Science.gov

Sample records for rdt-rpc technology option

  1. The RDT-RPC technology option of GEM

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-29

    A muon system for the GEM SSCL detector based on Round Drift Tubes (RDT) has many attractive features. The Pt-trigger and beam crossing tag for the RDT tracking system can be accomplishment by either a PWC system, similar but less costly in design than Cathode Strip Chambers, or by a promising new type of RPC chamber. Given the economic construction of these chamber technologies a system can be envisioned with both good momentum reconstruction performance and pattern recognition capabilities. Full-scale chamber prototypes based on the RDT and RPC technologies have been constructed and tested successfully at the Texas Test Rig. Spatial resolutions have been measured in two designs of RDT chambers which meet or exceed the baseline resolution requirement of 100{mu}m per chamber layer.

  2. Information technology financing options.

    PubMed

    Rai, D

    1996-01-01

    Healthcare executives facing the challenges of delivering quality care and controlling costs must consider the role information technology systems can play in meeting those challenges. To make the best use of information system expenditures, organizations must carefully plan how to finance system acquisitions. Some options that should be considered are paying cash, financing, financing "soft" costs, leasing, credit warehousing and early acceptance financing, and tax-exempt and conduit financing. PMID:10154097

  3. Options for Technology Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Richard E.; Sugarman, Barry

    1989-01-01

    Structural means by which institutions of higher education can tap technology are explored with an examination of the licensing of technological discoveries as well as the creation of start-up companies based upon university-developed technology. Additionally, the corporate structures that are being formed so that institutions can more easily hold…

  4. New Policy Options Through Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Harrison

    1981-01-01

    The author discusses past contributions technology has made to society and ways it will contribute to society's future. Included in these areas are basic biological research, laser technology, information systems, and space technologies. (CT)

  5. TECHNOLOGICAL OPTIONS FOR ACID RAIN CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses technological options for acid rain control. Compliance with Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 will require careful scrutiny of a number of issues before selecting control options to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions...

  6. TECHNOLOGICAL OPTIONS FOR ACID RAIN CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussed are acid rain control options available to the electric utility industry. They include coal switching, flue gas desulfurization, and such emerging lower cost technologies as Limestone Injection Multistage Burners (LIMB) and Advanced Silicate (ADVACATE), both developed ...

  7. Technological options for acid rain control

    SciTech Connect

    Princiotta, F.T.; Sedman, C.B.

    1993-01-01

    The paper discusses technological options for acid rain control. Compliance with Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 will require careful scrutiny of a number of issues before selecting control options to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. One key consideration is the effect of fuel switching or control technology upon the existing dust collector, with additional air toxics legislation looming ahead. A number of likely SO2 and NOx retrofit technologies and estimated costs are presented, along with results of retrofit case studies. New hybrid particulate controls are also being developed to meet future requirements.

  8. A Real-Options Approach for NASA Strategic Technology Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shishko, R.; Ebbeler, D.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the use of real options valuation in the context of prioritizing advanced technologies for NASA funding. Further, we offer a set of computational procedures that quantifies the option value of each technology.

  9. Training Staff for Technology: Options and Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Lesley S. J.

    1999-01-01

    Focuses on effective technology training for library staff. Discusses helping staff overcome technophobia; suiting technology-based jobs with staff members' needs and capabilities; providing a policy/procedure manual to guide the training; the steps that should occur in training; aligning training with in-house library resources and services;…

  10. Financial options methodology for analyzing investments in new technology

    SciTech Connect

    Wenning, B.D.

    1994-12-31

    The evaluation of investments in longer term research and development in emerging technologies, because of the nature of such subjects, must address inherent uncertainties. Most notably, future cash flow forecasts include substantial uncertainties. Conventional present value methodology, when applied to emerging technologies severely penalizes cash flow forecasts, and strategic investment opportunities are at risk of being neglected. Use of options valuation methodology adapted from the financial arena has been introduced as having applicability in such technology evaluations. Indeed, characteristics of superconducting magnetic energy storage technology suggest that it is a candidate for the use of options methodology when investment decisions are being contemplated.

  11. Financial options methodology for analyzing investments in new technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenning, B. D.

    1995-01-01

    The evaluation of investments in longer term research and development in emerging technologies, because of the nature of such subjects, must address inherent uncertainties. Most notably, future cash flow forecasts include substantial uncertainties. Conventional present value methodology, when applied to emerging technologies severely penalizes cash flow forecasts, and strategic investment opportunities are at risk of being neglected. Use of options evaluation methodology adapted from the financial arena has been introduced as having applicability in such technology evaluations. Indeed, characteristics of superconducting magnetic energy storage technology suggest that it is a candidate for the use of options methodology when investment decisions are being contemplated.

  12. Technological Options in Supervising Remote Research Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussex, Roland

    2008-01-01

    Students undertaking remote research degrees need special support from their supervisors, since they lack the rich environment of on-campus students and the face-to-face contact with supervisors and peers. Information Technology provides a wide variety of channels, most of them fast and relatively inexpensive, for developing and sustaining viable…

  13. Technology Options for Libraries. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schamber, Linda

    This two-page digest briefly outlines some of the technological trends in updating a library, and briefly discusses the administrative issues and strategies involved. It begins by describing the wholly integrated information environment, which would include: (1) public-access personal and professional communications networks; (2) information…

  14. Educational Technology Options for New York City Public School Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This study, targeting grades four through eight, evaluates New York City's options for incorporating educational technology into classrooms within existing school facilities. The study reports on: (1) what physical configurations of educational technology can best accommodate different and evolving methods of integrating computers into the…

  15. Solar pumped laser technology options for space power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, E. J.

    1986-01-01

    An overview of long-range options for in-space laser power transmission is presented. The focus is on the new technology and research status of solar-pumped lasers and their solar concentration needs. The laser options include gas photodissociation lasers, optically-pumped solid-state lasers, and blackbody-pumped transfer lasers. The paper concludes with a summary of current research thrusts.

  16. Sustainable sanitation technology options for urban slums.

    PubMed

    Katukiza, A Y; Ronteltap, M; Niwagaba, C B; Foppen, J W A; Kansiime, F; Lens, P N L

    2012-01-01

    Poor sanitation in urban slums results in increased prevalence of diseases and pollution of the environment. Excreta, grey water and solid wastes are the major contributors to the pollution load into the slum environment and pose a risk to public health. The high rates of urbanization and population growth, poor accessibility and lack of legal status in urban slums make it difficult to improve their level of sanitation. New approaches may help to achieve the sanitation target of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 7; ensuring environmental sustainability. This paper reviews the characteristics of waste streams and the potential treatment processes and technologies that can be adopted and applied in urban slums in a sustainable way. Resource recovery oriented technologies minimise health risks and negative environmental impacts. In particular, there has been increasing recognition of the potential of anaerobic co-digestion for treatment of excreta and organic solid waste for energy recovery as an alternative to composting. Soil and sand filters have also been found suitable for removal of organic matter, pathogens, nutrients and micro-pollutants from grey water. PMID:22361648

  17. Options of desiccant cooling and dehumidification technology

    SciTech Connect

    Kweller, E. ); Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C. )

    1991-01-01

    The recent CFC issue regarding the depleting of ozone layer and the greenhouse effect has become an impetus in research and development work for non-CFC air conditioning alternatives. Desiccant cooling is considered a good candidate for replacement of vapor compression chillers. A review of the present status of the desiccant based systems indicate that the technology has significantly advanced in recent years, and has become one of the most promising alternatives. New and better desiccants have been developed and novel cycles and more efficient system designs have been studied. As a result, the thermal coefficient of performance (COP) of desiccant cooling systems has been revised from around 0.6 to 1.0 or higher. These advances coupled with potentially reduced production cost could become very competitive with conventional systems in the near future. This study gives a review of the present status of desiccant materials, system designs, and computer models. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Fast mask writers: technology options and considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litt, Lloyd C.; Groves, Timothy; Hughes, Greg

    2011-04-01

    The semiconductor industry is under constant pressure to reduce production costs even as the complexity of technology increases. Lithography represents the most expensive process due to its high capital equipment costs and the implementation of low-k1 lithographic processes, which have added to the complexity of making masks because of the greater use of optical proximity correction, pixelated masks, and double or triple patterning. Each of these mask technologies allows the production of semiconductors at future nodes while extending the utility of current immersion tools. Low-k1 patterning complexity combined with increased data due to smaller feature sizes is driving extremely long mask write times. While a majority of the industry is willing to accept times of up to 24 hours, evidence suggests that the write times for many masks at the 22 nm node and beyond will be significantly longer. It has been estimated that funding on the order of 50M to 90M for non-recurring engineering (NRE) costs will be required to develop a multiple beam mask writer system, yet the business case to recover this kind of investment is not strong. Moreover, funding such a development poses a high risk for an individual supplier. The structure of the mask fabrication marketplace separates the mask writer equipment customer (the mask supplier) from the final customer (wafer manufacturer) that will be most effected by the increase in mask cost that will result if a high speed mask writer is not available. Since no individual company will likely risk entering this market, some type of industry-wide funding model will be needed.

  19. Electric Power System Technology Options for Lunar Surface Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.

    2005-01-01

    In 2004, the President announced a 'Vision for Space Exploration' that is bold and forward-thinking, yet practical and responsible. The vision explores answers to longstanding questions of importance to science and society and will develop revolutionary technologies and capabilities for the future, while maintaining good stewardship of taxpayer dollars. One crucial technology area enabling all space exploration is electric power systems. In this paper, the author evaluates surface power technology options in order to identify leading candidate technologies that will accomplish lunar design reference mission three (LDRM-3). LDRM-3 mission consists of multiple, 90-day missions to the lunar South Pole with 4-person crews starting in the year 2020. Top-level power requirements included a nominal 50 kW continuous habitat power over a 5-year lifetime with back-up or redundant emergency power provisions and a nominal 2-kW, 2-person unpressurized rover. To help direct NASA's technology investment strategy, this lunar surface power technology evaluation assessed many figures of merit including: current technology readiness levels (TRLs), potential to advance to TRL 6 by 2014, effectiveness of the technology to meet the mission requirements in the specified time, mass, stowed volume, deployed area, complexity, required special ground facilities, safety, reliability/redundancy, strength of industrial base, applicability to other LDRM-3 elements, extensibility to Mars missions, costs, and risks. For the 50-kW habitat module, dozens of nuclear, radioisotope and solar power technologies were down-selected to a nuclear fission heat source with Brayton, Stirling or thermoelectric power conversion options. Preferred energy storage technologies included lithium-ion battery and Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Regenerative Fuel Cells (RFC). Several AC and DC power management and distribution architectures and component technologies were defined consistent with the preferred habitat

  20. Technology Options for a Fast Spectrum Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    D. M. Wachs; R. W. King; I. Y. Glagolenko; Y. Shatilla

    2006-06-01

    Idaho National Laboratory in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory has evaluated technology options for a new fast spectrum reactor to meet the fast-spectrum irradiation requirements for the USDOE Generation IV (Gen IV) and Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) programs. The US currently has no capability for irradiation testing of large volumes of fuels or materials in a fast-spectrum reactor required to support the development of Gen IV fast reactor systems or to demonstrate actinide burning, a key element of the AFCI program. The technologies evaluated and the process used to select options for a fast irradiation test reactor (FITR) for further evaluation to support these programmatic objectives are outlined in this paper.

  1. Space Storable Rocket Technology program (SSRT). Option 1 program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chazen, Melvin L.; Mueller, Thomas; Rust, Thomas

    1993-01-01

    The Space Storable Rocket Technology (SSRT) Option 1 Program was initiated in October 1991 after completion of the Basic Program. The program was restructured in mid-July 1992 to incorporate a Rhenium Technology Task and reduce the scope of the LO2-N2H4 engine development. The program was also extended to late February 1993 to allow for the Rhenium Technology Task completion. The Option 1 Program was devoted to evaluation of two new injector elements, evaluation of two different methods of thermal protection of the injector, evaluation of high temperature material properties of rhenium and evaluation of methods of joining the rhenium thrust chamber to the columbium injector and nozzle extension. In addition, critical experiments were conducted (Funded by Option 2) to evaluate mechanisms to understand the effects of GO2 injection into the chamber, helium injection into the main LO2, effect of the splash plate and effect of decreasing the aspect ratio of the 120-slot (-13a) element. The performance and thermal models were used to further correlate the test results with analyses. The results of the work accomplished are summarized.

  2. Space station needs, attributes and architectural options study. Volume 4: Architectural options, subsystems, technology and programmatics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Space station architectural options, habitability considerations and subsystem analyses, technology, and programmatics are reviewed. The methodology employed for conceiving and defining space station concepts is presented. As a result of this approach, architectures were conceived and along with their supporting rationale are described within this portion of the report. Habitability consideration and subsystem analyses describe the human factors associated with space station operations and includes subsections covering (1) data management, (2) communications and tracking, (3) environmental control and life support, (4) manipulator systems, (5) resupply, (6) pointing, (7) thermal management and (8) interface standardization. A consolidated matrix of subsystems technology issues as related to meeting the mission needs for a 1990's era space station is presented. Within the programmatics portion, a brief description of costing and program strategies is outlined.

  3. Power generation technology options for a Mars mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozek, John M.; Cataldo, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    The power requirements and resultant power system performances of an aggressive Mars mission are characterized. The power system technologies discussed will support both cargo and piloted space transport vehicles as well as a six-person crew on the Martian surface for 600 days. The mission uses materials transported by cargo vehicles and materials produced using in-situ planetary feed stock to establish a life-support cache and infrastructure for the follow-on piloted lander. Numerous power system technical options are sized to meet the mission power requirements using conventional and solar, nuclear, and wireless power transmission technologies for stationary, mobile surface, and space applications. Technology selections will depend on key criteria such as mass, volume, area, maturity, and application flexibility.

  4. New Technology and Lunar Power Option for Power Beaming Propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Kare, J; Early, J; Krupke, W; Beach, R

    2004-10-11

    Orbit raising missions (LEO to GEO or beyond) are the only missions with enough current traffic to be seriously considered for near-term power beaming propulsion. Even these missions cannot justify the development expenditures required to deploy the required new laser, optical and propulsion technologies or the programmatic risks. To be deployed, the laser and optics technologies must be spin-offs of other funded programs. The manned lunar base nighttime power requirements may justify a major power beaming program with 2MW lasers and large optical systems. New laser and optical technologies may now make this mission plausible. If deployed these systems could be diverted for power beaming propulsion applications. Propulsion options include a thermal system with an Isp near 1000 sec., a new optical coupled thermal system with an Isp over 2000 sec. photovoltaic-ion propulsion systems with an Isp near 3000 sec., and a possible new optical coupled thermal system with an Isp over 2000 sec.

  5. The option to abandon: stimulating innovative groundwater remediation technologies characterized by technological uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Compernolle, T; Van Passel, S; Huisman, K; Kort, P

    2014-10-15

    Many studies on technology adoption demonstrate that uncertainty leads to a postponement of investments by integrating a wait option in the economic analysis. The aim of this study however is to demonstrate how the investment in new technologies can be stimulated by integrating an option to abandon. Furthermore, this real option analysis not only considers the ex ante decision analysis of the investment in a new technology under uncertainty, but also allows for an ex post evaluation of the investment. Based on a case study regarding the adoption of an innovative groundwater remediation strategy, it is demonstrated that when the option to abandon the innovative technology is taken into account, the decision maker decides to invest in this technology, while at the same time it determines an optimal timing to abandon the technology if its operation proves to be inefficient. To reduce uncertainty about the effectiveness of groundwater remediation technologies, samples are taken. Our analysis shows that when the initial belief in an effective innovative technology is low, it is important that these samples provide correct information in order to justify the adoption of the innovative technology. PMID:25063916

  6. Wastewater and sludge control-technology options for synfuels industries

    SciTech Connect

    Castaldi, F.J.; Harrison, W.; Ford, D.L.

    1981-02-01

    The options examined were those of zero discharge, partial water reuse with restricted discharge of treated effluents, and unrestricted discharge of treated effluents. Analysis of cost data and performance-analyses data for several candidate secondary-wastewater-treatment unit processes indicated that combined activated-sludge/powdered-activated-carbon (AS/PAC) treatment incorporating wet-air-oxidation carbon regeneration is the most cost-effective control technology available for the removal of organic material from slagging, fixed-bed process wastewaters. Bench-scale treatability and organic-constituent removal studies conducted on process quench waters from a pilot-scale, slagging, fixed-bed gasifer using lignite as feedstock indicated that solvent extraction followed by AS/PAC treatment reduces levels of extractable and chromatographable organics to less than 1 ..mu..g/L in the final effluent. Levels of conventional pollutants also were effectively reduced by AS/PAC to the minimum water-quality standards for most receiving waters. The most favored and most cost-effective treatment option is unrestricted discharge of treated effluents with ultimate disposal of biosludges and landfilling of gasifier ash and slag. This option requires a capital expenditure of $8,260,000 and an annual net operating cost of $2,869,000 in 1978 dollars, exclusive of slag disposal. The net energy requirement of 19.6 x 10/sup 6/ kWh/year, or 15.3 kWh/1000 gal treated, is less than 6% of the equivalent energy demand associated with the zero-discharge option.

  7. Technology and application options for future battery power regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hurwitch, J.W.; Carpenter, C.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Traditionally, utilities have been interested in battery storage as an option to supply peak power through load leveling. Recently, other benefits of battery storage have been identified which potentially have equal or greater value to electric utilities. These benefits are power regulation functions including area regulation, area protection, spinning reserve, power factor correction, thermal unit minimum loading, and the ability to absorb qualifying facilities. Lead-acid batteries similar to those manufactured for automotive and industrial uses are currently being marketed for utility applications. Compared to the traditional fooded-cell battery that regulates routine watering and maintenance, valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries can meet many of the requirements or power regulation at significantly lower operating and maintenance costs. This paper presents an overview of future battery storage applications and technologies. Trends in the utility industry and the future role of battery storage will be addressed with an emphasis on power regulation options. Discussions on battery storage for specific power regulation applications are presented as well as the status of advanced battery development in Europe, Japan, and the United States.

  8. Determining health insurance coverage of technology: problems and options.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, B; Derzon, R A

    1981-10-01

    By deciding which medical procedures are eligible for reimbursement, health insurance programs possess the potential to affect significantly technology use and health care spending. Traditionally, insurers have adopted a passive stance and made relatively few negative coverage determinations. However, resistance to rapidly rising costs has created a powerful inducement for third-party payors to become more prudent purchasers of health care services. Consequently, both Medicare and Blue Cross--Blue Shield are considering the implementation of changes that may ultimately result in more restrictive coverage decisions. This article examines the coverage process of Medicare and Blue Cross--Blue Shield and the policy changes that both programs are considering. In addition, it discusses the strengths and drawbacks of four coverage policy options: restricting insurance coverage of unproven procedures, introducing cost-effectiveness criteria, educating physicians and educating consumers. PMID:6796788

  9. Options for gas-to-liquids technology in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, E.P.

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess the effect of applying new technology to the economics of a proposed natural gas-to-liquids (GTL) plant, to evaluate the potential of a slower-paced, staged deployment of GTL technology, and to evaluate the effect of GTL placement of economics. Five scenarios were economically evaluated and compared: a no-major-gas-sales scenario, a gas-pipeline/LNG scenario, a fast-paced GTL development scenario, a slow-paced GTL development scenario, and a scenario which places the GTL plant in lower Alaska, instead of on the North Slope. Evaluations were completed using an after-tax discounted cash flow analysis. Results indicate that the slow-paced GTL scenario is the only one with a rate of return greater than 10%. The slow-paced GTL development would allow cost saving on subsequent expansions. These assumed savings, along with the lowering of the transportation tariff, combine to distinguish this option for marketing the North Slope gas from the other scenarios. Critical variables that need further consideration include the GTL plant cost, the GTL product premium, and operating and maintenance costs.

  10. Options for Gas-to-Liquids Technology in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Eric Partridge

    1999-10-01

    The purposes of this work was to assess the effect of applying new technology to the economics of a proposed natural gas-to-liquids (GTL) plant, to evaluate the potential of a slower-paced, staged deployment of GTL technology, and to evaluate the effect of GTL placement of economics. Five scenarios were economically evaluated and compared: a no-major-gas-sales scenario, a gas-pipeline/LNG scenario, a fast-paced GTL development scenario, a slow-paced GTL development scenario, and a scenario which places the GTL plant in lower Alaska, instead of on the North Slope. Evaluations were completed using an after-tax discounted cash flow analysis. Results indicate that the slow-paced GTL scenario is the only one with a rate of return greater than 10 percent. The slow-paced GTL development would allow cost saving on subsequent expansions. These assumed savings, along with the lowering of the transportation tariff, combine to distinquish this option for marketing the North Slope gas from the other scenarios. Critical variables that need further consideration include the GTL plant cost, the GTL product premium, and operating and maintenance costs.

  11. Near Earth Object (NEO) Mitigation Options Using Exploration Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold William; Baysinger, Mike; Crane, Tracie; Capizzo, Pete; Sutherlin, Steven; Dankanich, John; Woodcock, Gordon; Edlin, George; Rushing, Johnny; Fabisinski, Leo; Jones, David; McKamey, Steve; Thomas, Scott; Maccone, Claudio; Matloff, Greg; Remo, John

    2007-01-01

    This work documents the advancements in MSFC threat modeling and mitigation technology research completed since our last major publication in this field. Most of the work enclosed here are refinements of our work documented in NASA TP-2004-213089. Very long development times from start of funding (10-20 years) can be expected for any mitigation system which suggests that delaying consideration of mitigation technologies could leave the Earth in an unprotected state for a significant period of time. Fortunately there is the potential for strong synergy between architecture requirements for some threat mitigators and crewed deep space exploration. Thus planetary defense has the potential to be integrated into the current U.S. space exploration effort. The number of possible options available for protection against the NEO threat was too numerous for them to all be addressed within the study; instead, a representative selection were modeled and evaluated. A summary of the major lessons learned during this study is presented, as are recommendations for future work.

