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Selective growth in culture of fetal rat renal collecting duct anlagen. Morphologic and biochemical characterization.  


Cell culture conditions were devised that selectively supported growth of 13 or 14 gestation day F344 rat ureteric bud, the renal collecting duct anlagen. These same conditions also inhibited the growth of metanephrogenic mesenchyme, precursor of structures proximal to the duct. Isolated buds were cultured in Ham's F12 medium supplemented with epidermal growth factor, selenium, insulin, hydrocortisone, prostaglandin E1, transferrin, and triiodothyronine; fetal bovine serum (1%) was required for continuous propagation. Cultured cells were epithelial in morphology and formed domes. By electron microscopy, many structural characteristics of highly differentiated cells were evident: numerous mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, extensive endoplasmic reticulum, an occasional cilium, intracytoplasmic filaments, polarized formation of microvilli, and gap junctions. Histochemistry revealed considerable functional differentiation as well. Cultured bud cells, adult collecting duct, and fetal duct anlagen were positive for acid phosphatase, membrane-localized ATPase, and nonspecific esterase. Bud cells and fetal duct anlagen expressed high levels of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity while adult collecting duct exhibited slight activity. In addition, immunocytochemical observation of intermediate filament expression revealed the presence of epithelial cytokeratins but absence of mesenchymal vimentin in cultured bud cells and fetal and adult collecting ducts. These results indicate that the culture conditions described can maintain the partially differentiated fetal collecting duct anlagen in a state consistent with its embryonal derivation, and therefore may be useful in culture studies of renal differentiation. PMID:2865402

Perantoni, A; Kan, F W; Dove, L F; Reed, C D



Microcomputed Tomography with Diffraction-Enhanced Imaging for Morphologic Characterization and Quantitative Evaluation of Microvessel of Hepatic Fibrosis in Rats  

PubMed Central

Backgroud Hepatic fibrosis can lead to deformation of vessel morphology and structure. In the present feasibility study, high-resolution computed tomography (CT) using diffraction-enhanced imaging (DEI) was used to represent three-dimensional (3D) vessel microstructures of hepatic fibrosis in rats and to differentiate different stages of hepatic fibrosis using qualitative descriptions and quantitative measurement of microvessels. Material and Methods Three typical specimens at different stages, i.e., mild, moderate and severe hepatic fibrosis, were imaged using DEI at 15 keV without contrast agents. The correspondence between DEI-CT images and histopathological findings was determined. The 3D visualizations from different stages of hepatic fibrosis were presented using DEI-CT. Additionally, Qualitative descriptions and quantitative evaluation of vessel features, such as vessel trend, vascular distortion deformation, thrombus formation and texture features on the inner wall of the vessel, were performed. Results DEI-CT produced high-resolution images of the vessel microstructures in hepatic fibrosis that corresponded to information on actual structures observed from the histological sections. Combined with the 3D visualization technique, DEI-CT enabled the acquisition of an accurate description of the 3D vessel morphology from different stages of hepatic fibrosis. Qualitative descriptions and quantitative assessment of microvessels demonstrated clear differences between the different stages of hepatic fibrosis. The thrombus inside the vessel of severe liver fibrosis was accurately displayed, and corresponding analysis can provide an exact measurement of vessel stenosis rate. Conclusions DEI-CT may allow morphologic descriptions and quantitative evaluation of vessel microstructures from different stages of hepatic fibrosis and can better characterize the various stages of fibrosis progression using high-resolution 3D vessel morphology. PMID:24205147

Duan, Jinghao; Hu, Chunhong; Luo, Shuqian; Zhao, Xinyan; Wang, Tailing




E-print Network

MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND RELATIONSHIPS OF WILD TOMATOES (SOLANUM L. SECT. LYCOPERSICON) Iris E. Peralta and David M. Spooner ABSTRACT. Wild tomatoes (Solanum L. sect. Lycopersicon (Mill of morphological data to examine distinctness and relationships of all 10 wild tomato species (including the newly

Spooner, David


Physiological and morphological development of the rat cerebellar Purkinje cell.  


Cerebellar Purkinje cells integrate multimodal afferent inputs and, as the only projection neurones of the cerebellar cortex, are key to the coordination of a variety of motor- and learning-related behaviours. In the neonatal rat the cerebellum is undeveloped, but over the first few postnatal weeks both the structure of the cerebellum and cerebellar-dependent behaviours mature rapidly. Maturation of Purkinje cell physiology is expected to contribute significantly to the development of cerebellar output. However, the ontogeny of the electrophysiological properties of the Purkinje cell and its relationship to maturation of cell morphology is incompletely understood. To address this problem we performed a detailed in vitro electrophysiological analysis of the spontaneous and intracellularly evoked intrinsic properties of Purkinje cells obtained from postnatal rats (P0 to P90) using whole-cell patch clamp recordings. Cells were filled with neurobiotin to enable subsequent morphological comparisons. Three stages of physiological and structural development were identified. During the early postnatal period (P0 to approximately P9) Purkinje cells were characterized by an immature pattern of Na(+)-spike discharge, and possessed only short multipolar dendrites. This was followed by a period of rapid maturation (from approximately P12 to approximately P18), consisting of changes in Na(+)-spike discharge, emergence of repetitive bursts of Na(+) spikes terminated by Ca(2+) spikes (Ca(2+)-Na(+) bursts), generation of the trimodal pattern, and a significant expansion of the dendritic tree. During the final stage (> P18 to P90) there were minor refinements of cell output and a plateau in dendritic area. Our results reveal a rapid transition of the Purkinje cell from morphological and physiological immaturity to adult characteristics over a short developmental window, with a close correspondence between changes in cell output and dendritic growth. The development of Purkinje cell intrinsic electrophysiological properties further matches the time course of other measures of cerebellar structural and functional maturation. PMID:16002452

McKay, Bruce E; Turner, Ray W



Chronic Stress Alters Dendritic Morphology in Rat Medial Prefrontal Cortex  

E-print Network

Chronic Stress Alters Dendritic Morphology in Rat Medial Prefrontal Cortex Susan C. Cook,1 Cara L ABSTRACT: Chronic stress produces deficits in cognition accompanied by alterations in neural chemis- try and morphology. Medial prefrontal cortex is a target for glucocorticoids involved in the stress response. We have

Wellman, Cara


Plastic solar cell interface and morphological characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plastic solar cell research has become an intense field of study considering these devices may be lightweight, flexible and reduce the cost of photovoltaic devices. The active layer of plastic solar cells are a combination of two organic components which blend to form an internal morphology. Due to the poor electrical transport properties of the organic components it is important to understand how the morphology forms in order to engineer these materials for increased efficiency. The focus of this thesis is a detailed study of the interfaces between the plastic solar cell layers and the morphology of the active layer. The system studied in detail is a blend of P3HT and PCBM that acts as the primary absorber, which is the electron donor, and the electron acceptor, respectively. The key morphological findings are, while thermal annealing increases the crystallinity parallel to the substrate, the morphology is largely unchanged following annealing. The deposition and mixing conditions of the bulk heterojunction from solution control the starting morphology. The spin coating speed, concentration, solvent type, and solution mixing time are all critical variables in the formation of the bulk heterojunction. In addition, including the terminals or inorganic layers in the analysis is critical because the inorganic surface properties influence the morphology. Charge transfer in the device occurs at the material interfaces, and a highly resistive transparent conducting oxide layer limits device performance. It was discovered that the electron blocking layer between the transparent conducting oxide and the bulk heterojunction is compromised following annealing. The electron acceptor material can diffuse into this layer, a location which does not benefit device performance. Additionally, the back contact deposition is important since the organic material can be damaged by the thermal evaporation of Aluminum, typically used for plastic solar cells. Depositing a thin thermal and momentum blocking layer of lithium fluoride prevents damage which ultimately leads to higher efficiencies. Finally, new materials have been synthesized with better electronic properties and stability. Characterization of the polymer properties and how they assemble is important for high device performance. One new promising polymer, Polybenzo[1,2-b:4,5- b']dithiophene-4,7-dithien-2-yl-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (PBnDT-DTBT), was characterized with PCBM and it was found that this polymer assembles similarly to previously studied polymers. The efficiency gained with this new polymer is obtained from an improvement in the materials electronic properties since the morphology closely resembles the P3HT:PCBM system.

Guralnick, Brett W.


Morphology of parasympathetic neurons innervating rat lingual salivary glands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saliva is essential for taste function and not only does saliva influence taste reception, but also taste perception initiates salivation. As a first step in investigating circuits involved in gustatory-salivary reflexes, we have studied the morphology of the rat inferior salivatory nucleus (ISN), which contains parasympathetic secretomotor neurons that control the parotid and lingual (von Ebner) salivary glands. By applying

Miwon Kim; Daniel J. Chiego; Robert M. Bradley



Aging and the dendritic morphology of the rat laterodorsal and pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphological appearance and quantitative parameters characterizing the dendrites of NADPH–diaphorase-stained neurons in the laterodorsal (LDT) and pedunculopontine (PPN) tegmental nuclei of 3-, 12- and 26-month-old rats were studied. All dendritic segments were classified according to the number of terminal and link segments they drain and the vertex analysis was used to quantify the dendritic tree and to determine its

Ivanka S Lolova; Stephan R. Lolov; Dimitar E Itzev



Clinical and morphological studies in streptozotocin diabetic pregnant rats.  


Diabetes was induced in pregnant rats by administration of streptozotocin and the changes of the feto-placental unit were investigated. Dead fetuses were found in 12% of the untreated diabetic animals. In comparison to the controls, the fetal weights were significantly smaller and placental weights greater in diabetic animals. The changes were clearly characterized by the ratio fetal placental weight. Edema and cystic degeneration were characteristic of insulin treated diabetic placentas while fibrosis and ischemia were observed mainly in untreated animals. Insulin treatment resulted in hemorrhages and necrosis in the placenta of normal pregnant rats; the change is ascribed to hypoglycaemia. PMID:135471

Szalay, J; Gaál, M



Morphological Changes in Rat Vestibular System Following Weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mammalian gravity receptors (maculas) are morphologically organized for weighted, parallel distributed processing of information. There are two basic circuits: 1) highly channeled, type I cell to calyx; and 2) distributed modifying, type II cells to calyces and processes. The latter circuit should be the more adaptable since it modifies final output. To test this hypothesis, rats were flown in microgravity for 9 days aboard a space shuttle and euthanized shortly after landing. Hair cells and ribbon synapses from maculas of 3 flight and 3 ground control rats were studied ultrastructurally in blocks of 50 serial sections. Synapses increased by approximately 41% in type I cells and by approximately 55% in type II cells in flight animals. There was a shift toward the spherular form of ribbon synapse in both types of hair cells in flight animals. Current findings tend to support the stated hypothesis and indicate that mature utricular hair cells retain synaptic plasticity, permitting adaptation to an altered gravitational environment.

Ross, Muriel D.



Morphologic effects of cysteamine on the rat adenohypophysis  

SciTech Connect

In pituitary lactotrophs of female Sprague-Dawley rats given cysteamine (300 mg/kg, per os/day) for 7 days, forming granules were increased in number and contained many separate electron-dense structures suggesting crinophagy. Compared to control values, cysteamine treatment caused no change in blood prolactin (PRL) levels, measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). 17 beta-Estradiol (50 micrograms, sc/day) for 7 days, induced lactotroph hyperplasia and increased blood PRL levels which were unaffected by simultaneous cysteamine administration. The ultrastructural changes did not reflect those due to bromocriptine suppression of secretory activity, and supported the concept that cysteamine altered lactotroph morphology by an unknown mechanism. In pituitary gonadotrophs following cysteamine treatment, increased electron lucency of luminal contents of dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum was noted; however, blood luteinizing hormone (LH) levels did not differ from those of control values. In ovariectomized rats, cysteamine suppressed castration cell formation and reduced blood LH levels, suggesting an interference with the cell's ability to respond to GnRH stimulation. The morphologic effects of cysteamine appeared to be selective to lactotrophs and gonadotrophs, and were not secondary to vascular impairment, as capillary endothelial cells were undamaged.

Cairns, P.D.; McComb, D.J.; Horvath, E.; Kovacs, K.; Milligan, J.V.; Szabo, S.



Characterization of the Han:SPRD rat model for hereditary polycystic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characterization of the Han:SPRD rat model for hereditary polycystic kidney disease. The Han:SPRD rat model for inherited polycystic kidney disease (PKD) was characterized (clinical parameters, morphology, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization). Homozygous animals died of uremia after three to four weeks with severe cystic transformation of virtually all nephrons and collecting ducts (serum urea: 616 ± 195 mg\\/d1; kidney-to-body weight

Katrin Schäfer; Norbert Gretz; Michael Bader; Ilse Oberbäumer; Kai-Uwe Eckardt; Wilhelm Kriz; Sebastian Bachmann



Effects of Injectable Anesthetic Combinations on Left Ventricular Function and Cardiac Morphology in Sprague-Dawley Rats  

PubMed Central

Novel anesthetic agents or combinations may provide superior general anesthesia for echocardiography in rodents with the potential for reduced adverse effects. This study sought to characterize the effects of 3 injectable anesthetics on left ventricular (LV) systolic function and cardiac morphology in healthy male and female rats. Rats underwent echocardiographic assessment after general anesthesia via pentobarbital or combinations of ketamine and medetomidine (KME) and ketamine and midazolam (KMI) according to a crossover Latin-square design. Blood samples for serum estradiol measurements were obtained from all females after echocardiography with each anesthetic. Rats given KMI showed superior LV systolic function with the highest values for fractional shortening (FS), ejection fraction (EF) and stroke volume, whereas heart rate was greatest with pentobarbital, followed by KMI and then KME. KME produced the greatest effects on cardiac morphology, most notably during systole, including reduced septal and posterior wall thickness and increased LV chamber dimensions and volumes. In addition, KME had the greatest cardiac-depressing effects on LV systolic function, including reduced FS, EF, and heart rate values. Compared with male rats, female rats had superior LV function with greater EF and FS values, whereas male rats showed higher heart rate. Significant negative correlations were noted between serum estradiol levels and FS and EF values in female rats receiving KME. We conclude that the combination of KMI may be a superior anesthetic for use in male and female rats undergoing echocardiography. PMID:23562031

Sabatini, Carla F; O'Sullivan, M Lynne; Valcour, James E; Sears, William; Johnson, Ron J



Characterizing morphology in bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic systems  

SciTech Connect

Organic semiconductors are an alternative to inorganic materials in solar cell applications. While the efficiencies of organic photovoltaics (OPVs) have been improving rapidly, they are currently below that required for widespread power generation. OPV performance is sensitive to the nanoscale texture, or film morphology, in the photovoltaic active layer, particularly in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) devices, and characterizing morphology across many length scales is currently a major experimental challenge. Here, we discuss several different experimental approaches for characterizing morphology in BHJ systems. These include techniques ranging from X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy to electron microscopy and scanning probe microscopy. These methods provide complementary information to guide future materials design and device optimization efforts.

Giridharagopal, Rajiv; Ginger, David S.



Genomic Characterization of Human and Rat Prolactinomas  

PubMed Central

Although prolactinomas can be effectively treated with dopamine agonists, about 20% of patients develop dopamine resistance or tumor recurrence after surgery, indicating a need for better understanding of underlying disease mechanisms. Although estrogen-induced rat prolactinomas have been widely used to investigate the development of this tumor, the extent that the model recapitulates features of human prolactinomas is unclear. To prioritize candidate genes and gene sets regulating human and rat prolactinomas, microarray results derived from human prolactinomas and pituitaries of estrogen-treated ACI rats were integrated and analyzed. A total of 4545 differentially expressed pituitary genes were identified in estrogen-treated ACI rats [false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.01]. By comparing pituitary microarray results derived from estrogen-treated Brown Norway rats (a strain not sensitive to estrogen), 4073 genes were shown specific to estrogen-treated ACI rats. Human prolactinomas exhibited 1177 differentially expressed genes (FDR < 0.05). Combining microarray data derived from human prolactinoma and pituitaries of estrogen-treated ACI rat, 145 concordantly expressed genes, including E2F1, Myc, Igf1, and CEBPD, were identified. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed that 278 curated pathways and 59 gene sets of transcription factors were enriched (FDR < 25%) in estrogen-treated ACI rats, suggesting a critical role for Myc, E2F1, CEBPD, and Sp1 in this rat prolactinoma. Similarly increased Myc, E2F1, and Sp1 expression was validated using real-time PCR and Western blot in estrogen-treated Fischer rat pituitary glands. In summary, characterization of individual genes and gene sets in human and in estrogen-induced rat prolactinomas validates the model and provides insights into genomic changes associated with this commonly encountered pituitary tumor. PMID:22635680

Tong, Yunguang; Zheng, Yun; Zhou, Jin; Oyesiku, Nelson M.; Koeffler, H. Phillip



Morphological characterization of fullerene-androsterone conjugates.  


Here we report on the self-organization characteristics in water of two diastereomer pairs of fullerene-androsterone hybrids that have the hydrophobic C60 appendage in the A and D ring of the androsterone moiety, respectively. The morphology and particle size in aqueous solution were determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS), with satisfactory agreement between both techniques. In general, these fullerene derivatives are shown to organize into spherical nano-scale structures with diameters in the ranges of 10-20 and 30-50 nm, respectively. PMID:24778962

Ruiz, Alberto; Suárez, Margarita; Martin, Nazario; Albericio, Fernando; Rodríguez, Hortensia



Morphological characterization of fullerene-androsterone conjugates  

PubMed Central

Summary Here we report on the self-organization characteristics in water of two diastereomer pairs of fullerene–androsterone hybrids that have the hydrophobic C60 appendage in the A and D ring of the androsterone moiety, respectively. The morphology and particle size in aqueous solution were determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS), with satisfactory agreement between both techniques. In general, these fullerene derivatives are shown to organize into spherical nano-scale structures with diameters in the ranges of 10–20 and 30–50 nm, respectively. PMID:24778962

Ruiz, Alberto; Suarez, Margarita; Martin, Nazario



Postnatal morphology and functional capacity of the kidney following prenatal treatment with dinoseb in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dinoseb has produced alterations that are suggestive of renal damage In mice and rats. Therefore it was of interest to determine the postnatal morphology and functional capacity of the kidney following prenatal treatment with dinoseb in rats. Fetal and neonatal rats treated with dinoseb on gestational d 10–12 had dilated renal pelves and ureters. Kidneys had dilated tubules and excessive

K. M. McCormack; A. Abuelgasim; V. L. Sanger; J. B. Hook



Morphological effects of nitrogen dioxide on the rat lung  

SciTech Connect

Morphological studies of the rat lung exposed to 20 ppm NO/sub 2/ for 20 hr (experiment 1), to 0.5 ppm for 19 months (experiment 2), and to 10 ppm for 14 days (experiment 3) were conducted. Changes in the mast cells of the tracheas and main bronchi of rats exposed to 0.5 ppm (experiment 4) were also observed. In the alveolus, cytoplasmic blebbing occurred in a small number of type I cells immediately after exposure to 20 ppm NO/sub 2/ for 20 hr, and remarkable vacuolar change was observed 3 days after 10 ppm exposure. Exposure to 0.5 ppm did not cause degeneration. Swelling and hyperplasia of type II cells were observed. The cells gradually became flat and began a transition from type II to type I cells. These intermediate-type cells were noticed in experiments 1 and 2, but no intermediate-type cells were found in experiment 3. In each experiment, pinocytotic vesicles of endothelial cells in capillaries, followed by interstitial edema in the alveolar walls, were observed. In addition to these changes, desquamation of endothelium and widening of the endothelial junction of endothelial cells occurred in experiment 3. The early changes observed in the animals exposed to 0.5 ppm NO/sub 2/ were the numerical and histochemical changes of mast cells in the trachea and main bronchus.

Hayashi, Y.; Kohno, T.; Ohwada, H.



Morphological characterization of furfuraldehyde resins adsorbents  

SciTech Connect

Sugar cane is one of the most traditional plantation cultivated crops in large areas in Brazil. The State University of the North of Rio de Janeiro, UENF, is currently engaged in a program aimed to exploit the potentialities of sugar cane industry as a self sustained non-polluting enterprise. One of the projects being carried out at the UENF is the transformation of sugar cane bagasse in precursor materials for the industry of furan derivatives such as the furfuraldehyde resins obtained by acid catalysis. The possibility of employing acid catalyzed furfuraldehyde resins as selective adsorbents has arisen during a comprehensive study of physical-chemical adsorption properties of these materials. The morphology of these resins depend on the synthesis method. Scanning Electron Microscopic studies of these materials which were synthesized, in bulk (FH-M) and solution (FH-D), showed differences in surface density and particle size. Using mercury porosimeter techniques and BET adsorption methods, it was found different pore size distributions and a decrement in surface area when solvent was employed in the synthesis process. By thermogravimetric analysis it was found similar weight losses (6%) of water adsorption and a small differences in thermal stabilities.

Sanchez, R.; Monteiro, S.N. [State Univ. of the North of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); D`Almeida, J.R. [Rio de Janeiro-Catholic Univ. (Brazil)



Testicular morphology and cauda epididymal sperm reserves of male rats exposed to Nigerian Qua Iboe Brent crude oil  

PubMed Central

Potential negative effects of exposure to Nigerian Qua Iboe Brent crude oil on the reproductive system of male rats was investigated. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were used for the experiment. Exposure to Nigerian Qua Iboe Brent crude oil was achieved via oral administration of increasing doses (0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 ml/rat) every other day for 4 weeks. Cauda epididymal sperm reserves and relative weights of the testes as well as histological features of the testes of rats that received the crude oil treatment were compared to those of control rats. The results described here showed a significant (p < 0.01) dose-dependent reduction in the cauda epididymal sperm reserves of rats that received crude oil treatment relative to the control group. The morphology of testes of the crude oil-exposed rats was characterized by the presence of interstitial exudates, degeneration, and necrosis of spermatogenic and interstitial (Leydig) cells. Findings indicate that exposure of male rats to Nigerian Qua Iboe Brent crude oil may have adversely affected their reproductive systems. This may imply possible reproductive health hazards for animals and humans that may be exposed to this environmental pollutant, especially in areas where oil spillage is a common feature. PMID:17322767

Maduabuchi, Igwebuike U.; Olumuyiwa, Shoyinka S.V.



Morphological features of microglial cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of Gunn rat: a possible schizophrenia animal model  

PubMed Central

Background Schizophrenia is a debilitating and complex mental disorder whose exact etiology remains unknown. There is growing amount of evidence of a relationship between neuroinflammation, as demonstrated by microglial activation, and schizophrenia. Our previous studies have proposed that hyperbilirubinemia plays a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Furthermore, we suggested the Gunn rat, an animal model of bilirubin encephalopathy, as a possible animal model of schizophrenia. However, the effects of unconjugated bilirubin on microglia, the resident immune cell of the CNS, in Gunn rats have never been investigated. In the present study, we examined how microglial cells respond to bilirubin toxicity in adult Gunn rats. Methods Using immunohistochemical techniques, we compared the distribution, morphology, and ultrastructural features of microglial cells in Gunn rats with Wistar rats as a normal control. We also determined the ratio of activated and resting microglia and observed microglia-neuron interactions. We characterized the microglial cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Results We found that microglial cells showed activated morphology in the hilus, subgranular zone, and granular layer of the Gunn rat hippocampal dentate gyrus. There was no significant difference between cell numbers between in Gunn rats and controls. However, there was significant difference in the area of CD11b expression in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Ultrastructurally, microglial cells often contained rich enlarged rich organelles in the cytoplasm and showed some phagocytic function. Conclusions We propose that activation of microglia could be an important causal factor of the behavioral abnormalities and neuropathological changes in Gunn rats. These findings may provide basic information for further assessment of the Gunn rat as an animal model of schizophrenia. PMID:22424389



Prenatal testosterone exposure permanently masculinizes anogenital distance, nipple development, and reproductive tract morphology in female Sprague-Dawley rats.  


In mammals, abnormal increases in fetal androgens disrupt normal development of the female phenotype. Due to the recent concern regarding environmental androgen-active chemicals, there is a need to identify sources of fetal androgen variation and sensitive developmental markers for androgenic activity in female rats. Anogenital distances (AGD), nipple retention, reproductive tract, and external genitalia are morphological parameters organized by prenatal androgens and are predictive of altered masculinized/defeminized phenotype in adult female mice and rats. The objectives of this study were to (1) characterize the natural prenatal androgen environment of rats including the magnitude of the intrauterine position (IUP) effect, (2) characterize the permanent effects of prenatal androgen exposure on female rats, and (3) determine the ability of AGD and areolas to predict these permanent androgenic alterations in female rats. Untreated male fetal rats had higher tissue testosterone (T) concentrations than females in the amniotic fluid, reproductive tract, gonad, and fetal body. The intrauterine position (IUP) of male and female fetuses did not affect T concentrations or AGD in male or female rats at gestational day (GD) 22. Female offspring exposed to 0, 1.5, and 2.5 mg/kg/day testosterone propionate (TP) on GDs 14-18 displayed increased AGD at postnatal day (PND) 2 and decreased nipples at PND 13 and as adults. TP-induced changes in neonatal AGD and infant areola number were reliable indicators of permanently altered adult phenotype in female rats. Further, females in the two high-dose groups displayed increased incidences of external genital malformations and the presence of prostatic tissue, not normally found in female rats. PMID:17218470

Hotchkiss, Andrew K; Lambright, Christy S; Ostby, Joseph S; Parks-Saldutti, Louise; Vandenbergh, John G; Gray, Leon E



Morphological and cytohistochemical evaluation of renal effects of cadmium-doped silica nanoparticles given intratracheally to rat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renal morphological parameters were determined in rats intratracheally instilled with model cadmium-containing silica nanoparticles (Cd-SiNPs, 1mg/rat), also exploring whether their potential modifications would be associated with toxicogenomic changes. Cd-SiNP effects, evaluated 7 and 30 days post-exposure, were assessed by (i) histopathology (Haematoxylin/Eosin Staining), (ii) characterization of apoptotic features by TUNEL staining. Data were compared with those obtained by CdCl2 (400?g/rat), SiNPs (600?g/rat), 0.1 ml saline. Area-specific cell apoptosis was observed in all treatment groups: cortex and inner medulla were the most affected regions. Apoptotic changes were apparent at 7 days post-exposure in both areas, and were still observable in inner medulla 30 days after treatment. Increase in apoptotic frequency was more pronounced in Cd-SiNP-treated animals compared to either CdCl2 or SiNPs. Histological findings showed comparable alterations in the renal glomerular (cortex) architecture occurring in all treatment groups at both time-points considered. The glomeruli appeared often collapsed, showing condensed, packed mesangial and endothelial cells. Oedematous haemorrhagic glomeruli were also observed in Cd-SiNPs-treated animals. Bare SiNPs caused morphological and apoptotic changes without modifying the renal gene expression profile. These findings support the concept that multiple assays and an integrated testing strategy should be recommended to characterize toxicological responses to nanoparticles in mammalian systems.

Coccini, T.; Roda, E.; Barni, S.; Manzo, L.



The effects of creatine long-term supplementation on muscle morphology and swimming performance in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creatine (Cr) has been shown to increase the total muscle mass. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Cr supplementation on muscle morphology and swimming performance, using an animal model. Each rat was subjected to exercise 15-minute period daily for the 12 weeks. The rats were randomly divided into four groups: no Cr supplementation (CON), no

Ahmet Yildiz; Ercan Ozdemir; Sefa Gulturk; Sena Erdal



Morphological changes of parotid glands following adjuvant arthritis and ibuprofen treatment in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug administration and numerous systemic diseases may cause morphological changes of the parotid gland. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible relationship between experimental adjuvant arthritis following ibuprofen treatment and morphological alterations of the parotid glands in rats.Freud's adjuvant was injected intradermally into the plantar surface of the hind paw of the animals to induce experimental arthritis.

C Mourouzis; T Saranteas; M Tsamouris; C Tesseromatis



Quantitative analysis of dendritic morphology of the alpha and delta retinal ganglion cells in the rat: A cell classification study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type I retinal ganglion cells in the rat have been classified into several groups based on the cell body size and dendritic morphology. Considerable overlap and heterogeneity within groups have been reported, which is especially obvious for the morphology of the dendritic tree. For that purpose, we analysed quantitatively the dendritic morphology of the alpha and delta rat retinal ganglion

Nebojša T. Miloševi?; Dušan Ristanovi?; Herbert F. Jelinek; Katarina Rajkovi?



Benzodithiophene based ?-conjugated macrocycles: synthesis, morphology and electrochemical characterization.  


A 7,8-didodecyloxybenzo[1,2-b:4,3-b']dithiophene (BdT-Dod) containing a macrocycle was synthesized from a thiophene capped BdT-Dod comonomer through a Ti(iv) mediated McMurry reaction and characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Additionally, the morphological characterization was performed by AFM and SEM to investigate the self-aggregation properties. The macrocycle underwent self-assembly in the solid state to form fibers on the Si/SiO2 surface with a length in the ?m range and a thickness of about 400 nm. PMID:25130594

Bedi, Anjan; Zade, Sanjio S



Restoration of corpus luteum angiogenesis in immature hypothyroid rdw rats after thyroxine treatment: morphologic and molecular evidence.  


Thyroxine (T4) plus gonadotropins might stimulate ovarian follicular angiogenesis in immature infertile hypothyroid rdw rats by upregulating mRNA expression of major angiogenic factors. Development of growing corpus luteum (CL) is strongly related to angiogenesis and to morphofunctional development of microcirculation. Our aim was to investigate if T4 is involved in CL angiogenesis and in the activation of capillary cells and angiogenic factors after ovulation in a spontaneous model of hypothyroidism, the rdw rat. Rdw rats were treated with T4 plus gonadotropins (equine chorionic gonadotropin plus human chorionic gonadotropin; eCG+hCG) or gonadotropins alone in order to evaluate the effects of T4 on early luteal angiogenesis, on microvascular cells and on expression of major growth factors which are involved in the regulation of angiogenesis. Wistar-Imamichi rats treated with gonadotropins were used as controls. The ovaries were collected 4 days after hCG administration and analyzed using morphologic and molecular approaches. Thyroxine plus gonadotropins stimulated the growth of CLs and follicles as in controls, differently from rdw rats treated only with gonadotropins, in which CLs were not found and only small follicles, often atretic, could be recognized. In T4 plus gonadotropin-treated rdw rats CLs showed increased microvasculature, numerous activated capillaries characterized by sprouting and other angiogenic figures, and associated pericytes. Quantitative analysis revealed that the number of pericytes in T4 plus gonadotropin-treated rdw rats was comparable with that found in control rats and was significantly higher than that found in gonadotropin-treated rdw rats. The mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor was significantly higher in control rats and in T4 plus gonadotropin-treated rdw rats than in gonadotropin-treated rdw rats. mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor ?, transforming growth factor ?, and epidermal growth factor did not show significant changes. Our data originally demonstrated that T4 promoted the growth of an active microcirculation in developing CLs of gonadotropin-primed hypothyroid rdw rats, mainly by inducing sprouting angiogenesis, pericyte recruitment, and upregulation of mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor. In conclusion, we suggest that T4 plays a key role in restoring luteal angiogenesis in ovaries of immature hypothyroid rdw rats. PMID:23122683

Macchiarelli, Guido; Palmerini, Maria Grazia; Nottola, Stefania Annarita; Cecconi, Sandra; Tanemura, Kentaro; Sato, Eimei




PubMed Central

The induction of acute hepatocellular necrosis in rats resulted in the production of complement fixing, IgM autoantibodies directed toward inner and outer mitochondrial membranes, microsomal membrane, lysosomal membrane, nuclear membrane, cytosol, but not to plasma membrane. Utilizing selective absorption procedures it was demonstrated that each subcellular membrane fraction possessed unique autoantigenic activity with little or no cross-reactivity between the various membrane fractions. It is proposed that the development of membrane-specific autoantibodies may provide an immunological marker useful in the differential characterization of various subcellular membranes. PMID:4813214

DeHeer, David H.; Olson, Merle S.; Pinckard, R. Neal



Morphological characterization of Pelibuey sheep in Colima, México.  


A study was conducted with the objective to characterize the morphology of Pelibuey sheep in the state of Colima, Mexico. A total of 386 sheep were scored for 12 body measurements in addition to live weight and five racial and eight functional indices were calculated. The influence of sex on the body measurements and indices was analyzed, and morphological harmony was determined through Pearson correlation. The sexual dimorphism was 1.21, with males being 67 % heavier than females. Females and males had a high and moderate degree of harmony in their morphological model, respectively. Pelibuey sheep were dolichocephalous, tended to be medium- to large-sized according to the thoracic index, with a convex curve rump; they were a homogeneous breed, well adapted to environmental and production conditions of the state of Colima, Mexico, and show an undefined zootechnical aptitude and therefore a great potential to be oriented towards meat or milk production through genetic selection or terminal crossbreeding systems using specialized breeds. PMID:23114577

Arredondo-Ruiz, Victalina; Macedo-Barragán, Rafael; Molina-Cárdenas, Jaime; Magaña-Álvarez, Julio; Prado-Rebolledo, Omar; García-Márquez, Luis J; Herrera-Corredor, Alejandra; Lee-Rangel, Héctor



Morphological, Host Range, and Genetic Characterization of Two Coliphages  

PubMed Central

Two coliphages, AR1 and LG1, were characterized based on their morphological, host range, and genetic properties. Transmission electron microscopy showed that both phages belonged to the Myoviridae; phage particles of LG1 were smaller than those of AR1 and had an isometric head 68 nm in diameter and a complex contractile tail 111 nm in length. Transmission electron micrographs of AR1 showed phage particles consisting of an elongated isometric head of 103 by 74 nm and a complex contractile tail 116 nm in length. Both phages were extensively tested on many strains of Escherichia coli and other enterobacteria. The results showed that both phages could infect many serotypes of E. coli. Among the enterobacteria, Proteus mirabilis, Shigella dysenteriae, and two Salmonella strains were lysed by the phages. The genetic material of AR1 and LG1 was characterized. Phage LG1 had a genome size of 49.5 kb compared to 150 kb for AR1. Restriction endonuclease analysis showed that several restriction enzymes could degrade DNA from both phages. The morphological, genome size, and restriction endonuclease similarities between AR1 and phage T4 were striking. Southern hybridizations showed that AR1 and T4 are genetically related. The wide host ranges of phages AR1 and LG1 suggest that they may be useful as biocontrol, therapeutic, or diagnostic agents to control and detect the prevalence of E. coli in animals and food. PMID:12957924

Goodridge, Lawrence; Gallaccio, Alicia; Griffiths, Mansel W.



Aircraft noise exposure affects rat behavior, plasma norepinephrine levels, and cell morphology of the temporal lobe*  

PubMed Central

In order to investigate the physiological effects of airport noise exposure on organisms, in this study, we exposed Sprague-Dawley rats in soundproof chambers to previously recorded aircraft-related noise for 65 d. For comparison, we also used unexposed control rats. Noise was arranged according to aircraft flight schedules and was adjusted to its weighted equivalent continuous perceived noise levels (L WECPN) of 75 and 80 dB for the two experimental groups. We examined rat behaviors through an open field test and measured the concentrations of plasma norepinephrine (NE) by high performance liquid chromatography-fluorimetric detection (HPLC-FLD). We also examined the morphologies of neurons and synapses in the temporal lobe by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our results showed that rats exposed to airport noise of 80 dB had significantly lower line crossing number (P<0.05) and significantly longer center area duration (P<0.05) than control animals. After 29 d of airport noise exposure, the concentration of plasma NE of exposed rats was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). We also determined that the neuron and synapsis of the temporal lobe of rats showed signs of damage after aircraft noise of 80 dB exposure for 65 d. In conclusion, exposing rats to long-term aircraft noise affects their behaviors, plasma NE levels, and cell morphology of the temporal lobe. PMID:22135145

Di, Guo-qing; Zhou, Bing; Li, Zheng-guang; Lin, Qi-li




EPA Science Inventory

The separate and combined effects of prenatal protein deficiency (65 casein) and prenatal nitrofen exposure (12.5 mg/kg on gestational days 7-21) on renal morphology in the 21-day fetal and postnatal rat were examined. Maternal protein deprivation reduced maternal feed intake, fe...


Lead-induced morphological changes and amyloid precursor protein accumulation in adult rat hippocampus.  


Lead is an important environmental pollutant that exerts potent toxic effects on many organs. The toxic effects of lead are less well known for adult brain than for children. We investigated the morphological changes and amyloid precursor protein (APP) accumulation in the adult rat hippocampus following exposure to lead. Forty rats were divided into two groups of 20. One group was exposed to 580 parts per million (ppm) lead acetate and other group to an identical concentration of sodium acetate as a control group. After exposure to lead for 3 months, the hippocampus was examined by electron microscopy and APP levels in the hippocampus were detected using immunohistochemistry. Lead levels in the blood of rats exposed to lead were significantly higher than in the controls. The morphological changes in the hippocampus included mitochondrial degeneration, apoptosis and abnormal synapses in the rats exposed to lead. APP in hippocampus was increased significantly in the group exposed to lead compared to controls. We determined that lead exposure causes accumulation of APP and morphological changes in the adult rat hippocampus. PMID:24806610

Sun, Li; Zhou, Xie-Lai; Yi, Hong-Ping; Jiang, Su-Jun; Yuan, Hong



Morphological Characteristics of Renal Artery and Kidney in Rats  

PubMed Central

The gross anatomy and morphometry of the kidney and renal arteries were studied in the strains of laboratory rat: Sprague-Dawley (Sp) and Wistar (W) rats. Total of 106 three-dimensional endocasts of the intrarenal arteries of kidney that were prepared using standard injection-corrosion techniques were examined. A single renal artery was observed in 100% of the cases. The renal arteries were divided into a dorsal and a ventral branch. The dorsal and ventral branches were divided into two branches, the cranial and caudal branch. Renal arteries were classified into types I and II, depending on the cranial and caudal branches and their made of branching. The present study also showed that the right kidney was slightly heavier than the left one and that the kidney of the male was generally larger than that of the female. The mean live weights of the Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats were found to be 258.26 ± 5.9 and 182.4 ± 19.05?g, respectively. The kidney weights were significantly correlated (P < 0.01) with body weights. The kidney weights were not found significantly correlated (P > 0.01) with the length of renal arteries. PMID:24737971

Yoldas, Atilla; Dayan, Mustafa Orhun



Tualang honey supplement improves memory performance and hippocampal morphology in stressed ovariectomized rats.  


Recently, our research team has reported that Tualang honey was able to improve immediate memory in postmenopausal women comparable with that of estrogen progestin therapy. Therefore the aim of the present study was to examine the effects of Tualang honey supplement on hippocampal morphology and memory performance in ovariectomized (OVX) rats exposed to social instability stress. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups: (i) sham-operated controls, (ii) stressed sham-operated controls, (iii) OVX rats, (iv) stressed OVX rats, (v) stressed OVX rats treated with 17?-estradiol (E2), and (vi) stressed OVX rats treated with Tualang honey. These rats were subjected to social instability stress procedure followed by novel object recognition (NOR) test. Right brain hemispheres were subjected to Nissl staining. The number and arrangement of pyramidal neurons in regions of CA1, CA2, CA3 and the dentate gyrus (DG) were recorded. Two-way ANOVA analyses showed significant interactions between stress and OVX in both STM and LTM test as well as number of Nissl-positive cells in all hippocampal regions. Both E2 and Tualang honey treatments improved both short-term and long-term memory and enhanced the neuronal proliferation of hippocampal CA2, CA3 and DG regions compared to that of untreated stressed OVX rats. PMID:23810156

Al-Rahbi, Badriya; Zakaria, Rahimah; Othman, Zahiruddin; Hassan, Asma; Mohd Ismail, Zul Izhar; Muthuraju, Sangu



Morphological aspects of rat metaphyseal cartilage pericellular matrix.  

PubMed Central

In order to verify whether it is possible to observe morphological evidence of a Ca-P amorphous phase (the first step of Ca-P crystalline deposition), the pericellular area of metaphyseal cartilage was investigated. In the pericellular zone of proliferative, maturation, hypertrophic, degeneration and calcification cartilage, many electron-opaque granules, having a very regular diameter of about 12 nm, disposed in closely-packed chains (chain granules) and increasing in number from the proliferation to the calcification zone, are evident. These chain granules, which are closely connected with proteoglycans, disappear after decalcification and are spatially related to ALPase and ATPase activities. They may be the morphological reflection of the Ca-P amorphous phase. Images Fig. 1 Figs. 2-3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:2150515

Quacci, D; Dell'Orbo, C; Pazzaglia, U E



Morphological and Metabolic Changes Associated with Large Differences in Daily Food Intake in Crossed-Intestines Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Koopmans, H. S., T. J. McDonald and M. DiGirolamo. Morphological and metabolic changes associated with large changes in food intake in crossed-intestines rats. Physiol Behav 62(1) 129–136, 1997.—Twenty-two inbred male Lewis rats were made into parabiotic pairs and 7 pairs had a further operation in which the small intestines of the 2 rats were connected so that one rat continually

Henry S Koopmans; Thomas J McDonald; Mario Digirolamo



Dendritic morphology of neurons in medial prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and nucleus accumbens in adult SH rats.  


We have studied, in spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats at different ages (2, 4, and 8 months old), the dendritic morphological changes of the pyramidal neurons of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus and medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) induced by the chronic effect of high-blood pressure. As control animals, we used Wistar-Kioto (WK) rats. Blood pressure was measured every 2 months to confirm the increase in arterial blood pressure. Spontaneous locomotor activity was assessed, and then brains were removed to study the dendritic morphology by the Golgi-Cox stain method followed by Sholl analysis. SH animals at 4 and 8 months of age showed decreased spine density in pyramidal neurons from the mPFC and in medium spiny cells from the NAcc. At 8 months of age as well the pyramidal neurons from the hippocampus exhibited a reduction in the number of dendritic spines. An increase in locomotion in a novel environment at all ages in the SH rats was observed. Our results indicate that high-blood pressure alters the neuronal dendrite morphology of the mPFC, hippocampus, and NAcc. The increased locomotion behavior supports the idea that dopaminergic transmission is altered in the SH rats. This could enhance our understanding of the consequences of chronic high-blood pressure on brain structure, which may implicate cognitive impairment in hypertensive patients. PMID:20665725

Sánchez, Fremioth; Gómez-Villalobos, María de Jesús; Juarez, Ismael; Quevedo, Lucía; Flores, Gonzalo



Facet Model and Mathematical Morphology for Surface Characterization  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an algorithm for the automatic segmentation and representation of surface structures and non-uniformities in an industrial setting. The automatic image processing and analysis algorithm is developed as part of a complete on-line web characterization system of a papermaking process at the wet end. The goal is to: (1) link certain types of structures on the surface of the web to known machine parameter values, and (2) find the connection between detected structures at the beginning of the line and defects seen on the final product. Images of the pulp mixture (slurry), carried by a fast moving table, are obtained using a stroboscopic light and a CCD camera. This characterization algorithm succeeded where conventional contrast and edge detection techniques failed due to a poorly controlled environment. The images obtained have poor contrast and contain noise caused by a variety of sources. After a number of enhancement steps, conventional segmentation methods still f ailed to detect any structures and are consequently discarded. Techniques tried include the Canny edge detector, the Sobel, Roberts, and Prewitt's filters, as well as zero crossings. The facet model algorithm, is then applied to the images with various parameter settings and is found to be successful in detecting the various topographic characteristics of the surface of the slurry. Pertinent topographic elements are retained and a filtered image computed. Carefully tailored morphological operators are then applied to detect and segment regions of interest. Those regions are then selected according to their size, elongation, and orientation. Their bounding rectangles are computed and represented. Also addressed in this paper are aspects of the real time implementation of this algorithm for on-line use. The algorithm is tested on over 500 images of slurry and is found to segment and characterize nonuniformities on all 500 images.

Abidi, B.R.; Goddard, J.S.; Hunt, M.A.; Sari-Sarraf, H.



Heymann nephritis in rats induced by human renal tubular antigens: characterization of antigen and antibody specificities.  

PubMed Central

An injection of human renal tubular fraction, Fx1A, with Freund's complete adjuvant in rats induces Heymann nephritis (HN) with clinical and morphological features similar to rat Fx1A-induced HN. The present study was undertaken to characterize antibody specificities and the corresponding antigen involved in human Fx1A-induced HN. In sera of rats immunized with human Fx1A, not only anti-human Fx1A antibody but also antirat Fx1A antibody was detected by enzyme immunoassay. Eluted antibody from the glomeruli also showed both activities. In an inhibition study of enzyme immunoassay, binding of the eluted antibody to human Fx1A was inhibited by both human and rat Fx1A and also by partially purified gp330, but not by purified gp108. Furthermore, binding of the eluted antibody to rat Fx1A was inhibited by both rat and human Fx1A. On immunoblot, the eluted antibody mainly reacted with a 440 kD glycoprotein of human Fx1A which showed the same mobility as rat gp330. The antibody also reacted with a band of gp330 of rat Fx1A. These results indicate that the 440 kD glycoprotein in humans is a counterpart of rat gp330 and that the eluted antibody has dual specificities to both human 440 kD glycoprotein and rat gp330, suggesting that the cross-reactive antibody is responsible for human Fx1A-induced HN. Images Fig. 4 PMID:2443290

Natori, Y; Hayakawa, I; Shibata, S



Isolation and characterization of rat-mouse somatic cell hybrids secreting growth hormone and prolactin.  


Interspecific somatic cell hybrid clones have been isolated and characterized in order to study growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) gene expression. Rat pituitary tumor cells (GH3, 69 chromosomes) secreting rat GH and PRL were grown for 48 h together with nonhormone secreting, aminopterin-sensitive murine fibroblast cells (LMTK-, 55 chromosomes) and fused using polyethylene glycol. Resultant heterokaryons were selected in hypoxanthine-aminopterin-thymidine (HAT) medium and cloned. Five clones produced rat GH and PRL. Hormone-producing hybrids morphologically resembled the mouse parent fibroblast. Hybrids grew in monolayers and contained 80-142 chromosomes, and marker chromosomes for both rat (small submetacentric) and mouse (bi-armed and large true metacentric) were identified. The interspecific nature of the hybrids was further confirmed by the presence of both rat and mouse adenosine deaminase and superoxide dismutase isozymes. Using specific antisera and indirect immunoperoxidase staining, both hybrid clones and GH3 rat parental cells stained positively for rat GH and PRL, while the murine fibroblast parental cells were negative. Hormone production by the hybrids has been sustained for over twenty subcultures; secretion rates were initially 150 ng PRL and 321 ng GH/10(6) cells/24 h and are currently 100 ng PRL and 90 ng GH/10(6) cells/24 h. Parental GH3 rat cells secreted 720 ng PRL and 660 ng GH/10(6) cells/24 h. Exposure of hybrids to KCl (50 mM) resulted in acute stimulation of rat PRL, but not rat GH release, and long-term incubation with thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH, 80 nM) stimulated PRL secretion. Hormone-dependent modulation of PRL secretion was transferred to the hybrid cell thus enabling the model to be used in studying regulation of PRL gene expression. PMID:3510881

Melmed, S; Fagin, J A



Quantitative characterization of morphological polymorphism of handwritten characters loops.  


A methodology based on Fourier descriptors that was previously validated has been applied to 13 writers in order to quantify the polymorphism degree of the shape of the loops of the handwritten characters a, d, o and q. In a first step, the discriminating power of the parameters extracted from these letters was investigated. The loop of the letter d appeared to be the most discriminant with a correct classification rate of 82.4%, whereas the least discriminant one was the loop of the letter o (69.7%). The second aim of the study was to extract grouping characteristics which make it possible to discriminate between writer sets, whatever the letter. Trends in the writing of loops could effectively be shown: the 13 writers of the study were separated into five main groups according to the shape and surface of their loops. The most discriminating features between the writer groups were the importance of the loops elongation and the surface of the loops. Finally, the differences between writers belonging to distinct groups could be characterized more precisely, and differences between writers belonging to the same group were revealed; the individual writings were distinguished by the variability of the parameters of shape and surface of their loops and the morphological distances between its different letters. The correct classification rates reached in this study suggest that carrying out an expertise of fragmentary samples of handwriting comprising only some loops is completely possible. PMID:16524677

Marquis, R; Taroni, F; Bozza, S; Schmittbuhl, M



Amygdala Kindling Alters Estrus Cycle and Ovarian Morphology in the Rat  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study is to explore the effects of amygdala kindling on estrus cycle and ovarian morphology. Thirty-five female rats at the age of 8 weeks were randomly designated to electrode kindled, sham-kindled, and normal controls. Kindled rats were implanted with kindling electrodes in the left basolateral amygdala and kindled by brief suprathreshold stimulations with a bipolar electrode. Estrous cycles were daily monitored through vaginal smears. Electrographic and behavioral seizures were recorded and ovarian morphology was evaluated by light and electron microscopies. Our results showed that the kindled rats lost their ovarian periodicity displayed significant ovarian enlargement. H&E staining revealed increased number of growing follicles and total follicles, as well as polycysts in the ovaries of the kindled animals compared to sham and control animals. Ultrastructural study detected numerous apoptotic granulosa cells in growing follicles and thecal cell hyperplasia with secretary granules in the thecal cells in the kindled rats. The results suggest that amygdala kindling is a risk factor for the development of polycystic ovary syndrome.

Pan, Juan; Zhang, Lingwu; Wang, Feng; Liu, Dan



The Characterization of Deqi during Moxibustion in Stroke Rats  

PubMed Central

The efficacy of acupuncture and moxibustion is closely related to Deqi phenomenons, which are some subjective feelings. However, no one has reported the objective characterization of Deqi. Our preliminary research has found a phenomenon of tail temperature increasing (TTI) obviously in some stroke rats by suspended moxibustion at the acupoint dà zhu? (DU 14), which is similar to one characterization of Deqi during moxibustion that moxibustion heat is transferred from the original moxibustion acupoint to the other areas of the body. We wonder whether TTI is the objective indicator of Deqi characterization in animals. The present study showed that the stroke rat's recovery was also associated with TTI phenomenon. This suggests that TTI phenomenon is one objective characterization of the Deqi in stroke rats. Application of the TTI phenomenon contributes to explore the physiological mechanism of Deqi. PMID:24194777

Lv, Zhimai; Liu, Zhongyong; Huang, Dandan; Chen, Rixin; Xie, Dingyi



Effects of Fixatives and Buffers upon the Morphology of Heart and Skeletal Muscle Mitochondria from Exhausted Rats.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes the effects of several fixatives and buffers on the morphology of mitochondria from resting and exhausted rats. Rats were run to exhaustion and adjacent portions from the left ventricle or from the soleus were treated with the following fixation procedures: (a) glutaraldehyde buffered with cacodylate, S-collidine, or phosphate…

Gale, James B.



EPA Science Inventory

The fate of the dilated renal pelvis that is induced in fetal rats following prenatal exposure to nitrofen was evaluated. Groups of Long Evans rats were exposed to 0, 6.25, 12.5 or 25 mg/kg of nitrofen on gestation days 7-16. Renal morphology of the offspring were determined on g...


Effects of Thyroid State on the Formation and Early Morphological Development of Bergmann Glia in the Developing Rat Cerebellum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation and morphological maturation of Bergmann glia cells, which might play an important role in the histogenesis of the cerebellar cortex, was studied by histological and electron microscopic techniques in the cerebellum of normal young rats and animals made hypothyroid since the 18th day of gestation or hyperthyroid since birth. In comparison with controls, an acceleration in the morphological

J. Clos; Christiane Legrand; J. Legrand



Adipogenesis of Sprague Dawely rats mesenchymal stem cells: a morphological, immunophenotyping and gene expression follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) offer significant promise as a multipotent source for cell-based therapies and could form the basis for the differentiation and cultivation of tissue grafts to replace damaged tissue. However, no gene expression follow up analysis has been undertaken to characterize the in vitro adipogenic differentiated MSCs. The main goal of this study was to focus on MSCs and to analyze their differentiation capacity. To achieve this aim, bone marrow MSCs from sprague dawely rats were isolated, expanded in monolayer culture and characterized with respect to their cluster of differentiation (CD) and ability for adipogenic differentiation capacity. The expression of CD44, CD45, CD29, CD34, and CD90 on bone marrow derived MSCs was characterized using flow cytometry. Adipogenesis was determined by staining with oil-red O and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assessments of lipoprotein lipase, leptin, adiponectin and adipocyte genes at different time intervals, after 4, 7, 14, and 21 days. Our results revealed that the pattern of CD marker expression was highly positive significant with CD29, CD44, and CD90 when compared with CD34 and CD45. MSCs showed proliferative potential and were capable of adipogenic differentiation characterized by reddish brown-droplets following staining with oil-red O and expression of molecular bands of genes. These results demonstrate, at the morphological, immunophenotyping and gene expression levels, the multipotency of MSCs and thus highlight their potential therapeutic value for cell-based tissue engineering. PMID:24987544



Characterization of Colony Morphology Variants Isolated from Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms  

PubMed Central

In this study, we report the isolation of small, rough, strongly cohesive colony morphology variants from aging Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms. Similar to many of the P. aeruginosa colony morphology variants previously described in the literature, these variants autoaggregate in liquid culture and hyperadhere to solid surfaces. They also exhibit increased hydrophobicity and reduced motility compared to the wild-type parent strain. Despite the similarities in appearance of our colony morphology variant isolates on solid medium, the isolates showed a range of responses in various phenotypic assays. These variants form biofilms with significant three-dimensional structure and more biomass than the wild-type parent. To further explore the nature of the variants, their transcriptional profiles were evaluated. The variants generally showed increased expression of the psl and pel loci, which have been previously implicated in the adherence of P. aeruginosa to solid surfaces. When a mutation in the psl locus was introduced into a colony morphology variant, the colony morphology was only partially affected, but hyperadherence and autoaggregation were lost. Finally, similar colony morphology variants were found in isolates from cystic fibrosis patients. These variants displayed many of the same characteristics as the laboratory variants, suggesting a link between laboratory and cystic fibrosis biofilms. PMID:16085879

Kirisits, Mary Jo; Prost, Lynne; Starkey, Melissa; Parsek, Matthew R.



Influence of food restriction combined with voluntary running on bone morphology and strength in male rats.  


Athletes, in particular endurance athletes and dancers, are chronically exposed to a state of low energy availability due to insufficient dietary energy intake and massive exercise energy expenditure. Low energy availability sometimes causes bone fragility, thereby increasing the risk of bone disorders. Although the decrease in energy availability shows no sexual dimorphism, epidemiological studies have reported that bone disorders are less frequent in male athletes than in female athletes. We hypothesized that bone tissue was not affected by low energy availability in males. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of food restriction combined with voluntary running training on bone morphology and strength in adult male rats. Fourteen-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into four groups: control (C) group, food restriction (R) group, exercise (Ex) group, and food restriction plus exercise (REx) group. For the R and REx groups, 30 % food restriction was carried out in comparison with the C group. Bone strength, bone mineral density (BMD), bone architecture, and bone turnover rate were measured after a 13-week experimental period. Bone strength was not significantly lower in the REx group compared with the C group. BMD and trabecular bone volume showed no difference among groups. These findings indicate that bone morphology and strength were little affected by food restriction combined with exercise training in adult male rats. PMID:24002179

Hattori, Satoshi; Park, Jong-Hoon; Agata, Umon; Akimoto, Takayuki; Oda, Masaya; Higano, Michito; Aikawa, Yuki; Nabekura, Yoshiharu; Yamato, Hideyuki; Ezawa, Ikuko; Omi, Naomi



Morphological Control and Characterization of Monodispersed Ceria Particles  

SciTech Connect

The morphological control of cerium oxide particles was carried out by a homogeneous precipitation followed by calcination in air at 400 deg. C. The effects of pre-aging temperature, aging time and precipitation reagents on the morphologies of final products were investigated. When urea was used as a precipitation reagent, monodispersed spherical and flake-like cerium carbonate hydroxide precursor was precipitated in the solution at 90 deg. C for 2 h after pre-aging at 25 deg. C - 50 deg. C for 24-72 h. On the other hand, monodispersed nanosize rod-like cerium hydroxide particles were obtained using triethanolamine as precipitation reagent. Ceria particles with the same morphologies and slightly smaller particle size than those of as-prepared cerium precursor could be obtained after calcination in air at 400 deg. C. Physical-chemical characteristics of the monodispersed cerium oxide particles were evaluated.

Minamidate, Y.; Yin, S.; Devaraju, M. K.; Sato, T. [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)



Morphological Control and Characterization of Monodispersed Ceria Particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The morphological control of cerium oxide particles was carried out by a homogeneous precipitation followed by calcination in air at 400° C. The effects of pre-aging temperature, aging time and precipitation reagents on the morphologies of final products were investigated. When urea was used as a precipitation reagent, monodispersed spherical and flake-like cerium carbonate hydroxide precursor was precipitated in the solution at 90° C for 2 h after pre-aging at 25° C-50° C for 24-72 h. On the other hand, monodispersed nanosize rod-like cerium hydroxide particles were obtained using triethanolamine as precipitation reagent. Ceria particles with the same morphologies and slightly smaller particle size than those of as-prepared cerium precursor could be obtained after calcination in air at 400° C. Physical-chemical characteristics of the monodispersed cerium oxide particles were evaluated.

Minamidate, Y.; Yin, S.; Devaraju, M. K.; Sato, T.



Morphological and electrophysiological properties of pelvic ganglion cells in the rat.  


