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1

REACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a REACH is an active OODBMS that was developed as a platform to experiment both with the issues arising from the implementation\\u000a of advanced active functionalities, and as a platform for the development of applications that are potential beneficiaries\\u000a of active database technology. To achieve the former, we chose an experimental OODBMS, Texas Instruments’ OpenOODB, for which\\u000a the source code was

Jiirgen Zimmermann; Alejandro P. Buchmann

1999-01-01

2

Growth and Maximum Size of Tiger Sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) in Hawaii  

PubMed Central

Tiger sharks (Galecerdo cuvier) are apex predators characterized by their broad diet, large size and rapid growth. Tiger shark maximum size is typically between 380 & 450 cm Total Length (TL), with a few individuals reaching 550 cm TL, but the maximum size of tiger sharks in Hawaii waters remains uncertain. A previous study suggested tiger sharks grow rather slowly in Hawaii compared to other regions, but this may have been an artifact of the method used to estimate growth (unvalidated vertebral ring counts) compounded by small sample size and narrow size range. Since 1993, the University of Hawaii has conducted a research program aimed at elucidating tiger shark biology, and to date 420 tiger sharks have been tagged and 50 recaptured. All recaptures were from Hawaii except a single shark recaptured off Isla Jacques Cousteau (24°13?17?N 109°52?14?W), in the southern Gulf of California (minimum distance between tag and recapture sites ?=? approximately 5,000 km), after 366 days at liberty (DAL). We used these empirical mark-recapture data to estimate growth rates and maximum size for tiger sharks in Hawaii. We found that tiger sharks in Hawaii grow twice as fast as previously thought, on average reaching 340 cm TL by age 5, and attaining a maximum size of 403 cm TL. Our model indicates the fastest growing individuals attain 400 cm TL by age 5, and the largest reach a maximum size of 444 cm TL. The largest shark captured during our study was 464 cm TL but individuals >450 cm TL were extremely rare (0.005% of sharks captured). We conclude that tiger shark growth rates and maximum sizes in Hawaii are generally consistent with those in other regions, and hypothesize that a broad diet may help them to achieve this rapid growth by maximizing prey consumption rates. PMID:24416287

Meyer, Carl G.; O'Malley, Joseph M.; Papastamatiou, Yannis P.; Dale, Jonathan J.; Hutchinson, Melanie R.; Anderson, James M.; Royer, Mark A.; Holland, Kim N.

2014-01-01

3

Coarsening foams robustly reach a self-similar growth regime.  

PubMed

Dry liquid foams coarsen like other diphasic systems governed by interfacial energy: gas slowly diffuses across liquid films, resulting in large bubbles growing at the expense of smaller ones which eventually shrink and disappear. A foam scatters light very effectively, preventing direct optical observation of bubble sizes and shapes in large foams. Using high speed x-ray tomography, we have produced 4D movies (i.e., 3D + time) of up to 30,000 bubbles. After a transient regime, the successive images look alike, except that the average bubble size increases as the square root of time: This scaling state is the long sought self-similar growth regime. The bubble size and face-number distributions in this regime are compared with experimental distributions for grains in crystals and with numerical simulations of foams. PMID:20867343

Lambert, Jérôme; Mokso, Rajmund; Cantat, Isabelle; Cloetens, Peter; Glazier, James A; Graner, François; Delannay, Renaud

2010-06-18

4

Allometries of Maximum Growth Rate versus Body Mass at Maximum Growth Indicate That Non-Avian Dinosaurs Had Growth Rates Typical of Fast Growing Ectothermic Sauropsids  

PubMed Central

We tested if growth rates of recent taxa are unequivocally separated between endotherms and ectotherms, and compared these to dinosaurian growth rates. We therefore performed linear regression analyses on the log-transformed maximum growth rate against log-transformed body mass at maximum growth for extant altricial birds, precocial birds, eutherians, marsupials, reptiles, fishes and dinosaurs. Regression models of precocial birds (and fishes) strongly differed from Case’s study (1978), which is often used to compare dinosaurian growth rates to those of extant vertebrates. For all taxonomic groups, the slope of 0.75 expected from the Metabolic Theory of Ecology was statistically supported. To compare growth rates between taxonomic groups we therefore used regressions with this fixed slope and group-specific intercepts. On average, maximum growth rates of ectotherms were about 10 (reptiles) to 20 (fishes) times (in comparison to mammals) or even 45 (reptiles) to 100 (fishes) times (in comparison to birds) lower than in endotherms. While on average all taxa were clearly separated from each other, individual growth rates overlapped between several taxa and even between endotherms and ectotherms. Dinosaurs had growth rates intermediate between similar sized/scaled-up reptiles and mammals, but a much lower rate than scaled-up birds. All dinosaurian growth rates were within the range of extant reptiles and mammals, and were lower than those of birds. Under the assumption that growth rate and metabolic rate are indeed linked, our results suggest two alternative interpretations. Compared to other sauropsids, the growth rates of studied dinosaurs clearly indicate that they had an ectothermic rather than an endothermic metabolic rate. Compared to other vertebrate growth rates, the overall high variability in growth rates of extant groups and the high overlap between individual growth rates of endothermic and ectothermic extant species make it impossible to rule out either of the two thermoregulation strategies for studied dinosaurs. PMID:24586409

Werner, Jan; Griebeler, Eva Maria

2014-01-01

5

Maximum photosynthetic efficiency of biomass growth: a criticism of some measurements  

SciTech Connect

The yield of biomass produced in a photosynthetic culture is an expression of the photosynthetic efficiency. Microbial cells consume energy for both growth and for maintenance. The bioenergetics of Chlorella cultures and the maximum growth yields obtained by various researchers are examined in this paper.

Lee, Y.K.; Pirt, S.J.

1982-02-01

6

Growth and Maximum Size of Tiger Sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) in Hawaii  

E-print Network

Growth and Maximum Size of Tiger Sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) in Hawaii Carl G. Meyer1 *, Joseph M. O , Mark A. Royer1 , Kim N. Holland1 1 Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawai'i, United States of America, 2 National Marine Fisheries Service, Pacific Islands Fisheries

7

Vortices, maximum growth and the problem of finite-time singularity formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we are interested in extreme vortex states leading to the maximum possible growth of palinstrophy in 2D viscous incompressible flows on periodic domains. This study is a part of a broader research effort motivated by the question about the finite-time singularity formation in the 3D Navier-Stokes system and aims at a systematic identification of the most singular flow behaviors. We extend the results reported in Ayala and Protas (2014 J. Fluid Mech. 742 340-67) where extreme vortex states were found leading to the growth of palinstrophy, both instantaneously and in finite time, which saturates the estimates obtained with rigorous methods of mathematical analysis. Here we uncover the vortex dynamics mechanisms responsible for such extreme behavior in time-dependent 2D flows. While the maximum palinstrophy growth is achieved at short times, the corresponding long-time evolution is characterized by some nontrivial features, such as vortex scattering events.

Ayala, Diego; Protas, Bartosz

2014-06-01

8

Maximum Shell Size, Growth Rate, and Maturation Age Correlate With Longevity in Bivalve Molluscs  

PubMed Central

Bivalve molluscs are newly discovered models of successful aging, and this invertebrate group includes Arctica islandica, with the longest metazoan life span. Despite an increasing biogerontological focus on bivalves, their life history traits in relation to maximum age are not as comprehensively understood as those in vertebrate model aging organisms. We explore the allometric scaling of longevity and the relationship between development schedules (time to maturity and growth rate) and longevity in the Bivalvia. Using a traditional nonphylogenetic approach and the phylogenetically independent contrasts method, the relationship among these life history parameters is analyzed. It is demonstrated that in bivalves, maximum shell size, development, and growth rates all associate with longevity. Our findings support the observations of life history patterns in mammals and fish. This is the first investigation into the relationship among longevity, size, and development schedules throughout this group, and the results strengthened by the control for phylogenetic independence. PMID:20966102

Richardson, C. A.; Austad, S. N.

2011-01-01

9

The growth rate control in Escherichia coli at near to maximum growth rates: the A-stat approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth characteristics of Escherichia coli K-12 in the continuous culture with a smooth increase in the dilution rate (A-stat) of various carbon sources (glucose, acetate, succinate, glycerol, lactate, acetate + succinate, casamino, acids + glucose) were studied. For all substrates studied the maximum value of specific respiration rate, QO2, remained between 14–18 mmol O2 h-1 g dwt-1 and the

T. Paalme; R. Elken; A. Kahru; K. Vanatalu; R. Vilu

1997-01-01

10

Persistent growth of CO2 emissions and implications for reaching climate targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Efforts to limit climate change below a given temperature level require that global emissions of CO2 cumulated over time remain below a limited quota. This quota varies depending on the temperature level, the desired probability of staying below this level and the contributions of other gases. In spite of this restriction, global emissions of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion and cement production have continued to grow by 2.5% per year on average over the past decade. Two thirds of the CO2 emission quota consistent with a 2 °C temperature limit has already been used, and the total quota will likely be exhausted in a further 30 years at the 2014 emissions rates. We show that CO2 emissions track the high end of the latest generation of emissions scenarios, due to lower than anticipated carbon intensity improvements of emerging economies and higher global gross domestic product growth. In the absence of more stringent mitigation, these trends are set to continue and further reduce the remaining quota until the onset of a potential new climate agreement in 2020. Breaking current emission trends in the short term is key to retaining credible climate targets within a rapidly diminishing emission quota.

Friedlingstein, P.; Andrew, R. M.; Rogelj, J.; Peters, G. P.; Canadell, J. G.; Knutti, R.; Luderer, G.; Raupach, M. R.; Schaeffer, M.; van Vuuren, D. P.; Le Quéré, C.

2014-10-01

11

Ammonia inhibition of the maximum growth rate (? m ) of hydrogenotrophic methanogens at various pH-levels and temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the quantitative measurement of the maximum growth rate (µm) of hydrogen-consuming methanogenic populations was applied to assess the toxicity of ammonia1 under various pH and temperature conditions. The maximum uninhibited growth rate of the hydrogenotrophic population present in sludge from an industrial anaerobic wastewater treatment system appeared to be 0.126 h-1 at pH=7 and 37°C. At 350

Iman W. Koster; Ernst Koomen

1988-01-01

12

Effect of intercropping Panicum maximum var. Ntchisi and Lablab purpureus on the growth, herbage yield and chemical composition of Panicum maximum var. Ntchisi at different harvesting times.  

