Sample records for rats morphological characterization

  1. Morphological characterization of the evolving rat spinal cord injury after photochemically induced ischemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mia von Euler; Erik Sundström; Ĺke Seiger

    1997-01-01

    We have characterized the evolving morphological changes in the adult rat spinal cord following photochemically induced spinal\\u000a cord ischemia. In cresyl violet-stained sections, disintegration of the tissue at the epicenter was evident at 6 h. This was\\u000a preceded at 1 h post ischemia by an albumin immunoreactivity. The albumin immunoreactivity was increased at 6 and even more\\u000a so at 24

  2. Functional Diversity of Layer IV Spiny Neurons in Rat Somatosensory Cortex: Quantitative Morphology of Electrophysiologically Characterized and Biocytin Labeled Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jochen F. Staiger; Iris Flagmeyer; Dirk Schubert; Karl Zilles; Rolf Kötter; Heiko J. Luhmann

    2004-01-01

    Previous analyses of the spiny layer IV neurons have almost exclu- sively focused on spiny stellate cells. Here we provide detailed morphological data characterizing three subpopulations of spiny neurons in slices of adolescent rats: (i) spiny stellate cells (58%), (ii) star pyramidal cells (25%) and (iii) pyramidal cells (17%), which can be distinguished objectively by the preferential orientation of their

  3. Electrical properties of morphologically characterized neurons in the intergeniculate leaflet of the rat thalamus.

    PubMed

    Szkudlarek, H J; Raastad, M

    2007-12-01

    The intergeniculate leaflet (IGL) is a flat thalamic nucleus that responds to retinal illumination, but also to non-photic input from many brain areas. Its only known function is to modulate the circadian rhythm generated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Previously, the firing behavior of cells in IGL has been investigated with extra-cellular recordings, but intracellular recordings from morphologically identified mammalian IGL neurons are lacking. We recorded from and labeled IGL cells in rat brain slices to characterize their basic membrane properties and cell morphology. A high fraction of neurons (82.5%) were spontaneously active. The silent cells were identified as neurons by electrophysiological techniques. The spontaneous activity was due to intrinsic membrane properties, and not driven by rhythmic synaptic input. Most spontaneously active cells had a very regular firing pattern with a coefficient of variation of the spike intervals <0.12 in more than 50% of the cells. Rebound depolarization after a hyperpolarizing pulse, usually with one fast action potential on top, was observed in 80% of the cells. The silent neurons had a range of resting membrane potentials and spike thresholds overlapping with the active ones. This suggests that spontaneous activity was controlled by several, yet undetermined factors in addition to membrane potential. Within the IGL we found a broad range of morphologies without apparent categories and no significant correlation with activity. However, the spontaneous, usually regular, spiking and the rebound depolarization of IGL cells is typical a feature that distinguish them from neurons in ventral and from interneurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nuclei. PMID:17936514

  4. Morphological and physiological characterization of pyramidal neuron subtypes in rat medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    van Aerde, Karlijn I; Feldmeyer, Dirk

    2015-03-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been implicated in cognitive and executive processes including decision making, working memory and behavioral flexibility. Cortical processing depends on the interaction between distinct neuronal cell types in different cortical layers. To better understand cortical processing in the rat mPFC, we studied the diversity of pyramidal neurons using in vitro whole-cell patch clamp recordings and biocytin staining of neurons, followed by morphological analysis. Using unsupervised cluster analysis for the objective grouping of neurons, we identified more than 10 different pyramidal subtypes spread across the different cortical layers. Layer 2 pyramidal neurons possessed a unique morphology with wide apical dendritic field spans and a narrow basal field span. Layer 3 contained the only subtype that showed a burst of action potentials upon current injection. Layer 5 pyramidal neurons showed the largest voltage sags. Finally, pyramidal neurons in layer 6 (L6) showed a great variety in their morphology with 39% of L6 neurons possessing tall apical dendrites that extend into layer 1. Future experiments on the functional role of the mPFC should take into account the great diversity of pyramidal neurons. PMID:24108807

  5. Transcellular transport of polymeric IgA in the rat hepatocyte: biochemical and morphological characterization of the transport pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CRAIG A. HOPPE; TIMOTHY P. CONNOLLY; ANN L. HUBBARD

    1985-01-01

    Polymeric IgA (plgA) is transported by liver parenchymal cells (hepatocytes) from blood to bile via a receptor-mediated process. We have studied the intracellular pathway taken by a TEPC15 mouse myeioma plgA. When from 1 pg to 1 mg 12Sl-plgA was injected into the saphenous vein of a rat, 36% was transported as intact protein into the bile over a 3-h

  6. [Characterization of Marburg virus morphology].

    PubMed

    Song, Jing-Dong; Qu, Jian-Guo; Hong, Tao

    2014-05-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV) belong to the family Filoviridae. Filoviruses cause severe filovirus hemorrhagic fever (FHF) in humans, with high case fatality rates, and represent potential agents for bioterrorism and biological weapons. It is necessary to keep surveillance of filoviruses, even though there is no report of their isolation and patients in China so far. To characterize MARV morphology, the Lake Victoria marburgvirus--Leiden was stained negatively and observed under a transmission electron microscope which is one of important detection methods for filoviruses in emergencies and bioterrorism. MARV showed pleomorphism, with filamentous, rod-shaped, cobra-like, spherical, and branch-shaped particles of uniform diameter but different lengths. Pleomorphism of negatively stained MARV is summarized in this article, so as to provide useful information for possible electron microscopic identification of filoviruses in China. PMID:25118385

  7. The Effects of Permeation Enhancers on the Surface Morphology of the Rat Nasal Mucosa: A Scanning Electron Microscopy Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard D. Ennis; Lucy Borden; William A. Lee

    1990-01-01

    A rat model has been developed to compare relative morphological changes in the nasal mucosa after exposure to potential membrane permeation enhancers. Scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize gross structural and specific cellular changes following exposure. Micrographs of the rat nasal mucosa were scored in four categories: (1) mucosal surface integrity, (2) ciliary morphology, (3) mucus\\/extracellular debris, and (4)

  8. Chronic Stress Alters Dendritic Morphology in Rat Medial Prefrontal Cortex

    E-print Network

    Wellman, Cara

    Chronic Stress Alters Dendritic Morphology in Rat Medial Prefrontal Cortex Susan C. Cook,1 Cara L ABSTRACT: Chronic stress produces deficits in cognition accompanied by alterations in neural chemis- try and morphology. Medial prefrontal cortex is a target for glucocorticoids involved in the stress response. We have

  9. Surface morphology of normal and neoplastic rat cells.

    PubMed Central

    Cloyd, M. W.; Bigner, D. D.

    1977-01-01

    Nontumorigenic rat cells and their tumorigenic counterparts were studied with scanning electron microscopy under controlled conditions in vitro and with transmission electron microscopy after replantation in vivo to discern if external morphology reflected the cell's neoplastic state or the etiology of transformation. Interphase cells in six of seven nontumorigenic lines were flat and monolayered under confluent conditions and exhibited smooth, nonactive cell surfaces. A nontumorigenic cell line morphologically transformed with human adenovirus-2 consisted of spherical cells with blebbed surfaces. Cells from six tumorigenic lines transformed with avian sarcoma virus had highly active surfaces with many surface projections. Cells from two chemical carcinogen-transformed rat embryo lines were flat with no surface projections in subconfluent culture and rounded with only a few microvilli at high densities, but cells from a sarcoma chemically induced in an adult rat were villous. When villous cells were syngeneically replanted in vivo, they lost most microvilli. The external morphology of cells was influenced by a number of factors simultaneously, with no universal pattern associated with tumorigenic capacity or transforming agent. Images Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figures 16-17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:195471

  10. Effects of injectable anesthetic combinations on left ventricular function and cardiac morphology in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Sabatini, Carla F; O'Sullivan, M Lynne; Valcour, James E; Sears, William; Johnson, Ron J

    2013-01-01

    Novel anesthetic agents or combinations may provide superior general anesthesia for echocardiography in rodents with the potential for reduced adverse effects. This study sought to characterize the effects of 3 injectable anesthetics on left ventricular (LV) systolic function and cardiac morphology in healthy male and female rats. Rats underwent echocardiographic assessment after general anesthesia via pentobarbital or combinations of ketamine and medetomidine (KME) and ketamine and midazolam (KMI) according to a crossover Latin-square design. Blood samples for serum estradiol measurements were obtained from all females after echocardiography with each anesthetic. Rats given KMI showed superior LV systolic function with the highest values for fractional shortening (FS), ejection fraction (EF) and stroke volume, whereas heart rate was greatest with pentobarbital, followed by KMI and then KME. KME produced the greatest effects on cardiac morphology, most notably during systole, including reduced septal and posterior wall thickness and increased LV chamber dimensions and volumes. In addition, KME had the greatest cardiac-depressing effects on LV systolic function, including reduced FS, EF, and heart rate values. Compared with male rats, female rats had superior LV function with greater EF and FS values, whereas male rats showed higher heart rate. Significant negative correlations were noted between serum estradiol levels and FS and EF values in female rats receiving KME. We conclude that the combination of KMI may be a superior anesthetic for use in male and female rats undergoing echocardiography. PMID:23562031

  11. Effects of Injectable Anesthetic Combinations on Left Ventricular Function and Cardiac Morphology in Sprague–Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sabatini, Carla F; O'Sullivan, M Lynne; Valcour, James E; Sears, William; Johnson, Ron J

    2013-01-01

    Novel anesthetic agents or combinations may provide superior general anesthesia for echocardiography in rodents with the potential for reduced adverse effects. This study sought to characterize the effects of 3 injectable anesthetics on left ventricular (LV) systolic function and cardiac morphology in healthy male and female rats. Rats underwent echocardiographic assessment after general anesthesia via pentobarbital or combinations of ketamine and medetomidine (KME) and ketamine and midazolam (KMI) according to a crossover Latin-square design. Blood samples for serum estradiol measurements were obtained from all females after echocardiography with each anesthetic. Rats given KMI showed superior LV systolic function with the highest values for fractional shortening (FS), ejection fraction (EF) and stroke volume, whereas heart rate was greatest with pentobarbital, followed by KMI and then KME. KME produced the greatest effects on cardiac morphology, most notably during systole, including reduced septal and posterior wall thickness and increased LV chamber dimensions and volumes. In addition, KME had the greatest cardiac-depressing effects on LV systolic function, including reduced FS, EF, and heart rate values. Compared with male rats, female rats had superior LV function with greater EF and FS values, whereas male rats showed higher heart rate. Significant negative correlations were noted between serum estradiol levels and FS and EF values in female rats receiving KME. We conclude that the combination of KMI may be a superior anesthetic for use in male and female rats undergoing echocardiography. PMID:23562031

  12. Morphologic effects of cysteamine on the rat adenohypophysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cairns, P.D.; McComb, D.J.; Horvath, E.; Kovacs, K.; Milligan, J.V.; Szabo, S.

    1984-12-01

    In pituitary lactotrophs of female Sprague-Dawley rats given cysteamine (300 mg/kg, per os/day) for 7 days, forming granules were increased in number and contained many separate electron-dense structures suggesting crinophagy. Compared to control values, cysteamine treatment caused no change in blood prolactin (PRL) levels, measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). 17 beta-Estradiol (50 micrograms, sc/day) for 7 days, induced lactotroph hyperplasia and increased blood PRL levels which were unaffected by simultaneous cysteamine administration. The ultrastructural changes did not reflect those due to bromocriptine suppression of secretory activity, and supported the concept that cysteamine altered lactotroph morphology by an unknown mechanism. In pituitary gonadotrophs following cysteamine treatment, increased electron lucency of luminal contents of dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum was noted; however, blood luteinizing hormone (LH) levels did not differ from those of control values. In ovariectomized rats, cysteamine suppressed castration cell formation and reduced blood LH levels, suggesting an interference with the cell's ability to respond to GnRH stimulation. The morphologic effects of cysteamine appeared to be selective to lactotrophs and gonadotrophs, and were not secondary to vascular impairment, as capillary endothelial cells were undamaged.

  13. Morphology and dendritic maturation of developing principal neurons in the rat basolateral amygdala.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Steven J; Ehrlich, David E; Rainnie, Donald G

    2014-11-01

    The basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) assigns emotional valence to sensory stimuli, and many amygdala-dependent behaviors undergo marked development during postnatal life. We recently showed principal neurons in the rat BLA undergo dramatic changes to their electrophysiological properties during the first postnatal month, but no study to date has thoroughly characterized changes to morphology or gene expression that may underlie the functional development of this neuronal population. We addressed this knowledge gap with reconstructions of biocytin-filled principal neurons in the rat BLA at postnatal days 7 (P7), 14, 21, 28, and 60. BLA principal neurons underwent a number of morphological changes, including a twofold increase in soma volume from P7 to P21. Dendritic arbors expanded significantly during the first postnatal month and achieved a mature distribution around P28, in terms of total dendritic length and distance from soma. The number of primary dendrites and branch points were consistent with age, but branch points were found farther from the soma in older animals. Dendrites of BLA principal neurons at P7 had few spines, and spine density increased nearly fivefold by P21. Given the concurrent increase in dendritic material, P60 neurons had approximately 17 times as many total spines as P7 neurons. Together, these developmental transitions in BLA principal neuron morphology help explain a number of concomitant electrophysiological changes during a critical period in amygdala development. PMID:25381464

  14. Morphological Correlates of Triadic Circuitry in the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus of Cats and Rats

    E-print Network

    Sherman, S. Murray

    Morphological Correlates of Triadic Circuitry in the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus of Cats and Rats Y in the lateral geniculate nucleus of cats and rats. J Neurophysiol 93: 748­757, 2005; doi: 10.1152/jn.00256.2004. We used an in vitro slice preparation of the lateral geniculate nucleus in cats and rats to study

  15. Morphological and genetic characterization of Saimiri boliviensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The taxonomy of the genus Saimiri is controversial since morphological characters, traditionally used for identification, are insufficient to distinguish species and subspecies. Genetic studies of specimens in captivity become relevant, especially considering their frequently unknown geographical or...

  16. Morphology of respiratory tract lesions in rats exposed to radon progeny

    SciTech Connect

    Dagle, G.E.; Cross, F.T.; Gies, R.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-12-31

    We will discuss the morphologic features of lesions in the respiratory tract of rats exposed to radon and radon progeny. Groups of male Wister rats were exposed to from 10 to 1000 working levels (WL) of radon progeny in the presence of less than 1 to about 15 mg m{sup {minus}3} uranium ore dust. Cumulative exposures ranged from 20 to approximately 10,000 working level months (WLM). Higher exposure levels produced radiation pneumonitis characterized by interstitial fibrosis, associated with alveolar epithelial cell hyperplasia and accumulations of alveolar macrophages containing phagocytosed uranium ore dust. Nodular fibrosis and alveolar proteinosis were correlated with deposits of uranium ore dust. Vesicular emphysema also occurred at higher exposure levels. Pulmonary adenomatosis appeared to be a preneoplastic lesion; it was composed of nodular proliferation of bronchioloalveolar epithelium without disruption of the general architecture of the parenchyma. At exposure levels where rats lived longer than 1 y, lung tumors and a few tumors of the nasal cavity developed. The principal lung tumors were pulmonary adenomas, bronchioloalveolar carcinomas, papillary adenocarcinomas, epidermoid carcinomas, and adenosquamous carcinomas. Occasionally, malignant mesotheliomas and sarcomas were also present. The malignant lung tumors were characterized by invasion and occasionally metastasized to regional lymph nodes. Lower exposure rates produced more tumors, generally of different histologic types, and more fatal tumors than higher exposure rates. The similarity to relationships of human radon progeny exposure as far as incidence and types of lung tumors establish the validity of this animal model for studying radon carcinogenesis in humans.

  17. Teat Morphology Characterization With 3D Imaging.

    PubMed

    Vesterinen, Heidi M; Corfe, Ian J; Sinkkonen, Ville; Iivanainen, Antti; Jernvall, Jukka; Laakkonen, Juha

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to visualize, in a novel way, the morphological characteristics of bovine teats to gain a better understanding of the detailed teat morphology. We applied silicone casting and 3D digital imaging in order to obtain a more detailed image of the teat structures than that seen in previous studies. Teat samples from 65 dairy cows over 12 months of age were obtained from cows slaughtered at an abattoir. The teats were classified according to the teat condition scoring used in Finland and the lengths of the teat canals were measured. Silicone molds were made from the external teat surface surrounding the teat orifice and from the internal surface of the teat consisting of the papillary duct, Fürstenberg's rosette, and distal part of the teat cistern. The external and internal surface molds of 35 cows were scanned with a 3D laser scanner. The molds and the digital 3D models were used to evaluate internal and external teat surface morphology. A number of measurements were taken from the silicone molds. The 3D models reproduced the morphology of the teats accurately with high repeatability. Breed didn't correlate with the teat classification score. The rosette was found to have significant variation in its size and number of mucosal folds. The internal surface morphology of the rosette did not correlate with the external surface morphology of the teat implying that it is relatively independent of milking parameters that may impact the teat canal and the external surface of the teat. Anat Rec, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25382725

  18. Morphology and crystalline characterization of abalone shell and mimetic mineralization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiajun Wang; Yizhuang Xu; Ying Zhao; Yaping Huang; Dujin Wang; Lei Jiang; Jinguang Wu; Duanfu Xu

    2003-01-01

    The microstructure and crystallization habit of natural abalone shells were characterized with the methods of SEM and XRD, etc. The soluble proteins extracted from the abalone shell play an important role on controlling the morphology and transformation of the mineral phase in the abalone shell. In vitro crystallization experiments of calcium carbonate showed that the addition of the soluble protein

  19. Alloxan-Induced Diabetes Causes Morphological and Ultrastructural Changes in Rat Liver that Resemble the Natural History of Chronic Fatty Liver Disease in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Cassettari, Lucas Langoni; Spadella, César Tadeu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. This study evaluated the long-term effects of alloxan-induced diabetes in rat liver. Methods. Thirty nondiabetic control rats (NC) and 30 untreated diabetic (UD) rats were divided into three subgroups sacrificed after 6, 14, or 26 weeks. Clinical and laboratory parameters were assessed. Fresh liver weight and its relationship with body weight were obtained, and liver tissue was analyzed. Results. UD rats showed sustained hyperglycemia, high glycosylated hemoglobin, and low plasma insulin. High serum levels of AST and ALT were observed in UD rats after 2 weeks, but only ALT remained elevated throughout the experiment. Fresh liver weight was equal between NC and UD rats, but the fresh liver weight/body weight ratio was significantly higher in UD rats after 14 and 26 weeks. UD rats showed liver morphological changes characterized by hepatic sinusoidal enlargement and micro- and macrovesicular hepatocyte fatty degeneration with progressive liver structure loss, steatohepatitis, and periportal fibrosis. Ultrastructural changes of hepatocytes, such as a decrease in the number of intracytoplasmic organelles and degeneration of mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and nuclei, were also observed. Conclusion. Alloxan-induced diabetes triggered liver morphological and ultrastructural changes that closely resembled human disease, ranging from steatosis to steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis. PMID:25789328

  20. Morphological studies of the skeletal muscles of rats during hypokinesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrov, Y.; Kovachev, G.; Cheresharov, L.

    1982-01-01

    The skeletal musculature of two groups of Wistar strain rats were studied. A group of 60 day old members were kept in individual cells for physiologic immobilization, while the control group was raised under normal conditions. All animals were killed for tests at 450 days. Skeletal muscles of rats kept 390 days immobilized had a lower weight, muscle fiber diameter of m. semitendinosus was smaller in immobilized rats while variability in muscle fiber thickness was greater in the test group. It is found that degenerative processes involved light and dark fibers.

  1. Pregnancy Dating in the Rat: Placental Morphology and Maternal Blood Parameters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eveline P. C. T. de Rijk; Eric van Esch; Gert Flik

    2002-01-01

    The rat is commonly used as a model in studies on embryology and reproduction toxicology. Surprisingly, the current literature does not provide a comprehensive reference data set on placental development in rat. Therefore, we have evaluated morphological changes of the placenta and maternal blood parameters duringpregnancyof theSprague-Dawleyrat. Themorphologicdatapresentedinthis studymaybe usefulasreferencematerial. This studyrevealedthatplacentaldevelopmentintheratisawell-deé nedprocess,characterizedby keysynchronizedmorphologicaleventsatspeciécpoints in time, convenient for laboratory practice

  2. Morphological and functional changes in the rat heart after X irradiation: Strain differences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. K. Yeung; S. Lauk; R. H. Simmonds; J. W. Hopewell; K. R. Trott

    1989-01-01

    The hearts of mature male rats of the Wistar and Sprague-Dawley strains were locally irradiated with single doses of 17.5 and 20.0 Gy of X rays, respectively. These two dose levels had previously been shown to result in a comparable latent period between irradiation and the death of rats of these two strains from cardiac failure. Morphological changes in the

  3. Quercetin induces morphological and proliferative changes of rat’s uteri under estrogen and progesterone influences

    PubMed Central

    Shahzad, Huma; Giribabu, Nelli; Muniandy, Sekaran; Salleh, Naguib

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of 10 or 100 mg/kg/day quercetin on the uterus of ovariectomized adult female rats receiving sex-steroid replacement regime mimicking changes in hormonal profiles during the reproductive cycle. Following seven days of treatment with estrogen and progesterone with or without quercetin, uteri were harvested for histological and proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein and mRNA expression and PCNA protein distribution analyses. Our findings indicated that co-administration of 10 mg/kg/day quercetin with estrogen and progesterone caused a significant decrease in the size of uterine lumen and epithelial heights with lower PCNA protein and mRNA expression as compared to estrogen plus progesterone-only treatment (P < 0.05). Concomitant treatment with estrogen and progesterone with 100 mg/kg/day quercetin resulted in a marked increase in the number of glands with increased PCNA protein and mRNA expression. Significantly higher PCNA distribution was observed in the stroma and glands as compared to estrogen plus progesterone-only treatment (P < 0.05). In conclusion, at 10 mg/kg/day, quercetin affects uterine morphology but not proliferation, however at 100 mg/kg/day, quercetin induced significant stromal and glandular proliferation which could predispose the uterus towards neoplastic development. PMID:25337190

  4. Extensive morphological and immunohistochemical characterization in myotubular myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Shichiji, Minobu; Biancalana, Valérie; Fardeau, Michel; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Osawa, Makiko; Laporte, Jocelyn; Romero, Norma Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    The X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM) also called X-linked centronuclear myopathy is a rare congenital myopathy due to mutations in the MTM1 gene encoding myotubularin. The disease gives rise to a severe muscle weakness in males at birth. The main muscle morphological characteristics (significant number of small muscle fibers with centralized nuclei and type 1 fiber predominance) are usually documented, but the sequence of formation and maintenance of this particular morphological pattern has not been extensively characterized in humans. In this study, we perform a reevaluation of morphological changes in skeletal muscle biopsies in severe XLMTM. We correlate the pathologic features observed in the muscle biopsies of 15 newborns with MTM1-mutations according to the “adjusted-age” at the time of muscle biopsy, focusing on sequential analysis in the early period of the life (from 34 weeks of gestation to 3 months of age). We found a similar morphological pattern throughout the period analyzed; the proportion of myofibers with central nuclei was high in all muscle biopsies, independently of the muscle type, the age of the newborns at time of biopsy and the specific MTM1 mutation. We did not observe a period free of morphological abnormalities in human skeletal muscle as observed in myotubularin-deficient mouse models. In addition, this study demonstrated some features of delayed maturation of the muscle fibers without any increase in the number of satellite cells, associated with a marked disorganization of the muscle T-tubules and cytoskeletal network in the skeletal muscle fibers. PMID:24381816

  5. Spermatozoa morphology and characteristics of male wistar rats administered with ethanolic extract of Lagenaria Breviflora Roberts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adebowale Bernard Saba; Olayinka Ayotunde Oridupa; Matthew Olugbenga Oyeyemi; Oluwaseun Dapo Osanyigbe

    Accepted 17 July, 2008 This study was aimed at determining the effects of the ethanolic extract of the whole fruit of Lagenaria breviflora Robert on male fertility by evaluating some andrological parameters of the Wistar rat such as morphology of spermatozoa, sperm count, motility, liveability and volume of the semen. Histopathology of the testis was carried out. 20 adult male

  6. A morphological study of the circadian cycle of the pineal gland of the rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katsumaro Kurumado; Wataru Mori

    1977-01-01

    To seek a morphological expression of circadian rhythm, we investigated cytologically pineal glands taken from rats every 2 to 4 h under a lighting regime of 12 h of illumination (6:00 to 18:00) and 12 h of darkness. The changes in the number of synaptic ribbons and ribbon fields was observed by electron microscopy. The number of these intracellular elements

  7. Morphology characterization of emulsions by differential scanning calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Clausse, D; Gomez, F; Pezron, I; Komunjer, L; Dalmazzone, C

    2005-12-14

    This article is a review of some results obtained by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) for characterizing the morphology of emulsions. In a classical DSC experiment, an emulsion sample is submitted to a regular cooling and heating cycle between temperatures that include freezing and melting of the dispersed droplets. By using the thermograms found in the literature for various emulsions, how to get information about the solidification and melting, the presence of solute, the emulsion type, the transfer of matter, the stability and the droplet size is shown. PMID:16253203

  8. Synthesis and morphology characterization of polydimethylsiloxane-containing block copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadley, Maurice

    The thin film morphology characteristics of polydimethylsiloxane-containing block copolymers have been investigated. For this investigation, a commercially available hydroxyl terminated PDMS was purchased from Gelest and attached to a carboxylic acid functional reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) agent by Steglich esterification. This produced macro-RAFT agents to which styrene monomer was polymerized. By using this approach the generation of low polydispersity polystyrene-block-polydimethylsiloxane (PS-block-PDMS) copolymers of various molecular weights spanning a wide volume fraction range in which the PDMS block remained the same in each polymerization. Synthesized block copolymers were characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Bulk and thin film characterization of PS-block-PDMS copolymers was done by small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), contact angle measurements, scanning force microscopy (SFM), and grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). The following observations have been made. For PS-rich PS-block -PDMS copolymer thin films the low surface tension of PDMS caused it to migrate to the film surface regardless of solvent choice. The surface morphology was found to depend strongly on the solubility parameter of the solvent and exhibited SFM images consistent with parallel cylinder, perforated lamellar, and lamellar surface layers with increasing solvent solubility parameter. This behavior was due to the selective swelling of the individual blocks under slightly selective, good solvent conditions. A custom solvent annealing apparatus provided similar results in which order-order transitions in the thin films were observed with increasing solvent solubility parameter. Additionally improvements in the long-range order were observed after 1 h of solvent annealing. PS-rich PS-block-PDMS copolymer thin films also displayed PDMS rich surfaces after casting. Etching of this wetting layer by exposure to ultraviolet/ozone (UVO) cleaner allowed characterization of the interior film morphology. GISAXS was also able to characterize domain orientation in the as-cast and selectively etched thin films. PDMS cylinder orientation in PS-block-PDMS copolymer was found to be dependent on solvent choice and polymer molecular weight. The likely mechanism for perpendicularly oriented PDMS cylinders in selective solvents was an order-order transition to spheres where cylinders would nucleate at the air/film surface and template a perpendicularly oriented morphology during evaporation induced ordering. Perpendicularly oriented PDMS cylinders were observed in the lower molecular weight PS-rich PS- block-PDMS thin film samples indicating a preferential molecular weight range for the formation of perpendicular domains. Solvent annealing in PS selective chlorobenzene improved the long range order, but was not a strong driving force in altering domain orientation.

  9. Similar morphological and intracellular biochemical changes in alcoholic acute pancreatitis and ischemic acute pancreatitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Siech, M; Weber, H; Letko, G; Dummler, W; Schoenberg, M H; Beger, H G

    1997-01-01

    Pancreatic hyperstimulation with simultaneous duct obstruction does not cause the typical features of acute pancreatitis, therefore the role of an additional challenge, such as either ethanol intoxication or short-term ischemia, was studied. Alcoholic pancreatitis was induced in 28 rats by acute ethanol intoxication (0.25 LD50) and an obstruction/hyperstimulation mechanism (clip of the biliopancreatic duct for 20 min and intravenous stimulation with 5 U of cholecystokinin and secretin each). Ischemic pancreatitis was performed by obstruction/hyperstimulation and subsequent pancreatic ischemia by clamping the supplying arteries for 40 min. The macro- and microscopic alterations were evaluated and graded by a scoring system. Additionally, the pancreas was removed in 50% of the animals and the pancreatic acini were prepared. From those acini the intracellular enzymes trypsinogen, kallikreinogen, amylase, lipase, glucuronidase, and acidic phosphatases were determined. While obstruction/hyperstimulation, 40 min of ischemia, or ethanol alone did not induce acute pancreatitis, a combination of obstruction/hyperstimulation with either ethanol or ischemia resulted in acute pancreatitis in 68 and 60% of treated rats, respectively. Similarly, both models were characterized by extrapancreatic fat necrosis and acinar necrosis at the periphery of the lobules. Almost all intracellular enzymes were elevated in both pancreatitis models compared to sham-operated controls. Both alcohol and ischemia were insults that sensitize the pancreas to develop acute pancreatitis after obstruction/hyperstimulation. Since the observed morphologic and enzymatic alterations in both models are very similar, alcohol and ischemia might have some common pathways by which they make the pancreas vulnerable to enzymatic attacks. PMID:8981505

  10. Longitudinal Analysis of Calorie Restriction on Rat Taste Bud Morphology and Expression of Sweet Taste Modulators

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Huan; Daimon, Caitlin M.; Cong, Wei-na; Wang, Rui; Chirdon, Patrick; de Cabo, Rafael; Sévigny, Jean; Maudsley, Stuart; Martin, Bronwen

    2014-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is a lifestyle intervention employed to reduce body weight and improve metabolic functions primarily via reduction of ingested carbohydrates and fats. Taste perception is highly related to functional metabolic status and body adiposity. We have previously shown that sweet taste perception diminishes with age; however, relatively little is known about the effects of various lengths of CR upon taste cell morphology and function. We investigated the effects of CR on taste bud morphology and expression of sweet taste–related modulators in 5-, 17-, and 30-month-old rats. In ad libitum (AL) and CR rats, we consistently found the following parameters altered significantly with advancing age: reduction of taste bud size and taste cell numbers per taste bud and reduced expression of sonic hedgehog, type 1 taste receptor 3 (T1r3), ?-gustducin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). In the oldest rats, CR affected a significant reduction of tongue T1r3, GLP-1, and ?-gustducin expression compared with age-matched AL rats. Leptin receptor immunopositive cells were elevated in 17- and 30-month-old CR rats compared with age-matched AL rats. These alterations of sweet taste–related modulators, specifically during advanced aging, suggest that sweet taste perception may be altered in response to different lengths of CR. PMID:24077597

  11. Morphological development of thick-tufted layer v pyramidal cells in the rat somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Romand, Sandrine; Wang, Yun; Toledo-Rodriguez, Maria; Markram, Henry

    2011-01-01

    The thick-tufted layer V pyramidal (TTL5) neuron is a key neuron providing output from the neocortex. Although it has been extensively studied, principles governing its dendritic and axonal arborization during development are still not fully quantified. Using 3-D model neurons reconstructed from biocytin-labeled cells in the rat somatosensory cortex, this study provides a detailed morphological analysis of TTL5 cells at postnatal day (P) 7, 14, 21, 36, and 60. Three developmental periods were revealed, which were characterized by distinct growing rates and properties of alterations in different compartments. From P7 to P14, almost all compartments grew fast, and filopodia-like segments along apical dendrite disappeared; From P14 to P21, the growth was localized on specified segments of each compartment, and the densities of spines and boutons were significantly increased; From P21 to P60, the number of basal dendritic segments was significantly increased at specified branch orders, and some basal and oblique dendritic segments were lengthened or thickened. Development changes were therefore seen in two modes: the fast overall growth during the first period and the slow localized growth (thickening mainly on intermediates or lengthening mainly on terminals) at the subsequent stages. The lengthening may be accompanied by the retraction on different segments. These results reveal a differential regulation in the arborization of neuronal compartments during development, supporting the notion of functional compartmental development. This quantification provides new insight into the potential value of the TTL5 morphology for information processing, and for other purposes as well. PMID:21369363

  12. Morphological and Metabolic Changes Associated with Large Differences in Daily Food Intake in Crossed-Intestines Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry S Koopmans; Thomas J McDonald; Mario Digirolamo

    1997-01-01

    Koopmans, H. S., T. J. McDonald and M. DiGirolamo. Morphological and metabolic changes associated with large changes in food intake in crossed-intestines rats. Physiol Behav 62(1) 129–136, 1997.—Twenty-two inbred male Lewis rats were made into parabiotic pairs and 7 pairs had a further operation in which the small intestines of the 2 rats were connected so that one rat continually

  13. Morphological Characteristics of Renal Artery and Kidney in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yoldas, Atilla; Dayan, Mustafa Orhun

    2014-01-01

    The gross anatomy and morphometry of the kidney and renal arteries were studied in the strains of laboratory rat: Sprague-Dawley (Sp) and Wistar (W) rats. Total of 106 three-dimensional endocasts of the intrarenal arteries of kidney that were prepared using standard injection-corrosion techniques were examined. A single renal artery was observed in 100% of the cases. The renal arteries were divided into a dorsal and a ventral branch. The dorsal and ventral branches were divided into two branches, the cranial and caudal branch. Renal arteries were classified into types I and II, depending on the cranial and caudal branches and their made of branching. The present study also showed that the right kidney was slightly heavier than the left one and that the kidney of the male was generally larger than that of the female. The mean live weights of the Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats were found to be 258.26 ± 5.9 and 182.4 ± 19.05?g, respectively. The kidney weights were significantly correlated (P < 0.01) with body weights. The kidney weights were not found significantly correlated (P > 0.01) with the length of renal arteries. PMID:24737971

  14. Genotypic and Phenotypic Characterization of P23H Line 1 Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Orhan, Elise; Dalkara, Deniz; Neuillé, Marion; Lechauve, Christophe; Michiels, Christelle; Picaud, Serge; Léveillard, Thierry; Sahel, José-Alain; Naash, Muna I.; Lavail, Matthew M.; Zeitz, Christina; Audo, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Rod-cone dystrophy, also known as retinitis pigmentosa (RP), is the most common inherited degenerative photoreceptor disease, for which no therapy is currently available. The P23H rat is one of the most commonly used autosomal dominant RP models. It has been created by incorporation of a mutated mouse rhodopsin (Rho) transgene in the wild-type (WT) Sprague Dawley rat. Detailed genetic characterization of this transgenic animal has however never been fully reported. Here we filled this knowledge gap on P23H Line 1 rat (P23H-1) and provide additional phenotypic information applying non-invasive and state-of-the-art in vivo techniques that are relevant for preclinical therapeutic evaluations. Transgene sequence was analyzed by Sanger sequencing. Using quantitative PCR, transgene copy number was calculated and its expression measured in retinal tissue. Full field electroretinography (ERG) and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) were performed at 1-, 2-, 3- and 6-months of age. Sanger sequencing revealed that P23H-1 rat carries the mutated mouse genomic Rho sequence from the promoter to the 3’ UTR. Transgene copy numbers were estimated at 9 and 18 copies in the hemizygous and homozygous rats respectively. In 1-month-old hemizygous P23H-1 rats, transgene expression represented 43% of all Rho expressed alleles. ERG showed a progressive rod-cone dysfunction peaking at 6 months-of-age. SD-OCT confirmed a progressive thinning of the photoreceptor cell layer leading to the disappearance of the outer retina by 6 months with additional morphological changes in the inner retinal cell layers in hemizygous P23H-1 rats. These results provide precise genotypic information of the P23H-1 rat with additional phenotypic characterization that will serve basis for therapeutic interventions, especially for those aiming at gene editing. PMID:26009893

  15. Vanadyl sulfate protects against streptozotocin-induced morphological and biochemical changes in rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Akgün-Dar, Kadriye; Bolkent, Sehnaz; Yanardag, Refiye; Tunali, Sevim

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of vanadyl sulfate on aorta tissue of normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats, morphologically and biochemically. The animals were made diabetic by an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg) and vanadyl sulfate (100 mg/kg) that was given every day for 60 days by gavage technique to rats. Under the light and transmission electron microscopes, hypertrophy of the vessel wall, focal disruption in the elastic lamellae, an increase in thickness of total aortic wall, tunica intima, subendothelial space and adventitial layer, and a disorganization in smooth muscular cells of the tunica media were observed in diabetic animals. The aorta lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were significantly increased and the aorta glutathione (GSH) levels were significantly reduced in STZ diabetic rats. In diabetic rats administered vanadyl sulfate for 60 days, aorta LPO levels significantly decreased and the aorta GSH level significantly increased. In conclusion, in vivo treatment with vanadyl sulfate of diabetic rats prevented the morphological and biochemical changes observed in thoracic aorta of diabetic animals. PMID:16892454

  16. Retinal morphology in rats treated with a taurine transport antagonist.

    PubMed

    Lake, N; Malik, N

    1987-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that chronic treatment of rats with guanidinoethyl sulfonate (GES), an antagonist of taurine uptake, leads to depletion of retinal taurine content and electroretinogram abnormalities. In this study we examined with the light- and electron microscope the retina and pigment epithelium of mother rats treated for 8 weeks with 1% GES in their drinking water. Pigment epithelial cells appeared swollen, sometimes with mitochondrial vacuolization and loss of cytoplasmic density, and changes in nuclear shape and chromatin distribution. Photoreceptor cells had shorter outer segments with disarray of disks, swollen inner segments and nuclei, and loss of synaptic terminal contents. These degenerative changes frequently led to cell death, indicated by loss of photoreceptor cell nuclei and shrinkage of the outer nuclear layer, and disappearance of photoreceptor synaptic terminals from the outer plexiform layer. Narrowing of the outer plexiform layer was due also to the retraction of cell processes from higher-order neurons. Quantitative studies of the retina along the vertical meridian passing through the optic nerve head showed that treatment resulted in significant reductions in the number of rod-cell nuclei per field, the width of the outer nuclear layer, and the width of the inner retina. Effects were more pronounced in the superior than the inferior hemisphere, reminiscent of findings in light-damage studies. A possible role for taurine in the cellular defence mechanisms against light- and oxygen-induced damage is suggested. PMID:3595755

  17. Effect of exercise training and dietary fat on rat adipose tissue lipolysis and morphology 

    E-print Network

    Neale, Sonia Barstad

    1989-01-01

    . , Colorado State University Co-Chairs of Advisory Committee: Dr. Karen S. Kubena Dr. Stephen B. Smith The effects of exercise training and dietary fat on lipolysis rate and adipocyte morphology of epididymal fat pads were studied. Male rats (5 wk old...-free. The diets were initiated when the rats were 4 wk old. Body weight (p&0. 001), fat pad weight (p&0. 001), and adipocyte diameter (p&0. 05) were significantly less in the exercised group than in the sedentary group. Adipocyte number was not significantly...

  18. Relationships between dendritic morphology, spatial distribution and firing patterns in rat layer 1 neurons.

    PubMed

    Santos, D V V; Costa, K M; Vaz, M C G; Da Silva Filho, M

    2012-12-01

    The cortical layer 1 contains mainly small interneurons, which have traditionally been classified according to their axonal morphology. The dendritic morphology of these cells, however, has received little attention and remains ill defined. Very little is known about how the dendritic morphology and spatial distribution of these cells may relate to functional neuronal properties. We used biocytin labeling and whole cell patch clamp recordings, associated with digital reconstruction and quantitative morphological analysis, to assess correlations between dendritic morphology, spatial distribution and membrane properties of rat layer 1 neurons. A total of 106 cells were recorded, labeled and subjected to morphological analysis. Based on the quantitative patterns of their dendritic arbor, cells were divided into four major morphotypes: horizontal, radial, ascendant, and descendant cells. Descendant cells exhibited a highly distinct spatial distribution in relation to other morphotypes, suggesting that they may have a distinct function in these cortical circuits. A significant difference was also found in the distribution of firing patterns between each morphotype and between the neuronal populations of each sublayer. Passive membrane properties were, however, statistically homogeneous among all subgroups. We speculate that the differences observed in active membrane properties might be related to differences in the synaptic input of specific types of afferent fibers and to differences in the computational roles of each morphotype in layer 1 circuits. Our findings provide new insights into dendritic morphology and neuronal spatial distribution in layer 1 circuits, indicating that variations in these properties may be correlated with distinct physiological functions. PMID:22930412

  19. BIOCHEMICAL, FUNCTIONAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF NEUROTOXICITY: EFFECTS OF ACUTE ADMINISTRATION OF TRIMETHYLTIN TO THE DEVELOPING RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The neurotoxic organometal, trimethyltin (TMT), was administered to rats on postnatal day (PND)5. Neurotoxicity was assessed throughout subsequent development using morphological, biochemical and functional endpoints. These consisted of brain weight measures and histology (morpho...

  20. Derivation and Characterization of Embryonic Stem Cells Lines Derived from Transgenic Fischer 344 and Dark Agouti Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hong, James; He, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Rat embryonic stem cell (ESC) lines are not widely available, and there are only 2 lines available for distribution. Here, ESC lines were derived and characterized from Fischer 344 (F344) rats that express marker transgenes either ?-galactosidase or human placental alkaline phosphatase (AP), nontransgenic F344 rats, and from Dark Agouti (DA) rats. The ESC lines were maintained in an undifferentiated state as characterized by colony morphology, expression of Oct4, Nanog, Sox-2, Cdx2, and Stella, staining for AP, and stage-specific embryonic antigen-1. Pluripotency was demonstrated in vitro by differentiation to embryoid bodies, followed by embryonic monsters. The Cdx2 expression by ESCs was unexpected and was confirmed via reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, immunocytochemistry. Pluripotency of ESCs was demonstrated in vivo by production of teratoma after an injection into F344 nontransgenic rats, and by an injection of male DA ESCs into F344 or Sprague-Dawley rat blastocysts and the generation of chimeric rats and germline contribution. ESCs from both F344 and DA contributed to chimeric rats, and one DA ESC line was proved to be germline competent. ESC sublines were created by transfection with a plasmid expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) under the control of a beta actin promoter and cytomegalovirus enhancer (pCX-eGFP) or by transfection with a plasmid expressing GFP under the control of a 3.1?kb portion of the rat Oct4 promoter (pN1-Oct4-GFP). In pN1-Oct4-GFP sublines, GFP gene expression and fluorescence were shown to be correlated with endogenous Oct4 gene expression. Therefore, these new ESC lines may be useful for tissue engineering and transplantation studies or for optimizing culture conditions required for self-renewal and differentiation of rat ESCs. While they made chimeric rats, further work is needed to confirm whether the transgenic F344 rat ESCs described here are germline-competent ESCs. PMID:21995453

  1. Morphological alterations in retinal neurons in the S334ter-line3 transgenic rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aditi Ray; Gerald J. Sun; Leanne Chan; Norberto M. Grzywacz; James Weiland; Eun-Jin Lee

    2010-01-01

    The S334ter-line-3 rat is a transgenic model of retinal degeneration developed to express a rhodopsin mutation similar to\\u000a that found in human retinitis pigmentosa (RP) patients. Previous studies have focused on physiological changes in retinal\\u000a cells and higher centers of the visual system with this model of retinal degeneration. However, little is known about the\\u000a morphological changes in retinal cells

  2. Markers of cardiac oxidative stress and altered morphology after intraperitoneal cocaine injection in a rat model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vittorio Fineschi; Giorgio Baroldi; Fabio Centini; Daniela Cerretani; Anna Ida Fiaschi; Lucia Micheli; Marina Parolini; Emanuela Turillazzi; Giorgio Giorgi

    2001-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the parameters of myocardial oxidative stress and related cardiac morphological changes\\u000a following intraperitoneal cocaine exposure in rats. The cardiac levels of reduced glutathione(GSH), oxidised glutathione(GSSG),\\u000a ascorbic acid (AA), and the production of malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured, as well as the variations of activity in the\\u000a enzyme systems involved in cell antioxidant defence, glutathione peroxidase

  3. Morphological and Biochemical Effects of 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine and 1-Methylhydrazine in Rats and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hawks, A.; Hicks, R. M.; Holsman, J. W.; Magee, P. N.

    1974-01-01

    Single toxic doses of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine induced mild centrilobular necrosis of the liver in rats and mice. Ultrastructural studies showed hepatic nuclear changes including nucleolar microsegregation and changes in the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. 1-Methylhydrazine caused little morphological change in the liver. Tumours of the colon and kidney and also massive cystic hyperplasia of the liver were found in some of the rats and tumours of the anal margin and kidney in some of the mice, following single doses of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. Incorporation of amino acids into rat liver proteins was inhibited by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, which also caused disaggregation of hepatic polysomes. No effects on hepatic protein synthesis by 1,1-dimethylhydrazine or 1-methylhydrazine were observed. Similarities between the effects of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, cycasin and dimethylnitrosamine are discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:4469195

  4. Dietary high-fat lard intake induces thyroid dysfunction and abnormal morphology in rats

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Shan-shan; Zhao, Yuan-fei; Song, Yong-feng; Xu, Chao; Yang, Jian-mei; Xuan, Shi-meng; Yan, Hui-li; Yu, Chun-xiao; Zhao, Meng; Xu, Jin; Zhao, Jia-jun

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Excess dietary fat intake can induce lipotoxicity in non-adipose tissues. The aim of this study was to observe the effects of dietary high-fat lard intake on thyroid in rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat lard diet for 24 weeks, and then the rats were fed a normal control diet (acute dietary modification) or the high-fat lard diet for another 6 weeks. The serum lipid profile, total thyroxine (TT4), free thyroxine (FT4) and thyrotropin (TSH) levels were determined at the 12, 18, 24 and 30 weeks. High-frequency ultrasound scanning of the thyroid glands was performed at the 24 or 30 weeks. After the rats were sacrificed, the thyroid glands were collected for histological and immunohistochemical analyses. Results: The high-fat lard diet significantly increased triglyceride levels in both the serum and thyroid, and decreased serum TT4 and FT4 levels in parallel with elevated serum TSH levels. Ultrasonic imaging revealed enlarged thyroid glands with lowered echotexture and relatively heterogeneous features in the high-fat lard fed rats. The thyroid glands from the high-fat lard fed rats exhibited enlarged follicle cavities and flattened follicular epithelial cells under light microscopy, and dilated endoplasmic reticulum cisternae, twisted nuclei, fewer microvilli and secretory vesicles under transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, the thyroid glands from the high-fat lard fed rats showed markedly low levels of thyroid hormone synthesis-related proteins TTF-1 and NIS. Acute dietary modification by withdrawal of the high-fat lard diet for 6 weeks failed to ameliorate the high-fat lard diet-induced thyroid changes. Conclusion: Dietary high-fat lard intake induces significant thyroid dysfunction and abnormal morphology in rats, which can not be corrected by short-term dietary modification. PMID:25263336

  5. Protective role of Melissa officinalis L. extract on liver of hyperlipidemic rats: A morphological and biochemical study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Bolkent; R. Yanardag; Omur Karabulut-Bulan; B. Yesilyaprak

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the effects of Melissa officinalis L. extract on hyperlipidemic rats were investigated, morphologically and biochemically. The animals were fed a lipogenic diet consisting of 2% cholesterol, 20% sunflower oil and 0.5% cholic acid added to normal chow and were given 3% ethanol for 42 days. The plant extract was given by gavage technique to rats to a

  6. Effect of traumatic occlusion on CGRP and SP immunoreactive nerve fibre morphology in rat molar pulp and periodontium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Kvinnsland; K. J. Heyeraas

    1992-01-01

    Traumatic occlusion provides a trauma that affects the whole tooth and its supporting tissues. To study the effect of this trauma on CGRP and SP immunoreactive nerve morphology in pulp and periodontium, traumatic occlusion was induced in 2-months-old rats. The occlusal surface of the first maxillary molar in 30 rats were unilaterally raised 1 mm with a composite material. At

  7. Effects of Fixatives and Buffers upon the Morphology of Heart and Skeletal Muscle Mitochondria from Exhausted Rats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, James B.

    This study describes the effects of several fixatives and buffers on the morphology of mitochondria from resting and exhausted rats. Rats were run to exhaustion and adjacent portions from the left ventricle or from the soleus were treated with the following fixation procedures: (a) glutaraldehyde buffered with cacodylate, S-collidine, or phosphate…

  8. Effects of streptozotocin-induced long-term diabetes on parietal cell function and morphology in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salim M. A. Bastaki; Ernest Adeghate; Irwin S. Chandranath; Naheed Amir; Saeed Tariq; Rashed S. Hameed; Abdu Adem

    2010-01-01

    Gastric pathology is a common complication in diabetes mellitus. The aim of the study was to evaluate the functions and morphological\\u000a changes of the parietal cells of the rat stomach after streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Diabetes mellitus was induced in Wistar\\u000a rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg\\/kg body weight). The rats were weighed weekly and sacrificed\\u000a after 6 months. The

  9. REPEATED STRESS ALTERS DENDRITIC SPINE MORPHOLOGY IN THE RAT MEDIAL PREFRONTAL CORTEX

    PubMed Central

    Radley, Jason J.; Rocher, Anne B.; Rodriguez, Alfredo; Ehlenberger, Douglas B.; Dammann, Mark; McEwen, Bruce S.; Morrison, John H.; Wearne, Susan L.; Hof, Patrick R.

    2009-01-01

    Anatomical alterations in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are associated with hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation, altered stress hormone levels, and psychiatric symptoms of stress-related mental illnesses. Functional imaging studies reveal impairment and shrinkage of the mPFC in such conditions, and these findings are paralleled by experimental studies showing dendritic retraction and spine loss following repeated stress in rodents. Here we extend this characterization to how repeated stress affects dendritic spine morphology in mPFC through the utilization of an automated approach which rapidly digitizes, reconstructs 3-dimensionally, and calculates geometric features of neurons. Rats were perfused after being subjected to 3 weeks of daily restraint stress (6 hours/day), and intracellular injections of Lucifer Yellow were made in layers II/III pyramidal neurons in the dorsal mPFC. To reveal spines in all angles of orientation, deconvolved high-resolution confocal laser scanning microscopy image stacks of dendritic segments were reconstructed and analyzed for spine volume, surface area, and length using a Rayburst-based automated approach (8,091 and 8,987 spines for control and stress, respectively). We found that repeated stress results in an overall decrease in mean dendritic spine volume and surface area, which was most pronounced in the distal portion of apical dendritic fields. Moreover, we observed an overall shift in the population of spines, manifested by a reduction in large spines and increase in small spines. These results suggest a failure of spines to mature and stabilize following repeated stress, and are likely to have major repercussions on function, receptor expression, and synaptic efficacy. PMID:18157834

  10. Facet Model and Mathematical Morphology for Surface Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Abidi, B.R.; Goddard, J.S.; Hunt, M.A.; Sari-Sarraf, H.

    1999-11-13

    This paper describes an algorithm for the automatic segmentation and representation of surface structures and non-uniformities in an industrial setting. The automatic image processing and analysis algorithm is developed as part of a complete on-line web characterization system of a papermaking process at the wet end. The goal is to: (1) link certain types of structures on the surface of the web to known machine parameter values, and (2) find the connection between detected structures at the beginning of the line and defects seen on the final product. Images of the pulp mixture (slurry), carried by a fast moving table, are obtained using a stroboscopic light and a CCD camera. This characterization algorithm succeeded where conventional contrast and edge detection techniques failed due to a poorly controlled environment. The images obtained have poor contrast and contain noise caused by a variety of sources. After a number of enhancement steps, conventional segmentation methods still f ailed to detect any structures and are consequently discarded. Techniques tried include the Canny edge detector, the Sobel, Roberts, and Prewitt's filters, as well as zero crossings. The facet model algorithm, is then applied to the images with various parameter settings and is found to be successful in detecting the various topographic characteristics of the surface of the slurry. Pertinent topographic elements are retained and a filtered image computed. Carefully tailored morphological operators are then applied to detect and segment regions of interest. Those regions are then selected according to their size, elongation, and orientation. Their bounding rectangles are computed and represented. Also addressed in this paper are aspects of the real time implementation of this algorithm for on-line use. The algorithm is tested on over 500 images of slurry and is found to segment and characterize nonuniformities on all 500 images.

  11. Morphological changes of parotid glands following adjuvant arthritis and ibuprofen treatment in rats.

    PubMed

    Mourouzis, C; Saranteas, T; Tsamouris, M; Tesseromatis, C

    2003-02-01

    Drug administration and numerous systemic diseases may cause morphological changes of the parotid gland. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible relationship between experimental adjuvant arthritis following ibuprofen treatment and morphological alterations of the parotid glands in rats. Freud's adjuvant was injected intradermally into the plantar surface of the hind paw of the animals to induce experimental arthritis. Ibuprofen was administrated per os (17 mg/kg/day). Both adrenals and parotid glands were isolated and their absolute and relative weights were evaluated. A full histological examination of parotid glands took place. The diameter of the foot as well as the serum levels of rheumatoid factor was measured. In conclusion, both experimental adjuvant arthritis and ibuprofen treatment induce morphological changes of the parotid tissues, which are related to macro- and micro-structure of the gland. PMID:12653236

  12. Rapid morphological change in black rats (Rattus rattus) after an island introduction

    PubMed Central

    Byrn, David; Lee, Kashawneda L.Y.; Jackson, Racheal

    2015-01-01

    Rapid morphological change has been shown in rodent populations on islands, including endemic deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus subspp.) on the California Channel Islands. Surprisingly, most of these changes were towards a smaller size. Black rats were introduced to Anacapa Island in the mid-1800s (probably in 1853) and eradicated in 2001–2002. To assess possible changes in these rats since their introduction, eleven cranial and four standard external measurements were taken from 59 Rattus rattus specimens collected from 1940–2000. All rat cranial traits changed 3.06–10.43% (724–2567 d, 0.06–0.42 h), and all became larger. When considered in haldanes, these changes are among the fastest on record in any organism, and far exceed changes found in other island rodents. These changes were confirmed by MANOVA (Wilk’s ? < 0.0005, Fd.f.15 = 2974.386, P < 0.0005), and all 11 cranial traits significantly fit linear regressions. We speculate that concurrent changes in mice may have been due in part to competition with and/or predation by rats. Future research might evaluate whether the vector of mouse evolution on Anacapa is again changing after rat eradication. PMID:25780765

  13. Rapid morphological change in black rats (Rattus rattus) after an island introduction.

    PubMed

    Pergams, Oliver R W; Byrn, David; Lee, Kashawneda L Y; Jackson, Racheal

    2015-01-01

    Rapid morphological change has been shown in rodent populations on islands, including endemic deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus subspp.) on the California Channel Islands. Surprisingly, most of these changes were towards a smaller size. Black rats were introduced to Anacapa Island in the mid-1800s (probably in 1853) and eradicated in 2001-2002. To assess possible changes in these rats since their introduction, eleven cranial and four standard external measurements were taken from 59 Rattus rattus specimens collected from 1940-2000. All rat cranial traits changed 3.06-10.43% (724-2567 d, 0.06-0.42 h), and all became larger. When considered in haldanes, these changes are among the fastest on record in any organism, and far exceed changes found in other island rodents. These changes were confirmed by MANOVA (Wilk's ? < 0.0005, F d.f.15 = 2974.386, P < 0.0005), and all 11 cranial traits significantly fit linear regressions. We speculate that concurrent changes in mice may have been due in part to competition with and/or predation by rats. Future research might evaluate whether the vector of mouse evolution on Anacapa is again changing after rat eradication. PMID:25780765

  14. The effects of Creatine Long-Term Supplementation on Muscle Morphology and Swimming Performance in Rats.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Ahmet; Ozdemir, Ercan; Gulturk, Sefa; Erdal, Sena

    2009-01-01

    Creatine (Cr) has been shown to increase the total muscle mass. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Cr supplementation on muscle morphology and swimming performance, using an animal model. Each rat was subjected to exercise 15-minute period daily for the 12 weeks. The rats were randomly divided into four groups: no Cr supplementation (CON), no Cr supplementation and incomplete food intake (lacking lysine and methionine in diet for rats) (INCO), Cr supplementation 1 g·kg(-1)·day(-1) (CREAT-I) and Cr supplementation 2 g·kg(-1)·day(-1) (CREAT-II). Three months later, all groups adult rats exercised in swimming pool chambers. Swimming time was recorded as minute for each rat. Following swimming performance period, the animals were killed by cervical dislocation and the gastrocnemius and diaphragm muscles were dissected. Serial slices of 5-7 ?m were allocated paraffin wax and histochemical staining procedure of cross-sections was carried out with heamatoxylin-eosin technics. All groups gained body weight at the end of 12 weeks but there was no statistical difference among them. Swimming time values were statistical difference between CREAT-II and CON group as well as between CREAT-I and CON group (p < 0.05). In the INCO group was determined increased connective tissue cell of the muscle sample. In contrast, in the CREAT-I and CREAT-II group, the basic histological changes were large-scale muscle fibers and hypertrophic muscle cells. These results suggest that long-term creatine supplementation increased the number of muscle fibers and enhanced endurance swimming performance in rats. Key pointsThere is no study about the effects of creatine long-term supplementation on muscle morphology and swimming performance in rats.Long-term creatine supplementation increase muscle hypertrophy (but not body weight) and enhance endurance swimming performance in rats.The quantitative analysis indicated that the number of muscle fibers per defined area increased in creatine supplementation groups. PMID:24149591

  15. MORPHOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF GOLDFISH ERYTHROPHORES AND THEIR PTERINOSOMES

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Jiro; Obika, Masataka

    1968-01-01

    The fine structure of integumental erythrophores and the intracellular location of pteridine and carotenoid pigments in adult goldfish, Carassius auratus, were studied by means of cytochemistry, paper and thin-layer chromatography, ionophoresis, density-gradient centrifugal fractionation, and electron microscopy. The ultrastructure of erythrophores is characterized by large numbers of somewhat ellipsoidal pigment granules and a well-developed system of tubules which resembles endoplasmic reticulum. The combined morphological and biochemical approaches show that pteridine pigments of erythrophores are located characteristically in pigment granules and are the primary yellow pigments of these organelles. Accordingly, this organelle is considered to be the "pterinosome" which was originally found in swordtail erythrophores. Major pteridines obtainable from goldfish pterinosomes are sepiapterin, 7-hydroxybiopterin, isoxanthopterin, and 6-carboxyisoxanthopterin. Density-gradient fractions indicate that carotenoids are mostly associated with the endoplasmic reticulum. Both tyrosinase and possibly a tyrosinase inhibitor containing sulfhydryl groups are present in the pterinosome. The possible existence of a tyrosinase inhibitor is suggested by the marked increase of tyrosinase activity upon the addition of iodoacetamide or p-chloromercuribenzoic acid. In the light of their fine structure, pigmentary composition, and enzymatic properties, the erythrophores and pterinosomes are discussed with respect to their probable functions and their relationship to melanophores. PMID:5692582

  16. Morphology and Molecular Mechanisms of Hepatic Injury in Rats under Simulated Weightlessness and the Protective Effects of Resistance Training.

    PubMed

    Du, Fang; Ding, Ye; Zou, Jun; Li, Zhili; Tian, Jijing; She, Ruiping; Wang, Desheng; Wang, Huijuan; Lv, Dongqiang; Chang, Lingling

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of long-term simulated weightlessness on liver morphology, enzymes, glycogen, and apoptosis related proteins by using two-month rat-tail suspension model (TS), and liver injury improvement by rat-tail suspension with resistance training model (TS&RT). Microscopically the livers of TS rats showed massive granular degeneration, chronic inflammation, and portal fibrosis. Mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum swelling and loss of membrane integrity were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The similar, but milder, morphological changes were observed in the livers of TS&RT rats. Serum biochemistry analysis revealed that the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were significantly higher (p<0.05) in TS rats than in controls. The levels of ALT and AST in TS&RT rats were slightly lower than in RT rats, but they were insignificantly higher than in controls. However, both TS and TS&RT rats had significantly lower levels (p<0.05) of serum glucose and hepatic glycogen than in controls. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the expressions of Bax, Bcl-2, and active caspase-3 were higher in TS rats than in TS&RT and control rats. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) showed that TS rats had higher mRNA levels (P < 0.05) of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and caspase-12 transcription than in control rats; whereas mRNA expressions of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) were slightly higher in TS rats. TS&RT rats showed no significant differences of above 4 mRNAs compared with the control group. Our results demonstrated that long-term weightlessness caused hepatic injury, and may trigger hepatic apoptosis. Resistance training slightly improved hepatic damage. PMID:26000905

  17. Characterization of the scopolamine stimulus in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Jung; A. Perio; P. Worms; K. Biziere

    1988-01-01

    The discriminative stimulus properties of scopolamine, a potent antagonist at muscarinic receptors, were used for testing the discriminative effects of drugs known to act on cholinergic transmission. Rats were trained in a standard two-bar operant conditioning procedure with food as the reinforcer, according to a FR10 schedule. The training dose of scopolamine was progressively reduced from 0.25 mg\\/kg SC to

  18. Hepatic morphological changes and oxidative stress in chronic streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Evelson, Pablo; Susemihl, Carlota; Villarreal, Irene; Llesuy, Susana; Rodríguez, Ricardo; Peredo, Horacio; Lemberg, Abraham; Perazzo, Juan; Filinger, Ester

    2005-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) is a biological entity quoted as responsible for several pathologies including diabetes. Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been also associated to human cirrhosis. The present work was designed to study the occurrence of OS as well as morphologic alterations in rat livers following induction of DM. Two groups of rats were used: Control and Diabetic. DM was induced in the second group by streptozotocin (STZ) in a single dose of 60 mg/kg, injected i.p. The occurrence of OS was determined in liver homogenates by measuring the hydroperoxide-initiated chemiluminescence and the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase). Liver sinusoids were morphometrically analyzed. In conclusion, livers from the diabetic group did not show evidence of the occurrence of OS, as it would be expected, but dilation of hepatic sinusoids was documented and it was significantly different from control group. PMID:16010244

  19. Characterization of the rat developmental liver transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Chapple, Richard H; Tizioto, Polyana C; Wells, Kevin D; Givan, Scott A; Kim, JaeWoo; McKay, Stephanie D; Schnabel, Robert D; Taylor, Jeremy F

    2013-04-16

    Gene regulation and transcriptome studies have been enabled by the development of RNA-Seq applications for high-throughput sequencing platforms. Next generation sequencing is remarkably efficient and avoids many issues inherent in hybridization-based microarray methodologies including the exon-specific dependence of probe design. Biologically relevant transcripts including messenger and regulatory RNAs may now be quantified and annotated regardless of whether they have previously been observed. We used RNA-Seq to investigate global patterns of gene expression in early developing rat liver. Liver samples from timed-pregnant Lewis rats were collected at six fetal and neonatal stages [embryonic day (E)14, E16, E18, E20, postnatal day (P)1, P7], transcripts were sequenced using an Illumina HiSeq 2000, and data analysis was performed with the Tuxedo software suite. Genes and isoforms differing in abundance were queried for enrichment within functionally related gene groups using the Functional Annotation Tool of the DAVID Bioinformatics Database. While hematopoietic gene expression is initiated by E14, hepatocyte maturation is a gradual process involving clusters of genes responsible for response to nutrients and enzymes responsible for glycolysis and fatty acid catabolism. Following birth, a large cluster of differentially abundant genes was enriched for mitochondrial gene expression and cholesterol synthesis indicating that by 1 wk of age, the liver is engaged in lipid sensing and bile production. Clustering results for differentially abundant genes and isoforms were similar with the greatest difference for the E14/E16 comparison. Finally, a bioinformatic approach was used to annotate 1,307 novel liver transcripts assembled from sequences that aligned to intergenic regions of the rat genome. PMID:23429212

  20. Morphological changes in cultures of hippocampus following prenatal irradiation in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Hamdorf, G.; Shahar, A.; Cervos-Navarro, J.; Scheffler, A.; Sparenberg, A.; Skoberla, A. (Free Univ. of Berlin (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-07-01

    The effect of prenatal irradiation was studied in organotypic cultures of hippocampus, prepared from newborn rats that had been exposed to whole-body irradiation of 1 Gy from a {sup 60}Co-source at day 13 of pregnancy. Light and electron microscopic observations showed remarkable damage to neuronal mitochondria accompanied by extensive swelling, vacuolation of the Golgi complex, and formation of multilamellar bodies and vesicles of the lysosomal type. In contrast to neuronal alterations, no delay in synaptogenesis or onset of myelination was observed based upon the absence of significant morphological changes in synapses and myelin sheaths. Using this tissue culture model it could be confirmed that prenatal exposure to irradiation, even at low doses, induces specific morphological changes in the brain.

  1. Effects of ospemifene on breast tissue morphology and proliferation: a comparative study versus other selective estrogen receptor modulators in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Kangas, L; Härkönen, P; Väänänen, K; Keskitalo, J; Eigéliené, N

    2014-05-01

    Ospemifene is a tissue-selective estrogen agonist/antagonist that was recently approved for the treatment of dyspareunia associated with vulvar and vaginal atrophy, which occurs in up to approximately 50% of postmenopausal women. The current analyses were conducted to determine whether ospemifene exhibits estrogenic activity in the mammary glands of ovariectomized rats and to compare potential estrogenic activity with selective estrogen receptor modulators (tamoxifen, raloxifene, and toremifene). Three separate studies with differing durations (6, 9, and 28?days) were conducted using similar procedures in ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats. Estradiol treatment and sham-treated ovariectomized rats were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Cell proliferation was examined using labeled 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine; cytoplasmic prolactin was characterized with antibody staining. The morphology of the mammary gland was studied by histological staining of sections from the right fourth mammary glands, and the excised gland from the left side was used for counting the lobulus number. Neither ospemifene nor selective estrogen receptor modulators substantially induced 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine staining, altered the morphology of the mammary glands, or changed prolactin immunostaining in ovariectomized rats compared with the ovariectomized controls. With the exception of toremifene, the selective estrogen receptor modulators did not cause a substantial induction in mammary gland lobuli. Estradiol had effects opposite to those of the selective estrogen receptor modulators in these studies. Ospemifene exhibited no substantial estrogenic activity in the mammary gland of ovariectomized rats. Activity in the mammary gland of ovariectomized rats with ospemifene was comparable to raloxifene and tamoxifen. PMID:24526372

  2. Characterization of the scopolamine stimulus in rats.

    PubMed

    Jung, M; Perio, A; Worms, P; Biziere, K

    1988-01-01

    The discriminative stimulus properties of scopolamine, a potent antagonist at muscarinic receptors, were used for testing the discriminative effects of drugs known to act on cholinergic transmission. Rats were trained in a standard two-bar operant conditioning procedure with food as the reinforcer, according to a FR10 schedule. The training dose of scopolamine was progressively reduced from 0.25 mg/kg SC to the low dose of 0.062 mg/kg SC. Scopolamine yielded an accurate discrimination in all the six rats tested. The generalization gradient resulted in an ED50 of 0.027 mg/kg. The scopolamine cue lasted for 1 h and was of central origin, since it was not mimicked by scopolamine methylbromide. The scopolamine stimulus generalized to atropine and trihexyphenidyl (respective ED50 values 2.20 and 0.21 mg/kg SC). Atropine depressed rate of responding, while trihexyphenidyl did not. Antagonism experiments with both direct agonists at the muscarinic receptor (arecoline and oxotremorine) and indirect agonists, i.e., inhibitors of the acetylcholine esterase [physostigmine and tetrahydroaminoacridine (THA)], led to inconsistent results. Increasing the doses of the agonists in order to block the scopolamine cue may be limited by their rate suppressant effect on responding. Based upon previously published results, it is suggested that the muscarinic agonist cue is more useful than the antagonist cue for investigating muscarinic transmission. PMID:3137597

  3. Characterization of (+/-)-methadone uptake by rat lung.

    PubMed Central

    Chi, C H; Dixit, B N

    1977-01-01

    1. By use of a sensitive and specific fluorescence assay procedure it was shown that after subcutaneous administration to rats, (+/-)-methadone was concentrated in the lung. Lung to serum ratios ranging from 25 to 60 were obtained indicating that the rat lung tissue was capable of extracting (+/-)-methadone against a concentration gradient. 2. This phenomenon was investigated in vitro with rat lung slices incubated in Krebs-Ringer phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). The uptake was expressed in terms of tissue to medium concentration ratios (T/M ratio). 3. The principal observations were: (i) Studies on the time-course of the uptake showed that the T/M ratios of (+/-)-methadone increased rapidly during the first 60 min of incubation and then more slowly, with a plateau occurring at 180 min; (ii) The T/M ratio of (+/-)-methadone progressively increased from 9.5 to 17 as the pH of the incubation medium was varied from 6.2 to 7.5; (iii) When the concentration of (+/-)-methadone in the incubation medium was varied from 0.005 to 0.5 mM, the T/M ratio decreased rapidly suggesting self-saturation of the transport process. Beyond the medium concentration of 0.5 mM, the T/M ratio declined very slowly. 4. These results suggested that at low concentrations, (+/-)-methadone was transported predominantly by a self-saturable process while at higher concentrations it was transported by a process of simple diffusion. 5. At low concentrations (0.01 mM) the uptake of (+)-methadone was higher than that of (-)-isomer indicating stereo-specificity of the uptake process. The uptake of (+/-)-methadone at low concentration (0.01 mM) was significantly inhibited by low temperature, lack of O2, lack of glucose, lack of Na+ in the incubation medium, and by exposure of the tissue to high temperature (approximately 100 degrees C). The uptake was also inhibited by relatively high concentration of iodoacetate (1.0 mM) and of naloxone (1.0 mM). 6. Kinetic analysis of data showed that the diffusion constant for (+/-)-methadone was 5.0 (h-1) and the Vmax of the active transport process was 6.5 micronmol g-1h-1. PMID:15696

  4. Construction and characterization of an infectious cDNA clone of rat hepatitis E virus.

    PubMed

    Li, Tian-Cheng; Yang, Tingting; Yoshizaki, Sayaka; Ami, Yasushi; Suzaki, Yuriko; Ishii, Koji; Haga, Kei; Nakamura, Tomofumi; Ochiai, Susumu; Takaji, Wakita; Johne, Reimar

    2015-06-01

    Rat hepatitis E virus (HEV) is related to human HEV and has been detected in wild rats worldwide. Here, the complete genome of rat HEV strain R63/DEU/2009 was cloned downstream of the T7 RNA polymerase promoter and capped genomic RNA generated by in vitro transcription was injected into nude rats. Rat HEV RNA could be detected in serum and faeces of rats injected intrahepatically, but not in those injected intravenously. Rat HEV RNA-positive faecal suspension was intravenously inoculated into nude rats and Wistar rats leading to rat HEV RNA detection in serum and faeces of nude rats, and to seroconversion in Wistar rats. In addition, rat HEV was isolated in PLC/PRF/5 cells from the rat HEV RNA-positive faecal suspension of nude rats and then passaged. The cell culture supernatant was infectious for nude rats. Genome analysis identified nine point mutations of the cell-culture-passaged virus in comparison with the originally cloned rat HEV genome. The results indicated that infectious rat HEV could be generated from the cDNA clone. As rats are widely used and well-characterized laboratory animals, studies on genetically engineered rat HEV may provide novel insights into organ tropism, replication and excretion kinetics as well as immunological changes induced by hepeviruses. PMID:25634930

  5. Morphological changes of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in the rat preoptic area across puberty

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Haogang; Gai, Xiaodong; Sun, Weiqi; Li, Chun; Liu, Quan

    2014-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons in the preoptic area may undergo morphological changes during the pubertal period when their activities are upregulated. To clarify the regulatory mechanism of puberty onset, this study aimed to investigate the morphological changes of GnRH neurons in the preoptic area of GnRH-enhanced green fluorescent protein transgenic rats. Under confocal laser microscopy, pubertal GnRH neurons exhibited an inverted Y distribution pattern. Prepubertal GnRH neurons were generally unipolar and bipolar, and were distinguished as smooth type cells with few small processes or irregular type cells with many spine-like processes in the proximal dendrites. The number of GnRH neurons in the preoptic area and spine-like processes were increased during the course of reproductive maturation. There was no significant difference between male and female rats. Immunofluorescence staining revealed synaptophysin punctae close to the distal end of GnRH neurons, indicating that some presynaptic terminals may form a synaptic linkage with these neurons. PMID:25221583

  6. Functional morphology of the brain of the African giant pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus) Waterhouse, 1840).

    PubMed

    Ibe, Chikera S; Onyeanusi, Barth I; Hambolu, Joseph O

    2014-01-01

    A gross morphological study of the brain of the African giant pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus Waterhouse, 1840) was undertaken in order to document its normal features and assess the structure-function paradigm. The study was conducted by direct observation of 29 adult African giant pouched rats' brains. In the telencephalon, the cerebral cortex was devoid of prominent gyri and sulci, but the large olfactory bulb and tract relaying impulses to the olfactory cortex were very prominent. The large size of the olfactory bulb correlated with the established sharp olfactory acuity of the rodent. In the mesencephalic tectum, the caudal colliculi were bigger than the rostral colliculi, indicating a more acute sense of hearing than sight. In the metencephalon, the cerebellar vermis, the flocculus and the paraflocculus were highly coiled and, thus, well developed. The myelencephalon revealed a better organised ventral surface than dorsal surface; the cuneate fascicle, the intermediate sulcus and the lateral sulcus were not evident on the dorsal surface, but there were clearly visible pyramids and olivary prominence on the ventral surface. In conclusion, the highly coiled cerebellar vermis, flocculus and paraflocculus, as well as the conspicuous pyramids and olivary prominence are indicative of a good motor coordination and balance in the African giant pouched rat. PMID:24832847

  7. Morphological and cell volume changes in the rat lens during the formation of radiation cataracts

    SciTech Connect

    Bredehoft, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    Earlier studies showed that x-irradiation caused an initial increase in early postnatal rat lens epithelial cell volume followed by swelling of the underlying lens fibers. This suggested a correlation between damaged epithelial cell volume regulation and subsequent fiber cell swelling. To test this hypothesis, 4 wk.-old Sprague Dawley rats were injected with ({sup 3}H)-thymidine and, 24 hrs. later, their eyes were irradiated with either 4 or 12 Gy. Lenses were examined with a slit lamp and cataracts were graded on a scale of 1+ to 4+. The surface morphology of these lens fibers and their attachment at the posterior suture were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Lenses were also labeled with ({sup 35}S)-methionine and labeling of their crystalline, cytoskeletal and membrane proteins was examined by SDS-PAGE. Rats exposed to 4 or 12 Gy developed 0.5-1.5+ or 2.5-3.0+ cataracts, respectively, 10 to 16 wks, after x-irradiation. Epithelial and equatorial cells of both groups did not significantly increase in volume during this period. Autoradiography showed that affected fibers had been epithelial cells at the time of x-irradiation.

