected from littermates was pooled. We measured ANP by radioimmunoassay before and after gel filtration on Sephadex G-75 in each group. ANP concentrations (means +/- 1 SD) in ng/mg protein and ng/animal were 1296 +/- 505 and 7707 +/- 1877 in adult atria (n = 17), 174 +/- 44 and 62 +/- 13 in 20-day fetal atria (n = 7), and 33 +/- 5.3 and 3.7 +/- 0.9 in 14-day fetal hearts (n = 6), respectively. Acid extracts from intact 12-day fetuses did not dilute in parallel to the standard curve; therefore, concentrations of ANP for the 12-day fetuses are not reported. ANP concentration rose from the 20-day fetus to the adult (p less than 0.0001). The major species of ANP eluting from the Sephadex column had an apparent molecular weight of 16 K in all groups. We conclude: 1) ANP is present in the fetus shortly after the completion of organogenesis; 2) 16 K ANP is the principal intracardiac species in the fetus and the adult; and 3) the existence of ANP soon after cardiac development suggests a possible role for ANP in fetal blood pressure and sodium and water homeostasis. PMID:2958769

  9. Stability of Presynaptic Vesicle Pools and Changes in Synapse Morphology in the Amygdala Following Fear Learning in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ostroff, Linnaea E.; Cain, Christopher K.; Jindal, Neha; Dar, Najia; Ledoux, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in synaptic strength in the lateral amygdale (LA) that occur with fear learning are believed to mediate memory storage, and both presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms have been proposed to contribute. In a previous study we used serial section transmission electron microscopy (ssTEM) to observe differences in dendritic spine morphology in the adult rat LA after fear conditioning, conditioned inhibition (safety conditioning), or nave control handling (Ostroff et al. [2010] Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:94189423). We have now reconstructed axons from the same dataset and compared their morphology and relationship to the postsynaptic spines between the three training groups. Relative to the nave control and conditioned inhibition groups, the ratio of postsynaptic density (PSD) area to docked vesicles at synapses was greater in the fear-conditioned group, while the size of the synaptic vesicle pools was unchanged. There was significant coherence in synapse size between neighboring boutons on the same axon in the nave control and conditioned inhibition groups, but not in the fear-conditioned group. Within multiple-synapse boutons, both synapse size and the PSD-to-docked vesicle ratio were variable between individual synapses. Our results confirm that synaptic connectivity increases in the LA with fear conditioning. In addition, we provide evidence that boutons along the same axon and even synapses on the same bouton are independent in their structure and learning-related morphological plasticity. PMID:21674493

  10. Effect of warfarin on cell kinetics, epithelial morphology and tumour incidence in induced colorectal cancer in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Goeting, N; Trotter, G A; Cooke, T; Kirkham, N; Taylor, I

    1985-01-01

    The effect of low dose warfarin and high dose warfarin on epithelial cell kinetics (as determined by stathmokinetic techniques), and preneoplastic morphological changes was studied during azoxymethane induced carcinogenesis in the rat. Warfarin, at either low or high dose, had no effect on crypt cell production rate (CCPR) at any time interval whereas tumour incidence in both low dose warfarin and high dose warfarin groups was significantly reduced. Morphological changes were observed using scanning electron microscopy, which by conventional histology were shown to be adenoma precursors. In the control group the number of microadenomas increased with time after starting azoxymethane. In warfarin treated animals, the number of microadenomas also increased with time, but the actual incidence was reduced when compared with controls. These results suggest that the effects of warfarin on tumour development is unrelated to its anticoagulant effect, because increased dose did not result in greater tumour reduction. Furthermore, there was no overall change in CCPR when warfarin was administered. Warfarin may exert a specific effect, by preventing neoplastic change in cells which have undergone morphologically undetectable changes associated with early carcinogenesis. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:4018647

  11. Characterization of the major parathyroid hormone target cell in the endosteal metaphysis of rat long bones

    SciTech Connect

    Rouleau, M.F.; Mitchell, J.; Goltzman, D. )

    1990-10-01

    The majority of in vivo competitive binding of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in the endosteal metaphysis of rat long bones was recently shown to be localized in the intertrabecular tissue to a cell that is distinct from a differentiated osteoblast. In the present report we have further characterized this cell, termed a parathyroid hormone target (PT) cell, by light and electron microscopy using radioautography and histochemical techniques. These studies demonstrate that the PT cell is a mononuclear cell with a large cell body located at times between clusters of differentiated osteoblasts, as well as in other regions of the intertrabecular tissue. Its long cytoplasmic processes extend from the bone matrix through the intertrabecular region toward vascular structures, interdigitating with various cells of the endosteum. A distinctive tubular structure originating in the Golgi system and often associated with long mitochondria and glycogen particles extends throughout the cytoplasmic processes of the PT cell. Based on its capacity to incorporate ({sup 3}H)thymidine, the PT cell appears to divide rather slowly. The identification of occasional hybrid cells with ultrastructural features of both the PT cell and the differentiated osteoblast and the presence of histochemical evidence for alkaline phosphatase activity suggest that the PT cell is of the osteoblast lineage. These studies therefore morphologically define a major osseous target cell for PTH that, although of the osteoblast lineage, is not a differentiated osteoblast and provide in vivo evidence that characteristics of the 'osteoblast phenotype' are not restricted to a sole osseous cell type.

  12. Characterization of renal hyperemia in portal hypertensive rats

    SciTech Connect

    Premen, A.J.; Banchs, V.; Go, V.L.W.; Benoit, J.N.; Granger, D.N.

    1986-03-01

    In anesthetized sham-operated control (C) and portal vein stenosed (PVS) rats, renal blood flow (RBF) was measured with radioactive microspheres on days 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 following surgery. On day 2, only a small increase in RBF (19%) was produced in PVS versus C rats. However, by day 4, a significant increase in RBF (35%) was observed in PVS versus C animals. By day 6, the renal hyperemia in PVS rats reached a maximal value that was 42% higher than in C rats. Thereafter (on days 8 and 10), the renal hyperemia remained at the maximal value. In a separate group of 10-day PVS rats, glucagon antiserum failed to attenuate the 44% increase in RBF observed in PVS versus C rats. Radioimmunoassay of C and PVS plasma (10-day samples) revealed that vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, substance P, cholecystokinin/gastrin, neurotensin, pancreatic polypeptide, beta-endorphin, and peptide histidine-isoleucine amide are not elevated in arterial plasma of PVS rats. These data indicate that the renal hyperemia induced by chronic portal hypertension is manifested within 4 days after the hypertensive insult. Our studies also suggest that at least 9 blood-borne gastrointestinal peptides are not directly involved in the renal response to portal vein stenosis.

  13. Acute and delayed vasoconstriction after subarachnoid hemorrhage: local cerebral blood flow, histopathology, and morphology in the rat basilar artery.

    PubMed

    Alkan, T; Tureyen, K; Ulutas, M; Kahveci, N; Goren, B; Korfali, E; Ozluk, K

    2001-04-01

    The decreased local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) and cerebral ischemia that occur after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) may be caused by acute and/or delayed vasospasm. In 36 Sprague-Dawley (350-450 g) rats SAH was induced by transclival puncture of the basilar artery. Mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), LCBF, intracranial pressure (ICP), and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) were measured in all rats for 30 min before and 60 min after SAH was induced. One set of control (n : 7) and experimental animals (n : 7) was sacrificed after the 60 min of initial post-hemorrhage measurements were recorded. Four days after SAH induction, LCBF and MABP were measured again for 60 min in subgroups of surviving experimental rats (n : 7) and control rats (n : 7). Histopathologic and morphologic examinations of the basilar artery were performed in each subgroup. There was a sharp drop in LCBF just after SAH was induced (55.50 +/- 11.46 mlLD/min/100 g and 16.1 +/- 3.6 mlLD/min/100 g for baseline and post-SAH, respectively; p < 0.001). The flow then gradually increased but had not returned to pre-SAH values by 60 min (p < 0.05). At 4 days after SAH induction, although LCBF was lower than that observed in the control group and pre-SAH values, it was not significantly different from either of these flow rates (p > 0.05). ICP (baseline 7.05 +/- 0.4 mmHg) increased acutely to 75.2 +/- 7.1 mmHg, but returned to normal levels by 60 min after SAH. CPP (baseline 84.5 +/- 6.3 mmHg) dropped accordingly (to 18.6 +/- 3.1 mmHg), and then increased, reaching 72.2 +/- 4.9 mmHg at 60 min after SAH (p > 0.05). Examinations of the arteries revealed decreased inner luminal diameter and distortion of the elastica layer in the early stage. LCBF in nonsurviver rats (n : 8) was lower than that in the animals that survived (p < 0.01). At 4 days post-hemorrhage, the rats' basilar arteries showed marked vasculopathy. The findings showed that acute SAH alters LCBF, ICP, and CPP, and that decreased LCBF affects mortality rate. Subsequent vasculopathy occurs in delayed fashion, and this was observed at 4 days after the hemorrhage event. PMID:11780775

  14. Methodology for optical characterization of multi-scale morphologically complex heterogeneous media - Application to snow with soot impurities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, X.; Haussener, S.

    2016-01-01

    The radiative characterization of heterogeneous media with complex morphologies on multiple scales is of interest in a variety of areas such as solar energy conversion technologies or environmental sciences. An in-depth understanding and decoupling of the multi-scale morphological effects, bulk material properties, and operating conditions on the macroscopic behaviour provides pathways for morphology tailoring on multiple scales for improved application performance. We introduce a multi-scale methodology for the characterization of the spectral radiative transport in heterogeneous media with complex morphologies on two distinct scales characterized by size parameters (π-diameter/wavelength) significantly above and below one. The methodology incorporates the exact morphology at the various scales and utilizes volume-averaging approaches with the corresponding effective properties to couple the scales. At the large scale the volume-averaged coupled radiative transfer equations are solved utilizing i) effective radiative transport properties obtained by direct Monte Carlo simulations at the middle scale (mm range), and ii) averaged bulk material properties obtained at the small scale (submicron scale) by discrete dipole approximation calculations. The method is exemplary applied to snow containing agglomerated soot impurities. A quantification and decoupled understanding of the morphological effect on the radiative transport is achieved and a significant influence of the dual-scale morphology on the macroscopic optical behaviour is observed.

  15. Molecular and morphological characterization of local apple cultivars in Southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Prez-Romero, L F; Surez, M P; Dapena, E; Rallo, P

    2015-01-01

    The number of local and traditional fruit cultivars in Andalusia (Southern Spain) has decreased dramatically since the 1970s when new commercial cultivars from breeding programs were introduced, replacing old varieties, and thus decreasing genetic diversity. The present study was included in a genetic resources project with the objective of identifying and preserving traditional fruit tree cultivars in Southern Spain. The goal of this study was to begin the characterization of 29 apple accessions (Malus x domestica Borkh) belonging to 13 traditional cultivar denominations. For molecular characterization studies, 12 simple sequence repeat markers previously developed for apple species were used. Morphological characterization was performed using 33 fruit traits. A total of 115 alleles were amplified for the 12 loci, ranging from 7 (CH01h01, CH01h10, and GD 12) to 13 alleles per locus (CH02c11). Forty-one alleles were unique to specific genotypes. The locus with the highest number of detected unique alleles was CH01f03b with 6 alleles. Expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.74 for CH01h10 to 0.88 for CH02c11, with an average of 0.82. Observed heterozygosity varied from 0.45 for CH01h01 to 1.0 for CH02d08, with an average of 0.86. Three homonyms were found for accessions belonging to varieties 'Maguillo', 'Pero Minguela', and 'Castellana'. The most discriminant morphological characters studied revealed no homonyms or synonyms among cultivar denominations, although they are useful for describing varietal characteristics that have not been previously defined. PMID:25730088

  16. Cosmos 1887: morphology, histochemistry, and vasculature of the growing rat tibia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, S. B.; Morey-Holton, E. R.; Durnova, G. N.; Kaplansky, A. S.

    1990-01-01

    Light microscopy, electron microscopy, and enzyme histochemistry were used to study the effects of spaceflight on metaphyseal and cortical bone of the rat tibia. Cortical cross-sectional area and perimeter were not altered by a 12.5-day spaceflight in 3-month-old male rats. The endosteal osteoblast population and the vasculature near the periosteal surface in flight rats compared with ground controls showed more pronounced changes in cortical bone than in metaphyseal bone. The osteoblasts demonstrated greater numbers of transitional Golgi vesicles, possibly caused by a decreased cellular metabolic energy source, but no difference in the large Golgi saccules or the cell membrane-associated alkaline phosphatase activity. The periosteal vasculature in the diaphysis of flight rats often showed lipid accumulations within the lumen of the vessels, occasional degeneration of the vascular wall, and degeneration of osteocytes adjacent to vessels containing intraluminal deposits. These changes were not found in the metaphyseal region of flight animals. The focal vascular changes may be due to ischemia of bone or a developing fragility of the vessel walls as a result of spaceflight.

  17. MORPHOLOGIC ANALYSIS CORRELATES WITH GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN CULTURED F344 RAT MESOTHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The gene expression pattern of mesothelial cells in vitro was determined after 4 or 12 h exposure to the rat mesothelial, kidney and thyroid carcinogen, and oxidative stressor potassium bromate (KBr03). Gene expression changes observed using cDNA arrays indicated oxidative stres...

  18. The coagulating gland in the male greater cane rat (Thryonomys swinderianus): morphological and immunohistochemical features.

    PubMed

    Adebayo, O A; Akinloye, A K; Ihunwo, A O; Oke, B O

    2015-01-01

    This study reveals the structure, ultrastructure and immunoexpression of oestrogen alpha and beta receptors (ERα and ERβ) in the coagulating glands of the greater cane rat. Gland samples from 15 adult male cane rats were processed for histological and ultrastructural studies while immunohistochemistry was also carried out. Coagulating gland in the cane rat is a paired, triangularly shaped, transparent gland weighing about 1 ± 0.48 g. Histologically, each secretory acinus is composed of folded mucosa surrounded by fibromuscular stroma. The simple columnar epithelium consists of principal cells at different stages of secretion evidenced by their apical blebs of various heights and occasional basal cells. Fine structure of the principal cells revealed the presence of apical blebs that contained secretory granules of varying electron-density, secretory vesicles and vacuoles on both their luminal surfaces and the lumen. While supranuclear cytoplasm contained Golgi apparatus with different cisternal arrangements, the infranuclear part is covered with dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum cisternae. Nuclei, apical bleb and stroma of secretory epithelium all showed positive immunostaining for ERα and ERβ. These findings revealed the prominence of apocrine secretion with no structural evidence of merocrine secretion and the uncommon ERα and ERβ distribution pattern in the coagulating gland of the cane rat. PMID:25792392

  19. MORPHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF PROLONGED EXPOSURE TO OZONE AND SULFURIC ACID AEROSOL ON THE RAT LUNG

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study was to determine the pulmonary effects of a combination of ozone (0.5 ppm) and sulfuric acid aerosol (1 mg/cu. m.) and to assess the possibility of interactive effects. Groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were continously exposed to the pollutants, either indi...

  20. Morphological evidence for the location of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) immunoreactivity in rat lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Xing, L; Guo, J; Tang, J; Tang, Y; Wang, X

    1998-01-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is widely distributed in sensory neurons and nerve fibers. It was shown recently in our laboratory that there was CGRP-immunoreactivity (CGRP-ir) in extract of rat lymphocyte of thymus and mesenteric lymph node by radioimmunoassay and reversed-phase HPLC. The aim of this study was to detect the CGRP-ir location in the rat lymphocyte by immunocytochemical method. Single cells isolated from thymus and mesenteric lymph node of male Wistar rat (200-250 g) were suspended in RPMI-1640 medium. After adhesion to plate wall and through nylon wool fiber columns, T cell-riched suspension was obtained. Immunocytochemical ABC method was performed in cell suspension, the specific antiserum (1:200 diluted) was rabbit anti-human CGRP. The cells were examined under light microscope after smeared on glass slide by Shandon Cytospin. The results showed that some lymphocytes were CGRP-ir positive. The positive granules were seen as ring, plaque, cap or spot distributing on the surface or inside the cell. The results indicate that CGRP-ir may be located in some rat T lymphocytes. This work provides new information about the interaction between the nervous and the immune systems. The functional significance of CGRP located in lymphocytes needs to be further studied. PMID:9660718

  1. Chemical and morphological characterization of sugarcane bagasse submitted to a delignification process for enhanced enzymatic digestibility

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In recent years, biorefining of lignocellulosic biomass to produce multi-products such as ethanol and other biomaterials has become a dynamic research area. Pretreatment technologies that fractionate sugarcane bagasse are essential for the successful use of this feedstock in ethanol production. In this paper, we investigate modifications in the morphology and chemical composition of sugarcane bagasse submitted to a two-step treatment, using diluted acid followed by a delignification process with increasing sodium hydroxide concentrations. Detailed chemical and morphological characterization of the samples after each pretreatment condition, studied by high performance liquid chromatography, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, is reported, together with sample crystallinity and enzymatic digestibility. Results Chemical composition analysis performed on samples obtained after different pretreatment conditions showed that up to 96% and 85% of hemicellulose and lignin fractions, respectively, were removed by this two-step method when sodium hydroxide concentrations of 1% (m/v) or higher were used. The efficient lignin removal resulted in an enhanced hydrolysis yield reaching values around 100%. Considering the cellulose loss due to the pretreatment (maximum of 30%, depending on the process), the total cellulose conversion increases significantly from 22.0% (value for the untreated bagasse) to 72.4%. The delignification process, with consequent increase in the cellulose to lignin ratio, is also clearly observed by nuclear magnetic resonance and diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy experiments. We also demonstrated that the morphological changes contributing to this remarkable improvement occur as a consequence of lignin removal from the sample. Bagasse unstructuring is favored by the loss of cohesion between neighboring cell walls, as well as by changes in the inner cell wall structure, such as damaging, hole formation and loss of mechanical resistance, facilitating liquid and enzyme access to crystalline cellulose. Conclusions The results presented herewith show the efficiency of the proposed method for improving the enzymatic digestibility of sugarcane bagasse and provide understanding of the pretreatment action mechanism. Combining the different techniques applied in this work warranted thorough information about the undergoing morphological and chemical changes and was an efficient approach to understand the morphological effects resulting from sample delignification and its influence on the enhanced hydrolysis results. PMID:22122978

  2. Creation and Preliminary Characterization of a Leptin Knockout Rat

    PubMed Central

    Vaira, Sergio; Yang, Chang; McCoy, Aaron; Keys, Kelly; Xue, Shurong; Weinstein, Edward J.; Novack, Deborah V.

    2012-01-01

    Leptin, a cytokine-like hormone secreted mainly by adipocytes, regulates various pathways centered on food intake and energy expenditure, including insulin sensitivity, fertility, immune system, and bone metabolism. Here, using zinc finger nuclease technology, we created the first leptin knockout rat. Homozygous leptin null rats are obese with significantly higher serum cholesterol, triglyceride, and insulin levels than wild-type controls. Neither gender produced offspring despite of repeated attempts. The leptin knockout rats also have depressed immune system. In addition, examination by microcomputed tomography of the femurs of the leptin null rats shows a significant increase in both trabecular bone mineral density and bone volume of the femur compared with wild-type littermates. Our model should be useful for many different fields of studies, such as obesity, diabetes, and bone metabolism-related illnesses. PMID:22948215

  3. Tualang Honey Protects against BPA-Induced Morphological Abnormalities and Disruption of ERα, ERβ, and C3 mRNA and Protein Expressions in the Uterus of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mohamad Zaid, Siti Sarah; Kassim, Normadiah M.; Othman, Shatrah

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) that can disrupt the normal functions of the reproductive system. The objective of the study is to investigate the potential protective effects of Tualang honey against BPA-induced uterine toxicity in pubertal rats. The rats were administered with BPA by oral gavage over a period of six weeks. Uterine toxicity in BPA-exposed rats was determined by the degree of the morphological abnormalities, increased lipid peroxidation, and dysregulated expression and distribution of ERα, ERβ, and C3 as compared to the control rats. Concurrent treatment of rats with BPA and Tualang honey significantly improved the uterine morphological abnormalities, reduced lipid peroxidation, and normalized ERα, ERβ, and C3 expressions and distribution. There were no abnormal changes observed in rats treated with Tualang honey alone, comparable with the control rats. In conclusion, Tualang honey has potential roles in protecting the uterus from BPA-induced toxicity, possibly accounted for by its phytochemical properties. PMID:26788107

  4. Morphological and morphometric characterization of direct transdifferentiation of support cells into hair cells in ototoxin-exposed neonatal utricular explants.

    PubMed

    Werner, Mimmi; Van De Water, Thomas R; Hammarsten, Peter; Arnoldsson, Gran; Berggren, Diana

    2015-03-01

    We have studied aminoglycoside-induced vestibular hair-cell renewal using long-term culture of utricular macula explants from 4-day-old rats. Explanted utricles were exposed to 1 mM of gentamicin for 48 h, during 2nd and 3rd days in vitro (DIV), and then recovering in unsupplemented medium. Utricles were harvested at specified time points from the 2nd through the 28th DIV. The cellular events that occurred within hair cell epithelia during the culture period were documented from serial sectioned specimens. Vestibular hair cells (HCs) and supporting cells (SCs) were systematically counted using light microscopy (LM) with the assistance of morphometric software. Ultrastructural observations were made from selected specimens with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). After 7 DIV, i.e. four days after gentamicin exposure, the density of HCs was 11% of the number of HCs observed in non-gentamicin-exposed control explants. At 28 DIV the HC density was 61% of the number of HCs observed in the control group explant specimens. Simultaneously with this increase in HCs there was a corresponding decline in the number of SCs within the epithelium. The proportion of HCs in relation to SCs increased significantly in the gentamicin-exposed explant group during the 5th to the 28th DIV period of culture. There were no significant differences in the volume estimations of the gentamicin-exposed and the control group explants during the observed period of culture. Morphological observations showed that gentamicin exposure induced extensive loss of HCs within the epithelial layer, which retained their intact apical and basal linings. At 7 to 14 DIV (i.e. 3-11 days after gentamicin exposure) a pseudostratified epithelium with multiple layers of disorganized cells was observed. At 21 DIV new HCs were observed that also possessed features resembling SCs. After 28 DIV a new luminal layer of HCs with several layers of SCs located more basally characterized the gentamicin-exposed epithelium. No mitoses were observed within the epithelial layer of any explants. Our conclusion is that direct transdifferentiation of SCs into HCs was the only process contributing to the renewal of HCs after gentamicin exposure in these explants of vestibular inner ear epithelia obtained from the labyrinths of 4-day-old rats. PMID:25576788

  5. The decreased expression of mitofusin-1 and increased fission-1 together with alterations in mitochondrial morphology in the kidney of rats with chronic fluorosis may involve elevated oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Qin, Shuang-Li; Deng, Jie; Lou, Di-Dong; Yu, Wen-Feng; Pei, Jinjing; Guan, Zhi-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to characterize changes in the expression of mitofusin-1 (Mfn1) and fission-1 (Fis1), as well as in mitochondrial morphology in the kidney of rats subjected to chronic fluorosis and to elucidate whether any mitochondrial injury observed is associated with increased oxidative stress. Sixty Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided randomly into 3 groups of 20 each, i.e., the untreated control group (natural drinking water containing <0.5mg fluoride/L), the low-fluoride group (drinking water supplemented with 10mg fluoride/L, prepared with NaF) and the high-fluoride group (50mg fluoride/L), and treated for 6 months. Thereafter, renal expression of Mfn1 and Fis1 at both the protein and mRNA levels was determined by immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR, respectively. In addition, the malondiadehyde (MDA) was quantitated by the thiobarbituric acid procedure and the total antioxidative capability (T-AOC) by a colorimetric method. The morphology of renal mitochondria was observed under the transmission electron microscope. In the renal tissues of rats with chronic fluorosis, expression of both Mfn1 protein and mRNA was clearly reduced, whereas that of Fis1 was elevated. The level of MDA was increased and the T-AOC lowered. Swollen or fragmented mitochondria in renal cells were observed under the electronic microscope. These findings indicate that chronic fluorosis can lead to the abnormal mitochondrial dynamics and changed morphology in the rat kidney, which in mechanism might be induced by a high level of oxidative stress in the disease. PMID:24958380

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF RESPIRATORY DISEASE IN RATS FOLLOWING NEONATAL INOCULATION WITH A RAT-ADAPTED INFLUENZA VIRUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Neonatal F344 rats were infected with a rat-adapted influenza virus (RAIV) as a potential model to study the combined effects of early life viral respiratory infection with air pollutant dosimetry and toxic responses, as well as on the development of respiratory disease and incre...

  7. Predicting X-ray absorption spectra of semiconducting polymers for electronic structure and morphology characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Gregory; Patel, Shrayesh; Pemmaraju, C. Das; Kramer, Edward; Prendergast, David; Chabinyc, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Core-level X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) reveals important information on the electronic structure of materials and plays a key role in morphology characterization. Semiconducting polymers are the active component in many organic electronics. Their electronic properties are critically linked to device performance, and a proper understanding of semiconducting polymer XAS is crucial. Techniques such as resonant X-ray scattering rely on core-level transitions to gain materials contrast and probe orientational order. However, it is difficult to identify these transitions based on experiments alone, and complementary simulations are required. We show that first-principles calculations can capture the essential features of experimental XAS of semiconducting polymers, and provide insight into which molecular model, such as oligomers or periodic boundary conditions, are best suited for XAS calculations. Simulated XAS can reveal contributions from individual atoms and be used to visualize molecular orbitals. This allows for improved characterization of molecular orientation and scattering analysis. These predictions lay the groundwork for understanding how chemical makeup is linked to electronic structure, and to properly utilize experiments to characterize semiconducting polymers.

  8. Clinical, Morphological, and Molecular Characterization of Penicillium canis sp. nov., Isolated from a Dog with Osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Deanna A.; Swenson, Cheryl L.; Bailey, Chris J.; Wiederhold, Nathan P.; Nelson, Nathan C.; Thompson, Elizabeth H.; Wickes, Brian L.; French, Stephanie; Fu, Jianmin; Vilar-Saavedra, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Infections caused by Penicillium species are rare in dogs, and the prognosis in these cases is poor. An unknown species of Penicillium was isolated from a bone lesion in a young dog with osteomyelitis of the right ilium. Extensive diagnostic evaluation did not reveal evidence of dissemination. Resolution of lameness and clinical stability of disease were achieved with intravenous phospholipid-complexed amphotericin B initially, followed by long-term combination therapy with terbinafine and ketoconazole. A detailed morphological and molecular characterization of the mold was undertaken. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer revealed the isolate to be closely related to Penicillium menonorum and Penicillium pimiteouiense. Additional sequence analysis of ?-tubulin, calmodulin, minichromosome maintenance factor, DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and pre-rRNA processing protein revealed the isolate to be a novel species; the name Penicillium canis sp. nov. is proposed. Morphologically, smooth, ovoid conidia, a greenish gray colony color, slow growth on all media, and a failure to form ascomata distinguish this species from closely related Penicillium species. PMID:24789186

  9. Molecular and morphological characterization of Veleshkinema iranicum n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Hexatylina, Sphaerularioidea) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Miraeiz, Esmaeil; Heydari, Ramin; lvarez-Ortega, Sergio; Pedram, Majid; Atighi, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Veleshkinema iranicum n. gen., n. sp. is described and illustrated based on morphological, morphometric and molecular characters. The new genus is characterized by having slender females and males, stylet with asymmetrical knobs, dorsal gland orifice just posterior to subventral knob, lip region with flattened apex and eight sectors, pharynx with a non-muscular and non-valvular median bulb, pharyngeal glands slightly overlapping intestine dorsally, visible cellular cardia, female with a single gonad having a quadricolumellate crustaformeria with 8-10 cells in each column, no postvulval uterine sac and rounded and offset spermatheca containing spheroid sperm cells, males with arcuate tylenchoid spicules and subterminal bursa. The new genus is morphologically compared with four genera: Abursanema, Deladenus, Prothallonema and Sphaerularia. Molecular phylogenetic studies of the new genus using 808 bp partial sequences of SSU ribosomal RNA gene placed the new genus in a clade with Sphaerularia spp. In phylogenetic analyses using 756 bp partial sequences of the 28S ribosomal RNA gene (D2-D3 segments), the new genus formed a monophyletic group with Abursanema iranicum and Sphaerularia spp. PMID:26623744

  10. Morphological and molecular characterization of the causal agent of downy mildew on Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa).

    PubMed

    Choi, Young-Joon; Danielsen, Solveig; Lbeck, Mette; Hong, Seung-Beom; Delhey, Rolf; Shin, Hyeon-Dong

    2010-05-01

    Downy mildew is an economically important and widespread disease in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) growing areas. Although in many studies Peronospora farinosa is most commonly regarded as the causal agent of the disease, identification and classification of the pathogen remain still uncertain due to its taxonomic confusion. Thirty-six Peronospora isolates from quinoa with different geographic origins including Argentina, Bolivia, Denmark, Ecuador, and Peru were morphologically and molecularly compared with Peronospora species from other Chenopodium species. The morphology of three herbarium specimens was similar to that of P. variabilis, which originated from C. album, characterized by flexuous to curved ultimate branchlets and pedicellated conidia. Phylogenetic analysis based on ITS rDNA sequences also placed the quinoa pathogen within the same clade as P. variabilis. Within the ITS rDNA sequences of the quinoa pathogens, two base substitutions were found, which separated the majority of the Danish isolates from isolates from South America, but no sequence difference was found among the isolates from different cultivars of quinoa. The present results indicate that the pathogen responsible for the quinoa downy mildew is identical to Peronospora variabilis and that it should not be lumped with P. farinosa as claimed previously by most studies. PMID:20101524

  11. Clinical, morphological, and molecular characterization of Penicillium canis sp. nov., isolated from a dog with osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Langlois, Daniel K; Sutton, Deanna A; Swenson, Cheryl L; Bailey, Chris J; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Nelson, Nathan C; Thompson, Elizabeth H; Wickes, Brian L; French, Stephanie; Fu, Jianmin; Vilar-Saavedra, Paulo; Peterson, Stephen W

    2014-07-01

    Infections caused by Penicillium species are rare in dogs, and the prognosis in these cases is poor. An unknown species of Penicillium was isolated from a bone lesion in a young dog with osteomyelitis of the right ilium. Extensive diagnostic evaluation did not reveal evidence of dissemination. Resolution of lameness and clinical stability of disease were achieved with intravenous phospholipid-complexed amphotericin B initially, followed by long-term combination therapy with terbinafine and ketoconazole. A detailed morphological and molecular characterization of the mold was undertaken. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer revealed the isolate to be closely related to Penicillium menonorum and Penicillium pimiteouiense. Additional sequence analysis of ?-tubulin, calmodulin, minichromosome maintenance factor, DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and pre-rRNA processing protein revealed the isolate to be a novel species; the name Penicillium canis sp. nov. is proposed. Morphologically, smooth, ovoid conidia, a greenish gray colony color, slow growth on all media, and a failure to form ascomata distinguish this species from closely related Penicillium species. PMID:24789186

  12. Long-term characterization of persistent atrial fibrillation: wave morphology, frequency, and irregularity analysis.

    PubMed

    Goya-Esteban, Rebeca; Sandberg, Frida; Barquero-Prez, scar; Garca-Alberola, Arcadio; Srnmo, Leif; Rojo-lvarez, Jos Luis

    2014-12-01

    Short-term properties of atrial fibrillation (AF) frequency, f-wave morphology, and irregularity parameters have been thoroughly studied, but not long-term properties. In the present work, f-wave morphology is characterized by principal component analysis, introducing a novel temporal parameter defined by the cumulative normalized variance of the three largest principal components (r3). Based on 7-day recordings from nine patients with stable chronic heart failure and persistent AF, long-term properties were studied in terms of r3 AF frequency, and sample entropy (SampEn). The main result of the present study is that detection of circadian rhythms depends on the parameter considered: rhythms were found in six (r3, SampEn) and five (AF frequency) patients, but not always in the same patient. Another important result is that circadian rhythms detected in 7-day recordings could not always be detected in 24-h periods, thus shedding new light on the results in previous studies which all were based on 24-h recordings. Infradian rhythms were found in four (r3, SampEn) and one (AF frequency) patients. PMID:25284217

  13. Morphological, physiological, and molecular characterization of actinomycetes isolated from dry soil, rocks, and monument surfaces.

    PubMed

    Eppard, M; Krumbein, W E; Koch, C; Rhiel, E; Staley, J T; Stackebrandt, E

    1996-07-01

    In an extended study on the biodiversity of rock-dwelling bacteria, the colony and cell morphology, physiology, protein patterns, and 16S rDNA sequences of 17 bacterial strains isolated from different surfaces of rocks, stones, and monuments and from various geographical locations were characterized. All except one strain, which was found to be a Bacillus, were members of the order Actinomycetales. The majority of the strains either were closely related to Geodermatophilus obscurus, which was also analyzed in this study, or formed a closely related sister taxon. All of these strains were isolated from the surface of marble in Namibia and Greece and from limestone from the Negev desert, Israel. One strain, G10, of Namibia origin was equidistantly related to Geodermatophilus obscurus, Frankia alni, Sporichthya polymorpha, and Acidothermus cellulolyticus. Three strains from rock varnish in the Mojave desert, California, were found to be highly related to Arthrobacter (formerly Micrococcus) agilis. All clusters could be confirmed from results of studies on morphological and physiological properties and from banding patterns of whole cell proteins. Based on the results of tests, four additional strains were assigned to the lineage defined by strain G10. PMID:8661940

  14. Characterization of Morphological and Cellular Events Underlying Oral Regeneration in the Sea Anemone, Nematostella vectensis

    PubMed Central

    Amiel, Aldine R.; Johnston, Hereroa T.; Nedoncelle, Karine; Warner, Jacob F.; Ferreira, Solène; Röttinger, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Cnidarians, the extant sister group to bilateria, are well known for their impressive regenerative capacity. The sea anemone Nematostella vectensis is a well-established system for the study of development and evolution that is receiving increased attention for its regenerative capacity. Nematostella is able to regrow missing body parts within five to six days after its bisection, yet studies describing the morphological, cellular, and molecular events underlying this process are sparse and very heterogeneous in their experimental approaches. In this study, we lay down the basic framework to study oral regeneration in Nematostella vectensis. Using various imaging and staining techniques we characterize in detail the morphological, cellular, and global molecular events that define specific landmarks of this process. Furthermore, we describe in vivo assays to evaluate wound healing success and the initiation of pharynx reformation. Using our described landmarks for regeneration and in vivo assays, we analyze the effects of perturbing either transcription or cellular proliferation on the regenerative process. Interestingly, neither one of these experimental perturbations has major effects on wound closure, although they slightly delay or partially block it. We further show that while the inhibition of transcription blocks regeneration in a very early step, inhibiting cellular proliferation only affects later events such as pharynx reformation and tentacle elongation. PMID:26633371

  15. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of a Fungus, Hirsutella sp., Isolated from Planthoppers and Psocids in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, Andrea V.; Simurro, María E.; Balatti, Pedro A.