  12. Geothermal Produced Fluids: Characteristics, Treatment Technologies, and Management Options

    SciTech Connect

    Finster, Molly; Clark, Corrie; Schroeder, Jenna; Martino, Louis

    2015-10-01

    Geothermal power plants use geothermal fluids as a resource and create waste residuals as part of the power generation process. Both the geofluid resource and the waste stream are considered produced fluids. The chemical and physical nature of produced fluids can have a major impact on the geothermal power industry and can influence the feasibility of geothermal power development, exploration approaches, power plant design, operating practices, and the reuse or disposal of residuals. In general, produced fluids include anything that comes out of a geothermal field and that subsequently must be managed on the surface. These fluids vary greatly depending on the geothermal reservoir being harnessed, power plant design, and the life cycle stage in which the fluid exists, but generally include water and fluids used to drill geothermal wells, fluids used to stimulate wells in enhanced geothermal systems, and makeup and/or cooling water used during operation of a geothermal power plant. Additional geothermal-related produced fluids include many substances that are similar to waste streams from the oil and gas industry, such as scale, flash tank solids, precipitated solids from brine treatment, hydrogen sulfide, and cooling-tower-related waste. This review paper aims to provide baseline knowledge on specific technologies and technology areas associated with geothermal power production. Specifically, this research focused on the management techniques related to fluids produced and used during the operational stage of a geothermal power plant; the vast majority of which are employed in the generation of electricity. The general characteristics of produced fluids are discussed. Constituents of interest that tend to drive the selection of treatment technologies are described, including total dissolved solids, noncondensable gases, scale and corrosion, silicon dioxide, metal sulfides, calcium carbonate, corrosion, metals, and naturally occurring radioactive material. Management

  13. Fuel cell adventures. Dynamics of a technological community in a quasi-market of technological options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeffer, G. J.; Uyterlinde, M. A.

    In this paper some insights from a social science perspective in the dynamics of the fuel cell community will be provided. An important concept used in the analysis is that of a `quasi'-market of technological options. The strategic choices of actors for certain technological options can be regarded as analogous to choices of consumers made on a market. A scientometric research approach has been used to investigate the aggregate effects of this and other variations of strategic behaviour. These concepts and analyses are shown to be helpful in answering questions such as why fuel cells are so popular today whereas they have not always been, and why preferences for different types of fuel cells shift over time. At the end of the paper the relevance of these kind of analyses for technology forecasting and management practices is briefly discussed.

  14. Cloud Computing: A Free Technology Option to Promote Collaborative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegle, Del

    2010-01-01

    In a time of budget cuts and limited funding, purchasing and installing the latest software on classroom computers can be prohibitive for schools. Many educators are unaware that a variety of free software options exist, and some of them do not actually require installing software on the user's computer. One such option is cloud computing. This…

  15. The Right Tools for the Job--Technology Options for Adult Online Learning and Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Educational Laboratory, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Many options exist for using technology as a tool for adult learning, and each day, it becomes easier to share information online than it ever has been. Online learning technology has grown from one-sided communications to numerous options for audience engagement and interactivity. This guide introduces a variety of tools, online platforms, and…

  16. Thermal management technology for hydrogen storage: Fullerene option

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.C.; Chen, F.C.; Murphy, R.W.

    1996-10-01

    Fullerenes are selected as the first option for investigating advanced thermal management technologies for hydrogen storage because of their potentially high volumetric and gravimetric densities. Experimental results indicate that about 6 wt% of hydrogen (corresponding to C{sub 60}H{sub 48}) can be added to and taken out of fullerenes. A model assuming thermally activated hydrogenation and dehydrogenation processes was developed to explain the experimental findings. The activation energies were estimated to be 100 and 160 kJ/mole (1.0 and 1.6 eV/H{sub 2}) for the hydrogenation and dehydrogenation processes, respectively. The difference is interpreted as the heat released during hydrogenation. There are indications that the activation energies and the heat of hydrogenation can be modified by the use of catalysts. Preliminary hydrogen storage simulations for a conceptually simple device were performed. A 1-m long hollow metal cylinder with an inner diameter of 0.02 m was assumed to be filled with fullerene powders. The results indicate that the thermal diffusivity of the fullerenes controls the hydrogenation and dehydrogenation rates. The rates can be significantly modified by changing the thermal diffusivity of the material inside the cylinder, e.g., by incorporating a metal mesh. Results from the simulation suggest that thermal management is essential for efficient hydrogen storage devices using fullerenes. While the preliminary models developed in this study explain some of the observation, more controlled experiments, rigorous model development, and physical property determinations are needed for the development of practical hydrogen storage devices. The use of catalysts to optimize the hydrogen storage characteristics of fullerenes also needs to be pursued. Future cooperative work between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Material & Electrochemical Research Corporation (MER) is planned to address these needs.

  17. Variable speed generator technology options for wind turbine generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipo, T. A.

    1995-01-01

    The electrical system options for variable speed operation of a wind turbine generator are treated in this paper. The key operating characteristics of each system are discussed and the major advantages and disadvantages of each are identified

  18. Planning for airport access: An analysis of the San Francisco Bay area. Technological options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Current transportation technology and expected technological trends are reviewed. These technologies are assessed within the framework of the airport access system in the San Francisco Bay area. Four types of technological options are considered: (1) automotive systems, (2) commuter air systems, (3) automated guideways, and (4) water systems.

  19. Space station data system analysis/architecture study. Task 2: Options development DR-5. Volume 1: Technology options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The second task in the Space Station Data System (SSDS) Analysis/Architecture Study is the development of an information base that will support the conduct of trade studies and provide sufficient data to make key design/programmatic decisions. This volume identifies the preferred options in the technology category and characterizes these options with respect to performance attributes, constraints, cost, and risk. The technology category includes advanced materials, processes, and techniques that can be used to enhance the implementation of SSDS design structures. The specific areas discussed are mass storage, including space and round on-line storage and off-line storage; man/machine interface; data processing hardware, including flight computers and advanced/fault tolerant computer architectures; and software, including data compression algorithms, on-board high level languages, and software tools. Also discussed are artificial intelligence applications and hard-wire communications.

  20. Space station needs, attributes, and architectural options: Technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robert, A. C.

    1983-01-01

    The technology development of the space station is examined as it relates to space station growth and equipment requirements for future missions. Future mission topics are refined and used to establish a systems data base. Technology for human factors engineering, space maintenance, satellite design, and laser communications and tracking is discussed.

  1. Educational Bridges to Options in High Technology Employment. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego State Univ., CA.

    There are numerous examples of highly trained, capable individuals that face layoffs because of technological or economic changes that have eliminated the need for their services. This project was designed to provide a one-step opportunity for people such as these to identify opportunities in emerging technologies, to plan a retraining program, to…

  2. Small Technology--Big Impact. Practical Options for Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Technology has dramatically changed the world--now almost anyone can "move" at Internet-speed; people who were marginalized are able to find information on acquiring micro-loans to start businesses, and villages previously unconnected to the telecommunications grid now have affordable cell phone access. As technology becomes easier to use, more…

  3. Advanced-to-Revolutionary Space Technology Options - The Responsibly Imaginable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2013-01-01

    Paper summarizes a spectrum of low TRL, high risk technologies and systems approaches which could massively change the cost and safety of space exploration/exploitation/industrialization. These technologies and approaches could be studied in a triage fashion, the method of evaluation wherein several prospective solutions are investigated in parallel to address the innate risk of each, with resources concentrated on the more successful as more is learned. Technology areas addressed include Fabrication, Materials, Energetics, Communications, Propulsion, Radiation Protection, ISRU and LEO access. Overall and conceptually it should be possible with serious research to enable human space exploration beyond LEO both safe and affordable with a design process having sizable positive margins. Revolutionary goals require, generally, revolutionary technologies. By far, Revolutionary Energetics is the most important, has the most leverage, of any advanced technology for space exploration applications.

  4. Near Earth Object (NEO) Mitigation Options Using Exploration Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Robert B.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation considers the use of new launch vehicles in defense against near-Earth objects, building upon expertise in launch vehicle and spacecraft design, astronomy and planetary science and missile defense. This work also seeks to demonstrate the synergy needed between architectures for human/robotic exploration initiatives and planetary defense. Three different mitigation operations were baselined for this study--nuclear standoff explosion, kinetic interceptor, and solar collector--however, these are not the only viable options. The design and predicted performance of each of these methods is discussed and compared. It is determined that the nuclear interceptor option can deflect NEOs of smaller size (100-500 m) with 2 years or more time before impact, and larger NEOs with 5 or more years warning; kinetic interceptors may be effective for deflection of asteroids up to 300-400 m but require 8-10 years warning time; and, solar collectors may be able to deflect NEOs up to 1 km if issues pertaining to long operation can be overcome. Ares I and Ares V vehicles show sufficient performance to enable the development of a near-term categorization and mitigation architecture.

  5. Natural Gas Based Electricity Production and Low Carbon Technology Options

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concerns regarding air quality, global climate change, and the national energy security impacts of the intensive use of fossil fuels and their environmental impacts in the power generation sector have raised interest in alternative low carbon electricity generation technology and...

  6. Today's CAD/CAM: flexible digital technologies expanding workflow options.

    PubMed

    Ferencz, Jonathan L

    2015-03-01

    CAD/CAM and digital scanning technologies have become essential components of dentistry. Digital impression scanning, restoration design, and manufacturing techniques yield greater treatment predictability, high-level esthetics, and functional accuracy using a variety of materials. PMID:25822749

  7. National Security and Information Technology: The New Regulatory Option?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Manley R.

    1987-01-01

    Summarizes recent developments in information technology research and development, telecommunication services, telephone manufacturing, telecommunication networks, information processing, and U.S. import/export policy. It is concluded that government regulation as a policy strategy depends on how one defines national security. (Author/CLB)

  8. OPTIONS for systemic change in mathematics, science, and technology education: Scientist/teacher partnerships

    SciTech Connect

    Glantz, C.S.; Fayette, L.

    1994-01-01

    Options is a US Department of Energy/Pacific Northwest Laboratory (DOE/PNL) project whose goal is to assist Washington and Oregon middle schools having high percentages of students historically underrepresented in mathematics, science, and technology. The goal is to ensure that all students receive high-quality mathematics, science, and technology education throughout their middle school years. Teams of scientists work with teams of teachers from participating OPTIONS schools to initiate significant change in the manner in which science, mathematics, and technology are taught. As part of this effort, PNL scientists team up with teachers to develop curricula.

  9. Solar Power System Options for the Radiation and Technology Demonstration Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Haraburda, Francis M.; Riehl, John P.

    2000-01-01

    The Radiation and Technology Demonstration (RTD) Mission has the primary objective of demonstrating high-power (10 kilowatts) electric thruster technologies in Earth orbit. This paper discusses the conceptual design of the RTD spacecraft photovoltaic (PV) power system and mission performance analyses. These power system studies assessed multiple options for PV arrays, battery technologies and bus voltage levels. To quantify performance attributes of these power system options, a dedicated Fortran code was developed to predict power system performance and estimate system mass. The low-thrust mission trajectory was analyzed and important Earth orbital environments were modeled. Baseline power system design options are recommended on the basis of performance, mass and risk/complexity. Important findings from parametric studies are discussed and the resulting impacts to the spacecraft design and cost.

  10. Noise abatement technology options for conventional turboprop airplanes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway, W.J.; Wilby, J.F.

    1981-06-01

    The practical application of noise control technology to new and derivative conventional turboprop airplanes likely to come into service in the 1980's has been analyzed with a view to determining noise control cost/benefits. The analysis identifies feasible noise control methods, applies them to four study airplanes, and presents the noise reductions in terms of the equivalent perceived noise level at takeoff, sideline and approach locations, and the effect on the area within selected EPNL contours. Noise reductions of up to 8.3 dB for takeoff and 10.7 dB for approach are calculated for the study airplanes but, for most cases, the changes are less than 5 dB. Weight and cost increases associated with the noise control treatments are determined under the assumption there they are no changes to airplane performance or fuel consumption.

  11. Advanced technology options for industrial heating equipment research

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, R.C.

    1992-10-01

    This document presents a strategy for a comprehensive program plan that is applicable to the Combustion Equipment Program of the DOE Office of Industrial Technologies (the program). The program seeks to develop improved heating equipment and advanced control techniques which, by improvements in combustion and beat transfer, will increase energy-use efficiency and productivity in industrial processes and allow the preferred use of abundant, low grade and waste domestic fuels. While the plan development strategy endeavors to be consistent with the programmatic goals and policies of the office, it is primarily governed by the needs and concerns of the US heating equipment industry. The program, by nature, focuses on energy intensive industrial processes. According to the DOE Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), the industrial sector in the US consumed about 21 quads of energy in 1988 in the form of coal, petroleum, natural gas and electricity. This energy was used as fuels for industrial boilers and furnaces, for agricultural uses, for construction, as feedstocks for chemicals and plastics, and for steel, mining, motors, engines and other industrial use over 75 percent of this energy was consumed to provide heat and power for manufacturing industries. The largest consumers of fuel energy were the primary metals, chemical and allied products, paper and allied products, and stone, clay and glass industry groups which accounted for about 60% of the total fuel energy consumed by the US manufacturing sector.

  12. Technological options for management of hazardous wastes from US Department of Energy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, S.; Newsom, D.; Barisas, S.; Humphrey, J.; Fradkin, L.; Surles, T.

    1982-08-01

    This report provides comprehensive information on the technological options for management of hazardous wastes generated at facilities owned or operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE). These facilities annually generate a large quantity of wastes that could be deemed hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Included in these wastes are liquids or solids containing polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, heavy metals, waste oils, spent solvents, acids, bases, carcinogens, and numerous other pollutants. Some of these wastes consist of nonnuclear hazardous chemicals; others are mixed wastes containing radioactive materials and hazardous chemicals. Nearly 20 unit processes and disposal methods are presented in this report. They were selected on the basis of their proven utility in waste management and potential applicability at DOE sites. These technological options fall into five categories: physical processes, chemical processes, waste exchange, fixation, and ultimate disposal. The options can be employed for either resource recovery, waste detoxification, volume reduction, or perpetual storage. Detailed descriptions of each technological option are presented, including information on process performance, cost, energy and environmental considerations, waste management of applications, and potential applications at DOE sites. 131 references, 25 figures, 23 tables.

  13. A quadranomial real options model for evaluation of emissions trading and technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkis, Joseph; Tamarkin, Maurry

    2005-11-01

    Green house gas (GHG) emissions have been tied to global climate change. One popular policy instrument that seems to have gained credibility with explicit mention of its application in the Kyoto Protocol is the use of permit trading and cap-and-trade mechanisms. Organizations functioning within this environment will need to manage their resources appropriately to remain competitive. Organizations will either have the opportunity to purchase emissions credits (offsets) from a market trading scheme or seek to reduce their emissions through different measures. Some measures may include investment in new technologies that will reduce their reliance on GHG emitting practices. In many countries, large organizations and institutions generate their own power to operate their facilities. Much of this power is generated (or bought) from GHG producing technology. Specific renewable energy sources such as wind and solar photovoltaic technology may become more feasible alternatives available to a large percentage of these organizations if they are able to take advantage and incorporate the market for GHG emissions trading in their analyses. To help organizations evaluate investment in these renewable energy technologies we introduce a real options based model that will take into consideration uncertainties associated with the technology and those associated with the GHG trading market. The real options analysis will consider both the stochastic (uncertainty) nature of the exercise price of the technology and the stochastic nature of the market trading price of the GHG emissions.

  14. Development of a biophotonics option within a photonics technology degree program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gellman, Joel; Vasan, Srini; Hall, Robert; Goodwin, Don; Matthews, Dennis; Molinaro, Marco; Shackelford, James F.

    2005-10-01

    Albuquerque Technical Vocational Institute (TVI) has developed a collaboration with the National Science Foundation (NSF) Center for Biophotonics Science and Technology (CBST) headquartered at the University of California, Davis in order to develop a transportable biophotonics curriculum for community colleges. A "Biophotonics Option" has been developed within the well-established Photonics Technology Degree program at TVI, centered on two elective courses ("Introduction to Biophotonics" and "Biophotonics Applications"). In addition, TVI is a part of the "Albuquerque Model" that involves exposure to photonics education from the middle school level through graduate education at the University of New Mexico.

  15. Arms Control and nonproliferation technologies: Technology options and associated measures for monitoring a Comprehensive Test Ban, Second quarter

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Leslie A.

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter contains reprinted papers discussing technology options and associated measures for monitoring a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). These papers were presented to the Conference on Disarmament (CD) in May and June 1994. An interagency Verification Monitoring Task Force developed the papers. The task force included participants from the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, the Intelligence Community, the Department of Interior, and the Department of State. The purpose of this edition of Arms Control and Nonproliferation Technologies is to share these papers with the broad base of stakeholders in a CTBT and to facilitate future technology discussions. The papers in the first group discuss possible technology options for monitoring a CTBT in all environments (underground, underwater, atmosphere, and space). These technologies, along with on-site inspections, would facilitate CTBT monitoring by treaty participants. The papers in the second group present possible associated measures, e.g., information exchanges and transparency measures, that would build confidence among states participating in a CTBT.

  16. Controlling air pollution from passenger ferries: cost-effectiveness of seven technological options.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Alexander E; Corbett, James J; Winebrake, James J

    2002-12-01

    Continued interest in improving air quality in the United States along with renewed interest in the expansion of urban passenger ferry service has created concern about air pollution from ferry vessels. This paper presents a methodology for estimating the air pollution emissions from passenger ferries and the costs of emissions control strategies. The methodology is used to estimate the emissions and costs of retrofitting or re-powering ferries with seven technological options (combinations of propulsion and emission control systems) onto three vessels currently in service in San Francisco Bay. The technologies include improved engine design, cleaner fuels (including natural gas), and exhaust gas cleanup devices. The three vessels span a range of ages and technologies, from a 25-year-old monohull to a modern, high-speed catamaran built only four years ago. By looking at a range of technologies, vessel designs, and service conditions, a sense of the broader implications of controlling emissions from passenger ferries across a range of vessels and service profiles is provided. Tier 2-certified engines are the most cost-effective choice, but all options are cost-effective relative to other emission control strategies already in place in the transportation system. PMID:12540045

  17. A Titan exploration study: Science, technology and mission planning options, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tindle, E. L.; Manning, L. A.; Sadin, S. R.; Edsinger, L. E.; Weissman, P. R.; Swenson, B. L.

    1976-01-01

    Mission concepts and technology advancements that can be used in the exploration of the outer planet satellites were examined. Titan, the seventh satellite of Saturn was selected as the target of interest. Science objectives for Titan exploration were identified, and recommended science payloads for four basic mission modes were developed (orbiter, atmospheric probe, surface penetrator and lander). Trial spacecraft and mission designs were produced for the various mission modes. Using these trial designs as a base, technology excursions were then made to find solutions to the problems resulting from these conventional approaches and to uncover new science, technology and mission planning options. Several mission modes were developed that take advantage of the unique conditions expected at Titan. They include a combined orbiter, atmosphere probe and lander vehicle, a combined probe and surface penetrator configuration and concepts for advanced remote sensing orbiters.

  18. Biofuels Fuels Technology Pathway Options for Advanced Drop-in Biofuels Production

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin L Kenney

    2011-09-01

    Advanced drop-in hydrocarbon biofuels require biofuel alternatives for refinery products other than gasoline. Candidate biofuels must have performance characteristics equivalent to conventional petroleum-based fuels. The technology pathways for biofuel alternatives also must be plausible, sustainable (e.g., positive energy balance, environmentally benign, etc.), and demonstrate a reasonable pathway to economic viability and end-user affordability. Viable biofuels technology pathways must address feedstock production and environmental issues through to the fuel or chemical end products. Potential end products include compatible replacement fuel products (e.g., gasoline, diesel, and JP8 and JP5 jet fuel) and other petroleum products or chemicals typically produced from a barrel of crude. Considering the complexity and technology diversity of a complete biofuels supply chain, no single entity or technology provider is capable of addressing in depth all aspects of any given pathway; however, all the necessary expert entities exist. As such, we propose the assembly of a team capable of conducting an in-depth technology pathway options analysis (including sustainability indicators and complete LCA) to identify and define the domestic biofuel pathways for a Green Fleet. This team is not only capable of conducting in-depth analyses on technology pathways, but collectively they are able to trouble shoot and/or engineer solutions that would give industrial technology providers the highest potential for success. Such a team would provide the greatest possible down-side protection for high-risk advanced drop-in biofuels procurement(s).

  19. An Alternative Option to Dedicated Braille Notetakers for People with Visual Impairments: Universal Technology for Better Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Sunggye

    2012-01-01

    Technology provides equal access to information and helps people with visual impairments to complete tasks more independently. Among various assistive technology options for people with visual impairments, braille notetakers have been considered the most significant because of their technological innovation. Braille notetakers allow users who are…

  20. Proceedings of the 1999 Oil and Gas Conference: Technology Options for Producer Survival

    SciTech Connect

    None available

    2000-04-12

    The 1999 Oil & Gas Conference was cosponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) and National Petroleum Technology Office (NPTO) on June 28 to 30 in Dallas, Texas. The Oil & Gas Conference theme, Technology Options for Producer Survival, reflects the need for development and implementation of new technologies to ensure an affordable, reliable energy future. The conference was attended by nearly 250 representatives from industry, academia, national laboratories, DOE, and other Government agencies. Three preconference workshops (Downhole Separation Technologies: Is it Applicable for Your Operations, Exploring and developing Naturally Fractured Low-Permeability Gas Reservoirs from the Rocky Mountains to the Austin Chalk, and Software Program Applications) were held. The conference agenda included an opening plenary session, three platform sessions (Sessions 2 and 3 were split into 2 concurrent topics), and a poster presentation reception. The platform session topics were Converting Your Resources Into Reserves (Sessions 1 and 2A), Clarifying Your Subsurface Vision (Session 2B), and High Performance, Cost Effective Drilling, Completion, Stimulation Technologies (Session 3B). In total, there were 5 opening speakers, 30 presenters, and 16 poster presentations.

  1. Mission Architecture and Technology Options for a Flagship Class Venus In Situ Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balint, Tibor S.; Kwok, Johnny H.; Kolawa, Elizabeth A.; Cutts, James A.; Senske, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Venus, as part of the inner triad with Earth and Mars, represents an important exploration target if we want to learn more about solar system formation and evolution. Comparative planetology could also elucidate the differences between the past, present, and future of these three planets, and can help with the characterization of potential habitable zones in our solar system and, by extension, extrasolar systems. A long lived in situ Venus mission concept, called the Venus Mobile Explorer, was prominently featured in NASA's 2006 SSE Roadmap and supported in the community White Paper by the Venus Exploration Analysis Group (VEXAG). Long-lived in situ missions are expected to belong to the largest (Flagship) mission class, which would require both enabling and enhancing technologies beside mission architecture options. Furthermore, extreme environment mitigation technologies for Venus are considered long lead development items and are expected to require technology development through a dedicated program. To better understand programmatic and technology needs and the motivating science behind them, in this fiscal year (FY08) NASA is funding a Venus Flaghip class mission study, based on key science and technology drivers identified by a NASA appointed Venus Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT). These mission drivers are then assembled around a suitable mission architecture to further refine technology and cost elements. In this paper we will discuss the connection between the final mission architecture and the connected technology drivers from this NASA funded study, which - if funded - could enable a future Flagship class Venus mission and potentially drive a proposed Venus technology development program.

  2. Power System Options Evaluated for the Radiation and Technology Demonstration Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Benson, Scott W.