Intracellular recording and dye injection were used to study the morphological and electrophysiological properties of rat pelvic ganglion cells. The dye-injected cells measured on the average 37 micron by 22.5 micron and had a mean number of 1.5 primary processes (axon and dendrites). The cells received unmyelinated preganglionic inputs from either the pelvic (parasympathetic) or the hypogastric (sympathetic) nerves, but no cells received inputs from both nerves. The number of synaptic inputs to each cell varied between 1 and 5 with a mean of 2. Each cell had at least one large amplitude suprathreshold EPSP which always initiated an action potential. These properties, namely, morphological simplicity, small number of inputs, security of synaptic transmission and lack of convergence between sympathetic and parasympathetic inputs, suggest that the capacity for synaptic modulation and integration in this ganglion is minimal. Such a structure should therefore relay preganglionic information to target organs with little or no alteration. PMID:3768682

Tabatai, M; Booth, A M; de Groat, W C



Loading effects on rat craniomandibular morphology: a system for gravity studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravity effects on muscle and bone are a major impediment to long-term space travel. We introduce a model for studying these effects, the craniomandibular system. Some advantages of this system include: (1) craniomandibular morphology is determined by epigenetic factors including gravity, (2) relatively light forces can significantly alter its morphology, and (3) soft diet and tooth loss produce effects that are similar to those produced in lower limbs by weightlessness. In the study, implants made either of gold (experimental group) or lightweight acrylic (controls) were attached to adult rats' mandibles. After 13 weeks, the animals' skulls and mandibles were dissected. Pair-wise comparisons indicated that the experimental animals showed significantly shortened and narrowed cranial bases, and significant changes in the posterior zygomatic arch region. These results indicate that simulated macrogravity influences bone remodeling in the adult craniomandibular system.

Singh, Ranbir; Carvalho, Thais; Gerstner, Geoffrey E.



Morphological Characterization of Symmetric Diblock Copolymers Via Novel Combinatorial Methods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We have developed a technique to create polymer thin films with a controlled, continuous gradient in film thickness. As a demonstration of the utility of this technique, we have revisited the well-studied phenomena of the morphology of symmetric diblock copolymer thin films.

Smith, Archie; Meredith, J. C.; Amis, Eric; Karim, Alamgir



Characterization of a plasma membrane zinc transporter in rat brain  

E-print Network

Characterization of a plasma membrane zinc transporter in rat brain Robert A. Colvin* Department; received in revised form 26 March 1998; accepted 31 March 1998 Abstract Many studies now show that zinc mechanisms of zinc efflux and influx are largely unknown and few models exist that describe cellular zinc


Experimental and theoretical characterization of the morphologies in fluorinated polyurethanes  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the analyses of modulated differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectra and quantum chemical calculations of fluorinated and corresponding unfluorinated polyurethanes, we investigated the effects of fluorination on the intermolecular hydrogen bonds and resulted morphological changes in polyurethanes. The B3LYP\\/6-31G(d?,p?) calculated values supported the experimental results suggesting that the fluorinated hard segment facilitates hydrogen bond interactions towards soft segment

Li-Fen Wang



Rapid auditory processing and MGN morphology in microgyric rats reared in varied acoustic environments.  


Adult male rats with induced microgyric lesions exhibit significant deficits in rapid auditory processing, as well as morphological alterations in the medial geniculate nucleus (MGN) of the thalamus. These findings are considered striking in light of similar anatomical and auditory processing anomalies in language disabled humans. Given evidence from clinical and animal studies that acoustic experience may alter sensory processing at behavioral and neurophysiological levels, the current study examined effects of developmental exposure to auditory stimulation on behavioral and anatomical indices in microgyric and sham rats. Stimulation (E7-P 70) included: (1). chronic white noise (80 dB) with standard housing; (2). 3 h/day of 78 dB filtered light classical music with social housing; or (3). standard acoustic environment (control) with standard housing. Microgyric effects on auditory processing and thalamic morphology were evident regardless of environmental condition. In sum, the effects of microgyria on brain and behavior appear to be robust, and largely orthogonal to any main effect of acoustic stimulation on auditory processing. These findings suggest that a more active form of acoustic stimulation (e.g., training) may be required to ameliorate the deleterious behavioral and anatomical consequences of focal microgyric lesions. PMID:12354646

Peiffer, Ann M; Rosen, Glenn D; Fitch, R Holly



Morphological changes of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in the rat preoptic area across puberty  

PubMed Central

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons in the preoptic area may undergo morphological changes during the pubertal period when their activities are upregulated. To clarify the regulatory mechanism of puberty onset, this study aimed to investigate the morphological changes of GnRH neurons in the preoptic area of GnRH-enhanced green fluorescent protein transgenic rats. Under confocal laser microscopy, pubertal GnRH neurons exhibited an inverted Y distribution pattern. Prepubertal GnRH neurons were generally unipolar and bipolar, and were distinguished as smooth type cells with few small processes or irregular type cells with many spine-like processes in the proximal dendrites. The number of GnRH neurons in the preoptic area and spine-like processes were increased during the course of reproductive maturation. There was no significant difference between male and female rats. Immunofluorescence staining revealed synaptophysin punctae close to the distal end of GnRH neurons, indicating that some presynaptic terminals may form a synaptic linkage with these neurons.

Xue, Haogang; Gai, Xiaodong; Sun, Weiqi; Li, Chun; Liu, Quan



Isoflavone Genistein Induces Fluid Secretion and Morphological Changes in the Uteri of Post-Pubertal Rats  

PubMed Central

A reported increase in the incidence of infertility following high genistein intake could be related to alteration in the normal fluid volume and morphology of the uterus in adult female. In view of this, we investigated the effect of this compound on fluid secretion, fluid volume and morphology of the uterus in post-pubertal rats. Methods: Ovariectomised SD rats were treated with 17-? oestradiol (E) (0.8 X 10-4 mg/kg/day) and genistein (0.5, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg/day) for three days. Following drug treatment, in-vivo uterine perfusion was performed and the rate of fluid secretion and the volume of fluid in the uterus were determined via changes in weight (?l/min) and F-dextran concentration of the perfusate respectively. The animals were then sacrificed and the uteri were removed for weight determination, morphological analyses and proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression analyses by Western blotting. Results: Subcutaneous genistein treatment resulted in a dose-dependent increase in fluid secretion rate, fluid volume and uterine wet weight. Treatment with 100 mg/kg/day genistein resulted in a remarkable increase in the rate of uterine fluid secretion, the volume of the uterine luminal fluid as well as the circumference of the uterine and uterine glandular lumen suggesting an excessive fluid accumulation. Meanwhile, there were evidence of glandular hyperplasia and an increase in the expression of PCNA following treatment with 50 and 100 mg/kg/day genistein. Conclusion: High genistein intake could potentially cause adverse effects on the uterus by inducing excessive fluid secretion and accumulation as well as hyperplasia. PMID:23569430

Salleh, Naguib; Helmy, Mohd Mokhtar; Fadila, Kasim Nor; Yeong, Soh Onn



[Morphologic study of rat adrenals following flight aboard biosatellites "Cosmos-605" and "Cosmos-782"].  


Dynamics of morphological changes of the rat adrenals was investigated on the first day and 25--27 days after a prolonged exposure to weightlessness. Analysing the general histological picture of the adrenal cortex during the first hours of the flight (presence of a subglomerular sudanophilic layer and distinct zones in other cortical parts), it is possible to conclude that by the completion of the flight the cortical substance has reached a definite degree of normalization, hence the animals have adopted to the flight conditions. Morphological signs of elevated functional cortical activity 9--11 h after the flight, such as enlarged nuclear volume of the fascicular zone cells and delipoidization of the internal parts of the cortex could be treated as manifestation of an acute stress-reaction developing in the animals after landing. Evaluating morphological manifestation of the acute stress-reaction observed in animals at transition from weightlessness to the earth level of gravitation, it is possible to conclude that there are no signs of depletion in the adrenal cortical function and hence, adaptive possibilities in the organism are preserved after a prolonged exposure to weightlessness. PMID:718427

Savina, E A



Synthesis and Morphological Characterization of Block Copolymers for Improved Biomaterials  

PubMed Central

Biocompatible polymers are known to act as scaffolds for the regeneration and growth of bone. Block copolymers are of interest as scaffold materials because a number of the blocks are biocompatible, and their nanostructure is easily tunable with synthetic techniques. In this paper, we report the synthesis of a novel class of biomaterials from block copolymers containing a hydrophobic block of methyl methacrylate and a hydrophilic block of either acrylic acid, dimethyl acrylamide, or 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate. The block copolymers were synthesized using a combination of reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization and click chemistry. Since the surface morphology is critical for successful cell growth, atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies were conducted for selected block copolymers. The topography, phase angle and friction maps were obtained in dry and physiological buffer environments to study the morphology. Results of AFM imaging identified the presence of polymer domains corresponding to the copolymer components. The distribution of nanoscale features in these block copolymers are comparable to those found on other surfaces that exhibit favorable cell adhesion and growth. In physiological buffer medium, the hydrophilic component of the block copolymer (acrylic acid or hydroxyethyl methacrylate) appear to be present in greater amounts on the surface as a consequence of water absorption and swelling. PMID:20207483

Schricker, Scott; Palacio, Manuel; Thirumamagal, B.T.S.; Bhushan, Bharat



Structural and morphological characterization of chemically deposited silver films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silver thin films were deposited on glass slide substrates at room temperature by the chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique, using silver nitrate (AgNO3) as Ag+1 source and triethanolamine [(N(CH2CH2OH)3)] as the complex reductor agent. We determined the conditions of the CBD process to obtain homogeneous, opaque silver films with good adhesion to the substrate and white coloration. The silver films were studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The results show that the films are composed of several layers with different morphology depending on the deposition time. In all the cases, the crystalline structure of the films was the face cubic centered phase with a moderate [111] texture. Strains and stresses were calculated by the Vook Witt grain interaction model.

Estrada-Raygoza, I. C.; Sotelo-Lerma, M.; Ramírez-Bon, R.



Morphological, Mechanical and Structural Characterization of Damselfly Wing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The damselfly belongs to the same insect family as the dragonfly that inspired the development of Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs). Understanding the morphological, mechanical and structural properties of wings, veins and membranes of fly would provide guidelines to develop efficient MAVs. Lack of test methodologies inhibited the progress. The objective of this research was to develop the above methodologies and then measure the properties of veins, membranes and wings of damselflies. The research yielded four test methodologies: fluorescence spectroscopic analysis to map the morphology of vein; axial nanoindentation test to measure indentation properties; micro tension test to measure tensile properties of microscopic components; and a unique vibration test of wings to measure natural frequency, stiffness and air damping factor. Axial indentation test contrasts the transverse indentation used in the past, whose results were corrupted by surface roughness and flexibility of veins. Veins were found to be made of two layered, elliptical tubular members. The thickness of inner and outer layers was about 8 and 5 microm, respectively and corresponding indentation moduli were 8.42 and 16.00 GPa. The modulus of veins agreed with those of human bones. The tensile modulus and strength of veins ranged from 14 to 17 GPa and 232 to 285 MPa, respectively. The damselfly wing was found to vibrate under bending and torsional deformations, the natural frequency (in air) ranged from 130 to 178 Hz, the wing stiffness ranged from 0.18 to 0.30 N/m with the air damping ratio from 0.67 to 0.79. Pathway to develop a material of matching properties is also presented.

Talucdher, ABSM Rupan Ali


Parenteral paradichlorobenzene exposure reduces sperm production, alters sperm morphology and exhibits an androgenic effect in rats and mice.  


Rats and mice (8 animals per species per group) were injected subcutaneously or intraperitoneally with paradichlorobenzene (PDCB) at doses of 0, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg/day, 4-5 days a week, for 8 weeks (for rats) and either 2 or 6 weeks (for mice). Prostate and seminal vesicle weights were significantly increased in PDCB-treated rats but not in mice. Major histopathologic injuries were not found in testis and epididymis of both species. Daily sperm production was depressed in both species in a dose-response manner. Serum testosterone levels were not significantly changed in both species. Sperm morphology was evaluated in rats intraperitoneally administered PDCB at a dose of 800 mg/kg. Abnormal sperms with reduced hook, bent neck, coiled flagellum, bent flagellum and bent flagellum tip were significantly increased in treated rats. In Hershberger assay, PDCB administration increased weights of ventral prostate gland, seminal vesicle, levator ani/bulbocavernosus muscle and glans penis in castrated rats, and also weights of ventral prostate gland and glans penis in castrated mice. PDCB and 2,5-dichlorophenol (the major metabolite) did not bind androgen receptor (AR) up to 10 mM. In conclusion, PDCB affects sperm production and morphology but is somewhat androgenic independently from AR binding in rats and mice. PMID:20932873

Takahashi, Osamu; Ohashi, Norio; Nakae, Dai; Ogata, Akio



[Effect of sulodexide on aortic vasodilation capacity and associated morphological changes in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes].  


Endothelial dysfunction (ED) is observed in patients with hypercholesterolemia, arterial hypertension, obesity and diabetes mellitus. Recent evidences suggest the involvement of glycosaminoglycans (GSG) in ED. We evaluated the effect of sulodexide (SLD), a natural GSG used in albuminuria and ischemic diabetes treatment, on arterial relaxation and vascular morphological changes in a diabetic type I model. Diabetes was induced, in Sprague-Dawley rats by streptozotocine (STZ) administration, 60 mg, i.v. Rats were divided into four groups; I: control, II: diabetics, III: control + SLD, IV: diabetics treated with SLD (15 mg/day). After three months, phenylephrine precontracted aortic rings were used to evaluate acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (NPS) relaxation capacities. Light microscopy of aorta was done with several staining procedures. In vitro, SLD did not change smooth muscle tone in resting or phenylephrine precontracted aortic rings. In diabetic rats, ACh relaxation was 28.8-35.1% lower than in control rats. Diabetic rats treated with SLD showed aortic ACh relaxation similar to control rats. No significative statistical difference was found in endothelium-independent NPS relaxation, between the different groups. Light microscopy histological studies revealed important morphological alterations, particularly in intima and adventitia layers of aortic artery; those changes were dramatically reversed in SLD treated rats. Our experiments support the conclusion that SLD is a potential drug for improving endothelial dysfunction in diabetes. PMID:21365875

Vásquez, José; Mathison, Yaira; Romero-Vecchione, Eduardo; Suárez, Claudia



Characterization of the vasculature supplying the genital tissues in female rats  

PubMed Central

Introduction The internal pudendal arteries are the key resistance vessels controlling the peripheral circulatory component of sexual responses in both male and females. Previous studies in the male rat demonstrated that this vessel has markedly heightened susceptibility to vascular damage compared to other vessels in the body. Evidence suggests that the female may also be susceptible to vascular pathologies contributing to sexual dysfunction. Aim To characterize the anatomical, morphological and functional properties of the pudendal artery in female rats. Methods The pelvic arteries in young Sprague-Dawley female rats were dissected to generate a composite representation of the vascular gross anatomy. Morphometry was performed on perfusion-fixed pudendal arteries whereas others were mounted in a wire myograph to assess responses to vasoactive drugs. These measures were contrasted with a previous study examining male rats. Main Outcomes Measured Gross anatomy, lumen diameter, wall thickness, cross sectional area and contractile responses in the internal pudendal artery. Results The gross anatomy of the pudendal artery in female rats appears to parallel that found in male rats; acting as the primary feeder vessel of the clitoral, labial and vaginal tissue. Compared to the male rat, the female pudendal artery has a smaller lumen diameter (169±5.7 vs 303±13.8um), wall thickness (14±0.7 vs 47±2.2um) and cross-sectional area (8±0.4 vs 52±3.4×103 ?m2). These structural differences also translate into a decreased contractile capacity of the pudendal arteries from female rats vs. males (8.1±2.7 vs 20±1.4mN). Conclusions Although the gross anatomical features of the vasculature tree supplying the genital tissue in male and female rats appears to have similarities, the tissue specific properties of the vessel itself has a very different structure-function balance. We hypothesize this discordance likely reflects the very different sex-specific roles of this vessel in regulating blood flow during arousal. PMID:22023507

Hannan, Johanna L.; Cheung, Geoffrey L.; Blaser, Mark C.; Pang, Judith J.; Pang, Stephen C.; Webb, R. Clinton; Adams, Michael A.



Insights into Embryo Defenses of the Invasive Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata: Egg Mass Ingestion Affects Rat Intestine Morphology and Growth  

PubMed Central

Background The spread of the invasive snail Pomacea canaliculata is expanding the rat lungworm disease beyond its native range. Their toxic eggs have virtually no predators and unusual defenses including a neurotoxic lectin and a proteinase inhibitor, presumably advertised by a warning coloration. We explored the effect of egg perivitellin fluid (PVF) ingestion on the rat small intestine morphology and physiology. Methodology/Principal Findings Through a combination of biochemical, histochemical, histopathological, scanning electron microscopy, cell culture and feeding experiments, we analyzed intestinal morphology, growth rate, hemaglutinating activity, cytotoxicity and cell proliferation after oral administration of PVF to rats. PVF adversely affects small intestine metabolism and morphology and consequently the standard growth rate, presumably by lectin-like proteins, as suggested by PVF hemaglutinating activity and its cytotoxic effect on Caco-2 cell culture. Short-term effects of ingested PVF were studied in growing rats. PVF-supplemented diet induced the appearance of shorter and wider villi as well as fused villi. This was associated with changes in glycoconjugate expression, increased cell proliferation at crypt base, and hypertrophic mucosal growth. This resulted in a decreased absorptive surface after 3 days of treatment and a diminished rat growth rate that reverted to normal after the fourth day of treatment. Longer exposure to PVF induced a time-dependent lengthening of the small intestine while switching to a control diet restored intestine length and morphology after 4 days. Conclusions/Significance Ingestion of PVF rapidly limits the ability of potential predators to absorb nutrients by inducing large, reversible changes in intestinal morphology and growth rate. The occurrence of toxins that affect intestinal morphology and absorption is a strategy against predation not recognized among animals before. Remarkably, this defense is rather similar to the toxic effect of plant antipredator strategies. This defense mechanism may explain the near absence of predators of apple snail eggs. PMID:24945629

Gimeno, Eduardo J.; Heras, Horacio



Synthesis, Characterization (Molecular-Morphological) and Theoretical Morphology Predictions of Poly(cyclohexadiene) Containing Linear Triblock Terpolymers  

SciTech Connect

The synthesis via anionic polymerization of six linear triblock terpolymers with various sequences of blocks such as PS (polystyrene), PB (polybutadiene), PI (polyisoprene) and PCHD (poly(1,3-cyclohexadiene)) is reported. The synthesis of the terpolymers was accomplished by the use of anionic polymerization with high vacuum techniques and sequential monomer addition. Molecular characterization of the samples was performed via size exclusion chromatography and membrane osmometry to measure polydispersity indices and the number-average molecular weights, respectively. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was adopted to verify the type of microstructure for the polydienes as well as to calculate the molar composition. Structural characterization was performed via transmission electron microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering and several morphologies were observed including one which has not been reported previously. Real-space self-consistent field theory (SCFT) without a priori knowledge about the symmetry of the periodic structures was used to elucidate the thermodynamics of the synthesized triblock copolymers.

Kumar, Rajeev [ORNL; Dadmun, Mark D [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL; Avgeropoulos, Apostolos [University of Athens, Athens, Greece; Zafeiropoulos, N.E. [University of Athens, Athens, Greece; Misichoronis, K. [University of Athens, Athens, Greece; Rangou, S. [University of Athens, Athens, Greece; Ashcraft, E. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)



Morphological, rheological and mechanical characterization of polypropylene nanocomposite blends.  


In the present work, the effectiveness of styrene/ethylene-butylene/styrene rubbers grafted with maleic anhydride (MA) and a metallocene polyethylene (mPE) as toughening materials in binary and ternary blends with polypropylene and its nanocomposite as continuous phases was evaluated in terms of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), oscillatory shear flow and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMA). The flexural modulus and heat distortion temperature values were determined as well. A metallocene polyethylene and a polyamide-6 were used as dispersed phases in these binary and ternary blends produced via melt blending in a corotating twin-screw extruder. Results showed that the compatibilized blends prepared without clay are tougher than those prepared with the nanocomposite of PP as the matrix phase and no significant changes in shear viscosity, melt elasticity, flexural or storage moduli and heat distortion temperature values were observed between them. However, the binary blend with a nanocomposite of PP as matrix and metallocene polyethylene phase exhibited better toughness, lower shear viscosity, flexural modulus, and heat distortion temperature values than that prepared with polyamide-6 as dispersed phase. These results are related to the degree of clay dispersion in the PP and to the type of morphology developed in the different blends. PMID:18572576

Rosales, C; Contreras, V; Matos, M; Perera, R; Villarreal, N; García-López, D; Pastor, J M



The transverse tubular system of rat myocardium: its morphology and morphometry in the developing and adult animal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three dimensional arrangements of the T system in the developing and adult animal were investigated by means of high voltage electron microscope stereoscopy using Golgi treated materials. The rat myocardial T system was composed of three major group elements: the transverse tubules, longitudinal tubules and flattened cisternae, which were classified according to their orientation and to their morphological features.

Shigeo Nakamura; Junpei Asai; Kiyoshi Hama



Lateralized and sex-dependent behavioral and morphological effects of unilateral neonatal cerebral hypoxia-ischemia in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neonatal cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (HI) is an important cause of neurological deficits. The Levine–Rice model of unilateral HI is a useful experimental tool, but the resulting brain damage is mainly restricted to one hemisphere. Since the rat presents morphological and biochemical asymmetries between brain hemispheres, behavioral outcome from this model is probably dependent on which hemisphere is damaged. We here investigated

N. S. Arteni; L. O. Pereira; A. L. Rodrigues; D. Lavinsky; M. E. Achaval; C. A. Netto



Importance of pepsin and stomach distension in morphological alterations of stress-induced gastric lesions in pylorus-ligated rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pylorus ligation changed the morphology and location of gastric lesions induced by water-immersion stress (WI stress) in rats; linear lesions in the corpus mucosa disappeared, and punctate lesions appeared in both the corpus and antrum, in association with the loss of H+ and the gain of Na+ in the gastric contents. Oral administration of antipeptic drugs such as amylopectin sulfate

Koji Takeuchi; Susumu Okabe



Biochemical and morphological changes in rat lenses after long-term UV B irradiation.  


The aim of the present study was to investigate biochemical and morphological changes in rat lenses following long-term UV B irradiation. After an irradiation period of 156 days with follow-up documentation by means of Scheimpflug photography, section-related biochemical analyses of the lenses as well as histological investigations were performed. The video-based Scheimpflug photography (Zeiss SLC) again proved to be an excellent method for the documentation of the UV cataract induced in rats. The biochemical analyses provided indications to potential damaging mechanisms; the section-related technique used allows more precise analyses than the processing of whole lenses in a cataract type restricted to a certain layer, as is the case with UV B damage. The most prominent biochemical findings were a significant decrease in glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in the equatorial region in the group with the highest irradiation dosage and a decrease in lactate dehydrogenase in the nuclear region. The histological results reflect the local extent of the UV damage as well as its progression after a prolonged irradiation period. PMID:1287510

Schmidt, J; Schmitt, C; Kojima, M; Hockwin, O



Diets Rich in Saturated and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Induce Morphological Alterations in the Rat Ventral Prostate  

PubMed Central

Aim To evaluate the influence of dietary lipid quality on the body mass, carbohydrate metabolism and morphology of the rat ventral prostate. Materials and Methods Wistar rats were divided into four groups: SC (standard chow), HF-S (high-fat diet rich in saturated fatty acids), HF-P (high-fat diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids) and HF-SP (high-fat diet rich in saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids). We analyzed body mass, fat mass deposits, plasma blood, insulin resistance and the ventral prostate structure. Results Groups that received high-fat diets were heavier and presented larger fat deposits than SC group. The HF-S and HF-SP groups had higher glucose, insulin and total cholesterol serum levels and insulin resistance compared with the SC. The acinar area, epithelium height and area density of the lumen were higher in the HF-SP than in the other groups. The epithelium area density and epithelial cell proliferation were greater in the HF-P and HF-SP than in the SC group. All of the groups that received high-fat diets had greater area density of the stroma, area density of smooth muscle cells and stromal cell proliferation compared with the SC group. Conclusion Diets rich in saturated and/or polyunsaturated fatty acids induced overweight. Independently of insulin resistance, polyunsaturated fatty acids increased prostate stromal and epithelial cell proliferation. Saturated fatty acids influenced only stromal cellular proliferation. These structural and morphometric alterations may be considered risk factors for the development of adverse remodeling process in the rat ventral prostate. PMID:25029463

Furriel, Angelica; Campos-Silva, Pamella; Silva, Paola Cariello Guedes Picarote; Costa, Waldemar Silva; Sampaio, Francisco Jose Barcellos; Gregorio, Bianca Martins



Morphological and Electrical Characterization of GaAs Nanowires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GaAs nanowires were grown using metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) system at low pressure reactor chamber. The growth follows the vapor-liquid solid mechanism by applying nanoparticle gold colloid on the (111)B GaAs substrate. The growth process were done at temperatures ranging from 380 to 600° C. The prepared samples were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, SEM and conductive atomic force microscopy, CAFM. It shows that GaAs nanowires grown at lower temperatures were rod-shaped and increasingly tapered with increasing growth temperature. Electrical measurements on individual GaAs nanowires indicate ohmic characteristic for samples prepared at 440° C, while oscillation current occured for GaAs nanowire with higher growth temperatures. These properties of GaAs nanowires can be guided to provide an opportunity for direct integration of high performance III-V semiconductor nanoscale devices.

Muhammad, Rosnita; Othaman, Zulkafli; Wahab, Yussof; Sakrani, Samsudi



Effect of the environment on the dendritic morphology of the rat auditory cortex.  


The present study aimed to identify morphological correlates of environment-induced changes at excitatory synapses of the primary auditory cortex (A1). We used the Golgi-Cox stain technique to compare pyramidal cells dendritic properties of Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to different environmental manipulations. Sholl analysis, dendritic length measures, and spine density counts were used to monitor the effects of sensory deafness and an auditory version of environmental enrichment (EE). We found that deafness decreased apical dendritic length leaving basal dendritic length unchanged, whereas EE selectively increased basal dendritic length without changing apical dendritic length. On the contrary, deafness decreased while EE increased spine density in both basal and apical dendrites of A1 Layer 2/3 (LII/III) neurons. To determine whether stress contributed to the observed morphological changes in A1, we studied neural morphology in a restraint-induced model that lacked behaviorally relevant acoustic cues. We found that stress selectively decreased apical dendritic length in the auditory but not in the visual primary cortex. Similar to the acoustic manipulation, stress-induced changes in dendritic length possessed a layer-specific pattern displaying LII/III neurons from stressed animals with normal apical dendrites but shorter basal dendrites, while infragranular neurons (Layers V and VI) displayed shorter apical dendrites but normal basal dendrites. The same treatment did not induce similar changes in the visual cortex, demonstrating that the auditory cortex is an exquisitely sensitive target of neocortical plasticity, and that prolonged exposure to different acoustic as well as emotional environmental manipulation may produce specific changes in dendritic shape and spine density. PMID:19771593

Bose, Mitali; Muñoz-Llancao, Pablo; Roychowdhury, Swagata; Nichols, Justin A; Jakkamsetti, Vikram; Porter, Benjamin; Byrapureddy, Rajasekhar; Salgado, Humberto; Kilgard, Michael P; Aboitiz, Francisco; Dagnino-Subiabre, Alexies; Atzori, Marco



MRI-based morphological modeling, synthesis and characterization of cardiac tissue-mimicking materials.  


This study uses standard synthetic methodologies to produce tissue-mimicking materials that match the morphology and emulate the in vivo murine and human cardiac mechanical and imaging characteristics, with dynamic mechanical analysis, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and magnetic resonance imaging. In accordance with such aims, poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) elastomeric materials were synthesized (at two different glycerol (G)-sebacic (S) acid molar ratios; the first was synthesized using a G:S molar ratio of 2:2, while the second from a 2:5 G:S molar ratio, resulting in PGS2:2 and PGS2:5 elastomers, respectively). Unlike the synthesized PGS2:2 elastomers, the PGS2:5 materials were characterized by an overall mechanical instability in their loading behavior under the three successive loading conditions tested. An oscillatory response in the mechanical properties of the synthesized elastomers was observed throughout the loading cycles, with measured increased storage modulus values at the first loading cycle, stabilizing to lower values at subsequent cycles. These elastomers were characterized at 4 °C and were found to have storage modulus values of 850 and 1430 kPa at the third loading cycle, respectively, in agreement with previously reported values of the rat and human myocardium. SEM of surface topology indicated minor degradation of synthesized materials at 10 and 20 d post-immersion in the PBS buffer solution, with a noted cluster formation on the PGS2:5 elastomers. AFM nanoindentation experiments were also conducted for the measurement of the Young modulus of the sample surface (no bulk contribution). Correspondingly, the PGS2:2 elastomer indicated significantly decreased surface Young's modulus values 20 d post-PBS immersion, compared to dry conditions (Young's modulus = 1160 ± 290 kPa (dry) and 200 ± 120 kPa (20 d)). In addition to the two-dimensional (2D) elastomers, an integrative platform for accurate construction of three-dimensional tissue-mimicking models of cardiac anatomy from 2D MR images using rapid prototyping manufacturing processes was developed. For synthesized elastomers, doping strategies with two different concentrations of the MRI contrast agent Dotarem allowed independent and concurrent control of the imaging characteristics (contrast and relaxivity) during the synthetic process for increased contrast agent absorption, with tremendous potential for non-destructive in vivo use and applications to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. PMID:22406555

Kossivas, Fotis; Angeli, S; Kafouris, D; Patrickios, C S; Tzagarakis, V; Constantinides, C



Morphological characterization of pecteneal hyalocytes in the developing quail retina  

PubMed Central

The periphery of the vitreous body contains a population of cells termed hyalocytes. Despite the existence for more than one century of publications devoted to the pecten oculi, a convoluted coil of blood vessels that seems to be the primary source of nutrients for the avian avascular retina, little information can be found concerning the pecteneal hyalocytes. These cells are situated on the inner limiting membrane in close relationship with the convolute blood vessels. To characterize the origin and macrophagic activity of pecteneal hyalocytes, we have analysed two different stages of quail eye development using histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. Pecteneal hyalocytes express the QH1 epitope and cKit, confirming that these cells belong to the haematopoietic system. They also express vimentin, an intermediate filament protein present in cells of mesenchymal origin and very important for differentiation of fully active macrophages. However, similarly as described in porcine hyalocytes, pecteneal hyalocytes express the glial fibrillary acidic protein, a recognized neuroglial marker. Pecteneal hyalocytes did not express other neuroglial markers, such as glutamine synthetase or S100. Acidic phosphatase was activated and Lep100 was found in secondary lysosomes, confirming phagocytic activity of pecteneal hyalocytes during ocular development. Pecteneal hyalocytes strongly react with RCA-I, WFA, WGA, PNA, SNA, LEA and SBA lectins, whereas other avian macrophages from thymus and the bursa of Fabricius did not bind PNA, SNA and LEA lectins. Interestingly, WGA lectin reacts with all kinds of avian macrophages, including pecteneal hyalocytes, probably reflecting the specific binding of WGA to components of the phagocytic and endocytic pathways. In conclusion, pecteneal hyalocytes are a special subtype of blood-borne macrophages that express markers not specifically associated with the haematopoietic system. PMID:19566699

Llombart, Cristina; Nacher, Victor; Ramos, David; Luppo, Mariana; Carretero, Ana; Navarro, Marc; Melgarejo, Veronica; Armengol, Clara; Rodriguez-Baeza, Alfonso; Mendes-Jorge, Luisa; Ruberte, Jesus



Morphological characterization of pecteneal hyalocytes in the developing quail retina.  


The periphery of the vitreous body contains a population of cells termed hyalocytes. Despite the existence for more than one century of publications devoted to the pecten oculi, a convoluted coil of blood vessels that seems to be the primary source of nutrients for the avian avascular retina, little information can be found concerning the pecteneal hyalocytes. These cells are situated on the inner limiting membrane in close relationship with the convolute blood vessels. To characterize the origin and macrophagic activity of pecteneal hyalocytes, we have analysed two different stages of quail eye development using histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. Pecteneal hyalocytes express the QH1 epitope and cKit, confirming that these cells belong to the haematopoietic system. They also express vimentin, an intermediate filament protein present in cells of mesenchymal origin and very important for differentiation of fully active macrophages. However, similarly as described in porcine hyalocytes, pecteneal hyalocytes express the glial fibrillary acidic protein, a recognized neuroglial marker. Pecteneal hyalocytes did not express other neuroglial markers, such as glutamine synthetase or S100. Acidic phosphatase was activated and Lep100 was found in secondary lysosomes, confirming phagocytic activity of pecteneal hyalocytes during ocular development. Pecteneal hyalocytes strongly react with RCA-I, WFA, WGA, PNA, SNA, LEA and SBA lectins, whereas other avian macrophages from thymus and the bursa of Fabricius did not bind PNA, SNA and LEA lectins. Interestingly, WGA lectin reacts with all kinds of avian macrophages, including pecteneal hyalocytes, probably reflecting the specific binding of WGA to components of the phagocytic and endocytic pathways. In conclusion, pecteneal hyalocytes are a special subtype of blood-borne macrophages that express markers not specifically associated with the haematopoietic system. PMID:19566699

Llombart, Cristina; Nacher, Víctor; Ramos, David; Luppo, Mariana; Carretero, Ana; Navarro, Marc; Melgarejo, Verònica; Armengol, Clara; Rodríguez-Baeza, Alfonso; Mendes-Jorge, Luisa; Ruberte, Jesús



Characterization of network morphology in anion binding hydrogels used for wastewater remediation  

E-print Network

Characterization of network morphology in anion binding hydrogels used for wastewater remediation wastewater effluents. The sorbent used was crosslinked polyamine (PAA$HCl) polymeric hydrogels. The surface of crosslinking. q 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Hydrogel; Atomic force microscopy; Wastewater

Rubloff, Gary W.


Morphologic and proteomic characterization of exosomes released by cultured extravillous trophoblast cells  

SciTech Connect

Exosomes represent an important intercellular communication vehicle, mediating events essential for the decidual microenvironment. While we have demonstrated exosome induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, to date, no extensive characterization of trophoblast-derived exosomes has been provided. Our objective was to provide a morphologic and proteomic characterization of these exosomes. Exosomes were isolated from the conditioned media of Swan71 human trophoblast cells by ultrafiltration and ultracentrifugation. These were analyzed for density (sucrose density gradient centrifugation), morphology (electron microscopy), size (dynamic light scattering) and protein composition (Ion Trap mass spectrometry and western immunoblotting). Based on density gradient centrifugation, microvesicles from Sw71 cells exhibit a density between 1.134 and 1.173 g/ml. Electron microscopy demonstrated that microvesicles from Sw71 cells exhibit the characteristic cup-shaped morphology of exosomes. Dynamic light scattering showed a bell-shaped curve, indicating a homogeneous population with a mean size of 165 nm {+-} 0.5 nm. Ion Trap mass spectrometry demonstrated the presence of exosome marker proteins (including CD81, Alix, cytoskeleton related proteins, and Rab family). The MS results were confirmed by western immunoblotting. Based on morphology, density, size and protein composition, we defined the release of exosomes from extravillous trophoblast cells and provide their first extensive characterization. This characterization is essential in furthering our understanding of 'normal' early pregnancy.

Atay, Safinur [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY (United States)] [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY (United States); Gercel-Taylor, Cicek [Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women's Health, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY (United States)] [Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women's Health, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY (United States); Kesimer, Mehmet [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)] [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Taylor, Douglas D., E-mail: [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY (United States); Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women's Health, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY (United States)



Quantitative 3D Characterization of Cellular Materials: Segmentation and Morphology of Foam  

E-print Network

Quantitative 3D Characterization of Cellular Materials: Segmentation and Morphology of Foam Kevin, UMR CNRS 5672, 46 all´ee d'Italie, 69007 Lyon, France Wood, trabecular bone, coral, liquid foams, grains in polycrystals, igneous rock, and even many types of food share many structural similarities

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Characterization of pruriceptive trigeminothalamic tract neurons in rats.  


Rodent models of facial itch and pain provide a valuable tool for distinguishing between behaviors related to each sensation. In rats, pruritogens applied to the face elicit scratching using the hindlimb while algogens elicit wiping using the forelimb. We wished to determine the role of trigeminothalamic tract (VTT) neurons in carrying information regarding facial itch and pain to the forebrain. We have characterized responses to facially applied pruritogens (serotonin, BAM8-22, chloroquine, histamine, capsaicin, and cowhage) and noxious stimuli in 104 VTT neurons recorded from anesthetized rats. Each VTT neuron had a mechanically sensitive cutaneous receptive field on the ipsilateral face. All pruriceptive VTT neurons also responded to noxious mechanical and/or thermal stimulation. Over half of VTT neurons responsive to noxious stimuli also responded to at least one pruritogen. Each tested pruritogen, with the exception of cowhage, produced an increase in discharge rate in a subset of VTT neurons. The response to each pruritogen was characterized, including maximum discharge rate, response duration, and spike timing dynamics. Pruriceptive VTT neurons were recorded from throughout superficial and deep layers of the spinal trigeminal nucleus and were shown to project via antidromic mapping to the ventroposterior medial nucleus or posterior thalamic nuclei. These results indicate that pruriceptive VTT neurons are a subset of polymodal nociceptive VTT neurons and characterize a system conducive to future experiments regarding the similarities and differences between facial itch and pain. PMID:24478156

Moser, Hannah R; Giesler, Glenn J



Preliminary morphological and immunohistochemical changes in rat hippocampus following postnatal exposure to sodium arsenite.  


The effects of arsenic exposure during rapid brain growth period (RBGP) (postnatal period 4-11) on pyramidal neurons of cornu ammonis (specifically CA1 and CA3 regions) and granule cells of dentate gyrus (DG) of rat hippocampus were studied. Wistar rat pups, subdivided into the control (group I) and the experimental groups (group II, III, and IV), received distilled water and sodium arsenite (aqueous solution of 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mg/kg body weight, respectively) by intraperitoneal (i.p.) route. On postnatal day (PND) 12, the animals were sacrificed and brain tissue obtained. Paraffin sections (8 ?m thick) stained with Cresyl Violet (CV) were observed for morphological and morphometric parameters. Arsenic induced programmed cell death (apoptosis) was studied using Terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP biotin Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) technique on the paraffin sections. Microscopy revealed decreased number and isolation of pyramidal neurons in superficial layers, misalignments of pyramidal cells in stratum pyramidale (SP) of CA1 and CA3 in experimental group III and IV, and presence of polymorphic cells in subgranular zone of ectal limb of dentate gyrus (suggestive of arsenic induced proliferation and migration of granule cells in the dentate gyrus). Morphometric assessments quantified and confirmed the microscopic findings. The mean nuclear area of pyramidal cells was increased and cell density was decreased in the CA1, CA3, and DG of experimental groups in comparison to the control group. Increase in the TUNEL positive cells in DG was observed in the experimental group IV, suggestive of increased apoptosis. These observations confirm vulnerability of pyramidal (CA1, CA3) and granule cells (DG) of hippocampus during RBGP. PMID:24082510

Kaler, Saroj; Dhar, Pushpa; Bhattacharya, Arnab; Mehra, Raj D



Electrophysiological and morphological properties of neurons in layer 5 of the rat postrhinal cortex.  


The postrhinal (POR) cortex of the rat is homologous to the parahippocampal cortex of the primate based on connections and other criteria. POR provides the major visual and visuospatial input to the hippocampal formation, both directly to CA1 and indirectly through connections with the medial entorhinal cortex. Although the cortical and hippocampal connections of the POR cortex are well described, the physiology of POR neurons has not been studied. Here, we examined the electrical and morphological characteristics of layer 5 neurons from POR cortex of 14- to 16-day-old rats using an in vitro slice preparation. Neurons were subjectively classified as regular-spiking (RS), fast-spiking (FS), or low-threshold spiking (LTS) based on their electrophysiological properties and similarities with neurons in other regions of neocortex. Cells stained with biocytin included pyramidal cells and interneurons with bitufted or multipolar dendritic patterns. Similarity analysis using only physiological data yielded three clusters that corresponded to FS, LTS, and RS classes. The cluster corresponding to the FS class was composed entirely of multipolar nonpyramidal cells, and the cluster corresponding to the RS class was composed entirely of pyramidal cells. The third cluster, corresponding to the LTS class, was heterogeneous and included both multipolar and bitufted dendritic arbors as well as one pyramidal cell. We did not observe any intrinsically bursting pyramidal cells, which is similar to entorhinal cortex but unlike perirhinal cortex. We conclude that POR includes at least two major classes of neocortical inhibitory interneurons, but has a functionally restricted cohort of pyramidal cells. PMID:22522564

Sills, Joseph B; Connors, Barry W; Burwell, Rebecca D



Comparative metabolism, thermoregulation and morphology in two populations of vlei rats (Otomys irroratus).  


The Hogsback (32 degrees 33S 26 degrees 57E) and Alice (32 degrees 47S 26 degrees 50E), Eastern Cape, South Africa, are separated by only 24 km but by 1000 m in altitude and fall into different climatic regions. Thermal responses (energy expenditure and body temperature) to ambient temperature were measured in a population of vlei rats (Otomys irroratus) from each of the two localities. We predicted that animals from the colder Hogsback would show differences in their thermal physiology and morphology consistent with better cold-resistance. Basal metabolic rates of the Hogsback population were slightly, but not significantly, higher than the Alice population (23.9 J g-1 h-1 vs 22.3 J g-1 h-1), but the slope of the regression between energy expenditure and ambient temperature below the thermal neutral zone was significantly lower (-1.28 vs -1.60). Body temperature, although quite variable in both populations, was not significantly influenced by ambient temperature in the Hogsback population, whereas that of Alice animals was. Fur length was longer and relative size of the ears and tail was smaller in the Hogsback population, which probably accounted for the slightly lower minimum thermal conductance (1.79 J g-1 h-1 degree C-1 vs 1.91 J g-1 h-1 degree C-1) in the Hogsback population. Vlei rats from the two sites also have different karyotypes that correlate with climate but there is insufficient evidence at present to suggest that the different karyotypes and the physiological parameters measured are adaptive. PMID:10093904

Brown, C R; Everitt, V J; Baxter, R M



Modulating effects of epithalamin and epithalon on the functional morphology of the spleen in old pinealectomized rats.  


Immunohistochemical and morphometric analysis showed that epithalamin and epithalon produced similar effects on the functional morphology of the spleen in pinealectomized rats. Both peptides prevented hyperplasia of lymphoid cells in follicular germinative centers induced by pinealectomy and potentiated the decrease in extramedullary hemopoiesis. These findings confirm the data on functional relationships between the pineal gland and immune system. The effects of epithalamin and epithalon on cell and tissue homeostasis in the spleen of old pinealectomized rats can be regarded as a manifestation of the general regulatory effect of these peptides. PMID:11865335

Khavinson, V K; Konovalov, S S; Yuzhakov, V V; Popuchiev, V V; Kvetnoi, I M



Morphological and Genetic Activation of Microglia After Diffuse Traumatic Brain Injury in the Rat  

PubMed Central

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivors experience long-term post-traumatic morbidities. In diffuse brain-injured rats, a chronic sensory sensitivity to whisker stimulation models the agitation of TBI survivors and provides anatomical landmarks across the whisker-barrel circuit to evaluate post-traumatic neuropathology. As a consequence of TBI, acute and chronic microglial activation can contribute to degenerative and reparative events underlying post-traumatic morbidity. Here we hypothesize that a temporal sequence of microglial activation states contributes to the circuit pathology responsible for post-traumatic morbidity, and test the hypothesis by examining microglial morphological activation and neuroinflammatory markers for activation states through gene expression and receptor binding affinity. Adult male, Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to a single moderate midline fluid percussion (FPI) or sham injury. Microglial activation was determined by immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time PCR and receptor autoradiography in the primary somatosensory barrel field (S1BF) and ventral posteromedial nucleus of the thalamus (VPM) at 7 and 28 days following FPI. Morphological changes indicative of microglial activation, including swollen cell body with thicker, shrunken processes, were evident in S1BF and VPM at 7 and 28 days post-injury. Principally at 7 days post-injury in VPM, general inflammatory gene expression (MHC-I, MHC-II, translocator protein 18 kDa [TSPO]) is increased above sham level and TSPO gene expression confirmed by receptor autoradiography. Further, CD45, a marker of classical activation, and TGF-?I, an acquired deactivation marker, were elevated significantly above sham at 7 days post-injury. Daily administration of the anti-inflammatory ibuprofen (20 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly reduced the expression of these genes. Evidence for alternative activation (arginase 1) was not observed. Thus, these data demonstrate concomitant classical activation and acquired deactivation phenotypes of microglia in diffuse TBI in the absence of overt contusion or cavitation. Anti-inflammatory treatment may further alleviate the neuropathological burden of post-traumatic inflammation. PMID:22960311

Cao, Tuoxin; Thomas, Theresa C.; Ziebell, Jenna M.; Pauly, James R.; Lifshitz, Jonathan



Gestational protein restriction induces alterations in placental morphology and mitochondrial function in rats during late pregnancy.  


The placenta acts a regulator of nutrient composition and supply from mother to fetus and is the source of hormonal signals that affect maternal and fetal metabolism. Thus, appropriate development of the placenta is crucial for normal fetal development. We investigated the effect of gestational protein restriction (GPR) on placental morphology and mitochondrial function on day 19 of gestation. Pregnant dams were divided into two groups: normal (NP 17 % casein) or low-protein diet (LP 6 % casein). The placentas were processed for biochemical, histomorphometric and ultrastructural analysis. The integrity of rat placental mitochondria (RPM) isolated by conventional differential centrifugation was measured by oxygen uptake (Clark-type electrode). LP animals presented an increase in adipose tissue and triacylglycerol and a decrease in serum insulin levels. No alterations were observed in body, liver, fetus, or placenta weight. There was also no change in serum glucose, total protein, or lipid content. Gestational protein restriction had tissue-specific respiratory effects, with the observation of a small change in liver respiration (~13 %) and considerable respiratory inhibition in placenta samples (~37 %). The higher oxygen uptake by RPM in the LP groups suggests uncoupling between respiration and oxidative phosphorylation. In addition, ultrastructural analysis of junctional zone giant cells from LP placenta showed a disorganized cytoplasm, with loss of integrity of most organelles and intense vacuolization. The present results led us to hypothesize that GPR alters placental structure and morphology, induces sensitivity to insulin, mitochondrial abnormalities and suggests premature aging of the placenta. Further studies are needed to test this hypothesis. PMID:23884563

Rebelato, Hércules Jonas; Esquisatto, Marcelo Augusto Marreto; Moraes, Camila; Amaral, Maria Esmeria Corezola; Catisti, Rosana



Metabolic and morphologic properties of single muscle fibers in the rat after spaceflight, Cosmos 1887  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adaptation of a slow (soleus, So!) and a fast (medial gastrocnemius, MG) skeletalmuscle to space- flight was studied in five young male rats. The flight period was 12.5 days and the rats were killed approxi- mately 48 h after returning to I g. Five other rats that were housed in cages similar to those used by the flight rats



Morphological and biochemical examination of Cosmos 1887 rat heart tissue. Part 1: Ultrastructure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Morphological changes were observed in the left ventricle of rat heart tissue from animals flown on the Cosmos 1887 biosatellite for 12.5 days. These tissues were compared to the synchronous and vivarium control hearts. While many normal myofibrils were observed, others exhibited ultrastructural alterations, i.e., damaged and irregular-shaped mitochondria and generalized myofibrillar edema. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the volume density data revealed a statistically significant increase in glycogen and a significant decrease in mitochondria compared to the synchronous and vivarium controls. Point counting indicated an increase in lipid and myeloid bodies and a decrease in microtubules, but these changes were not statistically significant. In addition, the flight animals exhibited some patchy loss of protofibrils (actin and myosin filaments) and some abnormal supercontracted myofibrils that were not seen in the controls. This study was undertaken to gain insight into the mechanistic aspects of cardiac changes in both animals and human beings as a consequence of space travel. Cardiac hypotrophy and fluid shifts have been observed after actual or simulated weightlessness and raise concerns about the functioning of the heart and circulatory system during and after travel in space.

Philpott, D. E.; Popova, I. A.; Kato, K.; Stevenson, J.; Miquel, J.; Sapp, W.



Morphological and functional alterations in the aorta of the chronically hypoxic fetal rat.  


In human pregnancy, reduced placental perfusion has been associated with fetal aortic thickening. However, the relative contributions of fetal undernutrition versus fetal underoxygenation to triggering alterations in fetal cardiovascular development remain uncertain. Here, we isolate the effects of chronic fetal hypoxia on fetal cardiovascular development in a specific rodent model of chronic fetal hypoxia independent of changes in nutrition during pregnancy. Pregnant rats were housed under normoxic (21% O(2)) or hypoxic (13% O(2)) conditions from day 6 to day 20 of gestation. At day 20, pups and placentas were weighed. Fetal thoraces were fixed for quantitative histological analysis of the aorta. In a separate group, fetal aortic reactivity was assessed via in vitro wire myography. The experiments controlled for sex and within-litter variation. Placental weight was increased and fetal weight maintained in hypoxic pregnancy. Hypoxic pregnancy led to a 176% increment in wall thickness and a 170% increment in the wall-to-lumen area ratio of the fetal aorta. Fetal aortic vascular reactivity was markedly impaired, showing reduced constrictor and relaxant responsiveness in hypoxic pregnancy. Chronic developmental hypoxia independent of changes in nutrition has profound effects on the morphology and function of the fetal aorta in a mammalian species. PMID:21985843

Herrera, Emilio A; Camm, Emily J; Cross, Christine M; Mullender, Joanne L; Wooding, F B Peter; Giussani, Dino A



Morphological study of the effects of ozone on rat lung. II. Long-term exposure  

SciTech Connect

To evaluate the morphological changes observed in animals after prolonged ozone exposure, 56 male rats were exposed to a high ambient level of ozone (0.5 ppm) 6 hr a day, 6 days a week, for 2, 3, 5, and 12 months and examined by light and electron microscopy. Bronchitis and peribronchitis were observed throughout the exposure periods, and connective tissue around the bronchi thickened as a result of fibrosis. Some bronchiolar ciliated cells were in a degenerated condition and others in a reparative phase. Hyperplastic nodules were not found in the bronchioles, but hyperplasia of the bronchiolar epithelium was observed. Hyperplasia of lymphoid nodules around small vessels was prominent after 2 months of exposure. After 3 months of exposure, alveolar ducts were lined by type 2 cells, and after 12 months, by the bronchiolar epithelium consisting of both ciliated and nonciliated cells. Alveolar macrophages accumulated in the centriacinar alveoli. Fibrous strands were seen to be deposited in alveolar ducts after 3 months, and in bronchioles after 5 months. This fibrosis was due to an increment in collagen fibers. The degree of fibrosis increased with the length of ozone exposure.

Hiroshima, K.; Kohno, T.; Ohwada, H.; Hayashi, Y.



The ameliorating effect of dantrolene on the morphology of urinary bladder in spinal cord injured rats.  


In animal models of spinal cord injury (SCI), the urinary bladder can undergo significant structural and physiological alterations. Dantrolene has been shown to be neuroprotective by reducing neuronal apoptosis after SCI. Furthermore, in addition to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, it appears to have a beneficial action on voiding, once this drug acts on the external urethral sphincter relaxation. In the present study, we investigated the effects of dantrolene on urinary bladder injury that follows experimental SCI. Forty-six male Wistar rats were laminectomized at T13, and a compressive trauma was performed to induce SCI. After euthanasia, the urinary bladder was removed for gross and histological evaluation. Traumatized animals showed urinary retention with severe hemorrhagic cystitis. Injured animals treated with dantrolene had less bladder hemorrhage and inflammatory infiltrate than those treated with placebo (p<0.05). Our results demonstrate that dantrolene may protect against urinary bladder lesions that follow SCI. Treating spinal cord-injured patients with this agent may be a promising additional therapeutic strategy to alleviate the accompanying inflammatory process. The results of the current study show that dantrolene has protective effects on spinal cord contusion-induced urinary bladder injury. The impaired integrity of bladder morphology was ameliorated by dantrolene treatment. PMID:22075388

Torres, Bruno; Serakides, Rogéria; Caldeira, Fátima; Gomes, Mardelene; Melo, Eliane



Morphological and biochemical alterations in the jejunum following iodoacetamide-induced colitis in rats.  


This study aims to describe the morphological alterations in the small and large intestines as well as the expression of some enterocyte enzymes and carriers in a rat model of iodoacetamide-induced colitis. Biopsies from the large and small intestines were taken at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 days postinduction and studied by light microscopy. The expressions of lactase, sucrase, aminopeptidase, and Glut-5 in the jejunum were studied by immunohistochemistry. Gene expressions of enterocyte lactase and sucrase were determined by RT-PCR using specific oligonucleotides. Microscopic examination of the large intestines revealed manifestations concordant with inflammation. Such alterations peaked at 2 days, were maintained to a lesser extent for 4 days, regressed by 8 days, and healed by 16 days. In the jejunum, the expression of lactase, sucrase, and aminopeptidase decreased 2 days after colitis induction, and recovered 2 days later. Similarly, Glut-5 expression decreased transiently with partial recovery by day 8. Compared with sham, gene expression of jejunal brush border enzymes sucrase and lactase showed a 4-fold increase in lactase and a 9-fold increase in sucrase after 4 days. We conclude that colitis can induce significant functional abnormalities in distant noninflamed small bowel regions. PMID:17218984

Jurjus, Abdo; Barada, Kassem; Khoury, Naim; Assef, Mona Diab; Foltzer, Charlotte Jourdainne; Reimund, Jean Marie; Kedinger, Michele



Quercetin induces morphological and proliferative changes of rat's uteri under estrogen and progesterone influences  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the effect of 10 or 100 mg/kg/day quercetin on the uterus of ovariectomized adult female rats receiving sex-steroid replacement regime mimicking changes in hormonal profiles during the reproductive cycle. Following seven days of treatment with estrogen and progesterone with or without quercetin, uteri were harvested for histological and proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein and mRNA expression and PCNA protein distribution analyses. Our findings indicated that co-administration of 10 mg/kg/day quercetin with estrogen and progesterone caused a significant decrease in the size of uterine lumen and epithelial heights with lower PCNA protein and mRNA expression as compared to estrogen plus progesterone-only treatment (P < 0.05). Concomitant treatment with estrogen and progesterone with 100 mg/kg/day quercetin resulted in a marked increase in the number of glands with increased PCNA protein and mRNA expression. Significantly higher PCNA distribution was observed in the stroma and glands as compared to estrogen plus progesterone-only treatment (P < 0.05). In conclusion, at 10 mg/kg/day, quercetin affects uterine morphology but not proliferation, however at 100 mg/kg/day, quercetin induced significant stromal and glandular proliferation which could predispose the uterus towards neoplastic development. PMID:25337190

Shahzad, Huma; Giribabu, Nelli; Muniandy, Sekaran; Salleh, Naguib



Morphologic effects of subtoxic neonatal chlorpyrifos exposure in developing rat brain: regionally selective alterations in neurons and glia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The widely used organophosphate insecticide, chlorpyrifos (CPF), elicits neurobehavioral teratogenesis with exposure windows ranging from the embryonic neural tube stage through postnatal development. To explore the morphologic changes occurring in late-stage exposure, newborn rats were given 5 mg\\/kg of CPF s.c. daily on postnatal days (PN) 11–14, a regimen that is devoid of systemic toxicity, but that elicits long-term cognitive

Tara Sankar Roy; Frederic J. Seidler; Theodore A. Slotkin



Blast exposure in rats with body shielding is characterized primarily by diffuse axonal injury.  


Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the signature insult in combat casualty care. Survival with neurological damage from otherwise lethal blast exposures has become possible with body armor use. We characterized the neuropathologic alterations produced by a single blast exposure in rats using a helium-driven shock tube to generate a nominal exposure of 35 pounds per square inch (PSI) (positive phase duration ? 4 msec). Using an IACUC-approved protocol, isoflurane-anesthetized rats were placed in a steel wedge (to shield the body) 7 feet inside the end of the tube. The left side faced the blast wave (with head-only exposure); the wedge apex focused a Mach stem onto the rat's head. The insult produced ? 25% mortality (due to impact apnea). Surviving and sham rats were perfusion-fixed at 24 h, 72 h, or 2 weeks post-blast. Neuropathologic evaluations were performed utilizing hematoxylin and eosin, amino cupric silver, and a variety of immunohistochemical stains for amyloid precursor protein (APP), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1), ED1, and rat IgG. Multifocal axonal degeneration, as evidenced by staining with amino cupric silver, was present in all blast-exposed rats at all time points. Deep cerebellar and brainstem white matter tracts were most heavily stained with amino cupric silver, with the morphologic staining patterns suggesting a process of diffuse axonal injury. Silver-stained sections revealed mild multifocal neuronal death at 24 h and 72 h. GFAP, ED1, and Iba1 staining were not prominently increased, although small numbers of reactive microglia were seen within areas of neuronal death. Increased blood-brain barrier permeability (as measured by IgG staining) was seen at 24 h and primarily affected the contralateral cortex. Axonal injury was the most prominent feature during the initial 2 weeks following blast exposure, although degeneration of other neuronal processes was also present. Strikingly, silver staining revealed otherwise undetected abnormalities, and therefore represents a recommended outcome measure in future studies of blast TBI. PMID:21449683

Garman, Robert H; Jenkins, Larry W; Switzer, Robert C; Bauman, Richard A; Tong, Lawrence C; Swauger, Peter V; Parks, Steven A; Ritzel, David V; Dixon, C Edward; Clark, Robert S B; Bayir, Hülya; Kagan, Valerian; Jackson, Edwin K; Kochanek, Patrick M



3D Reconstruction and Standardization of the Rat Vibrissal Cortex for Precise Registration of Single Neuron Morphology  

PubMed Central

The three-dimensional (3D) structure of neural circuits is commonly studied by reconstructing individual or small groups of neurons in separate preparations. Investigation of structural organization principles or quantification of dendritic and axonal innervation thus requires integration of many reconstructed morphologies into a common reference frame. Here we present a standardized 3D model of the rat vibrissal cortex and introduce an automated registration tool that allows for precise placement of single neuron reconstructions. We (1) developed an automated image processing pipeline to reconstruct 3D anatomical landmarks, i.e., the barrels in Layer 4, the pia and white matter surfaces and the blood vessel pattern from high-resolution images, (2) quantified these landmarks in 12 different rats, (3) generated an average 3D model of the vibrissal cortex and (4) used rigid transformations and stepwise linear scaling to register 94 neuron morphologies, reconstructed from in vivo stainings, to the standardized cortex model. We find that anatomical landmarks vary substantially across the vibrissal cortex within an individual rat. In contrast, the 3D layout of the entire vibrissal cortex remains remarkably preserved across animals. This allows for precise registration of individual neuron reconstructions with approximately 30 µm accuracy. Our approach could be used to reconstruct and standardize other anatomically defined brain areas and may ultimately lead to a precise digital reference atlas of the rat brain. PMID:23284282

Egger, Robert; Narayanan, Rajeevan T.; Helmstaedter, Moritz; de Kock, Christiaan P. J.; Oberlaender, Marcel



Volitional Weight-Lifting in Rats Promotes Adaptation via Performance and Muscle Morphology prior to Gains in Muscle Mass  

PubMed Central

Investigation of volitional animal models of resistance training has been instrumental in our understanding of adaptive training. However, these studies have lacked reactive force measurements, a precise performance measure, and morphological analysis at a distinct phase of training – when initial strength gains precede muscle hypertrophy. Our aim was to expose rats to one month of training (70 or 700 g load) on a custom-designed weight-lifting apparatus for analysis of reactive forces and muscle morphology prior to muscle hypertrophy. Exclusively following 700 g load training, forces increased by 21% whereas muscle masses remained unaltered. For soleus (SOL) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles, 700 g load training increased muscle fiber number per unit area by ?20% and decreased muscle fiber area by ?20%. Additionally, number of muscle fibers per section increased by 18% for SOL muscles. These results establish that distinct morphological alterations accompany early strength gains in a volitional animal model of load-dependent adaptive resistance training. PMID:25392697

Rader, Erik P; Miller, G Roger; Chetlin, Robert D; Wirth, Oliver; Baker, Brent A



Morphological aspects of neuromuscular junctions and gene expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in skeletal muscle of rats with heart failure.  