    2013-01-01

    A mycosed planthopper, Oliarus dimidiatus Berg (Hemiptera: Cixiidae), and two psocids, Heterocaecilius sp. (Psocodea: Pseudocaeciliidae) and Ectopsocus sp. (Ectopsocidae), were collected from Los Hornos and La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina between February and September 2007. Observations of mycelia growing on the host revealed that the putative fungal parasite had synnemata supporting monophialidic conidiogenous cells. Likewise, in vitro fungal cultures presented characteristics typical of the fungus Hirsutella citriformis Speare (Ascomycota: Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae). The identity of the isolated fungi characterized based on morphological aspects was complemented by means of the internal transcribed spacer sequences. The sequences of both isolates were highly homologous to those of Cordyceps sp. (Fries) Link and Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Berkely) G.H. Sung, J.M. Sung, Hywel-Jones, and Spatafora (Ophiocordycipitaceae). We additionally confirmed that both isolates had the ability to infect and kill adults of Delphacodes kuscheli Fennah (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) after 10 days. Therefore, based on the morphology of the isolated fungi, their ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequence, and their ability to parasite insects, we conclude that the fungi isolated belong to the genus Hirsutella and might have biotechnological potential. PMID:23885970

  16. Morphological and molecular characterization of a fungus, Hirsutella sp., isolated from planthoppers and psocids in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Andrea V; Simurro, María E; Balatti, Pedro A

    2013-01-01

    A mycosed planthopper, Oliarus dimidiatus Berg (Hemiptera: Cixiidae), and two psocids, Heterocaecilius sp. (Psocodea: Pseudocaeciliidae) and Ectopsocus sp. (Ectopsocidae), were collected from Los Hornos and La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina between February and September 2007. Observations of mycelia growing on the host revealed that the putative fungal parasite had synnemata supporting monophialidic conidiogenous cells. Likewise, in vitro fungal cultures presented characteristics typical of the fungus Hirsutella citriformis Speare (Ascomycota: Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae). The identity of the isolated fungi characterized based on morphological aspects was complemented by means of the internal transcribed spacer sequences. The sequences of both isolates were highly homologous to those of Cordyceps sp. (Fries) Link and Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Berkely) G.H. Sung, J.M. Sung, Hywel-Jones, and Spatafora (Ophiocordycipitaceae). We additionally confirmed that both isolates had the ability to infect and kill adults of Delphacodes kuscheli Fennah (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) after 10 days. Therefore, based on the morphology of the isolated fungi, their ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequence, and their ability to parasite insects, we conclude that the fungi isolated belong to the genus Hirsutella and might have biotechnological potential. PMID:23885970

  17. Effects of prenatal undernutrition on prevertebral sympathetic neurons in the rat: a morphological and fluorescence histochemical study.

    PubMed Central

    Conboy, V B; Santer, R M; Swift, G L

    1987-01-01

    The effects of maternal undernutrition during the last seven and last fourteen days of pregnancy on neurons of the rat coeliac-superior mesenteric ganglion has been investigated in neonates and in adult animals. The parameters studied were neuron diameter and the level of neuronal noradrenaline fluorescence. The morphology was more permanently affected by fourteen than by seven days undernutrition as shown by the smaller neuron diameters persisting at six months. Both periods of undernutrition affected noradrenaline levels permanently: seven days undernutrition producing a rise and fourteen days producing a depression. These changes demonstrate the permanent effects of maternal undernutrition on the development and maturation of prevertebral sympathetic neurons. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:3446665

  18. Cold stress induced morphological microglial activation and increased IL-1? expression in astroglial cells in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Sugama, Shuei; Takenouchi, Takato; Fujita, Masayo; Kitani, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Makoto

    2011-04-01

    The present study investigated the possible impact of cold stress on the immune functions of the brain. Wistar rats were exposed to 4C for 2h prior to analysis of immunohistochemical analysis of OX-42 and IL-1?, which are markers of microglia and inflammation, respectively. Exposure to cold stress induced morphological microglial activation in as early as 30 min, and the activation lasted up to 2h following the stress. In addition, increased IL-1?-immunoreactivity was detected in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. However, IL-1? was not co-localized with microglia, and was predominantly expressed in astroglia. The present study provides the first evidence that cold stress contributes to neuro-immunomodulation in the brain through microglial activation and expression of IL-1? in astroglia. PMID:21115202

  19. Morphological and molecular characterization of Pratylenchus lentis n. sp. (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae) from Sicily

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, F.; Handoo, Z. A.; Di Vito, M.

    2008-01-01

    Pratylenchus lentis n. sp. parasitizing roots of lentil in Sicily, Italy, is described and illustrated. The new species is characterized by a relatively high lip region with three annuli, mean stylet length of 16 μm, with anteriorly flattened knobs, cylindrical body with a relatively anterior vulva, large and ovoid spermatheca full of sperm, plump tail with truncate, irregularly annulated terminus, and by the presence of males. Molecular ITS-RFLP and sequencing analyses of the new species showed clear differences from other most morphologically similar species, such as P. thornei and P. mediterraneus. Preliminary host range tests revealed that chickpea, pea, faba bean and durum wheat are good hosts of P. lentis n. sp., whereas common bean, alfalfa and barley are less robust hosts and tomato, bell pepper, eggplant, melon and sunflower are poor hosts for the nematode. PMID:19440258

  20. Morphologic, cytometric and functional characterization of the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) hemocytes.

    PubMed

    Castellanos-Martínez, S; Prado-Alvarez, M; Lobo-da-Cunha, A; Azevedo, C; Gestal, C

    2014-05-01

    The hemocytes of Octopus vulgaris were morphologically and functionally characterized. Light and electron microscopy (TEM and SEM), and flow cytometry analyses revealed the existence of two hemocyte populations. Large granulocytes showed U-shaped nucleus, a mean of 11.6 μm±1.2 in diameter with basophilic granules, polysaccharide and lysosomic deposits in the cytoplasm. Small granulocytes measured a mean of 8.1 μm±0.7 in diameter, and have a round nucleus occupying almost the entire cell and few or not granules in the cytoplasm. Flow cytometry analysis showed that large granulocytes are the principal cells that develop phagocytosis of latex beads (rising up to 56%) and ROS after zymosan stimulation. Zymosan induced the highest production of both ROS and NO. This study is the first tread towards understanding the O. vulgaris immune system by applying new tools to provide a most comprehensive morpho-functional study of their hemocytes. PMID:24296436

  1. Surface morphology and morphometry of rat alveolar macrophages after ozone exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Dormans, J.A.; Rombout, P.J.; van Loveren, H. )

    1990-09-01

    As the ultrastructural data on the effects of ozone on pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM) are lacking, transmission (TEM) and scanning (SEM) electron microscopy were performed on rat PAM present in alveolar lavages following exposure to ozone. Rats were continuously exposed for 7 d to ozone concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 1.50 mg/m3 for 7 d followed by a 5-d recovery period. Additionally, morphometry on lung sections was performed to quantitate PAM. In a second experiment rats were continuously exposed to 1.50 mg O3/m3 for 1, 3, 5, or 7 d. To study the influence of concurrent ozone exposure and lung infection, due to Listeria monocytogenes, rats were exposed for 7 d to 1.50 mg O3/m3 after a Listeria infection. The surface area of lavaged control PAM was uniformly covered with ruffles as shown by SEM and TEM. Exposure to 0.5 mg ozone/m3 for 7 d resulted in cells partly covered with microvilli and blebs in addition to normal ruffles. The number of large size PAM increased with an increase in ozone concentration. After 1 d of exposure, normal-appearing as well as many small macrophages with ruffles and scattered lymphocytes were seen. Lavage samples taken after 5 or 7 d of exposure showed an identical cell composition to that taken after 3 d of exposure. After Listeria infection alone, lavage samples consisted of mainly lymphocytes and some macrophages. Small quantitative changes, such as an increase in the number of polymorphonuclear neutrophils and large-size PAM, occurred in lavages after ozone exposure and infection with L. monocytogenes. Morphometric examination of lung sections revealed a concentration-related increase in the number of PAM, even in animals exposed to 0.25 mg ozone/m3 for 7 d. Centriacinar regions were more severely affected than other regions of lung tissue.

  2. Effects of ageing on morphology, amylase release, cytosolic Ca2+ signals and acyl lipids in isolated rat parotid gland tissue.

    PubMed

    Mahay, Sukhbinder; Pariente, Jose A; Lajas, Ana I; Adeghate, Ernest; Rolph, Carole E; Singh, Jaipaul

    2004-11-01

    Xerostomia (oral dryness sensation) is due to dryness of the oral cavity and it is more prevalent in the elderly. This study investigated the effect of ageing on parotid gland structure and function of control (2-6 months) and aged (12, 16-18 and 22-24 months) rats employing light microscopic, colorimetric, gas chromatographic and microspectrofluorimetric methods to investigate the morphological changes of the parotid glands, amylase release, endogenous lipid distribution and cytosolic free calcium levels, respectively. When compared to controls, age-related changes were apparent in glands obtained from rats aged 16-18 and 22-24 months, which included reduced acinar cell distribution, enlarged parotid ducts with fatty and connective tissue and mast cell infiltrations. Parotid acini from 12, 16-18 and 22-24-month-old glands showed significant (p < 0.05) age-related decreases in amylase release, compared to controls when challenged with acetylcholine (ACh). No change in basal calcium signals was observed in parotid acini from 2-6 to 16-18-month-old-animals. However, stimulation of 16-18-month-old parotid acini with 10(-5)M ACh resulted in a significant (p < 0.001) decrease in both peak and plateau phases of the cytosolic Ca2+ signal when compared to control. Gas chromatography of de novo and essential acyl lipids revealed no changes in the amount of either acyl lipid group in glands obtained from 2-6 to 22-24-month-old animals. Lipid analysis of phospholipid associated acyl chains showed a higher relative proportion of linoleic acid in older glands. The results reveal that ageing is associated with marked and distinct morphological changes including infiltrations of lipids and mast cells of the parotid gland and decreases in amylase release and cytosolic Ca2+ signals. PMID:15646043

  3. Characterization of the rat pneumonic plague model: infection kinetics following aerosolization of Yersinia pestis CO92.

    PubMed

    Agar, Stacy L; Sha, Jian; Foltz, Sheri M; Erova, Tatiana E; Walberg, Kristin G; Baze, Wallace B; Suarez, Giovanni; Peterson, Johnny W; Chopra, Ashok K

    2009-02-01

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of human bubonic and pneumonic plague, is spread during natural infection by the fleas of rodents. Historically associated with infected rat fleas, studies on the kinetics of infection in rats are surprisingly few, and these reports have focused mainly on bubonic plague. Although the natural route of primary infection results in bubonic plague in humans, it is commonly thought that aerosolized Y. pestis will be utilized during a biowarfare attack. Accordingly, based on our previous characterization of the mouse model of pneumonic plague, we sought to examine the progression of infection in rats exposed in a whole-body Madison chamber to aerosolized Y. pestis CO92. Following an 8.6 LD(50) dose of Y. pestis, injury was apparent in the rat tissues based on histopathology, and chemokines and cytokines rose above control levels (1h post infection [p.i.]) in the sera and organ homogenates over a 72-h infection period. Bacteria disseminated from the lungs to peripheral organs, with the largest increases in the spleen, followed by the liver and blood at 72h p.i. compared to the 1h controls. Importantly, rats were as sensitive to pneumonic plague as mice, having a similar LD(50) dose by the intranasal and aerosolized routes. Further, we showed direct transmission of plague bacteria from infected to uninfected rats. Taken together, the data allowed us to characterize for the first time a rat pneumonic plague model following aerosolization of Y. pestis. PMID:19073275

  4. Phenotypic Characterization of LEA Rat: A New Rat Model of Nonobese Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Okamura, Tadashi; Pei, Xiang Yuan; Miyoshi, Ichiro; Shimizu, Yukiko; Takanashi-Yanobu, Rieko; Mototani, Yasumasa; Kanai, Takao; Satoh, Jo; Kimura, Noriko; Kasai, Noriyuki

    2013-01-01

    Animal models have provided important information for the genetics and pathophysiology of diabetes. Here we have established a novel, nonobese rat strain with spontaneous diabetes, Long-Evans Agouti (LEA) rat derived from Long-Evans (LE) strain. The incidence of diabetes in the males was 10% at 6?months of age and 86% at 14?months, while none of the females developed diabetes. The blood glucose level in LEA male rats was between 200 and 300?mg/dl at 120?min according to OGTT. The glucose intolerance in correspondence with the impairment of insulin secretion was observed in male rats, which was the main cause of diabetes in LEA rats. Histological examination revealed that the reduction of ?-cell mass was caused by progressive fibrosis in pancreatic islets in age-dependent manner. The intracytoplasmic hyaline droplet accumulation and the disappearance of tubular epithelial cell layer associated with thickening of basement membrane were evident in renal proximal tubules. The body mass index and glycaemic response to exogenous insulin were comparable to those of control rats. The unique characteristics of LEA rat are a great advantage not only to analyze the progression of diabetes, but also to disclose the genes involved in type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:23691528

  5. Characterization and in vivo regulation of V sub 1 -type vasopressin receptors in the rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Shewey, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    Specific, high affinity binding sites for ({sup 3}H)-arginine{sup 8}-vasopressin (AVP) have been characterized in Long-Evans rat septal membranes. Binding displacement studies with peptide analogs of AVP indicate that this binding site is similar to the V{sub 1} (pressor)-type receptor for AVP. When added to rat brain septal slices that had been pre-labeled with ({sup 3}H)-myoinositol, AVP stimulated the accumulation of ({sup 3}H)-inositol-1-phosphate (IP{sub 1}) in the presence of lithium in a dose-dependent manner. This stimulation was completely inhibited by the specific V{sub 1} antagonists, d(CH{sub 2}){sub 5}Tyr(Me)AVP, indicating that AVP stimulates hydrolysis of inositol phospholipids in rat brain septum through an interaction with V{sub 1}-type AVP receptors. Binding studies of AVP receptors in the septum of heterozygous (HE) and homozygous, Brattleboro (BB) rats revealed an increased number of receptors with a lower affinity for AVP in the HO-BB rat when compared to the HE-BB rat. AVP-stimulated accumulation of ({sup 3}H)-IP{sub 1} was significantly greater in the septum of the HO-BB rat than in the HE-BB rat. AVP receptor binding capacity correlated with release of ({sup 3}H)-IP{sub 1} for all three groups studied.

  6. Dental morphology of the Lesser Bamboo Rat, Cannomys badius (Rodentia, Spalacidae)

    PubMed Central

    Lpez-Antoanzas, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Cannomys and Rhizomys are the sole living genera of the tribe Rhizomyini (Rhizomyinae, Spalacidae, Rodentia), known in the fossil record since the Late Miocene. The dental morphology of fossil Rhizomyini has been described in detail but until recently such descriptions were unavailable for extant species. A detailed account of the morphology and dental wear pattern of the cheek teeth of Cannomys badius is provided here based on the examination of museum specimens. Three stages of wear are recognized. Cannomys shares with Rhizomys the synapomorphy of having a mesolophid that is a long continuation of the protoconid on the first lower molar. There are significant differences between these taxa, such as the much smaller size of the cheek teeth and the trilophodont dental pattern of the M2, M3, and m2 in Cannomys. PMID:23166472

  7. Functional and morphological assessment of early impairment of airway function in a rat model of emphysema

    PubMed Central

    Tolnai, J.; Szabari, M. V.; Albu, G.; Mar, B. A.; Parameswaran, H.; Bartolk-Suki, E.; Suki, B.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate airway structure-function relations in elastase-induced emphysema in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated intratracheally with 50 IU porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE, n = 8) or saline (controls, n = 6). Six weeks later, lung volumes [functional residual capacity (FRC), residual volume (RV), and total lung capacity (TLC)] and low-frequency impedance parameters (Newtonian resistance, RN; tissue damping; tissue elastance, H) were measured, and tracheal sounds were recorded during slow inflation to TLC following in vivo degassing. The lungs were fixed and stained for standard morphometry, elastin, and collagen. In the PPE group, FRC and RV were higher [4.53 0.7 (SD) vs. 3.28 0.45 ml; P = 0.003 and 1.06 0.35 vs. 0.69 0.18 ml; P = 0.036, respectively], and H was smaller in the PPE-treated rats than in the controls (1,344 216 vs. 2,178 305 cmH2O/l; P < 0.001), whereas there was no difference in RN. The average number of crackles per inflation was similar in the two groups; however, the crackle size distributions were different and the lower knee of the pressure-volume curves was higher in the PPE group. Microscopic images revealed different alveolar size distributions but similar bronchial diameters in the two groups. The treatment caused a slight but significant decrease in the numbers of alveolar attachments, no difference in elastin and slightly increased mean level and heterogeneity of collagen in the bronchial walls. These results suggest that tissue destruction did not affect the conventionally assessed airway resistance in this emphysema model, whereas the alterations in the recruitment dynamics can be an early manifestation of impaired airway function. PMID:22442024

  8. Correlating habenular subnuclei in rat and mouse by using topographic, morphological, and cytochemical criteria.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Franziska; Stroh, Thomas; Veh, Rdiger W

    2014-08-01

    The mammalian habenulae consist of medial (MHb) and lateral (LHb) nuclear complexes. Especially the LHb has received much interest because it has been recognized as the potential center of an "anti-reward system." Subnuclear organization and connectivity of the LHb are well known. In contrast, criteria to classify habenular neurons into distinct groups with potentially different biological functions are missing, most likely as a result of the lack of appropriate marker proteins. Actually, a huge amount of data concerning the localization of more than 20,000 mouse protein genes is provided in the Allen Brain Atlas. Unfortunately, the immediate use of this information is prohibited by the fact that the subnuclear organization of the habenular complexes in mouse is not known so far. The present report, therefore, uses topographic, structural, and cytochemical information from the rat to recognize corresponding areas within the mouse habenulae. Taking advantage of the fact that the Klver-Barrera technique allows simultaneous observation of neuronal cell bodies and myelinated fibers, we were able to correlate subnuclear areas in the mouse habenula to subnuclei, which had been rigorously identified by several criteria in the rat. Our data suggest that the topographic localization of habenular subnuclei is rather similar between mouse and rat and that they may be homologous in these two species. Consequently, our data may allow using the Allen Brain Atlas as a source of basal information, which should be helpful to select candidate molecular markers for functionally different neurons in the mouse and potentially in higher mammalian species. PMID:24478034

  9. Characterization of Mode I Fracture and Morphological Properties of PLLA Blends with Addition of Lysine Triisocyanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannaladsaysy, Vilay; Todo, Mitsugu

    Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) was toughened by blending with three different ductile biopolymers such as poly (?-caprolactone) (PCL), poly(butylene succinate-co-e-caprolactone) (PBSC), poly (butylene succinate-co-L-lactate) (PBSL). The blend ratio was fixed to 50:50. Lysine triisocyanate (LTI) was added to the blends as a compatibilizer. Characterizations such as Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy, field-emission electron microscope (FE-SEM), and mode I fracture test were used to characterize the effectiveness of LTI on the mechanical and morphological properties of various PLLA blends. It was found that PLLA/PCL blend shows the highest toughness energy among the binary blends. On the other hand, addition of LTI in PLLA/PBSC blend exhibits the best toughness property. Based on the FE-SEM observation, fractured surfaces of PLLA blends with LTI indicate ductile fracture with dense elongated fibrils. The largest damage zone is generated in the vicinity of crack-trip, suggesting that high energy dissipation occurred in the crack-trip region. FT-IR analysis also suggested that the NCO groups of LTI were acted as a compatibilizer, as the results of interaction between the two phases of the polymer blends.

  10. Morphology and Proteome Characterization of the Salivary Glands of the Western Chinch Bug (Hemiptera: Blissidae).

    PubMed

    Ramm, Crystal; Wayadande, Astri; Baird, Lisa; Nandakumar, Renu; Madayiputhiya, Nandakumar; Amundsen, Keenan; Donze-Reiner, Teresa; Baxendale, Frederick; Sarath, Gautam; Heng-Moss, Tiffany

    2015-08-01

    The western chinch bug, Blissus occiduus Barber, is a serious pest of buffalograss, Buchloe dactyloides (Nuttall) due to physical and chemical damage caused during the feeding process. Although previous work has investigated the feeding behaviors of chinch bugs in the Blissus complex, no study to date has explored salivary gland morphology and the associated salivary complex of this insect. Whole and sectioned B. occiduus salivary glands were visualized using light and scanning electron microscopy to determine overall structure and cell types of the salivary glands and their individual lobes. Microscopy revealed a pair of trilobed principal glands and a pair of tubular accessory glands of differing cellular types. To link structure with function, the salivary gland proteome was characterized using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The salivary proteome analysis resulted in B. occiduus sequences matching 228 nonhomologous protein sequences of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris), with many specific to the proteins present in the salivary proteome of A. pisum. A number of sequences were assigned the molecular function of hydrolase and oxido-reductase activity, with one specific protein sequence revealing a peroxidase-like function. This is the first study to characterize the salivary proteome of B. occiduus and the first of any species in the family Blissidae. PMID:26470353

  11. Chronic treatment with glucocorticoids alters rat hippocampal and prefrontal cortical morphology in parallel with endogenous agmatine and arginine decarboxylase levels

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Meng-Yang; Wang, Wei-Ping; Huang, Jingjing; Regunathan, Soundar

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the possible effect of chronic treatment with glucocorticoids on the morphology of the rat brain and levels of endogenous agmatine and arginine decarboxylase (ADC) protein, the enzyme essential for agmatine synthesis. Seven-day treatment with dexamethasone, at a dose (10 and 50 g/kg/day) associated to stress effects contributed by glucocorticoids, did not result in obvious morphologic changes in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, as measured by immunocytochemical staining with ?-tubulin III. However, 21-day treatment (50 g/kg/day) produced noticeable structural changes such as the diminution and disarrangement of dendrites and neurons in these areas. Simultaneous treatment with agmatine (50 mg/kg/day) prevented these morphological changes. Further measurement with HPLC showed that endogenous agmatine levels in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus were significantly increased after 7-day treatments with dexamethasone in a dose-dependent manner. On the contrary, 21-day treatment with glucocorticoids robustly reduced agmatine levels in these regions. The treatment-caused biphasic alterations of endogenous agmatine levels were also seen in the striatum and hypothalamus. Interestingly, treatment with glucocorticoids resulted in a similar change of ADC protein levels in most brain areas to endogenous agmatine levels: an increase after 7-day treatment versus a reduction after 21-day treatment. These results demonstrated that agmatine has neuroprotective effects against structural alterations caused by glucocorticoids in vivo. The parallel alterations in the endogenous agmatine levels and ADC expression in the brain after treatment with glucocorticoids indicate the possible regulatory effect of these stress hormones on the synthesis and metabolism of agmatine in vivo. PMID:17760863

  12. Effects of ozone and neutrophils on function and morphology of the isolated rat lung

    SciTech Connect

    Joad, J.P.; Bric, J.M.; Pino, M.V.; Hyde, D.M.; McDonald, R.J. )

    1993-06-01

    Since whole-animal studies suggest that neutrophils play a role in ozone-induced impairment of pulmonary function and increases in airway reactivity, this study was designed to study more precisely the interaction of neutrophils and ozone using the isolated perfused rat lung. Sprague-Dawley rat lungs (n = 60) were ventilated for 3 h with 95% air and 5% CO2 alone or mixed with 1 ppm ozone and perfused with buffer alone or with neutrophils (8 x 10(7)). RL, Cdyn, Ppa, airway reactivity to methacholine, lung/body weight, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) protein concentration, and airway lesions were analyzed using a two-way GLM or Kruskal-Wallis test (p < or = 0.05 significant). Both ozone and neutrophils increased RL and decreased Cdyn. Ozone but not neutrophils increased airway reactivity to methacholine. Neutrophils but not ozone increased lung weight/body weight and BALF protein concentration. Ozone damaged airway epithelium. In distal bronchioles, neutrophils enhanced this damage. We conclude that (1) ozone impaired pulmonary function, increased airway reactivity, and damaged airway epithelium without causing measurable microvascular leak; (2) neutrophils impaired pulmonary function, probably a result of microvascular leak, but did not change airway reactivity or damage airway epithelium; and (3) neutrophils had no effect on ozone-induced airway reactivity but had an additive effect on ozone-induced pulmonary function impairment and a synergistic effect on ozone-induced airway epithelial injury.

  13. Comparison of functional and morphological deficits in the rat after gestational exposure to ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, S.; Kimler, B.F.

    1988-07-01

    Ionizing radiation is a precise tool for altering formation of the developing cerebral cortex of the fetal rat. Whole body exposure of the pregnant rat on gestational day 13, 15 or 17 to 1.0 Gy of gamma radiation resulted in maximum thinning of the cortex on days 15 and 17. In the preweaning period, functional tests (negative geotaxis, reflex suspension, continuous corridor and gait) were most affected by irradiation gestational day 15, as was body weight. When a lower dose of radiation (0.75 Gy) was used on gestational day 15, the damage to the cortex was much less but behavioral changes were still present. Frontal, parietal and occipital areas of the cortex were approximately equally affected. Using stepwise multiple regression analysis, the linkage of functional tests and cortical thickness was examined. Functional variables which were most commonly included as predictors of frontal and parietal cortex were negative geotaxis and continuous corridor. Occipital cortical layers were not predicted by behavioral variables. In predicting function using cortical variables, frontal cortex was better than parietal and occipital cortex was the poorest predictor.

  14. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Improved the Ultrastructural Morphology of Cerebral Tissues after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Fesahat, Farzaneh; Mir-Esmaeili, Seyed Mohsen; Anvari, Morteza; Hekmati-moghadam, Seyed Hossain

    2014-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) causes widespread disruption in the cerebral architecture.The process of SAH is complicated and many people lose their lives or become disabled after injury. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered as good candidate for repair of cerebral damage. The aim was to assess the ultrastructural changes in the rat cerebral tissue after intravenous transplantation of MSCs. Female Wistar rats (8 per group) weighing 275~300 g were assigned to control (SAH+PBS) and experimental groups (SAH+MSCs).The samples from middle cerebral arterial wall and parietal cerebral tissue were prepared for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) according to standard protocol. Fine architectures of the vessel wall, including the contraction of the inner layer, smooth muscle layer,as well as neural cells were observed after SAH. Cerebral arterial wall and cortex, including neuronal and glial cells were injured post SAH. But, administration of MSCs improved the structural integrity of cerebral tissues. Changes were much more balanced with their relative improvement in some areas. The role of MSCs for repairing the injured cerebral tissues post experimental SAH was approved by electron microscopy. PMID:24737942

  15. Morphological characteristics and identification of islet-like cells derived from rat adipose-derived stem cells cocultured with pancreas adult stem cells.

    PubMed

    Hefei, Wang; Yu, Ren; Haiqing, Wu; Xiao, Wang; Jingyuan, Wang; Dongjun, Liu

    2015-03-01

    Diabetes is a significant public health problem that can be treated with insulin therapy; however, therapies designed to cure diabetes are limited. The goal of the current study was to assess the potential for curative treatment of diabetes using adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). To achieve this goal, the differentiation of rat ADSCs into pancreatic islet-like cells induced by coculture with pancreatic adult stem cells (PASCs) was characterized. Differentiation of ADSCs into islet-like cells induced by coculturing was determined morphologically, as well as by the assessment of islet cell markers using dithizone staining, immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, qPCR, and western blotting. The results showed that ADSCs formed islet-like round cell masses after coculture with PASCs. These differentiated cells were shown to be positive for islet cell markers, including dithizone incorporation; PDX1, CK19 and Nestin by immunohistochemistry, and insulin, PDX1 and glucagon expression by RT-PCR. Differentiated ADSCs induced by coculturing also expressed insulin at the mRNA and protein level, with the level of insulin mRNA expression in cocultured ADSCs being 0.05 times greater than that of PASCs (P?

  16. Characterization of Rolled and Erect Leaf 1 in regulating leave morphology in rice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiaoling; Xie, Qingjun; Gao, Ju; Wang, Wenyi; Sun, Bo; Liu, Bohan; Zhu, Haitao; Peng, Haifeng; Zhao, Haibing; Liu, Changhong; Wang, Jiang; Zhang, Jingliu; Zhang, Guiquan; Zhang, Zemin

    2015-09-01

    Leaf morphology, particularly in crop, is one of the most important agronomic traits because it influences the yield through the manipulation of photosynthetic capacity and transpiration. To understand the regulatory mechanism of leaf morphogenesis, an Oryza sativa dominant mutant, rolled and erect leaf 1 (rel1) has been characterized. This mutant has a predominant rolled leaf, increased leaf angle, and reduced plant height phenotype that results in a reduction in grain yield. Electron microscope observations indicated that the leaf incurvations of rel1 dominant mutants result from the alteration of the size and number of bulliform cells. Molecular cloning revealed that the rel1 dominant mutant phenotype is caused by the activation of the REL1 gene, which encodes a novel unknown protein, despite its high degree of conservation among monocot plants. Moreover, the downregulation of the REL1 gene in the rel1 dominant mutant restored the phenotype of this dominant mutant. Alternatively, overexpression of REL1 in wild-type plants induced a phenotype similar to that of the dominant rel1 mutant, indicating that REL1 plays a positive role in leaf rolling and bending. Consistent with the observed rel1 phenotype, the REL1 gene was predominantly expressed in the meristem of various tissues during plant growth and development. Nevertheless, the responsiveness of both rel1 dominant mutants and REL1-overexpressing plants to exogenous brassinosteroid (BR) was reduced. Moreover, transcript levels of BR response genes in the rel1 dominant mutants and REL1-overexpressing lines were significantly altered. Additionally, seven REL1-interacting proteins were also identified from a yeast two-hybrid screen. Taken together, these findings suggest that REL1 regulates leaf morphology, particularly in leaf rolling and bending, through the coordination of BR signalling transduction. PMID:26142419

  17. Bioethanol-gasoline fuel blends: exhaust emissions and morphological characterization of particulate from a moped engine.

    PubMed

    Seggiani, Maurizia; Prati, M Vittoria; Costagliola, M Antonietta; Puccini, Monica; Vitolo, Sandra

    2012-08-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of gasoline-ethanol blends on the exhaust emissions in a catalyst-equipped four-stroke moped engine. The ethanol was blended with unleaded gasoline in at percentages (10, 15, and 20% v/v). The regulated pollutants and the particulate matter emissions were evaluated over the European ECE R47 driving cycle on the chassis dynamometer bench. Particulate matter was characterized in terms of total mass collected on filters and total number ofparticles in the range 7 nm-10 microm measured by electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI). In addition, particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emissions were evaluated to assess the health impact of the emitted particulate. Finally, an accurate morphological analysis was performed on the particulate by high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) equipped with a digital image-processing/data-acquisition system. In general, CO emission reductions of 60-70% were obtained with 15 and 20% v/v ethanol blends, while the ethanol use did not reduce hydrocarbon (HC) and NOx emissions. No evident effect of ethanol on the particulate mass emissions and associated PAHs emissions was observed. Twenty-one PAHs were quantified in the particulate phase with emissions ranging from 26 to 35 microg/km and benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) emission factors from 2.2 to 4.1 microg/km. Both particulate matter and associated PAHs with higher carcinogenic risk were mainly emitted in the submicrometer size range (<0.1 microm). On the basis of the TEM observations, no relevant effect of the ethanol use on the particulate morphology was evidenced, showing aggregates composed ofprimary particles with mean diameters in the range 17.5-32.5 nm. PMID:22916436

  18. Phylogenetic, Morphological, and Pathogenic Characterization of Alternaria Species Associated with Fruit Rot of Blueberry in California.

    PubMed

    Zhu, X Q; Xiao, C L

    2015-12-01

    Fruit rot caused by Alternaria spp. is one of the most important factors affecting the postharvest quality and shelf life of blueberry fruit. The aims of this study were to characterize Alternaria isolates using morphological and molecular approaches and test their pathogenicity to blueberry fruit. Alternaria spp. isolates were collected from decayed blueberry fruit in the Central Valley of California during 2012 and 2013. In total, 283 isolates were obtained and five species of Alternaria, including Alternaria alternata, A. tenuissima, A. arborescens, A. infectoria, and A. rosae, were identified based on DNA sequences of the plasma membrane ATPase, Alt a1 and Calmodulin gene regions in combination with morphological characters of the culture and sporulation. Of the 283 isolates, 61.5% were identified as A. alternata, 32.9% were A. arborescens, 5.0% were A. tenuissima, and only one isolate of A. infectoria and one isolate of A. rosae were found. These fungi were able to grow at temperatures from 0 to 35°C, and mycelial growth was arrested at 40°C. Optimal radial growth occurred between 20 to 30°C. Pathogenicity tests showed that all five Alternaria spp. were pathogenic on blueberry fruit at 0, 4, and 20°C, with A. alternata, A. arborescens, and A. tenuissima being the most virulent species, followed by A. infectoria and A. rosae. Previously A. tenuissima has been reported to be the primary cause of Alternaria fruit rot of blueberry worldwide. Our results indicated that the species composition of Alternaria responsible for Alternaria fruit rot in blueberry can be dependent on geographical region. A. alternata, A. arborescens, A. infectoria, and A. rosae are reported for the first time on blueberry in California. This is also the first report of A. infectoria and A. rosae infecting blueberry fruit. PMID:26267542

  19. Characterization of Rolled and Erect Leaf 1 in regulating leave morphology in rice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiaoling; Xie, Qingjun; Gao, Ju; Wang, Wenyi; Sun, Bo; Liu, Bohan; Zhu, Haitao; Peng, Haifeng; Zhao, Haibing; Liu, Changhong; Wang, Jiang; Zhang, Jingliu; Zhang, Guiquan; Zhang, Zemin

    2015-01-01

    Leaf morphology, particularly in crop, is one of the most important agronomic traits because it influences the yield through the manipulation of photosynthetic capacity and transpiration. To understand the regulatory mechanism of leaf morphogenesis, an Oryza sativa dominant mutant, rolled and erect leaf 1 (rel1) has been characterized. This mutant has a predominant rolled leaf, increased leaf angle, and reduced plant height phenotype that results in a reduction in grain yield. Electron microscope observations indicated that the leaf incurvations of rel1 dominant mutants result from the alteration of the size and number of bulliform cells. Molecular cloning revealed that the rel1 dominant mutant phenotype is caused by the activation of the REL1 gene, which encodes a novel unknown protein, despite its high degree of conservation among monocot plants. Moreover, the downregulation of the REL1 gene in the rel1 dominant mutant restored the phenotype of this dominant mutant. Alternatively, overexpression of REL1 in wild-type plants induced a phenotype similar to that of the dominant rel1 mutant, indicating that REL1 plays a positive role in leaf rolling and bending. Consistent with the observed rel1 phenotype, the REL1 gene was predominantly expressed in the meristem of various tissues during plant growth and development. Nevertheless, the responsiveness of both rel1 dominant mutants and REL1-overexpressing plants to exogenous brassinosteroid (BR) was reduced. Moreover, transcript levels of BR response genes in the rel1 dominant mutants and REL1-overexpressing lines were significantly altered. Additionally, seven REL1-interacting proteins were also identified from a yeast two-hybrid screen. Taken together, these findings suggest that REL1 regulates leaf morphology, particularly in leaf rolling and bending, through the coordination of BR signalling transduction. PMID:26142419

  20. Exosomes: improved methods to characterize their morphology, RNA content, and surface protein biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yueting; Deng, Wentao; Klinke, David J

    2015-10-01

    As a type of secreted membrane vesicle, exosomes are an emerging mode of cell-to-cell communication. Yet as exosome samples are commonly contaminated with other extracellular vesicles, the biological roles of exosomes in regulating immunity and promoting oncogenesis remain controversial. Wondering whether existing methods could distort our view of exosome biology, we compared two direct methods for imaging extracellular vesicles and quantified the impact of different production and storage conditions on the quality of exosome samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was compared to transmission electron microscopy (TEM) as alternatives to examine the morphology of exosomes. Using SEM, we were able to distinguish exosomes from other contaminating extracellular vesicles based on the size distribution. More importantly, freezing of samples prior to SEM imaging made it more difficult to distinguish exosomes from extracellular vesicles secreted during cell death. In addition to morphology, the quality of RNA contained within the exosomes was characterized under different storage conditions, where freezing of samples also degraded RNA. Finally, we developed a new flow cytometry approach to assay transmembrane proteins on exosomes. While high-copy-number proteins could be readily detected, detecting low-copy-number proteins was improved using a lipophilic tracer that clustered exosomes. To illustrate this, we observed that exosomes derived from SKBR3 cells, a cell model for human HER2+ breast cancer, contained both HER1 and HER2 but at different levels of abundance. Collectively, these new methods will help to ensure a consistent framework to identify specific roles that exosomes play in regulating cell-to-cell communication. PMID:26332016

  1. Phase separation in thermal systems: a lattice Boltzmann study and morphological characterization.

    PubMed

    Gan, Yanbiao; Xu, Aiguo; Zhang, Guangcai; Li, Yingjun; Li, Hua

    2011-10-01

    We investigate thermal and isothermal symmetric liquid-vapor separations via a fast Fourier transform thermal lattice Boltzmann (FFT-TLB) model. Structure factor, domain size, and Minkowski functionals are employed to characterize the density and velocity fields, as well as to understand the configurations and the kinetic processes. Compared with the isothermal phase separation, the freedom in temperature prolongs the spinodal decomposition (SD) stage and induces different rheological and morphological behaviors in the thermal system. After the transient procedure, both the thermal and isothermal separations show power-law scalings in domain growth, while the exponent for thermal system is lower than that for isothermal system. With respect to the density field, the isothermal system presents more likely bicontinuous configurations with narrower interfaces, while the thermal system presents more likely configurations with scattered bubbles. Heat creation, conduction, and lower interfacial stresses are the main reasons for the differences in thermal system. Different from the isothermal case, the release of latent heat causes the changing of local temperature, which results in new local mechanical balance. When the Prandtl number becomes smaller, the system approaches thermodynamical equilibrium much more quickly. The increasing of mean temperature makes the interfacial stress lower in the following way: ?=?(0)[(T(c)-T)/(T(c)-T(0))](3/2), where T(c) is the critical temperature and ?(0) is the interfacial stress at a reference temperature T(0), which is the main reason for the prolonged SD stage and the lower growth exponent in the thermal case. Besides thermodynamics, we probe how the local viscosities influence the morphology of the phase separating system. We find that, for both the isothermal and thermal cases, the growth exponents and local flow velocities are inversely proportional to the corresponding viscosities. Compared with the isothermal case, the local flow velocity depends not only on viscosity but also on temperature. PMID:22181315

  2. Synthesis via a Microwave-Assisted Wet Chemical Method and Characterization of Bi2Te3 with Various Morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Song; Cai, Kefeng; Shen, Shirley

    2015-09-01

    Bi2Te3 with various morphologies, such as microrods, nanoplates, and nanoflowers, has been successfully fabricated by a microwave-assisted method in ethylene glycol solution without any surfactant. The structures and morphologies of the obtained products have been characterized by powder x-ray diffraction and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Based on time-dependent experiments, a possible formation mechanism of the Bi2Te3 has been proposed. The concentration of KOH in the solution controls the rate of the disproportionation reaction of Te and plays an important role in the formation of the various morphologies of Bi2Te3. The electrical properties of bulk Bi2Te3 materials obtained by cold pressing and then vacuum heat treatment of the Bi2Te3 nanostructures with various morphologies have also been investigated. The highest power factor among the studied samples, 17.3 ?W cm-1 K-2, was achieved using Bi2Te3 nanoflowers.