  8. The Surface Morphology Characterization of Electroless Nickel Immersion Gold Under Bump Metallurgy (UBM) Using SEM

    SciTech Connect

    Arshad, M. K. Md; Isa, M. N. Md; Sohiful, Z. M. A. [School of Microelectronic, Kolej Universiti Kejuruteraan Utara Malaysia (KUKUM), Blok A, Kompleks Pusat Pengajian KUKUM, Jalan Kangar-Arau, 02600 Jejawi, Perlis (Malaysia)

    2007-05-09

    This paper presents the surface morphology characterization at each process step in electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG) deposition using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The characterization start at initial bond pad, followed by cleaning, activation, first zincation, zinc removal, second zincation, electroless nickel and lastly immersion gold process. The result shows that the surface morphology of initial bond pad starts to change with deposition of zinc layer and further changes with deposition of nickel and gold layer.

  9. Determination and Characterization of a Cannabinoid Receptor in Rat Brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLIAM A. DEVANE; FRANCIS A. DYSARZ; M. ROSS JOHNSON III; LAWRENCE S. MELVIN; ALLYN C. HOWLETT

    SUMMARY The determination and characterization of a cannabinoid receptor from brain are reported. A biologically active bicyclic cannabinoid analgetic CP-55,940 was tntium-Iabeled to high specific activity. Conditions for binding to rat brain P2 membranes and synapto- somes were established. The pH optimum was between 7 and 8, and specific binding could be eliminated by heating the mem- branes to 60#{176}.

  10. Molecular cloning and characterization of the rat NMDA receptor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koki Moriyoshi; Masayuki Masu; Takahiro Ishii; Ryuichi Shigemoto; Noboru Mizuno; Shigetada Nakanishi

    1991-01-01

    A complementary DNA encoding the rat NMDA receptor has been cloned and characterized. The single protein encoded by the cDNA forms a receptor-channel complex that has electrophysiological and pharmacological properties characteristic of the NMDA receptor. This protein has a significant sequence similarity to the AMPA\\/kainate receptors and contains four putative transmembrane segments following a large extracellular domain. The NMDA receptor

  11. Isoflavone Genistein Induces Fluid Secretion and Morphological Changes in the Uteri of Post-Pubertal Rats

    PubMed Central

    Salleh, Naguib; Helmy, Mohd Mokhtar; Fadila, Kasim Nor; Yeong, Soh Onn

    2013-01-01

    A reported increase in the incidence of infertility following high genistein intake could be related to alteration in the normal fluid volume and morphology of the uterus in adult female. In view of this, we investigated the effect of this compound on fluid secretion, fluid volume and morphology of the uterus in post-pubertal rats. Methods: Ovariectomised SD rats were treated with 17-? oestradiol (E) (0.8 X 10-4 mg/kg/day) and genistein (0.5, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg/day) for three days. Following drug treatment, in-vivo uterine perfusion was performed and the rate of fluid secretion and the volume of fluid in the uterus were determined via changes in weight (?l/min) and F-dextran concentration of the perfusate respectively. The animals were then sacrificed and the uteri were removed for weight determination, morphological analyses and proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression analyses by Western blotting. Results: Subcutaneous genistein treatment resulted in a dose-dependent increase in fluid secretion rate, fluid volume and uterine wet weight. Treatment with 100 mg/kg/day genistein resulted in a remarkable increase in the rate of uterine fluid secretion, the volume of the uterine luminal fluid as well as the circumference of the uterine and uterine glandular lumen suggesting an excessive fluid accumulation. Meanwhile, there were evidence of glandular hyperplasia and an increase in the expression of PCNA following treatment with 50 and 100 mg/kg/day genistein. Conclusion: High genistein intake could potentially cause adverse effects on the uterus by inducing excessive fluid secretion and accumulation as well as hyperplasia. PMID:23569430

  12. Morphological Control and Characterization of Monodispersed Ceria Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minamidate, Y.; Yin, S.; Devaraju, M. K.; Sato, T.

    2010-11-01

    The morphological control of cerium oxide particles was carried out by a homogeneous precipitation followed by calcination in air at 400° C. The effects of pre-aging temperature, aging time and precipitation reagents on the morphologies of final products were investigated. When urea was used as a precipitation reagent, monodispersed spherical and flake-like cerium carbonate hydroxide precursor was precipitated in the solution at 90° C for 2 h after pre-aging at 25° C-50° C for 24-72 h. On the other hand, monodispersed nanosize rod-like cerium hydroxide particles were obtained using triethanolamine as precipitation reagent. Ceria particles with the same morphologies and slightly smaller particle size than those of as-prepared cerium precursor could be obtained after calcination in air at 400° C. Physical-chemical characteristics of the monodispersed cerium oxide particles were evaluated.

  13. Morphological Control and Characterization of Monodispersed Ceria Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Minamidate, Y.; Yin, S.; Devaraju, M. K.; Sato, T. [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    2010-11-24

    The morphological control of cerium oxide particles was carried out by a homogeneous precipitation followed by calcination in air at 400 deg. C. The effects of pre-aging temperature, aging time and precipitation reagents on the morphologies of final products were investigated. When urea was used as a precipitation reagent, monodispersed spherical and flake-like cerium carbonate hydroxide precursor was precipitated in the solution at 90 deg. C for 2 h after pre-aging at 25 deg. C - 50 deg. C for 24-72 h. On the other hand, monodispersed nanosize rod-like cerium hydroxide particles were obtained using triethanolamine as precipitation reagent. Ceria particles with the same morphologies and slightly smaller particle size than those of as-prepared cerium precursor could be obtained after calcination in air at 400 deg. C. Physical-chemical characteristics of the monodispersed cerium oxide particles were evaluated.

  14. Short-term morphological response of the rat testis to administration of five chemotherapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Russell, L D; Russell, J A

    1991-10-01

    As cancer survival rates improve, there is increasing concern about the adverse effects of chemotherapeutic agents on male fertility. Five chemotherapeutic agents (amethopterin, AP or methotrexate; doxorubicin, DX; cytoxan or cyclophosphamide, CP; cisplatinum, CDDP; and 5-fluorouracil, 5-FU) which belong to three different categories of chemotherapeutic agents (antimetabolite, antibiotic, alkylating agent, alkylating agent, antimetabolite, respectively) were given systemically to adult rats to determine the short-term morphological patterns of response in the testis, and the testes were examined by light microscopy. Morphological patterns of response were found to be highly characteristic for each agent, and some shared morphological responses were evident. All except one chemotherapeutic agent (5-FU) caused spermatogonial damage. Among the defects seen were probable degenerating meiotic spermatocytes (CDDP), presence of micronuclei (DX), "arrested" spermatid development (5-FU), and abnormally shaped step 15 spermatids (5-FU). Damage that could be due to the effect of an agent on the Sertoli cell was failure of sperm release (5-FU, CDDP, DX, and AP), increase in the Sertoli cell lipid (5-FU), and malorientation of step 8 spermatids (5-FU, DX). The varied patterns of damage observed are a possible explanation of why the reproductive recovery potential in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy is variable and drug-specific. PMID:1759681

  15. Chronic administration of risperidone to healthy rats: a behavioural and morphological study.

    PubMed

    Castellano, O; Moscoso, A; Riolobos, A S; Carro, J; Arji, M; Molina, V; López, D E; Sancho, C

    2009-12-28

    Taking into account that most of the experimental research into the effects of antipsychotic drugs has mainly focused on behavioural aspects, the aim of the present work is to investigate the effects of a chronic therapeutic dose of risperidone (1 mg/kg/day during 140 days) on both behavioural and morphological aspects in healthy rats. The behavioural results revealed only minor modifications in prepulse inhibition, showing the risperidone-treated group higher values at 70 days of treatment with respect to the vehicle group. Moreover, in the open-field test, this group showed a greater incidence of grooming. In the active avoidance test, no differences were found between the groups studied. Additionally, in the morphological study performed to analyse cortical thickness and the number of GFAP-, CaBP-, PV- and Fos-immunostained cells no differences were seen between the two groups studied. It is important to note that the risperidone-treated group showed a slight increase in the total number of cells counted, although this increase was not significant. Our results indicate that the chronic administration of therapeutic doses of risperidone does not produce any dramatic behavioural or morphological changes in healthy animals. PMID:19665494

  16. Morphology and protein content of hepatocytes in type I diabetic rats submitted to physical exercises.

    PubMed

    Remedio, Rafael N; Castellar, Alexandre; Barbosa, Rodrigo A; Gomes, Ricardo J; Caetano, Flávio H

    2011-07-01

    The importance of physical exercise practice in the treatment of diabetes has been reported in many studies recently, but only limited data can be found regarding its benefits on liver morphology and protein content of hepatocytes. In order to assess the changes arising from the development of type I diabetes and the benefits of a training protocol, Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control (SC), trained control (TC), sedentary diabetic (SD) and trained diabetic (TD). The training protocol consisted of swimming for 60 min a day, 5 days/week, during 8 weeks. Liver samples were collected, processed and analyzed by histochemical and ultrastructural techniques. Biochemical tests were also conducted to examine the protein content and quantity of DNA in the liver. In morphological assessment, the presence of areas of cytoplasmic basophilia observed in control subjects was not visualized in sedentary diabetics. It was related to differences in the amount of mitochondria in the cytosol. The mitochondrial structure has not undergone relevant changes, and the number of rough endoplasmic reticulum cisterns was clearly inferior in sedentary diabetics, suggesting lower protein production. However, the biochemical analysis of protein content indicated no statistical differences between groups. The exercise, in turn, was not responsible for major changes in these characteristics. On the whole, the morphological damages arising from type I diabetes were noteworthy. Nevertheless, regular physical training was not responsible for significant improvements in some respects, making evident the need for combined application of a distinct form of treatment. PMID:21353573

  17. Morphological and ultrastructural features in the characterization of microsporidia.

    PubMed

    Yaman, Mustafa; Alg?, Gönül; Güner, Beyza Gonca

    2015-03-01

    The members of the Microsporidia are single-celled, eukaryotic, obligate intracellular parasites. They infect a wide range of invertebrate and vertebrate hosts. The studies on Microsporidia are of considerable interest because of that they cause desirable and undesirable infections in different animals. That situation requires identification of these organisms correctly. The identification of Microsporidia needs relatively more complex studies. Morphological and ultrastructural studies play important role in the identification of these organisms. In the present study, a working knowledge on the morphological and ultrastructural features of Microsporidia are given. PMID:25917585

  18. Insights into Embryo Defenses of the Invasive Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata: Egg Mass Ingestion Affects Rat Intestine Morphology and Growth

    PubMed Central

    Gimeno, Eduardo J.; Heras, Horacio

    2014-01-01

    Background The spread of the invasive snail Pomacea canaliculata is expanding the rat lungworm disease beyond its native range. Their toxic eggs have virtually no predators and unusual defenses including a neurotoxic lectin and a proteinase inhibitor, presumably advertised by a warning coloration. We explored the effect of egg perivitellin fluid (PVF) ingestion on the rat small intestine morphology and physiology. Methodology/Principal Findings Through a combination of biochemical, histochemical, histopathological, scanning electron microscopy, cell culture and feeding experiments, we analyzed intestinal morphology, growth rate, hemaglutinating activity, cytotoxicity and cell proliferation after oral administration of PVF to rats. PVF adversely affects small intestine metabolism and morphology and consequently the standard growth rate, presumably by lectin-like proteins, as suggested by PVF hemaglutinating activity and its cytotoxic effect on Caco-2 cell culture. Short-term effects of ingested PVF were studied in growing rats. PVF-supplemented diet induced the appearance of shorter and wider villi as well as fused villi. This was associated with changes in glycoconjugate expression, increased cell proliferation at crypt base, and hypertrophic mucosal growth. This resulted in a decreased absorptive surface after 3 days of treatment and a diminished rat growth rate that reverted to normal after the fourth day of treatment. Longer exposure to PVF induced a time-dependent lengthening of the small intestine while switching to a control diet restored intestine length and morphology after 4 days. Conclusions/Significance Ingestion of PVF rapidly limits the ability of potential predators to absorb nutrients by inducing large, reversible changes in intestinal morphology and growth rate. The occurrence of toxins that affect intestinal morphology and absorption is a strategy against predation not recognized among animals before. Remarkably, this defense is rather similar to the toxic effect of plant antipredator strategies. This defense mechanism may explain the near absence of predators of apple snail eggs. PMID:24945629

  19. Airway Morphology and Function of Rats Following Dermal Sensitization and Respiratory Challenge with Low Molecular Weight Chemicals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josje H. E. Arts; C. Frieke Kuper; Stan M. Spoor; Nanne Bloksma

    1998-01-01

    Local lymph node activation and increased total serum IgE levels are suggested to be predictive parameters of airway hypersensitivity caused by low molecular weight (LMW) chemicals. Whether increases of total serum IgE are indicative of actual induction of specific airway reactions (morphological and functional) after inhalation challenge was examined in the present study. In Brown Norway (BN) and Wistar rats,

  20. Functional and morphological effects of grape seed proanthocyanidins on peripheral neuropathy in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ye; Dai, Xiaoqian; Jiang, Yanfei; Zhang, Zhaofeng; Li, Yong

    2014-07-01

    Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) possess a broad spectrum of pharmacological and therapeutic properties. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of GSPs on functional and morphological abnormalities in the peripheral nerves of rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetic rats were induced by two injections of 25?mg streptozotocin/kg body weight and 8?weeks of a high-carbohydrate/high-fat diet. GSPs were then administrated to the rats for 16?weeks. Thermal and mechanical sensitivity thresholds and nerve conductive velocity were measured to evaluate peripheral nerve function. Light microscopy was used with special stains to observe the morphological changes in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Calcium (Ca(2+)) homeostasis and ATPase activities in the sciatic nerves were also determined. In diabetic rats receiving GSP treatment (especially at the 500?mg/kg dose), the abnormal peripheral nerve function and impaired nervous tissues (L4 to L5 spinal cord segments, L5 dorsal root ganglion, and sciatic nerves) were improved to a significant extent. Moreover, 500?mg/kg GSP treatment significantly reduced the concentration of free Ca(2+) and elevated Ca(2+)-ATPase activity in sciatic nerves. These results suggest that GSPs may prevent early functional and morphological abnormalities in the peripheral nerves of rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:24343984

  1. Morphological characteristics of waste polyethylene/polypropylene plastics during pyrolysis and representative morphological signal characterizing pyrolysis stages.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Chen, D; Yuan, G; Ma, X; Dai, X

    2013-02-01

    In this work, the morphological characteristics of waste polyethylene (PE)/polypropylene (PP) plastics during their pyrolysis process were investigated, and based on their basic image changing patterns representative morphological signals describing the pyrolysis stages were obtained. PE and PP granules and films were used as typical plastics for testing, and influence of impurities was also investigated. During pyrolysis experiments, photographs of the testing samples were taken sequentially with a high-speed infrared camera, and the quantitative parameters that describe the morphological characteristics of these photographs were explored using the "Image Pro Plus (v6.3)" digital image processing software. The experimental results showed that plastics pyrolysis involved four stages: melting, two stages of decomposition which are characterized with bubble formation caused by volatile evaporating, and ash deposition; and each stage was characterized with its own phase changing behaviors and morphological features. Two stages of decomposition are the key step of pyrolysis since they took up half or more of the reaction time; melting step consumed another half of reaction time in experiments when raw materials were heated up from ambient temperatures; and coke-like deposition appeared as a result of decomposition completion. Two morphological signals defined from digital image processing, namely, pixel area of the interested reaction region and bubble ratio (BR) caused by volatile evaporating were found to change regularly with pyrolysis stages. In particular, for all experimental scenarios with plastics films and granules, the BR curves always exhibited a slowly drop as melting started and then a sharp increase followed by a deep decrease corresponding to the first stage of intense decomposition, afterwards a second increase - drop section corresponding to the second stage of decomposition appeared. As ash deposition happened, the BR dropped to zero or very low values. When impurities were involved, the shape of BR curves showed that intense decomposition started earlier but morphological characteristics remained the same. In addition, compared to parameters such as pressure, the BR reflects reaction stages better and its change with pyrolysis process of PE/PP plastics with or without impurities was more intrinsically process correlated; therefore it can be adopted as a signal for pyrolysis process characterization, as well as offering guide to process improvement and reactor design. PMID:23177018

  2. Faceted Surface Grain Morphology of Rapidly Solidified Alumina: Characterization and Potential Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Harimkar, Sandip [Oklahoma State University; Kenik, Edward A [ORNL; Shim, Sanghoon [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Dahotre, Narendra B [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2009-01-01

    This communication reports on the characterization of novel surface microstructure formed in rapidly solidified porous alumina ceramic. Advanced characterization techniques such as Orientation Imaging Microscopy (OIM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) are used to understand the crystallographic and morphological aspects of the resultant microstructure. Potential applications of laser surface modified alumina ceramics are presented.

  3. Age-Related Changes in the Morphology and Mechanics of Arterial Wall in the Rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Takanori; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Kozaburo

    This study was done to know the effects of aging on arterial mechanics from the viewpoint of tissue remodeling. Rats at growing (8 and 16weeks), maturated (32weeks) and middle (64weeks) ages were used. After blood pressure and blood flow were measured in the abdominal aorta and common carotid artery, respectively, the carotid artery was excised to obtain pressure-diameter relations and wall dimensions. Although blood pressure increased during growth and blood flow gradually increased with age, wall hoop stress and wall shear stress showed no significant changes except for a decrease in wall shear stress during growth, which was attributable to morphological changes of wall. Wall stiffness and elastic properties at in vivo pressure did not significantly change until maturation; however, they increased by middle age.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of different morphological SnS nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaki, Sunil H.; Chaudhary, Mahesh D.; Deshpande, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    SnS in three nano forms possessing different morphologies such as particles, whiskers and ribbons were synthesised by chemical route. The morphology variation was brought about in the chemical route synthesis by varying a synthesis parameter such as temperature and influencing the synthesis by use of surfactant. The elemental composition determination by energy dispersive analysis of x-rays (EDAX) showed that all three synthesized SnS nanomaterials were tin deficient. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) study of the three SnS nanomaterials showed that all of them possess orthorhombic structure. The Raman spectra of the three SnS nanomaterials showed that all three samples possess three common distinguishable peaks. In them two peaks lying at 98 ± 1 cm?1 and 224 ± 4 cm?1 are the characteristic Ag mode of SnS. The third peak lying at 302 ± 1 cm?1 is associated with secondary Sn2S3 phase. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the respective morphologies. The optical analysis showed that they possess direct as well as indirect optical bandgap. The electrical transport properties study on the pellets prepared from the different nanomaterials of SnS showed them to be semiconducting and p-type in nature. The current–voltage (I–V) plots of the silver (Ag)/SnS nanomaterials pellets for dark and incandescent illumination showed that all configurations showed good ohmic behaviour except Ag/SnS nanoribbons pellet configuration under illumination. All the obtained results are discussed in detail.

  5. DNA sequence of butyrylcholinesterase from the rat: expression of the protein and characterization of the properties of rat butyrylcholinesterase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreea Ticu Boeck; Lawrence M Schopfer; Oksana Lockridge

    2002-01-01

    The rat is the model animal for toxicity studies. Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), being sensitive to inhibition by some organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides, is a biomarker of toxic exposure. The goal of this work was to characterize the purified rat BChE enzyme. The cDNA sequence showed eight amino acid differences between the active site gorge of rat and human BChE, six clustered

  6. Morphological changes of short-wavelength cones in the developing S334ter-3 Transgenic rat

    PubMed Central

    Hombrebueno, Jose R.; Tsai, Melody M.; Kim, Hong-Lim; De Juan, Joaquin; Grzywacz, Norberto M.; Lee, Eun-Jin

    2010-01-01

    The S334ter-3 rat is a transgenic model of retinal degeneration (RD) developed to express a rhodopsin mutation similar to that found in human retinitis pigmentosa. Due to this advantage over other models of RD, a few retina transplant studies have been reported on this animal model. Currently, no information is available on cone photoreceptor changes that occur in the S334ter RD model. In this study, we investigated the effect of RD on the morphology, distribution, and synaptic connectivity of short-wavelength cones (S-cones) during development of S334ter-3 rat retinas. At P21 RD retinas, the outer-nuclear layer was significantly narrower, while S-cones showed shortening of their segments and axons compared to control retinas. From P90 onward, S-opsin-immunoreactive cells appeared at the outer margin of the inner-nuclear layer of RD retinas. Double-labelling experiments showed these cells contained recoverin and cone arrestin. Furthermore, ultra-structure study showed that synaptic ribbons are conserved in the S-cone at P180 RD retinas. Although cell density of S-cones significantly dropped after P90, survival rates depended on the retinal region. Overall, the S334ter-3 RD model shows hallmarks of cone remodelling due to photoreceptor degeneration. PMID:20114037

  7. Morphologic features and incidence of spontaneous hyperplastic and neoplastic mammary gland lesions in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Barsoum, N J; Gough, A W; Sturgess, J M; de la Iglesia, F A

    1984-01-01

    A morphologic study of spontaneous proliferative lesions of the mammary gland was based on histologic examination of mammary glands from 1020 male and 1145 female albino Wistar rats aged 6 to 110 weeks. Three hundred and seventy-five mammary tumors representing an overall incidence of 33% were identified in the female groups, while the males had a total of five tumors which represented an incidence of 0.5%. Histologically, the most common types of tumors in females were: fibroadenoma (236), carcinoma (85), adenoma (40) and fibroma (8). Duct papilloma (1), lobular carcinoma (1), fibrosarcoma (1) and phyllodes tumor (1), were rare and constituted less than 2% of mammary neoplastic lesions. Mammary tumors were rare before one year of age, but increased with age thereafter. Nine percent of female rats studied also had proliferative non-neoplastic lesions that showed a mixture of benign ductular and/or lobular hyperplasia. One hundred and six of these lesions were identified, representing 22% of all grossly palpable nodules, thus stressing the importance of histologic examination of all gross mammary nodules for tumor evaluation. PMID:6494731

  8. Effects of intra-abdominal pressure on adrenal gland function and morphology in rats

    PubMed Central

    Akkapulu, Nezih; Tirnaksiz, Mehmet Bulent; Kulac, Ibrahim; Tezel, Gaye Guler; Hayran, Mutlu; Dogrul, Ahmet Bulent; Cetinkaya, Erdinc; Yorganci, Kaya

    2015-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome (IAH/ACS) are life-threatening conditions and caused by several clinical status. Although there is insufficient data regarding its effects on adrenal glands. This study aimed to identify whether elevated intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) caused any alteration on the morphology and function of adrenal glands in a rat model. Twenty four Sprague-Dawley male rats were included in the study. Animals were allocated into 4 groups. IAP was elevated to 15 mmHg for one hour and four hours in group 2 and 4. Group 1 and 3 were sham groups. Blood samples were taken for the assessment of plasma adrenaline, noradrenaline, and corticosterone levels and adrenalectomies were performed to evaluate apoptosis. Blood adrenaline, noradrenaline and corticosterone levels were significantly higher in the study groups compared with the sham groups. However, there were no significant changes in apoptotic index scores in the study groups as compared to sham groups. These results support that increased IAH leads to discharge of catecholamine and corticosterone from the adrenal glands. Failure to demonstrate similar changes in apoptotic index score may be concluded as apoptosis is not a leading pathway for impairment of adrenal glands during IAH period.

  9. Levonorgestrel decreases cilia beat frequency of human fallopian tubes and rat oviducts without changing morphological structure.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Weihong; Zhu, Qian; Yan, Mingxing; Li, Cheng; Yuan, Jiangjing; Qin, Guojuan; Zhang, Jian

    2015-02-01

    Levonorgestrel, a derivative of progesterone, effectively protects women against unwanted pregnancy as an emergency contraceptive. Previous studies have not been successful in determining the mechanism by which levonorgestrel acts. In the present study we analysed cilia beat action and cilia morphology following levonorgestrel exposure in vitro and in vivo using both light and electron microscopy. There was a significant decrease in the ciliary beat frequency (CBF) of human fallopian tubes between mucosal explants bathed in 5 ?mol/L levonorgestrel and those bathed in medium alone (P < 0.05). There was a tendency for CBF to decrease more in the ampulla than in isthmus, but there were no differences between the proliferative and secretory phases. In rat oviducts, levonorgestrel produced a similar reduction in CBF (~ 10%) compared with the saline control group (P < 0.05). Histological and ultrastructural analysis demonstrated no changes in the percentage of ciliated cells or in the classic '9 + 2' structure of cilia following levonorgestrel treatment in either system. Thus, levonorgestrel reduces CBF without damaging cilia morphology. Decreases in CBF may indicate a pathological role for levonorgestrel in the transportation of the ovum and zygote in the fallopian tube. PMID:25399777

  10. Biochemical, Histopathological and Morphological Profiling of a Rat Model of Early Immune Stimulation: Relation to Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Kubesova, Anna; Tejkalova, Hana; Syslova, Kamila; Kacer, Petr; Vondrousova, Jana; Tyls, Filip; Fujakova, Michaela; Palenicek, Tomas; Horacek, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Perinatal immune challenge leads to neurodevelopmental dysfunction, permanent immune dysregulation and abnormal behaviour, which have been shown to have translational validity to findings in human neuropsychiatric disorders (e.g. schizophrenia, mood and anxiety disorders, autism, Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease). The aim of this animal study was to elucidate the influence of early immune stimulation triggered by systemic postnatal lipopolysaccharide administration on biochemical, histopathological and morphological measures, which may be relevant to the neurobiology of human psychopathology. In the present study of adult male Wistar rats we examined the brain and plasma levels of monoamines (dopamine, serotonin), their metabolites, the levels of the main excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters glutamate and ?-aminobutyric acid and the levels of tryptophan and its metabolites from the kynurenine catabolic pathway. Further, we focused on histopathological and morphological markers related to pathogenesis of brain diseases - glial cell activation, neurodegeneration, hippocampal volume reduction and dopaminergic synthesis in the substantia nigra. Our results show that early immune stimulation in adult animals alters the levels of neurotransmitters and their metabolites, activates the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism and leads to astrogliosis, hippocampal volume reduction and a decrease of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the substantia nigra. These findings support the crucial pathophysiological role of early immune stimulation in the above mentioned neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:25602957

  11. Biochemical, histopathological and morphological profiling of a rat model of early immune stimulation: relation to psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Kubesova, Anna; Tejkalova, Hana; Syslova, Kamila; Kacer, Petr; Vondrousova, Jana; Tyls, Filip; Fujakova, Michaela; Palenicek, Tomas; Horacek, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Perinatal immune challenge leads to neurodevelopmental dysfunction, permanent immune dysregulation and abnormal behaviour, which have been shown to have translational validity to findings in human neuropsychiatric disorders (e.g. schizophrenia, mood and anxiety disorders, autism, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease). The aim of this animal study was to elucidate the influence of early immune stimulation triggered by systemic postnatal lipopolysaccharide administration on biochemical, histopathological and morphological measures, which may be relevant to the neurobiology of human psychopathology. In the present study of adult male Wistar rats we examined the brain and plasma levels of monoamines (dopamine, serotonin), their metabolites, the levels of the main excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters glutamate and ?-aminobutyric acid and the levels of tryptophan and its metabolites from the kynurenine catabolic pathway. Further, we focused on histopathological and morphological markers related to pathogenesis of brain diseases--glial cell activation, neurodegeneration, hippocampal volume reduction and dopaminergic synthesis in the substantia nigra. Our results show that early immune stimulation in adult animals alters the levels of neurotransmitters and their metabolites, activates the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism and leads to astrogliosis, hippocampal volume reduction and a decrease of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the substantia nigra. These findings support the crucial pathophysiological role of early immune stimulation in the above mentioned neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:25602957

  12. Molecular and morphological characterization of Tuber magnatum mycorrhizas in a long-term survey.

    PubMed

    Mello, A; Fontana, A; Meotto, F; Comandini, O; Bonfante, P

    2001-03-01

    Tuber magnatum Pico is an ectomycorrhizal fungus whose mycorrhizas can be barely distinguished morphologically from those of other related white truffles. Here we describe the use of specific primers based on the T. magnatum ITS sequence for screening mycorrhizas from a large number of growth chambers, greenhouse and nursery samples taken in a long-term survey. This molecular identification technique enabled a new morphological characterization to be set up for T. magnatum mycorrhizas. PMID:11297358

  13. Morphological and Secretory Characterization of Extrafloral Nectaries in Plants of Coastal Veracruz, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    DÍAZ-CASTELAZO, CECILIA; RICO-GRAY, VICTOR; ORTEGA, FERNANDO; ÁNGELES, GUILLERMO

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Morphological descriptions of the extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) of certain plant species are common in the literature, but they rarely relate morphology with histology, gland distribution and secretory attributes. In this study a morphological/secretory characterization of EFNs occurring on several plant species in a tropical coastal community is made and the implications of gland attributes discussed from a functional perspective. • Methods The morphology and nectar secretion of the EFNs of 20 plant species are characterized through scanning electron microscopy, histochemical detection of reducing sugars (Fehling's reagent) and nectar volume/concentration estimates. • Key Results Sixty-five per cent of plant species in coastal communities had EFNs on vegetative structures and 35 % of species had glands on reproductive and vegetative organs. The Fabaceae is the plant family with the most species with EFNs and most diversity of gland morphologies. Four types of vascularized nectaries and four of glandular trichomes are described; sugar-secreting trichomes are characterized using Fehling's technique, and the first descriptions of unicellular and peltate trichomes functioning as EFNs are provided. Glands of ten plant species and six genera are described for the first time. Four plant species possess more than one morphological type of EFN. Eleven species have EFNs in more than one location or organ. More complex glands secrete more nectar, but are functionally homologous to the aggregations of numerous secretory trichomes on specific and valuable plant organs. • Conclusion Important diversity of EFN morphology was foundin the coastal plant community studied. Both vascularized and non-vascularized EFNs are observed in plants and, for the latter, previously non-existent morpho-secretory characterizations are provided with a methodological approach to study them. It is recommended that studies relating EFN attributes (i.e. morphology, distribution) with their differential visitation by insects (i.e. ants) and the cost of maintenance to the plants are carried out to understand the evolution of these glands. PMID:16227307

  14. Morphological and molecular characterization of Pisolithus occurring in Hokkaido Island, Northern Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Catarina Megumi Kasuya; Irene da Silva Coelho; Yutaka Tamai; Toshizumi Miyamoto; Takashi Yajima

    2008-01-01

    Pisolithus basidiomes were found under different forest trees in Hokkaido Island, Japan. These basidiomes were characterized morphologically\\u000a and molecularly. Although presenting different basidiome morphology and growing under different hosts, specimens presented\\u000a similar spores ornamentation, and diameters. These spores had coarse, crowded, and blunted spines with three to eight basidiospores\\u000a per basidium. Ribosomal DNA-based phylogenetic analysis indicated that variability of Pisolithus

  15. Soluble polysaccharide and biomass of red microalga Porphyridium sp. alter intestinal morphology and reduce serum cholesterol in rats.

    PubMed

    Dvir, I; Chayoth, R; Sod-Moriah, U; Shany, S; Nyska, A; Stark, A H; Madar, Z; Arad, S M

    2000-10-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the red microalga Porphyridium sp. on gastrointestinal physiology and lipid metabolism in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Diets containing dietary fibre from pelleted red microalgal cells (biomass) or their sulfated polysaccharide, pectin or cellulose (control) were fed to rats for a period of 30 d. All three fibre-supplemented diets increased the length of both the small intestine and colon, with a significantly greater effect in rats fed the algal polysaccharide. The polysaccharide also increased mucosa and muscularis cross-sectional area of the jejunum, and caused hypertrophy in the muscularis layer. The algal biomass significantly lowered gastrointestinal transit time by 44% in comparison with the control rats. Serum and mucosal cholecystokinin levels were lower in rats on the pectin and polysaccharide diets, while cholecystokinin levels in rats fed algal biomass were not different from those in the control animals. In comparison with the control diet, all the experimental diets significantly lowered serum cholesterol levels (22-29%). Feeding of non-fermentable algal polysaccharide or biomass significantly increased faecal weight and bile acid excretion compared with pectin-fed or control rats. The algal polysaccharide and biomass were thus shown to be potent hypocholesterolaemic agents active at low concentrations in the diet. Both metabolic and morphological changes were observed following consumption of algae, suggesting several possible mechanisms by which the alga affects lipid metabolism. The results presented in the present study encourage the use of red microalga as a functional food. PMID:11103217

  16. Morphological and ultrastructural characterization of sea urchin immune cells.

    PubMed

    Deveci, Remziye; ?ener, Ecem; ?zzeto?lu, Sava?

    2015-05-01

    The free circulating coelomocytes in the coelomic cavity of echinoderms are considered to be immune effectors by phagocytosis, encapsulation, cytotoxicity, and by the production of antimicrobial agents. Although echinoderms (especially sea urchin embryo) have been used as a model organisms in biology, no uniform criteria exist for classification of coelomocytes in echinoderms, and few studies have reported about the biological functions of their coelomocytes. Hence, we study the coelomocytes in the echinoid sea urchin, Paracentrotus lividus, and describe their morphological and ultrastructural features using light and transmission electron microscopes. We classify the coelomocytes of P. lividus into red spherule and colorless spherule cells, small cells, vibratile cells, and phagocytic cells; petaloid and filopodial cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing ultrastructural details of the coelomocytes of P. lividus. PMID:25645676

  17. Beneficial effects of ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) lesioning on function and morphology of the liver after hepatectomy in rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Young; Inoue, Shuji; Senoo, Akira; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Yoko; Ishizuka, Noriko; Imazeki, Nobuo; Sasaki, Kahoru; Kako, Masako; Osaka, Toshimasa; Miki, Takashi

    2011-11-01

    Liver has a high regenerative capacity and restores its mass and function shortly after partial hepatectomy through increased proliferation and metabolic modification of hepatocytes. The proliferation of hepatocytes can be triggered by its mass reduction after hepatectomy or by the neural factors including lesioning of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH). In the present study, we examined the effect of VMH lesioning on liver regeneration in hepatectomized rats by evaluating liver function and morphology. We found that functional deficits caused by partial hepatectomy [prolonged prothrombin time (PT), increased indocyanine green (ICG) retention, and decrease in PAS (periodic Acid-Schiff staining)-positive hepatocytes] were restored by VMH lesioning at 1 week after the surgery, whereas these alterations disappeared at 4 weeks. Morphologically, lipid microdroplets, which are considered to be important for maintaining contiguous liver function via supplying fuel for cell proliferation, were found to accumulate in hepatocytes of the hepatectomized rats at early period (1 day) after partial hepatectomy. Interestingly, such lipid microdroplets were also detected in the VMH lesioned rats and the more abundantly in the VMH lesioned, hepatectomized rats up to 1 week after the surgery. In conclusion, our results suggest that VMH lesioning in rats promotes recovery of liver anatomically and functionally after partial hepatectomy by promoting cell proliferation process. PMID:21962532

  18. Isolation and partial characterization of proteoglycans from rat incisors.

    PubMed Central

    Rahemtulla, F; Prince, C W; Butler, W T

    1984-01-01

    Newly synthesized proteoglycans of rat incisors were labelled in vivo for 6h with [35S]-sulphate in order to facilitate their detection during purification and characterization. Proteoglycans were extracted from non-mineralized portions (predentine) of rat incisors with 4M-guanidinium chloride and subsequently from dentine by demineralization with a 0.4M-EDTA solution containing 4M-guanidinium chloride. Both extractions were performed at 4 degrees C in the presence of proteinase inhibitors. Purification of proteoglycans was achieved with a procedure involving gel-filtration chromatography, selective precipitation of phosphoproteins, affinity chromatography and ion-exchange chromatography. Two proteoglycan populations were found in the initial extract (Pd-PG I and Pd-PG II), whereas only one fraction (D-PG) was obtained after demineralization. The minor proteoglycan fraction from the first extract, Pd-PG I, although not totally characterized, differed sharply from the other proteoglycans in that it had a larger molecular size with larger glycosaminoglycan chains composed of chondroitin 4- and 6-sulphate isomers. In contrast, the major proteoglycans Pd-PG II and D-PG had smaller hydrodynamic sizes with smaller glycosaminoglycan chains (but larger than those from bovine nasal cartilage proteoglycans) composed exclusively of chondroitin 4-sulphate. The major proteoglycans were incapable of interacting with hyaluronic acid. In general, the amino acid compositions of the major proteoglycans of rat incisors resembled that of bovine nasal cartilage proteoglycans, but the former had lower proline, valine, isoleucine, leucine, and higher aspartic acid, contents. PMID:6721839

  19. Blast exposure in rats with body shielding is characterized primarily by diffuse axonal injury.

    PubMed

    Garman, Robert H; Jenkins, Larry W; Switzer, Robert C; Bauman, Richard A; Tong, Lawrence C; Swauger, Peter V; Parks, Steven A; Ritzel, David V; Dixon, C Edward; Clark, Robert S B; Bayir, Hülya; Kagan, Valerian; Jackson, Edwin K; Kochanek, Patrick M

    2011-06-01

    Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the signature insult in combat casualty care. Survival with neurological damage from otherwise lethal blast exposures has become possible with body armor use. We characterized the neuropathologic alterations produced by a single blast exposure in rats using a helium-driven shock tube to generate a nominal exposure of 35 pounds per square inch (PSI) (positive phase duration ? 4 msec). Using an IACUC-approved protocol, isoflurane-anesthetized rats were placed in a steel wedge (to shield the body) 7 feet inside the end of the tube. The left side faced the blast wave (with head-only exposure); the wedge apex focused a Mach stem onto the rat's head. The insult produced ? 25% mortality (due to impact apnea). Surviving and sham rats were perfusion-fixed at 24 h, 72 h, or 2 weeks post-blast. Neuropathologic evaluations were performed utilizing hematoxylin and eosin, amino cupric silver, and a variety of immunohistochemical stains for amyloid precursor protein (APP), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1), ED1, and rat IgG. Multifocal axonal degeneration, as evidenced by staining with amino cupric silver, was present in all blast-exposed rats at all time points. Deep cerebellar and brainstem white matter tracts were most heavily stained with amino cupric silver, with the morphologic staining patterns suggesting a process of diffuse axonal injury. Silver-stained sections revealed mild multifocal neuronal death at 24 h and 72 h. GFAP, ED1, and Iba1 staining were not prominently increased, although small numbers of reactive microglia were seen within areas of neuronal death. Increased blood-brain barrier permeability (as measured by IgG staining) was seen at 24 h and primarily affected the contralateral cortex. Axonal injury was the most prominent feature during the initial 2 weeks following blast exposure, although degeneration of other neuronal processes was also present. Strikingly, silver staining revealed otherwise undetected abnormalities, and therefore represents a recommended outcome measure in future studies of blast TBI. PMID:21449683

  20. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Meloidogyne mayaguensis Isolates from Florida

    PubMed Central

    Brito, J.; Powers, T. O.; Mullin, P. G.; Inserra, R. N.; Dickson, D. W.

    2004-01-01

    The discovery of Meloidogyne mayaguensis is confirmed in Florida; this is the first report for the continental United States. Meloidogyne mayaguensis is a virulent species that can reproduce on host cultivars bred for nematode resistance. The perineal patterns of M. mayaguensis isolates from Florida show morphological variability and often are similar to M. incognita. Useful morphological characters for the separation of M. mayaguensis from M. incognita from Florida are the male stylet length values (smaller for M. mayaguensis than M. incognita) and J2 tail length values (greater for M. mayaguensis than M. incognita). Meloidogyne mayaguensis values for these characters overlap with those of M. arenaria and M. javanica from Florida. Enzyme analyses of Florida M. mayaguensis isolates show two major bands (VS1-S1 phenotype) of esterase activity, and one strong malate dehydrogenase band (Rm 1.4) plus two additional weak bands that migrated close together. Their detection requires larger amounts of homogenates from several females. Amplification of two separate regions of mitochondrial DNA resulted in products of a unique size. PCR primers embedded in the COII and 16S genes produced a product size of 705 bp, and amplification of the 63-bp repeat region resulted in a single product of 322 bp. Nucleotide sequence comparison of these mitochondrial products together with sequence from 18S rDNA and ITS1 from the nuclear genome were nearly identical with the corresponding regions from a M. mayaguensis isolate from Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, the type locality of the species. Meloidogyne mayaguensis reproduced on cotton, pepper, tobacco, and watermelon but not on peanut. Preliminary results indicate the M. mayaguensis isolates from Florida can reproduce on tomato containing the Mi gene. Molecular techniques for the identification of M. mayaguensis will be particularly useful in cases of M. mayaguensis populations mixed with M. arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica, which are the most economically important root-knot nematode species in Florida, and especially when low (<25) numbers of specimens of these species are recovered from the soil. PMID:19262811

  1. Electrophysiological and Morphological Properties of Neurons in Layer 5 of the Rat Postrhinal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Sills, Joeseph B.; Connors, Barry W.; Burwell, Rebecca D.

    2013-01-01

    The postrhinal cortex (POR) of the rat is homologous to the parahippocampal cortex of the primate based on connections and other criteria. Postrhinal cortex provides the major visual and visuospatial input to the hippocampal formation, both directly to CA1 and indirectly through connections with the medial entorhinal cortex. Although the cortical and hippocampal connections of the postrhinal cortex are well described, the physiology of postrhinal neurons has not been studied. Here we examined the electrical and morphological characteristics of layer 5 neurons from postrhinal cortex of 14-16 day-old rats using an in vitro slice preparation. Neurons were subjectively classified as regular-spiking (RS), fast-spiking (FS) or low threshold-spiking (LTS) based on their electrophysiological properties and similarities with neurons in other regions of neocortex. Cells stained with biocytin included pyramidal cells and interneurons with bitufted or multipolar dendritic patterns. Similarity analysis using only physiological data yielded three clusters that corresponded to FS, LTS, and RS classes. The cluster corresponding to the FS class was composed entirely of multipolar nonpyramidal cells, and the cluster corresponding to the RS class was composed entirely of pyramidal cells. The third cluster, corresponding to the LTS class, was heterogeneous and included both multipolar and bitufted dendritic arbors as well as one pyramidal cell. We did not observe any intrinsically bursting pyramidal cells, which is similar to entorhinal cortex but unlike perirhinal cortex. We conclude that POR includes at least two major classes of neocortical inhibitory interneurons, but has a functionally restricted cohort of pyramidal cells. PMID:22522564

  2. Brain cholinergic, behavioral, and morphological development in rats exposed in utero to methylparathion.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R C; Rech, R H; Lovell, K L; Welsch, F; Thornburg, J E

    1985-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of subchronic administration of the organophosphate methylparathion (MPTH) during gestation on behavior and development of brain cholinergic neurons in the offspring. Pregnant rats received daily po doses of MPTH from Day 6 through Day 20 of gestation at doses causing no (1.0 mg/kg) or minimal (1.5 mg/kg) visible signs of maternal toxicity. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and choline acetyltransferase (CAT) activities, and [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) binding to muscarinic receptors, were determined in several brain regions at 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days postnatal age and in maternal brain at Day 19 of gestation. Prenatal exposure to 1.5 mg MPTH/kg reduced AChE and increased CAT activity in all brain regions at each developmental period and in maternal brain. Similar exposure to 1.0 mg MPTH/kg caused a significant but smaller and less persistent reduction in AChE activity but no change in brain CAT activity of the offspring. Both doses of MPTH decreased the Bmax of 3H-QNB binding in maternal frontal cortex but did not alter the postnatal pattern of 3H-QNB binding. In parallel studies, prenatal exposure to MPTH did not affect a variety of behaviors. However, cage emergence, accommodated locomotor activity, and operant behavior in a mixed paradigm were impaired in rats exposed to 1.0 but not to 1.5 mg/kg MPTH. No morphological changes were observed in hippocampal or cerebellar tissue. Thus, subchronic prenatal exposure to MPTH altered postnatal development of cholinergic neurons and caused subtle alterations in selected behaviors of the offspring. PMID:3975908

  3. Metabolic and morphologic properties of single muscle fibers in the rat after spaceflight, Cosmos 1887

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BEATRIX MIU; THOMAS P. MARTIN; ROLAND R. ROY; V. OGANOV

    The adaptation of a slow (soleus, So!) and a fast (medial gastrocnemius, MG) skeletalmuscle to space- flight was studied in five young male rats. The flight period was 12.5 days and the rats were killed approxi- mately 48 h after returning to I g. Five other rats that were housed in cages similar to those used by the flight rats

  4. MORPHOLOGICAL AND NEUROCHEMICAL DIFFERENTIATION OF LARGE GRANULAR LAYER INTERNEURONS IN THE ADULT RAT CEREBELLUM

    E-print Network

    De Schutter, Erik

    antibodies against the cytoplasmic antigen Rat-303, calretinin, the metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR2 and somatostatin. Based on Rat-303/calretinin double immunohistochemistry, three distinct populations of large granular layer interneurons could be discerned: cells immunopositive for Rat-303, calretinin or both. Rat

  5. Morphological studies of lymphatic labyrinths in the rat mesenteric lymph node.

    PubMed

    Jia, Limin; Xie, Zunjiang; Zheng, Jinhua; Liu, Li; He, Yan; Liu, Fu; He, Yechun

    2012-08-01

    To supplement and correct the morphological features of lymphatic labyrinths (LLs) in rat mesenteric lymph node, the distribution, morphology and origin of LLs, and cellular elements in LLs, particularly the organization and integrity of the wall of LLs were examined by silver impregnation, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and immunohistochemistry. LLs consisted of labyrinthine tubules and ran through not only the periphery of the deep cortical unit (DCU) but interfollicular cortex. LLs originated at the edge of the center of the DCU and of the follicle. At the site of their origin, the fibers in the wall of LL were continuous with the fibers located in the follicle and the center of DCU. The wall of LLs was a trilaminar membrane: a layer of flattened lymphatic endothelium; a layer of fibroblastic reticular cells; and amorphous substance and collagen fibers sandwiched between the above two layers. Under SEM and TEM, the whole amoeboid lymphocytes were moving through the pores in the wall of LL, which showed that lymphocytes end their journey through the paracortical cord by migrating into LLs. Immunohistochemical lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1 expression was present in cells lining the LLs and intraluminal stellate cells, which may belong to the "sinus endothelial/virgultar cells." LLs are specific channels that are different from lymphatic sinuses. LL may be regarded as a special part of lymphatic vascular system in lymph nodes. We confirm that LLs are important transport pathway of lymphocytes in lymph nodes. The structural framework of LLs facilitates the migration of lymphocytes. PMID:22678756

  6. Electrophysiological and morphological properties of rat supratrigeminal premotor neurons targeting the trigeminal motor nucleus.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Shiro; Nakayama, Kiyomi; Mochizuki, Ayako; Sato, Fumihiko; Haque, Tahsinul; Yoshida, Atsushi; Inoue, Tomio

    2014-05-01

    The electrophysiological and morphological characteristics of premotor neurons in the supratrigeminal region (SupV) targeting the trigeminal motor nucleus (MoV) were examined in neonatal rat brain stem slice preparations with Ca(2+) imaging, whole cell recordings, and intracellular biocytin labeling. First, we screened SupV neurons that showed a rapid rise in intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) after single-pulse electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral MoV. Subsequent whole cell recordings were generated from the screened SupV neurons, and their antidromic responses to MoV stimulation were confirmed. We divided the antidromically activated premotor neurons into two groups according to their discharge patterns during the steady state in response to 1-s depolarizing current pulses: those firing at a frequency higher (HF neurons, n = 19) or lower (LF neurons, n = 17) than 33 Hz. In addition, HF neurons had a narrower action potential and a larger afterhyperpolarization than LF neurons. Intracellular labeling revealed that the axons of all HF neurons (6/6) and half of the LF neurons (4/9) entered the MoV from its dorsomedial aspect, whereas the axons of the remaining LF neurons (5/9) entered the MoV from its dorsolateral aspect. Furthermore, the dendrites of three HF neurons penetrated into the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus (Vp), whereas the dendrites of all LF neurons were confined within the SupV. These results suggest that the types of SupV premotor neurons targeting the MoV with different firing properties have different dendritic and axonal morphologies, and these SupV neuron classes may play unique roles in diverse oral motor behaviors, such as suckling and mastication. PMID:24501266

  7. Testicular morphology in spontaneously hypertensive rat model: oxidant status and stereological implications.

    PubMed

    Azu, O O

    2015-03-01

    Studies by researchers suggest that reductions in blood flow to the testis could play an important role in the pathogenesis of male infertility. As this oxygen-dependent organ functions in a state of near anoxia, such a decrease in blood flow may very likely have profound effects on the tissue morphology that ultimately would predispose to various forms of hypo-spermatogenesis with consequent compromise in reproductive capability. With varying opinions expressed by experts as to the actual culprit or potential pathway and/or effects of pathophysiology of testicular haemodynamics, it still remains debatable whether the observed degenerative changes in testicular tissue are the result of major or minor reductions in flow or the consequence of other vascular pathologies or even extraneous factors. Again, increasing age and male gender have been identified as the single independent risk factors for the occurrence of cardiovascular pathologies with sexual dimorphism highly debated. The investigation of these factors occurring under hypertensive states using the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) as an experimental model has attracted substantial attention in recent past. This review examines the relationships and potential morphologic changes in the testicular tissue under conditions of perturbations in blood flow as seen in the SHR with a view to the proper understanding of the role(s) of various factors that contributes to male subfertility. A suggestion to the use of stereological methods for quantitating various measurements in a highly active and dynamic structure like the testis with its arterial system has been added as this may facilitate a better understanding of the mechanisms implicated under hypertensive conditions. PMID:24471984

  8. Multi-level femoral morphology and mechanical properties of rats of different ages.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Gong, He; Zhu, Dong; Ma, Renshi; Fang, Juan; Fan, Yobo

    2015-07-01

    A macro-micro-nano-multi-level study was conducted to explore age-related structural and mechanical properties of bone, as well as the effects of aging on bone properties. A total of 70 male Wistar rats were used, ranging in the ages of 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 14, 15, 16, and 17months (n=7/age group). After micro-computed tomography (CT) scanning, longitudinal cortical bone specimens with a length of 5mm were cut along the femoral shaft axis from left femur shafts for mechanical testing, and the cross-sectional areas were measured. The macro-mechanical properties obtained in mechanical testing and microarchitecture parameters measured by micro-CT were significantly correlated with the animal age (r(2)=0.96, p<0.001). Scanning electron microscopy was used for detecting the microarchitecture features of the fractured surfaces, which exhibited age-related plate-fibrous-mixed fibrous-plate texture, resulting in changes in macro-mechanical properties (r(2)>0.90, p<0.001). The mineral phase of the left femoral shaft and head was analyzed by atomic force microscopy. Longitudinal and transverse trabecular bone tissues, as well as longitudinal cortical bone tissue, were used for nanoindentation test, and the chemical composition was evaluated by quantitative chemical analyses. The correlations between mineral content and bone material properties (i.e., elastic properties of the bone tissue and size and roughness of bone mineral grains) were highly significant (r>0.95, p<0.001). Multi-level femur morphology, mechanical property, and mineral content were significantly correlated with the animal age. The correlations between bone mineral content and bone material morphological and mechanical properties may partly explain the increase in bone fragility with aging, which will provide a theoretical basis for the investigation of age-related bone properties in clinics. PMID:25857690

  9. Morphologic and proteomic characterization of exosomes released by cultured extravillous trophoblast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Atay, Safinur [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY (United States)] [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY (United States); Gercel-Taylor, Cicek [Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women's Health, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY (United States)] [Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women's Health, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY (United States); Kesimer, Mehmet [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)] [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Taylor, Douglas D., E-mail: ddtaylor@louisville.edu [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY (United States); Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women's Health, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Exosomes represent an important intercellular communication vehicle, mediating events essential for the decidual microenvironment. While we have demonstrated exosome induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, to date, no extensive characterization of trophoblast-derived exosomes has been provided. Our objective was to provide a morphologic and proteomic characterization of these exosomes. Exosomes were isolated from the conditioned media of Swan71 human trophoblast cells by ultrafiltration and ultracentrifugation. These were analyzed for density (sucrose density gradient centrifugation), morphology (electron microscopy), size (dynamic light scattering) and protein composition (Ion Trap mass spectrometry and western immunoblotting). Based on density gradient centrifugation, microvesicles from Sw71 cells exhibit a density between 1.134 and 1.173 g/ml. Electron microscopy demonstrated that microvesicles from Sw71 cells exhibit the characteristic cup-shaped morphology of exosomes. Dynamic light scattering showed a bell-shaped curve, indicating a homogeneous population with a mean size of 165 nm {+-} 0.5 nm. Ion Trap mass spectrometry demonstrated the presence of exosome marker proteins (including CD81, Alix, cytoskeleton related proteins, and Rab family). The MS results were confirmed by western immunoblotting. Based on morphology, density, size and protein composition, we defined the release of exosomes from extravillous trophoblast cells and provide their first extensive characterization. This characterization is essential in furthering our understanding of 'normal' early pregnancy.

  10. Characterization of network morphology in anion binding hydrogels used for wastewater remediation

    E-print Network

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    Characterization of network morphology in anion binding hydrogels used for wastewater remediation wastewater effluents. The sorbent used was crosslinked polyamine (PAA$HCl) polymeric hydrogels. The surface of crosslinking. q 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Hydrogel; Atomic force microscopy; Wastewater

  11. Picroside II Inhibits Neuronal Apoptosis and Improves the Morphology and Structure of Brain Tissue following Cerebral Ischemic Injury in Rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tingting; Zhao, Li; Guo, Yunliang; Zhang, Meizeng; Pei, Haitao

    2015-01-01

    This paper aimed to explore the protective effects of picroside II against the neuronal apoptosis and changes in morphology and structure that follow cerebral ischemic injury in rats. A focal cerebral ischemic model was established by inserting a monofilament thread to achieve middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in 60 Wistar rats, and intraperitoneal injections of picroside II (20 mg/kg) were administered. The neurobehavioral functions were evaluated with the modified neurological severity score (mNSS) test. The cerebral infarct volumes were measured with tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. The morphology and ultrastructure of the cortical brain tissues were observed with hematoxylin-eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The apoptotic cells were counted with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling and flow cytometry, and pERK1/2 expression was determined by immunohistochemical assay and Western blot. The results indicated that neurological behavioral malfunctions and cerebral infarcts were present in the MCAO rats. In the model group, the damage to the structures of the neurons and the blood brain barrier (BBB) in the cortex was more severe, and the numbers of apoptotic cells, the early apoptotic ratio (EAR) and pERK1/2 expression were significantly increased in this group compared to the control group (P<0.05). In the treatment group, the neurological behavioral function and the morphology and ultrastructure of the neurons and the BBB were improved including the number of Mi increased and relative area of condensed chromosome and basement (BM) thickness descreased, and the cerebral infarct volume, the number of apoptotic cells, the EAR and pERK1/2 expression were significantly decreased compared to the model group (P<0.05). These results suggest that picroside II reduced apoptosis and improved the morphology and ultrastructure of the neurons and the BBB and that these effects resulted in the recovery of the neurobehavioral function of rats with cerebral ischemia. PMID:25927985

  12. Morphologic and histochemical studies on the differing radiosensitivity of ductular and acinar cells of the rat submandibular gland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kisia Abok; Ulf Brunk; Bo Jung; Jan Ericsson

    1984-01-01

    Summary  The submandibular glands of male rats were exposed to 50 Gy X-irradiation as a single dose, with or without pre-treatment\\u000a with either alpha-adrenergic agonists (noradrenaline, phenylephrine) or a cholinergic antagonist (atropine). The effects were\\u000a analyzed by morphometric, cytochemical and biophysical methods. When X-irradiated without drug pre-treatment, many serous\\u000a epithelial cells of the intralobular convoluted ducts displayed morphologic evidence of irreversible

  13. Low doses of domoic acid during postnatal development produce permanent changes in rat behaviour and hippocampal morphology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Doucette; P. B. Bernard; H. Husum; M. A. Perry; C. L. Ryan; R. A. Tasker

    2004-01-01

    It is well established that the developing brain is a highly dynamic environment that is susceptible to toxicity produced\\u000a by a number of pharmacological, chemical and environmental insults. We report herein on permanent behavioural and morphological\\u000a changes produced by exposing newborn rats to very low (subconvulsive) doses of kainate receptor agonists during a critical\\u000a window of brain development. Daily treatment

  14. Cardiac oxidative stress determination and myocardial morphology after a single ecstasy (MDMA) administration in a rat model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniela Cerretani; Irene Riezzo; Anna Ida Fiaschi; Fabio Centini; Giorgio Giorgi; Stefano D’Errico; Carmela Fiore; Steven B. Karch; Margherita Neri; Cristoforo Pomara; Emanuela Turillazzi; Vittorio Fineschi

    2008-01-01

    Experimental and clinical data indicate that 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA) abuse can produce significant cardiovascular toxicity. A mechanism may be a direct toxic effect\\u000a of redox active metabolites of MDMA. To evaluate the effect of a single MDMA dose on cellular antioxidant defence system and\\u000a to investigate the morphology in male albino rats, total glutathione (GSH), oxidised glutathione (GSSG), ascorbic acid (AA),

  15. Screening of agents which convert 'transformed morphology' of Rous sarcoma virus-infected rat kidney cells to 'normal morphology': identification of an active agent as herbimycin and its inhibition of intracellular src kinase.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Y; Hori, M; Takeuchi, T; Umezawa, H

    1985-08-01

    During the course of screening of agents active in converting the transformed morphology of Rous sarcoma virus-infected rat kidney cells to the normal morphology, we identified an active substance produced by Streptomyces sp. MH237-CF8 as herbimycin. Herbimycin converted almost all cells into the normal morphology. The antibiotic was found to be an inhibitor of p60src-associated protein kinase in the cells. PMID:3930444

  16. Characterization of deltamethrin metabolism by rat plasma and liver microsomes

    SciTech Connect

    Anand, Sathanandam S. [Department of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States)]. E-mail: sanand@rx.uga.edu; Bruckner, James V. [Department of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Haines, Wendy T. [Neurotoxicology Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Curriculum in Toxicology, UNC-CH, NC 27514 (United States); Muralidhara, Srinivasa [Department of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Fisher, Jeffrey W. [Department of Environmental Health Science, School of Public Health, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Padilla, Stephanie [Neurotoxicology Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    Deltamethrin, a widely used type II pyrethroid insecticide, is a relatively potent neurotoxicant. While the toxicity has been extensively examined, toxicokinetic studies of deltamethrin and most other pyrethroids are very limited. The aims of this study were to identify, characterize, and assess the relative contributions of esterases and cytochrome P450s (CYP450s) responsible for deltamethrin metabolism by measuring deltamethrin disappearance following incubation of various concentrations (2 to 400 {mu}M) in plasma (esterases) and liver microsomes (esterases and CYP450s) prepared from adult male rats. While the carboxylesterase metabolism in plasma and liver was characterized using an inhibitor, tetra isopropyl pyrophosphoramide (isoOMPA), CYP450 metabolism was characterized using the cofactor, NADPH. Michaelis-Menten rate constants were calculated using linear and nonlinear regression as applicable. The metabolic efficiency of these pathways was estimated by calculating intrinsic clearance (Vmax/Km). In plasma, isoOMPA completely inhibited deltamethrin biotransformation at concentrations (2 and 20 {mu}M of deltamethrin) that are 2- to 10-fold higher than previously reported peak blood levels in deltamethrin-poisoned rats. For carboxylesterase-mediated deltamethrin metabolism in plasma, Vmax = 325.3 {+-} 53.4 nmol/h/ml and Km = 165.4 {+-} 41.9 {mu}M. Calcium chelation by EGTA did not inhibit deltamethrin metabolism in plasma or liver microsomes, indicating that A-esterases do not metabolize deltamethrin. In liver microsomes, esterase-mediated deltamethrin metabolism was completely inhibited by isoOMPA, confirming the role of carboxylesterases. The rate constants for liver carboxylesterases were Vmax = 1981.8 {+-} 132.3 nmol/h/g liver and Km = 172.5 {+-} 22.5 {mu}M. Liver microsomal CYP450-mediated biotransformation of deltamethrin was a higher capacity (Vmax = 2611.3 {+-} 134.1 nmol/h/g liver) and higher affinity (Km = 74.9 {+-} 5.9 {mu}M) process than carboxylesterase (plasma or liver) detoxification. Genetically engineered individual rat CYP450s (Supersomes) were used to identify specific CYP450 isozyme(s) involved in the deltamethrin metabolism. CYP1A2, CYP1A1, and CYP2C11 in decreasing order of importance quantitatively, metabolized deltamethrin. Intrinsic clearance by liver CYP450s (35.5) was more efficient than that by liver (12.0) or plasma carboxylesterases (2.4)

  17. Morphological and biochemical examination of Cosmos 1887 rat heart tissue. Part 1: Ultrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpott, D. E.; Popova, I. A.; Kato, K.; Stevenson, J.; Miquel, J.; Sapp, W.

    1990-01-01

    Morphological changes were observed in the left ventricle of rat heart tissue from animals flown on the Cosmos 1887 biosatellite for 12.5 days. These tissues were compared to the synchronous and vivarium control hearts. While many normal myofibrils were observed, others exhibited ultrastructural alterations, i.e., damaged and irregular-shaped mitochondria and generalized myofibrillar edema. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the volume density data revealed a statistically significant increase in glycogen and a significant decrease in mitochondria compared to the synchronous and vivarium controls. Point counting indicated an increase in lipid and myeloid bodies and a decrease in microtubules, but these changes were not statistically significant. In addition, the flight animals exhibited some patchy loss of protofibrils (actin and myosin filaments) and some abnormal supercontracted myofibrils that were not seen in the controls. This study was undertaken to gain insight into the mechanistic aspects of cardiac changes in both animals and human beings as a consequence of space travel. Cardiac hypotrophy and fluid shifts have been observed after actual or simulated weightlessness and raise concerns about the functioning of the heart and circulatory system during and after travel in space.

  18. Morphology and physiology of excitatory neurons in layer 6b of the somatosensory rat barrel cortex.

    PubMed

    Marx, Manuel; Feldmeyer, Dirk

    2013-12-01

    Neocortical lamina 6B (L6B) is a largely unexplored layer with a very heterogeneous cellular composition. To date, only little is known about L6B neurons on a systematic and quantitative basis. We investigated the morphological and electrophysiological properties of excitatory L6B neurons in the rat somatosensory barrel cortex using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and simultaneous biocytin fillings. Subsequent histological processing and computer-assisted 3D reconstructions provided the basis for a classification of excitatory L6B neurons according to their structural and functional characteristics. Three distinct clusters of excitatory L6B neurons were identified: (C1) pyramidal neurons with an apical dendrite pointing towards the pial surface, (C2) neurons with a prominent, "apical"-like dendrite not oriented towards the pia, and (C3) multipolar spiny neurons without any preferential dendritic orientation. The second group could be further subdivided into three categories termed inverted, "tangentially" oriented and "horizontally" oriented neurons. Furthermore, based on the axonal domain two subcategories of L6B pyramidal cells were identified that had either a more barrel-column confined or an extended axonal field. The classification of excitatory L6B neurons provided here may serve as a basis for future studies on the structure, function, and synaptic connectivity of L6B neurons. PMID:22944531

  19. Corticosterone treatment impairs auditory fear learning and the dendritic morphology of the rat inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Dagnino-Subiabre, Alexies; Pérez, Miguel Ángel; Terreros, Gonzalo; Cheng, Michelle Y; House, Patrick; Sapolsky, Robert

    2012-12-01

    Stress leads to secretion of the adrenal steroid hormone corticosterone (CORT). The aim of this study was to determine the effects of chronic CORT administration on auditory and visual fear conditioning. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received CORT (400 mg/ml) in their drinking water for 10 consecutive days; this treatment induces stress levels of serum CORT. CORT impaired fear conditioning (F((1,28)) = 11.52, p < 0.01) and extinction (F((1,28)) = 4.86, p < 0.05) of auditory fear learning, but did not affect visual fear conditioning. In addition, we analyzed the CORT effects on the neuronal morphology of the inferior colliculus (flat neurons, auditory mesencephalon, a key brain area for auditory processing) and superior colliculus (wide-field neurons, related to visual processing) by Golgi stain. CORT decreased dendritic arborization of inferior colliculus neurons by approximately 50%, but did not affect superior colliculus neurons. Thus, CORT had more deleterious effects on the auditory fear processing than the visual system in the brain. PMID:23088831

  20. 3D Reconstruction and Standardization of the Rat Vibrissal Cortex for Precise Registration of Single Neuron Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Egger, Robert; Narayanan, Rajeevan T.; Helmstaedter, Moritz; de Kock, Christiaan P. J.; Oberlaender, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) structure of neural circuits is commonly studied by reconstructing individual or small groups of neurons in separate preparations. Investigation of structural organization principles or quantification of dendritic and axonal innervation thus requires integration of many reconstructed morphologies into a common reference frame. Here we present a standardized 3D model of the rat vibrissal cortex and introduce an automated registration tool that allows for precise placement of single neuron reconstructions. We (1) developed an automated image processing pipeline to reconstruct 3D anatomical landmarks, i.e., the barrels in Layer 4, the pia and white matter surfaces and the blood vessel pattern from high-resolution images, (2) quantified these landmarks in 12 different rats, (3) generated an average 3D model of the vibrissal cortex and (4) used rigid transformations and stepwise linear scaling to register 94 neuron morphologies, reconstructed from in vivo stainings, to the standardized cortex model. We find that anatomical landmarks vary substantially across the vibrissal cortex within an individual rat. In contrast, the 3D layout of the entire vibrissal cortex remains remarkably preserved across animals. This allows for precise registration of individual neuron reconstructions with approximately 30 µm accuracy. Our approach could be used to reconstruct and standardize other anatomically defined brain areas and may ultimately lead to a precise digital reference atlas of the rat brain. PMID:23284282

  1. Characterization of p75{sup +} ectomesenchymal stem cells from rat embryonic facial process tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Xiujie; Liu, Luchuan; Deng, Manjing; Zhang, Li; Liu, Rui; Xing, Yongjun; Zhou, Xia [Department of Stomatology, Daping Hospital and Research Institute of Surgery, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China)] [Department of Stomatology, Daping Hospital and Research Institute of Surgery, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Nie, Xin, E-mail: dr.xinnie@gmail.com [Department of Stomatology, Daping Hospital and Research Institute of Surgery, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China)] [Department of Stomatology, Daping Hospital and Research Institute of Surgery, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China)

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ectomesenchymal stem cells (EMSCs) were found to migrate to rat facial processes at E11.5. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We successfully sorted p75NTR positive EMSCs (p75{sup +} EMSCs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p75{sup +} EMSCs up to nine passages showed relative stable proliferative activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined the in vitro multilineage potential of p75{sup +} EMSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p75{sup +}EMSCs provide an in vitro model for tooth morphogenesis. -- Abstract: Several populations of stem cells, including those from the dental pulp and periodontal ligament, have been isolated from different parts of the tooth and periodontium. The characteristics of such stem cells have been reported as well. However, as a common progenitor of these cells, ectomesenchymal stem cells (EMSCs), derived from the cranial neural crest have yet to be fully characterized. The aim of this study was to better understand the characteristics of EMSCs isolated from rat embryonic facial processes. Immunohistochemical staining showed that EMSCs had migrated to rat facial processes at E11.5, while the absence of epithelial invagination or tooth-like epithelium suggested that any epithelial-mesenchymal interactions were limited at this stage. The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), a typical neural crest marker, was used to select p75NTR-positive EMSCs (p75{sup +} EMSCs), which were found to show a homogeneous fibroblast-like morphology and little change in the growth curve, proliferation capacity, and cell phenotype during cell passage. They also displayed the capacity to differentiate into diverse cell types under chemically defined conditions in vitro. p75{sup +} EMSCs proved to be homogeneous, stable in vitro and potentially capable of multiple lineages, suggesting their potential for application in dental or orofacial tissue engineering.

  2. Morphological characterization of pecteneal hyalocytes in the developing quail retina

    PubMed Central

    Llombart, Cristina; Nacher, Víctor; Ramos, David; Luppo, Mariana; Carretero, Ana; Navarro, Marc; Melgarejo, Verňnica; Armengol, Clara; Rodríguez-Baeza, Alfonso; Mendes-Jorge, Luisa; Ruberte, Jesús

    2009-01-01

    The periphery of the vitreous body contains a population of cells termed hyalocytes. Despite the existence for more than one century of publications devoted to the pecten oculi, a convoluted coil of blood vessels that seems to be the primary source of nutrients for the avian avascular retina, little information can be found concerning the pecteneal hyalocytes. These cells are situated on the inner limiting membrane in close relationship with the convolute blood vessels. To characterize the origin and macrophagic activity of pecteneal hyalocytes, we have analysed two different stages of quail eye development using histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. Pecteneal hyalocytes express the QH1 epitope and cKit, confirming that these cells belong to the haematopoietic system. They also express vimentin, an intermediate filament protein present in cells of mesenchymal origin and very important for differentiation of fully active macrophages. However, similarly as described in porcine hyalocytes, pecteneal hyalocytes express the glial fibrillary acidic protein, a recognized neuroglial marker. Pecteneal hyalocytes did not express other neuroglial markers, such as glutamine synthetase or S100. Acidic phosphatase was activated and Lep100 was found in secondary lysosomes, confirming phagocytic activity of pecteneal hyalocytes during ocular development. Pecteneal hyalocytes strongly react with RCA-I, WFA, WGA, PNA, SNA, LEA and SBA lectins, whereas other avian macrophages from thymus and the bursa of Fabricius did not bind PNA, SNA and LEA lectins. Interestingly, WGA lectin reacts with all kinds of avian macrophages, including pecteneal hyalocytes, probably reflecting the specific binding of WGA to components of the phagocytic and endocytic pathways. In conclusion, pecteneal hyalocytes are a special subtype of blood-borne macrophages that express markers not specifically associated with the haematopoietic system. PMID:19566699

  3. Effects of a saturated fat and high cholesterol diet on memory and hippocampal morphology in the middle-aged rat.

    PubMed

    Granholm, Ann-Charlotte; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A; Moore, Alfred B; Nelson, Matthew E; Freeman, Linnea R; Sambamurti, Kumar

    2008-06-01

    Diets rich in cholesterol and/or saturated fats have been shown to be detrimental to cognitive performance. Therefore, we fed a cholesterol (2%) and saturated fat (hydrogenated coconut oil, Sat Fat 10%) diet to 16-month old rats for 8 weeks to explore the effects on the working memory performance of middle-aged rats. Lipid profiles revealed elevated plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL, and LDL for the Sat-Fat group as compared to an iso-caloric control diet (12% soybean oil). Weight gain and food consumption were similar in both groups. Sat-Fat treated rats committed more working memory errors in the water radial arm maze, especially at higher memory loads. Cholesterol, amyloid-beta peptide of 40 (Abeta40) or 42 (Abeta42) residues, and nerve growth factor in cortical regions was unaffected, but hippocampal Map-2 staining was reduced in rats fed a Sat-Fat diet, indicating a loss of dendritic integrity. Map-2 reduction correlated with memory errors. Microglial activation, indicating inflammation and/or gliosis, was also observed in the hippocampus of Sat-Fat fed rats. These data suggest that saturated fat, hydrogenated fat and cholesterol can profoundly impair memory and hippocampal morphology. PMID:18560126

  4. Effects of a Saturated Fat and High Cholesterol Diet on Memory and Hippocampal Morphology in the Middle-Aged Rat

    PubMed Central

    Granholm, Ann-Charlotte; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A.; Moore, Alfred B.; Nelson, Matthew E.; Freeman, Linnea R.; Sambamurti, Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Diets rich in cholesterol and/or saturated fats have been shown to be detrimental to cognitive performance. Therefore, we fed a cholesterol (2%) and saturated fat (hydrogenated coconut oil, Sat Fat 10%) diet to 16-month old rats for 8 weeks to explore the effects on the working memory performance of middle-aged rats. Lipid profiles revealed elevated plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL, and LDL for the Sat-Fat group as compared to an iso-caloric control diet (12% soybean oil). Weight gain and food consumption were similar in both groups. Sat-Fat treated rats committed more working memory errors in the water radial arm maze, especially at higher memory loads. Cholesterol, amyloid-? peptide of 40 (A?40) or 42 (A?42) residues, and nerve growth factor in cortical regions was unaffected, but hippocampal Map-2 staining was reduced in rats fed a Sat-Fat diet, indicating a loss of dendritic integrity. Map-2 reduction correlated with memory errors. Microglial activation, indicating inflammation and/or gliosis, was also observed in the hippocampus of Sat-Fat fed rats. These data suggest that saturated fat, hydrogenated fat and cholesterol can profoundly impair memory and hippocampal morphology. PMID:18560126

  5. Hemodynamic flow improves rat hepatocyte morphology, function, and metabolic activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Dash, A; Simmers, M B; Deering, T G; Berry, D J; Feaver, R E; Hastings, N E; Pruett, T L; LeCluyse, E L; Blackman, B R; Wamhoff, B R

    2013-06-01

    In vitro primary hepatocyte systems typically elicit drug induction and toxicity responses at concentrations much higher than corresponding in vivo or clinical plasma C(max) levels, contributing to poor in vitro-in vivo correlations. This may be partly due to the absence of physiological parameters that maintain metabolic phenotype in vivo. We hypothesized that restoring hemodynamics and media transport would improve hepatocyte architecture and metabolic function in vitro compared with nonflow cultures. Rat hepatocytes were cultured for 2 wk either in nonflow collagen gel sandwiches with 48-h media changes or under controlled hemodynamics mimicking sinusoidal circulation within a perfused Transwell device. Phenotypic, functional, and metabolic parameters were assessed at multiple times. Hepatocytes in the devices exhibited polarized morphology, retention of differentiation markers [E-cadherin and hepatocyte nuclear factor-4? (HNF-4?)], the canalicular transporter [multidrug-resistant protein-2 (Mrp-2)], and significantly higher levels of liver function compared with nonflow cultures over 2 wk (albumin ~4-fold and urea ~5-fold). Gene expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes was significantly higher (fold increase over nonflow: CYP1A1: 53.5 ± 10.3; CYP1A2: 64.0 ± 15.1; CYP2B1: 15.2 ± 2.9; CYP2B2: 2.7 ± 0.8; CYP3A2: 4.0 ± 1.4) and translated to significantly higher basal enzyme activity (device vs. nonflow: CYP1A: 6.26 ± 2.41 vs. 0.42 ± 0.015; CYP1B: 3.47 ± 1.66 vs. 0.4 ± 0.09; CYP3A: 11.65 ± 4.70 vs. 2.43 ± 0.56) while retaining inducibility by 3-methylcholanthrene and dexamethasone (fold increase over DMSO: CYP1A = 27.33 and CYP3A = 4.94). These responses were observed at concentrations closer to plasma levels documented in vivo in rats. The retention of in vivo-like hepatocyte phenotype and metabolic function coupled with drug response at more physiological concentrations emphasizes the importance of restoring in vivo physiological transport parameters in vitro. PMID:23485712

  6. Astrocyte morphology, heterogeneity, and density in the developing African giant rat (Cricetomys gambianus).

    PubMed

    Olude, Matthew A; Mustapha, Oluwaseun A; Aderounmu, Oluwatunde A; Olopade, James O; Ihunwo, Amadi O

    2015-01-01

    Astrocyte morphologies and heterogeneity were described in male African giant rats (AGR; Cricetomys gambianus, Waterhouse) across three age groups (five neonates, five juveniles, and five adults) using Silver impregnation method and immunohistochemistry against glial fibrillary acidic protein. Immunopositive cell signaling, cell size and population were least in neonates, followed by adults and juveniles, respectively. In neonates, astrocyte processes were mostly detected within the glia limitans of the mid and hind brain; their cell bodies measuring 32 ± 4.8 ?m in diameter against 91 ± 5.4 ?m and 75 ± 1.9 ?m in juveniles and adults, respectively. Astrocyte heterogeneity in juvenile and adult groups revealed eight subtypes to include fibrous astrocytes chiefly in the corpus callosum and brain stem, protoplasmic astrocytes in the cortex and dentate gyrus (DG); radial glia were found along the olfactory bulb (OB) and subventricular zone (SVZ); velate astrocytes were mainly found in the cerebellum and hippocampus; marginal astrocytes close to the pia mater; Bergmann glia in the molecular layer of the cerebellum; perivascular and periventricular astrocytes in the cortex and third ventricle, respectively. Cell counts from twelve anatomical regions of the brain were significantly higher in juveniles than in adults (p ? 0.01) using unpaired student t-test in the cerebral cortex, pia, corpus callosum, rostral migratory stream, DG, and cerebellum. Highest astrocyte count was found in the DG, while the least count was in the brain stem and sub cortex. Astrocytes along the periventricular layer of the OB are believed to be part of the radial glia system that transport newly formed cells towards the hippocampus and play roles in neurogenesis migration and homeostasis in the AGR. Therefore, astrocyte heterogeneity was examined across age groups in the AGR to determine whether age influences astrocytes population in different regions of the AGR brain and discuss possible functional roles. PMID:26074782

  7. Astrocyte morphology, heterogeneity, and density in the developing African giant rat (Cricetomys gambianus)

    PubMed Central

    Olude, Matthew A.; Mustapha, Oluwaseun A.; Aderounmu, Oluwatunde A.; Olopade, James O.; Ihunwo, Amadi O.