    2000-01-01

    The Radiation and Technology Demonstration (RTD) Mission is under joint study by three NASA Centers: the NASA Johnson Space Center, the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, and the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. This Earth-orbiting mission, which may launch on a space shuttle in the first half of the next decade, has the primary objective of demonstrating high-power electric thruster technologies. Secondary objectives include better characterization of Earth's Van Allen trapped-radiation belts, measurement of the effectiveness of the radiation shielding for human protection, measurement of radiation effects on advanced solar cells, and demonstration of radiation-tolerant microelectronics. During the mission, which may continue up to 1 year, the 2000-kg RTD spacecraft will first spiral outward from the shuttle-deployed, medium-inclination, low Earth orbit. By the phased operation of a 10-kW Hall thruster and a 10-kW Variable Specific Impulse Magneto-Plasma Rocket, the RTD spacecraft will reach a low-inclination Earth orbit with a radius greater than five Earth radii. This will be followed by an inward spiraling orbit phase when the spacecraft deploys 8 to 12 microsatellites to map the Van Allen belts. The mission will conclude in low Earth orbit with the possible retrieval of the spacecraft by the space shuttle. A conceptual RTD spacecraft design showing two photovoltaic (PV) array wings, the Hall thruster with propellant tanks, and stowed microsatellites is presented. Early power system studies assessed five different PV array design options coupled with a 120-Vdc power management and distribution system (PMAD) and secondary lithium battery energy storage. Array options include (1) state-of-the-art 10-percent efficient three-junction amorphous SiGe thin-film cells on thin polymer panels deployed with an inflatable (or articulated) truss, (2) SCARLET array panels, (3) commercial state-of-the-art, planar PV array rigid panels with 25-percent efficient, three

  3. MisTec - A software application for supporting space exploration scenario options and technology development analysis and planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horsham, Gary A. P.

    1992-01-01

    This structure and composition of a new, emerging software application, which models and analyzes space exploration scenario options for feasibility based on technology development projections is presented. The software application consists of four main components: a scenario generator for designing and inputting scenario options and constraints; a processor which performs algorithmic coupling and options analyses of mission activity requirements and technology capabilities; a results display which graphically and textually shows coupling and options analysis results; and a data/knowledge base which contains information on a variety of mission activities and (power and propulsion) technology system capabilities. The general long-range study process used by NASA to support recent studies is briefly introduced to provide the primary basis for comparison for discussing the potential advantages to be gained from developing and applying this kind of application. A hypothetical example of a scenario option to facilitate the best conceptual understanding of what the application is, how it works, or the operating methodology, and when it might be applied is presented.

  4. MisTec: A software application for supporting space exploration scenario options and technology development analysis and planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horsham, Gary A. P.

    1991-01-01

    The structure and composition of a new, emerging software application, which models and analyzes space exploration scenario options for feasibility based on technology development projections is presented. The software application consists of four main components: a scenario generator for designing and inputting scenario options and constraints; a processor which performs algorithmic coupling and options analyses of mission activity requirements and technology capabilities; a results display which graphically and textually shows coupling and options analysis results; and a data/knowledge base which contains information on a variety of mission activities and (power and propulsion) technology system capabilities. The general long-range study process used by NASA to support recent studies is briefly introduced to provide the primary basis for comparison for discussing the potential advantages to be gained from developing and applying this king of application. A hypothetical example of a scenario option to facilitate the best conceptual understanding of what the application is, how it works, or the operating methodology, and when it might be applied is presented.

  5. Enhancing Visualization Skills-Improving Options and Success (EnViSIONS) of Engineering and Technology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veurink, N. L.; Hamlin, A. J.; Kampe; J. C. M.; Sorby, S. A.; Blasko, D. G.; Holliday-Darr, K. A.; Kremer, J. D. Trich; Harris, L. V. Abe; Connolly, P. E.; Sadowski, M. A.; Harris, K. S.; Brus, C. P.; Boyle, L. N.; Study, N. E.; Knott, T. W.

    2009-01-01

    Spatial visualization skills are vital to many careers and in particular to STEM fields. Materials have been developed at Michigan Technological University and Penn State Erie, The Behrend College to assess and develop spatial skills. The EnViSIONS (Enhancing Visualization Skills-Improving Options aNd Success) project is combining these materials…

  6. Analysis of Technology Options to Reduce the Fuel Consumption of Idling Trucks

    SciTech Connect

    F. Stodolsky; L. Gaines; A. Vyas

    2000-06-01

    Long-haul trucks idling overnight consume more than 838 million gallons (20 million barrels) of fuel annually. Idling also emits pollutants. Truck drivers idle their engines primarily to (1) heat or cool the cab and/or sleeper, (2) keep the fuel warm in winter, and (3) keep the engine warm in the winter so that the engine is easier to start. Alternatives to overnight idling could save much of this fuel, reduce emissions, and cut operating costs. Several fuel-efficient alternatives to idling are available to provide heating and cooling: (1) direct-fired heater for cab/sleeper heating, with or without storage cooling; (2) auxiliary power units; and (3) truck stop electrification. Many of these technologies have drawbacks that limit market acceptance. Options that supply electricity are economically viable for trucks that are idled for 1,000-3,000 or more hours a year, while heater units could be used across the board. Payback times for fleets, which would receive quantity discounts on the prices, would be somewhat shorter.

  7. Greenhouse gas emission impacts of alternative-fueled vehicles: Near-term vs. long-term technology options

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.Q.

    1997-05-20

    Alternative-fueled vehicle technologies have been promoted and used for reducing petroleum use, urban air pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, greenhouse gas emission impacts of near-term and long-term light-duty alternative-fueled vehicle technologies are evaluated. Near-term technologies, available now, include vehicles fueled with M85 (85% methanol and 15% gasoline by volume), E85 (85% ethanol that is produced from corn and 15% gasoline by volume), compressed natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas. Long-term technologies, assumed to be available around the year 2010, include battery-powered electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, vehicles fueled with E85 (ethanol produced from biomass), and fuel-cell vehicles fueled with hydrogen or methanol. The near-term technologies are found to have small to moderate effects on vehicle greenhouse gas emissions. On the other hand, the long-term technologies, especially those using renewable energy (such as biomass and solar energy), have great potential for reducing vehicle greenhouse gas emissions. In order to realize this greenhouse gas emission reduction potential, R and D efforts must continue on the long-term technology options so that they can compete successfully with conventional vehicle technology.

  8. MULTIPOLLUTANT EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY OPTIONS FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents and analyzes various existing and novel control technologies designed to achieve multipollutant [sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxide (NOX), and mercury (Hg)] emission reductions. Summary descriptions are included of 23 multipollutant control technologies that...

  9. Identification of technology options for reducing nitrogen pollution in cropping systems of Pujiang*

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Bin; Wang, Guang-huo; Van den berg, Marrit; Roetter, Reimund

    2005-01-01

    This work analyses the potential role of nitrogen pollution technology of crop systems of Pujiang, County in Eastern China’s Zhejiang Province, rice and vegetables are important cropping systems. We used a case study approach involving comparison of farmer practices and improved technologies. This approach allows assessing the impact of technology on pollution, is forward looking, and can yield information on the potential of on-the-shelf technology and provide opportunities for technology development. The approach particularly suits newly developed rice technologies with large potential of reducing nitrogen pollution and for future rice and vegetables technologies. The results showed that substantial reductions in nitrogen pollution are feasible for both types of crops. PMID:16187411

  10. Technologies and options for UST corrective actions: Overview of current practice

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    A number of ex-situ and in-situ technologies are currently being used across the U.S. to treat petroleum contaminated media and debris generated at leaking underground storage tank (UST) corrective action sites. The objectives of this study are: to examine the current level of use of corrective action treatment technologies at leaking underground storage tank sites; to summarize experience with these technologies as documented in the literature in terms of treatment efficiency, relationship of performance to key operating parameters, and costs; and to summarize current state requirements that may affect the selection of technologies.

  11. Storage Technology: A Review of Options and Their Implications for Electronic Publishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Stephen E.

    1991-01-01

    Describes computer storage devices and suggests implications for electronic publishing. Highlights include magnetic storage media, including digital audio tape (DAT); high-capacity magnetic drives; optical storage technologies, including CD-ROM and WORM; magneto-optical drives; and a sidebar that discusses other storage technologies. (21…

  12. Factors Underlying Persistent Gendered Option Choices in School Science and Technology in Scotland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roger, Angela; Duffield, Jill

    2000-01-01

    Examines the persistence of girls' opting out of science and technology in Scotland, reviewing literature on influences that affect girls' choices. Analyzes initiatives to encourage females into science, engineering, and technology courses and careers, illuminating various school initiatives and estimating the likelihood of their success in…

  13. Information Technology Training within Traineeships: Options for TAFE-Based Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, W.; And Others

    A study explored ways in which traineeship courses could be designed to include training in information technology. The skills and performance standards required of information technology training in the printing, tourism, banking, construction, and computer industries were identified. Next, the current provision of such training in Australia and…

  14. Information Technology for Economic and Social Benefit--Options for Bangladesh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhuiyan, Farhad Ali

    2002-01-01

    Considers how information technology (IT) can help socioeconomic growth of developing countries based on experiences in Bangladesh. Topics include Bangladesh's development plans; future economic growth trends triggered by IT; emerging technologies; intellectual and societal development; industrial revolutions; telematics; regional and world…

  15. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems technology options for Space Station application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.; Ferebee, M. J., Jr.; Sage, K. H.

    1985-01-01

    Continuous assessments regarding the suitability of candidate technologies for manned Space Stations will be needed over the next several years to obtain a basis for recommending the optimum system for an Initial Operating Capability (IOC) Space Station which is to be launched in the early 1990's. This paper has the objective to present analysis programs, the candidate recommendations, and the recommended approach for integration these candidates into the NASA Space Station reference configuration. Attention is given to ECLSS (Environmental Control and Life Support System) technology assessment program, an analysis approach for candidate technology recommendations, mission model variables, a candidate integration program, metabolic oxygen recovery, urine/flush water and all waste water recovery, wash water and condensate water recovery, and an integration analysis.

  16. Options in Education. Technology in College, Parts One and Two, Program Nos. 244-245.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. Inst. for Educational Leadership.

    Scripts of public radio programs on the subject of technology in college are presented. The scripts are as follows: "Dental Videotape;""A Geography Student Talks About Learning by Computers;""Linda Harris Talks About Fear of Computers;""Charles Van Loan, Who Teaches Computer Science at Cornell University;""Students Who Learn Through…

  17. A deep space power system option based on synergistic power conversion technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    2000-01-01

    Deep space science missions have typically used radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) power systems. The RTG power system has proven itself to be a rugged and highly reliable power system over many missions, however, the thermal-to-electric conversion technology used was approximately 5% efficient. While the relatively low efficiency has some benefits in terms of system integration, there are compelling reasons why a more efficient conversion system should be pursued. The cost savings alone that are available as a result of the reduced isotope inventory are significant. The Advanced Radioisotope Power System (ARPS) project was established to fulfill this goal. Although it was not part of the ARPS project, Stirling conversion technology was being demonstrated with a low level of funding by both NASA and DOE. A power system with Stirling convertors, although intended for use with an isotope heat source, can be combined with other advanced technologies to provide a novel power system for deep space missions. An inflatable primary concentrator would be used in combination with a refractive secondary concentrator (RSC) as the heat source to power the system. The inflatable technology as a structure has made great progress for a variety of potential applications such as communications reflectors, radiators and solar arrays. The RSC has been pursued for use in solar thermal propulsion applications, and it's unique properties allow some advantageous system trades to be made. The power system proposed would completely eliminate the isotope heat source and could potentially provide power for science missions to planets as distant as Uranus. This paper will present the background and developmental status of the technologies and will then describe the power system being proposed. .

  18. A Deep Space Power System Option Based on Synergistic Power Conversion Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    2000-01-01

    Deep space science missions have typically used radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) power systems. The RTG power system has proven itself to be a rugged and highly reliable power system over many missions, however the thermal-to-electric conversion technology used was approximately 5% efficient. While the relatively low efficiency has some benefits in terms of system integration, there are compelling reasons why a more efficient conversion system should be pursued. The cost savings alone that are available as a result of the reduced isotope inventory are significant. The Advanced Radioisotope Power System (ARPS) project was established to fulfill this goal. Although it was not part of the ARPS project, Stirling conversion technology is being demonstrated with a low level of funding by both NASA and DOE. A power system with Stirling convertors. although intended for use with an isotope heat source. can be combined with other advanced technologies to provide a novel power system for deep space missions. An inflatable primary concentrator would be used in combination with a refractive secondary concentrator (RSC) as the heat source to power the system. The inflatable technology as a structure has made great progress for a variety of potential applications such as communications reflectors, radiators and solar arrays. The RSC has been pursued for use in solar thermal propulsion applications, and it's unique properties allow some advantageous system trades to be made. The power system proposed would completely eliminate the isotope heat source and could potentially provide power for science missions to planets as distant as Uranus. This paper will present the background and developmental status of the technologies and will then describe the power system being proposed.

  19. Assessment of coal technology options and implications for the State of Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, J.L.; Elcock, D.; Elliott, T.J.

    1993-12-01

    The mandate of this research report was to provide the state of Hawaii with an assessment of the potential opportunities and drawbacks of relying on coal-fired generating technologies to diversify its fuel mix and satisfy future electric power requirements. This assessment was to include a review of existing and emerging coal-based power technologies-including their associated costs, environmental impacts, land use, and infrastructure requirements-to determine the range of impacts likely to occur if such systems were deployed in Hawaii. Coupled with this review, the report was also to (1) address siting and safety issues as they relate to technology choice and coal transport, (2) consider how environmental costs associated with coal usage are included in the integrated resource planning (ERP) process, and (3) develop an analytical tool from which the Department of Business, Economic Development & Tourism of the State of Hawaii could conduct first-order comparisons of power plant selection and siting. The prepared report addresses each element identified above. However, available resources and data limitations limited the extent to which particular characteristics of coal use could be assessed. For example, the technology profiles are current but not as complete regarding future developments and cost/emissions data as possible, and the assessment of coal technology deployment issues in Hawaii was conducted on an aggregate (not site-specific) basis. Nonetheless, the information and findings contained in this report do provide an accurate depiction of the opportunities for and issues associated with coal utilization in the state of Hawaii.

  20. Reactor Technology Options Study for Near-Term Deployment of GNEP Grid-Appropriate Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ingersoll, Daniel T; Poore III, Willis P

    2007-09-01

    World energy demand is projected to significantly increase over the coming decades. The International Energy Agency projects that electricity demand will increase 50% by 2015 and double by 2030, with most of the increase coming in developing countries as they experience double-digit rates of economic growth and seek to improve their standards of living. Energy is the necessary driver for human development, and the demand for energy in these countries will be met using whatever production technologies are available. Recognizing this inevitable energy demand and its implications for the United States, the U.S. National Security Strategy has proposed the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) to work with other nations to develop and deploy advanced nuclear recycling and reactor technologies. This initiative will help provide reliable, emission-free energy with less of the waste burden of older technologies and without making available separated plutonium that could be used by rogue states or terrorists for nuclear weapons. These new technologies will make possible a dramatic expansion of safe, clean nuclear energy to help meet the growing global energy demand. In other words, GNEP seeks to create an international regime to support large-scale growth in the worldwide use of nuclear energy without increasing the risk of nuclear weapon proliferation. This global expansion of nuclear power is strategically important to the United States for several reasons, including the following: (1) National security, by reducing the competition and potential for conflict over increasingly scarce fossil energy resources; (2) Economic security, by helping maintain stable prices for nonrenewable resources such as oil, gas, and coal; (3) Environmental security, by replacing or off-setting large-scale burning of greenhouse gas-emitting fuels for electricity production; and (4) Regaining technical leadership, through deployment of innovative U.S. technology-based reactors. Fully meeting

  1. Removing mercury from coal emissions: options for ash-friendly technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Sager, J.

    2009-07-01

    The article gives a brief description of techniques to remove mercury emitted from coal-fired power plants and discusses environmental considerations associated with the effect of emission controls on coal fly ash. Techniques covered include use of injected mercury sorbents (activated carbon, metal oxide catalysts, MerCAP{trademark} and MercScreen{trademark}) and fuel cleaning. Technologies currently being researched are mentioned. 8 refs.

  2. Motor Drive Technologies for the Power-by-Wire (PBW) Program: Options, Trends and Tradeoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elbuluk, Malik E.; Kankam, M. David

    1995-01-01

    Power-By-Wire (PBW) is a program involving the replacement of hydraulic and pneumatic systems currently used in aircraft with an all-electric secondary power system. One of the largest loads of the all-electric secondary power system will be the motor loads which include pumps, compressors and Electrical Actuators (EA's). Issues of improved reliability, reduced maintenance and efficiency, among other advantages, are the motivation for replacing the existing aircraft actuators with electrical actuators. An EA system contains four major components. These are the motor, the power electronic converters, the actuator and the control system, including the sensors. This paper is a comparative literature review in motor drive technologies, with a focus on the trends and tradeoffs involved in the selection of a particular motor drive technology. The reported research comprises three motor drive technologies. These are the induction motor (IM), the brushless dc motor (BLDCM) and the switched reluctance motor (SRM). Each of the three drives has the potential for application in the PBW program. Many issues remain to be investigated and compared between the three motor drives, using actual mechanical loads expected in the PBW program.

  3. High Pressure Earth Storable Rocket Technology Program-Hipes Options 1/2 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chazen, M. L.; Sicher, D.; Calvignac, J.; Ono, D.

    1999-01-01

    Under the High Pressure Earth Storable Rocket Technology (HIPES) Program, TRW successfully completed testing of two 100 lbf thrust class rhenium chambers using N204-MMH. The first chamber was successfully fired for 4789 seconds of operating time with a maximum duration of 700 seconds. This chamber had been previously fired for 5230 seconds with N2O4-N2H4. The second chamber was successfully fired for 8085 seconds with a maximum firing duration of 1200 seconds. The Isp (specific impulse) for both chambers ranged from 323 lbf-sec/lbm to 330 lbf-sec/lbm.

  4. Planning the National New Technology Telescope (NNTT). V - Enclosure design options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, W.-Y.; Barr, L. D.

    1986-01-01

    The design goals for the enclosure of the National New Technology Telescope (NNTT) encompass severe weather protection, reduction of wind-induced motions, and the facilitation of quick changes of the optical elements, while being sufficiently low in thermal mass to minimize the dome seeing problem and able to furnish effective ventilation; all this, at minimum cost. Attention is presently given to engineering design considerations for the reconciliation of potential conflicts among these requirements. Consideration is being given to a boxlike enclosure and a carousel-type enclosure; the former is being used by the Multiple Mirror Telescope, and the latter has been used by the UK/NL 15-m mm-wave radio telescope on Mauna Kea.

  5. Storage of spent fuel from the nation`s nuclear reactors: Status, technology, and policy options

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    Since the beginning of the commercial nuclear electric power industry, it has been recognized that spent nuclear reactor fuel must be able to be readily removed from the reactor vessel in the plant and safely stored on-site. The need for adjacent ready storage is first for safety. In the event of an emergency, or necessary maintenance that requires the removal of irradiated fuel from the reactor vessel, cooled reserve storage capacity for the full amount of fuel from the reactor core must be available. Also, the uranium fuel in the reactor eventually reaches the point where its heat generation is below the planned efficiency for steam production which drives the turbines and generators. It then must be replaced by fresh uranium fuel, with the ``spent fuel`` elements being removed to a safe and convenient storage location near the reactor vessel. The federal nuclear waste repository program, even without delays in the current schedule of disposal becoming available in 2003, will result in a large percentage of the 111 existing operable commercial reactors requiring expansion of their spent fuel storage capacity. How that need can and will be met raises issues of both technology and policy that will be reviewed in this report.

  6. Storage of spent fuel from the nation's nuclear reactors: Status, technology, and policy options

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    Since the beginning of the commercial nuclear electric power industry, it has been recognized that spent nuclear reactor fuel must be able to be readily removed from the reactor vessel in the plant and safely stored on-site. The need for adjacent ready storage is first for safety. In the event of an emergency, or necessary maintenance that requires the removal of irradiated fuel from the reactor vessel, cooled reserve storage capacity for the full amount of fuel from the reactor core must be available. Also, the uranium fuel in the reactor eventually reaches the point where its heat generation is below the planned efficiency for steam production which drives the turbines and generators. It then must be replaced by fresh uranium fuel, with the spent fuel'' elements being removed to a safe and convenient storage location near the reactor vessel. The federal nuclear waste repository program, even without delays in the current schedule of disposal becoming available in 2003, will result in a large percentage of the 111 existing operable commercial reactors requiring expansion of their spent fuel storage capacity. How that need can and will be met raises issues of both technology and policy that will be reviewed in this report.

  7. Near-term outlook for space solar power: societal trends and technological options in the 1980s

    SciTech Connect

    Klineberg, S.L.

    1982-01-01

    It is becoming clear that the evolution of US energy policy in interaction with significant societal trends will generate continued and probably insurmountable opposition through the 1980s to any major R and D investment in space solar power. Recent public opinion polls reveal a dramatic disengagement from the traditional American faith in an unlimited future, a pervasive distrust of government and corporate leadership, a new skepticism about the benefits of science and technology, and a continuing concern for environmental protection. Much of public opinion is thus predisposed to resist costly investments in high-technology energy options. Moreover, the general slowing of economic growth, in conjunction with the success of conservation efforts and the widespread appeal of on-site renewable energy systems, make it appear unlikely that the unmet need for centrally-generated electricity will grow sufficiently in the 1980s to justify the level of front-end investment demanded by the SPS program. The near-term outlook for space solar power is dim. In the longer term, however, as societal patterns continue to evolve and US space capabilities expand, the SPS concept is likely to be given more serious consideration.