PubMed

The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of intercropping Panicum maximum var. Ntchisi and Lablab purpureus on the growth, herbage yield and chemical composition of P. maximum var. Ntchisi at different harvesting times at the Teaching and Research farm, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta in a randomized complete block design. Samples were collected at different harvesting times (8, 10, 12, 14 weeks after planting). The growth parameters which were plant height, leaf length, leaf number and tiller number measured showed that the intercropping of grass with legume were higher than in the sole plot of P. maximum var. Ntchisi. The plant yield was consistently higher (p < 0.05) in intercropped forages than in sole throughout the harvesting times. The crude protein contents of the forages were also higher for the intercropped across the treatments. The values of the fibre components were significantly different (p < 0.05) at different harvesting times and it was increasing as the harvesting time was increasing. From this study, considering the herbage yield and chemical composition of intecropping Panicum maximum var. Ntchisi and Lablab purpureus, they can be grazed by ruminant animals or harvested at 12 weeks after planting when the quality and quantity will support livestock productivity and can be conserved to be fed to ruminant animals during dry season when feed availability and quality are extremely low. PMID:24511710

Ojo, V O A; Dele, P A; Amole, T A; Anele, U Y; Adeoye, S A; Hassan, O A; Olanite, J A; Idowu, O J

2013-11-15

13

Phylogenetic prediction of the maximum per capita rate of population growth  

PubMed Central

The maximum per capita rate of population growth, r, is a central measure of population biology. However, researchers can only directly calculate r when adequate time series, life tables and similar datasets are available. We instead view r as an evolvable, synthetic life-history trait and use comparative phylogenetic approaches to predict r for poorly known species. Combining molecular phylogenies, life-history trait data and stochastic macroevolutionary models, we predicted r for mammals of the Caniformia and Cervidae. Cross-validation analyses demonstrated that, even with sparse life-history data, comparative methods estimated r well and outperformed models based on body mass. Values of r predicted via comparative methods were in strong rank agreement with observed values and reduced mean prediction errors by approximately 68 per cent compared with two null models. We demonstrate the utility of our method by estimating r for 102 extant species in these mammal groups with unknown life-history traits. PMID:23720545

Fagan, William F.; Pearson, Yanthe E.; Larsen, Elise A.; Lynch, Heather J.; Turner, Jessica B.; Staver, Hilary; Noble, Andrew E.; Bewick, Sharon; Goldberg, Emma E.

2013-01-01

14

Life-history correlates of maximum population growth rates in marine fishes.  

PubMed Central

Theory predicts that populations of animals with late maturity, low fecundity, large body size and low body growth rates will have low potential rates of population increase at low abundance. If this is true, then these traits may be used to predict the intrinsic rate of increase for species or populations, as well as extinction risks. We used life-history and population data for 63 stocks of commercially exploited fish species from the northeast Atlantic to test relationships between life-history parameters and the rate of population increase at low abundance. We used cross-taxonomic analyses among stocks and among species, and analyses that accounted for phylogenetic relationships. These analyses confirmed that large-bodied, slow-growing stocks and species had significantly lower rates of recruitment and adult production per spawning adult at low abundance. Furthermore, high ages at maturity were significantly correlated with low maximum recruit production. Contrary to expectation, fecundity was significantly negatively related to recruit production, due to its positive relationship with maximum body size. Our results support theoretical predictions, and suggest that a simply measured life-history parameter can provide a useful tool for predicting rates of recovery from low population abundance. PMID:12427316

Denney, Nicola H; Jennings, Simon; Reynolds, John D

2002-01-01

15

Pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster reaches its maximum in Ethiopia and correlates most strongly with ultra-violet radiation in sub-Saharan Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Pigmentation has a long history of investigation in evolutionary biology. In Drosophila melanogaster, latitudinal and altitudinal clines have been found but their underlying causes remain unclear. Moreover, most studies were conducted on cosmopolitan populations which have a relatively low level of genetic structure and diversity compared to sub-Saharan African populations. We investigated: 1) the correlation between pigmentation traits within and between the thorax and the fourth abdominal segment, and 2) their associations with different geographical and ecological variables, using 710 lines belonging to 30 sub-Saharan and cosmopolitan populations. Results Pigmentation clines substantially differed between sub-Saharan and cosmopolitan populations. While positive correlations with latitude have previously been described in Europe, India and Australia, in agreement with Bogert's rule or the thermal melanism hypothesis, we found a significant negative correlation in Africa. This correlation persisted even after correction for altitude, which in its turn showed a positive correlation with pigmentation independently from latitude. More importantly, we found that thoracic pigmentation reaches its maximal values in this species in high-altitude populations of Ethiopia (1,600-3,100 m). Ethiopian flies have a diffuse wide thoracic trident making the mesonotum and the head almost black, a phenotype that is absent from all other sub-Saharan or cosmopolitan populations including high-altitude flies from Peru (~3,400 m). Ecological analyses indicated that the variable most predictive of pigmentation in Africa, especially for the thorax, was ultra-violet (UV) intensity, consistent with the so-called Gloger's rule invoking a role of melanin in UV protection. Conclusion Our data suggest that different environmental factors may shape clinal variation in tropical and temperate regions, and may lead to the evolution of different degrees of melanism in different high altitude populations in the tropics. PMID:25115161

2014-01-01

16

Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate decreases the concentration of Ca2+, phosphatidylserine and diacylglycerol required for protein kinase C ? to reach maximum activity.  

PubMed

The C2 domain of PKC? possesses two different binding sites, one for Ca(2+) and phosphatidylserine and a second one that binds PIP2 with very high affinity. The enzymatic activity of PKC? was studied by activating it with large unilamellar lipid vesicles, varying the concentration of Ca(2+) and the contents of dioleylglycerol (DOG), phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) and phosphadidylserine (POPS) in these model membranes. The results showed that PIP2 increased the Vmax of PKC? and, when the PIP2 concentration was 5 mol% of the total lipid in the membrane, the addition of 2 mol% of DOG did not increase the activity. In addition PIP2 decreases K0.5 of Ca(2+) more than 3-fold, that of DOG almost 5-fold and that of POPS by a half. The K0.5 values of PIP2 amounted to only 0.11 µM in the presence of DOG and 0.39 in its absence, which is within the expected physiological range for the inner monolayer of a mammalian plasma membrane. As a consequence, PKC? may be expected to operate near its maximum capacity even in the absence of a cell signal producing diacylglycerol. Nevertheless, we have shown that the presence of DOG may also help, since the K0.5 for PIP2 notably decreases in its presence. Taken together, these results underline the great importance of PIP2 in the activation of PKC? and demonstrate that in its presence, the most important cell signal for triggering the activity of this enzyme is the increase in the concentration of cytoplasmic Ca(2+). PMID:23874859

Egea-Jiménez, Antonio L; Pérez-Lara, Angel; Corbalán-García, Senena; Gómez-Fernández, Juan C

2013-01-01

17

Significance of river-aquifer interactions for reach-scale thermal patterns and trout growth potential in the Motueka River, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To assess whether reaches of the Motueka River (New Zealand) that gain water from groundwater were likely to represent significant cold-water refugia for brown trout during periods of high water temperatures, water temperature was monitored for more than 18 months in two gaining reaches of the Motueka River and three reaches that were predicted to be losing water to groundwater. These data were used to predict brown trout ( Salmo trutta) growth in gaining and losing reaches. Groundwater inputs had a small effect on water temperature at the reach-scale and modelling suggests that the differences observed were unlikely to result in appreciable differences in trout growth. Several coldwater patches were identified within the study reach that were up to 3.5°C cooler than the mainstem, but these were generally shallow and were unlikely to provide refuge for adult trout. The exception was Hinetai Spring, which had a mean water temperature of close to 16°C during the period January-March, when temperatures in the mainstem regularly exceeded 19°C. Trout were observed within the cold-water plume at the mouth of Hinetai Stream, which would allow them to thermoregulate when mainstem temperatures are unfavourable while still being able to capitalise on food resources available in the mainstem.

Olsen, Dean A.; Young, Roger G.

2009-02-01

18

Maximum likelihood estimation of population growth rates based on the coalescent.  

PubMed Central

We describe a method for co-estimating 4Nemu (four times the product of effective population size and neutral mutation rate) and population growth rate from sequence samples using Metropolis-Hastings sampling. Population growth (or decline) is assumed to be exponential. The estimates of growth rate are biased upwards, especially when 4Nemu is low; there is also a slight upwards bias in the estimate of 4Nemu itself due to correlation between the parameters. This bias cannot be attributed solely to Metropolis-Hastings sampling but appears to be an inherent property of the estimator and is expected to appear in any approach which estimates growth rate from genealogy structure. Sampling additional unlinked loci is much more effective in reducing the bias than increasing the number or length of sequences from the same locus. PMID:9584114

Kuhner, M K; Yamato, J; Felsenstein, J

1998-01-01

19

REACH Presentation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to provide support for employees and their families, Red Deer College (RDC) developed the Resources, Employees, Assistance, Counselling, and Health (REACH) program. The program is administered by a committee of five people who represent the five major employee groups at the college (i.e., senior administration, middle administration,…

Bucklee, Joanne

20

Ecotypic variation in growth responses to simulated herbivory: trade-off between maximum relative growth rate and tolerance to defoliation in an annual plant.  

PubMed

It has been hypothesized that slow-growing plants are more likely to maximize above-ground biomass and fitness when defoliated by herbivores than those with an already high relative growth rate (RGR). Some populations of the annual herb Datura stramonium L. can tolerate foliar damage better than others. The physiological basis of this difference is examined here in a comparative study of two ecotypes that differ in tolerance and maximum growth rate, using a growth analytical approach. One hundred and fifty-four plants of each ecotype grown under controlled conditions were suddenly defoliated (35 % of total leaf area removed) and a similar sample size of plants remained undefoliated (control). Ontogenetic plastic changes in RGR and its growth components [net assimilation rate (NAR), specific leaf area and leaf weight ratio (LWR)] after defoliation were measured to determine whether these plastic changes maximize plant growth and fitness. Different ontogenetic phases of the response were discerned and increased RGR of defoliated plants was detected at the end of the experimental period, but brought about by a different growth component (NAR or LWR) in each ecotype. These changes in RGR are putatively related to increases in fitness in defoliated environments. At the intra-specific scale, data showed a trade-off between the ability to grow under benign environmental conditions and the ability to tolerate resource limitation due to defoliation. PMID:25725085

Camargo, Iván D; Tapia-López, Rosalinda; Núñez-Farfán, Juan

2015-01-01

21

Ecotypic variation in growth responses to simulated herbivory: trade-off between maximum relative growth rate and tolerance to defoliation in an annual plant  

PubMed Central

It has been hypothesized that slow-growing plants are more likely to maximize above-ground biomass and fitness when defoliated by herbivores than those with an already high relative growth rate (RGR). Some populations of the annual herb Datura stramonium L. can tolerate foliar damage better than others. The physiological basis of this difference is examined here in a comparative study of two ecotypes that differ in tolerance and maximum growth rate, using a growth analytical approach. One hundred and fifty-four plants of each ecotype grown under controlled conditions were suddenly defoliated (35 % of total leaf area removed) and a similar sample size of plants remained undefoliated (control). Ontogenetic plastic changes in RGR and its growth components [net assimilation rate (NAR), specific leaf area and leaf weight ratio (LWR)] after defoliation were measured to determine whether these plastic changes maximize plant growth and fitness. Different ontogenetic phases of the response were discerned and increased RGR of defoliated plants was detected at the end of the experimental period, but brought about by a different growth component (NAR or LWR) in each ecotype. These changes in RGR are putatively related to increases in fitness in defoliated environments. At the intra-specific scale, data showed a trade-off between the ability to grow under benign environmental conditions and the ability to tolerate resource limitation due to defoliation. PMID:25725085

Camargo, Iván D.; Tapia-López, Rosalinda; Núñez-Farfán, Juan

2015-01-01

22

Effects of oxygen concentration on biomass production, maximum specific growth rate and extracellular enzyme production by three species of cutaneous propionibacteria grown in continuous culture.  