HF is syndrome initiated by a reduction in cardiac function and it is characterized by the activation of compensatory mechanisms. Muscular fatigue and dyspnoea are the more common symptoms in HF; these may be due in part to specific skeletal muscle myopathy characterized by reduced oxidative capacity, a shift from slow fatigue resistant type I to fast less fatigue resistant type II fibers and downregulation of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) gene expression that can regulate gene expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). In chronic heart failure, skeletal muscle phenotypic changes could influence the maintenance of the neuromuscular junction morphology and nAChRs gene expression during this syndrome. Two groups of rats were studied: control (CT) and Heart Failure (HF), induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of monocrotaline (MCT). At the end of the experiment, HF was evaluated by clinical signs and animals were sacrificed. Soleus (SOL) muscles were removed and processed for morphological, morphometric and molecular NMJ analyses. Our major finding was an up-regulation in the gene expression of the alpha1 and epsilon subunits of nAChR and a spot pattern of nAChR in SOL skeletal muscle in this acute monocrotaline induced HF. Our results suggest a remodeling of nAChR alpha1 and epsilon subunit during heart failure and may provide valuable information for understanding the skeletal muscle myopathy that occurs during this syndrome. PMID:21928074

de Souza, Paula Aiello Tomé; Matheus, Selma Maria Michelin; Castan, Eduardo Paulino; Campos, Dijon Henrique Salomé; Cicogna, Antônio Carlos; Carvalho, Robson Francisco; Dal-Pai-Silva, Maeli



Subtype Identification in Acutely Dissociated Rat Nodose Ganglion Neurons Based on Morphologic Parameters  

PubMed Central

Nodose ganglia are composed of A-, Ah- and C-type neurons. Despite their important roles in regulating visceral afferent function, including cardiovascular, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal homeostasis, information about subtype-specific expression, molecular identity, and function of individual ion transporting proteins is scarce. Although experiments utilizing the sliced ganglion preparation have provided valuable insights into the electrophysiological properties of nodose ganglion neuron subtypes, detailed characterization of their electrical phenotypes will require measurements in isolated cells. One major unresolved problem, however, is the difficulty to unambiguously identify the subtype of isolated nodose ganglion neurons without current-clamp recording, because the magnitude of conduction velocity in the corresponding afferent fiber, a reliable marker to discriminate subtypes in situ, can no longer be determined. Here, we present data supporting the notion that application of an algorithm regarding to microscopic structural characteristics, such as neuron shape evaluated by the ratio between shortest and longest axis, neuron surface characteristics, like membrane roughness, and axon attachment, enables specific and sensitive subtype identification of acutely dissociated rat nodose ganglion neurons, by which the accuracy of identification is further validated by electrophysiological markers and overall positive predictive rates is 89.26% (90.04%, 76.47%, and 98.21% for A-, Ah, and C-type, respectively). This approach should aid in gaining insight into the molecular correlates underlying phenotypic heterogeneity of nodose ganglia. Additionally, several critical points that help for neuron identification and afferent conduction calibration are also discussed. PMID:23904796

Lu, Xiao-Long; Xu, Wen-Xiao; Yan, Zhen-Yu; Qian, Zhao; Xu, Bing; Liu, Yang; Han, Li-Min; Gao, Rui-Chen; Li, Jun-Nan; Yuan, Mei; Zhao, Chong-Bao; Qiao, Guo-fen; Li, Bai-Yan



Stasis and convergence characterize morphological evolution in eupolypod II ferns Michael A. Sundue1,* and Carl J. Rothfels,2  

E-print Network

Stasis and convergence characterize morphological evolution in eupolypod II ferns Michael A. Sundue rank remain underexplored in the ferns. The present studyseeksto addressthis gap through analysis of 79 morphological characters for 81 taxa, includ- ing representatives of all ten families of eupolypod II ferns


Characterization of PbS with different morphologies produced using a cyclic microwave radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PbS was produced from different lead (Pb(CH 3COO) 2·H 2O, PbCl 2·2.5H 2O, Pb(NO 3) 2) and sulfur (CH 3CSNH 2, CH 5N 3S, NH 2CSNH 2) sources in propylene glycol using a cyclic microwave radiation at different powers and prolonged times. PbS (cubic) was detected using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) techniques. The interpreted and simulated patterns are in good accord. Raman spectrometer revealed the presence of vibrations at 138, 273 and 439 cm -1. Different morphologies (nano-sized particles, hexapods, cubes, ferns and magic squares) were characterized using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The product morphologies were influenced by the starting agents, microwave powers and prolonged times.

Phuruangrat, Anukorn; Thongtem, Titipun; Thongtem, Somchai



A comprehensive physico-chemical, mineralogical and morphological characterization of Indian mineral wastes.  


This paper provides a comprehensive characterization of mineral waste such as fly ash, bottom ash, slag and construction demolition (C&D) collected from four different thermal power plants, three steel plants and three C&D waste generation sites in India. To determine utilisation potential and environmental concerns, as received fly ash, bottom ash, slag and C&D waste were analysed for physico-chemical, mineralogical and morphological properties. The physico-chemical properties analysed include pH, moisture content, acid insoluble residue, loss on ignition(LOI), carbon content, fineness, chloride content, sulphate content, reactive silica content, XRF and heavy metal analysis. Morphological and mineralogical characteristics were investigated using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray. Particle size distribution was obtained using particle size analyser. The material analysed has different compositions and were selected with a view to determine their suitability for different applications in cement and concrete industry and for further research studies. PMID:23255170

Gedam, Vidyadhar V; Jha, Rajesh; Labhasetwar, Pawan; Engelsen, Christian J



Atomic level characterization of the morphology of phases in Chromindur magnetic alloys  

SciTech Connect

The atom probe field ion microscope has been used to characterize the morphology and determine the compositions of the iron-rich {alpha} and chromium-enriched {alpha}{prime} phases produced during isothermal and step cooled heat treatments in a Chromindur 2 ductile permanent magnet alloy. The good magnetic properties of this material are due to a combination of the composition of the two phases and the isolated nature and size of the ferromagnetic {alpha} phase. The morphology of the {alpha} phase is produced as a result of the shape of the miscibility gap and the step-cooled heat treatment and is distinctly different from that formed during isothermal heat treatments. 6 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Miller, M.K. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Camus, P.P (Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (USA). Applied Superconductivity Center); Hetherington, M.G. (Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Materials)



Integral-geometry characterization of photobiomodulation effects on retinal vessel morphology  

PubMed Central

The morphological characterization of quasi-planar structures represented by gray-scale images is challenging when object identification is sub-optimal due to registration artifacts. We propose two alternative procedures that enhances object identification in the integral-geometry morphological image analysis (MIA) framework. The first variant streamlines the framework by introducing an active contours segmentation process whose time step is recycled as a multi-scale parameter. In the second variant, we used the refined object identification produced in the first variant to perform the standard MIA with exact dilation radius as multi-scale parameter. Using this enhanced MIA we quantify the extent of vaso-obliteration in oxygen-induced retinopathic vascular growth, the preventative effect (by photobiomodulation) of exposure during tissue development to near-infrared light (NIR, 670 nm), and the lack of adverse effects due to exposure to NIR light. PMID:25071966

Barbosa, Marconi; Natoli, Riccardo; Valter, Kriztina; Provis, Jan; Maddess, Ted



Characterization and distribution of reelin-positive interneuron subtypes in the rat barrel cortex.  


GABAergic inhibitory interneurons (IN) represent a heterogeneous population with different electrophysiological, morphological, and molecular properties. The correct balance between interneuronal subtypes is important for brain function and is impaired in several neurological and psychiatric disorders. Here we show the data of 123 molecularly and electrophysiologically characterized neurons of juvenile rat barrel cortex acute slices, 48 of which expressed Reelin (Reln). Reln mRNA was exclusively detected in Gad65/67-positive cells but was found in interneuronal subtypes in different proportions: all cells of the adapting-Somatostatin (SST) cluster expressed Reln, whereas 63% of the adapting-neuropeptide Y (NPY, 50% of the fast-spiking Parvalbumin (PVALB), and 27% of the adapting/bursting-Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) cluster were Reln-positive. Silhouette analysis revealed a high impact of the parameter Reln on cluster quality. By analyzing the co-localization of RELN immunoreactivity with those of different IN-markers, we found that RELN is produced layer-independently in SST-, NPY-, and NOS1-expressing INs, whereas co-localization of RELN and VIP was mostly absent. Of note, RELN co-localized with PVALB, predominantly in INs of layers IV/V (>30%). Our findings emphasize RELN's role as an important IN-marker protein and provide a basis for the functional characterization of Reln-expressing INs and its role in the regulation of inhibitory IN networks. PMID:23803971

Pohlkamp, Theresa; Dávid, Csaba; Cauli, Bruno; Gallopin, Thierry; Bouché, Elisabeth; Karagiannis, Anastassios; May, Petra; Herz, Joachim; Frotscher, Michael; Staiger, Jochen F; Bock, Hans H



Protective role of Melissa officinalis L. extract on liver of hyperlipidemic rats: a morphological and biochemical study.  


In this study, the effects of Melissa officinalis L. extract on hyperlipidemic rats were investigated, morphologically and biochemically. The animals were fed a lipogenic diet consisting of 2% cholesterol, 20% sunflower oil and 0.5% cholic acid added to normal chow and were given 3% ethanol for 42 days. The plant extract was given by gavage technique to rats to a dose of 2 g/kg every day for 28, 14 days after experimental animals done hyperlipidemia. The degenerative changes were observed in hyperlipidemic rats, light and electron microscopically. There was a significant increase in the levels of serum cholesterol, total lipid, alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a significant decrease in the levels of liver tissue glutathione (GSH), a significant increase in the levels of tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO) in this group. On the other hand, the administration of Melissa officinalis L. extract reduced total cholesterol, total lipid, ALT, AST and ALP levels in serum, and LPO levels in liver tissue, moreover increased glutathione levels in the tissue. As a result, it was suggested that Melissa officinalis L. extract exerted an hypolipidemic effect and showed a protective effect on the liver of hyperlipidemic rats. PMID:15946812

Bolkent, S; Yanardag, R; Karabulut-Bulan, Omur; Yesilyaprak, B



Conduction velocity is related to morphological cell type in rat dorsal root ganglion neurones.  

PubMed Central

Combining intracellular recording and dye-injection techniques permitted direct correlation of neuronal soma size with peripheral nerve conduction velocity in individual neurones of the L4 dorsal root ganglion (d.r.g.) of the anaesthetized 5-8-week-old rat. The conduction velocities fell into two main groups; those greater than 14 m/s (A alpha and beta fibres) and those less than 8 m/s (A delta and C fibres). Fibres with conduction velocities in the A delta range (2.2-8 m/s) in the sciatic nerve between the sciatic notch and the neuronal soma in the d.r.g. often conducted more slowly, that is in the C-fibre range (less than 1.4 m/s), in the periphery from the tibial nerve to the sciatic notch. For the fast-conducting myelinated afferents, there was a loose positive correlation between cell size and the conduction velocity of the peripheral axon, whereas a clearer positive correlation existed between neuronal cell size and axonal conduction velocity both for A delta- and for C-fibre afferents. The relationship of the cell cross-sectional area (measured at the nucleolar level), to the cell volume for each neuronal soma was similar for the different conduction velocity groups. The somata of the fast-conducting myelinated A alpha and A beta fibres had a similar mean and range of cross-sectional areas to those of the large light cell population. The somata with A delta and C fibres were of a more uniform size and were restricted to the smaller cells within the ganglia. The mean and range of cross-sectional areas of the C cells was similar to those of the small dark cell population. A delta somata had a larger mean and range of cell sizes than those of the small dark cell population. The relationships of peripheral axon type to the morphological cell types are discussed. Images Plate 1 PMID:3999040

Harper, A A; Lawson, S N



In vitro cultivation of human tumor tissues. II. Morphological and virological characterization of three cell lines.  


Nineteen human tumors, mostly of sarcomatous nature, were cultured in vitro. Three cell lines were isolated and further characterized: MG-57 derived from a giant cell tumor, MG-63 derived from an osteosarcoma and MG-72 derived from a xanthohistiocytoma. The cell lines varied in morphology and growth pattern. An abnormal karyotype with marker chromosomes was present in Mg-63 and MG-72. None of the cell lines spontaneously produced detectable C-type virus particles. Stimulation with IUDR and dexamethasone also failed to induce detectable particle release. PMID:218153

Heremans, H; Billiau, A; Cassiman, J J; Mulier, J C; de Somer, P



The transverse tubular system of the hypertrophie myocardium: morphology and morphometry in spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reported previously on a modified Golgi stain that, in conjunction with high voltage electron microscope stereoscopy, gives striking views of the elaborate network of the transverse tubular system (T system) in rat myocardium. In this report we used the same techniques to study three-dimensional arrangements of the T system in the left ventricular myocardium of spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR)

Shigeo Nakamura; Kiyoshi Hama




EPA Science Inventory

The neurotoxic effects of exogenous glutamate were studied in the rat cochlea. lutamate-treated rats (4g/kg/day ip, postnatal days 2 through 9) exhibited electrophysiologically-measured elevations in high frequency thresholds usually associated with hair cell loss in the basal re...


Morphological and functional manifestations of rat adrenal-cortex response to sodium bromide administration under hypodynamic stress  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Functional and morphological manifestations of adrenal cortex response to hypodynamia (2-hr immobilization on an operating table) under the influence of bromine preparations were studied. The sodium bromide was administered intraperitoneally in 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg doses once and repeatedly during ten days. The adrenal gland was evaluated functionally by ascorbic acid and cholesterol content and morphologically by coloring it with hematoxylin-eosin and Sudans for lipid revealing at freezing. Results are displayed in two tables and microphotographs. They are summarized as follows: the bromine weakens the functional state of the adrenal cortex in intact rats, causing changes similar to those under stress. During immobilization combined with preliminary bromine administration, a less pronounced stress reaction is noticeable.

Kirichek, L. T.; Zholudeva, V. I.



The influence of retinoic acid on growth and morphology of rat exorbital lacrimal gland acinar cells in culture.  


The lacrimal gland transports and metabolizes retinoids and may require vitamin A for normal function. To study effects of retinoic acid on morphology and growth of the lacrimal gland, rat lacrimal acinar cells were cultured in medium with serum or in serum-free medium in the presence or absence of retinoic acid. In the presence of serum, the acinar cells have a somewhat fibroblastic morphology and form confluent layers. Addition of retinoic acid to these cultures causes formation of tubule-like structures. Retinoic acid inhibits the growth of lacrimal cells in medium with serum and the cells do not reach confluence; however, the labeling of the cells with bromodeoxyuridine is not affected by retinoic acid. In serum-free medium the growth of acinar cells is reduced, but their morphology is epithelial and structures resembling secretory domes are present. Retinoic acid causes a further reduction in growth, domes are absent, and cell spreading and enlargement occurs. The effects of retinoic acid on growth and morphology of lacrimal acinar cells in culture are complex and the relevance of these observations to lacrimal function in vivo is unclear; the study demonstrates, however, that these cells are responsive to retinoic acid. PMID:7924408

Ubels, J L; Dennis, M; Lantz, W



Radiosensitivity study and radiation effects on morphology characterization of grey oyster mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiosensitive dosage and morphology characterization of irradiated grey oyster mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju by gamma rays was investigated due to effects of irradiation. In order to establish the effect, mycelium of P. sajor-caju was irradiated by gamma rays at dose 0.1 to 8.0 kGy with dose rate 0.227 Gy sec-1. The irradiation of mycelia was carried out at the radiation facility in Malaysian Nuclear Agency. The radiosensitivity study was performed by evaluating the percentage of survival irradiated mycelia. The lethal dose of the mycelium P. sajor-caju was determined at 4.0 kGy and LD50 to be equal at 2.2 kGy. The radiation effects on morphology were evaluated based on growth rate of irradiated mycelia, mycelia types, colonization period on substrate, morphology of fruit bodies and yields. The results shown growth rate of irradiated mycelium was slightly lower than the control and decreased as the dose increased. Irradiation was found can induced the primordia formation on PDA and the BE of irradiated seed is higher than to control. The irradiation is proven to be useful for generating new varieties of mushroom with commercial value to the industry.

Rashid, Rosnani Abdul; Daud, Fauzi; Senafi, Sahidan; Awang, Mat Rasol; Mohamad, Azhar; Mutaat, Hassan Hamdani; Maskom, Mohd Meswan



Effect of light history on the rat retina: timecourse of morphological adaptation and readaptation.  


Sprague Dawley rats were born and raised under either 5 or 800 lux cyclic light (12L:12D) and were sacrificed at 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 16, and 28 weeks of age. At each time point outer nuclear layer (ONL) area and rod outer segment (ROS) length were measured. The former is an estimation of photoreceptor number, and the latter is an estimation of the photon-catching integrity of the retina, both of which are known to be dependent on the light environment. Regression analysis revealed an ONL area reduction with time of 0.003 mm2/wk for 5-lux-reared rats and 0.009 mm2/wk for 800-lux-reared rats. ROS length was relatively constant in the dim light group, but showed a decline in 800 lux rats of 0.5 microns/wk. Rats moved from 800 to 5 lux at 9 and 21 wks of age showed no significant change in ONL area after 3 wks. ROS length in these rats increased at a prodigious rate, and in the 12-wk-olds (9 wks at 800 lux, followed by 3 wks at 5 lux), ROS length exceeded that of age-matched rats raised in 5 lux for life. PMID:1538829

Penn, J S; Tolman, B L; Thum, L A; Koutz, C A



Pathways of fluid drainage from the brain--morphological aspects and immunological significance in rat and man.  


There is firm physiological evidence for the lymphatic drainage of interstitial fluid and cerebrospinal fluid from the brains of rats, rabbits and cats. The object of this review, is to describe firstly the morphological aspects of lymphatic drainage pathways from the rat brain and secondly, to explore through scanning and transmission electron microscope techniques, the possibility of similar lymphatic drainage pathways in man. Interstitial and oedema fluid spreads diffusely through the white matter in the rat and appears to drain into the ventricular cerebrospinal fluid. In grey matter, however, tracers pass along perivascular spaces to the surface of the brain and into the cerebrospinal fluid. Paravascular compartments in the subarachnoid space follow the course of major arterial branches to the circle of Willis and thence along the ethmoidal arteries to the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone. Particulate tracers, such as Indian ink, enter channels in the arachnoid beneath the olfactory bulbs and connect directly with nasal lymphatics through channels which pass through holes in the cribriform plate. Proteins and other solutes may also drain along other cranial nerves. Thus, there is a bulk flow pathway for interstitial and cerebrospinal fluid from the rat brain into cervical lymphatics. In man, it is probable that diffuse interstitial drainage of fluid from the white matter occurs in a similar way to that in the rat. Furthermore, the anatomical pathways exist by which bulk drainage of fluid could occur along perivascular spaces from the grey matter into perivascular spaces of the leptomeningeal arteries and thence into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1341963

Weller, R O; Kida, S; Zhang, E T



Electrophysiological and morphological properties of pre-autonomic neurones in the rat hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus  

PubMed Central

The cellular properties of pre-autonomic neurones in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) were characterized by combining in vivo retrograde tracing techniques, in vitro patch-clamp recordings and three-dimensional reconstruction of recorded neurones in adult hypothalamic slices. The results showed that PVN pre-autonomic neurones constitute a heterogeneous neuronal population. Based on morphological criteria, neurones were classified into three subgroups. Type A neurones (52 %) were located in the ventral parvocellular (PaV) subnucleus, and showed an oblique orientation with respect to the third ventricle (3V). Type B neurones (25 %) were located in the posterior parvocellular (PaPo) subnucleus, and were oriented perpendicularly with respect to the 3V. Type C neurones (23 %) were located in both the PaPo (82 %) and the PaV (18 %) subnuclei, and displayed a concentric dendritic configuration. A morphometric analysis revealed significant differences in the dendritic configuration among neuronal types. Type B neurones had the most complex dendritic arborization, with longer and more branching dendritic trees. Several electrophysiological properties, including cell input resistance and action potential waveforms, differed between cell types, suggesting that the expression and/or properties of a variety of ion channels differ between neuronal types. Common features of PVN pre-autonomic neurones included the expression of a low-threshold spike and strong inward rectification. These properties distinguished them from neighbouring magnocellular vasopressin neurones. In summary, these results indicate that PVN pre-autonomic neurones constitute a heterogeneous neuronal population, and provide a cellular basis for the study of their involvement in the pathophysiology of hypertension and congestive heart failure disorders. PMID:11711570

Stern, Javier E



Functional characterization of rat submaxillary gland muscarinic receptors using microphysiometry  

PubMed Central

Muscarinic cholinoceptors (MChR) in freshly dispersed rat salivary gland (RSG) cells were characterized using microphysiometry to measure changes in acidification rates. Several non-selective and selective muscarinic antagonists were used to elucidate the nature of the subtypes mediating the response to carbachol. The effects of carbachol (pEC50=5.74±0.02?s.e.mean; n=53) were highly reproducible and most antagonists acted in a surmountable, reversible fashion. The following antagonist rank order, with apparent affinity constants in parentheses, was noted: 4-DAMP (8.9)=atropine (8.9)>tolterodine (8.5)>oxybutynin (7.9)>S-secoverine (7.2)>pirenzepine (6.9)>himbacine (6.8)>AQ-RA 741 (6.6)>methoctramine (5.9). These studies validate the use of primary isolated RSG cells in microphysiometry for pharmacological analysis. These data are consistent with, and extend, previous studies using alternative functional methods, which reported a lack of differential receptor pharmacology between bladder and salivary gland tissue. The antagonist affinity profile significantly correlated with the profile at human recombinant muscarinic M3 and M5 receptors. Given a lack of antagonists that discriminate between M3 and M5, definitive conclusion of which subtype(s) is present within RSG cells cannot be determined. PMID:11264256

Meloy, Trena D; Daniels, Donald V; Hegde, Sharath S; Eglen, Richard M; Ford, Anthony P D W



Morphologic Analysis Correlates with Gene Expression Changes in Cultured F344 Rat Mesothelial Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gene expression pattern of mesothelial cells in vitro was determined after 4 or 12 h exposure to the rat mesothelial, kidney, and thyroid carcinogen and oxidative stressor potassium bromate (KBrO3). Gene expression changes observed using cDNA arrays indicated oxidative stress, mitotic arrest, and apoptosis in treated immortalized rat peritoneal mesothelial cells. Increases occurred in oxidative stress responsive genes HO-1,

L. M. Crosby; K. S. Hyder; A. B. DeAngelo; T. B. Kepler; B. Gaskill; G. R. Benavides; L. Yoon; K. T. Morgan



Abnormal enteric nerve morphology in atretic esophagus of fetal rats with adriamycin-induced esophageal atresia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastroesophageal reflux is common in children after successful repair of esophageal atresia (EA), and may be related to a\\u000a congenital neuronal abnormality of the esophagus. This study employed a fetal rat model of adriamycin-induced EA to investigate\\u000a whether the innervation of the esophagus is abnormal in EA. The fetal rats were divided into four groups: (1) normal controls;\\u000a (2) a

W. Cheng; A. E. Bishop; L. Spitz; J. M. Polak



Purification, characterization, and biological compartmentalization of rat fetal antigen 1.  


This study has established the rat as an animal model for the analysis of the biological role of fetal antigen 1 (FA1), a protein previously described in humans and mice. FA1 was purified from rat amniotic fluid by immunospecific affinity chromatography. Immunochemical identity between mouse and rat FA1 was established by crossed tandem immunoelectrophoresis. Molecular size was analyzed by mass spectrometry (33 kDa). The amino acid composition was determined, and the amino acid sequence was analyzed. The overall amino acid composition and sequence of the 28 first N-terminal amino acids were identical to the corresponding parts of rat preadipocyte factor 1 and rat adrenal zona glomerulosa protein. Extensive sequence similarity was found between rat and mouse FA1 (86%) and between rat and human FA1 (82%). The concentration of FA1 in fetal serum, maternal serum, urine, and amniotic fluid in rats was determined using an ELISA. The highest concentrations were found in fetal serum and amniotic fluid around Day 18 of pregnancy. This is the first report on the physicochemical characteristics and compartmentalization of rat FA1. PMID:10859238

Carlsson, H E; Persdotter-Hedlund, G; Fries, E; Eriksson, U J; Hau, J



Arterial morphology responds differently to Captopril then N-acetylcysteine in a monocrotaline rat model of pulmonary hypertension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an incurable condition inevitably resulting in death because of increased right heart workload and eventual failure. PH causes pulmonary vascular remodeling, including muscularization of the arteries, and a reduction in the typically large vascular compliance of the pulmonary circulation. We used a rat model of monocrotaline (MCT) induced PH to evaluated and compared Captopril (an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor with antioxidant capacity) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC, a mucolytic with a large antioxidant capacity) as possible treatments. Twenty-eight days after MCT injection, the rats were sacrificed and heart, blood, and lungs were studied to measure indices such as right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH), hematocrit, pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), vessel morphology and biomechanics. We implemented microfocal X-ray computed tomography to image the pulmonary arterial tree at intravascular pressures of 30, 21, 12, and 6 mmHg and then used automated vessel detection and measurement algorithms to perform morphological analysis and estimate the distensibility of the arterial tree. The vessel detection and measurement algorithms quickly and effectively mapped and measured the vascular trees at each intravascular pressure. Monocrotaline treatment, and the ensuing PH, resulted in a significantly decreased arterial distensibility, increased PVR, and tended to decrease the length of the main pulmonary trunk. In rats with PH induced by monocrotaline, Captopril treatment significantly increased arterial distensibility and decrease PVR. NAC treatment did not result in an improvement, it did not significantly increase distensibility and resulted in further increase in PVR. Interestingly, NAC tended to increase peripheral vascular density. The results suggest that arterial distensibility may be more important than distal collateral pathways in maintaining PVR at normally low values.

Molthen, Robert; Wu, Qingping; Baumgardt, Shelley; Kohlhepp, Laura; Shingrani, Rahul; Krenz, Gary



[Morphological changes in the transplanted rat kidney under conditions of minor and major histocompatibility differences between donor and recipient].  


Morphological changes in transplanted kidney were studied in 4 groups of rats with different histocompatibility differences between donor and recipient: 1. syngenetic differences, 2. differences in the main histocompatibility system H-1, 3. differences in the H-1 as well as in the subsidiary non-H-1 systems, 4. differences in the non-H-1 systems. -- In all the kidneys transplanted from a newly developed congenetic strain BP.1N to inbred rats of the BN strain (with differences in the non-H-1 systems) rejection developed in 2 to 3 weeks with manifestations of giant-cell interstitial nephritis with gradual destruction and phagocytosis of cortical tubules probably due to the production of antibodies against the basal membranes of tubules. -- In the paralel group with differences in the non-H-1 systems of BP into BN-1B, destroyed after 30 days, there were -- in addition to moderate acute rejection -- hypercellular glomerules with electrodense deposits in the mesangium seen as a manifestation of immuno-complex glomerulonephritis. Analogical glomerular changes without rejection were also fond in a control group of longer surviving syngenetic rats. PMID:7002326

Stejskal, J; Kren, V; Pávková, L



Chemical and morphological characterization of sugarcane bagasse submitted to a delignification process for enhanced enzymatic digestibility  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years, biorefining of lignocellulosic biomass to produce multi-products such as ethanol and other biomaterials has become a dynamic research area. Pretreatment technologies that fractionate sugarcane bagasse are essential for the successful use of this feedstock in ethanol production. In this paper, we investigate modifications in the morphology and chemical composition of sugarcane bagasse submitted to a two-step treatment, using diluted acid followed by a delignification process with increasing sodium hydroxide concentrations. Detailed chemical and morphological characterization of the samples after each pretreatment condition, studied by high performance liquid chromatography, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, is reported, together with sample crystallinity and enzymatic digestibility. Results Chemical composition analysis performed on samples obtained after different pretreatment conditions showed that up to 96% and 85% of hemicellulose and lignin fractions, respectively, were removed by this two-step method when sodium hydroxide concentrations of 1% (m/v) or higher were used. The efficient lignin removal resulted in an enhanced hydrolysis yield reaching values around 100%. Considering the cellulose loss due to the pretreatment (maximum of 30%, depending on the process), the total cellulose conversion increases significantly from 22.0% (value for the untreated bagasse) to 72.4%. The delignification process, with consequent increase in the cellulose to lignin ratio, is also clearly observed by nuclear magnetic resonance and diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy experiments. We also demonstrated that the morphological changes contributing to this remarkable improvement occur as a consequence of lignin removal from the sample. Bagasse unstructuring is favored by the loss of cohesion between neighboring cell walls, as well as by changes in the inner cell wall structure, such as damaging, hole formation and loss of mechanical resistance, facilitating liquid and enzyme access to crystalline cellulose. Conclusions The results presented herewith show the efficiency of the proposed method for improving the enzymatic digestibility of sugarcane bagasse and provide understanding of the pretreatment action mechanism. Combining the different techniques applied in this work warranted thorough information about the undergoing morphological and chemical changes and was an efficient approach to understand the morphological effects resulting from sample delignification and its influence on the enhanced hydrolysis results. PMID:22122978



Effects of renin–angiotensin system blockade on the islet morphology and function in rats with long-term high-fat diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) has an important role in the endocrine pancreas. Multiple researches have shown that even\\u000a in the insulin resistance phase, there are many abnormalities in islets morphology and function. This study aimed at investigating\\u000a the effects of RAS blockade on the islets function in rats with long-term high-fat diet and its mechanisms. Wistar rats with\\u000a 16-week high-fat

Li Yuan; Xin Li; Jin Li; Hai-ling Li; Suo-suo Cheng


Characterization of a rat model of incisional pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we developed a rat model of incisional pain. A 1-cm longitudinal incision was made through skin, fascia and muscle of the plantar aspect of the hindpaw in halothane-anesthetized rats. Withdrawal responses were measured using von Frey filaments at different areas around the wound before surgery and for the next 6 days. A cumulative pain score based on

Timothy J. Brennan; Erik P. Vandermeulen; G. F. Gebhart



Some morphological and chemical aspects of peats applied to the characterization of histosols  

SciTech Connect

Five peats--Mesic Humisol (Hemic Medisaprist), a Fibric Mesisol (Fibric Medihemist), a Typic Mesisol (Typic Medihemist), and two Humic Mesisols (Sapric Medihemists)--were selected to include differences in landform, botanical composition and degree of decomposition. Special attention was devoted to the nonhumic fraction, especially the particle-size fractions. The peats and peat fractions were characterized according to their chemical and morphological features, to gain information useful in peat differentiation and interpretation. The results indicate that the evaluation of the peats through the various parameters was in line with that obtained by the rubbed fiber content and the P/sub 2/O/sub 7/ index, two conventional and widely accepted criteria for peat characterization. However, the additional information gained through the micromorphological measurements, determinations on size fractions and examination of macrofossils could be used efficiently in differentiating poorly characterized peat soils (Mesisols) and in determining the behavior of peats under cultivation. It was concluded that micromorphological measurements, particle-size distribution, and macrofossil analysis of size fractions can be used in support of commonly used criteria for differentiating peats; in addition, they provide an essential basis for peat interpretation. (JMT)

Levesque, M.P.; Dinel, H.



Morphological and Phylogenetic Characterizations of Freshwater Thioploca Species from Lake Biwa, Japan, and Lake Constance, Germany  

PubMed Central

Filamentous, gliding, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria of the genus Thioploca were found on sediments in profundal areas of Lake Biwa, a Japanese freshwater mesotrophic lake, and were characterized morphologically and phylogenetically. The Lake Biwa Thioploca resembled morphologically Thioploca ingrica, a brackish water species from a Danish fjord. The diameters of individual trichomes were 3 to 5.6 ?m; the diameters of complete Thioploca filaments ranged from 18 to 75 ?m. The cell lengths ranged from 1.2 to 3.8 ?m. In transmission electron microscope specimens stained with uranyl acetate, dense intracellular particles were found, which did not show any positive signals for phosphorus and sulfur in an X-ray analysis. The 16S rRNA gene of the Thioploca from Lake Biwa was amplified by using newly designed Thioploca-specific primers (706-Thioploca, Biwa160F, and Biwa829R) in combination with general bacterial primers in order to avoid nonspecific amplification of contaminating bacterial DNA. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of the three overlapping PCR products resulted in single DGGE bands, indicating that a single 16S rRNA gene had been amplified. With the same method, the Thioploca from Lake Constance was examined. The 16S rRNA sequence was verified by performing fluorescence in situ hybridization targeted at specific motifs of the Lake Biwa Thioploca. Positive signals were obtained with the bacterial probe EUB-338, the ?-proteobacterial probe GAM42a, and probe Biwa829 targeting the Lake Biwa Thioploca. Based on the nearly complete 16S rRNA sequence and on morphological similarities, the Thioploca from Lake Biwa and the Thioploca from Lake Constance are closely related to T. ingrica and to each other. PMID:12514020

Kojima, Hisaya; Teske, Andreas; Fukui, Manabu



Morphological and phylogenetic characterizations of freshwater Thioploca species from Lake Biwa, Japan, and Lake Constance, Germany.  


Filamentous, gliding, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria of the genus Thioploca were found on sediments in profundal areas of Lake Biwa, a Japanese freshwater mesotrophic lake, and were characterized morphologically and phylogenetically. The Lake Biwa Thioploca resembled morphologically Thioploca ingrica, a brackish water species from a Danish fjord. The diameters of individual trichomes were 3 to 5.6 microm; the diameters of complete Thioploca filaments ranged from 18 to 75 micro m. The cell lengths ranged from 1.2 to 3.8 micro m. In transmission electron microscope specimens stained with uranyl acetate, dense intracellular particles were found, which did not show any positive signals for phosphorus and sulfur in an X-ray analysis. The 16S rRNA gene of the Thioploca from Lake Biwa was amplified by using newly designed Thioploca-specific primers (706-Thioploca, Biwa160F, and Biwa829R) in combination with general bacterial primers in order to avoid nonspecific amplification of contaminating bacterial DNA. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of the three overlapping PCR products resulted in single DGGE bands, indicating that a single 16S rRNA gene had been amplified. With the same method, the Thioploca from Lake Constance was examined. The 16S rRNA sequence was verified by performing fluorescence in situ hybridization targeted at specific motifs of the Lake Biwa THIOPLOCA: Positive signals were obtained with the bacterial probe EUB-338, the gamma-proteobacterial probe GAM42a, and probe Biwa829 targeting the Lake Biwa THIOPLOCA: Based on the nearly complete 16S rRNA sequence and on morphological similarities, the Thioploca from Lake Biwa and the Thioploca from Lake Constance are closely related to T. ingrica and to each other. PMID:12514020

Kojima, Hisaya; Teske, Andreas; Fukui, Manabu



Nonrespiratory metabolic function and morphology of lung following exposure to polybrominated biphenyls in rats  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) resulted in increased activity of microsomal arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase in rat lung. Clearance of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and angiotensin I by perfused lungs was decreased by PBBs. However, PBBs had no effect on the activity of epoxide hydrolase, monoamine oxidase, or angiotensin-converting enzyme in lung. The only hisotpathlogic change detected in lungs from PBB-treated rats was an increase in alveolar type II cell lamellar bodies. Selective accumulation of certain PBB congeners by lung was not observed in this investigation.

McCormack, K.M.; Roth, R.A.; Wallace, K.B.; Ross, L.M.; Hook, J.B.



A morphological and quantitative characterization of early floral development in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.).  


Apple is an important crop and a focus of research worldwide. However, some aspects of floral commitment and morphogenesis remain unclear. A detailed characterization of bourse shoot apex development was undertaken to provide a framework for future genetic, molecular and physiological studies. Eight morphologically distinct stages of shoot apex development, prior to winter dormancy, were defined. Based on measurements of meristem diameter, two stages of vegetative development were recognized. Vegetative meristems were flat, and either narrow (stage 0) or broad (stage 1). Pronounced doming of the apex marked stage 2. During stage 3, the domed meristem initiated four to six lateral floral meristems and subtending bracts before converting to a terminal floral meristem (stage 4). The terminal floral meristem proceeded directly with bractlet and sepal initiation, while lateral floral meristems initiated bractlets (stage 5). Sepal initiation began on the basal lateral flower (stage 6) and continued in an acropetal direction until all floral meristems had completed sepal initiation (stage 7). In this study, only stage 0 and stage 7 apices were observed in dormant buds, indicating that stages 1-6 are transient. The results suggest that broadening of the apex (stage 1) is the first morphological sign of commitment to flowering. PMID:12805080

Foster, Toshi; Johnston, Robyn; Seleznyova, Alla



Long-term characterization of persistent atrial fibrillation: wave morphology, frequency, and irregularity analysis.  


Short-term properties of atrial fibrillation (AF) frequency, f-wave morphology, and irregularity parameters have been thoroughly studied, but not long-term properties. In the present work, f-wave morphology is characterized by principal component analysis, introducing a novel temporal parameter defined by the cumulative normalized variance of the three largest principal components [Formula: see text]. Based on 7-day recordings from nine patients with stable chronic heart failure and persistent AF, long-term properties were studied in terms of [Formula: see text], AF frequency, and sample entropy [Formula: see text]. The main result of the present study is that detection of circadian rhythms depends on the parameter considered: rhythms were found in six [Formula: see text] and five (AF frequency) patients, but not always in the same patient. Another important result is that circadian rhythms detected in 7-day recordings could not always be detected in 24-h periods, thus shedding new light on the results in previous studies which all were based on 24-h recordings. Infradian rhythms were found in four [Formula: see text] and one (AF frequency) patients. PMID:25284217

Goya-Esteban, Rebeca; Sandberg, Frida; Barquero-Pérez, Oscar; García-Alberola, Arcadio; Sörnmo, Leif; Rojo-Álvarez, José Luis



Morphological investigation and physical characterization of ancient fragments of pyrogenic carbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the latest years, the attention toward the use of pyrogenic carbon as a climate mitigation strategy has increasingly grown. Biochar (BC) contains substantial amount (60-90%) of pyrogenic carbon, which is a recalcitrant material and it is hardly decomposed by biotic and abiotic oxidation. The carbon mitigation potential of biochar is associated to the fact that carbon is not easily released back into the atmosphere, even after very long incubation time in the soil. Several studies have been addressing the understanding of the fate of pyrogenic carbon in the soil in a quantitative way, but only a few actually considered materials that were produced in the past and they were not fully able to estimate the fraction of carbon that was oxidized on centennial time scales. In this paper, an old deposits of biochar in soils of the Eastern Alps (Trentino, Val di Pejo) was dated at 1859 by means of a dendroanthracological approach. Carbon decomposition in those soils was then investigated to calculate the fraction of carbon that was lost over 155 years. Part of this study is focused on the morphological and physical characterization of several fragments of biochar, using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Such study enabled the identification of specific morphological features of tracheids in the old biochar, which were tentatively associated to a differential oxidation of the structures that were created during carbonization from lignin and cellulose.

Pusceddu, E.; Criscuoli, I.; Miglietta, F.



Controlled synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of BiPO4 nanostructures with different morphologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The synthesis of bismuth phosphate (BiPO4) nanostructures with various morphologies and phases was explored under ultrasound irradiation and hydrothermal process. Powder x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) were used to characterize the BiPO4 samples. The effects of ultrasound irradiation and hydrothermal conditions on the phases and morphologies of the BiPO4 samples were studied, and the growth mechanisms of the 1D structure were investigated. The different BiPO4 samples exhibited different optical properties and photocatalytic activities for the degradation of methyl blue (MB) under UV light irradiation. The experimental results suggest that the high photocatalytic activity of the sample prepared under hydrothermal conditions is due to a low electron and hole recombination rate and the high potential of the photogenerated holes in the valence band. The practicality of this BiPO4 photocatalyst was validated for the degradation of MB in environmental and industrial wastewater samples, which demonstrated the advantages of its high photocatalytic activity.

Cheng, Lang-Wei; Tsai, Jui-Chien; Huang, Tzu-Yun; Huang, Chang-Wei; Unnikrishnan, Binesh; Lin, Yang-Wei



Morphology, Structure and Function Characterization of PEI Modified Magnetic Nanoparticles Gene Delivery System  

PubMed Central

Modified magnetic nanoparticles are used as non-viral gene carriers in biological applications. To achieve successful gene delivery, it is critical that nanoparticles effectually assemble with nucleic acids. However, relatively little work has been conducted on the assemble mechanisms between nanoparticles and DNA, and its effects on transfection efficiency. Using biophysical and biochemical characterization, along with Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we investigate the morphologies, assembling structures and gene delivering abilities of the PEI modified magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) gene delivery system. In this gene delivery system, MNP/DNA complexes are formed via binding of DNA onto the surface of MNPs. MNPs are favorable to not only increase DNA concentration but also prevent DNA degradation. Magnetofection experiments showed that MNPs has low cytotoxicity and introduces highly stable transfection in mammalian somatic cells. In addition, different binding ratios between MNPs and DNA result in various morphologies of MNP/DNA complexes and have an influence on transfection efficiency. Dose–response profile indicated that transfection efficiency positively correlate with MNP/DNA ratio. Furthermore, intracellular tracking demonstrate that MNPs move though the cell membranes, deliver and release exogenous DNA into the nucleus. PMID:24911360

Zhao, Xiang; Cui, Haixin; Chen, Wenjie; Wang, Yan; Cui, Bo; Sun, Changjiao; Meng, Zhigang; Liu, Guoqiang



Morphological-anatomical characterization and molecular identification of Tomentella stuposa ectomycorrhizae and related anatomotypes.  


Species in the genus Tomentella (Thelephoraceae) belong to the most frequent and widespread ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi found in temperate and boreal forests. Although several unidentified tomentelloid morphotypes have been presented as common members of EM communities in coniferous and broad-leaved forests, few tomentelloid EM have been identified and described in detail. In this study, ten tomentelloid EM isolates collected from Populus alba, Quercus cerris and Picea abies stands in Hungary and Germany are characterized and documented by morphological-anatomical methods using light microscopy. The investigated ectomycorrhizae belong to the same brown-black tomentelloid morphotype but form two different anatomotype groups (At I and At II). Molecular taxonomical identification was accomplished using phylogenetic analysis (neighbor joining method) of 49 Tomentella nrDNA-ITS nucleotide sequences including the 10 new and 39 GenBank sequences. The EM isolates clustered into two adjoining clades identical with the two anatomotypes. At II clustered with Tomentella stuposa while At I could not be identified to species. Based on the morphological similarity and the low genetic difference it must be a closely related taxon. A comparison of the recently known tomentelloid EM to T. stuposa is presented. Ecological questions involving abundance and host relationships are discussed. PMID:15517422

Jakucs, Erzsébet; Kovács, G M; Agerer, R; Romsics, C; Eros-Honti, Z



Morphological and molecular characterization of renal ciliates infecting farmed snails in Spain.  


Renal infections by parasitic ciliates were studied in adult snails of Helix aspersa aspersa and Helix aspersa maxima collected from 2 mixed rearing system-based heliciculture farms located in Galicia (NW Spain). The occurrence of ciliates was also examined in slugs (Deroceras reticulatum) invading the greenhouses where first growing and fattening of snails is carried out. Histological examinations revealed a severe destruction of the renal epithelium in heavily infected hosts. Three ciliate isolates, one from each host species, were obtained and grown in axenic cultures. Cultured and parasitic ciliates were characterized morphologically and morphometrically. In addition, the encystment behaviour, the occurrence of autogamy, and the sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome-c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) genes were also studied in the 3 isolates. A polymorphic life cycle involving resting and reproductive cysts, together with the morphological and morphometrical characteristics and the confirmation that autogamy occurs within cysts, demonstrate that our ciliates belong to the species Tetrahymena rostrata (Kahl, 1926) Corliss, 1952. The 3 isolates formed a well-supported clade using both genetic markers, and were clearly separate from the strain ATCC(R) 30770, which has been identified as Tetrahymena rostrata. We argue that our Spanish isolates should be regarded as Tetrahymena rostrata, and that the ATCC isolate should be regarded as a misidentification as neither cytological nor cytogenetical support for its identity has been presented. PMID:19402940

Segade, P; Kher, C P; Lynn, D H; Iglesias, R



Morphological and Molecular Characterization of a Fungus, Hirsutella sp., Isolated from Planthoppers and Psocids in Argentina  

PubMed Central

A mycosed planthopper, Oliarus dimidiatus Berg (Hemiptera: Cixiidae), and two psocids, Heterocaecilius sp. (Psocodea: Pseudocaeciliidae) and Ectopsocus sp. (Ectopsocidae), were collected from Los Hornos and La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina between February and September 2007. Observations of mycelia growing on the host revealed that the putative fungal parasite had synnemata supporting monophialidic conidiogenous cells. Likewise, in vitro fungal cultures presented characteristics typical of the fungus Hirsutella citriformis Speare (Ascomycota: Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae). The identity of the isolated fungi characterized based on morphological aspects was complemented by means of the internal transcribed spacer sequences. The sequences of both isolates were highly homologous to those of Cordyceps sp. (Fries) Link and Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Berkely) G.H. Sung, J.M. Sung, Hywel-Jones, and Spatafora (Ophiocordycipitaceae). We additionally confirmed that both isolates had the ability to infect and kill adults of Delphacodes kuscheli Fennah (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) after 10 days. Therefore, based on the morphology of the isolated fungi, their ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequence, and their ability to parasite insects, we conclude that the fungi isolated belong to the genus Hirsutella and might have biotechnological potential. PMID:23885970

Toledo, Andrea V.; Simurro, Maria E.; Balatti, Pedro A.



Morphological and molecular characterization of a fungus, Hirsutella sp., isolated from planthoppers and psocids in Argentina.  


A mycosed planthopper, Oliarus dimidiatus Berg (Hemiptera: Cixiidae), and two psocids, Heterocaecilius sp. (Psocodea: Pseudocaeciliidae) and Ectopsocus sp. (Ectopsocidae), were collected from Los Hornos and La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina between February and September 2007. Observations of mycelia growing on the host revealed that the putative fungal parasite had synnemata supporting monophialidic conidiogenous cells. Likewise, in vitro fungal cultures presented characteristics typical of the fungus Hirsutella citriformis Speare (Ascomycota: Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae). The identity of the isolated fungi characterized based on morphological aspects was complemented by means of the internal transcribed spacer sequences. The sequences of both isolates were highly homologous to those of Cordyceps sp. (Fries) Link and Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Berkely) G.H. Sung, J.M. Sung, Hywel-Jones, and Spatafora (Ophiocordycipitaceae). We additionally confirmed that both isolates had the ability to infect and kill adults of Delphacodes kuscheli Fennah (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) after 10 days. Therefore, based on the morphology of the isolated fungi, their ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequence, and their ability to parasite insects, we conclude that the fungi isolated belong to the genus Hirsutella and might have biotechnological potential. PMID:23885970

Toledo, Andrea V; Simurro, María E; Balatti, Pedro A



Morphological and molecular characterization of Pratylenchus lentis n. sp. (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae) from Sicily  

PubMed Central

Pratylenchus lentis n. sp. parasitizing roots of lentil in Sicily, Italy, is described and illustrated. The new species is characterized by a relatively high lip region with three annuli, mean stylet length of 16 ?m, with anteriorly flattened knobs, cylindrical body with a relatively anterior vulva, large and ovoid spermatheca full of sperm, plump tail with truncate, irregularly annulated terminus, and by the presence of males. Molecular ITS-RFLP and sequencing analyses of the new species showed clear differences from other most morphologically similar species, such as P. thornei and P. mediterraneus. Preliminary host range tests revealed that chickpea, pea, faba bean and durum wheat are good hosts of P. lentis n. sp., whereas common bean, alfalfa and barley are less robust hosts and tomato, bell pepper, eggplant, melon and sunflower are poor hosts for the nematode. PMID:19440258

De Luca, F.; Handoo, Z. A.; Di Vito, M.



Characterization of renal hyperemia in portal hypertensive rats  

SciTech Connect

In anesthetized sham-operated control (C) and portal vein stenosed (PVS) rats, renal blood flow (RBF) was measured with radioactive microspheres on days 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 following surgery. On day 2, only a small increase in RBF (19%) was produced in PVS versus C rats. However, by day 4, a significant increase in RBF (35%) was observed in PVS versus C animals. By day 6, the renal hyperemia in PVS rats reached a maximal value that was 42% higher than in C rats. Thereafter (on days 8 and 10), the renal hyperemia remained at the maximal value. In a separate group of 10-day PVS rats, glucagon antiserum failed to attenuate the 44% increase in RBF observed in PVS versus C rats. Radioimmunoassay of C and PVS plasma (10-day samples) revealed that vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, substance P, cholecystokinin/gastrin, neurotensin, pancreatic polypeptide, beta-endorphin, and peptide histidine-isoleucine amide are not elevated in arterial plasma of PVS rats. These data indicate that the renal hyperemia induced by chronic portal hypertension is manifested within 4 days after the hypertensive insult. Our studies also suggest that at least 9 blood-borne gastrointestinal peptides are not directly involved in the renal response to portal vein stenosis.

Premen, A.J.; Banchs, V.; Go, V.L.W.; Benoit, J.N.; Granger, D.N.



Induction of morphological changes in the urothelium of cultured adult rat bladder by sodium saccharin and sodium cyclamate.  


The direct effects of sodium saccharin and sodium cyclamate on the morphology of organ cultures of normal rat bladder have been studied by histology and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Untreated cultures retained histologically normal urothelia up to 89 days with cell surface features characteristic of mature, fully differentiated superficial cells and maturing intermediate cells. Continuous treatment with either sodium saccharin (6 or 12 mM) or sodium cyclamate (12 or 24 mM) induced progressive abnormalities in the cultured urothelium. Acute toxicity was not seen but focal necrosis was observed with the higher dose of each compound and histological abnormalities were more severe with the higher doses. Sodium saccharin induced mild hyperplasia of the urothelium on the surface of the culture and foci of altered epithelial polarity from 14 days; abnormal nuclear staining plus changes in the basal lamina were evident from 28 days and were pronounced from 56 days onwards. Hyperplasia of the urothelium over the explants was mild but there were extensive epithelial outgrowths onto the culture support. In general, sodium cyclamate induced more severe changes than did sodium saccharin, with alterations in epithelial cell polarity plus basal cell changes from 14 days and focal nodular urothelial hyperplasia over the explant and gross hyperplasia between the explant and culture support and in the outgrowth from 28 days. The severe and rapid surface changes, evident by SEM, were similar both in saccharin-treated and in cyclamate-treated cultures. There was some early loss of superficial cells to reveal underlying immature cells which, together with the remaining mature cells, developed abnormal blebs and processes. From 14 days small immature cells were located at the culture surface between the mature cells. These were covered by a variety of membrane protrusions including long pleomorphic microvilli. Sodium cyclamate-treated cultures mostly had fewer small membrane protrusions than sodium saccharin-treated cultures but more pleomorphic microvilli. These morphological changes induced in the rat urothelium in vitro by direct treatment with sodium saccharin and sodium cyclamate are thus similar to those described previously in association with in vivo long-term feeding studies of sodium saccharin to rats and with both in vivo and in vitro treatment of the rat urothelium with the bladder carcinogen N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU). PMID:2421938

Knowles, M A; Jani, H; Hicks, R M



Changes in the morphology and synthetic activity of cultured rat tail tendon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolated single fascicles from tail tendons of young rats were freed of epitenon cells and cultured in vitro for up to 7 days. The tissue remained viable, as judged by the structural integrity of cell organelles and the ability to synthesize DNA and glycosaminoglycans (GAG). The rate of DNA synthesis peaked after 2 days in culture and decreased slowly thereafter.

Christine Slack; Gail Bradley; Brent Beaumont; Anthony Poole; Michael Flint



A comparison of the morphology of denervated with aneurally regenerated soleus muscle of rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soleus muscles of rats were denervated, treated with bupivacaine and autografted in order to induce aneural regeneration or only denervated. After 2–70 days, muscles were fixed and embedded in epoxy resin for light and electron microscopy. Regenerating muscles after 2 and 5 days consisted of a necrotic core and a rim of new fibres; the necrotic core had disappeared by

H. Schmalbruch; D. M. Lewis



Cosmos 1887: morphology, histochemistry, and vasculature of the growing rat tibia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Light microscopy, electron microscopy, and enzyme histochemistry were used to study the effects of spaceflight on metaphyseal and cortical bone of the rat tibia. Cortical cross-sectional area and perimeter were not altered by a 12.5-day spaceflight in 3-month-old male rats. The endosteal osteoblast population and the vasculature near the periosteal surface in flight rats compared with ground controls showed more pronounced changes in cortical bone than in metaphyseal bone. The osteoblasts demonstrated greater numbers of transitional Golgi vesicles, possibly caused by a decreased cellular metabolic energy source, but no difference in the large Golgi saccules or the cell membrane-associated alkaline phosphatase activity. The periosteal vasculature in the diaphysis of flight rats often showed lipid accumulations within the lumen of the vessels, occasional degeneration of the vascular wall, and degeneration of osteocytes adjacent to vessels containing intraluminal deposits. These changes were not found in the metaphyseal region of flight animals. The focal vascular changes may be due to ischemia of bone or a developing fragility of the vessel walls as a result of spaceflight.

Doty, S. B.; Morey-Holton, E. R.; Durnova, G. N.; Kaplansky, A. S.



Morphological and electrophysiological characteristics of pyramidal tract neurons in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Responses evoked in neurons of rat sensorimotor cortex upon stimulation of the pyramidal tract and ipsilateral cerebral peduncle were analysed using intracellular recording. Neurons responding antidromically to pyramidal tract stimulation (PT cells) and neurons failing to respond anti-dromically but exhibiting orthodromic responses were both stained by intracellular injection of horse-radish peroxidase (HRP). Layer V pyramidal neurons, including those responding antidromically,

P. Landry; C. J. Wilson; S. T. Kitai




EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this study was to determine the pulmonary effects of a combination of ozone (0.5 ppm) and sulfuric acid aerosol (1 mg/cu. m.) and to assess the possibility of interactive effects. Groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were continously exposed to the pollutants, either indi...


Morphology of CA3 non-pyramidal cells in the developing rat hippocampus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although several investigations have shown that the local GABAergic circuit in the rat hippocampus is functional very early in development, this result has not been yet completed by the investigation of the full dendritic and axonal arborization of the neonatal interneurones. In the present study, intracellular injection of biocytin was used to assess the branching pattern of interneurones in the

I. Khalilov; H. Gozlan; Y. Ben-ari




EPA Science Inventory

The gene expression pattern of mesothelial cells in vitro was determined after 4 or 12 h exposure to the rat mesothelial, kidney and thyroid carcinogen, and oxidative stressor potassium bromate (KBr03). Gene expression changes observed using cDNA arrays indicated oxidative stres...


Creation and Preliminary Characterization of a Leptin Knockout Rat  

PubMed Central

Leptin, a cytokine-like hormone secreted mainly by adipocytes, regulates various pathways centered on food intake and energy expenditure, including insulin sensitivity, fertility, immune system, and bone metabolism. Here, using zinc finger nuclease technology, we created the first leptin knockout rat. Homozygous leptin null rats are obese with significantly higher serum cholesterol, triglyceride, and insulin levels than wild-type controls. Neither gender produced offspring despite of repeated attempts. The leptin knockout rats also have depressed immune system. In addition, examination by microcomputed tomography of the femurs of the leptin null rats shows a significant increase in both trabecular bone mineral density and bone volume of the femur compared with wild-type littermates. Our model should be useful for many different fields of studies, such as obesity, diabetes, and bone metabolism-related illnesses. PMID:22948215

Vaira, Sergio; Yang, Chang; McCoy, Aaron; Keys, Kelly; Xue, Shurong; Weinstein, Edward J.; Novack, Deborah V.



Effects of prenatal undernutrition on prevertebral sympathetic neurons in the rat: a morphological and fluorescence histochemical study.  