    2015-01-01

    Astrocyte morphologies and heterogeneity were described in male African giant rats (AGR; Cricetomys gambianus, Waterhouse) across three age groups (five neonates, five juveniles, and five adults) using Silver impregnation method and immunohistochemistry against glial fibrillary acidic protein. Immunopositive cell signaling, cell size and population were least in neonates, followed by adults and juveniles, respectively. In neonates, astrocyte processes were mostly detected within the glia limitans of the mid and hind brain; their cell bodies measuring 32 ± 4.8 ?m in diameter against 91 ± 5.4 ?m and 75 ± 1.9 ?m in juveniles and adults, respectively. Astrocyte heterogeneity in juvenile and adult groups revealed eight subtypes to include fibrous astrocytes chiefly in the corpus callosum and brain stem, protoplasmic astrocytes in the cortex and dentate gyrus (DG); radial glia were found along the olfactory bulb (OB) and subventricular zone (SVZ); velate astrocytes were mainly found in the cerebellum and hippocampus; marginal astrocytes close to the pia mater; Bergmann glia in the molecular layer of the cerebellum; perivascular and periventricular astrocytes in the cortex and third ventricle, respectively. Cell counts from twelve anatomical regions of the brain were significantly higher in juveniles than in adults (p ? 0.01) using unpaired student t-test in the cerebral cortex, pia, corpus callosum, rostral migratory stream, DG, and cerebellum. Highest astrocyte count was found in the DG, while the least count was in the brain stem and sub cortex. Astrocytes along the periventricular layer of the OB are believed to be part of the radial glia system that transport newly formed cells towards the hippocampus and play roles in neurogenesis migration and homeostasis in the AGR. Therefore, astrocyte heterogeneity was examined across age groups in the AGR to determine whether age influences astrocytes population in different regions of the AGR brain and discuss possible functional roles. PMID:26074782

  8. Characterization of a transformed rat retinal ganglion cell line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. R. Krishnamoorthy; P. Agarwal; G. Prasanna; K. Vopat; W. Lambert; H. J. Sheedlo; I.-H. Pang; D. Shade; R. J. Wordinger; T. Yorio; A. F Clark; N. Agarwal

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to establish a rat retinal ganglion cell line by transformation of rat retinal cells. For this investigation, retinal cells were isolated from postnatal day 1 (PN1) rats and transformed with the ?2 E1A virus. In order to isolate retinal ganglion cells (RGC), single cell clones were chosen at random from the transformed cells.

  9. Characterization and partial purification of protein fatty acyltransferase activity from rat liver

    E-print Network

    Terasaki, Mark

    Characterization and partial purification of protein fatty acyltransferase activity from rat liver a strategy to purify protein fatty acyltransferase (PAT) activity from rat livers that took advantage, Gai and RGS16 and (3) showed a preference for palmitate and to a lesser degree other long-chain fatty

  10. Modulation of morphological changes of endometrial surface epithelium by administration of composite root extract in albino rat.

    PubMed

    Sarma, H N; Mahanta, H C

    2000-07-01

    In the present investigation, we attempted to study the modulation of morphological changes of endometrial surface epithelium by Scanning Electron Microscope (SCEM) in the adult albino rat after oral administration of roots extract. The origin of this experiment lies in the fact that the dry powdered roots of five plants, i.e., Plumbago rosea, Borassus flabellifer, Carica papaya (male), Dolichos lablab, and Shorea robusta in mixed form, has been traditionally used by the folk women of this region through oral route during the first seven days of a menstrual cycle to prevent conception. Ethanolic crude extract of these roots in composite form which has been referred to here as composite root extract (CRE) was administered to the adult female albino rat in a dose of 1000 mg/kg body weight/day through oral route continuously for 12 days starting from proestrous. The observations under SCEM showed that administration of the CRE induced morphological changes of the endometrial surface epithelium in albino rat uterus. The characteristic smooth regular pattern of normal epithelium appears to have been changed at places by haphazardly oriented groups of cells and loss of microvilli indicating a disorganized picture. This structural disparity has been thought to affect the smooth functioning of nidatory preparation in the endometrium. PMID:11024229

  11. Morphological characterization of respiratory neurons in the pre-Bötzinger complex.

    PubMed

    Zavala-Tecuapetla, Cecilia; Tapia, Dagoberto; Rivera-Angulo, Ana Julia; Galarraga, Elvira; Peńa-Ortega, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Although the pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötC) was defined as the inspiratory rhythm generator long ago, the functional-anatomical characterization of its neuronal components is still being achieved. Recent advances have identified the expression of molecular markers in the preBötC neurons that, however, are not exclusive to specific respiratory neuron subtypes and have not always been related to specific cell morphologies. Here, we evaluated the morphology and the axonal projections of electrophysiologically defined respiratory neurons in the preBötC using whole-cell recordings and intracellular biocytin labeling. We found that respiratory pacemaker neurons are larger than expiratory neurons and that inspiratory neurons are smaller than pacemaker and expiratory neurons. Other morphological features such as somata shapes or dendritic branching patterns were not found to be significantly different among the preBötC neurons sampled. We also found that both pacemaker and inspiratory nonpacemaker neurons, but not expiratory neurons, show extensive axonal projections to the contralateral preBötC and show signs of electrical coupling. Overall, our data suggest that there are morphological differences between subtypes of preBötC respiratory neurons. It will be important to take such differences in consideration since morphological differences would influence synaptic responses and action potential propagation. PMID:24746042

  12. Low-voltage, high-resolution scanning electron microscopy: a new characterization technique for polymer morphology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Wade Adams

    1995-01-01

    Low-voltage, high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (LVHRSEM) is a promising new technique for polymer morphological characterization, and provides complementary data to transmission electron microscopy, X-ray scattering and the scanning probe microscopies. Practically, lateral resolution on the order of 50 Ĺ at 1.0 keV accelerating voltage can be obtained in polymer samples. The utility of LVHRSEM is demonstrated for diverse polymer systems,

  13. Effects of palm oil tocotrienol-rich fraction on biochemical and morphological alterations of liver in fenitrothion-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Jayusman, Putri Ayu; Budin, Siti Balkis; Ghazali, Ahmad Rohi; Taib, Izatus Shima; Louis, Santhana Raj

    2014-11-01

    Indiscriminate application of organophosphate (OP) pesticides has led to environmental pollution and severe health problems. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of palm oil tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) on biochemical and morphological changes of the liver in rats treated with fenitrothion (FNT), a type of OP pesticide. A total of 28 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups; control group, TRF-supplemented group, FNT-treated group and TRF+FNT group. TRF (200 mg/kg) was supplemented 30 minutes prior to FNT (20 mg/kg) administration, both orally for 28 consecutive days. Following 28 days of treatment, plasma biochemical changes and liver morphology were evaluated. The body and absolute liver weights were significantly elevated in TRF+FNT group compared to FNT group. TRF administration significantly decreased the total protein level and restored the activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in TRF + FNT group. In contrast, total bilirubin level, ?-glutamyltranferase (GGT) and cholinesterase activity in TRF + FNT group did not significantly differ from FNT group. Administration of TRF also prevented FNT-induced morphological changes of liver as observed by electron microscope. In conclusion, TRF supplementation showed potential protective effect towards biochemical and ultrastructural changes in liver induced by FNT. PMID:25362611

  14. Effect of Boswellia serrata gum resin on the morphology of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells in aged rat.

    PubMed

    Hosseini-sharifabad, Mohammad; Esfandiari, Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    Experimental evidence indicates that administration of Boswellia resin, known as olibanum or Frankincense, increases memory power. It is reported that beta boswellic acid, the major component of Boswellia serrata gum resin, could enhance neurite outgrowth and branching in hippocampal neurons. We therefore studied whether Boswellia treatment produces morphological changes in the superior region of cornu ammonis (CA1) in aged rats. Sixteen male Wistar rats, 24 months of age, were randomly divided in experimental and control groups. The experimental group was orally administered Boswellia serrata gum resin (100 mg/kg per day for 8 weeks) and the control group received a similar volume of water. The Cavalieri principle was employed to estimate the volumes of CA1 hippocampal field, and a quantitative Golgi study was used to analysis of dendritic arborizations of CA1 pyramidal cells. Comparisons revealed that Boswellia-treated aged rats had greater volumes than control animals in stratum pyramidale and stratum radiatum lacunosum-moleculare. The neurons of CA1 in experimental rats had more dendritic segments (40.25 ± 4.20) than controls (30.9 ± 4.55), P = 0.001. The total dendritic length of CA1 neurons was approximately 20 % larger in the experimental group compared to control. Results also indicated that the aged rats treated with Boswellia resin had more numerical branching density in the apical dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons. The results of the present study show that long-term administration of Boswellia resin can attenuate age-related dendritic regression in CA1 pyramidal cells in rat hippocampus. PMID:24515442

  15. Morphological changes in lungs, placenta, liver and kidneys of pregnant rats exposed to cigarette smoke

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Czekaj; A. Pa?asz; T. Lebda-Wyborny; G. Nowaczyk-Dura; W. Karczewska; E. Florek; M. Kami?ski

    2002-01-01

    Objective. Histopathological examination of changes in foetal and newborn rats, and histopathological and morphometric assessments of changes in lungs, placenta, liver and kidneys of adult rats exposed to cigarette smoke were performed. Methods. Non-pregnant and pregnant Wistar female rats were exposed to cigarette smoke at a carbon monoxide concentration of 1,500 mg\\/m3 for 6 h per day, 5 days per

  16. Identification, culture, and characterization of pancreatic stellate cells in rats and humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Max G. Bachem; Erik Schneider; Hans Groß; Hans Weidenbach; Roland M. Schmid; Andre Menke; Marco Siech; Hans Beger; Adolf Grünert; Guido Adler

    1998-01-01

    Background & Aims: Until now, the basic matrix-producing cell type responsible for pancreas fibrosis has not been identified. In this report, retinoid-containing pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) in rat and human pancreas are described, and morphological and biochemical similarities to hepatic stellate cells are shown. Methods: Electron and immunofluorescence microscopy (collagen types I and III, fibronectin, laminin, ?-actin, and desmin) was

  17. Morphology of Rat Hippocampal CA1 Neurons Following Modified Two and Four-Vessels Global Ischemia Models

    PubMed Central

    Atlasi, Mohammad Ali; Naderian, Homayoun; Noureddini, Mahdi; Fakharian, Esmaeil; Azami, Abolfazl

    2013-01-01

    Background An appropriate animal model of ischemia stroke is essential for evaluation of different therapeutic methods. Two and four-vessel global ischemia models are one of the most common types of transient cerebral ischemia. Objectives In this study, the morphology of rat hippocampal CA1 neurons in modified models of two and four-vessel ischemia and reperfusion were evaluated. Materials and Methods In this study, 20 Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups. In group 2 and 3, both common carotid arteries were occluded for 10 minutes in either 3 or 24 hours of reperfusions, respectively. In group 4 and 5, both common carotid and vertebral arteries were occluded for 10 minutes in either 3 or 24 hours of reperfusions, respectively. Group 1 as control, underwent the whole surgery without any arteries occlusion. Hippocampi of the rats in all groups were processed and tissue sections were stained using the Nissl method. The morphology of CA1 neurons were studied under a light microscope and compared different groups. Results In all groups ischemic changes were apparently observed in hippocampus CA1 neurons. In two-vessel occlusion model, after 3 and 24 hours of reperfusions, ischemic cells accounted for 14.9% and 23.2%, respectively. In four-vessel occlusion model, after 3 and 24 hours of reperfusions, ischemic cells accounted for 7.6% and 44.9% (P < 0.0001), respectively. Conclusions Modified four-vessel occlusion model resulted in significant ischemic changes after 24 hours of reperfusion in CA1 neurons of rat hippocampus. PMID:24693522

  18. Functional characterization of rat submaxillary gland muscarinic receptors using microphysiometry

    PubMed Central

    Meloy, Trena D; Daniels, Donald V; Hegde, Sharath S; Eglen, Richard M; Ford, Anthony P D W

    2001-01-01

    Muscarinic cholinoceptors (MChR) in freshly dispersed rat salivary gland (RSG) cells were characterized using microphysiometry to measure changes in acidification rates. Several non-selective and selective muscarinic antagonists were used to elucidate the nature of the subtypes mediating the response to carbachol. The effects of carbachol (pEC50=5.74±0.02?s.e.mean; n=53) were highly reproducible and most antagonists acted in a surmountable, reversible fashion. The following antagonist rank order, with apparent affinity constants in parentheses, was noted: 4-DAMP (8.9)=atropine (8.9)>tolterodine (8.5)>oxybutynin (7.9)>S-secoverine (7.2)>pirenzepine (6.9)>himbacine (6.8)>AQ-RA 741 (6.6)>methoctramine (5.9). These studies validate the use of primary isolated RSG cells in microphysiometry for pharmacological analysis. These data are consistent with, and extend, previous studies using alternative functional methods, which reported a lack of differential receptor pharmacology between bladder and salivary gland tissue. The antagonist affinity profile significantly correlated with the profile at human recombinant muscarinic M3 and M5 receptors. Given a lack of antagonists that discriminate between M3 and M5, definitive conclusion of which subtype(s) is present within RSG cells cannot be determined. PMID:11264256

  19. Stasis and convergence characterize morphological evolution in eupolypod II ferns Michael A. Sundue1,* and Carl J. Rothfels,2

    E-print Network

    Stasis and convergence characterize morphological evolution in eupolypod II ferns Michael A. Sundue rank remain underexplored in the ferns. The present studyseeksto addressthis gap through analysis of 79 morphological characters for 81 taxa, includ- ing representatives of all ten families of eupolypod II ferns

  20. Toxic Effects of Maternal Zearalenone Exposure on Intestinal Oxidative Stress, Barrier Function, Immunological and Morphological Changes in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Min; Gao, Rui; Meng, Qingwei; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Bi, Chongpeng; Shan, Anshan

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of maternal zearalenone (ZEN) exposure on the intestine of pregnant Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and its offspring. Ninety-six pregnant SD rats were randomly divided into four groups and were fed with diets containing ZEN at concentrations of 0.3 mg/kg, 48.5 mg/kg, 97.6 mg/kg or 146.0 mg/kg from gestation days (GD) 1 to 7. All rats were fed with mycotoxin-free diet until their offspring were weaned at three weeks of age. The small intestinal fragments from pregnant rats at GD8, weaned dams and pups were collected and studied for toxic effects of ZEN on antioxidant status, immune response, expression of junction proteins, and morphology. The results showed that ZEN induced oxidative stress, affected the villous structure and reduced the expression of junction proteins claudin-4, occludin and connexin43 (Cx43) in a dose-dependent manner in pregnant rats. Different effects on the expression of cytokines were also observed both in mRNA and protein levels in these pregnant groups. Ingestion of high levels of ZEN caused irreversible damage in weaned dams, such as oxidative stress, decreased villi hight and low expression of junction proteins and cytokines. Decreased expression of jejunal interleukin-8 (IL-8) and increased expression of gastrointestinal glutathione peroxidase (GPx2) mRNA were detected in weaned offspring, indicating long-term damage caused by maternal ZEN. We also found that the Nrf2 expression both in mRNA and protein levels were up-regulated in the ZEN-treated groups of pregnant dams and the high-dose of ZEN group of weaned dams. The data indicate that modulation of Nrf2-mediated pathway is one of mechanism via which ZEN affects gut wall antioxidant and inflammatory responses. PMID:25180673

  1. Mathematical morphology: detection and characterization of directed axonal growth in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, M. A.; Ballarin, V. L.; Rapacioli, M.; Rodríguez Celín, A.; Sánchez, V.; Flores, V.

    2011-12-01

    Neurite growth in vitro, neuritogenesis, is a widespread methodology in the field of developmental neurobiology. Morphological analysis of growing neurites is usually a difficult task because of their thinness and their low contrast that makes it difficult to observe clearly their shape, number, length and spatial orientation. This paper presents the use of the granulometric size distribution function to obtain, automatically, information about the shape, size and spatial orientation of growing axons in tissue cultures. The results presented show the efficiency of the granulometric size distribution for this application. The automatic detection of growing axons and the precise characterization of a relevant parameter, indicative of the axonal growth spatial orientation, was obtained by this morphological tool. The developed algorithms facilitates the analysis of these images by automatically quantifying the angle of deviation of the direction of growth, which is important given the large number of images that need to be processed for this type of study.

  2. A comprehensive physico-chemical, mineralogical and morphological characterization of Indian mineral wastes.

    PubMed

    Gedam, Vidyadhar V; Jha, Rajesh; Labhasetwar, Pawan; Engelsen, Christian J

    2013-08-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive characterization of mineral waste such as fly ash, bottom ash, slag and construction demolition (C&D) collected from four different thermal power plants, three steel plants and three C&D waste generation sites in India. To determine utilisation potential and environmental concerns, as received fly ash, bottom ash, slag and C&D waste were analysed for physico-chemical, mineralogical and morphological properties. The physico-chemical properties analysed include pH, moisture content, acid insoluble residue, loss on ignition(LOI), carbon content, fineness, chloride content, sulphate content, reactive silica content, XRF and heavy metal analysis. Morphological and mineralogical characteristics were investigated using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray. Particle size distribution was obtained using particle size analyser. The material analysed has different compositions and were selected with a view to determine their suitability for different applications in cement and concrete industry and for further research studies. PMID:23255170

  3. Repeated immobilization stress alters rat hippocampal and prefrontal cortical morphology in parallel with endogenous agmatine and arginine decarboxylase levels

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Meng-Yang; Wang, Wei-Ping; Huang, Jingjing; Feng, Yang-Zheng; Regunathan, Soundar; Bissette, Garth

    2008-01-01

    Agmatine, an endogenous amine derived from decarboxylation of L-arginine catalyzed by arginine decarboxylase, has been proposed as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the brain. In the present study we examined whether agmatine has neuroprotective effects against repeated immobilization-induced morphological changes in brain tissues and possible effects of immobilization stress on endogenous agmatine levels and arginine decarboxylase expression in rat brains. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to two hour immobilization stress daily for seven days. This paradigm significantly increased plasma corticosterone levels, and the glutamate efflux in the hippocampus as measured by in vivo microdialysis. Immunohistochemical staining with ?-tubulin III showed that repeated immobilization caused marked morphological alterations in the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex that were prevented by simultaneous treatment with agmatine (50 mg/kg/day, i.p.). Likewise, endogenous agmatine levels measured by high performance liquid chromatography in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum and hypothalamus were significantly increased by immobilization, as compared to controls. The increased endogenous agmatine levels, ranging from 92% to 265% of controls, were accompanied by a significant increase of arginine decarboxylase protein levels in the same regions. These results demonstrate that administration of exogenous agmatine protects the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex against neuronal insults caused by repeated immobilization. The parallel increase in endogenous brain agmatine and arginine decarboxylase protein levels triggered by repeated immobilization indicates that the endogenous agmatine system may play an important role in adaptation to stress as a potential neuronal self-protection mechanism. PMID:18832001

  4. Morphological Evidence that Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone Neurons Participate in the Suppression by Estradiol of Pituitary Luteinizing Hormone Secretion in Ovariectomized Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan C. King; Edythe L. P. Anthony; David A. Damassa; Karen E. Elkind-Hirsch

    1987-01-01

    Morphological characteristics of LHRH neurons identified by immunocytochemistry were studied using light and electron microscopy in female rats in which estradiol was replaced at the time of ovariectomy (‘pseudo-intact’ rats) or 3 weeks after ovariectomy (long-term ovariectomized, estradiol-treated). While estradiol levels were equivalent in these two groups, the rise in LH after ovariectomy was prevented by the immediate administration in

  5. Electroacupuncture improves microcirculation and neuronal morphology in the spinal cord of a rat model of intervertebral disc extrusion.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Dai-Xun; Lu, Zhi-Song; Li, Ge-Bin; Sun, Sheng-Yong; Mu, Xiang; Lee, Peter; Chen, Wu

    2015-02-01

    Most studies on spinal cord neuronal injury have focused on spinal cord tissue histology and the expression of nerve cell damage and repair-related genes. The importance of the microcirculation is often ignored in spinal cord injury and repair research. Therefore, in this study, we established a rat model of intervertebral disc extrusion by inserting a silica gel pad into the left ventral surface of T13. Electroacupuncture was used to stimulate the bilateral Zusanli point (ST36) and Neiting point (ST44) for 14 days. Compared with control animals, blood flow in the first lumbar vertebra (L1) was noticeably increased in rats given electroacupuncture. Microvessel density in the T13 segment of the spinal cord was increased significantly as well. The number of normal neurons was higher in the ventral horn of the spinal cord. In addition, vacuolation in the white matter was lessened. No obvious glial cell proliferation was visible. Furthermore, hindlimb motor function was improved significantly. Collectively, our results suggest that electroacupuncture can improve neuronal morphology and microcirculation, and promote the recovery of neurological functions in a rat model of intervertebral disc extrusion. PMID:25883622

  6. Repeated fluvoxamine treatment recovers juvenile stress-induced morphological changes and depressive-like behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Lyttle, Kerise; Ohmura, Yu; Konno, Kohtarou; Yoshida, Takayuki; Izumi, Takeshi; Watanabe, Masahiko; Yoshioka, Mitsuhiro

    2015-08-01

    Human studies have suggested that early life stress such as child abuse could enhance susceptibility to depressive disorders. Moreover, the abnormalities of the prefrontal cortex have been associated with depression. Although clinical studies have implied the negative effects of early life stress on brain development, the causality and the detailed morphogenetic changes has not been clearly elucidated. In the present study, we determined the effect of juvenile stress exposure on the presentation of depressive-like behavior and the neural mechanisms involved using a rodent model. Rat pups were exposed to footshock stress during postnatal days 21-25 followed by repeated oral administration of fluvoxamine (0 or 10mg/kg/d×14 days), which is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. At the postadolescent stage forced swim test assessment of depressive-like behavior and Golgi-Cox staining of medial prefrontal cortex pyramidal neurons followed by morphological analyses were carried out. Post-adolescent behavioral and morphological studies identified the presentation of increased depressive-like behaviors and reduced spine densities and dendritic lengths of layer II/III pyramidal neuron in the infralimbic cortex, but not in the prelimbic cortex of rats exposed to juvenile stress. Repeated fluvoxamine treatment recovered the increased depressive-like behavior and reduced spine densities/dendritic lengths observed in rats exposed to footshock stress. Cortical thicknesses in the infralimbic cortex and prelimbic cortex were also reduced by juvenile stress, but these reductions were not recovered by fluvoxamine treatment. The results demonstrate cortical sensitivities to stress exposures during the juvenile stage which mediate behavioral impairments, and provide a clue to find therapeutics for early life stress-induced emotional dysfunctions. PMID:25960352

  7. Protective Effects of Co-Administration of Gallic Acid and Cyclosporine on Rat Myocardial Morphology Against Ischemia/Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Dianat, Mahin; Sadeghi, Najmeh; Badavi, Mohammad; Panahi, Marziyeh; Taheri Moghadam, Mahin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Irreversible myocardial ischemic injury begins 20 minutes after the onset of coronary occlusion. Then the infarcted cells show signs of necrosis and death. Objectives: This study investigated the effects of co-administration of Gallic acid (antioxidant) with cyclosporine (mitochondrial permeability transition pore [mPTP] inhibitor) on myocardial morphology of rats during ischemia and reperfusion. Materials and Methods: Fifty-four male Wistar rats (250-300 g), were randomly divided into 9 groups: sham, control (Ca received saline, 1 mL/kg, Cb: perfused with cyclosporine CsA 0.2 µM), 3 groups pretreated with Gallic acid in saline (G1a:7.5, G2a:15, and G3a: 30 mg/kg/day, and gavage daily for 10 days, n = 6), and the other three groups were pretreated with Gallic acid then perfused using CsA, (G1b:7.5, G2b:15, and G3b: 30 mg/kg/day) at the first 13 minutes of reperfusion period. After 10 days pretreatment, the rat hearts were isolated and transferred to Langendorff apparatus and exposed to 30 minutes ischemia following 60 minutes reperfusion. Afterward, the hearts were preserved in 10% formalin for histological studies at the end of the experiment. Finally, hematoxylin and eosin and Masson’s trichrome staining techniques were used for evaluating the changes in myocardial architecture, degradation of myofibers, and collagen integrity. The differences were analyzed using Pearson test. Results: Cell degenerative changes, pyknotic nuclei, contraction bands, edema, and loosening of collagen in between muscle fibers were observed during ischemia-reperfusion. Myocardial architecture and cellular morphology were recovered in co-administration groups, especially in (Gallic acid 15 mg/kg + CsA, P < 0.001). Conclusions: The results suggest the important role of the antioxidant system potentiation in the prevention of myocardial damage. PMID:25625048

  8. Electrophysiological and morphological properties of neurons in the prepositus hypoglossi nucleus that express both ChAT and VGAT in a double-transgenic rat model.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yasuhiko; Zhang, Yue; Yanagawa, Yuchio

    2015-04-01

    Although it has been proposed that neurons that contain both acetylcholine (ACh) and ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are present in the prepositus hypoglossi nucleus (PHN), these neurons have not been characterized because of the difficulty in identifying them. In the present study, PHN neurons that express both choline acetyltransferase and the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) were identified using double-transgenic rats, in which the cholinergic and inhibitory neurons express the fluorescent proteins tdTomato and Venus, respectively. To characterize the neurons that express both tdTomato and Venus (D+ neurons), the afterhyperpolarization (AHP) profiles and firing patterns of these neurons were investigated via whole-cell recordings of brainstem slice preparations. Regarding the three AHP profiles and four firing patterns that the D+ neurons exhibited, an AHP with an afterdepolarization and a firing pattern that exhibited a delay in the generation of the first spike were the preferential properties of these neurons. In the three morphological types classified, the multipolar type that exhibited radiating dendrites was predominant among the D+ neurons. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that the VGAT-immunopositive axonal boutons that expressed tdTomato were primarily located in the dorsal cap of inferior olive (IO) and the PHN. Although the PHN receives cholinergic inputs from the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, D+ neurons were absent from these brain areas. Together, these results suggest that PHN neurons that co-express ACh and GABA exhibit specific electrophysiological and morphological properties, and innervate the dorsal cap of the IO and the PHN. PMID:25808645

  9. Adrenalin activation of beta 2-adrenoceptors stimulates morphological changes in astrocytes (pituicytes) cultured from adult rat neurohypophyses.

    PubMed

    Hatton, G I; Luckman, S M; Bicknell, R J

    1991-05-01

    Neurohypophysial astrocytes, the pituicytes, are known to undergo morphological changes in vivo in response to stimuli that increase the demand for hormone secretion. Similar changes have been induced by beta-adrenergic stimulation both in the isolated, but otherwise intact, neural lobe and in pituicytes cultured from adult rats. Since the predominant beta-receptor subtype in the neural lobe is beta 2, we investigated the possibility that beta 2-receptor activation is mainly responsible for the observed pituicyte responses. In one experiment, cultured pituicytes were induced by noradrenalin to change from flattened amorphous to stellate morphology. Addition of the beta 2-antagonist IPS 339, but not the beta 1-antagonist practolol, significantly reduced (by 30-60%) the number of cells transformed by noradrenalin. In a second experiment, adrenalin, by definition a more potent beta 2-agonist, transformed significantly more pituicytes into stellate shapes than did noradrenalin at the same concentrations (100% vs. 60% increase, respectively). These results support the idea that beta 2-adrenergic receptors are involved in neurohypophysial plasticity. Also, since the neural lobe is outside of the bloodbrain barrier, these findings suggest that adrenal catecholamines participate in altering pituicyte morphology. PMID:1682016

  10. Differential expression of dystrophin isoforms and utrophin during dibutyryl-cAMP-induced morphological differentiation of rat brain astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Michihiro; Ozawa, Eijiro

    1998-01-01

    We have identified isoforms of dystrophin and utrophin, a dystrophin homologue, expressed in astrocytes and examined their expression patterns during dibutyryl-cAMP (dBcAMP)-induced morphological differentiation of astrocytes. Immunoblot and immunocytochemical analyses showed that full-length-type dystrophin (427 kDa), utrophin (395 kDa), and Dp71 (75 kDa), a small-type dystrophin isoform, were coexpressed in cultured nondifferentiated rat brain astrocytes and were found to be located in the cell membrane. During morphological differentiation of the astrocytes induced by 1 mM dBcAMP, the amount of Dp71 markedly increased, whereas that of dystrophin and utrophin decreased. Northern blot analyses revealed that dBcAMP regulates the mRNA levels of Dp71 and dystrophin but not that of utrophin. dBcAMP slightly increased the amount of the ?-dystroglycan responsible for anchoring dystrophin isoforms and utrophin to the cell membrane. Immunocytochemical analyses showed that most utrophin was observed in the cytoplasmic area during astrocyte differentiation, whereas Dp71 was found along the cell membrane of the differentiated astrocytes. These findings suggest that most of the dystrophin/utrophin-dystroglycan complex on cell membrane in cultured astrocytes was replaced by the Dp71-dystroglycan complex during morphological differentiation. The cell biological roles of Dp71 are discussed. PMID:9600931

  11. Radiosensitivity study and radiation effects on morphology characterization of grey oyster mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Rosnani Abdul; Daud, Fauzi; Senafi, Sahidan; Awang, Mat Rasol; Mohamad, Azhar; Mutaat, Hassan Hamdani; Maskom, Mohd Meswan

    2014-09-01

    Radiosensitive dosage and morphology characterization of irradiated grey oyster mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju by gamma rays was investigated due to effects of irradiation. In order to establish the effect, mycelium of P. sajor-caju was irradiated by gamma rays at dose 0.1 to 8.0 kGy with dose rate 0.227 Gy sec-1. The irradiation of mycelia was carried out at the radiation facility in Malaysian Nuclear Agency. The radiosensitivity study was performed by evaluating the percentage of survival irradiated mycelia. The lethal dose of the mycelium P. sajor-caju was determined at 4.0 kGy and LD50 to be equal at 2.2 kGy. The radiation effects on morphology were evaluated based on growth rate of irradiated mycelia, mycelia types, colonization period on substrate, morphology of fruit bodies and yields. The results shown growth rate of irradiated mycelium was slightly lower than the control and decreased as the dose increased. Irradiation was found can induced the primordia formation on PDA and the BE of irradiated seed is higher than to control. The irradiation is proven to be useful for generating new varieties of mushroom with commercial value to the industry.

  12. Morphological characterization of soot aerosol particles during LACIS Experiment in November (LExNo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiselev, A.; Wennrich, C.; Stratmann, F.; Wex, H.; Henning, S.; Mentel, T. F.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Schneider, J.; Walter, S.; Lieberwirth, I.

    2010-06-01

    Combined mobility and aerodynamic measurements were used to characterize the morphology of soot particles in an experimental campaign on the hygroscopic growth and activation of an artificial biomass burning aerosol. A custom-made, single-stage low-pressure impactor and two aerosol mass spectrometers (AMS) operating in the free molecular regime were used to measure the vacuum aerodynamic diameter of mobility-selected artificial soot particles that were produced in a spark discharge generator and then modified by condensation of ammonium hydrogen sulfate or levoglucosan as a coating to change their hydroscopic activity. Transmission electron microscope images revealed a relationship between the electrical mobility diameter and the diameter of the enveloping sphere, thus enabling evaluation of the effective density of soot agglomerates. A fractal description of the morphology of the soot aggregates allowed for evaluation of the average mass of the hygroscopic material per particle. The average mass of the hygroscopic material per particle was also measured directly with the two AMS instruments, and the agreement between the two methods was found satisfactory. This tandem approach allows detection of small changes in the particle effective density and morphology caused by condensation of organic material.

  13. Radiosensitivity study and radiation effects on morphology characterization of grey oyster mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju

    SciTech Connect

    Rashid, Rosnani Abdul; Awang, Mat Rasol; Mohamad, Azhar; Mutaat, Hassan Hamdani; Maskom, Mohd Meswan [Bioprocess Group, Agrotechnology and Biosciences Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi 43600, Selangor (Malaysia); Daud, Fauzi; Senafi, Sahidan [School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Radiosensitive dosage and morphology characterization of irradiated grey oyster mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju by gamma rays was investigated due to effects of irradiation. In order to establish the effect, mycelium of P. sajor-caju was irradiated by gamma rays at dose 0.1 to 8.0 kGy with dose rate 0.227 Gy sec{sup ?1}. The irradiation of mycelia was carried out at the radiation facility in Malaysian Nuclear Agency. The radiosensitivity study was performed by evaluating the percentage of survival irradiated mycelia. The lethal dose of the mycelium P. sajor-caju was determined at 4.0 kGy and LD{sub 50} to be equal at 2.2 kGy. The radiation effects on morphology were evaluated based on growth rate of irradiated mycelia, mycelia types, colonization period on substrate, morphology of fruit bodies and yields. The results shown growth rate of irradiated mycelium was slightly lower than the control and decreased as the dose increased. Irradiation was found can induced the primordia formation on PDA and the BE of irradiated seed is higher than to control. The irradiation is proven to be useful for generating new varieties of mushroom with commercial value to the industry.

  14. Reversible electropermeabilisation of human and rat blood platelets: evaluation of morphological and functional integrity 'in vitro' and 'in vivo'.

    PubMed

    Hughes, K; Crawford, N

    1989-06-01

    A high-voltage discharge procedure has been developed for permeabilising the plasma membranes of both human and rat blood platelets. The cells can be resealed by incubation at 37 degrees C, show less than 4% loss of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) implying minimal cell lysis and also have well maintained morphological and functional integrity. The prototype apparatus used at field strengths between 6 and 8 kV/cm produces membrane pores which allow free diffusion of low molecular weight substances such as adenine nucleotides, inositol phosphate and fluorescent dyes. Two properties, namely Ca2+-induced secretion of granule stored 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-induced release of intracellularly sequestered 45Ca, which are both well expressed immediately after permeabilisation, are essentially abolished after resealing. The efficiency of permeabilisation and resealing can be simply monitored by shifts in 'apparent platelet volume' using a resistive particle counter (Coulter). Permeabilised platelets show a shift in modal volumes from a control range 4-7 fl to 10-15 fl. Resealing restores these modal volumes to the original control range. Encapsulation of the fluorochrome, Lucifer yellow (Mr 550), during permeabilisation revealed that after resealing greater than 85% of rat platelets, and close to 100% human platelets, contained the encapsulated dye. The initial rates and % aggregation responses of both human and rat platelets to collagen, thrombin and the thromboxane A2-mimetic U46619 remained essentially normal after permeabilisation and resealing further illustrating the maintenance of functional competence following treatment. Resealed rat platelets reinfused into the circulation after labelling with [111In]indium oxine gave survival curves similar to those of control platelets. Therefore, this reversible permeabilisation procedure may allow the use of autologous or heterologous platelets as carrier vehicles for the delivery of drugs and other agents 'in vivo'. PMID:2730905

  15. Cloning and Pharmacological Characterization of a Rat kappa Opioid Receptor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fan Meng; Guo-Xi Xie; Robert C. Thompson; Alfred Mansour; Avram Goldstein; Stanley J. Watson; Huda Akil

    1993-01-01

    A full-length cDNA was isolated from a rat striatal library by using low-stringency screening with two PCR fragments, one spanning transmembrane domains 3-6 of the mouse delta opioid receptor and the other unidentified but homologous to the mouse delta receptor from rat brain. The novel cDNA had a long open reading frame encoding a protein of 380 residues with 59%

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF RESPIRATORY DISEASE IN RATS FOLLOWING NEONATAL INOCULATION WITH A RAT-ADAPTED INFLUENZA VIRUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Neonatal F344 rats were infected with a rat-adapted influenza virus (RAIV) as a potential model to study the combined effects of early life viral respiratory infection with air pollutant dosimetry and toxic responses, as well as on the development of respiratory disease and incre...

  17. Biochemical and morphological studies on the percutaneous uptake of (14C) ethylenediamine in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, R.S.; Anuszkiewicz, C.M.; Chu, S.C.; Garman, R.H.; McKelvey, J.A.; Tallant, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    Male Wistar rats were exposed to aqueous (/sup 14/C)ethylenediamine (EDA) solutions (10, 25, or 50%) percutaneously over a 7 x 7 cm area on the back with occlusion for 24 h. For each rat dosed, three types of studies were conducted: (1) plasma kinetics, (2) material balance, and (3) histological evaluation, including autoradiography of the skin sample from the dosing area. Adequate kinetic measurements were obtained only from animals treated with 25 and 50% EDA, but not from the 10% treatment group, due to analytical limitations. The uptake of (/sup 14/C)EDA percutaneously by the rat was relatively slow in comparison with uptake following peroral or endotracheal administration. The absorption of EDA by the animals was estimated to be greater than 61, 55, and 12%, respectively, for the 50, 25, and 10% treatment groups. A large portion (11-32%) of the dose was left on/in the dosing area. Urinary excretion was the predominant route for the disposition of EDA. The recovery of the administered dose was low (70-83%), possibly due to volatilization of EDA from the skin during dosing and holding. Histologic examination of skin sections (dosing areas) revealed a normal, intact epidermis in rats dosed with 10% EDA, but full-thickness epidermal necrosis in rats dosed with 25% or 50% EDA solutions. The damage of the epidermis apparently enhanced the penetration of EDA. Autoradiographic preparations revealed a concentration of the (/sup 14/C)EDA radiolabel over the keratin layer and hair shafts.

  18. Marginal copper intakes and rat aorta endothelium morphology by scanning electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, K.G.D.; Allen, C.B. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins (USA))

    1989-02-15

    Marginal copper deficiency influences rat aorta structure and arterial superoxide dismutase. Weanling female Sprague Dawley rats were fed a 20% casein, 66% sucrose, 5% corn oil AIN Based diet containing either marginal (1.8 ppm) copper (CuM) or adequate (10.0 ppm) copper (CuA) with adequate but not excessive zinc. Females were bred at 65 days and weaned male pups consumed the diet of their respective dams, both with and without added 0.7% dietary cholesterol plus 0.35% dietary cholic acid (C+CA), for 88 days post weaning. CuM fed male offspring were without clinical signs of copper deprivation despite changes in tissue copper indices. C+CA feeding significantly raised plasma cholesterol in both CuA and CuM rats. Anesthetized rats were perfused with 2.5% glutaraldehyde at physiological pressure. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of aortic endothelium showed endothelial changes in CuM rats. Degree of endothelial changes was in order CuM + C+CA > CuM, CuA, CuA+C+CA. Major changes observed by SEM were endothelial bulging into lumen and adherence of leukocytes and platelets. CuM diets, particularly in hypercholesterolemia, may cause endothelial damage.

  19. Effects of ulinastatin administered at different time points on the pathological morphologies of the lung tissues of rats with hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    QIN, ZAI-SHENG; TIAN, PEI; WU, XIA; YU, HONG-MEI; GUO, NA

    2014-01-01

    Hyperthermia not only directly induces cell injury of body tissues, but also causes the body to release large amounts of inflammatory mediators and cells with extensive biological activities to induce a systemic inflammatory response and immune dysfunction. Thus, hyperthermia causes systemic inflammatory response syndrome, aggravating injuries to various organs. This study aimed to observe the effects of ulinastatin (UTI) administered at different time points on the cellular morphologies of the lung tissues of rats with systemic hyperthermia. A total of 40 male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: The normal control group (C group), the hyperthermia group without medication (H group), the hyperthermia and UTI pre-treatment group (HU group), the group treated with UTI at 1 h after hyperthermia (HU1 group), and the group treated with UTI at 2 h after hyperthermia (HU2 group). The systemic hyperthermia rat model was established in a heating chamber with a biological oxygen supply. For the HU, HU1 and HU2 groups, UTI (5×104 U/kg) was administered at different time points. For the C and H groups, an equivalent volume of normal saline was administered. During heating, the respiratory frequency and rectal temperature were measured and recorded once every 30 min. After 2.5 h of heating, the wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio of the lung tissues of the rats was measured. Additionally, the cellular morphologies of the lung tissues were observed under light and electron microscopes. The respiratory frequencies and lung tissue W/D ratios of the rats in the various hyperthermia groups were significantly higher than those of the rats in the C group (all P<0.05). The respiratory frequencies and lung tissue W/D values of the HU and HU1 groups were significantly lower than those of the H group (all P<0.05). Under the light microscope, the bronchial surrounding tissues of the HU and HU1 groups were loose, and the majority of the pulmonary alveolar structures were normal; the H and HU2 groups presented a number of changes, including pulmonary interstitial hyperemia, alveolar epithelial swelling and emphysema. Under the electron microscope, it was observed in the type II epithelial cells of the pulmonary alveoli of the H group that the mitochondria were swollen, the cell ridges were shortened, the microvilli were thin and increased, and the alveolar wall was thickened. Also, an increased number of infiltrating neutrophils were visible. In addition, the type II epithelial cells of the HU2 group also presented these changes to different extents and the changes in the HU and HU1 groups were the mildest. These results indicate that the early application of UTI relieves edema and the extent of cell injury of the lung tissue in rats with systemic hyperthermia. PMID:24926355

  20. Effects of ulinastatin administered at different time points on the pathological morphologies of the lung tissues of rats with hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zai-Sheng; Tian, Pei; Wu, Xia; Yu, Hong-Mei; Guo, Na

    2014-06-01

    Hyperthermia not only directly induces cell injury of body tissues, but also causes the body to release large amounts of inflammatory mediators and cells with extensive biological activities to induce a systemic inflammatory response and immune dysfunction. Thus, hyperthermia causes systemic inflammatory response syndrome, aggravating injuries to various organs. This study aimed to observe the effects of ulinastatin (UTI) administered at different time points on the cellular morphologies of the lung tissues of rats with systemic hyperthermia. A total of 40 male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: The normal control group (C group), the hyperthermia group without medication (H group), the hyperthermia and UTI pre-treatment group (HU group), the group treated with UTI at 1 h after hyperthermia (HU1 group), and the group treated with UTI at 2 h after hyperthermia (HU2 group). The systemic hyperthermia rat model was established in a heating chamber with a biological oxygen supply. For the HU, HU1 and HU2 groups, UTI (5×10(4) U/kg) was administered at different time points. For the C and H groups, an equivalent volume of normal saline was administered. During heating, the respiratory frequency and rectal temperature were measured and recorded once every 30 min. After 2.5 h of heating, the wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio of the lung tissues of the rats was measured. Additionally, the cellular morphologies of the lung tissues were observed under light and electron microscopes. The respiratory frequencies and lung tissue W/D ratios of the rats in the various hyperthermia groups were significantly higher than those of the rats in the C group (all P<0.05). The respiratory frequencies and lung tissue W/D values of the HU and HU1 groups were significantly lower than those of the H group (all P<0.05). Under the light microscope, the bronchial surrounding tissues of the HU and HU1 groups were loose, and the majority of the pulmonary alveolar structures were normal; the H and HU2 groups presented a number of changes, including pulmonary interstitial hyperemia, alveolar epithelial swelling and emphysema. Under the electron microscope, it was observed in the type II epithelial cells of the pulmonary alveoli of the H group that the mitochondria were swollen, the cell ridges were shortened, the microvilli were thin and increased, and the alveolar wall was thickened. Also, an increased number of infiltrating neutrophils were visible. In addition, the type II epithelial cells of the HU2 group also presented these changes to different extents and the changes in the HU and HU1 groups were the mildest. These results indicate that the early application of UTI relieves edema and the extent of cell injury of the lung tissue in rats with systemic hyperthermia. PMID:24926355

  1. Characterization of inducible nature of MRP3 in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, K; Suzuki, H; Hirohashi, T; Ishikawa, T; Meier, P J; Hirose, K; Akizawa, T; Yoshioka, M; Sugiyama, Y

    2000-03-01

    We found previously that expression of multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) 3 is induced in a mutant rat strain (Eisai hyperbilirubinemic rats) whose canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cMOAT/MRP2) function is hereditarily defective and in normal Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats after ligation of the common bile duct. In the present study, the inducible nature of MRP3 was examined, using Northern and Western blot analyses, in comparison with that of other secondary active [Na(+)-taurocholic acid cotransporting polypeptide (Ntcp), organic anion transporting polypeptide 1 (oatp1), and organic cation transporter (OCT1)] and primary active [P-glycoprotein (P-gp), cMOAT/MRP2, and MRP6] transporters. alpha-Naphthylisothiocyanate treatment and common bile duct ligation induced expression of P-gp and MRP3, whereas expression of Ntcp, oatp1, and OCT1 was reduced by the same treatment. Although expression of MRP3 was also induced by administration of phenobarbital, that of cMOAT/MRP2, MRP1, and MRP6 was not affected by any of these treatments. Moreover, the mRNA level of MRP3, but not that of P-gp, was increased in SD rats after administration of bilirubin and in Gunn rats whose hepatic bilirubin concentration is elevated because of a defect in the expression of UDP-glucuronosyl transferase. However, the MRP3 protein level was not affected by bilirubin administration. Although the increased MRP3 mRNA level was associated with the increased concentration of bilirubin and/or its glucuronides in mutant rats and in SD rats that had undergone common bile duct ligation or alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate treatment, we must assume that factor(s) other than these physiological substances are also involved in the increased protein level of MRP3. PMID:10712264

  2. Phenotypic Characterization of LEA Rat: A New Rat Model of Nonobese Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Okamura, Tadashi; Pei, Xiang Yuan; Miyoshi, Ichiro; Shimizu, Yukiko; Takanashi-Yanobu, Rieko; Mototani, Yasumasa; Kanai, Takao; Satoh, Jo; Kimura, Noriko; Kasai, Noriyuki

    2013-01-01

    Animal models have provided important information for the genetics and pathophysiology of diabetes. Here we have established a novel, nonobese rat strain with spontaneous diabetes, Long-Evans Agouti (LEA) rat derived from Long-Evans (LE) strain. The incidence of diabetes in the males was 10% at 6?months of age and 86% at 14?months, while none of the females developed diabetes. The blood glucose level in LEA male rats was between 200 and 300?mg/dl at 120?min according to OGTT. The glucose intolerance in correspondence with the impairment of insulin secretion was observed in male rats, which was the main cause of diabetes in LEA rats. Histological examination revealed that the reduction of ?-cell mass was caused by progressive fibrosis in pancreatic islets in age-dependent manner. The intracytoplasmic hyaline droplet accumulation and the disappearance of tubular epithelial cell layer associated with thickening of basement membrane were evident in renal proximal tubules. The body mass index and glycaemic response to exogenous insulin were comparable to those of control rats. The unique characteristics of LEA rat are a great advantage not only to analyze the progression of diabetes, but also to disclose the genes involved in type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:23691528

  3. MORPHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF PROLONGED EXPOSURE TO OZONE AND SULFURIC ACID AEROSOL ON THE RAT LUNG

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study was to determine the pulmonary effects of a combination of ozone (0.5 ppm) and sulfuric acid aerosol (1 mg/cu. m.) and to assess the possibility of interactive effects. Groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were continously exposed to the pollutants, either indi...

  4. Morphological evidence for callosally projecting nonpyramidal neurons in rat visual cortex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Candice M. Hughes; Alan Peters

    1990-01-01

    This investigation shows that some of the callosally projecting neurons in rat visual cortex are nonpyramidal cells. Callosally projecting neurons were labeled by injections of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) into the area 17\\/18 a border zone of the contralateral hemisphere. The retrogradely transported HRP was visualized with diaminobenzidine or with tetramethylbenzidine. In some of the labeled neurons the reaction product was

  5. Cosmos 1887: morphology, histochemistry, and vasculature of the growing rat tibia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, S. B.; Morey-Holton, E. R.; Durnova, G. N.; Kaplansky, A. S.

    1990-01-01

    Light microscopy, electron microscopy, and enzyme histochemistry were used to study the effects of spaceflight on metaphyseal and cortical bone of the rat tibia. Cortical cross-sectional area and perimeter were not altered by a 12.5-day spaceflight in 3-month-old male rats. The endosteal osteoblast population and the vasculature near the periosteal surface in flight rats compared with ground controls showed more pronounced changes in cortical bone than in metaphyseal bone. The osteoblasts demonstrated greater numbers of transitional Golgi vesicles, possibly caused by a decreased cellular metabolic energy source, but no difference in the large Golgi saccules or the cell membrane-associated alkaline phosphatase activity. The periosteal vasculature in the diaphysis of flight rats often showed lipid accumulations within the lumen of the vessels, occasional degeneration of the vascular wall, and degeneration of osteocytes adjacent to vessels containing intraluminal deposits. These changes were not found in the metaphyseal region of flight animals. The focal vascular changes may be due to ischemia of bone or a developing fragility of the vessel walls as a result of spaceflight.

  6. Morphological and morphometric characterization of direct transdifferentiation of support cells into hair cells in ototoxin-exposed neonatal utricular explants.

    PubMed

    Werner, Mimmi; Van De Water, Thomas R; Hammarsten, Peter; Arnoldsson, Göran; Berggren, Diana

    2015-03-01

    We have studied aminoglycoside-induced vestibular hair-cell renewal using long-term culture of utricular macula explants from 4-day-old rats. Explanted utricles were exposed to 1 mM of gentamicin for 48 h, during 2nd and 3rd days in vitro (DIV), and then recovering in unsupplemented medium. Utricles were harvested at specified time points from the 2nd through the 28th DIV. The cellular events that occurred within hair cell epithelia during the culture period were documented from serial sectioned specimens. Vestibular hair cells (HCs) and supporting cells (SCs) were systematically counted using light microscopy (LM) with the assistance of morphometric software. Ultrastructural observations were made from selected specimens with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). After 7 DIV, i.e. four days after gentamicin exposure, the density of HCs was 11% of the number of HCs observed in non-gentamicin-exposed control explants. At 28 DIV the HC density was 61% of the number of HCs observed in the control group explant specimens. Simultaneously with this increase in HCs there was a corresponding decline in the number of SCs within the epithelium. The proportion of HCs in relation to SCs increased significantly in the gentamicin-exposed explant group during the 5th to the 28th DIV period of culture. There were no significant differences in the volume estimations of the gentamicin-exposed and the control group explants during the observed period of culture. Morphological observations showed that gentamicin exposure induced extensive loss of HCs within the epithelial layer, which retained their intact apical and basal linings. At 7 to 14 DIV (i.e. 3-11 days after gentamicin exposure) a pseudostratified epithelium with multiple layers of disorganized cells was observed. At 21 DIV new HCs were observed that also possessed features resembling SCs. After 28 DIV a new luminal layer of HCs with several layers of SCs located more basally characterized the gentamicin-exposed epithelium. No mitoses were observed within the epithelial layer of any explants. Our conclusion is that direct transdifferentiation of SCs into HCs was the only process contributing to the renewal of HCs after gentamicin exposure in these explants of vestibular inner ear epithelia obtained from the labyrinths of 4-day-old rats. PMID:25576788

  7. Molecular and morphological characterization of local apple cultivars in Southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Romero, L F; Suárez, M P; Dapena, E; Rallo, P

    2015-01-01

    The number of local and traditional fruit cultivars in Andalusia (Southern Spain) has decreased dramatically since the 1970s when new commercial cultivars from breeding programs were introduced, replacing old varieties, and thus decreasing genetic diversity. The present study was included in a genetic resources project with the objective of identifying and preserving traditional fruit tree cultivars in Southern Spain. The goal of this study was to begin the characterization of 29 apple accessions (Malus x domestica Borkh) belonging to 13 traditional cultivar denominations. For molecular characterization studies, 12 simple sequence repeat markers previously developed for apple species were used. Morphological characterization was performed using 33 fruit traits. A total of 115 alleles were amplified for the 12 loci, ranging from 7 (CH01h01, CH01h10, and GD 12) to 13 alleles per locus (CH02c11). Forty-one alleles were unique to specific genotypes. The locus with the highest number of detected unique alleles was CH01f03b with 6 alleles. Expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.74 for CH01h10 to 0.88 for CH02c11, with an average of 0.82. Observed heterozygosity varied from 0.45 for CH01h01 to 1.0 for CH02d08, with an average of 0.86. Three homonyms were found for accessions belonging to varieties 'Maguillo', 'Pero Minguela', and 'Castellana'. The most discriminant morphological characters studied revealed no homonyms or synonyms among cultivar denominations, although they are useful for describing varietal characteristics that have not been previously defined. PMID:25730088

  8. Characterization and Mapping of the Gene Conferring Resistance to Rift Valley Fever Virus Hepatic Disease in WF.LEW Rats 

    E-print Network

    Callicott, Ralph J.

    2010-01-14

    polymorphisms were used to characterize the genomes of various rat substrains in an attempt to map the gene. Breeding and viral challenge experiments were used to further characterize the strains and assign a location to the resistance gene. The LEW/SsNHsd rats...

  9. Chemical and morphological characterization of sugarcane bagasse submitted to a delignification process for enhanced enzymatic digestibility

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In recent years, biorefining of lignocellulosic biomass to produce multi-products such as ethanol and other biomaterials has become a dynamic research area. Pretreatment technologies that fractionate sugarcane bagasse are essential for the successful use of this feedstock in ethanol production. In this paper, we investigate modifications in the morphology and chemical composition of sugarcane bagasse submitted to a two-step treatment, using diluted acid followed by a delignification process with increasing sodium hydroxide concentrations. Detailed chemical and morphological characterization of the samples after each pretreatment condition, studied by high performance liquid chromatography, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, is reported, together with sample crystallinity and enzymatic digestibility. Results Chemical composition analysis performed on samples obtained after different pretreatment conditions showed that up to 96% and 85% of hemicellulose and lignin fractions, respectively, were removed by this two-step method when sodium hydroxide concentrations of 1% (m/v) or higher were used. The efficient lignin removal resulted in an enhanced hydrolysis yield reaching values around 100%. Considering the cellulose loss due to the pretreatment (maximum of 30%, depending on the process), the total cellulose conversion increases significantly from 22.0% (value for the untreated bagasse) to 72.4%. The delignification process, with consequent increase in the cellulose to lignin ratio, is also clearly observed by nuclear magnetic resonance and diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy experiments. We also demonstrated that the morphological changes contributing to this remarkable improvement occur as a consequence of lignin removal from the sample. Bagasse unstructuring is favored by the loss of cohesion between neighboring cell walls, as well as by changes in the inner cell wall structure, such as damaging, hole formation and loss of mechanical resistance, facilitating liquid and enzyme access to crystalline cellulose. Conclusions The results presented herewith show the efficiency of the proposed method for improving the enzymatic digestibility of sugarcane bagasse and provide understanding of the pretreatment action mechanism. Combining the different techniques applied in this work warranted thorough information about the undergoing morphological and chemical changes and was an efficient approach to understand the morphological effects resulting from sample delignification and its influence on the enhanced hydrolysis results. PMID:22122978

  10. Optimization and pharmacological characterization of a refined cisplatin-induced rat model of peripheral neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Han, Felicity Yaqin; Wyse, Bruce D; Smith, Maree T

    2014-12-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is the major dose-limiting side-effect of many front-line anticancer drugs. This study was designed to establish and pharmacologically characterize a refined rat model of cisplatin-induced CIPN. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received four (n=18) or five (n=18) single intraperitoneal bolus doses of cisplatin at 3?mg/kg, or saline (control group), once-weekly. Body weight and general health were assessed over a 49-day study period. von Frey filaments and the Hargreaves test were used to define the time course for the development of mechanical allodynia and thermal hypoalgesia in the hindpaws and for efficacy assessment of analgesic/adjuvant agents. The general health of rats administered four cisplatin doses was superior to that of rats administered five doses. Mechanical allodynia was fully developed (paw withdrawal thresholds?6?g) in the bilateral hindpaws from day 32 to 49 for both cisplatin dosing regimens. They also showed significant thermal hypoalgesia in the bilateral hindpaws. In cisplatin-treated rats with paw withdrawal thresholds of up to 6?g, single bolus doses of gabapentin and morphine produced dose-dependent analgesia, whereas meloxicam and amitriptyline lacked efficacy. We have established and pharmacologically characterized a refined rat model of CIPN that is suitable for efficacy profiling of compounds from analgesic discovery programmes. PMID:25325291

  11. Rapid Morphological Brain Abnormalities during Acute Methamphetamine Intoxication in the Rat. An Experimental study using Light and Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Hari S.; Kiyatkin, Eugene A.

    2009-01-01

    This study describes morphological abnormalities of brain cells during acute methamphetamine (METH) intoxication in the rat and demonstrates the role of hyperthermia, disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and edema in their development. Rats with chronically implanted brain, muscle and skin temperature probes and an intravenous (iv) catheter were exposed to METH (9 mg/kg) at standard (23°C) and warm (29°C) ambient temperatures, allowing for the observation of hyperthermia ranging from mild to pathological levels (38–42°C). When brain temperature peaked or reached a level suggestive of possible lethality (>41.5°C), rats were injected with Evans blue (EB), rapidly anesthetized, perfused, and their brains were taken for further analyses. Four brain areas (cortex, hippocampus, thalamus and hypothalamus) were analyzed for EB extravasation, water and electrolyte (Na+, K+, Cl?) contents, immunostained for albumin and glial fibrillary acidic protein, and examined for neuronal, glial and axonal alterations using standard light and electron microscopy. These examinations revealed profound abnormalities in neuronal, glial, and endothelial cells, which were stronger with METH administered at 29°C than 23°C and tightly correlated with brain and body hyperthermia. These changes had some structural specificity, but in each structure they tightly correlated with increases in EB levels, the numbers of albumin-positive cells, and water and ion contents, suggesting leakage of the BBB, acutely developing brain edema, and serious shifts in brain ion homeostasis as leading factors underlying brain abnormalities. While most of these acute structural and functional abnormalities appear to be reversible, they could trigger subsequent cellular alterations in the brain and accelerate neurodegeneration—the most dangerous complication of chronic amphetamine-like drug abuse. PMID:18773954

  12. Characterization of neonatal rat morphine tolerance and dependence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne R Thornton; Alicia F Wang; Forrest L Smith

    1997-01-01

    The administration of morphine and fentanyl by continuous intravenous infusion has been shown to produce analgesic tolerance and physical dependence in human neonates. In animals, daily repeated morphine bolus injections is a common method of inducing neonatal rat tolerance and dependence. Yet this method differs from the intravenous route reported to affect human neonates. Alzet osmotic minipumps were implanted in

  13. Hippocampal Morphology in a Rat Model of Depression: The Effects of Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Sierakowiak, Adam; Mattsson, Anna; Gómez-Galán, Marta; Feminía, Teresa; Graae, Lisette; Aski, Sahar Nikkhou; Damberg, Peter; Lindskog, Mia; Brené, Stefan; Ĺberg, Elin

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating in vivo and ex vivo evidences show that humans suffering from depression have decreased hippocampal volume and altered spine density. Moreover, physical activity has an antidepressant effect in humans and in animal models, but to what extent physical activity can affect hippocampal volume and spine numbers in a model for depression is not known. In this study we analyzed whether physical activity affects hippocampal volume and spine density by analyzing a rodent genetic model of depression, Flinders Sensitive Line Rats (FSL), with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and ex vivo Golgi staining. We found that physical activity in the form of voluntary wheel running during 5 weeks increased hippocampal volume. Moreover, runners also had larger numbers of thin spines in the dentate gyrus. Our findings support that voluntary wheel running, which is antidepressive in FSL rats, is associated with increased hippocampal volume and spine numbers. PMID:25674191

  14. Morphologic and biochemical effects of intratracheally administered oil shale in rats.

    PubMed

    Renne, R A; Smith, L G; McDonald, K E; Shields, C A; Gandolfi, A J; Lund, J E

    1980-01-01

    Young adult rats were given three weekly intratracheal instillations of 30 mg of raw oil shale or spent oil shale suspended in 1.0 ml sterile physiological saline. Positive control groups received similar instillations of 30 mg or 5 mg of quartz. Animals were sacrificed and tissue samples taken for histopathology and biochemical analyses at 3 weeks, 7 weeks, 4 months, and 8 months following the first instillation. Rats exposed to raw shale, spent shale or quartz had increased lung weights compared with controls. Microscopically, all exposed groups developed granulomatous pneumonia and alveolar lipoproteinosis; pulmonary fibrosis was most severe in the quartz-exposed groups and progressed with time in these groups. Total amounts of pulmonary hydroxyproline, prolyl hydroxylase, total protein, and lipid phosphate were increased in shale or quartz-exposed groups; however, concentration of these substances on a per gram of lung tissue basis was not different from control groups. PMID:7441092

  15. The Ca2+-dependent slow K+ conductance in cultured rat muscle cells: characterization with apamin.

    PubMed Central

    Hugues, M; Schmid, H; Romey, G; Duval, D; Frelin, C; Lazdunski, M

    1982-01-01

    The interaction of apamin, a bee venom neurotoxin, with rat skeletal muscle cell membranes has been followed using both an electrophysiological and a biochemical approach. Voltage-clamp analyses have shown that apamin, at low concentrations, specifically blocks the Ca2+-dependent slow K+ conductance in rat myotubes and myosacs . A specific binding site for apamin in rat muscle cell membranes has been characterized with the use of a highly radiolabelled apamin derivative [( 125I]apamin). The dissociation constant for the apamin-receptor complex is 36-60 pM and the maximal binding capacity is 3.5 fmol/mg of protein. [125I]Apamin binding to rat muscle membranes is displaced by quinine and quinidine with K0.5 values of 110 microM and 200 microM, respectively. PMID:6329722

  16. Adult rat pancreatic islet cells adherent to microcarrier beads: Evaluation of function and morphology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Hopcroft; D. R. Mason; R. S. Scott

    1985-01-01

    Summary  Dispersed adult rat pancreatic islet cells were incubated with Cytodex-3 microcarrier beads for 72 h, during which time single\\u000a cells adhered firmly to bead surfaces. Electron microscopy revealed well-preserved ultrastructure of attached A, B, and D\\u000a cells. Perifusion of these cultures showed stable basal insulin release, brisk, biphasic insulin responses to 30-min glucose\\u000a stimulation, and consistent, monophasic spikes of insulin

  17. Morphological changes of short-wavelength cones in the developing S334ter-3 transgenic rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose R. Hombrebueno; Melody M. Tsai; Hong-Lim Kim; Joaquin De Juan; Norberto M. Grzywacz; Eun-Jin Lee

    2010-01-01

    The S334ter-3 rat is a transgenic model of retinal degeneration (RD) developed to express a rhodopsin mutation similar to that found in human retinitis pigmentosa. Due to this advantage over other models of RD, a few retina transplant studies have been reported on this animal model. Currently, no information is available on cone photoreceptor changes that occur in the S334ter

  18. Morphological and molecular characterization of the causal agent of downy mildew on Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa).

    PubMed

    Choi, Young-Joon; Danielsen, Solveig; Lübeck, Mette; Hong, Seung-Beom; Delhey, Rolf; Shin, Hyeon-Dong

    2010-05-01

    Downy mildew is an economically important and widespread disease in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) growing areas. Although in many studies Peronospora farinosa is most commonly regarded as the causal agent of the disease, identification and classification of the pathogen remain still uncertain due to its taxonomic confusion. Thirty-six Peronospora isolates from quinoa with different geographic origins including Argentina, Bolivia, Denmark, Ecuador, and Peru were morphologically and molecularly compared with Peronospora species from other Chenopodium species. The morphology of three herbarium specimens was similar to that of P. variabilis, which originated from C. album, characterized by flexuous to curved ultimate branchlets and pedicellated conidia. Phylogenetic analysis based on ITS rDNA sequences also placed the quinoa pathogen within the same clade as P. variabilis. Within the ITS rDNA sequences of the quinoa pathogens, two base substitutions were found, which separated the majority of the Danish isolates from isolates from South America, but no sequence difference was found among the isolates from different cultivars of quinoa. The present results indicate that the pathogen responsible for the quinoa downy mildew is identical to Peronospora variabilis and that it should not be lumped with P. farinosa as claimed previously by most studies. PMID:20101524

  19. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of a Fungus, Hirsutella sp., Isolated from Planthoppers and Psocids in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, Andrea V.; Simurro, María E.; Balatti, Pedro A.

    2013-01-01

    A mycosed planthopper, Oliarus dimidiatus Berg (Hemiptera: Cixiidae), and two psocids, Heterocaecilius sp. (Psocodea: Pseudocaeciliidae) and Ectopsocus sp. (Ectopsocidae), were collected from Los Hornos and La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina between February and September 2007. Observations of mycelia growing on the host revealed that the putative fungal parasite had synnemata supporting monophialidic conidiogenous cells. Likewise, in vitro fungal cultures presented characteristics typical of the fungus Hirsutella citriformis Speare (Ascomycota: Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae). The identity of the isolated fungi characterized based on morphological aspects was complemented by means of the internal transcribed spacer sequences. The sequences of both isolates were highly homologous to those of Cordyceps sp. (Fries) Link and Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Berkely) G.H. Sung, J.M. Sung, Hywel-Jones, and Spatafora (Ophiocordycipitaceae). We additionally confirmed that both isolates had the ability to infect and kill adults of Delphacodes kuscheli Fennah (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) after 10 days. Therefore, based on the morphology of the isolated fungi, their ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequence, and their ability to parasite insects, we conclude that the fungi isolated belong to the genus Hirsutella and might have biotechnological potential. PMID:23885970

  20. Morphological and molecular characterization of a fungus, Hirsutella sp., isolated from planthoppers and psocids in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Andrea V; Simurro, María E; Balatti, Pedro A

    2013-01-01

    A mycosed planthopper, Oliarus dimidiatus Berg (Hemiptera: Cixiidae), and two psocids, Heterocaecilius sp. (Psocodea: Pseudocaeciliidae) and Ectopsocus sp. (Ectopsocidae), were collected from Los Hornos and La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina between February and September 2007. Observations of mycelia growing on the host revealed that the putative fungal parasite had synnemata supporting monophialidic conidiogenous cells. Likewise, in vitro fungal cultures presented characteristics typical of the fungus Hirsutella citriformis Speare (Ascomycota: Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae). The identity of the isolated fungi characterized based on morphological aspects was complemented by means of the internal transcribed spacer sequences. The sequences of both isolates were highly homologous to those of Cordyceps sp. (Fries) Link and Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Berkely) G.H. Sung, J.M. Sung, Hywel-Jones, and Spatafora (Ophiocordycipitaceae). We additionally confirmed that both isolates had the ability to infect and kill adults of Delphacodes kuscheli Fennah (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) after 10 days. Therefore, based on the morphology of the isolated fungi, their ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequence, and their ability to parasite insects, we conclude that the fungi isolated belong to the genus Hirsutella and might have biotechnological potential. PMID:23885970

  1. Morphological and molecular characterization of renal ciliates infecting farmed snails in Spain.

    PubMed

    Segade, P; Kher, C P; Lynn, D H; Iglesias, R

    2009-06-01

    Renal infections by parasitic ciliates were studied in adult snails of Helix aspersa aspersa and Helix aspersa maxima collected from 2 mixed rearing system-based heliciculture farms located in Galicia (NW Spain). The occurrence of ciliates was also examined in slugs (Deroceras reticulatum) invading the greenhouses where first growing and fattening of snails is carried out. Histological examinations revealed a severe destruction of the renal epithelium in heavily infected hosts. Three ciliate isolates, one from each host species, were obtained and grown in axenic cultures. Cultured and parasitic ciliates were characterized morphologically and morphometrically. In addition, the encystment behaviour, the occurrence of autogamy, and the sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome-c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) genes were also studied in the 3 isolates. A polymorphic life cycle involving resting and reproductive cysts, together with the morphological and morphometrical characteristics and the confirmation that autogamy occurs within cysts, demonstrate that our ciliates belong to the species Tetrahymena rostrata (Kahl, 1926) Corliss, 1952. The 3 isolates formed a well-supported clade using both genetic markers, and were clearly separate from the strain ATCC(R) 30770, which has been identified as Tetrahymena rostrata. We argue that our Spanish isolates should be regarded as Tetrahymena rostrata, and that the ATCC isolate should be regarded as a misidentification as neither cytological nor cytogenetical support for its identity has been presented. PMID:19402940

  2. Clinical, Morphological, and Molecular Characterization of Penicillium canis sp. nov., Isolated from a Dog with Osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Deanna A.; Swenson, Cheryl L.; Bailey, Chris J.; Wiederhold, Nathan P.; Nelson, Nathan C.; Thompson, Elizabeth H.; Wickes, Brian L.; French, Stephanie; Fu, Jianmin; Vilar-Saavedra, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Infections caused by Penicillium species are rare in dogs, and the prognosis in these cases is poor. An unknown species of Penicillium was isolated from a bone lesion in a young dog with osteomyelitis of the right ilium. Extensive diagnostic evaluation did not reveal evidence of dissemination. Resolution of lameness and clinical stability of disease were achieved with intravenous phospholipid-complexed amphotericin B initially, followed by long-term combination therapy with terbinafine and ketoconazole. A detailed morphological and molecular characterization of the mold was undertaken. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer revealed the isolate to be closely related to Penicillium menonorum and Penicillium pimiteouiense. Additional sequence analysis of ?-tubulin, calmodulin, minichromosome maintenance factor, DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and pre-rRNA processing protein revealed the isolate to be a novel species; the name Penicillium canis sp. nov. is proposed. Morphologically, smooth, ovoid conidia, a greenish gray colony color, slow growth on all media, and a failure to form ascomata distinguish this species from closely related Penicillium species. PMID:24789186

  3. Clinical, morphological, and molecular characterization of Penicillium canis sp. nov., isolated from a dog with osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Langlois, Daniel K; Sutton, Deanna A; Swenson, Cheryl L; Bailey, Chris J; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Nelson, Nathan C; Thompson, Elizabeth H; Wickes, Brian L; French, Stephanie; Fu, Jianmin; Vilar-Saavedra, Paulo; Peterson, Stephen W

    2014-07-01

    Infections caused by Penicillium species are rare in dogs, and the prognosis in these cases is poor. An unknown species of Penicillium was isolated from a bone lesion in a young dog with osteomyelitis of the right ilium. Extensive diagnostic evaluation did not reveal evidence of dissemination. Resolution of lameness and clinical stability of disease were achieved with intravenous phospholipid-complexed amphotericin B initially, followed by long-term combination therapy with terbinafine and ketoconazole. A detailed morphological and molecular characterization of the mold was undertaken. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer revealed the isolate to be closely related to Penicillium menonorum and Penicillium pimiteouiense. Additional sequence analysis of ?-tubulin, calmodulin, minichromosome maintenance factor, DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and pre-rRNA processing protein revealed the isolate to be a novel species; the name Penicillium canis sp. nov. is proposed. Morphologically, smooth, ovoid conidia, a greenish gray colony color, slow growth on all media, and a failure to form ascomata distinguish this species from closely related Penicillium species. PMID:24789186

  4. Morphology, structure and function characterization of PEI modified magnetic nanoparticles gene delivery system.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiang; Cui, Haixin; Chen, Wenjie; Wang, Yan; Cui, Bo; Sun, Changjiao; Meng, Zhigang; Liu, Guoqiang

    2014-01-01

    Modified magnetic nanoparticles are used as non-viral gene carriers in biological applications. To achieve successful gene delivery, it is critical that nanoparticles effectually assemble with nucleic acids. However, relatively little work has been conducted on the assemble mechanisms between nanoparticles and DNA, and its effects on transfection efficiency. Using biophysical and biochemical characterization, along with Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we investigate the morphologies, assembling structures and gene delivering abilities of the PEI modified magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) gene delivery system. In this gene delivery system, MNP/DNA complexes are formed via binding of DNA onto the surface of MNPs. MNPs are favorable to not only increase DNA concentration but also prevent DNA degradation. Magnetofection experiments showed that MNPs has low cytotoxicity and introduces highly stable transfection in mammalian somatic cells. In addition, different binding ratios between MNPs and DNA result in various morphologies of MNP/DNA complexes and have an influence on transfection efficiency. Dose-response profile indicated that transfection efficiency positively correlate with MNP/DNA ratio. Furthermore, intracellular tracking demonstrate that MNPs move though the cell membranes, deliver and release exogenous DNA into the nucleus. PMID:24911360

  5. Characterization of the morphology and composition of commercial negative resists used for lithographic processes.

    PubMed

    Schuster, B-E; Haug, A; Häffner, M; Blideran, M M; Fleischer, M; Peisert, H; Kern, D P; Chassé, T

    2009-04-01

    We present a spectroscopic and microscopic characterization of the chemical composition, structure, and morphology of two commercial negative resists using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). For this purpose, films of a novolak-based resist (ma-N 2400) and hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) are treated under different conditions (temperature, deep ultraviolet (DUV) exposure, CHF(3) plasma). Topographic AFM images show that both heating and DUV exposure strongly affect the surface morphology of as-prepared ma-N 2400 resist films. These different treatment conditions also lead to decreasing roughnesses, which indicates structural reorganization. Furthermore, the decrease of the photoactive compound (bisazide) in the ma-N 2400 resist films, observed in FTIR spectra, suggests cross-linking of the resist after CHF(3) plasma treatment, heating, or DUV exposure. XPS measurements on different CHF(3) plasma-treated surfaces reveal that a structurally homogeneous fluorine-containing polymer is generated that is responsible for an enhanced etch resistance. FTIR measurements of HSQ films show a correlation between the degree of HSQ cross-linking and baking time. PMID:19030844

  6. Morphology, Structure and Function Characterization of PEI Modified Magnetic Nanoparticles Gene Delivery System

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiang; Cui, Haixin; Chen, Wenjie; Wang, Yan; Cui, Bo; Sun, Changjiao; Meng, Zhigang; Liu, Guoqiang

    2014-01-01

    Modified magnetic nanoparticles are used as non-viral gene carriers in biological applications. To achieve successful gene delivery, it is critical that nanoparticles effectually assemble with nucleic acids. However, relatively little work has been conducted on the assemble mechanisms between nanoparticles and DNA, and its effects on transfection efficiency. Using biophysical and biochemical characterization, along with Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we investigate the morphologies, assembling structures and gene delivering abilities of the PEI modified magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) gene delivery system. In this gene delivery system, MNP/DNA complexes are formed via binding of DNA onto the surface of MNPs. MNPs are favorable to not only increase DNA concentration but also prevent DNA degradation. Magnetofection experiments showed that MNPs has low cytotoxicity and introduces highly stable transfection in mammalian somatic cells. In addition, different binding ratios between MNPs and DNA result in various morphologies of MNP/DNA complexes and have an influence on transfection efficiency. Dose–response profile indicated that transfection efficiency positively correlate with MNP/DNA ratio. Furthermore, intracellular tracking demonstrate that MNPs move though the cell membranes, deliver and release exogenous DNA into the nucleus. PMID:24911360

  7. Morphologic, cytometric and functional characterization of the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) hemocytes.