  3. Morphology of the lingual papillae in the brush-tailed rat kangaroo.

    PubMed

    Emura, Shoichi; Okumura, Toshihiko; Chen, Huayue

    2014-01-01

    We examined the dorsal lingual surface of an adult brush-tailed rat kangaroo (Bettongia penicillata) by scanning electron microscopy. The filiform and fungiform papillae on the lingual apex and body consisted of a main papilla and secondary papillae. The connective tissue core of the filiform papillae on the lingual apex was cylindrical in shape with a crushed top. The connective tissue core of the filiform papillae on the lingual body had one large and several small processes. The fungiform papillae were round in shape. The connective tissue core of the fungiform papillae had several depressions on its top. The surface of the vallate papillae was rough and the papillae were surrounded by a groove and a pad. Several long conical papillae derived from the posterolateral margin of the tongue where foliate papillae have been shown to be distributed in many other animal species. The long conical papillae were very similar to those of the koala and opossum. PMID:24815106

  4. Application of polarization microscopy for the nonstained determination of myo-lamina morphology in the rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Justin S.; Criscione, John C.; Hudson, Kristen K.; Cote, Gerard L.

    2004-06-01

    The remodeling of cardiac tissues has been implicated in the development of congestive heart failure. Therefore, the current emphasis in cardiovascular research is geared toward understanding the underlying processes in order to facilitate the development of better prevention and treatment regimens by improving the early detection and diagnosis of this disease. This paper focuses on the application of polarized light to address a major drawback of cardiovascular biomechanics research, which is the utilization of toxic chemicals to prepare samples for histological examination. To accomplish this without the use of toxic chemicals, a polarization microscopy imaging technique was developed and applied to a non-stained rat septum sample. This imaging technique provided sufficient enhancement of collagenous structures to determine the myo-lamina sheet angle, ?, without the need for caustic staining.

  5. Chemical characterization of Titan's tholins: solubility, morphology and molecular structure revisited.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, N; Schmitz-Afonso, I; Bonnet, J-Y; Quirico, E; Thissen, R; Dutuit, Odile; Bagag, A; Laprvote, O; Buch, A; Giulani, A; Adand, Gilles; Ouni, F; Hadamcik, E; Szopa, C; Cernogora, G

    2009-10-22

    In this work Titan's atmospheric chemistry is simulated using a capacitively coupled plasma radio frequency discharge in a N(2)-CH(4) stationnary flux. Samples of Titan's tholins are produced in gaseous mixtures containing either 2 or 10% methane before the plasma discharge, covering the methane concentration range measured in Titan's atmosphere. We study their solubility and associated morphology, their infrared spectroscopy signature and the mass distribution of the soluble fraction by mass spectrometry. An important result is to highlight that the previous Titan's tholin solubility studies are inappropriate to fully characterize such a heterogeneous organic matter and we develop a new protocol to evaluate quantitatively tholins solubility. We find that tholins contain up to 35% in mass of molecules soluble in methanol, attached to a hardly insoluble fraction. Methanol is then chosen as a discriminating solvent to characterize the differences between soluble and insoluble species constituting the bulk tholins. No significant morphological change of shape or surface feature is derived from scanning electron microscopy after the extraction of the soluble fraction. This observation suggests a solid structure despite an important porosity of the grains. Infrared spectroscopy is recorded for both fractions. The IR spectra of the bulk, soluble, and insoluble tholins fractions are found to be very similar and reveal identical chemical signatures of nitrogen bearing functions and aliphatic groups. This result confirms that the chemical information collected when analyzing only the soluble fraction provides a valuable insight representative of the bulk material. The soluble fraction is ionized with an atmospheric pressure photoionization source and analyzed by a hybrid mass spectrometer. The congested mass spectra with one peak at every mass unit between 50 and 800 u confirm that the soluble fraction contains a complex mixture of organic molecules. The broad distribution, however, exhibits a regular pattern of mass clusters. Tandem collision induced dissociation analysis is performed in the negative ion mode to retrieve structural information. It reveals that (i) the molecules are ended by methyl, amine and cyanide groups, (ii) a 27 u neutral moiety (most probably HCN) is often released in the fragmentation of tholin anions, and (iii) an ubiquitous ionic fragment at m/z 66 is found in all tandem spectra. A tentative structure is proposed for this negative ion. PMID:19827851

  6. Morphological and mechanical characterization of composite calcite/SWCNT-COOH single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvaresi, Matteo; Falini, Giuseppe; Pasquini, Luca; Reggi, Michela; Fermani, Simona; Gazzadi, Gian Carlo; Frabboni, Stefano; Zerbetto, Francesco

    2013-07-01

    A growing number of classes of organic (macro)molecular materials have been trapped into inorganic crystalline hosts, such as calcite single crystals, without significantly disrupting their crystalline lattices. Inclusion of an organic phase plays a key role in enhancing the mechanical properties of the crystals, which are believed to share structural features with biogenic minerals. Here we report the synthesis and mechanical characterization of composite calcite/SWCNT-COOH single crystals. Once entrapped into the crystals SWCNT-COOH appeared both as aggregates of entangled bundles and nanoropes. Their observation was possible only after crystal etching, fracture or FIB (focused ion beam) cross-sectioning. SWCNT-COOHs occupied a small volume fraction and were randomly distributed into the host crystal. They did not strongly affect the crystal morphology. However, although the Young's modulus of composite calcite/SWCNT-COOH single crystals was similar to that of pure calcite their hardness increased by about 20%. Thus, SWCNT-COOHs provide an obstacle against the dislocation-mediated propagation of plastic deformation in the crystalline slip systems, in analogy with the well-known hardness increase in fiber-reinforced composites.A growing number of classes of organic (macro)molecular materials have been trapped into inorganic crystalline hosts, such as calcite single crystals, without significantly disrupting their crystalline lattices. Inclusion of an organic phase plays a key role in enhancing the mechanical properties of the crystals, which are believed to share structural features with biogenic minerals. Here we report the synthesis and mechanical characterization of composite calcite/SWCNT-COOH single crystals. Once entrapped into the crystals SWCNT-COOH appeared both as aggregates of entangled bundles and nanoropes. Their observation was possible only after crystal etching, fracture or FIB (focused ion beam) cross-sectioning. SWCNT-COOHs occupied a small volume fraction and were randomly distributed into the host crystal. They did not strongly affect the crystal morphology. However, although the Young's modulus of composite calcite/SWCNT-COOH single crystals was similar to that of pure calcite their hardness increased by about 20%. Thus, SWCNT-COOHs provide an obstacle against the dislocation-mediated propagation of plastic deformation in the crystalline slip systems, in analogy with the well-known hardness increase in fiber-reinforced composites. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr01568h

  7. Chemical, dimensional and morphological ultrafine particle characterization from a waste-to-energy plant

    SciTech Connect

    Buonanno, Giorgio; Stabile, Luca; Avino, Pasquale; Belluso, Elena

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > Particle size distributions and total concentrations measurement at the stack and before the fabric filter of an incinerator. > Chemical characterization of UFPs in terms of heavy metal concentration through a nuclear method. > Mineralogical investigation through a Transmission Electron Microscope equipped with an Energy Dispersive Spectrometer. > Heavy metal concentrations on UFPs as function of the boiling temperature. > Different mineralogical and morphological composition amongst samples collected before the fabric filter and at the stack. - Abstract: Waste combustion processes are responsible of particles and gaseous emissions. Referring to the particle emission, in the last years specific attention was paid to ultrafine particles (UFPs, diameter less than 0.1 {mu}m), mainly emitted by combustion processes. In fact, recent findings of toxicological and epidemiological studies indicate that fine and ultrafine particles could represent a risk for health and environment. Therefore, it is necessary to quantify particle emissions from incinerators also to perform an exposure assessment for the human populations living in their surrounding areas. To these purposes, in the present work an experimental campaign aimed to monitor UFPs was carried out at the incineration plant in San Vittore del Lazio (Italy). Particle size distributions and total concentrations were measured both at the stack and before the fabric filter inlet in order to evaluate the removal efficiency of the filter in terms of UFPs. A chemical characterization of UFPs in terms of heavy metal concentration was performed through a nuclear method, i.e. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), as well as a mineralogical investigation was carried out through a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) equipped with an Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) in order to evaluate shape, crystalline state and mineral compound of sampled particles. Maximum values of 2.7 x 10{sup 7} part. cm{sup -3} and 2.0 x 10{sup 3} part. cm{sup -3} were found, respectively, for number concentration before and after the fabric filter showing a very high efficiency in particle removing by the fabric filter. With regard to heavy metal concentrations, the elements with higher boiling temperature present higher concentrations at lower diameters showing a not complete evaporation in the combustion section and the consequent condensation of semi-volatile compounds on solid nuclei. In terms of mineralogical and morphological analysis, the most abundant compounds found in samples collected before the fabric filter are Na-K-Pb oxides followed by phyllosilicates, otherwise, different oxides of comparable abundance were detected in the samples collected at the stack.

  8. Functional and morphologic changes caused by acute ozone exposure in the isolated and perfused rat lung

    SciTech Connect

    Pino, M.V.; McDonald, R.J.; Berry, J.D.; Joad, J.P.; Tarkington, B.K.; Hyde, D.M. )

    1992-04-01

    Ozone has been shown to increase airway resistance and/or airway reactivity in vivo in animals and humans. Because of the complexities inherent in studying this phenomenon in whole animals, we developed a model of ozone-induced effects on airway physiology using the isolated perfused rat lung. Rat lungs were suspended in an airtight chamber and perfused via the pulmonary circulation with a modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer containing 4.5% bovine albumin. Ventilation of the lungs was achieved by generating a fluctuating negative pressure within the chamber (-2 to -7 cm H2O) at a rate of 60 breaths/min. The lungs were ventilated with humidified 95% air and 5% CO2 alone (control condition) or mixed with ozone at 1.0 or 2.0 ppm. Transpulmonary pressure, flow rate, and tidal volume were recorded at 0, 1, 2, and 3 hours, and pulmonary resistance (RL) and dynamic compliance (Cdyn) were calculated. There was no significant difference in lung weight/total body weight ratios between the three groups at the end of the 3-h period. RL increased and Cdyn decreased in a time- and dose-dependent manner with ozone exposure. The percent increase above baseline in RL +/- SEM at 3 h was 9.4 +/- 4.1% for control lungs, 21.0 +/- 3.2% for 1.0 ppm ozone-exposed lungs, and 63.6 +/- 13.5% for 2.0 ppm ozone-exposed lungs. The percent decrease below baseline in Cdyn +/- SEM at 3 h was 27.4 +/- 2.1% for control lungs, 37.1 +/- 2.7% for 1.0 ppm ozone-exposed lungs, and 55.2 +/- 7.3% for 2.0 ppm ozone-exposed lungs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Enhanced mitophagy in Sertoli cells of ethanol-treated rats: morphological evidence and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Eid, Nabil; Ito, Yuko; Otsuki, Yoshinori

    2012-02-01

    Although chronic ethanol consumption results in Sertoli cell vacuolization and augmented testicular germ cell apoptosis via death receptor and mitochondrial pathways, Sertoli cells are resistant to apoptosis. The aim of this study was to examine whether the activation of autophagy in the Sertoli cells of ethanol-treated rats (ETR) may have a role in their survival. Adult Wistar rats were fed either 5% ethanol in Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet or an isocaloric control diet for 12 weeks. The TUNEL method demonstrated that Sertoli cells were always TUNEL-negative despite the presence of many apoptotic germ cells in ETR, supporting our previous studies. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of large numbers of autophagic vacuoles (AVs) in Sertoli cells of ETR compared to few AVs in control testes. Most of the AVs in Sertoli cells of ETR enveloped and sequestered damaged and abnormally shaped mitochondria, without cytoplasm, indicating mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy). Immuno-electron microscopy showed the localization of LC3, a specific marker of early AVs (autophagosomes), around AVs sequestering mitochondria in Sertoli cells of ETR. Immunohistochemical staining of LC3 demonstrated a punctate pattern in Sertoli cells of ETR, confirming the formation of autophagosomes, while LC3 puncta were almost absent in control testes. Moreover, increased immunoreactivity of LAMP-2, a lysosomal membrane protein and marker of late AVs (autolysosomes), was mainly observed in Sertoli cells of ETR, with weaker expression in control testes. Via the deletion of pro-apoptotic damaged mitochondria, enhanced Sertoli cell mitophagy in ETR may be an anti-apoptotic mechanism that is essential for spermatogenesis. PMID:22076330

  10. The rat cochlea in the absence of circulating adrenal hormones: an electrophysiological and morphological study.

    PubMed

    Lohuis, P J; Brjesson, P K; Klis, S F; Smoorenburg, G F

    2000-05-01

    Circulating adrenal hormones affect strial function. Removal of endogenous levels of adrenal steroids by bilateral adrenalectomy (ADX) in rats causes a decrease of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in the cochlear lateral wall [Rarey et al., 1989. Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 115, 817-821] and a decrease of the volume of the marginal cells in the stria vascularis [Lohuis et al., 1990. Acta Otolaryngol. (Stockh.) 110, 348-356]. To study further the effect of absence of circulating adrenocorticosteroids on cochlear function, 18 male Long Evans rats underwent either an ADX or a SHAM operation. Electrocochleography was performed 1 week after surgery for tone bursts in a frequency range of 1-16 kHz. Thereafter, the cochleas were harvested and examined histologically. No significant changes in the amplitude growth curves of the summating potential (SP), the compound action potential (CAP) and the cochlear microphonics (CM) were detected after ADX. However, visually, there appeared to be a decrease of endolymphatic volume (tentatively called imdrops). Reissner's membrane (RM) extended less into scala vestibuli in ADX animals than in SHAM-operated animals. The ratio between the length of RM and the straight distance between the medial and lateral attachment points of RM were used as an objective measure to quantify this effect in each sub-apical half turn of the cochlea. The decrease in length of RM was statistically significant. Thus, circulating adrenal hormones appear to be necessary for normal cochlear fluid homeostasis. Absence of one or more of these hormones leads to shrinkage of the scala media (imdrops). However, the absence of adrenal hormones does not affect the gross cochlear potentials. Apparently, the cochlea is capable of compensating for the absence of circulating adrenal hormones to sustain the conditions necessary for proper cochlear transduction. PMID:10771196

  11. Electrophysiological characterization of vagal afferents relevant to mucosal nociception in the rat upper oesophagus.

    PubMed

    Lennerz, J K M; Dentsch, C; Bernardini, N; Hummel, T; Neuhuber, W L; Reeh, P W

    2007-07-01

    Emerging evidence indicates a nociceptive role of vagal afferents. A distinct oesophageal innervation in the rat, with muscular and mucosal afferents travelling predominantly in the recurrent (RLN) and superior laryngeal nerve (SLN), respectively, enabled characterization of mucosal afferents with nociceptive properties, using novel isolated oesophagus-nerve preparations. SLN and RLN single-fibre recordings identified 55 and 14 units, respectively, with none conducting faster than 8.7 m s(-1). Mucosal response characteristics in the SLN distinguished mechanosensors (n = 13), mechanosensors with heat sensitivity (18) from those with cold sensitivity (19) and a mechanoinsensitive group (5). The mechanosensitive fibres, all slowly adapting, showed a unimodal distribution of mechanical thresholds (1.4-128 mN, peak approximately 5.7 mN). No difference in response characteristics of C and Adelta fibres was encountered. Mucosal proton stimulation (pH 5.4 for 3 min), mimicking gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), revealed in 31% of units a desensitizing response that peaked around 20 s and faded within 60 s. Cold stimulation (15 degrees C) was proportionally encoded but the response showed slow adaptation. In contrast, the noxious heat (48 degrees C) response showed no obvious adaptation with discharge rates reflecting the temperature's time course. Polymodal (69%) mucosal units, > 30% proton sensitive, were found in each fibre category and were considered nociceptors; they are tentatively attributed to vagal nerve endings type I, IV and V, previously morphologically described. All receptive fields were mapped and the distribution indicates that the posterior upper oesophagus may serve as a 'cutbank', detecting noxious matters, ingested or regurgitated, and triggering nocifensive reflexes such as bronchoconstriction in GORD. PMID:17478536

  12. Electrophysiological characterization of vagal afferents relevant to mucosal nociception in the rat upper oesophagus

    PubMed Central

    Lennerz, J K M; Dentsch, C; Bernardini, N; Hummel, T; Neuhuber, W L; Reeh, P W

    2007-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates a nociceptive role of vagal afferents. A distinct oesophageal innervation in the rat, with muscular and mucosal afferents travelling predominantly in the recurrent (RLN) and superior laryngeal nerve (SLN), respectively, enabled characterization of mucosal afferents with nociceptive properties, using novel isolated oesophagusnerve preparations. SLN and RLN single-fibre recordings identified 55 and 14 units, respectively, with none conducting faster than 8.7 m s?1. Mucosal response characteristics in the SLN distinguished mechanosensors (n= 13), mechanosensors with heat sensitivity (18) from those with cold sensitivity (19) and a mechanoinsensitive group (5). The mechanosensitive fibres, all slowly adapting, showed a unimodal distribution of mechanical thresholds (1.4128 mN, peak ?5.7 mN). No difference in response characteristics of C and A? fibres was encountered. Mucosal proton stimulation (pH 5.4 for 3 min), mimicking gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), revealed in 31% of units a desensitizing response that peaked around 20 s and faded within 60 s. Cold stimulation (15C) was proportionally encoded but the response showed slow adaptation. In contrast, the noxious heat (48C) response showed no obvious adaptation with discharge rates reflecting the temperature's time course. Polymodal (69%) mucosal units, > 30% proton sensitive, were found in each fibre category and were considered nociceptors; they are tentatively attributed to vagal nerve endings type I, IV and V, previously morphologically described. All receptive fields were mapped and the distribution indicates that the posterior upper oesophagus may serve as a cutbank, detecting noxious matters, ingested or regurgitated, and triggering nocifensive reflexes such as bronchoconstriction in GORD. PMID:17478536

  13. Effects of leptin on sperm count and morphology in Sprague-Dawley rats and their reversibility following a 6-week recovery period.

    PubMed

    Almabhouh, F A; Osman, K; Siti Fatimah, I; Sergey, G; Gnanou, J; Singh, H J

    2015-09-01

    Altered epididymal sperm count and morphology following leptin treatment has been reported recently. This study examined the effects of 42 days of leptin treatment on sperm count and morphology and their reversibility during a subsequent 56-day recovery period. Twelve-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomised into four leptin and four saline-treated control groups (n = 6). Intraperitoneal injections of leptin were given daily (60 ?g Kg(-1) body weight) for 42 days. Controls received 0.1 ml of 0.9% saline. Leptin-treated animals and their respective age-matched controls were euthanised on either day 1, 21, 42 or 56 of recovery for collection of epididymal spermatozoa. Sperm concentration was determined using a Makler counting chamber. Spermatozoa were analysed for 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine and DNA fragmentation (Comet assay). Data were analysed using anova. Sperm concentration was significantly lower but fraction of abnormal spermatozoa, and levels of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine were significantly higher in leptin-treated rats on day 1 of recovery. Comet assays revealed significant DNA fragmentation in leptin-treated rats. These differences were reduced by day 56 of recovery. It appears that 42 days of leptin treatment to Sprague-Dawley rats has significant adverse effects on sperm count and morphology that reverse following discontinuation of leptin treatment. PMID:25269426

  14. Purification and characterization of purple acid phosphatase from rat bone.

    PubMed

    Kato, T; Hara, A; Nakayama, T; Sawada, H; Hamatake, M; Matsumoto, Y

    1986-01-01

    An acid phosphatase, which was immunochemically identical to splenic purple acid phosphatase, was purified to homogeneity from rat bone. The enzyme was a two iron-containing monomeric glycoprotein with a mol. wt of 36,000. The enzyme hydrolyzed aryl phosphates, nucleoside di- and triphosphates, thiamine pyrophosphate, phosphoenolpyruvic acid and acidic phosphoproteins. The enzyme was inhibited by ammonium molybdate, NaF and CuSO4 but not by tartrate and SH-reagents. PMID:3086030

  15. Cloning and characterization of rat BAT3 cDNA.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, T; Hanaoka, E; Naka, M; Nakagawara, A; Sakiyama, S

    1999-06-01

    HLA-B-associated transcript 3 (BAT3) was originally identified as one of the genes located within human major histocompatibility complex. It encodes a large proline-rich protein with unknown function. In this study, we found that a fragment of the BAT3 gene product interacts with a candidate tumor suppressor, DAN, in the yeast-based two-hybrid system. We cloned the full-length rat BAT3 cDNA from a fibroblast 3Y1 cDNA library. Our sequence analysis has demonstrated that rat BAT3 cDNA is 3617 nucleotides in length and encodes a full-length BAT3 (1098 amino acids) with an estimated molecular mass of 114,801 daltons, which displays an 87.4% identity with human BAT3. The deletion experiment revealed that the N-terminal region (amino acid residues 1-80) of DAN was required for the interaction with BAT3. Green fluorescent protein-tagged BAT3 was largely localized in the cytoplasm of COS cells. Northern hybridization showed that BAT3 mRNA was expressed in all the adult rat tissues examined but predominantly in testis. In addition, the level of BAT3 mRNA expression was more downregulated in some of the transformed cells, including v-mos- and v-Ha-ras-transformed 3Y1 cells, than in the parental cells. PMID:10390159

  16. Disease stage characterization of hepatorenal fibrocystic pathology in the PCK rat model of ARPKD.

    PubMed

    Mason, Stephen B; Liang, Yun; Sinders, Rachel M; Miller, Caroline A; Eggleston-Gulyas, Tracy; Crisler-Roberts, Robin; Harris, Peter C; Gattone, Vincent H

    2010-08-01

    The rat Pck gene is orthologous to the human PKHD1 gene responsible for autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD). Both renal and hepatic fibrocystic pathology occur in ARPKD. Affected humans have a variable rate of progression, from morbidly affected infants to those surviving into adulthood. This study evaluated the PCK rat, a model of slowly progressive ARPKD. This model originated in Japan and was rederived to be offered commercially by Charles River Laboratories (Wilmington, MA). Previous studies have described the basic aspects of PCK pathology from privately held colonies. This study provides a comprehensive characterization of rats from those commercially available. Rats were bred, maintained on a 12:12 hr light/dark cycle, fed (7002 Teklad), and water provided ad libitum. Male and female rats were evaluated from 4 through 35 weeks of age with histology and serum chemistry. As the hepatorenal fibrocystic disease progressed beyond 18 weeks, the renal pathology (kidney weight, total cyst volume) and renal dysfunction (BUN and serum creatinine) tended to be more severe in males, whereas liver pathology (liver weight as % of body weight and hepatic fibrocystic volume) tended to be more severe in females. Hyperlipidemia was evident in both genders after 18 weeks. Bile secretion was increased in PCK rats compared with age-matched Sprague Dawley rats. The PCK is an increasingly used orthologous rodent model of human ARPKD. This characterization study of hepatorenal fibrocystic pathology in PCK rats should help researchers select stages of pathology to study and/or monitor disease progression during their longitudinal studies. PMID:20665806

  17. Effects of exercise training on neuromuscular junction morphology and pre- to post-synaptic coupling in young and aged rats.

    PubMed

    Deschenes, M R; Kressin, K A; Garratt, R N; Leathrum, C M; Shaffrey, E C

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether pre- to post-synaptic coupling of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) could be maintained in the face of significant morphological remodeling brought about by exercise training, and whether aging altered this capacity. Eighteen young adult (8mo) and eighteen aged (24mo) Fischer 344 rats were randomly assigned to either endurance trained (treadmill running) or untrained control conditions resulting in four groups (N=9/group). After the 10-week intervention rats were euthanized and hindlimb muscles were surgically removed, quickly frozen at approximate resting length and stored at -85C. The plantaris and EDL muscles were selected for study as they have different functions (ankle extensor and ankle flexor, respectively) but both are similarly and overwhelmingly comprised of fast-twitch myofibers. NMJs were stained with immunofluorescent procedures and images were collected with confocal microscopy. Each variable of interest was analyzed with a 2-way ANOVA with main effects of age and endurance training; in all cases significance was set at P?0.05. Results showed that no main effects of aging were detected in NMJs of either the plantaris or the EDL. Similarly, endurance training failed to alter any synaptic parameters of EDL muscles. The same exercise stimulus in the plantaris however, resulted in significant pre- and post-synaptic remodeling, but without altering pre- to post-synaptic coupling of the NMJs. Myofiber profiles of the same plantaris and EDL muscles were also analyzed. Unlike NMJs, myofibers displayed significant age-related atrophy in both the plantaris and EDL muscles. Overall, these results confirm that despite significant training-induced reconfiguration of NMJs, pre- to post-synaptic coupling remains intact underscoring the importance of maintaining proper apposition of neurotransmitter release and binding sites so that effective nerve to muscle communication is assured. PMID:26711679

  18. Characterization of microstructural morphology of austempered ductile iron by electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Guo, X L; Su, H Q; Wu, B Y; Liu, Z G

    1998-02-15

    Mechanical properties of austempered ductile iron (ADI) are mainly controlled by its unique microstructure. The objectives of this paper are to characterize the microstructural morphology and the phase distribution of ADI using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and to determine the mechanism of strengthening and toughening of ADI. The experimental results show that, in the microstructure of ADI composing of upper bainite, retained austenite, graphitic nodule, and a small amount of martensite, the upper bainite is composed of sub-units of ferrite in the shape of "wheat ears" on which the "wheat grains" grow at an angle of about 60 degrees to the long axis of the "wheat ears." The retained austenite is connected with each other in the shape of a continuous net. The wheat-ear like bainite with a homogeneous distribution in the continuous austenite net plays an important role to the strengthening and toughening of ADI. The metastable austenite appears in the shape of a large plate in which the martensite is preferentially formed. The appearance of martensite can be suppressed at the time when retained austenite remains stable, which is of benefit to the continuity and homogeneity of austenite net. PMID:9523764

  19. Surface morphology and electrochemical characterization of electrodeposited Ni-Mo nanocomposites as cathodes for hydrogen evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhachmi Guettaf, Temam; Hachemi Ben, Temam; Said, Benramache

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we study the influences of current density on surface morphology and electrochemical characterization of electrodeposited Ni-Mo. The Ni-Mo composite coatings are deposited on pretreated copper substrates by electrolytic deposition. The Ni-Mo solution is taken from nickel sulfate fluid and ammonium heptamolybdate with 10 g/l. The Ni-Mo composite coatings are deposited at a temperature of 303 K with an applied current density of jdep = 10 A/dm2-30 A/dm2. We find that the corrosion resistance is improved by incorporating Mo particles into Ni matrix in 0.6-M NaCl solution. From the potentiodynamic polarization curve of electrodeposited Ni-Mo it is confirmed that the corrosion resistance decreases with increasing applied current density. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses of Ni-Mo coatings indicate three phases of MoNi4, Mo1.24Ni0.76, and Ni3Mo phases crystallites of nickel and molybdenum. The scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) tests indicate that Ni-Mo coatings present cracks and pores.

  20. Characterizing sea ice surface morphology using high-resolution IceBridge data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petty, A.; Farrell, S. L.; Newman, T.; Kurtz, N. T.; Richter-Menge, J.; Tsamados, M.; Feltham, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Sea ice pressure ridges form when ice floes collide while drifting under the combined forces of atmospheric drag, oceanic drag and ice-ice interaction. Sea ice ridges, in-turn, affect the resultant form drag on the sea ice cover and thus impact the fluxes of momentum and heat between the atmosphere and ocean. Here we present initial results of a new sea ice ridge detection approach that utilizes high resolution, three-dimensional ice/snow surface elevation data from the NASA Operation IceBridge Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) laser altimeter merged with coincident high-resolution imagery from the Digital Mapping System (DMS). We derive novel information regarding sea ice deformation across a variety of ice types and regimes. Statistical information regarding sea ice ridges (height/frequency/orientation) and floe edges (freeboard height) are presented for several IceBridge flight lines. These novel characterizations of sea ice surface morphology will be used to validate and inform drag parameterizations in state-of-the-art sea ice models. Furthermore, they will advance our ability to quantify uncertainties introduced by pressure ridges in the estimation of sea ice freeboard/thickness from airborne and satellite altimeters.

  1. Molecular characterization of the Trichomonas gallinae morphologic complex in the United States.

    PubMed

    Gerhold, Richard W; Yabsley, Michael J; Smith, Autumn J; Ostergaard, Elissa; Mannan, William; Cann, Jeff D; Fischer, John R

    2008-12-01

    Forty-two Trichomonas gallinae isolates were molecularly characterized to determine whether isolates differed in genetic sequence of multiple gene targets depending on host species or geographical location. The 5.8S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and flanking internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene regions were amplified by polymerase chain reaction, and the sequences were analyzed phylogenetically. The results of the sequence analysis strongly suggest at least 2 species may exist within the T. gallinae morphologic complex. Based on ITS sequences, one group demonstrated high nucleotide identity to the 3 T. gallinae sequences available in GenBank, whereas the second group was more closely related to T. vaginalis (98%) than to T. gallinae (92%). Two common ground-dove (Columbina passerina) isolates shared a 95% identity with T. vaginalis and a 92% identity with T. gallinae and T. tenax. Sequence analysis of both the 18S rRNA and alpha-tubulin genes from a subset of the isolates supports the 5.8S-ITS sequence results. All of the T. vaginalis-like isolates originated from Arizona, California, or Texas, whereas T. gallinae isolates were found in all sampled states. Both T. vaginalis-like and T. gallinae isolates were involved in trichomoniasis outbreaks in California and Arizona. PMID:18576862

  2. Chemical, physical, structural and morphological characterization of the electric arc furnace dust.

    PubMed

    Machado, Janana G M S; Brehm, Feliciane Andrade; Moraes, Carlos Alberto Mendes; Santos, Carlos Alberto Dos; Vilela, Antnio Cezar Faria; Cunha, Joo Batista Marimon da

    2006-08-25

    Electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) is a hazardous industrial waste generated in the collection of particulate material during steelmaking process via electric arc furnace. Important elements to the industry such as, Fe and Zn are the main ones in EAFD. Due to their presence, it becomes very important to know how these elements are combined before studying new technologies for its processing. The aim of this work was to carry out a chemical, physical, structural and morphological characterization of the EAFD. The investigation was carried out by using granulometry analysis, chemical analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy via SEM (EDS), X-ray mapping analysis via SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Mssbauer spectroscopy. By XRD the following phases were detected: ZnFe(2)O(4), Fe(3)O(4), MgFe(2)O(4), FeCr(2)O (4), Ca(0.15)Fe(2.85)O(4), MgO, Mn(3)O(4), SiO(2) and ZnO. On the other hand, the phases detected by Mssbauer spectroscopy were: ZnFe(2)O(4), Fe(3)O(4), Ca(0.15)Fe(2.85)O(4) and FeCr(2)O(4). Magnesium ferrite (MgFe(2)O(4)), observed in the XRD pattern as overlapped peaks, was not identified in the Mssbauer spectroscopy analysis. PMID:16494997

  3. Co-precipitation synthesis and characterization of faceted MoS2 nanorods with controllable morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vattikuti, S. V. Prabhakar; Byon, Chan; Reddy, Ch. Venkata; Shim, Jaesool; Venkatesh, B.

    2015-06-01

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanopowder has been prepared using a co-precipitation method. This paper describes the thermal effect on the morphology enhancement of MoS2 sphere-like structures into nanorods with a winding structure. For the reduction in precursors, the as-obtained MoS2 nanopowder was calcinated at 250, 400, 600, and 800 °C for 1 h in an N2 environment. The calcined samples were characterized using a particle size analyzer, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy with X-ray analysis (EDAX) and transmission electron microscopy, HRTEM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results show the MoS2 sphere-like structure with diameter in the range of 50-100 nm and rod-like winding structure with diameter in the range of 20-150 nm, and a few tens of micrometers in length with a high degree of size homogeneity. The FT-IR spectra show the obtained bands at 480 and 900 cm-1 are corresponding to the Mo-S bond and the S-S bond. The TG-DTA curves confirm the thermal stability of the prepared samples. It is observed that the band gap energy for the MoS2 nanorods is lower than for the nanospherical structure MoS2, which leads to achieve high electron and hole recombination rate.

  4. Structural and morphological characterizations of ZnO nanopowder synthesized by hydrothermal route using inorganic reactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djouadi, D.; Meddouri, M.; Chelouche, A.; Hammiche, L.; Aksas, A.