  8. Greenhouse Emission Reductions and Natural Gas Vehicles: A Resource Guide on Technology Options and Project Development

    SciTech Connect

    Orestes Anastasia; NAncy Checklick; Vivianne Couts; Julie Doherty; Jette Findsen; Laura Gehlin; Josh Radoff

    2002-09-01

    Accurate and verifiable emission reductions are a function of the degree of transparency and stringency of the protocols employed in documenting project- or program-associated emissions reductions. The purpose of this guide is to provide a background for law and policy makers, urban planners, and project developers working with the many Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission reduction programs throughout the world to quantify and/or evaluate the GHG impacts of Natural Gas Vehicle (NGVs). In order to evaluate the GHG benefits and/or penalties of NGV projects, it is necessary to first gain a fundamental understanding of the technology employed and the operating characteristics of these vehicles, especially with regard to the manner in which they compare to similar conventional gasoline or diesel vehicles. Therefore, the first two sections of this paper explain the basic technology and functionality of NGVs, but focus on evaluating the models that are currently on the market with their similar conventional counterparts, including characteristics such as cost, performance, efficiency, environmental attributes, and range. Since the increased use of NGVs, along with Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFVs) in general, represents a public good with many social benefits at the local, national, and global levels, NGVs often receive significant attention in the form of legislative and programmatic support. Some states mandate the use of NGVs, while others provide financial incentives to promote their procurement and use. Furthermore, Federal legislation in the form of tax incentives or procurement requirements can have a significant impact on the NGV market. In order to implement effective legislation or programs, it is vital to have an understanding of the different programs and activities that already exist so that a new project focusing on GHG emission reduction can successfully interact with and build on the experience and lessons learned of those that preceded it. Finally, most programs

  9. Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Control Technology Options within the Energy, Water and Food Nexus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ansari, Tareq; Korre, Anna; Nie, Zhenggang; Shah, Nilay

    2015-04-01

    second scenario integrates PV to power the RO units and the third scenario uses solar PV to power the RO and fertilizer production facilities. The second operating mode integrates the BIGCC for power generation and the third mode utilises the gasification by-product biochar for the enhancement of agricultural productivity in addition to the power generated from the BIGCC. The final mode of operation examines the use of CO2 capture technology in the baseline scenario to support fertilization resulting in productivity increases for crops. References: Al-Ansari, T., Korre, A., Nie, Z., Shah, N., "Development of a life cycle assessment model for the analysis of the energy, water and food nexus" Computer Aided Chemical Engineering, 33, (2014), 1039-1044. Al-Ansari, T., Korre, A., Nie, Z., Shah, N., Integrated Modelling of the Energy, Water and Food Nexus to Enhance the Environmental Performance of Food Production Systems, 9th International Conference LCA of Food, San Francisco, USA, 8 - 10 October 2014

  10. Nuclear Thermal Rocket/Stage Technology Options for NASA's Future Human Exploration Missions to the Moon and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Corban, Robert R.; McGuire, Melissa L.; Beke, Erik G.

    1994-07-01

    The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) provides a unique propulsion capability to planners and designers of future human exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. In addition to its high specific impulse (Isp ~ 850-1000 seconds) and engine thrust-to-weight ratio (~ 3-10), the NTR can also be configured as a ``dual mode'' system capable of generating stage electrical power. At present, NASA is examining a variety of mission applications for the NTR ranging from an expendable, ``single burn'' trans-lunar injection (TLI) stage for NASA's ``First Lunar Outpost'' (FLO) mission to all propulsive, ``multi-burn,'' spacecraft supporting a ``split cargo/piloted sprint'' Mars mission architecture. Two ``proven'' solid core NTR concepts are examined -one based on NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application)-derivative reactor (NDR) technology, and a second concept which utilizes a ternary carbide ``twisted ribbon'' fuel form developed by the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). Integrated systems and mission study results are used in designing ``aerobraked'' and ``all propulsive'' Mars vehicle concepts which are mass-, and volume-compatible with both a reference 240 metric tonne (t) heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) and a smaller 120 t HLLV option. For the ``aerobraked'' scenario, the 2010 piloted mission determines the size of the expendable trans-Mars injection (TMI) stage which is a growth version of the FLO TLI stage. An ``all-propulsive'' Moon/Mars mission architecture is also described which uses common ``modular'' engine and stage hardware consisting of: (1) clustered 15 thousand pounds force (klbf) NDR or CIS engines; (2) two ``standardized'' liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank sizes; and (3) ``dual mode'' NTR and refrigeration system technologies for long duration missions. The ``modular'' NTR approach can form the basis for a ``faster, safer, and cheaper'' space transportation system for tomorrow's piloted missions to the Moon and Mars.

  11. Future electricity generation: An economic and environmental life cycle perspective on near-, mid- and long-term technology options and policy implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergerson, Joule Andrea

    This thesis evaluates the cost and environmental tradeoffs of current and future electricity generation options from a life cycle perspective. Policy and technology options are considered for each critical time horizon (near-, mid-, and long-term). The framework developed for this analysis is a hybrid life cycle analysis which integrates several models and frameworks including process and input-output life cycle analysis, an integrated environmental control model, social costing, forecasting and future energy scenario analysis. The near-term analysis shows that several recent LCA studies of electricity options have contributed to our understanding of the technologies available and their relative environmental impacts. Several promising options could satisfy our electricity demands. Other options remain unproven or too costly to encourage investment in the near term but show promise for future use (e.g. photovoltaic, fuel cells). Public concerns could impede the use of some desirable technologies (e.g. hydro, nuclear). Finally, less tangible issues such as intermittency of some renewable technologies, social equity and visual and land use impacts, while difficult to quantify, must be considered in the investment decision process. In the mid-term analysis, this thesis explores alternative methods for transport of coal energy. A hybrid life cycle analysis is critical for evaluating the cost, efficiency and environmental tradeoffs of the entire system. If a small amount of additional coal is to be shipped, current rail infrastructure should be used where possible. If entirely new infrastructure is required, the mine mouth generation options are cheaper but have increased environmental impact due to the increased generation required to compensate for transmission line losses. Gasifying the coal to produce methane also shows promise in terms of lowering environmental emissions. The long-term analysis focuses on the implications of a high coal use future. This scenario

  12. Rehabilitation Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... Speech Pathology Occupational Therapy Art Therapy Recreational therapy Neuropsychology Home Care Options Advanced Care Planning Palliative Care ... Speech Pathology Occupational Therapy Art Therapy Recreational therapy Neuropsychology Home Care Options Advanced Care Planning Palliative Care ...

  13. Pricing Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    1998-01-01

    Presents results of a recent survey of over 100 public and academic libraries about pricing options from online companies. Most options fall into three categories: pay-as-you-go, fixed-rate, and user-based. Results are discussed separately for public and academic libraries and for consortial discounts. Trends in pricing options preferred by…

  14. Factors Affecting Option Choices Relative to the Uptake of Design and Technology at a Selected Hong Kong International School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Marshall

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study described in this paper was to identify those factors which affect Year 9 students at Sha Tin College, Hong Kong, as they make option choices at the end of Key Stage 3 (Year 9: age 14). The main focus of the investigation was how these factors influence the selection or rejection of the four subjects offered under the…

  15. Waste Not, Want Not: Analyzing the Economic and Environmental Viability of Waste-to-Energy (WTE) Technology for Site-Specific Optimization of Renewable Energy Options

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, K.; Milford, J.; Simpkins, T.

    2013-02-01

    Waste-to-energy (WTE) technology burns municipal solid waste (MSW) in an environmentally safe combustion system to generate electricity, provide district heat, and reduce the need for landfill disposal. While this technology has gained acceptance in Europe, it has yet to be commonly recognized as an option in the United States. Section 1 of this report provides an overview of WTE as a renewable energy technology and describes a high-level model developed to assess the feasibility of WTE at a site. Section 2 reviews results from previous life cycle assessment (LCA) studies of WTE, and then uses an LCA inventory tool to perform a screening-level analysis of cost, net energy production, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and conventional air pollution impacts of WTE for residual MSW in Boulder, Colorado. Section 3 of this report describes the federal regulations that govern the permitting, monitoring, and operating practices of MSW combustors and provides emissions limits for WTE projects.

  16. Thruster Options for Microspacecraft: A Review and Evaluation of State-of-the-Art and Emerging Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Juergen

    Introduction Recent Microspacecraft Developments Background and Motivation Recent Microspacecraft Design Trends Preliminary Set of Micropropulsion Requirements for Microspacecraft System Integration Requirements Minimum Impulse Bit and Thrust Requirements Review of Chemical Propulsion Technologies Bipropellant Engines Monopropellant Thrusters: Hydrazine Monopropellant Thrusters: HAN-Based Monopropellant Thrusters: Hydrogen Peroxide Cold Gas Thrusters Tripropellant and Other Warm Gas Thrusters Solid Rocket Motors Hybrid Rocket Motors Review of Electric Propulsion Technologies Ion Engines Hall Thrusters FEEP Colloid Thrusters Pulsed Plasma Thrusters (PPTs) Resistojets Emerging Technologies: MEMS and MEMS-Hybrid Propulsion Concepts Case for MEMS Propulsion and Its Challenges Brief History of MEMS Propulsion MEMS-Based FEEP and Colloid Thruster Concepts Micro-Ion Engine Concepts MEMS-Based Microresistojet Concepts MEMS-Based Subliming Solid Microthruster Concept MEMS-Based Cold Gas Thruster Concept MEMS-Based Bipropellant Thruster Concept Digital Microthruster Array Concepts Evaluation of Existing Propulsion Technologies and Identification - of Future Technology Needs Evaluation of Existing Propulsion Technologies Identification of Technology Needs Conclusions References

  17. Robust decisions and deep uncertainty: An application of real options to public and private investment in hydrogen and fuel cell technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahnovski, Sergej

    This dissertation assesses the prospects for private sector investment in hydrogen and fuel cell technologies using an innovative application of real options analysis. Specifically, the dissertation considers the decision faced by natural gas utilities over whether, how and to what extent they should invest in projects that could be of value if a hydrogen energy market develops in the future. This is a problem of investment under uncertainty when there is little prior information available and where the investment itself could affect the future development of this market. The ultimate goal of the dissertation is to identify investment strategies that are robust against alternative futures and assess the tradeoffs of various policy instruments.

  18. A review of potential turbine technology options for improving the off-design performance of direct coal-fired gas turbines in base load service. Second topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.L.

    1988-03-01

    The January, 1988 draft topical report, entitled ``An Assessment of Off-Design Particle Control Performance on Direct Coal-Fired Gas Turbine Systems`` [Ref.1.1], identified the need to assess potential trade-offs in turbine aerodynamic and thermodynamic design which may offer improvements in the performance, operational and maintenance characteristics of open-cycle, direct coal-fired, combustion gas turbines. In this second of a series of three topical reports, an assessment of the technical options posed by the above trade-offs is presented. The assessment is based on the current status of gas turbine technology. Several industry and university experts were contacted to contribute to the study. Literature sources and theoretical considerations are used only to provide additional background and insight to the technology involved.

  19. A review of potential turbine technology options for improving the off-design performance of direct coal-fired gas turbines in base load service

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.L.

    1988-03-01

    The January, 1988 draft topical report, entitled An Assessment of Off-Design Particle Control Performance on Direct Coal-Fired Gas Turbine Systems'' (Ref.1.1), identified the need to assess potential trade-offs in turbine aerodynamic and thermodynamic design which may offer improvements in the performance, operational and maintenance characteristics of open-cycle, direct coal-fired, combustion gas turbines. In this second of a series of three topical reports, an assessment of the technical options posed by the above trade-offs is presented. The assessment is based on the current status of gas turbine technology. Several industry and university experts were contacted to contribute to the study. Literature sources and theoretical considerations are used only to provide additional background and insight to the technology involved.

  20. The potential use of intrauterine insemination as a basic option for infertility: a review for technology-limited medical settings.

    PubMed

    Abdelkader, Abdelrahman M; Yeh, John

    2009-01-01

    Objective. There is an asymmetric allocation of technology and other resources for infertility services. Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is a process of placing washed spermatozoa transcervically into the uterine cavity for treatment of infertility. This is a review of literature for the potential use of IUI as a basic infertility treatment in technology-limited settings. Study design. Review of articles on treatment of infertility using IUI. Results. Aspects regarding the use of IUI are reviewed, including ovarian stimulation, semen parameters associated with good outcomes, methods of sperm preparation, timing of IUI, and number of inseminations. Implications of the finding in light of the needs of low-technology medical settings are summarized. Conclusion. The reviewed evidence suggests that IUI is less expensive, less invasive, and comparably effective for selected patients as a first-line treatment for couples with unexplained or male factor infertility. Those couples may be offered three to six IUI cycles in technology-limited settings. PMID:20011061

  1. Options Study - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

    2010-09-01

    The Options Study has been conducted for the purpose of evaluating the potential of alternative integrated nuclear fuel cycle options to favorably address the issues associated with a continuing or expanding use of nuclear power in the United States. The study produced information that can be used to inform decisions identifying potential directions for research and development on such fuel cycle options. An integrated nuclear fuel cycle option is defined in this study as including all aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, from obtaining natural resources for fuel to the ultimate disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) or radioactive wastes. Issues such as nuclear waste management, especially the increasing inventory of used nuclear fuel, the current uncertainty about used fuel disposal, and the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation have contributed to the reluctance to expand the use of nuclear power, even though it is recognized that nuclear power is a safe and reliable method of producing electricity. In this Options Study, current, evolutionary, and revolutionary nuclear energy options were all considered, including the use of uranium and thorium, and both once-through and recycle approaches. Available information has been collected and reviewed in order to evaluate the ability of an option to clearly address the challenges associated with the current implementation and potential expansion of commercial nuclear power in the United States. This Options Study is a comprehensive consideration and review of fuel cycle and technology options, including those for disposal, and is not constrained by any limitations that may be imposed by economics, technical maturity, past policy, or speculated future conditions. This Phase II report is intended to be used in conjunction with the Phase I report, and much information in that report is not repeated here, although some information has been updated to reflect recent developments. The focus in this Options Study was to

  2. Idaho's Energy Options

    SciTech Connect

    Robert M. Neilson

    2006-03-01

    This report, developed by the Idaho National Laboratory, is provided as an introduction to and an update of the status of technologies for the generation and use of energy. Its purpose is to provide information useful for identifying and evaluating Idaho’s energy options, and for developing and implementing Idaho’s energy direction and policies.

  3. ARSENIC TREATMENT OPTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The PPT presentation will provide information on the drinking water treatment options for small utilities to remove arsenic from ground water. The discussion will include information on the EPA BAT listed processes and on some of the newer technologies, such as the iron based ad...

  4. CFB repowering options

    SciTech Connect

    Gittinger, J.

    1996-12-31

    Circulating fluidized bed CFB repowering options are summarized. The following topics are discussed: why repower with CFB technology; advantages of repowering; two forms of of repowering; B and N`s internal recirculation CFB; space-saving design features; cost-saving design features; Ukrainian repowering project; and candidates for repowering.

  5. Global Assessment of Hydrogen Technologies – Tasks 3 & 4 Report Economic, Energy, and Environmental Analysis of Hydrogen Production and Delivery Options in Select Alabama Markets: Preliminary Case Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Fouad, Fouad H.; Peters, Robert W.; Sisiopiku, Virginia P.; Sullivan Andrew J.; Gillette, Jerry; Elgowainy, Amgad; Mintz, Marianne

    2007-12-01

    This report documents a set of case studies developed to estimate the cost of producing, storing, delivering, and dispensing hydrogen for light-duty vehicles for several scenarios involving metropolitan areas in Alabama. While the majority of the scenarios focused on centralized hydrogen production and pipeline delivery, alternative delivery modes were also examined. Although Alabama was used as the case study for this analysis, the results provide insights into the unique requirements for deploying hydrogen infrastructure in smaller urban and rural environments that lie outside the DOE’s high priority hydrogen deployment regions. Hydrogen production costs were estimated for three technologies – steam-methane reforming (SMR), coal gasification, and thermochemical water-splitting using advanced nuclear reactors. In all cases examined, SMR has the lowest production cost for the demands associated with metropolitan areas in Alabama. Although other production options may be less costly for larger hydrogen markets, these were not examined within the context of the case studies.

  6. Katimavik Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crelinsten, Michael; And Others

    Designed for students who are just about to complete Katimavik (a nine-month volunteer community service and experiential learning program for 17 to 21-year-old Canadian youth), the bilingual information guide presents facts and considerations about options in lifestyle, academic attainment, and career goals available as a result of Katimavik…

  7. System evaluations of laser power beaming options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Edward E., IV

    1992-01-01

    The major technology options for high-energy FELs and adaptive optics available to the Space Laser Energy (SELENE) program are reviewed. Initial system evaluations of these options are described. A feasibility assessment of laser power beaming is given.

  8. Exercising options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    In a recent speech to graduates of the College of Computer, Mathematical, and Physical Sciences at the University of Maryland, Anne Petersen, deputy director of the National Science Foundation, encouraged a new generation of scientists to embrace opportunity and choice, and to use their scientific training as an employment credential, not a limit. In her May 23 commencement address, Petersen exhorted students to view their freshly minted diplomas as tickets to a broad and diverse job market, not just one-way trips to the laboratory.“Looking for the options and alternatives open to us—and creating options for ourselves where they are not apparent—can give us a sense of direction and volition that enriches our lives immensely…

  9. Mars Surface Habitability Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, A. Scott; Simon, Matthew; Smitherman, David; Howard, Robert; Toups, Larry; Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on current habitability concepts for an Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) prepared by the NASA Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT). For many years NASA has investigated alternative human Mars missions, examining different mission objectives, trajectories, vehicles, and technologies; the combinations of which have been referred to as reference missions or architectures. At the highest levels, decisions regarding the timing and objectives for a human mission to Mars continue to evolve while at the lowest levels, applicable technologies continue to advance. This results in an on-going need for assessments of alternative system designs such as the habitat, a significant element in any human Mars mission scenario, to provide meaningful design sensitivity characterizations to assist decision-makers regarding timing, objectives, and technologies. As a subset of the Evolvable Mars Campaign activities, the habitability team builds upon results from past studies and recommends options for Mars surface habitability compatible with updated technologies.

  10. Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options

    SciTech Connect

    Roald Wigeland; Temitope Taiwo; Michael Todosow; William Halsey; Jess Gehin

    2010-06-01

    A systematic evaluation has been conducted of the potential for advanced nuclear fuel cycle strategies and options to address the issues ascribed to the use of nuclear power. Issues included nuclear waste management, proliferation risk, safety, security, economics and affordability, and sustainability. The two basic strategies, once-through and recycle, and the range of possibilities within each strategy, are considered for all aspects of the fuel cycle including options for nuclear material irradiation, separations if needed, and disposal. Options range from incremental changes to today’s implementation to revolutionary concepts that would require the development of advanced nuclear technologies.

  11. The safeguards options study

    SciTech Connect

    Hakkila, E.A.; Mullen, M.F.; Olinger, C.T.; Stanbro, W.D.; Olsen, A.P.; Roche, C.T.; Rudolph, R.R.; Bieber, A.M.; Lemley, J.; Filby, E.

    1995-04-01

    The Safeguards Options Study was initiated to aid the International Safeguards Division (ISD) of the DOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation in developing its programs in enhanced international safeguards. The goal was to provide a technical basis for the ISD program in this area. The Safeguards Options Study has been a cooperative effort among ten organizations. These are Argonne National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Sandia National Laboratories, and Special Technologies Laboratory. Much of the Motivation for the Safeguards Options Study is the recognition after the Iraq experience that there are deficiencies in the present approach to international safeguards. While under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards at their declared facilities, Iraq was able to develop a significant weapons program without being noticed. This is because negotiated safeguards only applied at declared sites. Even so, their nuclear weapons program clearly conflicted with Iraq`s obligations under the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) as a nonnuclear weapon state.

  12. Trends in Connectivity Technologies and Their Socioeconomic Impacts. Final Report of the Study: Policy Options for the Ubiquitous Internet Society. Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cave, Jonathan; van Oranje-Nassau, Constantijn; Schindler, Helen Rebecca; Shehabi, Ala'a; Brutscher, Philipp-Bastian; Robinson, Neil

    2009-01-01

    This report is intended to inform the European Commission's DG Information Society and Media in developing its policies for the period 2010-2020. It is targeted to policymakers with expert knowledge of the field. The report summarises the work conducted in the study: "Policy Options for the Ubiquitous Internet Society". It builds on three prior…

  13. Retrieval options study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    This Retrieval Options Study is part of the systems analysis activities of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation to develop the scientific and technological bases for radioactive waste repositories in various geologic media. The study considers two waste forms, high level waste and spent fuel, and defines various classes of waste retrieval and recovery. A methodology and data base are developed which allow the relative evaluation of retrieval and recovery costs and the following technical criteria: safety; technical feasibility; ease of retrieval; probable intact retrieval time; safeguards; monitoring; criticality; and licensability. A total of 505 repository options are defined and the cost and technical criteria evaluated utilizing a combination of facts and engineering judgments. The repositories evaluated are selected combinations of the following parameters: Geologic Media (salt, granite, basalt, shale); Retrieval Time after Emplacement (5 and 25 years); Emplacement Design (nominal hole, large hole, carbon steel canister, corrosion resistant canister, backfill in hole, nominal sleeves, thick wall sleeves); Emplacement Configuration (single vertical, multiple vertical, single horizontal, multiple horizontal, vaults; Thermal Considerations; (normal design, reduced density, once-through ventilation, recirculated ventilation); Room Backfill; (none, run-of-mine, early, 5 year delay, 25 year delay, decommissioned); and Rate of Retrieval; (same as emplacement, variably slower depending on repository/canister condition).

  14. Early amplification options.

    PubMed

    Gabbard, Sandra Abbott; Schryer, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    Children with permanent hearing loss have been remediated with hearing amplification devices for decades. The influx of young infants identified with hearing loss through successful newborn hearing screening programs has established a need for amplification resources for infants within the first six months of life. For the approximately two of every 1000 infants born who are identified with bilateral hearing loss [Mehl and Thomson, 1998, Pediatrics 101, p. e4], the use of amplification is commonly the first step in treating the sequella of their loss. The use of hearing aids, combined with early intervention, has been shown to significantly improve the speech and language skills of young children with hearing loss [Yoshinaga-Itano, 2000, Seminars in Hearing 21, p. 309]. Speech and language delays have contributed to compromised academic performance of school aged children with hearing loss [Johnson et al., 1997, Educational Audiology Handbook, Singular Publishing, San Diego]. Most hard-of-hearing and deaf children use hearing aids and other assistive listening devices every day throughout their lifetime and the life expectancy of a hearing aid is only five to eight years. The current challenge for pediatric audiologists is selecting and evaluating the available amplification to provide the best options for children and their families. Amplification technology has seen an explosion in growth the past few years and the options continue to expand rapidly. This article examines currently available amplification technology and reviews the selection criteria that may be used for infants and young children. Issues such as style, type, amplification features, signal processing strategies, and verification and validation tools are also discussed. PMID:14648816

  15. Space Station power system options

    SciTech Connect

    Baraona, C.R.; Forestieri, A.F.

    1984-08-01

    This paper outlines the strategies, reasoning, and planning guidelines used in the development of the United States Space Station Program. The power required to support Space Station missions and housekeeping loads is a key driver in overall Space Station design. Conversely, Space Station requirements drive the power technology. Various power system technology options are discussed. The mission analysis studies resulting in the required Space Station capabilities are also discussed. An example of Space Station functions and a concept to provide them is presented. The weight, area, payload and altitude requirements on drag and mass requirements are described in this paper with a summary and status of key power systems technology requirements and issues.