    PubMed

    Castellanos-Martínez, S; Prado-Alvarez, M; Lobo-da-Cunha, A; Azevedo, C; Gestal, C

    2014-05-01

    The hemocytes of Octopus vulgaris were morphologically and functionally characterized. Light and electron microscopy (TEM and SEM), and flow cytometry analyses revealed the existence of two hemocyte populations. Large granulocytes showed U-shaped nucleus, a mean of 11.6 ?m±1.2 in diameter with basophilic granules, polysaccharide and lysosomic deposits in the cytoplasm. Small granulocytes measured a mean of 8.1 ?m±0.7 in diameter, and have a round nucleus occupying almost the entire cell and few or not granules in the cytoplasm. Flow cytometry analysis showed that large granulocytes are the principal cells that develop phagocytosis of latex beads (rising up to 56%) and ROS after zymosan stimulation. Zymosan induced the highest production of both ROS and NO. This study is the first tread towards understanding the O. vulgaris immune system by applying new tools to provide a most comprehensive morpho-functional study of their hemocytes. PMID:24296436

  8. Simultaneous Characterization of Metabolic, Cardiac, Vascular and Renal Phenotypes of Lean and Obese SHHF Rats

    PubMed Central

    Youcef, Gina; Olivier, Arnaud; L'Huillier, Clément P. J.; Labat, Carlos; Fay, Renaud; Tabcheh, Lina; Toupance, Simon; Rodriguez-Guéant, Rosa-Maria; Bergerot, Damien; Jaisser, Frédéric; Lacolley, Patrick; Zannad, Faiez; Laurent Vallar; Pizard, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS) are prone to develop heart failure (HF). However, the deleterious effects of MetS on the continuum of events leading to cardiac remodeling and subsequently to HF are not fully understood. This study characterized simultaneously MetS and cardiac, vascular and renal phenotypes in aging Spontaneously Hypertensive Heart Failure lean (SHHF+/? regrouping +/+ and +/cp rats) and obese (SHHFcp/cp, “cp” defective mutant allele of the leptin receptor gene) rats. We aimed to refine the milestones and their onset during the progression from MetS to HF in this experimental model. We found that SHHFcp/cp but not SHHF+/? rats developed dyslipidemia, as early as 1.5 months of age. This early alteration in the lipidic profile was detectable concomitantly to impaired renal function (polyuria, proteinuria but no glycosuria) and reduced carotid distensibility as compared to SHHF+/? rats. By 3 months of age SHHFcp/cp animals developed severe obesity associated with dislipidemia and hypertension defining the onset of MetS. From 6 months of age, SHHF+/? rats developed concentric left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) while SHHFcp/cp rats developed eccentric LVH apparent from progressive dilation of the LV dimensions. By 14 months of age only SHHFcp/cp rats showed significantly higher central systolic blood pressure and a reduced ejection fraction resulting in systolic dysfunction as compared to SHHF+/?. In summary, the metabolic and hemodynamic mechanisms participating in the faster decline of cardiac functions in SHHFcp/cp rats are established long before their physiological consequences are detectable. Our results suggest that the molecular mechanisms triggered within the first three months after birth of SHHFcp/cp rats should be targeted preferentially by therapeutic interventions in order to mitigate the later HF development. PMID:24831821

  9. Purification and characterization of flavin-containing monooxygenase isoform 3 from rat kidney microsomes.

    PubMed

    Novick, Rachel M; Elfarra, Adnan A

    2008-12-01

    Rats are a common animal model for metabolism and toxicity studies. Previously, the enzymatic properties of rat flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) 1 purified from hepatic and renal microsomes and that of FMO3 purified from hepatic microsomes were characterized. This study investigated the physical, immunological, and enzymatic properties of FMO3 purified from male rat kidney microsomes and compared the results with those obtained with isolated rat liver FMO3. Renal FMO3 was purified via affinity columns based on the elution of L-methionine (Met) S-oxidase activity and reactivity of the eluted proteins with human FMO3 antibody. In general, Met S-oxidase-specific activity was increased 100-fold through the purification steps. The resulting protein had similar mobility (approximately 56 kDa) as isolated rat liver FMO3 and cDNA-expressed human FMO3 by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. When the isolated kidney protein band was subjected to trypsin digestion and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time of flight mass spectral analysis, 34% of the sequence of rat FMO3 was detected. The apparent K(m) and V(max) values for rat kidney FMO3 were determined using the known FMO substrates Met, seleno-L-methionine, S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC), and methimazole (N-methyl-2-mercaptoimidazole). The stereoselectivity of the reactions with Met and SAC were also examined using high-performance liquid chromatography. The obtained kinetic and stereoselectivity results were similar to those we obtained in the present study, or those previously reported, for rat liver FMO3. Taken together, the results demonstrate many similar properties between rat hepatic and renal FMO3 forms and suggest that renal FMO3 may play an important role in kidney metabolism of xenobiotics containing sulfur and selenium atoms. PMID:18775983

  10. Characterization of vasopressin receptors in cultured cells derived from the region of rat brain circumventricular organs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Jurzak; A. R. Müller; R. Gerstberger

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize vasopressin receptors within the two circumventricular organs located in the lamina terminalis of the rat brain, namely the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and the subfornical organ. Cells derived from both structures were isolated, cultured and intracellular Ca2+ concentrations were measured in single fura-2 loaded neurons and astrocytes after application

  11. Characterization of supraspinal antinociceptive actions of opiod delta agonists in the rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael H. Ossipov; Carl J. Kovelowski; Michael L. Nichols; Victor J. Hruby; Frank Porreca

    1995-01-01

    Supraspinally mediated antinociception has been clearly established for agonists acting via both ?- and ?-opioid receptors. The present experiments were undertaken to further characterize the role of supraspinal opioid ? receptors in the mediation of antinociception in rats and to examine the possible role of putative ?1- and ?2-opioid receptors in the antinociceptive effect. Cannulae directed at the right lateral

  12. CLONING, EXPRESSION, AND CHARACTERIZATION OF RAT S-ADENOSYL-L-METHIONINE: ARSENIC (III) METHYLTRANSFERASE (CYT19)

    EPA Science Inventory

    CLONING, EXPRESSION, AND CHARACTERIZATION OF RAT S-ADENOSYL-L-METHIONINE: ARSENIC(III) METHYLTRANSFERASE (cyt19) Stephen B. Waters1 , Felicia Walton1 , Miroslav Styblo1 , Karen Herbin-Davis2, and David J. Thomas2 1 School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chape...

  13. Molecular and Functional Characterization of a Family of Rat Brain T-type Calcium Channels*

    E-print Network

    Baillie, David

    , and **University-College of the Fraser Valley, Abbotsford, British Columbia V2S 7M8, Canada Voltage-gated calcium by their molecular, electrophysiological, and pharmacological characteristics. We report here the molecular cloningMolecular and Functional Characterization of a Family of Rat Brain T-type Calcium Channels

  14. A behavioural characterization of neonatal infection-facilitated memory impairment in adult rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Staci D. Bilbo; Jerry W. Rudy; Linda R. Watkins; Steven F. Maier

    2006-01-01

    We have reported that exposure to bacteria (Escherichia coli) during the neonatal period in rats is associated with impaired memory for a novel context in adulthood. However, impairment is only observed if a peripheral immune challenge (bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)) is administered immediately following context exposure. The goal of the current study was to more fully characterize this phenomenon. In Experiment

  15. Characterization of rat T-cell clones with bacterial specificity.

    PubMed Central

    Eastcott, J W; Yamashita, K; Taubman, M A; Smith, D J

    1990-01-01

    We have isolated 10 rat T-cell clones from the spleen or lymph nodes of seven different donors. These rats were immunized with 2-5 x 10(8) killed Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) bacteria, injected either subcutaneously (s.c.) in complete Freund's adjuvant or intraperitoneally (i.p.) in saline. Clones studied to date have demonstrated a T-helper (Th) phenotype W3/13+, W3/25+, OX8- and OX22-. Clones were not stimulated in vitro by purified Aa-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or heterologous Gram-negative bacteria, but proliferated when stimulated by bacteria representative of each of the three serological groups of Actinobacillus, indicating specificity for an Actinobacillus-common antigen other than LPS. One clone (A4) proliferated vigorously when stimulated with concanavalin A (Con A) in vitro, produced interleukin-2 (IL-2) and was provisionally classified as a Th1 type. This appears to be one of the few Th1-type rat clones reported. All other clones tested did not produce IL-2, exhibited B-cell help to some extent, did not induce delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) when injected into the footpads of naive rats along with the specific antigen, and were classified as Th2 type. Adoptive transfer of 10(6) cells of one Th2-type Aa-specific clone into syngeneic recipients resulted in a specific splenocyte in vitro response to Aa 12-14 weeks after cell transfer, indicating survival of cloned cells in recipient animals. The use of such clones in studies of experimental periodontal disease is discussed. PMID:1698711

  16. Pharmacological characterization of the physostigmine stimulus in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Jung; A. Perio; P. Worms; P. Soubrie

    1988-01-01

    Rats were trained to discriminate 0.10 mg\\/kg SC physostigmine from saline in a two-lever food-reinforced task. There was generalization to the acetylcholine esterase inhibitor THA as well as to the muscarinic receptor agonists arecoline, oxotremorine and RS 86, but not to neostigmine or nicotine. The physostigmine cue was blocked by SC scopolamine hydrobromide and by ICV pirenzepine, but not by

  17. Characterization of Mode I Fracture and Morphological Properties of PLLA Blends with Addition of Lysine Triisocyanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannaladsaysy, Vilay; Todo, Mitsugu

    Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) was toughened by blending with three different ductile biopolymers such as poly (?-caprolactone) (PCL), poly(butylene succinate-co-e-caprolactone) (PBSC), poly (butylene succinate-co-L-lactate) (PBSL). The blend ratio was fixed to 50:50. Lysine triisocyanate (LTI) was added to the blends as a compatibilizer. Characterizations such as Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy, field-emission electron microscope (FE-SEM), and mode I fracture test were used to characterize the effectiveness of LTI on the mechanical and morphological properties of various PLLA blends. It was found that PLLA/PCL blend shows the highest toughness energy among the binary blends. On the other hand, addition of LTI in PLLA/PBSC blend exhibits the best toughness property. Based on the FE-SEM observation, fractured surfaces of PLLA blends with LTI indicate ductile fracture with dense elongated fibrils. The largest damage zone is generated in the vicinity of crack-trip, suggesting that high energy dissipation occurred in the crack-trip region. FT-IR analysis also suggested that the NCO groups of LTI were acted as a compatibilizer, as the results of interaction between the two phases of the polymer blends.

  18. [Morphology of the rat's brain in and after a space flight: ultrastructure of the "blue spot"].

    PubMed

    Krasnov, I B; D'iachkova, L N

    2003-01-01

    Electron microscopy was used to explore ultrastructure of the livor extracted from the brain of rats on day-13 aboard U.S. space shuttle Columbia (STS-58), and in 5-6 hrs. after landing following the 14-d mission. As compared with the ground controls, the rats flown in microgravity reduced the total number of axodendrite synapses (ADS) by 21% and functional ADS--by 39.7%. After touchdown the total ADS number remained lowered by 16.5%; however, the percentage of highly active ADS exceeded this parameter in the ground controls. Results of the analysis of the ADS number in conjunction with the ultrastructural changes in axonal terminals and dendrites suggest a sharp decrease of the afferent influx towards the livor neurons during microgravity, whereas modifications of the livor neuron ultrastructure point to a decline in their functional activity. These data serve as an experimental proof of the hypothesized development of the hyponoradrenergic syndrome by mammals in microgravity. PMID:12696497

  19. Serotonin and dopamine receptors in the rat pituitary gland: autoradiographic identification, characterization, and localization.

    PubMed

    De Souza, E B

    1986-10-01

    S2 serotonin and D2 dopamine receptors were identified, characterized, and localized in rat pituitary gland by quantitative light microscopic autoradiography. [3H]Spiperone was used to localize S2 serotonin and D2 dopamine receptors. A high concentration of D2 dopamine receptors [1 microM 2-amino-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (ADTN)- or sulpiride-displaceable [3H]spiperone binding] was found in the rat intermediate lobe with much lower concentrations present in the anterior and posterior lobes. Significant densities of cinanserin-displaceable [3H]spiperone binding sites (i.e. S2 serotonin receptors) were present in all three lobes of the pituitary gland. [125I]Lysergic acid ([125I]LSD) was used to characterize further and selectively visualize S2 serotonin receptors in the rat pituitary. Data analysis by densitometry showed that [125I]LSD binding the rat intermediate pituitary was saturable and of high affinity with an apparent dissociation constant (Kd) of 1.2 nM. Data from competition studies using a variety of compounds showed a S2 serotonin receptor profile at this [125I]LSD binding site in rat pituitary. The highest concentration of [125I]LSD binding sites was found in the intermediate lobe with progressively lower concentrations present in the posterior and anterior lobes, respectively. There is a uniform pattern of distribution of S2 serotonin and D2 dopamine receptors within each lobe of the rat pituitary gland. The results of the present study provide the first identification of S2 serotonin receptors in the pituitary and confirm the heterogeneous distribution of D2 dopamine receptors within the rat pituitary. These data provide further evidence for the importance of dopamine in regulating pituitary function and suggest a physiological role for serotonin in regulating pituitary hormone secretion. PMID:2944737

  20. Pharmacological characterization of the physostigmine stimulus in rats.

    PubMed

    Jung, M; Perio, A; Worms, P; Soubrie, P

    1988-01-01

    Rats were trained to discriminate 0.10 mg/kg SC physostigmine from saline in a two-lever food-reinforced task. There was generalization to the acetylcholine esterase inhibitor THA as well as to the muscarinic receptor agonists arecoline, oxotremorine and RS 86, but not to neostigmine or nicotine. The physostigmine cue was blocked by SC scopolamine hydrobromide and by ICV pirenzepine, but not by scopolamine methylbromide or by mecamylamine. These antagonism studies suggest that the discriminative cue elicited by physostigmine might be mainly mediated by central M1 receptors. PMID:3145526

  1. Characterization of Normal and Infarcted Rat Myocardium Using a Combination of Small-Animal PET and Clinical MRI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takahiro Higuchi; Stephan G. Nekolla; Antanas Jankaukas; Axel W. Weber; Marc C. Huisman; Sybille Reder; Sibylle I. Ziegler; Markus Schwaiger; Frank M. Bengel

    2007-01-01

    The combination of small-animal PET and MRI data provides quantitative in vivo insights into cardiac pathophysiology, inte- grating information on biology and morphology. We sought to determine the feasibility of PET and MRI for the quantification of ischemic injury in the rat model. Methods: Fourteen healthy male Wistar rats were studied with 18F-FDG PET and cine MRI. Myocardial viability was

  2. Fenitrothion induced oxidative stress and morphological alterations of sperm and testes in male sprague-dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Taib, Izatus Shima; Budin, Siti Balkis; Ghazali, Ahmad Rohi; Jayusman, Putri Ayu; Louis, Santhana Raj; Mohamed, Jamaludin

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Fenitrothion residue is found primarily in soil, water and food products and can lead to a variety of toxic effects on the immune, hepatobiliary and hematological systems. However, the effects of fenitrothion on the male reproductive system remain unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of fenitrothion on the sperm and testes of male Sprague-Dawley rats. METHODS: A 20 mg/kg dose of fenitrothion was administered orally by gavages for 28 consecutive days. Blood sample was obtained by cardiac puncture and dissection of the testes and cauda epididymis was performed to obtain sperm. The effects of fenitrothion on the body and organ weight, biochemical and oxidative stress, sperm characteristics, histology and ultrastructural changes in the testes were evaluated. RESULTS: Fenitrothion significantly decreased the body weight gain and weight of the epididymis compared with the control group. Fenitrothion also decreased plasma cholinesterase activity compared with the control group. Fenitrothion altered the sperm characteristics, such as sperm concentration, sperm viability and normal sperm morphology, compared with the control group. Oxidative stress markers, such as malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, total glutathione and glutathione S-transferase, were significantly increased and superoxide dismutase activity was significantly decreased in the fenitrothion-treated group compared with the control group. The histopathological and ultrastructural examination of the testes of the fenitrothion-treated group revealed alterations corresponding with the biochemical changes compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: A 20 mg/kg dose of fenitrothion caused deleterious effects on the sperm and testes of Sprague-Dawley rats. PMID:23420164

  3. Application of polarization microscopy for the nonstained determination of myo-lamina morphology in the rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Justin S.; Criscione, John C.; Hudson, Kristen K.; Cote, Gerard L.

    2004-06-01

    The remodeling of cardiac tissues has been implicated in the development of congestive heart failure. Therefore, the current emphasis in cardiovascular research is geared toward understanding the underlying processes in order to facilitate the development of better prevention and treatment regimens by improving the early detection and diagnosis of this disease. This paper focuses on the application of polarized light to address a major drawback of cardiovascular biomechanics research, which is the utilization of toxic chemicals to prepare samples for histological examination. To accomplish this without the use of toxic chemicals, a polarization microscopy imaging technique was developed and applied to a non-stained rat septum sample. This imaging technique provided sufficient enhancement of collagenous structures to determine the myo-lamina sheet angle, ?, without the need for caustic staining.

  4. Morphological changes of isolated rat pancreatic islets: a structural, ultrastructural and morphometric study

    PubMed Central

    Morini, Sergio; Braun, Mark; Onori, Paolo; Cicalese, Luca; Elias, George; Gaudio, Eugenio; Rastellini, Cristiana

    2006-01-01

    Improved techniques for pancreatic islet extraction can yield a reasonable number of transplantable cells. However, the isolation and purification process may damage the islets and impair their physiological functions. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the isolation procedure on the structure of isolated islets and to correlate this with their functionality. Islets were isolated from rat pancreata and purified by Eurocollins-Ficoll discontinuous density gradient processing, and then processed for light microscopy, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Morphometric analysis was also performed. Islet functionality was determined by reversal of streptozotocin-induced diabetes and the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test in a syngeneic rat model of pancreatic islet transplantation. Fragments of variable size and shape comprised a relatively large proportion (26%) of the isolated endocrine tissue. Isolated islets showed slight alterations of cell ultrastructure. Major damage (including breakage of the plasma membrane) and loss of cells were observed in the peripheral cells of the isolated islets. An equal mass of islet equivalent (IEq, islets with an average diameter of 150 µm), but with a different islet equivalent/islet number ratio, was transplanted in diabetic animals. When larger and more complete islets were transplanted (higher ratio), better function of the graft was observed by reversal of hyperglycaemia and response to the glucose tolerance test as compared with the functionality and response of smaller (fragmented) islets transplanted (lower ratio). Digestion, trauma and hypoxia during isolation are responsible for qualitative and quantitative changes of isolated islets. Alterations in normal secretory function after the transplant were related to lower islet equivalent/islet number ratio. The incomplete integrity of the islets may explain the failure of the fine glycaemic metabolic regulation. PMID:16928206

  5. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies to a rat liver vasopressin receptor.

    PubMed

    Trinder, D; Mooser, V; Kelly, J M; Phillips, P A; Casley, D; Johnston, C I

    1991-05-01

    1. Balb/c mice were immunized against a vasopressin binding protein purified from rat liver. The hybrids produced from two cell fusions were screened against this receptor. Three hybrids were selected, cloned and expanded in serum-free media. The monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) secreted by these three hybrids were of the subclass IgM and were able to immunoprecipitate [125I]-labelled purified receptor. 2. All three MoAb bound to the purified solubilized receptor, crude liver and kidney membranes in a concentration-dependent manner. However, the binding of MoAb to the membranes did not inhibit the binding of [125I]-[d(CH2)5,Sar7]AVP, a selective V1 receptor radioligand, to the liver membrane-bound receptor. 3. These results suggest that the three MoAb recognize epitopes on the V1 receptor which are not denatured by solubilization, but are common to both rat liver and kidney membranes. PMID:1829665

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF BILIARY CONJUGATES OF 4,4'-METHYLENEDIANILINE IN MALE VERSUS FEMALE RATS

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kan; Cole, Richard B.; Cruz, Vicente Santa; Blakeney, Ernest W.; Kanz, Mary F.; Dugas, Tammy R.

    2008-01-01

    4,4’-Methylenedianiline (4,4’-diaminodiphenylmethane; DAPM) is an aromatic diamine used in the production of numerous polyurethane foams and epoxy resins. Previous studies in rats revealed that DAPM initially injures biliary epithelial cells of the liver, that the toxicity is greater in female than in male rats, and that the toxic metabolites of DAPM are excreted into bile. Since male and female rats exhibit differences in the expression of both phase I and phase II enzymes, our hypothesis was that female rats either metabolize DAPM to more toxic metabolites or have a decreased capacity to conjugate metabolites to less toxic intermediates. Our objective was thus to isolate, characterize, and quantify DAPM metabolites excreted into bile in both male and female bile duct-cannulated Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were gavaged with [14C]-DAPM, and the collected bile was subjected to reversed-phase HPLC with radioisotope detection. Peaks eluting from HPLC were collected and analyzed using electrospray MS, NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy. HPLC analysis indicated numerous metabolites in both sexes, but male rats excreted greater amounts of glutathione and glucuronide conjugates than females. Electrospray MS and NMR spectra of HPLC fractions revealed that the most prominent metabolite found in bile of both sexes was a glutathione conjugate of an imine metabolite of a 4’-nitroso-DAPM. Seven other metabolites were identified, including acetylated, cysteinyl-glycine, glutamyl-cysteine, glycine, and glucuronide conjugates. While our prior studies demonstrated increased covalent binding of DAPM in the liver and bile of female compared to male rats, in these studies, SDS-PAGE with autoradiography revealed 4–5 radiolabeled protein bands in the bile of rats treated with [14C]-DAPM. In addition, these bands were much more prominent in female than in male rats. These studies thus suggest that a plausible mechanism for the increased sensitivity of female rats to DAPM toxicity may be decreased conjugation of reactive DAPM metabolites, leading to greater levels of protein adduct formation. PMID:18692083

  7. Chemical, dimensional and morphological ultrafine particle characterization from a waste-to-energy plant

    SciTech Connect

    Buonanno, Giorgio, E-mail: buonanno@unicas.it [University of Cassino, via G. Di Biasio 43, 03043 Cassino (Italy); Stabile, Luca [University of Cassino, via G. Di Biasio 43, 03043 Cassino (Italy); Avino, Pasquale [DIPIA, INAIL (ex-ISPESL), via Urbana 167, 00184 Rome (Italy); Belluso, Elena [Dipartimento di Scienze Mineralogiche e Petrologiche, University of Torino and Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, CNR-Unita di Torino, via Valperga Caluso 35, 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > Particle size distributions and total concentrations measurement at the stack and before the fabric filter of an incinerator. > Chemical characterization of UFPs in terms of heavy metal concentration through a nuclear method. > Mineralogical investigation through a Transmission Electron Microscope equipped with an Energy Dispersive Spectrometer. > Heavy metal concentrations on UFPs as function of the boiling temperature. > Different mineralogical and morphological composition amongst samples collected before the fabric filter and at the stack. - Abstract: Waste combustion processes are responsible of particles and gaseous emissions. Referring to the particle emission, in the last years specific attention was paid to ultrafine particles (UFPs, diameter less than 0.1 {mu}m), mainly emitted by combustion processes. In fact, recent findings of toxicological and epidemiological studies indicate that fine and ultrafine particles could represent a risk for health and environment. Therefore, it is necessary to quantify particle emissions from incinerators also to perform an exposure assessment for the human populations living in their surrounding areas. To these purposes, in the present work an experimental campaign aimed to monitor UFPs was carried out at the incineration plant in San Vittore del Lazio (Italy). Particle size distributions and total concentrations were measured both at the stack and before the fabric filter inlet in order to evaluate the removal efficiency of the filter in terms of UFPs. A chemical characterization of UFPs in terms of heavy metal concentration was performed through a nuclear method, i.e. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), as well as a mineralogical investigation was carried out through a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) equipped with an Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) in order to evaluate shape, crystalline state and mineral compound of sampled particles. Maximum values of 2.7 x 10{sup 7} part. cm{sup -3} and 2.0 x 10{sup 3} part. cm{sup -3} were found, respectively, for number concentration before and after the fabric filter showing a very high efficiency in particle removing by the fabric filter. With regard to heavy metal concentrations, the elements with higher boiling temperature present higher concentrations at lower diameters showing a not complete evaporation in the combustion section and the consequent condensation of semi-volatile compounds on solid nuclei. In terms of mineralogical and morphological analysis, the most abundant compounds found in samples collected before the fabric filter are Na-K-Pb oxides followed by phyllosilicates, otherwise, different oxides of comparable abundance were detected in the samples collected at the stack.

  8. Longitudinal Characterization of Brain Atrophy of a Huntington Disease Mouse Model by Automated Morphological Analyses of Magnetic Resonance Images

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiangyang; Peng, Qi; Li, Qing; Jahanshad, Neda; Hou, Zhipeng; Jiang, Mali; Masuda, Naoki; Langbehn, Douglas R.; Miller, Michael I.; Mori, Susumu; Ross, Christopher A.; Duan, Wenzhen

    2010-01-01

    Mouse models of human diseases play crucial roles in understanding disease mechanisms and developing therapeutic measures. Huntington’s disease (HD) is characterized by striatal atrophy that begins long before the onset of motor symptoms. In symptomatic HD, striatal volumes decline predictably with disease course. Thus, imaging based volumetric measures have been proposed as outcomes for presymptomatic as well as symptomatic clinical trials of HD. Magnetic resonance imaging of the mouse brain structures is becoming widely available and has been proposed as one of the biomarkers of disease progression and drug efficacy testing. However, three-dimensional and quantitative morphological analyses of the brains are not straightforward. In this paper, we describe a tool for automated segmentation and voxel-based morphological analyses of the mouse brains. This tool was applied to a well-established mouse model of Huntington disease, the R6/2 transgenic mouse strain. Comparison between the automated and manual segmentation results showed excellent agreement in most brain regions. The automated method was able to sensitively detect atrophy as early as 3 weeks of age and accurately follow disease progression. Comparison between ex vivo and in vivo MRI suggests that the ex vivo end-point measurement of brain morphology is also a valid approach except for the morphology of the ventricles. This is the first report of longitudinal characterization of brain atrophy in a mouse model of Huntington’s disease by using automatic morphological analysis. PMID:19850133

  9. The Effects of Taurine, Hypotaurine, and Taurine Homologs on Erythrocyte Morphology, Membrane Fluidity and Cytoskeletal Spectrin Alterations Due to Diabetes, Alcoholism and Diabetes-Alcoholism in the Rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Davekanand Gossai; Cesar A. Lau-Cam

    Taurine (TAU) and compounds representing a TAU analog (hypotaurine == HYTAU) or homolog (aminomethanesulfonic acid == AMSA,\\u000a homotaurine == HMTAU) were tested for their counteracting effects against alterations in erythrocyte (RBC) morphology, membrane\\u000a fluidity and cytoskeletal spectrin distribution due to diabetes, alcoholism and diabetes-alcoholism in male Goto-Kakizaki\\u000a rats (made diabetic with a high fat diet and alcoholic upon feeding on

  10. Functional and Morphological Reproductive Aspects in Male Rats Exposed to Di-n-Butyl Phthalate (DBP) in Utero and During Lactation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wellerson R. Scarano; Fabíola C. Toledo; Marina T. Guerra; Patrícia F. F. Pinheiro; Raquel F. Domeniconi; Sérgio L. Felisbino; Silvana G. P. Campos; Sebastiăo R. Taboga; Wilma G. Kempinas

    2010-01-01

    The potential adverse reproductive effects, with emphasis on the epididymis, of in utero and lactational exposure to 100 mg\\/kg\\/d di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) in adult male rat offspring were investigated. The fetal testis histopathology was also determined. The selected endpoints included reproductive organ weights, sperm motility and morphology, sperm epididymal transit time, sperm quantity in the testis and epididymis, hormonal status,

  11. Voluntary exercise partially reverses neonatal alcohol-induced deficits in mPFC layer II/III dendritic morphology of male adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, G F; Criss, K J; Klintsova, A Y

    2015-08-01

    Developmental alcohol exposure in humans can produce a wide range of deficits collectively referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). FASD-related impairments in executive functioning later in life suggest long-term damage to the prefrontal cortex (PFC). In rodent neonates, moderate to high levels of alcohol exposure decreased frontal lobe brain size and altered medial PFC pyramidal neuron dendritic morphology. Previous research in our lab demonstrated that neonatal alcohol exposure decreased basilar dendritic complexity but did not affect spine density in Layer II/III pyramidal neurons in 26- to 30-day-old rats. The current study adds to the literature by evaluating the effect of neonatal alcohol exposure on mPFC Layer II/III basilar dendritic morphology in adolescent male rats. Additionally, it examines the potential for voluntary exercise to mitigate alcohol-induced deficits on mPFC dendritic complexity. An animal model of binge drinking during the third trimester of pregnancy was used. Rats were intubated with alcohol (alcohol-exposed, AE; 5.25 g kg(-1 ) day(-1) ) on postnatal days (PD) 4-9; two control groups were included (suckle control and sham-intubated). Rats were anesthetized and perfused with heparinized saline solution on PD 42, and brains were processed for Golgi-Cox staining. Developmental alcohol exposure decreased spine density and dendritic complexity of basilar dendrites of Layer II/III neurons in the medial PFC (mPFC) compared to dendrites of control animals. Voluntary exercise increased spine density and dendritic length in AE animals resulting in elimination of the differences between AE and SH rats. Thus, voluntary exercise during early adolescence selectively rescued alcohol-induced morphological deficits in the mPFC. Synapse 69:405-415, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25967699

  12. Construction and characterization of a 10-genome equivalent yeast artificial chromosome library for the laboratory rat, Rattus norvegicus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Cai; Leonard C. Schalkwyk; Andreina Schoeberlein-Stehli; Robert Y. L. Zee; Avrial Smith; Thomas Haaf; Michel Georges; Hans Lehrach; Klaus Lindpaintner

    1997-01-01

    Increasing attention has been focused in recent years on the rat as a model organism for genetic studies, in particular for the investigation of complex traits, but progress has been limited by the lack of availability of large-insert genomic libraries, Here, we report the construction and characterization of an arrayed yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) library for the rat genome containing

  13. Purification and characterization of rat liver nuclear thyroid hormone receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Ichikawa, K.; DeGroot, L.J.

    1987-05-01

    Nuclear thyroid hormone receptor hormone receptor was purified to 904 pmol of L-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) binding capacity per mg of protein with 2.5-5.2% recovery. Assuming that one T3 molecule binds to the 49,000-Da unit of the receptor, the authors reproducibly obtained 6.4-14.7 ..mu..g of receptor protein with 4.2-4.9% purity from 4-5 kg of rat liver. Elution of receptor from the heparin-Sepharose column was performed using 10 mM pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. This effect was specific for pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, since related compounds were not effective. Purified receptor bound T3 with high affinity, and the order of affinity of iodothyronine analogues to purified receptor was identical to that observed with crude receptor preparations. Purified receptor had a sedimentation coefficient of 3.4 S, Stokes radius of 34 A, and calculated molecular mass of 49,000. Among several bands identified by silver staining after electrophoresis in NaDodSO/sub 4//polyacrylamide gels, one 49,000-Da protein showed photoaffinity labeling with (/sup 125/I)thyroxine that was displaceable with excess unlabeled T3. The tryptic fragment and endogenous proteinase-digested fragment of the affinity-labeled receptor showed saturable binding in 27,000-Da and 36,000-Da peptides, respectively. These molecular masses are in agreement with estimates from gel filtration and gradient sedimentation, indicating that affinity labeling occurred at the hormone binding domain of nuclear thyroid hormone receptor. This procedure reproducibly provides classical native rat liver T3 nuclear receptor in useful quantity and purity and of the highest specific activity so far reported.

  14. Protective effects of vitamin E and selenium on the renal morphology in rats fed high-cholesterol diets.

    PubMed

    Gonca, S; Ceylan, S; Yardimo?lu, M; Dalçik, H; Yumbul, Z; Köktürk, S; Filiz, S

    2000-01-01

    The histopathological effects of cholesterol and the protective effects of vitamin E and selenium (Se) on renal histology were examined in Sprague-Dawley rats. Light-microscopic evaluation of the renal cortex revealed: glomerular fibrosis, cellular and mesangial proliferation, capillary obliteration and cholesterol crystals in the tubular lumina of the cholesterol-fed group. These results suggest that oxidated LDL (O-LDL) is a cytotoxic factor which stimulates mesangial cell and matrix proliferation. Ultrastructurally, small and large lipid vacuolization in intracapillary lumina, adhesion of epithelial foot processes, mesangial foam cells and polymorphonuclear leukocytes were seen in the cholesterol-fed group. In the groups fed cholesterol + vitamin E, cholesterol + Se and cholesterol + vitamin E + Se, morphological improvements were observed. It appeared that an excess in O-LDL, reactive oxygen species and growth factors might play an important role in the pathogenesis of glomerulosclerosis. In addition, it was concluded that antioxidant therapy may prevent LDL oxidation and generation of free radicals. PMID:11493758

  15. The energy costs of sexual dimorphism in mole-rats are morphological not behavioural

    PubMed Central

    Scantlebury, M; Speakman, J.R; Bennett, N.C

    2005-01-01

    Different reproductive strategies of males and females may lead to the evolution of differences in their energetic costs of reproduction, overall energetic requirements and physiological performances. Sexual dimorphism is often associated with costly behaviours (e.g. large males might have a competitive advantage in fighting, which is energetically expensive). However, few studies of mammals have directly compared the energy costs of reproductive activities between sexes. We compared the daily energy expenditure (DEE) and resting metabolic rate (RMR) of males and females of two species of mole-rat, Bathyergus janetta and Georychus capensis (the former is sexually dimorphic in body size and the latter is not) during a period of intense digging when males seek females. We hypothesized that large body size might be indicative of greater digging or fighting capabilities, and hence greater mass-independent DEE values in males of the sexually dimorphic species. In contrast to this prediction, although absolute values of DEE were greater in B. janetta males, mass-independent values were not. No differences were apparent between sexes in G. capensis. By comparison, although RMR values were greater in B. janetta than G. capensis, no differences were apparent between the sexes for either species. The energy cost of dimorphism is most likely to be the cost of maintenance of a large body size, and not the cost of behaviours performed when an individual is large. PMID:16519235

  16. Characterization of gas-aerosol interaction kinetics using morphology dependent stimulated Raman scattering. 1992 Annual summary

    SciTech Connect

    Aker, P.M.

    1993-01-30

    This study is aimed at characterizing the influence of aerosol surface structure on the kinetics of gas-aerosol interactions. Changes in gas phase chemical reaction rates as a function of exposure to a specific aerosol are measured with aerosols having different surface properties due to the composition and/or temperature of the material making up the aerosol. The kinetic data generated can be used directly in atmospheric modeling calculations. The surface structure of the aerosol is using morphology-dependent enhancement of simulated Raman scattering (MDSRS). Detailed dynamics of gas-aerosol interactions can be obtained by correlating the change in the reaction rate with change in surface structure and by monitoring the change in aerosol surface structure during, the course of the reaction. This dynamics information can be used to generate kinetic data for systems which are similar in nature to those studied, but are not amenable to laboratory investigation. We show here that increased MDSRS sensitivity is achieved by using an excitation laser source that has a narrow linewidth and we have been able to detect sulfate anion concentrations much lower than previously reported. We have shown that the linewidth of the MDSRS mode excited in a droplet is limited by the laser linewidth. This is a positive result for it eases our ability to quantify the MDSRS gain equation. This result also suggests that MDSRS signal size should be independent of droplet size, and preliminary experiments confirm this hypothesis.

  17. Characterization of gas-aerosol interaction kinetics using morphology dependent stimulated Raman scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Aker, P.M.

    1993-01-30

    This study is aimed at characterizing the influence of aerosol surface structure on the kinetics of gas-aerosol interactions. Changes in gas phase chemical reaction rates as a function of exposure to a specific aerosol are measured with aerosols having different surface properties due to the composition and/or temperature of the material making up the aerosol. The kinetic data generated can be used directly in atmospheric modeling calculations. The surface structure of the aerosol is using morphology-dependent enhancement of simulated Raman scattering (MDSRS). Detailed dynamics of gas-aerosol interactions can be obtained by correlating the change in the reaction rate with change in surface structure and by monitoring the change in aerosol surface structure during, the course of the reaction. This dynamics information can be used to generate kinetic data for systems which are similar in nature to those studied, but are not amenable to laboratory investigation. We show here that increased MDSRS sensitivity is achieved by using an excitation laser source that has a narrow linewidth and we have been able to detect sulfate anion concentrations much lower than previously reported. We have shown that the linewidth of the MDSRS mode excited in a droplet is limited by the laser linewidth. This is a positive result for it eases our ability to quantify the MDSRS gain equation. This result also suggests that MDSRS signal size should be independent of droplet size, and preliminary experiments confirm this hypothesis.

  18. Characterizing sea ice surface morphology using high-resolution IceBridge data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petty, A.; Farrell, S. L.; Newman, T.; Kurtz, N. T.; Richter-Menge, J.; Tsamados, M.; Feltham, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Sea ice pressure ridges form when ice floes collide while drifting under the combined forces of atmospheric drag, oceanic drag and ice-ice interaction. Sea ice ridges, in-turn, affect the resultant form drag on the sea ice cover and thus impact the fluxes of momentum and heat between the atmosphere and ocean. Here we present initial results of a new sea ice ridge detection approach that utilizes high resolution, three-dimensional ice/snow surface elevation data from the NASA Operation IceBridge Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) laser altimeter merged with coincident high-resolution imagery from the Digital Mapping System (DMS). We derive novel information regarding sea ice deformation across a variety of ice types and regimes. Statistical information regarding sea ice ridges (height/frequency/orientation) and floe edges (freeboard height) are presented for several IceBridge flight lines. These novel characterizations of sea ice surface morphology will be used to validate and inform drag parameterizations in state-of-the-art sea ice models. Furthermore, they will advance our ability to quantify uncertainties introduced by pressure ridges in the estimation of sea ice freeboard/thickness from airborne and satellite altimeters.

  19. Isolation and morphological and metabolic characterization of common endophytes in annually burned tallgrass prairie.

    PubMed

    Mandyam, Keerthi; Loughin, Thomas; Jumpponen, Ari

    2010-01-01

    Dark septate endophytes (DSE) are common and abundant root-colonizing fungi in the native tallgrass prairie. To characterize DSE fungi were isolated from roots of mixed tallgrass prairie plant communities. Isolates were grouped according to morphology, and the grouping was refined by ITS-RFLP and/or sequencing of the ITS region. Sporulating species of Periconia, Fusarium, Microdochium and Aspergillus were isolated along with many sterile fungi. Leek resynthesis was used to quickly screen for DSE fungi among the isolates. Periconia macro-spinosa and Microdochium sp. formed typical DSE structures in the roots; Periconia produced melanized intracellular microsclerotia in host root cortex, whereas Microdochium produced abundant melanized inter- and intracellular chlamydospores. To further validate the results of the leek resynthesis growth responses of leek and a dominant prairie grass, Andropogon gerardii, were assessed in a laboratory resynthesis system. Leek growth mainly was unresponsive to the inoculation with Periconia or Microdochium, whereas Andropogon tended to respond positively. Select Periconia and Microdochium isolates were tested further for their enzymatic capabilities and for ability to use organic and inorganic nitrogen sources. These fungi tested positive for amylase, cellulase, polyphenol oxidases and gelatinase. Periconia isolates used both organic and inorganic nitrogen sources. Our study identified distinct endophytes in a tallgrass prairie ecosystem and indicated that these endo-phytes can use a variety of complex nutrient sources, suggesting facultative biotrophic and saprotrophic habits. PMID:20648749

  20. Characterizing sea ice surface morphology using high-resolution IceBridge data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petty, Alek; Farrell, Sinead; Newman, Thomas; Kurtz, Nathan; Richter-Menge, Jacqueline; Tsamados, Michel; Feltham, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Sea ice pressure ridges form when ice floes collide while drifting under the combined forces of atmospheric drag, oceanic drag and ice-ice interaction. Sea ice ridges, in-turn, affect the resultant form drag on the sea ice cover and thus impact the fluxes of momentum and heat between the atmosphere and ocean. Here we present initial results of a new sea ice ridge detection approach that utilizes high resolution, three-dimensional ice/snow surface elevation data from the NASA Operation IceBridge Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) laser altimeter merged with coincident high-resolution imagery from the Digital Mapping System (DMS). We derive novel information regarding sea ice deformation across a variety of ice types and regimes. Statistical information regarding sea ice ridges (height/frequency/orientation) and floe edges (freeboard height) are presented for several IceBridge flight lines. These novel characterizations of sea ice surface morphology will be used to validate and inform drag parameterizations in state-of-the-art sea ice models. Furthermore, they will advance our ability to quantify uncertainties introduced by pressure ridges in the estimation of sea ice freeboard/thickness from airborne and satellite altimeters.

  1. Co-precipitation synthesis and characterization of faceted MoS2 nanorods with controllable morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vattikuti, S. V. Prabhakar; Byon, Chan; Reddy, Ch. Venkata; Shim, Jaesool; Venkatesh, B.

    2015-06-01

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanopowder has been prepared using a co-precipitation method. This paper describes the thermal effect on the morphology enhancement of MoS2 sphere-like structures into nanorods with a winding structure. For the reduction in precursors, the as-obtained MoS2 nanopowder was calcinated at 250, 400, 600, and 800 °C for 1 h in an N2 environment. The calcined samples were characterized using a particle size analyzer, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy with X-ray analysis (EDAX) and transmission electron microscopy, HRTEM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results show the MoS2 sphere-like structure with diameter in the range of 50-100 nm and rod-like winding structure with diameter in the range of 20-150 nm, and a few tens of micrometers in length with a high degree of size homogeneity. The FT-IR spectra show the obtained bands at 480 and 900 cm-1 are corresponding to the Mo-S bond and the S-S bond. The TG-DTA curves confirm the thermal stability of the prepared samples. It is observed that the band gap energy for the MoS2 nanorods is lower than for the nanospherical structure MoS2, which leads to achieve high electron and hole recombination rate.

  2. Structural and morphological characterizations of ZnO nanopowder synthesized by hydrothermal route using inorganic reactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djouadi, D.; Meddouri, M.; Chelouche, A.; Hammiche, L.; Aksas, A.

    2014-12-01

    Zinc oxide nanoscale powder has been synthesized by a hydrothermal route using zinc sulfate and sodium hydroxide. The as-prepared powder was annealed at 600 °C for 2 h and then characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and infra-red Fourier transformed spectroscopy. XRD measurements have shown a ZnO hexagonal wurtzite polycrystalline structure with good crystallinity and the formation of a new sodium pyrosulfate phase in the as-prepared powder. The annealing improves the crystalline quality of the powder and transforms the sodium pyrosulfate phase to a sodium sulfate one. The thermal treatment does not affect the lattice parameters and the Zn–O bond length but improves the random orientation of the ZnO crystallites growth. ZnO crystallites have an interconnected-nano-needles morphology forming irregular shaped aggregates. The size of the crystallites is about 20 nm. EDX analysis has shown the presence of C and S in addition to Zn and O. FTIR spectra confirm the formation of ZnO and sodium sulfate. The synthesized ZnO powder has a very high crystalline quality and the used method is a very advantageous one for the fabrication of nanosized metal oxides from inorganic reactants for photo-catalysis applications.

  3. Molecular and morphological characterization of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) from Chilean vineyards.

    PubMed

    Correa, M C G; Germain, J-F; Malausa, T; Zaviezo, T

    2012-10-01

    Mealybugs are major pests of grapevines worldwide. They cause economic losses by lowering the cosmetic value of fruits, reducing yields, transmitting viruses and resulting in the quarantine or rejection of produce in international trade. Knowledge of the species present in a vineyard is important for the adjustment of management strategies. We surveyed and accurately characterized the mealybugs infesting vineyards in one of the main production areas of Chile; 164 mealybugs were sampled from 26 vineyards in four regions of Chile and identified by DNA sequencing for two markers (cytochrome oxidase I and internal transcribed spacer 2) and morphological examination. Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret) was the most common species, followed by Pseudococcus meridionalis Prado and Pseudococcus cribata González. Molecular variability at the COI and ITS2 loci was observed in both P. viburni and P. cribata. A comparison of haplotypes of P. viburni worldwide provides support for a recent hypothesis that this species is native to South America, a finding with direct consequences for management. Neither Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni & Tozzetti) nor Planococcus ficus Signoret were found. PMID:22361038

  4. Moving beyond morphology: new insights into the characterization and management of cystic pancreatic lesions.

    PubMed

    Freeny, Patrick C; Saunders, Michael D

    2014-08-01

    The frequency of detection of cystic pancreatic lesions with cross-sectional imaging, particularly with multidetector computed tomography, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and MR cholangiopancreatography, is increasing, and many of these cystic pancreatic lesions are being detected incidentally in asymptomatic patients. Because there is considerable overlap in the cross-sectional imaging findings of cystic pancreatic lesions, and because many of these lesions being detected are smaller than 3 cm in diameter and lack any specific cross-sectional imaging features, it has become difficult to make informed decisions about patient management when the precise diagnosis remains uncertain. This article presents the limitations of cross-sectional imaging in patients with cystic pancreatic lesions, details advances in knowledge of the genomic and epigenomic changes that lead to progression of carcinogenesis, outlines the current understanding of the natural history of mucinous cystic lesions, and includes the current use and future potential of novel tumor markers and molecular analysis to characterize cystic pancreatic lesions more precisely. The need to move beyond cross-sectional imaging morphology and toward the use of new techniques to diagnose these lesions accurately is emphasized. An algorithm that uses these techniques is proposed and will hopefully lead to improved patient management. PMID:25058133

  5. Somatic hybridization by microfusion of defined protoplast pairs in Nicotiana: morphological, genetic, and molecular characterization.

    PubMed

    Spangenberg, G; Osusky, M; Oliveira, M M; Freydl, E; Nagel, J; Pais, M S; Potrykus, I

    1990-11-01

    Somatic hybrid/cybrid plants were obtained by microfusion of defined protoplast pairs from malefertile, streptomycin-resistant Nicotiana tabacum and cytoplasmic male-sterile (cms), streptomycin-sensitive N. tabacum cms (N. bigelovii) after microculture of recovered fusants. Genetic and molecular characterization of the organelle composition of 30 somatic hybrid/cybrid plants was performed. The fate of chloroplasts was assessed by an in vivo assay for streptomycin resistance/ sensitivity using leaf explants (R0 generation and R1 seedlings). For the analysis of the mitochondrial (mt) DNA, species-specific patterns were generated by Southern hybridization of restriction endonuclease digests of total DNA and mtDNA, with three DNA probes of N. sylvestris mitochondrial origin. In addition, detailed histological and scanning electron microscopy studies on flower ontogeny were performed for representative somatic hybrids/cybrids showing interesting flower morphology. The present study demonstrates that electrofusion of individually selected pairs of protoplasts (microfusion) can be used for the controlled somatic hybridization of higher plants. PMID:24221062

  6. Synthesis and characterization of mixed-morphology CePO{sub 4} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Karpowich, L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Wilcke, S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Yu, Rong [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Harley, G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Reimer, J.A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); De Jonghe, L.C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)], E-mail: dejonghe@lbl.gov

    2007-03-15

    Cerium phosphate nanoparticles with diameters of 10-180 nm were synthesized by a variety of solution techniques. X-ray diffraction (XRD) determined the crystalline phase(s) present in each sample. Population, shift, and spin-lattice relaxation {sup 31}P solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements accounted for all the {sup 31}P nuclei expected in each sample, and were able to distinguish between phosphorous nuclei in different environments and phases. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterized the morphology and crystallinity of the powder samples as well as of the sintered compacts of the powders. In conjunction with TEM, energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) provided a measure of the composition of the bulk intergranular regions within each CePO{sub 4} sample. The presence of an amorphous, phosphate-rich intergranular phase was found in those samples prepared by dissolution of ceria in H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} under various conditions. - Graphical abstract: High resolution electron microscopy image of amorphous intergranular phase (a) in polycrystalline monazite CePO{sub 4}.

  7. Identification and morphologic and molecular characterization of Cyclospora macacae n. sp. from rhesus monkeys in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Ye, Jianbin; Arrowood, Michael J; Ma, Jingbo; Wang, Lin; Xu, Hailing; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2015-05-01

    Cyclospora spp. in nonhuman primates are most closely related to Cyclospora cayetanensis, an emerging human pathogen causing outbreaks of cyclosporiasis in North America. Studies thus far indicate the possible existence of host specificity in Cyclospora spp. In this study, 411 fecal specimens from free-range rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were collected and examined for Cyclospora by sequence analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene. A novel Cyclospora species was identified in 28 (6.8%) specimens and named Cyclospora macacae based on morphologic and molecular characterizations. The oocyst of C. macacae is spherical and measures 8.49?±?0.55?×?8.49?±?0.49 ?m in diameter. Phylogenetic analysis grouped this species together with the other four Cyclospora species infecting primates, including C. cayetanensis in humans, forming a monophyletic group closely related to avian Eimeria species. In addition, C. cayetanensis was detected in one specimen, although whether rhesus monkeys can serve as a natural reservoir host of C. cayetanensis needs further investigation. PMID:25673080

  8. Electrical, Mechanical, and Morphological Characterization of Carbon Nanotube filled Polymeric Nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorga, Russell; Clarke, Laura; McCullen, Seth; Ojha, Satyajeet; Roberts, Wesley

    2006-03-01

    This work focuses on the inclusion of conductive nanotubes into polymeric matrices with the end goal of creating conductive nanocomposites. This investigation has been carried out by uniform dispersion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in aqueous solutions of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyethylene oxide (PEO), which are inherently nonconductive polymers. To fabricate these structures we are using the electrospinning process encompassing an array of collection methods including parallel bars and a static plate. Carbon nanotubes are known to have excellent electrical conductivity and mechanical properties. This investigation shows that the inclusion of carbon nanotubes increases the electronic conduction in these polymers and enhances the mechanical properties of the composites. Dispersion of these nanotubes is the key factor in this process; gum Arabic and surfactants have been utilized for the dispersion of these nanotubes. Conductivity measurements have been carried out by two point probe method and by performing sensitive current and conductance measurements with a femtoammeter. Further morphological characterization has been performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).^1 Department of Textile Engineering, Chemistry, and Science ^2 Department of Physics

  9. Characterization of the rat oral microbiome and the effects of dietary nitrate.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Embriette R; Luk, Berkley; Cron, Stanley; Kusic, Lenka; McCue, Tyler; Bauch, Tonya; Kaplan, Heidi; Tribble, Gena; Petrosino, Joseph F; Bryan, Nathan S

    2014-12-01

    The nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway to nitric oxide (NO) production is a symbiotic pathway in mammals that is dependent on nitrate reducing oral commensal bacteria. Studies suggest that by contributing NO to the mammalian host, the oral microbiome helps maintain cardiovascular health. To begin to understand how changes in oral microbiota affect physiological functions such as blood pressure, we have characterized the Wistar rat nitrate reducing oral microbiome. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and analysis we compare the native Wistar rat tongue microbiome to that of healthy humans and to that of rats with sodium nitrate and chlorhexidine mouthwash treatments. We demonstrate that the rat tongue microbiome is less diverse than the human tongue microbiome, but that the physiological activity is comparable, as sodium nitrate supplementation significantly lowered diastolic blood pressure in Wistar rats and also lowers blood pressure (diastolic and systolic) in humans. We also show for the first time that sodium nitrate supplementation alters the abundance of specific bacterial species on the tongue. Our results suggest that the changes in oral nitrate reducing bacteria may affect nitric oxide availability and physiological functions such as blood pressure. Understanding individual changes in human oral microbiome may offer novel dietary approaches to restore NO availability and blood pressure. PMID:25305639

  10. Species comparison and pharmacological characterization of rat and human CB2 cannabinoid receptors.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sutapa; Adams, Monique; Whiteaker, Kristi; Daza, Anthony; Kage, Karen; Cassar, Steven; Meyer, Michael; Yao, Betty Bei

    2004-11-28

    Pharmacological effects of cannabinoid ligands are thought to be mediated through cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptor subtypes. Sequence analysis revealed that rat and human cannabinoid CB2 receptors are divergent and share 81% amino acid homology. Pharmacological analysis of the possible species differences between rat and human cannabinoid CB2 receptors was performed using radioligand binding and functional assays. Pronounced species selectivity at the rat cannabinoid CB2 receptor (50- to 140-fold) was observed with AM-1710 (3-(1,1-Dimethyl-heptyl)-1-hydroxy-9-methoxy-benzo[c]chromen-6-one) and AM-1714 (3-(1,1-Dimethyl-heptyl)-1-9-dihydroxy-benzo[c]chromen-6-one). In contrast, JWH-015 ((2-Methyl-1-propyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-napthalen-1-yl-methanone) was 3- to 10-fold selective at the human cannabinoid CB2 receptor. Endocannabinoid ligands were more human receptor selective. Cannabinoid CB2 receptor antagonist, AM-630 ((6-Iodo-2-methyl-1-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethyl)-1H-indol-3-yl)-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-methanone) was more potent at the rat receptor in radioligand binding and functional assays than that of the human receptor. The findings of the pharmacological differences between the human and rat cannabinoid CB2 receptors in this study provide critical information for characterizing cannabinoid ligands in in vivo rodent models for drug discovery purpose. PMID:15556131

  11. A metabolic phenotyping approach to characterize the effects of cantonese herbal tea on restraint stressed rats.

    PubMed

    You, Rong; Pang, Qihua; Li, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Restraint stressed rats were used as a model of Shanghuo and a global metabolic investigation of the effects of cantonese herbal tea (CHT) on the model rats was then performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) metabonomics in an attempt to characterize the metabolic changes underlying such stress and any protective effects of CHT. Serum and urinary GC/MS profiling of rats exposed to 14?d of successive restraint stress for 6?h every day revealed dramatic changes as evidenced by downregulation of tryptophan metabolism, amino acid metabolism, energy metabolism and perturbation of gut microbiota composition. The administration of CHT to restraint-stressed rats ameliorated the symptoms by upregulation of energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism and modulation of the gut microbiota composition. In addition, CHT-treated rats exhibited a higher level of antioxidant production and a reduction in cholesterol level. The lower level of tryptophan metabolism caused by restraint stress, however, was not completely restored after CHT intake, indicating that the tea did not substantially improve this element. This research indicated that CHT intervention modeled Shanghuo symptoms of restraint stress through partial regulation of the perturbed metabolic pathways. PMID:25008130

  12. Electrophysiological characterization of entopeduncular nucleus neurons in anesthetized and freely moving rats

    PubMed Central

    Benhamou, Liora; Cohen, Dana

    2014-01-01

    The EntoPeduncular nucleus (EP), which is homologous to the internal segment of the Globus Pallidus (GPi) in primates, is one of the two basal ganglia (BG) output nuclei. Despite their importance in cortico-BG information processing, EP neurons have rarely been investigated in rats and there is no available electrophysiological characterization of EP neurons in vivo. We recorded and analyzed the activity of EP neurons in freely moving as well as anesthetized rats, and compared their activity patterns. Examination of neuronal firing statistics during wakefulness suggested that similar to neurons recorded in the primate GPi, EP neurons are a single population characterized by Poisson-like firing. Under isoflurane anesthesia the firing rate of EP neurons decreased substantially and their coefficient of variation and relative duration of quiescence periods increased. Investigation of the relationship between firing rate and depth of anesthesia revealed two distinct neuronal groups: one that decreased its firing rate with the increase in anesthesia level, and a second group where the firing rate was independent of anesthesia level. Post-hoc examination of the firing properties of the two groups showed that they were statistically distinct. These results may thus help reconcile in vitro studies in rats and primates which have reported two distinct neuronal populations, and in vivo studies in behaving primates indicating one homogeneous population. Our data support the existence of two distinct neuronal populations in the rat EP that can be distinguished by their characteristic firing response to anesthesia. PMID:24574980

  13. SERUM HORMONE CHARACTERIZATION AND EXOGENEOUS HORMONE RESCUE OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE-INDUCED PREGNANCY LOSS IN THE F344 RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    SERUM HORMONE CHARACTERIZATION AND EXOGENEOUS HORMONE RESCUE OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE-INDUCED PREGNANCY LOSS IN THE F344 RAT Susan R. Bielmeier*, Deborah S. Best^, and Michael G. Narotsky^ ABSTRACT Previously, we demonstrated that bromodichloromethane (BDCM), a d...

  14. Morphology and connectivity of parabrachial and cortical inputs to gustatory thalamus in rats.

    PubMed

    Holtz, Stephen L; Fu, Anqi; Loflin, Wyatt; Corson, James A; Erisir, Alev

    2015-01-01

    The ventroposterior medialis parvocellularis (VPMpc) nucleus of the thalamus, the thalamic relay nucleus for gustatory sensation, receives primary input from the parabrachial nucleus, and projects to the insular cortex. To reveal the unique properties of the gustatory thalamus in comparison with archetypical sensory relay nuclei, this study examines the morphology of synaptic circuitry in the VPMpc, focusing on parabrachiothalamic driver input and corticothalamic feedback. Anterogradely visualized parabrachiothalamic fibers in the VPMpc bear large swellings. At electron microscope resolution, parabrachiothalamic axons are myelinated and make large boutons, forming multiple asymmetric, adherent, and perforated synapses onto large-caliber dendrites and dendrite initial segments. Labeled boutons contain dense-core vesicles, and they resemble a population of terminals within the VPMpc containing calcitonin gene-related peptide. As is typical of primary inputs to other thalamic nuclei, parabrachiothalamic terminals are over five times larger than other inputs, while constituting only 2% of all synapses. Glomeruli and triadic arrangements, characteristic features of other sensory thalamic nuclei, are not encountered. As revealed by anterograde tracer injections into the insular cortex, corticothalamic projections in the VPMpc form a dense network of fine fibers bearing small boutons. Corticothalamic terminals within the VPMpc were also observed to synapse on cells that were retrogradely filled from the same injections. The results constitute an initial survey describing unique anatomical properties of the rodent gustatory thalamus. PMID:25186035

  15. Characterization of oxygenated metabolites of ginsenoside Rb1 in plasma and urine of rat.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Rong; Yau, Lee-Fong; Tong, Tian-Tian; Feng, Qi-Tong; Bai, Li-Ping; Ma, Jing; Hu, Ming; Liu, Liang; Jiang, Zhi-Hong

    2015-03-18

    Oxygenated metabolites have been suggested as the major circulating metabolites of ginsenosides. In the current study, 10 oxygenated metabolites of ginsenoside Rb1 in plasma and urine of rat following iv dose were characterized by comparison with chemically synthesized authentic compounds as quinquenoside L16 (M1 and M2), notoginsenoside A (M3), ginsenoside V (M4 and M7), epoxyginsenoside Rb1 (M5 and M9), notoginsenoside K (M6), and notoginsenoside C (M8 and M10), 9 of which were detected as in vivo metabolites for the first time. After oral administration of ginsenoside Rb1, M3, M4, and M7 were observed as major circulating metabolites and presented in the bloodstream of rat for 24 h. Characterization of the exact chemical structures of these circulating metabolites could contribute greatly to our understanding of chemical exposure of ginsenosides after consumption of ginseng products and provide valuable information for explaining multiple bioactivities of ginseng products. PMID:25737370

  16. Research report Characterizing learning deficits and hippocampal neuron loss following transient global cerebral ischemia in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard E. Hartman; Jin M. Lee; Greg J. Zipfel; David F. Wozniak

    The 2-vessel-occlusion + hypotension (2VO + H) model of transient global cerebral ischemia results in neurodegeneration within the CA1 field of the hippocampus, but previous research has failed to demonstrate robust or reliable learning\\/memory deficits in rats subjected to this treatment. In the present study, sensitive behavioral protocols were developed in an effort to characterize the cognitive impairments following 2VO

  17. Rat DARPP-32: Cloning, sequencing, and characterization of the cDNA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle E. Ehrlich; Tatsuya Kurihara; Paul Greengard

    1990-01-01

    DARPP-32, a substrate for cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, is highly enriched in the caudate nucleus. In the present study,\\u000a the cDNA for rat DARPP-32 was isolated and characterized. When compared to the coding region of bovine DARPP-32 cDNA, there\\u000a was 86% identity at the nucleotide level, and 84% identity at the amino acid level. The homology in the region previously

  18. Characterization of postjunctional muscarinic receptors mediating contraction in rat anococcygeus muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Weiser; Ernst Mutschler; Günter Lambrecht

    1997-01-01

    The present study was designed to characterize the postjunctional muscarinic receptors mediating contraction in rat anococcygeus\\u000a muscle by means of a series of muscarinic agonists and subtype-preferring key muscarinic antagonists. Cumulative addition\\u000a of muscarinic agonists elicited concentration-dependent contractions with the following rank order of potency (pD2 values): (+)-muscarine (6.36) ? oxotremorine M (6.21) ? arecaidine propargyl ester (APE) (6.18) >

  19. Partial purification and characterization of neutral proteases in lymph nodes of rats with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marion Edmonds Smith; Silver H. Chow; Richard H. Rolph

    1981-01-01

    Two kinds of neutral protease activities in lymph nodes from Lewis rats with acute experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) have been separated and partially purified and characterized. A soluble enzyme preparation enriched by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography hydrolyzes myelin basic protein, polylysine, and other basic proteins with an optimum pH at 6.0–6.5. It is inhibited byp-chloromercuribenzoate, and thus appears to

  20. The Purification and Characterization of Rat Gamma Interferon by Use of Two Monoclonal Antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PETER H. VAN DER MEIDE; MARTIN DUBBELD; KITTY VIJVERBERG; T. Kos; H. Schellekens

    1986-01-01

    SUMMARY Two mouse monoclonal antibodies, designated DB-1 and DB-2, were isolated and used for the purification and characterization of recombinant rat interferon gamma (rRIF-~,) derived from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The two antibodies belong to different classes (DB-1 is an IgGl and DB-2 an IgA) and display similar epitope specificities as shown in competition binding experiments. Both antibodies, raised

  1. Continuous Electrical Current and Zinc Sulphate Administered by Transdermal Iontophoresis Improves Skin Healing in Diabetic Rats Induced by Alloxan: Morphological and Ultrastructural Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Colli Rocha Dias, Pedro; Natália Lucchesi, Amanda; Ferraz de Arruda, Maurício; Veruska Paiva Ortolan, Érika; Marques, Mariângela Esther A.; Spadella, César Tadeu

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Evaluated the effects of continuous electrical current (CEC) or zinc administrated by transdermal iontophoresis (Zn+TDI). Methods. 120 male Wistar rats were submitted to an incision surgery at the anterior region of abdomen and distributed into 6 experimental groups with 40 animals: 3 diabetic groups and 3 normal groups, untreated and treated with CEC alone or with Zn + TDI. Each group was further divided into 4 subgroups with 10 rats each to be evaluated on the 4th, 7th, 14th, and 21st day after surgery. In each period, clinical and laboratory parameters from the animals were analyzed. Results. The analysis by optical and scanning electron microscopy showed a delay in the phases of wound healing in diabetic rats without treatment in all periods of the experiment; breaking strength (BS) was significantly reduced in skin scars of untreated diabetic rats when compared to other groups. In contrast, BS in skin scars of nondiabetic groups and diabetic rats treated with Zn + TDI showed significant increase in those, besides not presenting delayed healing. Conclusion. Electrical stimulation of surgical wounds used alone or in association with zinc by TDI is able to consistently improve the morphological and ultrastructural changes observed in the healing of diabetic animals. PMID:25254221

  2. Characterization of Time-Course Morphological Features for Efficient Prediction of Osteogenic Potential in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Matsuoka, Fumiko; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Agata, Hideki; Kagami, Hideaki; Shiono, Hirofumi; Kiyota, Yasujiro; Honda, Hiroyuki; Kato, Ryuji

    2014-01-01

    Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) represents one of the most frequently applied cell sources for clinical bone regeneration. To achieve the greatest therapeutic effect, it is crucial to evaluate the osteogenic differentiation potential of the stem cells during their culture before the implantation. However, the practical evaluation of stem cell osteogenicity has been limited to invasive biological marker analysis that only enables assaying a single end-point. To innovate around invasive quality assessments in clinical cell therapy, we previously explored and demonstrated the positive predictive value of using time-course images taken during differentiation culture for hBMSC bone differentiation potential. This initial method establishes proof of concept for a morphology-based cell evaluation approach, but reveals a practical limitation when considering the need to handle large amounts of image data. In this report, we aimed to scale-down our proposed method into a more practical, efficient modeling scheme that can be more broadly implemented by physicians on the frontiers of clinical cell therapy. We investigated which morphological features are critical during the osteogenic differentiation period to assure the performance of prediction models with reduced burden on image acquisition. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed characterization that describes both the critical observation period and the critical number of time-points needed for morphological features to adequately model osteogenic potential. Our results revealed three important observations: (i) the morphological features from the first 3 days of differentiation are sufficiently informative to predict bone differentiation potential, both activities of alkaline phosphatase and calcium deposition, after 3 weeks of continuous culture; (ii) intervals of 48?h are sufficient for measuring critical morphological features; and (iii) morphological features are most accurately predictive when early morphological features from the first 3 days of differentiation are combined with later features (after 10 days of differentiation). Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2014;111: 1430–1439. PMID:24420699

  3. Morphological characterization of carbonaceous aggregates in soot and free fall aerosol samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kamna Sachdeva; Arun K. Attri

    2008-01-01

    The morphological characteristics of BC aggregates present in the soot and carbonaceous aerosol (CA) samples were investigated. The process of soot formation under laboratory conditions took into account the commonly used practice of burning fuel in the households in India. The fractal morphology was determined by using box counting algorithm and maximum projected area of the aggregates by using their

  4. Physiological and morphological characterization of honeybee olfactory neurons combining electrophysiology, calcium imaging and confocal microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. G. Galizia; B. Kimmerle

    2004-01-01

    The insect antennal lobe is the first brain structure to process olfactory information. Like the vertebrate olfactory bulb the antennal lobe is substructured in olfactory glomeruli. In insects, glomeruli can be morphologically identified, and have characteristic olfactory response profiles. Local neurons interconnect glomeruli, and output (projection) neurons project to higher-order brain centres. The relationship between their elaborate morphology and their

  5. Morphologic and molecular characterization of traditional serrated adenomas of the distal colon and rectum.

    PubMed

    Wiland, Homer O; Shadrach, Bonnie; Allende, Daniela; Carver, Paula; Goldblum, John R; Liu, Xiuli; Patil, Deepa T; Rybicki, Lisa A; Pai, Rish K

    2014-09-01

    Of the serrated polyps, the origin, morphologic features, molecular alterations, and natural history of traditional serrated adenomas (TSAs) are the least understood. Recent studies suggest that these polyps may arise from precursor lesions. The frequencies of KRAS and BRAF mutations vary between these studies, and only 1 small study has measured CpG island methylation using current markers of methylation. Mutations in GNAS, a gene commonly mutated in colorectal villous adenomas, have not been fully evaluated in TSAs. Finally, the expression of annexin A10 (ANXA10), a recently discovered marker of sessile serrated adenomas/polyps, has not been studied in these polyps. To further characterize these polyps, 5 gastrointestinal pathologists reviewed 55 left-sided polyps diagnosed as TSA at a single institution. Pathologists assessed various histologic features including cytoplasmic eosinophilia, ectopic crypt foci, presence of conventional dysplasia, and presence of precursor serrated lesions. KRAS, BRAF, and GNAS mutational analysis was performed, as well as CpG island methylation and ANXA10 immunohistochemistry. Ectopic crypt foci were seen in 62% of TSAs. Precursor lesions were seen in 24% of the study polyps, most of which were hyperplastic polyps. KRAS and BRAF mutations were common and were present in 42% and 48% of polyps, respectively. GNAS mutations occurred in 8% of polyps, often in conjunction with a BRAF mutation. Unlike sessile serrated adenomas/polyps, TSAs rarely had diffuse expression of ANXA10. Importantly, BRAF-mutated TSAs had more widespread methylation of a 5-marker CpG island panel compared with KRAS-mutated polyps. However, ectopic crypt foci, a proposed defining feature of TSA, were not associated with any specific molecular alteration. PMID:25127095

  6. Characterization of six varieties of Cucumis melo L. based on morphological and physiological characters, including shelf-life of fruit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Liu; Fumika Kakihara; Masahiro Kato

    2004-01-01

    Seventy-two accessions covering six varieties of Cucumis melo were characterized by using 35 morphological characters with emphasis on shelf-life, and the relationships between shelf-life\\u000a and related characters was investigated. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that development period of plant and\\u000a fruit, size of seed and fruit, shelf-life, stem hair, flesh juiciness, netting, abscission of peduncle, rapid yellowing of\\u000a epidermis at

  7. Morphological Characterization of Polyanhydride Biodegradable Implant Gliadel ® During in Vitro and in Vivo Erosion Using Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenbin Dang; Todd Daviau; Henry Brem

    1996-01-01

    Purpose. The objectives of the current study are to characterize the distribution of the chemotherapeutic agent carmustine (BCNU) in spray dried polyanhydride microspheres and to describe the morphological changes that occur during the in vitro and in vivo erosion of the polyanhydride implant-GLIADEL®, which consists of BCNU distributed in the copolymer matrix of poly(carboxyphenoxy propane:sebacic acid) in a 20:80 molar

  8. Acupuncture and exercise restore adipose tissue expression of sympathetic markers and improve ovarian morphology in rats with dihydrotestosterone-induced PCOS.

    PubMed

    Mannerĺs, Louise; Cajander, Stefan; Lönn, Malin; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet

    2009-04-01

    Altered activity of the sympathetic nervous system, which innervates adipose and ovarian tissue, may play a role in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We hypothesize that electro-acupuncture (EA) and physical exercise reduce sympathetic activity by stimulating ergoreceptors and somatic afferent pathways in muscles. Here we investigated the effects of low-frequency EA and physical exercise on mRNA expression of sympathetic markers in adipose tissue and on ovarian morphology in female rats that received dihydrotestosterone (DHT) continuously, starting before puberty, to induce PCOS. At age 11 wk, rats with DHT-induced PCOS were randomly divided into three groups: PCOS, PCOS plus EA, and PCOS plus exercise. The latter two groups received 2-Hz EA (evoking muscle twitches) three times/week or had free access to a running wheel for 4-5 wk. In mesenteric adipose tissue, expression of beta(3)-adrenergic receptor (ADRB3), nerve growth factor (NGF), and neuropeptide Y (NPY) mRNA was higher in untreated PCOS rats than in controls. Low-frequency EA and exercise downregulated mRNA expression of NGF and NPY, and EA also downregulated expression of ADRB3, compared with untreated rats with DHT-induced PCOS. EA and exercise improved ovarian morphology, as reflected in a higher proportion of healthy antral follicles and a thinner theca interna cell layer than in untreated PCOS rats. These findings support the theory that increased sympathetic activity contributes to the development and maintenance of PCOS and that the effects of EA and exercise may be mediated by modulation of sympathetic outflow to the adipose tissue and ovaries. PMID:19158405

  9. Spatial and Temporal Morphological Changes in the Subarachnoid Space after Graded Spinal Cord Contusion in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Alva, Horacio J.; Franco-Bourland, Rebecca E.; Martinez-Cruz, Angelina; Grijalva, Israel; Madrazo, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Spontaneous repair or treatment-induced recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) is very limited and might be related to extramedullary alterations that have only briefly been documented. Here we report on the morphological changes of the spinal subarachnoid space (SAS) in a clinically relevant model of SCI. Anesthetized rats were subjected either to mild or severe spinal cord contusion at T9. Spine blocks from the site of injury and adjacent segments were harvested at acute (1?h and 1 day [d]), subacute (3 and 7 d), and chronic (1 and 3 months) stages post-injury. Histopathology and morphometry at each decalcified vertebral level were assessed. At acute and subacute stages, reduction of SAS lumen was observed after both mild and severe injuries. Acutely, after severe injuries, SAS occlusion was associated mainly with cord swelling and subarachnoid hematomas; a trend for dural sac constriction was observed for mild injuries. At 7 d, cord swelling diminished in both instances, but dural sac constriction increased for severe injuries. At early stages, in the epicenter and vicinity, histopathology revealed compression of neurovascular elements within the SAS, which was more intense in severe than in mild injuries. In the chronic stage, SAS lumen increased notably, mostly from cord atrophy, despite dural sac constriction. Myelograms complemented observations made on SAS lumen permeability. Post-traumatic arachnoiditis occurred mainly in animals with severe injury. In conclusion, early extramedullary SAS changes described here might be expected to produce alterations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics and cord blood perfusion, thereby contributing to the pathophysiology of SCI and becoming novel targets for treatment. PMID:23472674

  10. Amiodarone induced phospholipidosis. Biochemical, morphological and functional changes in the lungs of rats chronically treated with amiodarone.