PubMed Central

The effects of maternal undernutrition during the last seven and last fourteen days of pregnancy on neurons of the rat coeliac-superior mesenteric ganglion has been investigated in neonates and in adult animals. The parameters studied were neuron diameter and the level of neuronal noradrenaline fluorescence. The morphology was more permanently affected by fourteen than by seven days undernutrition as shown by the smaller neuron diameters persisting at six months. Both periods of undernutrition affected noradrenaline levels permanently: seven days undernutrition producing a rise and fourteen days producing a depression. These changes demonstrate the permanent effects of maternal undernutrition on the development and maturation of prevertebral sympathetic neurons. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:3446665

Conboy, V B; Santer, R M; Swift, G L



[Behavioral and morphologic disorders caused by bilateral photoinduced thrombosis of the cerebral vessels of the frontal cortex in rats].  


Chronic experiments were made on 35 non-inbred male rats (200-250 g b.w.) to study functional and morphological consequences of photochemical thrombosis of frontal cortex vessels Defects in CNS function were assessed by conditioned reflexes of passive avoidance and behavior in open field tests. The size of the ischemic focus and perifocal lesion were measured on the stained histological sections. Correction of the postischemic impairment was done by intraperitoneal injection of a new nootrop--ethyl ether of N-phenylacetylprolylglycine (GVS-111)--in a dose 0.8 mg/kg/day. The results of the experiments show a significant neuroprotective and nootropic action of GVS-111 in focal ischemic brain damage. PMID:9633188

Romanova, G A; Barskov, I V; Ostrovskaia, R U; Gudasheva, T A; Viktorov, I V



Morphological and functional properties of rat dentate granule cells after adrenalectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

After complete adrenalectomy, part of the granule cells in the dentate gyrus undergo apoptosis. Findings on morphological changes in non-apoptotic granule cells, though, have been equivocal. In the present study we examined the dendritic trees of dentate granule cells 7 days after adrenalectomy or sham operation, and tested the hypothesis that changes in dendritic trees have considerable consequences for ionic

J. Wossink; H. Karst; O. A. Mayboroda; M. Joels



Interneurons of the Dentate-Hilus Border of the Rat Dentate Gyrus: Morphological and Electrophysiological Heterogeneity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interneurons located near the border of the dentate granule cell layer and the hilus were studied in hippocampal slices using whole-cell current clamp and biocytin staining. Because these interneurons exhibit both morphological and electrophysiolog- ical diversity, we asked whether passive electrotonic parame- ters or repetitive firing behavior correlated with axonal distribu- tion. Each interneuron was distinguished by a preferred axonal

David D. Mott; Dennis A. Turner; Maxine M. Okazaki; Darrell V. Lewis



Morphological and functional integrity of precision-cut rat liver slices in rotating organ culture and multiwell plate culture: Effects of oxygen tension  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the maintenance of functional and morphological integrity of precision-cut rat liver slices cultured in various incubation systems and conditions for 72 h. Slices were incubated (37°C) for 6, 24, 48, and 72 h in supplemented Williams E medium in 6-well plastic culture plates on a gyratory shaking platform (WPCS) or in a rotating organ culture system (ROCS) using

H. J. Toutain; V. Moronvalle-Halley; J. P. Sarsat; C. Chelin; D. Hoet; D. Leroy



Genetic, morphological, and ecological characterization of a hybrid zone that spans a migratory divide.  


This study characterizes a hybrid zone that spans a migratory divide between subspecies of the Swainson's thrush (Catharus ustulatus), a long distance migratory songbird, in the Coast Mountains of British Columbia. To assess the potential for a barrier to gene flow between the subspecies, I: (1) analyzed the shape and width of genetic and morphological clines relative to estimates of dispersal distance, (2) assessed the ratio of parental to hybrid genotypes across the hybrid zone, (3) estimated population density across the hybrid zone, and (4) compared the spatial relationship between the hybrid zone and an existing environmental gradient. The results indicate that the hybrid zone is characterized by mostly concordant character clines that are narrow relative to dispersal, the absence of a hybrid swarm, and low population density at the center of the zone. This hybrid zone and additional regions of contact between these subspecies are found on the border between coastal and interior climatic regions throughout the Pacific Northwest. An identified shift in the location, but not the width, of the mtDNA cline relative to the nuclear clines is consistent with asymmetrical hybridization. Neutral diffusion of populations following secondary contact and hybrid superiority within an ecotone are insufficient explanations for the observed patterns. The hypothesis that best fits the data is that the Swainson's thrush hybrid zone is a tension zone maintained by dispersal and ecologically mediated barriers to gene flow. PMID:18039327

Ruegg, Kristen




EPA Science Inventory

Neonatal F344 rats were infected with a rat-adapted influenza virus (RAIV) as a potential model to study the combined effects of early life viral respiratory infection with air pollutant dosimetry and toxic responses, as well as on the development of respiratory disease and incre...



Microsoft Academic Search

Subfractionation of preparations of rat liver microsomes with a suitable concentration of sodium deoxycholate has resulted in the isolation of a membrane fraction consisting of smooth surfaced vesicles virtually free of ribonucleoprotein particles. The membrane fraction is rich in phospholipids, and contains the microsomal NADH-cytochrome c reduc- tase, NADH diaphorase, glucose-6-phosphatase, and ATPase in a concentrated form. The NADPH-cytochrome c




Effect of exercise training and dietary fat on rat adipose tissue lipolysis and morphology  

E-print Network

, 26) did not support the hypothesis that adipocyte proliferation can only be induced early in life. For instance, it has been Epinephrine Norepinephnne ACTH TSH Glucagon Insulin Nicotinic acid Receptors Adenylate Cyclase Complex... theophylline Triglycerides Protein Kinase HSL Glycerol Free-tattY acid Fig. 1 Representation of metabolic steps involved in the control of lipolysis in adipose tissue in rats. ACTH (adrenocorticotropic), TSH (thyroid stimulated hormone), PGE 1...

Neale, Sonia Barstad



Morphological differences in skeletal muscle atrophy of rats with motor nerve and/or sensory nerve injury?  

PubMed Central

Skeletal muscle atrophy occurs after denervation. The present study dissected the rat left ventral root and dorsal root at L4-6 or the sciatic nerve to establish a model of simple motor nerve injury, sensory nerve injury or mixed nerve injury. Results showed that with prolonged denervation time, rats with simple motor nerve injury, sensory nerve injury or mixed nerve injury exhibited abnormal behavior, reduced wet weight of the left gastrocnemius muscle, decreased diameter and cross-sectional area and altered ultrastructure of muscle cells, as well as decreased cross-sectional area and increased gray scale of the gastrocnemius muscle motor end plate. Moreover, at the same time point, the pathological changes were most severe in mixed nerve injury, followed by simple motor nerve injury, and the changes in simple sensory nerve injury were the mildest. These findings indicate that normal skeletal muscle morphology is maintained by intact innervation. Motor nerve injury resulted in larger damage to skeletal muscle and more severe atrophy than sensory nerve injury. Thus, reconstruction of motor nerves should be considered first in the clinical treatment of skeletal muscle atrophy caused by denervation. PMID:25337102

Zhao, Lei; Lv, Guangming; Jiang, Shengyang; Yan, Zhiqiang; Sun, Junming; Wang, Ling; Jiang, Donglin



Creation and preliminary characterization of a Tp53 knockout rat.  


The tumor suppressor TP53 plays a crucial role in cancer biology, and the TP53 gene is the most mutated gene in human cancer. Trp53 knockout mouse models have been widely used in cancer etiology studies and in search for a cure of cancer with some limitations that other model organisms might help overcome. Via pronuclear microinjection of zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), we created a Tp53 knockout rat that contains an 11-bp deletion in exon 3, resulting in a frameshift and premature terminations in the open reading frame. In cohorts of 25 homozygous (Tp53(?11/?11)), 37 heterozygous (Tp53(?11/+)) and 30 wild-type rats, the Tp53(?11/?11) rats lived an average of 126 days before death or removal from study because of clinical signs of abnormality or formation of tumors. Half of Tp53(?11/+) were removed from study by 1 year of age because of tumor formation. Both Tp53(?11/+) and Tp53(?11/?11) rats developed a wide spectrum of tumors, most commonly sarcomas. Interestingly, there was a strikingly high incidence of brain lesions, especially in Tp53(?11/?11) animals. We believe that this mutant rat line will be useful in studying cancer types rarely observed in mice and in carcinogenicity assays for drug development. PMID:22917926

McCoy, Aaron; Besch-Williford, Cynthia L; Franklin, Craig L; Weinstein, Edward J; Cui, Xiaoxia



Development and characterization of new rat monoclonal antibodies for procalcitonin.  


The development of selective and sensitive biological recognition elements, e.g., antibodies, for the detection of relevant blood markers is a great challenge in the field of biosensors. In this context, five new rat monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for procalcitonin (PCT), a marker for bacterial infection and sepsis, were developed and characterized. One mAb, PROC1 3G3, was used as capture antibody. Four mAbs, PROC4 6C6, PROC4 6B2, PROC4 1G3, and PROC4 1D6, were used as detection mAbs, either as Protein G-purified or as biotinylated mAbs. A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor was used to characterize the antigen-antibody biomolecular interactions. The capture mAb (PROC1 3G3) has an equilibrium dissociation constant (K (D)) of 3.42 x 10(-8) M. All four detection mAbs (PROC4 6C6, PROC4 6B2, PROC4 1G3, and PROC4 1D6) are of high affinity (K (A) = 2.81-6.11 x 10(8) M(-1); K (D) = 1.64-3.56 x 10(-9) M) and have moderate dissociation rate constants (k (d) = 1.70-2.40 x 10(-3) s(-1)). Four different sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) with standards of human recombinant (hr) PCT, using PROC1 3G3 as capture mAb and PROC4 mAbs as detection mAbs, respectively, led to highly specific determinations of PCT without cross-reactivities to calcitonin and katacalcin. The lower limits of quantification (LLOQ) for hrPCT (in 40 mM phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.6) with these assays ranged from 2.3 to 12.8 microg L(-1). In addition, sandwich ELISAs were set up with biotinylated PROC4 mAbs, and with hrPCT in 4% human serum albumin (diluted 1:10 in 40 mM PBS, including 1:5 (v/v) LowCross Buffer(R)). The LLOQs of these sandwich assays ranged from 4.1 to 6.0 microg L(-1) and were thus much closer together for the different assays. With the latter assay setup (PROC1 3G3 as capture mAb, PROC4 6C6-biotin as detection mAb) a first collection of five serum samples was determined (healthy volunteers, unspiked, and spiked). Recovery rates for the spiked samples ranged from 98.3 to 115.7%. The newly developed anti-PCT mAbs should find broad applications in immunosensors for point-of-care diagnostics of sepsis and systemic inflammation processes. PMID:18712365

Krämer, Petra M; Gouzy, Marie-Françoise; Kess, Melanie; Kleinschmidt, Ulrike; Kremmer, Elisabeth



Morphologic spectrum of immunohistochemically characterized clear cell carcinoma of the ovary: a study of 155 cases.  


Establishing a diagnosis of ovarian clear cell carcinoma (O-CCC) can be subject to significant interobserver variation. Accurately diagnosing this tumor is important because of its chemoresistance and reported association with Lynch syndrome. The spectrum of the morphologic features of O-CCC has not been well described in a series composed of immunohistochemically characterized cases. A total of 155 cases diagnosed as O-CCC were retrieved from the files of 3 institutions to analyze architectural and cytologic features. The immunohistochemical features of these cases have been reported earlier. A comprehensive list of features was recorded, including, but not limited to, architectural patterns, nuclear appearance, cytoplasmic characteristics, and mitotic index. Between 1 and 13 slides were available for review for each case. The cases were divided into 2 groups based on morphologic characteristics, those with features shared by the large majority (the first group, n=138) and those that showed unusual characteristics (second group, n=17). Tumors in the first group typically showed a mixture of architectural patterns, the most frequent being papillary and tubulocystic. Papillae, usually small and round and lacking hierarchical branching and tufting or stratification of more than 3 cells, were present at least focally in almost 3 of 4 cases. The cell shape was predominantly cuboidal, not columnar. Nuclear pleomorphism and prominent nucleoli were frequently present, but never diffusely. Clear cytoplasm was found in nearly every case and hobnail cells were common. Mitoses exhibited a range from 0 to 13 with an average of 3 to 4 per 10 high power fields. The second group of tumors showed numerous unusual morphologic characteristics, despite the presence of clear cytoplasm, including those typically seen in other ovarian epithelial tumors, such as serous and endometrioid carcinoma. Eighty-nine percent of tumors from the first group showed the expected "O-CCC immunophenotype" [hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) positive, and estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) and p53 negative], whereas 4% of tumors showed HNF positivity along with focal ER or PR expression. Seven percent of tumors were not immunoreactive with these markers. Twenty-nine percent of tumors in the second group showed the O-CCC immunophenotype, whereas 24% of tumors were p53 positive, 5% of tumors were WT1 positive, and the remaining cases were negative for all markers. Ninety-seven percent (112 of 117) of HNF-positive tumors in this series were classical O-CCC. Therefore, O-CCC has characteristic morphologic features and a specific, if not unique, immunophenotype in the vast majority of the cases. Clear cell-rich tumors with features that depart from the classical morphologic appearances described herein should suggest the possibility of an alternative diagnosis. PMID:21164285

DeLair, Deborah; Oliva, Esther; Köbel, Martin; Macias, Antonio; Gilks, C Blake; Soslow, Robert A



Structural and Morphological Characterization of Aggregated Species of ?-Synuclein Induced by Docosahexaenoic Acid  

PubMed Central

The interaction of brain lipids with ?-synuclein may play an important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD). Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an abundant fatty acid of neuronal membranes, and it is presents at high levels in brain areas with ?-synuclein inclusions of patients with PD. In animal models, an increase of DHA content in the brain induces ?-synuclein oligomer formation in vivo. However, it is not clear whether these oligomeric species are the precursors of the larger aggregates found in Lewy bodies of post-mortem PD brains. To characterize these species and to define the role of fatty acids in amyloid formation, we investigated the aggregation process of ?-synuclein in the presence of DHA. We found that DHA readily promotes ?-synuclein aggregation and that the morphology of these aggregates is dependent on the ratio between the protein and DHA. In the presence of a molar ratio protein/DHA of 1:10, amyloid-like fibrils are formed. These fibrils are morphologically different from those formed by ?-synuclein alone and have a less packed structure. At a protein/DHA molar ratio of 1:50, we observe the formation of stable oligomers. Moreover, chemical modifications, methionine oxidations, and protein-lipid adduct formations are induced by increasing concentrations of DHA. The extent of these modifications defines the structure and the stability of aggregates. We also show that ?-synuclein oligomers are more toxic if generated in the presence of DHA in dopaminergic neuronal cell lines, suggesting that these species might be important in the neurodegenerative process associated with PD. PMID:21527634

De Franceschi, Giorgia; Frare, Erica; Pivato, Micaela; Relini, Annalisa; Penco, Amanda; Greggio, Elisa; Bubacco, Luigi; Fontana, Angelo; de Laureto, Patrizia Polverino



Phase separation in thermal systems: a lattice Boltzmann study and morphological characterization.  


We investigate thermal and isothermal symmetric liquid-vapor separations via a fast Fourier transform thermal lattice Boltzmann (FFT-TLB) model. Structure factor, domain size, and Minkowski functionals are employed to characterize the density and velocity fields, as well as to understand the configurations and the kinetic processes. Compared with the isothermal phase separation, the freedom in temperature prolongs the spinodal decomposition (SD) stage and induces different rheological and morphological behaviors in the thermal system. After the transient procedure, both the thermal and isothermal separations show power-law scalings in domain growth, while the exponent for thermal system is lower than that for isothermal system. With respect to the density field, the isothermal system presents more likely bicontinuous configurations with narrower interfaces, while the thermal system presents more likely configurations with scattered bubbles. Heat creation, conduction, and lower interfacial stresses are the main reasons for the differences in thermal system. Different from the isothermal case, the release of latent heat causes the changing of local temperature, which results in new local mechanical balance. When the Prandtl number becomes smaller, the system approaches thermodynamical equilibrium much more quickly. The increasing of mean temperature makes the interfacial stress lower in the following way: ?=?(0)[(T(c)-T)/(T(c)-T(0))](3/2), where T(c) is the critical temperature and ?(0) is the interfacial stress at a reference temperature T(0), which is the main reason for the prolonged SD stage and the lower growth exponent in the thermal case. Besides thermodynamics, we probe how the local viscosities influence the morphology of the phase separating system. We find that, for both the isothermal and thermal cases, the growth exponents and local flow velocities are inversely proportional to the corresponding viscosities. Compared with the isothermal case, the local flow velocity depends not only on viscosity but also on temperature. PMID:22181315

Gan, Yanbiao; Xu, Aiguo; Zhang, Guangcai; Li, Yingjun; Li, Hua



Phenotypic Characterization of LEA Rat: A New Rat Model of Nonobese Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Animal models have provided important information for the genetics and pathophysiology of diabetes. Here we have established a novel, nonobese rat strain with spontaneous diabetes, Long-Evans Agouti (LEA) rat derived from Long-Evans (LE) strain. The incidence of diabetes in the males was 10% at 6?months of age and 86% at 14?months, while none of the females developed diabetes. The blood glucose level in LEA male rats was between 200 and 300?mg/dl at 120?min according to OGTT. The glucose intolerance in correspondence with the impairment of insulin secretion was observed in male rats, which was the main cause of diabetes in LEA rats. Histological examination revealed that the reduction of ?-cell mass was caused by progressive fibrosis in pancreatic islets in age-dependent manner. The intracytoplasmic hyaline droplet accumulation and the disappearance of tubular epithelial cell layer associated with thickening of basement membrane were evident in renal proximal tubules. The body mass index and glycaemic response to exogenous insulin were comparable to those of control rats. The unique characteristics of LEA rat are a great advantage not only to analyze the progression of diabetes, but also to disclose the genes involved in type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:23691528

Okamura, Tadashi; Pei, Xiang Yuan; Miyoshi, Ichiro; Shimizu, Yukiko; Takanashi-Yanobu, Rieko; Mototani, Yasumasa; Kanai, Takao; Satoh, Jo; Kimura, Noriko; Kasai, Noriyuki



Preliminary morphological and morphometric study of rat cerebellum following sodium arsenite exposure during rapid brain growth (RBG) period.  


The effects of arsenic exposure during rapid brain growth (RBG) period were studied in rat brains with emphasis on the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. The RBG period in rats extends from postnatal day 4 (PND 4) to postnatal day 10 (PND 10) and is reported to be highly vulnerable to environmental insults. Mother reared Wistar rat pups were administered intraperitoneal injections (i.p.) of sodium arsenite (aqueous solution) in doses of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0mg/kg body weight (bw) to groups II, III and IV (n=6 animals/group) from PND 4 to 10 (sub acute). Control animals (group I) received distilled water by the same route. On PND 11, the animals were perfusion fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde in 0.1M phosphate buffer (PB) with pH 7.4. The cerebellum obtained from these animals was post-fixed and processed for paraffin embedding. Besides studying the morphological characteristics of Purkinje cells in cresyl violet (CV) stained paraffin sections (10 microm), morphometric analysis of Purkinje cells was carried out using Image Analysis System (Image Proplus software version 4.5) attached to Nikon Microphot-FX microscope. The results showed that on PND 11, the Purkinje cells were arranged in multiple layers extending from Purkinje cell layer (PL) to outer part of granule cell layer (GL) in experimental animals (contrary to monolayer arrangement within PL in control animals). Also, delayed maturation (well defined apical cytoplasmic cones and intense basal basophilia) was evident in Purkinje cells of experimental animals on PND 11. The mean Purkinje cell nuclear area was significantly increased in the arsenic treated animals compared to the control animals. The observations of the present study (faulty migration, delayed maturation and alteration in nuclear area measurements of Purkinje cells subsequent to arsenic exposure) thus provided the morphological evidence of structural alterations subsequent to arsenite induced developmental neurotoxicity which could be presumed to be the underlying basis for some of the functional deficits encountered in the later period of life. PMID:17374429

Dhar, Pushpa; Mohari, Nivedita; Mehra, Raj D



Characterization of Dystrophin Deficient Rats: A New Model for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

A few animal models of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) are available, large ones such as pigs or dogs being expensive and difficult to handle. Mdx (X-linked muscular dystrophy) mice only partially mimic the human disease, with limited chronic muscular lesions and muscle weakness. Their small size also imposes limitations on analyses. A rat model could represent a useful alternative since rats are small animals but 10 times bigger than mice and could better reflect the lesions and functional abnormalities observed in DMD patients. Two lines of Dmd mutated-rats (Dmdmdx) were generated using TALENs targeting exon 23. Muscles of animals of both lines showed undetectable levels of dystrophin by western blot and less than 5% of dystrophin positive fibers by immunohistochemistry. At 3 months, limb and diaphragm muscles from Dmdmdx rats displayed severe necrosis and regeneration. At 7 months, these muscles also showed severe fibrosis and some adipose tissue infiltration. Dmdmdx rats showed significant reduction in muscle strength and a decrease in spontaneous motor activity. Furthermore, heart morphology was indicative of dilated cardiomyopathy associated histologically with necrotic and fibrotic changes. Echocardiography showed significant concentric remodeling and alteration of diastolic function. In conclusion, Dmdmdx rats represent a new faithful small animal model of DMD. PMID:25310701

Tesson, Laurent; Remy, Severine; Thepenier, Virginie; Francois, Virginie; Le Guiner, Caroline; Goubin, Helicia; Dutilleul, Maeva; Guigand, Lydie; Toumaniantz, Gilles; De Cian, Anne; Boix, Charlotte; Renaud, Jean-Baptiste; Cherel, Yan; Giovannangeli, Carine; Concordet, Jean-Paul; Anegon, Ignacio; Huchet, Corinne



Morphological adaptation of capillary network in compensatory hypertrophied rat plantaris muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to examine the morphological adaptation of the capillary network in hypertrophied plantaris muscles\\u000a by examining both capillary numbers and luminal circumferences. Hypertrophy of the plantaris muscle was induced by myectomy\\u000a of the gastrocnemius muscle. This hypertrophy was characterised by increases in muscle mass and fibre cross-sectional area.\\u000a All capillary parameters were determined using morphometric

Yutaka Kano; Satoshi Shimegi; Kazumi Masuda; Hajime Ohmori; Shigeru Katsuta



Morphological and mechanical characterization of composite calcite/SWCNT-COOH single crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A growing number of classes of organic (macro)molecular materials have been trapped into inorganic crystalline hosts, such as calcite single crystals, without significantly disrupting their crystalline lattices. Inclusion of an organic phase plays a key role in enhancing the mechanical properties of the crystals, which are believed to share structural features with biogenic minerals. Here we report the synthesis and mechanical characterization of composite calcite/SWCNT-COOH single crystals. Once entrapped into the crystals SWCNT-COOH appeared both as aggregates of entangled bundles and nanoropes. Their observation was possible only after crystal etching, fracture or FIB (focused ion beam) cross-sectioning. SWCNT-COOHs occupied a small volume fraction and were randomly distributed into the host crystal. They did not strongly affect the crystal morphology. However, although the Young's modulus of composite calcite/SWCNT-COOH single crystals was similar to that of pure calcite their hardness increased by about 20%. Thus, SWCNT-COOHs provide an obstacle against the dislocation-mediated propagation of plastic deformation in the crystalline slip systems, in analogy with the well-known hardness increase in fiber-reinforced composites.A growing number of classes of organic (macro)molecular materials have been trapped into inorganic crystalline hosts, such as calcite single crystals, without significantly disrupting their crystalline lattices. Inclusion of an organic phase plays a key role in enhancing the mechanical properties of the crystals, which are believed to share structural features with biogenic minerals. Here we report the synthesis and mechanical characterization of composite calcite/SWCNT-COOH single crystals. Once entrapped into the crystals SWCNT-COOH appeared both as aggregates of entangled bundles and nanoropes. Their observation was possible only after crystal etching, fracture or FIB (focused ion beam) cross-sectioning. SWCNT-COOHs occupied a small volume fraction and were randomly distributed into the host crystal. They did not strongly affect the crystal morphology. However, although the Young's modulus of composite calcite/SWCNT-COOH single crystals was similar to that of pure calcite their hardness increased by about 20%. Thus, SWCNT-COOHs provide an obstacle against the dislocation-mediated propagation of plastic deformation in the crystalline slip systems, in analogy with the well-known hardness increase in fiber-reinforced composites. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr01568h

Calvaresi, Matteo; Falini, Giuseppe; Pasquini, Luca; Reggi, Michela; Fermani, Simona; Gazzadi, Gian Carlo; Frabboni, Stefano; Zerbetto, Francesco



Functional and morphological assessment of early impairment of airway function in a rat model of emphysema  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate airway structure-function relations in elastase-induced emphysema in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated intratracheally with 50 IU porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE, n = 8) or saline (controls, n = 6). Six weeks later, lung volumes [functional residual capacity (FRC), residual volume (RV), and total lung capacity (TLC)] and low-frequency impedance parameters (Newtonian resistance, RN; tissue damping; tissue elastance, H) were measured, and tracheal sounds were recorded during slow inflation to TLC following in vivo degassing. The lungs were fixed and stained for standard morphometry, elastin, and collagen. In the PPE group, FRC and RV were higher [4.53 ± 0.7 (SD) vs. 3.28 ± 0.45 ml; P = 0.003 and 1.06 ± 0.35 vs. 0.69 ± 0.18 ml; P = 0.036, respectively], and H was smaller in the PPE-treated rats than in the controls (1,344 ± 216 vs. 2,178 ± 305 cmH2O/l; P < 0.001), whereas there was no difference in RN. The average number of crackles per inflation was similar in the two groups; however, the crackle size distributions were different and the lower knee of the pressure-volume curves was higher in the PPE group. Microscopic images revealed different alveolar size distributions but similar bronchial diameters in the two groups. The treatment caused a slight but significant decrease in the numbers of alveolar attachments, no difference in elastin and slightly increased mean level and heterogeneity of collagen in the bronchial walls. These results suggest that tissue destruction did not affect the conventionally assessed airway resistance in this emphysema model, whereas the alterations in the recruitment dynamics can be an early manifestation of impaired airway function. PMID:22442024

Tolnai, J.; Szabari, M. V.; Albu, G.; Maar, B. A.; Parameswaran, H.; Bartolak-Suki, E.; Suki, B.



Cutaneous receptive field and morphological properties of hamstring flexor alpha-motoneurones in the rat.  

PubMed Central

Intracellular recordings have been made from twenty antidromically identified posterior biceps femoris/semitendinosus (p.b.s.t.) hamstring flexor alpha-motoneurones in the decerebrate-spinal rat. The hamstring motoneurones had either low or no spontaneous background activity. In nineteen of the twenty cells high-frequency phasic responses could be elicited by stimulation of the ipsilateral hind paw with firm pressure or pinch. There was no response to light touch or brush. Contralateral cutaneous mechanoreceptive fields with higher thresholds and weaker responses were present in 70% of the motoneurones. Noxious heating of the ipsilateral hind paw produced excitatory responses in six of eight cells tested and two of these cells also responded to heating of the contralateral hind paw. Stimulation of the ipsilateral sural nerve at graded strengths that successively activated A beta, A delta and C afferents produced excitatory post-synaptic potentials (e.p.s.p.s) at progressively longer latencies in the motoneurones. The C-fibre induced e.p.s.p. lasted up to 200 ms. Horseradish peroxidase was injected into ten motoneurones and in seven cases full reconstructions of dendritic field, cell body and axon could be made. In agreement with previous reports from studies in the cat, the dendritic fields of rat motoneurones are very extensive in the rostrocaudal, mediolateral and dorsoventral planes. The general pattern of dendritic branching for each motoneurone in this functionally homogeneous population was uniformly organized. Three major spatial orientations were always present: a rostrocaudally restricted series of dendrites emerging from the cell body and directed dorsolaterally towards the dorsolateral funiculus with branches in the lateral dorsal horn, a laterally, and a ventromedially directed series of branches arranged obliquely in the ventral horn, both of which were distributed rostrocaudally for equal distances from the cell body. Many of these dendritic branches terminated within the lateral and ventral white columns. Although the sizes of the rat flexor motoneurones' somas (51 +/- 4.9 micron, S.E., n = 10) were similar to those of cat lumbosacral alpha-motoneurones, the tip-to-tip rostrocaudal extent of their dendritic fields (1130 +/- 34 micron, S.E., n = 7) was half that reported in the cat. These results are discussed in terms of the organization of the cutaneous flexor withdrawal reflex in the rat. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:4032299

Cook, A J; Woolf, C J



Comparison of functional and morphological deficits in the rat after gestational exposure to ionizing radiation  

SciTech Connect

Ionizing radiation is a precise tool for altering formation of the developing cerebral cortex of the fetal rat. Whole body exposure of the pregnant rat on gestational day 13, 15 or 17 to 1.0 Gy of gamma radiation resulted in maximum thinning of the cortex on days 15 and 17. In the preweaning period, functional tests (negative geotaxis, reflex suspension, continuous corridor and gait) were most affected by irradiation gestational day 15, as was body weight. When a lower dose of radiation (0.75 Gy) was used on gestational day 15, the damage to the cortex was much less but behavioral changes were still present. Frontal, parietal and occipital areas of the cortex were approximately equally affected. Using stepwise multiple regression analysis, the linkage of functional tests and cortical thickness was examined. Functional variables which were most commonly included as predictors of frontal and parietal cortex were negative geotaxis and continuous corridor. Occipital cortical layers were not predicted by behavioral variables. In predicting function using cortical variables, frontal cortex was better than parietal and occipital cortex was the poorest predictor.

Norton, S.; Kimler, B.F.



Electrophysiological characterization of vagal afferents relevant to mucosal nociception in the rat upper oesophagus.  


Emerging evidence indicates a nociceptive role of vagal afferents. A distinct oesophageal innervation in the rat, with muscular and mucosal afferents travelling predominantly in the recurrent (RLN) and superior laryngeal nerve (SLN), respectively, enabled characterization of mucosal afferents with nociceptive properties, using novel isolated oesophagus-nerve preparations. SLN and RLN single-fibre recordings identified 55 and 14 units, respectively, with none conducting faster than 8.7 m s(-1). Mucosal response characteristics in the SLN distinguished mechanosensors (n = 13), mechanosensors with heat sensitivity (18) from those with cold sensitivity (19) and a mechanoinsensitive group (5). The mechanosensitive fibres, all slowly adapting, showed a unimodal distribution of mechanical thresholds (1.4-128 mN, peak approximately 5.7 mN). No difference in response characteristics of C and Adelta fibres was encountered. Mucosal proton stimulation (pH 5.4 for 3 min), mimicking gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), revealed in 31% of units a desensitizing response that peaked around 20 s and faded within 60 s. Cold stimulation (15 degrees C) was proportionally encoded but the response showed slow adaptation. In contrast, the noxious heat (48 degrees C) response showed no obvious adaptation with discharge rates reflecting the temperature's time course. Polymodal (69%) mucosal units, > 30% proton sensitive, were found in each fibre category and were considered nociceptors; they are tentatively attributed to vagal nerve endings type I, IV and V, previously morphologically described. All receptive fields were mapped and the distribution indicates that the posterior upper oesophagus may serve as a 'cutbank', detecting noxious matters, ingested or regurgitated, and triggering nocifensive reflexes such as bronchoconstriction in GORD. PMID:17478536

Lennerz, J K M; Dentsch, C; Bernardini, N; Hummel, T; Neuhuber, W L; Reeh, P W



Isolation and Characterization of Progenitor Cells in Uninjured, Adult Rat Lacrimal Gland  

PubMed Central

Purpose. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of progenitor cells in the uninjured, adult rat lacrimal gland (LG). Methods. The presence of progenitor cells was examined in LG sections from male rats using antibodies against selected stem cell markers and ?-smooth muscle actin (SMA), which marks myoepithelial cells (MECs), by immunofluorescence microscopy (IF). Small, immature cells were isolated after digestion of LG with collagenase and culture in RPMI 1640 for 2 weeks. Immature cells were examined for expression of stem cell markers by IF. Immature cell were grown in neuronal, epithelial, and myoepithelial cell media, and examined by light morphology and IF using antibodies to markers of different cell lineages. Results. In the intact LGs, MECs expressed the stem cell markers nestin, Musashi 1, ABCG2, Pax6, Chx 10, ?N p63, and Sox 2. All markers colocalized with SMA. Isolated immature cells contained Ki-67, nestin, Musashi 1, Pax 6, and CHX 10. In neuronal media, immature cells differentiated and assumed a neuronal cell morphology expressing neurofilament 200. In media for human corneal endothelial cells, immature cells differentiated, assumed cobblestone morphology, and labeled with the epithelial marker AE1/AE3. In RPMI media immature cells differentiated into cells with MEC-like morphology, and expressed the MEC markers SMA, ?-actinin, adenylate cyclase II, and vimentin. Conclusions. We conclude that uninjured, adult LG contains progenitor cells that may be MECs, which can be isolated and differentiated into multiple lineages. PMID:22427571

Shatos, Marie A.; Haugaard-Kedstrom, Linda; Hodges, Robin R.; Dartt, Darlene A.



Optimization and pharmacological characterization of a refined cisplatin-induced rat model of peripheral neuropathic pain.  


Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is the major dose-limiting side-effect of many front-line anticancer drugs. This study was designed to establish and pharmacologically characterize a refined rat model of cisplatin-induced CIPN. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received four (n=18) or five (n=18) single intraperitoneal bolus doses of cisplatin at 3?mg/kg, or saline (control group), once-weekly. Body weight and general health were assessed over a 49-day study period. von Frey filaments and the Hargreaves test were used to define the time course for the development of mechanical allodynia and thermal hypoalgesia in the hindpaws and for efficacy assessment of analgesic/adjuvant agents. The general health of rats administered four cisplatin doses was superior to that of rats administered five doses. Mechanical allodynia was fully developed (paw withdrawal thresholds?6?g) in the bilateral hindpaws from day 32 to 49 for both cisplatin dosing regimens. They also showed significant thermal hypoalgesia in the bilateral hindpaws. In cisplatin-treated rats with paw withdrawal thresholds of up to 6?g, single bolus doses of gabapentin and morphine produced dose-dependent analgesia, whereas meloxicam and amitriptyline lacked efficacy. We have established and pharmacologically characterized a refined rat model of CIPN that is suitable for efficacy profiling of compounds from analgesic discovery programmes. PMID:25325291

Han, Felicity Yaqin; Wyse, Bruce D; Smith, Maree T



Morphology-controllable synthesis and characterization of single-crystal molybdenum trioxide.  


Molybdenum trioxide nanobelts and prism-like particles with good crystallinity and high surface areas have been prepared by a facile hydrothermal method, and the morphology could be controlled by using different inorganic salts, such as KNO3, Ca(NO3)2 , La(NO3)3, etc. The possible growth mechanism of molybdenum trioxide prism-like particles is discussed on the basis of the presence of H+ and the modification of metal cations. The as-prepared nanomaterials are characterized by means of powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy (UV-vis). TEM and HRTEM micrographs show that the molybdenum trioxide nanobelts and prism-like particles have a relatively high degree of crystallinity and uniformity. BET specific surface areas of the as-prepared molybdenum trioxide nanocrystals are 67-79 m2 g-1. XPS analysis indicates that the hexavalent molybdenum is predominant in the nanocrystals. UV-vis spectra reveal that the direct band gap energy of the annealed molybdenum trioxide prism-like particles shows a pronounced blue shift compared to that of bulk MoO3 powder. Interestingly, molybdenum trioxide nanobelts exhibit a red shift under this condition. PMID:16471776

Xia, Tian; Li, Qin; Liu, Xiangdong; Meng, Jian; Cao, Xueqiang



Structural, morphological and interfacial characterization of Al-Mg/TiC composites  

SciTech Connect

Morphological and structural characterization of Al-Mg/TiC composites obtained by infiltration process and wetting by the sessile drop technique were studied. Focusing at the interface, wetting of TiC substrates by molten Al-Mg-alloys at 900 deg. C was investigated. Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) indicated that aluminum carbide (Al{sub 4}C{sub 3}) is formed at the interface and traces of TiAl{sub 3} in the wetting assemblies were detected. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observations show that TiC particles do not appear to be uniformly attacked to produce a continuous layer of Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} at the interface. Molten Al-Mg-alloys were infiltrated into TiC preforms with flowing argon at a temperature of 900 deg. C. In the composites no reaction phase was observed by SEM. Quantification of the Al phase in the composite was carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rietveld analysis. Chemical mapping analyzed by SEM shows that the Al-Mg alloy surrounds TiC particles. In the composites with 20 wt.% of Mg the Al-Mg-{beta} phase was detected through XRD.

Contreras, A. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Programa de Investigacion en Ductos, Corrosion y Materiales, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, San Bartolo Atepehuacan, C. P. 07730, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail:; Angeles-Chavez, C. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Programa de Investigacion en Ductos, Corrosion y Materiales, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, San Bartolo Atepehuacan, C. P. 07730, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Flores, O. [Instituto de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, P. O. Box 48-3, Cuernavaca, Mor (Mexico); Perez, R. [Instituto de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, P. O. Box 48-3, Cuernavaca, Mor (Mexico)



Zonulae occludentes in junctional complex-enriched fractions from mouse liver: preliminary morphological and biochemical characterization  

PubMed Central

A bile canaliculus-derived preparation containing junctional complexes has been obtained from mouse livers using subcellular fractionation techniques. The junctional complexes include structurally intact zonulae occludentes (ZOs). Extraction of this preparation with the anionic detergent sodium deoxycholate (DOC) left junctional ribbons, the detergent-insoluble zonular remnants of the junctional complexes. When visualized in negative stain electron microscopy, each of these ribbons contained a branching and anastomosing network of fibrils which appears similar to that of ZOs in freeze-fractured whole liver. Comparative measurements of freeze-fracture and negative stain fibril diameters and network densities support this relationship. SDS polyacrylamide gel analysis shows the DOC-insoluble junctional ribbons to be characterized by major polypeptides at 37,000 and at 48,000, with minor bands at 34,000, 41,000, 71,000, 86,000, 92,000, and 102,000. The ZO-containing membrane fractions have been isolated in the presence of EGTA in concentrations and under conditions shown by others to disrupt normal ZO morphology and physiology in whole living epithelia. The network of fibrils visualized in these fractions by negative staining is structurally resistant to treatment with DOC, but is either solubilized or disrupted by N-lauroylsarcosine. PMID:6425301



Morphologic and histochemical studies of bone cells from SL-3 rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous studies of rat bone following space flight indicate a significant reduction in new bone formation as a result of hypogravity. In the present study of animals from SL-3 flight, the cellular activity of the bone forming cells, the osteoblasts, was investigated. Measurements of alkaline and acid phosphatase, Golgi activity, secretory granule size, and lysosomal activity, all indicated very little difference between flight and flight-simulated controls. However, there was a tendency for osteoblasts in compact bone of flight animals to show a smaller cytoplasmic volume compared to non-flight controls. If, as in previous studies, a significant reduction in bone formation occurred, it could be due to a normal level of procollagen degradation within these smaller osteoblasts, resulting in less collagen secretion per cell.

Doty, S. B.



Morphology of the lingual papillae in the brush-tailed rat kangaroo.  


We examined the dorsal lingual surface of an adult brush-tailed rat kangaroo (Bettongia penicillata) by scanning electron microscopy. The filiform and fungiform papillae on the lingual apex and body consisted of a main papilla and secondary papillae. The connective tissue core of the filiform papillae on the lingual apex was cylindrical in shape with a crushed top. The connective tissue core of the filiform papillae on the lingual body had one large and several small processes. The fungiform papillae were round in shape. The connective tissue core of the fungiform papillae had several depressions on its top. The surface of the vallate papillae was rough and the papillae were surrounded by a groove and a pad. Several long conical papillae derived from the posterolateral margin of the tongue where foliate papillae have been shown to be distributed in many other animal species. The long conical papillae were very similar to those of the koala and opossum. PMID:24815106

Emura, Shoichi; Okumura, Toshihiko; Chen, Huayue



[A morphological study of rat liver cells after the administration of phenobarbital and ziksorin].  


Male Wistar rats were inducted with phenobarbital and ziksorin. The inducing effect has been shown by hepatocyte hypertrophy involving the cytoplasm and nuclei. After phenobarbital injection cytoplasmic hypertrophy was due to redistribution of the plastic material in favour of the smooth-surface endoplasmic reticulum (SER). This redistribution occurred with the decrease of the energy forming and external synthetic functions of hepatocytes. After ziksorin injection SER hyperplasia was combined with proportional hyperplasia of the whole cytoplasmic organelles of the liver cells. This points to more optimal response of hepatocytes after ziksorin induction as compared with phenobarbital. Therefore, ziksorin can be recommended for clinical practice if it is necessary to stimulate processes of reparative regeneration in the liver. PMID:1288707

Zakharova, M V; Shkurupi?, V A



Effects of bromoethylamine on antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation, and morphological characteristics of rat liver.  


Administration of bromoethylamine (BEA, 1.2 mmol/kg) to fed rats induced a significant diminution in the activity of hepatic superoxide dismutase (at 1 h after treatment), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase and in the content of nonprotein sulfhydryls (at 15 h after treatment). The content of thiobarbituric acid reactants by the liver was enhanced by 1.9 times over control values (at 3 h). Light microscopy studies revealed that BEA (72 h after treatment) induced periportal fatty accumulation, focal liver cell necrosis, and diffuse inflammatory infiltrates, in addition to hypertrophic Kupffer cells and mitotic hepatocytes. Also, hypertrophic middle tunic or hypertrophic smooth muscle layers of arterioles was observed in the periportal space, with dilated sinusoidal capillaries and free macrophage infiltration. It is concluded that BEA induces a derangement in the antioxidant status of the liver with the consequent lipid peroxidation response, which may constitute a significant hepatotoxic mechanism of the haloaklylamine. PMID:9890447

Thielemann, L E; Bosco, C; Rodrigo, R; Orellana, M; Videla, L A



Genomic cloning and characterization of the rat glutathione S-transferase-A3-subunit gene.  


The rat glutathione S-transferase-A3-subunit (GSTA3) gene is a member of the class Alpha GSTs, which we have previously reported to be overexpressed in anti-cancer-drug-resistant cells. In this study, we report the isolation and characterization of the entire rat GSTA3 (rGST Yc1) subunit gene. The rat GSTA3 subunit gene is approximately 15 kb in length and consists of seven exons interrupted by introns of different lengths. Exon 1, with a length of 219 bp, contains only the 5'-untranslated region of the gene. Each exon-intron splicing junction exhibited the consensus sequence for a mammalian splice site. The transcription start site and exon 1 of rat GSTA3 were characterized by a combination of primer extension and rapid amplification of the cDNA ends. Position +1 was identified 219 bp upstream of the first exon-intron splicing junction. The proximal promoter region of the rat GSTA3 subunit gene does not contain typical TATA or CAAT boxes. A computer-based search for potential transcription-factor binding sites revealed the existence of a number of motifs such as anti-oxidant-responsive element, ras-response element, activator protein-1, nuclear factor-kappaB, cAMP-response-element-binding protein, Barbie box and E box. The functional activity of the regulatory region of the rat GSTA3 subunit gene was shown by its ability to drive the expression of a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene in rat mammary carcinoma cells, and its activity was greater in melphalan-resistant cells known to have transcriptional activation of this gene by previous studies. The structure of the gene, with a large intron upstream of the translation-initiation site, may explain why the isolation of this promoter has been so elusive. This information will provide the opportunity to examine the involvement of the rat GSTA3 subunit gene in drug resistance and carcinogenesis. PMID:10215608

Fotouhi-Ardakani, N; Batist, G



Self-assembled light lanthanide oxalate architecture with controlled morphology, characterization, growing mechanism and optical property  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: {yields} Flower-like Sm{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}.10H{sub 2}O was gained with Na{sub 3}Cit assisted precipitation method. {yields} The mechanism of the flower-like Sm{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}.10H{sub 2}O formation was proposed. {yields} The Sm{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}.10H{sub 2}O and Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples exhibited obviously different PL spectra. {yields} Ln{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}.nH{sub 2}O (Ln = Gd, Dy, Lu, Y) also were achieved by the simple method. -- Abstract: Flower-like Sm{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}.10H{sub 2}O had been synthesized by a facile complex agent assisted precipitation method. The flower-like Sm{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}.10H{sub 2}O was characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis and photoluminescence. The possible growth mechanism of the flower-like Sm{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}.10H{sub 2}O was proposed. To extend this method, other Ln{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}.nH{sub 2}O (Ln = Gd, Dy, Lu, Y) with different morphologies also had been prepared by adjusting different rare earth precursors. Further studies revealed that besides the reaction conditions and the additive amount of complex agents, the morphologies of the as-synthesised lanthanide oxalates were also determined by the rare earth ions. The Sm{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}.10H{sub 2}O and Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples exhibited different photoluminescence spectra, which was relevant to Sm{sup 3+} energy level structure of 4f electrons. The method may be applied in the synthesis of other lanthanide compounds, and the work could explore the potential optical materials.

He, Hongmei [Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, 230026 (China)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, 230026 (China); Zhang, Youjin, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, 230026 (China)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, 230026 (China); Zhu, Wei; Zheng, Ao [Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, 230026 (China)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, 230026 (China)



Culture and characterization of rat mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons.  


Dopaminergic neuronal cell degeneration is the principal characteristic feature of the neuropathology of Parkinson's disease. Cultures of mesencephalic neurons are widely used as a source of dopaminergic neurons for the study of mechanisms implicated in dopaminergic cell death and for the evaluation of potential dopaminergic neuroprotective agents, including neurotrophic factors. This chapter presents a detailed protocol for the preparation of rat mesencephalic cell cultures and their application to evaluating the neuroprotective action of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. PMID:22367804

Skaper, Stephen D; Mercanti, Giulia; Facci, Laura



Fenitrothion induced oxidative stress and morphological alterations of sperm and testes in male sprague-dawley rats  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Fenitrothion residue is found primarily in soil, water and food products and can lead to a variety of toxic effects on the immune, hepatobiliary and hematological systems. However, the effects of fenitrothion on the male reproductive system remain unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of fenitrothion on the sperm and testes of male Sprague-Dawley rats. METHODS: A 20 mg/kg dose of fenitrothion was administered orally by gavages for 28 consecutive days. Blood sample was obtained by cardiac puncture and dissection of the testes and cauda epididymis was performed to obtain sperm. The effects of fenitrothion on the body and organ weight, biochemical and oxidative stress, sperm characteristics, histology and ultrastructural changes in the testes were evaluated. RESULTS: Fenitrothion significantly decreased the body weight gain and weight of the epididymis compared with the control group. Fenitrothion also decreased plasma cholinesterase activity compared with the control group. Fenitrothion altered the sperm characteristics, such as sperm concentration, sperm viability and normal sperm morphology, compared with the control group. Oxidative stress markers, such as malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, total glutathione and glutathione S-transferase, were significantly increased and superoxide dismutase activity was significantly decreased in the fenitrothion-treated group compared with the control group. The histopathological and ultrastructural examination of the testes of the fenitrothion-treated group revealed alterations corresponding with the biochemical changes compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: A 20 mg/kg dose of fenitrothion caused deleterious effects on the sperm and testes of Sprague-Dawley rats. PMID:23420164

Taib, Izatus Shima; Budin, Siti Balkis; Ghazali, Ahmad Rohi; Jayusman, Putri Ayu; Louis, Santhana Raj; Mohamed, Jamaludin



Surfactant secretion in LRRK2 knock-out rats: changes in lamellar body morphology and rate of exocytosis.  


Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is known to play a role in the pathogenesis of various diseases including Parkinson disease, morbus Crohn, leprosy and cancer. LRRK2 is suggested to be involved in a number of cell biological processes such as vesicular trafficking, transcription, autophagy and lysosomal pathways. Recent histological studies of lungs of LRRK2 knock-out (LRRK2 -/-) mice revealed significantly enlarged lamellar bodies (LBs) in alveolar type II (ATII) epithelial cells. LBs are large, lysosome-related storage organelles for pulmonary surfactant, which is released into the alveolar lumen upon LB exocytosis. In this study we used high-resolution, subcellular live-cell imaging assays to investigate whether similar morphological changes can be observed in primary ATII cells from LRRK2 -/- rats and whether such changes result in altered LB exocytosis. Similarly to the report in mice, ATII cells from LRRK2 -/- rats contained significantly enlarged LBs resulting in a >50% increase in LB volume. Stimulation of ATII cells with ATP elicited LB exocytosis in a significantly increased proportion of cells from LRRK2 -/- animals. LRRK2 -/- cells also displayed increased intracellular Ca(2+) release upon ATP treatment and significant triggering of LB exocytosis. These findings are in line with the strong Ca(2+)-dependence of LB fusion activity and suggest that LRRK2 -/- affects exocytic response in ATII cells via modulating intracellular Ca(2+) signaling. Post-fusion regulation of surfactant secretion was unaltered. Actin coating of fused vesicles and subsequent vesicle compression to promote surfactant expulsion were comparable in cells from LRRK2 -/- and wt animals. Surprisingly, surfactant (phospholipid) release from LRRK2 -/- cells was reduced following stimulation of LB exocytosis possibly due to impaired LB maturation and surfactant loading of LBs. In summary our results suggest that LRRK2 -/- affects LB size, modulates intracellular Ca(2+) signaling and promotes LB exocytosis upon stimulation of ATII cells with ATP. PMID:24465451

Miklavc, Pika; Ehinger, Konstantin; Thompson, Kristin E; Hobi, Nina; Shimshek, Derya R; Frick, Manfred



Characterization of SV40 Tag rats as a model to study prostate cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer in men. Animal models that closely mimic clinical disease in humans are invaluable tools in the fight against prostate cancer. Recently, a Simian Virus-40 T-antigen (SV-40 Tag) targeted probasin promoter rat model was developed. This model, however, has not been extensively characterized; hence we have investigated the ontogeny of prostate

Curt E Harper; Brijesh B Patel; Leah M Cook; Jun Wang; Tomoyuki Shirai; Isam A Eltoum; Coral A Lamartiniere




EPA Science Inventory

CLONING, EXPRESSION, AND CHARACTERIZATION OF RAT S-ADENOSYL-L-METHIONINE: ARSENIC(III) METHYLTRANSFERASE (cyt19) Stephen B. Waters1 , Felicia Walton1 , Miroslav Styblo1 , Karen Herbin-Davis2, and David J. Thomas2 1 School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chape...


Purification and Characterization of Flavin-Containing Monooxygenase Isoform 3 from Rat Kidney Microsomes  

PubMed Central

Rats are a common animal model for metabolism and toxicity studies. Previously, the enzymatic properties of rat FMO1 purified from hepatic and renal microsomes and that of FMO3 purified from hepatic microsomes were characterized. This study investigated the physical, immunological, and enzymatic properties of FMO3 purified from male rat kidney microsomes and compared the results to those obtained with isolated rat liver FMO3. Renal FMO3 was purified via affinity columns based on the elution of L-methionine (Met) S-oxidase activity and reactivity of the eluted proteins with human FMO3 antibody. Typically, Met S-oxidase specific activity was increased 100-fold through the purification steps. The resulting protein had similar mobility (?56 kDa) as isolated rat liver FMO3 and cDNA-expressed human FMO3 by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. When the isolated kidney protein band was subjected to trypsin digestion and MALDI-TOF mass spectral analysis, 34% of the sequence of rat FMO3 was detected. The apparent Km and Vmax values for rat kidney FMO3 were determined using the known FMO substrates Met, seleno-L-methionine (SeMet), S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) and methimazole. The stereoselectivity of the reactions with Met and SAC were also examined using HPLC. The obtained kinetic and stereoselectivity results were similar to those we obtained in the present study, or those previously reported, for rat liver FMO3. Collectively, the results demonstrate many similar properties between rat hepatic and renal FMO3 forms and suggest that renal FMO3 may play an important role in kidney metabolism of xenobiotics containing sulfur and selenium atoms. PMID:18775983

Novick, Rachel M.



Characterization of the development of renal injury in Type-1 diabetic Dahl salt-sensitive rats  

PubMed Central

The present study compared the progression of renal injury in Sprague-Dawley (SD) and Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) treated with streptozotocin (STZ). The rats received an injection of STZ (50 mg/kg ip) and an insulin pellet (2 U/day sc) to maintain the blood glucose levels between 400 and 600 mg/dl. Twelve weeks later, arterial pressure (143 ± 6 vs. 107 ± 8 mmHg) and proteinuria (557 ± 85 vs. 81 ± 6 mg/day) were significantly elevated in STZ-SS rats compared with the values observed in STZ-SD rats, respectively. The kidneys from STZ-SS rats exhibited thickening of glomerular basement membrane, mesangial expansion, severe glomerulosclerosis, renal interstitial fibrosis, and occasional glomerular nodule formation. In additional studies, treatment with a therapeutic dose of insulin (4 U/day sc) attenuated the development of proteinuria (212 ± 32 mg/day) and renal injury independent of changes in arterial pressure in STZ-SS rats. Since STZ-SS rats developed severe renal injury, we characterized the time course of changes in renal hemodynamics during the progression of renal injury. Nine weeks after diabetes onset, there was a 42% increase in glomerular filtration rate in STZ-SS rats vs. time-control SS rats with reduced renal blood flow. These results indicate that SS rats treated with STZ develop hyperfiltration and progressive proteinuria and display renal histological lesions characteristic of those seen in patients with diabetic nephropathy. Overall, this model may be useful to study signaling pathways and mechanisms that play a role in the progression of diabetes-induced renal disease and the development of new therapies to slow the progression of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:23926133

Slaughter, Tiffani N.; Paige, Adrienne; Spires, Denisha; Kojima, Naoki; Kyle, Patrick B.; Garrett, Michael R.; Roman, Richard J.



Simultaneous characterization of metabolic, cardiac, vascular and renal phenotypes of lean and obese SHHF rats.  


Individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS) are prone to develop heart failure (HF). However, the deleterious effects of MetS on the continuum of events leading to cardiac remodeling and subsequently to HF are not fully understood. This study characterized simultaneously MetS and cardiac, vascular and renal phenotypes in aging Spontaneously Hypertensive Heart Failure lean (SHHF(+/?) regrouping (+/+) and (+/cp) rats) and obese (SHHF(cp/cp), "cp" defective mutant allele of the leptin receptor gene) rats. We aimed to refine the milestones and their onset during the progression from MetS to HF in this experimental model. We found that SHHF(cp/cp )but not SHHF(+/?) rats developed dyslipidemia, as early as 1.5 months of age. This early alteration in the lipidic profile was detectable concomitantly to impaired renal function (polyuria, proteinuria but no glycosuria) and reduced carotid distensibility as compared to SHHF(+/?) rats. By 3 months of age SHHFcp/cp animals developed severe obesity associated with dislipidemia and hypertension defining the onset of MetS. From 6 months of age, SHHF(+/?) rats developed concentric left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) while SHHF(cp/cp) rats developed eccentric LVH apparent from progressive dilation of the LV dimensions. By 14 months of age only SHHF(cp/cp) rats showed significantly higher central systolic blood pressure and a reduced ejection fraction resulting in systolic dysfunction as compared to SHHF(+/?). In summary, the metabolic and hemodynamic mechanisms participating in the faster decline of cardiac functions in SHHF(cp/cp) rats are established long before their physiological consequences are detectable. Our results suggest that the molecular mechanisms triggered within the first three months after birth of SHHF(cp/cp) rats should be targeted preferentially by therapeutic interventions in order to mitigate the later HF development. PMID:24831821

Youcef, Gina; Olivier, Arnaud; L'Huillier, Clément P J; Labat, Carlos; Fay, Renaud; Tabcheh, Lina; Toupance, Simon; Rodriguez-Guéant, Rosa-Maria; Bergerot, Damien; Jaisser, Frédéric; Lacolley, Patrick; Zannad, Faiez; Laurent Vallar; Pizard, Anne



Combined Effects of Ephedrine-Containing Dietary Supplements, Caffeine, and Nicotine on Morphology and Ultrastructure of Rat Hearts  

PubMed Central

Cigarette smokers have an increased risk for coronary artery disease. Nicotine present in cigarettes can adversely affect the cardiovascular system via stimulation of both sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons. Caffeine, another cardiovascular and central nervous system (CNS) stimulant, is commonly found in Ephedra and Ephedra-free dietary supplements. These caffeine-containing supplements also have been linked to cardiovascular toxicities. Although no longer on the U.S market, Ephedra-containing supplements are another source of cardiovascular and CNS stimulants, namely the ephedrine alkaloids. Together caffeine, nicotine, and ephedrine can individually stress the cardiovascular system, and an overlap of these agents is predicted in smokers and dieters. To understand the collective effects of these stimulants on the heart morphology and ultrastructure, rats were exposed to synthetic combinations of nicotine (0.2?mg/kg/day), ephedrine (0–30?mg/kg/day), and/or caffeine (0–24?mg/kg/day) as well as an extract from a caffeine-containing Ephedra supplement (Metabolife 356). After exposure for 3 days, the hearts were removed and examined for hypersensitivity myocarditis and myocardial necrosis. None of the drugs tested alone affected heart tissue morphology, nor were atypical cardiac cells observed. However, in combination, significant interactions were found between caffeine and ephedrine; the interventricular septum was most susceptible, with a significant increase in atypical cardiac cells observed. Nicotine pretreatment caused greater susceptibility to cardiotoxicity associated with combinations of caffeine + ephedrine or Metabolife, particularly in the left ventricle wall. These results indicate that sympathomimetic combinations present in Ephedra supplements may have produced cardiotoxicity reported in consumers of these products. Moreover, the presence of nicotine exacerbates these toxic effects. PMID:24761270

Brown, Christopher E.; Trauth, Stanley E.; Grippo, Richard S.; Gurley, Bill J.