PubMed

Propionibacterium acnes, Propionibacterium avidum and Propionibacterium granulosum were grown in continuous culture at 0-100% air saturation using a semi-synthetic medium. Maximum specific growth rate, biomass concentration and extracellular lipase, hyaluronate lyase and phosphatase activities were determined. All three species were capable of growth at 100% air saturation but at reduced growth rates. The presence of oxygen altered the production of extra-cellular enzymes. Propionibacterium avidum was the best adapted for growth in aerobic environments. PMID:6663280

Cove, J H; Holland, K T; Cunliffe, W J

1983-11-01

23

THE EFFECT OF PH ON MAXIMUM BACTERIAL GROWTH RATE AND ITS POSSIBLE ROLE AS A DETERMINANT OF BACTERIAL COMPETITION IN THE RUMEN  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Five rumen bacteria were inoculated into media with pH values ranging from 6.7 to 4.7 to determine effects on maximum growth rate. Streptococcus boris, Bacteroides ruminicola, and Selenomanas ruminantium appeared to be more resistant to low pH than either Butyrivib- rio fibrisolvens or Megasphaera elsdenii. S. Boris, B. ruminicola, and S. ruminantium showed gradual decreases in maximum growth rate

J. B. Russell; W. M. Sharp; R. L. Baldwin

24

Can sucrose content in the phloem sap reaching field pea seeds (Pisum sativum L.) be an accurate indicator of seed growth potential?  

PubMed

The composition of the translocates reaching the seeds of pea plants having various nitrogen (N) nutrition regimes was investigated under field situations. Sucrose flow in the phloem sap increased with the node number, but was not significantly different between N nutrition levels. Because N deficiency reduced the number of flowering nodes and the number of seeds per pod, the sucrose flow bleeding from cut peduncles was divided by the number of seeds to give the amount of assimilates available per seed. The sucrose concentration in phloem sap supplied to seeds at the upper nodes was higher than that at the lower nodes. The flow of sucrose delivered to the seeds during the cell division period was correlated with seed growth potential. Seeds from the more N-stressed plants had both the highest seed growth rate and received a higher sucrose flux per seed during the cell division period. As seed growth rate is highly correlated with the number of cotyledonary cells produced during the cell division period, sucrose flow in phloem sap is proposed to be an important determinant of mitotic activity in seed embryos. The carbon (C)/N ratio of the flow of translocates towards seeds was higher under conditions of N-deficiency than with optimal N nutrition, indicating that N flux towards seeds, in itself, is not the main determinant of seed growth potential. PMID:14512380

Munier-Jolain, Nathalie; Salon, Christophe

2003-11-01

25

Estimation of autotrophic maximum specific growth rate constant--experience from the long-term operation of a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor system.  

PubMed

The autotrophic maximum specific growth rate constant, muA,max, is the critical parameter for design and performance of nitrifying activated sludge systems. In literature reviews (i.e., Henze et al., 1987; Metcalf and Eddy, 1991), a wide range of muA,max values have been reported (0.25 to 3.0 days(-1)); however, recent data from several wastewater treatment plants across North America revealed that the estimated muA,max values remained in the narrow range 0.85 to 1.05 days(-1). In this study, long-term operation of a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor system was investigated for estimating this coefficient according to the low food-to-microorganism ratio bioassay and simulation methods, as recommended in the Water Environment Research Foundation (Alexandria, Virginia) report (Melcer et al., 2003). The estimated muA,max values using steady-state model calculations for four operating periods ranged from 0.83 to 0.99 day(-1). The International Water Association (London, United Kingdom) Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1) dynamic model simulations revealed that a single value of muA,max (1.2 days(-1)) could be used, despite variations in the measured specific nitrification rates. However, the average muA,max was gradually decreasing during the activated sludge chlorination tests, until it reached the value of 0.48 day(-1) at the dose of 5 mg chlorine/(g mixed liquor suspended solids x d). Significant discrepancies between the predicted XA/YA ratios were observed. In some cases, the ASM1 predictions were approximately two times higher than the steady-state model predictions. This implies that estimating this ratio from a complex activated sludge model and using it in simple steady-state model calculations should be accepted with great caution and requires further investigation. PMID:18536487

Su, Yu-min; Makinia, Jacek; Pagilla, Krishna R

2008-04-01

26

Interannual physiological and growth responses of glacial Juniperus to changes in atmospheric [CO2] since the Last Glacial Maximum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Last Glacial Maximum, atmospheric [CO2] was as low as 180 ppm and has currently risen to a modern value of 393 ppm as a result of fossil fuel combustion and deforestation. In order to understand how changing [CO2] influenced trees over the last 50,000 years, we analyzed carbon isotope ratios and width of individual tree rings from glacial Juniperus specimens preserved in the Rancho La Brea tar pits in southern California (aged 14-49 kyr BP). Modern trees were also analyzed to compare effects of changing precipitation, temperature and atmospheric [CO2] on physiology and growth. To assess physiological responses, we calculated ci/ca (intercellular [CO2]/atmospheric [CO2]) for each annual ring of each tree. This ratio incorporates numerous aspects of plant physiology, including stomatal conductance and photosynthetic capacity. In addition, we measured ring widths for each sample, and standardized these measurements into indices in order to compare across individuals. Mean ci/ca values remained constant throughout 50,000 years despite major environmental changes, indicating a long-term physiological set point for ci/ca in this group. Constant ci/ca ratios would be maintained through offsetting changes in stomatal conductance and photosynthetic capacity. Glacial Juniperus never experienced ci values below 90 ppm, suggesting a survival compensation point for Juniperus. In addition, glacial trees showed significantly reduced interannual variation in ci/ca, even though interannual climatic variability was as high during the LGM in this region as it is today. A lack of variability in ci/ca of glacial trees suggests that tree physiology was dominated by low [CO2], which shows low interannual variation. Modern trees showed high interannual variation in ci/ca, since water availability dominates current physiological responses and varies greatly from year to year. Interestingly, interannual variation in ring width index did not show significant differences between glacial and modern trees, suggesting these trees were adapted to maintain growth under low [CO2]. These adaptations may constrain the ability of modern trees to fully utilize increases in atmospheric [CO2]. These results have significant implications for our understanding of the adaptations of trees to changing [CO2] and indicate that the environmental factors that most strongly influence plant physiology may have changed over geologic time scales.

Gerhart, L. M.; Harris, J. M.; Ward, J. K.

2011-12-01

27

Effects of oxygen concentration and body weight on maximum feed intake, growth and hematological parameters of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feed intake and satiation in fish are regulated by a number of factors, of which dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) is important. Since fish take up oxygen through the limited gill surface area, all processes that need energy, including food processing, depend on their maximum oxygen uptake capacity. Maximum oxygen uptake capacity relative to body weight in bigger fish is smaller

An Tran-Duy; Johan W. Schrama; Anne A. van Dam; Johan A. J. Verreth

2008-01-01

28

Modelling the growth of Japanese eel Anguilla japonica in the lower reach of the Kao-Ping River, southern Taiwan: an information theory approach.  

PubMed

Information theory was applied to select the best model fitting total length (L(T))-at-age data and calculate the averaged model for Japanese eel Anguilla japonica compiled from published literature and the differences in growth between sexes were examined. Five candidate growth models were the von Bertalanffy, generalized von Bertalanffy, Gompertz, logistic and power models. The von Bertalanffy growth model with sex-specific coefficients was best supported by the data and nearly overlapped the averaged growth model based on Akaike weights, indicating a similar fit to the data. The Gompertz, generalized von Bertalanffy and power growth models were also substantially supported by the data. The L(T) at age of A. japonica were larger in females than in males according to the averaged growth mode, suggesting a sexual dimorphism in growth. Model inferences based on information theory, which deal with uncertainty in model selection and robust parameter estimates, are recommended for modelling the growth of A. japonica. PMID:20738485

Lin, Y J; Tzeng, W N

2009-07-01

29

Paclobutrazol and plant-growth promoting bacterial endophyte Pantoea sp. enhance copper tolerance of guinea grass ( Panicum maximum ) in hydroponic culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

As most gramineous plants, guinea grass (Panicum maximum) comprise cellulosic biomass, which may be used as a feedstock for bioenergy. In order to develop such potential energy plants\\u000a on copper-polluted lands, the hydroponic experiments with Cu, Paclobutrazol (PP333, a kind of antigibberellin) and plant growth-promoting\\u000a bacterial endophyte (PGPB) treatments were carried out in a greenhouse. The seedlings of two cultivars

Wei HuoChun-hua; Chun-hua Zhuang; Ya Cao; Meng Pu; Hui Yao; Lai-qing Lou; Qing-sheng Cai

30

AEROSOL NUCLEATION AND GROWTH DURING LAMINAR TUBE FLOW: MAXIMUM SATURATIONS AND NUCLEATION RATES. (R827354C008)  

EPA Science Inventory

An approximate method of estimating the maximum saturation, the nucleation rate, and the total number nucleated per second during the laminar flow of a hot vapour–gas mixture along a tube with cold walls is described. The basis of the approach is that the temperature an...

31

On Some Growth Properties of Entire Functions Using Their Maximum Moduli Focusing (p, q)th Relative Order  

PubMed Central

We discuss some growth rates of composite entire functions on the basis of the definition of relative (p, q)th order (relative (p, q)th lower order) with respect to another entire function which improve some earlier results of Roy (2010) where p and q are any two positive integers. PMID:25530991

Sanchez Ruiz, Luis Manuel; Datta, Sanjib Kumar; Biswas, Tanmay; Mondal, Golok Kumar

2014-01-01

32

The maximum distortional strain energy density criterion for shear fracture propagation with applications to the growth paths of en echelon faults  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of the present maximum distortional strain energy density criterion for shear fracture propagation under mixed-mode loading conditions shows that while an isolated mode-II shear fracture would tend to propagate in its own plane, the growth path of two en echelon shear fractures deviate from straight lines due to crack interaction. Using a displacement-continuity boundary-element method, the shear fracture propagation paths of two en echelon mode-II faults are shown to converge toward each other irrespective of the sense of shear and fault step.

Du, Yijun; Aydin, Atilla

1993-06-01

33

The Last Glacial Maximum  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used 5704 14C, 10Be, and 3He ages that span the interval from 10,000 to 50,000 years ago (10 to 50 ka) to constrain the timing of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in terms of global ice-sheet and mountain-glacier extent. Growth of the ice sheets to their maximum positions occurred between 33.0 and 26.5 ka in response to climate forcing

Peter U. Clark; Arthur S. Dyke; Jeremy D. Shakun; Anders E. Carlson; Jorie Clark; Barbara Wohlfarth; Jerry X. Mitrovica; Steven W. Hostetler; A. Marshall McCabe

2009-01-01

34

Effects of pH on biomass, maximum specific growth rate and extracellular enzyme production by three species of cutaneous propionibacteria grown in continuous culture.  

PubMed

Three cutaneous propionibacteria, Propionibacterium acnes, Propionibacterium avidum and Propionibacterium granulosum, were grown in chemostats using semi-synthetic medium at various pH values. Growth occurred between pH 4.5 and 7.5 for P. acnes and pH 5.0 and 8.0 for P. avidum and P. granulosum. The highest mumax was at pH 6.0 for the three species. Maximum biomass production was obtained at pH 6.0 for P. acnes and P. avidum and at pH 7.5 for P. granulosum. Extracellular enzyme production occurred over the entire pH growth range when denaturation of the enzymes was taken into account. However, detectable activity of the enzymes was found in a narrower range of pH due to the denaturation of the enzymes at low or high pH values. The highest production of enzymes occurred at pH values between 5.0 and 6.0, apart from the production of hyaluronate lyase of P. granulosum (pH 6.0 to 7.0) and the proteinase of P. acnes and P. avidum (pH 5.0 to 7.5). Propionibacterium acnes produced a lipase, hyaluronate lyase, phosphatase and proteinase activity. Propionibacterium avidum produced a lipase and proteinase activity. Propionibacterium granulosum produced a lipase and hyaluronate lyase. PMID:6311940

Greenman, J; Holland, K T; Cunliffe, W J

1983-05-01

35

"Brown's" Far Reaching Impact  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the 1954 "Brown v. Board of Education" U.S. Supreme Court decision changed the face of American education forever, few individuals at that time could have fully realized its far-reaching implications. Certainly, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Legal Director Thurgood Marshall in his arguments was focusing on…

Chinn, Philip C.