    PubMed

    Riva, E; Marchi, S; Pesenti, A; Bizzi, A; Cini, M; Veneroni, E; Tavbani, E; Boeri, R; Bertani, T; Latini, R

    1987-10-01

    Amiodarone, an antiarrhythmic drug, causes pulmonary fibrosis in some patients during chronic treatment but the mechanism is unknown. We studied the effects of amiodarone on pulmonary biochemistry, morphology and function at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg/12 hr given to rats by gavage for four weeks. Plasma and pulmonary phospholipids were significantly augmented, 13% and 88% respectively, in the group given amiodarone 50 mg/kg/12 hr compared to pair-fed controls. Typical phospholipidosis-like light and electron microscopic alterations were seen in the lung, their severity related to the extent of biochemical changes induced by amiodarone. Pulmonary function tests revealed mild but not significant changes in O2 and CO2 alveolar exchange efficiency and lung compliance (P-V curve) of treated animals in comparison to pair fed controls. Plasma average concentrations of amiodarone and its main metabolite, desethylamiodarone, after four weeks were 2.46 +/- 0.18 and 0.73 +/- 0.13 micrograms/ml, respectively, in the 50 mg/kg/12 hr group. In the same group amiodarone and desethylamiodarone concentrations in lung were 163 +/- 26 and 569 +/- 153 times higher than those in plasma. A highly significant correlation was found between amiodarone concentrations in plasma and lung and phospholipid content in the lung. A subgroup of animals received amiodarone 50 mg/kg/12 hr for 8 weeks. The pulmonary phospholipidosis-like lesions were similar to those observed after one month of treatment, no fibrosis was evident on light microscopic examination. PMID:3663236

  11. Characterization of new surface morphologies in a hydrogen-bonded multilayer system

    E-print Network

    Kunz, Allison (Allison L.)

    2008-01-01

    This work presents an analysis of surface morphology changes in poly(acrylic acid)/polyacrylamide (PAA/PAAm) hydrogen-bonded multilayers. These changes were induced by immersion of the films in aqueous solutions of ...

  12. Synthesis and magnetic characterization of microstructures prepared from microbial templates of differing morphology

    E-print Network

    Hebard, Arthur F.

    of differing morphology Rakesh Mogul a,*, John J. Getz Kelly b , Morgan L. Cable a , Arthur F. Hebard b contamination and chemical side products. E. coli, which are normally ¨1 Am in length, were elongated using

  13. Morphological and molecular characterization of Fusarium verticillioides from rotten banana imported into Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Hirata; Etsuo Kimishima; Takayuki Aoki; Helgard I. Nirenberg; Kerry O'Donnell

    2001-01-01

    Seven strains ofFusarium were isolated from rotten fruit of banana (Musa cavendishii) imported into Japan from Mazanillo, Colima, Mexico. Morphological features of the isolates were described and illustrated,\\u000a and their pathogenicity to banana was determined. Morphological and molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that these isolates\\u000a were assignable toF. verticillioides. However, constant production of septate aerial conidia in chains by the banana

  14. Vital imaging of H9c2 myoblasts exposed to tert-butylhydroperoxide – characterization of morphological features of cell death

    PubMed Central

    Sardăo, Vilma A; Oliveira, Paulo J; Holy, Jon; Oliveira, Catarina R; Wallace, Kendall B

    2007-01-01

    Background When exposed to oxidative conditions, cells suffer not only biochemical alterations, but also morphologic changes. Oxidative stress is a condition induced by some pro-oxidant compounds, such as by tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBHP) and can also be induced in vivo by ischemia/reperfusion conditions, which is very common in cardiac tissue. The cell line H9c2 has been used as an in vitro cellular model for both skeletal and cardiac muscle. Understanding how these cells respond to oxidative agents may furnish novel insights into how cardiac and skeletal tissues respond to oxidative stress conditions. The objective of this work was to characterize, through vital imaging, morphological alterations and the appearance of apoptotic hallmarks, with a special focus on mitochondrial changes, upon exposure of H9c2 cells to tBHP. Results When exposed to tBHP, an increase in intracellular oxidative stress was detected in H9c2 cells by epifluorescence microscopy, which was accompanied by an increase in cell death that was prevented by the antioxidants Trolox and N-acetylcysteine. Several morphological alterations characteristic of apoptosis were noted, including changes in nuclear morphology, translocation of phosphatidylserine to the outer leaflet of the cell membrane, and cell blebbing. An increase in the exposure period or in tBHP concentration resulted in a clear loss of membrane integrity, which is characteristic of necrosis. Changes in mitochondrial morphology, consisting of a transition from long filaments to small and round fragments, were also detected in H9c2 cells after treatment with tBHP. Bax aggregates near mitochondrial networks were formed after short periods of incubation. Conclusion Vital imaging of alterations in cell morphology is a useful method to characterize cellular responses to oxidative stress. In the present work, we report two distinct patterns of morphological alterations in H9c2 cells exposed to tBHP, a pro-oxidant agent frequently used as model to induce oxidative stress. In particular, dynamic changes in mitochondrial networks could be visualized, which appear to be centrally involved in how these cells respond to oxidative stress. The data also indicate that the cause of H9c2 cell death following tBHP exposure is increased intracellular oxidative stress. PMID:17362523

  15. Morphological and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment lenght polymorphism characterization of Biomphalaria kuhniana and Biomphalaria amazonica from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Velasquez, Luz E; Caldeira, Roberta L; Estrada, Victoria; Carvalho, Omar S

    2002-10-01

    In Colombia, five Biomphalaria planorbid species are known: B. kuhniana, B. straminea, B. peregrina, B. canonica and B. oligoza(var. B. philippiana). Among them, B. straminea is intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni and B. peregrina has been found to be experimentally susceptible to this parasite. B. straminea is commonly confused with B. kuhniana and they have been clustered together with B. intermedia in the complex named B. straminea. The difficulties involved in the specific identification, based on morphological data, have motivated the use of new techniques as auxiliary tools in cases of inconclusive morphological identification of such planorbid. In the present study, five Biomphalaria populations from the Colombian Amazon region and from Interandian Valleys were morphologically identified and characterized by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment lenght polymorphism directed at the internal transcribed spacer region of the rRNA gene, followed by digestion of the generated fragment with restriction enzymes (DdeI, AluI, RsaI, MvaI and HaeIII). Known profiles of the Brazilian species B. straminea, B. peregrina, B. kuhniana, B. intermedia and B. amazonica, besides B. kuhniana from Colombia, were used for comparison. The five populations under study were morphologically and molecularly identified as B. kuhniana and B. amazonica. PMID:12471427

  16. Chronic ethanol exposure during adolescence through early adulthood in female rats induces emotional and memory deficits associated with morphological and molecular alterations in hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ana Ca; Pereira, Maria Cs; Santana, Luana N da Silva; Fernandes, Rafael M; Teixeira, Francisco B; Oliveira, Gedeăo B; Fernandes, Luanna Mp; Fontes-Júnior, Enéas A; Prediger, Rui D; Crespo-López, Maria E; Gomes-Leal, Walace; Lima, Rafael R; Maia, Cristiane do Socorro Ferraz

    2015-06-01

    There is increasing evidence that heavy ethanol exposure in early life may produce long-lasting neurobehavioral consequences, since brain structural maturation continues until adolescence. It is well established that females are more susceptible to alcohol-induced neurotoxicity and that ethanol consumption is increasing among women, especially during adolescence. In the present study, we investigated whether chronic ethanol exposure during adolescence through early adulthood in female rats may induce hippocampal histological damage and neurobehavioral impairments. Female rats were treated with distilled water or ethanol (6.5 g/kg/day, 22.5% w/v) by gavage from the 35(th)-90(th) day of life. Ethanol-exposed animals displayed reduced exploration of the central area and increased number of fecal boluses in the open field test indicative of anxiogenic responses. Moreover, chronic high ethanol exposure during adolescence induced marked impairments on short-term memory of female rats addressed on social recognition and step-down inhibitory avoidance tasks. These neurobehavioral deficits induced by ethanol exposure during adolescence through early adulthood were accompanied by the reduction of hippocampal formation volume as well as the loss of neurons, astrocytes and microglia cells in the hippocampus. These results indicate that chronic high ethanol exposure during adolescence through early adulthood in female rats induces long-lasting emotional and memory deficits associated with morphological and molecular alterations in the hippocampus. PMID:25922423

  17. The effects of taurine, hypotaurine, and taurine homologs on erythrocyte morphology, membrane fluidity and cytoskeletal spectrin alterations due to diabetes, alcoholism and diabetes-alcoholism in the rat.

    PubMed

    Gossai, Davekanand; Lau-Cam, Cesar A

    2009-01-01

    Taurine (TAU) and compounds representing a TAU analog (hypotaurine = HYTAU) or homolog (aminomethanesulfonic acid = AMSA, homotaurine = HMTAU) were tested for their counteracting effects against alterations in erythrocyte (RBC) morphology, membrane fluidity and cytoskeletal spectrin distribution due to diabetes, alcoholism and diabetes-alcoholism in male Goto-Kakizaki rats (made diabetic with a high fat diet and alcoholic upon feeding on a flavored alcohol solution) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (serving as controls). Both diabetes and alcoholism changed the RBC discoidal biconcave shape to a spiculated one, lowered membrane fluidity, and caused spectrin to become marginalized. While AMSA and HYTAU returned the RBC shape to normal, HMTAU made it only discoidal, and TAU was without effect. All test compounds, but TAU, maintained the membrane fluidity normal; and HYTAU and AMSA, but not TAU or HMTAU, kept spectrin uniformly distributed. The noted effects were correlated with compound structure and RBC values for malondialdehyde and cholesterol/phospholipid ratio. PMID:19239168

  18. Molecular and morphological characterization of myxozoan actinospore types from a commercial catfish pond in the Mississippi delta.

    PubMed

    Rosser, Thomas G; Griffin, Matt J; Quiniou, Sylvie M A; Greenway, Terrence E; Khoo, Lester H; Wise, David J; Pote, Linda M

    2014-12-01

    The actinospore diversity of infected Dero digitata was surveyed (May 2011) from a channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) production pond in the Mississippi Delta region for the elucidation of unknown myxozoan life cycles. At present, only 2 myxozoan life cycles have been molecularly confirmed in channel catfish, linking the actinospore stage from an aquatic oligochaete (D. digitata ) and the myxospore stage from the catfish. In this study D. digitata (n = 2,592) were isolated from oligochaetes collected from the bottom sediment of a channel catfish production pond. After 1 wk of daily observation, a total of 6 genetically different actinospore types were observed. The collective groups were classified as 2 aurantiactinomyxons, 2 helioactinomyxons, 1 raabeia, and 1 triactinomyxon. Overall prevalence of myxozoan infections in the isolated oligochaetes was 4.4%. Actinospores were photographed and measured for morphological characterization. Four previously undescribed actinospore types were identified and characterized molecularly and morphologically. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the raabeia and one of the helioactinomyxon (type 1) actinospores were closely related to the group of myxozoans known to parasitize ictalurids in North America. To date, no myxospores have been linked to the newly sequenced actinospores reported in this survey. The morphological and molecular data generated from this study will assist in the identification of myxospore counterparts for these actinospore stages and aid in the elucidation of unknown myxozoan life cycles in closed production systems. PMID:25003942

  19. Electrophysiological and morphological characterization of neuronal microcircuits in acute brain slices using paired patch-clamp recordings.

    PubMed

    Qi, Guanxiao; Radnikow, Gabriele; Feldmeyer, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The combination of patch clamp recordings from two (or more) synaptically coupled neurons (paired recordings) in acute brain slice preparations with simultaneous intracellular biocytin filling allows a correlated analysis of their structural and functional properties. With this method it is possible to identify and characterize both pre- and postsynaptic neurons by their morphology and electrophysiological response pattern. Paired recordings allow studying the connectivity patterns between these neurons as well as the properties of both chemical and electrical synaptic transmission. Here, we give a step-by-step description of the procedures required to obtain reliable paired recordings together with an optimal recovery of the neuron morphology. We will describe how pairs of neurons connected via chemical synapses or gap junctions are identified in brain slice preparations. We will outline how neurons are reconstructed to obtain their 3D morphology of the dendritic and axonal domain and how synaptic contacts are identified and localized. We will also discuss the caveats and limitations of the paired recording technique, in particular those associated with dendritic and axonal truncations during the preparation of brain slices because these strongly affect connectivity estimates. However, because of the versatility of the paired recording approach it will remain a valuable tool in characterizing different aspects of synaptic transmission at identified neuronal microcircuits in the brain. PMID:25650985

  20. In utero exposure to butyl benzyl phthalate induces modifications in the morphology and the gene expression profile of the mammary gland: an experimental study in rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Environmental estrogens are exogenous estrogen-mimicking compounds that can interfere with endogenous endocrine systems. Several of these endocrine disruptors have been shown to alter normal development and influence tumorigenesis in experimental models. N-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), a widely used plasticizer, is a well-known endocrine disruptor. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of prenatal exposure to BBP on the morphology, proliferative index, and genomic signature of the rat mammary gland at different ages. Methods In utero exposure was performed by gavage of pregnant Sprague Dawley CD rats with 120mg or 500mg BBP/kg/day from day 10 post-conception to delivery. Female litters were euthanized at 21, 35, 50 and 100 days. The morphology and proliferative index of the mammary gland were studied from whole mount preparations and BrdU incorporation, respectively. Gene expression profile was assessed by microarrays. Several genes found differentially expressed and related to different functional categories were further validated by real time RT-PCR. Results Prenatal exposure of BBP induced delayed vaginal opening and changes in the post-natal mammary gland long after the end of the treatment, mainly by 35 days of age. Exposure to the high dose resulted in modifications in architecture and proliferative index of the mammary gland, mostly affecting the undifferentiated terminal end buds. Moreover, the expression profiles of this gland in the exposed rats were modified in a dose-dependent fashion. Analysis of functional categories showed that modified genes were related to immune function, cell signaling, proliferation and differentiation, or metabolism. Conclusions Our data suggest that in utero exposure to BBP induced a delayed pubertal onset and modified morphology of the mammary gland. These alterations were accompanied by modifications in gene expression previously associated with an increased susceptibility to carcinogenesis. PMID:21241498

  1. Development and characterization of an exposure platform suitable for physico-chemical, morphological and toxicological characterization of printer-emitted particles (PEPs)

    PubMed Central

    Pirela, Sandra V.; Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; Bello, Dhimiter; Thomas, Treye; Castranova, Vincent; Demokritou, Philip

    2015-01-01

    An association between laser printer use and emissions of particulate matter (PM), ozone and volatile organic compounds has been reported in recent studies. However, the detailed physico-chemical, morphological and toxicological characterization of these printer-emitted particles (PEPs) and possible incorporation of engineered nanomaterials into toner formulations remain largely unknown. In this study, a printer exposure generation system suitable for the physico-chemical, morphological, and toxicological characterization of PEPs was developed and used to assess the properties of PEPs from the use of commercially available laser printers. The system consists of a glovebox type environmental chamber for uninterrupted printer operation, real-time and time-integrated particle sampling instrumentation for the size fractionation and sampling of PEPs and an exposure chamber for inhalation toxicological studies. Eleven commonly used laser printers were evaluated and ranked based on their PM emission profiles. Results show PM peak emissions are brand independent and varied between 3000 to 1 300 000 particles/cm3, with modal diameters ranging from 49 to 208 nm, with the majority of PEPs in the nanoscale (<100 nm) size. Furthermore, it was shown that PEPs can be affected by certain operational parameters and printing conditions. The release of nanoscale particles from a nano-enabled product (printer toner) raises questions about health implications to users. The presented PEGS platform will help in assessing the toxicological profile of PEPs and the link to the physico-chemical and morphological properties of emitted PM and toner formulations. PMID:24862974

  2. Development and characterization of an exposure platform suitable for physico-chemical, morphological and toxicological characterization of printer-emitted particles (PEPs).

    PubMed

    Pirela, Sandra V; Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; Bello, Dhimiter; Thomas, Treye; Castranova, Vincent; Demokritou, Philip

    2014-06-01

    An association between laser printer use and emissions of particulate matter (PM), ozone and volatile organic compounds has been reported in recent studies. However, the detailed physico-chemical, morphological and toxicological characterization of these printer-emitted particles (PEPs) and possible incorporation of engineered nanomaterials into toner formulations remain largely unknown. In this study, a printer exposure generation system suitable for the physico-chemical, morphological, and toxicological characterization of PEPs was developed and used to assess the properties of PEPs from the use of commercially available laser printers. The system consists of a glovebox type environmental chamber for uninterrupted printer operation, real-time and time-integrated particle sampling instrumentation for the size fractionation and sampling of PEPs and an exposure chamber for inhalation toxicological studies. Eleven commonly used laser printers were evaluated and ranked based on their PM emission profiles. Results show PM peak emissions are brand independent and varied between 3000 to 1?300?000?particles/cmł, with modal diameters ranging from 49 to 208?nm, with the majority of PEPs in the nanoscale (<100?nm) size. Furthermore, it was shown that PEPs can be affected by certain operational parameters and printing conditions. The release of nanoscale particles from a nano-enabled product (printer toner) raises questions about health implications to users. The presented PEGS platform will help in assessing the toxicological profile of PEPs and the link to the physico-chemical and morphological properties of emitted PM and toner formulations. PMID:24862974

  3. Characterizing the Morphologies of Mechanically Manipulated Multiwall Carbon Nanotube Films by Small-Angle X-ray Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Wang,B.; Bennett, R.; Verploegen, E.; Hart, A.; Cohen, R.

    2007-01-01

    We used small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) to quantitatively characterize the morphological characteristics of pristine and mechanically manipulated multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) films. We determined that CNT diameters measured near the edges of a film were smaller compared to those measured in the interior. Uniaxially compressed MWCNT films exhibited a buckling deformation that was observable both in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and SAXS. CNT films were also converted into cellular foams of CNTs through capillarity-induced densification. By examining spatially- and time-resolved SAXS data for the cellular foams, we identified low angle features in the scattering curves that correspond to the average spacing between CNTs, demonstrating that SAXS is a useful method for monitoring the packing density of CNTs in a film. For all of the morphologies that were examined (aligned, disordered, compressed, and densified), SAXS data showed good correspondence with SEM images.

  4. Differential effects of the aging process on the morphology of the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus of male and female rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Dulce Madeira; Lu??s Ferreira-Silva; Carlos Ruela; Manuel M Paula-Barbosa

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the effects of aging on the neuroanatomical sex dimorphisms of the rat hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus (VMN). Stereological methods were used to estimate the volume of the VMN and the total number and size of its neurons, including their dendritic trees, in males and females aged 6 and 24 months. No cell loss was detected in aged rats. However,

  5. Solvothermal synthesis and characterization of ceria with solid and hollow spherical and multilayered morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Lei; Li, Junping; Feng, Zhihai; Sun, Dongfeng; Wang, Tingyu; Li, Ruixing; Xu, Yaohui

    2014-12-01

    Ceria powders with different morphologies were synthesized using a facile template-free solvothermal process combined with calcination. The influence of solvothermal temperature and time on the powder was studied. Solid spheres, hollow spheres, and multilayered structures were controlled by adjusting the solvothermal conditions. The possible mechanisms for the formation of the precursors under the solvothermal conditions employed and the evolution of the powder from solid spherical to multilayered structures were discussed. Ethylene glycol played a key role in the morphology evolution of the powder. Cerium catalyzed the Guerbet-like reaction and reacted with ethylene glycol to produce ceria (CeO2), Ce(HCOO)3, and Ce(OH)CO3. The redox-assisted dissolution-recrystallization process significantly contributed to the morphology transformation from solid spheres to multilayered structures. Moreover, the samples synthesized at different temperatures for 24 h possessed excellent adsorption capacities towards the removal of acid orange 7 when compared with commercial ceria.

  6. New method for fast morphological characterization of organic polycrystalline films by polarized optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiao-Chuan; Yang, Jian-Bing; Yan, Dong-Hang; Weng, Yu-Xiang

    2015-07-01

    A new method to visualize the large-scale crystal grain morphology of organic polycrystalline films is proposed. First, optical anisotropic transmittance images of polycrystalline zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) films vacuum deposited by weak epitaxial growth (WEG) method were acquired with polarized optical microscopy (POM). Then morphology properties including crystal grain size, distribution, relative orientation, and crystallinity were derived from these images by fitting with a transition dipole model. At last, atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging was carried out to confirm the fitting and serve as absolute references. This method can be readily generalized to other organic polycrystalline films, thus providing an efficient way to access the large-scale morphologic properties of organic polycrystalline films, which may prove to be useful in industry as a film quality monitoring method. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 20933010) and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB834800).

  7. Characterization by antagonists of P2-receptors mediating endothelium-dependent relaxation in the rat aorta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georg Hansmann; Ralph Bültmann; Florin Tuluc; Klaus Starke

    1997-01-01

    The receptors through which 2-methylthio ATP (MeSATP), adenosine 5?-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) (ADP?S), UTP and ATP elicit endothelium-dependent\\u000a relaxation of noradrenaline-precontracted rings of the rat aorta were characterized by means of a series of antagonists. The\\u000a acetylcholine-induced relaxation and the degradation of MeSATP, UTP and ATP were also studied.\\u000a \\u000a The potency of the nucleotides at producing relaxation decreased in the order MeSATP (EC50

  8. Characterization of a new rat model for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathies.

    PubMed

    Brun, Susana; Beaino, Wissam; Kremer, Laurent; Taleb, Omar; Mensah-Nyagan, Ayikoe Guy; Lam, Chanh D; Greer, Judith M; de Seze, Jérôme; Trifilieff, Elisabeth

    2015-01-15

    Our objective was to develop a chronic model of EAN which could be used as a tool to test treatment strategies for CIDP. Lewis rats injected with S-palmitoylated P0(180-199) peptide developed a chronic, sometimes relapsing-remitting type of disease. Our model fulfills electrophysiological criteria of demyelination with axonal degeneration, confirmed by immunohistopathology. The late phase of the chronic disease was characterized by accumulation of IL-17(+) cells and macrophages in sciatic nerves and by high serum IL-17 levels. In conclusion, we have developed a reliable and reproducible animal model resembling CIDP that can now be used for translational drug studies. PMID:25595246

  9. Morphological and electrophysiological changes in intratelencephalic-type pyramidal neurons in the motor cortex of a rat model of levodopa-induced dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Tatsuya; Yamada, Junko; Nishijima, Haruo; Arai, Akira; Migita, Keisuke; Baba, Masayuki; Ueno, Shinya; Tomiyama, Masahiko

    2014-04-01

    Levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) is a major complication of long-term dopamine replacement therapy for Parkinson's disease, and becomes increasingly problematic in the advanced stage of the disease. Although the cause of LID still remains unclear, there is accumulating evidence from animal experiments that it results from maladaptive plasticity, resulting in supersensitive excitatory transmission at corticostriatal synapses. Recent work using transcranial magnetic stimulation suggests that the motor cortex displays the same supersensitivity in Parkinson's disease patients with LID. To date, the cellular mechanisms underlying the abnormal cortical plasticity have not been examined. The morphology of the dendritic spines has a strong relationship to synaptic plasticity. Therefore, we explored the spine morphology of pyramidal neurons in the motor cortex in a rat model of LID. We used control rats, 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats (a model of Parkinson's disease), 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats chronically treated with levodopa (a model of LID), and control rats chronically treated with levodopa. Because the direct pathway of the basal ganglia plays a central role in the development of LID, we quantified the density and size of dendritic spines in intratelencephalic (IT)-type pyramidal neurons in M1 cortex that project to the striatal medium spiny neurons in the direct pathway. The spine density was not different among the four groups. In contrast, spine size became enlarged in the Parkinson's disease and LID rat models. The enlargement was significantly greater in the LID model than in the Parkinson's disease model. This enlargement of the spines suggests that IT-type pyramidal neurons acquire supersensitivity to excitatory stimuli. To confirm this possibility, we monitored miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) in the IT-type pyramidal neurons in M1 cortex using whole-cell patch clamp. The amplitude of the mEPSCs was significantly increased in the LID model compared with the control. This indicates that the IT-type pyramidal neurons become hyperexcited in the LID model, paralleling the enlargement of spines. Thus, spine enlargement and the resultant hyperexcitability of IT-type pyramidal neurons in M1 cortex might contribute to the abnormal cortical neuronal plasticity in LID. PMID:24398173

  10. Morphologic characterization of isolated bovine early preantral follicles during short-term individual in vitro culture.

    PubMed

    Jorssen, E P A; Langbeen, A; Marei, W F A; Fransen, E; De Porte, H F M; Leroy, J L M R; Bols, P E J

    2015-07-15

    To provide new insights in the molecular mechanism controlling preantral follicular development and to unravel the needs to support in vitro follicular development of early-stage preantral follicles (PAFs), there is a need for alternative in vitro bovine follicle culture methods. In this study, we aimed to characterize follicular dynamics using an IVC system of isolated and individually cultured bovine early PAFs during 10 days to generate individual follicle follow-up data. Preantral follicles (<50 ?m) were isolated from slaughterhouse ovaries and cultured individually for 10 days. Individual follicle morphology, growth, survival, quality, and cell proliferation were evaluated in time by combining noninvasive and invasive assessment methods. The PAFs were light microscopically evaluated during culture to assess follicular dynamics, stained with neutral red to determine follicle viability, stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling to evaluate cell proliferation and follicle quality, and processed for histologic evaluation to assess follicle morphology. On the basis of their morphology, follicles were subdivided in three categories, with category 1 follicles showing the best morphologic features. On Day 0, only category 1 follicles were selected, but follicle categories were reassigned on evaluation Days 1, 2, 4, 7, or 10. Although 67% of the follicles survived 10 days of IVC, the number of follicles exhibiting a normal morphology decreased significantly from Day 7 onward and the apoptotic index increased significantly from Day 10. Both category 1 and 2 follicles showed a significant increase in follicular diameter (Day 10: 21.80 ± 0.86 and 11.82 ± 0.80, respectively). This increase in follicular diameter showed to be correlated with an increase in the total cell number. In conclusion, this culture system showed to support follicular development until Day 10, although the proportion of follicles showing normal morphologic features and the follicular quality decreased after 10 days of IVC. Follicles maintaining their category 1 morphologic features over time seem to be of a better quality and show a higher developmental competence as compared to category 2 and 3 follicles. PMID:25896076

  11. Morphological and molecular characterization of Globodera populations from Oregon and Idaho

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of Globodera, identified from three potato fields, is described herein as Globodera pseudopallida n. sp. Morphologically, G. pseudopallida n. sp. exhibits some unique features that are not consistent between populations; but molecularly, G. pseudopallida n. sp. is distinct from G. pall...

  12. Three novel species of Stemphylium from Sinkiang, China: their morphological and molecular characterization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three new species of Stemphylium were isolated from diseased leaves of Luffa cylindrica, Lycium chinense and Cucumis melo growing in the Sinkiang province of Northwest China. Stemphylium luffae, S. lycii and S. cucumis are described by morphological and molecular phylogenetic analyses. The principal...

  13. Morphological and molecular characterization of separated pelagic eggs from Lophius litulon (Lophiiformes; Lophiidae).

    PubMed

    Oh, J; Kim, S

    2015-06-01

    Free-floating eggs of Lophius litulon were collected using plankton nets after their release from a pelagic egg mass. The eggs were identified based on molecular analysis and several morphological characteristics. These rare, separated eggs have not been reported previously and represent the first such finding for Lophiiformes. PMID:25943592

  14. Particle Morphology and Density Characterization by Combined Mobility and Aerodynamic Diameter Measurements. Part 1: Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter F. DeCarlo; Jay G. Slowik; Douglas R. Worsnop; Paul Davidovits; Jose L. Jimenez

    2004-01-01

    Different on-line submicron particle sizing techniques report different “equivalent diameters.” For example, differential mobility analyzers (DMAs) report electrical mobility diameter (dm), while a number of recently developed instruments (such as the Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer, or AMS) measure vacuum aerodynamic diameter (dva). Particle density and physical morphology (shape) have important effects on diameter measurements. Here a framework is presented for

  15. Morphological, thermal and mechanical characterization of okra ( Abelmoschus esculentus) fibres as potential reinforcement in polymer composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Igor Maria De Rosa; Josč Maria Kenny; Debora Puglia; Carlo Santulli; Fabrizio Sarasini

    2010-01-01

    Okra technical fibres are extracted from the stem of a plant of the Malvaceae family (Abelmoschus esculentus), which is originally from Egypt, but is also cropped in Southern Asia and elsewhere for nutritional purposes. Their use as potential reinforcement in polymer composites requires the understanding of their microstructure and mechanical properties. This work investigates the morphology of the technical fibres

  16. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) morphological surface characterization of transparent gas barrier coatings on plastic films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Garcia-Ayuso; L. Vázquez; J. M. Martínez-Duart

    1996-01-01

    The relationship between the surface morphology and water vapor diffusivity of barrier coatings on polymeric polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films is studied by atomic force microscopy. The coatings, composed of aluminum oxide and\\/or silicon oxide, were grown by various deposition methods. It is observed that no correlation exists when the surface roughness is measured over large scanned areas owing to the

  17. Establishment and characterization of an immature epithelial cell line (ENU-T-1) derived from a rat nephroblastoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoji Nagashima; Yoshiharu Ohaki; Makoto Umeda; Mitsuo Oshimura; Kazuaki Misugi

    1989-01-01

    Summary  A new cell line designated ENU-T-1 has been established from a xenotransplanted experimental rat nephroblastoma. The cultured\\u000a cells are spindle-shaped or polygonal and are arranged in a wavy fashion morphologically similar to cultured embryonal renal\\u000a epithelial cells. The cells exhibit a number of epithelial characteristics. Enzyme histochemistry gives positive reactions\\u000a for gammaglutamyltranspeptidase and alkaline phosphatase, both of which are present

  18. Effects of early and late adverse experiences on morphological characteristics of Sprague-Dawley rat liver subjected to stress during adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Vásquez, Bélgica; Sandoval, Cristian; Smith, Ricardo Luiz; del Sol, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    The literature indicates that early rupture of the maternal bond and social isolation are variables involved in social and emotional behaviors and in increase in anxiety, particularly in stressful situations. The liver plays a role in the adaptation to stress, yet the possible morphologic changes that its structure can suffer have been studied very little. Therefore, the aim here was to ascertain, through the model of altering the early mother-infant bond and the late social bond through isolation, the effect on the stereologic characteristics of the liver in adult Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to intermittent chronic stress. Twenty-five newborn female rats were used, distributed into 5 groups, under standardized lactation and feeding conditions. The experimental groups were exposed to early (E1), late (E2), and early-late (E3) adverse experiences and then subjected to intermittent chronic stress in adulthood. The liver of each animal was isolated, and the stereologic characteristics of Nv, Vv, and Sv of the hepatocytes were determined. The results from the experimental groups were significantly higher than those obtained in the control groups. The highest values were found in group E3 (Nv = 4.43 ± 0.89 x 105/mm3, Vv = 68.74 ± 2.01%, Sv = 68.78 ± 3.77 mm2/mm3). Considering these results, the hepatic morphology can be affected by exposure to chronic stress; however, when the individuals have been subjected to previous adverse experiences, the changes are more evident. PMID:25197335

  19. Characterization of flexible ECoG electrode arrays for chronic recording in awake rats

    PubMed Central

    Yeager, John D.; Phillips, Derrick J.; Rector, David M.; Bahr, David F.

    2008-01-01

    We developed a 64 channel flexible polyimide ECoG electrode array and characterized its performance for long term implantation, chronic cortical recording and high resolution mapping of surface evoked potentials in awake rats. To achieve the longest possible recording periods, the flexibility of the electrode array, adhesion between the metals and carrier substrate, and biocompatibility was critical for maintaining the signal integrity. Experimental testing of thin film adhesion was applied to a gold – polyimide system in order to characterize relative interfacial fracture energies for several different adhesion layers, yielding an increase in overall device reliability. We tested several different adhesion techniques including: gold alone without an adhesion layer, titanium-tungsten, tantalum and chromium. We found the titanium-tungsten to be a suitable adhesion layer considering the biocompatibility requirements as well as stability and delamination resistance. While chromium and tantalum produced stronger gold adhesion, concerns over biocompatibility of these materials require further testing. We implanted the polyimide ECoG electrode arrays through a slit made in the skull of rats and recorded cortical surface evoked responses. The arrays performed reliably over a period of at least 100 days and signals compared well with traditional screw electrodes, with better high frequency response characteristics. Since the ultimate goal of chronically implanted electrode arrays is for neural prosthetic devices that need to last many decades, other adhesion layers that would prove safe for implantation may be tested in the same way in order to improve the device reliability. PMID:18640155

  20. Isolation, morphological and molecular characterization of phytate-hydrolysing fungi by 18S rDNA sequence analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gontia-Mishra, Iti; Deshmukh, Dhanshree; Tripathi, Niraj; Bardiya-Bhurat, Khushboo; Tantwai, Keerti; Tiwari, Sharad

    2013-01-01

    Phytate is the primary storage form of phosphate in plants. Monogastric animals like poultry, pigs and fishes have very low or no phytase activities in their digestive tracts therefore, are incapable to efficiently utilize phytate phosphorus from the feed. Phytase from microbial sources are supplemented to feedstuff of these to increase the uptake of phytate phosphorus. In the present work efforts were made to isolate and characterize proficient phytase producing fungi from soil. Phytase producing fungi were isolated using phytate specific medium. Fungal isolates were selected according to their higher phytase activities. These isolates were further characterized and identified by morphological and microscopic analysis and confirmed by amplification of 18S rRNA gene, using specific primers. This gene was subsequently sequenced and phylogenetic affiliations were assigned. Fungal isolates were identified as various species of Aspergillus. Phytases from these fungi could be utilized as a feed additive in poultry and swine industries. PMID:24159322

  1. IN UTERO 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN (TCDD) ALTERSREPRODUCTIVE MORPHOLOGY AND FUNCTION IN FEMALE RAT OFFSPRING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, it was demonstrated that administration of TCDD during gestation permanently alters 'the reproductive potential of male rat and male hamster offspring. he objectives of this study were to determine if perinatal TCDD treatment altered sex differentiation and reproductive...

  2. Maternal use of flaxseed oil during pregnancy and lactation prevents morphological alterations in pancreas of female offspring from rat dams with experimental diabetes.

    PubMed

    Correia-Santos, André Manoel; Vicente, Gabriela C; Suzuki, Akemi; Pereira, Aline D; Dos Anjos, Juliana S; Lenzi-Almeida, Kátia C; Boaventura, Gilson T

    2015-04-01

    Nutritional recommendations have promoted the increased need to consume n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Flaxseed is the richest dietary source of n-3 fatty acids among plant sources and is widely used for its edible oil. This study aimed to investigate whether maternal use of flaxseed oil has effects on pancreas morphology in the female offspring of diabetic mothers. Female Wistar rats (n = 12) were induced into diabetes by a high-fat diet and low dose of streptozotocin. After confirmation of the diabetes, rats were mated, and once pregnancy was confirmed, they were allocated into three groups (n = 6): high-fat group (HG); flaxseed oil group (FOG); and control group (CG) (non-diabetic rats). At weaning, female offspring (n = 6/group) received standard chow diet. The animals were euthanized at 180 days. Pancreas was collected for histomorphometric and immunohistochemistry analysis. HG showed hypertrophy of pancreatic islets (P < 0.0001), whereas FOG offspring had islets with smaller diameters compared to HG (P < 0.0001). HG offspring showed higher percentage of larger (P = 0.0061) and lower percentage of smaller islets (P = 0.0036). HG showed lower islet insulin immunodensity at 180 days (P < 0.0001), whereas FOG was similar to CG (P < 0.0001). Flaxseed oil reduced the damage caused by maternal hyperglycaemia, promoting normal pancreas histomorphometry and ?-cell mass in female offspring. PMID:25808815

  3. The Morphology of the Rat Vibrissal Follicle-Sinus Complex Revealed by Three-Dimensional Computer-Aided Reconstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeong-Nam Kim; Ki-Seok Koh; Eun Lee; Soon-Cheol Park; Wu-Chul Song

    2011-01-01

    The vibrissal follicle-sinus complex (FSC) is a sensory receptor of the mammalian integumentary system that is located around the mouth. The purpose of the present study was to identify the actual 3-dimensional structure of the rat vibrissal FSC. Rat skin tissue was serially sectioned at a thickness of 10 ?m and then stained with Masson’s trichrome. The serial sections were

  4. Morphological and molecular characterization of different Echinochloa spp. and Oryza sativa populations.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Santaella, J P; Bastida, F; Franco, A R; De Prado, R

    2006-02-22

    Echinochloa P. Beauv. is an important genus because many of its species are weeds infesting most paddy fields, which can reduce the rice grain production by up to 80%. A controversy exists about the taxonomy of the genus due to the high level of morphological variations found in these species. Cyhalofop-butyl, an aryloxyphenoxy-propionate herbicide, is used to control Echinochloa spp. in paddy fields, although differences in susceptibility were found between different Echinochloa species. E. colona was highly susceptible [ED50= 34 g of active ingredient (ai) ha(-1)]; very similar results were obtained with the remaining species. By contrast, E. oryzicola (170 g of ai ha(-1)) was less sensitive, with the herbicide symptoms appearing later. Because of this differential susceptibility, morphological and molecular studies were carried out. A morphological study, using 21 characters both quantitative and qualitative of spikelets and seedlings, was capable of clearly distinguishing closely related E. crus-galli plants (two populations), E. muricata and E. crus-pavonis, and E. oryzicola, E. utilis, and E. colona species. The resolution of Echinochloa species at the molecular level, based on RAPD analyses, was fairly consistent with morphological analysis results. Among the 60 primers screened, 21 primers exhibited polymorphic bands and produced a total of 136 RAPD markers. Of all the amplified fragments, 90 were found to be polymorphic. E. oryzicola and E. colona were clearly separated, and the RAPD analyses showed that both E. crus-galli populations were 100% related and 51% related to E. utilis, whereas E. crus-pavonis and E. muricata (73% similarity) appeared as being clearly separated from this group. PMID:16478232

  5. Controlled synthesis and characterization of layered manganese oxide nanostructures with different morphologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naicai Xu; Zong-Huai Liu; Xiangrong Ma; Shanfeng Qiao; Jiaqi Yuan

    2009-01-01

    Layered manganese oxide nanostructures with different morphologies, such as nanowire bundles, cotton agglomerates, and platelikes\\u000a were successfully fabricated by a simple and template-free hydrothermal method based on a reaction of KMnO4 and KOH solutions with different concentrations. The obtained nanowire bundles were assembled by nanowires with diameters\\u000a of 10 to 200 nm and lengths up to 5–10 ?m. The cotton agglomerates were

  6. Molecular and Morphological Characterization of Endophytic Heterobasidion araucariae from Roots of Capsicum annuum L. in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Narayan Chandra; Deng, Jian Xin; Shin, Kyu Seop

    2012-01-01

    A species of Heterobasidion was encountered during a diversity study of endophytic fungi from healthy root tissues of chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in Korea. The fungal species (CNU081069) was identified as Heterobasidion araucariae based on phylogenetic analyses of the internal transcribed spacer and translation elongation factor gene sequences. Morphological descriptions of the endophytic isolate matched well with the previous references and supported the molecular identification. The fungus Heterobasidion araucariae CNU081069 is new to Korea. PMID:22870048

  7. Morphological and Physicochemical Characterization of Commercial Maltodextrins with Different Degrees of Dextrose-Equivalent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Y. Takeiti; T. G. Kieckbusch; F. P. Collares-Queiroz

    2010-01-01

    Maltodextrins show increasing industrial applications depending on the extent of the starch hydrolysis. This paper reports a relationship between morphological and physico-chemical characteristics of different maltodextrins (A, B, and C) in order to establish appropriate uses. The moisture content of the maltodextrins varied from 2.82 to 6.47% and true and bulk density, average particle size, and porosity of the maltodextrins

  8. Morphological characterization of ? phase in poly-(vinylidenefluoride) film prepared by spin cast method

    SciTech Connect

    Mehtani, Hitesh Kumar, E-mail: kkraina@gmail.com; Kumar, Rishi, E-mail: kkraina@gmail.com; Raina, K. K., E-mail: kkraina@gmail.com [School of Physics and Materials Science, Thapar University, Patiala-147004 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Poly-(Vinylidene fluoride) PVDF film was prepared by spin casting method to control the pore size of the matrix. The morphological spherulitic structure was confirmed Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) after gold sputtering and the presence of ? phase was ensured in spin cast PVDF film by the FTIR spectroscopy. The ? phase is very important in the application because it improve the properties like piezoelectricity by modifying PVDF crystallinity.

  9. Morphological and genetic characterization of Echinococcus granulosus in the Slovak Republic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L'udmila Tur?eková; Viliam Šnábel; Stefano D'Amelio; Marina Busi; Pavol Dubinský

    2003-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to characterize more thoroughly aetiological agent of cystic echinococcosis that still represents a health problem in the Slovak Republic. Sequencing of the mitochondrial ND1 gene, Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and isoenzyme analyses were used to characterize genetically protoscolices of 37 isolates from pigs and cattle and two isolates from humans collected in different

  10. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Bambusa tulda with a Note on Flowering

    PubMed Central

    BHATTACHARYA, SAMIK; DAS, MALAY; BAR, RADHARAMAN; PAL, AMITA

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Flowering incidence in Bambusa tulda has a high socio-economic impact. The aim of the present study was to describe the species for morphological characters (vegetative and reproductive) as well as molecular markers in order to enable species identification at various stages of the life cycle. • Methods Thirty-two key morphological characters (15 culm and 17 culm-sheath) were studied along with detailed inflorescence and floral characters. Incidence of sporadic flowering was recorded. Genomic DNA was isolated from leaves collected from 17 eco-geographical locations and RAPD profiles were generated. • Key Results The description of culm, culm-sheath, inflorescence and floral morphology are in agreement with the prior taxonomic description by Gamble in 1896, but in this communication a more detailed description and illustrations are presented. No seed set was recorded following sporadic flowering, probably due to prezygoting isolating mechanisms (herkogamy or protandry). All 17 populations surveyed generated identical RAPD profiles. • Conclusions Sporadic flowering may occur in B. tulda, but may not necessarily be followed by gregarious flowering, and does not result in seed production. PMID:16845134

  11. Spinal Cord Transection-Induced Allodynia in Rats – Behavioral, Physiopathological and Pharmacological Characterization

    PubMed Central

    M'Dahoma, Saďd; Bourgoin, Sylvie; Kayser, Valérie; Barthélémy, Sandrine; Chevarin, Caroline; Chali, Farah; Orsal, Didier; Hamon, Michel

    2014-01-01

    In humans, spinal cord lesions induce not only major motor and neurovegetative deficits but also severe neuropathic pain which is mostly resistant to classical analgesics. Better treatments can be expected from precise characterization of underlying physiopathological mechanisms. This led us to thoroughly investigate (i) mechanical and thermal sensory alterations, (ii) responses to acute treatments with drugs having patent or potential anti-allodynic properties and (iii) the spinal/ganglion expression of transcripts encoding markers of neuronal injury, microglia and astrocyte activation in rats that underwent complete spinal cord transection (SCT). SCT was performed at thoracic T8–T9 level under deep isoflurane anaesthesia, and SCT rats were examined for up to two months post surgery. SCT induced a marked hyper-reflexia at hindpaws and strong mechanical and cold allodynia in a limited (6 cm2) cutaneous territory just rostral to the lesion site. At this level, pressure threshold value to trigger nocifensive reactions to locally applied von Frey filaments was 100-fold lower in SCT- versus sham-operated rats. A marked up-regulation of mRNAs encoding ATF3 (neuronal injury) and glial activation markers (OX-42, GFAP, P2×4, P2×7, TLR4) was observed in spinal cord and/or dorsal root ganglia at T6-T11 levels from day 2 up to day 60 post surgery. Transcripts encoding the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-? were also markedly but differentially up-regulated at T6–T11 levels in SCT rats. Acute treatment with ketamine (50 mg/kg i.p.), morphine (3–10 mg/kg s.c.) and tapentadol (10–20 mg/kg i.p.) significantly increased pressure threshold to trigger nocifensive reaction in the von Frey filaments test, whereas amitriptyline, pregabalin, gabapentin and clonazepam were ineffective. Because all SCT rats developed long lasting, reproducible and stable allodynia, which could be alleviated by drugs effective in humans, thoracic cord transection might be a reliable model for testing innovative therapies aimed at reducing spinal cord lesion-induced central neuropathic pain. PMID:25019623

  12. Light-Emitting Diodes and Cool White Fluorescent Light Similarly Suppress Pineal Gland Melatonin and Maintain Retinal Function and Morphology in the Rat. Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holley, Daniel C.; Heeke, D.; Mele, G.

    1999-01-01

    Currently, the light sources most commonly used in animal habitat lighting are cool white fluorescent or incandescent lamps. We evaluated a novel light-emitting diode (LED) light source for use in animal habitat lighting by comparing its effectiveness to cool white fluorescent light (CWF) in suppressing pineal gland melatonin and maintaining normal retinal physiology and morphology in the rat. Results of pineal melatonin suppression experiments showed equal suppression of pineal melatonin concentrations for LED light and CWF light at five different light illuminances (100, 40, 10, 1 and 0.1 lux). There were no significant differences in melatonin suppression between LED and CWF light when compared to unexposed controls. Retinal physiology was evaluated using electroretinography. Results show no differences in a-wave implicit times and amplitudes or b-wave implicit times and amplitudes between 100-lux LED-exposed rats and 100-lux CWF-exposed rats. Results of retinal histology assessment show no differences in retinal thickness rod outer segment length and number of rod nuclei between rats exposed to 100-lux LED and 100-lux CWF for days. Furthermore, the retinal pigmented epithelium and rod outer segments of all eyes observed were in good condition and of normal thickness. This study indicates that LED light does not cause retinal damage and can suppress pineal melatonin at similar intensities as a conventional CWF light source. These data suggest that LED light sources may be suitable replacements for conventional light sources used in the lighting of rodent vivariums while providing many mechanical and economical advantages.

  13. Morphological evidence that luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone neurons participate in the suppression by estradiol of pituitary luteinizing hormone secretion in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    King, J C; Anthony, E L; Damassa, D A; Elkind-Hirsch, K E

    1987-01-01

    Morphological characteristics of LHRH neurons identified by immunocytochemistry were studied using light and electron microscopy in female rats in which estradiol was replaced at the time of ovariectomy ('pseudo-intact' rats) or 3 weeks after ovariectomy (long-term ovariectomized, estradiol-treated). While estradiol levels were equivalent in these two groups, the rise in LH after ovariectomy was prevented by the immediate administration in the pseudo-intact rats, while the augmented plasma LH levels present three weeks following ovariectomy were only reduced by 50% as a result of delayed estradiol treatment. The LHRH content of the medial basal hypothalamus (MBH) including the median eminence (ME) was greater in pseudo-intact females than in untreated long-term ovariectomized control females or long-term ovariectomized, estradiol-treated females, both 1 and 14 days after estradiol exposure. Immunocytochemistry revealed fewer LHRH-immunopositive neuronal processes coursing throughout the MBH and terminating in the ME of long-term ovariectomized, estradiol-treated rats compared to those in pseudo-intact rats. However, within individual neurovascular terminals in the ME, image analysis revealed that the area of reaction product was greater in long-term ovariectomized, estradiol-treated animals. Equivalent amounts of LHRH were assayed in the MBH within each group of animals by several LHRH antisera regardless of their different binding requirements (R42, IJ29 and A-R743), suggesting that the predominant moiety present in neuronal terminals is the fully mature decapeptide. In contrast, in the preoptic area-anterior hypothalamus (POA-AH) these antisera assayed amounts of LHRH that varied as a function of binding characteristics, although the quantities did not vary with the estradiol treatment schedule. Immunocytochemical results paralleled these assay data; antisera requiring an interior sequence of amino acids (A-R743 and A-R419) detected approximately 3 times as many immunoreactive perikarya in the POA-AH as did an antiserum requiring the free amidated C terminal (IJ29). The estradiol treatment schedules had no effect on the total number of LHRH-immunopositive neurons detected by each antiserum or the distribution of LHRH-immunopositive neuronal perikarya. These data support the hypothesis that the predominant moieties present in neuronal cell bodies are precursor forms. The fine-structural characteristics of LHRH-immunopositive neuronal cell bodies are consistent with greater secretory and biosynthetic activity in LHRH neurons of long-term ovariectomized, estradiol-treated rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3543719

  14. Statistical characterization of bedform morphology in the Fraser Estuary, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendershot, M. L.; Venditti, J. G.; Kostaschuk, R. A.; Bradley, R. W.; Allison, M. A.; Church, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    The morphological characteristics of estuarine dunes reflect the bidirectional nature of fluid flow that results from the interaction of fluvial discharge and tidal forces, as well as residual currents attributed to the mixing of fresh and saline water. Bedform height, length, periodicity, and crestline sinuosity are functions of this flow interaction and in turn contribute to flow resistance. While numerous studies have documented bedform characteristics in sand bedded channels, little has been done in terms of detailed three-dimensional morphological and statistical analysis of the bedform field under conditions of variable flow on the channel scale. This field study quantifies bedform height, length, periodicity, and sinuosity, and examines the changes induced by tidal variability in the Fraser Estuary, British Columbia, Canada. Results were obtained from data collected on an hourly basis over one diurnal tidal cycle during the 2010 freshet over a dune field approximately 1 km long and 0.5 km wide, using a multibeam echosounder to generate high-resolution bed topography. The results show that bedforms have low lee-angle morphology common in large sand-bedded rivers. Dune height and length increase as the tide falls, are highest at low tide, and decrease as the tide rises. At low tide, mean bedform aspect ratio (L/H) is 22, but decreases with mean bedform dimensions. Variance in bed topography decreases with mean bedform height. Alongstream bed topography profiles are well correlated up to ~30 m across the channel, suggesting the bedforms are highly three dimensional. Ongoing analysis focuses on statistical assessment of the relative proportions of translation and deformation in the bedform field over the tidal cycle.

  15. Morphological characterization of a novel scaffold for anterior cruciate ligament tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Cédric P; Ganghoffer, Jean-François; Babin, Jérôme; Six, Jean-Luc; Wang, Xiong; Rahouadj, Rachid

    2011-06-01

    Tissue engineering offers an interesting alternative to current anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgeries. Indeed, a tissue-engineered solution could ideally overcome the long-term complications due to actual ACL reconstruction by being gradually replaced by biological tissue. Key requirements concerning the ideal scaffold for ligament tissue engineering are numerous and concern its mechanical properties, biochemical nature, and morphology. This study is aimed at predicting the morphology of a novel scaffold for ligament tissue engineering, based on multilayer braided biodegradable copoly(lactic acid-co-(e-caprolactone)) (PLCL) fibers The process used to create the scaffold is briefly presented, and the degradations of the material before and after the scaffold processing are compared. The process offers varying parameters, such as the number of layers in the scaffold, the pitch length of the braid, and the fibers' diameter. The prediction of the morphology in terms of pore size distribution and pores interconnectivity as a function of these parameters is performed numerically using an original method based on a virtual scaffold. The virtual scaffold geometry and the prediction of pore size distribution are evaluated by comparison with experimental results. The presented process permits creation of a tailorable scaffold for ligament tissue engineering using basic equipment and from minimum amounts of raw material. The virtual scaffold geometry closely mimics the geometry of real scaffolds, and the prediction of the pore size distribution is found to be in good accordance with measurements on real scaffolds. The scaffold offers an interconnected network of pores the sizes of which are adjustable by playing on the process parameters and are able to match the ideal pore size reported for tissue ingrowth. The adjustability of the presented scaffold could permit its application in both classical ACL reconstructions and anatomical double-bundle reconstructions. The precise knowledge of the scaffold morphology using the virtual scaffold will be useful to interpret the activity of cells once it will be seeded into the scaffold. An interesting perspective of the present work is to perform a similar study aiming at predicting the mechanical response of the scaffold according to the same process parameters, by implanting the virtual scaffold into a finite element algorithm. PMID:21744936

  16. Multiresolution Analysis Techniques to Isolate, Detect and Characterize Morphologically Diverse Features of Structured ICF Capsule Implosions

    E-print Network

    Afeyan, Bedros; Jones, Peter; Starck, Jean Luc; Herrmann, Mark

    2012-01-01

    In order to capture just how nonuniform and degraded the symmetry may become of an imploding inertial confinement fusion capsule one may resort to the analysis of high energy X ray point projection backlighting generated radiographs. Here we show new results for such images by using methods of modern harmonic analysis which involve different families of wavelets, curvelets and WaSP (wavelet square partition) functions from geometric measure theory. Three different methods of isolating morphologically diverse features are suggested together with statistical means of quantifying their content for the purposes of comparing the same implosion at different times, to simulations and to different implosion images.

  17. Prenatal Gonadal Steroids Affect Adult Spatial Behavior, CA1 and CA3 Pyramidal Cell Morphology in Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ceylan Isgor; Dale R. Sengelaub

    1998-01-01

    The present study assessed whether prenatal androgen and estrogen exposure affected adult spatial learning and hippocampal morphology. Water maze performance, the CA1 and CA3 pyramidal cell field, and the dentate gyrus-granule cell layer (DG-GCL) morphology were assessed at adulthood (70+ days of age) in males, females, androgen-treated (testosterone propionate, TP, or dihydrotestosterone propionate, DHTP) females (2–4 mg\\/day), estradiol benzoate (EB)-treated

  18. Reversal of neuronal polarity characterized by conversion of dendrites into axons in neonatal rat cortical neurons in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Hayashi; R Kawai-Hirai; K Ishikawa; K Takata

    2002-01-01

    The mechanisms for the establishment and maintenance of cell polarity in neurons are not well understood. Axon regeneration from dendrites has been reported after axotomy near the cell body in vivo. We report here in vitro a reversal of neuronal polarity characterized by the conversion of dendrites into axons. We isolated neurons from the neonatal rat cerebral cortex. Neurons that

  19. Comparing Label-Free Quantitative Peptidomics Approaches to Characterize Diurnal Variation of Peptides in the Rat Suprachiasmatic

    E-print Network

    Gillette, Martha U.

    of Peptides in the Rat Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Bruce R. Southey, Ji Eun Lee,, Leonid Zamdborg, Norman Atkins, peptidomic analyses from two times of day were examined to characterize variation in SCN peptides using three peptides, 207 peptides were analyzed by two label-free methods, spectral count and spectral index

  20. Characterization of weight loss and weight regain mechanisms after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in rats.

    PubMed

    Guijarro, Ana; Suzuki, Susumu; Chen, Chung; Kirchner, Henriette; Middleton, Frank A; Nadtochiy, Sergiy; Brookes, Paul S; Niijima, Akira; Inui, Akio; Meguid, Michael M

    2007-10-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is the most effective therapy for morbid obesity, but it has a approximately 20% failure rate. To test our hypothesis that outcome depends on differential modifications of several energy-related systems, we used our established RYGB model in Sprague-Dawley diet-induced obese (DIO) rats to determine mechanisms contributing to successful (RGYB-S) or failed (RYGB-F) RYGB. DIO rats were randomized to RYGB, sham-operated Obese, and sham-operated obese pair-fed linked to RYGB (PF) groups. Body weight (BW), caloric intake (CI), and fecal output (FO) were recorded daily for 90 days, food efficiency (FE) was calculated, and morphological changes were determined. d-Xylose and fat absorption were studied. Glucose-stimulated vagal efferent nerve firing rates of stomach were recorded. Gut, adipose, and thyroid hormones were measured in plasma. Mitochondrial respiratory complexes in skeletal muscle and expression of energy-related hypothalamic and fat peptides, receptors, and enzymes were quantified. A 25% failure rate occurred. RYGB-S, RYGB-F, and PF rats showed rapid BW decrease vs. Obese rats, followed by sustained BW loss in RYGB-S rats. RYGB-F and PF rats gradually increased BW. BW loss in RYGB-S rats is achieved not only by RYGB-induced decreased CI and increased FO, but also via sympathetic nervous system activation, driven by increased peptide YY, CRF, and orexin signaling, decreasing FE and energy storage, demonstrated by reduced fat mass associated with the upregulation of mitochondrial uncoupling protein-2 in fat. These events override the compensatory response to the drop in leptin levels aimed at conserving energy. PMID:17626126

  1. Heterologous expression, purification and characterization of rat class theta glutathione transferase T2-2.

    PubMed

    Jemth, P; Stenberg, G; Chaga, G; Mannervik, B

    1996-05-15

    Rat glutathione transferase (GST) T2-2 of class Theta (rGST T2-2), previously known as GST 12-12 and GST Yrs-Yrs, has been heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli XLI-Blue. The corresponding cDNA was isolated from a rat hepatoma cDNA library, ligated into and expressed from the plasmid pKK-D. The sequence is the same as that of the previously reported cDNA of GST Yrs-Yrs. The enzyme was purified using ion-exchange chromatography followed by affinity chromatography with immobilized ferric ions, and the yield was approx. 200 mg from a 1 litre bacterial culture. The availability of a stable recombinant rGST T2-2 has paved the way for a more accurate characterization of the enzyme. The functional properties of the recombinant rGST T2-2 differ significantly from those reported earlier for the enzyme isolated from rat tissues. These differences probably reflect the difficulties in obtaining fully active enzyme from sources where it occurs in relatively low concentrations, which has been the case in previous studies. 1-Chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, a substrate often used with GSTs of classes Alpha, Mu and Pi, is a substrate also for rGST T2-2, but the specific activity is relatively low. The Km value for glutathione was determined with four different electrophiles and was found to be in the range 0.3 mM-0.8 mM. The Km values for some electrophilic substrates were found to be in the micromolar range, which is low compared with those determined for GSTs of other classes. The highest catalytic efficiency was obtained with menaphthyl sulphate, which gave a Kcat/Km value of 2.3 x 10(6) s-1.M-1 and a rate enhancement over the uncatalysed reaction of 3 x 10(10). PMID:8645195

  2. Heterologous expression, purification and characterization of rat class theta glutathione transferase T2-2.

    PubMed Central

    Jemth, P; Stenberg, G; Chaga, G; Mannervik, B

    1996-01-01

    Rat glutathione transferase (GST) T2-2 of class Theta (rGST T2-2), previously known as GST 12-12 and GST Yrs-Yrs, has been heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli XLI-Blue. The corresponding cDNA was isolated from a rat hepatoma cDNA library, ligated into and expressed from the plasmid pKK-D. The sequence is the same as that of the previously reported cDNA of GST Yrs-Yrs. The enzyme was purified using ion-exchange chromatography followed by affinity chromatography with immobilized ferric ions, and the yield was approx. 200 mg from a 1 litre bacterial culture. The availability of a stable recombinant rGST T2-2 has paved the way for a more accurate characterization of the enzyme. The functional properties of the recombinant rGST T2-2 differ significantly from those reported earlier for the enzyme isolated from rat tissues. These differences probably reflect the difficulties in obtaining fully active enzyme from sources where it occurs in relatively low concentrations, which has been the case in previous studies. 1-Chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, a substrate often used with GSTs of classes Alpha, Mu and Pi, is a substrate also for rGST T2-2, but the specific activity is relatively low. The Km value for glutathione was determined with four different electrophiles and was found to be in the range 0.3 mM-0.8 mM. The Km values for some electrophilic substrates were found to be in the micromolar range, which is low compared with those determined for GSTs of other classes. The highest catalytic efficiency was obtained with menaphthyl sulphate, which gave a Kcat/Km value of 2.3 x 10(6) s-1.M-1 and a rate enhancement over the uncatalysed reaction of 3 x 10(10). PMID:8645195

  3. Immunohistochemical characterization of infiltrating mononuclear cells in the rat heart with experimental autoimmune giant cell myocarditis.

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, M; Zhang, S; Hanawa, H; Shibata, A

    1992-01-01

    The pathogenesis of giant cell myocarditis remains unclear. Subsets of inflammatory infiltrating cells may reflect the pathogenesis and etiology of the disease. Therefore, we examined subsets of infiltrating mononuclear cells in the heart of the rat with experimental giant cell myocarditis. Lewis rats were immunized with cardiac myosin in Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA). Severe myocarditis characterized by congestive heart failure and multinucleated giant cells were elicited. The lesions were composed of predominant mononuclear cells, polymorphonuclear neutrophils and fragments of degenerated myocardial fibres. The subsets of infiltrating mononuclear cells were investigated using MoAbs against rat CD4+ T cell (W3/25), CD8+ T cell (CX8), B cell (OX33) and macrophage (OX42). By serial examination, bound immunoglobulin could only be found on degenerated myocardial fibres. In this model, most infiltrating mononuclear cells were composed of macrophages and CD4+ T cells. The frequencies of macrophages and CD4+ T cells were 73.7% and 13.8%, respectively. CD8+ T cells were scarce and B cells were rare in the lesions. The frequencies of CD8+ T cells and B cells were 4.5% and 0.4%, respectively. The dominance of macrophages and CD4+ T cells was the constant finding among the sites of the lesions and throughout the course of the disease. These characteristic subsets of infiltrating cells were in contrast to those of murine viral myocarditis which were mainly composed of natural killer (NK) cells and CD8+ T cells. Clarifying the subsets of infiltrating cells in myocarditis may contribute to differential diagnosis of myocarditis between viral and autoimmune types. From this study, the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune giant cell myocarditis seemed to be closely related to CD4+ T cells and macrophages. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:1424293

  4. Morphological characterization and assessment of genetic variability, character association, and divergence in soybean mutants.

    PubMed

    Malek, M A; Rafii, Mohd Y; Shahida Sharmin Afroz, Most; Nath, Ujjal Kumar; Mondal, M Monjurul Alam

    2014-01-01

    Genetic diversity is important for crop improvement. An experiment was conducted during 2011 to study genetic variability, character association, and genetic diversity among 27 soybean mutants and four mother genotypes. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences among the mutants and mothers for nine morphological traits. Eighteen mutants performed superiorly to their mothers in respect to seed yield and some morphological traits including yield attributes. Narrow differences between phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variation (PCV and GCV) for most of the characters revealed less environmental influence on their expression. High values of heritability and genetic advance with high GCV for branch number, plant height, pod number, and seed weight can be considered as favorable attributes for soybean improvement through phenotypic selection and high expected genetic gain can be achieved. Pod and seed number and maturity period appeared to be the first order traits for higher yield and priority should be given in selection due to their strong associations and high magnitudes of direct effects on yield. Cluster analysis grouped 31 genotypes into five groups at the coefficient value of 235. The mutants/genotypes from cluster I and cluster II could be used for hybridization program with the mutants of clusters IV and V in order to develop high yielding mutant-derived soybean varieties for further improvement. PMID:25197722

  5. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Discocriconemella inarata, an Endemic Nematode from North American Native Tallgrass Prairies

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Timothy; Higgins, Rebecca; Sutton, Lisa; Powers, Kirsten S.

    2010-01-01

    Discocriconemella inarata, a plant parasitic nematode species originally discovered in a virgin tallgrass prairie in northwest Iowa, was re-examined by molecular and morphological analyses of topotype material. This species has never been recorded in cultivated fields and could potentially serve as an indicator for high quality prairie habitats. DNA sequence from a conserved 3’ portion of the 18S ribosomal gene exhibited an identical match between D. inarata topotype specimens and topotype specimens of Mesocriconema xenoplax from Fresno, California. Higher resolution sequence analyses using the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and a portion of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b (cytb) allowed discrimination of D. inarata apart from M. xenoplax. This pair of species formed a well-supported clade with other Mesocriconema species exclusive of tropical Discocriconemella species. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the absence of submedian lobes on D. inarata, suggesting a secondary loss of this defining morphological characteristic for Mesocriconema. Observations and measurements of D. inarata juveniles were added for the first time. Surveys of other prairies within the Great Plains expanded the known distribution of this species. PMID:22736835

  6. Morphological characterization and molecular fingerprinting of Nostoc strains by multiplex RAPD.

    PubMed

    Hillol, Chakdar; Pabbi, Sunil

    2012-01-01

    Morphological parameters studied for the twenty selected Nostoc strains were mostly found to be consistent with the earlier reports. But the shape of akinetes observed in this study was a little deviation from the existing descriptions and heterocyst frequency was also found to be different in different strains in spite of growing in the same nitrogen free media. Multiplex RAPD produced reproducible and completely polymorphic amplification profiles for all the strains including some strain specific unique bands which are intended to be useful for identification of those strains. At least one to a maximum of two unique bands was produced by different dual primer combinations. For ten strains out of twenty, strain specific bands were found to be generated. Cluster analysis revealed a vast heterogeneity among these Nostoc strains and no specific clustering based on geographical origin was found except a few strains. It was also observed that morphological data may not necessarily correspond to the genetic data in most of the cases. CCC92 (Nostoc muscorum) and CCC48 (Nostoc punctiforme) showed a high degree of similarity which was well supported by high bootstrap value. The level of similarity of the strains ranged from 0.15 to 0.94. Cluster analysis based on multiplex RAPD showed a good fit revealing the discriminatory power of this technique. PMID:23610928

  7. Combining light microscopy, dielectric spectroscopy, MALDI intact cell mass spectrometry, FTIR spectromicroscopy and multivariate data mining for morphological and physiological bioprocess characterization of filamentous organisms.

    PubMed

    Posch, Andreas E; Koch, Cosima; Helmel, Michaela; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Macfelda, Karin; Lendl, Bernhard; Allmaier, Günter; Herwig, Christoph

    2013-02-01

    Along with productivity and physiology, morphological growth behavior is the key parameter in bioprocess design for filamentous fungi. Lacking tools for fast, reliable and efficient analysis however, fungal morphology is still commonly tackled by empirical trial-and-error techniques during strain selection and process development procedures. Bridging the gap, this work presents a comprehensive analytical approach for morphological analysis combining automated high-throughput microscopy, multi-frequency dielectric spectroscopy, MALDI intact cell mass spectrometry and FTIR spectromicroscopy. Industrial fed-batch production processes were investigated in fully instrumented, automated bioreactors using the model system Penicillium chrysogenum. Physiological process characterization was based on the determination of specific conversion rates as scale-independent parameters. Conventional light microscopic morphological analysis was based on holistic determination of time series for more than 30 morphological parameters and their frequency distributions over the respective parameter range by automated high-throughput light microscopy. Characteristic protein patterns enriched in specific morphological and physiological states were further obtained by MALDI intact cell mass spectrometry. Spatial resolution of molecular biomass composition was facilitated by FTIR spectromicroscopy. Real-time in situ monitoring of morphological process behavior was achieved by linking multi-frequency dielectric spectroscopy with above outlined off-line methods. Data integration of complementing orthogonal techniques for morphological and physiological analysis together with multivariate modeling of interdependencies between morphology, physiology and process parameters facilitated complete bioprocess characterization. The suggested approach will thus help understanding morphological and physiological behavior and, in turn, allow to control and optimize those complex processes. PMID:23220594

  8. Characterization of Endoneurial Fibroblast-like Cells from Human and Rat Peripheral Nerves

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Laurence; Védrenne, Nicolas; Vallat, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    Endoneurial fibroblast-like cells (EFLCs) are one of the cell populations present in the peripheral nervous system. The role and immunophenotypic characteristics of EFLCs are not well known and led us to perform a histological and cytological study of EFLCs in normal human and rat peripheral nerves. We found that all EFLCs express CD34, neural/glial antigen 2 (NG2), and prolyl-4-hydrolase-beta. In addition, half of the EFLCs in normal peripheral nerves express platelet-derived growth factor receptor-? (PDGFR-?) and some also express the intermediate filament nestin in vivo (at a lower level than Schwann cells, which express high levels of nestin). Using cell cultures of purified EFLCs, we characterized subpopulations of EFLCs expressing PDGFR-? alone or PDGFR-? and nestin. Experimental nerve lesions in rat resulted in an increase in nestin-positive EFLCs, which returned to normal levels after 8 days. This suggests that some EFLCs could have a different proliferative and/or regenerative potential than others, and these EFLCs may play a role in the initial phase of nerve repair. These “activated” EFLCs share some immunophenotypic similarities with pericytes and Interstitial cells of Cajal, which have progenitor cell potentials. This raises the questions as to whether a proportion of EFLCs have a possible role as endoneurial progenitor cells. PMID:24670794

  9. Characterization of D2 receptors and dopamine levels in the thalamus of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Young, K.A.; Wilcox, R.E. (Texas A M Univ. College of Medicine, Temple (USA) Univ. of Texas, Austin (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The authors kinetically characterized D2 receptors in thalami pooled from a group of Sprague-Dawley rats and then determined thalamic levels of dopamine (DA), homovanillic acid (HVA), dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), and norepinephrine (NE) in relation to a measure of thalamic DA D2 receptor densities in another group of rats. The equilibrium dissociation constant (kd) was estimated as 0.1 nM by three independent methods, while the Bmax for thalamic D2 receptors was found to be 6.4 fmol/mg p using {sup 3}H-spiperone as ligand and ketanserin to occlude 5HT2 binding. Kinetic constants were in agreement with previously reported kinetic data from rodent caudate-putamen. This suggests that thalamic D2 receptors are similar to D2 receptors from other brain areas. Mean thalamic levels of DA, DOPAC, and HVA concur with previous reports of a sparse distribution of thalamic DA neurons. D2 receptor densities were positively correlated with DA metabolites DOPAC and HVA, but not DA or NE. These results establish fundamental characteristics of thalamic DA neurotransmission to assist in the investigation of behavioral pharmacology of this area.

  10. Characterization of cytotoxic spleen cells and effects of serum factors in a syngeneic rat tumour system.

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, N.; Chalmers, P. J.; Flannery, G. R.; Nairn, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    Splenocytes from inbred Wistar rats bearing a syngeneic squamous cell carcinoma (Spl) were fractionated by several techniques to characterize the lymphoid cells cytotoxic to the tumour in vitro. The anti-tumour cytotoxicity is presumably mediated primarily by T lymphocytes because it was greatly reduced by removal of T lymphocytes with heterologous anti-T serum plus complement but not by removal of other cell types. Cytotoxicity could be blocked at the tumour cell but not at the effector cell by sera taken late in tumour growth. Sera taken earlier in tumour growth could induce cytolysis of tumour cells by normal splenocytes but only if the tumour cells were treated with serum and washed before addition of the effector cells. Although splenocytes from normal and tumour-bearing rats were equally effective at lysing antibody-coated target cells it is unlikely that this mechanism is important in vivo as sera from early in tumour growth onwards contained factors (immune complexes?) which inhibited antibody-induced lymphocytolysis. PMID:773397

  11. Characterization of o,p'-DDT-stimulated contraction frequency in rat uterus in vitro.

    PubMed

    Juberg, D R; Webb, R C; Loch-Caruso, R

    1991-10-01

    Exposure to organochlorine pesticides, including DDT, has previously been associated with premature birth. Using an improved protocol to characterize dose and time dependent responses, the present report extends a preliminary finding by this laboratory that o,p'-DDT directly stimulates uterine contractility. Contraction frequency was determined in longitudinal uterine strips from pregnant rats under isometric force conditions. Following equilibration, the uterine strips were monitored for a 1-hr baseline period, then treated with o,p'-DDT or ethanol (solvent control) for 3 hr, followed by 3 hr without test substance. During exposure to 100 microM o,p'-DDT, the frequency of contraction significantly increased by 66% relative to matched controls. After removal of o,p'-DDT from the medium, the frequency of contraction continued to increase in uterine strips exposed to 50 and 100 microM o,p'-DDT. A dose effect was clearly observed during the post-treatment period, with 50 and 100 microM o,p'-DDT significantly increasing contraction frequency by 39 and 104% relative to controls. No significant differences in contraction frequency were observed with 10 microM o,p'-DDT during any test period. These data show that o,p'-DDT directly stimulated isometric contractions in rat uterine strips. PMID:1794656

  12. Purification and characterization of the V1 vasopressin receptor from rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Fishman, J.B.; Dickey, B.F.; Attisano, C.; Fine, R.E.

    1987-05-01

    The rat liver V1 vasopressin receptor was purified approximately 21,000-fold from rat liver microsomes. The receptor was solubilized from membranes using the zwitterionic detergent CHAPS (3-((3-cholamidopropyl) dimethylammonio)-1-propanesulfonate). Since the V1 receptor loses its ability to bind ligand when solubilized, the authors devised a liposome reconstitution system to assay vasopressin binding activity during purification. The purified receptor exhibits a K/sub d/ of 6 nm, when, prior to solubilization, the membranes were exposed to 1 m vasopressin. This resulted in the association of a pertussis-toxin insensitive guanine-nucleotide binding protein with the receptor during most of the purification procedure. The authors are further characterizing the V1-associated G-proteins. In the absence of this association, the receptor has a K/sub d/ of 30 nM. Crosslinking of SVI-vasopressin to a partially purified preparation of receptor demonstrated that the receptor had a molecular weight of approximately 68,000 under reducing conditions, and 58,000 under non-reducing conditions. The purification procedure may prove useful in purifying a number of small peptide hormone receptors (e.g., bradykinin, angiotensin II) and perhaps their associated G-proteins as well.

  13. Characterization of rat model of acute anterior uveitis using optical coherence tomography angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Woo June; Pepple, Kathryn L.; Zhi, Zhongwei; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2015-03-01

    Uveitis, or ocular inflammation, is a cause of severe visual impairment. Rodent models of uveitis are powerful tools used to investigate the pathological mechanisms of ocular inflammation and to study the efficacy of new therapies prior to human testing. In this paper, we report the utility of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) angiography in characterizing the inflammatory changes induced in the anterior segment of a rat model of uveitis. Acute anterior uveitis (AAU) was induced in two rats by intravitreal injection of a killed mycobacterial extract. One of them received a concurrent periocular injection of steroids to model a treatment effect. OCT imaging was performed prior to inflammation induction on day 0 (baseline), and 2 days post-injection (peak inflammation). Baseline and inflamed images were compared. OCT angiography identified swelling of the cornea, inflammatory cells in the anterior and posterior chambers, a fibrinous papillary membrane, and dilation of iris vessels in the inflamed eyes when compared to baseline images. Steroid treatment was shown to prevent the changes associated with inflammation. This is a novel application of anterior OCT imaging in animal models of uveitis, and provides a high resolution, in vivo assay for detecting and quantifying ocular inflammation and the response to new therapies.