TRPA1-expressing primary afferents synapse with specific morphological subtypes of substantia gelatinosa neurons in the adult rat spinal cord  

PubMed Central

The TRPA1-channel has been proposed to be a molecular transducer of cold and inflammatory nociceptive signals. It is expressed on a subset of small primary afferent neurons both in the peripheral terminals, where it serves as a sensor, and on the central nerve endings in the dorsal horn. The substantia gelatinosa (SG) of the spinal cord is a key site for integration of noxious inputs. The SG neurons are morphologically and functionally heterogeneous and the precise synaptic circuits of the SG are poorly understood. We examined how activation of TRPA1 channels affects synaptic transmission onto SG neurons using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and morphological analyses in adult rat spinal cord slices. Cinnamaldehyde (TRPA1 agonist) elicited a barrage of EPSCs in a subset of the SG neurons that responded to allyl isothiocyanate (less specific TRPA1 agonist) and capsaicin (TRPV1 agonist). Cinnamaldehyde evoked EPSCs in vertical and radial, but not islet or central SG cells. Notably, cinnamaldehyde produced no change in IPSCs nor did it produce direct post-synaptic effects. In the presence of TTX, cinnamaldehyde increased the frequency but not amplitude of miniature EPSCs. Intriguingly, cinnamaldehyde had a selective inhibitory action on monosynaptic C (but not A?) fiber-evoked EPSCs. These results indicate that activation of spinal TRPA1 presynaptically facilitates miniature excitatory synaptic transmission from primary afferents onto vertical and radial cells to initiate action potentials. The presence of TRPA1 channels on the central terminals raises the possibility of a novel mechanism for a cell type-specific bidirectional modulatory action on the SG. PMID:20497466

Uta, Daisuke; Furue, Hidemasa; Pickering, Anthony E.; Rashid, Md Harunor; Mizuguchi-Takase, Hiroko; Katafuchi, Toshihiko; Imoto, Keiji; Yoshimura, Megumu



The energy costs of sexual dimorphism in mole-rats are morphological not behavioural  

PubMed Central

Different reproductive strategies of males and females may lead to the evolution of differences in their energetic costs of reproduction, overall energetic requirements and physiological performances. Sexual dimorphism is often associated with costly behaviours (e.g. large males might have a competitive advantage in fighting, which is energetically expensive). However, few studies of mammals have directly compared the energy costs of reproductive activities between sexes. We compared the daily energy expenditure (DEE) and resting metabolic rate (RMR) of males and females of two species of mole-rat, Bathyergus janetta and Georychus capensis (the former is sexually dimorphic in body size and the latter is not) during a period of intense digging when males seek females. We hypothesized that large body size might be indicative of greater digging or fighting capabilities, and hence greater mass-independent DEE values in males of the sexually dimorphic species. In contrast to this prediction, although absolute values of DEE were greater in B. janetta males, mass-independent values were not. No differences were apparent between sexes in G. capensis. By comparison, although RMR values were greater in B. janetta than G. capensis, no differences were apparent between the sexes for either species. The energy cost of dimorphism is most likely to be the cost of maintenance of a large body size, and not the cost of behaviours performed when an individual is large. PMID:16519235

Scantlebury, M; Speakman, J.R; Bennett, N.C



Morphological studies of bone and tendon. [in post-spaceflight rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Soviet biosatellite Cosmos 2044 carried adult rats on a spaceflight that lasted 13.8 days and was intended to repeat animal studies carrier out on Cosmos 1887. Skeletal tissue and tendon from animals flown on Cosmos 2044 were studied by light and electron microscopy, histochemistry, and morphometric techniques. Studies were confined to the bone cells and vasculature from the weight-bearing tibias. Results indicated that vascular changes at the periosteal and subperiosteal region of the tibia were not apparent by light microscopy or histochemistry. However, electron microscopy indicated that vascular influsions were present in bone samples from the flight animals. A unique combination of microscopy and histochemical techniques indicated that the endosteal osteoblasts from this same middiaphyseal region demonstrated a slight (but not statisticallly significant) reduction in bone cell activity. Electron-microscopic studies of the tendons from metatarsal bones showed a collagen fibril disorganization as a result of spaceflight. Thus changes described for Cosmos 1887 were present in Cosmos 2044, but the changes ascribed to spaceflight were not as evident.

Doty, Stephen B.; Morey-Holton, Emily R.; Durnova, G. N.; Kaplanskii, A. S.



Morphological changes in cerebellum of neonatal rats exposed to 2. 45 GHz microwaves  

SciTech Connect

One-day and six-day old Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed in the far field to 2.45 GHz (cw) microwaves at 10 mW/cm/sup 2/ for five consecutive days, 7 hours per day (SAR 2W/kg). Pups were euthenized one day after exposure and the cerebella processed for light and electron microscopy. Matching cerebellar sections and folia from irradiated and sham irradiated animals were examined. Light microscopic examination revealed the presence of small deeply-stained cells with hyperchromatic pyknotic nuclei within the external granular layer (EGL). The number of these pyknotic cells in the experimental animals was nearly twice that in the controls. The Nissl bodies in Purkinje cells were finely dispersed. In some experimental animals mononuclear cellular infiltration was demonstrated. Under the electron microscope the deeply-stained pyknotic small cells presented electron dense nuclei with clumped chromatin, extrusion or disintegration of the nucleus, ruptured nuclear membrane, and the vacuolization of the cytoplasm. Eventually these cells became phagocytosed by surrounding EGL cells. Most of the Purkinje cells of experimental animals showed small, disorderly arrays of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) instead of the typical orderly stacks of parallel arrays. These observations suggest that microwave radiation may interfere with early genesis of cerebellar microneurons and alter the metabolic status of Purkinje cells. However, this effect might be reversible.

Albert, E.N.; Sherif, M.



Quantitative characterization of the influence of the nanoscale morphology of nanostructured surfaces on bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation.  


Bacterial infection of implants and prosthetic devices is one of the most common causes of implant failure. The nanostructured surface of biocompatible materials strongly influences the adhesion and proliferation of mammalian cells on solid substrates. The observation of this phenomenon has led to an increased effort to develop new strategies to prevent bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation, primarily through nanoengineering the topology of the materials used in implantable devices. While several studies have demonstrated the influence of nanoscale surface morphology on prokaryotic cell attachment, none have provided a quantitative understanding of this phenomenon. Using supersonic cluster beam deposition, we produced nanostructured titania thin films with controlled and reproducible nanoscale morphology respectively. We characterized the surface morphology; composition and wettability by means of atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. We studied how protein adsorption is influenced by the physico-chemical surface parameters. Lastly, we characterized Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus adhesion on nanostructured titania surfaces. Our results show that the increase in surface pore aspect ratio and volume, related to the increase of surface roughness, improves protein adsorption, which in turn downplays bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. As roughness increases up to about 20 nm, bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation are enhanced; the further increase of roughness causes a significant decrease of bacterial adhesion and inhibits biofilm formation. We interpret the observed trend in bacterial adhesion as the combined effect of passivation and flattening effects induced by morphology-dependent protein adsorption. Our findings demonstrate that bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on nanostructured titanium oxide surfaces are significantly influenced by nanoscale morphological features. The quantitative information, provided by this study about the relation between surface nanoscale morphology and bacterial adhesion points towards the rational design of implant surfaces that control or inhibit bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. PMID:21966403

Singh, Ajay Vikram; Vyas, Varun; Patil, Rajendra; Sharma, Vimal; Scopelliti, Pasquale Emanuele; Bongiorno, Gero; Podestà, Alessandro; Lenardi, Cristina; Gade, Wasudev Namdev; Milani, Paolo



Morphology and connectivity of parabrachial and cortical inputs to gustatory thalamus in rats.  


The ventroposterior medialis parvocellularis (VPMpc) nucleus of the thalamus, the thalamic relay nucleus for gustatory sensation, receives primary input from the parabrachial nucleus, and projects to the insular cortex. To reveal the unique properties of the gustatory thalamus in comparison with archetypical sensory relay nuclei, this study examines the morphology of synaptic circuitry in the VPMpc, focusing on parabrachiothalamic driver input and corticothalamic feedback. Anterogradely visualized parabrachiothalamic fibers in the VPMpc bear large swellings. At electron microscope resolution, parabrachiothalamic axons are myelinated and make large boutons, forming multiple asymmetric, adherent, and perforated synapses onto large-caliber dendrites and dendrite initial segments. Labeled boutons contain dense-core vesicles, and they resemble a population of terminals within the VPMpc containing calcitonin gene-related peptide. As is typical of primary inputs to other thalamic nuclei, parabrachiothalamic terminals are over five times larger than other inputs, while constituting only 2% of all synapses. Glomeruli and triadic arrangements, characteristic features of other sensory thalamic nuclei, are not encountered. As revealed by anterograde tracer injections into the insular cortex, corticothalamic projections in the VPMpc form a dense network of fine fibers bearing small boutons. Corticothalamic terminals within the VPMpc were also observed to synapse on cells that were retrogradely filled from the same injections. The results constitute an initial survey describing unique anatomical properties of the rodent gustatory thalamus. J. Comp. Neurol. 523:139-161, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25186035

Holtz, Stephen L; Fu, Anqi; Loflin, Wyatt; Corson, James A; Erisir, Alev



Sleep deprivation induces differential morphological changes in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex in young and old rats.  


Sleep is a fundamental state necessary for maintenance of physical and neurological homeostasis throughout life. Several studies regarding the functions of sleep have been focused on effects of sleep deprivation on synaptic plasticity at a molecular and electrophysiological level, and only a few studies have studied sleep function from a structural perspective. Moreover, during normal aging, sleep architecture displays some changes that could affect normal development in the elderly. In this study, using a Golgi-Cox staining followed by Sholl analysis, we evaluate the effects of 24 h of total sleep deprivation on neuronal morphology of pyramidal neurons from Layer III of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the dorsal hippocampal CA1 region from male Wistar rats at two different ages (3 and 22 months). We found no differences in total dendritic length and branching length in both analyzed regions after sleep deprivation. Spine density was reduced in the CA1 of young-adults, and interestingly, sleep deprivation increased spine density in PFC of aged animals. Taken together, our results show that 24 h of total sleep deprivation have different effects on synaptic plasticity and could play a beneficial role in cognition during aging. Synapse 69:15-25, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25179486

Acosta-Peña, Eva; Camacho-Abrego, Israel; Melgarejo-Gutiérrez, Montserrat; Flores, Gonzalo; Drucker-Colín, René; García-García, Fabio



Genetic characterization of Okinawan black rats showing coat color polymorphisms of white spotting and melanism.  


We examined pelage color variation in wild populations of black rats (the Rattus rattus species complex) in the Yambaru forest area, northern Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Our field study revealed that 8.7% (38/438) and 0.2% (4/2500) of rats exhibited two types of coat color: white spotting and melanism, respectively. Using 34 representative animals, the phylogeography of the population was inferred using a nuclear gene marker, i.e., sequences (954 bp) of the melanocortin-1 receptor (Mc1r) gene responsible for the melanistic form in black rats. Four sequences from Okinawa were characterized as R. tanezumi, the Asian strain of black rat. Notably, neither of the phenotypic characters of white spotting or melanism was associated with the Mc1r haplotypes. Analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cytb) sequences (1140 bp) revealed that four haplotypes recovered from Okinawa clustered with the clade of R. tanezumi and differed by one or more bases from haplotypes at other localities in Japan and Asian countries. Thus, both variants may have arisen in the native rat population of Okinawa without interaction with the lineage of R. rattus, which exhibits a worldwide distribution and displays such coat color variants. The Yambaru population of black rats has thus experienced its own evolutionary history in allopatry for a substantial period of time (e.g., 10,000 years), which has preserved valuable genetic polymorphisms and will be useful for assessing the ecological consequences of genetic variation in natural populations. PMID:22531792

Kambe, Yoshikazu; Nakata, Katsushi; Yasuda, Shumpei P; Suzuki, Hitoshi



Characterizing olfactory perceptual similarity using carbon chain discrimination in Fischer 344 rats.  


Performance on olfactory tests can be influenced by a number of stimulus characteristics including chemical structure, concentration, perceptual similarity, and previous experience with the test odorants. Few of these parameters have been extensively characterized in the Fischer 344 rat strain. To investigate how odor quality affects perception in this rat strain, we measured how graded perceptual similarity, created by varying carbon chain length across a series of homologous alcohol pairs, influenced odor discrimination using a liquid-motivated go/no-go task. We employed an automated, liquid-dilution olfactometer to train Fischer 344 rats (N = 8) on a 2-odor discrimination task. Six odorants (1-propanol, 1-butanol, 1-pentanol, 1-hexanol, 1-heptanol, and 1-octanol) were arranged to produce 15 novel odorant pairs differing between 1 and 5 carbon atoms; testing sessions included presentation of only 1 pseudorandomly assigned pair daily (200 trials). Results show that although rats can learn to discriminate between any 2 odorant pairs, performance declines systematically as the pairs become more structurally similar and, therefore, more perceptually confusing. As such, the easier discrimination pairs produced reliable ceiling effects across all rats, whereas performance for the difficult discrimination pairs was consistently worse, even after repeated testing. These data emphasize the importance of considering odorant stimulus dimensions in experimental designs employing olfactory stimuli. Moreover, establishing baseline olfactory performance in Fischer 344 rats may be particularly useful for predicting age-related cognitive decline in this model. PMID:24488965

Yoder, Wendy M; Setlow, Barry; Bizon, Jennifer L; Smith, David W



Characterization of cysteine string protein in rat parotid acinar cells.  


Cysteine string proteins (CSPs) are secretory vesicle chaperone proteins that contain: (i) a heavily palmitoylated cysteine string (comprised of 14 cysteine residues, responsible for the localization of CSP to secretory vesicle membranes), (ii) an N-terminal J-domain (DnaJ domain of Hsc70, 70kDa heat-shock cognate protein family of co-chaperones), and (iii) a linker domain (important in mediating CSP effects on secretion). In this study, we investigated the localization of CSP1 in rat parotid acinar cells and evaluated the role of CSP1 in parotid secretion. RT-PCR and western blotting revealed that CSP1 was expressed and associated with Hsc70 in rat parotid acinar cells. Further, CSP1 associated with syntaxin 4, but not with syntaxin 3, on the apical plasma membrane. Introduction of anti-CSP1 antibody into SLO-permeabilized acinar cells enhanced isoproterenol (IPR)-induced amylase release. Introduction of GST-CSP11-112, containing both the J-domain and the adjacent linker region, enhanced IPR-induced amylase release, whereas neither GST-CSP11-82, containing the J-domain only, nor GST-CSP183-112, containing the linker region only, did produce detectable enhancement. These results indicated that both the J-domain and the linker domain of CSP1 are necessary to function an important role in acinar cell exocytosis. PMID:23942053

Shimomura, Hiromi; Imai, Akane; Nashida, Tomoko



Quartz crystal microbalance sample stage for in situ characterization of thickness and surface morphology of spin coated polymer films  

SciTech Connect

A miniature spin coating stage is developed for in situ characterization of the thickness and the surface morphology of spin coated polymer films using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and atomic force microscopy. The spin coated polystyrene films deposited on gold surfaces from solutions using the stage were found to be uniform; the thickness of the films varied linearly with the polystyrene concentration in solution. The film thickness determined by the QCM agree with that from ellipsometry measurements.

Rao Nanxia; Xie Xin; Wielizcka, David; Zhu Daming [Department of Physics, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, Missouri 64110 (United States)



Cloning, expression, and functional characterization of the rat Pax6 5a orthologous splicing variant.  


Pax6 functions as a pleiotropic regulator in eye development and neurogenesis. Its splice variant Pax6 5a has been cloned in many vertebrate species including human and mouse, but never in rat. This study focused on the cloning and characterization of the Pax6 5a orthologous splicing variant in rat. It was cloned from Sprague-Dawley rats 10 days post coitum (E10) by RT-PCR and was sequenced for comparison with Pax6 sequences in the GenBank by BLAST. The rat Pax6 5a was revealed to contain an additional 42 bp insertion at the paired domain. At the nucleotide level, the rat Pax6 5a coding sequence (1,311 bp) had a higher degree of homology to the mouse (96% identical) than to the human (93% identical) sequence. At the amino acid (aa) level, rat PAX6 5a shares 99.8% identity with the mouse sequence and 99.5% with the human sequence. The splice variant is preferentially expressed in the rat E10 embryonic headfolds and not in the trunk of neurula. Its effects on the proliferation of rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) were preliminarily evaluated by the MTT assay. Both pLEGFP-Pax6 5a-transfected cells and pLEGFP-Pax6-transfected cells exhibited a similar growth curve (P>0.05), suggesting that the Pax6 5a has a similar effect on the proliferation of rMSCs as Pax6. PMID:24952136

Wei, Fei; Li, Min; Cheng, Sai-Yu; Wen, Liang; Liu, Ming-Hua; Shuai, Jie



Biological effects of short-term, high-concentration exposure to methyl isocyanate. V. Morphologic evaluation of rat and guinea pig lungs  

SciTech Connect

The morphologic changes induced in the lungs of rats and guinea pigs exposed to high concentrations of MIC vapor (100, 600, and 1000 ppm in the rat and 25, 125, 225, and 675 ppm in the guinea pig) for a short time (15 min) in a static exposure chamber were evaluated at varying postexposure periods (0, 1, 2, and 4, and 16 hr). The 675 ppm-exposed guinea pigs were evaluated only immediately following removal from the chamber. Attention was primarily focused on the intrapulmonary conducting airways and the parenchyma (gas exchange region) of the lungs. The severity of morphologic changes observed by light microscopy was directly correlated with exposure concentration and time postexposure in both species. Specifically, degenerative changes were observed in the bronchial, bronchiolar, and alveolar epithelium in both species. Quantitative differences were observed; 100 ppm of MIC in the rat resulted in much less damage than did 125 ppm of MIC in the guinea pig. Morphologic evidence of sloughing of large sheets of conducting airway epithelium with fibrin buildup and increased mucus production resulted in plugging of major airways and atelectasis. These observations support the hypothesis that tissue hypoxia was a major contributing factor resulting in death.

Fowler, E.H.; Dodd, D.E.; Troup, C.M.



Characterization of new surface morphologies in a hydrogen-bonded multilayer system  

E-print Network

This work presents an analysis of surface morphology changes in poly(acrylic acid)/polyacrylamide (PAA/PAAm) hydrogen-bonded multilayers. These changes were induced by immersion of the films in aqueous solutions of ...

Kunz, Allison (Allison L.)




PubMed Central

4,4’-Methylenedianiline (4,4’-diaminodiphenylmethane; DAPM) is an aromatic diamine used in the production of numerous polyurethane foams and epoxy resins. Previous studies in rats revealed that DAPM initially injures biliary epithelial cells of the liver, that the toxicity is greater in female than in male rats, and that the toxic metabolites of DAPM are excreted into bile. Since male and female rats exhibit differences in the expression of both phase I and phase II enzymes, our hypothesis was that female rats either metabolize DAPM to more toxic metabolites or have a decreased capacity to conjugate metabolites to less toxic intermediates. Our objective was thus to isolate, characterize, and quantify DAPM metabolites excreted into bile in both male and female bile duct-cannulated Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were gavaged with [14C]-DAPM, and the collected bile was subjected to reversed-phase HPLC with radioisotope detection. Peaks eluting from HPLC were collected and analyzed using electrospray MS, NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy. HPLC analysis indicated numerous metabolites in both sexes, but male rats excreted greater amounts of glutathione and glucuronide conjugates than females. Electrospray MS and NMR spectra of HPLC fractions revealed that the most prominent metabolite found in bile of both sexes was a glutathione conjugate of an imine metabolite of a 4’-nitroso-DAPM. Seven other metabolites were identified, including acetylated, cysteinyl-glycine, glutamyl-cysteine, glycine, and glucuronide conjugates. While our prior studies demonstrated increased covalent binding of DAPM in the liver and bile of female compared to male rats, in these studies, SDS-PAGE with autoradiography revealed 4–5 radiolabeled protein bands in the bile of rats treated with [14C]-DAPM. In addition, these bands were much more prominent in female than in male rats. These studies thus suggest that a plausible mechanism for the increased sensitivity of female rats to DAPM toxicity may be decreased conjugation of reactive DAPM metabolites, leading to greater levels of protein adduct formation. PMID:18692083

Chen, Kan; Cole, Richard B.; Cruz, Vicente Santa; Blakeney, Ernest W.; Kanz, Mary F.; Dugas, Tammy R.



Novel adenosine receptors in rat hippocampus identification and characterization  

SciTech Connect

2-chloro(/sup 3/H)adenosine, a stable analog of adenosine, was used to investigate the presence of adenosine receptors in rat hippocampal membranes that may mediate the depressant effects of adenosine on synaptic transmission in this tissue. Equilibrium binding studies reveal the presence of a previously undescribed class of receptors with a K/sub D/ of 4.7 and a Bmax of 130 pmol/mg of protein. Binding is sensitive to alkylxanthines and to a number of adenosine-related compounds. The pharmacological properties of this binding site are distinct from those of the A1 and A2 adenosine receptors associated with adenylate cyclase. The results suggest that this adenosine binding site is a novel central purinergic receptor through which adenosine may regulate hippocampal excitability. 50 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

Chin, J.H.; Mashman, W.E.; DeLorenzo, R.J.



Solvothermal synthesis and characterization of tungsten oxides with controllable morphology and crystal phase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tungsten oxides with various morphologies and crystal phases were synthesized by solvothermal reactions at 200°C for 7–12h using different solvents. The morphology and crystal phase of tungsten oxides changed depending on the solvents, i.e., spherical particles of ca. 1?m in diameter consisting of nanowires, spindle shaped bundles of ca. 1?m in length consisting of nanowires and accumulations consisting of micrometer

Jing-Xiao Liu; Xiao-Li Dong; Xiang-Wen Liu; Fei Shi; Shu Yin; Tsugio Sato



Characterization of nuclear neurokinin 3 receptor expression in rat brain.  


Ligand-induced translocation of the G-protein-coupled receptor, neurokinin 3 (NK3-R), to the nucleus of hypothalamic neurons was reported using antibodies (ABs) raised against the C-terminal region of NK3-R. The current work was undertaken to substantiate the ability of NK3-R to enter the nucleus and identify which portion of the NK3-R molecule enters the nucleus. ABs directed at epitopes in the N-terminal and second extracellular loop of the rat NK3-R molecule were used to evaluate western blots of whole tissue homogenates and nuclear fractions from multiple brain areas. Specificity of the protein bands recognized by these ABs was demonstrated using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with rat or human NK3-R. Both ABs prominently recognized a diffuse protein band of ?56-65 kDa (56 kDa=predicted size) and distinct ?70-kDa and 95-kDa proteins in homogenates of multiple brain areas. The ?95-kDa protein recognized by the extracellular loop AB was enriched in nuclear fractions. Recognition of these proteins by ABs directed at different regions of the NK3-R supports their identification as NK3-R. The size differences reflect variable glycosylation and possibly linkage to different cytosolic and nuclear proteins. Recognition of protein bands by both ABs in nuclear fractions is consistent with the full-length NK3-R entering the nucleus. Hypotension increased the density of the ?95-kDa band in nuclear fractions from the supraoptic nucleus indicating activity-induced nuclear translocation. Since NK3-R is widely distributed in the CNS, the presence of NK3-R in nuclei from multiple brain regions suggests that it may broadly influence CNS gene expression in a ligand-dependent manner. PMID:21939739

Sladek, C D; Stevens, W; Levinson, S R; Song, Z; Jensen, D D; Flynn, F W



Guanine deaminase inhibitor from rat liver. Isolation and characterization  

PubMed Central

1. An inhibitor of cytoplasmic guanine deaminase of rat liver was isolated from liver `heavy mitochondrial' fraction after freezing and thawing and treatment with Triton X-100. 2. Submitochondrial fractionation revealed that the inhibitor was localized in the outer-membrane fraction. 3. The method of purification of inhibitor, involving precipitation with (NH4)2SO4 and chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, its precipitability by trichloroacetic acid and the pattern of absorption in the u.v. indicated that the inhibitor was a protein. In confirmation, tryptic digestion of the isolated material resulted in destruction of the inhibitor activity. The inhibitor was stable to acid, but labile to heat. 4. The isolated inhibitor required phosphatidylcholine (lecithin) for activity. Phosphatidylcholine also partially protected the inhibitor against heat inactivation. 5. When detergent treatment was omitted, the inhibitor activity of frozen mitochondria was precipitated by (NH4)2SO4 in a fully active form without supplementation with phosphatidylcholine, indicating that Triton X-100 ruptured the linkage between inhibitor and lipid. 6. A reconstituted sample of inhibitor–phosphatidylcholine complex was precipitated in a fully active form by dialysis against 2-mercaptoethanol, but treatment of the precipitate with NaCl yielded an extract which was inactive unless supplemented with fresh phosphatidylcholine. 7. We interpret the results as evidence that the inhibitor was present in vivo as a lipoprotein and that once the complex was dissociated by the action of detergent and the protein precipitated, there was an absolute need for exogenous phosphatidylcholine for its activity. The manner in which inhibitor associated with the outer membrane of rat liver mitochondria might regulate the activity of the enzyme in the supernatant has been suggested. PMID:4821397

Ali, Shahid; Sitaramayya, A.; Kumar, K. Sree; Krishnan, Padmanabhan S.



Characterization of diabetic neuropathy in the zucker diabetic sprague-dawley rat: a new animal model for type 2 diabetes.  


Recently a new rat model for type 2 diabetes the Zucker diabetic Sprague-Dawley (ZDSD/Pco) was created. In this study we sought to characterize the development of diabetic neuropathy in ZDSD rats using age-matched Sprague-Dawley rats as a control. Rats were examined at 34 weeks of age 12 weeks after the onset of hyperglycemia in ZDSD rats. At this time ZDSD rats were severely insulin resistant with slowing of both motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities. ZDSD rats also had fatty livers, elevated serum free fatty acids, triglycerides, and cholesterol, and elevated sciatic nerve nitrotyrosine levels. The corneas of ZDSD rats exhibited a decrease in subbasal epithelial corneal nerves and sensitivity. ZDSD rats were hypoalgesic but intraepidermal nerve fibers in the skin of the hindpaw were normal compared to Sprague-Dawley rats. However, the number of Langerhans cells was decreased. Vascular reactivity of epineurial arterioles, blood vessels that provide circulation to the sciatic nerve, to acetylcholine and calcitonin gene-related peptide was impaired in ZDSD rats. These data indicate that ZDSD rats develop many of the neural complications associated with type 2 diabetes and are a good animal model for preclinical investigations of drug development for diabetic neuropathy. PMID:25371906

Davidson, Eric P; Coppey, Lawrence J; Holmes, Amey; Lupachyk, Sergey; Dake, Brian L; Oltman, Christine L; Peterson, Richard G; Yorek, Mark A



Characterization of Diabetic Neuropathy in the Zucker Diabetic Sprague-Dawley Rat: A New Animal Model for Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Recently a new rat model for type 2 diabetes the Zucker diabetic Sprague-Dawley (ZDSD/Pco) was created. In this study we sought to characterize the development of diabetic neuropathy in ZDSD rats using age-matched Sprague-Dawley rats as a control. Rats were examined at 34 weeks of age 12 weeks after the onset of hyperglycemia in ZDSD rats. At this time ZDSD rats were severely insulin resistant with slowing of both motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities. ZDSD rats also had fatty livers, elevated serum free fatty acids, triglycerides, and cholesterol, and elevated sciatic nerve nitrotyrosine levels. The corneas of ZDSD rats exhibited a decrease in subbasal epithelial corneal nerves and sensitivity. ZDSD rats were hypoalgesic but intraepidermal nerve fibers in the skin of the hindpaw were normal compared to Sprague-Dawley rats. However, the number of Langerhans cells was decreased. Vascular reactivity of epineurial arterioles, blood vessels that provide circulation to the sciatic nerve, to acetylcholine and calcitonin gene-related peptide was impaired in ZDSD rats. These data indicate that ZDSD rats develop many of the neural complications associated with type 2 diabetes and are a good animal model for preclinical investigations of drug development for diabetic neuropathy. PMID:25371906

Davidson, Eric P.; Coppey, Lawrence J.; Holmes, Amey; Lupachyk, Sergey; Dake, Brian L.; Oltman, Christine L.; Peterson, Richard G.; Yorek, Mark A.



Chemical, dimensional and morphological ultrafine particle characterization from a waste-to-energy plant.  


Waste combustion processes are responsible of particles and gaseous emissions. Referring to the particle emission, in the last years specific attention was paid to ultrafine particles (UFPs, diameter less than 0.1 ?m), mainly emitted by combustion processes. In fact, recent findings of toxicological and epidemiological studies indicate that fine and ultrafine particles could represent a risk for health and environment. Therefore, it is necessary to quantify particle emissions from incinerators also to perform an exposure assessment for the human populations living in their surrounding areas. To these purposes, in the present work an experimental campaign aimed to monitor UFPs was carried out at the incineration plant in San Vittore del Lazio (Italy). Particle size distributions and total concentrations were measured both at the stack and before the fabric filter inlet in order to evaluate the removal efficiency of the filter in terms of UFPs. A chemical characterization of UFPs in terms of heavy metal concentration was performed through a nuclear method, i.e., Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), as well as a mineralogical investigation was carried out through a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) equipped with an Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) in order to evaluate shape, crystalline state and mineral compound of sampled particles. Maximum values of 2.7 × 10(7) part. cm(-3) and 2.0 × 10(3) part. cm(-3) were found, respectively, for number concentration before and after the fabric filter showing a very high efficiency in particle removing by the fabric filter. With regard to heavy metal concentrations, the elements with higher boiling temperature present higher concentrations at lower diameters showing a not complete evaporation in the combustion section and the consequent condensation of semi-volatile compounds on solid nuclei. In terms of mineralogical and morphological analysis, the most abundant compounds found in samples collected before the fabric filter are Na-K-Pb oxides followed by phyllosilicates, otherwise, different oxides of comparable abundance were detected in the samples collected at the stack. PMID:21802934

Buonanno, Giorgio; Stabile, Luca; Avino, Pasquale; Belluso, Elena



Construction and Characterization of a 10Genome Equivalent Yeast Artificial Chromosome Library for the Laboratory Rat, Rattus norvegicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing attention has been focused in recent years on the rat as a model organism for genetic studies, in particular for the investigation of complex traits, but progress has been limited by the lack of availability of large-insert genomic libraries. Here, we report the construction and characterization of an arrayed yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) library for the rat genome containing

Li Cai; Leonard C. Schalkwyk; Andreina Schoeberlein-Stehli; Robert Y. L. Zee; Avrial Smith; Thomas Haaf; Michel Georges; Hans Lehrach; Klaus Lindpaintner



Characterization of the immune mediator of rapid expulsion of Trichinella spiralis in suckling rats.  

PubMed Central

In order to identify and characterize the mediator(s) of rapid expulsion, infant rats were passively immunized against oral challenge with 200 infectious Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae by oral or intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of secretions or sera from infected rats. Milk whey from infected dams provided a modest level of protection when fed to pups. Immunoglobulins from T. spiralis-infected rat serum protected suckling pups when injected intravenously (i.v.) into lactating dams 2 days prior to pup challenge. Intraperitoneal injection of pups with serum immunoglobulins also enabled them to express rapid expulsion. The protective component of serum was precipitated with 40% (NH4)2SO4 and was not affected by heating to 56 degrees, although antibodies mediating passive cutaneous anaphylaxis were inactivated by both treatments. Oral transfer of biliary immunoglobulins collected from infected rats at various times during a primary infection provided no protection to pups. However, serum immunoglobulins from rats infected for 42 days or longer transferred rapid expulsion to pups. Absorption of protective serum immunoglobulins with subclass-specific reagents revealed that IgG1 played a significant role in protection. PMID:3499383

Appleton, J A; McGregor, D D



Ultrasound method applied to characterize healthy femoral diaphysis of Wistar rats in vivo  

PubMed Central

A simple experimental protocol applying a quantitative ultrasound (QUS) pulse-echo technique was used to measure the acoustic parameters of healthy femoral diaphyses of Wistar rats in vivo. Five quantitative parameters [apparent integrated backscatter (AIB), frequency slope of apparent backscatter (FSAB), time slope of apparent backscatter (TSAB), integrated reflection coefficient (IRC), and frequency slope of integrated reflection (FSIR)] were calculated using the echoes from cortical and trabecular bone in the femurs of 14 Wistar rats. Signal acquisition was performed three times in each rat, with the ultrasound signal acquired along the femur's central region from three positions 1 mm apart from each other. The parameters estimated for the three positions were averaged to represent the femur diaphysis. The results showed that AIB, FSAB, TSAB, and IRC values were statistically similar, but the FSIR values from Experiments 1 and 3 were different. Furthermore, Pearson's correlation coefficient showed, in general, strong correlations among the parameters. The proposed protocol and calculated parameters demonstrated the potential to characterize the femur diaphysis of rats in vivo. The results are relevant because rats have a bone structure very similar to humans, and thus are an important step toward preclinical trials and subsequent application of QUS in humans. PMID:24838643

Fontes-Pereira, A.; Matusin, D.P.; Rosa, P.; Schanaider, A.; von Kruger, M.A.; Pereira, W.C.A.



Electrochemical characterization of thio sol-gel derived titanium sulfide (TiS{sub 2}) powders with unique morphologies  

SciTech Connect

A novel thio sol-gel process utilizing titanium alkoxide as the metal source has been used to synthesize TiS{sub 2} powders exhibiting uniquely different morphologies. The pure alkoxide and its partially modified form using benzene sulfonic acid (BSA) have been reacted with H{sub 2}S to yield a solid precursor. Upon heat treatment in flowing H{sub 2}S the precursors were converted to TiS{sub 2} exhibiting distinctly different morphologies. These powders have been characterized for their chemical stoichiometry (using X-ray diffraction). At the same time the sulfide was also prepared using conventional techniques involving the reaction of the individual elements in a sealed evacuated quartz ampoule at elevated temperatures of 500{degrees}C. The morphologies of both, the thio sol-gel derived and conventionally synthesized powders have been compared using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Preliminary electrochemical tests were also performed by fabricating test cathodes of these materials and using them in {open_quotes}hockey puck{close_quotes} cells incorporating lithium as both the anode and the reference electrodes. These studies were conducted to analyze the effect of the different morphologies of the synthesized powders on their electrochemical performance.

Sriram, M.A.; Kumta, P.N. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)



A physicochemical characterization of fully acetylated chitin structure isolated from two spider species: with new surface morphology.  


Spiders are a huge group which includes more than 44,000 species. But there has been no study of the chitin structure of spiders. In this study we physicochemically characterized chitin structure of two common spider species (Geolycosa vultuosa and Hogna radiata). Chitin content was determined as 8-8.5% for G. vultuosa and 6.5-7% for H. radiata. FTIR, TGA and XRD results showed that the chitin structures are in ?-form. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) revealed that the surface morphology of each species is different. Chitin yielded from G. vultuosa has two different pore structures. The type one pore is rarely sequenced and its size ranges between 190 and 240 nm, while the type two pore is tightly sequenced and its size ranges between 11 and 32 nm. There is no information in previous studies about the chitin structure with two different pore morphologies. A new chitin surface morphology has been determined in G. vultuosa. The chitin isolated from H. radiata, has classic morphology: nanofibre structures (10-17 nm) and 195-260 nm sized pores. Acetylation degree of the chitin samples was calculated as 97% for G. vultuosa and 99% for H. radiata in accordance with elemental analysis results. PMID:24530368

Kaya, Murat; Seyyar, Osman; Baran, Talat; Erdo?an, Sevil; Kar, Musa



Experimental alveolitis in rats: microbiological, acute phase response and histometric characterization of delayed alveolar healing  

PubMed Central

The pathogenesis of alveolitis is not well known and therefore experimental situations that mimic some features of this disease should be developed. Objective In this study, the evolution of the experimentally induced infection in rat sockets is characterized, which leads to clinical signs of suppurative alveolitis with remarkable wound healing disturbs. Material and methods Non-infected (Group I) and experimentally infected sockets in Rattus novergicus (Group II) were histometrically evaluated regarding the kinetics of alveolar healing. In addition, the characterization of the present bacteria in inoculation material and the serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) were performed. The detected species were Capnocytophaga ochracea, Fusobacterium nucleatum ss nucleatum, Prevotella melaninogenica, Streptococcus anginosus, Treponema socranskii and Streptococcus sanguis. Results All experimentally infected rats developed suppurative alveolitis, showing higher levels of CRP in comparison to those non-infected ones. Furthermore, infected rats presented a significant delayed wound healing as measured by the histometric analysis (higher persistent polymorphonuclear infiltrate and lower density of newly formed bone). Conclusion These findings indicate that rat sockets with experimentally induced infection produced higher levels of serum CRP, showing the potential of disseminated infection and a disturb in the alveolar repair process in an interesting experimental model for alveolitis studies. PMID:21625744

RODRIGUES, Moacyr Tadeu Vicente; CARDOSO, Camila Lopes; de CARVALHO, Paulo Sérgio Perri; CESTARI, Tânia Mary; FERES, Magda; GARLET, Gustavo Pompermaier; FERREIRA JÚNIOR, Osny



Modified neocortical and cerebellar protein expression and morphology in adult rats following prenatal inhibition of the kynurenine pathway.  


Inhibition of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism during gestation can lead to changes in synaptic transmission, neuronal morphology and plasticity in the rat hippocampus. This suggests a role for the kynurenine pathway in early brain development, probably caused by kynurenine modulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors which are activated by the tryptophan metabolite quinolinic acid and blocked by kynurenic acid. We have now examined samples of neocortex and cerebellum of adult animals to assess the effects of a prenatally administered kynurenine-3-monoxygenase inhibitor (Ro61-8048) on protein and mRNA expression, dendritic structure and immuno-histochemistry. No changes were seen in mRNA expression using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Changes were detected in the expression of several proteins including the GluN2A subunit, unco-ordinated-5H3 (unc5H3), doublecortin, cyclo-oxygenase, sonic hedgehog and Disrupted in schizophrenia-1 (DISC1), although no differences in immunoreactive cell numbers were observed. In the midbrain, dependence receptor expression was also changed. The numbers and lengths of individual dendritic regions were not changed but there were significant increases in the overall complexity values of apical and basal dendritic trees. The data support the hypothesis that constitutive kynurenine metabolism plays a critical role in early, embryonic brain development, although fewer effects are produced in the neocortex and cerebellum than in the hippocampus and the nature of the changes seen are qualitatively different. The significant changes in DISC1 and unc5H3 may be relevant to cerebellar dysfunction and schizophrenia respectively, in which these proteins have been previously implicated. PMID:24956103

Pisar, Mazura; Forrest, Caroline M; Khalil, Omari S; McNair, Kara; Vincenten, Maria C J; Qasem, Susana; Darlington, L Gail; Stone, Trevor W



A detailed viscoelastic characterization of the P17 and adult rat brain.  


Brain is a morphologically and mechanically heterogeneous organ. Although rat brain is commonly used as an experimental neurophysiological model for various in vivo biomechanical studies, little is known about its regional viscoelastic properties. To address this issue, we have generated viscoelastic mechanical property data for specific anatomical regions of the P17 and adult rat brain. These ages are commonly used in rat experimental models. We measured mechanical properties of both white and gray matter regions in coronal slices with a custom-designed microindentation device performing stress-relaxation indentations to 10% effective strain. Shear moduli calculated for short (100?ms), intermediate (1?sec), and long (20?sec) time points, ranged from ?1?kPa for short term moduli to ?0.4?kPa for long term moduli. Both age and anatomic region were significant factors affecting the time-dependent shear modulus. White matter regions and regions of the cerebellum were much more compliant than those of the hippocampus, cortex, and thalamus. Linear viscoelastic models (Prony series, continuous phase lag, and a power law model) were fit to the time-dependent shear modulus data. All models fit the data equally with no significant differences between them (F-test; p>0.05). The F-test was also used to statistically determine that a Prony series with three time-dependent parameters accurately fit the data with no added benefit from additional terms. The age- and region-dependent rat brain viscoelastic properties presented here will help inform future biomechanical models of the rat brain with specific and accurate regional mechanical property data. PMID:21341982

Elkin, Benjamin S; Ilankovan, Ashok I; Morrison, Barclay



Canine invasive lobular carcinoma of the mammary gland: morphological and immunohistochemical characterizations of three cases.  


Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) represents 15% of invasive human breast tumours. This report describes the morphological and immunohistochemical features of three canine mammary tumours comparable with human ILC. These tumours were composed of a non-delimited proliferation of discrete cells infiltrating fibrous connective tissue. Multifocal in-situ carcinoma associated with invasive lesions was present. Invasive tumour cells and in-situ lesions expressed cytokeratin and CK34betaE12, but not E-cadherin. Based on these morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics, the tumours were classified as canine ILC. PMID:20961557

Ressel, L; Millanta, F; Poli, A



Characterization of autonomic receptors in the rat sublingual gland by biochemical and radioligand assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The autonomic receptors of the rat sublingual gland were characterized by radioligand binding and by specific functional responses involving the release of K+ and the generation of cyclic AMP in vitro. Both muscarinic cholinergic and alpha2-adrenergic receptors were present in moderately high density in the sublingual gland, as judged by the binding of the specific radioligands 3H-QNB and 3H-clonidine (Bmax

J. Ricardo Martinez; David B. Bylund; Jean Camden



Identification and characterization of rat orbicularis oculi motoneurons using confocal laser scanning microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The eyeblink reflex is one of the most extensively studied behaviors in mammals. The active downward force that causes lid\\u000a closure is controlled by the orbicularis oculi (OO) muscle. To augment our studies on the neurophysiology and plasticity of\\u000a the rat eyeblink circuit, here we present the first anatomical paper to focus exclusively on identifying and characterizing\\u000a the OO motoneurons

Billie Faulkner; T. H. Brown; Craig Evinger



Metabonomic Characterization of the 3-Nitropropionic Acid Rat Model of Huntington’s Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP)-induced neurotoxicity can be used as a model for the genetic neurodegenerative disorder Huntington’s\\u000a disease (HD). A metabolic profiling strategy was adopted to explore the biochemical consequences of 3-NP administered to rats\\u000a in specific brain regions. 1H NMR spectroscopy was used to characterize the metabolite composition of several brain regions following 3-NP-intoxication.\\u000a Dose-dependent increases in succinate levels were

T. M. Tsang; J. N. Haselden; E. Holmes



Development and characterization of an exposure platform suitable for physico-chemical, morphological and toxicological characterization of printer-emitted particles (PEPs).  


An association between laser printer use and emissions of particulate matter (PM), ozone and volatile organic compounds has been reported in recent studies. However, the detailed physico-chemical, morphological and toxicological characterization of these printer-emitted particles (PEPs) and possible incorporation of engineered nanomaterials into toner formulations remain largely unknown. In this study, a printer exposure generation system suitable for the physico-chemical, morphological, and toxicological characterization of PEPs was developed and used to assess the properties of PEPs from the use of commercially available laser printers. The system consists of a glovebox type environmental chamber for uninterrupted printer operation, real-time and time-integrated particle sampling instrumentation for the size fractionation and sampling of PEPs and an exposure chamber for inhalation toxicological studies. Eleven commonly used laser printers were evaluated and ranked based on their PM emission profiles. Results show PM peak emissions are brand independent and varied between 3000 to 1?300?000?particles/cm(3), with modal diameters ranging from 49 to 208?nm, with the majority of PEPs in the nanoscale (<100?nm) size. Furthermore, it was shown that PEPs can be affected by certain operational parameters and printing conditions. The release of nanoscale particles from a nano-enabled product (printer toner) raises questions about health implications to users. The presented PEGS platform will help in assessing the toxicological profile of PEPs and the link to the physico-chemical and morphological properties of emitted PM and toner formulations. PMID:24862974

Pirela, Sandra V; Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; Bello, Dhimiter; Thomas, Treye; Castranova, Vincent; Demokritou, Philip



Isolation and transcriptional characterization of a morphological modifier: the Aspergillus nidulans stunted ( stuA ) gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The functions of at least four potential regulatory genes are known to overlap temporally during elaboration of the multicellular asexual reproductive apparatus (conidiophore) of Aspergillus nidulans. One of these, the stuA (stunted) gene, has been previously classified as a morphological modifier essential for correct spatial organization of the conidiophore. The gene was cloned by complementation of a strain carrying the

Karen Y. Miller; Tina M. Toennis; Thomas H. Adams; Bruce L. Miller



Particle Morphology and Density Characterization by Combined Mobility and Aerodynamic Diameter Measurements. Part 1: Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different on-line submicron particle sizing techniques report different “equivalent diameters.” For example, differential mobility analyzers (DMAs) report electrical mobility diameter (dm), while a number of recently developed instruments (such as the Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer, or AMS) measure vacuum aerodynamic diameter (dva). Particle density and physical morphology (shape) have important effects on diameter measurements. Here a framework is presented for

Peter F. DeCarlo; Jay G. Slowik; Douglas R. Worsnop; Paul Davidovits; Jose L. Jimenez



Morphological characterization of steam-exploded hemp fibers and their utilization in polypropylene-based composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation is described in which the morphology of hemp stem was examined by optical and scanning electron microscopy. We reported the results concerning steam-explosion treatment either on bast fibers impregnated with alkaline liquor or on woody hemp chènevotte samples impregnated under neutral, acidic and alkaline conditions. The influence of steam-explosion treatment parameters were followed by optic and scanning electron

M. R. Vignon; D. Dupeyre; C. Garcia-Jaldon



Impact of adrenalectomy and dexamethasone treatment on testicular morphology and sperm parameters in rats: insights into the adrenal control of male reproduction.  


Here we investigated the hypothesis that normal levels of glucocorticoids, a class of adrenal steroid hormones, are required for normal testicular and epididymal functions. We examined the effects of the manipulation of glucocorticoid plasma levels by bilateral adrenalectomy (1, 2, 7 and 15 days) alone or in combination with daily treatment with the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (DEX; 5 ?g/kg, i.p., 6 days) on the morphology of the testis and sperm parameters in rats. We showed that adrenalectomy led to a reduction in testicular sperm count and daily sperm production starting 2 days after surgery and a differential decrease in sperm count in the epididymis, according to the region and time post-adrenalectomy analysed. In parallel, testes from 7-day adrenalectomized (ADX) rats displayed a higher frequency of damaged seminiferous tubules and the presence of elongated spermatids retained in the basal epithelial compartment in stages IX-XVII, which is indicative of defective spermiation. The alkaline comet assay revealed a late effect of adrenalectomy on epididymal sperm DNA fragmentation, which was increased only 15 days after surgery. DEX treatment prevented the changes in testicular and epididymal sperm count observed in 7-day ADX rats, but failed to protect the testis from ADX-induced morphological abnormalities. Thus, our results indicated that glucocorticoids may be involved in events related to the maintenance of spermatogenesis and sperm maturation during adulthood. These findings provide new insights into the importance of adrenal steroids to male fertility. PMID:24925687

Silva, E J R; Vendramini, V; Restelli, A; Bertolla, R P; Kempinas, W G; Avellar, M C W



Effects of cadmium exposure on morphological aspects of pancreas, weights of fetus and placenta in streptozotocin-induced diabetic pregnant rats.  


This study was designed to evaluate the effects of Cd exposure on morphological aspects of beta-cell and weights of fetus and placenta in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic pregnant rats. Ninety-nine virgin female Wistar rats (200-220 g) were mated with 33 males for at least 12 h. From the onset of pregnancy, the rats were divided into four experimental groups (control, Cd treated, STZ treated, and Cd+STZ treated). The Cd-treated group was injected subcutaneously daily with CdCl2 dissolved in isotonic NaCl, starting at the onset of pregnancy throughout the experiment. Diabetes was induced on the 13th d of pregnancy by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ in STZ-treated group. In addition to the daily injection of Cd, a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ was also given on the 13th d of pregnancy in the Cd+STZ-treated group. The rats received the last injection 24 h before being sacrificed and 10 randomly selected rats in each group were sacrificed on the 15th and 20th d of pregnancy. Blood samples were taken for the determination of the serum glucose and insulin levels. Maternal pancreases, fetuses, and placentas of sacrificed rats in all groups were harvested (fetal pancreas was also harvested only on the 20th d of pregnancy) for morphological and immunohistochemical examinations. Cd exposure alone caused a degeneration, necrosis, and weak degranulation, but Cd exposure with STZ caused a severe degeneration, necrosis, and degranulation in the beta-cells of the pancreatic islets. No morphological or immunohistochemical differences were found in beta-cells of fetal pancreatic islets of control or other treatment groups. Cd exposure alone also decreased the fetal and placental weights. The administration of STZ alone, on the other hand, increased the placental weight. Cd, STZ, and Cd+STZ administration increased the glucose and decreased the insulin level. The increase in glucose and decrease in insulin levels were higher when Cd and STZ were given together. All of these changes were more severe on the 20th d than those on the 15th d of the pregnancy. It is concluded that Cd exposure during pregnancy may reduce the birth and placental weights and produce necrosis, degeneration, and degranulation in beta-cells of pancreatic islets, causing an increase in the serum glucose level. These changes might be severe in diabetic pregnant mothers. PMID:12835501

Kanter, Mehmet; Yoruk, Mecit; Koc, Ahmet; Meral, Ismail; Karaca, Turan



Acipimox-enhanced ¹?F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography for characterizing and predicting early remodeling in the rat infarct model.  


The rat myocardial infarction (MI) model is widely used to study left ventricular (LV) remodeling. In this study, acipimox-enhanced (18)F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) gated-positron emission tomography (PET) was assessed for characterizing and predicting early remodeling in the rat infarct model. Nineteen Wistar rats had surgical occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery and 7 were sham-operated. PET was scheduled 48 h and 2 weeks later for quantifying MI area and LV function. Segments with <50% of FDG uptake had histological evidence of MI (74 ± 9% decrease in parietal thickness, fibrosis development). At 48 h, MI area was large (>35% of LV) in 6 rats, moderate (15-35% of LV) in 8 rats, limited (<15% of LV) in 5 rats and absent in the 7 sham rats. LV remodeling, assessed through the 2 weeks increase in end-diastolic volume, increased between rats with limited, moderate and large MI (+72 ± 25, +109 ± 56, +190 ± 69 ?l, respectively, P = 0.007). This 3-groups classification allowed predicting 44% of the 2 weeks increase in end-diastolic volume, and additional 34% were predicted by heart rate at 48 h. The acipimox-enhanced FDG gated-PET technique provides efficient characterization and prediction of early remodeling in the rat infarct model. PMID:22116590

Bousquenaud, Mélanie; Maskali, Fatiha; Poussier, Sylvain; Marie, Pierre-Yves; Boutley, Henri; Karcher, Gilles; Wagner, Daniel R; Devaux, Yvan



Characterization of gastrointestinal absorption of digoxin involving influx and efflux transporter in rats: application of mdr1a knockout (-/-) rats into absorption study of multiple transporter substrate.  


Abstract 1.? This study was aimed to characterize gastrointestinal absorption of digoxin using wild-type (WT) and multidrug resistance protein 1a [mdr1a; P-glycoprotein (P-gp)] knockout (-/-) rats. 2.? In WT rats, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of oral digoxin increased after oral pretreatment with quinidine at 30?mg/kg compared with non-treatment, but the increasing ratio tended to decrease at a high dose of 100?mg/kg. In mdr1a (-/-) rats, however, quinidine pretreatment caused a dose-dependent decrease in the AUC. 3.? Quinidine pretreatment did not alter the hepatic availability of digoxin, indicating that the changes in the digoxin AUC were attributable to inhibition of the absorption process by quinidine; i.e. inhibition of influx by quinidine in mdr1a (-/-) rats and inhibition of efflux and influx by quinidine in WT rats. 4.? An in situ rat intestinal closed loop study using naringin implied that organic anion transporting peptide (Oatp) 1a5 may be a responsible transporter in the absorption of digoxin. 5.? These findings imply that the rat absorption behavior of digoxin is possibly governed by Oatp1a5-mediated influx and P-gp-mediated efflux. The mdr1a (-/-) rat is therefore a useful in vivo tool to investigate drug absorption associated with multiple transporters including P-gp. PMID:24839994

Suzuki, Motoya; Komura, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Tomonori; Enya, Seiji; Nagao, Akemi; Takubo, Hiroaki; Kogayu, Motohiro



Myocardial Dysfunction Induced by Food Restriction is Related to Morphological Damage in Normotensive Middle-Aged Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Previous works from our laboratory have revealed that food restriction (FR) promotes discrete myocardial dysfunction in young\\u000a rats. We examined the effects of FR on cardiac function, in vivo and in vitro, and ultrastructural changes in the heart of middle-aged rats. Twelve-month-old Wistar-Kyoto rats were fed a control (C)\\u000a or restricted diet (daily intake reduced to 50% of the control

Mario Mateus Sugizaki; Robson Francisco Carvalho; Flavio Ferrari Aragon; Carlos Roberto Padovani; Katashi Okoshi; Marina Politi Okoshi; Silmeia Garcia Zanati; Maeli Dal Pai-Silva; Ethel Lourenzi Barbosa Novelli; Antonio Carlos Cicogna



Dynamic scale theory for characterizing surface morphology of layer-by-layer films of poly(o-methoxyaniline).  


The dynamic scale theory and fractal concepts are employed in the characterization of surface morphological properties of layer-by-layer (LBL) films from poly(o-methoxyaniline) (POMA) alternated with poly(vinyl sulfonic acid) (PVS). The fractal dimensions are found to depend on the procedures to fabricate the POMA/PVS multilayers, particularly with regard to the drying procedures. LBL films obtained via drying in ambient air show a more homogeneous surface, compared to films dried under vacuum or a flow of nitrogen, due to a uniform rearrangement of polymer molecules during solvent evaporation. PMID:15503441

de Souza, Nara C; Silva, Josmary R; Pereira-da-Silva, Marcelo A; Raposo, Maria; Faria, Roberto M; Giacometti, José A; Oliveira, Osvaldo N



An inverse light scattering technique for morphological characterization of irregular particles based on the Gaussian-random-sphere model  

PubMed Central

The Gaussian-random-sphere model is employed for morphological characterization of nonspherical, irregular particles using an inverse light scattering technique. The synthetic measurement data consist of reduced scattering spectra caused by an aggregate of irregular particles randomly oriented in turbid media and are generated using the discrete dipole approximation. The proposed method simultaneously retrieves the concentration and shape parameters of particles using the data collected at multiple wavelengths. The performance of the inverse algorithm is tested using noise-corrupted data, in which up to 50% noise may be added to the observed scattering spectra. PMID:22673444

Hajihashemi, M. Reza; Jiang, Huabei



Starch-directed green synthesis, characterization and morphology of silver nanoparticles.  


Silver nanoparticles were prepared by a simple chemical reduction method using ascorbic acid and starch as reducing and stabilizing agents, respectively. The effect of starch, silver ions and ascorbic acid was studied on the morphology of the silver nano-particles using UV-visible spectrophotometry. The initial reaction time min and amount of starch were important parameters for the growth of Ag-nanoparticles. The morphology was evaluated from transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The truncated triangle nano-plates (from 17 to 30 nm), polyhedron, spherical with some irregular shaped Ag-nanoparticles were formed in presence of starch. Particles are aggregated in an irregular manner, leads to the formation of butterfly-like structures of silver. Starch acts as a stabilizing, shape-directing and capping agent during the growth processes. Silver nanoparticles adsorbed electrostatically on the outer OH groups of amylose left-handed helical conformation in solution. PMID:23104028

Khan, Zaheer; Singh, Taruna; Hussain, Javed Ijaz; Obaid, Abdullah Yousif; Al-Thabaiti, Shaeel Ahmed; El-Mossalamy, E H



Morphological and molecular characterization of different Echinochloa spp. and Oryza sativa populations.  


Echinochloa P. Beauv. is an important genus because many of its species are weeds infesting most paddy fields, which can reduce the rice grain production by up to 80%. A controversy exists about the taxonomy of the genus due to the high level of morphological variations found in these species. Cyhalofop-butyl, an aryloxyphenoxy-propionate herbicide, is used to control Echinochloa spp. in paddy fields, although differences in susceptibility were found between different Echinochloa species. E. colona was highly susceptible [ED50= 34 g of active ingredient (ai) ha(-1)]; very similar results were obtained with the remaining species. By contrast, E. oryzicola (170 g of ai ha(-1)) was less sensitive, with the herbicide symptoms appearing later. Because of this differential susceptibility, morphological and molecular studies were carried out. A morphological study, using 21 characters both quantitative and qualitative of spikelets and seedlings, was capable of clearly distinguishing closely related E. crus-galli plants (two populations), E. muricata and E. crus-pavonis, and E. oryzicola, E. utilis, and E. colona species. The resolution of Echinochloa species at the molecular level, based on RAPD analyses, was fairly consistent with morphological analysis results. Among the 60 primers screened, 21 primers exhibited polymorphic bands and produced a total of 136 RAPD markers. Of all the amplified fragments, 90 were found to be polymorphic. E. oryzicola and E. colona were clearly separated, and the RAPD analyses showed that both E. crus-galli populations were 100% related and 51% related to E. utilis, whereas E. crus-pavonis and E. muricata (73% similarity) appeared as being clearly separated from this group. PMID:16478232

Ruiz-Santaella, J P; Bastida, F; Franco, A R; De Prado, R



Morphological Characterization of Viruses in the Stratified Water Column of Alkaline, Hypersaline Mono Lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of viruses and prokaryotes in the alkaline, moderately hypersaline, seasonally stratified Mono Lake are among\\u000a the highest reported for a natural aquatic environment. We used electron microscopy to test whether viral morphological characteristics\\u000a differed among the epilimnion, metalimnion, and the anoxic hypolimnion of the lake and to determine how the properties of\\u000a viruses in Mono Lake compare to other

Jennifer R. Brum; Grieg F. Steward



Mechanical properties and morphological characterization of exfoliated graphite–polypropylene nanocomposites  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research explores the potential of using exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets, xGnP, (graphene sheets ?10nm thickness, ?1?m diameter), as reinforcement in polypropylene, PP. xGnP–PP nanocomposites were fabricated by melt mixing and injection molding. The feasibility of using xGnP–PP nanocomposites was investigated by evaluating the flexural strength, modulus and impact strength and studying the morphology of this system as a function of

Kyriaki Kalaitzidou; Hiroyuki Fukushima; Lawrence T. Drzal



Morphological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural characterization of the skin of turbot (Psetta maxima L.).  