2004-01-01

36

Reaching Black Men. Commentary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Journalist Elizabeth Redden brings to the surface several salient issues in her article entitled, "Reaching Black Men." First, she illuminates that fact that access is not enough when it comes to educating African American men. Second, she points to the importance of having campus-wide initiatives to support the success of Black men. And lastly,…

Gassman, Marybeth

2010-01-01

37

REACH. Air Conditioning Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

Garrison, Joe; And Others

38

Reaching for the Stars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dr. Mae Jemison is the world's first woman astronaut of color who continues to reach for the stars. Jemison was recently successful in leading a team that has secured a $500,000 federal grant to make interstellar space travel a reality. The Dorothy Jemison Foundation for Excellence (named after Jemison's mother) was selected in June by the Defense…

Terry, Dorothy Givens

2012-01-01

39

Maximum Likelihood  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This material introduces the basic theory of maximum likelihood estimation by discussing the likelihood function, the log likelihood function, and maximizing these functions using calculus. Several exercises ask students to derive certain estimators, while others have students compare the behavior of those estimators with other possibilities through the use of various JAVA applets. The applets use the same control features: the sliders set the parameter values, the Â?Stop #Â? drop down menu sets the number of samples taken, the Â?Update #Â? drop down menu sets how often the graph and tables update during the experiment, the single arrow takes one sample, the double arrow runs the full experiment, the square stops the experiment, and the back arrow resets the applet. This page is one lesson from the Virtual Laboratories in Statistics.

Siegrist, Kyle

40

Effects of High-Flow Experiments from Glen Canyon Dam on Abundance, Growth, and Survival Rates of Early Life Stages of Rainbow Trout in the Lees Ferry Reach of the Colorado River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

High-flow experiments (HFEs) from Glen Canyon Dam are primarily intended to conserve fine sediment and improve habitat conditions for native fish in the Colorado River as it flows through Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona. These experimental flows also have the potential to affect the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) population in the Lees Ferry tailwater reach immediately below the dam, which supports a highly valued recreational fishery and likely influences the abundance of rainbow trout in Grand Canyon. Understanding how flow regimes affect the survival and growth of juvenile rainbow trout is critical to interpreting trends in adult abundance. This study reports on the effects of HFEs in 2004 and 2008 on early life stages of rainbow trout in the Lees Ferry reach on the basis of monthly sampling of redds (egg nests) and the abundance of the age-0 trout (fertilization to about 1 to 2 months from emergence) and their growth during a 7-year period between 2003 and 2009. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that the March 2008 HFE resulted in a large increase in early survival rates of age-0 trout because of an improvement in habitat conditions. A stock-recruitment analysis demonstrated that age-0 abundance in July 2008 was more than fourfold higher than expected, given the number of viable eggs that produced these fish. A hatch-date analysis showed that early survival rates were much higher for cohorts that hatched about 1 month after the 2008 HFE (about April 15, 2008) relative to those fish that hatched before this date. These cohorts, fertilized after the 2008 HFE, would have emerged into a benthic invertebrate community that had recovered, and was possibly enhanced by, the HFE. Interannual differences in growth of age-0 trout, determined on the basis of otolith microstructure, support this hypothesis. Growth rates in the summer and fall of 2008 (0.44 mm/day) were virtually the same as in 2006 (0.46 mm/day), the highest recorded during 6 years, even though abundance was eightfold greater in 2008. We speculate that the 60-hour-long 2008 HFE (with peak magnitude about twice that of the annual peak flow during the previous 4 years) increased interstitial spaces in the gravel bed substrate and food availability or quality, leading to higher early survival of recently emerged trout and better growth of these fish through summer and fall. Abundance in 2009 was more than twofold higher than expected, given the estimated number of viable eggs deposited in that year, perhaps indicating that the effect of the 2008 HFE on early life stages was somewhat persistent. In a 3-week interval that spanned the November 2004 HFE, abundance of age-0 trout that were approximately 7 months old from hatch experienced about a threefold decline, compared to the approximately twofold decrease observed between November and December 2008. Abundance of age-0 trout that were approximately 10 months old from hatch was very similar across sampling trips that spanned the March 2008 HFE. It is uncertain whether the decline in abundance after the November 2004 HFE was the result of higher flow-induced mortality or higher flow-induced downstream dispersal. A focused monitoring effort in Marble Canyon (the reach immediately downstream of the Lees Ferry tailwater) before and after future HFEs is recommended to resolve this uncertainty. Relatively detailed monitoring of early life stages-such as the program described in this study-is essential to establish linkages between Glen Canyon Dam operations, or possibly other factors, and trends in the abundance of important nonnative and native fish populations living downstream within Grand Canyon National Park.

Korman, Josh; Kaplinski, Matthew; Melis, Theodore S.

2010-01-01

41

Culture-Independent Estimation of Optimal and Maximum Growth Temperatures of Archaea in Subsurface Habitats Based on the G+C Content in 16S rRNA Gene Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temperature ranges of growth of archaea are strongly correlated with the guanine-plus-cytosine (G+C) contents of their 16S rRNA sequences (PGC). In order to estimate minimum (Tmin), optimal (Topt), and maximum (Tmax) growth temperatures of uncultured archaea based on PGC, the 16S rRNA gene sequences of 207 archaeal species were collected from public databases, and their Tmin, Topt and Tmax

Hiroyuki Kimura; Kousuke Mori; Tomokazu Tashiro; Kenji Kato; Toshiro Yamanaka; Jun-Ichiro Ishibashi; Satoshi Hanada

2010-01-01

42

Ethanol Production and Maximum Cell Growth Are Highly Correlated with Membrane Lipid Composition during Fermentation as Determined by Lipidomic Analysis of 22 Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains  

PubMed Central

Optimizing ethanol yield during fermentation is important for efficient production of fuel alcohol, as well as wine and other alcoholic beverages. However, increasing ethanol concentrations during fermentation can create problems that result in arrested or sluggish sugar-to-ethanol conversion. The fundamental cellular basis for these problem fermentations, however, is not well understood. Small-scale fermentations were performed in a synthetic grape must using 22 industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (primarily wine strains) with various degrees of ethanol tolerance to assess the correlation between lipid composition and fermentation kinetic parameters. Lipids were extracted at several fermentation time points representing different growth phases of the yeast to quantitatively analyze phospholipids and ergosterol utilizing atmospheric pressure ionization-mass spectrometry methods. Lipid profiling of individual fermentations indicated that yeast lipid class profiles do not shift dramatically in composition over the course of fermentation. Multivariate statistical analysis of the data was performed using partial least-squares linear regression modeling to correlate lipid composition data with fermentation kinetic data. The results indicate a strong correlation (R2 = 0.91) between the overall lipid composition and the final ethanol concentration (wt/wt), an indicator of strain ethanol tolerance. One potential component of ethanol tolerance, the maximum yeast cell concentration, was also found to be a strong function of lipid composition (R2 = 0.97). Specifically, strains unable to complete fermentation were associated with high phosphatidylinositol levels early in fermentation. Yeast strains that achieved the highest cell densities and ethanol concentrations were positively correlated with phosphatidylcholine species similar to those known to decrease the perturbing effects of ethanol in model membrane systems. PMID:23064336

Henderson, Clark M.; Lozada-Contreras, Michelle; Jiranek, Vladimir; Longo, Marjorie L.

2013-01-01

43

Managed reach optical networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traffic growth for Internet applications will likely dominate long-distance networks in the foreseeable future, which presents opportunities for new optical layer approaches that are tailored to Internet traffic characteristics. One important difference between the traffic patterns generated by Internet applications is that the Internet connections on average are significantly longer than the conventional voice connections, which allows for network cost

R. E. Wagner

2000-01-01

44

Effects of Experimental High Flow Releases and Increased Fluctuations in Flow from Glen Canyon Dam on Abundance, Growth, and Survival Rates of Early Life Stages of Rainbow Trout in the Lee's Ferry Reach of the Colorado River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The abundance of adult fish populations is controlled by the growth and survival rates of early life stages. Evaluating the effects of flow regimes on early life stages is therefore critical to determine how these regimes affect the abundance of adult populations. Experimental high flow releases from Glen Canyon Dam, primarily intended to conserve fine sediment and improve habitat conditions for native fish in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, AZ, have been conducted in 1996, 2004, and 2008. These flows potentially affect the Lee's Ferry reach rainbow trout population, located immediately downstream of the dam, which supports a highly valued fishery and likely influences the abundance of rainbow trout in Grand Canyon. Due to concerns about negative effects of high trout abundance on endangered native fish, hourly variation in flow from Glen Canyon Dam was experimentally increased between 2003 and 2005 to reduce trout abundance. This study reports on the effects of experimental high flow releases and fluctuating flows on early life stages of rainbow trout in the Lee's Ferry reach based on monthly sampling of redds (egg nests) and the abundance and growth of age-0 trout between 2003 and 2009. Data on spawn timing, spawning elevations, and intergravel temperatures were integrated in a model to estimate the magnitude and seasonal trend in incubation mortality resulting from redd dewatering due to fluctuations in flow. Experimental fluctuations from January through March promoted spawning at higher elevations where the duration of dewatering was longer and intergravel temperatures exceeded lethal thresholds. Flow-dependent incubation mortality rates were 24% (2003) and 50% (2004) in years with higher flow fluctuations, compared to 5-11% under normal operations (2006-2009). Spatial and temporal predictions of mortality were consistent with direct observations of egg mortality determined from the excavation of 125 redds. The amount of variation in backcalculated hatch date distributions predicted by flow-independent (84-93%) and flow-dependent (82-91%) incubation loss models were similar. Age-0 abundance was generally independent of viable egg deposition, except in one year when egg deposition was 10-fold lower due to reduced spawning activity. There was no evidence from the hatch date or stock-recruitment analysis that flow-dependent incubation losses, although large in experimental years, affected the abundance of the age-0 population. The data indicate that strong compensation in survival rates shortly after emergence mitigated the impact of flow-dependent losses. Multiple lines of evidence demonstrated that the March 2008 high flow experiment (HFE) resulted in a large increase in early survival rates (fertilization to ~1-2 months from emergence) of age-0 trout due an improvement in habitat conditions. A stock-recruitment analysis indicated that age-0 abundance in July 2008 was over four-fold higher than expected given the number of viable redds that produced these fish. A hatch date analysis indicated that early survival rates were much higher for cohorts that emerged about two months after the HFE. These cohorts, which were fertilized after the HFE, were not exposed to high flows and emerged into better quality habitat. Inter annual differences in growth of age-0 trout based on otolith microstructure support this hypothesis. Growth rates in the summer and fall of 2008 (0.44 mm·day-1) were virtually the same as in 2006 (0.46 mm·day-1), the highest recorded over six years, even though abundance was eight-fold greater in 2008. I speculate that high flows in 2008 increased interstitial spaces in the substrate and food availability or quality, leading to higher early survival of recently emerged trout and better growth during summer and fall. Abundance in 2009 was over two-fold higher than expected, possibly indicating that the effect of the HFE on early life stages was somewhat persistent.