  14. Biochemical and immunohistochemical characterization of nitric oxide synthase in the rat retina.

    PubMed

    Sheng, H; Ignarro, L J

    1996-01-01

    The increase in cyclic GMP contents in phototransduction is likely to be mediated with release of nitric oxide (NO). In this study we have characterized a constitutive NO synthase (NOS) isolated from rat retina supernatant. The activity of NOS was determined by monitoring L-citrulline formation from L-arginine. Soluble NOS from retina used L-arginine as substrate, with NADPH, tetrahydrobiopterin and FAD as cofactors. The enzyme activity was raised with additional calcium and was reduced with high concentrations of calmodulin inhibitors. Protein immunoblot and immunohistochemical analysis using a specific antibody against Type I NOS indicated that the same type of NOS is mainly localized in amacrine cells in the retina. However, the enzyme activity in freshly prepared sample was not completely abolished in the absence of calcium or with calmodulin inhibitors. In addition, NADPH diaphorase staining in retina was wider and more intensive than staining with the antibody against Type I NOS. These results indicate that rat retina contains more than one type of NOS. PMID:8817643

  15. Synthesis, optical and morphological characterization of MPA-capped PbSe nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouma, Immaculate L. A.; Mushonga, Paul; Madiehe, Abram M.; Meyer, Mervin; Dejene, Francis B.; Onani, Martin O.

    2014-04-01

    This work focuses on the synthesis and characterization of 3-mercaptopropionic acid-capped PbSe nanocrystals (NCs) using an aqueous synthetic protocol. The synthesis was carried out at room temperature and resulted in uniform NCs. The as-synthesized NCs were characterized using photoluminescence spectroscopy, HR-TEM and X-Ray diffraction. They showed a perfect Gaussian peak at 1203 nm with average diameters of ?3 nm and diffraction patterns consistent with rock-salt structure of PbSe NCs.

  16. Characterization of cultured rat oligodendrocytes proliferating in a serum-free, chemically defined medium

    SciTech Connect

    Saneto, R.P.; de Vellis, J.

    1985-05-01

    A serumless, chemically defined medium has been developed for the culture of oligodendrocytes isolated from primary neonatal rat cerebral cultures. Combined together, insulin, transferrin, and fibroblast growth factor synergistically induced an essentially homogeneous population (95-98%) of cells expressing glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity to undergo cell division. Proliferating cells were characterized by several criteria: (i) ultrastructural analysis by transmission electron microscopy identified the cell type as an oligodendrocyte; (ii) biochemical assays showed expression of three oligodendrocyte biochemical markers, induction of both glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase, and presence of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase; and (iii) immunocytochemical staining showed cultures to be 95-98% positive for glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase, 90% for myelin basic protein, 60-70% for galactocerebroside, and 70% for A2B5.

  17. Morphological characterization of extremely shallow environments through spectral and textural analysis of high resolution bathymetric and backscatter data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madricardo, Fantina; Foglini, Federica; Tegowski, Jaroslaw; Blondel, Philippe; Nowak, Jaroslaw; Ferrarin, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Transitional environments like lagoons, deltas and estuaries often undergo strong natural and human-induced actions that need constant monitoring. The changes of these environments can be assessed using acoustic bathymetric surveys: bathymetric data are not only important for navigational purposes but they are also employed for geomorphologic studies, habitat mapping and modelling of evolution trends of the highly dynamical coastal areas. Among the coastal systems, transitional environments, are often extremely shallow (of the order of 1 m deep or less) and morphologically complex. This kind of environment represents a challenge for acoustic bathymetric surveys. To assess the potentiality and the limits of acoustic surveys in extremely shallow environments, we carried out two surveys in the Lagoon of Venice, Italy, with an interferometric sonar and a multibeam echosounder system. As a case study we focused on a natural channel in the northern part of the lagoon combining the data from the different surveys. In particular we carried out a two-dimensional (2D) spectral and textural analysis of the high resolution bathymetric and backscatter data collected. As a result of the 2D spectral analysis on the elevation data, we were able to identify and parameterize the geometrical characteristics of the main morphological features of the channel, like dunes, scours, crests and troughs and sedimentation areas and to extract the channel bottom roughness. We then performed an unsupervised classification of the backscatter data. As a result, we were able to identify different backscatter areas where several grab samples were collected for ground truthing. With the help of this sampling we calibrated a textural analysis and obtained a classification of the different kinds of substrate. Within this multidisciplinary approach, we set up and successfully tested a combined method to quantitatively characterize an extremely shallow water dynamical environment. Using this method, we could map the main morphological and sedimentological features of the seabed and relate them to the hydrodynamic conditions provided by an high resolution 3D numerical model.

  18. Alterations in dendritic morphology of frontal cortical neurons after basal forebrain lesions in adult and aged rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cara L. Wellman; Dale R. Sengelaub

    1995-01-01

    The nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) is the major cholinergic projection to neocortex in the rat and plays a role in the modulation of cortical activity. Lesions of the NBM decrease thickness of lamina II–III of frontal cortex and decrease soma size of lamina II–III neurons. Additionally, aging produces changes in neuron size and numbers in the basal forebrain and frontal

  19. Aminophylline exacerbates status epilepticus-induced neuronal damages in immature rats: a morphological, motor and behavioral study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pi-Lien Hung; Ming-Chi Lai; San Nan Yang; Chih-Lu Wang; Chia-Wei Liou; Chia-Lu Wu; Tzu-Jou Wang; Li-Tung Huang

    2002-01-01

    Adenosine is an endogenous modulator that has an inhibitory effect on neuronal activity. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of aminophylline, an adenosine receptor antagonist, on the long-term effects of status epilepticus (SE) in the developing brain. Four groups of rats at the postnatal age of 12 days were intraperitoneally administered with saline, aminophylline (50 mg\\/kg),

  20. Effects of Electro-Acupuncture on Nerve Growth Factor and Ovarian Morphology in Rats with Experimentally Induced Polycystic Ovaries1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisabet Stener-Victorin; Thomas Lundeberg; Urban Waldenström; Luigi Manni; Luigi Aloe; Stefan Gunnarsson; Per Olof Janson

    Despite extensive research on the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), there is still disagreement on the underlying mechanisms. The rat model for experimentally induced polycystic ovaries (PCO)--produced by a single injection of estradiol valerate--has similarities with human PCOS, and both are associated with hyperactivity in the sympathetic nervous system. Nerve growth factor (NGF) is known to serve as a

  1. Characterization of ion track morphology formed by swift heavy ion irradiation in silicon oxynitride films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mota-Santiago, P.; Schauries, D.; Nadzri, A.; Vora, K.; Ridgway, M. C.; Kluth, P.

    2015-04-01

    Amorphous silicon oxynitride (SiOxNy) possess interesting optical and mechanical properties. Here, we present direct evidence for the formation of ion tracks in 1 µm thick silicon oxynitride of different stoichiometries. The tracks were created by irradiation with 185 MeV Au13+ ions. The samples were studied using spectral reflectometry and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), with the track morphology characterised by means of small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The radial density of the ion tracks resembles a core-shell structure with a typical radius of ~ 1.8 + 2.4 nm in the case of Si3N4 and 2.3 + 3.2 nm for SiO2.

  2. Morphological and molecular characterization of Magnaporthe oryzae (fungus) from infected rice leaf samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muni, Nurulhidayah Mat; Nadarajah, Kalaivani

    2014-09-01

    Magnaporthe oryzae is a plant-pathogenic fungus that causes a serious disease affecting rice called rice blast. Outbreaks of rice blast have been a threat to the global production of rice. This fungal disease is estimated to cause production losses of US55 million each year in South and Southeast Asia. It has been used as a primary model for elucidating various aspects of the host-pathogen interaction with its host. We have isolated five isolates of Magnaporthe oryzae from diseased leaf samples obtained from the field at Kompleks Latihan MADA, Kedah, Malaysia. We have identified the isolates using morphological and microscopic studies on the fungal spores and the lesions on the diseased leaves. Amplification of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) was carried out with universal primers ITS1 and ITS4. The sequence of each isolates showed at least 99% nucleotide identity with the corresponding sequence in GenBank for Magnaporthe oryzae.

  3. Morphological characterization of the ovary and vitellogenesis dynamics in the tick Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Denardi, Sandra Eloisi; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Oliveira, Patrícia Rosa de; Nunes, Erika Takagi; Saito, Kelly Cristina; Mathias, Maria Izabel Camargo

    2004-11-10

    In this work we describe the internal morphology of the female reproductive system of the cayenne tick Amblyomma cajennense. This system is represented by a panoistic ovary, which lacks nurse cells in the germarium. This ovary consists of a single tube, in which a large number of oocytes develop asynchronously, thus accompanying the processes of yolk deposition in the oocytes. The oocytes were classified into stages that varied from I to V, according to: cytoplasm appearance, presence of the germ vesicle, presence of yolk granules, and presence of chorion. The study of vitellogenesis dynamics suggest that the yolk elements are deposited in the oocyte following a preferencial sequence, in which the lipids are the first to appear, followed by proteins an finally by the carbohydrates. In this way the yolk of A. cajennense ticks have these three elements that may be free in the cytoplasm or chemically bounded forming glycoprotein or lipoprotein complexes. PMID:15482894

  4. Characterization of gas-aerosol interaction kinetics using morphology dependent stimulated Raman scattering. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Aker, P.M.

    1992-12-31

    A research program on the influence of aerosol surface structure on the kinetics of gas-aerosol interactions is proposed. The experiments involve measuring changes in gas phase chemical reaction rates as a function of exposure to a specific aerosol. Aerosols with differing surface properties will be generated by changing the composition and/or temperature of the material making up the aerosol. Kinetic data generated can be used directly in atmospheric modelling calculations. The surface structure of the aerosol will be measured, both before and after reaction, using morphology-dependent enhancement of simulated Raman scattering (MDSRS). Information about the detailed dynamics of gas-aerosol interactions can be obtained by correlating the change in the reaction rate with change in surface structure and by monitoring the change in aerosol surface structure during the course of the reaction. Studies will focus on the condensation and oxidation of sulfur species (sulfur dioxide and dimethyl sulfide) on water aerosols.

  5. Characterization of gas-aerosol interaction kinetics using morphology dependent stimulated Raman scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Aker, P.M.

    1992-01-01

    A research program on the influence of aerosol surface structure on the kinetics of gas-aerosol interactions is proposed. The experiments involve measuring changes in gas phase chemical reaction rates as a function of exposure to a specific aerosol. Aerosols with differing surface properties will be generated by changing the composition and/or temperature of the material making up the aerosol. Kinetic data generated can be used directly in atmospheric modelling calculations. The surface structure of the aerosol will be measured, both before and after reaction, using morphology-dependent enhancement of simulated Raman scattering (MDSRS). Information about the detailed dynamics of gas-aerosol interactions can be obtained by correlating the change in the reaction rate with change in surface structure and by monitoring the change in aerosol surface structure during the course of the reaction. Studies will focus on the condensation and oxidation of sulfur species (sulfur dioxide and dimethyl sulfide) on water aerosols.

  6. Molecular characterization of the 5' regulatory region of rat sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter gene.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, N S; Rubin, S A; Said, H M

    2001-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the involvement of a specialized, Na(+)-dependent carrier-mediated system for biotin uptake in mammalian intestine. The molecular identity of the carrier protein, the Na(+)-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT), has recently been identified. Upon characterization of transcript expression in the rat intestine, four distinct transcript variants (I-IV) due to heterogeneity at the 5'-untranslated region were found (Chatterjee NS, Kumar CK, Ortiz A, Rubin SA, and Said HM. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 277: C605-C613, 1999). This finding raised the possibility that multiple promoters may be involved in driving the transcription of the SMVT gene. To test this possibility, we cloned the 5' regulatory region of the SMVT gene by genome walking. A 6.5-kb genomic DNA fragment was identified and sequenced. Three putative promoters (P1, P2, and P3) that were separated by exons of the four previously identified transcript variants were, indeed, found. P1 was found to contain multiple putative regulatory regions like GATA-1, AP-1, AP-2, and C/EBP, including several repeats of purine-rich regions and two TATA-like elements. P2 and P3 were GC rich and also revealed the presence of many putative regulatory elements including several SP-1 consensus sequences. The functional identity of each promoter and the minimal regions required for its function were established by the luciferase assay following transfection of rat-derived cultured intestinal epithelial IEC-6 cells. The highest functional activity of the cloned promoters was found to be in the order of P1 > P2 > P3. These findings represent the first characterization of the 5' regulatory region of any mammalian SMVT gene and should assist in the understanding of transcriptional regulation of this important gene. PMID:11171574

  7. A novel Henneguya species from channel catfish described by morphological, histological, and molecular characterization.

    PubMed

    Griffin, M J; Pote, L M; Wise, D J; Greenway, T E; Mauel, M J; Camus, A C

    2008-09-01

    Channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus from a commercial farming operation in the Mississippi Delta were submitted for examination for the presence of infection by the trematode Bolbophorus damnificus. The fish were instead found to possess skin nodules suggestive of Henneguya pellis, a species previously described in the blue catfish I. furcatus. Despite the dermal location and distribution of lesions, morphological characteristics of the myxospores were inconsistent with H. pellis. Spores possessed a lanceolate spore body 15.4 +/- 1.5 microm (mean +/- SD; range = 12.2-19.3 microm) in length and 5.5 +/- 0.6 microm (range = 4.5-6.8 microm) in width in valvular view, and 4.7 +/- 0.2 microm (range = 4.2-5.0 microm) in width in sutural view. Polar capsules were pyriform and unequal in both length and width and contained polar filaments with six coils. Polar capsules measured 6.1 +/- 0.8 microm (range = 4.0-7.9 microm) long and 1.7 +/- 0.3 microm (range = 1.0-2.2 microm) wide. The caudal appendages were 50.5 +/- 8.3 microm (range = 34.8-71.4 micorm) long and the total length of the spore was 65.9 +/- 8.6 microm (range = 48.2-90.0 microm). The "blister like" plasmodia were round or ovoid, up to 2 mm in diameter, and randomly distributed throughout the epidermis of the fish. Histologically, plasmodia were confined to the dermis and elicited no inflammatory reaction from the fish. A blast search of the 18S small subunit rDNA sequence obtained by polymerase chain reaction amplification resulted in no identical sequence matches but indicated a close relationship to H. gurlei, H. ictaluri, and H. exilis. The unique host record, spore morphology, and novel genetic sequence derived from this isolate lead us to propose this isolate as a novel species, H. sutherlandi. PMID:18942589

  8. Physicochemical Characterization of Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosols III: Morphologic and Chemical Oxide Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Krupka, Kenneth M.; Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Gold, Kenneth; Arey, Bruce W.; Jenson, Evan D.; Guilmette, Raymond A.

    2009-03-01

    The impact of depleted uranium (DU) penetrators against an armored target causes erosion and fragmentation of the penetrators, the extent of which is dependent on the thickness and material composition of the target. Vigorous oxidation of the DU particles and fragments creates an aerosol of DU oxide particles and DU particle agglomerations combined with target materials. Aerosols from the Capstone DU aerosol study, in which vehicles were perforated by DU penetrators, were evaluated for their oxidation states using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and particle morphologies using scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM/EDS). The oxidation state of a DU aerosol is important as it offers a clue to its solubility in lung fluids. The XRD analysis showed that the aerosols evaluated were a combination primarily of U3O8 (insoluble) and UO3 (relatively more soluble) phases, though intermediate phases resembling U4O9 and other oxides were prominent in some samples. Analysis of particle residues in the micrometer-size range by SEM/EDS provided microstructural information such as phase composition and distribution, fracture morphology, size distribution, and material homogeneity. Observations from SEM analysis show a wide variability in the shapes of the DU particles. Some of the larger particles appear to have been fractured (perhaps as a result of abrasion and comminution); others were spherical, occasionally with dendritic or lobed surface structures. Amorphous conglomerates containing metals other than uranium were also common, especially with the smallest particle sizes. A few samples seemed to contain small chunks of nearly pure uranium metal, which were verified by EDS to have a higher uranium content exceeding that expected for uranium oxides. Results of the XRD and SEM/EDS analyses were used in other studies described in this issue of The Journal of Health Physics to interpret the results of lung solubility studies and in selecting input parameters for dose assessments.

  9. Bovine oviductal epithelial cells: long term culture characterization and impact of insulin on cell morphology.

    PubMed

    Palma-Vera, S; Einspanier, R; Schoen, J

    2014-09-01

    In vitro models that resemble cell function in vivo are needed to understand oviduct physiology. This study aimed to assess cell functions and insulin effects on bovine oviductal epithelial cells (BOECs) cultured in an air-liquid interface. BOECs (n=6) were grown in conditioned Ham's F12, DMEM or Ham's F12/DMEM with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS) for 3 weeks. After selecting the most suitable medium (Ham's F12), increasing insulin concentrations (1 ng/mL, 20 ng/mL and 5 ?g/mL) were applied, and cell morphology and trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER; n=4) were evaluated after 3 and 6 weeks. Keratin immunohistochemistry and mRNA expression of oviductal glycoprotein 1 (OVGP1) and progesterone receptor (PGR) were conducted (n=4) to assess cell differentiation. BOECs grown without insulin supplementation or with 1 ng/mL of insulin displayed polarization and secretory activity. However, cells exhibited only 50% of the height of their in vivo counterparts. Cultures supplemented with 20 ng/mL insulin showed the highest quality, but the 5 ?g/mL concentration induced massive growth. TEER correlated negatively with insulin concentration (r=-0.459; p=0.009). OVGP1 and PGR transcripts were still detectable after 3 and 6 weeks. Cellular localization of keratins closely resembled that of BOECs in vivo. Cultures showed heterogeneous expression of PGR and OVGP1 in response to estradiol (10 pg/mL). In summary, BOECs grown for long term in an air-liquid interface expressed markers of cell differentiation. Additionally, insulin supplementation (20 ng/mL) improved the cell morphology in vitro. PMID:25152518

  10. Physicochemical characterization of Capstone depleted uranium aerosols III: morphologic and chemical oxide analyses.

    PubMed

    Krupka, Kenneth M; Parkhurst, Mary Ann; Gold, Kenneth; Arey, Bruce W; Jenson, Evan D; Guilmette, Raymond A

    2009-03-01

    The impact of depleted uranium (DU) penetrators against an armored target causes erosion and fragmentation of the penetrators, the extent of which is dependent on the thickness and material composition of the target. Vigorous oxidation of the DU particles and fragments creates an aerosol of DU oxide particles and DU particle agglomerations combined with target materials. Aerosols from the Capstone DU aerosol study, in which vehicles were perforated by DU penetrators, were evaluated for their oxidation states using x-ray diffraction (XRD), and particle morphologies were examined using scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). The oxidation state of a DU aerosol is important as it offers a clue to its solubility in lung fluids. The XRD analysis showed that the aerosols evaluated were a combination primarily of U3O8 (insoluble) and UO3 (relatively more soluble) phases, though intermediate phases resembling U4O9 and other oxides were prominent in some samples. Analysis of particle residues in the micrometer-size range by SEM/EDS provided microstructural information such as phase composition and distribution, fracture morphology, size distribution, and material homogeneity. Observations from SEM analysis show a wide variability in the shapes of the DU particles. Some of the larger particles were spherical, occasionally with dendritic or lobed surface structures. Others appear to have fractures that perhaps resulted from abrasion and comminution, or shear bands that developed from plastic deformation of the DU material. Amorphous conglomerates containing metals other than uranium were also common, especially with the smallest particle sizes. A few samples seemed to contain small bits of nearly pure uranium metal, which were verified by EDS to have a higher uranium content exceeding that expected for uranium oxides. Results of the XRD and SEM/EDS analyses were used in other studies described in this issue of Health Physics to interpret the results of lung solubility studies and in selecting input parameters for dose assessments. PMID:19204486

  11. Electrophysiological and Morphological Characterization of Propriospinal Interneurons in the Thoracic Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Saywell, S. A.; Ford, T. W.; Meehan, C. F.; Todd, A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Propriospinal interneurons in the thoracic spinal cord have vital roles not only in controlling respiratory and trunk muscles, but also in providing possible substrates for recovery from spinal cord injury. Intracellular recordings were made from such interneurons in anesthetized cats under neuromuscular blockade and with the respiratory drive stimulated by inhaled CO2. The majority of the interneurons were shown by antidromic activation to have axons descending for at least two to four segments, mostly contralateral to the soma. In all, 81% of the neurons showed postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) to stimulation of intercostal or dorsal ramus nerves of the same segment for low-threshold (?5T) afferents. A monosynaptic component was present for the majority of the peripherally evoked excitatory PSPs. A central respiratory drive potential was present in most of the recordings, usually of small amplitude. Neurons depolarized in either inspiration or expiration, sometimes variably. The morphology of 17 of the interneurons and/or of their axons was studied following intracellular injection of Neurobiotin; 14 axons were descending, 6 with an additional ascending branch, and 3 were ascending (perhaps actually representing ascending tract cells); 15 axons were crossed, 2 ipsilateral, none bilateral. Collaterals were identified for 13 axons, showing exclusively unilateral projections. The collaterals were widely spaced and their terminations showed a variety of restricted locations in the ventral horn or intermediate area. Despite heterogeneity in detail, both physiological and morphological, which suggests heterogeneity of function, the projections mostly fitted a consistent general pattern: crossed axons, with locally weak, but widely distributed terminations. PMID:21106900

  12. Characterization of prostanoid receptor-evoked responses in rat sensory neurones

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jacqueline A M; Amagasu, Shanti M; Eglen, Richard M; Hunter, John C; Bley, Keith R

    1998-01-01

    Prostanoid receptor-mediated sensitization, or excitation, of sensory nerve fibres contributes to the generation of hyperalgesia. To characterize the prostanoid receptors present on sensory neurones, biochemical assays were performed on primary cultures of adult rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and the F-11 (embryonic rat DRG×neuroblastoma hybrid) cell line.In DRG cultures, the IP receptor agonists, cicaprost and carbaprostacyclin (cPGI2) stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) also increased cyclic AMP levels, but to a lesser extent, while carbocyclic thromboxane A2 (cTxA2), PGD2 and PGF2? had negligible effects. The rank order of agonist potency was cicaprost >PGE2=BMY45778=cPGI2=PGI2. In the F-11 cells, the rank order of agonist potency for the stimulation of cyclic AMP accumulation was: cicaprost>iloprost=cPGI2=PGI2=BMY45778>PGE2=cTXA2. In DRG cultures, cicaprost induced significantly more accumulation of inositol phosphates than PGE2.To examine the effects of prostanoids on C-fibre activity, extracellular recordings of d.c. potentials from the rat isolated vagus nerve were made with the ‘grease-gap' technique. PGI2 (0.1?nM–10??M) produced the largest depolarizations of the nerve. The rank order of agonist potency was: PGI2=cPGI2=PGE1>cTXA2>PGE2=PGD2=TXB2>PGF2?.Prior depolarization of nerves with either forskolin (10??M) or phorbol dibutyrate (1??M) alone significantly reduced the response to PGI2 (10??M), while simultaneous application of both forskolin and phorbol dibutyrate attenuated PGI2 responses almost completely.Putative EP1 and/or TP receptor-selective antagonists had no effect on the responses to PGI2, cPGI2 or PGE2 in the three preparations studied.Collectively, these data are consistent with a positive coupling of IP receptors to both adenylyl cyclase and phospholipase C in sensory neurones. These findings suggest that IP receptors play a major role in the sensitization of rat sensory neurones. PMID:9647476

  13. Scanning tunneling microscopy characterization of the surface morphology of copper films grown on mica and quartz

    E-print Network

    Krim, Jacqueline

    bare and pre-plated with titanium, are characterized by self-affine fractal scaling behavior over-plated with titanium. For the latter two cases, the RMS roughness is very low, 1­4 nm for the length scale of L=500 nm strong dependence of the film microstructure and surface roughness on the growth conditions, particularly

  14. Morphological and molecular characterization of Pratylenchus lentis n. sp. (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae) from Sicily

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pratylenchus lentis n. sp. parasitizing roots of lentil in Sicily, Italy, is described and illustrated. The new species is characterized by a high lip region with three annuli, stylet mean length of 16 micrometers with anteriorly flattened knobs, cylindrical body with a relatively anterior vulva, l...

  15. Nitrogen-Fixing Nodule Characterization and Morphology of Four Species in the Northern Intermountain Region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lee Walls; Benjamin A. Zamora

    Purshia tridentata (antelope bitterbrush), Ceanothus velutinus (snowbrush), Ceanothus sanguenius (redstem ceanothus), and Shepherdia canadensis (buffaloberry) are native shrubs of the Northern Intermountain Region that are generally characterized as nitrogen-fixing species. These species occupy a range of habitats from steppe to alpine environments. Nodulation of these species is initiated through root infection by Frankia species and the resulting nodules are described

  16. MORPHOLOGICAL AND GENOMIC CHARACTERIZATION OF THE POLYDNAVIRUS ASSOCIATED WITH THE PARASITOID WASP, GLYPTAPANTELES INDIENSIS (HYMENOPTERA: BRACONIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glyptapanteles indiensis polydnavirus (GiPDV) is essential for successful parasitization of the larval stage of the lepidopteran Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth) by the endoparasitic wasp, Glyptapanteles indiensis. This virus has not been characterized. Ultrastructural studies of GiPDV showed that th...

  17. CD3- Leukocytes Present in the Human Uterus During Early Placentation: Phenotypic and Morphologic Characterization of the CD56++ Population

    PubMed Central

    Balendran, Nalini; Wooding, P.; Carter, N. P.; Loke, Y. W.

    1991-01-01

    In this study, the CD3- LGL/NK cells present in the pregnant human uterus have been characterized. Phenotypic and morphologic analyses of decidual LGL revealed many similarities to the minor CD56bright+, CD16- subset in peripheral blood, but there were some important differences. The relative surface density of CD56+ is greatly increased on decidual LGL to 22 x that found on the majority of CD56 peripheral blood NK cells. The CD56bright cells in decidua show LGL morphology, whereas in peripheral blood, they are .mainly agranular. Proliferation of CD56+ cells occurs predominantly during the nonpregnant secretory (luteal) phase, indicating these CD56+ uterine LGL do not migrate as terminally differentiated cells. The appearance of CD56 cells was examined at the ultrastructural level using immunoelectron microscopy. Cells with phenotypic characteristics of decidual LGL occur in a higher percentage (1.11%) in the peripheral blood of women of reproductive age than in men (0.66%). On the basis of these results, it is proposed that the CD56bright+ uterine leukocytes represent a distinctive, hormonally regulated subset possibly adapted to control human placentation. PMID:1726555

  18. Morphological and voltammetric characterization of different concentrations of spin coated Nafion-Ru(bpy)2+3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuason, B. S. B.; Tiong-Palisoc, S.; Tiamzon-Natividad, M.

    2015-06-01

    Different concentrations of Ru(bpy)2+3 were successfully deposited on ITO coated glass substrates employing a simple method using a spin coater. The surface morphology was determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The transport mechanism and the diffusion coefficient of the redox mediators within the films were characterized using cyclic voltammetry (CV). The concentrations were varied by dissolving different amounts of the redox mediator in methanol and 5% Nafion. SEM micrographs showed that the roughness of the surface increased with concentration of redox mediator. CV showed successful incorporation of Ru(bpy)2+3. The order of the magnitude of the diffusion coefficients confirmed that the redox mediators were immobilized within the Nafion thin film. The resulting amount of redox mediator immobilized can be manipulated by simply varying the concentration of the casting solution.

  19. Surface morphology, microstructure, raman characterization and magnetic ordering of oxidized Fe-sputtered films on silicon substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasmin, A.; Rillera, H.; Semblante, O.; Sarmago, R.

    2012-09-01

    Iron oxide (Fe2O3) nanostructures are synthesized by thermal oxidation of Fe-sputtered films in a carbon-rich environment. Nanocrystals and nanoparticle networks are observed to grow on oxidized Fe thin films. Xray diffraction (XRD) characterization of samples reveals the existence of rhombohedral Fe2O3 crystal structure. Raman spectroscopy of annealed films shows the existence of Fe3O4 phase on network like structures which is brought about by the surface stress between the two iron oxide phases. Atomic force microscope (AFM) phase image of the Fe2O3 film shows a large scale magnetic ordering which does not depend on the surface morphology of the sample.

  20. Better preservation of peritoneal morphologic features and defense in rats after long-term exposure to a bicarbonate/lactate-buffered solution.

    PubMed

    Hekking, L H; Zareie, M; Driesprong, B A; Faict, D; Welten, A G; de Greeuw, I; Schadee-Eestermans, I L; Havenith, C E; van den Born, J; ter Wee, P M; Beelen, R H

    2001-12-01

    The long-term effects of a standard lactate-buffered dialysis fluid and a new, two-chamber, bicarbonate/lactate-buffered dialysis fluid (with fewer glucose degradation products and a neutral pH) were compared in an in vivo peritoneal exposure model. Rats were given daily injections, via an access port, of 10 ml of standard solution or bicarbonate/lactate-buffered solution for 9 to 10 wk. The omentum, peritoneum, and mesothelial cell layer were screened for morphologic changes. In addition, the bacterial clearing capacity of the peritoneal cells was studied. Significantly more milky spots and blood vessels were observed in the omenta of animals treated with standard solution (P < 0.03 for both parameters). Electron-microscopic analysis demonstrated dramatic changes in the appearance of the vascular endothelial cells of the milky spots and a severely damaged or even absent mesothelium on the peritoneal membrane of the standard solution-treated animals. In contrast, the mesothelium was still present in the bicarbonate/lactate-buffered solution group, although the cells lost microvilli. Both peritoneal dialysis fluids significantly increased the density of mesothelial cells (per square millimeter) on the surface of the liver and the thickness of the submesothelial extracellular matrix of the peritoneum (both P < 0.04 for both fluids versus control). A significantly better ex vivo bacterial clearing capacity was observed with peritoneal cells from the bicarbonate/lactate-buffered solution group, compared with the standard solution group (P < 0.05 in both experiments). These results demonstrate that instillation of bicarbonate/lactate-buffered solution into rats for 9 to 10 wk preserves both morphologic and immune parameters much more effectively, compared with standard solution. These findings may be of considerable clinical importance. PMID:11729248

  1. Acupuncture on the Endometrial Morphology, the Serum Estradiol and Progesterone Levels, and the Expression of Endometrial Leukaemia-inhibitor Factor and Osteopontin in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Houju; He, Yuanqiao; Gao, Ying; Man, Yicun; Liu, Wukun; Hao, Hua

    2011-01-01

    Although it is well known that acupuncture has beneficial effects on a variety of medical conditions especially in pain relief, nausea, and vomiting, it remains controversial whether it has positive impact on the female reproduction. The present study aimed to evaluate whether the following endometrial receptivity factors: the endometrial morphology, the hormone concentrations, and the protein expression of endometrial leukaemia-inhibitory factor (LIF) and osteopontin (OPN) could be improved by the acupuncture in clomiphene citrate(CC)-induced rat model during implantation period. Results showed that, compared with the CC group, glandular development advanced, the serum estradiol levels decreased significantly, and the glandular area and endometrial LIF and OPN expression were significantly higher in acupuncture group. There were no significant differences in serum progesterone levels, endometrial thickness, and stromal area between groups. These results suggest that acupuncture can improve certain aspects of endometrial receptivity in CC-induced rat model during implantation period, which might result in endometrial state better to female reproduction. PMID:20981331

  2. Physiological and morphological characterization of OFF-center amacrine cells in the turtle retina.

    PubMed

    Ammermüller, J; Weiler, R

    1988-07-01

    OFF-center amacrine cells were intracellularly recorded and stained with Lucifer yellow to investigate the cell correlations between photoresponses and morphological features. All OFF-amacrine cells were monostratified and branched within the outer half of the inner plexiform layer. In the flat-mounted retina, however, three distinct morphological classes were distinguishable, which correlated with observed physiological differences. Class 1 consisted of wide-field, stellate amacrine cells with long, thin processes, which branched only close to the soma. The diameter of the circular dendritic field ranged from 0.8 mm to 2.0 mm. Their photoresponse to spot stimulation was a hyperpolarization during light-ON and a small depolarization after light-OFF. They showed strong antagonistic center-surround organization of the receptive field. Its size was approximately equal to the dendritic field size. Class 2 consisted of wide-field, giant amacrine cells with a "central" dendritic field formed by thick dendrites, and a "peripheral" dendritic field formed by a few long and thin, "axonlike" processes. The shape of the dendritic field was elongated, with the long axis parallel to the visual streak. Their receptive field size was considerably smaller than their dendritic field size, which was several millimeters of diameter along the long axis. Their photoresponse to spot stimulation was a fast depolarization after light-OFF, and about 50% of these cells showed strong antagonistic center-surround receptive field organization. Class 3 consisted of small- or medium-field, "starburstlike" amacrine cells with circular dendritic fields of 0.1 mm to 0.6 mm diameter. Their fine, beaded dendrites branched predominantly in the distal parts of the dendritic field. their photoresponses to light were similar to those of the giant amacrine cells; however, their receptive field size exceeded the dendritic field size. Radial sections of the retinas with labeled cells were incubated in antisera to reveal the putative transmitters GABA, serotonin, neurotensin, met-enkephalin and glucagon. No immunoreactivity with these antisera was detected within the stained OFF-center amacrine cells. PMID:3417900

  3. Morphological evidence for a neurotensinergic periaqueductal gray-rostral ventromedial medulla-spinal dorsal horn descending pathway in rat

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian; Zhang, Hua; Feng, Yu-Peng; Meng, Hua; Wu, Li-Ping; Wang, Wen; Li, Hui; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Jin-Shan; Li, Yun-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Neurotensin (NT) is an endogenous neuropeptide that exerts potent opioid-independent analgesic effects, most likely via the type 2 NT receptor (NTR2). Previous morphological and electrophysiological studies suggested that the NT-NTR2 system is primarily localized in structures that constitute the descending pain control pathway, such as the periaqueductal gray (PAG), the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM), and the spinal dorsal horn (SDH). However, relevant morphological evidence for this neurotensinergic (NTergic) circuit is lacking. Thus, the aim of the present study was to morphologically elucidate the potential sites and connections in the NT-NTR2 system that are involved in the descending pain control pathway. Based on light and electron microscopy combined with anterograde and retrograde tracing, we found evidence that NTR2-immunoreactive (IR) neurons in the RVM receive NT-IR projections originating from the PAG; express NT, serotonin (5-HT), or both; and send projections that terminate in laminae I and II of the SDH. These results suggest that NTR2 may contribute to pain control by binding to NT in the PAG-RVM-SDH pathway. In conclusion, our data provide morphological evidence for an NTergic PAG-RVM-SDH pathway, implicating novel mechanisms of NT-induced analgesia. PMID:25346662

  4. Morphologic and molecular characterization of ATRT xenografts adapted for orthotopic therapeutic testing.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Rintaro; Gupta, Nalin; Berger, Mitchel S; Banerjee, Anu; Prados, Michael D; Ayers-Ringler, Jennifer; James, C David; VandenBerg, Scott R

    2010-04-01

    Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is a malignant tumor of the central nervous system that most commonly arises in young children. The aggressive growth and propensity for early dissemination throughout the neuraxis confers a dismal prognosis. Large clinical trials that could test new therapeutic agents are difficult to conduct due to the low incidence of this cancer. For this reason, high throughput preclinical testing with suitable animal models for ATRT would serve a critical need for identifying the most efficacious treatments. In response to this need, we have adapted ATRT cell lines for bioluminescence imaging (BLI) of intracranial (orthotopic) xenografts established in athymic mice. Our results indicate that following supratentorial or infratentorial injection in athymic mice, ATRT cells produce rapidly growing tumors, often with intraventricular spread or neuraxis dissemination. When established as orthotopic xenografts, the tumors predominantly display cells with a rhabdoid-like cellular morphology that show a spectrum of immunophenotypes similar to primary ATRT tumors. To demonstrate the feasibility of this orthotopic ATRT xenograft model for therapeutic testing with correlation to biomarker analysis, we examined the responses of luciferase-modified ATRT cells to temozolomide (TMZ). These xenografts, which highly express MGMT, are resistant to TMZ treatment when compared with an orthotopic glioblastoma xenograft that is MGMT deficient and responsive to TMZ. These data suggest that an orthotopic ATRT xenograft model, in which BLI is used for monitoring tumor growth and response to therapy, should contribute to the identification of effective therapeutics and regimens for treating this highly aggressive pediatric brain tumor. PMID:20308314

  5. Morphological and physicochemical characterization of liposomes loading cucurbitacin E, an anti-proliferative natural tetracyclic triterpene.

    PubMed

    Habib, Lamice; Jraij, Alia; Khreich, Nathalie; Fessi, Hatem; Charcosset, Catherine; Greige-Gerges, Hélčne

    2014-01-01

    Cucurbitacin E (Cuc E), an oxygenated triterpene molecule, has demonstrated anti-proliferative effect on various cancer cells. Here, we examined the effect of Cuc E on the membrane morphology and properties using differential scanning calorimetry, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy techniques. Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine vesicles were prepared by the thin film hydration method in the absence and presence of Cuc E at molar ratios 100:12 and 100:20. The loading efficiency of Cuc E was found to be higher than 98% upon HPLC analysis. The thermodynamic parameters suggest that Cuc E does not penetrate into the bilayers and interacts with the polar/apolar interface of the lipid membranes. Blank and Cuc E loaded liposomes prepared from a mixture of DPPC/DPPE/DPPG/Cho were imaged by TEM and AFM. Images obtained by TEM revealed unilamellar liposomes for blank and Cuc E loaded liposomes. AFM images showed that the size and the height of Cuc E loaded liposomes were respectively smaller and higher than blank ones. Results suggest that Cuc E produces modifications in the lipid membrane structures. PMID:24291009

  6. Plasma morphology and induced airflow characterization of a DBD actuator with serrated electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joussot, R.; Leroy, A.; Weber, R.; Rabat, H.; Loyer, S.; Hong, D.

    2013-03-01

    Plasma morphology and airflow induced by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) actuator, whose exposed electrode geometry is designed with a serrated configuration, are investigated in quiescent air and compared with a DBD actuator consisting of electrodes designed with a standard linear strip configuration. ICCD imaging, electrical measurements and three-component laser Doppler velocimetry were carried out to compare various features of these two actuators. With the serrated configuration, ICCD images of the discharge show that streamers are bent, whereas with the linear configuration they are straight. These curved streamers induce a three-dimensional flow topology, which is confirmed by friction line visualization and velocity measurements. Whereas a two-dimensional wall-jet is induced with the linear configuration, a transverse velocity component is measured with the serrated configuration, implying the creation of spanwise-periodic vorticity. Phase-averaged velocity measurements allow the temporal variation of this transverse velocity to be highlighted. On both sides of a tooth, it has qualitatively the same variation as the longitudinal velocity with respect to the negative or positive half-cycles of the high voltage signal. Moreover, with the same electrical operating parameters, the measured longitudinal velocity was higher, particularly at the tips.

  7. Morphological and genetic characterization of an emerging Azorean horse breed: the Terceira Pony

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Maria S.; Mendonça, Duarte; Rojer, Horst; Cabral, Verónica; Bettencourt, Sílvia X.; da Câmara Machado, Artur

    2015-01-01

    The Terceira Pony is a horse indigenous to Terceira Island in the Azores. These horses were very important during the colonization of the island. Due to their very balanced proportions and correct gaits, and with an average withers height of 1.28 m, the Terceira Pony is often confused with a miniature pure-bred Lusitano. This population was officially recognized as the fourth Portuguese equine breed by the national authorities in January, 2014. The aim of this study was to analyze the morphology and the genetic diversity by means of microsatellite markers of this emerging horse breed. The biometric data consisted of 28 body measurements and nine angles from 30 animals (11 sires, 19 dams). The Terceira Pony is now a recognized horse breed and is gaining in popularity amongst breeders and the younger riding classes. The information obtained from this study will be very useful for conservation and management purposes, including maximizing the breed’s genetic diversity, and solidifying the desirable phenotypic traits. PMID:25774165

  8. Morphological and molecular characterization of actinosporeans infecting oligochaete Branchiura sowerbyi from Chinese carp ponds.

    PubMed

    Xi, Bing-Wen; Zhou, Zhi-Gang; Xie, Jun; Pan, Liang-Kun; Yang, Ya-Lin; Ge, Xian-Ping

    2015-06-01

    We surveyed the actinosporean stages of fish myxosporeans at fish farms in Jiangsu Province, China, from 2011 to 2014. During the surveys, we identified 7 actinosporean types from 4 collective groups: echinactinomyxon (1 type), triactinomyxon (1 type), aurantiactinomyxon (1 type), and neoactinomyxum (4 types), released by the oligochaete Branchiura sowerbyi. The morphological characteristics and DNA sequences of these types are described here. Based on 18S rDNA sequence analysis, the actinosporean of echinactinomyxon type CZ with 4 branches at the end of the caudal processes was identified as Myxobolus wulii, and the neoactinomyxum type JD was identified as Thelohanellus wangi Yuan, Xi, Wang, Xie, Zhang, 2015 (JX458816), a recently nominated species from the gills of allogynogenetic gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio. In addition, actinosporeans of aurantiactinomyxon type JD, neoactinomyxum type CZ-1, neoactinomyxum type CZ-2, and neoactinomyxum type CZ-3 showed high genetic similarity to T. wuhanensis (96.3-96.5%), T. nikolskii (98.0-99.1%), T. wuhanensis (97.8-98.9%), and T. hovorkai (98.7-98.9%), respectively. Phylogenetic analyses showed that these actinosporeans were robustly clustered in the Thelohanellus spp. clade. PMID:26036829

  9. A strain of Plasmodium vivax characterized by prolonged incubation: morphological and biological characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Garnham, P. C. C.; Bray, R. S.; Bruce-Chwatt, L. J.; Draper, C. C.; Killick-Kendrick, R.; Sergiev, P. G.; Tiburskaja, N. A.; Shute, P. G.; Maryon, M.

    1975-01-01

    Numerous strains of P. vivax, distinguishable chiefly by their biological characteristics, are known to exist. Two main varieties are recognized: the so-called temperate and tropical strains. The most extreme example of the former—designated by Nikolaev as P. vivax hibernans—constantly exhibited an extremely long incubation period. The strain is no longer in existence and no type material has been preserved. In its place, a North Korean strain with a generally long incubation period has been studied and compared with the well-known tropical Madagascar strain, which frequently but not constantly has a short incubation period. The data presented here concern the behaviour of various strains from the USSR and the morphological characteristics of the North Korean and Madagascar strains. Splenectomized chimpanzees were used as the host of these parasites, particularly in regard to exoerythrocytic schizogony. Attempts were also made, by late biopsies of the liver of the apes, to elucidate the prolonged latency of the North Korean strain. Although there was no evidence of specifically dormant forms, it is probable that certain sporozoites fail to develop in the normal time and that they are reactivated by an unknown factor a year or more after inoculation. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 2 PMID:764993

  10. Characterization and morphological reconstruction of the Terny impact structure, central Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpton, V. L.; Krochuk, R. V.; Herrick, R. R.

    2013-05-01

    The Terny impact structure, located in central Ukraine, displays a variety of diagnostic indicators of shock metamorphism, including shatter cones, planar deformation features in quartz, diaplectic glass, selective melting of minerals, and whole rock melting. The structure has been modified by erosion and subsequently buried by recent sediments. Although there are no natural outcrops of the deformed basement rocks within the area, mining exploration has provided surface and subsurface access to the structure, exposing impact melt rocks, shocked parautochthonous target rocks, and allochthonous impact breccias, including impact melt-bearing breccias similar to suevites observed at the Ries structure. We have collected and studied samples from surface and subsurface exposures to a depth of approximately 750 m below the surface. This analysis indicates the Terny crater is centered on geographic coordinates 48.13° N, 33.52° E. The center location and the distribution of shock pressures constrain the transient crater diameter to be no less than approximately 8.4 km. Using widely accepted morphometric scaling relations, we estimate the pre-erosional rim diameter of Terny crater to be approximately 16-19 km, making it close in original size to the well-preserved El'gygytgyn crater in Siberia. Comparison with El'gygytgyn yields useful insights into the original morphology of the Terny crater and indicates that the amount of erosion Terny experienced prior to burial probably does not exceed 320 m.

  11. Morphological and structural characterization of SiC based composite nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipescu, M.; Stokker-Cheregi, F.; Colceag, D.; Nedelcea, A.; Birjega, R.; Nistor, L. C.; Dinescu, M.

    2013-08-01

    This paper reports on producing SiC based nanostructures (SiC, W-SiC, CNS-SiC) by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and radio-frequency plasma assisted PLD. Simple and composite targets (SiC, 3/4 SiC + 1/4 tungsten and 3/4 SiC + 1/4 graphite) were irradiated by a 266 nm pulsed laser beam having a pulse duration of 7 ns. The silicon substrates were kept either at room temperature or heated up to 600 °C. The depositions were performed in argon at various pressures, ranging from 0.05 mbar up to 2 mbar. The influence of deposition parameters on the structure, surface morphology and composition of different SiC based structures was studied by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction. Fibers, tubes, nanoparticles and rolled sheets structures were obtained by varying laser fluence, substrate temperature, gas pressure and radio-frequency power.

  12. Morphological and microstructural characterization of nanostructured pure ?-phase W coatings on a wide thickness range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordillo, N.; Panizo-Laiz, M.; Tejado, E.; Fernandez-Martinez, I.; Rivera, A.; Pastor, J. Y.; Castro, C. Gómez de; del Rio, J.; Perlado, J. M.; Gonzalez-Arrabal, R.

    2014-10-01

    Nanostructured tungsten (nanoW) coatings have been deposited by DC magnetron sputtering. First, the influence of the sputtering power on the adhesion of the coatings to the substrate was investigated by depositing coatings at powers varying from 30 up to 220 W. Non-delaminated coatings were achieved at powers ?50 W. Second, the influence of coating thickness on the morphological, microstructural and mechanical properties was investigated for films deposited at 50 W with thicknesses varying from 30 nm up to ?4.0 ?m. SEM images reveal that all the films are highly compact, consisting of nanometer sized columns that grow perpendicular to the substrate. XRD data evidence that films are monophasic, being made of pure ?-phase. All coatings show compressive stress and low micro-strain. Nanoindentation tests show that coatings have a hardness higher than that reported for coarse grained W. No significant dependence of the previous properties on coating thickness was observed. Finally, the influence of the substrate on coatings properties was studied, by depositing a W coating at a power of 50 W on a commercial steel substrate: no significant dependence was found.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of different MnO2 morphologies for lithium-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hyun-A.; Jang, Hyuk; Hwang, Hyein; Choi, Mincheol; Lim, Dongwook; Shim, Sang Eun; Baeck, Sung-Hyeon

    2014-09-01

    Manganese dioxide (MnO2) was synthesized in the forms of nanorods, nanoparticles, and mesoporous structures and the characteristics of these materials were investigated. Crystallinities were studied by x-ray diffraction and morphologies by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Average pore sizes and specific surface areas were analyzed using the Barret-Joyner-Halenda and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller methods, respectively. Samples were also studied by cyclic voltammetry using 1M aqueous KOH solution saturated with either O2 or N2 as electrolytes to investigate their ORR (oxygen reduction reaction) and OER (oxygen evolution reaction) activities. Of the samples produced, mesoporous MnO2 exhibited the highest ORR and OER catalytic activities. Mesoporous MnO2 supported on a gas diffusion layer was also used as a catalyst on the air electrode (cathode) of a lithium-air battery in organic electrolyte. The charge-discharge behavior of mesoporous MnO2 was investigated at a current density 0.2 mAcm-2 in a pure oxygen environment. Mesoporous MnO2 electrodes showed stable cycleability up to 65 cycles at a cell capacity of 700 mAhg-1.

  14. Investigation of Sesamol on Myeloperoxidase and Colon Morphology in Acetic Acid-Induced Inflammatory Bowel Disorder in Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kondamudi, Phani Krishna; Kovelamudi, Hemalatha; Mathew, Geetha; Nayak, Pawan G.; Rao, Mallikarjuna C.; Shenoy, Rekha R.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of gastrointestinal tract of immune, genetic, and environmental origin. In the present study, we examined the effects of sesamol (SES), which is the active constituent of sesame oil in the acetic acid (AA) induced model for IBD in rats. Methods. The groups were divided into normal control, AA control, SES, and sulfasalazine (SS). On day 7, the rats were killed, colon was removed, and the macroscopic, biochemical, and histopathological evaluations were performed. Results. The levels of MPO, TBARS, and tissue nitrite increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the AA group whereas they reduced significantly in the SES and SS treated groups. Serum nitrite levels were found to be insignificant between the different groups. Conclusions. The mucosal protective effects of sesamol in IBD are due to its potential to reduce the myeloperoxidase and nitrite content. PMID:24616646

  15. Morphologic and morphometric analyses of acetic acid-induced colitis in rats after treatment with enemas from Myracrodruon urundeuva Fr. All. (Aroeira do Sertăo).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Lusmar Veras; Ferreira, Francisco Valdeci; Regadas, F Sérgio P; Matos, Délcio; Viana, Glauce Socorro de Barros

    2002-05-01

    The present work showed the effects of Myracrodruon urundeuva Fr. All., popularly known as 'aroeira' (AE), in the form of enemas prepared from the stem bark, on several morphologic and morphometric parameters after acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Enemas from 5-ASA were used as standard while the vehicle, carboxymethylcellulose, was used as a control. The results of the morphological evaluation showed that on day 1 acetic acid produced significantly more necrosis in the groups treated with AE (10% and 20%) or 5-ASA than the controls. However, on day 60, there were more caliciform and absorptive cells in the treated groups compared with the controls. A significantly higher number of eosinophil and mononuclear cells and also collagen deposition in the controls compared with the treated groups were observed on day 60. However, a higher number of polymorphonuclear cells was detected on day 60 only in the AE treated group but not in the 5-ASA group. These data indicate that animals treated with AE or 5-ASA showed complete epithelial tissue regeneration, while in the controls chronic inflammatory exudate persisted and tissue regeneration occurred through fibrosis. PMID:12164275

  16. Morphological changes in the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-gonadal axis of male rats after twelve months of streptozotocin-induced diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. L. Rossi; G. Bestetti

    1981-01-01

    Summary  The hypothalami, pituitaries and testes from streptozotocin-treated and control male Wistar rats were examined by light and electron microscopy 12 months after induction of diabetes. Light and electron microscopic immunohistochemical techniques were employed for the localization of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone and luteinizing hormone in the hypothalami and the pituitaries. In the hypothalami of diabetic animals swollen neuronal processes containing anti-luteinizing

  17. Early and late morphological changes (including carcinoma of the urothelium) induced by irradiation of the rat urinary bladder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G N Antonakopoulos; R M Hicks; R J Berry

    1982-01-01

    Effects of X-irradiating the urinary bladder of female F344 rats with a single dose of 20 Gy were studied by light and electron microscopy. The animals were killed 1 week-20 months post-irradiation, and all tissues of the bladder wall were found to be affected by the irradiation. In the urothelium, damage was initially restricted to the basal cells but slowly

  18. Experimental silicosis. II. Long-term effects of intratracheally instilled quartz on collagen metabolism and morphologic characteristics of rat lungs.

    PubMed Central

    Reiser, K. M.; Haschek, W. M.; Hesterberg, T. W.; Last, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Rats received intratracheal instillations of 50 mg of silica (quartz, 0.5 mu particles). One, 2, 4, 5, 6, 9, and 12 months later, the lungs were evaluated histologically and by various biochemical measurements. The lung content of protein, proline, and hydroxyproline (collagen) were quantitated, as were the synthesis rates of lung collagen and the total lung protein (evaluated with lung minces in vitro. The ratio of newly synthesized and of total lung Type I to Type III collagen was also determined. These experiments were performed in parallel on rats free of chronic respiratory disease and a strain of conventional animals. The authors conclude that 1) the excess collagen deposited in granulomas and/or silicotic nodules as part of the fibrotic response of the lung is similar to normal lung collagen with respect to relative ratios of Types I and III present, in contrast to the response of the lung to oxidant pneumotoxins; 2) the response of the lung to silica continues for at least 1 year; 3) there are essentially no differences in the response of chronic respiratory disease-free Sprague-Dawley and conventional Wistar rats to intratracheally instilled silica. Both strains of rats develop silica-containing granulomas, mature silicotic nodules, and areas of alveolar lipoproteinosis associated with interstitial pneumonitis. Even 1 year after instillation of silica areas of granulomas, silicotic nodules and alveolar lipoproteinosis may be observed in most of the lungs studied; ie, these responses are not mutually exclusive. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:6295174

  19. The effects of Sorbinil on peripheral nerve conduction velocity, polyol concentrations and morphology in the streptozotocin-diabetic rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. E. Cameron; M. B. Leonard; I. S. Ross; P. H. Whiting

    1986-01-01

    Summary  This study examined the effects of an aldose reductase inhibitor, Sorbinil, on neuropathy over a 6-month period in streptozotocin-diabetic\\u000a rats. Sorbinil treatment prevented the 10-fold increase in nerve sorbitol found with diabetes. It produced a 60% improvement\\u000a in tibial nerve motor conduction velocity after 6 months. Morphometric profiles of nerves were also normalised. Axon area\\u000a was reduced by 14% in

  20. Influence of Vanadyl Sulphate (VOSO4) on Biochemical Activity and Morphology of Control and Streptozotocin-Diabetic Rat Liver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Goc; Bohdan Turyna; Anna M. Kordowiak; Golgi Complexes

    2004-01-01

    The authors describe the influence of vanadyl sulphate on liver Golgi complexes in control and streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats. VOSO4, one of inorganic vanadium compounds widely used in animal models and human diabetes, acts as an insulin-mimetic drug and is relatively well known as a complex activated or inhibited on many enzymes involved in carbohydrate or lipid metabolic path- ways. A

  1. ?-Secretase inhibitor (GSI1) attenuates morphological cerebral vasospasm in 24 h after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaomei Yang; Chunhua Chen; Qin Hu; Junhao Yan; Changman Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Notch signaling plays an important role in the arteriogenesis. We hypothesized that the Notch inhibitor—?-secretase inhibitor (GSI1) exerted its effects on the vasospasm via regulation of NF-?B and MMP-9. In this study, 160 male Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned into four groups: Sham, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), SAH treated with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and SAH treated with GSI1. After 24h

  2. Effects of Momordica charantia fruit juice on islet morphology in the pancreas of the streptozotocin-diabetic rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I Ahmed; E Adeghate; A. K Sharma; D. J Pallot; J Singh

    1998-01-01

    An investigation was made of the effect of Momordica charantia fruit juice on the distribution and number of ?, ? and ? cells in the pancreas of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats using immunohistochemical methods. The results indicated that there was a significant (Student's t-test, P<0.004) increase in the number of ? cells in M. charantia-treated animals when compared with untreated

  3. Characterization of a folate-induced hypermotility response after bilateral injection into the rat nucleus accumbens

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, R.L. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of these studies was to pharmacologically characterize the mechanism responsible for a folate-induced stimulation of locomotor activity in rats after bilateral injection into the nucleus accumbens region of the brain. Folic acid (FA) and 5-formyltetrahydrofolic acid (FTHF) produced this hypermotility response after intra-accumbens injection, while other reduced folic acid derivatives dihydrofolic acid, tetrahydrofolic acid, and 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid were ineffective. Studies were designed to determine the role of catecholamines in the nucleus accumbens in the folate-induced hypermotility response. The findings suggest that the folate-induced response is dependent on intact neuronal dopamine stores, and is mediated by stimulation of dopamine receptors of the nucleus accumbens. However the folates do not appear to enhance dopaminergic neutransmission. Thus, FA and FTHF were inefficient at 1 mM concentrations in stimulating /sup 3/H-dopamine release from /sup 3/H-dopamine preloaded nucleus accumbens slices or dopamine from endogenous stores. Pteroic acid, the chemical precursor of folic acid which lacks the glutamate moiety, was ineffective in producing a stimulation of locomotor activity after intra-accumbens injection. Since glutamate is an excitatory amino acid (EAA), compounds characterized as EAA receptor antagonists were utilized to determine if the folate-induced hypermotility response is mediated by activation of EAA receptors in the nucleus accumbens. These results suggest that activation of quisqualate receptors of the nucleus accumbens may mediate the folate-induced hypermotility response.

  4. Hydrothermal Synthesis, Characterization, and Tribological Behavior of Oleic Acid-Capped Lanthanum Borate with Different Morphologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhengfeng Jia; Yanqiu Xia

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, nano\\/microstructure lanthanum borates were synthesized by hydrothermal route. Furthermore, oleic acid-capped\\u000a nano\\/microstructure lanthanum borates (OANLBs) were also prepared. The nano\\/microstructure of lanthanum borate is characterized\\u000a by means of Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and transmission\\u000a electron microscopy (TEM). At the same time, the friction and wear properties of OANLBs as additives in poly-alpha-olefin

  5. Characterization of a mammalian Golgi-localized protein complex, COG, that is required for normal Golgi morphology and function

    PubMed Central

    Ungar, Daniel; Oka, Toshihiko; Brittle, Elizabeth E.; Vasile, Eliza; Lupashin, Vladimir V.; Chatterton, Jon E.; Heuser, John E.; Krieger, Monty; Waters, M. Gerard

    2002-01-01

    Multiprotein complexes are key determinants of Golgi apparatus structure and its capacity for intracellular transport and glycoprotein modification. Three complexes that have previously been partially characterized include (a) the Golgi transport complex (GTC), identified in an in vitro membrane transport assay, (b) the ldlCp complex, identified in analyses of CHO cell mutants with defects in Golgi-associated glycosylation reactions, and (c) the mammalian Sec34 complex, identified by homology to yeast Sec34p, implicated in vesicular transport. We show that these three complexes are identical and rename them the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex. The COG complex comprises four previously characterized proteins (Cog1/ldlBp, Cog2/ldlCp, Cog3/Sec34, and Cog5/GTC-90), three homologues of yeast Sec34/35 complex subunits (Cog4, -6, and -8), and a previously unidentified Golgi-associated protein (Cog7). EM of ldlB and ldlC mutants established that COG is required for normal Golgi morphology. “Deep etch” EM of purified COG revealed an ?37-nm-long structure comprised of two similarly sized globular domains connected by smaller extensions. Consideration of biochemical and genetic data for mammalian COG and its yeast homologue suggests a model for the subunit distribution within this complex, which plays critical roles in Golgi structure and function. PMID:11980916

  6. Characterization of a mammalian Golgi-localized protein complex, COG, that is required for normal Golgi morphology and function.

    PubMed

    Ungar, Daniel; Oka, Toshihiko; Brittle, Elizabeth E; Vasile, Eliza; Lupashin, Vladimir V; Chatterton, Jon E; Heuser, John E; Krieger, Monty; Waters, M Gerard

    2002-04-29

    Multiprotein complexes are key determinants of Golgi apparatus structure and its capacity for intracellular transport and glycoprotein modification. Three complexes that have previously been partially characterized include (a) the Golgi transport complex (GTC), identified in an in vitro membrane transport assay, (b) the ldlCp complex, identified in analyses of CHO cell mutants with defects in Golgi-associated glycosylation reactions, and (c) the mammalian Sec34 complex, identified by homology to yeast Sec34p, implicated in vesicular transport. We show that these three complexes are identical and rename them the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex. The COG complex comprises four previously characterized proteins (Cog1/ldlBp, Cog2/ldlCp, Cog3/Sec34, and Cog5/GTC-90), three homologues of yeast Sec34/35 complex subunits (Cog4, -6, and -8), and a previously unidentified Golgi-associated protein (Cog7). EM of ldlB and ldlC mutants established that COG is required for normal Golgi morphology. "Deep etch" EM of purified COG revealed an approximately 37-nm-long structure comprised of two similarly sized globular domains connected by smaller extensions. Consideration of biochemical and genetic data for mammalian COG and its yeast homologue suggests a model for the subunit distribution within this complex, which plays critical roles in Golgi structure and function. PMID:11980916

  7. Morphological and molecular characterization of Globodera populations from Oregon and Idaho.

    PubMed

    Skantar, A M; Handoo, Z A; Zasada, I A; Ingham, R E; Carta, L K; Chitwood, D J

    2011-04-01

    An unusual population of cyst nematode was found in soils collected from a Powell Butte, OR field with a cropping history including potato, wheat, other crops, and significant weed presence. These nematodes could not be placed with certainty into any known species and exhibited some unique morphological features in some specimens. Compared with Globodera pallida, the cyst body length was slightly longer and the second-stage juvenile stylet length was slightly shorter. In some individuals, the J2 stylet knob height was greater and the tail annules were more prominent than in G. pallida, and the tail abruptly narrowed, with a slight constriction near the posterior third of the hyaline terminus. Compared with G. rostochiensis, the hyaline tail terminus had a larger number of refractive bodies, and cysts of this population had a smaller Granek's ratio and fewer cuticular ridges between the anus and vulva. In some individuals, the tail termini of second-stage juveniles were more bluntly pointed, and the stylet knobs were more anteriorly directed with greater height. Unlike G. tabacum, the cyst wall often lacked a network-like pattern and, in some individuals, the juvenile tail terminus distinctly narrowed after a constriction. Molecularly, the population was distinct from G. pallida, G. rostochiensis, and G. tabacum. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA region gave results similar to G. tabacum; however, ITS restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns were observed to have individual bands in common with G. rostochiensis and G. pallida. Phylogenetic analysis based on ITS1 and -2 rDNA sequences showed greatest similarity to populations from Argentina and Chile; together, they form a moderately supported clade, distinct from G. rostochiensis, G. tabacum, G. "mexicana," European type G. pallida, and several G. pallida populations from South America. PMID:21391826

  8. Characterizing Newly Repopulated Microglia in the Adult Mouse: Impacts on Animal Behavior, Cell Morphology, and Neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Elmore, Monica R. P.; Lee, Rafael J.; West, Brian L.; Green, Kim N.

    2015-01-01

    Microglia are the primary immune cell in the brain and are postulated to play important roles outside of immunity. Administration of the dual colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R)/c-Kit kinase inhibitor, PLX3397, to adult mice results in the elimination of ~99% of microglia, which remain eliminated for as long as treatment continues. Upon removal of the inhibitor, microglia rapidly repopulate the entire adult brain, stemming from a central nervous system (CNS) resident progenitor cell. Using this method of microglial elimination and repopulation, the role of microglia in both healthy and diseased states can be explored. Here, we examine the responsiveness of newly repopulated microglia to an inflammatory stimulus, as well as determine the impact of these cells on behavior, cognition, and neuroinflammation. Two month-old wild-type mice were placed on either control or PLX3397 diet for 21 d to eliminate microglia. PLX3397 diet was then removed in a subset of animals to allow microglia to repopulate and behavioral testing conducted beginning at 14 d repopulation. Finally, inflammatory profiling of the microglia-repopulated brain in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.25 mg/kg) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) was determined 21 d after inhibitor removal using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), as well as detailed analyses of microglial morphologies. We find mice with repopulated microglia to perform similarly to controls by measures of behavior, cognition, and motor function. Compared to control/resident microglia, repopulated microglia had larger cell bodies and less complex branching in their processes, which resolved over time after inhibitor removal. Inflammatory profiling revealed that the mRNA gene expression of repopulated microglia was similar to normal resident microglia and that these new cells appear functional and responsive to LPS. Overall, these data demonstrate that newly repopulated microglia function similarly to the original resident microglia without any apparent adverse effects in healthy adult mice. PMID:25849463

  9. Russian study of morphological prognostic factors characterization in BRAF-mutant cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Aksenenko, M B; Kirichenko, A K; Ruksha, T G

    2015-07-01

    Melanoma is one of the aggressive cancer types causing the majority of deaths in skin cancer patients. Mutational screening of the tumor revealed a number of driver mutations in oncogenes which enabled melanoma classification into a few molecular subtypes. BRAF is a key component of mitogen-activated kinase pathway; its activating mutation leads to accelerated melanoma cells proliferation, invasion and survival. Somatic mutations in BRAF were reported in various malignancies, including thyroid cancer, colorectal cancer and melanoma. Specific features of BRAF-positive tumors could have clinical implications as mutational alterations may have an impact on the biological behavior of the tumor and prognosis of the disease. In the present study, the frequency of BRAF V600E mutation was evaluated in Russian patients with melanocytic lesions, of which 41.25% were primary melanoma and 60% were melanocytic nevi. Melanoma patients with trunk localization were of younger age in the BRAF-positive group as compared with BRAF-negative patients. Immunohistochemical evaluations of Ki-67 expression, as well as matrix metalloproteinase-2, -9, were found to be equal in BRAF-positive and BRAF-negative tumors. MMP-2/MMP-9 immunoreactivity was observed in stromal and/or melanocytic cells both in melanoma and nevi patients. Besides tumor cells, MMP-9 expression was observed in lymphocytes in 27.2% of BRAF-positive and in 19.1% of BRAF-negative patients. Histopathological prognostic markers (Breslow thickness, mitotic index, ulceration, tumor infiltrating lymphocytes pattern) did not show any differences depending on BRAF V600E mutational status. The frequency of BRAF-positive melanomas in Russian cohort is similar to other Caucasian population rates. BRAF V600E mutation harboring tumors are more often observed in younger patients without specific features of morphological prognostic factors. PMID:25888143

  10. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of human amniotic fluid-derived cells: a morphological and proteomic approach.

    PubMed

    Pipino, Caterina; Pierdomenico, Laura; Di Tomo, Pamela; Di Giuseppe, Fabrizio; Cianci, Eleonora; D'Alimonte, Iolanda; Morabito, Caterina; Centurione, Lucia; Antonucci, Ivana; Mariggiň, Maria A; Di Pietro, Roberta; Ciccarelli, Renata; Marchisio, Marco; Romano, Mario; Angelucci, Stefania; Pandolfi, Assunta

    2015-06-15

    Mesenchymal Stem Cells derived from Amniotic Fluid (AFMSCs) are multipotent cells of great interest for regenerative medicine. Two predominant cell types, that is, Epithelial-like (E-like) and Fibroblast-like (F-like), have been previously detected in the amniotic fluid (AF). In this study, we examined the AF from 12 donors and observed the prevalence of the E-like phenotype in 5, whereas the F-like morphology was predominant in 7 samples. These phenotypes showed slight differences in membrane markers, with higher CD90 and lower Sox2 and SSEA-4 expression in F-like than in E-like cells; whereas CD326 was expressed only in the E-like phenotype. They did not show any significant differences in osteogenic, adipogenic or chondrogenic differentiation. Proteomic analysis revealed that samples with a predominant E-like phenotype (HC1) showed a different profile than those with a predominant F-like phenotype (HC2). Twenty-five and eighteen protein spots were differentially expressed in HC1 and HC2 classes, respectively. Of these, 17 from HC1 and 4 from HC2 were identified by mass spectrometry. Protein-interaction networks for both phenotypes showed strong interactions between specific AFMSC proteins and molecular chaperones, such as preproteasomes and mature proteasomes, both of which are important for cell cycle regulation and apoptosis. Collectively, our results provide evidence that, regardless of differences in protein profiling, the prevalence of E-like or F-like cells in AF does not affect the differentiation capacity of AFMSC preparations. This may be valuable information with a view to the therapeutic use of AFMSCs. PMID:25608581

  11. Physicochemical, morphological, and rheological characterization of Xanthosoma robustum Lego-like starch.

    PubMed

    Londońo-Restrepo, Sandra M; Rincón-Londońo, Natalia; Contreras-Padilla, Margarita; Acosta-Osorio, Andrés A; Bello-Pérez, Luis A; Lucas-Aguirre, Juan C; Quintero, Víctor D; Pineda-Gómez, Posidia; del Real-López, Alicia; Rodríguez-García, Mario E

    2014-04-01

    This work presents the physicochemical and pasting characterization of isolated mafafa starch and mafafa flour (Xanthosoma robustum). According to SEM images of mafafa starches in the tuber, these starches form Lego-like shaped structures with diameters between 8 and 35 ?m conformed by several starch granules of wedge shape that range from 2 to 7 ?m. The isolated mafafa starch is characterized by its low contents of protein, fat, and ash. The starch content in isolated starch was found to be 88.58% while the amylose content obtained was 35.43%. X-ray diffraction studies confirm that isolated starch is composed mainly by amylopectin. These results were confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry and thermo gravimetric analysis. This is the first report of the molecular parameters for mafafa starch: molar mass that ranged between 2×10(8) and 4×10(8) g/mol, size (Rg) value between 279 and 295 nm, and molecular density value between 9.2 and 9.7 g/(mol nm(3)). This study indicates that mafafa starch shows long chains of amylopectin this fact contributes to higher viscosity development and higher gel stability. The obtained gel phase is transparent in the UV-vis region. The viscosity, gel stability and optical properties suggest that there is potential for mafafa starch applications in the food industry. PMID:24463263

  12. Morphologic, molecular, and ultrastructural characterization of a feline synovial cell sarcoma and derived cell line.