    2014-12-01

    Zinc oxide nanoscale powder has been synthesized by a hydrothermal route using zinc sulfate and sodium hydroxide. The as-prepared powder was annealed at 600 °C for 2 h and then characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and infra-red Fourier transformed spectroscopy. XRD measurements have shown a ZnO hexagonal wurtzite polycrystalline structure with good crystallinity and the formation of a new sodium pyrosulfate phase in the as-prepared powder. The annealing improves the crystalline quality of the powder and transforms the sodium pyrosulfate phase to a sodium sulfate one. The thermal treatment does not affect the lattice parameters and the Zn-O bond length but improves the random orientation of the ZnO crystallites growth. ZnO crystallites have an interconnected-nano-needles morphology forming irregular shaped aggregates. The size of the crystallites is about 20 nm. EDX analysis has shown the presence of C and S in addition to Zn and O. FTIR spectra confirm the formation of ZnO and sodium sulfate. The synthesized ZnO powder has a very high crystalline quality and the used method is a very advantageous one for the fabrication of nanosized metal oxides from inorganic reactants for photo-catalysis applications.

  5. Morphological and mechanical characterization of composite calcite/SWCNT-COOH single crystals.

    PubMed

    Calvaresi, Matteo; Falini, Giuseppe; Pasquini, Luca; Reggi, Michela; Fermani, Simona; Gazzadi, Gian Carlo; Frabboni, Stefano; Zerbetto, Francesco

    2013-08-01

    A growing number of classes of organic (macro)molecular materials have been trapped into inorganic crystalline hosts, such as calcite single crystals, without significantly disrupting their crystalline lattices. Inclusion of an organic phase plays a key role in enhancing the mechanical properties of the crystals, which are believed to share structural features with biogenic minerals. Here we report the synthesis and mechanical characterization of composite calcite/SWCNT-COOH single crystals. Once entrapped into the crystals SWCNT-COOH appeared both as aggregates of entangled bundles and nanoropes. Their observation was possible only after crystal etching, fracture or FIB (focused ion beam) cross-sectioning. SWCNT-COOHs occupied a small volume fraction and were randomly distributed into the host crystal. They did not strongly affect the crystal morphology. However, although the Young's modulus of composite calcite/SWCNT-COOH single crystals was similar to that of pure calcite their hardness increased by about 20%. Thus, SWCNT-COOHs provide an obstacle against the dislocation-mediated propagation of plastic deformation in the crystalline slip systems, in analogy with the well-known hardness increase in fiber-reinforced composites. PMID:23787771

  6. Morphology of the Myoepithelial Cell: Immunohistochemical Characterization from Resting to Motile Phase

    PubMed Central

    Beha, Germana; Sarli, Giuseppe; Brunetti, Barbara; Sassi, Francesco; Ferrara, Domenico; Benazzi, Cinzia

    2012-01-01

    Myoepithelium is present in canine mammary tumors as resting and proliferative suprabasal and spindle and stellate interstitial cells. The aim of this paper was to evaluate a panel of markers for the identification of four different myoepithelial cell morphological types in the normal and neoplastic mammary gland and to investigate immunohistochemical changes from an epithelial to a mesenchymal phenotype. Cytokeratin 19 (CK19), cytokeratin 5/6 (CK5/6), cytokeratin 14 (CK14), estrogen receptor (ER), p63 protein, vimentin (VIM), and α-smooth muscle actin (Alpha-SMA) antibodies were used on 29 neoplasms (3 benign and 3 malignant myoepithelial tumors, 7 carcinomas in benign-mixed tumors and 16 complex carcinomas) and on normal tissue of mammary glands. All these antibodies were also tested on 3 mammary tissues from animals with no mammary pathology. The myoepithelial markers were well expressed in the suprabasal cells and gradually lost in the motile types, with the stellate cells maintaining only VIM expression typical of mesenchyma. ER labeled some resting and motile myoepithelial cells. On the basis of our results, we propose a transition from myoepithelial immotile cells into migratory fibroblast-like cells. This transition and the characterization of an immunohistochemical panel for resting and motile myoepithelial cells shed more light on the biological behavior of myoepithelial cells. PMID:22919300

  7. Mass distributions and morphological and chemical characterization of urban aerosols in the continental Balkan area (Belgrade).

    PubMed

    Đorđević, D; Buha, J; Stortini, A M; Mihajlidi-Zelić, A; Relić, D; Barbante, C; Gambaro, A

    2016-01-01

    This work presents characteristics of atmospheric aerosols of urban central Balkans area, using a size-segregated aerosol sampling method, calculation of mass distributions, SEM/EDX characterization, and ICP/MS analysis. Three types of mass distributions were observed: distribution with a pronounced domination of coarse mode, bimodal distribution, and distribution with minimum at 1 μm describing the urban aerosol. SEM/EDX analyses have shown morphological difference and variation in the content of elements in samples. EDX spectra demonstrate that particles generally contain the following elements: Al, Ca, K, Fe, Mg, Ni, K, Si, S. Additionally, the presence of As, Br, Sn, and Zn found in air masses from southeast segment points out the anthropogenic activities most probably from mining activities in southeastern part of Serbia. The ratio Al/Si equivalent to the ratio of desert dust was associated with air masses coming from southeastern and southwestern segments, pointing to influences from North Africa and Middle East desert areas whereas the Al/Si ratio in other samples is significantly lower. In several samples, we found high values of aluminum in the nucleation mode. Samples with low share of crustal elements in the coarse mode are collected when Mediterranean air masses prevailed, while high share in the coarse mode was associated with continental air masses that could be one of the approaches for identification of the aerosol origin. Graphical abstract ᅟ. PMID:26347417

  8. Characterization of gas-aerosol interaction kinetics using morphology dependent stimulated Raman scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Aker, P.M.

    1993-01-30

    This study is aimed at characterizing the influence of aerosol surface structure on the kinetics of gas-aerosol interactions. Changes in gas phase chemical reaction rates as a function of exposure to a specific aerosol are measured with aerosols having different surface properties due to the composition and/or temperature of the material making up the aerosol. The kinetic data generated can be used directly in atmospheric modeling calculations. The surface structure of the aerosol is using morphology-dependent enhancement of simulated Raman scattering (MDSRS). Detailed dynamics of gas-aerosol interactions can be obtained by correlating the change in the reaction rate with change in surface structure and by monitoring the change in aerosol surface structure during, the course of the reaction. This dynamics information can be used to generate kinetic data for systems which are similar in nature to those studied, but are not amenable to laboratory investigation. We show here that increased MDSRS sensitivity is achieved by using an excitation laser source that has a narrow linewidth and we have been able to detect sulfate anion concentrations much lower than previously reported. We have shown that the linewidth of the MDSRS mode excited in a droplet is limited by the laser linewidth. This is a positive result for it eases our ability to quantify the MDSRS gain equation. This result also suggests that MDSRS signal size should be independent of droplet size, and preliminary experiments confirm this hypothesis.

  9. Characterization of gas-aerosol interaction kinetics using morphology dependent stimulated Raman scattering. 1992 Annual summary

    SciTech Connect

    Aker, P.M.

    1993-01-30

    This study is aimed at characterizing the influence of aerosol surface structure on the kinetics of gas-aerosol interactions. Changes in gas phase chemical reaction rates as a function of exposure to a specific aerosol are measured with aerosols having different surface properties due to the composition and/or temperature of the material making up the aerosol. The kinetic data generated can be used directly in atmospheric modeling calculations. The surface structure of the aerosol is using morphology-dependent enhancement of simulated Raman scattering (MDSRS). Detailed dynamics of gas-aerosol interactions can be obtained by correlating the change in the reaction rate with change in surface structure and by monitoring the change in aerosol surface structure during, the course of the reaction. This dynamics information can be used to generate kinetic data for systems which are similar in nature to those studied, but are not amenable to laboratory investigation. We show here that increased MDSRS sensitivity is achieved by using an excitation laser source that has a narrow linewidth and we have been able to detect sulfate anion concentrations much lower than previously reported. We have shown that the linewidth of the MDSRS mode excited in a droplet is limited by the laser linewidth. This is a positive result for it eases our ability to quantify the MDSRS gain equation. This result also suggests that MDSRS signal size should be independent of droplet size, and preliminary experiments confirm this hypothesis.

  10. Morphological characterization of retinal bipolar cells in the marine teleost Rhinecanthus aculeatus.

    PubMed

    Pignatelli, Vincenzo; Marshall, Justin

    2010-08-01

    The marine teleost Rhinecanthus aculeatus (Balistidae) has recently been shown to possess trichromatic color vision supported by a retinal combination of double and single cones. Double cones are composed of two members with different spectral sensitivity. It is not known whether a correlation exists between the chromatic wiring of double cones to the inner retina and trichromacy, nor how unmixed, chromatic information is extracted from the two members of the couple. In mammalians, bipolar cells determine color segregation by means of the midget system, central to trichromatic color vision; however, midget bipolar cells have never been described in teleosts. On the basis of its likely importance in transferring chromatic photoreceptor signals to the inner retina, we have morphologically characterized the retinal bipolar cell types of R. aculeatus using DiOlistic staining techniques to verify if an anatomical specialization of this group of cells is required to support trichromatic color vision. Thirteen cell types are described: eight putative OFF types and five putative ON types. Of these, four had axonal boutons ramifying in both sublayers (ON and OFF) of the inner plexiform layer, six had terminals restricted to the OFF layer, and three cell types had terminals restricted to the ON layer. Dendritic arbors of bipolar cells had narrower diameters (5-40 microm) in comparison to bipolar cells of other teleost species; this supports the idea that a low degree of photoreceptor to bipolar convergence is correlated with trichromacy in this retina and possibly with the function of double cones as color receptors. PMID:20533363

  11. Characterizing sea ice surface morphology using high-resolution IceBridge data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petty, Alek; Farrell, Sinead; Newman, Thomas; Kurtz, Nathan; Richter-Menge, Jacqueline; Tsamados, Michel; Feltham, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Sea ice pressure ridges form when ice floes collide while drifting under the combined forces of atmospheric drag, oceanic drag and ice-ice interaction. Sea ice ridges, in-turn, affect the resultant form drag on the sea ice cover and thus impact the fluxes of momentum and heat between the atmosphere and ocean. Here we present initial results of a new sea ice ridge detection approach that utilizes high resolution, three-dimensional ice/snow surface elevation data from the NASA Operation IceBridge Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) laser altimeter merged with coincident high-resolution imagery from the Digital Mapping System (DMS). We derive novel information regarding sea ice deformation across a variety of ice types and regimes. Statistical information regarding sea ice ridges (height/frequency/orientation) and floe edges (freeboard height) are presented for several IceBridge flight lines. These novel characterizations of sea ice surface morphology will be used to validate and inform drag parameterizations in state-of-the-art sea ice models. Furthermore, they will advance our ability to quantify uncertainties introduced by pressure ridges in the estimation of sea ice freeboard/thickness from airborne and satellite altimeters.

  12. L-type cardiac calcium channels in doxorubicin cardiomyopathy in rats morphological, biochemical, and functional correlations.

    PubMed Central

    Keung, E C; Toll, L; Ellis, M; Jensen, R A

    1991-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DXR) is an effective antitumor agent in a wide spectrum of neoplasms. Chronic treatment is associated with cardiomyopathy and characteristic myocardial ultrastructural changes, which include swelling of the t tubules. Accordingly, we investigated excitation-contraction coupling in cardiomyopathic rat heart resulting from chronic DXR treatment. Using the whole-cell patch clamp technique, we studied the L-type calcium channel in single cells enzymatically isolated from normal (CTRL) and DXR rat hearts. Despite similar cell dimensions, the total membrane capacitance was significantly smaller in the DXR cells (138 +/- 9 pF) than in the CTRL cells (169 +/- 11 pF) (mean +/- SEM, n = 9, P less than 0.05). The mean current and the current density-voltage relationships of the CTRL and the DXR cells were significantly different (n = 9, P less than 0.001) with the maximal peak L-type calcium current (ICa) density increased from 6.4 +/- 0.9 in CTRL cells to 10.5 +/- 2.4 microA/cm2 in the DXR cells (P less than 0.05). There was no shift either in the current-voltage relationship or the steady-state inactivation curve in the two cell groups. However, the fast time constant of inactivation was increased at a membrane voltage of -10 to 10 mV. Calcium channel antagonist equilibrium binding assays using [3H]-PN200-110 revealed no difference in the maximal receptor binding capacity (CTRL, 194 +/- 27 and DXR 211 +/- 24 fmol/mg protein; P greater than 0.05, n = 6) and in receptor affinity (CTRL, 0.15 +/- 0.05 and DXR 0.13 +/- 0.03 nM; P less than 0.05). These data suggest that a decrease in effective capacitance might be associated with t-tubular damage. Despite this decrease, ICa was increased in the DXR cells. Such an increase may result from an alteration in the properties of the calcium channels and/or recruitment of "hibernating" channels in the remaining surface and t-tubular membranes. PMID:1645752

  13. CLONING, EXPRESSION, AND CHARACTERIZATION OF RAT S-ADENOSYL-L-METHIONINE: ARSENIC (III) METHYLTRANSFERASE (CYT19)

    EPA Science Inventory

    CLONING, EXPRESSION, AND CHARACTERIZATION OF RAT S-ADENOSYL-L-METHIONINE: ARSENIC(III) METHYLTRANSFERASE (cyt19)

    Stephen B. Waters1 , Felicia Walton1 , Miroslav Styblo1 , Karen Herbin-Davis2, and David J. Thomas2 1 School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chape...

  14. Effect of green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) extract on morphological and functional changes in adult male gonads of albino rats.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Amar K; Choudhury, Shyamosree Roy; De, Neela; Sarkar, Mahitosh

    2011-09-01

    Green tea, prepared from the steamed and dried leaves of the shrub Camellia sinensis, is known for its antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic effects. However, its effects on male gonadal functions have not been explored adequately and the present investigation has been undertaken to evaluate the effect of green tea extract on gonads of adult male albino rats. Results of in vivo studies showed that green tea extract (GTE) at mild (1.25 g%, identical to 5 cups of tea/day), moderate (2.5 g%, identical to 10 cups of tea/day) and high (5.0 g%, identical to 20 cups of tea/day) doses, for a period of 26 days, altered morphology and histology of testis and accessory sex organs. A significant dose-dependent decrease in the sperm counts, inhibited activities of testicular delta(5)3beta-and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (delta5-3beta3-HSD and 17beta3-HSD respectively) and decreased serum testosterone level were noticed. Significant increase in serum LH level was observed after moderate and high doses; serum FSH level also increased but not significantly. Histopathological examination showed inhibition of spermatogenesis evidenced by preferential loss of matured and elongated spermatids. Results of this study showed that GTE at relatively high dose may cause impairment of both the morphological and normal functional status of testis in rodents and thus its consumption at relatively high doses raises concern on male reproductive function in spite of its other beneficial effects. PMID:21941943

  15. Combined Effects of Ephedrine-Containing Dietary Supplements, Caffeine, and Nicotine on Morphology and Ultrastructure of Rat Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Christopher E.; Trauth, Stanley E.; Grippo, Richard S.; Gurley, Bill J.

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smokers have an increased risk for coronary artery disease. Nicotine present in cigarettes can adversely affect the cardiovascular system via stimulation of both sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons. Caffeine, another cardiovascular and central nervous system (CNS) stimulant, is commonly found in Ephedra and Ephedra-free dietary supplements. These caffeine-containing supplements also have been linked to cardiovascular toxicities. Although no longer on the U.S market, Ephedra-containing supplements are another source of cardiovascular and CNS stimulants, namely the ephedrine alkaloids. Together caffeine, nicotine, and ephedrine can individually stress the cardiovascular system, and an overlap of these agents is predicted in smokers and dieters. To understand the collective effects of these stimulants on the heart morphology and ultrastructure, rats were exposed to synthetic combinations of nicotine (0.2 mg/kg/day), ephedrine (0–30 mg/kg/day), and/or caffeine (0–24 mg/kg/day) as well as an extract from a caffeine-containing Ephedra supplement (Metabolife 356). After exposure for 3 days, the hearts were removed and examined for hypersensitivity myocarditis and myocardial necrosis. None of the drugs tested alone affected heart tissue morphology, nor were atypical cardiac cells observed. However, in combination, significant interactions were found between caffeine and ephedrine; the interventricular septum was most susceptible, with a significant increase in atypical cardiac cells observed. Nicotine pretreatment caused greater susceptibility to cardiotoxicity associated with combinations of caffeine + ephedrine or Metabolife, particularly in the left ventricle wall. These results indicate that sympathomimetic combinations present in Ephedra supplements may have produced cardiotoxicity reported in consumers of these products. Moreover, the presence of nicotine exacerbates these toxic effects. PMID:24761270

  16. Combined Effects of Ephedrine-Containing Dietary Supplements, Caffeine, and Nicotine on Morphology and Ultrastructure of Rat Hearts.

    PubMed

    Brown, Christopher E; Trauth, Stanley E; Grippo, Richard S; Gurley, Bill J; Grippo, Anne A

    2012-09-01

    Cigarette smokers have an increased risk for coronary artery disease. Nicotine present in cigarettes can adversely affect the cardiovascular system via stimulation of both sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons. Caffeine, another cardiovascular and central nervous system (CNS) stimulant, is commonly found in Ephedra and Ephedra-free dietary supplements. These caffeine-containing supplements also have been linked to cardiovascular toxicities. Although no longer on the U.S market, Ephedra-containing supplements are another source of cardiovascular and CNS stimulants, namely the ephedrine alkaloids. Together caffeine, nicotine, and ephedrine can individually stress the cardiovascular system, and an overlap of these agents is predicted in smokers and dieters. To understand the collective effects of these stimulants on the heart morphology and ultrastructure, rats were exposed to synthetic combinations of nicotine (0.2?mg/kg/day), ephedrine (0-30?mg/kg/day), and/or caffeine (0-24?mg/kg/day) as well as an extract from a caffeine-containing Ephedra supplement (Metabolife 356). After exposure for 3 days, the hearts were removed and examined for hypersensitivity myocarditis and myocardial necrosis. None of the drugs tested alone affected heart tissue morphology, nor were atypical cardiac cells observed. However, in combination, significant interactions were found between caffeine and ephedrine; the interventricular septum was most susceptible, with a significant increase in atypical cardiac cells observed. Nicotine pretreatment caused greater susceptibility to cardiotoxicity associated with combinations of caffeine + ephedrine or Metabolife, particularly in the left ventricle wall. These results indicate that sympathomimetic combinations present in Ephedra supplements may have produced cardiotoxicity reported in consumers of these products. Moreover, the presence of nicotine exacerbates these toxic effects. PMID:24761270

  17. The energy costs of sexual dimorphism in mole-rats are morphological not behavioural

    PubMed Central

    Scantlebury, M; Speakman, J.R; Bennett, N.C

    2005-01-01

    Different reproductive strategies of males and females may lead to the evolution of differences in their energetic costs of reproduction, overall energetic requirements and physiological performances. Sexual dimorphism is often associated with costly behaviours (e.g. large males might have a competitive advantage in fighting, which is energetically expensive). However, few studies of mammals have directly compared the energy costs of reproductive activities between sexes. We compared the daily energy expenditure (DEE) and resting metabolic rate (RMR) of males and females of two species of mole-rat, Bathyergus janetta and Georychus capensis (the former is sexually dimorphic in body size and the latter is not) during a period of intense digging when males seek females. We hypothesized that large body size might be indicative of greater digging or fighting capabilities, and hence greater mass-independent DEE values in males of the sexually dimorphic species. In contrast to this prediction, although absolute values of DEE were greater in B. janetta males, mass-independent values were not. No differences were apparent between sexes in G. capensis. By comparison, although RMR values were greater in B. janetta than G. capensis, no differences were apparent between the sexes for either species. The energy cost of dimorphism is most likely to be the cost of maintenance of a large body size, and not the cost of behaviours performed when an individual is large. PMID:16519235

  18. Morphological studies of bone and tendon. [in post-spaceflight rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, Stephen B.; Morey-Holton, Emily R.; Durnova, G. N.; Kaplanskii, A. S.

    1992-01-01

    The Soviet biosatellite Cosmos 2044 carried adult rats on a spaceflight that lasted 13.8 days and was intended to repeat animal studies carrier out on Cosmos 1887. Skeletal tissue and tendon from animals flown on Cosmos 2044 were studied by light and electron microscopy, histochemistry, and morphometric techniques. Studies were confined to the bone cells and vasculature from the weight-bearing tibias. Results indicated that vascular changes at the periosteal and subperiosteal region of the tibia were not apparent by light microscopy or histochemistry. However, electron microscopy indicated that vascular influsions were present in bone samples from the flight animals. A unique combination of microscopy and histochemical techniques indicated that the endosteal osteoblasts from this same middiaphyseal region demonstrated a slight (but not statisticallly significant) reduction in bone cell activity. Electron-microscopic studies of the tendons from metatarsal bones showed a collagen fibril disorganization as a result of spaceflight. Thus changes described for Cosmos 1887 were present in Cosmos 2044, but the changes ascribed to spaceflight were not as evident.

  19. Transmural changes in stress-free myocyte morphology during pressure overload hypertrophy in the rat.

    PubMed

    Omens, J H; Rodriguez, E K; McCulloch, A D

    1996-09-01

    Cellular hypertrophy can alter the distribution of residual stress in the myocardium, hence can affect active and passive ventricular mechanics. It is hypothesized that an increase in stress-free cell cross-sectional area will tend to increase residual stresses. Therefore transmural distributions of myocyte cross-sectional areas and global ventricular dimensions in young rats 0-21 days following thoracic aortic handling with sham-operated and unoperated control groups were measured in tissue free of all external and residual stresses. Cell cross-sectional area increased in the stress-free state and was uniform across the wall except at 21 days when there was a transmural gradient with cells at the endocardium 46% larger in diameter than those in the outer wall. Cell area increased from a mean of 156 +/- 30 microM2 at 0 days to a mean of 627 +/- 164 microM2 at 21 days, although during this time there were no statistical changes in the opening angles of stress-free tissue sections. Because the time course of opening angle did not follow the changes in cell thickening, the cellular growth measured in this study is probably not the only factor responsible for the distribution of residual stress. PMID:8899556

  20. A morphological study of the effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine and indomethacin on rat mesenteric venules.

    PubMed

    Northover, A M

    1978-08-01

    A method is described for preparing venules of the rat mesentery for electron microscopy after the application of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and pretreatment with indomethacin. Local application of 5-HT caused the leakage of colloidal carbon and the emigration of leucocytes into the venule wall. 5-HT also caused endothelial cells to bulge and their nuclei to contort. It increased the number of protrusions on both the luminal and abluminal surfaces of the endothelium and increased the width of the subendothelial space, and the degree of vesiculation in the endothelial cells. Systemic treatment with indomethacin significantly decreased the amount of carbon passing through the endothelium after the local application of 5-HT, but enhanced some of the other effects of 5-HT. Thus it increased the bulging of endothelial cells and contortion of their nuclei, and further increased the number of surface protrusions and the subendothelial space. It had no effect on the emigration of leucocytes resulting from the application of 5-HT. PMID:708589

  1. A morphological study of the effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine and indomethacin on rat mesenteric venules.

    PubMed Central

    Northover, A. M.

    1978-01-01

    A method is described for preparing venules of the rat mesentery for electron microscopy after the application of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and pretreatment with indomethacin. Local application of 5-HT caused the leakage of colloidal carbon and the emigration of leucocytes into the venule wall. 5-HT also caused endothelial cells to bulge and their nuclei to contort. It increased the number of protrusions on both the luminal and abluminal surfaces of the endothelium and increased the width of the subendothelial space, and the degree of vesiculation in the endothelial cells. Systemic treatment with indomethacin significantly decreased the amount of carbon passing through the endothelium after the local application of 5-HT, but enhanced some of the other effects of 5-HT. Thus it increased the bulging of endothelial cells and contortion of their nuclei, and further increased the number of surface protrusions and the subendothelial space. It had no effect on the emigration of leucocytes resulting from the application of 5-HT. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:708589

  2. Impact of high intensity exercise on muscle morphology in EAE rats.

    PubMed

    Wens, I; Dalgas, U; Verboven, K; Kosten, L; Stevens, A; Hens, N; Eijnde, B O

    2015-12-29

    The impact of high-intensity exercise on disease progression and muscle contractile properties in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) remains unclear. Control (CON) and EAE rats were divided into sedentary and exercise groups. Before onset (experiment 1, n=40) and after hindquarter paralysis (experiment 2, n=40), isokinetic foot extensor strength, cross sectional area (CSA) of tibialis anterior (TA), extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were assessed. EAE reduced muscle fiber CSA of TA, EDL and SOL. In general, exercise was not able to affect CSA, whereas it delayed hindquarter paralysis peak. CON muscle work peaked and declined, while it remained stable in EAE. BDNF-responses were not affected by EAE or exercise. In conclusion, EAE affected CSA-properties of TA, EDL and SOL, which could, partly, explain the absence of peak work during isokinetic muscle performance in EAE-animals. However, exercise was not able to prevent muscle fiber atrophy. PMID:26047382

  3. Morphological changes in cerebellum of neonatal rats exposed to 2. 45 GHz microwaves

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, E.N.; Sherif, M.

    1988-01-01

    One-day and six-day old Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed in the far field to 2.45 GHz (cw) microwaves at 10 mW/cm/sup 2/ for five consecutive days, 7 hours per day (SAR 2W/kg). Pups were euthenized one day after exposure and the cerebella processed for light and electron microscopy. Matching cerebellar sections and folia from irradiated and sham irradiated animals were examined. Light microscopic examination revealed the presence of small deeply-stained cells with hyperchromatic pyknotic nuclei within the external granular layer (EGL). The number of these pyknotic cells in the experimental animals was nearly twice that in the controls. The Nissl bodies in Purkinje cells were finely dispersed. In some experimental animals mononuclear cellular infiltration was demonstrated. Under the electron microscope the deeply-stained pyknotic small cells presented electron dense nuclei with clumped chromatin, extrusion or disintegration of the nucleus, ruptured nuclear membrane, and the vacuolization of the cytoplasm. Eventually these cells became phagocytosed by surrounding EGL cells. Most of the Purkinje cells of experimental animals showed small, disorderly arrays of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) instead of the typical orderly stacks of parallel arrays. These observations suggest that microwave radiation may interfere with early genesis of cerebellar microneurons and alter the metabolic status of Purkinje cells. However, this effect might be reversible.

  4. Morphological characterization of filamentous microorganisms in submerged cultures by on-line digital image analysis and pattern recognition.

    PubMed

    Treskatis, S K; Orgeldinger, V; Wolf, H; Gilles, E D

    1997-01-20

    The morphology of filamentous microorganisms in submerged culture is of great interest. On the one hand, morphology influences rheology and mass transfer in the fermentation broth. On the other hand, morphology could be a visible expression of physiology and metabolism of the microorganisms. An algorithm for the morphological characterization and the estimation of biomass of filamentous microorganisms by means of digital image analysis has been developed. After measurement of eight features the objects in the broth are classified into different morphological classes, i.e., pellet aggregates, rough pellets, smooth pellets, mycelial flocks, and medium components. The classification is based on the measured object parameters and a knowledge base, which was generated in a preceding training phase. The method was tested on Streptomyces tendae T 901/8c. A typical batch fermentation in a defined medium is presented. It could be shown that both morphology and physiology have been changed in the course of the fermentation, especially during the transition from trophophase to idiophase. In order to supervise the fermentation processes continuously, an on-line image analysis system has been developed. Sampling, dilution, and image acquisition of the culture were performed under the control of a personal computer. (c) 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:18633964

  5. Self-assembled light lanthanide oxalate architecture with controlled morphology, characterization, growing mechanism and optical property

    SciTech Connect

    He, Hongmei; Zhang, Youjin; Zhu, Wei; Zheng, Ao

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} Flower-like Sm{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}.10H{sub 2}O was gained with Na{sub 3}Cit assisted precipitation method. {yields} The mechanism of the flower-like Sm{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}.10H{sub 2}O formation was proposed. {yields} The Sm{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}.10H{sub 2}O and Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples exhibited obviously different PL spectra. {yields} Ln{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}.nH{sub 2}O (Ln = Gd, Dy, Lu, Y) also were achieved by the simple method. -- Abstract: Flower-like Sm{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}.10H{sub 2}O had been synthesized by a facile complex agent assisted precipitation method. The flower-like Sm{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}.10H{sub 2}O was characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis and photoluminescence. The possible growth mechanism of the flower-like Sm{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}.10H{sub 2}O was proposed. To extend this method, other Ln{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}.nH{sub 2}O (Ln = Gd, Dy, Lu, Y) with different morphologies also had been prepared by adjusting different rare earth precursors. Further studies revealed that besides the reaction conditions and the additive amount of complex agents, the morphologies of the as-synthesised lanthanide oxalates were also determined by the rare earth ions. The Sm{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}.10H{sub 2}O and Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples exhibited different photoluminescence spectra, which was relevant to Sm{sup 3+} energy level structure of 4f electrons. The method may be applied in the synthesis of other lanthanide compounds, and the work could explore the potential optical materials.

  6. Morphology and Performance of Polymer Solar Cell Characterized by DPD Simulation and Graph Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Chunmiao; Ji, Yujin; Xue, Junwei; Hou, Tingjun; Tang, Jianxin; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Li, Youyong

    2015-11-01

    The morphology of active layers in the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells is critical to the performance of organic photovoltaics (OPV). Currently, there is limited information for the morphology from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Meanwhile, there are limited approaches to predict the morphology /efficiency of OPV. Here we use Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) to determine 3D morphology of BHJ solar cells and show DPD to be an efficient approach to predict the 3D morphology. Based on the 3D morphology, we estimate the performance indicator of BHJ solar cells by using graph theory. Specifically, we study poly (3-hexylthiophene)/[6, 6]-phenyl-C61butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT/PCBM) BHJ solar cells. We find that, when the volume fraction of PCBM is in the region 0.4 ∼ 0.5, P3HT/PCBM will show bi-continuous morphology and optimum performance, consistent with experimental results. Further, the optimum temperature (413 K) for the morphology and performance of P3HT/PCBM is in accord with annealing results. We find that solvent additive plays a critical role in the desolvation process of P3HT/PCBM BHJ solar cell. Our approach provides a direct method to predict dynamic 3D morphology and performance indicator for BHJ solar cells.

  7. Morphology and Performance of Polymer Solar Cell Characterized by DPD Simulation and Graph Theory.

    PubMed

    Du, Chunmiao; Ji, Yujin; Xue, Junwei; Hou, Tingjun; Tang, Jianxin; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Li, Youyong

    2015-01-01

    The morphology of active layers in the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells is critical to the performance of organic photovoltaics (OPV). Currently, there is limited information for the morphology from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Meanwhile, there are limited approaches to predict the morphology /efficiency of OPV. Here we use Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) to determine 3D morphology of BHJ solar cells and show DPD to be an efficient approach to predict the 3D morphology. Based on the 3D morphology, we estimate the performance indicator of BHJ solar cells by using graph theory. Specifically, we study poly (3-hexylthiophene)/[6, 6]-phenyl-C61butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT/PCBM) BHJ solar cells. We find that, when the volume fraction of PCBM is in the region 0.4 ∼ 0.5, P3HT/PCBM will show bi-continuous morphology and optimum performance, consistent with experimental results. Further, the optimum temperature (413 K) for the morphology and performance of P3HT/PCBM is in accord with annealing results. We find that solvent additive plays a critical role in the desolvation process of P3HT/PCBM BHJ solar cell. Our approach provides a direct method to predict dynamic 3D morphology and performance indicator for BHJ solar cells. PMID:26581407

  8. Morphology and Performance of Polymer Solar Cell Characterized by DPD Simulation and Graph Theory

    PubMed Central

    Du, Chunmiao; Ji, Yujin; Xue, Junwei; Hou, Tingjun; Tang, Jianxin; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Li, Youyong

    2015-01-01

    The morphology of active layers in the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells is critical to the performance of organic photovoltaics (OPV). Currently, there is limited information for the morphology from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Meanwhile, there are limited approaches to predict the morphology /efficiency of OPV. Here we use Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) to determine 3D morphology of BHJ solar cells and show DPD to be an efficient approach to predict the 3D morphology. Based on the 3D morphology, we estimate the performance indicator of BHJ solar cells by using graph theory. Specifically, we study poly (3-hexylthiophene)/[6, 6]-phenyl-C61butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT/PCBM) BHJ solar cells. We find that, when the volume fraction of PCBM is in the region 0.4 ∼ 0.5, P3HT/PCBM will show bi-continuous morphology and optimum performance, consistent with experimental results. Further, the optimum temperature (413 K) for the morphology and performance of P3HT/PCBM is in accord with annealing results. We find that solvent additive plays a critical role in the desolvation process of P3HT/PCBM BHJ solar cell. Our approach provides a direct method to predict dynamic 3D morphology and performance indicator for BHJ solar cells. PMID:26581407

  9. Study of laser uncaging induced morphological alteration of rat cortical neurites using atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jian; Tu, Chunlong; Liang, Yitao; Zhou, Jian; Ye, Xuesong

    2015-09-30

    Activity-dependent structural remodeling is an important aspect of neuronal plasticity. In the previous researches, neuronal structure variations resulting from external interventions were detected by the imaging instruments such as the fluorescence microscopy, the scanning/transmission electron microscopy (SEM/TEM) and the laser confocal microscopy. In this article, a new platform which combined the photochemical stimulation with atomic force microscopy (AFM) was set up to detect the activity-dependent structural remodeling. In the experiments, the cortical neurites on the glass coverslips were stimulated by locally uncaged glutamate under the ultraviolet (UV) laser pulses, and a calcium-related structural collapse of neurites (about 250 nm height decrease) was observed by an AFM. This was the first attempt to combine the laser uncaging with AFM in living cell researches. With the advantages of highly localized stimulation (<5 μm), super resolution imaging (<3.8 nm), and convenient platform building, this system was suitable for the quantitative observation of the neuron mechanical property variations and morphological alterations modified by neural activities under different photochemical stimulations, which would be helpful for studying physiological and pathological mechanisms of structural and functional changes induced by the biomolecule acting. PMID:26149288

  10. Photochemically induced cystic lesion in the rat spinal cord. I. Behavioral and morphological analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, T.; Prado, R.; Watson, B.D.; Gonzalez-Carvajal, M.; Holets, V.R. )

    1990-08-01

    The present study describes the production of a spinal cord lesion which is initiated by vascular occlusion resulting from the interaction between the photosensitizing dye erythrosin B and an argon laser beam. The lesion has characteristics similar to those of the central cavity thought to lead to the production of post-traumatic syringomyelia (PTS) in humans. The present study examines the behavioral and morphological characteristics of this injury over a 28-day period. Histological analysis revealed a cavity extending from the dorsal horns to lamina VIII, with some lateral and ventral pathways being spared. The cavity volume reached a maximum 7 days after lesion induction. Behavioral changes were assessed using six different tests of motor and reflex function (motor function, climbing, waterbath, inclined plane, withdrawal to pain, and withdrawal to extension). Lesioned animals exhibited flaccid paralysis for 3-5 days, which resolved afterward. The photochemically induced cavity should provide a reproducible model for examining the effects of cystic spinal cord injury on locomotor and reflex function.