Korman, Josh

2010-05-01

45

A study of hybridoma cell growth and antibody production kinetics in continuous culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed study of cell growth and antibody production kinetics in continuous culture found that the specific rate of antibody production reached a maximum saturated profile at a specific growth rate less than the maximum. This observation is novel and of importance in the understanding of the mechanism of antibody production and\\/or antibody transport.

K. S. Low; C. Harbour; J. P. Barford

1987-01-01

46

Reaching Beyond The Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strawbridge Observatory at Haverford College is home to a undergraduate-led public observing program. Our program holds ~once monthly public events throughout the academic year that take advantage of eyepiece observing on our 16-inch and 12-inch telescopes as well as of the classroom, library, and projection system. These resources allow us to organize a variety of astronomy related activities that are engaging for individuals of all ages: accessible student talks, current film screenings and even arts and crafts for the families who attend with young children. These events aim to spark curiosity in others about scientific discovery and about the remarkable nature of the world in which we live. In addition to exciting local families about astronomy, this program has excited Haverford students from a range of disciplines about both science and education. Being entirely student led means that we are able to take the initiative in planning, coordinating and running all events, fostering an atmosphere of collaboration, experimentation and commitment amongst our volunteers. Additionally, this program is one of the few at Haverford that regularly reaches beyond the campus walls to promote and build relationships with the outside community. In light of this, our program presents a distinctive and enlightening opportunity for student volunteers: we get to use our scientific backgrounds to educate a general audience, while also learning from them about how to communicate and inspire in others the excitement we feel about the subject of astronomy. The work on this project has been supported by NSF AST-1151462.

Baker, Mariah; Rosenthal, L.; Gaughan, A.; Hopkins, E.

2014-01-01

47

Growth characteristics of aquatic macrophytes cultured in nutrient-enriched water. I. Water hyacinth, water lettuce, and pennywort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal growth characteristics and biomass yield potential of 3 floating aquatic macrophytes cultured in nutrient nonlimiting conditions were evaluated in central Florida's climatic conditions. Growth cycle (growth curve) of the plants was found to be complete when maximum plant density was reached and no additional increase in growth was recorded. Biomass yield per unit area and time was found to

K. R. Reddy; W. F. DeBusk

2009-01-01

48

Factors Influencing Escherichia coli and Enterococcus durans Growth in Parenteral Nutrition With and Without Lipid Emulsion to Inform Maximum Duration of Infusion Policy Decisions.  

PubMed

Background: Recommendations effectively restrict the infusion duration of lipid-containing parenteral nutrition (PN) from a single bag, purportedly because it encourages growth of potential microbial contaminants more than lipid-free PN. Since other variables, including osmolarity, may independently affect microbial growth, this study examined variables affecting growth of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus durans in PN infusates. Materials and Methods: Growth of E coli and E durans was assessed in quadruplicate in 12 different PN infusates, with and without lipid, in varying glucose concentrations. Results: Results are presented as mean log10 colony-forming units (cfu)/mL ± SEM at 48 hours. The log10cfu/mL of both E coli and E durans in PN increased considerably after adjustment for baseline log10cfu/mL and pH, from 1.093 to 2.241 (P < .001) and from 0.843 to 3.451 (P < .001) respectively. Growth of each microorganism was independently increased by lipid inclusion, or increasing the proportion of nonnitrogen energy from lipid, and reduced by raising the glucose concentration or energy density. Increasing the osmolarity of lipid-PN with glucose or sodium chloride reduced growth but only significantly for sodium chloride (E coli, P = .025; E durans, P = .045). Induced changes in pH affected the growth of the 2 organisms differently. Conclusion: The presence of lipid and an increasing proportion of energy from lipid in PN favored the growth of E coli and E durans. Osmolarity changes and the nutrient type causing these changes independently affect the growth of these microbes. Each effect needs to be considered when establishing guidelines based on the growth of potential contaminants in different types of PN. PMID:24969406

Austin, Peter David; Hand, Kieran Sean; Elia, Marinos

2014-06-25

49

Estimation of alga growth stage and lipid content growth rate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method and system for estimating a growth stage of an alga in an ambient fluid. Measured light beam absorption or reflection values through or from the alga and through an ambient fluid, in each of two or more wavelength sub-ranges, are compared with reference light beam absorption values for corresponding wavelength sub-ranges for in each alga growth stage to determine (1) which alga growth stage, if any, is more likely and (2) whether estimated lipid content of the alga is increasing or has peaked. Alga growth is preferably terminated when lipid content has approximately reached a maximum value.

Embaye, Tsegereda N. (Inventor); Trent, Jonathan D. (Inventor)

2012-01-01

50

Fault growth by segment linkage: an explanation for scatter in maximum displacement and trace length data from the Canyonlands Grabens of SE Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maximum displacement (D) and trace length (L) data for a population of 97 normal faults from the Canyonlands Grabens region of SE Utah are presented. Values of L range from 100 to 6500 m, and of D from 1.5–155 m. The data exhibit a scatter between D and L of about half an order-of-magnitude. This is comparable to that exhibited

Joseph A. Cartwright; Bruce D. Trudgill; Christopher S. Mansfield

1995-01-01

51

An Assessment of EU 2020 Strategy: Too Far to Reach?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2010, EU adopted a new growth strategy which includes three growth priorities and five headline targets to be reached by 2020. The aim of this paper is to investigate the current performance of the EU member and candidate states in achieving these growth priorities and the overall strategy target by allocating the headline targets into the…

Colak, Mehmet Selman; Ege, Aylin

2013-01-01

52

Polyamine concentrations in four Poa species, differing in their maximum relative growth rate, grown with free access to nitrate and at limiting nitrate supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyamines are thought to play a role in the control of inherent or environmentally-induced growth rates of plants. To test this contention, we grew plants of four grass species, the inherently fast-growing Poa annua L. and Poa trivialis L. and the inherently slow-growing Poa compressa L. and Poa pratensis (L.) Schreb., at three levels of nitrate supply. Firstly, plants were

Emanuil Karanov; Vera Alexieva; Hans Lambers

1998-01-01

53

Preventing Portfolio Losses by Hedging Maximum Drawdown  

E-print Network

possible market timing, meaning buying the asset at its local maximum and selling it at a subsequent local Introduction Market drops are traditionally protected by buying put or lookback options. The payoff of a put asset increases, and thus it is desirable to buy them when the market reaches its maximum. This leads

Vecer, Jan

54

Preventing Portfolio Losses by Hedging Maximum Drawdown  

E-print Network

possible market timing, meaning buying the asset at its local maximum and selling it at a subsequent local Introduction Market drops are traditionally protected by buying put or lookback options. The payo# of a put asset increases, and thus it is desirable to buy them when the market reaches its maximum. This leads

Vecer, Jan

55

The last glacial maximum  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used 5704 14C, 10Be, and 3He ages that span the interval from 10,000 to 50,000 years ago (10 to 50 ka) to constrain the timing of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in terms of global ice-sheet and mountain-glacier extent. Growth of the ice sheets to their maximum positions occurred between 33.0 and 26.5 ka in response to climate forcing from decreases in northern summer insolation, tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, and atmospheric CO2. Nearly all ice sheets were at their LGM positions from 26.5 ka to 19 to 20 ka, corresponding to minima in these forcings. The onset of Northern Hemisphere deglaciation 19 to 20 ka was induced by an increase in northern summer insolation, providing the source for an abrupt rise in sea level. The onset of deglaciation of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet occurred between 14 and 15 ka, consistent with evidence that this was the primary source for an abrupt rise in sea level ???14.5 ka.

Clark, P.U.; Dyke, A.S.; Shakun, J.D.; Carlson, A.E.; Clark, J.; Wohlfarth, B.; Mitrovica, J.X.; Hostetler, S.W.; McCabe, A.M.

2009-01-01

56

The Last Glacial Maximum.  

PubMed

We used 5704 14C, 10Be, and 3He ages that span the interval from 10,000 to 50,000 years ago (10 to 50 ka) to constrain the timing of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in terms of global ice-sheet and mountain-glacier extent. Growth of the ice sheets to their maximum positions occurred between 33.0 and 26.5 ka in response to climate forcing from decreases in northern summer insolation, tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, and atmospheric CO2. Nearly all ice sheets were at their LGM positions from 26.5 ka to 19 to 20 ka, corresponding to minima in these forcings. The onset of Northern Hemisphere deglaciation 19 to 20 ka was induced by an increase in northern summer insolation, providing the source for an abrupt rise in sea level. The onset of deglaciation of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet occurred between 14 and 15 ka, consistent with evidence that this was the primary source for an abrupt rise in sea level approximately 14.5 ka. PMID:19661421

Clark, Peter U; Dyke, Arthur S; Shakun, Jeremy D; Carlson, Anders E; Clark, Jorie; Wohlfarth, Barbara; Mitrovica, Jerry X; Hostetler, Steven W; McCabe, A Marshall

2009-08-01

57

Tree growth in carbon dioxide enriched air and its implications for global carbon cycling and maximum levels of atmospheric CO2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the longest carbon dioxide enrichment experiment ever conducted, well-watered and adequately fertilized sour orange tree seedlings were planted directly into the ground at Phoenix, Arizona, in July 1987 and continuously exposed, from mid-November of that year, to either ambient air or air enriched with an extra 300 ppmv of CO2 in clear-plastic-wall open-top enclosures. Only 18 months later, the CO2-enriched trees had grown 2.8 times larger than the ambient-treated trees; and they have maintained that productivity differential to the present day. This tremendous growth advantage is due to two major factors: a CO2-induced increase in daytime net photosynthesis and a CO2-induced reduction in nighttime dark respiration. Measurements of these physiological processes in another experiment have shown three Australlian tree species to respond similarly; while an independent study of the atmosphere's seasonal CO2 cycle suggests that all earth's trees, in the mean, probably share this same response. A brief review of the plant science literature outlines how such a large growth response to atmospheric CO2 enrichment might possibly be maintained in light of resource limitations existing in nature. Finally, it is noted that a CO2 "fertilization effect" of this magnitude should substantially slow the rate at which anthropogenic carbon dioxide would otherwise accumulate in the atmosphere, possibly putting an acceptable upper limit on the level to which the CO2 content of the air may ultimately rise.

Idso, Sherwood B.; Kimball, Bruce A.

1993-09-01

58

Reaching the Hard-to-Reach Adult through Effective Marketing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author demonstrates the utility of marketing concepts and techniques as a total strategy designed to overcome resistance to participation and to involve the hard-to-reach adult in continuing education. (SK)

Beder, Harold W.

1980-01-01

59

Observed reach trajectory influences executed reach kinematics in prehension.  

PubMed

Previous studies have demonstrated that the observation of action can modulate motor performance. This literature has focused on manipulating the observed goal of the action, rather than examining whether action observation effects could be elicited by changing observed kinematics alone. In the study presented here, observed reach trajectory kinematics unrelated to the goal of the action were manipulated in order to examine whether observed movement kinematics alone could influence the action of the observer. Participants observed an experimenter grasp a target object using either a normal or an exaggeratedly high reaching action (as though reaching over an invisible obstacle). When participants observed the experimenter perform actions with a high reach trajectory, their own movements took on aspects of the observed action, showing greater wrist height throughout their reaching trajectory than under conditions in which they observed normal reaching actions. The data are discussed in relation to previous findings which suggest that kinematic aspects of observed movements can prime action through kinematic or intention based matching processes. PMID:21287427

Hardwick, Robert M; Edwards, Martin G

2011-06-01

60

Effects of glucose concentration n biomass, maximum specific growth rate and extracellular enzyme production by three species of cutaneous Propionibacteria grown in continuous culture.  