This study was undertaken to identify the normal morphologic, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features of skin of the turbot (Psetta maxima L.). In the turbot skin, three morphologically distinct layers were identified: epidermis, dermis and hypodermis. The epidermis was non-keratinizing, stratified squamous epithelium that varies in thickness from 5 to 14 cells and 60 to 100?m in size. Goblet cells were seen randomly distributed between malpighian cells in the epidermal layer. These mucous cells were mainly located in the upper third of the epidermis and displayed a spherical to elongated morphology. Dermis was divided in two well-differentiated layers, the superficial stratum laxum and the deeper stratum compactum. Hypodermis was a loose layer mainly composed by adipocytes but we could observe variable amounts of fibroblast, collagen and blood vessels. In turbot two pigmentary layers could be identified: the pigmentary layer of dermis was located between basement membrane and dermis and the pigmentary layer of hypodermis immediately above the muscular layer. Three different types of chromatophores were present: melanophores, iridophores and xanthophores. The main differences observed between groups of fish with different colouration were in the amount of melanophores and xanthophores. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of normal cutaneous biology prior to consideration of specific cutaneous alterations and diseases in turbot. PMID:25059111

Faílde, L D; Bermúdez, R; Vigliano, F; Coscelli, G A; Quiroga, M I



Characterization of crystalline structure and morphology of NiO thin films.  


We investigated the relation of sputtering powers with structural and morphological properties of nickel oxide (NiO) thin films. NiO thin films were fabricated by using an rf-reactive sputtering method on Si(100) substrates with a Ni target in a partial pressure of oxygen and argon. The films were deposited by various rf-sputtering powers from 100 to 200 W at room temperature. The phases and crystalline structures of the deposited films were investigated by using grazing incident X-ray diffraction (XRD). The thickness and surface morphology of the films were investigated by using a field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The different sputtering conditions drastically affected the crystallinity and the surface morphology of NiO thin films. A combined analysis of the data obtained from X-ray diffraction and SEM images demonstrates that the preferred orientation of NiO films tends to grow from (111) to (200) direction as increasing the sputtering power, which can be explained by in terms of the surface energy along the indexing plane in an fcc structure. As increasing the rf power, lattice constants decreased from 4.26 to 4.20 angstroms and samples became high-quality crystals. Under our experimental condition, NiO films prepared at 150 W with 20% partial pressure of oxygen and 7 cm distance from the sample to the target show the best quality of the crystal. PMID:21780511

Shin, Hyemin; Choi, Soo-Bin; Yu, Chung-Jong; Kim, Jae-Yong



Molecular and morphological characterization of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) genotypes sampled from Coruh Valley in Turkey.  


The pomegranate is one of the oldest fruits that are traditionally consumed by the local inhabitants of the Coruh Valley, Turkey. In this study, the molecular and morphological characteristics of 19 promising pomegranate genotypes selected from the Coruh Valley were evaluated. For the morphological evaluation, 22 quantitative fruit characteristics were used. For the molecular evaluation, 47 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers were used for polymerase chain reaction analysis. The principle component analysis of 22 quantitative fruit characteristics revealed that fruit weight and skin color are dominant traits for genotype discrimination. The unweighted average distance cluster of fruit characteristics revealed 3 distinct groups. Among the 47 RAPD primers, 9 exhibited reliable polymorphic patterns, and generated a total of 63 RAPD bands, of which 49.2% were polymorphic. The similarity matrix showed that the highest (0.920) and lowest (0.556) genetic similarities occurred between the APS13 and APS28 genotypes and the APS12 and APS42 genotypes, respectively. We determined clear discrepancies between the morphological and molecular data; consequently, the differences obtained among genotypes for fruit characteristics did not support genetic relationships among genotypes. In conclusion, molecular data provided the most reliable results at the DNA level. PMID:24446337

Orhan, E; Ercisli, S; Esitken, A; Sengul, M



Morphological characterization of cherry rootstock candidates selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey.  


The use of rootstocks particularly for sweet cherry cultivars is of great importance for successful and sustainable production. Choosing the right cherry rootstocks is just as important as choosing the right cultivar. In this study, 110 sweet cherry, 30 sour cherry, and 41 mahaleb types displaying rootstock potential for sweet cherry cultivars were selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey. The morphologic characteristics of the studied genotypes were compared with the standard clonal rootstocks PHL-A, MaxMa 14, Montmorency, Weiroot 158, Gisela 5, Gisela 6, and SL 64. A total of 42 morphological UPOV characteristics were evaluated in the selected genotypes and clonal rootstocks. The obtained data were analyzed by using principal component analysis and it revealed that eigenvalues of the first 3 components were able to represent 36.43% of total variance. The most significant positive correlations of the plant vigor were determined with leaf blade length and petiole thickness. According to the diversity analysis of coefficients, the 05 C 002 and 08 C 039 genotypes were identified as being similar (6.66), while the 05 C 002 and 55 S 012 genotypes were determined as the most distant genotypes (325.84) in terms of morphology. PMID:24453921

Koc, Aysen; Celik, Zumrut; Akbulut, Mustafa; Bilgener, Sukriye; Ercisli, Sezai; Gunes, Mehmet; Gercekcioglu, Resul; Esitken, Ahmet



Morphological Characterization of Cherry Rootstock Candidates Selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey  

PubMed Central

The use of rootstocks particularly for sweet cherry cultivars is of great importance for successful and sustainable production. Choosing the right cherry rootstocks is just as important as choosing the right cultivar. In this study, 110 sweet cherry, 30 sour cherry, and 41 mahaleb types displaying rootstock potential for sweet cherry cultivars were selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey. The morphologic characteristics of the studied genotypes were compared with the standard clonal rootstocks PHL-A, MaxMa 14, Montmorency, Weiroot 158, Gisela 5, Gisela 6, and SL 64. A total of 42 morphological UPOV characteristics were evaluated in the selected genotypes and clonal rootstocks. The obtained data were analyzed by using principal component analysis and it revealed that eigenvalues of the first 3 components were able to represent 36.43% of total variance. The most significant positive correlations of the plant vigor were determined with leaf blade length and petiole thickness. According to the diversity analysis of coefficients, the 05?C 002 and 08?C 039 genotypes were identified as being similar (6.66), while the 05?C 002 and 55?S 012 genotypes were determined as the most distant genotypes (325.84) in terms of morphology. PMID:24453921

Koc, Aysen; Celik, Zumrut; Akbulut, Mustafa; Bilgener, Sukriye; Ercisli, Sezai; Gunes, Mehmet; Gercekcioglu, Resul; Esitken, Ahmet



Morphological and genetic characterization of Echinococcus granulosus in the Slovak Republic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was undertaken to characterize more thoroughly aetiological agent of cystic echinococcosis that still represents a health problem in the Slovak Republic. Sequencing of the mitochondrial ND1 gene, Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and isoenzyme analyses were used to characterize genetically protoscolices of 37 isolates from pigs and cattle and two isolates from humans collected in different

L'udmila Tur?eková; Viliam Šnábel; Stefano D'Amelio; Marina Busi; Pavol Dubinský



Identification and characterization of a spontaneous ovarian carcinoma in Lewis rats  

PubMed Central

Background Ovarian carcinoma is the fourth most common cause of death from cancer in women. Limited progress has been made toward improving the survival rate of patients with this disease in part because of the lack of a good animal model. We present here a model of spontaneous ovarian carcinoma arising in a normal Lewis rat. Methods A spontaneously occurring tumor of the left ovary was found in a normal Lewis rat during necropsy, which was sectioned for histological examination and placed into single cell suspension. Tumor cells were passaged in vivo by intraperitoneal injection into immunocompetent Lewis rats, and in vitro culture resulted in generation of a cell line. Tumor cells were examined by flow cytometry for expression of estrogen receptor ?, progesterone receptor, androgen receptor, her-2/neu, epithelial cell adhesion molecule, and CA125. ?-catenin expression and cellular localization was assessed by immunocytochemistry. RNA was harvested for gene expression profiling and studying the expression of cytokines. Results The tumor, designated FNAR, could be serially transplanted into Lewis rats and propagated as a cell line in vitro, maintaining the properties of the original tumor. The FNAR cells displayed striking morphologic similarities to human ovarian carcinoma, resembling the endometrioid carcinoma subtype of surface epithelial neoplasms. The cells expressed estrogen receptor ?, progesterone receptor, androgen receptor, her-2/neu, epithelial cell adhesion molecule, CA125, and nuclear ?-catenin. A gene expression profile showed upregulation of a number of genes that are also upregulated in human ovarian carcinoma. Conclusion This reliable model of ovarian carcinoma should be helpful in better understanding the biology of the disease as well as the development of novel treatment strategies. PMID:20356397



Isolation, morphological and molecular characterization of phytate-hydrolysing fungi by 18S rDNA sequence analysis  

PubMed Central

Phytate is the primary storage form of phosphate in plants. Monogastric animals like poultry, pigs and fishes have very low or no phytase activities in their digestive tracts therefore, are incapable to efficiently utilize phytate phosphorus from the feed. Phytase from microbial sources are supplemented to feedstuff of these to increase the uptake of phytate phosphorus. In the present work efforts were made to isolate and characterize proficient phytase producing fungi from soil. Phytase producing fungi were isolated using phytate specific medium. Fungal isolates were selected according to their higher phytase activities. These isolates were further characterized and identified by morphological and microscopic analysis and confirmed by amplification of 18S rRNA gene, using specific primers. This gene was subsequently sequenced and phylogenetic affiliations were assigned. Fungal isolates were identified as various species of Aspergillus. Phytases from these fungi could be utilized as a feed additive in poultry and swine industries. PMID:24159322

Gontia-Mishra, Iti; Deshmukh, Dhanshree; Tripathi, Niraj; Bardiya-Bhurat, Khushboo; Tantwai, Keerti; Tiwari, Sharad



Characterization of root response to phosphorus supply from morphology to gene analysis in field-grown wheat  

PubMed Central

The adaptations of root morphology, physiology, and biochemistry to phosphorus supply have been characterized intensively. However, characterizing these adaptations at molecular level is largely neglected under field conditions. Here, two consecutive field experiments were carried out to investigate the agronomic traits and root traits of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) at six P-fertilizer rates. Root samples were collected at flowering to investigate root dry weight, root length density, arbusular-mycorrhizal colonization rate, acid phosphatase activity in rhizosphere soil, and expression levels of genes encoding phosphate transporter, phosphatase, ribonucleases, and expansin. These root traits exhibited inducible, inhibitory, or combined responses to P deficiency, and the change point for responses to P supply was at or near the optimal P supply for maximum grain yield. This research improves the understanding of mechanisms of plant adaptation to soil P in intensive agriculture and provides useful information for optimizing P management based on the interactions between soil P dynamics and root processes. PMID:23382547

Teng, Wan; Deng, Yan; Tong, Yi-Ping



Isolation, morphological and molecular characterization of phytate-hydrolysing fungi by 18S rDNA sequence analysis.  


Phytate is the primary storage form of phosphate in plants. Monogastric animals like poultry, pigs and fishes have very low or no phytase activities in their digestive tracts therefore, are incapable to efficiently utilize phytate phosphorus from the feed. Phytase from microbial sources are supplemented to feedstuff of these to increase the uptake of phytate phosphorus. In the present work efforts were made to isolate and characterize proficient phytase producing fungi from soil. Phytase producing fungi were isolated using phytate specific medium. Fungal isolates were selected according to their higher phytase activities. These isolates were further characterized and identified by morphological and microscopic analysis and confirmed by amplification of 18S rRNA gene, using specific primers. This gene was subsequently sequenced and phylogenetic affiliations were assigned. Fungal isolates were identified as various species of Aspergillus. Phytases from these fungi could be utilized as a feed additive in poultry and swine industries. PMID:24159322

Gontia-Mishra, Iti; Deshmukh, Dhanshree; Tripathi, Niraj; Bardiya-Bhurat, Khushboo; Tantwai, Keerti; Tiwari, Sharad



Morphology and morphometry of the lungs of two East African mole rats, Tachyoryctes splendens and Heterocephalus glaber (Mammalia, Rodentia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The lungs of two fossorial rodents, the mole ratTachyoryctes splendens and the naked mole ratHeterocephalus glaber were investigated by transmission and scanning electron microscopy and a comparative morphometric analysis of the lungs carried out in an attempt to find out whether there are any possible structural adaptational features which may be associated with fossoriality. The data from these two

J. N. Maina; G. M. O. Maloiy; A. N. Makanya



Favism: Effect of Divicine on Rat Erythrocyte Sulfhydryl Status, Hexose Monophosphate Shunt Activity, Morphology, and Membrane Skeletal Proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Favism is an acute anemic crisis that can occur in susceptible individuals who ingest fava beans. The fava bean pyrimidine aglycone divicine has been identified as a hemotoxic constituent; however, its mechanism of toxicity remains unknown. We have shown recently that divicine can induce a favic-like response in rats and that divicine is directly toxic to rat red cells. In

David C. McMillan; Laura J. C. Bolchoz; David J. Jollow



[Morphologic changes and cytochrome P-450 induction in the liver of the rat after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls in various diets].  


In is shown that administration of sovol, a mixture of polychlorinated diphenyls, in a dose of 500 mg/kg (about 1:10 LD50) induces pronounced changes in the rat liver structure, in particular, fat accumulation and diminution of RNA lump number in hepatocyte cytoplasma, alteration of nuclei, decrease in the number of hepatocytes and binuclear cells in the visual field. Structural disorders in the liver are observed during a long period (up to 5 months) and, to a certain extent, depend on the composition of the lipid component of the ration. Certain differences are recorded in the character of the morphological changes in the liver after single and repeated injections of the agent. No distinct relationship is recorded between the manifestation of hepatocyte fat infiltration and other morphological changes in the liver, and the index of microsomal cytochrome P-450 induction during sovol action. PMID:3105176

Gadzhieva, Z M; Lashneva, N V; Khan, A V



Morphological and molecular characterization of Fusarium. solani and F. oxysporum associated with crown disease of oil palm  

PubMed Central

Crown disease (CD) is infecting oil palm in the early stages of the crop development. Previous studies showed that Fusarium species were commonly associated with CD. However, the identity of the species has not been resolved. This study was carried out to identify and characterize through morphological approaches and to determine the genetic diversity of the Fusarium species. 51 isolates (39%) of Fusarium solani and 40 isolates (31%) of Fusarium oxysporum were recovered from oil palm with typical CD symptoms collected from nine states in Malaysia, together with samples from Padang and Medan, Indonesia. Based on morphological characteristics, isolates in both Fusarium species were classified into two distinct morphotypes; Morphotypes I and II. Molecular characterization based on IGS-RFLP analysis produced 27 haplotypes among the F. solani isolates and 33 haplotypes for F. oxysporum isolates, which indicated high levels of intraspecific variations. From UPGMA cluster analysis, the isolates in both Fusarium species were divided into two main clusters with the percentage of similarity from 87% to 100% for F. solani, and 89% to 100% for F. oxysporum isolates, which was in accordance with the Morphotypes I and II. The results of the present study indicated that F. solani and F. oxysporum associated with CD of oil palm in Malaysia and Indonesia were highly variable. PMID:24516465

Hafizi, R.; Salleh, B.; Latiffah, Z.



Characterization of epidermal growth factor receptors on plasma membranes isolated from rat gastric mucosa  

SciTech Connect

The binding of human epidermal growth factor (hEGF), beta-urogastrone, to plasma membranes isolated from rat gastric mucosa was studied to characterize gastric EGF receptors. The binding of ({sup 125}I)hEGF was temperature dependent, reversible, and saturable. A single class of binding sites for EGF with a dissociation constant of 0.42 nM and maximal binding capacity of 42 fmol/mg protein was suggested. There was little change in the binding of ({sup 125}I)hEGF upon addition of peptide hormones (secretin, insulin), antiulcer drugs (cimetidine), or an ulcer-inducing reagent (aspirin). Cross-linking of ({sup 125}I)hEGF to gastric plasma membranes with the use of disuccinimidyl suberate resulted in the labeling of a protein of 150 kDa. These results indicate the presence of EGF receptors on plasma membranes of rat gastric mucosa.

Hori, R.; Nomura, H.; Iwakawa, S.; Okumura, K. (Kyoto Univ. Hospital (Japan))



Characterization of morphological response of red cells in a sucrose solution.  


The dynamics of red cell shape changes following transfer into sucrose media having a low chloride content was studied. Based on a large number of measurements, six types of morphological response (MR), differing both in the degree of shape changes and the time course of the process, were identified. The most prominent type of response is a triphasic sequence of shape changes consisting of a fast transformation into a sphere (phase 1), followed by restoration of the discoid shape (phase 2) and final transformation into spherostomatocytes (phase 3), with individual parameters which could vary significantly. It was found that individual morphological response exhibited day to day variations, depending on the initial state of the red blood cells and the donor, but to a larger extent depended on the composition of the sucrose solution, such as concentration and type of buffers, the presence of EDTA, calcium, as well as very small amounts of extracellular hemoglobin. MR shows strong pH and ionic strength dependence. Low pH inhibited phase 1 and high pH changed dramatically the time course of the response. Increasing ionic strength inhibited all phases of MR, and at concentrations above 10-20 mM NaCl it was fully suppressed. Tris and phosphate were also inhibitory whereas HEPES, MOPS and Tricine were less effective. MR occurred also in hypertonic or hypotonic sucrose solutions, with exception of extreme hypotonicity due to volume restrictions. It is concluded that strong membrane depolarization per se is not a causal factor leading to MR, and its different phases could be regulated independently. For some types of morphological response the fast shape transformation from sphere to disc and back to sphere occurs within a 10 s time interval and could be accelerated several fold in the presence of a small amount of hemoglobin. It is suggested that MR represents a type of general cell reaction that occurs upon exposure to low ionic strength. PMID:19249232

Rudenko, Sergey V



Design and characterization of hybrid morphology nanoarrays as plasmonic Raman probes for antimicrobial detection.  


Advances in nanofabrication have allowed the production of new and more reproducible substrates for the Raman detection of trace antimicrobials in water. The superior substrate uniformity combined with the ability to control surface morphology represents a significant step forward in the design of substrates with improved enhancement factors and trace-detection capabilities. The work presented herein successfully combines electron-beam lithography (EBL) and reactive ion-etching (RIE) protocols for the construction, testing, and validation of plasmonic hybrid morphology nanoarrays for the detection of arsenic antimicrobials in water. The fabricated substrates consist of 2500 ?m(2) Ag-coated silicon dioxide (SiO2)/Si pillar nanoarrays of alternating hexagonal and elliptical features. Control of simple fabrication parameters such as inter-particle spacing (gap) and its orientation relative to the laser polarization vector (parallel or orthogonal) result in over a tenfold improvement in the apparent Raman response under optimized conditions. At a 633 nm excitation frequency, the best substrate performance was observed on parallel-oriented features with a 200 nm gap, with over one order of magnitude increase in the apparent surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signal relative to standard silver-polydimethylsiloxane (Ag-PDMS) nanocomposites. Monitoring of the characteristic As-C stretching band at 594 cm(-1) allowed the detection of arsenic antimicrobials in water well within the parts per million range. Calculated surface-enhancement factors (SEF) for this substrate, employing 532, 785, and 633 nm excitation wavelengths, was within five, six, and seven orders of magnitude, respectively. The effect of substrate morphology and nanofabrication process on the Raman enhancement factor is presented. PMID:24160884

Olavarría-Fullerton, Jenifier; Velez, Raymond A; Wells, Sabrina; Sepaniak, Michael J; Hernández-Rivera, Samuel P; De Jesús, Marco A



Morphological characterization of carbonaceous aggregates in soot and free fall aerosol samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The morphological characteristics of BC aggregates present in the soot and carbonaceous aerosol (CA) samples were investigated. The process of soot formation under laboratory conditions took into account the commonly used practice of burning fuel in the households in India. The fractal morphology was determined by using box counting algorithm and maximum projected area of the aggregates by using their digital electron microscopic images. Former provided the estimates of perimeter fractal dimension (PD f) of each aggregate, and later estimated the average density fractal dimension (DD f) of aggregate groups. Numbers of particles constituting the aggregates, using projected area approach, were significantly higher than the estimates based on pixel counting. The measured average diameter of the primary particles in aggregates, ranged between 24 and 57 nm. The fractal dimensions, PD f, for the laboratory-generated soot aggregates varied from 1.36 to 1.88. The PD f for aggregates derived from diesel-vehicles and biomass burning showed significant variation: biomass, 1.27; diesel vehicle, 1.82 and 1.7. The size and the dimensions estimated for the free fall CA samples showed large deviation. The ratio L/ Rg (length/radius of gyration) for soot aggregates (gasoline, kerosene, diesel, mustard oil and hexane) ranged from 3.5 to 4.8. Surface morphology of these aggregates, using scanning electron microscope (SEM), showed the presence of spherical "charred cenosphere" like particles in gasoline and free fall aerosol aggregates. FTIR investigations revealed the presence of a large number of organic groups (OC) associated with carbonaceous aggregates present in soot and free fall aerosol samples.

Sachdeva, Kamna; Attri, Arun K.


Molecular Characterization and Morphology of Two Endophytic Peyronellaea Species from Pinus koraiensis in Korea  

PubMed Central

Species of Phoma and its allies were isolated during a survey on the diversity of endophytic fungi associated with pine trees in Korea. Based on the phylogenetic analyses of internal transcribed spacer and ?-tubulin gene sequences, two Phoma-like species from the needles of Pinus koraiensis were identified as Peyronellaea calorpreferens and P. glomerata. They were also morphologically identified based on the previous descriptions. Here, we report P. calorpreferens and P. glomerata being present in Korea as endophytic fungi in Pinus koraiensis. PMID:22783114

Deng, Jian Xin; Paul, Narayan Chandra; Li, Mei Jia; Seo, Eun Young; Sung, Gi Ho



Characterization of Two ENU-Induced Mutations Affecting Mouse Skeletal Morphology  

PubMed Central

Using the N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis screen, we have identified two skeletal morphology mutants, Skm1 and Skm2. Positional cloning and candidate gene sequencing localized the causative point mutations within the genes coding for natriuretic peptide receptor C (NPR-C) and filamin b (FLNB), respectively. Mice that carry a mutation in Npr3 exhibit a skeletal overgrowth phenotype, resulting in an elongated body and kyphosis. Skm2 mice, carrying a mutation in Flnb, present with scoliosis and lordosis. These mutant mice will serve as useful models for the study of vertebral malformations. PMID:23979929

Dauphinee, Shauna M.; Eva, Megan M.; Yuki, Kyoko E.; Herman, Melissa; Vidal, Silvia M.; Malo, Danielle



Biochemical and pharmacological characterization of nuclear urotensin-II binding sites in rat heart  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE During the past decade, a few GPCRs have been characterized at the nuclear membrane where they exert complementary physiological functions. In this study, we investigated (1) the presence of a functional urotensin-II (U-II) receptor (UT) in rat heart nuclear extracts and (2) the propensity of U-II and U-II-related peptide (URP) to cross the plasma membrane in a receptor-independent manner. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Biochemical and pharmacological methods including competitive binding assays, photoaffinity labelling, immunoblotting as well as de novo RNA synthesis were used to characterize the presence of functional UT receptors in rat heart nuclei. In addition, confocal microscopy and flow cytometry analysis were used to investigate the cellular uptake of fluorescent U-II and URP derivatives. KEY RESULTS The presence of specific U-II binding sites was demonstrated in rat heart nuclear extracts. Moreover, such subcellular localization was also observed in monkey heart extracts. In vitro transcription initiation assays on rat, freshly isolated, heart nuclei suggested that nuclear UT receptors are functional, and that U-II, but not URP, participates in nuclear UT-associated gene expression. Surprisingly, hU-II and URP efficiently crossed the plasma membrane in a receptor-independent mechanism involving endocytosis through caveolin-coated pits; this uptake of hU-II, but not that of URP, was dependent on extracellular pH. CONCLUSION Our results suggest that (1) U-II and URP can differentially modulate nuclear UT functions such as gene expression, and (2) both ligands can reach the internal cellular space through a receptor-independent mechanism. PMID:22044114

Doan, ND; Nguyen, TTM; Letourneau, M; Turcotte, K; Fournier, A; Chatenet, D



Morphological and optical characterization of thermally evaporated copper sulphide thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin films of Cu2S on opaque gold layers and quartz substrates at the temperature of 393 K were deposited by a thermal evaporation technique. The surface morphology of the Cu2S thin films at different thicknesses is investigated by AFM. It is seen that all the films are composed of highly coordinated spherical nano-sized particles well adhered to the substrate. The transmittance and reflectance spectra of Cu2S thin films on the quartz substrate were recorded by a UV-visible spectrophotometer. The results show that the thermally evaporated Cu2S thin films have the characteristic transmittance and reflectance suitable for optoelectronic applications. The stoichiometry and surface morphology of a grown Cu2S thin film were confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The dependence of the refractive index and the extinction coefficient on the photon energy for both the surface film and the opaque gold layer have been determined by ellipsometry. From the spectral behaviour of the absorption coefficient at two distinct absorption regions, a dual-band scheme of optical absorption for a Cu2S thin film is described. The indirect and direct edges of Cu2S are found to be about at 0.91 eV and 2.68 eV, respectively.

Derin, Hüseyin



Morphological and optical characterization of thermally evaporated copper sulphide thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin films of Cu2S on opaque gold layers and quartz substrates at the temperature of 393 K were deposited by a thermal evaporation technique. The surface morphology of the Cu2S thin films at different thicknesses is investigated by AFM. It is seen that all the films are composed of highly coordinated spherical nano-sized particles well adhered to the substrate. The transmittance and reflectance spectra of Cu2S thin films on the quartz substrate were recorded by a UV-visible spectrophotometer. The results show that the thermally evaporated Cu2S thin films have the characteristic transmittance and reflectance suitable for optoelectronic applications. The stoichiometry and surface morphology of a grown Cu2S thin film were confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The dependence of the refractive index and the extinction coefficient on the photon energy for both the surface film and the opaque gold layer have been determined by ellipsometry. From the spectral behaviour of the absorption coefficient at two distinct absorption regions, a dual-band scheme of optical absorption for a Cu2S thin film is described. The indirect and direct edges of Cu2S are found to be about at 0.91 eV and 2.68 eV, respectively.

Derin, Hüseyin



Expression of nerve growth factor and neurotrophin-3 mRNAs in hippocampal interneurons: Morphological characterization, levels of expression, and colocalization of nerve growth factor and neurotrophin-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the distribution and morphology of hippocampal interneurons that express the neurotrophins nerve growth factor (NGF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) in the rat. For this study, we combined in situ hybridization for the detection of NGF and NT-3 mRNAs and immunocytochemistry against the calcium-binding proteins parvalbumin (PARV), calreti- nin (CALR), and calbindin (CALB). Whereas the majority of PARV1 interneurons

Marta Pascual; Nativitat Rocamora; Eduardo Soriano



Dopaminergic innervation of the rat globus pallidus characterized by microdialysis and immunohistochemistry.  


The present study examined the dopaminergic innervation of the rat globus pallidus by in vivo microdialysis and immunohistochemistry in more detail. Using tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry, two classes of dopaminergic fibers were distinguished morphologically in the globus pallidus. Unilateral infusion of 6-hydroxydopamine into the substantia nigra produced a loss of dopaminergic fiber density in the globus pallidus which was correlated with the nigral extent of the lesion. These findings are in line with the notion that a degenerative loss of nigral dopaminergic cell bodies might also affect the dopamine input of extrastriatal structures such as the globus pallidus. Using in vivo microdialysis, we tested whether dopamine measured in the globus pallidus is of neuronal origin. Perfusion of tetrodotoxin induced a strong and transient decrease of pallidal dopamine. The tetrodotoxin-sensitivity of pallidal dopamine demonstrates the functional significance of the nigropallidal dopaminergic innervation. PMID:14508630

Fuchs, Holger; Hauber, Wolfgang



Agrobacterium rhizogenes-transformed Roots of Coffee (Coffea arabica): Conditions for Long-term Proliferation, and Morphological and Molecular Characterization  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The aims of this study were to set up proliferation conditions for hairy roots of Coffea arabica regenerated after transformation by Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain A4-RS, and to carry out the morphological and molecular characterization of hairy root clones maintained over the long term. Methods Auxin supply, light conditions and sucrose concentration were modified with the aim of establishing efficient root proliferation conditions. The morphological variability among 62 established hairy root clones was phenotyped by scanning the roots and analysing the images using ‘whinRHIZO’ software procedures. PCR analysis of integration in transformed root cells of rol and aux oncogenes from the T-DNA of the Ri plasmid was used to study the molecular variability among clones. Key Results Auxin supply was necessary to obtain and stimulate growth and branching, and IBA applied at 0·5 µm was the most efficient auxin. Significant differences were shown among the 62 clones for total root length and for the percentage of fine roots. These variables were stable across subcultures and could hence be used for efficient characterization of hairy root clones. The majority of hairy root clones (86 %) exhibited non-significant phenotype differences with non-transformed roots. Eight clones were significantly different from the non-transformed controls in that they possessed a low proportion of fine roots. Two other hairy root clones grew significantly faster than the other clones. The PCR analysis revealed a low variability in the integration of rol and aux oncogenes in transformed root cells. The TR-DNA was never integrated as aux1 and aux2 genes were not found, although rolB and rolC genes from the TL-DNA were always present. Conclusions The discovery of low morphological variability among coffee hairy roots together with the identification of morphological variables allowing easy identification of phenotypically altered clones represent two important results. They make hairy roots a possible, and efficient, tool for functional-genomic studies of coffee root genes. PMID:18316320

Alpizar, E.; Dechamp, E.; Lapeyre-Montes, F.; Guilhaumon, C.; Bertrand, B.; Jourdan, C.; Lashermes, P.; Etienne, H.



Morphological characterization of the hemocytes of the clam, Ruditapes decussatus (Mollusca: Bivalvia).  


Hemocytes play an important role in internal defence in molluscs. The morphology of hemolymph cells was studied for the first time in Ruditapes decussatus. Two main types of hemocytes (hyalinocytes and granulocytes) exist in R. decussatus. Three types of granulocytes were identified by light microscopy, in accordance with the presence of basophilic or acidophilic granules or a mixture of both in the cytoplasm. The existence of hyalinocytes and granulocytes was confirmed by electron microscopy. Some monoclonal antibodies (MABs) raised against hemocytes of Crassostrea gigas showed cross-reactivity with the total population of hemocytes of R. decussatus; however, none of the MABs raised against hemocytes of Mytilus edulis showed cross-reactivity. The MABs assayed did not allow us to distinguish hemocyte subpopulations. PMID:9028928

López, C; Carballal, M J; Azevedo, C; Villalba, A



Morphological and molecular characterization of Magnaporthe oryzae (fungus) from infected rice leaf samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnaporthe oryzae is a plant-pathogenic fungus that causes a serious disease affecting rice called rice blast. Outbreaks of rice blast have been a threat to the global production of rice. This fungal disease is estimated to cause production losses of US55 million each year in South and Southeast Asia. It has been used as a primary model for elucidating various aspects of the host-pathogen interaction with its host. We have isolated five isolates of Magnaporthe oryzae from diseased leaf samples obtained from the field at Kompleks Latihan MADA, Kedah, Malaysia. We have identified the isolates using morphological and microscopic studies on the fungal spores and the lesions on the diseased leaves. Amplification of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) was carried out with universal primers ITS1 and ITS4. The sequence of each isolates showed at least 99% nucleotide identity with the corresponding sequence in GenBank for Magnaporthe oryzae.

Muni, Nurulhidayah Mat; Nadarajah, Kalaivani



Bovine oviductal epithelial cells: Long term culture characterization and impact of insulin on cell morphology.  


In vitro models that resemble cell function in vivo are needed to understand oviduct physiology. This study aimed to assess cell functions and insulin effects on bovine oviductal epithelial cells (BOECs) cultured in an air-liquid interface. BOECs (n=6) were grown in conditioned Ham's F12, DMEM or Ham's F12/DMEM with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS) for 3 weeks. After selecting the most suitable medium (Ham's F12), increasing insulin concentrations (1ng/mL, 20ng/mL and 5?g/mL) were applied, and cell morphology and trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER; n=4) were evaluated after 3 and 6 weeks. Keratin immunohistochemistry and mRNA expression of oviductal glycoprotein 1 (OVGP1) and progesterone receptor (PGR) were conducted (n=4) to assess cell differentiation. BOECs grown without insulin supplementation or with 1ng/mL of insulin displayed polarization and secretory activity. However, cells exhibited only 50% of the height of their in vivo counterparts. Cultures supplemented with 20ng/mL insulin showed the highest quality, but the 5?g/mL concentration induced massive growth. TEER correlated negatively with insulin concentration (r=-0.459; p=0.009). OVGP1 and PGR transcripts were still detectable after 3 and 6 weeks. Cellular localization of keratins closely resembled that of BOECs in vivo. Cultures showed heterogeneous expression of PGR and OVGP1 in response to estradiol (10pg/mL). In summary, BOECs grown for long term in an air-liquid interface expressed markers of cell differentiation. Additionally, insulin supplementation (20ng/mL) improved the cell morphology in vitro. PMID:25152518

Palma-Vera, S; Einspanier, R; Schoen, J



Nitrogen-Fixing Nodule Characterization and Morphology of Four Species in the Northern Intermountain Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purshia tridentata (antelope bitterbrush), Ceanothus velutinus (snowbrush), Ceanothus sanguenius (redstem ceanothus), and Shepherdia canadensis (buffaloberry) are native shrubs of the Northern Intermountain Region that are generally characterized as nitrogen-fixing species. These species occupy a range of habitats from steppe to alpine environments. Nodulation of these species is initiated through root infection by Frankia species and the resulting nodules are described

Lee Walls; Benjamin A. Zamora


Combined Use of Cassini Radar Active and Passive Measurements to Characterize Titan Morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the Titan surface parameters retrieval with emphasis on a combination of passive and active microwave measurements from Cassini spacecraft on the areas characterized by large liquid surfaces and neighboring land areas. The methodology consists of a combination of direct modeling and inversion algorithms. First, these surfaces have been described by means of a double layer model

Bartolomeo Ventura; Domenico Casarano; Claudia Notarnicola; Michael Janssen; Francesco Posa



[Morphological changes induced by valproate and its administration concomitant with folinic acid or S-adenosylmethionine in pregnant rats].  


Neural tube defects (NTD) are serious congenital abnormalities that have a multifactorial etiology, including both genetic and environmental effectors (for example, diet and/or drugs). Valproic acid (VPA) is a frequently used anti-epileptic drug that has a potentially teratogenic character, as well as the capacity for inducing NTD and other less serious malformations. However, the mechanism of action of VPA has not been clearly established, and it has been suggested that it interferes in the folate cycle and therefore, with the methionine/methylation, possibly through a metabolic blocking of some biomarker that is a key of the cycle, such as for example S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and folic acid (FA). The objective of the present study is to analyze the morphological and histological changes, which can occur in a high risk experimental model after the administration of VPA as well as for the induction of NTD and other malformations. In addition, the protective roles of the administration of folic acid, 5-formyltetrahydrofolate (FOL) and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) are assessed. For this pregnant "Wistar" rats classified according to the following treatments: 1) VPA (300 mg/kg/day on days 8, 9, and 10 of the pregnancy); II) VPA (300 mg/kg/day on days 8, 9, and 10 of the pregnancy) and FOL (4 mg/kg/day i.p. on days 8, 9, and 10 of the pregnancy); III) VPA (300 mg/kg/day on days 8, 9, and 10 of the pregnancy) + SAM (10 mg/kg/day, on days 1-10 of the pregnancy); IV) CONTROL (no treatment). VPA decreases the fertility index by 25% compared to the control group, it increases the number of reabsorptions by mother (1.3 +/- 0.5 vs 1.0 +/- 0.5), and decreases the number of fetuses compared to the control (9.0 +/- 1.4 vs. 12.6 +/- 0.9). In the VPA + FOL group, the numbers for these parameters approach those of the control group and the VPA + SAM group is no different from the VPA group, showing no protective factors. With respect to the bone alterations observed, when these are grouped according to whether they affect the skull, trunk, and extremities, it is seen that there are no significant differences between the groups. The histological study and the immunohistochemical analysis show liver alterations in all groups treated, and a lower number of lymphocytes in the VPA group, and a greater number of Kupffer cells, The results are discussed in relation to, first, the effect of VPA per se in the interference of the methionine/methylation cycle, and secondly, with regard to how folic acid and/or S-adenosylmethionine can improve or not some of the harmful effects induced by VPA. PMID:9578686

Ubeda-Martín, N; Alonso-Aperte, E; Achón, M; Varela-Moreiras, G; Puerta, J; Pérez de Miguelsanz, J



Isolation and characterization of BART-1: A novel balloon angioplasty responsive transcript in rat carotid arteries.  


In previous studies, differential display analysis of balloon angioplasty-damaged rat carotid arteries identified a temporally expressed partial cDNA termed RC9. This message is undetectable in undamaged vessels, reaches maximal levels 3 days post-procedure, and reduces to half-maximal expression by 14 days post angioplasty. Using RC9 to screen a cDNA library, we now report the isolation and characterization of a full-length clone, termed BART-1. BART-1 is 98% homologous to RC9 and shows the same mRNA expression pattern as RC9 in rat carotid arteries subject to balloon angioplasty. Northern analysis of various rat tissues reveals tissue specificity and possible differential processing. Neither the nucleic acid nor amino acid sequences demonstrate similarity to previously reported expressed sequences. Predicted amino acid analysis reveals two strongly hydrophilic and one hydrophobic region, suggesting a type II integral membrane protein. The cDNA sequence hybridized to genomic DNA from a variety of species, suggesting evolutionary conservation. Thus, BART-1 mRNA appears to represent an inducible, tissue-specific transcript encoding a putative integral membrane protein transiently expressed in response to vascular trauma. PMID:8639266

Autieri, M V; Prystowsky, M B; Ohlstein, E H



Characterization of angiotensin-binding sites in the bovine adrenal and the rat brain  

SciTech Connect

The first study was designed to determine whether systemically administered MSG affects neurons in the CVOs that are potentially important in mediating angiotensin-dependent responses. Rats were pretreated with MSG and the receptors for angiotensin II were assayed by radioligand binding in brain homogenates from the septum anteroventral third ventricular region (AV3V) and the thalamus/hypothalamus region using {sup 125}I-angiotensin II as the radioligand. The results of this experiment indicate that systematically administered MSG in the rat significantly reduced the number (Bmax) of Ang II receptors in a tissue sample which contained both extra blood-brain barrier organs as well as tissue within the blood-brain barrier with no change in the affinity (Kd) of the binding sites. The second chapter reports the successful solubilization of bovine adrenal {sup 125}I Ang II and {sup 125}I Sar{sup 1},Ile{sup 8}-Ang II binding sites with the detergent CHAPS. The results of our studies indicate the presence of two angiotensin binding sites. The one site is specific for naturally occurring angiotensins as well as sarcosine-1 substituted angiotensin analogues. The other site which can be optimally stabilized be re-addition of 0.3% CHAPS into the incubation assay binds sarcosine-1 substituted angiotensins exclusively. Hydrophobic interaction chromatography experiments suggest that these sites, possibly, represent distinct proteins. The third chapter discusses the successful solubilization and partial characterization of the rat brain angiotensin receptor.

Rogulja, I.



Characterization of the rat neutral and basic amino acid transporter utilizing anti-peptide antibodies.  

PubMed Central

High-titer, site-specific antibodies have been produced against the rat kidney broad-spectrum, sodium-independent neutral and basic amino acid transporter (NBAA-Tr) whose cDNA we cloned earlier. These antibodies have allowed us to characterize the transporter protein in normal rat tissues and in various cellular and in vitro expression systems. Western analysis detected 84- to 87-kDa glycosylated species enriched in rat renal and jejunal epithelial cell brush border membranes. In vitro translation of NBAA-Tr complementary RNA in the rabbit reticulocyte lysate system yielded a 78-kDa protein, a molecular mass that was predicted by the amino acid sequence deduced from the cloned cDNA. Translation in the presence of rough microsomal membranes yielded a glycosylated 89-kDa species. Glycosylated 87- to 89-kDa species were also expressed in Xenopus oocytes microinjected with NBAA-Tr complementary RNA and in COS-7 cells transfected with NBAA-Tr cDNA. Localization of NBAA-Tr in renal and intestinal brush border membranes is consistent with its proposed role in transepithelial transport of amino acids. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8483918

Mosckovitz, R; Yan, N; Heimer, E; Felix, A; Tate, S S; Udenfriend, S



Morphological characterization of extremely shallow environments through spectral and textural analysis of high resolution bathymetric and backscatter data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transitional environments like lagoons, deltas and estuaries often undergo strong natural and human-induced actions that need constant monitoring. The changes of these environments can be assessed using acoustic bathymetric surveys: bathymetric data are not only important for navigational purposes but they are also employed for geomorphologic studies, habitat mapping and modelling of evolution trends of the highly dynamical coastal areas. Among the coastal systems, transitional environments, are often extremely shallow (of the order of 1 m deep or less) and morphologically complex. This kind of environment represents a challenge for acoustic bathymetric surveys. To assess the potentiality and the limits of acoustic surveys in extremely shallow environments, we carried out two surveys in the Lagoon of Venice, Italy, with an interferometric sonar and a multibeam echosounder system. As a case study we focused on a natural channel in the northern part of the lagoon combining the data from the different surveys. In particular we carried out a two-dimensional (2D) spectral and textural analysis of the high resolution bathymetric and backscatter data collected. As a result of the 2D spectral analysis on the elevation data, we were able to identify and parameterize the geometrical characteristics of the main morphological features of the channel, like dunes, scours, crests and troughs and sedimentation areas and to extract the channel bottom roughness. We then performed an unsupervised classification of the backscatter data. As a result, we were able to identify different backscatter areas where several grab samples were collected for ground truthing. With the help of this sampling we calibrated a textural analysis and obtained a classification of the different kinds of substrate. Within this multidisciplinary approach, we set up and successfully tested a combined method to quantitatively characterize an extremely shallow water dynamical environment. Using this method, we could map the main morphological and sedimentological features of the seabed and relate them to the hydrodynamic conditions provided by an high resolution 3D numerical model.

Madricardo, Fantina; Foglini, Federica; Tegowski, Jaroslaw; Blondel, Philippe; Nowak, Jaroslaw; Ferrarin, Christian



Isolation and subfractionation on ficoll gradients of adult rat hepatocytes. Size, morphology, and biochemical characteristics of cell fractions  

PubMed Central

The recirculating perfusion of adult rat liver with a Ca-++-free Hanks' solution produces a release of the adhesiveness of cells and a cleaving of the desmosomes. The addition of collagenase and hyaluronidase to the perfusion medium leads to complete dissociation of the liver tissue into a mixture of isolated cells and cell cords in which the hepatocytes remain connected with specific junctional differentiations, namely the gap and tight junctions. Individual cells are released by submitting the suspension of cell trabeculae to a gentle rolling. The gap junctions are ruptured at least in one of the two adjacent cells and remain generally attached to the other cell taking with them a small portion of cytoplasm. This technique of isolation of hepatocytes yields about 60-65% of the parenchymal cells contained in a liver; endothelial cells and other cells of the connective tissue are not recovered. The ultrastructural preservation of the isolated hepatocytes is excellent and the glucose-6-phosphatase activity, confined to the endoplasmic reticulum, appears unaltered in most cells. Protein, DNA and RNA recovery in the preparations of isolated hepatocytes is satisfactory, amounting to 70% of that found in liver homogenate; glycogen, the most labile component examined, is partly lost or degraded during the manipulations. Cell diameters measured by different methods confirm the preservation of the original volume of the in situ hepatocytes and the presence of more than one type of parenchymal cell. By submitting this heterogeneous cell population to an isopycnic density gradient centrifugation, two types of hepatocytes can be distinguished: the light hepatocytes, with a mean diameter of 20.5 mum and a mean density of 1.10, are characterized by an extended smooth- walled endoplasmic reticulum entrapping dispersed alpha-glycogen particles; the heavy hepatocytes, with a mean diameter of 19.0 mum and a mean density of 1.14, present a relatively reduced compartment of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, but large accumulations of glycogen. It is suggested that the cell fraction of low density is enriched in centrolobular cells and the high density fraction in perilobular hepatocytes. PMID:167028



Hydrothermal temperature as a morphological control factor: Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic activity of titanate nanotubes and nanoribbons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Layered titanate nanotubes (TNTs) and titanate nanoribbons (TNRs) were synthesized via hydrothermal treatment from commercial TiO2. Formation of nanotubes and nanoribbons were monitored by varying the hydrothermal reaction temperature and time. The two parameters hydrothermal reaction temperature and time was 100 °C for 24 h/72 h, 150 °C for 24 h/72 h and 200 °C for 24 h/72 h. The morphology, structure and optical properties were systematically analyzed, with samples are characterized by TEM, XRD, XPS, SEM, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm (BET) as well as Raman, FT-IR and UV-Vis/DR spectroscopy. The study revealed that reaction temperature is the parameter for morphological control of the product. Structure and physical properties of TNTs and TNRs are summarized. Further, dense products are obtained by increase the reaction time for the same temperature. The photocatalytic activities were assessed under UV light by degradation of rhodamine B aqueous solution. Results revealed that, degradation of TNTs and TNRs was observed, after samples annealed once at 400 °C, which is due to occurrence of phase transformation from titanate to anatase TiO2 and TiO2 (B) respectively.

Thennarasu, S.; Rajasekar, K.; Balkis Ameen, K.



Biochemical and histochemical characterization of cultured rat and hamster pancreatic ducts.  


Pancreatic duct fragments were isolated from rat and hamster pancreas and were cultured in an agarose matrix for up to 8 weeks (rat) or 20 weeks (hamster). The fragments consisted predominantly of duct epithelium, lesser numbers of stromal and atrophied acinar cells, and small numbers of islet cells. Hamster ducts averaged 3 micrograms protein per duct while rat ducts averaged 1 microgram, and the protein:DNA ratio of both types of ducts was less than that of whole pancreas. Estimated average duct yields of 6% (hamster) and 1% (rat) were based on the protein content of the ducts. Duct viability was shown by the incorporation of 3H-thymidine and 3H-leucine into bulk DNA and protein and by autoradiography. gamma-Glutamyl transferase and (Na + K)-ATPase specific activities were slightly elevated while amylase was depressed in the ducts when compared with whole pancreas in both species. gamma-Glutamyl transferase was localized histochemically in both duct epithelium and in surviving acinar tissue, as seen in vivo. Amylase was shown by immunohistochemistry to be present within duct lumina and in atrophied acini and their lumina. Alkaline phosphatase and Mg-ATPase specific activities were elevated in the hamster, but reduced in the rat, when compared with whole pancreas. Hamster alkaline phosphatase and Mg-ATPase were localized by histochemistry to the duct stroma, where these enzymes are not detected in vivo. Carbonic anhydrase was found in the duct epithelium of both species, as in vivo, as well as in the duct stroma, unlike in vivo. Acid glycosaminoglycans, as revealed by alcian blue staining, were found at the apical surfaces and in the lumina of both kinds of ducts. Glutathione-S-transferase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were elevated in rat ducts, but not in hamster ducts. The polypeptide compositions of cultured ducts, freshly isolated pancreatic islets, and whole pancreas were compared by one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis. No duct-specific polypeptides were observed; the ducts were characterized mainly by the reduction or absence of polypeptides, including some zymogens, seen in whole pancreas. PMID:2442750

Githens, S; Finley, J J; Patke, C L; Schexnayder, J A; Fallon, K B; Ruby, J R



Identification and pharmacological characterization of the histamine H3 receptor in cultured rat astrocytes.  


Recently we reported that cultured rat cortical astrocytes express histamine H3 receptor that is functionally coupled to Gi/o proteins and participates to the stimulatory effect of histamine. Due to the lack of data on the distribution of histamine H3 receptors on glial cells we further investigated their presence in cultured astrocytes from different brain regions. Real-time PCR was performed to examine the expression of native histamine H3 receptor in cultured rat astrocytes from cortex,cerebellum, hippocampus and striatum.Double-antigen immunofluorescence staining and[3H]N-?-methylhistamine([3H]N?MH) binding studies were utilized to specifically identify and characterize receptor binding sites in astrocytes. Histamine H3 receptor mRNA was detected in rat astrocytes from all the regions under investigation with the highest levels in striatal astrocytes followed by hippocampal astrocytes and approximately equal levels in cerebellar and cortical astrocytes.Double-antigen immunofluorescence confirmed the presence of histamine H3 receptors on the membrane of all examined astroglial populations.[3H]N?MH bound with high affinity and specificity to an apparently single class of saturable sites on cortical astrocytic membranes(KD¼4.5570.46 nM; Bmax¼5.6370.21 fmol/mg protein)and competition assays with selective agonists and antagonists were consistent with labeling of histamine H3 receptor(range of pKi values 7.50–8.87). Our study confirmed the ability of cultured astrocytes from different rat brain regions to express histamine H3 receptors.The observed diverse distribution of the receptors within various astrocytic populations possibly mirrors their heterogeneity in the brain and indicates their active involvement in histamine-mediated effects. PMID:24432407

Mele, Tina; Juri?, Damijana Mojca



Direct image-based fractal characterization of morphologies and structures of wax crystals in waxy crude oils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The morphology and structure of wax crystals are among the factors dominating rheological characteristics of a waxy crude oil at temperatures below the wax appearance temperature (WAT). In several reported researches fractal dimensions were employed in describing the waxy crude oil microstructures; however, they were all determined via the indirect approach, i.e. deduced from the rheological data. This paper presents a direct fractal characterization approach based on micrographs of wax crystals. The box-counting method is applied to the wax crystal images of three waxy crude oils beneficiated with and without pour-point-depressants (PPDs), and for the fractal measurements the t-distribution tests of hypothesis on linear regression are performed at the significance level of 0.01. It is demonstrated that the boundary fractal dimensions from micrographs of different visual fields of a specimen are almost identical, with the maximum and minimum relative ranges being 9.97% and 1.88% respectively, and with the standard deviation ranging from 0.0549 to 0.0107. Then the wax crystal structures are determined as fractal at the confidence level of 99%. All the listed absolute t-statistics with the minimum of 29.568 are much higher than the corresponding t-quantiles with the maximum of 3.4995. The results also show that the larger value of the boundary box dimension represents the higher complexity and irregularity of the wax crystal morphology. The box dimension increases with decreasing oil temperature for each waxy crude oil. After the oil is beneficiated with a PPD, the box dimension increases at each given temperature. Thus, it is feasible to use fractal dimensions to characterize the waxy crude oil microstructures. This helps to probe the rheology-microstructure relation.

Gao, Peng; Zhang, Jinjun; Ma, Guixia



Plasma morphology and induced airflow characterization of a DBD actuator with serrated electrode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma morphology and airflow induced by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) actuator, whose exposed electrode geometry is designed with a serrated configuration, are investigated in quiescent air and compared with a DBD actuator consisting of electrodes designed with a standard linear strip configuration. ICCD imaging, electrical measurements and three-component laser Doppler velocimetry were carried out to compare various features of these two actuators. With the serrated configuration, ICCD images of the discharge show that streamers are bent, whereas with the linear configuration they are straight. These curved streamers induce a three-dimensional flow topology, which is confirmed by friction line visualization and velocity measurements. Whereas a two-dimensional wall-jet is induced with the linear configuration, a transverse velocity component is measured with the serrated configuration, implying the creation of spanwise-periodic vorticity. Phase-averaged velocity measurements allow the temporal variation of this transverse velocity to be highlighted. On both sides of a tooth, it has qualitatively the same variation as the longitudinal velocity with respect to the negative or positive half-cycles of the high voltage signal. Moreover, with the same electrical operating parameters, the measured longitudinal velocity was higher, particularly at the tips.

Joussot, R.; Leroy, A.; Weber, R.; Rabat, H.; Loyer, S.; Hong, D.



Morphological Characterization of DMPC/CHAPSO Bicellar Mixtures: A Combined SANS and NMR Study  

SciTech Connect

Spontaneously forming structures of a system composed of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-2-hydroxy-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPSO) were studied by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), 31P NMR, and stimulated echo (STE) pulsed field gradient (PFG) 1H NMR diffusion measurements. Charged lipid dimyristoyl phosphatidylglycerol (DMPG) was used to induce different surface charge densities. The structures adopted were investigated as a function of temperature and lipid concentration for samples with a constant molar ratio of long-chain to short-chain lipids (=3). In the absence of DMPG, zwitterionic bicellar mixtures exhibited a phase transition from discoidal bicelles, or ribbons, to multilamellar vesicles either upon dilution or with increased temperature. CHAPSO-containing mixtures showed a higher thermal stability in morphology than DHPC-containing mixtures at the corresponding lipid concentrations. In the presence of DMPG, discoidal bicelles (or ribbons) were also found at low temperature and lower lipid concentration mixtures. At high temperature, perforated lamellae were observed in high concentration mixtures ( 7.5 wt %) whereas uniform unilamellar vesicles and bicelles formed in low-concentration mixtures ( 2.5 wt %), respectively, when the mixtures were moderately and highly charged. From the results, spontaneous structural diagrams of the zwitterionic and charged systems were constructed.

Li, Ming [University of Connecticut, Storrs] [University of Connecticut, Storrs; Morales, Hannah H [University of Toronto, Canada] [University of Toronto, Canada; Katsaras, John [ORNL] [ORNL; Kucerka, Norbert [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Canadian Neutron Beam Centre (CNBC) and Comenius University,] [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Canadian Neutron Beam Centre (CNBC) and Comenius University,; Yang, Yongkun [University of Connecticut, Storrs] [University of Connecticut, Storrs; Macdonald, P [University of Toronto, Canada] [University of Toronto, Canada; Nieh, Mu-Ping [University of Connecticut, Storrs] [University of Connecticut, Storrs



Morphological and molecular characterization of Neotropic Lymnaeidae (Gastropoda: Lymnaeoidea), vectors of fasciolosis.  


Lymnaeidae play a crucial role in the transmission of fasciolosis, a disease of medical and veterinary importance. In the Neotropic, a region where fasciolosis is emergent, eight Lymnaeidae species are currently considered valid. However, our knowledge of the diversity of this taxon is hindered by the fact that lymnaeids exhibit extremely homogeneous anatomical traits. Because most species are difficult to identify using classic taxonomy, it is difficult to establish an epidemiological risk map of fasciolosis in the Neotropic. In this paper, we contribute to our understanding of the diversity of lymnaeids in this region of the world. We perform conchological, anatomical and DNA-based analyses (phylogeny and barcoding) of almost all species of Lymnaeidae inhabiting the Neotropic to compare the reliability of classic taxonomy and DNA-based approaches, and to delimitate species boundaries. Our results demonstrate that while morphological traits are unable to separate phenotypically similar species, DNA-based approaches unambiguously ascribe individuals to one species or another. We demonstrate that a taxon found in Colombia and Venezuela (Galba sp.) is closely related yet sufficiently divergent from Galba truncatula, G. humilis, G. cousini, G. cubensis, G. neotropica and G. viatrix to be considered as a different species. In addition, barcode results suggest that G. cubensis, G. neotropica and G. viatrix might be conspecifics. We conclude that conchological and anatomical characters are uninformative to identify closely related species of Lymnaeidae and that DNA-based approaches should be preferred. PMID:21968212

Correa, Ana C; Escobar, Juan S; Noya, Oscar; Velásquez, Luz E; González-Ramírez, Carolina; Hurtrez-Boussès, Sylvie; Pointier, Jean-Pierre



Morphological and microstructural characterization of nanostructured pure ?-phase W coatings on a wide thickness range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanostructured tungsten (nanoW) coatings have been deposited by DC magnetron sputtering. First, the influence of the sputtering power on the adhesion of the coatings to the substrate was investigated by depositing coatings at powers varying from 30 up to 220 W. Non-delaminated coatings were achieved at powers ?50 W. Second, the influence of coating thickness on the morphological, microstructural and mechanical properties was investigated for films deposited at 50 W with thicknesses varying from 30 nm up to ?4.0 ?m. SEM images reveal that all the films are highly compact, consisting of nanometer sized columns that grow perpendicular to the substrate. XRD data evidence that films are monophasic, being made of pure ?-phase. All coatings show compressive stress and low micro-strain. Nanoindentation tests show that coatings have a hardness higher than that reported for coarse grained W. No significant dependence of the previous properties on coating thickness was observed. Finally, the influence of the substrate on coatings properties was studied, by depositing a W coating at a power of 50 W on a commercial steel substrate: no significant dependence was found.

Gordillo, N.; Panizo-Laiz, M.; Tejado, E.; Fernandez-Martinez, I.; Rivera, A.; Pastor, J. Y.; Castro, C. Gómez de; del Rio, J.; Perlado, J. M.; Gonzalez-Arrabal, R.



Characterization of morphology and angiogenesis in follicles of mares during spring transition and the breeding season.  


The mare is a seasonal breeder and undergoes a period of ovarian transition in spring between winter anoestrus and cyclicity. During spring transition LH concentrations are low and many mares have successive large anovulatory follicular waves which reach the size of preovulatory follicles. Follicular angiogenesis is essential for growth and health of preovulatory follicles. The aim of the present study was to investigate the morphology and vascularity of transitional anovulatory follicles. On gross inspection, the wall of transitional follicles was visibly less well vascularized than that of preovulatory follicles. Histologically, it could be seen that the theca was only poorly developed in transitional follicles. Immunostaining for factor VIII showed that there were significantly (P < 0.05) fewer blood vessels in the theca of transitional follicles. There was substantially less (P < 0.001) proliferative activity, measured by immunostaining for Ki67, in the endothelial cells and granulosa cells of transitional follicles compared with preovulatory follicles. Preovulatory follicles had a heavy band of immunostaining in the theca for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), whereas staining was sparse in the transitional follicles. It was concluded that the poor vascularity and development of the theca layer in transitional follicles could be related to low circulating LH, and possibly other trophic hormones, and are likely to be the key factors in explaining the steroidogenic incompetence of transitional anovulatory follicles. PMID:12141935

Watson, E D; Al-Zi'abi, M O



Gold nanoparticles on the surface of soda-lime glass: morphological, linear and nonlinear optical characterization.  