  11. Changes in Retinal Morphology, Electroretinogram and Visual Behavior after Transient Global Ischemia in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ying; Yu, Bo; Xiang, Yong-Hui; Han, Xin-Jia; Xu, Ying; So, Kwok-Fai; Xu, An-Ding; Ruan, Yi-Wen

    2013-01-01

    The retina is a light-sensitive tissue of the central nervous system that is vulnerable to ischemia. The pathological mechanism underlying retinal ischemic injury is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate structural and functional changes of different types of rat retinal neurons and visual behavior following transient global ischemia. Retinal ischemia was induced using a 4-vessel occlusion model. Compared with the normal group, the number of ?III-tubulin positive retinal ganglion cells and calretinin positive amacrine cells were reduced from 6 h to 48 h following ischemia. The number of recoverin positive cone bipolar cells transiently decreased at 6 h and 12 h after ischemia. However, the fluorescence intensity of rhodopsin positive rod cells and fluorescent peanut agglutinin positive cone cells did not change after reperfusion. An electroretinogram recording showed that the a-wave, b-wave, oscillatory potentials and the photopic negative response were completely lost during ischemia. The amplitudes of the a- and b-waves were partially recovered at 1 h after ischemia, and returned to the control level at 48 h after reperfusion. However, the amplitudes of oscillatory potentials and the photopic negative response were still reduced at 48 h following reperfusion. Visual behavior detection showed there was no significant change in the time spent in the dark chamber between the control and 48 h group, but the distance moved, mean velocity in the black and white chambers and intercompartmental crosses were reduced at 48 h after ischemia. These results indicate that transient global ischemia induces dysfunction of retinal ganglion cells and amacrine cells at molecular and ERG levels. However, transient global ischemia in a 17 minute duration does not appear to affect photoreceptors. PMID:23776500

  12. Morphological study of rat skin flaps treated with subcutaneous dimethyl sulfoxide combined with hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

    PubMed

    Almeida, K G; Oliveira, R J; Dourado, D M; Filho, E A; Fernandes, W S; Souza, A S; Arajo, F H S

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in tissue necrosis, genotoxicity, and cell apoptosis. Random skin flaps were made in 50 male Wistar rats, randomly divided into the following groups. Control group (CT), wherein a rectangular skin section (2 x 8 cm) was dissected from the dorsal muscle layer, preserving the cranial vessels, lifted, and refixed to the bed; distilled water (DW) group, in which DW was injected into the distal half of the skin flap; DMSO group, wherein 5% DMSO was injected; HBOT group, comprising animals treated only with HBOT; and HBOT + DMSO group, comprising animals treated with 100% oxygen at 2.5 atmospheres absolute for 1 h, 2 h after the experiment, daily for 10 consecutive days. A skinflap specimen investigated by microscopy. The percentage of necrosis was not significantly different between groups. The cell viability index was significantly different between groups (P < 0.001): 87.40% (CT), 86.20% (DW), 84.60% (DMSO), 86.60% (DMSO + HBO), and 91% (HBO) (P < 0.001), as was the cell apoptosis index of 12.60 (CT), 12.00 (DW), 15.40 (DMSO), 9.00 (HBO), and 12.00 (DMSO + HBO) (P < 0.001). The genotoxicity test revealed the percentage of cells with DNA damage to be 22.80 (CT), 22.60 (DW), 26.00 (DMSO), 8.80 (DMSO + HBO), and 7.20 (HBO) (P < 0.001). Although the necrotic area was not different between groups, there was a significant reduction in the cellular DNA damage and apoptosis index in the HBOT group. PMID:26782463

  13. Characterization of mitochondrial bioenergetics in neonatal anoxic model of rats.

    PubMed

    Samaiya, Puneet K; Krishnamurthy, Sairam

    2015-06-01

    Neonatal anoxia at the time of birth can lead to mitochondrial dysfunction and further neurodevelopmental abnormalities. The present study investigated the mitochondrial bioenergetics and associated sensorimotor changes in the anoxic neonatal rats. Rat pups after 30h to birth (2days) were subjected to anoxia of two episodes (10min in each) at a time interval of 24h by passing 100%N2 into an enclosed chamber. Brain mitochondrial respiration was measured using clark type oxygen electrode. A significant decrease in brain respiratory control ratio (RCR; State III/IV respiration) at all-time points, complex I (24h) and complex II (30min, 6 and 24h) enzyme activities indicated loss of mitochondrial integrity and function A significant increase in levels of nitric oxide was observed after second anoxic episode at all-time points. A significant change in sensorimotor activity in terms of increased reflex latency was observed 24h after second episode in this model, which is an indication of loss of subcortical maturation. All the above changes were observed after second but not after the first anoxic exposure. Therefore, this anoxic model shows significant changes in mitochondrial bioenergetics, nitric oxide levels and sensorimotor effects after second episode of anoxia. This model may be helpful to evaluate mitochondrial targeted pharmacological intervention for the treatment of anoxia. PMID:25637096

  14. Characterization of cadmium proteinuria in man and rat

    SciTech Connect

    Lauwerys, R.R.; Bernard, A.; Roels, H.A.; Buchet, J.P.; Viau, C.

    1984-03-01

    In workers chronically exposed to cadmium and without signs of renal insufficiency, plasma proteins with molecular weight ranging from 11,800 to 450,000 are excreted in greater amount in urine. Increased urinary excretion of low and high molecular weight proteins can occur independently. Because of its greater stability in urine and provided a sensitive immunological technique is used, the determination of retinol-binding protein is a more practical and realiable test of proximal tubular function than ..beta../sub 2/-microglobulin. The evaluation of renal function of workers removed from cadmium exposure indicates that cadmium-induced renal lesions, albeit of slow progression, are not reversible when exposures ceases. In workers chronically exposed to cadmium or removed from cadmium exposure, metallothionein in urine is directly correlated with cadmium in urine but not with cadmium in blood or years of cadmium exposure. The association between cadmium in urine and metallothionein in urine is independent of the status of renal function and the intensity of current exposure to cadmium. Whereas the repeated IP injection of high doses of cadmium to rat gives rise to a mixed or tubular type proteinuria, the prolonged oral administraitn of cadmium results mainly in the development of a glomerular type proteinuria. The former is usually reversible after cessation of treatment whereas the latter is not. Circulating antiglomerular basement membrane antibodies have been found in man and in rat chronically exposed to cadmium. The pathogenic significance of this finding deserves further investigation. 10 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  15. Characterization of ultrasound-induced pulmonary capillary hemorrhage in rats

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Douglas L.; Suresh, M. V.; Dou, Chunyan; Yu, B; Raghavendran, Krishnan

    2014-01-01

    Routine pulmonary ultrasound for diagnosis of disease or injury relies on interpretation of image features, such as comet-tail artifacts, which can also be indicative of the poorly understood phenomenon of ultrasound-induced pulmonary capillary hemorrhage (PCH). Evans blue extraction and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were evaluated for assessment of PCH induced by ultrasound scanning. Rats anesthetized with ketamine with or without xylazine received sham or scanning for 5 min with a 7.6 MHz linear array. Evans blue extraction and BAL albumin measurements failed to demonstrate significant increases for scanning, even though the induction of comet-tail artifacts was significant. BAL cell counts had an insignificant increase relative to shams at a near-threshold Mechanical Index (MI) of 0.52 (P=0.07), but a highly significant increase at MI=0.9 (P=0.001). The possibility of xylazine-induced elevated albumin was tested, but no significant decrease was found for sham or scanned rats with ketamine-only anesthesia. Interestingly, without xylazine, the widths of comet-tail artifacts in the ultrasound images were significantly smaller (P=0.001) and cell counts in BAL fluid also were reduced (P=0.014). The BAL cell-count method provides a valuable additional means of PCH quantification. PMID:24583360

  16. Characterizing Olfactory Perceptual Similarity Using Carbon Chain Discrimination in Fischer 344 Rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Performance on olfactory tests can be influenced by a number of stimulus characteristics including chemical structure, concentration, perceptual similarity, and previous experience with the test odorants. Few of these parameters have been extensively characterized in the Fischer 344 rat strain. To investigate how odor quality affects perception in this rat strain, we measured how graded perceptual similarity, created by varying carbon chain length across a series of homologous alcohol pairs, influenced odor discrimination using a liquid-motivated go/no-go task. We employed an automated, liquid-dilution olfactometer to train Fischer 344 rats (N = 8) on a 2-odor discrimination task. Six odorants (1-propanol, 1-butanol, 1-pentanol, 1-hexanol, 1-heptanol, and 1-octanol) were arranged to produce 15 novel odorant pairs differing between 1 and 5 carbon atoms; testing sessions included presentation of only 1 pseudorandomly assigned pair daily (200 trials). Results show that although rats can learn to discriminate between any 2 odorant pairs, performance declines systematically as the pairs become more structurally similar and, therefore, more perceptually confusing. As such, the easier discrimination pairs produced reliable ceiling effects across all rats, whereas performance for the difficult discrimination pairs was consistently worse, even after repeated testing. These data emphasize the importance of considering odorant stimulus dimensions in experimental designs employing olfactory stimuli. Moreover, establishing baseline olfactory performance in Fischer 344 rats may be particularly useful for predicting age-related cognitive decline in this model. PMID:24488965

  17. Fermentation Characterization of Chinese Yam Polysaccharide and Its Effects on the Gut Microbiota of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kong, X. F.; Zhang, Y. Z.; Wu, X.; Yin, Y. L.; Tan, Z. L.; Feng, Y.; Yan, F. Y.; Bo, M. J.; Huang, R. L.; Li, T. J.

    2009-01-01

    Rat was used to characterize Chinese Yam polysaccharides (CYPs). In Exp. 1, maximum volume and rate of gas production in CYP 3-supplemented group were higher than other CYP-supplemented groups and control group, while pH values and NH3 contents in CYP 2-, CYP 3-, and CYP 4-supplemented groups were lower than control group. Contents of acetate, propionate and butyrate increased by supplementing CYP 3 or CYP 4 compared to other groups, except for glucose-supplemented group. Contents of isobutyrate for CYPs groups decreased compared to control group. CYP 3 enhanced beneficial gut microbiota, but suppressed bacterial pathogens. In Exp. 2, contents of acetate and butyrate in cecal digesta of rats fed 0.25 or 0.5 g/kg CYP 3 were higher than other groups on day 7. pH values in 0.25 and 0.5 g/kg groups were lower than 1.0 g/kg group. Contents of acetate in 0.25 and 0.5 g/kg groups were greater than other 2 groups on day 21. Gut microflora in CYP 3-supplemented rats had greater diversity than non-supplemented rats. CYP 3 enriched beneficial gut microbiota, but suppressed bacterial pathogens in rat cecum. These findings suggested that CYP 3 is a good source of carbon and energy, and may improve bacterial community diversity and modulate short-chain fatty acid production in hindgut of rats. PMID:19936111

  18. Ultrastructural study on the morphological changes in indigenous bacteria of mucous layer and chyme throughout the rat intestine

    PubMed Central

    MANTANI, Youhei; ITO, Eri; NISHIDA, Miho; YUASA, Hideto; MASUDA, Natsumi; QI, Wang-Mei; KAWANO, Junichi; YOKOYAMA, Toshifumi; HOSHI, Nobuhiko; KITAGAWA, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Indigenous bacteria in the alimentary tract are exposed to various bactericidal peptides and digestive enzymes, but the viability status and morphological changes of indigenous bacteria are unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed to ultrastructurally clarify the degeneration and viability status of indigenous bacteria in the rat intestine. The majority of indigenous bacteria in the ileal mucous layer possessed intact cytoplasm, but the cytoplasm of a few bacteria contained vacuoles. The vacuoles were more frequently found in bacteria of ileal chyme than in those of ileal mucous layer and were found in a large majority of bacteria in both the mucous layer and chyme throughout the large intestine. In the dividing bacteria of the mucous layer and chyme throughout the intestine, the ratio of area occupied by vacuoles was almost always less than 10%. Lysis or detachment of the cell wall in the indigenous bacteria was more frequently found in the large intestine than in the ileum, whereas bacterial remnants, such as cell walls, were distributed almost evenly throughout the intestine. In an experimental control of long-time-cultured Staphylococcus epidermidis on agar, similar vacuoles were also found, but cell-wall degeneration was never observed. From these findings, indigenous bacteria in the mucous layer were ultrastructurally confirmed to be the source of indigenous bacteria in the chyme. Furthermore, the results suggested that indigenous bacteria were more severely degenerated toward the large intestine and were probably degraded in the intestine. PMID:25890991

  19. Assessment of morphological and functional changes in organs of rats after intramuscular introduction of iron nanoparticles and their agglomerates.

    PubMed

    Sizova, Elena; Miroshnikov, Sergey; Yausheva, Elena; Polyakova, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    The research was performed on male Wistar rats based on assumptions that new microelement preparations containing metal nanoparticles and their agglomerates had potential. Morphological and functional changes in tissues in the injection site and dynamics of chemical element metabolism (25 indicators) in body were assessed after repeated intramuscular injections (total, 7) with preparation containing agglomerate of iron nanoparticles. As a result, iron depot was formed in myosymplasts of injection sites. The quantity of muscle fibers having positive Perls' stain increased with increasing number of injections. However, the concentration of the most chemical elements and iron significantly decreased in the whole skeletal muscle system (injection sites are not included). Consequently, it increased up to the control level after the sixth and the seventh injections. Among the studied organs (liver, kidneys, and spleen), Caspase-3 expression was revealed only in spleen. The expression had a direct dependence on the number of injections. Processes of iron elimination from preparation containing nanoparticles and their agglomerates had different intensity. PMID:25789310

  20. Identification and characterization of rat Bcl9l gene in silico.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Yuriko; Katoh, Masaru

    2005-03-01

    Drosophila wingless (wg), shaggy (sgg), armadillo (arm), legless (lgs), pygopus (pygo), pangolin (pan), and engrailed (en) are segment polarity genes implicated in Wg-Arm (WNT-beta-catenin) pathway. Drosophila lgs encodes nuclear scaffold protein functioning as positive regulator for Wg-Arm pathway. Cancer-associated genes BCL9 and BCL9L are human homologs for Drosophila lgs. Here, we identified and characterized rat Bcl9l gene by using bioinformatics. Rat Bcl9l gene, consisting of eight exons, was located within AC124034.4 and AC105645.5 genome sequences. Bcl9l gene was linked to Blr1 gene at rat chromosome 8q22 in the tail-to-tail manner with an interval less than 2 kb. Rat Bcl9l gene was found to encode a 1494-aa Bcl9l protein, which showed 97.7% and 94.2% total-amino-acid identity with mouse Bcl9l and human BCL9L, respectively. B9H1-B9H6 domains, originally identified as conserved regions among mammalian BCL9 and BCL9L homologs, were also identified within rat Bcl9l. B9H1 and B9H2 domains corresponded to HD1 and HD2 domains of Drosophila lgs, functioning as binding regions for Pygo and Arm, respectively. B9H4 domain was characterized by multiple Ser-Pro repeats. Thr 954 within B9H4 domain of rat Bcl9l was conserved in mammalian BCL9 and BCL9L homologs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that mammalian Bcl9l homologs were more related to human BCL9 than to Drosophila lgs. This is the first report on rat Bcl9l gene. PMID:15703843

  1. Morphological, biochemical, and histopathological indices and contaminant burdens of cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) at three hazardous waste sites near Houston, Texas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Flickinger, Edward L.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Male cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) were studied at three industrial waste sites near Houston, Texas, to determine whether various morphological, biochemical, and histopathological indices provided evidence of contaminant exposure and toxic insult. Only modest changes were detected in cotton rats residing at waste sites compared with reference sites. No single parameter was consistently altered, except hepatic cytochrome P-450 concentration which was lower ( [Formula: see text] ) at two waste sites, and tended to be lower ( [Formula: see text] ) at a third waste site. Elevated petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations were detected in rats at one waste site, but contaminant burdens of rats from the other sites were unremarkable. Unlike rats captured in summer, those trapped in winter exhibited hepatocellular hypertrophy and up to a 65% increase in liver: body weight ratio, cytochrome P-450 concentration, and activities of aniline hydroxylase, aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase, and glutathione S-transferase. Although genotoxicity has been previously documented in cotton rats residing at two of the waste sites, biomarkers in the present study provided little evidence of exposure and damage

  2. Studies on the mechanism of 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea (CCNU)-induced hepatotoxicity. II. Biochemical and morphological characterization of the injury and its prevention by phenobarbital.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, A E; Grissom, M; el-Azhary, R; Haque, A; Boor, P J; Costanzi, J

    1987-01-01

    The present study characterizes the biochemical, morphological, and histological sites of CCNU-induced hepatotoxicity and investigates the effect of modifiers of drug metabolism on this toxicity. A single oral dose (100 mg/kg) of CCNU caused four- and ninefold increases in serum GOT and GPT respectively 48 h after administration in rats. A 25-fold rise in serum bilirubin, a total loss of bile flow, and a decrease in BSP clearance were also observed. Cytochrome P-450 content and EM-N-demethylase activity were significantly decreased to 88% and 66% of control values respectively. A histopathological time course study of CCNU-induced injury showed a progression of acute inflammation, edema, and fibrin deposition in portal areas over 24 h with necrosis and sloughing of bile duct epithelium at 24 and 36 h. Treatment of rats with PB (40 mg/kg/day for 4 days, i.p.) 24 h prior to CCNU administration protected against CCNU-induced hepatotoxicity. Thus, the levels of serum GOT, GPT, and bilirubin were only 2.5 and 4 times higher than in untreated or PB-treated controls. Histopathological examination also showed reduced severity of bile duct lesions in PB-pretreated animals. In rats receiving both PB and CCNU, bile flow was restored and BSP clearance was increased compared to the CCNU-treated rats. The mixed-function oxidase activity in PB + CCNU-treated rats was not significantly different from that in PB-treated controls. It is concluded that pretreatment of rats with PB can markedly suppress the hepatotoxic manifestations, including histopathological changes, the rise in serum bilirubin, and the cholestasis observed in CCNU-treated rats. PMID:3105904

  3. Characterizing olfactory binary mixture interactions in Fischer 344 rats using behavioral reaction times.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Wendy M; Gaynor, Leslie; Windham, Ethan; Lyman, Michelle; Munizza, Olivia; Setlow, Barry; Bizon, Jennifer L; Smith, David W

    2015-06-01

    Response times provide essential subthreshold perceptual data that extend beyond accuracy alone. Behavioral reaction times (RTs) were used to characterize rats' ability to detect individual odorants in a series of complimentary binary odorant mixture ratios. We employed an automated, liquid-dilution olfactometer to train Fischer 344 rats (N = 8) on an odor identification task using nonreinforced probe trials. Binary mixture ratios composed of aliphatic odorants (citral and octanol) were arranged such that relative contributions of the 2 components varied systematically by a factor of 1% (v/v). Odorant concentrations for the target (S+), control (S-), and mixture (S+:S-) odorants were presented relative to threshold for each rat. Rats were initially trained to respond by licking at a spout to obtain liquid reward for either citral or octanol as the reinforced target (S+) odorant. After achieving 100% accuracy, rats were transferred to variable ratio (VR 2) reinforcement for correct responding. Nonreinforced probe trials (2 per block of 22 trials) were tested for each mixture ratio and recorded as either S+ (rats lick-responded in the presence of the mixture) or S- (rats refrained from licking), thereby indicating detection of the trained, S+ odorant. To determine the perceived salience for each ratio, RTs (latency from odorant onset to lick response) were recorded for each trial. Consistent with previous studies, RTs for both odorants were shortest (~150-200ms) when the probe trials consisted of a single, monomolecular component. Binary mixtures that contained as little as 1% of the S-, nontarget odorant, however, were sufficiently different perceptually to increase behavioral RTs (i.e., rats hesitated longer before responding); RTs changed systematically as a function of the binary ratio. Interestingly, the rate of RT change was dependent on which odorant served as the S+, suggesting an asymmetric interaction between the 2 odorants. The data demonstrate the value of behavioral RT as a sensitive measure of suprathreshold perceptual responding. PMID:25877697

  4. Cloning, expression, and functional characterization of the rat Pax6 5a orthologous splicing variant.

    PubMed

    Wei, Fei; Li, Min; Cheng, Sai-Yu; Wen, Liang; Liu, Ming-Hua; Shuai, Jie

    2014-08-15

    Pax6 functions as a pleiotropic regulator in eye development and neurogenesis. Its splice variant Pax6 5a has been cloned in many vertebrate species including human and mouse, but never in rat. This study focused on the cloning and characterization of the Pax6 5a orthologous splicing variant in rat. It was cloned from Sprague-Dawley rats 10 days post coitum (E10) by RT-PCR and was sequenced for comparison with Pax6 sequences in the GenBank by BLAST. The rat Pax6 5a was revealed to contain an additional 42 bp insertion at the paired domain. At the nucleotide level, the rat Pax6 5a coding sequence (1,311 bp) had a higher degree of homology to the mouse (96% identical) than to the human (93% identical) sequence. At the amino acid (aa) level, rat PAX6 5a shares 99.8% identity with the mouse sequence and 99.5% with the human sequence. The splice variant is preferentially expressed in the rat E10 embryonic headfolds and not in the trunk of neurula. Its effects on the proliferation of rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) were preliminarily evaluated by the MTT assay. Both pLEGFP-Pax6 5a-transfected cells and pLEGFP-Pax6-transfected cells exhibited a similar growth curve (P>0.05), suggesting that the Pax6 5a has a similar effect on the proliferation of rMSCs as Pax6. PMID:24952136

  5. Morphology of P2X3-immunoreactive nerve endings in the rat laryngeal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Natsumi; Nakamuta, Nobuaki; Yamamoto, Yoshio

    2016-02-01

    The morphological characteristics of P2X3-immunoreactive nerve endings in the laryngeal mucosa were herein examined using immunohistochemistry with confocal laser microscopy. Ramified intraepithelial nerve endings immunoreactive to P2X3 were distributed in the epiglottis and arytenoid region. The axon terminals of P2X3-immunoreactive ramified endings were beaded or flat in shape. These endings were also immunoreactive to P2X2 and not identical to the nerve endings immunoreactive to Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase ?3-subunit, substance P (SP), and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). P2X3-immunoreactive axon terminals were also immunoreactive to vGLUT1, vGLUT2, and vGLUT3. In addition to ramified endings, P2X3-immunoreactive nerve endings were associated with ?-gustducin-immunoreactive solitary chemosensory cells and/or SNAP25-immunoreactive neuroendocrine cells. Furthermore, P2X3-immunoreactive nerve endings were also observed in the taste bud-like chemosensory cell clusters of the stratified squamous epithelium covering epiglottic and arytenoid cartilage. The P2X3-immunoreactive nerve endings that associated with sensory and/or endocrine cells and chemosensory cell clusters were also immunoreactive to P2X2, vGLUT1, vGLUT2, and vGLUT3, but not to SP or CGRP. In conclusion, P2X3-immunoreactive nerve endings may be classified into two types, i.e., intraepithelial ramified nerve endings and nerve endings associated with chemosensory cells and neuroendocrine cells. PMID:26475709

  6. Voluntary exercise partially reverses neonatal alcohol-induced deficits in mPFC layer II/III dendritic morphology of male adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, G F; Criss, K J; Klintsova, A Y

    2015-08-01

    Developmental alcohol exposure in humans can produce a wide range of deficits collectively referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). FASD-related impairments in executive functioning later in life suggest long-term damage to the prefrontal cortex (PFC). In rodent neonates, moderate to high levels of alcohol exposure decreased frontal lobe brain size and altered medial PFC pyramidal neuron dendritic morphology. Previous research in our lab demonstrated that neonatal alcohol exposure decreased basilar dendritic complexity but did not affect spine density in Layer II/III pyramidal neurons in 26- to 30-day-old rats. The current study adds to the literature by evaluating the effect of neonatal alcohol exposure on mPFC Layer II/III basilar dendritic morphology in adolescent male rats. Additionally, it examines the potential for voluntary exercise to mitigate alcohol-induced deficits on mPFC dendritic complexity. An animal model of binge drinking during the third trimester of pregnancy was used. Rats were intubated with alcohol (alcohol-exposed, AE; 5.25 g kg(-1) day(-1)) on postnatal days (PD) 4-9; two control groups were included (suckle control and sham-intubated). Rats were anesthetized and perfused with heparinized saline solution on PD 42, and brains were processed for Golgi-Cox staining. Developmental alcohol exposure decreased spine density and dendritic complexity of basilar dendrites of Layer II/III neurons in the medial PFC (mPFC) compared to dendrites of control animals. Voluntary exercise increased spine density and dendritic length in AE animals resulting in elimination of the differences between AE and SH rats. Thus, voluntary exercise during early adolescence selectively rescued alcohol-induced morphological deficits in the mPFC. PMID:25967699

  7. Characterization of pulmonary surfactant from ox, rabbit, rat and sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Harwood, J L; Desai, R; Hext, P; Tetley, T; Richards, R

    1975-01-01

    1. Pulmonary surfactants from ox, rabbit, rat and sheep were isolated and analysed. 2. All preparations had a high anenoic phosphatidylcholine content and would produce stable surface tensions of 0.01 Nm-1 or less. 3. Protein content was 8-18% of the dry weights. A number of proteins were observed; their overall composition were high in hydrophobic amino acid residues. 4. Lipid content varied from 79% (ox) to 90% (rabbit) with phosphatidylcholine representing from 58% (sheep) to 83% (rabbit) of the total lipid. The surfactant preparations were rather similar in lipid composition except that sheep surfactant contained about 10% lysophosphatidylcholine. 5. Hexadecanoic acid was the principal fatty acid. It was particularly high in phosphatidylcholine. 6. Phosphatidylglycerol was a minor constituent of all surfactants but phosphatidyldimethylethanolamine was not detected. PMID:1243652

  8. Pharmacological characterization of the sulphonylurea receptor in rat isolated aorta

    PubMed Central

    Lffler, Cornelia; Quast, Ulrich

    1997-01-01

    The binding of the sulphonylurea [3H]-glibenclamide, a blocker of adenosine 5?-triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive K+ channels (KATP channels), was studied in endothelium-denuded rings from rat aorta.[3H]-glibenclamide labelled two classes of binding sites with KD values of 205?nM and 321??M. The high affinity component, which comprised 17% of total binding at 1?nM [3H]-glibenclamide, had an estimated binding capacity of 150?fmol?mg?1 wet weight.Other sulphonylureas such as glipizide and glibornuride and the sulphonylurea-related carboxylate, AZ-DF 265, inhibited high affinity [3H]-glibenclamide binding with the potencies expected from their K+ channel activity. At very high concentrations, AZ-DF 265 and glipizide started to interact also with the low affinity component of [3H]-glibenclamide binding.Openers of the ATP-sensitive K+ channel belonging to different structural groups inhibited only the high affinity [3H]-glibenclamide binding; the potencies in this assay were similar to those obtained in functional (i.e. vasorelaxation) studies.High affinity [3H]-glibenclamide binding was abolished by prolonged hypoxia combined with metabolic inhibition.The data indicate that the high affinity component of [3H]-glibenclamide binding mediates the block of the KATP channel by the sulphonylureas in rat aorta; hence, it represents the sulphonylurea receptor in this vessel. The pharmacological properties of this binding site resemble those of the binding site for the openers of the KATP channel; present evidence suggests that these two classes of sites are negatively allosterically coupled. PMID:9031752

  9. Characterization of a rat osteotomy model with impaired healing

    PubMed Central

    Kratzel, Christine; Bergmann, Camilla; Duda, Georg; Greiner, Stefan; Schmidmaier, Gerhard; Wildemann, Britt

    2008-01-01

    Background Delayed union or nonunion are frequent and feared complications in fracture treatment. Animal models of impaired bone healing are rare. Moreover, specific descriptions are limited although understanding of the biological course of pathogenesis of fracture nonunion is essential for therapeutic approaches. Methods A rat tibial osteotomy model with subsequent intramedullary stabilization was performed. The healing progress of the osteotomy model was compared to a previously described closed fracture model. Histological analyses, biomechanical testing and radiological screening were undertaken during the observation period of 84 days (d) to verify the status of the healing process. In this context, particular attention was paid to a comparison of bone slices by histological and immunohistological (IHC) methods at early points in time, i.e. at 5 and 10 d post bone defect. Results In contrast to the closed fracture technique osteotomy led to delayed union or nonunion until 84 d post intervention. The dimensions of whole reactive callus and the amounts of vessels in defined regions of the callus differed significantly between osteotomized and fractured animals at 10 d post surgery. A lower fraction of newly formed bone and cartilaginous tissue was obvious during this period in osteotomized animals and more inflammatory cells were observed in the callus. Newly formed bone tissue accumulated slowly on the anterior tibial side with both techniques. New formation of reparative cartilage was obviously inhibited on the anterior side, the surgical approach side, in osteotomized animals only. Conclusion Tibial osteotomy with intramedullary stabilisation in rats leads to pronounced delayed union and nonunion until 84 d post intervention. The early onset of this delay can already be detected histologically within 10 d post surgery. Moreover, the osteotomy technique is associated with cellular and vascular signs of persistent inflammation within the first 10 d after bone defect and may be a contributory factor to impaired healing. The model would be excellent to test agents to promote fracture healing. PMID:18842126

  10. Purification and characterization of rat liver nuclear thyroid hormone receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Ichikawa, K.; DeGroot, L.J.

    1987-05-01

    Nuclear thyroid hormone receptor hormone receptor was purified to 904 pmol of L-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) binding capacity per mg of protein with 2.5-5.2% recovery. Assuming that one T3 molecule binds to the 49,000-Da unit of the receptor, the authors reproducibly obtained 6.4-14.7 ..mu..g of receptor protein with 4.2-4.9% purity from 4-5 kg of rat liver. Elution of receptor from the heparin-Sepharose column was performed using 10 mM pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. This effect was specific for pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, since related compounds were not effective. Purified receptor bound T3 with high affinity, and the order of affinity of iodothyronine analogues to purified receptor was identical to that observed with crude receptor preparations. Purified receptor had a sedimentation coefficient of 3.4 S, Stokes radius of 34 A, and calculated molecular mass of 49,000. Among several bands identified by silver staining after electrophoresis in NaDodSO/sub 4//polyacrylamide gels, one 49,000-Da protein showed photoaffinity labeling with (/sup 125/I)thyroxine that was displaceable with excess unlabeled T3. The tryptic fragment and endogenous proteinase-digested fragment of the affinity-labeled receptor showed saturable binding in 27,000-Da and 36,000-Da peptides, respectively. These molecular masses are in agreement with estimates from gel filtration and gradient sedimentation, indicating that affinity labeling occurred at the hormone binding domain of nuclear thyroid hormone receptor. This procedure reproducibly provides classical native rat liver T3 nuclear receptor in useful quantity and purity and of the highest specific activity so far reported.

  11. Biological effects of short-term, high-concentration exposure to methyl isocyanate. V. Morphologic evaluation of rat and guinea pig lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, E.H.; Dodd, D.E.; Troup, C.M.

    1987-06-01

    The morphologic changes induced in the lungs of rats and guinea pigs exposed to high concentrations of MIC vapor (100, 600, and 1000 ppm in the rat and 25, 125, 225, and 675 ppm in the guinea pig) for a short time (15 min) in a static exposure chamber were evaluated at varying postexposure periods (0, 1, 2, and 4, and 16 hr). The 675 ppm-exposed guinea pigs were evaluated only immediately following removal from the chamber. Attention was primarily focused on the intrapulmonary conducting airways and the parenchyma (gas exchange region) of the lungs. The severity of morphologic changes observed by light microscopy was directly correlated with exposure concentration and time postexposure in both species. Specifically, degenerative changes were observed in the bronchial, bronchiolar, and alveolar epithelium in both species. Quantitative differences were observed; 100 ppm of MIC in the rat resulted in much less damage than did 125 ppm of MIC in the guinea pig. Morphologic evidence of sloughing of large sheets of conducting airway epithelium with fibrin buildup and increased mucus production resulted in plugging of major airways and atelectasis. These observations support the hypothesis that tissue hypoxia was a major contributing factor resulting in death.

  12. Characterization of biliary conjugates of 4,4'-methylenedianiline in male versus female rats

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Kan; Cole, Richard B.; Santa Cruz, Vicente; Blakeney, Ernest W.; Kanz, Mary F.; Dugas, Tammy R.

    2008-10-15

    4,4'-Methylenedianiline (4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane; DAPM) is an aromatic diamine used in the production of numerous polyurethane foams and epoxy resins. Previous studies in rats revealed that DAPM initially injures biliary epithelial cells of the liver, that the toxicity is greater in female than in male rats, and that the toxic metabolites of DAPM are excreted into bile. Since male and female rats exhibit differences in the expression of both phase I and phase II enzymes, our hypothesis was that female rats either metabolize DAPM to more toxic metabolites or have a decreased capacity to conjugate metabolites to less toxic intermediates. Our objective was thus to isolate, characterize, and quantify DAPM metabolites excreted into bile in both male and female bile duct-cannulated Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were gavaged with [{sup 14}C]-DAPM, and the collected bile was subjected to reversed-phase HPLC with radioisotope detection. Peaks eluting from HPLC were collected and analyzed using electrospray MS and NMR spectroscopy. HPLC analysis indicated numerous metabolites in both sexes, but male rats excreted greater amounts of glutathione and glucuronide conjugates than females. Electrospray MS and NMR spectra of HPLC fractions revealed that the most prominent metabolite found in bile of both sexes was a glutathione conjugate of an imine metabolite of a 4'-nitroso-DAPM. Seven other metabolites were identified, including acetylated, cysteinyl-glycine, glutamyl-cysteine, glycine, and glucuronide conjugates. While our prior studies demonstrated increased covalent binding of DAPM in the liver and bile of female compared to male rats, in these studies, SDS-PAGE with autoradiography revealed 4-5 radiolabeled protein bands in the bile of rats treated with [{sup 14}C]-DAPM. In addition, these bands were much more prominent in female than in male rats. These studies thus suggest that a plausible mechanism for the increased sensitivity of female rats to DAPM toxicity may be decreased conjugation of reactive DAPM metabolites, leading to greater levels of protein adduct formation.