PubMed

There cutaneous propionibacteria - Propionibacterium acnes, P. avidum and P. granulosum - were grown in chemostats using semi-synthetic medium with various concentrations of glucose. Biomass rose with increasing glucose concentration up to 0.3-0.4% (w/v) and then remained constant. Propionibacterium granulosum had both a low yield and low mumax when grown in the absence of glucose suggesting that this organism is essentially 'saccharolytic' in its nutrition. In contrast, P. acnes and P. avidum had higher growth yields than P. granulosum and showed their highest mumax values in the absence of glucose. Extracellular lipase, hyaluronidase (hyaluronate lyase) and acid phosphatase activities varied with different glucose concentrations, but in all cases were lowest at the highest glucose concentration tested (0.5%, w/v). PMID:7343643

Greenman, J; Holland, K T; Cunliffe, W J

1981-12-01

61

Growth condition and bacterial community for maximum hydrolysis of suspended organic materials in anaerobic digestion of food waste-recycling wastewater.  

PubMed

This paper reports the effects of changing pH (5-7) and temperature (T, 40-60 degrees C) on the efficiencies of bacterial hydrolysis of suspended organic matter (SOM) in wastewater from food waste recycling (FWR) and the changes in the bacterial community responsible for this hydrolysis. Maximum hydrolysis efficiency (i.e., 50.5% reduction of volatile suspended solids) was predicted to occur at pH 5.7 and T = 44.5 degrees C. Changes in short-chain volatile organic acid profiles and in acidogenic bacterial communities were investigated under these conditions. Propionic and butyric acids concentrations increased rapidly during the first 2 days of incubation. Several band sequences consistent with Clostridium spp. were detected using denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis. Clostridium thermopalmarium and Clostridium novyi seemed to contribute to butyric acid production during the first 1.5 days of acidification of FWR wastewater, and C. thermopalmarium was a major butyric acid producer afterward. C. novyi was an important propionic acid producer. These two species appear to be important contributors to hydrolysis of SOM in the wastewater. Other acidogenic anaerobes, Aeromonas sharmana, Bacillus coagulans, and Pseudomonas plecoglossicida, were also indentified. PMID:19894044

Kim, Man Deok; Song, Minkyung; Jo, Minho; Shin, Seung Gu; Khim, Jee Hyeong; Hwang, Seokhwan

2010-02-01

62

Reaching ignition in the tokamak  

SciTech Connect

This review covers the following areas: (1) the physics of burning plasmas, (2) plasma physics requirements for reaching ignition, (3) design studies for ignition devices, and (4) prospects for an ignition project. (MOW)

Furth, H.P.

1985-06-01

63

ReachFewL = ReachUL Brady Garvin  

E-print Network

means polynomially many. FewL is the class of problems decided by nondeterministic log-space machines decided by nondeterministic log-space machines which on any input have at most polynomial number. ReachUL is the class of problems decided by nondeterministic log-space machines which on every input

Logan, David

64

Growth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Introduction to models of economic growth with a great deal of focus on the Solow Growth Model both its theory and testing it with data. Also contains a discussion of the effects of the Greenspan Put. From a macroeconomics course at the the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

65

Astronomical reach of fundamental physics  

PubMed Central

Using basic physical arguments, we derive by dimensional and physical analysis the characteristic masses and sizes of important objects in the universe in terms of just a few fundamental constants. This exercise illustrates the unifying power of physics and the profound connections between the small and the large in the cosmos we inhabit. We focus on the minimum and maximum masses of normal stars, the corresponding quantities for neutron stars, the maximum mass of a rocky planet, the maximum mass of a white dwarf, and the mass of a typical galaxy. To zeroth order, we show that all these masses can be expressed in terms of either the Planck mass or the Chandrasekar mass, in combination with various dimensionless quantities. With these examples, we expose the deep interrelationships imposed by nature between disparate realms of the universe and the amazing consequences of the unifying character of physical law. PMID:24477692

Burrows, Adam S.; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

2014-01-01

66

Changes in biologically active ultraviolet radiation reaching the Earth's surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stratospheric ozone levels are near their lowest point since measurements began, so current ultraviolet-B (UV-B ) radiation levels are thought to be close to their maximum. Total stratospheric content of ozone-depleting substances is expected to reach a maximum before the year 2000. All other things eing equal, the current ozone losses and related UV-B increases should be close to their

S. Madronich; R. L. McKenzie; L. O. Björn; M. M. Caldwell; M. Ilyas

1998-01-01

67

Reaching All Students with Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics'"Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics" and "Professional Standards for Teaching Mathematics" reflect the belief that all students can learn a significant core of high-quality mathematics. Recognizing the magnitude of the task of reaching all students, this book was put together…

Cuevas, Gilbert, Ed.; Driscoll, Mark, Ed.

68

PNW RIVER REACH FILE DOCUMENTATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with Federal and state agencies, and NW Indian Tribes has produced a 1:100,000-scale River Reach data layer for the Pacific Northwest that will serve water-resource management applications for the next decade or more. The Pacific N...

69

Microgravity Science Glovebox - Interior Reach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photo shows the interior reach in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) being developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Scientists will use the MSG to carry out multidisciplinary studies in combustion science, fluid physics and materials science. The MSG is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Photo Credit: NASA/MSFC

1997-01-01

70

Estrogen Protects Against Increased Blood Pressure in Postpubertal Female Growth Restricted Offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Placental insufficiency in the rat results in intrauterine growth restriction and development of hypertension in prepubertal male and female growth-restricted offspring. However, after puberty, only male growth-restricted offspring remain hypertensive, whereas female growth-restricted offspring stabilize their blood pressure to levels comparable to adult female controls. Because female rats reach their maximum levels of estrogen at puberty, we hypothesize that estrogen

Norma B. Ojeda; Daniela Grigore; Elliott B. Robertson; Barbara T. Alexander

2010-01-01

71

Seasonal growth in Laminaria longicruris : Relations with dissolved inorganic nutrients and internal reserves of nitrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations have been made on seasonal fluctuations in dissolved inorganic nutrients, internal reserves of nitrogen and growth rates in Laminaria longicruris. The onset of winter growth in shallow-water stations (6 and 9 m) correlated well with improved dissolved nitrate conditions in the sea. During the winter, reserves of NO3-were accumulated by the plants and reached maximum values of 150 µmoles

A. R. O. Chapman; J. S. Craigie

1977-01-01

72

Environmental Degradation, Disproportionality, and the Double Diversion: Reaching out, Reaching ahead, and Reaching beyond  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rather than seeking ivory-tower isolation, members of the Rural Sociological Society have always been distinguished by a willingness to work with specialists from a broad range of disciplines, and to work on some of the world's most challenging problems. What is less commonly recognized is that the willingness to reach beyond disciplinary…

Freudenburg, William R.

2006-01-01

73

Records Reaching Recording Data Technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of RECORDS (Reaching Recording Data Technologies) is the digital capturing of buildings and cultural heritage objects in hard-to-reach areas and the combination of data. It is achieved by using a modified crane from film industry, which is able to carry different measuring systems. The low-vibration measurement should be guaranteed by a gyroscopic controlled advice that has been , developed for the project. The data were achieved by using digital photography, UV-fluorescence photography, infrared reflectography, infrared thermography and shearography. Also a terrestrial 3D laser scanner and a light stripe topography scanner have been used The combination of the recorded data should ensure a complementary analysis of monuments and buildings.

Gresik, G. W. L.; Siebe, S.; Drewello, R.

2013-07-01

74

Neural Correlates of Reach Errors  

PubMed Central

Reach errors may be broadly classified into errors arising from unpredictable changes in target location, called target errors, and errors arising from miscalibration of internal models, called execution errors. Execution errors may be caused by miscalibration of dynamics (e.g.. when a force field alters limb dynamics) or by miscalibration of kinematics (e.g., when prisms alter visual feedback). While all types of errors lead to similar online corrections, we found that the motor system showed strong trial-by-trial adaptation in response to random execution errors but not in response to random target errors. We used fMRI and a compatible robot to study brain regions involved in processing each kind of error. Both kinematic and dynamic execution errors activated regions along the central and the post-central sulci and in lobules V, VI, and VIII of the cerebellum, making these areas possible sites of plastic changes in internal models for reaching. Only activity related to kinematic errors extended into parietal area 5. These results are inconsistent with the idea that kinematics and dynamics of reaching are computed in separate neural entities. In contrast, only target errors caused increased activity in the striatum and the posterior superior parietal lobule. The cerebellum and motor cortex were as strongly activated as with execution errors. These findings indicate a neural and behavioral dissociation between errors that lead to switching of behavioral goals, and errors that lead to adaptation of internal models of limb dynamics and kinematics. PMID:16251440

Hashambhoy, Yasmin; Rane, Tushar; Shadmehr, Reza

2005-01-01

75

Accessible Buildings for People with Walking and Reaching Limitations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research was reviewed and conducted regarding the accessibility of buildings for physically disabled persons. Data was produced regarding anthropometrics (eye level and reach limits for ambulant, semiambulant, and wheelchair bound persons); wheelchair maneuvers; speed and distance (maximum travel distances for people with limitations of stamina);…

Steinfeld, Edward; And Others

76

How far can you reach? Ciprian Borcea 1  

E-print Network

the maximum reach config- urations of a 3D revolute-jointed manipulator is a long- standing open problem now, in spite of the practical importance of the problem, only numerical optimization heuristics were problem to a simple version of the planar carpenter's rule problem. 1 Introduction The revolute

Gao, Jie

77

Maximum modular graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modularity has been explored as an important quantitative metric for community and cluster detection in networks. Finding the maximum modularity of a given graph has been proven to be NP-complete and therefore, several heuristic algorithms have been proposed. We investigate the problem of finding the maximum modularity of classes of graphs that have the same number of links and/or nodes and determine analytical upper bounds. Moreover, from the set of all connected graphs with a fixed number of links and/or number of nodes, we construct graphs that can attain maximum modularity, named maximum modular graphs. The maximum modularity is shown to depend on the residue obtained when the number of links is divided by the number of communities. Two applications in transportation networks and data-centers design that can benefit of maximum modular partitioning are proposed.

Trajanovski, S.; Wang, H.; Van Mieghem, P.

2012-07-01

78

Tuning in to Another Person's Action Capabilities: Perceiving Maximal Jumping-Reach Height from Walking Kinematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments investigated the ability to perceive the maximum height to which another actor could jump to reach an object. Experiment 1 determined the accuracy of estimates for another actor's maximal reach-with-jump height and compared these estimates to estimates of the actor's standing maximal reaching height and to estimates of the…

Ramenzoni, Veronica; Riley, Michael A.; Davis, Tehran; Shockley, Kevin; Armstrong, Rachel

2008-01-01

79

Physics Reach at Future Colliders  

SciTech Connect

The physics reach at future colliders is discussed, with focus on the Higgs sector. First we present the Standard Model and some results obtained at the existing high-energy hadron collider, Tevatron, together with the corresponding expectations for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which starts operating in 2008. Then we discuss important low energy measurements: the anomalous magnetic moment for muon and the leptonic B-decay together with b{yields}s{gamma}. Finally the potential of the planned e{sup +}e{sup -} International Linear Collider (ILC) and its possible option Photon Linear Collider (PLC), e{gamma} and {gamma}{gamma}, is shortly presented.