    PubMed

    Cazzini, Paola; Frontera-Acevedo, Karelma; Garner, Bridget; Howerth, Elizabeth; Torres, Bryan; Northrup, Nicole; Sakamoto, Kaori

    2015-05-01

    A 2.5-year-old, male, neutered cat presented with a 5-month history of progressive right hind limb lameness and an enlarged right popliteal lymph node. Radiographs revealed significant bony lysis of the tarsus and distal tibia, and fine-needle aspirate of the bone lesion and lymph node revealed a neoplastic population of cells with uncertain origin. Amputation was elected, and the mass was submitted for histology and cellular culture for better characterization. Histologic examination revealed a mixture of spindle-shaped cells and larger, round to polygonal cells. All cells were immunoreactive for vimentin, and only the larger polygonal cells were also positive for cytokeratin. All cells were negative for desmin, smooth muscle actin, cluster of differentiation (CD)3, CD18, CD79a, macrophage antibody (MAC)387, and glial fibrillary acidic protein. Cultured neoplastic cells failed to express CD18, and were not able to secrete the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-1 (IL-1)?, and IL-6 when stimulated by lipopolysaccharide, disproving that the cells originated from the macrophage or monocyte line. Ultrastructurally, neoplastic cells were characterized by abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum, interdigitating cellular processes, and membrane condensations. Based on location and cytologic, histologic, ultrastructural, and functional studies, this neoplasm was considered a synovial cell sarcoma. PMID:25901004

  13. Purification and characterization of a fatty acid-activated protein kinase (PKN) from rat testis.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, M; Mukai, H; Shibata, H; Ono, Y

    1995-09-01

    PKN, a novel protein kinase with a catalytic domain homologous to that of the protein kinase C (PKC) family and unique N-terminal leucine-zipper-like sequences, was identified by molecular cloning from a human hippocampus cDNA library [Mukai and Ono (1994) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 199, 897-904]. Recently we partially purified recombinant PKN from COS7 cells transfected with the cDNA construct encoding human PKN, and demonstrated that the recombinant PKN was activated by unsaturated fatty acids and limited proteolysis [Mukai, Kitagawa, Shibata et al. (1994) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 204, 348-356]. The present work has focused on the further purification and characterization of PKN from native rat tissue. Immunochemical measurement revealed that PKN was found in every tissue, and was especially abundant in testis, spleen and brain; subcellular fractionation of rat brain showed that half of the PKN was localized in the soluble cytosolic fraction. PKN was purified approx. 8000-fold to apparent homogeneity from the cytosolic fraction of rat testis by DEAE-cellulose chromatography, ammonium sulphate fractionation and chromatography on butyl-Sepharose, heparin-Sepharose, Mono Q and protamine-CH-Sepharose. The enzyme migrates as a band of apparent molecular mass 120 kDa. Using serine-containing peptides based on the pseudosubstrate sequence of PKC-delta as phosphate acceptors, the kinase activity was stimulated several-fold by 40 microM unsaturated fatty acids or by detergents such as 0.04% sodium deoxycholate and 0.004% SDS. In the absence of modifiers, protamine sulphate, myelin basic protein and synthetic peptides based on the pseudosubstrate site of PKCs or ribosomal S6 protein were good substrates for phosphorylation by the kinase. In the presence of 40 microM arachidonic acid the kinase activity of PKN for these phosphate acceptors was increased 2-18-fold. The autophosphorylation activity of purified PKN was partially inhibited by pretreatment with alkaline phosphatase. These properties appear to distinguish PKN from many protein kinases isolated previously. PMID:7654208

  14. Characterization of the Regulatory Mechanisms of Activating Transcription Factor 3 by Hypertrophic Stimuli in Rat Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Moilanen, Anne-Mari; Tokola, Heikki; Aro, Jani; Pennanen, Harri; Säkkinen, Hanna; Kaikkonen, Leena; Ruskoaho, Heikki; Rysä, Jaana

    2014-01-01

    Aims Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a stress-activated immediate early gene suggested to have both detrimental and cardioprotective role in the heart. Here we studied the mechanisms of ATF3 activation by hypertrophic stimuli and ATF3 downstream targets in rat cardiomyocytes. Methods and Results When neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were exposed to endothelin-1 (ET-1, 100 nM) and mechanical stretching in vitro, maximal increase in ATF3 expression occurred at 1 hour. Inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) by PD98059 decreased ET-1– and stretch–induced increase of ATF3 protein but not ATF3 mRNA levels, whereas protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H89 attenuated both ATF3 mRNA transcription and protein expression in response to ET-1 and stretch. To characterize further the regulatory mechanisms upstream of ATF3, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling was investigated using a gain-of-function approach. Adenoviral overexpression of p38?, but not p38?, increased ATF3 mRNA and protein levels as well as DNA binding activity. To investigate the role of ATF3 in hypertrophic process, we overexpressed ATF3 by adenovirus-mediated gene transfer. In vitro, ATF3 gene delivery attenuated the mRNA transcription of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and enhanced nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) and Nkx-2.5 DNA binding activities. Reduced PAI-1 expression was also detected in vivo in adult rat heart by direct intramyocardial adenovirus-mediated ATF3 gene delivery. Conclusions These data demonstrate that ATF3 activation by ET-1 and mechanical stretch is partly mediated through ERK and cAMP-PKA pathways, whereas p38 MAPK pathway is involved in ATF3 activation exclusively through p38? isoform. ATF3 activation caused induction of modulators of the inflammatory response NF-?B and Nkx-2.5, as well as attenuation of pro-fibrotic and pro-inflammatory proteins IL-6 and PAI-1, suggesting cardioprotective role for ATF3 in the heart. PMID:25136830

  15. Morphological changes of adrenal gland and heart tissue after varying duration of noise exposure in adult rat.

    PubMed

    Gannouni, Noura; Mhamdi, Abada; El May, Michčle; Tebourbi, Olfa; Rhouma, Khémais Ben

    2014-01-01

    Noise was considered an environmental stressor causing a wide range of health effects such as acoustic, cardiovascular, nervous, and endocrine systems. The present study was performed to examine the effects of a repeated noise exposure on adrenal gland and heart tissue. The results showed that exposure to moderate intensity sound (70 dB[A]) causes time-dependent changes in the morphological structure of the adrenal cortex that involve disarrangement of cells and modification in thickness of the different layers of the adrenal gland. The experiment revealed important changes depending on exposure duration in the morphological structure of heart tissue that causes irreversible cell damage leading to cell death or necrosis. PMID:25387538

  16. Morphological and magnetic characterization of Fe, Co, and FeCo nanoplates and nanoparticles prepared by surfactants-assisted ball milling

    E-print Network

    Liu, J. Ping

    Morphological and magnetic characterization of Fe, Co, and FeCo nanoplates and nanoparticles report here the preparation of Fe, Co, and FeCo nanoplates and nanoparticles by ball milling, the Fe, Co, and FeCo nanoplates and nanoparticles with different sizes were successfully obtained, from

  17. Composite bone cements loaded with a bioactive and ferrimagnetic glass-ceramic. Part I: Morphological, mechanical and calorimetric characterization.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Matteo; Miola, Marta; Bretcanu, Oana; Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara; Gerbaldo, Roberto; Laviano, Francesco; Verné, Enrica

    2014-02-01

    Hyperthermia is a technique for destroying cancer cells which involves the exposition of body's tissue to a controlled heat, normally between 41? and 46?. It has been reported that ferro- or ferrimagnetic materials can heat locally, if they are placed (after being implanted) under an alternating magnetic field, damaging only tumoral cells and not the healthy ones. The power loss produced by the magnetic materials can be dissipated in the form of heat. This phenomenon has to be regulated in order to obtain a controlled temperature inside the tissues. The material that was produced and characterized in this work is composed of two phases: a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) matrix in which a ferrimagnetic biocompatible/bioactive glass ceramic is dispersed. This composite material is intended to be applied as bone filler for the hyperthermic treatment of bone tumors. The ferrimagnetic bioactive glass-ceramic belongs to the system SiO2-Na2O-CaO-P2O5-FeO-Fe2O3 and contains magnetite (FeO*Fe2O3) inside an amorphous bioactive residual phase. The composite material possesses structural, magnetic and bioactivity properties. The structural ones are conferred by PMMA which acts as filler for the bone defect or its damaged area. Bioactivity is conferred by the composition of the residual amorphous phase of the glass-ceramic and magnetic properties are conferred by magnetite crystals embedded in the bioactive glass-ceramic. The characterization involved the following tests: morphological and chemical characterization (scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersion spectrometry-micro computed tomography analysis), calorimetric tests and mechanical test (compression and flexural four point test). In vitro assessment of biological behavior will be the object of the part II of this work. PMID:24505077

  18. Structural and morphological characterization of cerium oxide nanocrystals prepared by hydrothermal synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Kenji; Inoke, Koji; Freitag, Bert; Hungria, Ana B; Midgley, Paul A; Hansen, Thomas W; Zhang, Jing; Ohara, Satoshi; Adschiri, Tadafumi

    2007-02-01

    Colloidal cerium oxide (CeO2) nanocrystals prepared by hydrothermal synthesis were characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and three-dimensional electron tomography (3D-ET). HRTEM images of individual CeO2 nanocrystals were then simulated by Blochwave and multislice simulations to determine the atomic arrangement and terminating atoms. The edge length distributions were between 5.0 and 8.0 nm with an average edge length of 6.7 nm. The HRTEM images showed that the CeO2 particles were slightly truncated revealing {220} facets. 3D-ET revealed that the CeO2 nanocrystals exposed predominantly {200} cubic facets. The nanocrystals were truncated at the corners exposing {111} octahedral facets and at the edges {220} dodecahedral facets. Furthermore, 3D-ET revealed the presence of some tetragonal-shaped CeO2 nanocrystals. PMID:17298010

  19. Effect of Oral Glutamine Administration on Bacterial Tanslocation, Endotoxemia, Liver and Ileal Morphology, and Apoptosis in Rats with Obstructive Jaundice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vassilios G. Margaritis; Kriton S. Filos; Marina A. Michalaki; Chrisoula D. Scopa; Iris Spiliopoulou; Vassiliki N. Nikolopoulou; Constantine E. Vagianos

    2005-01-01

    Postoperative complications in patients with obstructive jaundice remain increased when associated with endotoxemia and the\\u000a inflammatory response due to gut barrier failure. Administration of glutamine has been proposed to maintain the integrity\\u000a of the gut mucosa and thus reduce bacterial translocation (BT), but the effects of this pretreatment on apoptosis and histologic\\u000a morphology of various organs affected by BT in

  20. Insulin-like growth factor-I gene therapy reverses morphologic changes and reduces hyperprolactinemia in experimental rat prolactinomas

    PubMed Central

    Console, Gloria M; Herenu, Claudia B; Camihort, Gisela A; Luna, Georgina C; Bracamonte, Maria I; Morel, Gustavo R; Goya, Rodolfo G

    2008-01-01

    Background The implementation of gene therapy for the treatment of pituitary tumors emerges as a promising complement to surgery and may have distinct advantages over radiotherapy for this type of tumors. Up to now, suicide gene therapy has been the main experimental approach explored to treat experimental pituitary tumors. In the present study we assessed the effectiveness of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) gene therapy for the treatment of estrogen-induced prolactinomas in rats. Results Female Sprague Dawley rats were subcutaneously implanted with silastic capsules filled with 17-? estradiol (E2) in order to induce pituitary prolactinomas. Blood samples were taken at regular intervals in order to measure serum prolactin (PRL). As expected, serum PRL increased progressively and 23 days after implanting the E2 capsules (Experimental day 0), circulating PRL had undergone a 3–4 fold increase. On Experimental day 0 part of the E2-implanted animals received a bilateral intrapituitary injection of either an adenoviral vector expressing the gene for rat IGF-I (RAd-IGFI), or a vector (RAd-GFP) expressing the gene for green fluorescent protein (GFP). Seven days post vector injection all animals were sacrificed and their pituitaries morphometrically analyzed to evaluate changes in the lactotroph population. RAd-IGFI but not RAd-GFP, induced a significant fall in serum PRL. Furthermore, RAd-IGFI but not RAd-GFP significantly reversed the increase in lactotroph size (CS) and volume density (VD) induced by E2 treatment. Conclusion We conclude that IGF-I gene therapy constitutes a potentially useful intervention for the treatment of prolactinomas and that bioactive peptide gene delivery may open novel therapeutic avenues for the treatment of pituitary tumors. PMID:18218140

  1. Morphology and molecular characterization of the epiphytic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum cf. rhathymum in temperate waters off Jeju Island, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, An Suk; Jeong, Hae Jin; Jang, Tae Young; Kang, Nam Seon; Lee, Sung Yeon; Yoo, Yeong Du; Kim, Hyung Seop

    2013-03-01

    Prorocentrum spp. are planktonic and/or benthic species. Benthic Prorocentrum species are of primary concern to scientists and the public because some of them are toxic. We established clonal cultures of 3 strains of Prorocentrum species that were collected from the thalli of a macroalga in the coastal waters off Jeju Island, located at the southern end of Korea. The Korean strains of P. cf. rhathymum, which are morphologically almost identical to the Virgin Island strain of P. rhathymum, were different from P. mexicanum because the former dinoflagellate has one simple collar-like spine in the periflagellar area, while the latter dinoflagellate has a 2- or 3-horned spine. In addition, the sequences of the small subunit (SSU) rDNA of the Korean strains were identical to those of the Malaysian and Floridian strains of P. rhathymum, while the sequences of the large subunit (LSU) rDNA of the Korean strains were 0.1-0.9% different from those of the Iranian and Malaysian strains of P. rhathymum. In phylogenetic trees based on the SSU rDNA sequences, the Korean strains of P. rhathymum formed a clade with the Malaysian and Floridian strains of P. rhathymum and the Vietnamese and Polynesian strains of P. mexicanum. However, in phylogenetic trees based on the LSU rDNA sequences, the Korean strains of P. rhathymum formed a clade with the Iranian strain of P. rhathymum and the Spanish and Mexican strains of P. mexicanum. Therefore, the molecular characterization of the Korean strains does not allow us to clearly classify them as P. rhathymum, nor P. mexicanum, although their morphology has so far been reported to be closer to that of P. rhathymum than P. mexicanum and thus we designated them as P. cf. rhathymum.

  2. Characterization of abdominal appendages in the sawfly, Athalia rosae (Hymenoptera), by morphological and gene expression analyses.

    PubMed

    Oka, Kazuki; Yoshiyama, Naotoshi; Tojo, Koji; Machida, Ryuichiro; Hatakeyama, Masatsugu

    2010-06-01

    Larvae of the sawfly, Athalia rosae, have remarkable abdominal prolegs. We analyzed the morphogenesis of appendages and the expression of decapentaplegic and Distal-less genes during embryonic development to characterize the origin of prolegs. Proleg primordia in abdominal segments A1-A9 appeared shortly after the inner lobes (endites) of gnathal appendages were formed. These were located on the ventral plates, medioventral to the appendages of the other segments in light of serial homology. Nothing was seen where the main axis of the appendage should develop in abdominal segments. The primordia in A1 and A9 disappeared before larval hatching. Anal prolegs appeared separate from cerci, the main axes of appendages, which were formed temporarily in A11. The expression of decapentaplegic, which reflects the primary determination of appendages, was detected in the lateral juxtaposition with the prolegs. Distal-less was expressed in the main axes of appendages, protruding endites and the cerci, but not in prolegs and anal prolegs or the gnathal endites which do not protrude. These findings suggest a possibility that the abdominal and anal prolegs of A. rosae are outgrowths of ventral plates which derived from coxopodal elements, but not main axes of appendages. PMID:20449607

  3. Leigh syndrome in Drosophila melanogaster: morphological and biochemical characterization of Surf1 post-transcriptional silencing.

    PubMed

    Da-Rč, Caterina; von Stockum, Sophia; Biscontin, Alberto; Millino, Caterina; Cisotto, Paola; Zordan, Mauro A; Zeviani, Massimo; Bernardi, Paolo; De Pittŕ, Cristiano; Costa, Rodolfo

    2014-10-17

    Leigh Syndrome (LS) is the most common early-onset, progressive mitochondrial encephalopathy usually leading to early death. The single most prevalent cause of LS is occurrence of mutations in the SURF1 gene, and LS(Surf1) patients show a ubiquitous and specific decrease in the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase, COX). SURF1 encodes an inner membrane mitochondrial protein involved in COX assembly. We established a Drosophila melanogaster model of LS based on the post-transcriptional silencing of CG9943, the Drosophila homolog of SURF1. Knockdown of Surf1 was induced ubiquitously in larvae and adults, which led to lethality; in the mesodermal derivatives, which led to pupal lethality; or in the central nervous system, which allowed survival. A biochemical characterization was carried out in knockdown individuals, which revealed that larvae unexpectedly displayed defects in all complexes of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and in the F-ATP synthase, while adults had a COX-selective impairment. Silencing of Surf1 expression in Drosophila S2R(+) cells led to selective loss of COX activity associated with decreased oxygen consumption and respiratory reserve. We conclude that Surf1 is essential for COX activity and mitochondrial function in D. melanogaster, thus providing a new tool that may help clarify the pathogenic mechanisms of LS. PMID:25164807

  4. Airborne Fungi in Sahara Dust Aerosols Reaching the Eastern Caribbean: I. Taxonomic Characterization by Morphological Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera-Denizard, O.; Betancourt, C.; Armstrong, R. A.; Detres, Y.

    2003-12-01

    A wide variety of microorganisms are dispersed into the Caribbean region due to the input of Saharan dust aerosols during the summer months. These microorganisms can cause diseases in plants and animals, and might be responsible for an increase incidence of asthma and respiratory diseases in this region. A PM 2.5 air sampling station was installed in Castle Bruce, Dominica from March through July of 2002. Fourteen filters were obtained by running the air sampler continuously for 24 hour periods. The samples were collected in sterile Teflon filters (47 mm in diameter, 0.2 um pore size), inoculated in Malt Extract Agar (MEA) with lactic acid and incubated at 29° C. Colonies were counted, isolated and cultured on separate Petri dishes. Fungal classification to the genus level used macroscopic features and microscopic evaluation. The Nomarski light microscopy technique was used for identification of reproductive structures. A total of 105 colonies were isolated. Six genera including Aspergillus, Penicillium, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Curvularia,and Nigrospora were identified. The protocol for the molecular characterization to species level is presented as the second part of this work.

  5. Calcium-Induced Alteration of Mitochondrial Morphology and Mitochondrial-Endoplasmic Reticulum Contacts in Rat Brown Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Golic, I.; Velickovic, K.; Markelic, M.; Stancic, A.; Jankovic, A.; Vucetic, M.; Otasevic, V.; Buzadzic, B.; Korac, B.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria are key organelles maintaining cellular bioenergetics and integrity, and their regulation of [Ca2+]i homeostasis has been investigated in many cell types. We investigated the short-term Ca-SANDOZ® treatment on brown adipocyte mitochondria, using imaging and molecular biology techniques. Two-month-old male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: Ca-SANDOZ® drinking or tap water (control) drinking for three days. Alizarin Red S staining showed increased Ca2+ level in the brown adipocytes of treated rats, and potassium pyroantimonate staining localized electron-dense regions in the cytoplasm, mitochondria and around lipid droplets. Ca-SANDOZ® decreased mitochondrial number, but increased their size and mitochondrial cristae volume. Transmission electron microscopy revealed numerous enlarged and fusioned-like mitochondria in the Ca-SANDOZ® treated group compared to the control, and megamitochondria in some brown adipocytes. The Ca2+ diet affected mitochondrial fusion as mitofusin 1 (MFN1) and mitofusin 2 (MFN2) were increased, and mitochondrial fission as dynamin related protein 1 (DRP1) was decreased. Confocal microscopy showed a higher colocalization rate between functional mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The level of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) was elevated, which was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. These results suggest that Ca-SANDOZ® stimulates mitochondrial fusion, increases mitochondrial-ER contacts and the thermogenic capacity of brown adipocytes. PMID:25308841

  6. Pharmacological Characterization of Endothelin-stimulated Phosphoinositide Breakdown and Cytosolic Free Ca2+ Rise in Rat C, Glioma Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wan-Wan Lin; Juliann G. Kiang; De-Maw Chuangl

    1992-01-01

    Because increasing evidence indicates that glial cells are a target of endothelin, we have characterized endothelin-in- duced phosphoinositide (PI) turnover and Ca2+ homeostasis in C,glioma cells. Endothelin-1 (ET) increased formation of 3H-inositol phosphate (IP) from PI and elicited an increase in cytosolic free Ca*+ ((Caz+)J in rat C,glioma. In the presence of Li+, the increase in 3H-inositol trisphosphateformation was rapid,

  7. Morphological and Biochemical Characterization of the Membranous Hepatitis C Virus Replication Compartment

    PubMed Central

    Hoppe, Simone; Saher, Gesine; Krijnse-Locker, Jacomine

    2013-01-01

    Like all other positive-strand RNA viruses, hepatitis C virus (HCV) induces rearrangements of intracellular membranes that are thought to serve as a scaffold for the assembly of the viral replicase machinery. The most prominent membranous structures present in HCV-infected cells are double-membrane vesicles (DMVs). However, their composition and role in the HCV replication cycle are poorly understood. To gain further insights into the biochemcial properties of HCV-induced membrane alterations, we generated a functional replicon containing a hemagglutinin (HA) affinity tag in nonstructural protein 4B (NS4B), the supposed scaffold protein of the viral replication complex. By using HA-specific affinity purification we isolated NS4B-containing membranes from stable replicon cells. Complementing biochemical and electron microscopy analyses of purified membranes revealed predominantly DMVs, which contained viral proteins NS3 and NS5A as well as enzymatically active viral replicase capable of de novo synthesis of HCV RNA. In addition to viral factors, co-opted cellular proteins, such as vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein A (VAP-A) and VAP-B, that are crucial for viral RNA replication, as well as cholesterol, a major structural lipid of detergent-resistant membranes, are highly enriched in DMVs. Here we describe the first isolation and biochemical characterization of HCV-induced DMVs. The results obtained underline their central role in the HCV replication cycle and suggest that DMVs are sites of viral RNA replication. The experimental approach described here is a powerful tool to more precisely define the molecular composition of membranous replication factories induced by other positive-strand RNA viruses, such as picorna-, arteri- and coronaviruses. PMID:23885072

  8. Morphological and molecular characterization of Sarcocystis miescheriana from pigs in the central region of China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wenchao; Qian, Weifeng; Li, Xiaojun; Wang, Tianqi; Ding, Ke; Huang, Tengfei

    2013-03-01

    Sarcocystosis is an important food-borne parasitosis in humans and various animals. Sarcocystis miescheriana and Sarcocystis suihominis are pathogenic to pigs; S. suihominis is also distinctly pathogenic to humans. Intermediate and final hosts can harbor more than one Sarcocystis species, so the exact identification for Sarcocystis infection in various hosts is essential to control sarcocystosis in humans and important economic animals including pigs. In this study, four isolates of sarcocysts from slaughtered pigs (SmJY1-SmJY4) in the central region of China, in Henan province, were collected and examined by transmission electron microscopy and 18S rRNA sequence analysis to identify the Sarcocystis species in pigs in China. The results showed that cysts in the diaphragm muscles have a thick cyst wall with a number of palisade-like protrusions up to 4.38 ?m in length. Inside these protrusions, there were 13-16 fibrils per protrusion. Bradyzoites in cysts showed typical characteristics of Apicomplexa including a conoid, many micronemes, dense bodies, one big nucleus, and a number of amylopectin granules. These ultrastructural results suggest that characteristics of tissue cysts of the isolates SmJY1-SmJY4 were similar to those of S. miescheriana. The sequence similarities of SmJY1-SmJY4 with S. miescheriana were 99-99.5 %, and the sequence similarities of SmJY1-SmJY4 with S. suihominis were much lower. Results of the ultrastructural observation in combination with molecular characterization based on the 18S rRNA sequence represent the first demonstration of S. miescheriana in pigs in China. In addition, results of the histological examination showed that the cysts of S. miescheriana had two types of cyst wall, a palisade-like thick wall and another smoothly thin wall, and could cause obvious atrophy, degeneration, and necrosis of muscle fibers in the diaphragm of naturally infected pigs. These findings will provide an important reference for the examination of Sarcocystis species in the slaughter quarantine of live pigs and in the control of sarcocystosis in pigs. PMID:23224613

  9. Morphological characterization and conservation of bovine spermatogenic cells by refrigeration at 4°C and freezing using different cryoprotective molecules.

    PubMed

    Martins, C F; Silva, A E D Feliciano; Dode, M N; Rumpf, R; Cumpa, H C B; Silva, C G; Pivato, I

    2015-08-01

    The objectives of this study were study a practical method to characterize bovine spermatogenic cells and test the efficiency cells conservation by refrigeration at 4°C and cryopreservation in different solutions using two cooling curves. Cellular identification was performing by analysis of shape, size and morphology, associated with nucleus positioning and nuclear-cytoplasm ratio (NCR). Cellular samples were kept at 4°C for a period of 96h in refrigeration solution and every 24h plasma membrane and DNA integrity were evaluated. Cryopreservation of cells was carried out using solutions containing 10% Dimethyl sulfoxide, 5% Dimethylformamide, 7% Glycerol and 7% Ethylene glycol, using a controlled and non-controlled cooling curve. Results of cellular characterization demonstrated that spermatocytes II presented a cylindrical shape, NCR of 1:1.5 and diameter ranging from 14.5 to 17.5?m. Round spermatids presented diameter ranging from 7.6 to 13.4?m, acrosomal cap and NCR of 1:2. Elongation and elongated spermatids showed to marked divergence in shape. There was a daily significant loss of viability of cooled cells until third day of storage, however they presented 72.77±5.16% viability after 4days of storage at 4°C. There was no difference among the cryoprotectant solutions and cooling curves. In conclusion we demonstrated that association of microscopes and staining was a practical method to identify bovine spermatogenic cells. Furthermore, refrigeration at 4°C is an important strategy to preserve over 70% of viable cells after 4days and cryopreservation, regardless of cryoprotectant solution or cooling curve used, can maintain over 50% of cells viable. PMID:26049113

  10. Characterization of a novel rat model of penetrating traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Plantman, Stefan; Ng, Kian Chye; Lu, Jia; Davidsson, Johan; Risling, Mĺrten

    2012-04-10

    A penetrating traumatic brain injury (pTBI) occurs when an object impacts the head with sufficient force to penetrate the skin, skull, and meninges, and inflict injury directly to the brain parenchyma. This type of injury has been notoriously difficult to model in small laboratory animals such as rats or mice. To this end, we have established a novel non-fatal model for pTBI based on a modified air rifle that accelerates a pellet, which in turn impacts a small probe that then causes the injury to the experimental animal's brain. In the present study, we have focused on the acute phase and characterized the tissue destruction, including increasing cavity formation, white matter degeneration, hemorrhage, edema, and gliosis. We also used a battery of behavioral models to examine the neurological outcome, with the most noteworthy finding being impairment of reference memory function. In conclusion, we have described a number of events taking place after pTBI in our model. We expect this model will prove useful in our efforts to unravel the biological events underlying injury and regeneration after pTBI and possibly serve as a useful animal model in the development of novel therapeutic and diagnostic approaches. PMID:22181060

  11. Characterization of activity-dependent changes in flavoprotein fluorescence in cerebellar slices from juvenile rats.

    PubMed

    Jotty, Karick; Shuttleworth, C William; Valenzuela, C Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Flavoprotein autofluorescence signals attributed to neuronal metabolism have been used to assess synaptic function. Here, we characterized flavoprotein autofluorescence responses in the molecular layer of rat cerebellar slices. High frequency stimulation elicited a transient fluorescence increase (peak phase) that was followed by a longer-lasting fluorescence decrease (valley phase). The peak phase was restricted to the molecular layer, whereas the valley phase extended into the Purkinje cell layer and a portion of the granule cell layer. Responses were abolished by either the Na(+) channel antagonist, tetrodotoxin, or a combination of the AMPA receptor antagonists, NBQX and GIKI-53655, and were also reduced by a flavoprotein inhibitor (diphenyleneiodonium). These findings are consistent with responses being mediated by an increase in mitochondrial activity triggered by increased energy demands evoked by AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission. The GABAA receptor antagonist picrotoxin did not significantly influence evoked responses. Likewise, exogenous application of ethanol, at concentrations known to increase GABAA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission at Purkinje cells, did not modify peak responses. These observations indicate that flavoprotein autofluorescence imaging could be useful to assess the coupling between glutamatergic synaptic transmission and neuronal metabolism in cerebellar slices. PMID:25301569

  12. Characterization of insulin-like growth factor I produced by fetal rat pancreatic islets

    SciTech Connect

    Scharfmann, R.; Corvol, M.; Czernichow, P. (Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (Unit 30), Paris (France))

    1989-06-01

    Pancreatic islets were prepared from 22-day-old rat fetuses. After 5 days of culture in dishes allowing cell attachment, neoformed islets were kept free floating in RPMI-1640 medium (16.5 mM glucose, 1% fetal calf serum). The islets were then pulsed with ({sup 3}H)leucine and ({sup 35}S)methionine for 24 h. The conditioned medium was acidified with acetic acid (final pH 2.7), desalted, concentrated, and gel filtered on Bio-Gel P100 in acid conditions. The radioactive material that comigrated with immunoreactive insulinlike growth factor I (IGF-I) produced by the islets was pooled, concentrated, and further characterized by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography on a C18 Bondapak column with a linear gradient of acetonitrile (20-80%). The radioactive material that eluted as pure IGF-I (40% acetonitrile) was further studied by chromatofocusing on a Pharmacia PBE 94 column. A sharp radioactive peak containing ({sup 3}H)leucine and ({sup 35}S)methionine was eluted at pH 8.55. This material was immunoprecipitated with an antiserum to IGF-I. This study demonstrated that fetal islet cells synthesize molecules that are, by several criteria, equivalent to native IGF-I.

  13. Characterization of hepatic DNA damage induced in rats by the pyrrolizidine alkaloid monocrotaline

    SciTech Connect

    Petry, T.W.; Bowden, G.T.; Huxtable, R.J.; Sipes, I.G.

    1984-04-01

    Hepatic DNA damage induced by the pyrrolizidine alkaloid monocrotaline was evaluated following i.p. administration to adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were treated with various doses ranging upward from 5 mg/kg, and hepatic nuclei were isolated 4 hr later. Hepatic nuclei were used as the DNA source in all experiments. DNA damage was characterized by the alkaline elution technique. A mixture of DNA-DNA interstrand cross-links and DNA-protein cross-links was induced. Following an injection of monocrotaline, 30 mg/kg i.p., DNA-DNA interstrand cross-linking reached a maximum within 12 hr or less and thereafter decreased over a protracted period of time. By 96 hr postadministration, the calculated cross-linking factor was no longer statistically different from zero. No evidence for the induction of DNA single-strand breaks was observed, although the presence of small numbers of DNA single-strand breaks could have been masked by the overwhelming predominance of DNA cross-links. These DNA cross-links may be related to the hepatocarcinogenic, hepatotoxic, and/or antimitotic effects of monocrotaline.

  14. Pharmacological characterization of dopamine autoreceptors in the rat ventral tegmental area: microiontophoretic studies.

    PubMed

    White, F J; Wang, R Y

    1984-11-01

    Extracellular single-cell recording and microiontophoretic techniques were used to characterize the presynaptic dopamine (DA) receptors (autoreceptors) on A10 DA neurons in the rat ventral tegmental area. Thus, the ability of various agonists to inhibit the activity of A10 DA neurons was compared. DA and the DA agonists N-n-propylnorapomorphine (NPA), apomorphine, lisuride, pergolide, LY141865 and bromocriptine all suppressed the activity of A10DA neurons. NPA was the most potent exogenous agonist, exerting effects that were similar to an equimolar concentration of DA (0.01 M). When ejected at equimolar concentrations (0.01 M) and equivalent ejection currents, the rank order of potency for these agonists was DA = NPA greater than LY141865 greater than pergolide = lisuride = apomorphine greater than norepinephrine greater than bromocriptine. The alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonist clonidine, the beta adrenoceptor agonist isoproterenol, the D-1 specific DA agonist SKF 38393 and the hallucinogenic ergot lysergic acid diethylamide exerted only weak effects or were inactive. The D-2 specific DA antagonist sulpiride completely blocked the rate-suppressant effects of DA and DA agonists but not those of gamma-aminobutyric acid. The purported D-1 specific DA antagonist SCH 23390 failed to block the effects of either DA or the D-2 specific DA agonist LY141865. These results indicate that DA agonists suppress the activity of the majority of A10 DA neurons by acting directly on somatodendritic DA autoreceptors which exhibit the pharmacological characteristics of D-2 receptors. PMID:6491980

  15. Tc-Glutathione Complex (Tc -GSH) : Labelling, Chemical Characterization and Biodistribution in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Moretti, J. L.; Weinmann, P.; Senekowitsch-Schmidtke, R.; Ercan, M. T.

    1999-01-01

    The chemical structure of 99mTc-GSH has been estabilished using the 99Tc isotope. Labeling of glutathione with technetium in the presence of stanous chloride gave a high yield result. In a comparative study between 99Tc and 99Tc glutathione, the Tc-GSH complex obtained was purified and characterized by uv, visible spectroscopy, HPLC, Biogel chromatography, mass and NMR spectroscopy. Stoichiometric analysis showed a 2 : 1 molar ratio of GSH/Tc for the reaction. The molecular mass assessed by mass spectroscopy was 727 Da corresponding to an oxo(bis) glutathione technetate. NMR studies demonstrated that each glutathione molecule was coordinated to technetium via cysteinyl sulfur and nitrogen atoms. The biodistribution of the complex was studied in normal rats. Blood clearance was rapid during the first hour involving a biexponential curve ( t1/2 (1) : 50 min, t1/2 (2) : 400 min ). No radioactive accumulation was found in any specific organ except kidney and bladder. All the activity excreted was found unchanged in urine. In conclusion, Tc-GSH displayed an anionic dimer form as GSH-Tc-GSH. We assume that the complex is a tetradentate (2N,2S) complex containing a pentavalent technetium coordinated by two thiol and nitrogen atoms of both GSH ligands, and an apical oxo group. PMID:18475909

  16. Characterization of melatonin binding sites in the Harderian gland and median eminence of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Gonzalez, M.A.; Calvo, J.R.; Rubio, A.; Goberna, R.; Guerrero, J.M. (Univ. of Seville School of Medicine, Sevilla (Spain))

    1991-01-01

    The characterization of specific melatonin binding sites in the Harderian gland (HG) and median eminence (ME) of the rat was studied using ({sup 125}I)melatonin. Binding of melatonin to membrane crude preparations of both tissues was dependent on time and temperature. Thus, maximal binding was obtained at 37{degree}C after 30-60 min incubation. Binding was also dependent on protein concentration. The specific binding of ({sup 125}I)melatonin was saturable, exhibiting only the class of binding sites in both tissues. The dissociation constants (Kd) were 170 and 190 pM for ME and HG, respectively. The concentration of the binding sites in ME was 8 fmol/mg protein, and in the HG 4 fmol/mg protein. In competition studies, binding of ({sup 125}I)melatonin to ME or HG was inhibited by increasing concentration of native melatonin; 50% inhibition was observed at about 702 and 422 nM for ME and HG, respectively. Additionally, the ({sup 125}I)melatonin binding to the crude membranes was not affected by the addition of different drugs such as norepinephrine, isoproterenol, phenylephrine, propranolol, or prazosin. The results confirm the presence of melatonin binding sites in median eminence and show, for the first time, the existence of melatonin binding sites in the Harderian gland.

  17. Comparison of early morphological and molecular changes induced by 17-alpha-methyltestosterone and estradiol benzoate in the rat ovary.

    PubMed

    Ferre, Céline; Belluco, Sara; Tinwell, Helen; Bars, Rémi; Benahmed, Mohamed; Rouquie, David; Schorsch, Frédéric

    2013-05-01

    Repeated exposure to 17-?-methyltestosterone (17MT) and estradiol benzoate (EB) for 28 or 90 days in rats induce similar ovarian atrophy. The objective of the present work was to identify and compare the early effects induced by 17MT and EB on the ovary using molecular and histopathological tools. Female rats were evaluated after 1, 3 or 7 days following an oral exposure by gavage at a daily dose of 600 mg/kg/day for 17MT and 5 mg/kg/day for EB. All animals were found to be acyclic after 3 or 7 days of treatment with 17MT and EB. Histopathological changes were present in the ovary, uterus, vagina and mammary gland after both treatments. Ovarian atrophy known as the long term effect of 17MT and EB was not yet detected after 7 days of treatment. But non regressive corpora lutea and cystic follicles were identically observed in the ovary of 17MT and EB treated females. Both compounds induced a decrease of LH transcripts together with an increase of plasma progesterone and prolactin levels. Differences in the profile of regulation of the aromatase were noted after 1 and 3 days of treatment in 17MT treated animals (upregulated) when compared to EB treated animals (downregulated). In summary, we have shown that despite the different nature of hormonal activity, EB and 17MT induce very early endocrine perturbation which presents several similarities. Our work indicated that the detection of early key hormonal markers in short term studies can help to predict the adverse long term effects on target tissues. PMID:22405603

  18. Structural, Morphological Characterization of Fe2-xAlxCoO4 Nanoparticles Synthesized by Sol-Gel Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavender, A. T.; Jadhav, K. M.

    A series of Fe2-xAlxCoO4 ferrite nanoparticles have been synthesized by sol-gel method. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermo gravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and IR spectroscopy analysis were employed to study structural and morphological characterization of these ferrite nanoparticles. The effect of substitution of Fe3+ by Al3+ ions on the structural properties of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles was investigated. The crystallite (D) is found in the range 39 nm to 6 nm, which decreases with increasing aluminum content. The values of lattice parameters (a), X-ray density (dx), hopping length (LA, LB) decreases with aluminum content. The tetrahedral bond (dAX), octahedral bond (dBX), tetra edge (dAXE) and octa edge (dBXE) (shared and unshared) showed the linear decrease with the increasing aluminum content x. IR spectroscopy analysis revealed the chemical and structural changes taking place in the combustion reaction.

  19. A comparative study on the mechanical, thermal and morphological characterization of poly(lactic acid)/epoxidized Palm Oil blend.

    PubMed

    Giita Silverajah, V S; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan; Hassan, Hazimah Abu; Woei, Chieng Buong

    2012-01-01

    In this work, poly(lactic acid) (PLA) a fully biodegradable thermoplastic polymer matrix was melt blended with three different epoxidized palm oil (EPO). The aim of this research was to enhance the flexibility, mechanical and thermal properties of PLA. The blends were prepared at various EPO contents of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 wt% and characterized. The SEM analysis evidenced successful modification on the neat PLA brittle morphology. Tensile tests indicate that the addition of 1 wt% EPO is sufficient to improve the strength and flexibility compared to neat PLA. Additionally, the flexural and impact properties were also enhanced. Further, DSC analysis showed that the addition of EPO results in a decrease in T(g), which implies an increase in the PLA chain mobility. In the presence of 1 wt% EPO, TGA results revealed significant increase in the thermal stability by 27%. Among the three EPOs used, EPO(3) showed the best mechanical and thermal properties compared to the other EPO's, with an optimum loading of 1 wt%. Conclusively, EPO showed a promising outcome to overcome the brittleness and improve the overall properties of neat PLA, thus can be considered as a potential plasticizer. PMID:22754338

  20. Morphological and molecular characterization of Eimeria haematodi, coccidian parasite (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in a rainbow lorikeet (Trichoglossus haematodus).

    PubMed

    Yang, Rongchang; Brice, Belinda; Ryan, Una

    2015-06-01

    Eimeria haematodi was first described in 1977 from the rainbow lorikeet (Trichoglossus haematodus) in Papua New Guinea. In the present study, we re-describe this coccidian species morphologically and molecularly from a rainbow lorikeet bird in Western Australia (WA). The oocysts were ovoid to slightly piriform and measured 28.5-37.8 by 25.8-33.0?µm (33.3 by 28.1?µm). Oocyst wall was approximately 1.5?µm thick and bilayered. Micropyle (5-7?µm) and oocyst residuum (8.0-10.0?µm) present; polar granule was absent. Sporocysts ellipsoidal, 11.8-13.6 by 8.0-9.6?µm (12.2 by 8.3?µm), with thin convex Stieda body and granular sporocyst residuum (4.0-5.0?µm). Molecular characterization of E. haematodi was conducted at 18S ribosomal RNA and the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase gene (COI) loci. At the 18S ribosomal RNA locus, E. haematodi shared 98.1% genetic similarity to E. alabamensis from cattle in New South Wales, Australia. At COI locus, E. haematodi was closest (92.3% similarity) to E. praecox from domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) from Canada and China. PMID:25795281

  1. Characterization and morphology analysis of degradable poly(L-lactide) film in in-vitro gastric juice incubation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hao-Ming; Huang, Chun-Chiang; Tsai, Hsieh-Chih; Imae, Toyoko; Hong, Po-Da

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of the biodegradable poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) as a gastro-jejunal tube anchored in the duodenum for duodenal exclusion. PLLA film was fabricated using a hot melting process to a thickness of around 40-50 ?m and was then immersed in human gastric juice to estimate the in vitro biodegradability behavior. PLLA film was more biodegradable in human gastric juice than in HCl and PBS. Measurements of weight loss indicated that 60% of original the PLLA was lost after 42 days of incubation. Surface functional group characterization, thermal stability, and surface morphology of the degraded PLLA film in human gastric juice showed that the decomposed sections of the PLLA film were primarily from the amorphous region. The degradation of the PLLA film in human gastric juice began with the erosion of continuous nanocavities in the range of 100-200 nm on the PLLA surface over the course of 21 days. The PLLA film collapsed and spiral PLLA fiber was obtained after 42 days of decomposing in human gastric juice.

  2. Chemical and morphological characterization of soot and soot precursors generated in an inverse diffusion flame with aromatic and aliphatic fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Santamaria, Alexander; Mondragon, Fanor [Institute of Chemistry, University of Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellin (Colombia); Yang, Nancy [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94551-0969 (United States); Eddings, Eric [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Sake City, UT 84112 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Knowledge of the chemical and physical structure of young soot and its precursors is very useful in understanding the paths leading to soot particle inception. This paper presents chemical and morphological characterization of the products generated in ethylene and benzene inverse diffusion flames (IDF) using different analytical techniques. The trend in the data indicates that the soot precursor material and soot particles generated in the benzene IDF have a higher degree of complexity than the samples obtained in the ethylene IDF, which is reflected by an increase in the aromaticity of the chloroform extracts observed by {sup 1}H NMR and FT-IR, and shape and size of soot particles obtained by TEM and HR-TEM. It is important to highlight that the soot precursor material obtained at the lower positions in the ethylene IDF has a significant contribution of aliphatic groups, which play an important role in the particle inception and mass growth processes during the early stages of soot formation. However, these groups progressively disappear in the samples taken at higher positions in the flame, due to thermal decomposition processes. (author)

  3. Three-dimensional conducting oxide nanoarchitectures: morphology-controllable synthesis, characterization, and applications in lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fa-Qian; Wu, Huiming; Li, Tao; Grabstanowicz, Lauren R; Amine, Khalil; Xu, Tao

    2013-07-21

    We report the synthesis, characterization and applications in Li-ion batteries of a set of 3-dimensional (3-D) nanostructured conducting oxides including fluorinated tin oxide (FTO) and aluminum zinc oxide (AZO). The morphology of these 3-D conducting oxide nanoarchitectures can be directed towards either mono-dispersed hollow nanobead matrix or mono-dispersed sponge-like nanoporous matrix by controlling the surface charge of the templating polystyrene (PS) nanobeads, the steric hindrance and hydrolysis rates of the precursors, pH of the solvents etc. during the evaporative co-assembly of the PS beads. These 3-D nanostructured conducting oxide matrices possess high surface area (over 100 m(2) g(-1)) and accessible interconnected pores extending in all three spatial dimensions. By optimizing the temperature profile during calcination, we can obtain large area (of a few cm(2)) and crack-free nanoarchitectured films with thickness over 60 ?m. As such, the sheet resistance of these nanoarchitectured films on FTO glass can reach below 20 ? per square. The nanoarchitectured FTO electrodes were used as anodes in Li-ion batteries, and they showed an enhanced cycling performance and stability over pure SnO2. PMID:23740404

  4. Characterization of Species Differences in Tissue Diltiazem Deacetylation Identifies Ces2a as a Rat-Specific Diltiazem Deacetylase.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Takaya; Fukami, Tatsuki; Nakajima, Miki

    2015-08-01

    Diltiazem, a calcium channel blocker, is mainly metabolized via demethylation or deacetylation in humans. Diltiazem demethylation is catalyzed by cytochrome P450 2D6 and 3A4. Although it was previously reported that the area under the curve ratio of deacetyldiltiazem to diltiazem after oral dosing with diltiazem in rats was sevenfold higher than in humans, the molecular mechanisms underlying this species difference remain to be clarified. In the present study, we compared the diltiazem deacetylase activity in liver, intestinal, renal, and pulmonary microsome preparations of human and experimental animal tissues to identify the specific deacetylase enzyme(s) involved in deacetylation. Diltiazem deacetylase activity was detected in rat liver and small intestine microsome preparations, but not in those from human, monkey, dog, and mouse tissues. Further purification of rat liver microsome (RLM) proteins identified four carboxylesterase (Ces) enzymes (Ces1d, Ces1e, Ces1f, and Ces2a) as potential candidate deacetylases. On the basis of their tissue distribution, the Ces2a enzyme was considered to be the enzyme that was responsible for diltiazem deacetylation. Furthermore, recombinant rat Ces2a expressed in Sf21 cells displayed efficient diltiazem deacetylase activity with similar Km values as RLM. In addition, the inhibitory characteristics of various chemical inhibitors were similar between recombinant rat Ces2a and RLM. In conclusion, we determined that only rat tissues were able to catalyze diltiazem deacetylation. The characterization of Ces enzymes in animal species, as undertaken in this study, will prove useful to predict the species-specific pharmacokinetics differences between the in vivo models used for drug development. PMID:25979260

  5. Isolation and characterization of a novel gene sfig in rat skeletal muscle up-regulated by spaceflight (STS-90).

    PubMed

    Kano, Mihoko; Kitano, Takako; Ikemoto, Madoka; Hirasaka, Katsuya; Asanoma, Yuki; Ogawa, Takayuki; Takeda, Shinichi; Nonaka, Ikuya; Adams, Gregory R; Baldwin, Kenneth M; Oarada, Motoko; Kishi, Kyoichi; Nikawa, Takeshi

    2003-02-01

    We obtained the skeletal muscle of rats exposed to weightless conditions during a 16-day-spaceflight (STS-90). By using a differential display technique, we identified 6 up-regulated and 3 down-regulated genes in the gastrocnemius muscle of the spaceflight rats, as compared to the ground control. The up-regulated genes included those coding Casitas B-lineage lymphoma-b, insulin growth factor binding protein-1, titin and mitochondrial gene 16 S rRNA and two novel genes (function unknown). The down-regulated genes included those encoding RNA polymerase II elongation factor-like protein, NADH dehydrogenase and one novel gene (function unknown). In the present study, we isolated and characterized one of two novel muscle genes that were remarkably up-regulated by spaceflight. The deduced amino acid sequence of the spaceflight-induced gene (sfig) comprises 86 amino acid residues and is well conserved from Drosophila to Homo sapiens. A putative leucine-zipper structure located at the N-terminal region of sfig suggests that this gene may encode a transcription factor. The up-regulated expression of this gene, confirmed by Northern blot analysis, was observed not only in the muscles of spaceflight rats but also in the muscles of tail-suspended rats, especially in the early stage of tail-suspension when gastrocnemius muscle atrophy initiated. The gene was predominantly expressed in the kidney, liver, small intestine and heart. When rat myoblastic L6 cells were grown to 100% confluence in the cell culture system, the expression of sfig was detected regardless of the cell differentiation state. These results suggest that spaceflight has many genetic effects on rat skeletal muscle. PMID:12630567

  6. Characterization of immune cells and cytokine localization in the rat utero-placental unit mid- to late gestation.

    PubMed

    Tessier, Daniel R; Raha, Sandeep; Holloway, Alison C; Yockell-Leličvre, Julien; Tayade, Chandrakant; Gruslin, Andrée

    2015-08-01

    The success of pregnancy is dependent on the precise regulation of the immune response within the utero-placental environment. Rats are beginning to be widely used as a model for human immune-related pregnancy complications. However, our knowledge of immune cells and cytokine localization in the rat utero-placental tissue is limited. The current study aimed to localize the immune cell populations, including uterine natural killer (uNK) cells, neutrophils, and macrophages within the rat utero-placental unit at two crucial gestational ages, gestational days 15.5 and 18.5. In addition, we characterized the distribution of the cytokines TNF?, IFN?, and IL-10 in the utero-placental regions at both the above-mentioned gestational ages. Our study has demonstrated co-localization TNF? and IFN? with uNK cells in perivascular regions of the rat mesometrial triangle at both gestational ages. Neutrophils and IL-10-positive cells were localized at the maternal-fetal interface and in the spiral artery lumen of the rat mesometrial triangle at both gestational ages. TNF? and IL-10 demonstrated a temporal change in the localization from GD15.5 to GD18.5, which coincides with the leading edge of trophoblast invasion into the mesometrial triangle. The current study furthers our knowledge of the localization of uterine immune cells and relevant cytokines, and provides a base from which to research the function of these immune cells and cytokines during rat pregnancy as a model to study human immune-related pregnancy complications. PMID:25725501

  7. Metabolism of prazosin in rat, dog, and human liver microsomes and cryopreserved rat and human hepatocytes and characterization of metabolites by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Erve, John C L; Vashishtha, Sarvesh C; DeMaio, William; Talaat, Rasmy E

    2007-06-01

    Prazosin (2-[4-(2-furanoyl)-piperazin-1-yl]-4-amino-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline) is an antihypertensive agent that was introduced to the market in 1976. It has since established an excellent safety record. However, in vitro metabolism of prazosin has not been investigated. This study describes the in vitro biotransformation of prazosin in liver microsomes from rats, dogs, and humans, as well as rat and human cryopreserved hepatocytes and characterization of metabolites using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The major in vivo biotransformation pathways reported previously in rats and dogs include demethylation, amide hydrolysis, and O-glucuronidation. These metabolic pathways were also confirmed in our study. In addition, several new metabolites were characterized, including a stable carbinolamine, an iminium species, and an enamine-all formed via oxidation of the piperazine ring. Two ring-opened metabolites generated following oxidative cleavage of the furan ring were also identified. Using semicarbazide hydrochloride as a trapping agent, an intermediate arising from opening of the furan ring was captured as a pyridazine product. In the presence of glutathione, three glutathione conjugates were detected in microsomal incubations, although they were not detected in cryopreserved hepatocytes. These data support ring opening of the furan via a reactive gamma-keto-alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehyde intermediate. In the presence of UDP-glucuronic acid, prazosin underwent conjugation to form an N-glucuronide not reported previously. Our in vitro investigations have revealed additional metabolic transformations of prazosin and have shown the potential of prazosin to undergo bioactivation through metabolism of the furan ring to a reactive intermediate. PMID:17353349

  8. Characterization of protein factor(s) in rat bronchoalveolar lavage fluid that enhance insulin transport via transcytosis across primary rat alveolar epithelial cell monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Bahhady, Rana; Kim, Kwang-Jin; Borok, Zea; Crandall, Edward D.; Shen, Wei-Chiang

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize factor(s) in rat bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) that enhance(s) insulin transport across primary rat alveolar epithelial cell monolayers (RAECM) in primary culture. BALF was concentrated 7.5-fold using the Centricon device and the retentate was used to characterize the factor(s) involved in enhancing apical-to-basolateral transport of intact 125I-insulin across various epithelial cell monolayers. These factor(s) enhanced transport of intact insulin across type II cell-like RAECM (3-fold increase) and type I cell-like RAECM (2-fold increase), but not across Caco-2 or MDCK cell monolayers. The insulin transport-enhancing factor(s) were temperature- and trypsin-sensitive. The mechanism of enhancement did not seem to involve paracellular transport or fluid-phase endocytosis, since fluxes of sodium fluorescein and FITC-dextran (70 kDa) were not affected by the factor(s) in the apical bathing fluid. BALF enhancement of intact 125I-insulin transport was abolished at 4°C and in the presence of monensin, suggesting involvement of transcellular pathways. Sephacryl S-200 purification of BALF retentate, followed by LC-MS/MS, indicated that the high molecular weight (>100 kDa) fractions (which show some homology to alpha-1-inhibitor III, murinoglobulin gamma 2, and pregnancy-zone protein) appear to facilitate transcellular transport of insulin across RAECM. PMID:18406118

  9. Renal effects of intracerebroventricularly injected tachykinins in the conscious saline-loaded rat: receptor characterization

    PubMed Central

    Ding Yuan, Yi; Couture, Réjean

    1997-01-01

    The effects of intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) injected substance P (SP), neurokinin A (NKA) and [MePhe7]neurokinin B (NKB) were investigated on renal excretion of water, sodium and potassium in the conscious saline-loaded rat. The central effects of [MePhe7]NKB were characterized with selective tachykinin antagonists for NK1 (RP 67580), NK2 (SR 48968) and NK3 (R 820) receptors.Whereas SP or NKA (65 or 650?pmol) failed to modify the renal responses, [MePhe7]NKB (65–6500?pmol) produced dose-dependent and long-lasting (30–45?min) decreases in renal excretion of water (maximal reduction at 65?pmol: from 66.14±7.62 to 21.07±3.79??l min?1), sodium (maximal reduction at 65?pmol: from 10.19±2.0 to 1.75±0.48??mol min?1) and potassium (maximal reduction at 65?pmol: from 4.31±1.38 to 0.71±0.27??mol min?1). While 650?pmol [MePhe7]NKB elevated urinary osmolality, neither 65?pmol nor 6.5?nmol [MePhe7]NKB altered this parameter.Both the antidiuresis and antinatriuresis induced by [MePhe7]NKB (65?pmol) were significantly blocked by the prior i.c.v. injection of R 820 (1.3?nmol, 5?min earlier), although the potassium excretion was only partially reduced. However, R 820 did not affect the antidiuresis and antinatriuresis elicited by endothelin-1 (1?pmol, i.c.v.). On its own, R 820 decreased renal potassium excretion with no effect on urinary osmolality and renal excretion of water and sodium. The i.c.v. co-injection of RP 67580 and SR 48968 (6.5?nmol each, 5?min earlier) failed to modify the renal responses to [MePhe7]NKB in a similar study.The central effects of [MePhe7]NKB (65?pmol) on renal excretion were blocked by the prior i.v. administration of a linear peptide vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist (50??g kg?1, 5?min earlier).These results suggest that the central NK3 receptor, probably located in the hypothalamus, is implicated in the renal control of water and electrolyte homeostasis through the release of vasopressin in the conscious saline-loaded rat. PMID:9138683

  10. Pathogenetic transition in the morphology of abnormal sperm in the testes and the caput, corpus, and cauda epididymides of male rats after treatment with 4,6-dinitro- o-cresol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken L. Takahashi; Naofumi Takahashi; Hitoshi Hojo; Maki Kuwahara; Hiroaki Aoyama; Shoji Teramoto

    2006-01-01

    In order to elucidate the pathogenesis of tailless sperm, 4,6-dinitro-o-cresol (DNOC) was administered to Jcl:SD male rats at daily oral doses of 0, 10 or 15mg\\/kg for 5 days. Sperm were collected from the caput, corpus, and cauda epididymides on days 1, 7 and 14 after the last dosing (D1, D7 and D14, respectively), counted and examined morphologically by phase-contrast

  11. Expression of apoptosis-related proteins and morphological changes in a rat tumor model of human small cell lung cancer prior to and after treatment with radiotherapy, carboplatin, or combined treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Fokkema; E. G. E. de Vries; H. J. M. Groen; C. Meijer; W. Timens

    2003-01-01

    Purpose. In order to understand the apoptosis pathway in tumor cells, differences in cell morphology and expression of apoptosis-related proteins induced by radiation and\\/or chemotherapy, were investigated in a rat double tumor model comparing cisplatin-sensitive and -resistant human small cell lung cancer tumors. Methods. The cisplatin-sensitive human small cell lung cancer cell line (GLC4) and its cisplatin-resistant subline (GLC4-CDDP) were

  12. Morphological and Behavioral Impact of AAV2/5-Mediated Overexpression of Human Wildtype Alpha-Synuclein in the Rat Nigrostriatal System

    PubMed Central

    Gombash, Sara E.; Manfredsson, Fredric P.; Kemp, Christopher J.; Kuhn, Nathan C.; Fleming, Sheila M.; Egan, Ann E.; Grant, Laura M.; Ciucci, Michelle R.; MacKeigan, Jeffrey P.; Sortwell, Caryl E.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of the involvement of alpha-synuclein (?-syn) in Parkinson’s disease (PD) pathogenesis has resulted in the development and use of viral vector-mediated ?-syn overexpression rodent models. The goal of these series of experiments was to characterize the neurodegeneration and functional deficits resulting from injection of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) serotype 2/5-expressing human wildtype ?-syn in the rat substantia nigra (SN). Rats were unilaterally injected into two sites in the SN with either rAAV2/5-expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP, 1.2 x 1013) or varying titers (2.2 x 1012, 1.0 x 1013, 5.9 x 1013, or 1.0 x 1014) of rAAV2/5-?-syn. Cohorts of rats were euthanized 4, 8, or 12 weeks following vector injection. The severity of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (THir) neuron death in the SN pars compacta (SNpc) was dependent on vector titer. An identical magnitude of nigrostriatal degeneration (60-70% SNpc THir neuron degeneration and 40-50% loss of striatal TH expression) was observed four weeks following 1.0 x 1014 titer rAAV2/5-?-syn injection and 8 weeks following 1.0 x 1013 titer rAAV2/5-?-syn injection. THir neuron degeneration was relatively uniform throughout the rostral-caudal axis of the SNpc. Despite equivalent nigrostriatal degeneration between the 1.0 x 1013 and 1.0 x 1014 rAAV2/5-?-syn groups, functional impairment in the cylinder test and the adjusting steps task was only observed in rats with the longer 8 week duration of ?-syn expression. Motor impairment in the cylinder task was highly correlated to striatal TH loss. Further, 8 weeks following 5.9 x 1013 rAAV2/5-?-syn injection deficits in ultrasonic vocalizations were observed. In conclusion, our rAAV2/5-?-syn overexpression model demonstrates robust nigrostriatal ?-syn overexpression, induces significant nigrostriatal degeneration that is both vector and duration dependent and under specific parameters can result in motor impairment that directly relates to the level of striatal TH denervation. PMID:24312298

  13. Long-term spatial memory and morphological changes in hippocampus of Wistar rats exposed to smoke from Carica papaya leaves

    PubMed Central

    Oyewole, Aboyeji Lukuman; Owoyele, Bamidele Victor

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of smoking of dried leaves of Carica papaya (pawpaw) based on ethnopharmacological information which indicated that smoking of papaya leaves could influence motor performance and learning. Methods Twenty-four rats were used for the study, and were grouped into four groups. Groups 1 served as the control (not exposed to papaya leaves smoke), while Groups 2, 3 and 4 were exposed to smoke from 6.25 g, 12.50 g and 18.75 g of dry pawpaw leaves respectively in a smoking chamber twice daily for 21 d with each exposure lasting for 3 min. Lastly, hippocampus was harvested in each group for histological study. Results The results showed that there were significant (P<0.05) increases in mean of recall latencies of long-term spatial memory in the animal administered the high dose while the other groups had significantly (P<0.05) lower frequencies. Histological investigation showed signs of mild neural degeneration in high dose group and hypochromic appearance of the Nissl substance in all treated groups. Conclusions In conclusion, the findings from this study has demonstrated that smoking of papaya leaves has the ability to maintain an intact long-term spatial memory at all doses but retrieving such memory is faster with the low and medium dosages. PMID:25182440

  14. Early and late morphological changes (including carcinoma of the urothelium) induced by irradiation of the rat urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Antonakopoulos, G N; Hicks, R M; Hamilton, E; Berry, R J

    1982-09-01

    Effects of X-irradiating the urinary bladder of female F344 rats with a single dose of 20 Gy were studied by light and electron microscopy. The animals were killed 1 week-20 months post-irradiation, and all tissues of the bladder wall were found to be affected by the irradiation. In the urothelium, damage was initially restricted to the basal cells but slowly extended to intermediate cells, and by 6 months post-irradiation the urothelium was focally hyperplastic. Twenty months post-irradiation, transitional-cell carcinomas were found in 10 of the surviving 17 animals (59%). The blood vessels in the bladder wall showed damage to both the endothelial cells and the smooth muscle. The fibroblasts in the connective tissue of the bladder wall appeared to show increased secretion after irradiation, and there was abundant collagen deposition, resulting in severe fibrosis of the bladder wall. After a latent period of a few months, focal degeneration and extensive necrosis of the smooth muscle cells were seen, leading to severe destruction and disorganization of the muscular coats of the bladder wall. Thus, a single dose of irradiation of 20 Gy was sufficient to produce severe fibrosis of the bladder wall with smooth muscle degeneration and to induce carcinoma of the urothelium in most of the treated animals within 20 months. PMID:7126428

  15. Two-week inhalation toxicity of polymeric diphenylmethane-4, 4'-diisocyanate (PMDI) in rats: analysis of biochemical and morphological markers of early pulmonary response.

    PubMed

    Pauluhn, J; Emura, M; Mohr, U; Popp, A; Rosenbruch, M

    1999-12-01

    The pulmonary response of Wistar rats to respirable polymeric diphenylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate (PMDI) aerosol was examined in a 2-wk repeated nose-only inhalation exposure study. Exposure concentrations were 1.1, 3.3, and 13.7 mg PMDI/m(3) (6 h/day, 15 exposures). The level of 13.7 mg/m(3) was actually a combination of an initial target concentration of 10 mg/m(3) in wk 1, which was raised to 16 mg/m(3) in wk 2, due to a lack of signs suggestive of pulmonary irritation. An acute sensory irritation study on rats served as basis for selection of these concentrations. Shortly after the 2-wk exposure period, rats were subjected to pulmonary function and arterial blood gas measurements. Lungs were examined by light and transmission electron microscopy, and labeling indices in terminal bronchioles were measured. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed to assess various indicators of pulmonary inflammation, including neutrophil and macrophage numbers, protein, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (gamma-GT), alkaline phosphatase (APh), acid phosphatase (ACPh), and beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase (beta-NAG). Phosphatidylcholine in BAL fluid and BAL cells was determined as aggregated endpoint suggestive of changes in pulmonary surfactant. Rats exposed to 3.3 and 13.7 mg/m(3) experienced concentration-dependent signs of respiratory tract irritation. Determination of arterial blood gases, lung mechanics, and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity did not demonstrate specific effects. Analysis of BAL fluid and BAL cells revealed changes indicative of marked inflammatory response and/or cytotoxicity in rats exposed to 13.7 mg/m(3), and the changes were characterized by statistically significantly increased activities of LDH, beta-NAG, and protein. Phospholipid concentrations were increased in rats exposed to 1.1 mg/m(3) and above (elevated levels of lipid material in alveolar macrophages demonstrated by polychrome stain) and 3.3 mg/m(3) and above (increased intracellular ACPh activity and intracellular phospholipids). In these groups, gamma-GT was statistically significantly increased. These findings suggest that changes in phospholipid homeostasis appear to occur at lower levels than those eliciting inflammation and cytotoxicity. Light and transmission electron microscopy suggest that exposure to 3.3 and 13. 7 mg/m(3) resulted in focal inflammatory lesions and an accumulation of refractile, yellowish-brownish material in alveolar macrophages with concomitant activation of type II pneumocytes. In the terminal bronchioles a concentration-dependent increase of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled epithelial cells was observed in all PMDI exposure groups. In summary, it appears that respirable PMDI aerosol interacts with pulmonary surfactant, which, in turn, may stimulate type II pneumocytes to increase their production of surfactant and to proliferate. PMID:10562701

  16. Pharmacological and behavioral characterization of the saphenous chronic constriction injury model of neuropathic pain in rats.

    PubMed

    Gunduz, Ozgur; Oltulu, Cagatay; Guven, Rabia; Buldum, Dilek; Ulugol, Ahmet

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a new experimental pain model by adapting the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model of the sciatic nerve to the exclusively sensory saphenous nerve in rats. Animals were divided into naďve, sham, and two experimental groups, in which two or four 4-0 chromic gut ligatures were loosely ligated around the saphenous nerve. Then, behavioral signs of neuropathic pain were observed for 8 weeks. In rats with four ligatures, prominent mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia developed; these behavioral signs were not prominent in rats with two ligatures. Pharmacological analysis was made in rats with four loose ligations; morphine and WIN 55,212-2, a cannabinoid agonist, reversed all of the modalities tested, whereas gabapentin only suppressed mechanical allodynia and amitriptyline only reduced mechanical hyperalgesia. Our data establish a rat model of saphenous CCI with significant allodynia and hyperalgesia, which is sensitive to a number of analgesic compounds. PMID:21909745

  17. Beneficial effects of l-leucine and l-valine on arrhythmias, hemodynamics and myocardial morphology in rats.

    PubMed

    Mitr?ga, Katarzyna; Zorniak, Micha?; Varghese, Benoy; Lange, Dariusz; No?ynski, Jerzy; Porc, Maurycy; Bia?ka, Szymon; Krzemi?ski, Tadeusz F

    2011-09-01

    Branched chain amino acids (BCAA) have been shown to have a general protective effect on the heart in different animal models as well as in humans. However, so far no attempt has been made to specifically elucidate their influence on arrhythmias. Our study was performed to evaluate whether an infusion of either l-leucine or l-valine in a dose of 1mgkg(-1)h(-1) 10min before a 7-min period of left anterior descending artery occlusion followed by 15min of reperfusion, had an effect on arrhythmias measured during the reperfusion phase in the ischemia- and reperfusion-induced arrhythmias model in rats in vivo. The effect of the infusion of these substances on mean arterial blood pressure was monitored throughout the experiment. Both of the tested amino acids exhibited significant antiarrhythmic properties. l-Leucine reduced the duration of ventricular fibrillation (P<0.05) and l-valine decreased the duration of ventricular fibrillation (P<0.001) and ventricular tachycardia (P<0.05). The two amino acids were generally hypotensive. l-Valine lowered blood pressure in all phases of the experiment (P<0.05) while l-leucine lowered this parameter mainly towards the end of occlusion and reperfusion (P<0.05). In addition, 30min infusion of the amino acids in the used dose did not produce any apparent adverse histological changes that were remarkably different from control. In summary, the results of our study suggest that l-leucine and l-valine in the dose that was used attenuates arrhythmias and are hypotensive in their influence. Our findings lend support to the many ongoing investigations into the benefit of the application of l-leucine and l-valine in cardiology like their addition to cardioplegic solutions. PMID:21605982

  18. Early and late morphological changes (including carcinoma of the urothelium) induced by irradiation of the rat urinary bladder.

    PubMed Central

    Antonakopoulos, G. N.; Hicks, R. M.; Hamilton, E.; Berry, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Effects of X-irradiating the urinary bladder of female F344 rats with a single dose of 20 Gy were studied by light and electron microscopy. The animals were killed 1 week-20 months post-irradiation, and all tissues of the bladder wall were found to be affected by the irradiation. In the urothelium, damage was initially restricted to the basal cells but slowly extended to intermediate cells, and by 6 months post-irradiation the urothelium was focally hyperplastic. Twenty months post-irradiation, transitional-cell carcinomas were found in 10 of the surviving 17 animals (59%). The blood vessels in the bladder wall showed damage to both the endothelial cells and the smooth muscle. The fibroblasts in the connective tissue of the bladder wall appeared to show increased secretion after irradiation, and there was abundant collagen deposition, resulting in severe fibrosis of the bladder wall. After a latent period of a few months, focal degeneration and extensive necrosis of the smooth muscle cells were seen, leading to severe destruction and disorganization of the muscular coats of the bladder wall. Thus, a single dose of irradiation of 20 Gy was sufficient to produce severe fibrosis of the bladder wall with smooth muscle degeneration and to induce carcinoma of the urothelium in most of the treated animals within 20 months. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 PMID:7126428

  19. A novel whole tooth-in-jaw-bone culture of rat molars: morphological, immunohistochemical, and laser capture microdissection analysis.

    PubMed

    Chokechanachaisakul, Uraiwan; Kaneko, Tomoatsu; Yamanaka, Yusuke; Okiji, Takashi; Suda, Hideaki

    2012-10-01

    In conventional whole-tooth culture systems, limitation exists regarding maintenance of the vitality of the dental pulp, because this tissue is encased in rigid dentin walls that hinder nutrition supply. We here report a whole tooth-in-jaw-bone culture system of rat mandibular first molars, where transcardiac perfusion with culture medium was carried out before placement of the jaw bone into culture medium, aiming to facilitate longer time preservation of the dental pulp tissue. Following 7 days of culture, the pulp tissues were analyzed by histology and immunohistochemistry to ED2 (antiresident macrophage). ED2-positive macrophages were also analyzed for their Class II MHC, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and p53 mRNA expression levels by means of immune-laser capture microdissection (immune-LCM). Dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) mRNA expression in odontobalstic layer was also examined by LCM. Teeth cultured following saline-perfusion and nonperfusion served as cultured controls. Normal teeth also served as noncultured controls. Histological examination demonstrated that the structure of the pulp tissue was well preserved in the medium-perfused explants in contrast to the cultured control groups. The Class II MHC, IL-6, and p53 mRNA expression levels of ED2-positive cells and DSPP expression levels of odontoblastic layer tissues in the pulp of medium-perfused explants were not significantly different from those in the noncultured normal teeth. In conclusion, the structural integrity and mRNA expression in the pulp were maintained at the in vivo level in the ex vivo whole tooth-in-jaw-bone culture system. The system may lay the foundation for studies aiming at defining further histological and molecular mechanism of the pulp. PMID:22623030

  20. Expression of CHI3L1 and CHIT1 in Osteoarthritic Rat Cartilage Model. A Morphological Study

    PubMed Central

    Di Rosa, M.; Szychlinska, M.A.; Tibullo, D.; Malaguarnera, L.

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease, which affects millions of people around the world. It occurs when the protective cartilage at the end of bones wears over time, leading to loss of flexibility of the joint, pain and stiffness. The cause of osteoarthritis is unknown, but its development is associated with different factors, such as metabolic, genetic, mechanical and inflammatory ones. In recent years the biological role of chitinases has been studied in relation to different inflammatory diseases and more in particular the elevated levels of human cartilage glycoprotein 39 (CHI3L1) and chitotriosidase (CHIT1) have been reported in a variety of diseases including chronic inflammation and degenerative disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate, by immunohistochemistry, the distribution of CHI3L1 and CHIT1 in osteoarthritic and normal rat articular cartilage, to discover their potential role in the development of this disease. The hypothesis was that the expression of chitinases could increase in OA disease. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that CHI3L1 and CHIT1 staining was very strong in osteoarthritic cartilage, especially in the superficial areas of the cartilage most exposed to mechanical load, while it was weak or absent in normal cartilage. These findings suggest that these two chitinases could be functionally associated with the development of osteoarthritis and could be used as markers, so in the future they could have a role in the daily clinical practice to stage the severity of the disease. However, the longer-term in vivoand in vitro studies are needed to understand the exact mechanism of these molecules, their receptors and activities on cartilage tissue. PMID:25308850

  1. A novel insulin mimetic vanadium-flavonol complex: synthesis, characterization and in vivo evaluation in STZ-induced rats.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Subramanian Iyyam; Subramanian, Sorimuthu Pillai; Kandaswamy, Muthusamy

    2013-05-01

    Since 1985, when Heyliger et al., first demonstrated a serendipitous discovery that oral administration of 0.8 mg/ml of sodium orthovanadate in drinking water to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats resulted in normoglycemia, numerous extensive studies have been pursued on the anti-diabetic and insulinomimetic actions of vanadium. The acceptance of vanadium compounds as promising therapeutic antidiabetic agents has been slowed due to the concern for chronic toxicity associated with vanadium accumulation. In order to circumvent the toxic effects of vanadium, we have taken up a combinational approach wherein a novel vanadium-flavonol complex was synthesized, characterized and its toxic as well as insulin mimetic potential was evaluated in STZ-induced experimental diabetes in rats. The results indicate that the complex is non-toxic and possess anti-diabetic activity. PMID:23466606

  2. Characterization of a Graded Cervical Hemicontusion Spinal Cord Injury Model in Adult Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dunham, Kelly A.; Siriphorn, Akkradate; Chompoopong, Supin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Most experimental models of spinal cord injury (SCI) in rodents induce damage in the thoracic cord and subsequently examine hindlimb function as an indicator of recovery. In these models, functional recovery is most attributable to white-matter preservation and is less influenced by grey-matter sparing. In contrast, most clinical cases of SCI occur at the lower cervical levels, a region in which both grey-matter and white-matter sparing contribute to functional motor recovery. Thus experimental cervical SCI models are beginning to be developed and used to assess protective and pharmacological interventions following SCI. The objective of this study was to characterize a model of graded cervical hemicontusion SCI with regard to several histological and behavioral outcome measures, including novel forelimb behavioral tasks. Using a commercially available rodent spinal cord impactor, adult male rats received hemicontusion SCI at vertebral level C5 at 100, 200, or 300?kdyn force, to produce mild, moderate, or severe injury severities. Tests of skilled and unskilled forelimb and locomotor function were employed to assess functional recovery, and spinal cord tissue was collected to assess lesion severity. Deficits in skilled and unskilled forelimb function and locomotion relating to injury severity were observed, as well as decreases in neuronal numbers, white-matter area, and white-matter gliosis. Significant correlations were observed between behavioral and histological data. Taken together, these data suggest that the forelimb functional and locomotor assessments employed here are sensitive enough to measure functional changes, and that this hemicontusion model can be used to evaluate potential protective and regenerative therapeutic strategies. PMID:21087156

  3. Biopharmaceutical Characterization of Nebulized Antimicrobial Agents in Rats: 1. Ciprofloxacin, Moxifloxacin, and Grepafloxacin

    PubMed Central

    Gontijo, Aline Vidal Lacerda; Brillault, Julien; Grégoire, Nicolas; Lamarche, Isabelle; Gobin, Patrice; Marchand, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the biopharmaceutical characteristics of three fluoroquinolones (FQs), ciprofloxacin (CIP), moxifloxacin (MXF), and grepafloxacin (GRX), after delivery via a nebulized aerosol to rats. Bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) were conducted 0.5, 2, 4, and 6 h after FQ intravenous administration and nebulized aerosol delivery to estimate epithelial lining fluid (ELF) drug concentrations. Plasma drug concentrations were also measured, and profiles of drug concentrations versus time after intravenous administration and nebulized aerosol delivery were virtually superimposable, attesting for rapid and complete systemic absorption of FQs. ELF drug concentrations were systematically higher than corresponding plasma drug concentrations, whatever the route of administration, and average ELF-to-unbound plasma drug concentration ratios post-distribution equilibrium did not change significantly between the ways of administration and were equal: 4.0 ± 5.3 for CIP, 12.6 ± 7.3 for MXF, and 19.1 ± 10.5 for GRX (means ± standard deviations). The impact of macrophage lysis on estimated ELF drug concentrations was significant for GRX but reduced for MXF and CIP; therefore, simultaneous pharmacokinetic modeling of plasma and ELF drug concentrations was only performed for the latter two drugs. The model was characterized by a fixed volume of ELF (VELF), passive diffusion clearance (QELF), and active efflux clearance (CLout) between plasma and ELF, indicating active efflux transport systems. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that ELF drug concentrations of these three FQs are several times higher than plasma drug concentrations, probably due to the presence of efflux transporters at the pulmonary barrier level, but no biopharmaceutical advantage of FQ nebulization was observed compared with intravenous administration. PMID:24798283

  4. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among microsporidia infecting the silkworm, Bombyx mori, using random amplification of polymorphic DNA: Morphological and ultrastructural characterization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Nageswara Rao; B. Surendra Nath; G. Bhuvaneswari; S. Raje Urs

    2007-01-01

    Random amplification of polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) and pathological, morphological and ultrastructural characterization were used to differentiate seven new microsporidian isolates infecting the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori. The pathogenicity observed was dose-dependent and differed from each of the microsporidian isolates; the NIK-4m was found to be more virulent than other isolates. However, all the isolates, except NIK-4m, showed

  5. Functional and Molecular Characterization of Hyposensitive Underactive Bladder Tissue and Urine in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rat

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Yao-Chi; Lee, Wei-Chia; Yoshimura, Naoki; Huang, Chao-Cheng; Rajaganapathy, Bharathi; Chancellor, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    Background The functional and molecular alterations of nerve growth factor (NGF) and Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and its receptors were studied in bladder and urine in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methodology/Principal Findings Diabetes mellitus was induced with a single dose of 45 mg/kg STZ Intraperitoneally (i.p) in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Continuous cystometrogram were performed on control rats and STZ treated rats at week 4 or 12 under urethane anesthesia. Bladder was then harvested for histology, expression of EP receptors and NGF by western blotting, PGE2 levels by ELISA, and detection of apoptosis by TUNEL staining. In addition, 4-hr urine was collected from all groups for urine levels of PGE2, and NGF assay. DM induced progressive increase of bladder weight, urine production, intercontraction interval (ICI) and residual urine in a time dependent fashion. Upregulation of Prostaglandin E receptor (EP)1 and EP3 receptors and downregulation of NGF expression, increase in urine NGF and decrease levels of urine PGE2 at week 12 was observed. The decrease in ICI by intravesical instillation of PGE2 was by 51% in control rats and 31.4% in DM group at week 12. Conclusions/Significance DM induced hyposensitive underactive bladder which is characterized by increased inflammatory reaction, apoptosis, urine NGF levels, upregulation of EP1 and EP3 receptors and decreased bladder NGF and urine PGE2. The data suggest that EP3 receptor are potential targets in the treatment of diabetes induced underactive bladder. PMID:25050870

  6. Pharmacological characterization of FE 201874, the first selective high affinity rat V1A vasopressin receptor agonist

    PubMed Central

    Marir, Rafik; Virsolvy, Anne; Wisniewski, Kazimierz; Mion, Julie; Haddou, Dominique; Galibert, Evelyne; Meraihi, Zahia; Desarménien, Michel G; Guillon, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Distinct vasopressin receptors are involved in different physiological and behavioural functions. Presently, no selective agonist is available to specifically elucidate the functional roles of the V1A receptor in the rat, one of the most widely used animal models. FE 201874 is a new derivative of the human selective V1A receptor agonist F180. In this study, we performed a multi-approach pharmacological and functional characterization of FE 201874 to determine whether it is selective for V1A receptors. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We modified an available human selective V1A receptor agonist (F180) and determined its pharmacological properties in cell lines expressing vasopressin/oxytocin receptors (affinity and coupling to second messenger cascades), in an ex vivo model (aorta ring contraction) and in vivo in rats (proliferation of adrenal cortex glomerulosa cells and lactation). KEY RESULTS FE 201874 exhibited nanomolar affinity for the rat V1A receptor; it was highly selective towards the rat V1B and V2 vasopressin receptors and behaved as a full V1A agonist in all the pharmacological tests performed. FE 201874 bound to the oxytocin receptor, but with moderate affinity, and behaved as an oxytocin antagonist in vitro, but not in vivo. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS On functional grounds, all the data demonstrate that FE 201874 is the first selective agonist of the rat V1A receptor isoform available. Hence, FE 201874 may have potential as a treatment for the vasodilator-induced hypotension occurring in conditions such as septic shock and could be the most suitable compound for discriminating between the behavioural effects of arginine vasopressin and oxytocin. PMID:23725319

  7. Autoradiographic localization and characterization of atrial natriuretic peptide binding sites in the rat central nervous system and adrenal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, T.R.; Wildey, G.M.; Manaker, S.; Glembotski, C.C.