  16. Space options for tropical cyclone hazard mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicaire, Isabelle; Nakamura, Ryoko; Arikawa, Yoshihisa; Okada, Kazuyuki; Itahashi, Takamasa; Summerer, Leopold

    2015-02-01

    This paper investigates potential space options for mitigating the impact of tropical cyclones on cities and civilians. Ground-based techniques combined with space-based remote sensing instrumentation are presented together with space-borne concepts employing space solar power technology. Two space-borne mitigation options are considered: atmospheric warming based on microwave irradiation and laser-induced cloud seeding based on laser power transfer. Finally technology roadmaps dedicated to the space-borne options are presented, including a detailed discussion on the technological viability and technology readiness level of our proposed systems. Based on these assessments, the space-borne cyclone mitigation options presented in this paper may be established in a quarter of a century.

  17. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer - Treatment Options Request Permissions Print to PDF Breast Cancer - Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... recommendations for ovarian ablation . Hormonal therapy for metastatic breast cancer Hormonal therapies are also commonly used to treat ...

  18. AFCI Options Study

    SciTech Connect

    R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

    2009-09-01

    This report describes the background and framework for both organizing the discussion and providing information on the potential for nuclear energy R&D to develop alternative nuclear fuel cycles that would address the issues with the current implementations of nuclear power, including nuclear waste disposal, proliferation risk, safety, security, economics, and sustainability. The disposition of used fuel is the cause of many of the concerns, and the possible approaches to used fuel management identify a number of basic technology areas that need to be considered. The basic science in each of the technology areas is discussed, emphasizing what science is currently available, where scientific knowledge may be insufficient, and especially to identify specific areas where transformational discoveries may allow achievement of performance goals not currently attainable. These discussions lead to the wide range of technical options that have been the basis for past and current research and development on advanced nuclear fuel cycles in the United States. The results of this work are then briefly reviewed to show the extent to which such approaches are capable of addressing the issues with nuclear power, the potential for moving further, and the inherent limitations.

  19. TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    WILLIS WL; AHRENDT MR

    2009-08-11

    Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

  20. A paleo-aerodynamic exploration of the evolution of nature's flyers, man's aircraft, and the needs and options for future technology innovations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulfan, Brenda M.

    2009-03-01

    Insights and observations of fascinating aspects of birds, bugs and flying seeds, of inspired aerodynamic concepts, and visions of past, present and future aircraft developments are presented. The evolution of nature's flyers, will be compared with the corresponding evolution of commercial aircraft. We will explore similarities between nature's creations and man's inventions. Many critical areas requiring future significant technology based solutions remain. With the advent of UAVs and MAVs, the gap between "possible" and "actual" is again very large. Allometric scaling procedures will be used to explore size implications on limitations and performance capabilities of nature's creations. Biologically related technology development concepts including: bionics, biomimicry, neo-bionic, pseudo-mimicry, cybernetic and non-bionic approaches will be discussed and illustrated with numerous examples. Technology development strategies will be discussed along with the pros and cons for each. Future technology developments should include a synergistic coupling of "discovery driven", "product led" and "technology acceleration" strategies. The objective of this presentation is to inspire the creative nature existing within all of us. This is a summary all text version of the complete report with the same title that report includes approximately 80 figures, photos and charts and much more information.

  1. Farm Crop Production Technology: Field and Forage Crop and Fruit and Vine Production Options. A Suggested 2-Year Post High School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Division of Vocational and Technical Education, BAVT.

    Prepared by a junior college under contract with the Office of Education, the curriculum materials are designed to assist school administrators, advisory committees, supervisors, and teachers in developing or evaluating postsecondary programs in farm crop production technology. Information was gathered by visits to the important farm regions and…

  2. Cryogenic transfer options for exploration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.

    1991-01-01

    The literature of in-space cryogenic transfer is reviewed in order to propose transportation concepts to support the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). Forty-nine references are listed and key findings are synopsized. An assessment of the current maturity of cryogenic transfer system technology is made. Although the settled transfer technique is the most mature technology, the No-Vent Fill technology is maturing rapidly. Future options for development of cryogenic transfer technology are also discussed.

  3. Is intracouple assisted reproductive technology an option for men with large-headed spermatozoa? A literature review and a decision guide proposal.

    PubMed

    Guthauser, Bruno; Pollet-Villard, Xavier; Boitrelle, Florence; Vialard, Francois

    2016-01-01

    Although the presence of spermatozoa with an abnormally large head is rare, it is associated with low fertility or even total infertility. We reviewed the literature on assisted reproductive technology (ART) strategies and outcomes for men with large-headed spermatozoa. We also discuss additional analyses that can usefully characterize sperm defects and help with the choice between intra-couple ART and insemination with donor sperm. Lastly, we propose a classification for cases of large-headed spermatozoa. PMID:27398217

  4. Environmental and energy experts examine options

    SciTech Connect

    Stoss, F.W.

    1992-12-31

    This article describes the major presentations of a conference entitled `Technologies for a Greenhouse Constrained Society` held in June 1992. The emphasis was on three major technology options that could assist in a reduction of the continued buildup of greenhouse gases in the Earth`s atmosphere: energy conservation, biomass, and nuclear energy.

  5. Approximate option pricing

    SciTech Connect

    Chalasani, P.; Saias, I.; Jha, S.

    1996-04-08

    As increasingly large volumes of sophisticated options (called derivative securities) are traded in world financial markets, determining a fair price for these options has become an important and difficult computational problem. Many valuation codes use the binomial pricing model, in which the stock price is driven by a random walk. In this model, the value of an n-period option on a stock is the expected time-discounted value of the future cash flow on an n-period stock price path. Path-dependent options are particularly difficult to value since the future cash flow depends on the entire stock price path rather than on just the final stock price. Currently such options are approximately priced by Monte carlo methods with error bounds that hold only with high probability and which are reduced by increasing the number of simulation runs. In this paper the authors show that pricing an arbitrary path-dependent option is {number_sign}-P hard. They show that certain types f path-dependent options can be valued exactly in polynomial time. Asian options are path-dependent options that are particularly hard to price, and for these they design deterministic polynomial-time approximate algorithms. They show that the value of a perpetual American put option (which can be computed in constant time) is in many cases a good approximation to the value of an otherwise identical n-period American put option. In contrast to Monte Carlo methods, the algorithms have guaranteed error bounds that are polynormally small (and in some cases exponentially small) in the maturity n. For the error analysis they derive large-deviation results for random walks that may be of independent interest.

  6. Managing Nuclear Waste: Options Considered

    SciTech Connect

    DOE

    2002-05-02

    Starting in the 1950s, U.S. scientists began to research ways to manage highly radioactive materials accumulating at power plants and other sites nationwide. Long-term surface storage of these materials poses significant potential health, safety, and environmental risks. Scientists studied a broad range of options for managing spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The options included leaving it where it is, disposing of it in various ways, and making it safer through advanced technologies. International scientific consensus holds that these materials should eventually be disposed of deep underground in what is called a geologic repository. In a recent special report, the National Academy of Sciences summarized the various studies and emphasized that geologic disposal is ultimately necessary.

  7. The Origins of Options

    PubMed Central

    Smaldino, Paul E.; Richerson, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Most research on decision making has focused on how human or animal decision makers choose between two or more options, posed in advance by the researchers. The mechanisms by which options are generated for most decisions, however, are not well understood. Models of sequential search have examined the trade-off between continued exploration and choosing one’s current best option, but still cannot explain the processes by which new options are generated. We argue that understanding the origins of options is a crucial but untapped area for decision making research. We explore a number of factors which influence the generation of options, which fall broadly into two categories: psycho-biological and socio-cultural. The former category includes factors such as perceptual biases and associative memory networks. The latter category relies on the incredible human capacity for culture and social learning, which doubtless shape not only our choices but the options available for choice. Our intention is to start a discussion that brings us closer toward understanding the origins of options. PMID:22514515

  8. Development of an integrated, in-situ remediation technology: Task 1 -- Evaluation of treatment zone formation options. Topical report, September 26, 1994--May 25, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Shoemaker, S.H.; Landis, R.C.; Griffith, R.J.; Schultz, D.S.; Quinton, G.E.

    1997-05-01

    Contamination in low permeability soils poses a significant technical challenge to in-situ remediation efforts. Poor accessibility to the contaminants and difficulty in delivery of treatment reagents have rendered existing in-situ treatments such as bioremediation, vapor extraction, pump and treat rather ineffective when applied to low permeability soils present at many contaminated sites. The technology is an integrated in-situ treatment in which established geotechnical methods are used to install degradation zones directly in the contaminated soil and electro-osmosis is utilized to move the contaminants back and forth through those zones until the treatment is completed. This topical report presents the results of evaluations by E.I. duPont de Nemours and Co., Inc. of treatment zone and electrode emplacement alternatives for use in the integrated treatment process. Specifically, the scope of this study was limited to vertical configuration emplacements. Several promising alternatives were identified ranging from approaches involving standard excavation techniques to relatively specialized geotechnical construction methods which could be modified for the treatment zone emplacement purpose. Information developed in this report is designed to help the user select the most promising emplacement method(s) for a given site on the basis of (1) depth of emplacement, and (2) restrictions on handling excavated soils. Advantages, disadvantages, and estimated costs are identified for each alternative, and possible bases for improvement and cost reduction through further development are described.

  9. Models for evaluation of energy technology and policy options to maximize low carbon source penetration in the United States energy supply.

    SciTech Connect

    Pickard, Paul S.; Kataoka, Dawn; Reno, Marissa Devan; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Peplinski, William J.; Roach, Jesse D.; Brainard, James Robert; West, Todd H.; Schoenwald, David Alan

    2009-12-01

    An initial version of a Systems Dynamics (SD) modeling framework was developed for the analysis of a broad range of energy technology and policy questions. The specific question selected to demonstrate this process was 'what would be the carbon and import implications of expanding nuclear electric capacity to provide power for plug in hybrid vehicles?' Fifteen SNL SD energy models were reviewed and the US Energy and Greenhouse gas model (USEGM) and the Global Nuclear Futures model (GEFM) were identified as the basis for an initial modeling framework. A basic U.S. Transportation model was created to model U.S. fleet changes. The results of the rapid adoption scenario result in almost 40% of light duty vehicles being PHEV by 2040 which requires about 37 GWy/y of additional electricity demand, equivalent to about 25 new 1.4 GWe nuclear plants. The adoption rate of PHEVs would likely be the controlling factor in achieving the associated reduction in carbon emissions and imports.

  10. Using tablet-based technology in patient education about systemic therapy options for early-stage breast cancer: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, E.R.; Laing, K.; McCarthy, J.; McCrate, F.; Seal, M.D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Patient education in early-stage breast cancer has been shown to improve patient well-being and quality of life, but it poses a challenge given the increasingly complex regimens and time constraints in clinical practice. Technology-aided teaching in the clinic could help to improve the understanding of adjuvant systemic therapy for patients. In this prospective pilot study, we used a clinician-administered, tablet-based teaching aid to teach patients with early-stage breast cancer about adjuvant systemic therapy. Methods Participation was offered to newly diagnosed patients with early-stage breast cancer presenting for their first medical oncology visit at a provincial cancer centre. Participants were shown a tablet-based presentation describing procedures, rationales, risks, and benefits of adjuvant systemic therapy as an adjunct to a discussion with the medical oncologist. After the clinic visit, participants completed a questionnaire measuring satisfaction with the visit and knowledge of the treatment plan discussed. Results The 25 patients recruited for the study had a mean age of 57 years. An offer of upfront chemotherapy alone was made to 12 participants (48%), chemotherapy with trastuzumab to 4 (16%), and hormonal therapy to 9 (36%). Correct answers to all questions related to treatment knowledge were given by 22 patients (88%). Satisfaction with the clinic visit was high (mean satisfaction score: 4.53 ± 0.1 of a possible 5). Conclusions We found that a tablet-based presentation about adjuvant systemic therapy was satisfactory to patients with early-stage breast cancer and that knowledge retention after the clinic visit was high. Tablet-based teaching could be a feasible and effective way of educating patients in the breast oncology clinic and warrants further investigation in randomized studies. PMID:26628877

  11. Expensing options solves nothing.

    PubMed

    Sahlman, William A

    2002-12-01

    The use of stock options for executive compensation has become a lightning rod for public anger, and it's easy to see why. Many top executives grew hugely rich on the back of the gains they made on their options, profits they've been able to keep even as the value they were supposed to create disappeared. The supposed scam works like this: Current accounting regulations let companies ignore the cost of option grants on their income statements, so they can award valuable option packages without affecting reported earnings. Not charging the cost of the grants supposedly leads to overstated earnings, which purportedly translate into unrealistically high share prices, permitting top executives to realize big gains when they exercise their options. If an accounting anomaly is the problem, then the solution seems obvious: Write off executive share options against the current year's revenues. The trouble is, Sahlman writes, expensing option grants won't give us a more accurate view of earnings, won't add any information not already included in the financial statements, and won't even lead to equal treatment of different forms of executive pay. Far worse, expensing evades the real issue, which is whether compensation (options and other-wise) does what it's supposed to do--namely, help a company recruit, retain, and provide the right people with appropriate performance incentives. Any performance-based compensation system has the potential to encourage cheating. Only ethical management, sensible governance, adequate internal control systems, and comprehensive disclosure will save the investor from disaster. If, Sahlman warns, we pass laws that require the expensing of options, thinking that's fixed the fundamental flaws in corporate America's accounting, we will have missed a golden opportunity to focus on the much more extensive defects in the present system. PMID:12510541

  12. Yale's Tuition Postponement Option

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, William E.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses Yale's Tuition Postponement Option which bases a student's repayment obligation on the student's future income. Under this system, some students will pay Yale less than the amounts they postponed plus interest and some will pay more. (JF)

  13. Porphyria Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... only. For treatment options for Porphyria Cutanea Tarda (PCT) , Congenital Erythropoietic Protoporphyria (CEP) and Hepatoerythropoietic Porphyria (HEP) ... Contact Us About Porphyria AIP VP HCP ADP PCT EPP CEP HEP Diet and Nutrition History of ...

  14. Nevada Transportatoion Options Study

    SciTech Connect

    P. GEHNER; E.M. WEAVER; L. FOSSUM

    2006-05-25

    This study performs a cost and schedule analysis of three Nevada Transportation options that support waste receipt at the repository. Based on the U.S. Department of Energy preference for rail transportation in Nevada (given in the Final Environmental Impact Statement), it has been assumed that a branch rail line would be constructed to support waste receipt at the repository. However, due to potential funding constraints, it is uncertain when rail will be available. The three Nevada Transportation options have been developed to meet a varying degree of requirements for transportation and to provide cost variations used in meeting the funding constraints given in the Technical Direction Letter guidelines for this study. The options include combinations of legal-weight truck, heavy-haul truck, and rail. Option 1 uses a branch rail line that would support initial waste receipt at the repository in 2010. Rail transportation would be the primary mode, supplemented by legal weight trucks. This option provides the highest level of confidence in cost and schedule, lowest public visibility, greatest public acceptability, lowest public dose, and is the recommended option for support of waste receipt. The completion of rail by 2010 will require spending approximately $800 million prior to 2010. Option 2 uses a phased rail approach to address a constrained funding scenario. To meet funding constraints, Option 2 uses a phased approach to delay high cost activities (final design and construction) until after initial waste receipt in 2010. By doing this, approximately 95 percent of the cost associated with completion of a branch rail line is deferred until after 2010. To support waste receipt until a branch rail line is constructed in Nevada, additional legal-weight truck shipments and heavy-haul truck shipments (on a limited basis for naval spent nuclear fuel) would be used to meet the same initial waste receipt rates as in Option 1. Use of heavy-haul shipments in the absence

  15. NEXT GENERATION MELTER OPTIONEERING STUDY - INTERIM REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    GRAY MF; CALMUS RB; RAMSEY G; LOMAX J; ALLEN H

    2010-10-19

    The next generation melter (NOM) development program includes a down selection process to aid in determining the recommended vitrification technology to implement into the WTP at the first melter change-out which is scheduled for 2025. This optioneering study presents a structured value engineering process to establish and assess evaluation criteria that will be incorporated into the down selection process. This process establishes an evaluation framework that will be used progressively throughout the NGM program, and as such this interim report will be updated on a regular basis. The workshop objectives were achieved. In particular: (1) Consensus was reached with stakeholders and technology providers represented at the workshop regarding the need for a decision making process and the application of the D{sub 2}0 process to NGM option evaluation. (2) A framework was established for applying the decision making process to technology development and evaluation between 2010 and 2013. (3) The criteria for the initial evaluation in 2011 were refined and agreed with stakeholders and technology providers. (4) The technology providers have the guidance required to produce data/information to support the next phase of the evaluation process. In some cases it may be necessary to reflect the data/information requirements and overall approach to the evaluation of technology options against specific criteria within updated Statements of Work for 2010-2011. Access to the WTP engineering data has been identified as being very important for option development and evaluation due to the interface issues for the NGM and surrounding plant. WRPS efforts are ongoing to establish precisely data that is required and how to resolve this Issue. It is intended to apply a similarly structured decision making process to the development and evaluation of LAW NGM options.

  16. Rethinking Worklife Options for Older Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habib, Jack, Ed.; Nusberg, Charlotte, Ed.

    This volume contains 19 papers that were presented at a conference addressing critical issues related to employment options for older persons. They are arranged in four sections that cover early retirement policies and their implications; older workers of Asia and the Pacific; the impact of technological change on the employment prospects of older…

  17. Thermal test options

    SciTech Connect

    Koski, J.A.; Keltner, N.R.; Sobolik, K.B.

    1993-02-01

    Shipping containers for radioactive materials must be qualified to meet a thermal accident environment specified in regulations, such at Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71. Aimed primarily at the shipping container design, this report discusses the thermal testing options available for meeting the regulatory requirements, and states the advantages and disadvantages of each approach. The principal options considered are testing with radiant heat, furnaces, and open pool fires. The report also identifies some of the facilities available and current contacts. Finally, the report makes some recommendations on the appropriate use of these different testing methods.

  18. Lighting Options for Homes.

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, W.S.

    1991-04-01

    This report covers many aspects of various lighting options for homes. Types of light sources described include natural light, artificial light, incandescent lamps, fluorescent lamps, and high intensity discharge lamps. A light source selection guide gives the physical characteristics of these, design considerations, and common applications. Color, strategies for efficient lighting, and types of lighting are discussed. There is one section giving tips for various situations in specific rooms. Rooms and types of fixtures are shown on a matrix with watts saved by using the recommended type lighting for that room and room location. A major emphasis of this report is saving energy by utilizing the most suitable, recommended lighting option. (BN)

  19. Yale Tuition Postponement Option.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yale Univ., New Haven, CT. Office of the President.

    This paper offers a detailed explanation of Yale University's tuition postponement option. The purposes of the Plan are: (1) to enable students to defer part of the expense of education; (2) to enable students to contribute to the support of the University in approximate proportion to their ability to do so and to the economic benefit they have…

  20. Options in Suicidal Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steenland, Roger

    1973-01-01

    This article briefly outlines possible causes for the prevalence of suicide attempts among college students and then discusses various options for handling such crises: whether to notify the students' closest relatives, whether to obtain medical evaluation and treatment (as opposed to psychological counseling), and whether to allow the student to…

  1. Career Options in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belloli, Robert C.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a credit/no credit course which focuses on career options in chemistry. The course (consisting of 15 one-hour seminar-type sessions) includes guest speakers for several sessions and an emphasis (in introductory sessions) on graduate school in chemistry, the chemical industry, resumes, and interviews. Also briefly describes an internship…

  2. Alternative Education Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Washington, DC.

    This guide deals with various areas of alternative education programs, including current practices and different options available to school and community personnel. Steps are outlined to assess present educational settings, design new programs, select the participants, and implement and evaluate the new program. The first appendix contains…

  3. Postsecondary Enrollment Options Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelau, Demaree K.

    2001-01-01

    Many states are beginning to notice discontinuities in policy between the K-12 and higher education systems. One approach to easing the high school to college transition is to establish postsecondary enrollment options (PSEO) programs. Currently, 32 states have laws or recently have passed legislation to establish and govern PSEO programs. The…

  4. Our Energy Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Paul A.; Witt, Frank C.

    Presented is an analysis of alternatives available to the United States in dealing with energy problems. Options explained and evaluated include coal, solar, hydroelectric, nuclear, geothermal, wind, biomass, and energy conservation. The booklet is part of Project APEC (America's Possible Energy Choices), a nationally validated Title IVc project…

  5. 77 FR 19278 - Informational Meeting on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... Informational Meeting on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options AGENCY: Office of Fuel Cycle Technologies, Office of Nuclear.... At this meeting, input is being sought from participants knowledgeable in nuclear fuel cycles... evaluation and screening of nuclear fuel cycle options in 2013. At this meeting, input is being sought...

  6. Virtual Terrorism and the Internet E-Learning Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, David R.

    2007-01-01

    E-learning on the Internet is constituted by the options that this global technology gives the user. This article explores these options in terms of the lifestyle choices and decisions that the learner will make about the virtual worlds, textual meanings and cultural groupings that they will find as they learn online. This is a non-linear process…

  7. The Implications of Real Options on ERP-Enabled Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwankpa, Joseph K.

    2012-01-01

    Current research on Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems and real options focuses on valuation and justification issues that manager's face prior to project approval with existing literature attempting to demonstrate that ERP systems as technology positioning investments have option-like characteristics thus making such ERP systems…

  8. Special Schools and Other Options for Gifted STEM Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula

    2010-01-01

    Special schools focused on the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) disciplines are one of the best options for gifted students with talent and interest in these areas. Such schools offer benefits, such as unique opportunities for research and mentoring, that other options cannot. In this article, I compare the advantages and…

  9. Osteoporosis: Therapeutic Options.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Stefka; Vasileva, Liliya; Ivanova, Stanislava; Peikova, Lily; Obreshkova, Danka

    2016-01-01

    The definition of osteoporosis was originally formulated at a conference of the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1993 as 'a systemic skeletal disease characterized by decreased bone mass and altered micro-architecture of bone tissue, leading to enhanced bone fragility and risk of fractures'. Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD) and loss of the structural and bio-mechanical properties that are required to maintain bone homeostasis. This review aims to address the currently available options in prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Management of osteoporosis includes non-pharmacological treatment - diet rich of calcium and vitamin D, healthy lifestyle, proper exercise plan, and pharmacological therapy. Combination of non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment options have to be considered for prevention of osteoporosis and minimization of the risk of fractures. Given the heterogeneity of osteoporosis syndrome and lack of significant number of comparative studies, the choice of a pharmacological agents should be individualized. PMID:27180344

  10. Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  11. Exploration Architecture Options - ECLSS, TCS, EVA Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambliss, Joe; Henninger, Don

    2011-01-01

    Many options for exploration of space have been identified and evaluated since the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) was announced in 2004. The Augustine Commission evaluated human space flight for the Obama administration then the Human Exploration Framework Teams (HEFT and HEFT2) evaluated potential exploration missions and the infrastructure and technology needs for those missions. Lunar architectures have been identified and addressed by the Lunar Surface Systems team to establish options for how to get to, and then inhabit and explore, the moon. This paper will evaluate the options for exploration of space for the implications of architectures on the Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLSS), Thermal Control (TCS), and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Systems.