Krawczyk, Maria [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Hoz-dota 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

2007-11-27

80

Feeding a diet contaminated with ochratoxin A for chickens at the maximum level recommended by the EU for poultry feeds (0.1 mg/kg). 1. Effects on growth and slaughter performance, haematological and serum traits.  

PubMed

The European Commission Recommendation 2006/576/EC, suggests that the maximum level of Ochratoxin A (OTA) in poultry feeds should be set at 0.1 mg OTA/kg. Thirty-six one-day-old male Hubburd broiler chickens were divided into two groups, a Control (basal diet) and an Ochratoxin A (basal diet + 0.1 mg OTA/kg) group. The growth and slaughter performance traits were recorded. The liver, spleen, bursa of Fabricius and thymus weights were measured. The erythrocyte and leukocyte numbers were assayed in blood samples, and the heterophils to lymphocytes (H/L) ratio was determined. Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), lysozyme, the total protein and the electrophoretic pattern were evaluated in serum samples. Liver enzymes (alanino aminotransferase, ALT and aspartate aminotransferase, AST) and kidney function parameters (uric acid and creatinine) were quantified. The results revealed that feeding a 0.1 mg OTA/kg contaminated diet to chicks caused a decrease in the absolute thymus weight (p < 0.05) and a lower total protein (p < 0.01), albumin (p < 0.01), alpha (p < 0.05), beta (p = 0.001) and gamma (p = 0.001) globulins serum concentration in the Ochratoxin A group. Moreover, the albumin-to-globulin (A/G) ratio of the OTA-treated animals resulted to be higher (p < 0.05). Feeding broiler chickens, a diet contaminated with the maximum level admitted by the European Commission Recommendation (0.1 mg OTA/kg), did not affect the animal performance, slaughter traits, organ weights, haematological parameters, liver enzyme or renal function parameters concentrations but had an overall immunosuppressant effect, with reduction in the thymus weight and of the total serum protein, albumin, alpha, beta and gamma globulins concentration. PMID:23639013

Pozzo, L; Salamano, G; Mellia, E; Gennero, M S; Doglione, L; Cavallarin, L; Tarantola, M; Forneris, G; Schiavone, A

2013-05-01

81

Growth characteristics of aquatic macrophytes cultured in nutrient-enriched water: I. Water hyacinth, water lettuce, and pennywort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal growth characteristics and biomass yield potential of 3 floating aquatic macrophytes cultured in nutrient nonlimiting\\u000a conditions were evaluated in central Florida’s climatic conditions. Growth cycle (growth curve) of the plants was found to\\u000a be complete when maximum plant density was reached and no additional increase in growth was recorded. Biomass yield per unit\\u000a area and time was found to

K. R. Reddy; W. F. Debusk

1984-01-01

82

Agreement Reached on Fiji Hostages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fiji's military rulers and the group of gunmen holding 31 members of the former government hostage have apparently reached a deal that will end the five-week political crisis and free the hostages "within days." The crisis began when a group led by George Speight raided the parliament building on May 19, demanding more power for indigenous Fijians. Most of the demands made by Speight -- that the 1997 multiracial constitution be thrown out and that Prime Minister Mahendra Chaudhry, Fiji's first prime minister of Indian descent, be fired -- have already been met. In the 36 days since the storming of parliament, Fiji's economy has entered a steep downward spiral. On May 29, the military declared martial law and assumed control of the government. On June 6, Fiji was suspended from the Commonwealth, and Australia, New Zealand, and the United States have threatened economic sanctions if Fiji is not restored to democracy. Meanwhile, Australian trade unions have refused to handle cargo to and from Fiji, freezing much of the country's exports. The garment, sugar, and tourism industries have all reported large losses and layoffs. The military regime has announced that the details of the deal will be made known tomorrow, and the hostages will then be released. Previous announcements regarding their release, however, have come to nothing. Once the immediate crisis is solved, the military has said they will continue to run the country for another three months and would then create an interim government to make preparations for new elections within two years.

de Nie, Michael Willem.

83

Reaching for the red planet  

PubMed

The distant shores of Mars were reached by numerous U.S. and Russian spacecraft throughout the 1960s to mid 1970s. Nearly 20 years have passed since those successful missions which orbited and landed on the Martian surface. Two Soviet probes headed for the planet in July, 1988, but later failed. In August 1993, the U.S. Mars Observer suddenly went silent just three days before it was to enter orbit around the planet and was never heard from again. In late 1996, there will be renewed activity on the launch pads with three probes departing for the red planet: 1) The U.S. Mars Global Surveyor will be launched in November on a Delta II rocket and will orbit the planet for global mapping purposes; 2) Russia's Mars '96 mission, scheduled to fly in November on a Proton launcher, consists of an orbiter, two small stations which will land on the Martian surface, and two penetrators that will plow into the terrain; and finally, 3) a U.S. Discovery-class spacecraft, the Mars Pathfinder, has a December launch date atop a Delta II booster. The mission features a lander and a microrover that will travel short distances over Martian territory. These missions usher in a new phase of Mars exploration, setting the stage for an unprecedented volley of spacecraft that will orbit around, land on, drive across, and perhaps fly at low altitudes over the planet. PMID:11538726

David, L

1996-05-01

84

Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency.  

PubMed

Surfaces covered by ultrathin plasmonic structures-so-called metasurfaces-have recently been shown to be capable of completely controlling the phase of light, representing a new paradigm for the design of innovative optical elements such as ultrathin flat lenses, directional couplers for surface plasmon polaritons and wave plate vortex beam generation. Among the various types of metasurfaces, geometric metasurfaces, which consist of an array of plasmonic nanorods with spatially varying orientations, have shown superior phase control due to the geometric nature of their phase profile. Metasurfaces have recently been used to make computer-generated holograms, but the hologram efficiency remained too low at visible wavelengths for practical purposes. Here, we report the design and realization of a geometric metasurface hologram reaching diffraction efficiencies of 80% at 825?nm and a broad bandwidth between 630?nm and 1,050?nm. The 16-level-phase computer-generated hologram demonstrated here combines the advantages of a geometric metasurface for the superior control of the phase profile and of reflectarrays for achieving high polarization conversion efficiency. Specifically, the design of the hologram integrates a ground metal plane with a geometric metasurface that enhances the conversion efficiency between the two circular polarization states, leading to high diffraction efficiency without complicating the fabrication process. Because of these advantages, our strategy could be viable for various practical holographic applications. PMID:25705870

Zheng, Guoxing; Mühlenbernd, Holger; Kenney, Mitchell; Li, Guixin; Zentgraf, Thomas; Zhang, Shuang

2015-05-01

85

Distribution of the time at which N vicious walkers reach their maximal height.  

PubMed

We study the extreme statistics of N nonintersecting Brownian motions (vicious walkers) over a unit time interval in one dimension. Using path-integral techniques we compute exactly the joint distribution of the maximum M and of the time ?(M) at which this maximum is reached. We focus in particular on nonintersecting Brownian bridges ("watermelons without wall") and nonintersecting Brownian excursions ("watermelons with a wall"). We discuss in detail the relationships between such vicious walkers models in watermelon configurations and stochastic growth models in curved geometry on the one hand and the directed polymer in a disordered medium (DPRM) with one free end point on the other hand. We also check our results using numerical simulations of Dyson's Brownian motion and confront them with numerical simulations of the polynuclear growth model (PNG) and of a model of DPRM on a discrete lattice. Some of the results presented here were announced in a recent letter [J. Rambeau and G. Schehr, Europhys. Lett. 91, 60006 (2010)]. PMID:21797341

Rambeau, Joachim; Schehr, Grégory

2011-06-01

86

REACH Report to the Rockefeller Foundation. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document summarizes the activities of REACH, the Rural Education Alliance for Collaborative Humanities. REACH is an effort to strengthen rural education in South Carolina through writing and the study of local history and culture. Among REACH projects are the REACH School Programs, fostering student created research on the history and…

Blodgett, Jack

87

What causes cooling water temperature gradients in forested stream reaches?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies have suggested that shading by riparian vegetation may reduce maximum water temperature and provide refugia for temperature sensitive aquatic organisms. Longitudinal cooling gradients have been observed during the daytime for stream reaches shaded by coniferous trees downstream of clear cuts, or deciduous woodland downstream of open moorland. However, little is known about the energy exchange processes that drive such gradients, especially in semi-natural woodland contexts, and in the absence of potentially confounding cool groundwater inflows. To address this gap, this study quantified and modelled variability in stream temperature and heat fluxes along an upland reach of the Girnock Burn (a tributary of the Aberdeenshire Dee, Scotland) where riparian landuse transitions from open moorland to semi-natural forest. Observations were made along a 1050 m reach using a spatially-distributed network of ten water temperature micro-loggers, three automatic weather stations and >200 hemispherical photographs, which were used to estimate incoming solar radiation. These data parameterised a high-resolution energy flux model, incorporating flow-routing, which predicted spatio-temporal variability in stream temperature. Variability in stream temperature was controlled largely by energy fluxes at the water column-atmosphere interface. Predominantly net energy gains occurred along the reach during daylight hours, and heat exchange across the bed-water column interface accounted for <1% of the net energy budget. For periods when daytime net radiation gains were high (under clear skies), differences between water temperature observations decreased in the streamwise direction; a maximum difference of 2.5 °C was observed between the upstream reach boundary and 1050 m downstream. Furthermore, daily maximum water temperature at 1050 m downstream was ?1°C cooler than at the upstream reach boundary and lagged the occurrence of daily maximum water temperature upstream by >1h. Temperature gradients were not generated by cooling of stream water, but rather by a combination of reduced rates of heating in the woodland reach and advection of cooler (overnight and early morning) water from the upstream moorland catchment. Longitudinal thermal gradients were indistinct at night and on days when net radiation gains were low (under over-cast skies), thus when changes in net energy gains or losses did not vary significantly in space and time, and heat advected into the reach was reasonably consistent. The findings of the study and the modelling approach employed are useful tools for assessing optimal planting strategies for mitigating against ecologically damaging stream temperature maxima.

Garner, G.; Malcolm, I. A.; Sadler, J. P.; Hannah, D. M.

2014-06-01

88

Maximum grasping reach of operators possessing functional impairments of the upper extremities  

E-print Network

Level Classification** Muscles Affected Cervical - 7 (C-7) Thoracic - 2 (T-2) Thoracic - 4 (T-4) Thoracic - 12 (T-12) Lumbar - 5 (L-5) Tri cepts, extensor di gi torum Intercostal (between ribs) Lateral hamstrings tibialis posterior, peroneals...

Goebel, Lucky Arlan

1978-01-01

89

The Effect of Body Orientation to Gravity on Early Infant Reaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two groups of infants were studied to demonstrate that changes in reaching are determined by the interaction of organismic and environmental constraints. The infants were placed in three different positions and observed for quantity and quality of reaching. Results indicated that both environmental constraints and growth contribute to reaching in…

Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.; Kamp, John Van der

1994-01-01

90

Maximum Entropy Image Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-dimensional digital image reconstruction is an important imaging process in many of the physical sciences. If the data are insufficient to specify a unique reconstruction, an additional criterion must be introduced, either implicitly or explicitly before the best estimate can be computed. Here we use a principle of maximum entropy, which has proven useful in other contexts, to design a

Stephen J. Wernecke; Larry R. D'addario

1977-01-01

91

Maximum Power Point  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how to find the maximum power point (MPP) of a photovoltaic (PV) panel in order to optimize its efficiency at creating solar power. They also learn about real-world applications and technologies that use this technique, as well as Ohm's law and the power equation, which govern a PV panel's ability to produce power.