  13. Quantitative Characterization of the Influence of the Nanoscale Morphology of Nanostructured Surfaces on Bacterial Adhesion and Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajay Vikram; Vyas, Varun; Patil, Rajendra; Sharma, Vimal; Scopelliti, Pasquale Emanuele; Bongiorno, Gero; Podest, Alessandro; Lenardi, Cristina; Gade, Wasudev Namdev; Milani, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial infection of implants and prosthetic devices is one of the most common causes of implant failure. The nanostructured surface of biocompatible materials strongly influences the adhesion and proliferation of mammalian cells on solid substrates. The observation of this phenomenon has led to an increased effort to develop new strategies to prevent bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation, primarily through nanoengineering the topology of the materials used in implantable devices. While several studies have demonstrated the influence of nanoscale surface morphology on prokaryotic cell attachment, none have provided a quantitative understanding of this phenomenon. Using supersonic cluster beam deposition, we produced nanostructured titania thin films with controlled and reproducible nanoscale morphology respectively. We characterized the surface morphology; composition and wettability by means of atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. We studied how protein adsorption is influenced by the physico-chemical surface parameters. Lastly, we characterized Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus adhesion on nanostructured titania surfaces. Our results show that the increase in surface pore aspect ratio and volume, related to the increase of surface roughness, improves protein adsorption, which in turn downplays bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. As roughness increases up to about 20 nm, bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation are enhanced; the further increase of roughness causes a significant decrease of bacterial adhesion and inhibits biofilm formation. We interpret the observed trend in bacterial adhesion as the combined effect of passivation and flattening effects induced by morphology-dependent protein adsorption. Our findings demonstrate that bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on nanostructured titanium oxide surfaces are significantly influenced by nanoscale morphological features. The quantitative information, provided by this study about the relation between surface nanoscale morphology and bacterial adhesion points towards the rational design of implant surfaces that control or inhibit bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. PMID:21966403

  14. Characterization of Diabetic Neuropathy in the Zucker Diabetic Sprague-Dawley Rat: A New Animal Model for Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Eric P.; Coppey, Lawrence J.; Holmes, Amey; Lupachyk, Sergey; Dake, Brian L.; Oltman, Christine L.; Peterson, Richard G.; Yorek, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Recently a new rat model for type 2 diabetes the Zucker diabetic Sprague-Dawley (ZDSD/Pco) was created. In this study we sought to characterize the development of diabetic neuropathy in ZDSD rats using age-matched Sprague-Dawley rats as a control. Rats were examined at 34 weeks of age 12 weeks after the onset of hyperglycemia in ZDSD rats. At this time ZDSD rats were severely insulin resistant with slowing of both motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities. ZDSD rats also had fatty livers, elevated serum free fatty acids, triglycerides, and cholesterol, and elevated sciatic nerve nitrotyrosine levels. The corneas of ZDSD rats exhibited a decrease in subbasal epithelial corneal nerves and sensitivity. ZDSD rats were hypoalgesic but intraepidermal nerve fibers in the skin of the hindpaw were normal compared to Sprague-Dawley rats. However, the number of Langerhans cells was decreased. Vascular reactivity of epineurial arterioles, blood vessels that provide circulation to the sciatic nerve, to acetylcholine and calcitonin gene-related peptide was impaired in ZDSD rats. These data indicate that ZDSD rats develop many of the neural complications associated with type 2 diabetes and are a good animal model for preclinical investigations of drug development for diabetic neuropathy. PMID:25371906

  15. Molecular and immunocytochemical characterization of primary neuronal cultures from adult rat brain: differential expression of neuronal and glial protein markers

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Balmiki; Bailey, Jason A.; Sarkar, Sumit; Lahiri, Debomoy K

    2010-01-01

    Neurobiological studies using primary neuronal cultures commonly employ fetal-derived neurons, but much less often adult brain-derived neurons. Our goal is to perform morphological and molecular characterization of primary neuronal cultures from adult rat brain, including the relative expression of neuronal and glial cell markers at different time points. We tested the hypothesis that long-term neuronal viability is compatible with glial proliferation in adult neuron culture. We examined neuron culture from adult rat brain, which was maintained at steady state up to 24 days, and characterized them on the basis of cellular, molecular and biochemical properties at different time points of the culture. We identified neuronal and glial cells by both immunocytochemical and western immunoblotting techniques using NSE and Tau as neuronal markers and GFAP as glial protein marker, which revealed the presence of predominantly neuronal cells in the initial phase of the culture and a rise in glial cells from day 12 onwards. Notably, neuronal cells were preserved in the culture along with the glial cells even at day 24. Transfection of the cultured cells with a GFP expression vector and plasmids containing a luciferase reporter gene under control of two different gene promoters demonstrated DNA transfectability. Taken together, these results suggest a differential expression of neuronal and glial cells at different time points and long-term neuronal viability in the presence of glial proliferation. Such adult neurons serve as a suitable system for the application of neurodegenaration models and for drug target discovery in various brain disorders including Alzheimers disease. PMID:19720084

  16. Molecular and immunocytochemical characterization of primary neuronal cultures from adult rat brain: Differential expression of neuronal and glial protein markers.

    PubMed

    Ray, Balmiki; Bailey, Jason A; Sarkar, Sumit; Lahiri, Debomoy K

    2009-11-15

    Neurobiological studies using primary neuronal cultures commonly employ fetal-derived neurons, but much less often adult brain-derived neurons. Our goal is to perform morphological and molecular characterization of primary neuronal cultures from adult rat brain, including the relative expression of neuronal and glial cell markers at different time points. We tested the hypothesis that long-term neuronal viability is compatible with glial proliferation in adult neuron culture. We examined neuron culture from adult rat brain, which was maintained at steady state up to 24 days, and characterized them on the basis of cellular, molecular and biochemical properties at different time points of the culture. We identified neuronal and glial cells by both immunocytochemical and western immunoblotting techniques using NSE and Tau as neuronal markers and GFAP as glial protein marker, which revealed the presence of predominantly neuronal cells in the initial phase of the culture and a rise in glial cells from day 12 onwards. Notably, neuronal cells were preserved in the culture along with the glial cells even at day 24. Transfection of the cultured cells with a GFP expression vector and plasmids containing a luciferase reporter gene under the control of two different gene promoters demonstrated DNA transfectability. Taken together, these results suggest a differential expression of neuronal and glial cells at different time points and long-term neuronal viability in the presence of glial proliferation. Such adult neurons serve as a suitable system for the application of neurodegeneration models and for drug target discovery in various brain disorders including Alzheimer's disease. PMID:19720084

  17. Isolation and characterization of the alpha platelet-derived growth factor receptor from rat olfactory epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, K H; Bowen-Pope, D F; Reed, R R

    1990-01-01

    We have cloned and characterized a new member of the receptor tyrosine kinase family. The cDNA clone, isolated from a rat olfactory cDNA library, has considerable homology to the family of receptors that includes the colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor, the c-kit proto-oncogene, and the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors. Analysis of DNA sequence homology, ligand-binding, and ligand-stimulated phosphorylation data suggests that this clone encodes the rat PDGF-A/B or alpha-receptor. Comparison of its sequence to those of other receptors allows us to postulate a mechanism for receptor dimerization and activation. The expression of the rat alpha-PDGF receptor in nonneuronal cells of the olfactory epithelium and in the olfactory bulb is consistent with a role for PDGF in glial cell generation. Images PMID:2157969

  18. Morphological redescription and molecular characterization of three species of Travassosinematidae (Nematoda: Oxyurida: Thelastomatoidea) from Gryllotalpa africana Beauv (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae)

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Neetu; Chaudhary, Anshu; Singh, Hridaya Shanker

    2013-01-01

    Binema mirzaia (Basir, 1942a) Basir, 1956, Cameronia nisari (Parveen and Jairajpuri, 1985) Adamson and Van Waerebeke, 1992a and Mirzaiella meerutensis Singh and Malti, 2003 are redescribed morphologically along with molecular identification from the intestine of mole cricket Gryllotalpa africana. Molecular characterization was carried out using the D2D3 expansion domains of the 18S ribosomal DNA region. This study first time presents molecular data for the above three nematode species. PMID:24143052

  19. Characterizing Morphology and Erosional Trends of Permafrost Bluffs, Barter Island, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, A.; Erikson, L. H.; Jones, B.; Richmond, B. M.

    2010-12-01

    Recession of coastal permafrost bluffs along portions of the North Slope of Alaska are highly variable, and recent studies have found increased retreat rates since the early 2000s along the western Beaufort Sea coastline, yet the mechanisms and processes driving the increased retreat rates remain poorly understood. The Native village of Kaktovik and adjacent U.S. Air Force radar site are situated on Barter Island and bound by an eroding coastal bluff where attempts to control bluff erosion with shore protection structures were undertaken more than a decade ago. In an effort to gain insight into the physical controls driving or limiting bluff recession in this region, a suite of field data was collected in August 2010 to characterize the beaches, bluffs, and nearshore setting. Data collected at 13 transect locations along the 3 km section of coastal bluffs include general bluff morphology and stratigraphy, detailed surveys of bluff edge and bluff face morphology, sediment grain size of the fronting beach, water/ice content and sediment grain size of the massive ice within the bluffs, and nearshore bathymetry. The bluffs here range in height from a few meters to more than ten meters and consist of a very complex sequence of material ranging from dense marine clay at the base, sands and gravel thought to be of fluvial origin, massive units of sand of unknown origin, massive ice which has recently been interpreted as buried glacial ice, wedge ice, thermokarst cave ice, aeolian silts and sands, and peat. At one site, thermistor arrays were installed to evaluate temperature gradients in response to solar radiation and heat flux transfers through characteristic bluff material. Aerial lidar DEMs obtained in 2009 (USGS) revealed a rise in bluff elevation across the central portion of the island where field observations of bluff stratigraphy showed multi-layered stratification. At the lower elevation outer flanks the exposed bluff face consisted of homogenous layers of sandy-silt below the surface peat layer. Comparison of historical bluff edge lines (1947, 1987, 2003), 2009 lidar derived bluff lines, and differential GPS surveys collected in August 2010 suggest increased erosion rates of the bluff top in recent years near the topographically-higher central portion of the island. Maximum beach widths were observed at the flanks of the island where east-west trending spits have formed, likely by way of longshore transport driven by variations in wave direction at the terminus of the spits. Beach width ranged from a maximum of 80 m at the eastern boundary of the bluffs to no beach in front of the former radar station landfill where shore protection structures are emplaced. Beach surface material consisted of fine sands in the back beach region and gravels to pebble-sized material in the mid-beach and swash zone areas. Primary failure modes of Barter Island bluffs appear to be a combination of thermal degradation and thawing of permafrost in the exposed bluff face, mechanical and thermal niching at the toe, followed by rotational slumping of the higher bluffs near the central portion of the island and block collapse of the lower bluffs at the flanks of the island.

  20. Characterization of the relationship between spontaneous locomotor activity and cardiovascular parameters in conscious freely moving rats.

    PubMed

    Zaretsky, Dmitry V; Zaretskaia, Maria V; DiMicco, Joseph A

    2016-02-01

    In freely behaving rats, variations in heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) are coupled closely with changes in locomotor activity (Act). We have attempted to characterize this relationship mathematically. In 10- and 16-week-old rats, HR, BP and Act were recorded telemetrically every minute for 2days under 12h:12h light-dark cycling. After examining data for individual rats, we found that the relationship between Act and HR could be approximated by the negative exponential function HR(Act)=HRmax-(HRmax-HRmin)?exp(-Act/Acte), where HRmax, HRmin, and Acte are constants. These constants were calculated separately for light and dark periods by non-linear curve fitting. HR corresponding to maximal locomotion was similar during the light and dark phases, while HR at rest during the dark phase was higher than during the light phase. The range of HR variability associated with Act during the dark phase was similar in young and older animals, but minimal HR was significantly lower in older rats. The relationship between Act and BP was approximated with a similar function. We have found no differences between BP at rest and at maximal locomotion between light and dark and between 10-week and 16-week-old rats. Our results indicate that in rats, cardiovascular parameters are coupled to locomotion to a high degree; however both the HR and the BP reach maximal values when locomotor activity is relatively low. We also found that the phase of daily cycle affects HR in conscious rats independent of locomotor activity. PMID:26603274

  1. Construction of two novel reciprocal conplastic rat strains and characterization of cardiac mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Kumarasamy, Sivarajan; Gopalakrishnan, Kathirvel; Abdul-Majeed, Shakila; Partow-Navid, Rod; Farms, Phyllis; Joe, Bina

    2013-01-01

    Because of the lack of appropriate animal models, the potentially causal contributions of inherited mitochondrial genomic factors to complex traits are less well studied compared with inherited nuclear genomic factors. We previously detected variations between the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the Dahl salt-sensitive (S) rat and the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Specifically, multiple variations were detected in mitochondrial genes coding for subunits of proteins essential for electron transport, in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production, and within the D-loop region. To evaluate the effects of these mtDNA variations in the absence of the corresponding nuclear genomic factors as confounding variables, novel reciprocal strains of S and SHR were constructed and characterized. When compared with that of the S rat, the heart tissue from the S.SHR(mt) conplastic strain wherein the mtDNA of the S rat was substituted with that of the SHR had a significant increase in mtDNA copy number and decrease in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production. A corresponding increase in aerobic treadmill running capacity and a significant increase in survival that was not related to changes in blood pressure were observed in the S.SHR(mt) rats compared with the S rat. The reciprocal SHR.S(mt) rats did not differ from the SHR in any phenotype tested, suggesting lower penetrance of the S mtDNA on the nuclear genomic background of the SHR. These novel conplastic strains serve as invaluable tools to further dissect the relationship between heart function, aerobic fitness, cardiovascular disease progression, and mortality. PMID:23125210

  2. Relationships between morphology and physiology of pyramid-pyramid single axon connections in rat neocortex in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Deuchars, J; West, D C; Thomson, A M

    1994-01-01

    1. Double intracellular recordings were made from 1163 pairs of pyramidal neurones in layer V-VI of the rat somatomotor cortex in vitro using sharp electrodes filled with biocytin. Monosynaptically connected pairs of cells were identified when an action potential in one could elicit a constant latency excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) in the other and the cells were filled with biocytin. Labelled cells were subsequently identified histologically with avidin-horseradish peroxidase. 2. Thirty-four pairs of cells were found to be monosynaptically connected. Fifteen of these pairs were sufficiently stable for electrophysiological recordings and three of these were recovered sufficiently to permit full morphological reconstruction. 3. The EPSP recorded between the first pair of pyramids varied in amplitude between 0 and 3 mV (mean 1.33 +/- 1.06 mV) and fluctuated considerably (coefficient of variation, 0.796). This was largely due to a high incidence of apparent failures of transmission. On reconstruction two boutons from the presynaptic pyramid axon were in close apposition to the proximal portions of basal dendrites of the postsynaptic cell. 4. In the second pair of pyramids the EPSP had a mean amplitude of 1.06 mV, and displayed a 10-90% rise time of 2.8 ms and a width at half-amplitude of 23 ms. This EPSP did not alter significantly with changes in membrane potential at the soma. The presynaptic axon closely apposed the distal apical dendrite of the postsynaptic cell in eight places. 5. In the third pair of pyramids, the EPSPs, recorded at a relatively depolarized membrane potential, were long lasting and could elicit slow dendritic spikes with long and variable latencies. These slow spikes suggested that the postsynaptic recording site was dendritic and on reconstruction a possible location was identified on the apical dendrite. A total of five presynaptic boutons closely apposed three separate, proximal branches of the postsynaptic apical dendrite. 6. These results provide the first illustration of a morphological basis for variations in functional properties of pyramid-pyramid connections in the neocortex. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 5 PMID:7965856

  3. Isolation and characterization of the rat huntingtin promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Holzmann, C; Mueler, W; Petersohn, D; Schmidt, T; Thiel, G; Epplen, J T; Riess, O

    1998-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a (CAG)>37 repeat expansion in a novel gene of unknown function. Although the huntingtin gene is expressed in neuronal and non-neuronal tissues, the disease affects nerve cells of selected regional areas of the central nervous system. To gain insight into the regulation of the HD gene we analysed 1348 bp of the rat huntingtin promoter region. This region lacks a TATA and a CAAT box, is rich in GC content and has several consensus sequences for binding sites for SP1, PEA3, Sif and H2A. The stretch between nucleotides -56 and -206 relative to the first ATG is highly conserved between human and rodents and it harbours several potential binding sites for transcription factors. We analysed deletion mutants fused with the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene in transfected, HD-expressing neuronal (NS20Y, NG108-15) and non-neuronal Chinese hamster ovary cell lines. Hence these cells should contain the required trans-acting factors necessary for HD gene expression. Partial deletion of the evolutionarily conserved part of the promoter significantly decreases the activity in both neuronal and non-neuronal cells, indicating that the core promoter activity is located between nucleotides -332 and -15. DNase I footprinting and electrophoretic mobility-shift assays were used to define the nucleotide positions and binding affinity of DNA-protein interactions. PMID:9806905

  4. Characterization of aldose reductase and aldehyde reductase from rat testis.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, N; Tanimoto, T; Tanaka, A

    1989-06-13

    Aldose reductase (alditol:NAD(P)+ 1-oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.21) and aldehyde reductase (alcohol:NADP+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.2) were purified to a homogeneity from rat testis. The molecular weights of aldose reductase and aldehyde reductase were estimated to be 38,000 and 41,000 by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the pI values of these enzymes were found to be 5.3 and 6.1 by chromatofocusing, respectively. Aldose reductase had activity for aldo-sugars such as xylose, glucose and galactose, whereas aldehyde reductase was virtually inactive for these aldo-sugars. The Km values of aldose reductase for aldo-sugars were relatively high. When a correction was made for the fraction of aldo-sugar present as the aldehyde form, which is the real substrate of the enzyme, the Km values were much lower. Aldose reductase utilized both NADPH and NADH as coenzyme, whereas aldehyde reductase utilized only NADPH. Aldose reductase was activated significantly by sulfate ion, while aldehyde reductase was little affected. Both enzymes were inhibited strongly by the known aldose reductase inhibitors. However, aldehyde reductase was in general less susceptible to these inhibitors when compared to aldose reductase. Both aldose reductase and aldehyde reductase treated with pyridoxal 5-phosphate have lost the susceptibility to aldose reductase inhibitor, suggesting that in these two enzymes aldose reductase inhibitor interacts with a lysine residue. PMID:2500152

  5. Golgi fractions prepared from rat liver homogenates. II. Biochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, J J; Ehrenreich, J H; Siekevitz, P; Palade, G E

    1973-10-01

    The three Golgi fractions isolated from rat liver homogenates by the procedure given in the companion paper account for 6-7% of the protein of the total microsomal fraction used as starting preparation. The lightest, most homogeneous Golgi fraction (GF(1)) lacks typical "microsomal" activities, e.g., glucose-6-phosphatase, NADPH-cytochrome c-reductase, and cytochrome P-450. The heaviest, most heterogeneous fraction (GF(3)) is contaminated by endoplasmic reticulum membranes to the extent of approximately 15% of its protein. The three fractions taken together account for nearly all the UDP-galactose: N-acetyl-glucosamine galactosyltransferase of the parent microsomal fraction, and for approximately 70% of the activity of the original homogenate. Omission of the ethanol treatment of the animals reduces the recovery by half. The transferase activity is associated with the membranes of the Golgi elements, not with their content. Galactose is transferred not only to N-acetyl-glucosamine but also to an unidentified lipid-soluble component. PMID:4356572

  6. Purification and characterization of paraoxon hydrolase from rat liver.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, L; Gil, F; Hernandez, A F; Marina, A; Vazquez, J; Pla, A

    1997-02-01

    Paraoxonase (paraoxon hydrolase), an enzyme that hydrolyses paraoxon (O,O-diethyl O-p-nitrophenyl phosphate), is located in mammals primarily in the serum and liver. Although considerable information is available regarding serum paraoxonase, little is known about the hepatic form of this enzyme. The present work represents the first study on the purification of rat liver paraoxonase. This enzyme has been purified 415-fold to apparent homogeneity with a final specific activity of 1370 units/mg using a protocol consisting of five steps: solubilization of the microsomal fraction, hydroxyapatite adsorption, chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B, non-specific affinity chromatography on Cibacron Blue 3GA and anion exchange on Mono Q HR 5/5. The presence of Ca2+ and Triton X-100 in the buffers throughout the purification procedure was essential for maintaining enzyme activity. SDS/PAGE of the final preparation indicated a single protein-staining band with an apparent Mr of 45 000. N-terminal and internal amino acid sequences were determined and compared with those of paraoxonases from human and rabbit serum and mouse liver, showing a high similarity. The pH profile showed optimum activity at pH 8.5. The pH stability and heat inactivation of the enzyme were also studied. The Km for liver paraoxonase was 1.69 mM. PMID:9032442

  7. Structure and characterization of rat cyclin D3 promoter.

    PubMed

    Yang, M; Hosokawa, Y; Kaneko, S; Tanaka, M; Nakashima, K

    1996-11-28

    To investigate the transcription initiation mechanism of the gene encoding cyclin D3, one of the major G1 cyclins to promote the G1/S transition, we cloned the 5' portion of rat cyclin D3 gene and analyzed the promoter region. The major transcription start point of the gene was identified by the primer extension experiment to be 207 bp upstream from the ATG start codon and its promoter region was found to have no canonical TATA box. The DNA mobility shift assay and DNase I footprinting analysis using nuclear extracts from Nb2 cells stimulated by prolactin (PRL) have clearly revealed that the promoter possesses two binding sites for the PRL-induced transcription factors. One is located between -1 and -59 bp (Region I) and the other between -328 and -380 bp (Region II). The induction of transcription factors by PRL was blocked by simultaneous addition of cycloheximide, suggesting that protein synthesis was necessary for the release of these PRL-responsive transcription factors. Region I contained putative binding elements for ATF/CREB, SP1 and AP2, and Region II contained elements for a MCBF/MGF and a novel factor. These results suggest that the cyclin D3 gene is a TATA-less gene whose transcription is regulated by multiple mitogen-inducible transcription factors including an unknown factor. PMID:8973324

  8. Preliminary Characterization of a Leptin Receptor Knockout Rat Created by CRISPR/Cas9 System

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Dan; Ma, Yuanwu; Zhang, Xu; Guan, Feifei; Chen, Wei; Gao, Kai; Qin, Chuan; Zhang, Lianfeng

    2015-01-01

    Leptin receptor, which is encoded by the diabetes (db) gene and is highly expressed in the choroid plexus, regulatesenergy homeostasis, the balance between food intake and energy expenditure, fertility and bone mass. Here, using CRISPR/Cas9 technology, we created the leptin receptor knockout rat. Homozygous leptin receptor null rats are characterized by obesity, hyperphagia, hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia and dyslipidemia. Due to long-term poor glycemic control, the leptin receptor knockout rats also develop some diabetic complications such as pancreatic, hepatic and renal lesions. In addition, the leptin receptor knockout rats show a significant decrease in bone volume and bone mineral density of the femur compared with their wild-type littermates. Our model has rescued some deficiency of the existing rodent models, such as the transient hyperglycemia of db/db mice in the C57BL/6J genetic background and the delayed onset of glucose intolerance in the Zucker rats, and it is proven to be a useful animal model for biomedical and pharmacological research on obesity and diabetes. PMID:26537785

  9. Receptor characterization and susceptibility of cotton rats to avian and 2009 pandemic influenza virus strains.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Jorge C G; Pletneva, Lioubov M; Wan, Hongquan; Araya, Yonas; Angel, Matthew; Oue, Raymonde O; Sutton, Troy C; Perez, Daniel R

    2013-02-01

    Animal influenza viruses (AIVs) are a major threat to human health and the source of pandemic influenza. A reliable small-mammal model to study the pathogenesis of infection and for testing vaccines and therapeutics against multiple strains of influenza virus is highly desirable. We show that cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) are susceptible to avian and swine influenza viruses. Cotton rats express α2,3-linked sialic acid (SA) and α2,6-linked SA residues in the trachea and α2,6-linked SA residues in the lung parenchyma. Prototypic avian influenza viruses (H3N2, H9N2, and H5N1) and swine-origin 2009 pandemic H1N1 viruses replicated in the nose and in the respiratory tract of cotton rats without prior adaptation and produced strong lung pathology that was characterized by early lung neutrophilia, followed by subsequent pneumonia. Consistent with other natural and animal models of influenza, only the H5N1 virus was lethal for cotton rats. More importantly, we show that the different avian and pandemic H1N1 strains tested are strong activators of the type I interferon (IFN)-inducible MX-1 gene both locally and systemically. Our data indicate that the cotton rat is a suitable small-mammal model to study the infection of animal influenza viruses and for validation of vaccines and therapeutics against these viruses. PMID:23192875

  10. Preliminary Characterization of a Leptin Receptor Knockout Rat Created by CRISPR/Cas9 System.

    PubMed

    Bao, Dan; Ma, Yuanwu; Zhang, Xu; Guan, Feifei; Chen, Wei; Gao, Kai; Qin, Chuan; Zhang, Lianfeng

    2015-01-01

    Leptin receptor, which is encoded by the diabetes (db) gene and is highly expressed in the choroid plexus, regulatesenergy homeostasis, the balance between food intake and energy expenditure, fertility and bone mass. Here, using CRISPR/Cas9 technology, we created the leptin receptor knockout rat. Homozygous leptin receptor null rats are characterized by obesity, hyperphagia, hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia and dyslipidemia. Due to long-term poor glycemic control, the leptin receptor knockout rats also develop some diabetic complications such as pancreatic, hepatic and renal lesions. In addition, the leptin receptor knockout rats show a significant decrease in bone volume and bone mineral density of the femur compared with their wild-type littermates. Our model has rescued some deficiency of the existing rodent models, such as the transient hyperglycemia of db/db mice in the C57BL/6J genetic background and the delayed onset of glucose intolerance in the Zucker rats, and it is proven to be a useful animal model for biomedical and pharmacological research on obesity and diabetes. PMID:26537785

  11. Characterization of the rat oral microbiome and the effects of dietary nitrate.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Embriette R; Luk, Berkley; Cron, Stanley; Kusic, Lenka; McCue, Tyler; Bauch, Tonya; Kaplan, Heidi; Tribble, Gena; Petrosino, Joseph F; Bryan, Nathan S

    2014-12-01

    The nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway to nitric oxide (NO) production is a symbiotic pathway in mammals that is dependent on nitrate reducing oral commensal bacteria. Studies suggest that by contributing NO to the mammalian host, the oral microbiome helps maintain cardiovascular health. To begin to understand how changes in oral microbiota affect physiological functions such as blood pressure, we have characterized the Wistar rat nitrate reducing oral microbiome. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and analysis we compare the native Wistar rat tongue microbiome to that of healthy humans and to that of rats with sodium nitrate and chlorhexidine mouthwash treatments. We demonstrate that the rat tongue microbiome is less diverse than the human tongue microbiome, but that the physiological activity is comparable, as sodium nitrate supplementation significantly lowered diastolic blood pressure in Wistar rats and also lowers blood pressure (diastolic and systolic) in humans. We also show for the first time that sodium nitrate supplementation alters the abundance of specific bacterial species on the tongue. Our results suggest that the changes in oral nitrate reducing bacteria may affect nitric oxide availability and physiological functions such as blood pressure. Understanding individual changes in human oral microbiome may offer novel dietary approaches to restore NO availability and blood pressure. PMID:25305639

  12. Continuous Electrical Current and Zinc Sulphate Administered by Transdermal Iontophoresis Improves Skin Healing in Diabetic Rats Induced by Alloxan: Morphological and Ultrastructural Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Colli Rocha Dias, Pedro; Natália Lucchesi, Amanda; Ferraz de Arruda, Maurício; Veruska Paiva Ortolan, Érika; Marques, Mariângela Esther A.; Spadella, César Tadeu

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Evaluated the effects of continuous electrical current (CEC) or zinc administrated by transdermal iontophoresis (Zn+TDI). Methods. 120 male Wistar rats were submitted to an incision surgery at the anterior region of abdomen and distributed into 6 experimental groups with 40 animals: 3 diabetic groups and 3 normal groups, untreated and treated with CEC alone or with Zn + TDI. Each group was further divided into 4 subgroups with 10 rats each to be evaluated on the 4th, 7th, 14th, and 21st day after surgery. In each period, clinical and laboratory parameters from the animals were analyzed. Results. The analysis by optical and scanning electron microscopy showed a delay in the phases of wound healing in diabetic rats without treatment in all periods of the experiment; breaking strength (BS) was significantly reduced in skin scars of untreated diabetic rats when compared to other groups. In contrast, BS in skin scars of nondiabetic groups and diabetic rats treated with Zn + TDI showed significant increase in those, besides not presenting delayed healing. Conclusion. Electrical stimulation of surgical wounds used alone or in association with zinc by TDI is able to consistently improve the morphological and ultrastructural changes observed in the healing of diabetic animals. PMID:25254221

  13. Experimental alveolitis in rats: microbiological, acute phase response and histometric characterization of delayed alveolar healing

    PubMed Central

    RODRIGUES, Moacyr Tadeu Vicente; CARDOSO, Camila Lopes; de CARVALHO, Paulo Srgio Perri; CESTARI, Tnia Mary; FERES, Magda; GARLET, Gustavo Pompermaier; FERREIRA JNIOR, Osny

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenesis of alveolitis is not well known and therefore experimental situations that mimic some features of this disease should be developed. Objective In this study, the evolution of the experimentally induced infection in rat sockets is characterized, which leads to clinical signs of suppurative alveolitis with remarkable wound healing disturbs. Material and methods Non-infected (Group I) and experimentally infected sockets in Rattus novergicus (Group II) were histometrically evaluated regarding the kinetics of alveolar healing. In addition, the characterization of the present bacteria in inoculation material and the serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) were performed. The detected species were Capnocytophaga ochracea, Fusobacterium nucleatum ss nucleatum, Prevotella melaninogenica, Streptococcus anginosus, Treponema socranskii and Streptococcus sanguis. Results All experimentally infected rats developed suppurative alveolitis, showing higher levels of CRP in comparison to those non-infected ones. Furthermore, infected rats presented a significant delayed wound healing as measured by the histometric analysis (higher persistent polymorphonuclear infiltrate and lower density of newly formed bone). Conclusion These findings indicate that rat sockets with experimentally induced infection produced higher levels of serum CRP, showing the potential of disseminated infection and a disturb in the alveolar repair process in an interesting experimental model for alveolitis studies. PMID:21625744

  14. Exercise training and detraining modify the morphological and mechanical properties of single cardiac myocytes obtained from spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Carneiro-Júnior, M A; Pelúzio, M C G; Silva, C H O; Amorim, P R S; Silva, K A; Souza, M O; Castro, C A; Roman-Campos, D; Prímola-Gomes, T N; Natali, A J

    2010-11-01

    We determined the effects of exercise training and detraining on the morphological and mechanical properties of left ventricular myocytes in 4-month-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) randomly divided into the following groups: sedentary for 8 weeks (SED-8), sedentary for 12 weeks (SED-12), treadmill-running trained for 8 weeks (TRA, 16 m/min, 60 min/day, 5 days/week), and treadmill-running trained for 8 weeks followed by 4 weeks of detraining (DET). At sacrifice, left ventricular myocytes were isolated enzymatically, and resting cell length, width, and cell shortening after stimulation at a frequency of 1 Hz (~25°C) were measured. Cell length was greater in TRA than in SED-8 (161.30 ± 1.01 vs 156.10 ± 1.02 μm, P < 0.05, 667 vs 618 cells, respectively) and remained larger after detraining. Cell width and volume were unaffected by either exercise training or detraining. Cell length to width ratio was higher in TRA than in SED-8 (8.50 ± 0.08 vs 8.22 ± 0.10, P < 0.05) and was maintained after detraining. Exercise training did not affect cell shortening, which was unchanged with detraining. TRA cells exhibited higher maximum velocity of shortening than SED-8 (102.01 ± 4.50 vs 82.01 ± 5.30 μm/s, P < 0.05, 70 cells per group), with almost complete regression after detraining. The maximum velocity of relengthening was higher in TRA cells than in SED-8 (88.20 ± 4.01 vs70.01 ± 4.80 μm/s, P < 0.05), returning to sedentary values with detraining. Therefore, exercise training affected left ventricle remodeling in SHR towards eccentric hypertrophy, which remained after detraining. It also improved single left ventricular myocyte contractile function, which was reversed by detraining. PMID:21049244

  15. Spatial and temporal morphological changes in the subarachnoid space after graded spinal cord contusion in the rat.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Alva, Horacio J; Franco-Bourland, Rebecca E; Martinez-Cruz, Angelina; Grijalva, Israel; Madrazo, Ignacio; Guizar-Sahagun, Gabriel

    2013-06-15

    Spontaneous repair or treatment-induced recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) is very limited and might be related to extramedullary alterations that have only briefly been documented. Here we report on the morphological changes of the spinal subarachnoid space (SAS) in a clinically relevant model of SCI. Anesthetized rats were subjected either to mild or severe spinal cord contusion at T9. Spine blocks from the site of injury and adjacent segments were harvested at acute (1 h and 1 day [d]), subacute (3 and 7 d), and chronic (1 and 3 months) stages post-injury. Histopathology and morphometry at each decalcified vertebral level were assessed. At acute and subacute stages, reduction of SAS lumen was observed after both mild and severe injuries. Acutely, after severe injuries, SAS occlusion was associated mainly with cord swelling and subarachnoid hematomas; a trend for dural sac constriction was observed for mild injuries. At 7 d, cord swelling diminished in both instances, but dural sac constriction increased for severe injuries. At early stages, in the epicenter and vicinity, histopathology revealed compression of neurovascular elements within the SAS, which was more intense in severe than in mild injuries. In the chronic stage, SAS lumen increased notably, mostly from cord atrophy, despite dural sac constriction. Myelograms complemented observations made on SAS lumen permeability. Post-traumatic arachnoiditis occurred mainly in animals with severe injury. In conclusion, early extramedullary SAS changes described here might be expected to produce alterations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics and cord blood perfusion, thereby contributing to the pathophysiology of SCI and becoming novel targets for treatment. PMID:23472674

  16. Spatial and Temporal Morphological Changes in the Subarachnoid Space after Graded Spinal Cord Contusion in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Alva, Horacio J.; Franco-Bourland, Rebecca E.; Martinez-Cruz, Angelina; Grijalva, Israel; Madrazo, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Spontaneous repair or treatment-induced recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) is very limited and might be related to extramedullary alterations that have only briefly been documented. Here we report on the morphological changes of the spinal subarachnoid space (SAS) in a clinically relevant model of SCI. Anesthetized rats were subjected either to mild or severe spinal cord contusion at T9. Spine blocks from the site of injury and adjacent segments were harvested at acute (1?h and 1 day [d]), subacute (3 and 7 d), and chronic (1 and 3 months) stages post-injury. Histopathology and morphometry at each decalcified vertebral level were assessed. At acute and subacute stages, reduction of SAS lumen was observed after both mild and severe injuries. Acutely, after severe injuries, SAS occlusion was associated mainly with cord swelling and subarachnoid hematomas; a trend for dural sac constriction was observed for mild injuries. At 7 d, cord swelling diminished in both instances, but dural sac constriction increased for severe injuries. At early stages, in the epicenter and vicinity, histopathology revealed compression of neurovascular elements within the SAS, which was more intense in severe than in mild injuries. In the chronic stage, SAS lumen increased notably, mostly from cord atrophy, despite dural sac constriction. Myelograms complemented observations made on SAS lumen permeability. Post-traumatic arachnoiditis occurred mainly in animals with severe injury. In conclusion, early extramedullary SAS changes described here might be expected to produce alterations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics and cord blood perfusion, thereby contributing to the pathophysiology of SCI and becoming novel targets for treatment. PMID:23472674

  17. Chemical, dimensional and morphological ultrafine particle characterization from a waste-to-energy plant.

    PubMed

    Buonanno, Giorgio; Stabile, Luca; Avino, Pasquale; Belluso, Elena

    2011-11-01

    Waste combustion processes are responsible of particles and gaseous emissions. Referring to the particle emission, in the last years specific attention was paid to ultrafine particles (UFPs, diameter less than 0.1 ?m), mainly emitted by combustion processes. In fact, recent findings of toxicological and epidemiological studies indicate that fine and ultrafine particles could represent a risk for health and environment. Therefore, it is necessary to quantify particle emissions from incinerators also to perform an exposure assessment for the human populations living in their surrounding areas. To these purposes, in the present work an experimental campaign aimed to monitor UFPs was carried out at the incineration plant in San Vittore del Lazio (Italy). Particle size distributions and total concentrations were measured both at the stack and before the fabric filter inlet in order to evaluate the removal efficiency of the filter in terms of UFPs. A chemical characterization of UFPs in terms of heavy metal concentration was performed through a nuclear method, i.e., Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), as well as a mineralogical investigation was carried out through a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) equipped with an Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) in order to evaluate shape, crystalline state and mineral compound of sampled particles. Maximum values of 2.7 10(7) part. cm(-3) and 2.0 10(3) part. cm(-3) were found, respectively, for number concentration before and after the fabric filter showing a very high efficiency in particle removing by the fabric filter. With regard to heavy metal concentrations, the elements with higher boiling temperature present higher concentrations at lower diameters showing a not complete evaporation in the combustion section and the consequent condensation of semi-volatile compounds on solid nuclei. In terms of mineralogical and morphological analysis, the most abundant compounds found in samples collected before the fabric filter are Na-K-Pb oxides followed by phyllosilicates, otherwise, different oxides of comparable abundance were detected in the samples collected at the stack. PMID:21802934

  18. Morphological characterization of immortalized hypothalamic neurons synthesizing luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone.