  12. Valuating Privacy with Option Pricing Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthold, Stefan; Böhme, Rainer

    One of the key challenges in the information society is responsible handling of personal data. An often-cited reason why people fail to make rational decisions regarding their own informational privacy is the high uncertainty about future consequences of information disclosures today. This chapter builds an analogy to financial options and draws on principles of option pricing to account for this uncertainty in the valuation of privacy. For this purpose, the development of a data subject's personal attributes over time and the development of the attribute distribution in the population are modeled as two stochastic processes, which fit into the Binomial Option Pricing Model (BOPM). Possible applications of such valuation methods to guide decision support in future privacy-enhancing technologies (PETs) are sketched.

  13. Novel operative treatment options.

    PubMed

    Ricketts, D N J; Pitts, N B

    2009-01-01

    There are an increasing number of more novel options available for operative intervention. This chapter outlines a series of operative treatment options which are available to the modern clinician to select from once a decision has been made to treat a carious lesion operatively. A series of novel methods of caries removal have been described; including chemomechanical caries removal, air abrasion, sono-abrasion, polymer rotary burs and lasers. There are also novel approaches to ensure complete caries removal and novel approaches for the management of deep caries. A novel question increasingly asked by clinicians is: does all the caries need to be removed? Operative management options here include: therapeutic fissure sealants, ultraconservative caries removal, stepwise excavation and the Hall technique. In conclusion, there is now a growing wealth of evidence that questions the traditional methods of caries removal and restoring the tooth. In parallel, there is a growing movement exploring the merits of therapeutically sealing caries into the tooth. This philosophy is alien to many of today's dentists and, until further randomized controlled trials are carried out in primary care, prudent caution must be exercised with this promising approach. Research is required into techniques which will allow monitoring of sealed caries to detect any rare, but insidious, failures. These novel techniques are an alternative way of managing the later stages of the caries process from a sounder biological basis and have marked potential benefits to patients from treatment, pain and outcome perspectives. PMID:19494685

  14. Propulsive options for a manned Mars transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, Robert D.; Blersch, Donald J.

    1989-01-01

    In this investigation, five potential manned Mars transportation systems are compared. These options include: (1) a single vehicle, chemically propelled (CHEM) option, (2) a single vehicle, nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) option, (3) a single vehicle solar electric propulsion (SEP) option, (4) a single vehicle hybrid nuclear electric propulsion (NEP)/CHEM option, and (5) a dual vehicle option (NEP cargo spacecraft and CHEM manned vehicle). In addition to utilizing the initial vehicle weight in low-earth orbit as a measure of mission feasibility, this study addresses the major technological barriers each propulsive scenario must surpass. It is shown that instead of a single clearly superior propulsion system, each means of propulsion may be favored depending upon the specified program policy and the extent of the desired manned flight time. Furthermore, the effect which aerobraking and multiple transfer cycles have upon mission feasibility is considered.

  15. Fast Spectrum Molten Salt Reactor Options

    SciTech Connect

    Gehin, Jess C; Holcomb, David Eugene; Flanagan, George F; Patton, Bruce W; Howard, Rob L; Harrison, Thomas J

    2011-07-01

    During 2010, fast-spectrum molten-salt reactors (FS-MSRs) were selected as a transformational reactor concept for light-water reactor (LWR)-derived heavy actinide disposition by the Department of Energy-Nuclear Energy Advanced Reactor Concepts (ARC) program and were the subject of a preliminary scoping investigation. Much of the reactor description information presented in this report derives from the preliminary studies performed for the ARC project. This report, however, has a somewhat broader scope-providing a conceptual overview of the characteristics and design options for FS-MSRs. It does not present in-depth evaluation of any FS-MSR particular characteristic, but instead provides an overview of all of the major reactor system technologies and characteristics, including the technology developments since the end of major molten salt reactor (MSR) development efforts in the 1970s. This report first presents a historical overview of the FS-MSR technology and describes the innovative characteristics of an FS-MSR. Next, it provides an overview of possible reactor configurations. The following design features/options and performance considerations are described including: (1) reactor salt options-both chloride and fluoride salts; (2) the impact of changing the carrier salt and actinide concentration on conversion ratio; (3) the conversion ratio; (4) an overview of the fuel salt chemical processing; (5) potential power cycles and hydrogen production options; and (6) overview of the performance characteristics of FS-MSRs, including general comparative metrics with LWRs. The conceptual-level evaluation includes resource sustainability, proliferation resistance, economics, and safety. The report concludes with a description of the work necessary to begin more detailed evaluation of FS-MSRs as a realistic reactor and fuel cycle option.

  16. [Interventional neuroradiology: current options].

    PubMed

    Szikora, István; Marosfői, Miklós; Berentei, Zsolt; Gubucz, István

    2015-04-26

    Modern interventional neuroradiology has a leading role in the treatment of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, and it provides more and more important treatment options for degenerative diseases of the vertebral column and the management of correlated pain. During the last decades interventional neuroradiology has played a primary role in the treatment of intracranial berry aneurysms due to the continuous technical improvements. Ongoing studies proved superiority of mechanical stent-thrombectomy in acute proximal occlusion of cerebral arteries. Less invasive neurointerventional methods, such as vertebroplasty, are widely used in osteoporotic and neoplastic pathologic fractures of the vertebral bodies. These treatments should be performed in a specialized center by well trained physicians. PMID:26047151

  17. Options for Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchard, E. B.; Harrison, E. F.; Moore, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    The many possible post-Viking 1975 Mars mission options are explored. These include small atmospheric probe/landers (adaptations of the Venus Pioneer to Mars), repeat Vikings with and without science changes, long-life orbiters to provide coverage of both hemispheres for a full Martian year, small rovers deployed from the Viking lander with ranges of up to 1 km from it, large autonomous rovers, Mars sample-return missions and, finally, missions to the satellites of Mars, including sample return. The examination includes energy requirements and time frames.

  18. Martingale option pricing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCauley, J. L.; Gunaratne, G. H.; Bassler, K. E.

    2007-07-01

    We show that our earlier generalization of the Black-Scholes partial differential equation (pde) for variable diffusion coefficients is equivalent to a Martingale in the risk neutral discounted stock price. Previously, the equivalence of Black-Scholes to a Martingale was proven for the case of the Gaussian returns model by Harrison and Kreps, but we prove it for a much larger class of returns models where the returns diffusion coefficient depends irreducibly on both returns x and time t. That option prices blow up if fat tails in logarithmic returns x are included in market return is also proven.

  19. Achilles Tendinosis: Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Roberto Gabriel L.

    2015-01-01

    Athletes usually complain of an ongoing or chronic pain over the Achilles tendon, but recently even non-athletes are experiencing the same kind of pain which affects their daily activities. Achilles tendinosis refers to a degenerative process of the tendon without histologic or clinical signs of intratendinous inflammation. Treatment is based on whether to stimulate or prevent neovascularization. Thus, until now, there is no consensus as to the best treatment for this condition. This paper aims to review the common ways of treating this condition from the conservative to the surgical options. PMID:25729512

  20. Adolescent pregnancy options.

    PubMed

    Resnick, M D

    1992-09-01

    The range of pregnancy options available to adolescents each have significant ramifications for future educational and economic achievement. The changing societal context of adolescent pregnancy decision-making are described, and the characteristics of adolescents who choose to terminate their pregnancy, parent their child, or place for adoption are examined. The role of significant others in decision-making and the implications of mandatory parental involvement in pregnancy decision-making is discussed, as well as the roles of schools in promoting the well-being and potential of adolescents considering pregnancy decisions. PMID:1434557

  1. Options for future mobile backhaul and fronthaul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kani, Jun-ichi; Kuwano, Shigeru; Terada, Jun

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes the options for constructing mobile backhaul (MBH) and mobile fronthaul (MFH) networks that can support mobile broadband services beyond LTE Advanced. It first reviews the current architecture of Radio Access Network (RAN) which comprises MBH and MFH as well as the wireless section to reach the user equipment (UE). Then, it describes technologies for future MBH/MFH networks that are capable to the drastic increase of wireless bandwidth as well as the massive deployment of small cells.

  2. Mixed waste management options

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, C.B.; Kirner, N.P.

    1991-12-31

    Disposal fees for mixed waste at proposed commercial disposal sites have been estimated to be $15,000 to $40,000 per cubit foot. If such high disposal fees are imposed, generators may be willing to apply extraordinary treatment or regulatory approaches to properly dispose of their mixed waste. This paper explores the feasibility of several waste management scenarios and attempts to answer the question: Can mixed waste be managed out of existence? Existing data on commercially generated mixed waste streams are used to identify the realm of mixed waste known to be generated. Each waste stream is evaluated from both a regulatory and technical perspective in order to convert the waste into a strictly low-level radioactive or a hazardous waste. Alternative regulatory approaches evaluated in this paper include a delisting petition, no migration petition, and a treatability variance. For each waste stream, potentially available treatment options are identified that could lead to these variances. Waste minimization methodology and storage for decay are also considered. Economic feasibility of each option is discussed broadly.

  3. TOPEX satellite option study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The basic design of the fleet satellite communication spacecraft (FLTSATCOM) can easily accommodate any of the three payload options for the ocean dynamic topography experiment (TOPEX). The principal mission requirements as well as the payload accommodations and communications systems needed for launching this payload are reviewed. The existing FLTSATCOM satellite design is identified and the approaches for the proposed propulsion system are described in addition to subsystems for mechanical; power; attitude and velocity control; and telemetry, tracking and control are described. The compatability of FLTSATCOM with the launch vehicle is examined and its capabilities vs TOPEX requirements are summarized. Undetermined changes needed to meet data storage, thermal control, and area to mass ratio requirements are discussed. Cost estimates are included for budgetary and planning purposes. The availability of the described design is assessed based on the continuing production of FLTSATCOM spacecraft during the schedule span planned for TOPEX.

  4. Achalasia: current treatment options.

    PubMed

    Familiari, Pietro; Greco, Santi; Volkanovska, Ance; Gigante, Giovanni; Cali, Anna; Boškoski, Ivo; Costamagna, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Achalasia is a rare esophageal motility disorder, characterized by impaired swallow-induced, lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation and defective esophageal peristalsis. Unfortunately, there are no etiological therapies for achalasia. Patients present with dysphagia, chest pain and regurgitation of undigested food, often leading to weight loss. The currently available treatments have the common aim of relieving symptoms by decreasing the pressure of the LES. This can be achieved with some medications, by inhibiting the cholinergic innervation (botulinum toxin), by stretching (endoscopic dilation) or cutting (surgery) the LES. Recently, other therapeutic options, including per-oral endoscopic myotomy have been developed and are gaining international consensus. The authors report on the benefits and weaknesses of the different therapies and provide an updated approach to the management of achalasia. PMID:26186641

  5. 10 CFR 420.17 - Optional elements of State Energy Program plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Optional elements of State Energy Program plans. 420.17... Procedures § 420.17 Optional elements of State Energy Program plans. (a) Other appropriate activities or... establishing State-level Energy Technology Commercialization Services Program as an optional element of...

  6. 10 CFR 420.17 - Optional elements of State Energy Program plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Optional elements of State Energy Program plans. 420.17... Procedures § 420.17 Optional elements of State Energy Program plans. (a) Other appropriate activities or... establishing State-level Energy Technology Commercialization Services Program as an optional element of...

  7. 10 CFR 420.17 - Optional elements of State Energy Program plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Optional elements of State Energy Program plans. 420.17... Procedures § 420.17 Optional elements of State Energy Program plans. (a) Other appropriate activities or... establishing State-level Energy Technology Commercialization Services Program as an optional element of...

  8. Peak load management: Potential options

    SciTech Connect

    Englin, J.E.; De Steese, J.G.; Schultz, R.W.; Kellogg, M.A.

    1989-10-01

    This report reviews options that may be alternatives to transmission construction (ATT) applicable both generally and at specific locations in the service area of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Some of these options have potential as specific alternatives to the Shelton-Fairmount 230-kV Reinforcement Project, which is the focus of this study. A listing of 31 peak load management (PLM) options is included. Estimated costs and normalized hourly load shapes, corresponding to the respective base load and controlled load cases, are considered for 15 of the above options. A summary page is presented for each of these options, grouped with respect to its applicability in the residential, commercial, industrial, and agricultural sectors. The report contains comments on PLM measures for which load shape management characteristics are not yet available. These comments address the potential relevance of the options and the possible difficulty that may be encountered in characterizing their value should be of interest in this investigation. The report also identifies options that could improve the efficiency of the three customer utility distribution systems supplied by the Shelton-Fairmount Reinforcement Project. Potential cogeneration options in the Olympic Peninsula are also discussed. These discussions focus on the options that appear to be most promising on the Olympic Peninsula. Finally, a short list of options is recommended for investigation in the next phase of this study. 9 refs., 24 tabs.

  9. Emerging Options and Opportunities in Civilian Aeronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the major problems/issues with civilian aeronautics going forward, the contextual ongoing technology revolutions, the several emerging civilian aeronautical "Big Ideas" and associated enabling technological approaches. The ongoing IT Revolution is increasingly providing, as 5 senses virtual presence/reality becomes available, along with Nano/Molecular Manufacturing, virtual alternatives to Physical transportation for both people and goods. Paper examines the potential options available to aeronautics to maintain and perhaps grow "market share" in the context of this evolving competition. Many of these concepts are not new, but the emerging technology landscape is enhancing their viability and marketability. The concepts vary from the "interesting" to the truly revolutionary and all require considerable research. Paper considers the speed range from personal/general aviation to supersonic transports and technologies from energetics to fabrication.

  10. From Earth to orbit. [assessment of transportation options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gavin, Joseph G., Jr.; Blond, Edmund; Brill, Yvonne C.; Budiansky, Bernard; Cooper, Robert S.; Demisch, Wolfgang H.; Hawk, Clark W.; Kerrebrock, Jack L.; Lichtenberg, Byron K.; Mager, Arthur

    1992-01-01

    Within this document, the National Research Council (NRC) assesses the requirements, benefits, technological feasibility, and roles of Earth-to-orbit transportation options that could be developed in support of the national space program. Among the topics covered are launch vehicles and infrastructure, propulsion, and technology.

  11. Space Station needs, attributes, and architectural option study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Potential user interest and requirements for a manned space station are examined for space and applications missions, commercial missions, technology demonstration missions, space operations missions, and national security missions. Approaches to architectural options, candidate payloads, and technology drivers are considered. Mission imposed requirements for the space operations center are also considered.

  12. Space Transportation Options for the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Schmidt, George R.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Martin, James J.

    1999-01-01

    Advanced space transportation options may eventually enable rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system. Advanced propulsion systems with energy densities several orders of magnitude greater than state-of-the art systems may be available in the 21 st century. These propulsion systems include systems based on fission, fusion, antimatter annihilation and other advanced processes. Other transportation options propose using in-situ resources to enable rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system using more conventional propulsion technologies. This presentation will summarize select space transportation options of current interest to NASA MSFC's Space Propulsion Branch, present progress being made towards developing each of the options, and discuss obstacles that must be overcome before any of the options can be implemented.

  13. Space Transportation Options for the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.

    1999-01-01

    Advanced space transportation options may eventually enable rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system. Advanced propulsion systems with energy densities several orders of magnitude greater than state-of-the art systems may be available in the 21 st century. These propulsion systems include systems based on fission, fusion, antimatter annihilation, and other advanced processes. Other transportation options propose using in-situ resources to enable rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system using more conventional propulsion technologies. This presentation will. summarize select space transportation options of current interest to NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's Propulsion Research Center, present progress being made towards developing each of the options, and discuss obstacles that must be overcome before any of the options can be implemented.

  14. 20 CFR 416.2035 - Optional supplementation: Additional State options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Optional supplementation: Additional State options. 416.2035 Section 416.2035 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED State Supplementation Provisions; Agreement;...

  15. 20 CFR 416.2035 - Optional supplementation: Additional State options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optional supplementation: Additional State options. 416.2035 Section 416.2035 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED State Supplementation Provisions; Agreement;...

  16. Selected Energy Conservation Options for Homeowners: Options, Expenses and Payoffs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lengyel, Dorothy L.; And Others

    This publication is a check list for homeowners and renters to help them reduce energy costs. The list consists of 126 energy conservation options. These options range from "change clothes instead of adjusting thermostat" and "air conditioners turned off when not home" to "use sink stopper" and "weatherstripping and caulking applied." For each…

  17. Energy: Options and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Harry O.

    This book is intended to provide basic information about energy. The first three chapters describe energy supply and demand, uses and sources, and common energy terms. The next two chapters explain environmental and biological effects of energy systems. Twelve chapters that follow outline past history and technological knowledge of the following…

  18. NEWS: US DECARBONIZATION OPTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The quest to reduce reliance on energy generating technologies releasing global warming pollutants usch as carbon dioxide and methane has been a target of concern across the world. An analysis of a map leading to decarbonization in the US has recently beeen described. Carbon rish...

  19. Synroc processing options

    SciTech Connect

    Rozsa, R.B.; Hoenig, C.L.

    1981-09-01

    Synroc is a titanate-based ceramic material currently being developed for immobilizing high-level nuclear reactor wastes in solid form. Synroc D is a unique variation of Synroc. It can contain the high-level defense wastes, particularly those in storage at the Savannah River Plant. In this report, we review the early development of the initial Synroc process, discuss modification and other options that simplify it overall, and recommend the future direction of research and development in the processing area. A reference Synroc process is described briefly and contrasted with the Savannah River Laboratory glass-based reference case. Preliminary engineering layouts show Synroc to be a more complex processing operation and, thus, more expensive than the glass-based process. However, we believe that simplifications, which will significantly reduce the cost difference, are possible. Further research and development will continue in the areas of slurry processing, fluidized bed calcination, and mineralization. This last will use sintering, hot uniaxial pressing, or hot isostatic pressing.

  20. Pediatric Glaucoma: Pharmacotherapeutic Options.

    PubMed

    Samant, Monica; Medsinge, Anagha; Nischal, Ken K

    2016-06-01

    Childhood glaucoma is a major therapeutic challenge for pediatric ophthalmologists and glaucoma specialists worldwide. Management depends on the etiology and age at presentation. A variety of drugs are available for the control of intraocular pressure in children; however, none of these drugs have been licensed by the regulatory agencies for use in children. Furthermore, evidence gained from randomized controlled trials in the pediatric population is sparse, and little is known regarding the use of newer anti-glaucoma preparations. This evidence-based review aims to discuss the available pharmacotherapeutic options for glaucoma in children. Topical adrenoceptor blockers, topical and systemic carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, prostaglandin (PG) analogs, adrenoceptor agonists, parasympathomimetics, and combined preparations are available for use in children, but usually as an off-label indication. Therefore, it is important to recognize that serious side effects have been reported, even with topical drops, and measures to reduce systemic absorption should be taken. Most drugs have been shown to have comparable ocular hypotensive effects, with the lowest occurrence of systemic side effects with PG analogs. Whereas a newly introduced prostaglandin analog, tafluprost, and some other preservative-free preparations have shown promising results in adult glaucoma patients, no pediatric reports are available as yet. Future studies may describe their role in treating pediatric glaucoma. This review also shares some suggested treatment pathways for primary congenital glaucoma (PCG), juvenile open angle glaucoma (JOAG), developmental glaucoma, aphakic/pseudophakic glaucoma, and uveitic glaucoma. PMID:27093864

  1. Treatment Options for Narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Barateau, Lucie; Lopez, Régis; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2016-05-01

    Narcolepsy type 1 and narcolepsy type 2 are central disorders of hypersomnolence. Narcolepsy type 1 is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy and is associated with hypocretin-1 deficiency. On the other hand, in narcolepsy type 2, cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 levels are normal and cataplexy absent. Despite major advances in our understanding of narcolepsy mechanisms, its current management is only symptomatic. Treatment options may vary from a single drug that targets several symptoms, or multiple medications that each treats a specific symptom. In recent years, narcolepsy treatment has changed with the widespread use of modafinil/armodafinil for daytime sleepiness, antidepressants (selective serotonin and dual serotonin and noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors) for cataplexy, and sodium oxybate for both symptoms. Other psychostimulants can also be used, such as methylphenidate, pitolisant and rarely amphetamines, as third-line therapy. Importantly, clinically relevant subjective and objective measures of daytime sleepiness are required to monitor the treatment efficacy and to provide guidance on whether the treatment goals are met. Associated symptoms and comorbid conditions, such as hypnagogic/hypnopompic hallucinations, sleep paralysis, disturbed nighttime sleep, unpleasant dreams, REM- and non REM-related parasomnias, depressive symptoms, overweight/obesity, and obstructive sleep apnea, should also be taken into account and managed, if required. In the near future, the efficacy of new wake-promoting drugs, anticataplectic agents, hypocretin replacement therapy and immunotherapy at the early stages of the disease should also be evaluated. PMID:27155860

  2. Maintenance and supply options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The object of the Maintenance and Supply Option was to develop a high level operational philosophy related to maintenance and supply operations and incorporate these concepts into the Lunar Base Study. Specific products to be generated during this task were three trade studies and a conceptual design of the Logistic Supply Module. The crew size study was performed to evaluate crew sizes from the baseline size of four to a crew size of eight and determine the preferred crew size. The second trade study was to determine the impact of extending surface stay times and recommend a preferred duration of stay time as a function of crew, consumables, and equipment support capabilities. The third trade study was an evaluation of packaging and storage methods to determine the preferred logistics approach to support the lunar base. A modified scenario was developed and served as the basis of the individual trade studies. Assumptions and guidelines were also developed from experience with Apollo programs, Space Shuttle operations, and Space Station studies. With this information, the trade studies were performed and a conceptual design for the Logistic Supply Module was developed.