Materials presenting high optical nonlinearity, such as materials containing metal nanoparticles (NPs), can be used in various applications in photonics. This motivated the research presented in this paper, where morphological, linear and nonlinear optical characteristics of gold NPs on the surface of bulk soda-lime glass substrates were investigated as a function of nanoparticle height. The NPs were obtained by annealing gold (Au) thin films previously deposited on the substrates. Pixel intensity histogram fitting on Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) images was performed to obtain the thickness of the deposited film. Image analysis was employed to obtain the statistical distribution of the average height of the NPs. In addition, absorbance spectra of the samples before and after annealing were measured. Finally, the nonlinear refractive index (n2) and the nonlinear absorption index (?2) at 800 nm were obtained before and after annealing by using the thermally managed eclipse Z-scan (TM-EZ) technique with a Ti:Sapphire laser (150 fs pulses). Results show that both n2 and ?2 at this wavelength change signs after the annealing and that the samples presented a high nonlinear refractive index. PMID:22418350

Romani, E C; Vitoreti, Douglas; Gouvêa, Paula M P; Caldas, P G; Prioli, R; Paciornik, S; Fokine, Michael; Braga, Arthur M B; Gomes, Anderson S L; Carvalho, Isabel C S



Multi-responsive polypeptidosome: characterization, morphology transformation, and triggered drug delivery.  


The biodegradable polymeric nanomedicines that may be integrated with multi-stimuli-sensitivity to achieve triggered or on-demand drug release kinetics are challenging for polymer therapeutics and drug delivery systems. By controlling the structure transformation of one polypeptide-b-PEO copolymer, a novel multi-responsive polypeptide-based vesicle (polypeptidosome) presents the combined sensitivity of multiple physiological and clinic-related stimuli, and both morphology and size of the polypeptidosome are changed during the triggered process. The designer polypeptide has unique structures composed of 1) light-responsive o-nitrobenzyl groups, 2) oxidizable thioether linkers, 3) photo-caged redox thiol groups on parent poly(L-cysteine), and 4) tunable conformation, which enable the polypeptidosome to have a peculiar multi-response. The anticancer drug doxorubicin can be released in a controlled or on-off manner. The combination stimuli of UV irradiation and H2 O2 oxidation induces a large effect and a lower IC50 of 3.80 ?g doxorubicin (DOX) equiv/mL compared to 5.28 ?g DOX equiv/mL of individual H2 O2 trigger. PMID:25170968

Liu, Gang; Zhou, Linzhu; Guan, Yanfei; Su, Yue; Dong, Chang-Ming



Morphological and biochemical characterization of Erwinia amylovora-induced hypersensitive cell death in apple leaves.  


In attached apple leaves, spot-inoculated with Erwinia amylovora, the phenotypic appearance of the hypersensitive response (HR) and the participation of ethylene, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and of vacuolar processing enzyme (VPE) (a plant caspase-1-like protease) were analysed. The HR in both the resistant and susceptible genotypes expressed a similar pattern of distinguishable micro HR lesions that progressed into confined macro HR lesions. The HR symptoms in apple were compared to those in non-host tobacco. The morphology of dead cells (protoplast shrinkage and retraction from cell wall) in apple leaves resembled necrotic programmed cell death (PCD). Lesion formation in both cv. Free Redstar (resistant) and cv. Idared (highly susceptible) was preceded by ROS accumulation and elevation of ethylene levels. Treatment of infected leaves with an inhibitor of ethylene synthesis led to a decrease of ethylene emission and suppression of lesion development in both cultivars. In the resistant but not in the susceptible apple cultivar an early and late increase in VPE gene expression was detected. This suggests that VPE might be an underlying component of the response to E. amylovora in resistant apple cultivars. The findings show that in the studied pathosystem the cell death during the HR proceeds through a signal transduction cascade in which ROS, ethylene and VPE pathways play a role. PMID:23321023

Iakimova, Elena T; Sobiczewski, Piotr; Michalczuk, Lech; W?grzynowicz-Lesiak, El?bieta; Mikici?ski, Artur; Woltering, Ernst J



Morphological and functional characterization of leech circulating blood cells: role in immunity and neural repair.  


Unlike most invertebrates, annelids possess a closed vascular system distinct from the coelomic liquid. The morphology and the function of leech blood cells are reported here. We have demonstrated the presence of a unique cell type which participates in various immune processes. In contrast to the mammalian spinal cord, the leech CNS is able to regenerate and restore function after injury. The close contact of the blood with the nerve cord also led us to explore the participation of blood in neural repair. Our data evidenced that, in addition to exerting peripheral immune functions, leech blood optimizes CNS neural repair through the release of neurotrophic substances. Circulating blood cells also appeared able to infiltrate the injured CNS where, in conjunction with microglia, they limit the formation of a scar. In mammals, CNS injury leads to the generation of a glial scar that blocks the mechanism of regeneration by preventing axonal regrowth. The results presented here constitute the first description of neuroimmune functions of invertebrate blood cells. Understanding the basic function of the peripheral circulating cells and their interactions with lesioned CNS in the leech would allow us to acquire insights into the complexity of the neuroimmune response of the injured mammalian brain. PMID:22159559

Boidin-Wichlacz, Céline; Vergote, David; Slomianny, Christian; Jouy, Nathalie; Salzet, Michel; Tasiemski, Aurélie



Characterization of morphology and composition of inorganic fillers in dental alginates.  


Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy microanalysis (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Archimedes' Principle were used to determine the characteristics of inorganic filler particles in five dental alginates, including Cavex ColorChange (C), Hydrogum 5 (H5), Hydrogum (H), Orthoprint (O), and Jeltrate Plus (JP). The different alginate powders (0.5 mg) were fixed on plastic stubs (n = 5) and sputter coated with carbon for EDX analysis, then coated with gold, and observed using SEM. Volume fractions were determined by weighing a sample of each material in water before and after calcining at 450(°)C for 3 h. The alginate materials were mainly composed of silicon (Si) by weight (C-81.59%, H-79.89%, O-78.87%, H5-77.95%, JP-66.88%, wt). The filler fractions in volume (vt) were as follows: H5-84.85%, JP-74.76%, H-70.03%, O-68.31%, and C-56.10%. The tested materials demonstrated important differences in the inorganic elemental composition, filler fraction, and particle morphology. PMID:25165690

Guiraldo, Ricardo Danil; Berger, Sandrine Bittencourt; Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek; Consani, Simonides; de Carvalho, Rodrigo Varella; Lopes, Murilo Baena; Meneghel, Luciana Lira; da Silva, Fabiane Borges; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho



Synthesis and characterization of different MnO2 morphologies for lithium-air batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Manganese dioxide (MnO2) was synthesized in the forms of nanorods, nanoparticles, and mesoporous structures and the characteristics of these materials were investigated. Crystallinities were studied by x-ray diffraction and morphologies by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Average pore sizes and specific surface areas were analyzed using the Barret-Joyner-Halenda and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller methods, respectively. Samples were also studied by cyclic voltammetry using 1M aqueous KOH solution saturated with either O2 or N2 as electrolytes to investigate their ORR (oxygen reduction reaction) and OER (oxygen evolution reaction) activities. Of the samples produced, mesoporous MnO2 exhibited the highest ORR and OER catalytic activities. Mesoporous MnO2 supported on a gas diffusion layer was also used as a catalyst on the air electrode (cathode) of a lithium-air battery in organic electrolyte. The charge-discharge behavior of mesoporous MnO2 was investigated at a current density 0.2 mAcm-2 in a pure oxygen environment. Mesoporous MnO2 electrodes showed stable cycleability up to 65 cycles at a cell capacity of 700 mAhg-1.

Choi, Hyun-A.; Jang, Hyuk; Hwang, Hyein; Choi, Mincheol; Lim, Dongwook; Shim, Sang Eun; Baeck, Sung-Hyeon



Anatomic Changes in the Macroscopic Morphology and Microarchitecture of Denervated Long Bone Tissue after Spinal Cord Injury in Rats  

PubMed Central

To study the effects of mechanical loading on bones after SCI, we assessed macro- and microscopic anatomy in rats submitted to passive standing (PS) and electrical stimulation (ES). The study design was based on two main groups of juvenile male Wistar rats with SCI: one was followed for 33 days with therapies starting at day 3 and the other was followed for 63 days with therapies starting at day 33. Both groups were composed of four subgroups (n = 10/group): (1) Sham, (2) SCI, (3) SCI + PS, and (4) SCI + ES. Rehabilitation protocol consisted of a 20-minute session, 3x/wk for 30 days. The animals were sequentially weighed and euthanized. The femur and tibia were assessed macroscopically and microscopically by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The SCI rats gained less weight than Sham-operated animals. Significant reduction of bone mass and periosteal radii was observed in the SCI rats, whereas PS and ES efficiently improved the macroscopic parameters. The SEM images showed less and thin trabecular bone in SCI rats. PS and ES efficiently ameliorated the bone microarchitecture deterioration by thickening and increasing the trabeculae. Based on the detrimental changes in bone tissue following SCI, the mechanical loading through weight bearing and muscle contraction may decrease the bone loss and restore the macro- and microanatomy. PMID:25136632

Maranho, Daniel A.; Butezloff, Mariana M.; Moura, Patricia A.; Volpon, Jose Batista; Shimano, Antonio C.



Characterization of flexible ECoG electrode arrays for chronic recording in awake rats  

PubMed Central

We developed a 64 channel flexible polyimide ECoG electrode array and characterized its performance for long term implantation, chronic cortical recording and high resolution mapping of surface evoked potentials in awake rats. To achieve the longest possible recording periods, the flexibility of the electrode array, adhesion between the metals and carrier substrate, and biocompatibility was critical for maintaining the signal integrity. Experimental testing of thin film adhesion was applied to a gold – polyimide system in order to characterize relative interfacial fracture energies for several different adhesion layers, yielding an increase in overall device reliability. We tested several different adhesion techniques including: gold alone without an adhesion layer, titanium-tungsten, tantalum and chromium. We found the titanium-tungsten to be a suitable adhesion layer considering the biocompatibility requirements as well as stability and delamination resistance. While chromium and tantalum produced stronger gold adhesion, concerns over biocompatibility of these materials require further testing. We implanted the polyimide ECoG electrode arrays through a slit made in the skull of rats and recorded cortical surface evoked responses. The arrays performed reliably over a period of at least 100 days and signals compared well with traditional screw electrodes, with better high frequency response characteristics. Since the ultimate goal of chronically implanted electrode arrays is for neural prosthetic devices that need to last many decades, other adhesion layers that would prove safe for implantation may be tested in the same way in order to improve the device reliability. PMID:18640155

Yeager, John D.; Phillips, Derrick J.; Rector, David M.; Bahr, David F.



Light-Emitting Diodes and Cool White Fluorescent Light Similarly Suppress Pineal Gland Melatonin and Maintain Retinal Function and Morphology in the Rat. Part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Currently, the light sources most commonly used in animal habitat lighting are cool white fluorescent or incandescent lamps. We evaluated a novel light-emitting diode (LED) light source for use in animal habitat lighting by comparing its effectiveness to cool white fluorescent light (CWF) in suppressing pineal gland melatonin and maintaining normal retinal physiology and morphology in the rat. Results of pineal melatonin suppression experiments showed equal suppression of pineal melatonin concentrations for LED light and CWF light at five different light illuminances (100, 40, 10, 1 and 0.1 lux). There were no significant differences in melatonin suppression between LED and CWF light when compared to unexposed controls. Retinal physiology was evaluated using electroretinography. Results show no differences in a-wave implicit times and amplitudes or b-wave implicit times and amplitudes between 100-lux LED-exposed rats and 100-lux CWF-exposed rats. Results of retinal histology assessment show no differences in retinal thickness rod outer segment length and number of rod nuclei between rats exposed to 100-lux LED and 100-lux CWF for days. Furthermore, the retinal pigmented epithelium and rod outer segments of all eyes observed were in good condition and of normal thickness. This study indicates that LED light does not cause retinal damage and can suppress pineal melatonin at similar intensities as a conventional CWF light source. These data suggest that LED light sources may be suitable replacements for conventional light sources used in the lighting of rodent vivariums while providing many mechanical and economical advantages.

Holley, Daniel C.; Heeke, D.; Mele, G.



Physicochemical, morphological, and rheological characterization of Xanthosoma robustum Lego-like starch.  


This work presents the physicochemical and pasting characterization of isolated mafafa starch and mafafa flour (Xanthosoma robustum). According to SEM images of mafafa starches in the tuber, these starches form Lego-like shaped structures with diameters between 8 and 35 ?m conformed by several starch granules of wedge shape that range from 2 to 7 ?m. The isolated mafafa starch is characterized by its low contents of protein, fat, and ash. The starch content in isolated starch was found to be 88.58% while the amylose content obtained was 35.43%. X-ray diffraction studies confirm that isolated starch is composed mainly by amylopectin. These results were confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry and thermo gravimetric analysis. This is the first report of the molecular parameters for mafafa starch: molar mass that ranged between 2×10(8) and 4×10(8) g/mol, size (Rg) value between 279 and 295 nm, and molecular density value between 9.2 and 9.7 g/(mol nm(3)). This study indicates that mafafa starch shows long chains of amylopectin this fact contributes to higher viscosity development and higher gel stability. The obtained gel phase is transparent in the UV-vis region. The viscosity, gel stability and optical properties suggest that there is potential for mafafa starch applications in the food industry. PMID:24463263

Londoño-Restrepo, Sandra M; Rincón-Londoño, Natalia; Contreras-Padilla, Margarita; Acosta-Osorio, Andrés A; Bello-Pérez, Luis A; Lucas-Aguirre, Juan C; Quintero, Víctor D; Pineda-Gómez, Posidia; del Real-López, Alicia; Rodríguez-García, Mario E



Compositional, morphological, and hysteresis characterization of magnetic airborne particulate matter in Rome, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic properties of tree leaves may be used to delineate the abundance and dispersal of anthropogenic airborne particulate matter (PM) in urban environments. In the city of Rome, Italy, circulating vehicles are the main source of magnetic PM, already characterized as prevalently low-coercivity, magnetite-like particles. To further constrain the nature and origin of such magnetic particles, we carried out coupled field emission scanning electron microscopy and a variety of rock magnetic analyses on PM specimens from Quercus ilex leaves and from potential PM sources in circulating motor vehicles in Rome. Fe-rich particles are mostly 0.1-5 ?m in size, with irregular shapes and moss-like surface. Particles from disk brakes and diesel and gasoline exhaust pipes show distinct compositional and magnetic hysteresis signatures, suggesting that the magnetic PM collected on tree leaves consists of a mixture of particle populations deriving mostly from the abrasion of disk brakes and, to a lesser extent, from fuel combustion residuals emitted by diesel and gasoline exhausts. The contribution of fine superparamagnetic particles to the overall magnetic assemblage has been evaluated with specific rock magnetic analyses. The combined magnetic and microtextural-compositional analyses provide an effective and original tool to characterize urban PM air pollution.

Sagnotti, Leonardo; Taddeucci, Jacopo; Winkler, Aldo; Cavallo, Andrea



Synthesis and characterization of iron platinum magnetic nanoparticles with controlled morphology and size  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the synthesis and characterization of monodispersed iron-platinum nanoparticles by the thermal decomposition of organometallic compounds. First, platinum (Pt) seeds were synthesized at 100C, followed by the addition of iron pentacarbonyl via injection method in the presence of oleic acid and oleylamine surfactants. An immediate injection after the decomposition of Pt acetylacetonate made alloy nanoparticles of Pt nanoparticles, whereas its injection after a prolonged period of time formed mixed particles of iron oxide and Pt. Particle shape was tuned from spherical to cubic by varying molar ratios of oleic acid to oleylamine during the reaction. The particles' size was controlled by varying the injection temperature of the iron precursor. XRD was used to confirm the crystallographic phases of the samples. Particle size and shape were investigated using TEM. Magnetic properties indicated that as-synthesized FePt nanoparticles are superparamagnetic with a blocking temperature of 64 K for 7 nm and shifted to 29 K for 3 nm.

Combs, Trinidy; Khurshid, Hafsa; Srikanth, Hariharan



Morphological and Phase Controlled Tungsten Based Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Characterization of Scheelites, Wolframites, and Oxides Nanomaterials.  


For the first time tungsten based nanoparticles (WNPs) of scheelite (MWO(4); M = Ca, Sr, Ba, Pb), wolframite (MWO(4); M = Mn, Fe, Zn & (Mg(0.60)Mn(0.17)Fe(0.26))WO(4)), and the oxide (WO(3) and W(18)O(49)) were synthesized from solution precipitation (i.e.,trioctylamine or oleic acid) and solvothermal (i.e., benzyl alcohol) routes. The resultant WNPs were prepared directly from tungsten (VI) ethoxide (W(OCH(2)CH(3))(6), 1) and stoichiometeric mixtures of the following precursors: [Ca(N(SiMe(3))(2))(2)](2) (2), Pb(N(SiMe(3))(2))(2) (3), Mn[(mu-Mes)(2)Mn(Mes)](2) (4), [Fe(mu-Mes)(Mes)](2) (5), Fe(CO)(5) (6), H(+)[Ba(2)(mu(3)-ONep)(mu-ONep)(2)(ONep)(ONep)(3)(py)](-) (2) (7), H(+)[Sr(5)(mu(4)-O)(mu(3)-ONep)(4)(mu-ONep)(4)(ONep)(py)(4)](-) (8), and [Zn(Et)(ONep)(py)](2) (9) where Mes = C(6)H(2)(CH(3))(3)-2,4,6, ONep = OCH(2)CMe(3), Et = CH(2)CH(3), and py = pyridine. Through these routes, the WNP morphologies were found to be manipulated by the processing conditions, while precursor selection influenced the final phase observed. For the solution precipitation route, 1 yielded (5 x 100 nm) W(18)O(49) rods while stochiometeric reactions between 1 and (2 - 9) generated homogenous sub 30 nm nano-dots, -diamonds, -rods, and -wires for the MWO(4) systems. For the solvothermal route, 1 was found to produce wires of WO(3) with aspect ratios of 20 while (1 & 2) formed 10 - 60 nm CaWO(4) nanodots. Room temperature photoluminescent (PL) emission properties of select WNPs were also examined with fluorescence spectroscopy (lambda(ex) = 320 nm). Broad PL emissions = 430, 420, 395, 420 nm were noted for 5 x 100 nm W(18)O(49) rods, 5 x 15 nm, CaWO(4) rods, 10 - 30 nm CaWO(4) dots, and 10 nm BaWO(4) diamonds, respectively. PMID:19911034

Hernandez-Sanchez, Bernadette A; Boyle, Timothy J; Pratt, Harry D; Rodriguez, Mark A; Brewer, Luke N; Dunphy, Darren R



Pyelonephritis in slaughter pigs and sows: Morphological characterization and aspects of pathogenesis and aetiology  

PubMed Central

Background Pyelonephritis is a serious disease in pig production that needs to be further studied. The purpose of this study was to describe the morphology, investigate the pathogenesis, and evaluate the aetiological role of Escherichia coli in pyelonephritis in slaughtered pigs by concurrent bacteriological, gross and histopathological examinations. Methods From Danish abattoirs, kidneys and corresponding lymph nodes from 22 slaughtered finishing pigs and 26 slaughtered sows with pyelonephritis were collected and evaluated by bacteriology and pathology. Based on gross lesions, each kidney (lesion) was grouped as acute, chronic, chronic active, or normal and their histological inflammatory stage was determined as normal (0), acute (1), sub-acute (2), chronic active (3), or chronic (4). Immunohistochemical identification of neutrophils, macrophages, T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, plasma cells, E. coli and Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) in renal sections was performed. The number of E. coli and the proportion of immunohistochemically visualized leukocytes out of the total number of infiltrating leukocytes were scored semi-quantitatively. Results Lesions in finishing pigs and sows were similar. Macroscopically, multiple unevenly distributed foci of inflammation mostly affecting the renal poles were observed. Histologically, tubulointerstitial infiltration with neutrophils and mononuclear cells and tubular destruction was the main findings. The significant highest scores of L1 antigen+ neutrophils were in inflammatory stage 1 while the significant highest scores of CD79?cy+ B-lymphocytes, IgG+ and IgA+ plasma cells were in stage 3 or 4. Neutrophils were the dominant leukocytes in stage 1 while CD3?+ T-lymphocytes dominated in stage 2, 3 and 4. Interstitially THP was seen in 82% and 98% of kidneys with pyelonephritis from finishing pigs and sows, respectively. E. coli was demonstrated in monoculture and/or identified by immunohistochemistry in relation to inflammation in four kidneys from finishing pigs and in 34 kidneys from sows. Conclusions E. coli played a significant role in the aetiology of pyelonephritis. Neutrophils were involved in the first line of defence. CD3?+ T-lymphocytes were involved in both the acute and chronic inflammatory response while a humoral immune response was most pronounced in later inflammatory stages. The observed renal lesions correspond with an ascending bacterial infection with presence of intra-renal reflux. PMID:20704704



Morphological and Phase Controlled Tungsten Based Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Characterization of Scheelites, Wolframites, and Oxides Nanomaterials  

PubMed Central

For the first time tungsten based nanoparticles (WNPs) of scheelite (MWO4; M = Ca, Sr, Ba, Pb), wolframite (MWO4; M = Mn, Fe, Zn & (Mg0.60Mn0.17Fe0.26)WO4), and the oxide (WO3 and W18O49) were synthesized from solution precipitation (i.e.,trioctylamine or oleic acid) and solvothermal (i.e., benzyl alcohol) routes. The resultant WNPs were prepared directly from tungsten (VI) ethoxide (W(OCH2CH3)6, 1) and stoichiometeric mixtures of the following precursors: [Ca(N(SiMe3)2)2]2 (2), Pb(N(SiMe3)2)2 (3), Mn[(?-Mes)2Mn(Mes)]2 (4), [Fe(?-Mes)(Mes)]2 (5), Fe(CO)5 (6), H+[Ba2(?3-ONep)(?-ONep)2(ONep)(ONep)3(py)]?2 (7), H+[Sr5(?4-O)(?3-ONep)4(?-ONep)4(ONep)(py)4]? (8), and [Zn(Et)(ONep)(py)]2 (9) where Mes = C6H2(CH3)3-2,4,6, ONep = OCH2CMe3, Et = CH2CH3, and py = pyridine. Through these routes, the WNP morphologies were found to be manipulated by the processing conditions, while precursor selection influenced the final phase observed. For the solution precipitation route, 1 yielded (5 × 100 nm) W18O49 rods while stochiometeric reactions between 1 and (2 – 9) generated homogenous sub 30 nm nano-dots, -diamonds, -rods, and -wires for the MWO4 systems. For the solvothermal route, 1 was found to produce wires of WO3 with aspect ratios of 20 while (1 & 2) formed 10 – 60 nm CaWO4 nanodots. Room temperature photoluminescent (PL) emission properties of select WNPs were also examined with fluorescence spectroscopy (?ex = 320 nm). Broad PL emissions = 430, 420, 395, 420 nm were noted for 5 × 100 nm W18O49 rods, 5 × 15 nm, CaWO4 rods, 10 – 30 nm CaWO4 dots, and 10 nm BaWO4 diamonds, respectively. PMID:19911034

Hernandez-Sanchez, Bernadette A.; Boyle, Timothy J.; Pratt, Harry D.; Rodriguez, Mark A.; Brewer, Luke N.; Dunphy, Darren R.



Correlated morphological and neurochemical features identify different subsets of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-immunoreactive interneurons in rat hippocampus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-immunoreactive interneurons have been classified according to their axonal and dendritic patterns and neurochemical features in the hippocampus of the rat. A correlation of these characteristics unravelled three distinct types of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-containing cells. Intemeurons forming a dense axonal plexus at the border of stratum oriens and alveus always contain the calcium binding protein, calretinin, but lack

L. Acsády; D. Arabadzisz; T. F. Freund



Aminophylline exacerbates status epilepticus-induced neuronal damages in immature rats: a morphological, motor and behavioral study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adenosine is an endogenous modulator that has an inhibitory effect on neuronal activity. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of aminophylline, an adenosine receptor antagonist, on the long-term effects of status epilepticus (SE) in the developing brain. Four groups of rats at the postnatal age of 12 days were intraperitoneally administered with saline, aminophylline (50 mg\\/kg),

Pi-Lien Hung; Ming-Chi Lai; San Nan Yang; Chih-Lu Wang; Chia-Wei Liou; Chia-Lu Wu; Tzu-Jou Wang; Li-Tung Huang



Effects of Electro-Acupuncture on Nerve Growth Factor and Ovarian Morphology in Rats with Experimentally Induced Polycystic Ovaries1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite extensive research on the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), there is still disagreement on the underlying mechanisms. The rat model for experimentally induced polycystic ovaries (PCO)--produced by a single injection of estradiol valerate--has similarities with human PCOS, and both are associated with hyperactivity in the sympathetic nervous system. Nerve growth factor (NGF) is known to serve as a

Elisabet Stener-Victorin; Thomas Lundeberg; Urban Waldenström; Luigi Manni; Luigi Aloe; Stefan Gunnarsson; Per Olof Janson



EPA Science Inventory

Previously the authors reported that gestational exposure to Adriamycin, an anthracycline antibiotic used in the treatment of neoplasms, reduced renal function in the neonatal rat, and the authors suggested that alterations in the development of the renal papilla might be respons...


Spinal Cord Transection-Induced Allodynia in Rats - Behavioral, Physiopathological and Pharmacological Characterization  

PubMed Central

In humans, spinal cord lesions induce not only major motor and neurovegetative deficits but also severe neuropathic pain which is mostly resistant to classical analgesics. Better treatments can be expected from precise characterization of underlying physiopathological mechanisms. This led us to thoroughly investigate (i) mechanical and thermal sensory alterations, (ii) responses to acute treatments with drugs having patent or potential anti-allodynic properties and (iii) the spinal/ganglion expression of transcripts encoding markers of neuronal injury, microglia and astrocyte activation in rats that underwent complete spinal cord transection (SCT). SCT was performed at thoracic T8–T9 level under deep isoflurane anaesthesia, and SCT rats were examined for up to two months post surgery. SCT induced a marked hyper-reflexia at hindpaws and strong mechanical and cold allodynia in a limited (6 cm2) cutaneous territory just rostral to the lesion site. At this level, pressure threshold value to trigger nocifensive reactions to locally applied von Frey filaments was 100-fold lower in SCT- versus sham-operated rats. A marked up-regulation of mRNAs encoding ATF3 (neuronal injury) and glial activation markers (OX-42, GFAP, P2×4, P2×7, TLR4) was observed in spinal cord and/or dorsal root ganglia at T6-T11 levels from day 2 up to day 60 post surgery. Transcripts encoding the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-? were also markedly but differentially up-regulated at T6–T11 levels in SCT rats. Acute treatment with ketamine (50 mg/kg i.p.), morphine (3–10 mg/kg s.c.) and tapentadol (10–20 mg/kg i.p.) significantly increased pressure threshold to trigger nocifensive reaction in the von Frey filaments test, whereas amitriptyline, pregabalin, gabapentin and clonazepam were ineffective. Because all SCT rats developed long lasting, reproducible and stable allodynia, which could be alleviated by drugs effective in humans, thoracic cord transection might be a reliable model for testing innovative therapies aimed at reducing spinal cord lesion-induced central neuropathic pain. PMID:25019623

M'Dahoma, Said; Bourgoin, Sylvie; Kayser, Valerie; Barthelemy, Sandrine; Chevarin, Caroline; Chali, Farah; Orsal, Didier; Hamon, Michel



Synthesis and Characterization of Ordered Mesoporous Silica with Controlled Macroscopic Morphology for Membrane Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ordered mesoporous materials have tunable pore sizes between 2 and 50 nm and are characterized by ordered pore structures and high surface areas (~1000 m2/g). This makes them particularly favorable for a number of membrane applications such as protein separation, polymer extrusion, nanowire fabrication and membrane reactors. These membranes can be fabricated as top-layers on macroporous supports or as embedded membranes in a dense matrix. The first part of the work deals with the hydrothermal synthesis and water-vapor/oxygen separation properties of supported MCM-48 and a new Al-MCM-48 type membrane for potential use in air conditioning systems. Knudsen-type permeation is observed in these membranes. The combined effect of capillary condensation and the aluminosilicate matrix resulted in the highest separation factor (142) in Al-MCM-48 membranes, with a water vapor permeance of 6x10 -8mol/m2·Pa·s. The second part focuses on synthesis of embedded mesoporous silica membranes with helically ordered pores by a novel Counter Diffusion Self-Assembly (CDSA) method. This method is an extension of the interfacial synthesis method for fiber synthesis using tetrabutylorthosilicate (TBOS) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as the silica source and surfactant respectively. The initial part of this study determined the effect of TBOS height and humidity on fiber formation. From this study, the range of TBOS heights for best microscopic and macroscopic ordering were established. Next, the CDSA method was used to successfully synthesize membranes, which were characterized to have good support plugging and an ordered pore structure. Factors that influence membrane synthesis and plug microstructure were determined. SEM studies revealed the presence of gaps between the plugs and support pores, which occur due to shrinking of the plug on drying. Development of a novel liquid deposition method to seal these defects constituted the last part of this work. Post sealing, excess silica was removed by etching with hydrofluoric acid. Membrane quality was evaluated at each step using SEM and gas permeation measurements. After surfactant removal by liquid extraction, the membranes exhibited an O2 permeance of 1.65x10-6mol/m2.Pa.s and He/O2 selectivity of 3.30. The successful synthesis of this membrane is an exciting new development in the area of ordered mesoporous membrane technology.

Stohlman, Olive R.


Physiological and morphological characterization of tert -butylhydroperoxide tolerant Candida albicans mutants.  


tert -Butylhydroperoxide (t BOOH) tolerant Candida albicans mutants developed from clinical isolates were characterized with increased tolerance of the oxidative stress generating agents t BOOH and H2O2, continuous induction of the antioxidative defence system, reduced pseudohypha and hypha-forming capabilities, decreased phospholipase secretion and delayed growth in Sabouraud dextrose agar and broth media. Changes in antimycotic (fluconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B, 5-fluorocytosine) tolerances as well as in total and cytochrome c-dependent respirations showed versatile patterns, meanwhile the intensified alternative oxidase-dependent respiration of the mutants indicated that this respiratory pathway was an important element of the antioxidative defence in general. Because the phenotypes of increased oxidative stress tolerance and reduced virulence attribute production always emerged concomitantly in t BOOH-tolerant mutants the natural selection of C. albicans strains more tolerant of oxidative stress is unlikely. Not surprisingly, a screening study failed to detect any C. albicans strains with increased oxidative stress tolerance among 46 randomly selected clinical isolates. PMID:18785661

Fekete, Andrea; Pócsi, Imre; Emri, Tamás; Gyetvai, Agnes; Gazdag, Zoltán; Pesti, Miklós; Karányi, Zsolt; Majoros, László; Gergely, Lajos; Pócsi, István





Leigh Syndrome (LS) is the most common early-onset, progressive mitochondrial encephalopathy usually leading to early death. The single most prevalent cause of LS is occurrence of mutations in the SURF1 gene, and LS(Surf1) patients show a ubiquitous and specific decrease in the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase, COX). SURF1 encodes an inner membrane mitochondrial protein involved in COX assembly. We established a Drosophila melanogaster model of LS based on the post-transcriptional silencing of CG9943, the Drosophila homolog of SURF1. Knockdown of Surf1 was induced ubiquitously in larvae and adults, which led to lethality; in the mesodermal derivatives, which led to pupal lethality; or in the central nervous system, which allowed survival. A biochemical characterization was carried out in knockdown individuals, which revealed that larvae unexpectedly displayed defects in all complexes of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and in the F-ATP synthase, while adults had a COX-selective impairment. Silencing of Surf1 expression in Drosophila S2R(+) cells led to selective loss of COX activity associated with decreased oxygen consumption and respiratory reserve. We conclude that Surf1 is essential for COX activity and mitochondrial function in D. melanogaster, thus providing a new tool that may help clarify the pathogenic mechanisms of LS. PMID:25164807

Da-Rè, Caterina; von Stockum, Sophia; Biscontin, Alberto; Millino, Caterina; Cisotto, Paola; Zordan, Mauro A; Zeviani, Massimo; Bernardi, Paolo; De Pittà, Cristiano; Costa, Rodolfo



Synthesis and characterization of Ag/Cu/HAP with platelet morphology.  


As a useful starting material in coating technology and preparation of HAP/polymers composites the platelet Ag/Cu/HAP was prepared using the solid solution of HAP reacting with the mix-solution of silver and copper nitrate. Its composition, microstructure and properties were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and anti-bacterial or bacteriostatic tests. The results demonstrate that the prepared Ag/Cu/HAP crystal is mainly comprised of HAP phase with little whitelockite and silver phosphate, stable up to 600 degrees C and takes a platelet shape. At 750 degrees C, it is partially changed into whitelockite, calcium copper phosphate, silver oxide and silver phosphate. The platelet Ag/Cu/HAP crystal has a preferential orientation of a-axis below 600 degrees C, above which the growth in a-axis is greatly inhibited. The Ag/Cu/HAP has good crystallinity at 600 degrees C and is the most effective powder in resisting bacteria among the HAP powders investigated. The platelet Ag/Cu/HAP crystal can be good starting materials to make antibacterial polymers/HAP composites and HAP coatings. PMID:19020958

Yang, Hui; Xiao, Bingjuan; Xu, Ke-Wei



[Influence of image process on fractal morphology characterization of NAPLs vertical fingering flow].  


Dyes are frequently used to visualize fingering flow pathways, where the image process has an important role in the result analysis. The theory of fractal geometry is applied to give quantitative description of the stain patterns via image analysis, which is helpful for finger characterization and prediction. This description typically involves two parameters, a mass fractal dimension (D(m)) relative to the area, and a surface fractal dimension (D(s)) relative to the perimeter. This work detailed analyzes the influence of various choices during the thresholding step that transformed the origin color images to binary ones which are needed in the fractal analysis. One hundred and thirty images were obtained from laboratory two-dimension sand box infiltration experiments of four dyed non-aqueous phase liquids. Detailed comparisons of D(m) and D(s) were made respectively, considering a set of threshold algorithms and the filling of lakes. Results indicate that adjustments of the saturation threshold influence are less on both D(m) and D(s) in the laboratory experiments. The brightness threshold adjustments decrease the D(m) by 0.02 and increase the D(s) by 0.05. Filling lakes influence the D(m) less while the D(s) decrease by 0.10. Therefore the D(m) was recommended for further analysis to avoid subjective choices' influence in the image process. PMID:24455950

Li, Hui-Ying; Du, Xiao-Ming; Yang, Bin; Wu, Bin; Xu, Zhu; Shi, Yi; Fang, Ji-Dun; Li, Fa-Sheng



Morphology and molecular characterization of the epiphytic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum cf. rhathymum in temperate waters off Jeju Island, Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prorocentrum spp. are planktonic and/or benthic species. Benthic Prorocentrum species are of primary concern to scientists and the public because some of them are toxic. We established clonal cultures of 3 strains of Prorocentrum species that were collected from the thalli of a macroalga in the coastal waters off Jeju Island, located at the southern end of Korea. The Korean strains of P. cf. rhathymum, which are morphologically almost identical to the Virgin Island strain of P. rhathymum, were different from P. mexicanum because the former dinoflagellate has one simple collar-like spine in the periflagellar area, while the latter dinoflagellate has a 2- or 3-horned spine. In addition, the sequences of the small subunit (SSU) rDNA of the Korean strains were identical to those of the Malaysian and Floridian strains of P. rhathymum, while the sequences of the large subunit (LSU) rDNA of the Korean strains were 0.1-0.9% different from those of the Iranian and Malaysian strains of P. rhathymum. In phylogenetic trees based on the SSU rDNA sequences, the Korean strains of P. rhathymum formed a clade with the Malaysian and Floridian strains of P. rhathymum and the Vietnamese and Polynesian strains of P. mexicanum. However, in phylogenetic trees based on the LSU rDNA sequences, the Korean strains of P. rhathymum formed a clade with the Iranian strain of P. rhathymum and the Spanish and Mexican strains of P. mexicanum. Therefore, the molecular characterization of the Korean strains does not allow us to clearly classify them as P. rhathymum, nor P. mexicanum, although their morphology has so far been reported to be closer to that of P. rhathymum than P. mexicanum and thus we designated them as P. cf. rhathymum.

Lim, An Suk; Jeong, Hae Jin; Jang, Tae Young; Kang, Nam Seon; Lee, Sung Yeon; Yoo, Yeong Du; Kim, Hyung Seop



Genetics and morphology characterize the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium voratum, n. sp., (Dinophyceae) as the sole representative of Symbiodinium Clade E.  


Dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium are ubiquitous in shallow marine habitats where they commonly exist in symbiosis with cnidarians. Attempts to culture them often retrieve isolates that may not be symbiotic, but instead exist as free-living species. In particular, cultures of Symbiodinium clade E obtained from temperate environments were recently shown to feed phagotrophically on bacteria and microalgae. Genetic, behavioral, and morphological evidence indicate that strains of clade E obtained from the northwestern, southwestern, and northeastern temperate Pacific Ocean as well as the Mediterranean Sea constitute a single species: Symbiodinium voratum n. sp. Chloroplast ribosomal 23S and mitochondrial cytochrome b nucleotide sequences were the same for all isolates. The D1/D2 domains of nuclear ribosomal DNA were identical among Western Pacific strains, but single nucleotide substitutions differentiated isolates from California (USA) and Spain. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that S. voratum is well-separated evolutionarily from other Symbiodinium spp. The motile, or mastigote, cells from different cultures were morphologically similar when observed using light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy; and the first complete Kofoidian plate formula for a Symbiodinium sp. was characterized. As the largest of known Symbiodinium spp., the average coccoid cell diameters measured among cultured isolates ranged between 12.2 (± 0.2 SE) and 13.3 (± 0.2 SE) ?m. Unique among species in the genus, a high proportion (approximately 10-20%) of cells remain motile in culture during the dark cycle. Although S. voratum occurs on surfaces of various substrates and is potentially common in the plankton of coastal areas, it may be incapable of forming stable mutualistic symbioses. PMID:24460699

Jeong, Hae Jin; Lee, Sung Yeon; Kang, Nam Seon; Yoo, Yeong Du; Lim, An Suk; Lee, Moo Joon; Kim, Hyung Seop; Yih, Wonho; Yamashita, Hiroshi; LaJeunesse, Todd C



Morphological evidence for a neurotensinergic periaqueductal gray-rostral ventromedial medulla-spinal dorsal horn descending pathway in rat  

PubMed Central

Neurotensin (NT) is an endogenous neuropeptide that exerts potent opioid-independent analgesic effects, most likely via the type 2 NT receptor (NTR2). Previous morphological and electrophysiological studies suggested that the NT-NTR2 system is primarily localized in structures that constitute the descending pain control pathway, such as the periaqueductal gray (PAG), the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM), and the spinal dorsal horn (SDH). However, relevant morphological evidence for this neurotensinergic (NTergic) circuit is lacking. Thus, the aim of the present study was to morphologically elucidate the potential sites and connections in the NT-NTR2 system that are involved in the descending pain control pathway. Based on light and electron microscopy combined with anterograde and retrograde tracing, we found evidence that NTR2-immunoreactive (IR) neurons in the RVM receive NT-IR projections originating from the PAG; express NT, serotonin (5-HT), or both; and send projections that terminate in laminae I and II of the SDH. These results suggest that NTR2 may contribute to pain control by binding to NT in the PAG-RVM-SDH pathway. In conclusion, our data provide morphological evidence for an NTergic PAG-RVM-SDH pathway, implicating novel mechanisms of NT-induced analgesia.

Wang, Jian; Zhang, Hua; Feng, Yu-Peng; Meng, Hua; Wu, Li-Ping; Wang, Wen; Li, Hui; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Jin-Shan; Li, Yun-Qing



Morphological and Biochemical Characterization of the Membranous Hepatitis C Virus Replication Compartment  

PubMed Central

Like all other positive-strand RNA viruses, hepatitis C virus (HCV) induces rearrangements of intracellular membranes that are thought to serve as a scaffold for the assembly of the viral replicase machinery. The most prominent membranous structures present in HCV-infected cells are double-membrane vesicles (DMVs). However, their composition and role in the HCV replication cycle are poorly understood. To gain further insights into the biochemcial properties of HCV-induced membrane alterations, we generated a functional replicon containing a hemagglutinin (HA) affinity tag in nonstructural protein 4B (NS4B), the supposed scaffold protein of the viral replication complex. By using HA-specific affinity purification we isolated NS4B-containing membranes from stable replicon cells. Complementing biochemical and electron microscopy analyses of purified membranes revealed predominantly DMVs, which contained viral proteins NS3 and NS5A as well as enzymatically active viral replicase capable of de novo synthesis of HCV RNA. In addition to viral factors, co-opted cellular proteins, such as vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein A (VAP-A) and VAP-B, that are crucial for viral RNA replication, as well as cholesterol, a major structural lipid of detergent-resistant membranes, are highly enriched in DMVs. Here we describe the first isolation and biochemical characterization of HCV-induced DMVs. The results obtained underline their central role in the HCV replication cycle and suggest that DMVs are sites of viral RNA replication. The experimental approach described here is a powerful tool to more precisely define the molecular composition of membranous replication factories induced by other positive-strand RNA viruses, such as picorna-, arteri- and coronaviruses. PMID:23885072

Hoppe, Simone; Saher, Gesine; Krijnse-Locker, Jacomine



Better preservation of peritoneal morphologic features and defense in rats after long-term exposure to a bicarbonate/lactate-buffered solution.  


The long-term effects of a standard lactate-buffered dialysis fluid and a new, two-chamber, bicarbonate/lactate-buffered dialysis fluid (with fewer glucose degradation products and a neutral pH) were compared in an in vivo peritoneal exposure model. Rats were given daily injections, via an access port, of 10 ml of standard solution or bicarbonate/lactate-buffered solution for 9 to 10 wk. The omentum, peritoneum, and mesothelial cell layer were screened for morphologic changes. In addition, the bacterial clearing capacity of the peritoneal cells was studied. Significantly more milky spots and blood vessels were observed in the omenta of animals treated with standard solution (P < 0.03 for both parameters). Electron-microscopic analysis demonstrated dramatic changes in the appearance of the vascular endothelial cells of the milky spots and a severely damaged or even absent mesothelium on the peritoneal membrane of the standard solution-treated animals. In contrast, the mesothelium was still present in the bicarbonate/lactate-buffered solution group, although the cells lost microvilli. Both peritoneal dialysis fluids significantly increased the density of mesothelial cells (per square millimeter) on the surface of the liver and the thickness of the submesothelial extracellular matrix of the peritoneum (both P < 0.04 for both fluids versus control). A significantly better ex vivo bacterial clearing capacity was observed with peritoneal cells from the bicarbonate/lactate-buffered solution group, compared with the standard solution group (P < 0.05 in both experiments). These results demonstrate that instillation of bicarbonate/lactate-buffered solution into rats for 9 to 10 wk preserves both morphologic and immune parameters much more effectively, compared with standard solution. These findings may be of considerable clinical importance. PMID:11729248

Hekking, L H; Zareie, M; Driesprong, B A; Faict, D; Welten, A G; de Greeuw, I; Schadee-Eestermans, I L; Havenith, C E; van den Born, J; ter Wee, P M; Beelen, R H



Characterization of NO-producing neurons in the rat corpus callosum  

PubMed Central

Introduction The aim of this study was to determine the presence and distribution of nitric oxide (NO)-producing neurons in the rat corpus callosum (cc). Material and methods To investigate this aspect of cc organization we used nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPH-d) histochemistry and neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) immunocytochemistry. Results Intense NADPH-d-positive (NADPH-d+) neurons were found along the rostrocaudal extension of the cc (sagittal sections). They were more numerous in the lateral cc and gradually decreased in the more medial regions, where they were very few or absent. The Golgi-like appearance of NADPH-d+ intracallosal neurons allowed dividing them into five morphological types: (1) bipolar; (2) fusiform; (3) round; (4) polygonal; and (5) pyramidal. The number of NADPH-d+ neurons (both hemispheres) was counted in two brains using 50-?m thick sections. In the first brain, counts involved 145 sections and neurons were 2959; in the second, 2227 neurons were counted in 130 sections. The distribution and morphology of nNOS-immunopositive (nNOSIP) neurons was identical to that of NADPH-d+neurons. Some of these neurons were observed in the cc ependymal region, where they might be in contact with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), monitoring its composition, pH, and osmolality changes, or playing a role in regulating the synthesis and release of several peptides. The somatic, dendritic, and axonal processes of many NADPH-d+/nNOSIP neurons were closely associated with intracallosal blood vessels. Conclusions Such close relationship raises the possibility that these neurons are a major source of NO during neural activity. As NO is a potent vasodilator, these findings strongly suggest that NO-positive neurons transduce neuronal signals into vascular responses in selected cc regions, thus giving rise to hemodynamic changes detectable by neuroimaging. PMID:24944862

Barbaresi, Paolo; Fabri, Mara; Mensa, Emanuela



Isolation and characterization of invasive and noninvasive variants of a rat bladder tumor cell line.  


We isolated, in vitro, spontaneous variants of the rat bladder tumor NBT-II cell line with a distinctive morphology. Of five sublines obtained, three (NBT-L1, L2a and L2b) exhibited an elongated shape and moderate to high invasive activity in vitro. The other two sublines (NBT-T1 and T2) formed tight colonies and exhibited very low or negligible invasive activity. The contents of mRNAs coding for E-cadherin and cadherin-associated molecules (alpha-catenin and beta-catenin) were not correlated with the invasive activity of the cells. However, the expression level of the E-cadherin protein, but not those of catenins, was lower in invasive cells (NBT-L1, L2a and L2b) than in noninvasive cells (NBT-T1 and T2). Analysis of mRNAs coding for several growth factors and their receptors showed that the transforming growth factor alpha mRNA content in invasive cells was higher than that in noninvasive cells, and that the content of epidermal growth factor receptor mRNA was low in NBT-T2. Although NBT-II is known to acquire a fibroblastic appearance and cell motility in response to several growth factors, the conditioned media of the invasive sublines hardly affected the morphology or motility of noninvasive cells. These results indicate that the decreased E-cadherin expression is closely associated with the transition from the noninvasive to the invasive phenotype of the bladder tumor cells, and that a post-transcriptional process is important in the control of E-cadherin expression in the cells. These sublines may be useful as models for studies on the progression of bladder tumors. PMID:9369930

Nishi, N; Inui, M; Kishi, Y; Miyanaka, H; Wada, F



Renal neuraminidase. Characterization in normal rat kidney and measurement in experimentally induced nephrotic syndrome.  

PubMed Central

Several lines of evidence suggest that increased neuraminidase activity may be responsible for the loss of glomerular N-acetylneuraminic acid (AcNeu) observed in various glomerular diseases. However, virtually no information is available on the activity of neuraminidase in glomeruli or the potential role of this enzyme in glomerular pathophysiology. Utilizing 2'-(4-methylumbelliferyl)-alpha-D-N-acetylneuraminic acid (4MU-AcNeu) as substrate, we defined optimal assay conditions and characterized neuraminidase activity in glomeruli and, for comparison, in other renal fractions and liver. Neuraminidase activity in glomeruli, cortex and tubules was maximal at pH 4.4. The Km for 4MU-AcNeu was estimated to be 195 microM for glomeruli and 226 microM for cortex. Glomerular neuraminidase was inhibited by AcNeu (90% at 25 mM) and high concentrations of Triton X-100 (26% at 0.5%), but unaffected by CaCl2, EDTA or N-ethylmaleimide (each 1 mM). Neuraminidase activity (nmol/h per mg of protein; mean +/- S.E.M.) in normal rat kidney was: cortex, 14.47 +/- 0.76; medulla, 7.85 +/- 0.64; papilla, 2.64 +/- 0.11; tubules, 13.79 +/- 0.70; glomeruli, 5.57 +/- 0.28. In comparison, neuraminidase activity in rat liver was 2.58 +/- 0.14. Puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN)-induced nephrotic syndrome is a model of glomerular disease in which the loss of glomerular AcNeu is well documented. In two separate studies, we observed no change in the specific activity of neuraminidase in either glomeruli or cortex isolated from rats treated with PAN (15 mg/100 g, intraperitoneally) and killed at either the onset or the peak of proteinuria. Results were similar whether neuraminidase activity was expressed per mg of protein or per microgram of DNA. PMID:3827821

Baricos, W H; Cortez-Schwartz, S; Shah, S V



Identification and characterization of leukotriene C4 receptors in isolated rat renal glomeruli  

SciTech Connect

The immediate reduction of renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate in response to intravenous infusion of leukotriene C4 in the rat prompted an analysis of isolated rat renal glomeruli for the presence of specific receptors for leukotriene C4. Specific binding of (/sup 3/H)leukotriene C4 to glomeruli increased in a time-dependent manner, reached equilibrium after 60 minutes of incubation at 4 degrees C, and was 80% reversible upon addition of excess unlabeled leukotriene C4 at equilibrium. Specific binding of (/sup 3/H)leukotriene C4 to glomeruli increased in a dose-dependent manner, approaching saturation at concentrations of 40-60 nM. Inhibition of binding of (/sup 3/H)leukotriene C4 with increasing concentrations of unlabeled leukotriene C4 was dose dependent. The equilibrium dissociation constant for (/sup 3/H)leukotriene C4 binding to glomeruli, calculated from saturation and competitive binding-inhibition studies, was 25 +/- 7 nM and 35 +/- 16 nM, respectively, and glomerular leukotriene C4 receptor density was 8.5 +/- 1.5 and 9.0 +/- 3.0 pmol/mg protein, respectively. The other natural vasoactive sulfidopeptide leukotrienes, leukotriene D4 and leukotriene E4, the chemotactic agent, leukotriene B4, and the sulfidopeptide leukotriene antagonist, FPL 55712, competed for the receptor at concentrations 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than the homoligand, leukotriene C4. The binding and specificity characteristics of the glomerular leukotriene C4 receptor are similar to those previously reported for the DDT1 nonvascular smooth muscle cell line derived from hamster vas deferens, for guinea pig ileum smooth muscle, and for a subcellular fraction of rat lung homogenate, and represent the first characterization of such a receptor in a vascular tissue.

Ballermann, B.J.; Lewis, R.A.; Corey, E.J.; Austen, K.F.; Brenner, B.M.



Immunohistochemical characterization of infiltrating mononuclear cells in the rat heart with experimental autoimmune giant cell myocarditis.  


The pathogenesis of giant cell myocarditis remains unclear. Subsets of inflammatory infiltrating cells may reflect the pathogenesis and etiology of the disease. Therefore, we examined subsets of infiltrating mononuclear cells in the heart of the rat with experimental giant cell myocarditis. Lewis rats were immunized with cardiac myosin in Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA). Severe myocarditis characterized by congestive heart failure and multinucleated giant cells were elicited. The lesions were composed of predominant mononuclear cells, polymorphonuclear neutrophils and fragments of degenerated myocardial fibres. The subsets of infiltrating mononuclear cells were investigated using MoAbs against rat CD4+ T cell (W3/25), CD8+ T cell (CX8), B cell (OX33) and macrophage (OX42). By serial examination, bound immunoglobulin could only be found on degenerated myocardial fibres. In this model, most infiltrating mononuclear cells were composed of macrophages and CD4+ T cells. The frequencies of macrophages and CD4+ T cells were 73.7% and 13.8%, respectively. CD8+ T cells were scarce and B cells were rare in the lesions. The frequencies of CD8+ T cells and B cells were 4.5% and 0.4%, respectively. The dominance of macrophages and CD4+ T cells was the constant finding among the sites of the lesions and throughout the course of the disease. These characteristic subsets of infiltrating cells were in contrast to those of murine viral myocarditis which were mainly composed of natural killer (NK) cells and CD8+ T cells. Clarifying the subsets of infiltrating cells in myocarditis may contribute to differential diagnosis of myocarditis between viral and autoimmune types. From this study, the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune giant cell myocarditis seemed to be closely related to CD4+ T cells and macrophages. PMID:1424293

Kodama, M; Zhang, S; Hanawa, H; Shibata, A



Characterization of rat serum amyloid A4 (SAA4): A novel member of the SAA superfamily  

PubMed Central

The serum amyloid A (SAA) family of proteins is encoded by multiple genes, which display allelic variation and a high degree of homology in mammals. The SAA1/2 genes code for non-glycosylated acute-phase SAA1/2 proteins, that may increase up to 1000-fold during inflammation. The SAA4 gene, well characterized in humans (hSAA4) and mice (mSaa4) codes for a SAA4 protein that is glycosylated only in humans. We here report on a previously uncharacterized SAA4 gene (rSAA4) and its product in Rattus norvegicus, the only mammalian species known not to express acute-phase SAA. The exon/intron organization of rSAA4 is similar to that reported for hSAA4 and mSaa4. By performing 5?- and 3?RACE, we identified a 1830-bases containing rSAA4 mRNA (including a GA-dinucleotide tandem repeat). Highest rSAA4 mRNA expression was detected in rat liver. In McA-RH7777 rat hepatoma cells, rSAA4 transcription was significantly upregulated in response to LPS and IL-6 while IL-1?/? and TNF? were without effect. Luciferase assays with promoter-truncation constructs identified three proximal C/EBP-elements that mediate expression of rSAA4 in McA-RH7777 cells. In line with sequence prediction a 14-kDa non-glycosylated SAA4 protein is abundantly expressed in rat liver. Fluorescence microscopy revealed predominant localization of rSAA4-GFP-tagged fusion protein in the ER. PMID:25044109

Brunner, Daniela; Kovacevic, Alenka; Schweighofer, Natascha; Malli, Roland; Schuligoi, Rufina; Prokesch, Andreas; Kluve-Beckerman, Barbara; Graier, Wolfgang F.; Kratky, Dagmar; Sattler, Wolfgang; Malle, Ernst



Characterization of rat serum amyloid A4 (SAA4): a novel member of the SAA superfamily.  


The serum amyloid A (SAA) family of proteins is encoded by multiple genes, which display allelic variation and a high degree of homology in mammals. The SAA1/2 genes code for non-glycosylated acute-phase SAA1/2 proteins, that may increase up to 1000-fold during inflammation. The SAA4 gene, well characterized in humans (hSAA4) and mice (mSaa4) codes for a SAA4 protein that is glycosylated only in humans. We here report on a previously uncharacterized SAA4 gene (rSAA4) and its product in Rattus norvegicus, the only mammalian species known not to express acute-phase SAA. The exon/intron organization of rSAA4 is similar to that reported for hSAA4 and mSaa4. By performing 5'- and 3'RACE, we identified a 1830-bases containing rSAA4 mRNA (including a GA-dinucleotide tandem repeat). Highest rSAA4 mRNA expression was detected in rat liver. In McA-RH7777 rat hepatoma cells, rSAA4 transcription was significantly upregulated in response to LPS and IL-6 while IL-1?/? and TNF? were without effect. Luciferase assays with promoter-truncation constructs identified three proximal C/EBP-elements that mediate expression of rSAA4 in McA-RH7777 cells. In line with sequence prediction a 14-kDa non-glycosylated SAA4 protein is abundantly expressed in rat liver. Fluorescence microscopy revealed predominant localization of rSAA4-GFP-tagged fusion protein in the ER. PMID:25044109

Rossmann, Christine; Windpassinger, Christian; Brunner, Daniela; Kovacevic, Alenka; Schweighofer, Natascha; Malli, Roland; Schuligoi, Rufina; Prokesch, Andreas; Kluve-Beckerman, Barbara; Graier, Wolfgang F; Kratky, Dagmar; Sattler, Wolfgang; Malle, Ernst



RNA expression in the early characterization of hepatotoxicants in Wistar rats by high-density DNA microarrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-density microarrays are useful tools to study gene expression for the purpose of characterizing functional tissue changes in response to the action of drugs and chemicals. To test whether high-density expression data can identify mechanisms of toxicity and to identify an unknown sample through its RNA expression pattern, groups of male Wistar rats were administered 6 hepatotoxicants. The compounds chosen

Steven J. Bulera; Susan M. Eddy; Erika Ferguson; Timothy A. Jatkoe; James F. Reindel; Michael R. Bleavins; Felix A. De La Iglesia



Characterization of hind paw licking and lifting to noxious radiant heat in the rat with and without chronic inflammation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paw withdrawal latency to thermal radiant heat stimuli is a widely used nociceptive measure to study hyperalgesic mechanisms. In the present study, in addition to the paw withdrawal latency, two behavioral components of pain behaviors, paw licking and paw lifting have been characterized and quantified. The thermal stimuli were successively applied to the plantar surface of the rat hind

Bopaiah Pooviah Cheppudira



Characterization of Inhibition of the Spinal Nociceptive Tail-Flick Reflex in the Rat from the Medullary Lateral Reticular Nucleus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inhibition of the spinal nociceptive tail-flick (TF) reflex by focal electrical stimulation in the caudal medulla was examined and characterized in lightly pentobarbital-anbsthetized rats. Sys- tematic mapping studies revealed that inhibition of the TF re- flex was produced at low intensities of stimulation (12525 PA) only from the lateral reticular nucleus (LRN). Areas dorsal and medial to the LRN required

G. F. Gebhart; M. H. OssipoW


Comparison of the Morphology and Enzyme Activity of Mononuclear Cells from Fischer 344 Rats with Either Spontaneous or Transplanted Leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mononuclear cell (MNC) leukemia was identified in 26-month- old F344 rats by splenomegaly, reduced red blood cell counts, and elevated white blood cell counts. Atypical MNC were pre dominant in spleen and blood with acentric nuclei and red cyto- plasmic granules. Rentóse shunt, glycolytic, and Krebs cycle enzyme activities were elevated 2- to 11-fold in the enriched MNC fraction (Ficoll-Paque

Michael P. Dieter; Robert R. Maronpot; John E. French


Dietary vitamin E and pulmonary biochemical and morphological alterations of rats exposed to 0. 1 ppM ozone  

SciTech Connect

Three groups of 28 1-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats each were fed a basal vitamin E-deficient diet and supplemented with either 0, 11, or 110 ppM vitamin E for 38 days, and were then exposed to 0 or 0.1 ppM ozone continuously for 7 days. Following ozone exposure, the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) and activities of GSH peroxidase, GSH reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), but not of malic dehydrogenase, were significantly elevated in the lungs of rats fed the vitamin E deficient diet. The level of GSH and activities of GSH peroxidase and G-6-PD were also significantly increased in the lungs of the animal group fed the 11 ppM vitamin E diet, while none of the biochemical measurements made was significantly altered by ozone in the 110-ppM vitamin E diet fed rats. Scanning electron microscope examination revealed that five out of six rats on the vitamin E-deficient diet and four out of six from the 11-ppM vitamin E diet had detectable lesions following ozone exposure, as compared with only one of the six exposed animals from the 110-ppM vitamin E diet. The lesion was restricted to bronchiolar epithelium and alveoli immediately adjacent to the bronchiole-alveolar duct junction. None of the control animals had detectable lesions. The results suggest that exposure to ozone at 0.1-ppM level can produce detectable pulmonary damage, and that dietary vitamin E alters pulmonary susceptibility to ozone exposure.