    PubMed

    Liposits, Z; Merchenthaler, I; Wetsel, W C; Reid, J J; Mellon, P L; Weiner, R I; Negro-Vilar, A

    1991-09-01

    An immortalized LHRH cell line has recently been developed by genetically targeting these neurons for tumorigenesis. One of the subclones, the GT1-7 cells, was characterized at both the light and electron microscopic levels to study the cellular and subcellular organization of these cells, particularly as they relate to biosynthesis, processing, and secretion. The cells were fixed onto slides 18-36 h after plating. LHRH and GnRH-associated peptide (GAP) immunoreactivities (IR) were detected by immunocytochemistry using colloidal gold labeling. These cultured cells exhibited the classical neuronal appearance of LHRH neurons, and they established numerous interconnections. Neighboring neurons were coupled by tight junctions, while more distant cells were interconnected with neural axon-like processes and collaterals. This cellular organization is suggestive of a neural network where neuronal activity is coordinated. At the ultrastructural level, the nondividing cells possessed indented nuclei, well developed Golgi complexes, and abundant numbers of ribosomes and secretory granules. Clathrin-coated vesicles were found in fusion with the plasma membrane. The ribosomes and secretory vesicles were particularly prominent, suggestive of high rates of protein biosynthesis and secretion. All of the cells immunostained for both LHRH and GAP; however, GAP IR was always more pronounced than that for LHRH. This finding was corroborated by biochemical data reported in a companion paper. The GAP IR was associated with ribosomes and secretory vesicles. By comparison, LHRH IR was restricted mainly to the secretory vesicles. Using colloidal gold particles of different sizes to denote LHRH or GAP IR, it was determined that both GAP and LHRH IR were colocalized within the same secretory vesicle. Taken together, these data suggest that pro-LHRH is biosynthesized on the ribosomes, packaged as an intact protein into the secretory vesicles, processed to LHRH and GAP-(1-56) within these vesicles, and transported to the periphery of the cell in preparation for secretion. These morphological data emphasize the utility of using these immortalized LHRH neuronal cells to dissect the cellular and subcellular architecture involved in biosynthesis, processing, and secretion. In addition, our results provide the first detailed evidence for the intracellular pathway involved in pro-LHRH biosynthesis, processing, and secretion in these cultured neuronal cells. PMID:1874189

  19. Purification and characterization of autophagosomes from rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Strmhaug, P E; Berg, T O; Fengsrud, M; Seglen, P O

    1998-01-01

    To investigate the properties and intracellular origin of autophagosomes, a procedure for the purification and isolation of these organelles from rat liver has been developed. Isolated hepatocytes were incubated with vinblastine to induce autophagosome accumulation; the cells were then homogenized and treated with the cathepsin C substrate glycyl-l-phenylalanine 2-naphthylamide to cause osmotic disruption of the lysosomes. Nuclei were removed by differential centrifugation, and the postnuclear supernatant was fractionated on a discontinuous Nycodenz density gradient. The autophagosomes, recognized by their content of autophagocytosed lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), could be recovered in an intermediate-density fraction, free from cytosol and mitochondria. Finally, the autophagosomes were separated from the endoplasmic reticulum and other membranous elements by centrifugation in a Percoll colloidal density gradient, followed by flotation in iodixanol to remove the Percoll particles. The final autophagosome preparation represented a 24-fold purification of autophagocytosed LDH relative to intact cells, with a 12% recovery. The purified autophagosomes contained sequestered cytoplasm with a normal ultrastructure, including mitochondria, peroxisomes and endoplasmic reticulum in the same proportions as in intact cells. However, immunoblotting indicated a relative absence of cytoskeletal elements (tubulin, actin and cytokeratin), which may evade autophagic sequestration. The autophagosomes showed no enrichment in protein markers typical of lysosomes (acid phosphatase, cathepsin B, lysosomal glycoprotein of 120 kDa), endosomes (early-endosome-associated protein 1, cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor, asialoglycoprotein receptor) or endoplasmic reticulum (esterase, glucose-regulated protein of 78 kDa, protein disulphide isomerase), suggesting that the sequestering membranes are not derived directly from any of these organelles, but rather represent unique organelles (phagophores). PMID:9761717

  20. Characterization and subcellular localization of Tektin 3 in rat spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Takiguchi, Hiroe; Murayama, Emi; Kaneko, Takane; Kurio, Hitoshi; Toshimori, Kiyotaka; Iida, Hiroshi

    2011-08-01

    Mammalian sperm flagella have filament-forming Tektin proteins (Tektin 1-5) reported to be involved in the stability and structural complexity of flagella. Male mice null for Tektin3 produce spermatozoa with reduced forward progression and increased flagellar structural bending defects. The subcellular localization of Tektin3 (TEKT3) in spermatozoa, however, has not been clarified at the ultrastructural level. To elucidate the molecular localization of TEKT3 in flagella of rat spermatozoa, we performed extraction studies followed by immunoblot analysis, immunofluorescence microscopy, and immunogold electron microscopy. Extraction of sperm flagella from the cauda epididymis resulted in complete removal of axonemal tubulins, while TEKT3 was resistant to extraction with the same S-EDTA (1% SDS, 75?mM NaCl, 24?mM EDTA, pH 7.6) solution, suggesting that TEKT3 might be present in the peri-axonemal component and not directly associated with axonemal tubulins. Resistance to S-EDTA extraction might be due to disulfide bond formation during epididymal maturation since concentrations of DTT greater than 5?mM drastically promoted release of TEKT3 from flagella. Immunofluorescence microscopy and pre-embedding immunoelectron microscopy revealed that TEKT3 was predominantly associated with the surface of mitochondria and outer dense fibers in the middle piece. In addition, TEKT3 was found to be present at the equatorial segment region of the acrosome membrane in sperm heads. TEKT3 might not only work as a flagellar constituent required for flagellar stability and sperm motility but also may be involved in acrosome-related events, such as the acrosome reaction or sperm-egg fusion. PMID:21744413

  1. Characterization of oxygenated metabolites of ginsenoside Rb1 in plasma and urine of rat.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Rong; Yau, Lee-Fong; Tong, Tian-Tian; Feng, Qi-Tong; Bai, Li-Ping; Ma, Jing; Hu, Ming; Liu, Liang; Jiang, Zhi-Hong

    2015-03-18

    Oxygenated metabolites have been suggested as the major circulating metabolites of ginsenosides. In the current study, 10 oxygenated metabolites of ginsenoside Rb1 in plasma and urine of rat following iv dose were characterized by comparison with chemically synthesized authentic compounds as quinquenoside L16 (M1 and M2), notoginsenoside A (M3), ginsenoside V (M4 and M7), epoxyginsenoside Rb1 (M5 and M9), notoginsenoside K (M6), and notoginsenoside C (M8 and M10), 9 of which were detected as in vivo metabolites for the first time. After oral administration of ginsenoside Rb1, M3, M4, and M7 were observed as major circulating metabolites and presented in the bloodstream of rat for 24 h. Characterization of the exact chemical structures of these circulating metabolites could contribute greatly to our understanding of chemical exposure of ginsenosides after consumption of ginseng products and provide valuable information for explaining multiple bioactivities of ginseng products. PMID:25737370

  2. New method for fast morphological characterization of organic polycrystalline films by polarized optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiao-Chuan; Yang, Jian-Bing; Yan, Dong-Hang; Weng, Yu-Xiang

    2015-07-01

    A new method to visualize the large-scale crystal grain morphology of organic polycrystalline films is proposed. First, optical anisotropic transmittance images of polycrystalline zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) films vacuum deposited by weak epitaxial growth (WEG) method were acquired with polarized optical microscopy (POM). Then morphology properties including crystal grain size, distribution, relative orientation, and crystallinity were derived from these images by fitting with a transition dipole model. At last, atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging was carried out to confirm the fitting and serve as absolute references. This method can be readily generalized to other organic polycrystalline films, thus providing an efficient way to access the large-scale morphologic properties of organic polycrystalline films, which may prove to be useful in industry as a film quality monitoring method. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 20933010) and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB834800).

  3. Synthesis via a Microwave-Assisted Wet Chemical Method and Characterization of Bi2Te3 with Various Morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Song; Cai, Kefeng; Shen, Shirley

    2016-03-01

    Bi2Te3 with various morphologies, such as microrods, nanoplates, and nanoflowers, has been successfully fabricated by a microwave-assisted method in ethylene glycol solution without any surfactant. The structures and morphologies of the obtained products have been characterized by powder x-ray diffraction and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Based on time-dependent experiments, a possible formation mechanism of the Bi2Te3 has been proposed. The concentration of KOH in the solution controls the rate of the disproportionation reaction of Te and plays an important role in the formation of the various morphologies of Bi2Te3. The electrical properties of bulk Bi2Te3 materials obtained by cold pressing and then vacuum heat treatment of the Bi2Te3 nanostructures with various morphologies have also been investigated. The highest power factor among the studied samples, ˜17.3 μW cm-1 K-2, was achieved using Bi2Te3 nanoflowers.

  4. Importance of serotonin (5-HT) and its precursor l-tryptophan for homeostasis and function of skeletal muscle in rats. A morphological and endocrinological study.

    PubMed

    Musumeci, Giuseppe; Imbesi, Rosa; Trovato, Francesca Maria; Szychlinska, Marta Anna; Aiello, Flavia Concetta; Buffa, Pietro; Castrogiovanni, Paola

    2015-04-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is a neurotransmitter, synthesized in serotonergic neurons of the central nervous system and in enterochromaffin cells of the gastrointestinal tract, which is involved in the regulation of several body functions, including muscle tissue development and growth and its contractile response. l-Tryptophan (l-Trp) is an essential amino acid and precursor of 5-HT. The aim of the present study was to better understand the mechanisms that govern neuroendocrine homeostasis of muscle tissue and emphasize the importance of a diet, complete in all its elements, referring specifically to the essential amino acids such as l-Trp, crucial in several neuroendocrine functions.We analyzed the possible consequences of l-Trp-free diet on 5-HT production and on skeletal muscle morphology and function in young female rats. We also evaluated the eventual alterations of hormone production such as growth hormone (GH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) that control and regulate growth, metabolism and efficiency of the skeletal muscle. Our results showed a strong decrease of 5-HT, GH, TSH, T3 and T4 levels associated to a clear difference in body weight between experimental and control rats. Moreover, the muscle samples of experimental rats showed histological and ultrastructural alterations. These findings thus supported a strong link between l-Trp, serotonergic system, hormone secretion and morphology of skeletal muscle tissue and thus, the importance of a balanced daily diet. PMID:25805417

  5. Impact of adrenalectomy and dexamethasone treatment on testicular morphology and sperm parameters in rats: insights into the adrenal control of male reproduction.

    PubMed

    Silva, E J R; Vendramini, V; Restelli, A; Bertolla, R P; Kempinas, W G; Avellar, M C W

    2014-11-01

    Here we investigated the hypothesis that normal levels of glucocorticoids, a class of adrenal steroid hormones, are required for normal testicular and epididymal functions. We examined the effects of the manipulation of glucocorticoid plasma levels by bilateral adrenalectomy (1, 2, 7 and 15days) alone or in combination with daily treatment with the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (DEX; 5?g/kg, i.p., 6days) on the morphology of the testis and sperm parameters in rats. We showed that adrenalectomy led to a reduction in testicular sperm count and daily sperm production starting 2days after surgery and a differential decrease in sperm count in the epididymis, according to the region and time post-adrenalectomy analysed. In parallel, testes from 7-day adrenalectomized (ADX) rats displayed a higher frequency of damaged seminiferous tubules and the presence of elongated spermatids retained in the basal epithelial compartment in stages IX-XVII, which is indicative of defective spermiation. The alkaline comet assay revealed a late effect of adrenalectomy on epididymal sperm DNA fragmentation, which was increased only 15days after surgery. DEX treatment prevented the changes in testicular and epididymal sperm count observed in 7-day ADX rats, but failed to protect the testis from ADX-induced morphological abnormalities. Thus, our results indicated that glucocorticoids may be involved in events related to the maintenance of spermatogenesis and sperm maturation during adulthood. These findings provide new insights into the importance of adrenal steroids to male fertility. PMID:24925687

  6. Adolescent exposure to cocaine increases anxiety-like behavior and induces morphologic and neurochemical changes in the hippocampus of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Zhu, W; Mao, Z; Zhu, C; Li, M; Cao, C; Guan, Y; Yuan, J; Xie, G; Guan, X

    2016-01-28

    Repeated exposure to cocaine during adolescence may affect both physical and psychological conditions in the brain, and increase the risk of psychiatric disorders and addiction behaviors in adulthood. Adolescence represents a critical development period for the hippocampus. Moreover, different regions of the hippocampus are involved in different functions. Dorsal hippocampus (dHP) has been implicated in learning and memory, whereas ventral hippocampus (vHP) plays an important role in emotional processing. In this study, the rats that were exposed to cocaine during adolescence (postnatal days, P28-P42) showed higher anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze test in adulthood (P80), but displayed normal spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze test. Furthermore, repeated exposure to cocaine during adolescence lead to alterations in morphology of pyramidal neurons, activities of astrocytes, and levels of proteins that involved in synaptic transmission, apoptosis, inflammation and addiction in both dHP and vHP of adult rats. These findings suggest that repeated exposure to cocaine during adolescence in rats may elicit morphologic and neurochemical changes in the hippocampus when the animals reach adulthood. These changes may contribute to the increased susceptibility for psychiatric disorders and addiction seen in adults. PMID:26621120

  7. Mechanical characterization of the rat and mice skin tissues using histostructural and uniaxial data.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Alireza; Rahmati, Seyyed Mohammadali; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    The skin tissue has been shown to behave like a nonlinear anisotropic material. This study was aimed to employ a constitutive fiber family equation to characterize the nonlinear anisotropic mechanical behavior of the rat and mice skin tissues in different anatomical locations, including the abdomen and back, using histostructural and uniaxial data. The rat and mice skin tissues were excised from the animals' body and then the histological analyses were performed on each skin type to determine the mean fiber orientation angle. Afterward, the preconditioned skin tissues were subjected to a series of quasi-static axial and circumferential loads until the incidence of failure. The crucial role of fiber orientation was explicitly added into a proposed strain energy density function. The material coefficients were determined using the constrained nonlinear optimization method based on the axial and circumferential extension data of the rat and mice samples at different anatomical locations. The material coefficients of the skins were given with R(2) ? 0.998. The results revealed a significant load-bearing capacity and stiffness of the rat abdomen compared to the rat back tissues. In addition, the mice abdomen showed a higher stiffness in the axial direction in comparison with circumferential one, while the mice back displayed its highest stiffness in the circumferential direction. The material coefficients of the rat and mice skin tissues were determined and well compared to the experimental data. The optimized fiber angles were also compared to the experimental histological data, and in all cases less than 11.85% differences were observed in both the skin tissues. PMID:25837446

  8. Sensory and Motor Characterization in the Post-natal Valproate Rat Model of Autism

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Stacey; Millette, Alexandre; Devine, Darragh P.

    2013-01-01

    Although autism is diagnosed according to three core features of social deficits, communication impairments, and repetitive or stereotyped behaviors, other behavioral features such as sensory and motor impairments are present in more than 70% of individuals with autism spectrum disorders. Exposure of rat pups to the teratogen valproate during sensitive periods of brain development has been shown to elicit behavioral features associated with autism diagnosis and has been proposed as a valid animal model of the disorder. The purpose of this study was to characterize sensory and motor performance in rats post-natally treated with valproate. Thirty four rat pups were injected with either valproate (150 mg/kg) or saline on post-natal days 612. Auditory and tactile startle as well as auditory sensory gating was assessed during both the juvenile and adolescent stages of development; motor testing was conducted during late adolescence and included a sunflower seed eating task and a vermicelli-handling task. Valproate-treated rats were under-responsive to auditory stimuli, showed deficits in auditory sensory gating, and demonstrated impairments in motor speed and performance. These findings suggest that post-natal valproate treatment elicits sensory and motor features often seen in individuals with ASD. Further, the hypo-sensitivity seen in post-natally valproate-treated rats contrasted with hyper-sensitivity previously reported in pre-natally valproate-exposed rats. This suggests that timing of teratogenic exposure during early brain development may be important to consider when investigating the neurobiological basis of sensory-motor impairments in ASD. PMID:22627078

  9. Molecular and morphological characterization of myxozoan actinospore types from a commercial catfish pond in the Mississippi delta.

    PubMed

    Rosser, Thomas G; Griffin, Matt J; Quiniou, Sylvie M A; Greenway, Terrence E; Khoo, Lester H; Wise, David J; Pote, Linda M

    2014-12-01

    The actinospore diversity of infected Dero digitata was surveyed (May 2011) from a channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) production pond in the Mississippi Delta region for the elucidation of unknown myxozoan life cycles. At present, only 2 myxozoan life cycles have been molecularly confirmed in channel catfish, linking the actinospore stage from an aquatic oligochaete (D. digitata ) and the myxospore stage from the catfish. In this study D. digitata (n = 2,592) were isolated from oligochaetes collected from the bottom sediment of a channel catfish production pond. After 1 wk of daily observation, a total of 6 genetically different actinospore types were observed. The collective groups were classified as 2 aurantiactinomyxons, 2 helioactinomyxons, 1 raabeia, and 1 triactinomyxon. Overall prevalence of myxozoan infections in the isolated oligochaetes was 4.4%. Actinospores were photographed and measured for morphological characterization. Four previously undescribed actinospore types were identified and characterized molecularly and morphologically. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the raabeia and one of the helioactinomyxon (type 1) actinospores were closely related to the group of myxozoans known to parasitize ictalurids in North America. To date, no myxospores have been linked to the newly sequenced actinospores reported in this survey. The morphological and molecular data generated from this study will assist in the identification of myxospore counterparts for these actinospore stages and aid in the elucidation of unknown myxozoan life cycles in closed production systems. PMID:25003942

  10. Electrophysiological and morphological characterization of neuronal microcircuits in acute brain slices using paired patch-clamp recordings.

    PubMed

    Qi, Guanxiao; Radnikow, Gabriele; Feldmeyer, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The combination of patch clamp recordings from two (or more) synaptically coupled neurons (paired recordings) in acute brain slice preparations with simultaneous intracellular biocytin filling allows a correlated analysis of their structural and functional properties. With this method it is possible to identify and characterize both pre- and postsynaptic neurons by their morphology and electrophysiological response pattern. Paired recordings allow studying the connectivity patterns between these neurons as well as the properties of both chemical and electrical synaptic transmission. Here, we give a step-by-step description of the procedures required to obtain reliable paired recordings together with an optimal recovery of the neuron morphology. We will describe how pairs of neurons connected via chemical synapses or gap junctions are identified in brain slice preparations. We will outline how neurons are reconstructed to obtain their 3D morphology of the dendritic and axonal domain and how synaptic contacts are identified and localized. We will also discuss the caveats and limitations of the paired recording technique, in particular those associated with dendritic and axonal truncations during the preparation of brain slices because these strongly affect connectivity estimates. However, because of the versatility of the paired recording approach it will remain a valuable tool in characterizing different aspects of synaptic transmission at identified neuronal microcircuits in the brain. PMID:25650985

  11. The effects of different sugars on motility, morphology and DNA damage during the liquid storage of rat epididymal sperm at 4C.

    PubMed

    Sarizkan, Serpil; Bucak, Mustafa Numan; Canturk, Fazile; zdamar, Saim; Yay, Arzu; Tuncer, Prhan Barbaros; zcan, Servet; Sorgucu, Neslihan; Caner, Yusuf

    2012-10-01

    This study evaluated the protective effects of supplementation with three different sugars on the motility, morphology and DNA integrity of rat epididymal sperm chilled and stored at 4C Epididymides were obtained from each donor. Rat epididymal sperm was diluted in Ham's F10 plus raffinose, Ham's F10 plus trehalose, Ham's F10 plus fructose, and Ham's F10 medium for control purposes. Thereafter, the extended sperm were chilled and stored in liquid form at 4C. Sperm motility, morphological abnormalities and DNA damage were determined at 0 and 12h after chilling. No significant difference was observed in any of the parameters evaluated at 0h, before storage (P>0.05). After 12h of storage, all sugar additives led to statistically higher motility, normal sperm morphology and DNA integrity in comparison to the control group. Raffinose gave the best motility percentages (32.861.84%) after 12h of storage at 4C, compared to the other groups (P<0.001). In conclusion, Raffinose, trehalose and fructose provided a better protection of sperm functional parameters against chilling injury, in comparison to the control group. PMID:22634115

  12. Morphological and molecular characterization of Globodera populations from Oregon and Idaho

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of Globodera, identified from three potato fields, is described herein as Globodera pseudopallida n. sp. Morphologically, G. pseudopallida n. sp. exhibits some unique features that are not consistent between populations; but molecularly, G. pseudopallida n. sp. is distinct from G. pall...

  13. MORPHOLOGICAL AND HISTOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SEMINIFEROUS EPITHELIAL AND LEYDIG CELLS OF THE TURKEY.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unlike mammals, there is little fundamental information about spermatogenesis in birds. This study was undertaken to clarify the morphology, histochemistry, and lectin affinity of the seminiferous epithelial cells and Leydig cells in the pre-pubertal (8- to I5-wk old) and adult (40-to 44-wk old) do...

  14. Ophiostoma dentifundum sp. nov. from oak in Europe, characterized using molecular phylogenetic data and morphology.

    PubMed

    Aghayeva, Dilzara N; Wingfield, Michael J; Kirisits, Thomas; Wingfield, Brenda D

    2005-10-01

    Previous phylogenetic studies based on ITS sequence data have shown that Ophiostoma species with Sporothrix anamorphs include several species complexes. Isolates from oak in Poland and Hungary, which have previously been referred to as O. stenoceras, as well as isolates morphologically similar to S. inflata formed the basis of this study. Identification was based on sequences for the ITS region of rDNA operon and partial beta-tubulin gene. Analyses showed that isolates from Poland and Hungary reside in a well resolved clade, separate from those in the O. stenoceras-complex. The morphology of these isolates was compared with those of strains in the O. stenoceras complex and S. inflata. Morphological differences in teleomorph and anamorph structures were found between the isolates from Poland and Hungary and those in the O. stenoceras-complex. Growth characteristics and the presence of the teleomorph in culture could be used to separate this fungus from isolates in the S. inflata-complex. The fungus from Poland and Hungary is described here as O. dentifundum sp. nov. It is phylogenetically most closely related to isolates of S. inflata, which represent four well defined groups based on morphology and DNA sequence phylogeny. PMID:16279407

  15. Three novel species of Stemphylium from Sinkiang, China: their morphological and molecular characterization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three new species of Stemphylium were isolated from diseased leaves of Luffa cylindrica, Lycium chinense and Cucumis melo growing in the Sinkiang province of Northwest China. Stemphylium luffae, S. lycii and S. cucumis are described by morphological and molecular phylogenetic analyses. The principal...

  16. Morphological characterization of the antennal sensilla of the dogwood borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The external morphology of the dogwood borer antennae and their sensilla was investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy. Male and female antennaes were clavate before tapering to an apical point and consisted of three main segments; the scape, pedicel, and flagellum. Although, there...

  17. Morphological and molecular characterization of Anisakis larvae (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in Beryx splendens from Japanese waters.

    PubMed

    Murata, Rie; Suzuki, Jun; Sadamasu, Kenji; Kai, Akemi

    2011-06-01

    The third-stage (L3) larvae of Anisakis, which are the etiological agents of human anisakiasis, have been categorized morphologically into Anisakis Type I larvae and Anisakis Type II larvae. Genetic analysis has allowed easy identification of these larvae: Anisakis Type I larvae include the species Anisakis simplex sensu stricto, Anisakis pegreffii, Anisakis simplex C, Anisakis typica, Anisakis ziphidarum, and Anisakis nascettii, whereas Anisakis Type II larvae include the species Anisakis physeteris, Anisakis brevispiculata, and Anisakis paggiae. Since human consumption of raw fish and squid is common in Japan, we investigated Anisakis L3 larvae in 44 specimens of Beryx splendens from Japanese waters. A total of 730 Anisakis L3 larvae collected from B. splendens were divided morphologically into 4 types: Type I, Type II, and 2 other types that were similar to Anisakis Type III and Type IV described by Shiraki (1974). Anisakis Type II, Type III, and Type IV larvae all had a short ventriculus, but their tails were morphologically different. In addition, data from genetic analysis indicated that Anisakis Type II, Type III, and Type IV larvae could be identified as A. physeteris, A. brevispiculata, and A. paggiae, respectively. Therefore, A. physeteris, A. brevispiculata, and A. paggiae can be readily differentiated not only by genetic analysis but also by morphological characteristics of L3 larvae. PMID:21377540

  18. Molecular and morphological characterization of Globodera populations from Oregon and Idaho

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An unusual population of cyst nematode was found in soils collected from a Powell Butte, Oregon field with a cropping history including potatoes, wheat, other crops, and significant weed presence. Morphologically, these nematodes possessed characteristics that collectively set them apart from known ...

  19. Exploring Statistical Characterizations of Morphologic Change and Variability: Fire Island, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lentz, E. E.; Hapke, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    A comprehensive understanding of coastal barrier behavior requires high-resolution observations that capture a wide range of morphological changes occurring over a range of spatial and temporal scales. Fire Island National Seashore, located along the coast of Long Island, New York, is a well studied barrier island coast where understanding how morphological changes contribute to barrier island vulnerability have important implications for coastal land management. Previous work has shown that morphologic differences in eastern and western reaches are attributable to the underlying geology and variations sediment transport in the system. In this study, we further explore western and eastern differences and variability with lidar-derived topographic surfaces to provide a unique and comprehensive investigation of dune-beach change at Fire Island, New York. Continuous topographic surfaces generated from 12 lidar surveys collected between 1998 and 2011 are used to examine the three-dimensional variability over a range of time periods over the 50 km long island. Because surveys were collected over a range of seasons and in response to a number of storm events, we explore morphologic configurations reflecting the seasonality, post-storm configuration, and replenishment response to the system through the generation of a representative or average surface. These averaged surfaces provide the context for what would be an expected or typical coastal configuration under certain conditions, and through comparison with an individual event, can be used to derive an event-specific spatial-change signature. To investigate anthropogenic influences, differences in morphology between a survey collected after a substantial beach replenishment project and a typical fair-weather configuration averaged from six surveys are determined. Storm response variations are also explored by assessing differences between Tropical Storm Irene (2011), Nor'Ida (2009), and a typical post-storm configuration averaged from five post-storm surveys. In addition to averaged surfaces, surveys are combined to generate a new raster surface reflecting cell by cell standard deviations over a defined period. Standard deviation surfaces are generated to highlight 1) where areas of highest and lowest morphologic variation are located over the entire period, and 2) whether spatial similarities exist in variability between storm and non-storm morphologies. Results show there are distinct and variable responses in eastern and western reaches attributable to wave climate, profile gradient, and offshore bathymetry, as well as to a general along-coast increase in sediment availability.

  20. Morphology of crystallineamorphous olefin block copolymers in solution characterized by small-angle neutron scattering and microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Radulescu, Aurel; Goerigk, Gnter; Fetters, Lewis; Richter, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    The single-chain properties and self-assembly behavior in dilute solution of olefin block copolymers obtained by chain-shuttling technology and consisting of alternating crystallizable and amorphous ethylene/1-octene blocks were investigated by pinhole and focusing small-angle neutron scattering techniques, optical microscopy in bright-field and crossed-polarizer modes, and differential scanning calorimetry. The complex hydrocarbon soluble (precipitant free) macro-aggregates formed with decreasing temperature are characterized by spherulitic textures. The spherulites yield, on one hand, a morphology that depends on the chain structure properties and, on the other hand, multiple structural levels with a hierarchical organization that ranges from 10? up to tens of micrometres. This morphology displays peculiarities dictated by the polydisperse character of these materials. PMID:26664344

  1. Characterizing the Morphologies of Mechanically Manipulated Multiwall Carbon Nanotube Films by Small-Angle X-ray Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Wang,B.; Bennett, R.; Verploegen, E.; Hart, A.; Cohen, R.

    2007-01-01

    We used small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) to quantitatively characterize the morphological characteristics of pristine and mechanically manipulated multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) films. We determined that CNT diameters measured near the edges of a film were smaller compared to those measured in the interior. Uniaxially compressed MWCNT films exhibited a buckling deformation that was observable both in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and SAXS. CNT films were also converted into cellular foams of CNTs through capillarity-induced densification. By examining spatially- and time-resolved SAXS data for the cellular foams, we identified low angle features in the scattering curves that correspond to the average spacing between CNTs, demonstrating that SAXS is a useful method for monitoring the packing density of CNTs in a film. For all of the morphologies that were examined (aligned, disordered, compressed, and densified), SAXS data showed good correspondence with SEM images.

  2. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Exophiala polymorpha sp. nov. Isolated from Sporotrichoid Lymphocutaneous Lesions in a Patient with Myasthenia Gravis

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Lee K.; Sutton, Deanna A.; Sandoval-Denis, Marcelo; Lindner, Jonathan R.; Fan, Hongxin; Sanders, Carmita; Guarro, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Exophiala species are capable of causing cutaneous and subcutaneous infections in immunocompromised patients. An Exophiala isolate was cultured from a biopsy specimen of a lesion on the forearm of a patient with myasthenia gravis. The patient also had lesions on the palm and distal aspects of the hand, which were successfully treated with a long-term course of itraconazole. A detailed morphological and molecular characterization of the isolate was undertaken. Phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region and portions of the ?-tubulin and translation elongation factor 1-alpha genes indicated that the isolate was a novel species closely related to but genetically distinct from species within the Exophiala spinifera clade; the name Exophiala polymorpha sp. nov. is proposed. Morphologically, E. polymorpha most closely resembles E. xenobiotica but it differs in possessing phialides bearing prominent, wide collarettes, and it does not produce chlamydospores. PMID:26085612

  3. Automatic morphological characterization of nanobubbles with a novel image segmentation method and its application in the study of nanobubble coalescence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huimin; Bi, Shusheng; Guo, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Summary Nanobubbles (NBs) on hydrophobic surfaces in aqueous solvents have shown great potential in numerous applications. In this study, the morphological characterization of NBs in AFM images was carried out with the assistance of a novel image segmentation method. The method combines the classical threshold method and a modified, active contour method to achieve optimized image segmentation. The image segmentation results obtained with the classical threshold method and the proposed, modified method were compared. With the modified method, the diameter, contact angle, and radius of curvature were automatically measured for all NBs in AFM images. The influence of the selection of the threshold value on the segmentation result was discussed. Moreover, the morphological change in the NBs was studied in terms of density, covered area, and volume occurring during coalescence under external disturbance. PMID:25977866

  4. Effects of valproate and E-2-en-valproate on functional and morphological parameters of rat liver. II. Influence of phenobarbital comedication.

    PubMed

    Lscher, W; Nau, H; Wahnschaffe, U; Hnack, D; Rundfeldt, C; Wittfoht, W; Bojic, U

    1993-06-01

    The effect of phenobarbital on the potential hepatotoxicity of E-2-en-valproate (E-2-en-VPA; trans-2-en-VPA) and VPA was studied in young male Sprague-Dawley rats. E-2-en-VPA and VPA were administered daily at 750 mg/kg i.p. (divided into three doses a day) for 7 consecutive days. Phenobarbital was coadministered i.p. once daily at 100 mg/kg for 2 days, followed by daily injections of 50 mg/kg for the subsequent days of the treatment period. Additional groups of rats were treated with phenobarbital alone or received once daily administration of 4-en-VPA (100 mg/kg), a potentially hepatotoxic metabolite of VPA. Clinical chemistry data were studied before and after the period of treatment. Furthermore, drug and metabolite levels were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Treatment with VPA and phenobarbital resulted in deaths and histopathological liver alterations, such as marked microvesicular steatosis and degenerative lesions, whereas no death and hepatotoxicity occurred in rats treated with E-2-en-VPA and phenobarbital. Furthermore, hyperammonemia was recorded in VPA- but not E-2-en-VPA-treated rats. In comparison to treatment with VPA or E-2-en-VPA alone, combined treatment with phenobarbital markedly reduced plasma levels of the parent drugs and metabolites originating from beta-oxidation, but, in case of VPA, increased metabolites originating from omega-oxidation. Plasma levels of 4-en-VPA were increased by phenobarbital in VPA-treated rats, but 4-en-VPA was not detectable in rats treated with E-2-en-VPA. The most severe alterations in functional and morphological liver parameters were found in rats treated with 4-en-VPA. In these animals, the extent of steatosis was significantly correlated with plasma levels of 4-en-VPA, but not its major metabolite 2,4-dien-VPA. Plasma levels of 4-en-VPA or its major metabolite 2,4-dien-VPA in rats without steatosis were markedly higher than levels of these compounds in VPA-treated rats with steatosis, suggesting that 4-en-VPA and 2,4-dien-VPA are not critically involved in the hepatotoxic effects of VPA. The data substantiate that E-2-en-VPA is less hepatotoxic than VPA and may thus offer advantages for antiepileptic therapy. PMID:8370349

  5. Development and characterization of an exposure platform suitable for physico-chemical, morphological and toxicological characterization of printer-emitted particles (PEPs)

    PubMed Central

    Pirela, Sandra V.; Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; Bello, Dhimiter; Thomas, Treye; Castranova, Vincent; Demokritou, Philip

    2015-01-01

    An association between laser printer use and emissions of particulate matter (PM), ozone and volatile organic compounds has been reported in recent studies. However, the detailed physico-chemical, morphological and toxicological characterization of these printer-emitted particles (PEPs) and possible incorporation of engineered nanomaterials into toner formulations remain largely unknown. In this study, a printer exposure generation system suitable for the physico-chemical, morphological, and toxicological characterization of PEPs was developed and used to assess the properties of PEPs from the use of commercially available laser printers. The system consists of a glovebox type environmental chamber for uninterrupted printer operation, real-time and time-integrated particle sampling instrumentation for the size fractionation and sampling of PEPs and an exposure chamber for inhalation toxicological studies. Eleven commonly used laser printers were evaluated and ranked based on their PM emission profiles. Results show PM peak emissions are brand independent and varied between 3000 to 1 300 000 particles/cm3, with modal diameters ranging from 49 to 208 nm, with the majority of PEPs in the nanoscale (<100 nm) size. Furthermore, it was shown that PEPs can be affected by certain operational parameters and printing conditions. The release of nanoscale particles from a nano-enabled product (printer toner) raises questions about health implications to users. The presented PEGS platform will help in assessing the toxicological profile of PEPs and the link to the physico-chemical and morphological properties of emitted PM and toner formulations. PMID:24862974

  6. Development and characterization of an exposure platform suitable for physico-chemical, morphological and toxicological characterization of printer-emitted particles (PEPs).