  3. A Smorgasbord of Assessment Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Kathy A.

    2010-01-01

    The wealth of assessment options that exists offers teachers and students a "menu" of selections. Just as matching appetite needs with appropriate food selection is fundamental to a successful dining experience, matching assessment options to targeted achievement needs is crucial to an effective assessment experience. The author uses a geometry…

  4. Bounds for Asian basket options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deelstra, Griselda; Diallo, Ibrahima; Vanmaele, Michèle

    2008-09-01

    In this paper we propose pricing bounds for European-style discrete arithmetic Asian basket options in a Black and Scholes framework. We start from methods used for basket options and Asian options. First, we use the general approach for deriving upper and lower bounds for stop-loss premia of sums of non-independent random variables as in Kaas et al. [Upper and lower bounds for sums of random variables, Insurance Math. Econom. 27 (2000) 151-168] or Dhaene et al. [The concept of comonotonicity in actuarial science and finance: theory, Insurance Math. Econom. 31(1) (2002) 3-33]. We generalize the methods in Deelstra et al. [Pricing of arithmetic basket options by conditioning, Insurance Math. Econom. 34 (2004) 55-57] and Vanmaele et al. [Bounds for the price of discrete sampled arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 185(1) (2006) 51-90]. Afterwards we show how to derive an analytical closed-form expression for a lower bound in the non-comonotonic case. Finally, we derive upper bounds for Asian basket options by applying techniques as in Thompson [Fast narrow bounds on the value of Asian options, Working Paper, University of Cambridge, 1999] and Lord [Partially exact and bounded approximations for arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Finance 10 (2) (2006) 1-52]. Numerical results are included and on the basis of our numerical tests, we explain which method we recommend depending on moneyness and time-to-maturity.

  5. Optional Extended Year Program. FEEDBACK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Wanda

    The Optional Extended Year (OEY) program was initiated in Texas in 1995 and was first implemented in the Austin Independent School District (AISD) in 1996. The OEY is designed to add an extended school year and reduce student retention through four school-day options: (1) extended day; (2) extended week; (3) intersessions for year-round schools;…

  6. The commercialization process and future energy options

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.A.; Snell, S.A.

    1988-06-01

    The commercialization of new energy technologies is a complex and difficult process. Few energy-related inventions are successfully translated into products and once on the market, many do not survive. Reasonable predictions about energy options in the year 2000 require a full understanding of the commercialization process as it pertains to new energy technologies. Drawing upon the experiences of the US Department of Energy's Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP), this paper outlines some of the patterns, processes, and problems related to the commercialization of new energy technologies. Energy price fluctuations, inadequate investment capital, insufficient market demand, and inappropriate commercialization strategies are found to be common problems besetting ERIP inventors. 12 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Photovoltaic power - An important new energy option

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferber, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    A review of photovoltaic (PV) power technology is presented with an emphasis of PV as an economical and technically feasible alternative source of energy. The successful completion of the development and transfer of emerging low-cost technologies into a fully commercialized status are identified as the means to the realization of this option's full potential. The DOE National Photovoltaics Program, a significant sponsor of PV R&D, expects both flat-plate and concentrator collectors to meet established cost targets. Citing the DOE large flat-plate grid-connected system project of the Sacramento Municipal Utility District, current technology modules priced at near $5/Wp (1983 dollars) are steadily reducing costs. A recent DOE study suggests that PV-generated electricity produced at a 30-year levelized cost of 15 cents per kWh would represent a viable energy supply alternative for the nation.

  8. Making real options really work.

    PubMed

    van Putten, Alexander B; MacMillan, Ian C

    2004-12-01

    As a way to value growth opportunities, real options have had a difficult time catching on with managers. Many CFOs believe the method ensures the overvaluation of risky projects. This concern is legitimate, but abandoning real options as a valuation model isn't the solution. Companies that rely solely on discounted cash flow (DCF) analysis underestimate the value of their projects and may fail to invest enough in uncertain but highly promising opportunities. CFOs need not--and should not--choose one approach over the other. Far from being a replacement for DCF analysis, real options are an essential complement, and a project's total value should encompass both. DCF captures a base estimate of value; real options take into account the potential for big gains. This is not to say that there aren't problems with real options. As currently applied, they focus almost exclusively on the risks associated with revenues, ignoring the risks associated with a project's costs. It's also true that option valuations almost always ignore assets that an initial investment in a subsequently abandoned project will often leave the company. In this article, the authors present a simple formula for combining DCF and option valuations that addresses these two problems. Using an integrated approach, managers will, in the long run, select better projects than their more timid competitors while keeping risk under control. Thus, they will outperform their rivals in both the product and the capital markets. PMID:15605572

  9. Molten carbonate fuel cell stack design options

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, T.G.; Petri, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Significant strides in molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) life and performance have been made during the last 20 years. Results include single cell performance improvement from 10 watts/ft/sup 2/ to 120 watts/ft/sup 2/, testing of several sub-scale stacks, and significant reductions in cost. In the 1980s, attention has turned toward stack-related issues including component dimensional and structural stability, cathode dissolution, sulfur poisoning, hardware design, electrolyte management, carbon dioxide conservation, internal reforming, and systems considerations. This paper discusses MCFC stack hardware design options and present a brief introduction to MCFC technology. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  10. Molten carbonate fuel cell stack design options

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, T.G.; Petri, R.J.

    1986-03-01

    Significant strides in molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) life and performance have been made during the last 20 years. Results include single cell performance improvement from 10 watts/ft/sup 2/ to 120 watts/ft/sup 2/, testing of several sub-scale stacks, and significant reductions in cost. In the 1980's, attention has turned toward stack-related issues including component dimensional and structural stability, cathode dissolution, sulfur poisoning, hardware design, electrolyte management, carbon dioxide conservation, internal reforming, and systems considerations. This paper discusses MCFC stack hardware design options and present a brief introduction to MCFC technology. 4 references, 8 figures.

  11. Carotid artery stenting: current and emerging options

    PubMed Central

    Morr, Simon; Lin, Ning; Siddiqui, Adnan H

    2014-01-01

    Carotid artery stenting technologies are rapidly evolving. Options for endovascular surgeons and interventionists who treat occlusive carotid disease continue to expand. We here present an update and overview of carotid stenting devices. Evidence supporting carotid stenting includes randomized controlled trials that compare endovascular stenting to open surgical endarterectomy. Carotid technologies addressed include the carotid stents themselves as well as adjunct neuroprotective devices. Aspects of stent technology include bare-metal versus covered stents, stent tapering, and free-cell area. Drug-eluting and cutting balloon indications are described. Embolization protection options and new direct carotid access strategies are reviewed. Adjunct technologies, such as intravascular ultrasound imaging and risk stratification algorithms, are discussed. Bare-metal and covered stents provide unique advantages and disadvantages. Stent tapering may allow for a more fitted contour to the caliber decrement between the common carotid and internal carotid arteries but also introduces new technical challenges. Studies regarding free-cell area are conflicting with respect to benefits and associated risk; clinical relevance of associated adverse effects associated with either type is unclear. Embolization protection strategies include distal filter protection and flow reversal. Though flow reversal was initially met with some skepticism, it has gained wider acceptance and may provide the advantage of not crossing the carotid lesion before protection is established. New direct carotid access techniques address difficult anatomy and incorporate sophisticated flow-reversal embolization protection techniques. Carotid stenting is a new and exciting field with rapidly advancing technologies. Embolization protection, low-risk deployment, and lesion assessment and stratification are active areas of research. Ample room remains for further innovations and developments. PMID:25349483

  12. FS65 Disposition Option Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wenz, Tracy R.

    2015-09-25

    This report outlines the options for dispositioning the MOX fuel stored in FS65 containers at LANL. Additional discussion regarding the support equipment for loading and unloading the FS65 transport containers is included at the end of the report.

  13. NYMEX electricity futures and options

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, L.

    1996-12-31

    Electricity futures and options are discussed under the following topics: a futures contract, primary economic role of commodity exchanges, characteristics of an effective exchange, natural gas and electricity similarities, hedging, and coal futures contracts.

  14. Manned Mars mission astronomy options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, S. T.

    1986-01-01

    Astronomical observations during the transit phase, in orbit about Mars, and from the surface present important scientific objectives. Primary astronomical objectives are being summarized by J. Burns (University of New Mexico). Additional or alternative options will be introduced here, together with their strengths, weaknesses, viability, and value. It is important to note at the outset that not all possible options are necessarily important or viable.

  15. Grazing management options in meeting objectives of grazing experiments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Decisions on which grazing management option to use in grazing experiments can be critical in meeting research objectives and generating information for the scientific community or technologies that meets the needs of forage-based enterprises. It is necessary to have an understanding of animal per...

  16. On-Going Comparison of Advanced Fuel Cycle Options

    SciTech Connect

    Piet, S.J.; Bennett, R.G.; Dixon, B.W.; Herring, J.S.; Shropshire, D.E.; Roth, M.; Smith, J.D.; Finck, P.; Hill, R.; Laidler, J.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.

    2004-10-03

    This paper summarizes the current comprehensive comparison of four major fuel cycle strategies: once-through, thermal recycle, thermal+fast recycle, fast recycle. It then proceeds to summarize comparison of the major technology options for the key elements of the fuel cycle that can implement each of the four strategies - separation processing, transmutation reactors, and fuels.

  17. Energy for Development: Third World Options. Worldwatch Paper 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Denis

    Focusing on the need for energy to sustain economic development on a long-term basis, the document examines energy options of the post-petroleum era in developing nations. Nuclear power and solar power are the most important among proposed alternative energy sources. Limited applicability of nuclear technology to the Third World is discussed.…

  18. Space station needs, attributes and architectural options study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    All the candidate Technology Development missions investigated during the space station needs, attributes, and architectural options study are described. All the mission data forms plus additional information such as, cost, drawings, functional flows, etc., generated in support of these mission is included with a computer generated mission data form.

  19. 5 CFR 410.203 - Options for developing employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Options for developing employees. 410.203 Section 410.203 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS TRAINING... classroom training, on-the-job training, technology-based training, satellite training, employees'...

  20. 5 CFR 410.203 - Options for developing employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Options for developing employees. 410.203 Section 410.203 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS TRAINING... classroom training, on-the-job training, technology-based training, satellite training, employees'...

  1. 5 CFR 410.203 - Options for developing employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Options for developing employees. 410.203 Section 410.203 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS TRAINING... classroom training, on-the-job training, technology-based training, satellite training, employees'...

  2. 5 CFR 410.203 - Options for developing employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Options for developing employees. 410.203 Section 410.203 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS TRAINING... classroom training, on-the-job training, technology-based training, satellite training, employees'...

  3. 5 CFR 410.203 - Options for developing employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Options for developing employees. 410.203 Section 410.203 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS TRAINING... classroom training, on-the-job training, technology-based training, satellite training, employees'...

  4. Real option logic for healthcare entrepreneurial growth and survival.

    PubMed

    Williams, David R; Hammes, Paul H

    2007-05-01

    Given the increasing market and technological uncertainty of capital investments, healthcare financial executives need to incorporate flexibility into their decision making. Traditional capital budgeting techniques do not take into consideration the need for flexibility, changes in the environment, or actions by management. In response, practitioners from various industries have adopted a new way of looking at capital investments: real options. PMID:17514912

  5. Lunar Cube Transfer Trajectory Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Dichmann, Donald James; Clark, Pamela E.; Haapala, Amanda; Howell, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Numerous Earth-Moon trajectory and lunar orbit options are available for Cubesat missions. Given the limited Cubesat injection infrastructure, transfer trajectories are contingent upon the modification of an initial condition of the injected or deployed orbit. Additionally, these transfers can be restricted by the selection or designs of Cubesat subsystems such as propulsion or communication. Nonetheless, many trajectory options can b e considered which have a wide range of transfer duration, fuel requirements, and final destinations. Our investigation of potential trajectories highlights several options including deployment from low Earth orbit (LEO) geostationary transfer orbits (GTO) and higher energy direct lunar transfer and the use of longer duration Earth-Moon dynamical systems. For missions with an intended lunar orbit, much of the design process is spent optimizing a ballistic capture while other science locations such as Sun-Earth libration or heliocentric orbits may simply require a reduced Delta-V imparted at a convenient location along the trajectory.

  6. Lunar Cube Transfer Trajectory Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Dichmann, Donald J.; Clark, Pamela; Haapala, Amanda; Howell, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Numerous Earth-Moon trajectory and lunar orbit options are available for Cubesat missions. Given the limited Cubesat injection infrastructure, transfer trajectories are contingent upon the modification of an initial condition of the injected or deployed orbit. Additionally, these transfers can be restricted by the selection or designs of Cubesat subsystems such as propulsion or communication. Nonetheless, many trajectory options can be considered which have a wide range of transfer durations, fuel requirements, and final destinations. Our investigation of potential trajectories highlights several options including deployment from low Earth orbit (LEO), geostationary transfer orbits (GTO), and higher energy direct lunar transfers and the use of longer duration Earth-Moon dynamical systems. For missions with an intended lunar orbit, much of the design process is spent optimizing a ballistic capture while other science locations such as Sun-Earth libration or heliocentric orbits may simply require a reduced Delta-V imparted at a convenient location along the trajectory.

  7. The $2000 Electric Powertrain Option-1 Program. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    This report describes the tasks accomplished as part of Northrop Grumman's TRP $2000 Electric Powertrain Option-1 program. Northrop Grumman has strived to achieve technology advances and development considered as high priority to the success of future electric vehicles. Northrop Grumman has achieved the intent of the program by taking several steps toward reducing the cost of the electric vehicle powertrain, demonstrating technologies in the form of hardware and introducing enhancements into production that are consistent with the needs of the market.

  8. Personnel Preparation Options: Ideas from a Policy Options Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, James J.; And Others

    This report summarizes discussions from a policy options conference devoted to the needs for personnel preparation related to the implementation of Public Law 99-457, Part H, which provides services to infants and toddlers with handicapping conditions and their families. The three policy questions identified as the most significant were: (1) what…

  9. Strategic Planning for Technological Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Bart

    2007-01-01

    Strategic planning can become downright treacherous if one's institution depends heavily on technology, because technology changes course frequently. Technological change is somewhat predictable, and doing nothing is not an option. A number of complex factors hasten technological change. Limits on performance, breakthrough technology, market…

  10. Newer Management Options in Leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Rao, P Narasimha; Jain, Suman

    2013-01-01

    Newer management options are needed for leprosy control even at present, as it is predicted that new cases of leprosy will continue to appear for many more years in future. This article detail newer methods of clinical grading of peripheral nerve involvement (thickening, tenderness and nerve pain which are subjective in nature) and the advances made in the use of Ultrasonography and Colour Doppler as an objective imaging tool for nerves in leprosy. It also briefly discusses the newer drugs and alternative regimens as therapeutic management options which hold promise for leprosy in future. PMID:23372204

  11. Technetium removal: preliminary flowsheet options

    SciTech Connect

    Eager, K.M.

    1995-10-24

    This document presents the results of a preliminary investigation into options for preliminary flowsheets for 99Tc removal from Hanford Site tank waste. A model is created to show the path of 99Tc through pretreatment to disposal. The Tank Waste Remediation (TWRS) flowsheet (Orme 1995) is used as a baseline. Ranges of important inputs to the model are developed, such as 99Tc inventory in the tanks and important splits through the TWRS flowsheet. Several technetium removal options are discussed along with sensitivities of the removal schemes to important model parameters

  12. Design Evolution Study - Aging Options

    SciTech Connect

    P. McDaniel

    2002-04-05

    The purpose of this study is to identify options and issues for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel received for disposal at the Yucca Mountain Mined Geologic Repository. Some early shipments of commercial spent nuclear fuel to the repository may be received with high-heat-output (younger) fuel assemblies that will need to be managed to meet thermal goals for emplacement. The capability to age as much as 40,000 metric tons of heavy metal of commercial spent nuclear he1 would provide more flexibility in the design to manage this younger fuel and to decouple waste receipt and waste emplacement. The following potential aging location options are evaluated: (1) Surface aging at four locations near the North Portal; (2) Subsurface aging in the permanent emplacement drifts; and (3) Subsurface aging in a new subsurface area. The following aging container options are evaluated: (1) Complete Waste Package; (2) Stainless Steel inner liner of the waste package; (3) Dual Purpose Canisters; (4) Multi-Purpose Canisters; and (5) New disposable canister for uncanistered commercial spent nuclear fuel. Each option is compared to a ''Base Case,'' which is the expected normal waste packaging process without aging. A Value Engineering approach is used to score each option against nine technical criteria and rank the options. Open issues with each of the options and suggested future actions are also presented. Costs for aging containers and aging locations are evaluated separately. Capital costs are developed for direct costs and distributable field costs. To the extent practical, unit costs are presented. Indirect costs, operating costs, and total system life cycle costs will be evaluated outside of this study. Three recommendations for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel--subsurface, surface, and combined surface and subsurface are presented for further review in the overall design re-evaluation effort. Options that were evaluated but not recommended are: subsurface aging in a new

  13. Renewable energy technology characterizations

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1997-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations front matter lists the chapters and tables that support this report on the technical and economic status of the major emerging renewable energy options for electricity supply.

  14. VAMOS: The verification and monitoring options study: Current research options for in-situ monitoring and verification of contaminant remediation and containment within the vadose zone

    SciTech Connect

    Betsill, J.D.; Gruebel, R.D.

    1995-09-01

    The Verification and Monitoring Options Study Project (VAMOS) was established to identify high-priority options for future vadose-zone environmental research in the areas of in-situ remediation monitoring, post-closure monitoring, and containment emplacement and verification monitoring. VAMOS examined projected needs not currently being met with applied technology in order to develop viable monitoring and verification research options. The study emphasized a compatible systems approach to reinforce the need for utilizing compatible components to provide user friendly site monitoring systems. To identify the needs and research options related to vadose-zone environmental monitoring and verification, a literature search and expert panel forums were conducted. The search included present drivers for environmental monitoring technology, technology applications, and research efforts. The forums included scientific, academic, industry, and regulatory environmental professionals as well as end users of environmental technology. The experts evaluated current and future monitoring and verification needs, methods for meeting these needs, and viable research options and directions. A variety of high-priority technology development, user facility, and technology guidance research options were developed and presented as an outcome of the literature search and expert panel forums.

  15. 48 CFR 2917.207 - Exercising options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exercising options. 2917... AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 2917.207 Exercising options. The contracting officer must use a standardized determination and finding before exercising an option in accordance...

  16. 48 CFR 2917.207 - Exercising options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exercising options. 2917... AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 2917.207 Exercising options. The contracting officer must use a standardized determination and finding before exercising an option in accordance...

  17. 17 CFR 32.3 - Trade options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Trade options. 32.3 Section 32... OPTION TRANSACTIONS § 32.3 Trade options. (a) Subject to paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section... period preceding the date on which the trade option is entered into, (iv) In connection with any...

  18. 17 CFR 32.3 - Trade options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Trade options. 32.3 Section 32... OPTION TRANSACTIONS § 32.3 Trade options. (a) Subject to paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section... period preceding the date on which the trade option is entered into, (iv) In connection with any...

  19. Options for the Development of Noninvasive Glucose Monitoring: Is Nanotechnology an Option to Break the Boundaries?

    PubMed

    Thomas, Andreas; Heinemann, Lutz; Ramírez, Araceli; Zehe, Alfred

    2016-05-01

    Nowadays nanotechnology has many applications in products used in various areas of daily life; however, this technology has also an option in modern medicine and pharmacy. Therefore, this technology is also an attractive option for the field of diagnosis and treatment of diabetes. Many people with diabetes measure their blood glucose levels regularly to determine the insulin dose. Ideally glucose values would be measured noninvasively (NI). However, none of all the NI approaches studied in the past decades enabled reliable NI measurements under all daily life conditions. Particularly an unfavorable signal-to-noise ratio turned out to be problematic. Based on the known physical possibilities for NI glucose monitoring the focus of this review is on nanotechnology approaches. Functional prototypes exist for some of these that showed promising results under defined laboratory conditions, indicating a good sensitivity and selectivity for glucose. On the second hand is to optimize the technological process of manufacturing. In view of the rapid progress in micro- and nanoelectronics hopefully NI glucose monitoring systems can be developed in the near future. PMID:26581879

  20. Minnesota's Public School Choice Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colopy, Kelly W.; Tarr, Hope C.

    This document presents findings of a study that identified patterns of use among a broad array of open-enrollment options available to elementary and secondary students in Minnesota. During the period 1985-91, the Minnesota legislature passed several pieces of new legislation designed to: (1) increase the educational choices available to students,…

  1. 77 FR 25319 - Commodity Options

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... Recordkeeping, 76 FR 29818, May 23, 2011 (``Product Definitions NPRM''). The final rule and interpretations that... not applicable. \\7\\ Commodity Options and Agricultural Swaps, 76 FR 6095, Feb. 3, 2011. Note that in... 10, 2011 and are not addressed herein. See Agricultural Swaps, 76 FR 49291, Aug. 10, 2011...

  2. Options for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minaya-Rowe, Liliana

    2008-01-01

    Between 69 percent and 90 percent of English language learners (ELLs) in middle and high schools were born in the United States and have been in U.S. schools since kindergarten still have not achieved the academic proficiency to succeed in an all-English mainstream program. Various ELL program options are available for school districts to…

  3. Exploring Higher Education Financing Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nkrumah-Young, Kofi K.; Powell, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Higher education can be financed privately, financed by governments, or shared. Given that the benefits of education accrue to the individual and the state, many governments opt for shared financing. This article examines the underpinnings of different options for financing higher education and develops a model to compare conditions to choices and…

  4. Tool for Ranking Research Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, James N.; Scott, Kelly; Smith, Harold

    2005-01-01

    Tool for Research Enhancement Decision Support (TREDS) is a computer program developed to assist managers in ranking options for research aboard the International Space Station (ISS). It could likely also be adapted to perform similar decision-support functions in industrial and academic settings. TREDS provides a ranking of the options, based on a quantifiable assessment of all the relevant programmatic decision factors of benefit, cost, and risk. The computation of the benefit for each option is based on a figure of merit (FOM) for ISS research capacity that incorporates both quantitative and qualitative inputs. Qualitative inputs are gathered and partly quantified by use of the time-tested analytical hierarchical process and used to set weighting factors in the FOM corresponding to priorities determined by the cognizant decision maker(s). Then by use of algorithms developed specifically for this application, TREDS adjusts the projected benefit for each option on the basis of levels of technical implementation, cost, and schedule risk. Based partly on Excel spreadsheets, TREDS provides screens for entering cost, benefit, and risk information. Drop-down boxes are provided for entry of qualitative information. TREDS produces graphical output in multiple formats that can be tailored by users.

  5. Option trading and oil futures markets

    SciTech Connect

    Chassard, C.; Halliwell, M.

    1986-01-01

    This book describes mechanics of options trading, particularly their use to complement trading in oil futures and forward markets to increase agents' flexibility in hedging against price risks. The main determinants of option premiums and a number of option pricing models are discussed as are the Black and Scholes Model, issues of options and oil-indexed bonds: The Philbro Proposal, NYMEX Crude Oil Option Contract and Standard Oil Issue.