    1986-07-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP) have recently been identified in both heart and CNS. These peptides possess potent natriuretic, diuretic, and vasorelaxant activities, and are all apparently derived from a single prohormone. Specific ANP binding sites have been characterized in the adrenal zona glomerulosa and kidney cortex, and one study reported ANP binding sites in the CNS. However, a detailed examination of the localization of ANP binding sites throughout the brain has not been reported. In this study, quantitative autoradiography was employed to examine the distribution of ANP receptors in the rat CNS. The binding of (3-/sup 125/I-iodotyrosyl28) rat ANP-28 to binding sites in the rat CNS was saturable, specific for ANP-related peptides, and displayed high affinity (Kd = 600 pM). When the relative concentrations of ANP binding sites were determined throughout the rat brain, the highest levels of ANP binding were localized to the circumventricular organs, including the area postrema and subfornical organ, and the olfactory apparatus. Moderate levels of ANP binding sites were present throughout the midbrain and brain stem, while low levels were found in the forebrain, diencephalon, basal ganglia, cortex, and cerebellum. The presence of ANP binding sites in the subfornical organ and the area postrema, regions considered to be outside the blood-brain barrier, suggests that peripheral ANP levels may regulate some aspects of CNS control of salt and water balance. The possible functions of ANP binding sites in other regions of the rat brain are not known, but, like many other peptides, ANP may act as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator at these loci.

  8. Phenotypic characterization of recessive gene knockout rat models of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Dave, Kuldip D; De Silva, Shehan; Sheth, Niketa P; Ramboz, Sylvie; Beck, Melissa J; Quang, Changyu; Switzer, Robert C; Ahmad, Syed O; Sunkin, Susan M; Walker, Dan; Cui, Xiaoxia; Fisher, Daniel A; McCoy, Aaron M; Gamber, Kevin; Ding, Xiaodong; Goldberg, Matthew S; Benkovic, Stanley A; Haupt, Meredith; Baptista, Marco A S; Fiske, Brian K; Sherer, Todd B; Frasier, Mark A

    2014-10-01

    Recessively inherited loss-of-function mutations in the PTEN-induced putative kinase 1(Pink1), DJ-1 (Park7) and Parkin (Park2) genes are linked to familial cases of early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD). As part of its strategy to provide more tools for the research community, The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research (MJFF) funded the generation of novel rat models with targeted disruption ofPink1, DJ-1 or Parkin genes and determined if the loss of these proteins would result in a progressive PD-like phenotype. Pathological, neurochemical and behavioral outcome measures were collected at 4, 6 and 8months of age in homozygous KO rats and compared to wild-type (WT) rats. Both Pink1 and DJ-1 KO rats showed progressive nigral neurodegeneration with about 50% dopaminergic cell loss observed at 8 months of age. ThePink1 KO and DJ-1 KO rats also showed a two to three fold increase in striatal dopamine and serotonin content at 8 months of age. Both Pink1 KO and DJ-1 KO rats exhibited significant motor deficits starting at 4months of age. However, Parkin KO rats displayed normal behaviors with no neurochemical or pathological changes. These results demonstrate that inactivation of the Pink1 or DJ-1 genes in the rat produces progressive neurodegeneration and early behavioral deficits, suggesting that these recessive genes may be essential for the survival of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). These MJFF-generated novel rat models will assist the research community to elucidate the mechanisms by which these recessive genes produce PD pathology and potentially aid in therapeutic development. PMID:24969022

  9. Morphology of cortically projecting basal forebrain neurons in the rat as revealed by intracellular iontophoresis of horseradish peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Semba, K; Reiner, P B; McGeer, E G; Fibiger, H C

    1987-02-01

    The intracellular horseradish peroxidase technique was employed to study the morphology of basal forebrain neurons that were identified as cortically projecting by antidromic invasion from the cerebral cortex. Four neurons were examined in detail; they were located at different rostrocaudal levels within the basal forebrain. Their somata were large, 30-50 microns in longest dimension, and gave rise to three to eight primary dendrites, which ramified into third- to fifth-order dendrites. The longest observed dendrite in each neuron terminated at a distance of 600-900 microns from the soma. The sizes of soma and dendritic field of the two most rostrally located cells were smaller than those of the other two cells located more caudally. Dendritic spines were seen in all four cortically projecting basal forebrain neurons. Spines had shafts of variable lengths, and usually had spherical or elongated heads. The density of spines varied among the four neurons; one neuron, a type II cortically projecting basal forebrain neurons as defined physiologically by Reiner et al., had a much greater number of dendritic spines than the other three neurons, which were type I neurons. No somatic spines were observed. Presumptive axons were identified in three of the four cortically projecting basal forebrain neurons. These axons originated from either the soma or a primary dendrite, and two of them gave off local collaterals, which displayed occasional bouton-like swellings. The above observations confirm and extend previous findings that cortically projecting neurons in the basal forebrain are large multipolar cells, and provide evidence to support the conclusion that these cells, although somewhat variable in size, generally have extensive dendrites which display frequent spines. PMID:3587611

  10. Peroxisome Proliferator-Binding Protein: Identification and Partial Characterization of Nafenopin-, Clofibric Acid, and Ciprofibrate-Binding Proteins from Rat Liver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Narendra D. Lalwani; Keith Alvares; M. Kumudavalli Reddy; M. Narahari Reddy; Indu Parikh; Janardan K. Reddy

    1987-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferators (PP) induce a highly predictable pleiotropic response in rat and mouse liver that is characterized by hepatomegaly, increase in peroxisome number in hepatocytes, and induction of certain peroxisomal enzymes. The PP-binding protein (PPbP) was purified from rat liver cytosol by a two-step procedure involving affinity chromatography and ion-exchange chromatography. Three PP, nafenopin and its structural analogs clofibric acid

  11. Metabolomic evaluation of rat liver and testis to characterize the toxicity of triazole fungicides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Drew R. Ekman; Hector C. Keun; Charles D. Eads; Carrie M. Furnish; Rachel N. Murrell; John C. Rockett; David J. Dix

    2006-01-01

    The effects of two triazole fungicides, myclobutanil and triadimefon, on endogenous rat metabolite profiles in blood serum, liver, and testis was assessed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed daily by gavage for 14 days with myclobutanil or triadimefon, at two dose levels for each triazole. Following exposure, serum, liver, and testis were collected and

  12. Pharmacokinetic characterization of ginsenoside Rh2, an anticancer nutrient from ginseng, in rats and dogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi Gu; Guang-Ji Wang; Jian-Guo Sun; Yuan-Wei Jia; Wei Wang; Mei-Juan Xu; Tian Lv; Yuan-Ting Zheng; Yang Sai

    2009-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic characteristics of ginsenoside Rh2, an anticancer nutrient, were analyzed in dogs and rats, including plasma kinetics, bioavailability, tissue distribution, plasma protein binding and excretion. The bioavailability of Rh2 is about 5% in rats and 16% in dogs. Multiple-dosing (7days, 1mg\\/kg bid) did not affect the pharmacokinetics in dogs. After oral dosing, Rh2 distributed mainly to the liver and

  13. Purification and Functional Characterization of Homodimeric yB-yB Fibrinogen From Rat Plasma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terry W. Wright; Charles W. Francis; Philip J. Fay; Patricia J. Haidaris

    Heterogeneity in the human and rat plasma fibrinogen (FBG) 7 chains is due to differential splicing of the primary y chain mRNA transcript. The subunit composition of FBG containing the predominant form of the y chain is homodi- meric (human: Aa,, B&, y50-y50; rat: Aa,, B&, yA-?A). The subunit composition of FBG containing the longer, minor form of the y

  14. Morphological analysis of the tuberomammillary nucleus in the rat brain: delineation of subgroups with antibody against L-histidine decarboxylase as a marker.

    PubMed

    Ericson, H; Watanabe, T; Köhler, C

    1987-09-01

    With an antibody specific for L-histidine decarboxylase (HD) in combination with immunohistochemical techniques and retrograde fluorescent tracing, the morphology, distribution, and projections of the histaminergic neurons of the posterior hypothalamus were studied in the adult male rat. Magnocellular neurons, situated on both sides of the mammillary recess and close to the ventral surface of the brain rostral and caudal to the mammillary bodies, were found to contain HD-immunoreactivity (HD-i). In addition to these magnocellular neurons, a substantial number of small and medium-sized neurons were immunostained, as were strands of cells of all sizes bridging the HD-i cell groups. A detailed mapping of the HD-i cells in frontal, sagittal, and horizontal sections showed that these neurons make up one continuous cell group, defined as the tuberomammillary nucleus (TM). This nucleus can be divided into several subgroups. Thus, approximately 600 HD-i neurons situated on each side of the mammillary recess compose the medial subgroup of the TM (TMM). The ventral subgroup of the TM (TMV) consists of some 1,500 neurons situated at the ventral surface of the brain, rostral (TMVr) and caudal (TMVc) to the mammillary bodies. The TMM contains a greater proportion of parvicellular neurons compared to the TMV. About 100 HD-i cells are scattered within the lateral hypothalamic area, the posterior hypothalamic region, the perifornical area, the supramammillary nucleus, and the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus. These cells are collectively named the diffuse part of the TM (TMdiff). The morphological differences between the TMM and the TMV did not signal differences in the efferent connections of these subgroups. Thus, single injections of the fluorescent tracer Fast Blue into different regions of the brain, including the spinal cord, resulted in retrograde labeling of HD-i neurons, which were distributed throughout the TM with no discernible topographic pattern. More specifically, each subgroup of the TM contributed projections innervating or passing through a large number of brain regions, including the olfactory bulb, hippocampus, caudate nucleus, paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus, cerebellum, tectum, medulla, and spinal cord. The widespread projections of the HD-i neurons contrasted to the more specific projections observed from non HD-i neurons in cell groups situated around the TM. Taken together, these findings suggest that the HD-i cells of the posterior hypothalamus constitute one major nucleus, the TM, and that this nucleus may be subdivided into three components, each of which has diffuse projections throughout the neuraxis. PMID:2822770

  15. Morphology and biochemical activity of rat liver golgi complexes after pretreatment with bis(kojato)oxovanadium(IV) or kojic acid alone.

    PubMed

    Dabro?, Wojciech; Nikiforuk, Agnieszka; Kordowiak, Anna M

    2004-01-01

    The authors studied the effect of a short (2 days) oral treatment of rats with bis(kojato)oxovanadium (IV) [VO(ka)2] as 1.8 mmol liquid solution on the biochemical activity and morphology of liver Golgi complexes (Group pVC). Such a short treatment induced greater changes than a longer (1 week) application of the same vanadium compound, what had been observed previously. Especially the Golgi marker enzyme activity (GalT) was the highest among all the investigated groups, and additionally, the greatest dispersion of result was obtained in this group. This group of animals showed twisted Golgi complexes, which--apart from 2-3 narrow cisterns--often contained 1-2 grossly distended cisterns filled with clear, floccular contents. The fairly long cisterns were irregular in shape and were often bent, forming ring-like structures. In the second experiment, we studied the effect of the ligand alone (kojic acid) (Group C+ka2) employed in the same way as in the case of the previously used vanadium complex (time and concentration). The biochemical parameters (body and liver weight, liquid and food intake, blood sugar level and GalT activities) were the same as in the untreated control group (C). Contrary to the biochemical findings, the morphology of Golgi complexes changed in effect of 3.6 mmol kojic acid application (the same application, time and concentration as in the whole complex with vanadium) over a 1-week period, manifesting the stimulation of exocytosis (in the trans region and directed toward plasma membrane), with the cisterns of Golgi dictyosomes being rounded or oval in more than 85% of cases. In this group, electron microscopy revealed the presence of two types of Golgi complexes, namely 2-3 short, slightly arched cisterns grossly distended at both ends and filled with clear, floccular material, as well as vacuoles with the same contents, which were visible in the vicinity of the cisterns. The other type, which was observed less frequently, was represented by Golgi complexes formed by haphazardly twisted cisterns. PMID:15619976

  16. Morphological and molecular characterization of the Armillaria cepistipes – A. gallica complex in the Czech Republic and Slovakia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimír Antonín; Michal Tomšovský; Petr Sedlák; Tomáš Májek; Libor Jankovský

    2009-01-01

    Armillaria cepistipes and A. gallica (Basidiomycota, Physalacriaceae) are morphologically similar species, and they are often nearly indistinguishable using DNA-based methods targeting the ITS\\u000a region of ribosomal DNA. The aim of this study was to examine morphological and ecological features of A. cepistipes and A. gallica, and to test other DNA-based methods to distinguish the two species. Our results revealed discriminative

  17. Automated Morphology Analysis of Nanoparticles

    E-print Network

    Park, Chiwoo

    2012-10-19

    The functional properties of nanoparticles highly depend on the surface morphology of the particles, so precise measurements of a particle's morphology enable reliable characterizing of the nanoparticle's properties. Obtaining the measurements...

  18. Automated Morphology Analysis of Nanoparticles 

    E-print Network

    Park, Chiwoo

    2012-10-19

    The functional properties of nanoparticles highly depend on the surface morphology of the particles, so precise measurements of a particle's morphology enable reliable characterizing of the nanoparticle's properties. Obtaining the measurements...

  19. Effects of Chronic Hypoxia in Developing Rats on Dendritic Morphology of the CA1 Subarea of the Hippocampus and on Fear-Potentiated Startle

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Lakshmi; Hamilton, Kathryn L.; Gewirtz, Jonathan C.; Rao, Raghavendra

    2009-01-01

    Chronic hypoxia (CH) present in infants with cyanotic congenital heart disease may be responsible for subsequent cognitive deficits seen in these children. In a rat model of CH [10% O2 between postnatal day (P) 3 and 28], we have demonstrated significant alterations in energy metabolism and excitatory neurotransmission in the developing hippocampus. These alterations may adversely affect dendritic morphology, which is a highly energy-dependent and excitatory neurotransmitter-mediated event, and hippocampus-mediated behaviors. We measured the apical segment length of dendrites in pyramidal neurons of the CA1 region of the hippocampus using microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP-2) histochemistry on P28 while the animals were hypoxic (n=8 in CH and n=6 in control), and on P56 after the animals had been normoxic for 4 weeks (n= 8/group). We also compared dorsal hippocampus-dependent trace fear conditioning and dorsal hippocampus-independent delay fear conditioning on P56. Developmental trajectory of the apical segment length was similar in CH and controls, decreasing between P28 and P56. However, when compared with the controls, the apical segment length was longer in the CH group on both P28 [55.11± 2.30 ?M (CH) vs 40.52 ±1.20?M (control), p < 0.001] and P56 [44.01± 1.56 ?M (CH) vs 31.75 ± 1.31 ?M (control), p < 0.001], suggesting the persistence of an immature dendritic architecture. Both trace and delay fear conditioning were decreased in the CH group, suggesting functional abnormality beyond the dorsal hippocampus. These structural and functional alterations may contribute to the cognitive deficits seen in infants at risk for CH. PMID:18083146

  20. Characterization of microalgal carotenoids by mass spectrometry and their bioavailability and antioxidant properties elucidated in rat model.

    PubMed

    Ranga Rao, A; Raghunath Reddy, R L; Baskaran, V; Sarada, R; Ravishankar, G A

    2010-08-11

    Of the total carotenoids in respective algal samples, beta-carotene in Spirulina platensis was 69.5%, astaxanthin and its esters in Haematococcus pluvialis was 81.38%, and lutein in Botryococcus braunii was 74.6%. The carotenoids were characterized by mass spectrometry. A time-course study of carotenoids in rats after administration of microalgal biomass showed peak levels in plasma, liver, and eyes at 2, 4, and 6 h, respectively. Beta-carotene accumulation in Spirulina-fed rats was maximum in eye tissues at 6 h. Similarly, levels of astaxanthin and lutein in Haematococcus- and Botryococcus-fed rats were also maximal in eye tissues. Astaxanthin from H. pluvialis showed better bioavailability than beta-carotene and lutein. The antioxidant enzymes, catalase, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and TBARS were significantly high in plasma at 2 h and in liver at 4 h, evidently offering protection from free radicals. This study implies that microalgae can be a good source of carotenoids of high bioavailability and nutraceutical value. PMID:20681642

  1. Construction and characterization of a 10-genome equivalent yeast artificial chromosome library for the laboratory rat, Rattus norvegicus

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, L.; Zee, R.Y.L. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)] [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Schalkwyk, L.C. [Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Berlin (Germany)] [and others] [Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Berlin (Germany); and others

    1997-02-01

    Increasing attention has been focused in recent years on the rat as a model organism for genetic studies, in particular for the investigation of complex traits, but progress has been limited by the lack of availability of large-insert genomic libraries. Here, we report the construction and characterization of an arrayed yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) library for the rat genome containing approximately 40,000 clones in the AB1380 host using the pCGS966 vector. An average size of 736 kb was estimated from 166 randomly chosen clones; thus the library provides 10-fold coverage of the genome, with a 99.99% probability of containing a unique sequence. Eight of 39 YACs analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization were found to be chimeric, indicating a proportion of about 20-30% of chimeric clones. The library was spotted on high-density filters to allow the identification of YAC clones by hybridization and was pooled using a 3-dimensional scheme for screening by PCR. Among 48 probes used to screen the library, an average of 9.3 positive clones were found, consistent with the calculated 10-fold genomic coverage of the library. This YAC library represents the first large-insert genomic library for the rat. It will be made available to the research community at large as an important new resource for complex genome analysis in this species. 35 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Functional characterization of acid-sensing ion channels in cultured neurons of rat inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, M; Gong, N; Lu, Y-G; Jia, N-L; Xu, T-L; Chen, L

    2008-06-23

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), which are widely distributed in the mammalian brain, the spinal cord and the peripheral sensory organs, are ligand-gated cation channels activated by extracellular protons. Abundant experimental evidence shows that ASICs play important roles in physiological/pathological conditions, such as sensory transduction, learning/memory, retinal function, seizure and ischemia. In the auditory system, however, there are only a few studies available describing ASICs in hair cells, the spiral ganglion and the vestibular ganglion. In particular, functional ASICs have not been assessed in the central auditory region, although there is evidence to show their transcription in the inferior colliculus (IC). In the present study, we characterized ASIC-like currents in cultured IC neurons of rats with whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. A rapidly decaying inward current was induced by exogenous application of acidic solution in cultured IC neurons with a response threshold around pH 6.9 and a half activation pH value at 5.92. The current was sensitive to amiloride half-maximal inhibition concentration (IC50)=20.4+/-0.4 microM), an ASIC blocker, and its reversal potential was close to the theoretical Na+ equilibrium potential, indicating that the recorded current was mediated by ASICs. Further experiments revealed the presence of homomeric ASIC1a channels in IC neurons: (1) the ASIC-like current was partially carried by Ca2+ as demonstrated with an ion-substitution protocol and Ca2+ imaging; (2) the current was inhibited by the tarantula venom Psalmotoxin (PcTX1), a specific blocker for homomeric ASIC1a channels; (3) the current could be inhibited by extracellular Ca2+ (IC50=2.31 mM) and Pb2+ (10 microM), confirming the presence of ASIC1a subunit. The presence of functional ASIC2a containing channels was revealed by the Zn2+ (300 microM)-induced enhancement of ASIC-like currents and the absence of functional ASIC3 channels was indicated by the insensitivity of ASIC-like currents to salicylate (1 mM), an ASIC3 subunit blocker. Finally, we show that activation of ASICs by a pH drop could induce membrane depolarization and evoke neuronal firing in IC neurons. Our study clearly demonstrates that functional homomeric ASIC1a channels and ASIC2a-containing channels, but not ASIC3 channels, are present in the IC. We suggest that ASICs should be taken into consideration for their possible functional roles in information processing and pathological processes in the central auditory system. PMID:18456416

  3. Behavioral characterization of non-copulating male rats with high spontaneous yawning frequency rate.

    PubMed

    Portillo, Wendy; Camacho, Francisco; Eguibar, Jose R; Paredes, Raúl G

    2010-12-25

    An important number of Sprague-Dawley males selected by strict inbreeding process for their high spontaneous yawing frequency (HY) fail to copulate after repeated exposure to receptive females. These HY males that fail to mate are called non-copulators (HYNC). The causes of this behavioral deficit are still unknown. The aim of the present study was to make a detailed behavioral characterization of these animals by evaluating: their partner preference between a sexually receptive female as opposed to a sexually active male; their ability to detect food related odors and their preference for sexually relevant chemosensory cues between bedding from estrous females, bedding from sexually active males and clean bedding. We also evaluated whether these males had alterations in motor function using a rotarod or in their general reward system mediated by opioids by injecting them with 1mg/kg of morphine to evaluate if they develop conditioned place preference (CPP). At the end of these behavioral tests, we measured their plasmatic levels of testosterone (T). Together, these results will contribute to elucidate the causes of their deficient copulatory performance. Both HYNC and HY copulators (HYC) males showed a clear preference for receptive females as opposed to sexually active males. As well, both groups of animals had a similar ability to detect food related odors. HYC males had a clear preference for estrous female odors as opposed to male or clean bedding, but HYNC males spend the same amount of time sniffing estrous, anestrous, male and clean bedding. In both, HYC and HYNC, morphine induced CPP suggesting that in these males the reward system is functional. No differences were found in motor coordination or in T levels between HY and HYNC males. The behavioral deficit in HYNC male rats cannot be explained by an alteration in: partner preference, food related odor recognition, motor coordination, general reward system, or differences in plasmatic levels of T. However, HYNC males present clear deficits in recognizing sexually relevant odors. These results could, at least in part, explain the deficient execution of copulatory pattern in HYNC males. PMID:20510299

  4. Isolation and characterization of C-reactive protein and serum amyloid P component in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    de Beer, F C; Baltz, M L; Munn, E A; Feinstein, A; Taylor, J; Bruton, C; Clamp, J R; Pepys, M B

    1982-01-01

    C-reactive protein (RP) and serum amyloid P component (SAP) have been identified for the first time in rat serum and isolated by calcium-dependent affinity chromatography. Rat CRP closely resembled human CRP in its amino acid composition, in having five subunits per molecule and in its electron microscopic appearance as a pentameric annular disc. It differed, however, from all other mammalian CRP's characterised hitherto in being a glycoprotein bearing a single complex oligosaccharide on each polypeptide subunit. Furthermore one pair of tis subunits per molecule was linked by a interchain disulphide bridges whereas in other animals the subunits of both CRP and SAP are all non-covalently associated. The serum concentration of CRP in normal healthy laboratory rats and in specific pathogen-free rats was 300-600 micrograms/ml which is much greater than has been described in any other species and exceeds even maximal acute phase levels of CRP in man. Following injections of casein or croton oil, serum CRP levels rose to a maximum of about 900 micrograms/ml. Rat CRP bound to pneumococcal C-polysaccharide (CPS( but, in marked contrast to the behaviour of CRP from man, rabbit and marine teleost fish, it did not precipitate with CPS solutions, agglutinate CPS-coated sheep erythrocytes or initiate complement activation. Rat SAP, like SAP of other species, was a glycoprotein but unlike them it was composed only of a single pentameric disc not two such discs interacting face-to-face. The normal level of SAP in rat serum was 20-50 micrograms/ml, very similar to the levels seen in man, and it did not behave as an acute phase reactant in response to casein or croton-oil injections. In this respect it resembled human SAP but differed from murine SAP which is a major acute phase reactant. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 11 PMID:7056568

  5. Recovery of cortical phospholipidosis and necrosis after acute gentamicin loading in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rubén A Giuliano; Guy J Paulus; Gert A Verpooten; Viviane M Pattyn; Dirk E Pollet; Etienne J Nouwen; Guy Laurent; Marie-Béatrice Carlier; Paul Maldague; Paul M Tulkens; Marc E De Broe

    1984-01-01

    Recovery of cortical phospholipidosis and necrosis after acute gentamicin loading in rats. The recovery from gentamicin-induced phospholipidosis in the rat kidney cortex was characterized both morphologically and biochemically after a single 12-hr drug infusion. Total dosages administered were 10, 60, or 140 mg\\/kg, achieving constant serum concentrations of 3, 11, and 27 µg\\/ml, respectively. At the end of the 12-hr

  6. Characterization of tachykinin receptors in the uterus of the oestrogen-primed rat

    PubMed Central

    Magraner, Josefina; Pinto, Francisco M; Anselmi, Elsa; Hernandez, Mariano; Perez-Afonso, Ricardo; Martín, Julio D; Advenier, Charles; Candenas, M Luz

    1998-01-01

    The aim of our study was to characterize the tachykinin receptor population in the oestrogen-primed rat uterus. For this purpose, we investigated the receptor type(s) responsible for tachykinin-induced contraction of longitudinally-arranged smooth muscle layer. The effects of substance P (SP), neurokinin A (NKA), neurokinin B (NKB) and several of their analogues with well-defined selectivities for tachykinin NK1, NK2 and NK3 receptors were studied and their inhibition by the selective nonpeptide tachykinin receptor antagonists (S)1-(2-[3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1-(3-isopropoxyphenylacetyl)piperidin-3-yl]ethyl)-4-phenyl-1-azoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane chloride (SR 140333, NK1-selective), (S)-N-methyl-N[4-(4-acetylamino-4-phenylpiperidino)-2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)butyl]benzamide (SR 48968, NK2-selective) and (R)-(N)-(1-(3-(1-benzoyl-3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)piperidin-3-yl)propyl)-?4-phenylpiperidin-?4-yl)-N-?methylacetamide (SR 142801, NK3-selective) was evaluated. Additionally, expression of tachykinin receptor mRNA was examined by using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).SP, NKA, [Nle10]-NKA(4-10), the analogue with selectivity at the tachykinin NK2 receptor type, and NKB elicited concentration-dependent contractions of the rat uterus. The pD2 values were 5.95±0.19; 6.73±0.21; 7.53±0.12 and 5.76±0.21, respectively. The selective agonist for the tachykinin NK1 receptor [Sar9Met(O2)11]-SP produced a small phasic response in the nanomolar concentration range. The selective tachykinin NK3 receptor agonist [MePhe7]-NKB failed to induce any significant contraction.In the presence of the neutral endopeptidase inhibitor phosphoramidon (1??M), the log concentration-response curves to exogenous tachykinins and their analogues were shifted significantly leftwards. The pD2 values were 6.12±0.10, 8.04±0.07, 7.89±0.03 and 6.59±0.07 for SP, NKA, [Nle10]-NKA(4-10) and NKB, respectively. In the presence of phosphoramidon (1??M), [Sar9Met(O2)11]-SP (1?nM–0.3??M) induced concentration-dependent contractions of increasing amplitude when only one concentration of drug was applied to each uterine strip and the pD2 value was 7.61±0.89. [MePhe7]-NKB induced small, inconsistent contractions and, therefore, a pD2 value could not be calculated.In experiments performed in the presence of phosphoramidon (1??M), SR 48968 (3?nM–0.1??M) caused parallel and rightward shifts in the log concentration-response curves of NKA. The calculated pKB value was 9.16±0.08 and the slope of the Schild regression was 1.28±0.24. SR 48968 (0.1??M) also antagonized responses to SP with an apparent pKB value of 7.63±0.13. SR 48968 (0.1??M) inhibited contractions elicited by NKB (1?nM–3??M) and [Nle10]-NKA(4–10) (0.1?nM–3??M) but had no effect on the response evoked by [Sar9Met(O2)11]-SP (0.1??M).SR 140333 (0.1??M) inhibited responses to SP with an apparent pKB value of 7.19±0.22. This compound did not significantly affect responses to NKA, [Nle10]-NKA(4-10) and NKB, but suppressed [Sar9Met(O2)11]-SP (0.1??M)-induced contraction. SR 142801 (0.1??M) had no effect on responses to natural tachykinins or their analogues.Total RNA was extracted from some of the uteri used in functional studies. RT-PCR assays revealed single bands corresponding to the expected product sizes encoding cDNA for tachykinin NK1 (587 base pairs) and NK2 receptors (491 base pairs) (n=6 different animals). A very low abundance transcript corresponding to the 325 base pairs product expected for the tachykinin NK3 receptor was detected.The present data show that functionally active tachykinin NK1 and NK2 receptors are expressed in the oestrogen-primed rat uterus. The NK2 receptor type seems to be the most important one involved in the contractile responses elicited by tachykinin

  7. Rat hepatic glutaminase: identification of the full coding sequence and characterization of a functional promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Chung-Bok, M I; Vincent, N; Jhala, U; Watford, M

    1997-01-01

    Glutamine catabolism in mammalian liver is catalysed by a unique isoenzyme of phosphate-activated glutaminase. The full coding and 5' untranslated sequence for rat hepatic glutaminase was isolated by screening lambda ZAP cDNA libraries and a Charon 4a rat genomic library. The sequence produces a mRNA 2225 nt in length, encoding a polypeptide of 535 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 59.2 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence of rat liver glutaminase shows 86% similarity to that of rat kidney glutaminase and 65% similarity to a putative glutaminase from Caenorhabditis elegans. A genomic clone to rat liver glutaminase was isolated that contains 3.5 kb of the gene and 7.5 kb of the 5' flanking region. The 1 kb immediately upstream of the hepatic glutaminase gene (from -1022 to +48) showed functional promoter activity in HepG2 hepatoma cells. This promoter region did not respond to treatment with cAMP, but was highly responsive (10-fold stimulation) to the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone. Subsequent 5' deletion analysis indicated that the promoter region between -103 and +48 was sufficient for basal promoter activity. This region does not contain an identifiable TATA element, indicating that transcription of the glutaminase gene is driven by a TATA-less promoter. The region responsive to glucocorticoids was mapped to -252 to -103 relative to the transcription start site. PMID:9164856

  8. Isolation and characterization of rat nephritogenic and non nephritogenic brush border antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, H; Yano, S; Naruse, T

    1986-01-01

    Two kinds of brush border antigens were isolated from pronase-treated rat tubular material by gel filtration, DEAE-chromatography and disc-electrophoresis, successively. One, a 0.05 M antigen which was eluted from DEAE-column with 0.05 mol of NaCl solution, has no nephritogenic ability when inoculated into homologous rats. The other, a 0.30 M antigen eluted with 0.30 mol of NaCl solution, induces membranous nephritis when injected into rats. Immunoprecipitation studies show no common factor between these two antigens. SDS-polyacrylamide electrophoresis shows the molecular size of 0.05 M and 0.30 M antigens to be respectively over 200 kD and about 90 kD. Rabbit antiserum against the 0.05 M antigen fixed to the GBM in a diffuse granular fashion as well as to the brush border by immunofluorescence when incubated in vitro with normal rat kidney section. Rabbit antiserum to the 0.30 M antigen, however, fixed exclusively in vitro to the brush border. Passive transfer of nephritis was studied with these rabbit antisera. When antiserum to 0.05 M antigen was injected into normal rat, diffuse granular deposition of rabbit IgG was observed in the GBM within 2 h of the injection, but the deposits became negative 1 week later. Rats injected with antiserum to the 0.30 M antigen showed no glomerular deposition within 2 days but diffuse granular deposits of rabbit IgG were observed within 1 week and increased until 2 weeks after the injection. These facts should be considered in the studies on passive Heymann nephritis and its pathogenesis. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:2949900

  9. Correlation and Characterization of 3D Morphological Dependent Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectra of Single Silver Nanoparticles Using Dark-field Optical Microscopy and Spectroscopy and AFM

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yujun; Nallathamby, Prakash D.; Huang, Tao; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.; Xu, Xiao-Hong Nancy

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a new and effective methodology to correlate optical and AFM images of single Ag nanoparticles (NPs), allowing us to study 3D-morphological dependent localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) spectra of individual Ag NPs. We fabricated arrays of distinctive microwindows on glass coverslips using photo-lithography method, and created well-isolated individual Ag NPs with a wide variety of shapes and morphologies on the glass coverslips using a modified nanosphere lithography method (NSL). Using distinctive geometries of microwindows, we located individual Ag NPs of interest in their optical and AFM images, enabling us to correlate and characterize the LSPR spectra and 3D morphologies of the same single NPs using dark-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy (DFOMS) and AFM, respectively. We found that LSPR spectra of single Ag NPs, with nearly equal volume [(8.6 ± 0.4) × 103 nm3], cross-section [(2.2 ± 0.2) × 102 nm3], and height (39.6 ± 3.6 nm), highly depend on their shapes, showing the red shift of peak wavelength to 629 nm (quasi trapezoidal cylindrical NP) from that of 506 nm (quasi circular cylindrical NP). LSPR spectra of single Ag NPs simulated using discrete dipole approximation (DDA) agree well with those measured experimentally when their shapes and morphologies can be accuractely described in both methods, but differ when they are not. Furthermore, we found location-dependent LSPR spectra on and around a single NP, offering a unique opportunity to characterize multi-mode plasmonic NPs at nanometer resolution for better understanding their plasmonic optical properties and for rational design of single NP optics. PMID:20190865

  10. Multimode dynamics of arterial blood pressure in healthy rats and its multifractal characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, Alexey N.; Dumsky, Dmitry V.; Ziganshin, Amir R.; Klimova, Oksana A.; Anishchenko, Vadim S.

    2004-05-01

    We discuss an approach to study multimode dynamics of biological systems based on the quantitative description of complexity of the separate rhythmic components. In experiments on healthy rats we show differences of the stress-induced reactions in the structure of low-frequency and high-frequency rhythms. Further, we investigate the scaling features of blood pressure dynamics within the framework of multifractal concept. We discuss how stress affects the phenomenon of multifractality in the cardiovascular dynamics. Typical reactions to stress are considered, and distinctions in the stress-induced effects for male and female rats are reported.

  11. Gene expression profiling in liver and testis of rats to characterize the toxicity of triazole fungicides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas B. Tully; Wenjun Bao; Amber K. Goetz; Chad R. Blystone; Hongzu Ren; Judith E. Schmid; Lillian F. Strader; Carmen R. Wood; Deborah S. Best; Michael G. Narotsky; Douglas C. Wolf; John C. Rockett; David J.. Dix

    2006-01-01

    Four triazole fungicides were studied using toxicogenomic techniques to identify potential mechanisms of action. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed for 14 days by gavage with fluconazole, myclobutanil, propiconazole, or triadimefon. Following exposure, serum was collected for hormone measurements, and liver and testes were collected for histology, enzyme biochemistry, or gene expression profiling. Body and testis weights were unaffected, but

  12. Characterization of opioid receptor types modulating acetylcholine release in septal regions of the rat brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Gazyakan; M. Hennegriff; A. Haaf; G. B. Landwehrmeyer; T. J. Feuerstein; R. Jackisch

    2000-01-01

    Presynaptic opioid receptors of the '- and µ-types have been shown to inhibit the release of acetylcholine (ACh) in the rat striatum and hippocampus, respectively, but it is unknown whether opioid receptors modulate the release of ACh also in the region of origin of the hippocampal cholinergic innervation, the septum. To answer this question, slices (350 µm) of the medial

  13. Characterization of kidney sulfotransferases during lead-induced nephrotoxicity in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Templer, L.A.; Kong, J.; Ronis, M.J.J.; Ringer, D.P. [Univ. Arkansas Medical School, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    1996-03-08

    Kidney sulfotransferases (ST) have been shown to be involved in the biotransformation of steroid and thyroid hormones as well as xenobiotics varying from carcinogenic heterocyclic amines to drugs such as acetaminophen. In order to examine the impact of lead-induced nephrotoxicity on kidney aryl, estrogen and DHEA STs during growth and development, time-impregnated female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed ad libitum to lead acetate (0.6%) in drinking water from gestational day 5 and continuing in male and female pups until they were sacrificed at day 85. Cytosols from male rat kidneys showed levels of estrogen ST activity (59% of females) that were significantly lowered (P{le}0.05) after lead exposure (6-20% of male). Aryl ST activity was relatively unchanged in male rats after rat kidney cytosol. Immunochemical analysis of cytosols from normal males and females with the antiserums to the three STs substantiated the presence of only the aryl and estrogen STs. Immunohistochemical techniques localized the aryl and estrogen STs primarily to the S3 section of the proximal tubules. These findings indicate that kidney STs may be differently modulated during lead exposure.

  14. Morphometrical Characterization of Two Glioma Models in the Brain of Immunocompetent and Immunodeficient Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Saini; Mattia Bellinzona; Frerk Meyer; Gaetano Cali‘; Madjid Samii

    1999-01-01

    Although several glioma models exist, systematic morphometrical studies on such experimental tumors are lacking. The purpose of this study was the quantitative assessment of how rat strains, cell lines, injection techniques and location affect tumors reproducibility and histopathological features. Glioma cells were implanted in 3 brain locations, with different injection techniques (free hand, stereotactic, water-tight device), variable volumes, cell concentrations

  15. Characterization and cloning of the E11 antigen, a marker expressed by Rat Osteoblasts and Osteocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Wetterwald; W. Hofstetter; M. G. Cecchini; B. Lanske; C. Wagner; H. Fleisch; M. Atkinson

    1996-01-01

    A new marker for cells of the osteoblastic lineage was identified by raising monoclonal antibodies against an immortalized rat osteoblastic cell line. Among the different antibodies one was selected which, on tissue sections, strongly reacts with osteoblasts, preosteocytes, and osteocytes. This antibody, designated E11, recognizes an antigen localized at the cell surface. The cDNA encoding the E11 antigen was cloned

  16. Structural and morphological changes characterizing reversible de-ammination\\/re-ammination processes in NiPt(CN) 4 (NH 3 ) 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Reller; H.-R. Oswald

    1994-01-01

    The topotactic structural mechanism of de- and re-ammination of single-crystalline NiPt(CN)4(NH3)2 is characterized by means of structural, morphological and thermoanalytical studies. Structural investigations give evidence\\u000a that the two-dimensional structural motif [NiPt(CN)4]? determines the mechanism and the kinetics of both processes. It is shown that the degree of reversibility, in particular\\u000a the exothermic re-ammination, is governed by the conservation of the

  17. Characterization of a Plasmopara species on Ambrosia artemisiifolia, and notes on P. halstedii, based on morphology and multiple gene phylogenies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young-Joon Choi; Levente Kiss; László Vajna; Hyeon-Dong Shin

    2009-01-01

    Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) is an invasive and highly allergenic plant species, on which two species, Plasmopara halstedii and Plasmopara angustiterminalis, have been recognized to cause downy mildew disease. In this study, morphological and molecular patterns of seven Plasmopara specimens collected from A. artemisiifolia in Canada, Hungary, and USA were compared with those of P. halstedii and P. angustiterminalis from

  18. CEREBELLAR HYPOPLASIA IN THE GUNN RAT IS ASSOCIATED WITH QUANTITATIVE CHANGES IN NEUROTYPIC AND GLIOTYPIC PROTEINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors are characterizing toxicant-induced injury to the nervous system by measuring nervous system cell-type specific proteins together with accompanying changes in morphology and behavior. In the present study, cerebellar neurotoxicity was assessed in the Gunn rat an autos...

  19. Studies on the synthesis and intracellular transport of lipoprotein particles in rat liver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HANS GLAUMANN; ANDERS BERGSTRAND; JAN L. E. ERICSSON

    1975-01-01

    Lipoprotein particles (d < 1.03 g\\/ml) were isolated from rough and smooth microsomes and from the Golgi apparatus of rat liver, and were characterized chemically and morphologically. The rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) particles were rich in protein (50%) and contained phospholipids (PLP) and triglycerides (TG) in smaller amounts, whereas the lipoprotein particles emanating from the smooth ER, and especially the

  20. Impaired renal function and development in Belgrade rats

    PubMed Central

    Veuthey, Tania; Hoffmann, Dana; Vaidya, Vishal S.

    2013-01-01

    Belgrade rats carry a disabling mutation in the iron transporter divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1). Although DMT1 plays a major role in intestinal iron absorption, the transporter is also highly expressed in the kidney, where its function remains unknown. The goal of this study was to characterize renal physiology of Belgrade rats. Male Belgrade rats died prematurely with ?50% survival at 20 wk of age. Necropsy results indicated marked glomerular nephritis and chronic end-stage renal disease. By 15 wk of age, Belgrade rats displayed altered renal morphology associated with sclerosis and fibrosis. Creatinine clearance was significantly lower compared with heterozygote littermates. Urinary biomarkers of kidney injury, including albumin, fibrinogen, and kidney injury molecule-1, were significantly elevated. Pilot morphological studies suggest that nephrogenesis is delayed in Belgrade rat pups due to their low iron status and fetal growth restriction. Such defects in renal development most likely underlie the compromised renal metabolism observed in adult b/b rats. Belgrade rat kidney nonheme iron levels were not different from controls but urinary iron and transferrin levels were higher. These results further implicate an important role for the transporter in kidney function not only in iron reabsorption but also in glomerular filtration of the serum protein. PMID:24226520

  1. Controlled synthesis, characterization, and morphology-dependent reducibility of ceria-zirconia-yttria solid solutions with nanorod-like, microspherical, microbowknot-like, and micro-octahedral shapes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yujuan; Zhang, Lei; Deng, Jiguang; Dai, Hongxing; He, Hong

    2009-03-01

    By adopting the strategy of triblock copolymer (Pluronic P123) or cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) assisted hydrothermal treatment, we fabricated cubic fluorite-type Ce(0.6)Zr(0.3)Y(0.1)O(2) (CZY) solid solution polycrystallites with various morphologies. These materials were characterized by means of techniques such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, selected-area electron diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, laser Raman, Fourier-transfer infrared spectroscopy, hydrogen temperature-programmed reduction, and surface area measurements. It is found that the nanorod-like, microspherical, microbowknot-like, and micro-octahedral CZY particles were respectively generated hydrothermally with CTAB at 120 degrees C for 72 h and with P123 at 100, 120, and 240 degrees C for 48 h after calcination at 550 degrees C for 3 h. There was a copresence of Ce(3+) and Ce(4+) in the CZY samples that led to the formation of oxygen vacancies. We observed a good correlation of low-temperature reducibility with the morphology of the CZY samples. The reducibility of these nano- and micromaterials at low temperatures (240-550 degrees C) enhanced in the order micro-octahedral CZY < microspherical CZY < microbowknot-like CZY < nanorod-like CZY. The formation mechanism of CZY with various morphologies was discussed. PMID:19235977

  2. Branched chain aminotransferase isoenzymes. Purification and characterization of the rat brain isoenzyme.

    PubMed

    Hall, T R; Wallin, R; Reinhart, G D; Hutson, S M

    1993-02-15

    This paper presents the first complete purification of the branched chain aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.42) from rat brain cytosol (BCATc). On sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis the enzyme appeared as a single band with a molecular mass of 47 kDa; however, gel exclusion chromatography suggested that BCATc is a dimer. Comparison of tryptic peptide maps of BCATc and the mitochondrial form of the enzyme (BCATm) indicated that they are different proteins. Experiments with protein labeling reagents, in particular sulfhydryl reagents, also suggested that there may be some distinct structural differences in BCATc and BCATm. Nevertheless, BCATc and BCATm showed similar specificities for amino acid and alpha-keto acid substrates. Both enzymes transaminated branched chain amino acids, their straight chain analogs, L-alloisoleucine and glutamate. A broader range of alpha-keto acids than amino acids was accepted as substrate including alpha-ketobutyrate and the alpha-keto acid of methionine. Both enzymes exhibited ping-pong kinetics with apparent Km values for leucine and isoleucine of about 1 and 5 mM for valine, respectively. Km values for alpha-ketoglutarate ranged from about 0.6 to 3 mM depending on the amino acid substrate. Polyclonal antibodies were raised in rabbits against purified BCATc. BCATc antiserum neutralized branched chain aminotransferase activity in rat brain cytosol but did not affect the activity in a heart mitochondrial extract. However, immunoblotting showed that BCATc and BCATm do share common epitopes since BCATm antiserum recognized BCATc on the immunoblots. The tissue distribution of BCATc was examined using BCATc and BCATm antisera. These data showed that BCATc was found in adult and fetal rat brain, cultured cells from fetal rat brain cortex, ovary, and placenta. Brain had the highest activity followed by ovary, fetal brain, and placenta. BCATc was not found in fetal liver, adult rat liver, or a rat hepatoma cell line. These data provide clear evidence that BCATc, unlike BCATm, is restricted to several highly specialized tissues. PMID:8381418

  3. Pharmacological characterization of the relaxant effect induced by adrenomedullin in rat cavernosal smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Leite, L N; Gonzaga, N A; Tirapelli, D P C; Tirapelli, L F; Tirapelli, C R

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the mechanisms underlying the relaxant effect of adrenomedullin (AM) in rat cavernosal smooth muscle (CSM) and the expression of AM system components in this tissue. Functional assays using standard muscle bath procedures were performed in CSM isolated from male Wistar rats. Protein and mRNA levels of pre-pro-AM, calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR), and Subtypes 1, 2 and 3 of the receptor activity-modifying protein (RAMP) family were assessed by Western immunoblotting and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Nitrate and 6-keto-prostaglandin F(1?) (6-keto-PGF(1?); a stable product of prostacyclin) levels were determined using commercially available kits. Protein and mRNA of AM, CRLR, and RAMP 1, -2, and -3 were detected in rat CSM. Immunohistochemical assays demonstrated that AM and CRLR were expressed in rat CSM. AM relaxed CSM strips in a concentration-dependent manner. AM(22-52), a selective antagonist for AM receptors, reduced the relaxation induced by AM. Conversely, CGRP(8-37), a selective antagonist for calcitonin gene-related peptide receptors, did not affect AM-induced relaxation. Preincubation of CSM strips with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine-methyl-ester (L-NAME, nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), 1H-(1,2,4)oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, quanylyl cyclase inhibitor), Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPS (cGMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor), SC560 [5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-trifluoromethyl pyrazole, selective cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitor], and 4-aminopyridine (voltage-dependent K(+) channel blocker) reduced AM-induced relaxation. On the other hand, 7-nitroindazole (selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), wortmannin (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor), H89 (protein kinase A inhibitor), SQ22536 [9-(tetrahydro-2-furanyl)-9H-purin-6-amine, adenylate cyclase inhibitor], glibenclamide (selective blocker of ATP-sensitive K(+) channels), and apamin (Ca(2+)-activated channel blocker) did not affect AM-induced relaxation. AM increased nitrate levels and 6-keto-PGF1? in rat CSM. The major new contribution of this research is that it demonstrated expression of AM and its receptor in rat CSM. Moreover, we provided evidence that AM-induced relaxation in this tissue is mediated by AM receptors by a mechanism that involves the nitric oxide-cGMP pathway, a vasodilator prostanoid, and the opening of voltage-dependent K(+) channels. PMID:25140812

  4. Structural characterization of the rat seminal vesicle secretion II protein and gene.

    PubMed

    Harris, S E; Harris, M A; Johnson, C M; Bean, M F; Dodd, J G; Matusik, R J; Carr, S A; Crabb, J W

    1990-06-15

    The gene encoding rat seminal vesicle secretion II (SVS II) protein has been cloned from a rat genomic DNA library using a cDNA probe generated from rat dorsal prostate androgen-dependent mRNA. The cloned 7.3-kilobase pair genomic fragment contains approximately 5000 base pairs (bp) of the 5'-flanking region and the entire coding region of the SVS II protein within two exons. A sequence of 4156 bp of the rat SVS II gene has been determined, including 2037 bp of the 5'-flanking region, exon 1 (95 bp), intron 1 (236 bp), exon 2 (1171 bp), and 614 bp of the 3'-flanking region. The 5'-flanking region contains three conserved elements found in other seminal vesicle secretion genes (SVS IV-VI proteins) within 250 bp of the transcription start site as well as a glucocorticoid response element at position -314 in the SVS II gene. The first exon encodes a 22-amino acid leader peptide plus the first 2 amino acids of the secreted protein. The second exon encodes the remaining amino acids in the SVS II protein sequence. The mature protein contains 392 residues and has an Mr of 43,116. Concomitant with the gene analysis, the rat SVS II protein was purified to homogeneity, and 333 residues (85%) of the amino acid sequence were determined by automated Edman degradation. The DNA-deduced sequence and that determined by direct analysis of the protein are in complete agreement. The blocked NH2-terminal amino acid was identified as pyroglutamic acid by mass spectrometry and aminopeptidase digestion. A 13-residue structure with the consensus sequence GSQLKSFGQVKSS is repeated 13 times within the SVS II protein and appears to be involved in the formation of the rat copulatory plug via a transglutaminase reaction cross-linking glutamine and lysine residues. Overall, the SVS II protein sequence exhibits little structural relatedness to any other known protein sequence; however, some similarity can be found between the 13-residue repeat and another repeating structure and apparent transglutaminase substrate in the guinea pig seminal vesicle clotting protein. PMID:2351680

  5. Synthesis, characterization, self-assembly, gelation, morphology and computational studies of alkynylgold(III) complexes of 2,6-bis(benzimidazol-2'-yl)pyridine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Yim, King-Chin; Lam, Elizabeth Suk-Hang; Wong, Keith Man-Chung; Au, Vonika Ka-Man; Ko, Chi-Chiu; Lam, Wai Han; Yam, Vivian Wing-Wah

    2014-08-01

    A novel class of alkynylgold(III) complexes of the dianionic ligands derived from 2,6-bis(benzimidazol-2'-yl)pyridine (H2bzimpy) derivatives has been synthesized and characterized. The structure of one of the complexes has also been determined by X-ray crystallography. Electronic absorption studies showed low-energy absorption bands at 378-466?nm, which are tentatively assigned as metal-perturbed ?-?* intraligand transitions of the bzimpy(2-) ligands. A computational study has been performed to provide further insights into the nature of the electronic transitions for this class of complexes. One of the complexes has been found to show gelation properties, driven by ?-? and hydrophobic-hydrophobic interactions. This complex exhibited concentration- and temperature-dependent (1)H?NMR spectra. The morphology of the gel has been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). PMID:25042127

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF IMMEDIATE AND LATE PHASE AIRWAY RESPONSES TO HOUSE DUST MITE CHALLENGE IN BROWN NORWAY RATS AND CORRELATIONS AMONG PHYSIOLOGICAL MEDIATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    CHARACTERIZATION OF IMMEDIATE AND LATE PHASE AIRWAY RESPONSES TO HOUSE DUST MITE CHALLENGE IN BROWN NORWAY RATS AND CORRELATIONS AMONG PATHOPHYSIOLOGICAL MEDIATORS (P. SinghI, D.W. Winsett2, M.J. Daniels2, J. Richards2, K. Crissman2, D.L. Doerfler2 and M.I. Gilmour2, 1NCSU, Ra...

  7. Characterization of the Femoral Neck Region’s Reponse to the Rat Hindlimb Unloading Model through Tomographic Scanning, Mechanical Testing and Estimated Strengths 

    E-print Network

    Kupke, Joshua Scott

    2011-02-22

    since a FN failure has such a detrimental effect on mobility. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of microgravity and recovery on the FN in the adult male hindlimb unloaded (HU) rat model. This was done through peripheral...

  8. Characterization of the Femoral Neck Region’s Reponse to the Rat Hindlimb Unloading Model through Tomographic Scanning, Mechanical Testing and Estimated Strengths

    E-print Network

    Kupke, Joshua Scott

    2011-02-22

    since a FN failure has such a detrimental effect on mobility. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of microgravity and recovery on the FN in the adult male hindlimb unloaded (HU) rat model. This was done through peripheral...

  9. Further characterization of nociception-related and arterial pressure-related neuronal responses in the nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis of the rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terry B. J. Kuo; Cheryl C. H. Yang; Julie Y. H. Chan; Hsing-Fei Tsai; Samuel H. H. Chan

    1996-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to further characterize the nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis (NRGC) of the medulla oblongata in the central processing of nociceptive and cardiovascular signals, and its modulation by metenkephalin. In Sprague-Dawley rats anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium, we found that all 125 spontaneously active NRGC neurons that responded to noxious stimuli (tail clamp) also exhibited arterial pressure-relatedness. Forty neurons

  10. Characterization of tumor angiogenesis in rat brain using Iron-based Vessel Size Index MRI in combination with Gadolinium-based Dynamic Contrast

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Characterization of tumor angiogenesis in rat brain using Iron-based Vessel Size Index MRI This study aimed at combining an iron-based, steady-state, Vessel Size Index MRI approach (VSI MRI), and a Gd, at 2.35T. Gd-DOTA (200 µmol of Gd/kg) and ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) (200 µmol

  11. Characterization of Fluoroquinolone-Induced Achilles Tendon Toxicity in Rats: Comparison of Toxicities of 10 Fluoroquinolones and Effects of Anti-Inflammatory Compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YOKO KASHIDA; MICHIYUKI KATO

    1997-01-01

    Fluoroquinolone antibacterial agents have been reported to induce tendon lesions in juvenile rats. In the present study, we characterized fluoroquinolone-induced Achilles tendon lesions by comparing the effects of 10 fluoroquinolones and examining the potential of one of these antimicrobial agents, pefloxacin, to induce tendon lesions when coadministered with one of nine anti-inflammatory compounds. Among the 10 fluoroquinolones tested, fleroxacin and

  12. Pharmacological characterization of M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated Gq activation in rat cerebral cortical and hippocampal membranes.

    PubMed

    Odagaki, Yuji; Kinoshita, Masakazu; Toyoshima, Ryoichi

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to pharmacologically characterize the response derived from functional activation of Gq proteins coupled with native muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in rat cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Rat cerebral cortical and hippocampal membranes were prepared, and the effects of a range of mAChR agonists and antagonists, allosteric modulators, and muscarinic toxins were determined by an antibody-capture scintillation proximity assay combined with [(35)S]GTP?S binding, using the anti-G?q antibody sc-393. Increased specific [(35)S]GTP?S binding, elicited by carbachol (CCh), was selectively inhibited by the muscarinic toxin MT7, and was resistant to membrane pretreatment with N-ethylmaleimide, indicating that the response derived exclusively from G?q, selectively coupled with the M1 mAChR. In addition to CCh, many mAChR agonists, including oxotremorine, arecholine, and methacholine, stimulated binding in a concentration-dependent manner with varied potencies and efficacies. The intrinsic activities of partial M1 mAChR agonists in the present study were generally lower than previously reported in M1-expressing cells. Xanomeline and N-desmethylclozapine had negligible or minimal agonist properties. CCh-stimulated [(35)S]GTP?S binding to G?q was inhibited by mAChR antagonists, including scopolamine, ipratropium, atropine, 4-DAMP, pirenzepine, and AF-DX 116, with a rank order of potency consistent with previous studies of M1-expressing cells. There was a highly significant correlation between the potencies of 13 agonists and 19 antagonists in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. The effects of several allosteric mAChR modulators were also investigated. These data provide a comprehensive pharmacological profile of the Gq-coupled M1 mAChR subtype natively expressed at physiological levels in rat cerebral cortex and hippocampus. PMID:23748234

  13. Neonatal Bisphenol-A Exposure Alters Rat Reproductive Development and Ovarian Morphology Without Impairing Activation of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neurons1

    PubMed Central

    Adewale, Heather B.; Jefferson, Wendy N.; Newbold, Retha R.; Patisaul, Heather B.

    2009-01-01

    Developmental exposure to endocrine-disrupting compounds is hypothesized to adversely affect female reproductive physiology by interfering with the organization of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Here, we compared the effects of neonatal exposure to two environmentally relevant doses of the plastics component bisphenol-A (BPA; 50 ?g/kg and 50 mg/kg) with the ESR1 (formerly known as ERalpha)-selective agonist 4,4?,4?-(4-propyl-[1H]pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl)trisphenol (PPT; 1 mg/kg) on the development of the female rat hypothalamus and ovary. An oil vehicle and estradiol benzoate (EB; 25 ?g) were used as negative and positive controls. Exposure to EB, PPT, or the low dose of BPA advanced pubertal onset. A total of 67% of females exposed to the high BPA dose were acyclic by 15 wk after vaginal opening compared with 14% of those exposed to the low BPA dose, all of the EB- and PPT-treated females, and none of the control animals. Ovaries from the EB-treated females were undersized and showed no evidence of folliculogenesis, whereas ovaries from the PPT-treated females were characterized by large antral-like follicles, which did not appear to support ovulation. Severity of deficits within the BPA-treated groups increased with dose and included large antral-like follicles and lower numbers of corpora lutea. Sexual receptivity, examined after ovariectomy and hormone replacement, was normal in all groups except those neonatally exposed to EB. FOS induction in hypothalamic gonadotropic (GnRH) neurons after hormone priming was impaired in the EB- and PPT-treated groups but neither of the BPA-treated groups. Our data suggest that BPA disrupts ovarian development but not the ability of GnRH neurons to respond to steroid-positive feedback. PMID:19535786

  14. Characterization of solubilized human and rat brain US -endorphin-receptor complex

    SciTech Connect

    Helmeste, D.M.; Li, C.H.

    1986-01-01

    Opioid receptors have been solubilized from human striatal and rat whole-brain membranes by use of 3-((3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio)-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS). Tritiated human US -endorphin (TH-US /sub h/-EP) binding revealed high-affinity competition by morphine, naloxone, and various US -EP analogues. Lack of high-affinity competition by (+/-)-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-(2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)cyclohexyl)benzeneacetamide methanesulfonate (U50-488, Upjohn) indicated that k sites were not labeled by TH-US -/sub h/-EP under these conditions. Affinities were similar in both soluble and membrane preparations except for (Met)enkephalin, which appears to be rapidly degraded by the solubilized extract. Size differences between human and rat solubilized TH-US /sub h/-EP-receptor complexes were revealed by exclusion chromatography.

  15. Purification and characterization of a 4-hydroxybiphenyl UDP-glucuronosyltransferase from rat liver microsomes

    SciTech Connect

    Styczynski, B.; Green, M.; Coffman, B.; Puig, J.; Tephly, T. (Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (United States))

    1991-03-11

    A phenobarbital-inducible rat liver microsomal UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (4-HBP UDPGT) which catalyzes the glucuronidation of 4-hydroxybiphenyl has been purified to homogeneity. The apparent subunit molecular weight of this protein is 52,500 as determined by SDS-PAGE. 4-HBP UDPGT was shown to react with 4-hydroxybiphenyl, p-nitrophenol and 4-methylumbelliferone, but did not react with morphine, testosteron or chloramphenicol. Upon treatment with Endoglycosidase H, the 4-HBP UDPGT underwent about a 2,000 dalton decrease in subunit molecular weight, suggesting that this protein in N-glycosylated. Western blot analysis has revealed immunorecognition of 4-HBP UDPGT by antibodies raised in rabbit against rat 3{alpha}- and 17{beta}-hydroxysteroid UDPGTs. Additionally, the authors have obtained the N-terminal amino acid sequence of 4-HBP UDPGT. These data provide evidence which suggests that this protein is different from another UDPGT previously shown to react with 4-hydroxybiphenyl, testosterone and chloramphenicol.

  16. Chemical and morphological characterization of Chardonnay and Gewürztraminer grapes and changes during chamber-drying under controlled conditions.

    PubMed

    Serratosa, Maria P; Marquez, Ana; Moyano, Lourdes; Zea, Luis; Merida, Julieta

    2014-09-15

    In this work, the morphological and chemical properties of Chardonnay and Gewürztraminer aromatic grapes (northern Spain) have been studied with the aim to assess their response to chamber-drying under controlled conditions and compare it with that of Pedro Ximenez grapes (southern Spain). Morphological characteristics, such as weight, size and roundness, and other of the skin such as thickness, enabled discrimination of the two types of grapes varieties. Changes in browning index, colour, antioxidant activity, aroma compounds determined by GC-MS and flavan-3-ols and flavonols concentrations determined by HPLC-DAD were studied during drying. Based on the results, Chardonnay and Gewürztraminer grapes contained increased amounts of flavan-3-ol derivatives, which are the greatest contributors to polymerization and condensation reactions. Also, their smaller size resulted in faster drying and leads to sugary musts that were lighter-coloured, less brown and more aromatic than Pedro Ximenez grapes. PMID:24767035

  17. Isolation and characterization of vasoformative endothelial cells from the rat aorta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto F. Nicosia; Sergio Villaschi; Marion Smith

    1994-01-01

    Summary  We describe here a modified nonenzymatic method for the isolation of rat aortic endothelial cells with vasoformative properties.\\u000a Aortic rings placed on plastic or gelatin-coated surfaces generated outgrowths primarily composed of endothelial cells. Prompt\\u000a removal of aortic explants after endothelial migration minimized fibroblast contamination. However, fibroblasts, because of\\u000a their high proliferative rate tended to overgrow the endothelial cells even when

  18. Metabolic characterization of volume overload heart failure due to aorto-caval fistula in rats.

    PubMed

    Melenovsky, Vojtech; Benes, Jan; Skaroupkova, Petra; Sedmera, David; Strnad, Hynek; Kolar, Michal; Vlcek, Cestmir; Petrak, Jiri; Benes, Jiri; Papousek, Frantisek; Oliyarnyk, Olena; Kazdova, Ludmila; Cervenka, Ludek

    2011-08-01

    Metabolic interactions between adipose tissue and the heart may play an active role in progression of heart failure (HF). The aim of the study was to examine changes in myocardial and adipose tissue metabolism and gene expression in a rat HF model induced by chronic volume overload. HF was induced by volume overload from aorto-caval fistula (ACF) in 3-month-old male Wistar rats and animals were studied in the phase of decompensated HF (22nd week). HF rats showed marked eccentric cardiac hypertrophy, pulmonary congestion, increased LV end-diastolic pressure, and intraabdominal fat depletion. HF rats had preserved glucose tolerance, but increased circulating free fatty acids (FFA) and attenuated insulin response during oral glucose challenge. Isolated organ studies showed preserved responsiveness of adipose tissue lipolysis and lipogenesis to epinephrine and insulin in ACF. The heart of HF animals had markedly reduced triglyceride content (almost to half of controls), attenuated anti-oxidative reserve (GSH/GSSG), upregulated HF markers (ANP, periostin, thrombospondin-4), specific signaling pathways (Wnt, TGF-?), and downregulated enzymes of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, citric acid cycle, and respiratory chain. Adipose tissue transcription profiling showed upregulated receptor for gastric inhibitory polypeptide. In conclusion, ACF-induced HF model displays several deregulations of systemic metabolism. Despite elevation of systemic FFAs, myocardial triglycerides are low and insulin levels are attenuated, arguing against a role of lipotoxicity or insulin resistance in this model. Attenuated postprandial insulin response and relative lack of its antilipolytic effects may facilitate intraabdominal fat depletion observed in ACF-HF animals. PMID:21465236

  19. Characterization of nascent high density lipoprotein subfractions from perfusates of rat liver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Elise Wider; Julian B. Marsh

    Nascent high density lipoprotein (HDL) (1.063 < d < 1.21 g\\/ml) was isolated from recirculating rat liver perfusates and separated by heparin-Sepharose chromatography into a nonretained fraction (NR) and a fraction (R) that eluted with 0.5 M NaCI. Fractions NR and R contained 70% and 30% of the nascent HDL protein, respectively. ApoB-containing par- ticles were removed from fraction R

  20. Characterization of the Metabolic Interaction between Trihalomethanes and Chloroacetic Acids using Rat Liver Microsomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annie St-Pierre; Kannan Krishnan; Robert Tardif

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro metabolism of trihalomethanes (THMs) in the presence of trichloroacetic acid (TCA), dichloracetic acid (DCA), monochloroacetic acid (MCA), and 4-methylpyrazole (4-MP) using liver microsomes from male Sprague-Dawley rats. Using the vial equilibration technique, initial experiments were carried out with starting concentrations of approximately 40 ppm THMs and 12–22 mMchloroacetic acids.The

  1. Specific Benzodiazepine Receptors in Rat Brain Characterized by High-Affinity [3H]diazepam binding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claus Braestrup; Richard F. Squires

    1977-01-01

    [3H]Diazepam appears to bind specifically to a single, saturable, binding site located on rat brain membranes, with an affinity constant near 3 nM at pH 7.4. Specific binding constitutes more than 90% of total binding at 0 degrees and less than 10% of total binding at 37 degrees. Arrhenius plots suggest a sharp conformational change in the diazepam receptor near

  2. Patch clamp characterization of sodium channels expressed from rat brain cDNA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Methfessel; B. Sakmann; M. Noda; S. Numa

    1987-01-01

    Sodium currents, INa, were recorded from Xenopus laevis oocytes which had been injected with mRNA synthesized by in vitro transcription of the rat brain sodium channel II cDNA (Noda et al. 1986 a,b). Patch pipettes were used to apply depolarizing voltage steps and to record macroscopic sodium currents of between 50 and 750 pA from cellattached patches of the oocyte

  3. Characterization of [ 3 H]clozapine binding sites in rat brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Kusumi; S. Matsubara; Y. Takahashi; T. Ishikane; T. Koyama

    1995-01-01

    Summary We examined the characteristics of [3H]clozapine binding sites in four rat brain regions (frontal cortex, limbic area, hippocampus and striatum) in order to elucidate the pharmacological profile of this unique atypical antipsychotic drug. The specific [3H]clozapine binding was found to be saturable and reversible in all these brain regions. Scatchard analysis of the saturation data indicated that the specific

  4. Characterization of prostaglandin E 1 transport by rat renal cortical slices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junya Nagai; Reishi Nasu; Teruo Murakami; Mikihisa Takano

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) transport in rat kidney. [3H]PGE1 administered intravenously was accumulated most abundantly in the renal cortex. Infusion of probenecid and bromcresol green (BCG) decreased [3H]PGE1 accumulation in the renal cortex after injection of [3H]PGE1. To further investigate PGE1 transport in the kidney, [3H]PGE1 uptake by renal cortical slices was examined.

  5. Construction and characterization of a replication-deficient adenovirus expressing rat-soluble interleukin-6 receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Thibault, V.; Terlain, B.; Graham, F. L.; Gauldie, J.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pleiotropic cytokine interleukin-6 mediates its multiple effects at the cell level through a multimeric receptor consisting of a binding protein (gp80) and a signal transducer (gp130). A soluble form of gp80 (sIL-6R or gp55) is found released from the surface of cells and appears to possess interleukin-6 (IL-6) agonist activity. Increases in circulating levels of sIL-6R have been reported in different pathological conditions but the precise role of this protein in vivo remains unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cDNA encoding the extracellular domain of the rat IL-6R (sIL-6R) with an appropriate leader sequence has been cloned into the E1 region of an adenovirus vector under the control of the hCMV promoter (Ad5.sIL-6R). RESULTS: Infection of different human or rodent cell lines with Ad5.sIL-6R leads to extended production of recombinant sIL-6R protein into the culture media. The kinetics of transgene expression depends both on the cell type and the species. sIL-6R produced in this manner is biologically active as it confers responsiveness of human hepatoma cells (HepG2) to rat IL-6 stimulation. Adenovirus vectors have been shown to be highly effective for transient delivery of cytokines in vivo. Antibodies against recombinant rat soluble IL-6R were generated and an ELISA developed that allowed us to quantify sIL-6R concentrations. The sIL-6R expressing adenovirus vector has been instilled intratracheally into rats and induced an increase in lung sIL-6R concentration from Day 1 up to Day 10. We demonstrate the potency of our system to deliver in vivo or in vitro soluble cytokine receptors in a prolonged but transient manner. Images FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 PMID:9307980

  6. An electrophysiological characterization of inhibitions and postsynaptic potentials in rat hippocampal CA3 neurones in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Kehl; H. McLennan

    1985-01-01

    Summary  Inhibitory processes in the CA3 region of the rat hippocampal slice were studied extracellularly using paired stimuli and with intracellular impalements of pyramidal neurones. As with mossy fibre (MF) or commissural (COMM) conditioning stimuli (Kehl and McLennan 1983), activation of the perforant path (PP) input caused a long-lasting inhibition of test orthodromic population spikes (PSs) evoked by shocks delivered to

  7. Purification and Characterization of the mu Opiate Receptor from Rat Brain Using Affinity Chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rhoda Maneckjee; R. Suzanne Zukin; Sydney Archer; Josephine Michael; Peter Osei-Gyimah

    1985-01-01

    Opiate receptors have been solubilized from rat neural membranes and purified 500-fold (relative to the crude solubilized extract) by affinity chromatography. Active receptors were solubilized by using 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)-dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS), a zwitterionic derivative of cholic acid. Affinity chromatography was carried out using Affi-Gel 401, a sulfhydryl derivative of agarose to which ``hybromet,'' a newly synthesized opioid ligand with high affinity for

  8. Characterization of glycoconjugate expression during development of Meckel's cartilage in the rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Zschäbitz; H. Weiser; E. Stofft; V. Krahn; H. J. Gabius; A. Khaw; H. K. Biesalski

    1995-01-01

    The staining patterns of 24 biotinylated lectins were analyzed in serial sections of the mandible of 13- to 21-day-old rat embryos by means of the avidinbiotin-peroxidase method. A ubiquitous distribution of binding sites was demonstrated after incubation with Con A (Canavalia ensiformis), DSL (Datura stramonium; except bone matrix), and WGA (Triticum vulgare). ECL (Erythrina cristagalli), GSL I (Griffonia simplicifolia), SJA

  9. Characterization, morphology and composition of biofilm and precipitates from a sulphate-reducing fixed-bed reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emmanouela Remoundaki; Pavlina Kousi; Catherine Joulian; Fabienne Battaglia-Brunet; Artin Hatzikioseyian; Marios Tsezos

    2008-01-01

    The characteristics of the biofilm and the solids formed during the operation of a sulphate-reducing fixed-bed reactor, fed with a moderately acidic synthetic effluent containing zinc and iron, are presented. A diverse population of ?-Proteobacteria SRB, affiliated to four distinct genera, colonized the system. The morphology, mineralogy and surface chemistry of the precipitates were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning

  10. Morphology and Topography of Retinal Pericytes in the Living Mouse Retina Using In Vivo Adaptive Optics Imaging and Ex Vivo Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Schallek, Jesse; Geng, Ying; Nguyen, HoanVu; Williams, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To noninvasively image retinal pericytes in the living eye and characterize NG2-positive cell topography and morphology in the adult mouse retina. Methods. Transgenic mice expressing fluorescent pericytes (NG2, DsRed) were imaged using a two-channel, adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO). One channel imaged vascular perfusion with near infrared light. A second channel simultaneously imaged fluorescent retinal pericytes. Mice were also imaged using wide-field ophthalmoscopy. To confirm in vivo imaging, five eyes were enucleated and imaged in flat mount with conventional fluorescent microscopy. Cell topography was quantified relative to the optic disc. Results. We observed strong DsRed fluorescence from NG2-positive cells. AOSLO revealed fluorescent vascular mural cells enveloping all vessels in the living retina. Cells were stellate on larger venules, and showed banded morphology on arterioles. NG2-positive cells indicative of pericytes were found on the smallest capillaries of the retinal circulation. Wide-field SLO enabled quick assessment of NG2-positive distribution, but provided insufficient resolution for cell counts. Ex vivo microscopy showed relatively even topography of NG2-positive capillary pericytes at eccentricities more than 0.3 mm from the optic disc (515 ± 94 cells/mm2 of retinal area). Conclusions. We provide the first high-resolution images of retinal pericytes in the living animal. Subcellular resolution enabled morphological identification of NG2-positive cells on capillaries showing classic features and topography of retinal pericytes. This report provides foundational basis for future studies that will track and quantify pericyte topography, morphology, and function in the living retina over time, especially in the progression of microvascular disease. PMID:24150762

  11. Characterization of multiple absorbed constituents in rats after oral administration of Paederia scandens decoction.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Weixin; Jin, Di; Li, Zhixiong; Sun, Zhaolin; Chen, Mingcang; Wu, Bin; Huang, Chenggang

    2012-07-01

    Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merri. (Jishiteng in Chinese) is a Chinese traditional medicine widely used in treating various diseases. However, its active components have remained unknown. In the present study, a rapid and sensitive method by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-MSn) techniques was employed to investigate the absorbed constituents in rats after oral administration of Paederia scandens decoction. By comparing their MS data with those of authentic compounds and published data, a total of six compounds (paederosid, 1; paederosidic acid, 2; paederosidic acid methyl ester, 3; 6-hydroxy geniposide, 4; asperuloside, 5; and deacetyl asperuloside, 6) were identified in the P. scandens decoction samples. In addition, a total of seven compounds, including three iridoid glucosides and four of their metabolites, were identified in rat urine samples after administration. In addition, six compounds, including four iridoid glucosides and two of their metabolites, were identified in rat serum samples after administration. Our results significantly narrow the range of potentially active compounds in P. scandens decoction, and build a solid foundation for future research on its mechanism. PMID:22860258

  12. Characterization of Batracylin-induced Renal and Bladder Toxicity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Davis, Myrtle; Bunin, Deborah I; Samuelsson, Steven J; Altera, Kenneth P; Kinders, Robert J; Lawrence, Scott M; Ji, Jiuping; Ames, Matthew M; Buhrow, Sarah A; Walden, Chad; Reid, Joel M; Rausch, Linda L; Parman, Toufan

    2015-06-01

    Batracylin (NSC-320846) is a dual inhibitor of DNA topoisomerases I and II. Batracylin advanced as an anticancer agent to Phase I clinical trials where dose limiting hemorrhagic cystitis (bladder inflammation and bleeding) was observed. To further investigate batracylin's mechanism of toxicity, studies were conducted in Fischer 344 rats. Once daily oral administration of 16 or 32 mg/kg batracylin to rats for 4 days caused overt toxicity. Abnormal clinical observations and adverse effects on clinical pathology, urinalysis, and histology indicated acute renal damage and urothelial damage and bone marrow dysfunction. Scanning electron microscopy revealed sloughing of the superficial and intermediate urothelial layers. DNA damage was evident in kidney and bone marrow as indicated by histone ?-H2AX immunofluorescence. After a single oral administration of 16 or 32 mg/kg, the majority of batracylin was converted to N-acetylbatracylin (NAB) with a half-life of 4 hr to 11 hr. Mesna (Mesnex™), a drug known to reduce the incidence of hemorrhagic cystitis induced by ifosfamide or cyclophosphamide, was administered to rats prior to batracylin, but did not alleviate batracylin-induced bladder and renal toxicity. These findings suggest that batracylin results in DNA damage-based mechanisms of toxicity and not an acrolein-based mechanism of toxicity as occurs after ifosfamide or cyclophosphamide administration. PMID:25274659

  13. Partial purification and characterization of a peroxidase from neonatal rat skin

    SciTech Connect

    Strohm, B.H.

    1987-01-01

    Peroxidase activity was partially purified from neonatal CFN rat skin. The membrane-bound peroxidase activity was extracted with 0.5 M calcium chloride and was monitored spectrophotometrically at 470 nm with 2-methoxyphenol and hydrogen peroxide as substrates. Subcellular distribution studies indicated the specific activity to be highest and comparable in the 800 {times} g and 8000 {times} g pellets, lowest in the 100,000 {times} g pellet, and absent in the 100,000 {times} g supernatant. The peroxidase activity was partially purified by affinity chromatography on concanavaline-A-sepharose 4-B and by gel filtration using Bio-gel P-150. The apparent molecular weight of the native enzyme as determined by Bio-gel P-200 gel filtration was approximately 42,500 {plus minus} 2,300 daltons. Peroxidase activity increased linearly with increases in protein concentration, time, and guaiacol concentration. Activity was inhibited approximately 75%