    PubMed

    Pirela, Sandra V; Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; Bello, Dhimiter; Thomas, Treye; Castranova, Vincent; Demokritou, Philip

    2014-06-01

    An association between laser printer use and emissions of particulate matter (PM), ozone and volatile organic compounds has been reported in recent studies. However, the detailed physico-chemical, morphological and toxicological characterization of these printer-emitted particles (PEPs) and possible incorporation of engineered nanomaterials into toner formulations remain largely unknown. In this study, a printer exposure generation system suitable for the physico-chemical, morphological, and toxicological characterization of PEPs was developed and used to assess the properties of PEPs from the use of commercially available laser printers. The system consists of a glovebox type environmental chamber for uninterrupted printer operation, real-time and time-integrated particle sampling instrumentation for the size fractionation and sampling of PEPs and an exposure chamber for inhalation toxicological studies. Eleven commonly used laser printers were evaluated and ranked based on their PM emission profiles. Results show PM peak emissions are brand independent and varied between 3000 to 1?300?000?particles/cm, with modal diameters ranging from 49 to 208?nm, with the majority of PEPs in the nanoscale (<100?nm) size. Furthermore, it was shown that PEPs can be affected by certain operational parameters and printing conditions. The release of nanoscale particles from a nano-enabled product (printer toner) raises questions about health implications to users. The presented PEGS platform will help in assessing the toxicological profile of PEPs and the link to the physico-chemical and morphological properties of emitted PM and toner formulations. PMID:24862974

  7. Chronic ethanol exposure during adolescence through early adulthood in female rats induces emotional and memory deficits associated with morphological and molecular alterations in hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ana Ca; Pereira, Maria Cs; Santana, Luana N da Silva; Fernandes, Rafael M; Teixeira, Francisco B; Oliveira, Gedeo B; Fernandes, Luanna Mp; Fontes-Jnior, Enas A; Prediger, Rui D; Crespo-Lpez, Maria E; Gomes-Leal, Walace; Lima, Rafael R; Maia, Cristiane do Socorro Ferraz

    2015-06-01

    There is increasing evidence that heavy ethanol exposure in early life may produce long-lasting neurobehavioral consequences, since brain structural maturation continues until adolescence. It is well established that females are more susceptible to alcohol-induced neurotoxicity and that ethanol consumption is increasing among women, especially during adolescence. In the present study, we investigated whether chronic ethanol exposure during adolescence through early adulthood in female rats may induce hippocampal histological damage and neurobehavioral impairments. Female rats were treated with distilled water or ethanol (6.5 g/kg/day, 22.5% w/v) by gavage from the 35(th)-90(th) day of life. Ethanol-exposed animals displayed reduced exploration of the central area and increased number of fecal boluses in the open field test indicative of anxiogenic responses. Moreover, chronic high ethanol exposure during adolescence induced marked impairments on short-term memory of female rats addressed on social recognition and step-down inhibitory avoidance tasks. These neurobehavioral deficits induced by ethanol exposure during adolescence through early adulthood were accompanied by the reduction of hippocampal formation volume as well as the loss of neurons, astrocytes and microglia cells in the hippocampus. These results indicate that chronic high ethanol exposure during adolescence through early adulthood in female rats induces long-lasting emotional and memory deficits associated with morphological and molecular alterations in the hippocampus. PMID:25922423

  8. Pharmacological characterization of muscarinic receptors in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Yang, C M; Chen, F F; Sung, T C; Hsu, H F; Wu, D

    1993-09-01

    [N-methyl-3H]scopolamine methylchloride ([3H]NMS) was used to characterize the muscarinic receptors (mAChRs) in the intact cardiomyocytes. The specific binding of [3H]NMS was proportional to cell concentration, saturable with respect to [3H]NMS concentration, and time dependent. Scatchard analysis of binding isotherms showed that [3H]NMS bound to the freshly isolated and cultured cardiomyocytes with dissociation constants of 275 +/- 64 and 207 +/- 20 pM as well as maximum receptor densities of 0.13 +/- 0.09 and 5.36 +/- 0.20 fmol/10(5) cells, respectively. Heterogeneity of mAChRs was demonstrated by competitive binding experiments against [3H]NMS with M2 and M3 antagonists. These receptors (80%) exhibited high affinities for 11-([2-[(diethylamino)methyl]-1-piperidinyl]-acetyl)-5,11-dihydro- 6H-pyrido[2,3-b][1,4]benzodiazepine-6-one (AF-DX-116) and methoctramine similar to those of M2 subtype. The low-affinity M2 antagonist binding constants were close to those reported for M3 receptors and possessed high affinity for 4-diphenylacetoxyl-N-methylpiperidine (4-DAMP) and hexahydrosiladifenidol. On the basis of biochemical studies, AF-DX-116 blocked adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) inhibition with high affinity (pKB 7.4), while it antagonized inositol phosphate formation with low affinity (pKB 6.5). 4-DAMP possessed high affinity in blocking inositol phosphate formation (pKB 9.0) and low affinity for antagonism of cAMP inhibition (pKB 7.7). Although no other muscarinic receptor mRNA has been detected in these cells, these data suggest the presence of a second population of mAChRs, which may not be identical to the classical cardiac "M2" receptors. PMID:8214023

  9. Isolation and characterization of Candida albicans morphological mutants derepressed for the formation of filamentous hypha-type structures

    SciTech Connect

    Gil, C.; Pomes, R.; Nombela, C. )

    1990-05-01

    Several Candida albicans morphological mutants were obtained by a procedure based on a combined treatment with nitrous acid plus UV irradiation and a double-enrichment step to increase the proportion of mutants growing as long filamentous structures. Altered cell morphogenesis in these mutants correlated with an altered colonial phenotype. Two of these mutants, C. albicans NEL102 and NEL103, were selected and characterized. Mutant blastoconidia initiated budding but eventually gave rise to filamentous hypha-type formations. These filaments were long and septate, and they branched very regularly at positions near septa. Calcofluor white (which is known to bind chitin-rich areas) stained septa, branching zones, and filament tips very intensely, as observed under the fluorescence microscope. Wild-type hybrids were obtained by fusing protoplasts of strain NEL102 with B14, another morphological mutant previously described as being permanently pseudomycelial, indicating that genetic determinants responsible for the two altered phenotypes are different. The mutants characterized in this work seemed to sequentially express the morphogenic characteristics of C. albicans, from blastoconidia to hyphae, in the absence of any inducer. Further characterization of these strains could be relevant to gain understanding of the genetic control of dimorphism in this species.

  10. In utero exposure to butyl benzyl phthalate induces modifications in the morphology and the gene expression profile of the mammary gland: an experimental study in rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Environmental estrogens are exogenous estrogen-mimicking compounds that can interfere with endogenous endocrine systems. Several of these endocrine disruptors have been shown to alter normal development and influence tumorigenesis in experimental models. N-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), a widely used plasticizer, is a well-known endocrine disruptor. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of prenatal exposure to BBP on the morphology, proliferative index, and genomic signature of the rat mammary gland at different ages. Methods In utero exposure was performed by gavage of pregnant Sprague Dawley CD rats with 120mg or 500mg BBP/kg/day from day 10 post-conception to delivery. Female litters were euthanized at 21, 35, 50 and 100 days. The morphology and proliferative index of the mammary gland were studied from whole mount preparations and BrdU incorporation, respectively. Gene expression profile was assessed by microarrays. Several genes found differentially expressed and related to different functional categories were further validated by real time RT-PCR. Results Prenatal exposure of BBP induced delayed vaginal opening and changes in the post-natal mammary gland long after the end of the treatment, mainly by 35 days of age. Exposure to the high dose resulted in modifications in architecture and proliferative index of the mammary gland, mostly affecting the undifferentiated terminal end buds. Moreover, the expression profiles of this gland in the exposed rats were modified in a dose-dependent fashion. Analysis of functional categories showed that modified genes were related to immune function, cell signaling, proliferation and differentiation, or metabolism. Conclusions Our data suggest that in utero exposure to BBP induced a delayed pubertal onset and modified morphology of the mammary gland. These alterations were accompanied by modifications in gene expression previously associated with an increased susceptibility to carcinogenesis. PMID:21241498

  11. Molecular Characterization of Growth Hormone-producing Tumors in the GC Rat Model of Acromegaly

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Rodríguez, Juan F.; Muñoz-Bravo, Jose L.; Ibañez-Costa, Alejandro; Fernandez-Maza, Laura; Balcerzyk, Marcin; Leal-Campanario, Rocío; Luque, Raúl M.; Castaño, Justo P.; Venegas-Moreno, Eva; Soto-Moreno, Alfonso; Leal-Cerro, Alfonso; Cano, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Acromegaly is a disorder resulting from excessive production of growth hormone (GH) and consequent increase of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I), most frequently caused by pituitary adenomas. Elevated GH and IGF-I levels results in wide range of somatic, cardiovascular, endocrine, metabolic, and gastrointestinal morbidities. Subcutaneous implantation of the GH-secreting GC cell line in rats leads to the formation of tumors. GC tumor-bearing rats develop characteristics that resemble human acromegaly including gigantism and visceromegaly. However, GC tumors remain poorly characterized at a molecular level. In the present work, we report a detailed histological and molecular characterization of GC tumors using immunohistochemistry, molecular biology and imaging techniques. GC tumors display histopathological and molecular features of human GH-producing tumors, including hormone production, cell architecture, senescence activation and alterations in cell cycle gene expression. Furthermore, GC tumors cells displayed sensitivity to somatostatin analogues, drugs that are currently used in the treatment of human GH-producing adenomas, thus supporting the GC tumor model as a translational tool to evaluate therapeutic agents. The information obtained would help to maximize the usefulness of the GC rat model for research and preclinical studies in GH-secreting tumors. PMID:26549306

  12. Characterization and comparison of post-natal rat Achilles tendon-derived stem cells at different development stages

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jialin; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Zeyu; Zhu, Ting; Shen, Weiliang; Ran, Jisheng; Tang, Qiaomei; Gong, Xiaonan; Backman, Ludvig J.; Chen, Xiao; Chen, Xiaowen; Wen, Feiqiu; Ouyang, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    Tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSPCs) are a potential cell source for tendon tissue engineering. The striking morphological and structural changes of tendon tissue during development indicate the complexity of TSPCs at different stages. This study aims to characterize and compare post-natal rat Achilles tendon tissue and TSPCs at different stages of development. The tendon tissue showed distinct differences during development: the tissue structure became denser and more regular, the nuclei became spindle-shaped and the cell number decreased with time. TSPCs derived from 7 day Achilles tendon tissue showed the highest self-renewal ability, cell proliferation, and differentiation potential towards mesenchymal lineage, compared to TSPCs derived from 1 day and 56 day tissue. Microarray data showed up-regulation of several groups of genes in TSPCs derived from 7 day Achilles tendon tissue, which may account for the unique cell characteristics during this specific stage of development. Our results indicate that TSPCs derived from 7 day Achilles tendon tissue is a superior cell source as compared to TSPCs derived from 1 day and 56 day tissue, demonstrating the importance of choosing a suitable stem cell source for effective tendon tissue engineering and regeneration. PMID:26972579

  13. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Clinostomum detruncatum (Trematoda: Clinostomidae) Metacercariae Infecting Synbranchus marmoratus.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Aline Angelina; Caffara, Monica; Fioravanti, Maria Letizia; Utsunomia, Ricardo; Zago, Aline Cristina; Franceschini, Lidiane; da Silva, Reinaldo Jos

    2016-02-01

    A complete morphological description, supported by molecular data, of Clinostomum detruncatum metacercariae is reported in this study. The metacercariae were found infecting Synbranchus marmoratus from the Paran River, municipality of Guara, Paran State, Brazil. The taenioidean uterus is the main morphological characteristic of this species. Both neighbor-joining (NJ) and maximum likelihood (ML) trees showed 2 clear separate clusters grouping together the species from the Palearctic region ( Clinostomum complanatum , Clinostomum cutaneum, Clinostomum phalacrocoracis, Clinostomum philippinense) and those from the Nearctic/Neotropical regions ( Clinostomum marginatum , Clinostomum tataxumui, C. detruncatum, Clinostomum sp. 7). The latter clade is divided into 2 subclades grouping species from North America and Mexico ( C. marginatum and C. tataxumui), and those from Brazil (C. detruncatum and Clinostomum sp. 7). PMID:26509452

  14. Molecular and morphological characterization of Contracaecum pelagicum (Nematoda) parasitizing Spheniscus magellanicus (Chordata) from Brazilian waters.

    PubMed

    Borges, Juliana Novo; Santos, Helena Lcia Carneiro; Brando, Martha Lima; dos Santos, Everton Gustavo Nunes; de Miranda, Daniele Ferreira; Balthazar, Daniel de Almeida; Luque, Jos Luis; Santos, Cludia Portes

    2014-03-01

    Three new sequences of Mitochondrial cytochrome c-oxidase subunit 2 (mtDNA cox-2) from C. pelagicum parasite of Spheniscus magellanicus, the Magelanicus penguin, were determined from Brazilian waters. The sequences presented 99 and 98% of similarity with C. pelagicum sequences from Argentina, deposited on GenBank for the same genetic region and with a strong statistical support inferred from the phylogenetic tree. The morphological and ultrastructural studies that were carried out confirmed the genetic analysis. PMID:24728364

  15. Morphological characterization of β phase in poly-(vinylidenefluoride) film prepared by spin cast method

    SciTech Connect

    Mehtani, Hitesh Kumar Kumar, Rishi Raina, K. K.

    2014-04-24

    Poly-(Vinylidene fluoride) PVDF film was prepared by spin casting method to control the pore size of the matrix. The morphological spherulitic structure was confirmed Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) after gold sputtering and the presence of β phase was ensured in spin cast PVDF film by the FTIR spectroscopy. The β phase is very important in the application because it improve the properties like piezoelectricity by modifying PVDF crystallinity.

  16. Genetic characterization of two Eragrostis species using AFLP and morphological traits.

    PubMed

    Ayele, M; Tefera, H; Assefa, K; Nguyen, H T

    1999-01-01

    Tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter] is the most important cereal crop in Ethiopia. An experiment was conducted to investigate genetic diversity among four cultivars of tef and 14 accessions of Eragrostis pilosa using radiolabelled and silver stained amplified fragment length polymorphism. Morphological traits were also evaluated. A total of 897 markers were obtained out of which 395 were polymorphic using 11 primer combinations. Cluster analysis revealed accessions of E. pilosa which are distantly related and others closely related to tef. Our previous experience also indicates that E. pilosa is crossable with tef. Those accessions distantly related to tef could be used in a crossing program to generate a population for selection and/or genetic mapping. Such genetic mapping populations will form an important entry point towards the molecular genetic dissection of the plant genus, Eragrostis, especially in the context of comparative mapping. Knowledge gained from such study, apart from tef improvement, will also be useful for many forage and turf grass species where little molecular genetic information is available. Nine cultivars or accessions had one or more unique fragments using one or more AFLP primers indicating the potential of the technology in fingerprinting tef in a breeding or seed multiplication program. The results also showed that clusters obtained using silver staining and gamma 33P-ATP labeling were similar, suggesting that silver staining could be used as an alternative to radiolabeling at least in genetic diversity analysis. Significant genetic variation was obtained for morphological traits. Of particular interest to tef breeding was short plant stature in E. pilosa which could be transferred to tef to minimize the problem of lodging. Diversity revealed at the morphological trait level was not commensurate with that observed for AFLP. This was due to the small number of available morphological traits and their interaction with the environment. PMID:10364827

  17. Morphological characterization of cherry rootstock candidates selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Koc, Aysen; Celik, Zumrut; Akbulut, Mustafa; Bilgener, Sukriye; Ercisli, Sezai; Gunes, Mehmet; Gercekcioglu, Resul; Esitken, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    The use of rootstocks particularly for sweet cherry cultivars is of great importance for successful and sustainable production. Choosing the right cherry rootstocks is just as important as choosing the right cultivar. In this study, 110 sweet cherry, 30 sour cherry, and 41 mahaleb types displaying rootstock potential for sweet cherry cultivars were selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey. The morphologic characteristics of the studied genotypes were compared with the standard clonal rootstocks PHL-A, MaxMa 14, Montmorency, Weiroot 158, Gisela 5, Gisela 6, and SL 64. A total of 42 morphological UPOV characteristics were evaluated in the selected genotypes and clonal rootstocks. The obtained data were analyzed by using principal component analysis and it revealed that eigenvalues of the first 3 components were able to represent 36.43% of total variance. The most significant positive correlations of the plant vigor were determined with leaf blade length and petiole thickness. According to the diversity analysis of coefficients, the 05 C 002 and 08 C 039 genotypes were identified as being similar (6.66), while the 05 C 002 and 55 S 012 genotypes were determined as the most distant genotypes (325.84) in terms of morphology. PMID:24453921

  18. Morphological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural characterization of the skin of turbot (Psetta maxima L.).

    PubMed

    Falde, L D; Bermdez, R; Vigliano, F; Coscelli, G A; Quiroga, M I

    2014-10-01

    This study was undertaken to identify the normal morphologic, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features of skin of the turbot (Psetta maxima L.). In the turbot skin, three morphologically distinct layers were identified: epidermis, dermis and hypodermis. The epidermis was non-keratinizing, stratified squamous epithelium that varies in thickness from 5 to 14 cells and 60 to 100?m in size. Goblet cells were seen randomly distributed between malpighian cells in the epidermal layer. These mucous cells were mainly located in the upper third of the epidermis and displayed a spherical to elongated morphology. Dermis was divided in two well-differentiated layers, the superficial stratum laxum and the deeper stratum compactum. Hypodermis was a loose layer mainly composed by adipocytes but we could observe variable amounts of fibroblast, collagen and blood vessels. In turbot two pigmentary layers could be identified: the pigmentary layer of dermis was located between basement membrane and dermis and the pigmentary layer of hypodermis immediately above the muscular layer. Three different types of chromatophores were present: melanophores, iridophores and xanthophores. The main differences observed between groups of fish with different colouration were in the amount of melanophores and xanthophores. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of normal cutaneous biology prior to consideration of specific cutaneous alterations and diseases in turbot. PMID:25059111

  19. Morphological Characterization of Cherry Rootstock Candidates Selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Koc, Aysen; Celik, Zumrut; Akbulut, Mustafa; Bilgener, Sukriye; Ercisli, Sezai; Gunes, Mehmet; Gercekcioglu, Resul; Esitken, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    The use of rootstocks particularly for sweet cherry cultivars is of great importance for successful and sustainable production. Choosing the right cherry rootstocks is just as important as choosing the right cultivar. In this study, 110 sweet cherry, 30 sour cherry, and 41 mahaleb types displaying rootstock potential for sweet cherry cultivars were selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey. The morphologic characteristics of the studied genotypes were compared with the standard clonal rootstocks PHL-A, MaxMa 14, Montmorency, Weiroot 158, Gisela 5, Gisela 6, and SL 64. A total of 42 morphological UPOV characteristics were evaluated in the selected genotypes and clonal rootstocks. The obtained data were analyzed by using principal component analysis and it revealed that eigenvalues of the first 3 components were able to represent 36.43% of total variance. The most significant positive correlations of the plant vigor were determined with leaf blade length and petiole thickness. According to the diversity analysis of coefficients, the 05?C 002 and 08?C 039 genotypes were identified as being similar (6.66), while the 05?C 002 and 55?S 012 genotypes were determined as the most distant genotypes (325.84) in terms of morphology. PMID:24453921

  20. Morphological and molecular characterization of Phytophthora glovera sp. nov. from tobacco in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Abad, Z Gloria; Ivors, Kelly L; Gallup, Courtney A; Abad, Jorge A; Shew, H David

    2011-01-01

    A root rot disease of cultivated tobacco called yellow stunt has been observed in the burley tobacco production areas of Brazil since the early 1990s. Root infecting fungi and straminipiles were isolated from the roots of diseased tobacco plants, including a semi-papillate, homothallic, slow growing Phytophthora species. Pathogenicity trials confirmed that Phytophthora sp. caused root rot and stunting of burley and flue-cured tobaccos. Morphological characteristics of the asexual and sexual stages of this organism did not match any reported Phytophthora species and were very different from the widely known tobacco black shank pathogen P. nicotianae. Phylogenetic analysis based on sequences of the internal transcribed spacer rDNA, ?-tubulin and translation elongation factor 1-? regions indicated that this organism represents a previously unreported Phytophthora species that is significantly supported in clade 2 and most closely related to P. capsici. However P. glovera differs from P. capsici in a number of morphological characters, most significantly P. glovera is homothallic and produces both paragynous and amphigynous antheridia while P. capsici is heterothallic and produces only amphigynous antheridia. In this paper we confirmed pathogenicity of this species on tobacco and describe the morphological and molecular characteristics of Phytophthora glovera sp. nov. PMID:21193600

  1. Morphological and microscopic characterization of five commonly-used testacean traditional Chinese medicines

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ying; Song, Wei; Zhou, Ping; Li, Ping; Li, Huijun

    2015-01-01

    Testacean traditional Chinese medicine (TTCM), derived from the outer shell of sea or freshwater mollusks, is a special and important category of Chinese medicinal materials. To ensure the effective use of TTCM, a comparative identification study was performed on five commonly-used testacean drugs, including Haliotidis Concha, Arcae Concha, Meretricis Concha, Ostreae Concha and Margaritifera Concha (Shijueming, Walengzi, Geqiao, Muli and Zhenzhumu in Chinese, respectively). Typical morphological photographs of the crude drugs were acquired, and the key microscopic characteristics of the derived powders under normal light microscope and polarized light microscope were summarized. The major results can be concluded as follows: (1) the original species involved in the five TTCMs could be distinguished by their respective interspecies morphological characteristics; (2) the key identification characteristics of the five powdered crude drugs were mainly crystal fragments, with the fragment features under both normal light and polarized light microscope providing powerful points for differentiating the five commonly-used testacean drugs. This study demonstrated that it is feasible to provide authentication for these five kinds of TTCMs by the combination of morphology with microscopy. PMID:26579467

  2. Morphological and microscopic characterization of five commonly-used testacean traditional Chinese medicines.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Song, Wei; Zhou, Ping; Li, Ping; Li, Huijun

    2015-07-01

    Testacean traditional Chinese medicine (TTCM), derived from the outer shell of sea or freshwater mollusks, is a special and important category of Chinese medicinal materials. To ensure the effective use of TTCM, a comparative identification study was performed on five commonly-used testacean drugs, including Haliotidis Concha, Arcae Concha, Meretricis Concha, Ostreae Concha and Margaritifera Concha (Shijueming, Walengzi, Geqiao, Muli and Zhenzhumu in Chinese, respectively). Typical morphological photographs of the crude drugs were acquired, and the key microscopic characteristics of the derived powders under normal light microscope and polarized light microscope were summarized. The major results can be concluded as follows: (1) the original species involved in the five TTCMs could be distinguished by their respective interspecies morphological characteristics; (2) the key identification characteristics of the five powdered crude drugs were mainly crystal fragments, with the fragment features under both normal light and polarized light microscope providing powerful points for differentiating the five commonly-used testacean drugs. This study demonstrated that it is feasible to provide authentication for these five kinds of TTCMs by the combination of morphology with microscopy. PMID:26579467

  3. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Bambusa tulda with a Note on Flowering

    PubMed Central

    BHATTACHARYA, SAMIK; DAS, MALAY; BAR, RADHARAMAN; PAL, AMITA

    2006-01-01

    Background and Aims Flowering incidence in Bambusa tulda has a high socio-economic impact. The aim of the present study was to describe the species for morphological characters (vegetative and reproductive) as well as molecular markers in order to enable species identification at various stages of the life cycle. Methods Thirty-two key morphological characters (15 culm and 17 culm-sheath) were studied along with detailed inflorescence and floral characters. Incidence of sporadic flowering was recorded. Genomic DNA was isolated from leaves collected from 17 eco-geographical locations and RAPD profiles were generated. Key Results The description of culm, culm-sheath, inflorescence and floral morphology are in agreement with the prior taxonomic description by Gamble in 1896, but in this communication a more detailed description and illustrations are presented. No seed set was recorded following sporadic flowering, probably due to prezygoting isolating mechanisms (herkogamy or protandry). All 17 populations surveyed generated identical RAPD profiles. Conclusions Sporadic flowering may occur in B. tulda, but may not necessarily be followed by gregarious flowering, and does not result in seed production. PMID:16845134

  4. Detection of tumorigenesis in urinary bladder with optical coherence tomography: optical characterization of morphological changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, T.-Q.; Zeidel, M. L.; Pan, Yingtian

    2002-12-01

    Most transitional cell tumorigenesis involves three stages of subcellular morphological changes: hyperplasia, dysplasia and neoplasia. Previous studies demonstrated that owing to its high spatial resolution and intermediate penetration depth, current OCT technology including endoscopic OCT could delineate the urothelium, submucosa and the upper muscular layers of the bladder wall. In this paper, we will discuss the sensitivity and limitations of OCT in diagnosing and staging bladder cancer. Based on histomorphometric evaluations of nuclear morphology, we modeled the resultant backscattering changes and the characteristic changes in OCT image contrast. In the theoretical modeling, we assumed that nuclei were the primary sources of scattering and were uniformly distributed in the uroepithelium, and compared with the results of the corresponding prior OCT measurements. According to our theoretical modeling, normal bladder shows a thin, uniform and low scattering urothelium, so does an inflammatory lesion except thickening in the submucosa. Compared with a normal bladder, a hyperplastic lesion exhibits a thickened, low scattering urothelium whereas a neoplastic lesion shows a thickened urothelium with increased backscattering. These results support our previous animal study that OCT has the potential to differentiate inflammation, hyperplasia, and neoplasia by quantifying the changes in urothelial thickening and backscattering. The results also suggest that OCT might not have the sensitivity to differentiate the subtle morphological changes between hyperplasia and dysplasia based on minor backscattering differences.

  5. Non-Breeding Eusocial Mole-Rats Produce Viable Sperm—Spermiogram and Functional Testicular Morphology of Fukomys anselli

    PubMed Central

    Garcia Montero, Angelica; Vole, Christiane; Burda, Hynek; Malkemper, Erich Pascal; Holtze, Susanne; Morhart, Michaela; Saragusty, Joseph; Hildebrandt, Thomas B.; Begall, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Ansell’s mole-rats (Fukomys anselli) are subterranean rodents living in families composed of about 20 members with a single breeding pair and their non-breeding offspring. Most of them remain with their parents for their lifetime and help to maintain and defend the natal burrow system, forage, and care for younger siblings. Since incest avoidance is based on individual recognition (and not on social suppression) we expect that non-breeders produce viable sperm spontaneously. We compared the sperm of breeding and non-breeding males, obtained by electroejaculation and found no significant differences in sperm parameters between both groups. Here, we used electroejaculation to obtain semen for the first time in a subterranean mammal. Spermiogram analysis revealed no significant differences in sperm parameters between breeders and non-breeders. We found significantly larger testes (measured on autopsies and on living animals per ultrasonography) of breeders compared to non-breeders (with body mass having a significant effect). There were no marked histological differences between breeding and non-breeding males, and the relative area occupied by Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules on histological sections, respectively, was not significantly different between both groups. The seminiferous epithelium and to a lesser degree the interstitial testicular tissue are characterized by lesions (vacuolar degenerations), however, this feature does not hinder fertilization even in advanced stages of life. The continuous production of viable sperm also in sexually abstinent non-breeders might be best understood in light of the mating and social system of Fukomys anselli, and the potential to found a new family following an unpredictable and rare encounter with an unfamiliar female (“provoked or induced dispersal”). Apparently, the non-breeders do not reproduce because they do not copulate but not because they would be physiologically infertile. The significantly increased testes volume of breeding males (compared to non-breeders) is in agreement with previously found higher testosterone levels of breeders. PMID:26934488

  6. Non-Breeding Eusocial Mole-Rats Produce Viable Sperm-Spermiogram and Functional Testicular Morphology of Fukomys anselli.

    PubMed

    Garcia Montero, Angelica; Vole, Christiane; Burda, Hynek; Malkemper, Erich Pascal; Holtze, Susanne; Morhart, Michaela; Saragusty, Joseph; Hildebrandt, Thomas B; Begall, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Ansell's mole-rats (Fukomys anselli) are subterranean rodents living in families composed of about 20 members with a single breeding pair and their non-breeding offspring. Most of them remain with their parents for their lifetime and help to maintain and defend the natal burrow system, forage, and care for younger siblings. Since incest avoidance is based on individual recognition (and not on social suppression) we expect that non-breeders produce viable sperm spontaneously. We compared the sperm of breeding and non-breeding males, obtained by electroejaculation and found no significant differences in sperm parameters between both groups. Here, we used electroejaculation to obtain semen for the first time in a subterranean mammal. Spermiogram analysis revealed no significant differences in sperm parameters between breeders and non-breeders. We found significantly larger testes (measured on autopsies and on living animals per ultrasonography) of breeders compared to non-breeders (with body mass having a significant effect). There were no marked histological differences between breeding and non-breeding males, and the relative area occupied by Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules on histological sections, respectively, was not significantly different between both groups. The seminiferous epithelium and to a lesser degree the interstitial testicular tissue are characterized by lesions (vacuolar degenerations), however, this feature does not hinder fertilization even in advanced stages of life. The continuous production of viable sperm also in sexually abstinent non-breeders might be best understood in light of the mating and social system of Fukomys anselli, and the potential to found a new family following an unpredictable and rare encounter with an unfamiliar female ("provoked or induced dispersal"). Apparently, the non-breeders do not reproduce because they do not copulate but not because they would be physiologically infertile. The significantly increased testes volume of breeding males (compared to non-breeders) is in agreement with previously found higher testosterone levels of breeders. PMID:26934488

  7. Characterization and tissue distribution of conjugated metabolites of pyrene in the rat

    PubMed Central

    SAENGTIENCHAI, Aksorn; IKENAKA, Yoshinori; DARWISH, Wageh Sobhy; NAKAYAMA, Shouta M.M.; MIZUKAWA, Hazuki; ISHIZUKA, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    Pyrene (PY) is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) that is often used as a biomarker for human and wildlife exposure to PAHs. As the metabolites of PAHs, similar to their parent compounds, pose public health risks, it is necessary to study their characteristics and tissue-specific distribution. The present study was performed to experimentally characterize PY metabolites and analyze the tissue-specific distribution of the conjugated metabolites after oral administration of PY to rats. PY metabolites, such as pyrenediol-disulfate (PYdiol-diS), pyrenediol-sulfate (PYdiol-S), pyrene-1-sufate (PYOS), pyrene-1-glucuronide (PYOG) and 1-hydroxypyrene (PYOH), were detected in rat urine. Although glucuronide conjugate was the predominant metabolite, the metabolite composition varied among tissues. Interestingly, the proportion of PYOH was high in the large intestine. Furthermore, PYOH was the only PY metabolite detected in feces. PMID:26028020

  8. Characterization of the role of HCN channels in ?3-adrenoceptor mediated rat bladder relaxation

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Mahendra; Yoshimura, Naoki; Smith, Phillip P.; Chancellor, Michael; Tyagi, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    Objective The second messenger cAMP is involved in both ?3 adrenoceptor (?3-AR) mediated detrusor relaxation and the kinetics of Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels. Here we characterized the effect HCN channel activation and possible interaction with ?3-AR in bladder. Materials and Methods Bladder tissues from Sprague-Dawley rats and Human organ donors were obtained for studying species-specific expression of HCN channels by real-time qPCR and Western Blot. Effect of ?3-agonist on rat bladder strips (0.5 0.5 7 mm in size) was studied during activation and blockade of HCN channels by Lamotrigine and ZD7288, respectively. Results Expression of all four genes encoding for HCN channels (HCN1-4) was detected separately in bladder mucosa and detrusor from human and rat bladders. Species based differences were evident from relatively higher expression of HCN4 isoform in human bladder and that of HCN1 in rat bladder. Western blot confirmed the findings at mRNA level. Cumulative application ?3-AR agonist CL316,243 produced a concentration dependent decrease in resting tension of rat bladder strips expressed as integral of mechanical activity. Pre-incubation of HCN channel blocker ZD 7288 opposed the relaxant effect of CL316,243, whereas co-administration of lamotrigine with CL316,243 at equal molar concentrations caused an additive decrease in resting tension. Cumulative addition of ZD7288 and lamotrigine in absence of CL316,243 showed opposing effects on detrusor contractility. Conclusions Species-specific differences were noted in expression of HCN channels in bladder. Opposing effects ZD7288 and Lamotrigine in the action of ?3-AR agonist demonstrate possible functional interaction of HCN channels and ?3-AR in detrusor contractility. PMID:26709376

  9. Characterization of [6]-gingerol metabolism in rat by liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Marie-Lou; Douat, Jennifer; Vachon, Pascal; Beaudry, Francis

    2011-10-01

    [6]-Gingerol is a structural analog of capsaicin, an agonist of the transient receptor potential channel vanilloid 1, which is known to have therapeutic properties for the treatment of pain and inflammation. A selective and sensitive quantitative method for the determination of [6]-gingerol by HPLC-ESI/MS/MS was developed. The method consisted of a protein precipitation extraction followed by analysis using liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. The chromatographic separation was achieved using a Thermo 100 × 2.1 mm C(8) column combined with an isocratic mobile phase composed of acetonitrile, water and formic acid (80:20:0.1) at a flow rate of 250 μL/min. The mass spectrometer was operating in SRM mode and an analytical range set at 20-5000 ng/mL was used to construct a calibration curve in rat plasma. The interbatch precision (%CV) and accuracy (%NOM) observed were 2.9-10.8% and 98.1-102.1% in rat plasma. Similarly, precision and accuracy in rat liver microsomal suspension were also evaluated at nominal concentrations of 1, 25 and 100 μm; the precision (%CV) was <3.4% and the accuracy (%NOM) observed ranged from 89.7 to 109.4%. An in vitro metabolic stability study using rat liver microsomes was performed to determine intrinsic clearance of [6]-gingerol. The results show slow degradation with a T(1/2) of 163 min and relatively low intrinsic clearance suggesting that phase I metabolism may not be a major contributor of the drug clearance. Further analyses were performed to characterize in vitro and in vivo metabolites. Three main phase I metabolites and four phase II metabolites were identified by HPLC-MS/MS and HPLC-MSD TOF. However, the results suggest that glucuronidation of hydroxylated [6]-gingerol is the primary metabolite excreted in rat urine. PMID:21337351

  10. Qualitatively different effect of repeated stress during adolescence on principal neuron morphology across lateral and basal nuclei of the rat amygdala.

    PubMed

    Padival, M A; Blume, S R; Vantrease, J E; Rosenkranz, J A

    2015-04-16

    Repeated stress can elicit symptoms of depression and anxiety. The amygdala is a significant contributor to the expression of emotion and the basolateral amygdala (BLA) is a major target for the effects of stress on emotion. The adolescent time period may be particularly susceptible to the effects of stress on emotion. While repeated stress has been demonstrated to modify the morphology of BLA neurons in adult rats, little is known about its effects on BLA neurons during adolescence. This study tests the effects of repeated stress during adolescence on BLA neuronal morphology, and whether these are similar to the effects of stress during adulthood. The BLA includes the basal (BA) and lateral (LAT) nuclei, which are differentially responsive to stress in adults. Therefore, effects of stress during adolescence were compared between the BA and LAT nuclei. Morphological features of reconstructed BLA neurons were examined using Golgi-Cox-stained tissue from control or repeated restraint stress-exposed rats. We found subtle dendritic growth coupled with loss of spines after repeated stress during adolescence. The magnitude and dendritic location of these differences varied between the BA and LAT nuclei in strong contrast to the stress-induced increases in spine number seen in adults. These results demonstrate that repeated stress during adolescence has markedly different effects on BLA neuronal morphology, and the extent of these changes is BLA nucleus-dependent. Moreover, altered neuroanatomy was associated with age-dependent effects of repeated stress on generalization of fear, and may point to the necessity for different approaches to target stress-induced changes in adolescents. PMID:25701125

  11. Morphological characterization and molecular mapping of an irradiation-induced Speckled mutant in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Tan, D; Tong, X-L; Hu, H; Wu, S-Y; Li, C-L; Xiong, G; Xiang, Z-H; Dai, F-Y; Lu, C

    2016-04-01

    Speckled (Spc), an X-ray-induced lethal mutant of Bombyx mori, exhibits a mosaic dark-brown-spotted larval epidermis in both sexes and egg-laying problems only in females. Here, we report the morphological