  6. Power processing unit options for high powered nuclear electric propulsion using MPD thrusters

    SciTech Connect

    Krauthamer, S.; Frisbee, R.H.; Das, R.S.L. |

    1995-12-31

    An electric propulsion vehicle designed to transport cargo in support of a piloted expedition to Mars will require electrical power in the range of megawatts. This paper summarizes an evaluation of various megawatt-class power processing unit (PPU) design and technology options for high-power nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) vehicles using turboalternators and advanced magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters. A baseline system uses a low-voltage turboalternator, rectifiers and thrusters. However, there are other options. Four such design and technology options with the potential of improving overall system efficiency and reducing cabling mass are analyzed. The first option uses high-voltage AC from a wye-connected turboalternator and a step-down transformer, the second option uses a six-phase star-connected turboalternator instead of the wye-connected alternator in the baseline configuration, the third option uses PPU rectifier electronics located near the thrusters with a remotely-located radiator, and the fourth option uses cryogenic power conversion electronics and cabling to reduce losses. It is found that the third option has the potential of providing maximum overall power conversion efficiency and reducing mass. Presently, the fourth option appears to have maximum complexity of design and implementation, is costly, and is somewhat uncertain even through it can be the most attractive option in the future.

  7. Modeling of Solid Waste Processing Options in BIO-Plex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Luis F.; Finn, Cory; Kang, Sukwon; Hogan, John; Luna, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    BIO-Plex is a ground-based test bed currently under development by NASA for testing technologies and practices that may be utilized in future long-term life support missions. All aspects of such an Advanced Life Support (ALS) System must be considered to confidently construct a reliable system, which will not only allow the crew to survive in harsh environments, but allow the crew time to perform meaningful research. Effective handling of solid wastes is a critical aspect of the system, especially when recovery of resources contained in the waste is required. This is particularly important for ALS Systems configurations that include a Biomass Production Chamber. In these cases, significant amounts of inedible biomass waste may be produced, which can ultimately serve as a repository of necessary resources for sustaining life, notably carbon, water, and plant nutrients. Numerous biological and physicochemical solid waste processing options have been considered. Biological options include composting, aerobic digestion, and anaerobic digestion. Physicochemical options include pyrolysis, SCWO (supercritical water oxidation), various incineration configurations, microwave incineration, magnetically assisted gasification, and low temperature plasma reaction. Modeling of these options is a necessary step to assist in the design process. A previously developed top-level model of BIO-Plex implemented in MATLAB Simulink (r) for the use of systems analysis and design has been adopted for this analysis. Presently, this model only considered incineration for solid waste processing. Present work, reported here, includes the expansion of this model to include a wider array of solid waste processing options selected from the above options, bearing in mind potential, near term solid waste treatment systems. Furthermore, a trade study has also been performed among these solid waste processing technologies in an effort to determine the ideal technology for long-term life support

  8. Emerging Technologies Integrating Technology into Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin-Jones, Robert

    2016-01-01

    "Ready access to travel and to technology-enhanced social networking (e.g., Facebook or Skype) has changed the nature of study abroad to the point where today's experiences are fundamentally different from those of earlier eras" (Kinginger, 2013a, p. 345). In addition to more travel options and greater technology availability, study…

  9. Thermal management system options for high power space platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadunas, J. A.; Lehtinen, A.; Parish, R.

    1985-01-01

    Thermal Management System (TMS) design options for a high power (75kWe), low earth orbit, multimodule space platform were investigated. The approach taken was to establish a baseline TMS representative of current technology, and to make incremental improvements through successive subsystem trades that lead to a candidate TMS. The TMS trades included centralized and decentralized transport, single-phase and two-phase transport, alternate working fluids, liquid loop and heat pipe radiators, deployed fixed, body mounted and steerable radiators, and thermal storage. The subsystem options were evaluated against criteria such as weight, TMS power requirement, reliability, system isothermality penalty, and growth potential.

  10. Clinical Options for the Reduction of Elevated Intraocular Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Crawley, Laura; Zamir, Sohaib M.; Cordeiro, Maria F.; Guo, Li

    2012-01-01

    Elevated IOP in clinical practice is usually seen in glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Glaucoma affects 60 million people worldwide and 8.4 million are bilaterally blind from this chronic disease.1 Options for reducing IOP rely on pharmacological agents, laser treatments and surgery which may be penetrating or non-penetrating. The last twenty years has seen significant changes in all of these strategies. This review aims to cover these clinical options and introduce some of the new technologies currently in development for the clinical lowering of IOP. PMID:23650457

  11. Space station needs, attributes and architectural options. Volume 1: Executive summary NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The uses alignment plan was implemented. The existing data bank was used to define a large number of station requirements. Ten to 20 valid mission scenarios were developed. Architectural options as they are influenced by communications operations, subsystem evolvability, and required technology growth are defined. Costing of evolutionary concepts, alternative approaches, and options, was based on minimum design details.

  12. Pawnee Nation Energy Option Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Matlock, M.; Kersey, K.; Riding In, C.

    2009-07-31

    In 2003, the Pawnee Nation leadership identified the need for the tribe to comprehensively address its energy issues. During a strategic energy planning workshop a general framework was laid out and the Pawnee Nation Energy Task Force was created to work toward further development of the tribe’s energy vision. The overarching goals of the “first steps” project were to identify the most appropriate focus for its strategic energy initiatives going forward, and to provide information necessary to take the next steps in pursuit of the “best fit” energy options. Based on the request of Pawnee Nation’s Energy Task Force the research team, consisting Tribal personnel and Summit Blue Consulting, focused on a review of renewable energy resource development potential, funding sources and utility organizational along with energy savings options. Elements of the energy demand forecasting and characterization and demand side options review remained in the scope of work, but were only addressed at a high level. Description of Activities Performed Renewable Energy Resource Development Potential The research team reviewed existing data pertaining to the availability of biomass (focusing on woody biomass, agricultural biomass/bio-energy crops, and methane capture), solar, wind and hydropower resources on the Pawnee-owned lands. Using these data, combined with assumptions about costs and revenue streams, the research team performed preliminary feasibility assessments for each resource category. The research team also reviewed available funding resources and made recommendations to Pawnee Nation highlighting those resources with the greatest potential for financially-viable development, both in the near-term and over a longer time horizon. Energy Efficiency Options While this was not a major focus of the project, the research team highlighted common strategies for reducing energy use in buildings. The team also discussed the benefits of adopting a building energy code and

  13. Excess plutonium disposition: The deep borehole option

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, K.L.

    1994-08-09

    This report reviews the current status of technologies required for the disposition of plutonium in Very Deep Holes (VDH). It is in response to a recent National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report which addressed the management of excess weapons plutonium and recommended three approaches to the ultimate disposition of excess plutonium: (1) fabrication and use as a fuel in existing or modified reactors in a once-through cycle, (2) vitrification with high-level radioactive waste for repository disposition, (3) burial in deep boreholes. As indicated in the NAS report, substantial effort would be required to address the broad range of issues related to deep bore-hole emplacement. Subjects reviewed in this report include geology and hydrology, design and engineering, safety and licensing, policy decisions that can impact the viability of the concept, and applicable international programs. Key technical areas that would require attention should decisions be made to further develop the borehole emplacement option are identified.

  14. Storage options for petabytes of data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paton, Lisa; Cirtain, Jonathan; Grant, Paul

    2008-08-01

    New instrumentation that produces extremely large quantities of data presents a challenge in data processing and management. The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) will house instruments that will produce 1.4TB of data per day. Processing and storing that quantity of data is a serious challenge. The instrument team for the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) that will fly on SDO spent the last 2 weeks in September doing a large-scale side-by-side comparison of archive equipment from Apple, BlueArc, EMC, Network Appliance, SGI and Sun Microsystems. Each vendor provided 100TB of SATA disk space and the required servers to showcase their unique solutions to the problem of petabyte sized archives. The results of the testing demonstrate some of the options available in this arena. We will discuss the results of the testing, the differences and similarities between the vendors and the applicability of the technologies to various environments.

  15. Energy Options for Wireless Sensor Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Chris; Davidson, Joshua; Behrens, Sam

    2008-01-01

    Reduction in size and power consumption of consumer electronics has opened up many opportunities for low power wireless sensor networks. One of the major challenges is in supporting battery operated devices as the number of nodes in a network grows. The two main alternatives are to utilize higher energy density sources of stored energy, or to generate power at the node from local forms of energy. This paper reviews the state-of-the art technology in the field of both energy storage and energy harvesting for sensor nodes. The options discussed for energy storage include batteries, capacitors, fuel cells, heat engines and betavoltaic systems. The field of energy harvesting is discussed with reference to photovoltaics, temperature gradients, fluid flow, pressure variations and vibration harvesting.

  16. Implementation of power barrier option valuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahyani, Agatha C. P.; Sumarti, Novriana

    2015-09-01

    Options are financial instruments that can be utilized to reduce risk in stock investment. Barrier options are one of the major types of options actively used in financial markets where its life period depends on the path of the underlying stock prices. The features of the barrier option can be used to modify other types of options. In this research, the barrier option will be implemented into power option, so it is called power barrier option. This option is an extension of the vanilla barrier options where the Call payoff being considered is defined as P C =max (STβ-Kβ,0 ) , and the Put payoff being considered is defined as P P =max (Kβ-STβ,0 ) . Here β > 0 and β ≠ 1, K is the strike price of the option, and ST is the price of the underlying stock at time maturity T. In this paper, we generate the prices of stock using binomial method which is adjusted to the power option. In the conclusion, the price of American power barrier option is more expensive than the price of European power barrier option.

  17. Wastewater treatment plant cogeneration options

    SciTech Connect

    Stringfield, J.G.

    1995-12-31

    This paper reviews municipal sewage cogeneration and digester gas utilization options available to wastewater treatment plants, and will focus on utilizing the digester gas in combustion turbines and engine-generator systems. Defining the digestion and gas generation process is crucial to understanding the best gas utilization system. In municipal wastewater treatment plants biosolids (sludge) reduction is accomplished using aerobic or anaerobic digestion. The basic process of treating sewage solids with digestion is not new and has been practiced as far back as the nineteenth century. High energy usage consumed by aerobic blow systems supplying air to the process and the potential ``free`` energy generated by anaerobic digesters sometimes sways designers to select anaerobic over aerobic digestion. The following areas will be covered in this paper: gas utilization and cogeneration; definition of digestion process; sizing the cogeneration system and reviewing the systems components; emissions requirements and options; and capital, and O and M cost analysis.

  18. Emerging Options for Emergency Contraception

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Atsuko; Hagopian, Laura; Linden, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Emergency post-coital contraception (EC) is an effective method of preventing pregnancy when used appropriately. EC has been available since the 1970s, and its availability and use have become widespread. Options for EC are broad and include the copper intrauterine device (IUD) and emergency contraceptive pills such as levonorgestrel, ulipristal acetate, combined oral contraceptive pills (Yuzpe method), and less commonly, mifepristone. Some options are available over-the-counter, while others require provider prescription or placement. There are no absolute contraindications to the use of emergency contraceptive pills, with the exception of ulipristal acetate and mifepristone. This article reviews the mechanisms of action, efficacy, safety, side effects, clinical considerations, and patient preferences with respect to EC usage. The decision of which regimen to use is influenced by local availability, cost, and patient preference. PMID:24453516

  19. Space station needs, attributes and architectural options study. Volume 1: Executive study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Mission identification and validation, the benefits of a manned presence in space; attributes and architectures; time-phased mission and system requirements imposed on the space station; orbit selection; space station architectural options; technology selection; and program planning are addressed.

  20. Space station needs, attributes and architectural options study. Final executive review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Identification and validation of missions, the benefits of manned presence in space, attributes and architectures, space station requirements, orbit selection, space station architectural options, technology selection, and program planning are addressed.

  1. Systems engineering study: tank 241-C-103 organic skimming,storage, treatment and disposal options

    SciTech Connect

    Klem, M.J.

    1996-10-23

    This report evaluates alternatives for pumping, storing, treating and disposing of the separable phase organic layer in Hanford Site Tank 241-C-103. The report provides safety and technology based preferences and recommendations. Two major options and several varations of these options were identified. The major options were: 1) transfer both the organic and pumpable aqueous layers to a double-shell tank as part of interim stabilization using existing salt well pumping equipment or 2) skim the organic to an above ground before interim stabilization of Tank 241-C-103. Other options to remove the organic were considered but rejected following preliminary evaluation.

  2. [Melanoma brain metastases : Treatment options].

    PubMed

    Rauschenberg, R; Tabatabai, G; Troost, E G C; Garzarolli, M; Beissert, S; Meier, F

    2016-07-01

    The majority of patients with metastatic melanoma will develop brain metastases, which are the most common cause of death. Until recently, local therapies (e. g., neurosurgery, radiotherapy) were the only options for brain metastases; however, effective systemic treatment options are now available. Upon suspicion of brain metastases, diagnostic staging with brain MRI and a neurological investigation are indicated. Prognostic factors such as number of cerebral metastases and symptoms, serum lactate dehydrogenase and S‑100 levels, extracerebral metastases, and ECOG status are considered during therapeutic planning. Treatment planning and therapeutic interventions should be based on an interdisciplinary and multimodal approach. Established treatments for singular brain metastases are neurosurgical resection and stereotactic radiotherapy, which can prolong survival. In patients with asymptomatic BRAF V600E-mutant brain metastases, the BRAF inhibitors dabrafenib, vemurafenib, and immunotherapy with ipilimumab are used. In the case of multiple symptomatic brain metastases, palliative whole-brain radiotherapy is used for treatment, although it has failed to show an overall survival benefit. Increased intracranial pressure and epileptic seizures are addressed with corticosteroids and anticonvulsants. Current clinical studies for melanoma patients with brain metastases are investigating new treatment options such as PD-1 antibodies, combined ipilimumab and nivolumab, combined BRAF inhibitors and MEK inhibitors, and stereotactic radiation in combination with immunotherapy or targeted therapy. PMID:27206449

  3. Fertility options in transgender people.

    PubMed

    De Roo, Chloë; Tilleman, Kelly; T'Sjoen, Guy; De Sutter, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Hormonal and surgical treatments for transgender people have a devastating effect on the possibility for these patients to reproduce. Additionally, transgender people tend to start sex reassignment treatment at a young age, when reproductive wishes are not yet clearly defined nor fulfilled. The most recent Standards of Care of the World Professional Association for Transgender Health recommend clearly informing patients regarding their future reproductive options prior to initiation of treatment. This review gives an overview of the current knowledge and state-of-the-art techniques in the field of fertility preservation for transgender people. Where genital reconstructive surgery definitely results in sterility, hormone therapy on the other hand also has an important, but partially reversible impact on fertility. The current fertility preservation options for trans men are embryo cryopreservation, oocyte cryopreservation and ovarian tissue cryopreservation. For trans women, sperm cryopreservation, surgical sperm extraction and testicular tissue cryopreservation are possible. Although certain fertility preservation techniques could be applicable in a standardized manner based on clear biological criteria, the technique that eventually will be performed should be the preferred choice of the patient after extended explanation of all possible options. PMID:26835612

  4. Lunar Cube Transfer Trajectory Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David C.; Dichman, Don; Clark, Pamela; Haapala, Amanda; Howell, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Contingent upon the modification of an initial condition of the injected or deployed orbit. Additionally, these designs can be restricted by the selection of the Cubesat subsystem design such as propulsion or communication. Nonetheless, many trajectory options can be designed with have a wide range of transfer durations, fuel requirements, and final destinations. Our investigation of potential trajectories highlights several design options including deployment into low Earth orbit (LEO), geostationary transfer orbits (GTO), and higher energy direct lunar transfer orbits. In addition to direct transfer options from these initial orbits, we also investigate the use of longer duration Earth-Moon dynamical systems. For missions with an intended lunar orbit, much of the design process is spent optimizing a ballistic capture while other science locations such as Sun-Earth libration or heliocentric orbits may simply require a reduced Delta-V imparted at a convenient location along the trajectory. In this article we examine several design options that meet the above limited deployment and subsystem drivers. We study ways that both impulsive and low-thrust Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) engines can be used to place the Cubesat first into a highly eccentric Earth orbit, enter the Moon's Sphere of Influence, and finally achieve a highly eccentric lunar orbit. We show that such low-thrust transfers are feasible with a realistic micro-thruster model, assuming that the Cubesat can generate sufficient power for the SEP. Two examples are shown here: (1) A Cubestat injected by Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) then employing low thrust; and (2) a CubSat deployed in a GTO, then employing impulsive maneuvers. For the EM-1 injected initial design, we increase the EM-1 targeted lunar flyby distance to reduce the energy of the lunar flyby to match that of a typical lMoon system heteroclinic manifold. Figure 1 presents an option that encompasses the similar dynamics as that of the ARTEMIS

  5. Advanced radioisotope power source options for Pluto Express

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, M.L.

    1995-12-31

    In the drive to reduce mass and cost, Pluto Express is investigating using an advanced power conversion technology in a small Radioisotope Power Source (RPS) to deliver the required mission power of 74 W(electric) at end of mission. Until this year the baseline power source under consideration has been a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG). This RTG would be a scaled down GPHS RTG with an inventory of 6 General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHS) and a mass of 17.8 kg. High efficiency, advanced technology conversion options are being examined to lower the power source mass and to reduce the amount of radioisotope needed. Three technologies are being considered as the advanced converter technology: the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC), Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) converters, and Stirling Engines. Conceptual designs for each of these options have been prepared. Each converter would require only 2 GPHSs to provide the mission power and would have a mass of 6.1, 7.2, and 12.4 kg for AMTEC, TPV, and Stirling Engines respectively. This paper reviews the status of each technology and the projected performance of an advanced RPS based on each technology. Based on the projected performance and spacecraft integration issues, Pluto Express would prefer to use the AMTEC based RPS. However, in addition to technical performance, selection of a power technology will be based on many other factors.

  6. Bacteriophages as potential treatment option for antibiotic resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bragg, Robert; van der Westhuizen, Wouter; Lee, Ji-Yun; Coetsee, Elke; Boucher, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    The world is facing an ever-increasing problem with antibiotic resistant bacteria and we are rapidly heading for a post-antibiotic era. There is an urgent need to investigate alterative treatment options while there are still a few antibiotics left. Bacteriophages are viruses that specifically target bacteria. Before the development of antibiotics, some efforts were made to use bacteriophages as a treatment option, but most of this research stopped soon after the discovery of antibiotics. There are two different replication options which bacteriophages employ. These are the lytic and lysogenic life cycles. Both these life cycles have potential as treatment options. There are various advantages and disadvantages to the use of bacteriophages as treatment options. The main advantage is the specificity of bacteriophages and treatments can be designed to specifically target pathogenic bacteria while not negatively affecting the normal microbiota. There are various advantages to this. However, the high level of specificity also creates potential problems, the main being the requirement of highly specific diagnostic procedures. Another potential problem with phage therapy includes the development of immunity and limitations with the registration of phage therapy options. The latter is driving research toward the expression of phage genes which break the bacterial cell wall, which could then be used as a treatment option. Various aspects of phage therapy have been investigated in studies undertaken by our research group. We have investigated specificity of phages to various avian pathogenic E. coli isolates. Furthermore, the exciting NanoSAM technology has been employed to investigate bacteriophage replication and aspects of this will be discussed. PMID:24619620

  7. Options for human {open_quote}{open_quote}return to the moon{close_quote}{close_quote} using tomorrow{close_quote}s SSTO, ISRU, and LOX-augmented NTR technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Borowski, S.K.

    1996-03-01

    The feasibility of conducting human missions to the Moon is examined assuming the use of three {open_quote}{open_quote}high leverage{close_quote}{close_quote} technologies: (1) a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch vehicle, (2) {open_quote}{open_quote}{ital in}-{ital situ}{close_quote}{close_quote} {ital resource} {ital utilization} (ISRU){emdash}specifically {open_quote}{open_quote}lunar-derived{close_quote}{close_quote} liquid oxygen (LUNOX), and (3) LOX-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (LANTR) propulsion. Lunar transportation system elements consisting of a LANTR-powered lunar transfer vehicle (LTV) and a chemical propulsion lunar landing/Earth return vehicle (LERV) are configured to fit within the {open_quote}{open_quote}compact{close_quote}{close_quote} dimensions of the SSTO cargo bay (diameter: 4.6 m/length: 9.0 m) while satisfying an initial mass in low Earth orbit (IMLEO) limit of {approximately}60 t (3 SSTO launches). Using {approximately}8 t of LUNOX to {open_quote}{open_quote}reoxidize{close_quote}{close_quote} the LERV for a {open_quote}{open_quote}direct return{close_quote}{close_quote} flight to Earth reduces its size and mass allowing delivery to LEO on a single 20 t SSTO launch. Similarly, the LANTR engine{close_quote}s ability to operate at any oxygen/hydrogen mixture ratio from 0 to 7 with high specific impulse ({approximately}940 to 515 s) is exploited to reduce hydrogen tank volume, thereby improving packaging of the LANTR LTV{close_quote}s {open_quote}{open_quote}propulsion{close_quote}{close_quote} and {open_quote}{open_quote}propellant modules{close_quote}{close_quote}. Expendable and reusable, piloted and cargo missions and vehicle designs are presented along with estimates of LUNOX production required to support the different mission modes. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Soil washing technology evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Suer, A.

    1995-04-01

    Environmental Restoration Engineering (ERE) continues to review innovative, efficient, and cost effective technologies for SRS soil and/or groundwater remediation. As part of this effort, this technical evaluation provides review and the latest information on the technology for SRS soil remediation. Additional technology evaluation reports will be issued periodically to update these reports. The purpose of this report is to review the soil washing technology and its potential application to SRS soil remediation. To assess whether the Soil Washing technology is a viable option for SRS soil remediation, it is necessary to review the technology/process, technology advantages/limitations, performance, applications, and cost analysis.

  9. Understanding financing options for PACS implementation. Picture archiving and communication systems.

    PubMed

    Reiner, B; Siegel, E

    2000-05-01

    The acquisition of expensive equipment such as picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) becomes increasingly difficult as capital budgets become tighter. Traditional ownership financing options in the form of direct purchase or financing (loan) have several limitations including technology obsolescence, higher fixed pricing, limited options for equipment disposal, and the need to tie up valuable capital. Alternative financing options, in the form of conventional lease and risk sharing arrangements, offer several theoretical advantages including technology obsolescence protection in the form of built-in upgrades, preservation of borrowing power, multiple end-of-term options, and payment flexibility (which can be directly tied to realized productivity and operational efficiency gains). These options are discussed, with emphasis on the acquisition of PACS. PMID:10843249

  10. Options contracts in the nuclear fuel industry

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, D.M.

    1995-04-01

    This article discusses options trading in the nuclear fuels industry. Although there now exists no formal options market in the nuclear industry, flexibilities, or embedded options, are actually quite common in the long-term supply contracts. The value of these flexibilities can be estimated by applying the methods used to evaluate options. The method used is the Black-Scholes Model, and it is applied to a number of examples.