Chow, C.K. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington); Plopper, C.G.; Chiu, M.; Dungworth, D.L.



Development and Characterization of a Rat Model of Nonpenetrating Liver Trauma  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to develop and characterize a rodent model of liver trauma suitable for preclinical evaluation of new treatments and diagnostic technologies. Liver trauma was created by dropping a steel cylinder through a plastic tube onto the abdomen of supine, anesthetized rats. Internal hemorrhage in the absence of liver trauma was simulated by instilling fresh blood into the peritoneum. Platelet counts were elevated significantly after liver trauma but not simulated hemorrhage. Liver trauma and simulated internal hemorrhage both increased blood levels of the factor growth-regulated oncogene–Kupffer cell. Transcription of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, heat shock protein 70, and suppressor of cytokine syntheses 3 was increased 77-, 22-, and 27-fold, respectively, 2 h after liver trauma but was unaltered by simulated internal hemorrhage. Levels returned to pretrauma levels by 24 h after trauma. Transcript levels for hypoxia-inducible transcription factor 1? were increased 2.8-fold at 24 h but not 2 h after trauma and were not affected by simulated hemorrhage. Production of heat shock protein 70 and inducible nitric oxide synthase in liver was limited to a penumbra surrounding areas of necrosis associated with trauma. The rat model described produces lesions similar to those that occur in humans after blunt trauma. PMID:20579437

Cox, Jennifer M; Kalns, John E



Characterization of beta-adrenergic receptors in synaptic membranes from rat cerebral cortex and cerebellum  

SciTech Connect

Beta-adrenergic receptor ligand binding sites have been characterized in synaptic membranes from rat cerebral cortex and cerebellum using radioligand binding techniques. The equilibrium and kinetic properties of binding were assessed. The binding sites were non-interacting and exhibited two states of agonist binding which were sensitive to guanyl nucleotide. Synaptic membranes from cerebral cortex contained an equal number of beta/sub 1/- and beta/sub 2/-receptors; membranes from cerebellum possessed more beta/sub 2/-than beta/sub 1/-receptors. Photoaffinity labeling experiments revealed two different beta-adrenergic receptor polypeptides, R/sub 1/ and R/sub 2/ (and possibly a third, R/sub 3/) in synaptic membranes. The ratios of incorporation of photoaffinity label into R/sub 1/:/sub 2/ were approximately 1:1 (cerebral cortex) and 5:1 (cerebellum). Photoaffinity labeling of R/sub 1/ and R/sub 2/ was inhibited equally well by both agonist and antagonist in synaptic membranes from cerebellum; whereas agonist was a less potent inhibitor in membranes from cerebral cortex. Both subtypes of beta-adrenergic receptors exhibited the same apparent molecular weight in synaptic membranes from cerebral cortex. The beta-adrenergic receptors in synaptic membranes from cerebral cortex and cerebellum were glycoproteins which exhibited the same apparent molecular weight after exposure to endoglycosidase F. The partial proteolytic digest maps of photoaffinity labeled beta-adrenergic receptors from rat cerebral cortex, cerebellum, lung and heart were compared.

Lautens, L.



Characterization of D2 receptors and dopamine levels in the thalamus of the rat  

SciTech Connect

The authors kinetically characterized D2 receptors in thalami pooled from a group of Sprague-Dawley rats and then determined thalamic levels of dopamine (DA), homovanillic acid (HVA), dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), and norepinephrine (NE) in relation to a measure of thalamic DA D2 receptor densities in another group of rats. The equilibrium dissociation constant (kd) was estimated as 0.1 nM by three independent methods, while the Bmax for thalamic D2 receptors was found to be 6.4 fmol/mg p using {sup 3}H-spiperone as ligand and ketanserin to occlude 5HT2 binding. Kinetic constants were in agreement with previously reported kinetic data from rodent caudate-putamen. This suggests that thalamic D2 receptors are similar to D2 receptors from other brain areas. Mean thalamic levels of DA, DOPAC, and HVA concur with previous reports of a sparse distribution of thalamic DA neurons. D2 receptor densities were positively correlated with DA metabolites DOPAC and HVA, but not DA or NE. These results establish fundamental characteristics of thalamic DA neurotransmission to assist in the investigation of behavioral pharmacology of this area.

Young, K.A.; Wilcox, R.E. (Texas A M Univ. College of Medicine, Temple (USA) Univ. of Texas, Austin (USA))



Acupuncture on the Endometrial Morphology, the Serum Estradiol and Progesterone Levels, and the Expression of Endometrial Leukaemia-inhibitor Factor and Osteopontin in Rats  

PubMed Central

Although it is well known that acupuncture has beneficial effects on a variety of medical conditions especially in pain relief, nausea, and vomiting, it remains controversial whether it has positive impact on the female reproduction. The present study aimed to evaluate whether the following endometrial receptivity factors: the endometrial morphology, the hormone concentrations, and the protein expression of endometrial leukaemia-inhibitory factor (LIF) and osteopontin (OPN) could be improved by the acupuncture in clomiphene citrate(CC)-induced rat model during implantation period. Results showed that, compared with the CC group, glandular development advanced, the serum estradiol levels decreased significantly, and the glandular area and endometrial LIF and OPN expression were significantly higher in acupuncture group. There were no significant differences in serum progesterone levels, endometrial thickness, and stromal area between groups. These results suggest that acupuncture can improve certain aspects of endometrial receptivity in CC-induced rat model during implantation period, which might result in endometrial state better to female reproduction. PMID:20981331

Fu, Houju; He, Yuanqiao; Gao, Ying; Man, Yicun; Liu, Wukun; Hao, Hua



Male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to in utero di(n-butyl) phthalate: dose dependent and age-related morphological changes in Leydig cell smooth endoplasmic reticulum.  


When 100 mg/kg/day of di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) was intragastrically administered to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats throughout gestation days 12 to 21, the male pups had similar body weights with no apparent physical differences (e.g., litter size, sex ratio) compared to that of the vehicle group. However, prominent age-related morphological alterations in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (sER) of testicular Leydig cells (LCs) were observed once these animals reached puberty. At weeks 5 to 7, the abundant sER with non-dilated cisternae was distributed in LCs. Subsequently, although the number of LCs significantly increased, the amount of sER was significantly decreased at 9 to 14 weeks of age and had disappeared at 17 weeks. In contrast, the number of LCs and the amount of sER in LCs of the lower dose groups (10, 30, and 50 mg/kg/day) were similar to those of the vehicle group. Further, serum testosterone levels in the 100 mg/kg dose group were significantly lower during 5 to 17 weeks of age. While their luteinizing hormone (LH) level was significantly lower at 5 to 7 weeks of age, it became significantly higher during 9 to 17 weeks. The amount of sER in LCs decreased with age with the increase in LCs proliferation and serum LH levels in rat exposed in utero to DBP in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:23416961

Shirai, Masaru; Wakui, Shin; Wempe, Michael F; Mutou, Tomoko; Oyama, Noriko; Motohashi, Masaya; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kansaku, Norio; Asari, Masao; Hano, Hiroshi; Endou, Hitoshi



Functional and morphological studies of long-term islet allografts in the renal subcapsular space of the BB/W rat.  


Our primary objective in this study was to determine whether transplanted pancreatic islet B cells display normal glucose-stimulated insulin secretory responses. Since transplanted islets are deinnervated and are located in a potentially unfavorable hormonal environment, it is possible that transplanted islets can maintain blood glucose levels but still not be completely normal. Since immune mechanisms may alter secretory responses but fail to cause overt islet necrosis (rejection), we used the BB/W spontaneously diabetic rat as the recipient in these studies. Islets harvested from inbred Lewis rats were transplanted beneath the renal capsule with minimal ALS immunosuppression posttransplantation. The transplanted animals showed a normal response to a glucose tolerance test. After 122-155 days of normoglycemia, the islets were retrieved and subjected to 2.8 and 16.7 mM glucose. The results indicate that the islet allografts maintain their secretory response to glucose when compared to donor Lewis islets acutely isolated from the pancreas. Furthermore, the transplanted islets maintained their morphologic integrity. PMID:2495585

Pace, C; Goldsmith, K; Delmo, C; Grizzle, W; Bucy, R P



The effects of pre- and postnatal exposure to the nonsteroidal antiandrogen flutamide on testis descent and morphology in the Albino Swiss rat  

PubMed Central

Exposure of male Albino Swiss rats to the nonsteroidal antiandrogen flutamide during the period from gestational day (d) 10 to birth resulted in feminisation of the external genitalia and the suppression of growth of the male reproductive tract. In adulthood, testes were found to be located in diverse positions. True cryptorchidism occurred in 10% of cases, whereas 50% of testes descended to the scrotum and 40% were located in a suprainguinal ectopic region. Varying degrees of tubule abnormality were seen in the testes of flutamide-treated animals, ranging from completely normal tubules with full spermatogenesis (and the expected frequency of the stages of spermatogenesis) to severely abnormal tubules lined with Sertoli cells only. For each individual testis, the overall severity of tubule damage was strongly correlated with its adult location, with intra-abdominal testes worst affected and scrotally-located testes least; only the latter contained normal tubules. Similarly, intra-abdominal testes were the smallest in weight and contained the least testosterone. By contrast, postnatal treatment of male rats with flutamide from birth to postnatal d 14 did not impair development of the external genitalia, the process of testicular descent or adult spermatogenesis. These findings confirm that androgen blockade during embryonic development interferes with testicular descent but also demonstrate that (1) prenatal flutamide treatment per se has a detrimental effect on adult testis morphology but (2) the degree of abnormality of the testes is strongly influenced by location. PMID:9183680




Three-dimensional conducting oxide nanoarchitectures: morphology-controllable synthesis, characterization, and applications in lithium-ion batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the synthesis, characterization and applications in Li-ion batteries of a set of 3-dimensional (3-D) nanostructured conducting oxides including fluorinated tin oxide (FTO) and aluminum zinc oxide (AZO). The morphology of these 3-D conducting oxide nanoarchitectures can be directed towards either mono-dispersed hollow nanobead matrix or mono-dispersed sponge-like nanoporous matrix by controlling the surface charge of the templating polystyrene (PS) nanobeads, the steric hindrance and hydrolysis rates of the precursors, pH of the solvents etc. during the evaporative co-assembly of the PS beads. These 3-D nanostructured conducting oxide matrices possess high surface area (over 100 m2 g-1) and accessible interconnected pores extending in all three spatial dimensions. By optimizing the temperature profile during calcination, we can obtain large area (of a few cm2) and crack-free nanoarchitectured films with thickness over 60 ?m. As such, the sheet resistance of these nanoarchitectured films on FTO glass can reach below 20 ? per square. The nanoarchitectured FTO electrodes were used as anodes in Li-ion batteries, and they showed an enhanced cycling performance and stability over pure SnO2.We report the synthesis, characterization and applications in Li-ion batteries of a set of 3-dimensional (3-D) nanostructured conducting oxides including fluorinated tin oxide (FTO) and aluminum zinc oxide (AZO). The morphology of these 3-D conducting oxide nanoarchitectures can be directed towards either mono-dispersed hollow nanobead matrix or mono-dispersed sponge-like nanoporous matrix by controlling the surface charge of the templating polystyrene (PS) nanobeads, the steric hindrance and hydrolysis rates of the precursors, pH of the solvents etc. during the evaporative co-assembly of the PS beads. These 3-D nanostructured conducting oxide matrices possess high surface area (over 100 m2 g-1) and accessible interconnected pores extending in all three spatial dimensions. By optimizing the temperature profile during calcination, we can obtain large area (of a few cm2) and crack-free nanoarchitectured films with thickness over 60 ?m. As such, the sheet resistance of these nanoarchitectured films on FTO glass can reach below 20 ? per square. The nanoarchitectured FTO electrodes were used as anodes in Li-ion batteries, and they showed an enhanced cycling performance and stability over pure SnO2. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: SEM and TEM images, nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms, and EDX profiles. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr01844j

Liu, Fa-Qian; Wu, Huiming; Li, Tao; Grabstanowicz, Lauren R.; Amine, Khalil; Xu, Tao



The Morphological Features and Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress Mechanism of the Retinal Neurons Apoptosis in Early Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

This paper aims to explore the relationship of retinal neuron apoptosis and manganese superoxidase dismutase (MnSOD) at early phase of diabetic retinopathy. Sprague-Dawley rats were grouped into normal controls and diabetics. Data were collected after 4, 8, and 12 weeks (n = 12). The pathological changes and ultrastructure of the retina, the apoptosis rate of retinal neurons by TdT-mediated dUTP nick end label (TUNEL), mRNA expressions of MnSOD and copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu–Zn SOD), and the activities of total SOD (T-SOD) and subtypes of SOD were tested. For the controls, there was no abnormal structure or apoptosis of retinal neurons at any time. There was no change of structure for rats with diabetes at 4 or 8 weeks, but there was a decrease of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) number and thinner inner nuclear layer (INL) at 12 weeks. The apoptosis ratio of RGCs was higher than that of the controls at 8 and 12 weeks (P < 0.001). The activity and mRNA levels of MnSOD were lower in diabetics at 4, 8, and 12 weeks (P < 0.05). In summary, the apoptosis of the retinal neurons occurred at 8 weeks after the onset of diabetes. Retinal neuron apoptosis in early diabetic rats may be associated with the decreased activity and mRNA of MnSOD. PMID:24527463

Li, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Maonian; Zhou, Huanfen



The morphological features and mitochondrial oxidative stress mechanism of the retinal neurons apoptosis in early diabetic rats.  


This paper aims to explore the relationship of retinal neuron apoptosis and manganese superoxidase dismutase (MnSOD) at early phase of diabetic retinopathy. Sprague-Dawley rats were grouped into normal controls and diabetics. Data were collected after 4, 8, and 12 weeks (n = 12). The pathological changes and ultrastructure of the retina, the apoptosis rate of retinal neurons by TdT-mediated dUTP nick end label (TUNEL), mRNA expressions of MnSOD and copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn SOD), and the activities of total SOD (T-SOD) and subtypes of SOD were tested. For the controls, there was no abnormal structure or apoptosis of retinal neurons at any time. There was no change of structure for rats with diabetes at 4 or 8 weeks, but there was a decrease of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) number and thinner inner nuclear layer (INL) at 12 weeks. The apoptosis ratio of RGCs was higher than that of the controls at 8 and 12 weeks (P < 0.001). The activity and mRNA levels of MnSOD were lower in diabetics at 4, 8, and 12 weeks (P < 0.05). In summary, the apoptosis of the retinal neurons occurred at 8 weeks after the onset of diabetes. Retinal neuron apoptosis in early diabetic rats may be associated with the decreased activity and mRNA of MnSOD. PMID:24527463

Li, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Maonian; Zhou, Huanfen



Characterization of neurokinin A-evoked salivary secretion in the perfused rat submandibular gland.  


Neurokinin A (NKA) evokes salivary secretion. Despite such reports, the direct effect of NKA on salivary secretion in submandibular gland has not been clarified. Here we studied characterization of salivary fluid secretion induced by NKA in the perfused submandibular grand (SMG) of the rat. NKA (3-100 nM) stimulated salivary fluid secretion in a dose-dependent manner. The profile of secretion induced by NKA consisted of two phases, transient and sustained phases. When the gland was perfused with Lucifer yellow (LY)-containing perfusate buffer and stimulated by NKA, concentration of LY in saliva was increased. In the absence of Ca(2+) in the perfusate, NKA induced only a transient salivary fluid and a transient LY secretion. When the gland was treated with BAPTA, NKA failed to induce both salivary fluid secretion and LY secretion. These results suggest that NKA induces salivary secretion via both transcellular and paracellular pathways, which depends on intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization. PMID:20224202

Narita, Takanori; Qi, Bing; Fukano, Mika; Matsuki-Fukushima, Miwako; Murakami, Masataka; Sugiya, Hiroshi



Characterization of cultured rat oligodendrocytes proliferating in a serum-free, chemically defined medium  

SciTech Connect

A serumless, chemically defined medium has been developed for the culture of oligodendrocytes isolated from primary neonatal rat cerebral cultures. Combined together, insulin, transferrin, and fibroblast growth factor synergistically induced an essentially homogeneous population (95-98%) of cells expressing glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity to undergo cell division. Proliferating cells were characterized by several criteria: (i) ultrastructural analysis by transmission electron microscopy identified the cell type as an oligodendrocyte; (ii) biochemical assays showed expression of three oligodendrocyte biochemical markers, induction of both glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase, and presence of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase; and (iii) immunocytochemical staining showed cultures to be 95-98% positive for glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase, 90% for myelin basic protein, 60-70% for galactocerebroside, and 70% for A2B5.

Saneto, R.P.; de Vellis, J.



Metabolic and morphological alterations induced by proteolysis-inducing factor from Walker tumour-bearing rats in C2C12 myotubes  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with advanced cancer suffer from cachexia, which is characterised by a marked weight loss, and is invariably associated with the presence of tumoral and humoral factors which are mainly responsible for the depletion of fat stores and muscular tissue. Methods In this work, we used cytotoxicity and enzymatic assays and morphological analysis to examine the effects of a proteolysis-inducing factor (PIF)-like molecule purified from ascitic fluid of Walker tumour-bearing rats (WF), which has been suggested to be responsible for muscle atrophy, on cultured C2C12 muscle cells. Results WF decreased the viability of C2C12 myotubes, especially at concentrations of 20–25 ?g.mL-1. There was an increase in the content of the pro-oxidant malondialdehyde, and a decrease in antioxidant enzyme activity. Myotubes protein synthesis decreased and protein degradation increased together with an enhanced in the chymotrypsin-like enzyme activity, a measure of functional proteasome activity, after treatment with WF. Morphological alterations such as cell retraction and the presence of numerous cells in suspension were observed, particularly at high WF concentrations. Conclusion These results indicate that WF has similar effects to those of proteolysis-inducing factor, but is less potent than the latter. Further studies are required to determine the precise role of WF in this experimental model. PMID:18226207

Yano, Claudia L; Ventrucci, Gislaine; Field, William N; Tisdale, Michael J; Gomes-Marcondes, Maria Cristina C



Characterization of the major diazo-positive pigments in bile of homozygous Gunn rats  

PubMed Central

Bilinoid pigments in bile of homozygous Gunn rats (jj) were analysed either after formation of dipyrrolic ethyl anthranilate azo derivatives or as the unmodified parent tetrapyrroles. 1. T.l.c. of the azo derivatives revealed seven major unconjugated components which were structurally characterized by chemical tests, spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry. In addition, two minor components were identified as azodipyrrole (A+B)-glucoside and azodipyrrole (A+B)-?-d-glucuronide. 2. Extraction and t.l.c. of the tetrapyrrolic pigments showed 13 major yellow diazo-positive bands. Four of them, accounting for 59% of total diazo-positive material, were identified as unconjugated bilirubin-IX?, -IX?, -IX? and -IX?. A fifth band (16%) was characterized as a mixture of two isomeric monohydroxyl derivatives and another band (8%) as a dihydroxyl derivative of bilirubin-IX?. 3. Although unconjugated bilirubin-IX? constitutes one-third of total diazo-positive material in bile of our strain of Gunn rats, the daily amount excreted represented only about 3–4% of daily bilirubin production. 4. Phototherapy caused a 2.2-fold increase in the biliary output of diazo-positive bilinoids, but did not affect markedly their composition. However, an additional diazo-negative pigment, accounting for one-third of total yellow colour, was observed but was not identified. Mass-spectral data on two dipyrrolic azopigments have been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50076 (3 pages) with the British Library Lending Division, Boston Spa, Wetherby, W. Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies may be obtained on the terms given in Biochem. J. (1977) 161, 1. PMID:880230

Blanckaert, Norbert; Fevery, Johan; Heirwegh, Karel P. M.; Compernolle, Frans



Metabolic characterization of primary rat hepatocytes cultivated in parallel microfluidic biochips.  


The functionality of primary rat hepatocytes was assessed in an Integrated Dynamic Cell Cultures in Microsystem (IDCCM) device. We characterized the hepatocytes over 96 h of culture and evaluated the impact of dynamic cell culture on their viability, inducibility, and metabolic activity. Reverse Transcription quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (RTqPCR) was performed on selected genes: liver transcription factors (HNF4? and CEBP), nuclear receptors sensitive to xenobiotics (AhR, PXR, CAR, and FXR), cytochromes P450 (CYPs) (1A2, 3A2, 3A23/3A1, 7A1, 2B1, 2C6, 2C, 2D1, 2D2, and 2E1), phase II metabolism enzymes (GSTA2, SULT1A1, and UGT1A6), ABC transporters (ABCB1b and ABCC2), and oxidative stress related enzymes (HMOX1 and NQO1). Microperfused-cultured hepatocytes remained viable and differentiated with in vivo-like phenotype and genotype. In contrast with postadhesion gene levels, the first 48?h of perfusion enhanced the expression of xenosensors and their target CYPs. Furthermore, CYP3A1, CYP2B1, GSTA2, SULT1A1, UGT1A1, ABCB1b, and ABCC2 were upregulated in IDCCM and reached above postextraction levels all along the duration of culture. Metabolic activities were also confirmed with the detection of metabolism rate and induced mRNAs after exposure to several inducers: 3-methylcholanthrene, caffeine, phenacetin, paracetamol,, and midazolam. Finally, this metabolic characterization confirms that IDCCM is able to maintain rat hepatocytes functions to investigate drug metabolism. PMID:23423727

Legendre, Audrey; Baudoin, Régis; Alberto, Giulia; Paullier, Patrick; Naudot, Marie; Bricks, Thibault; Brocheton, Jessy; Jacques, Sébastien; Cotton, Jérôme; Leclerc, Eric



Characterization of wild type and mutant glucocorticoid receptors from rat hepatoma and mouse lymphoma cells.  


Using a combination of immunological blotting techniques and hormone affinity labeling, we have characterized the glucocorticoid receptors present in wild type and mutant rat hepatoma (HTC) and mouse thymoma (S49 and WEHI7) cells. Mutant HTC and WEHI7 cells of the receptorless phenotype, which contain greatly reduced amounts of glucocorticoid hormone binding activity, show parallel decreases in immunoreactive material using a monoclonal antibody raised against the rat liver glucocorticoid receptor. This indicates that these receptorless mutant cells harbor defects in either the production or accumulation of receptor protein. Quantitation of immunoreactivity and hormone binding activity present in wild type and mutant S49 cells indicates that these cells contain significantly more immunoreactive material than hormone binding activity. We conclude that S49 cells produce, in addition to their well characterized wild type or mutant receptors, a mutant receptor from a second allele which is of wild type size, is immunologically reactive, but is unable to bind hormone. The S49 mutant cell line nti (nuclear transfer increase) contains a glucocorticoid receptor which has a molecular weight of 40,000, while the wild type receptor has a molecular weight of 94,000. Affinity labeling of glucocorticoid receptors in nti cells with [3H]dexamethasone mesylate indicates that nti cells do not contain wild type sized precursor molecules which bind hormone, nor do they contain immunoreactive fragments of a molecular mass smaller than 94 kDa. It is proposed that the 40-kDa nti receptor is produced as a truncated protein most likely resulting from a nonsense mutation or from a truncated messenger RNA. PMID:3997828

Northrop, J P; Gametchu, B; Harrison, R W; Ringold, G M



Characterization of zinc-induced neuronal death in primary cultures of rat cerebellar granule cells.  


Although zinc is essential for the activity of numerous biological systems, and zinc deficiency has been associated with various pathologies, this metal can also exert direct neurotoxic action. In primary cultures of rat cerebellar granule neurons, a brief, 15- to 30-min exposure to zinc (100-500 microM) resulted in concentration-dependent delayed neuronal death. The toxicity of zinc depended on the maturity of the neuronal cultures-it was not apparent prior to Day 5 and it reached a plateau at about 9-10 days in vitro. We assayed cell injury by measuring mitochondrial functioning (MTT assay) and cell death with the trypan blue exclusion assay. Apoptosis was assayed by the morphological appearance of cells following fluorescence staining with propidium iodide and by the in situ TUNEL technique. Mitochondrial injury was an early result of zinc treatment. Actinomycin D, an inhibitor of macromolecular synthesis, attenuated delayed cell death. The calcium channel blockers nimodipine and amlodipine reduced both mitochondrial injury and cell death; the blockade of ionotropic glutamate receptors with MK-801 or CNQX was ineffective. These results suggest that calcium channel-blocker-sensitive mitochondrial injury and DNA damage are operative in the protein-synthesis-dependent neurotoxicity of zinc. An imbalance of zinc homeostasis might play a role in the pathophysiology of apoptosis-associated neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:9225750

Manev, H; Kharlamov, E; Uz, T; Mason, R P; Cagnoli, C M




PubMed Central

Three surface-active fractions which differ in their morphology have been isolated from rat lung homogenates by ultracentrifugation in a discontinuous sucrose density gradient. In order of increasing density, the fractions consisted, as shown by electron microscopy, primarily of common myelin figures, lamellar bodies, and tubular myelin figures. The lipid of all three fractions contained approximately 94% polar lipids and 2% cholesterol. In the case of the common myelin figures and the lamellar bodies, the polar lipids consisted of 73% phosphatidylcholines, 9% phosphatidylserines and inositols, and 8% phosphatidylethanolamines. In the case of the tubular myelin figures, the respective percentages were 58, 19, and 5. Over 90% of the fatty acids of the lecithins of all three fractions were saturated. Electrophoresis of the proteins of the fractions in sodium dodecyl sulfate or Triton X-100 revealed that the lamellar bodies and the tubular myelin figures differed in the mobilities of their proteins. The common myelin figures, however, contained proteins from both of the other fractions. These data indicate that, whereas the lipids of the extracellular, alveolar surfactant(s) originate in the lamellar bodies, the proteins arise from another source. It is further postulated that the tubular myelin figures represent a liquid crystalline state of the alveolar surface-active lipoproteins. PMID:4726305

Gil, Joan; Reiss, Oscar K.



A Comparative Study on the Mechanical, Thermal and Morphological Characterization of Poly(lactic acid)/Epoxidized Palm Oil Blend  

PubMed Central

In this work, poly(lactic acid) (PLA) a fully biodegradable thermoplastic polymer matrix was melt blended with three different epoxidized palm oil (EPO). The aim of this research was to enhance the flexibility, mechanical and thermal properties of PLA. The blends were prepared at various EPO contents of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 wt% and characterized. The SEM analysis evidenced successful modification on the neat PLA brittle morphology. Tensile tests indicate that the addition of 1 wt% EPO is sufficient to improve the strength and flexibility compared to neat PLA. Additionally, the flexural and impact properties were also enhanced. Further, DSC analysis showed that the addition of EPO results in a decrease in Tg, which implies an increase in the PLA chain mobility. In the presence of 1 wt% EPO, TGA results revealed significant increase in the thermal stability by 27%. Among the three EPOs used, EPO(3) showed the best mechanical and thermal properties compared to the other EPO’s, with an optimum loading of 1 wt%. Conclusively, EPO showed a promising outcome to overcome the brittleness and improve the overall properties of neat PLA, thus can be considered as a potential plasticizer. PMID:22754338

Giita Silverajah, V. S.; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan; Hassan, Hazimah Abu; Woei, Chieng Buong



Chemical and morphological characterization of soot and soot precursors generated in an inverse diffusion flame with aromatic and aliphatic fuels  

SciTech Connect

Knowledge of the chemical and physical structure of young soot and its precursors is very useful in understanding the paths leading to soot particle inception. This paper presents chemical and morphological characterization of the products generated in ethylene and benzene inverse diffusion flames (IDF) using different analytical techniques. The trend in the data indicates that the soot precursor material and soot particles generated in the benzene IDF have a higher degree of complexity than the samples obtained in the ethylene IDF, which is reflected by an increase in the aromaticity of the chloroform extracts observed by {sup 1}H NMR and FT-IR, and shape and size of soot particles obtained by TEM and HR-TEM. It is important to highlight that the soot precursor material obtained at the lower positions in the ethylene IDF has a significant contribution of aliphatic groups, which play an important role in the particle inception and mass growth processes during the early stages of soot formation. However, these groups progressively disappear in the samples taken at higher positions in the flame, due to thermal decomposition processes. (author)

Santamaria, Alexander; Mondragon, Fanor [Institute of Chemistry, University of Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellin (Colombia); Yang, Nancy [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94551-0969 (United States); Eddings, Eric [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Sake City, UT 84112 (United States)



Structural and morphological characterization of chloride salt of conducting poly(o-methoxyaniline) obtained at different time synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emeraldine-salt poly(o-methoxyaniline) form (ES-POMA) was chemically synthesized at time synthesis ranging from 0.5 to 72 h and characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), LeBail fit, Small-angle X-ray Diffraction (SAXD), Small-angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Crystallinity and crystal data (for 3 h of synthesis, a = 7.0073 Å, b = 10.6078 Å, c = 22.5234 Å, ? = 83.3783°, ? = 84.7231° and ? = 89.0455°) were obtained by XRD and showed that the percentage of crystallinity increased from 48% to 63%. LeBail fit showed that the crystallites have lost their globular shape to give rise to twinned crystallites shape ranging from 26 to 56 Å. By SAXS it was obtained the particle Guinier Radius of Giration (Rg) of (310 ± 1)Å. The maximum particle size (Dmax) of synthesized polymers was obtained from the pair-distance distribution function (p(r)) and ranged from 1000 to 830 Å. SEM images showed a globular vesicular morphology with micrometric sizes. It was observed that increasing time synthesis promotes the size reduction of these structures with the electrical conductivity of the samples increasing from 5.18 × 10-7 to 8.89 × 10-7 S/cm.

Sanches, E. A.; Soares, J. C.; Mafud, A. C.; Trovati, G.; Fernandes, E. G.; Mascarenhas, Y. P.



A survey of approaches for morphological, optical, and transport characterization of Fe3O4 and ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoparticles’ structure, size, morphology, and surface conditions have significant influence on their performance and considerable impact on their application in biosystems. In this study some methods of nanoparticle analysis including structural x-ray diffraction, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy size distribution and morphology characterization, superconducting quantum interference device and Faraday method magnetic and temperature dependence of specific resistance measurements, infrared spectroscopy, and laser light scattering based estimation of particle size distribution are surveyed. These methods illustrate the importance of a versatile approach to nanoparticle characterization, as the basis for their selection for particular applications. Since the methods of synthesis crucially affect the nanoparticle characteristics, the presented characterization techniques could also help to choose the most appropriate one.

Mamula Tartalja, Danica; Sre?kovi?, Milesa



Protein and lipid refeeding changes protein metabolism and colonic but not small intestinal morphology in protein-depleted rats.  


In this study, we fed rats a 2% casein AIN 76 diet for 2 wk to produce protein malnutrition. We determined in these animals the effects of different concentrations of dietary protein refeeding (2% and 20% casein) on recovery and gut mucosal repletion and the potential role of type of dietary fat in the regulation of protein metabolism and mucosal growth by providing conventional long-chain triglyceride (LCT), a structured lipid composed of long-, medium- and short-chain fatty acids (SC/SL), or a physical mixture of the same components present in the structured lipid given as individual pure triglycerides (SC/PM) along with adequate amounts of protein and energy. The results confirmed that protein malnutrition can be reversed rapidly by protein refeeding, as indicated by an increase in body weight, positive nitrogen balance, liver growth and elevations in plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-1, leucine and albumin. In the colon, crypt cell number, crypt depth and number of crypt cells in the rapidly proliferating fraction of the colon were greater in rats fed the higher protein diet. However, the general architecture of small intestinal mucosa, including duodenum, jejunum and ileum, was not affected by protein malnutrition. Although the number of colonic cells was similar with fat refeeding, there were significantly fewer displaying the proliferating cell nuclear antigen in the colonic epithelium when rats were fed SC/PM compared with SC/SL. Therefore, changes in colonic mucosal proliferation were only seen with repletion by adequate protein and by SC/SL feeding. PMID:8613894

Qu, Z; Ling, P R; Tahan, S R; Sierra, P; Onderdonk, A B; Bistrian, B R



Leukocyte, red blood cell and morphological adaptation to moderate physical training in rats undernourished in the neonatal period  

PubMed Central

Objective To analyze the impact of moderate physical exercise on the total and differential leukocyte counts and red blood cell count of 36 sixty-day-old adult male Wistar rats subjected to early malnourishment. Methods The rats were divided in nourished (N - casein 17%) and malnourished groups (M - casein 8%) and thesegroups were then subdivided in trained (T) untrained (U) creating four groups NT, NU, MT and MU. The NT and MTgroups were submitted to moderate physical exercise using a treadmill (60 min/day, 5 days/week for 8 weeks). Onthe 1st day, before the training started T0 and 24 hours after the last training day of the week (T1 until T8), a 1 mLaliquot of blood was collected from the animals' tails for analysis. The total leukocyte count was evaluated in a cellcounter with an electronic microscope. The cyanmethemoglobin technique was used to measure the hemoglobin level. The hematocrit values were determined as a percentage using the micro-hematocrit technique with a microcapillaryreader and a cell counter was used to determine the red blood cell count. The t-test was used for statistical analysis and a p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Data are expressed as means ± standard deviation. Results There was a significant difference in the total leukocyte count between the NT (9.1 ± 0.1) and MT groups (8.0 ± 0.1) from T1 and in neutrophils between the NT (22.1 ± 0.6) and MT groups (24.6 ± 1.8) from T7 (p < 0.05). There was no statistical significance in the hemoglobin, hematocrit and red blood cell count from T1. Conclusions According to the results of this study, moderate physical exercise seems to have induced physiologic adaptation in adult rats from T1. PMID:23049442

Viana, Marcelo Tavares; Perez, Manuella Cavalcanti; Ribas, Valdenilson Ribeiro; Martins, Gilberto de Freire; de Castro, Celia Maria Machado Barbosa



Calcium-Induced Alteration of Mitochondrial Morphology and Mitochondrial-Endoplasmic Reticulum Contacts in Rat Brown Adipocytes  

PubMed Central

Mitochondria are key organelles maintaining cellular bioenergetics and integrity, and their regulation of [Ca2+]i homeostasis has been investigated in many cell types. We investigated the short-term Ca-SANDOZ® treatment on brown adipocyte mitochondria, using imaging and molecular biology techniques. Two-month-old male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: Ca-SANDOZ® drinking or tap water (control) drinking for three days. Alizarin Red S staining showed increased Ca2+ level in the brown adipocytes of treated rats, and potassium pyroantimonate staining localized electron-dense regions in the cytoplasm, mitochondria and around lipid droplets. Ca-SANDOZ® decreased mitochondrial number, but increased their size and mitochondrial cristae volume. Transmission electron microscopy revealed numerous enlarged and fusioned-like mitochondria in the Ca-SANDOZ® treated group compared to the control, and megamitochondria in some brown adipocytes. The Ca2+ diet affected mitochondrial fusion as mitofusin 1 (MFN1) and mitofusin 2 (MFN2) were increased, and mitochondrial fission as dynamin related protein 1 (DRP1) was decreased. Confocal microscopy showed a higher colocalization rate between functional mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The level of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) was elevated, which was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. These results suggest that Ca-SANDOZ® stimulates mitochondrial fusion, increases mitochondrial-ER contacts and the thermogenic capacity of brown adipocytes.

Golic, I.; Velickovic, K.; Markelic, M.; Stancic, A.; Jankovic, A.; Vucetic, M.; Otasevic, V.; Buzadzic, B.; Korac, B.



Proteinase inhibitors in rat serum. Purification and partial characterization of three functionally distinct trypsin inhibitors.  

PubMed Central

Three different serine proteinase inhibitors were isolated from rat serum and purified to apparent homogeneity. One of the inhibitors appears to be homologous to alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor isolated from man and other species, but the other two, designated rat proteinase inhibitor I and rat proteinase inhibitor II, seem to have no human counterpart. alpha 1-Proteinase inhibitor (Mr 55000) inhibits trypsin, chymotrypsin and elastase, the three serine proteinases tested. Rat proteinase inhibitor I (Mr 66000) is active towards trypsin and chymotrypsin, but is inactive towards elastase. Rat proteinase inhibitor II (Mr 65000) is an effective inhibitor of trypsin only. Their contributions to the trypsin-inhibitory capacity of rat serum are about 68, 14 and 18% for alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor, rat proteinase inhibitor I and rat proteinase inhibitor II respectively. Images Fig. 4. PMID:6609702

Kuehn, L; Rutschmann, M; Dahlmann, B; Reinauer, H



Ligand-binding properties and structural characterization of a novel rat odorant-binding protein variant.  


After characterization of a novel odorant-binding protein (OBP) variant isolated from the rat nasal mucus, the corresponding cDNA was cloned by RT-PCR. Recombinant OBP-1F, the sequence of which is close to that of previously reported rat OBP-1, has been secreted by the yeast Pichia pastoris at a concentration of 80 mg.L-1 in a form identical to the natural protein as shown by MS, N-terminal sequencing and CD. We observed that, in contrast with porcine OBP-1, purified recombinant OBP-1F is a homodimer exhibiting two disulfide bonds (C44-C48 and C63-C155), a pairing close to that of hamster aphrodisin. OBP-1F interacts with fluorescent probe 1-aminoanthracene (1-AMA) with a dissociation constant of 0.6 +/- 0. 3 microM. Fluorescence experiments revealed that 1-AMA was displaced efficiently by molecules including usual solvents such as EtOH and dimethylsulfoxide. Owing to the large OBP-1F amounts expressed, we set up a novel biomimetic assay (volatile-odorant binding assay) to study the uptake of airborne odorants without radiolabelling and attempted to understand the odorant capture by OBP in the nasal mucus under natural conditions. The assay permitted observations on the binding of airborne odorants of different chemical structures and odors (2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine, linalool, isoamyl acetate, 1-octanal, 1-octanol, dimethyl disulfide and methyl thiobutyrate). Uptake of airborne odorants in nearly physiological conditions strengthens the role of OBP as volatile hydrophobic odorant carriers in the mucus of the olfactory epithelium through the aqueous barrier towards the chemo-sensory cells. PMID:10806409

Briand, L; Nespoulous, C; Perez, V; Rémy, J J; Huet, J C; Pernollet, J C



Identification and characterization of a basolateral dicarboxylate/cholate antiport system in rat hepatocytes.  


The mechanisms and driving forces for the uptake of the unconjugated bile acid cholate were investigated both in cultured rat hepatocytes and in rat liver basolateral (sinusoidal) plasma membrane (BLPM) vesicles. Determination of initial uptake rates of [3H]cholate (0.1 microM) into cultured hepatocytes confirmed that the majority (75%) of the transmembrane transport was mediated by Na(+)-independent mechanisms. This portion of cholate uptake consisted of a pH-sensitive moiety representing nonionic diffusion, which may become quantitatively important at low pH and high cholate concentrations, as well as of a saturable (Michaelis constant 7.4 microM), 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS)-sensitive transport moiety, suggesting the involvement of a carrier. This latter transport system was functionally characterized by 1) inhibition of cellular cholate uptake in the absence of extracellular sodium by the dicarboxylic acid alpha-ketoglutarate (alpha-KG; 1 mM) and by the organic anion p-aminohippurate (PAH; 1 mM); 2) stimulation of cellular cholate uptake by alpha-KG (10 microM) or PAH (1 mM) in the presence of an inwardly directed sodium gradient; 3) lack of sensitivity toward lithium in BLPM vesicles; 4) trans-stimulation of vesicular cholate uptake by alpha-KG or PAH, but not by benzoate; and 5) cis-inhibition of alpha-KG/alpha-KG self-exchange by extravesicular cholate (400 microM), PAH (5 mM), probenecid, or DIDS. Collectively, these data indicate the presence of a Na(+)-dicarboxylate cotransport-coupled organic anion exchanger in the hepatocyte basolateral plasma membrane that may be involved in cholate uptake in the liver.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7762664

Boelsterli, U A; Zimmerli, B; Meier, P J



Characterization of beta-adrenergic receptors and adenylate cyclase activity in rat brown fat  

SciTech Connect

Catecholamines stimulate thermogenesis in rat brown fat through a mechanism which involves binding to the beta-adrenergic receptor (BAR), stimulation of adenylate cyclase (AC) and culminating with uncoupling of mitochondrial respiration from ATP synthesis. The authors characterized BAR, AC and cytochrome (cyt) c oxidase in CDF (F-344) interscapular brown fat. Scatchard analysis of (/sup 125/)Iodopindolol binding yields a straight line consistent with a single class of antagonist binding sites with 41.8 +/- 12.0 fmol BAR/mg protein and a K/sub d/ of 118 +/- 15 pM. Binding was both specific and stereospecific. Competition with 1-propranolol (K/sub d/ = 6.7 nM) was 15 times more potent than d-propranolol (K/sub d/ = 103 nM). Competition with isoproterenol (K/sub d/ = 79 nM) was 10 times more potent than epinephrine (K/sub d/ = 820 nM) which was 35 times more potent than norepinephrine (K/sub d/ = 2.9 x 10/sup -5/ M) suggesting predominate beta/sub 2/-type BAR. Cyt c oxidase activity was assessed in brown fat mitochrondrial preparations. The ratio of BAR to cyt c activity was 959 +/- 275 nmol BAR/mol cyc c/min. Isoproterenol (0.1 mM) stimulated AC activity was 24 times GTP (0.1 mM) stimulated AC (98.5 vs 40.7 pmol cAMP/min/mg). NaF-stimulated AC was nine times basal activity (90.5 vs 11.3 pmol cAMP/min/mg). These data demonstrate the presence of a beta-/sub 2/-type BAR coupled to adenylate cyclase in rat brown fat.

Baresi, L.A.; Morley, J.E.; Scarpace, P.J.



Functional characterization of acetylcholine receptors and calcium signaling in rat testicular capsule contraction.  


The motor activity of mammalian testicular capsule (TC) contributes to male fertility and infertility, but the acetylcholine receptors related to the contractions induced by cholinergic drugs are poorly known. Indeed to characterize the acetylcholine receptors and cellular signaling by Ca(2+) involved in TC motor activity of rats, the potency of agonists (pD?) and antagonists (pA?) of acetylcholine receptors, and effects of Ca(2+) cellular transport blockers on the cholinergic contractions were evaluated. pD? values of acetylcholine (5.98) were ten-fold higher than that of carbachol (4.99). Efficacy (Emax) of acetylcholine and carbachol to induce contractions corresponded to 95% and 97% of Emax for KCl, but Emax for nicotine was very low (8% of Emax for KCl). Further, physostigmine did not affect the acetylcholine potency. Contractions induced by acetylcholine or carbachol were antagonized by muscarinic but not nicotinic antagonist. The order of pA? values obtained for muscarinic antagonists, namely atropine>4-DAMP>AF-DX116>pirenzepine, corresponded to a typical profile of M3 receptors. Contractions induced by acetylcholine or carbachol were inhibited by blockers of Ca(2+) influx through voltage-dependent calcium channels (nifedipine and Ni(2+)), Ca(2+) reuptake by sarco-endoplasmic reticulum (cyclopiazonic acid) and mitochondria (FCCP). The protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor chelerythrine only affected the acetylcholine-induced contraction. These results suggest that TC motor activity of rats are mediated mainly by M? receptors followed by the increase of cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration regulated by voltage-dependent calcium channels, sarco-endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. Furthermore, the differential effects of chelerythrine in the acetylcholine or carbachol-induced contractions are discussed. PMID:23872374

da Silva Júnior, Edilson Dantas; de Souza, Bruno Palmieri; Rodrigues, Juliano Quintela Dantas; Caricati-Neto, Afonso; Jurkiewicz, Aron; Jurkiewicz, Neide Hyppolito



Characterization of triacylglycerol hydrolase activities in isolated myocardial cells from rat heart.  

PubMed Central

Triacylglycerol (TG) hydrolase activities were characterized in myocytes isolated from rat hearts. Acid hydrolase activity with a pH optimum of 5 could be measured in myocyte homogenates, and the subcellular distribution suggested that this activity originated in lysosomes. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) was also present in myocyte homogenates, as evidenced by TG hydrolase activity that was stimulated by serum and apolipoprotein CII, and inhibited by apolipoprotein CIII2, high ionic strength (NaCl and MgCl2, I = 1 M) and antibodies to LPL. Serum-independent neutral (pH 7.5) TG hydrolase activity was less sensitive to inhibition by 1 M-NaCl, by antibodies to LPL and by preincubation at 40 degrees C than was serum-stimulated hydrolase activity. Furthermore, there were modest but significant differences in the subcellular distribution of the serum-independent and serum-stimulated hydrolase activities. Hydrolase activities in myocyte homogenates could be solubilized by 7.2 mM-deoxycholate. Acid hydrolase activity was recovered in the unbound fraction after heparin-Sepharose chromatography, whereas LPL was bound to the affinity column and was eluted by 0.9-1.2 M-NaCl. Approximately one-third of the serum-independent TG hydrolase activity was not bound to the heparin-Sepharose affinity column. This unbound TG hydrolase activity had a pH optimum of 7 and was stimulated by 50 mM-MgCl2, but not by serum and was resistant to inhibition by high ionic strength (1 M-NaCl), to preincubation at 40 degrees C for 2 h, and by antibodies to LPL. It is concluded that, in addition to an acid lysosomal TG hydrolase and LPL, myocytes from rat heart contain a serum-independent TG hydrolase with unique characteristics. PMID:4084231

Ramirez, I; Kryski, A J; Ben-Zeev, O; Schotz, M C; Severson, D L



Two-dimensional electrophoresis of liver proteins: characterization of a drug-induced hepatomegaly in rats.  


Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) of liver proteins was applied to further characterize an unusual drug-induced increase in hepatocellular rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) in Sprague-Dawley rats given a substituted pyrimidine derivative. Absolute liver weights of drug-treated rats (9.9 +/- 0.4 g) increased above vehicle-treated controls (7.2 +/- 0.2 g) by 37%. Light microscopy revealed diffuse granular basophilia of the hepatocellular cytoplasm, uncharacteristic of hepatocytes and suggested cells rich in ribosomes, which was confirmed by electron microscopy. Immunostaining for cell proliferation, viz., 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), indicated marked hepatocellular proliferative activity. 2-DE of solubilized liver using an ISO-DALT gel system indicated significant (p<0.001) quantitative changes in at least 17 liver proteins (12 increased, 5 decreased) compared to controls. The protein with the largest increase was homologous to acute-phase reactant, contrapsin-like protein inhibitor-6. Other markedly upregulated proteins were methionine adenosyltransferase, a catalyst in methionine/ATP metabolism and mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase, involved in cholesterol synthesis. The complementary strategies of 2-DE coupled either with database spot mapping or protein isolation and amino acid sequencing successfully identified a subset of proteins from xenobiotic-damaged rodent livers, the expression of which differed from controls. However, the current bioinformatics platform for rodent hepatic proteins and limited knowledge of specific protein functionality restricted application of this proteomics profile to further define a mechanistic basis for this unusual hepatotoxicity. PMID:10892723

Newsholme, S J; Maleeff, B F; Steiner, S; Anderson, N L; Schwartz, L W



Morphological and biochemical changes in soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles of rats orbited in Spacelab 3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Muscle atrophy in rats exposed to hypogravity for seven days aboard Spacelab 3 is examined. Hindlimb muscles were harvested 12-16 days postflight, and prepared for enzyme studies and electron microscopy. Simple cell shrinkage was found, with a mean fiber area decrease of 35.8 percent for soleus and 24.9 percent for extensor digitorum longus (EDL) flight muscle fibers, as compared with control muscle fibers. EDL and soleus muscles showed increases in alkaline myofibrillar ATPase, alpha glycerophosphate dehydrogenase, and glycogen, and a decrease in NADH dehydrogenase staining. The 26 percent increase in calcium activated protease suggests that the focal degradation of myofibrils is the key process of myofibril breakdown. The presence in the flight soleus muscles of one percent necrotic fibers is unexplained. The observed shift towards histochemical fast-muscle type properties is consistent with previous findings.

Riley, D. A.; Slocum, T.; Bain, J. L. W.; Sedlak, F. R.; Elis, S.; Satyanarayana, T.



Methyl isocyanate induced morphological changes in the seminiferous epithelium of rats maintained on normal or protein deficient diets  

SciTech Connect

Methyl isocyanate (MIC), a pulmonary toxicant, is also reported to cause reproductive anomalies. MIC exposure decreased mating performance and fertility of mice and rats. However, the target cell type responsible for the decreased fertility could not be identified. Therefore, present studies are undertaken to analyze the action of MIC on spermatogenesis during one cycle of seminiferous epithelium. Protein deficiency, an important aspect of malnourishment, alter toxic potentials of various chemicals. About 90% of the affected people of Bhopal gas calamity belonged to low income group and were categorized as malnourished. Nutritional deficiency is also known to impair spermatogenesis and fertility. Therefore, experiments were designed to evaluate whether the protein deficiency influence the toxic potentials of MIC on testicular tissues.

Bose, M.; Vachhrajani, K.D.; Dutta, K.K. (Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Lucknow (India)); Jha, B.S. (Mithila Univ., Darbhanga (India))



Morphological findings relating to the problem of cortex and medulla in the pineal glands of rat and hamster.  

PubMed Central

Because, in previous investigations on the rat pineal gland, karyometric studies of pinealocytes from cortical and medullary regions had yielded contradictory results, experiments were carried out to resolve this problem. In immersion-fixed, paraffin-embedded pineal glands, nuclear size of cortical regions was invariably larger than that in the medulla, the nuclear size clearly depending on the plane of sectioning. The differences between cortex and medulla were abolished in (a) pineal glands sagittally bisected prior to immersion fixation and (b) perfusion-fixed, epoxy resin-embedded pineal tissue, suggesting that unequal pinealocyte nuclear size in cortex and medulla is artefactual. In the hamster pineal gland, cortical and medullary regions are separated by a narrow band of interstitial cells, indicating that different structural features account for this subdivision in different species. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:6350249

Heidbuchel, U; Vollrath, L



Comparison of early morphological and molecular changes induced by 17-alpha-methyltestosterone and estradiol benzoate in the rat ovary.  


Repeated exposure to 17-?-methyltestosterone (17MT) and estradiol benzoate (EB) for 28 or 90 days in rats induce similar ovarian atrophy. The objective of the present work was to identify and compare the early effects induced by 17MT and EB on the ovary using molecular and histopathological tools. Female rats were evaluated after 1, 3 or 7 days following an oral exposure by gavage at a daily dose of 600 mg/kg/day for 17MT and 5 mg/kg/day for EB. All animals were found to be acyclic after 3 or 7 days of treatment with 17MT and EB. Histopathological changes were present in the ovary, uterus, vagina and mammary gland after both treatments. Ovarian atrophy known as the long term effect of 17MT and EB was not yet detected after 7 days of treatment. But non regressive corpora lutea and cystic follicles were identically observed in the ovary of 17MT and EB treated females. Both compounds induced a decrease of LH transcripts together with an increase of plasma progesterone and prolactin levels. Differences in the profile of regulation of the aromatase were noted after 1 and 3 days of treatment in 17MT treated animals (upregulated) when compared to EB treated animals (downregulated). In summary, we have shown that despite the different nature of hormonal activity, EB and 17MT induce very early endocrine perturbation which presents several similarities. Our work indicated that the detection of early key hormonal markers in short term studies can help to predict the adverse long term effects on target tissues. PMID:22405603

Ferre, Céline; Belluco, Sara; Tinwell, Helen; Bars, Rémi; Benahmed, Mohamed; Rouquie, David; Schorsch, Frédéric



Effects of ageing and chronic dietary restriction on the morphology of fast and slow muscles of the rat.  

PubMed Central

The soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles of the hindlimb and the flexor digitorum profundus muscle of the forelimb were studied in ad libitum-fed control and age-matched diet-restricted male rats at various ages from weaning to senescence. Growth of individual muscles was accomplished by fibre hypertrophy and not hyperplasia. Between weaning and one year, fibre numbers remained constant in the soleus but fell by 50% in the extensor digitorum longus. Both muscles displayed increasingly oxidative fibre type profiles with advancing age, irrespective of dietary status. This was particularly noticeable in the soleus, which transformed its fibre population from one containing 35% fast fibres at weaning to one with no fast fibres at 91 weeks. In senility, however, the fibre type population again displayed 25% fast fibres. The capillary: fibre ratio and the capillary density were correlated with muscle fibre size in both hindlimb muscles. Although capillarity increased with age, expected differences between fast and slow muscles were probably minimised by the high proportion of FOG fibres in the extensor digitorum longus. Both hindlimb muscles displayed significant increases in the ratio of connective: muscle tissue with increasing age. The soleus invariably contained more connective tissue than the extensor digitorum longus. Dietary restriction reduced the rate of increase, so that the connective tissue content was approximately one half that found in control muscles at one year. Various pathological features associated with old age were delayed considerably in the muscles of the diet-restricted rats. It is concluded that chronic dietary restriction imposed directly after weaning has a dramatic effect on the normal growth and ageing of skeletal muscle. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 7 PMID:3198472

Boreham, C A; Watt, P W; Williams, P E; Merry, B J; Goldspink, G; Goldspink, D F



Purification and characterization of a second type of neutral ceramidase from rat brain: a second more hydrophobic form of rat brain ceramidase.  


Ceramidases (CDase) are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of N-acyl linkage of ceramide (Cer) to generate sphingosine and free fatty acids. In this study we report the purification and characterization of a novel second type of neutral ceramidase from rat brain (RBCDase II). Triton X-100 protein extract from rat brain membrane was purified sequentially using Q-Sepharose, HiLoad16/60 Superdex 200pg, heparin-Sepharose, phenyl-Sepharose HP, and Mono Q columns. After Mono Q, the specific activity of the enzyme increased by ~15,000-fold over that of the rat brain homogenate. This enzyme has pH optima of 7.5, and it has a larger apparent molecular weight (110kDa) than the previously purified (90kDa) and characterized neutral rat brain CDase (RBCDase I). De-glycosylation experiments show that the differences in molecular mass of RBCDase I and II on SDS-PAGE are not due to the heterogeneity with N-glycan. RBCDase II is partially stimulated by Ca(2+) and is inhibited by pyrimidine mono nucleotides such as TMP and UMP. This finding is significant as it demonstrates for the first time an effect by nucleotides on a CDase activity. The enzyme was also inhibited by both oxidized and reduced GSH. The effects of metal ions were examined, and we found that the enzyme is very sensitive to Hg(2+) and Fe(3+), while it is not affected by Mn(2+). EDTA was somewhat inhibitory at a 20mM concentration. PMID:21224012

Thayyullathil, Faisal; Chathoth, Shahanas; Hago, Abdulkader; Patel, Mahendra; Szulc, Zdzislaw M; Hannun, Yusuf; Galadari, Sehamuddin



Spectral characterization, cyclic voltammetry, morphology, biological activities and DNA cleaving studies of amino acid Schiff base metal(II) complexes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metal complexes are synthesized with Schiff bases derived from o-phthalaldehyde (opa) and amino acids viz., glycine (gly) L-alanine (ala), L-phenylalanine (pal). Metal ions coordinate in a tetradentate or hexadentate manner with these N 2O 2 donor ligands, which are characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic moments, IR, electronic, 1H NMR and EPR spectral studies. The elemental analysis suggests the stoichiometry to be 1:1 (metal:ligand). Based on EPR studies, spin-Hamiltonian and bonding parameters have been calculated. The g-values calculated for copper complexes at 300 K and in frozen DMSO (77 K) indicate the presence of the unpaired electron in the d orbital. The evaluated metal-ligand bonding parameters showed strong in-plane ?- and ?-bonding. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron micrography (SEM) analysis provide the crystalline nature and the morphology of the metal complexes. The cyclic voltammograms of the Cu(II)/Mn(II)/VO(II) complexes investigated in DMSO solution exhibit metal centered electroactivity in the potential range -1.5 to +1.5 V. The electrochemical data obtained for Cu(II) complexes explains the change of structural arrangement of the ligand around Cu(II) ions. The biological activity of the complexes has been tested on eight bacteria and three fungi. Cu(II) and Ni(II) complexes show an increased activity in comparison to the controls. The metal complexes of opapal Schiff base were evaluated for their DNA cleaving activities with calf-thymus DNA (CT DNA) under aerobic conditions. Cu(II) and VO(II) complexes show more pronounced activity in presence of the oxidant.

Neelakantan, M. A.; Rusalraj, F.; Dharmaraja, J.; Johnsonraja, S.; Jeyakumar, T.; Sankaranarayana Pillai, M.