2014-09-18

92

Benchmarking for maximum value.  

PubMed

Speaking at the most recent Healthcare Estates conference, Ed Baldwin, of international built asset consultancy EC Harris LLP, examined the role of benchmarking and market-testing--two of the key methods used to evaluate the quality and cost-effectiveness of hard and soft FM services provided under PFI healthcare schemes to ensure they are offering maximum value for money. PMID:19344004

Baldwin, Ed

2009-03-01

93

Maximum likelihood pitch estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for estimating the pitch period of voiced speech sounds is developed based on a maximum likelihood (ML) formulation. It is capable of resolution finer than one sampling period and is shown to perform better in the presence of noise than the cepstrum method.

J. Wise; J. Caprio; T. Parks

1976-01-01

94

ALMA Telescope Reaches New Heights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) astronomical observatory took another step forward and upward, as one of its state-of-the-art antennas was carried for the first time to Chile's 16,500-foot-high plateau of Chajnantor on the back of a giant, custom-built transporter. The 40-foot-diameter antenna, weighing about 100 tons, was moved to ALMA's high-altitude Array Operations Site, where the extremely dry and rarefied air is ideal for observing the Universe. The conditions at the Array Operations Site on Chajnantor, while excellent for astronomy, are also very harsh. Only about half as much oxygen is available as at sea level, making it very difficult to work there. This is why ALMA's antennas are assembled and tested at the lower 9,500-foot altitude of the ALMA Operations Support Facility (OSF). It was from this relatively hospitable base camp that the ALMA antenna began its journey to the high Chajnantor site. "The successful transport of the first ALMA Antenna to the high site marks the start of the next phase of the project. Now that we are starting to move the ALMA antennas to the high site, the real work begins and the exciting part is just beginning," said Adrian Russell, North American ALMA Project Manager. The antenna's trip began when one of the two ALMA transporters lifted the antenna onto its back, carrying its heavy load along the 17-mile road from the Operations Support Facility up to the Array Operations Site. While the transporter is capable of speeds of up to 8 miles per hour when carrying an antenna, this first journey was made more slowly to ensure that everything worked as expected, taking about seven hours. The ALMA antennas use state-of-the-art technology, and are the most advanced submillimeter-wavelength antennas ever made. They are designed to operate fully exposed in the harsh conditions of the Array Operations Site, to survive strong winds and extreme temperatures, to point precisely enough that they could pick out a golf ball at a distance of nine miles, and to keep their smooth reflecting surfaces accurate to less than the thickness of a human hair. Once the transporter reached the high plateau it carried the antenna to a concrete pad -- a docking station with connections for power and fiber optics -- and positioned it with an accuracy of a small fraction of an inch. The transporter is guided by a laser steering system and, just like some cars, also has ultrasonic collision detectors. These sensors ensure the safety of the state-of-the-art antennas as the transporter drives them across what will soon be a rather crowded plateau. Ultimately, ALMA will have at least 66 antennas distributed over about 200 pads, spread over distances of up to 11.5 miles and operating as a single, giant telescope. Even when ALMA is fully operational, the transporters will be used to move the antennas between pads to reconfigure the telescope for different kinds of observations. This first ALMA antenna at the high site will soon be joined by others, and the ALMA team looks forward to making their first observations from the Chajnantor plateau. They plan to link three antennas by early 2010, and to make the first scientific observations with ALMA in the second half of 2011. ALMA will help astronomers answer important questions about our cosmic origins. The telescope will observe the Universe using light with millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths, between infrared light and radio waves in the electromagnetic spectrum. Light at these wavelengths comes from some of the coldest, and from some of the most distant objects in the cosmos. These include cold clouds of gas and dust where new stars are being born, or remote galaxies towards the edge of the observable universe. The Universe is relatively unexplored at submillimeter wavelengths, as the telescopes need extremely dry atmospheric conditions, such as those at Chajnantor, and advanced detector technology. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), an international astronomy facility, is a partnership of Europe, North Americ

2009-09-01

95

ALMA telescope reaches new heights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) astronomical observatory has taken another step forward - and upwards. One of its state-of-the-art antennas was carried for the first time to the 5000m plateau of Chajnantor, in the Chilean Andes, on the back of a custom-built giant transporter. The antenna, which weighs about 100 tons and has a diameter of 12 metres, was transported up to the high-altitude Array Operations Site, where the extremely dry and rarefied air is ideal for ALMA's observations of the Universe. The conditions at the Array Operations Site on Chajnantor, while excellent for astronomy, are also very harsh. Only half as much oxygen is available as at sea level, making it very difficult to work there. This is why ALMA's antennas are assembled and tested at the lower 2900 m altitude of the ALMA Operations Support Facility. It was from this relatively hospitable base camp that the ALMA antenna began its journey to the high Chajnantor site. "This is an important moment for ALMA. We are very happy that the first transport of an antenna to the high site went flawlessly. This achievement was only possible through contributions from all international ALMA partners: this particular antenna is provided by Japan, the heavy-lift transporter by Europe, and the receiving electronics inside the antenna by North America, Europe, and Asia", said Wolfgang Wild, European ALMA Project Manager. The trip began when one of the two ALMA transporters, named Otto, lifted the antenna onto its back. It then carried its heavy load along the 28 km road from the Operations Support Facility up to the Array Operations Site. While the transporter is capable of speeds of up to 12 km/hour when carrying an antenna, this first journey was made more slowly to ensure that everything worked as expected, taking about seven hours. The ALMA antennas are the most advanced submillimetre-wavelength antennas ever made. They are designed to operate fully exposed in the harsh conditions of the Array Operations Site. This means surviving strong winds and temperatures between +20 and -20 Celsius whilst being able to point precisely enough that they could pick out a golf ball at a distance of 15 km, and to keep their smooth reflecting surfaces accurate to better than 25 micrometres (less than the typical thickness of a human hair). Once the transporter reached the high plateau it carried the antenna to a concrete pad - a docking station with connections for power and fibre optics - and positioned it with an accuracy of a few millimetres. The transporter is guided by a laser steering system and, just like some cars today, also has ultrasonic collision detectors. These sensors ensure the safety of the state-of-the-art antennas as the transporter drives them across what will soon be a rather crowded plateau. Ultimately, ALMA will have at least 66 antennas distributed over about 200 pads, spread over distances of up to 18.5 km and operating as a single, giant telescope. Even when ALMA is fully operational, the transporters will be used to move the antennas between pads to reconfigure the telescope for different kinds of observations. "Transporting our first antenna to the Chajnantor plateau is a epic feat which exemplifies the exciting times in which ALMA is living. Day after day, our global collaboration brings us closer to the birth of the most ambitious ground-based astronomical observatory in the world", said Thijs de Graauw, ALMA Director. This first ALMA antenna at the high site will soon be joined by others and the ALMA team looks forward to making their first observations from the Chajnantor plateau. They plan to link three antennas by early 2010, and to make the first scientific observations with ALMA in the second half of 2011. ALMA will help astronomers answer important questions about our cosmic origins. The telescope will observe the Universe using light with millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths, between infrared light and radio waves in the electromagnetic spectrum. Light at these wavelengths comes from some of th

2009-09-01

96

Dynamic Dominance Persists During Unsupported Reaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies examining lateralization of arm movements focused on supported movements in the horizontal plane, removing the effects of gravity. The authors hypothesized that interlimb differences in free reaching would be consistent with the differences shown during supported reaching. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected for the forearm and upper arm segments in a 3-direction reaching task. Results showed lateralization

Tucker Tomlinson; Robert Sainburg

2012-01-01

97

Maximum Confidence Quantum Measurements  

E-print Network

We consider the problem of discriminating between states of a specified set with maximum confidence. For a set of linearly independent states unambiguous discrimination is possible if we allow for the possibility of an inconclusive result. For linearly dependent sets an analogous measurement is one which allows us to be as confident as possible that when a given state is identified on the basis of the measurement result, it is indeed the correct state.

Sarah Croke; Erika Andersson; Stephen M. Barnett; Claire R. Gilson; John Jeffers

2006-04-05

98

Interference of Different Types of Seats on Postural Control System during a Forward-Reaching Task in Individuals with Paraplegia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We aimed to evaluate the influence of different types of wheelchair seats on paraplegic individuals' postural control using a maximum anterior reaching test. Balance evaluations during 50, 75, and 90% of each individual's maximum reach in the forward direction using two different cushions on seat (one foam and one gel) and a no-cushion condition…

de Abreu, Daniela Cristina Carvalho; Takara, Kelly; Metring, Nathalia Lopes; Reis, Julia Guimaraes; Cliquet, Alberto, Jr.

2012-01-01

99

The effect of fluid flow on coiled tubing reach  

SciTech Connect

A critical parameter to the success of many coiled tubing (CT) operations in highly deviated or horizontal wells is the depth penetration that can be attained before the CT buckles and locks up. Achieving a desired depth is always critical in CT operations and attaining an additional reach of a few hundred feet can be crucial. This paper addresses the effect of fluid flow in the CT and in the CT/wellbore annulus on the state of force and stress in the CT, and thereby predicts its effect on the reach attainable by the CT. The flow of fluid through the CT and annulus between the CT and borehole modifies the pressures and the effective force which governs the mechanical stability of the CT. The net force per unit length due to fluid flow in the coiled tubing and annulus between the coiled tubing casing/well is calculated in terms of the shear stress and its effect on the onset of buckling and lockup is determined. The model is then implemented in a full tubing forces calculation and the effect of flowing fluids and producing fluids on reach is analyzed. The new model is utilized in the design of commercial jobs. The exact analytic model shows that fluid flow inside the CT has zero impact on reach, that downward flow in the annulus has a favourable impact, and upward flow in the annulus reduces the maximum attainable reach. Using the full tubing forces model, a coiled tubing job can be designed taking into account the flow of a fluid with a specified rheology, density and flow rate. Thus the feasibility of attaining a given reach can be more accurately determined. Results are presented in the form of the surface weight for commercial wells and compared to field jobs.

Bhalla, K.; Walton, I.C.

1996-12-31

100

The REACH Youth Program Learning Toolkit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Believing in the value of using video documentaries and data as learning tools, members of the REACH technical assistance team collaborated to develop this toolkit. The learning toolkit was designed using and/or incorporating components of the "Engaging Youth in Community Change: Outcomes and Lessons Learned from Sierra Health Foundation's REACH

Sierra Health Foundation, 2011

2011-01-01

101

Calibrating Reach Distance to Visual Targets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors investigated the calibration of reach distance by gradually distorting the haptic feedback obtained when participants grasped visible target objects. The authors found that the modified relationship between visually specified distance and reach distance could be captured by a straight-line mapping function. Thus, the relation could be…

Mon-Williams, Mark; Bingham, Geoffrey P.

2007-01-01

102

6 reach SUMMer 2013 and the Agile  

E-print Network

6 reach SUMMer 2013 CreA and the Agile #12;SUMMer 2013 reach 7 Or we'd just like to be better has led her to develop a unique frame- work to describe what she refers to as agility of mind or agile thinking. In simplest terms, Koutstaal defines the agile mind as one that moves nimbly back and forth

Koutstaal, Wilma

103

Running title: Maximum discrimination HMMs Maximum Discrimination Hidden Markov Models  

E-print Network

Running title: Maximum discrimination HMMs Maximum Discrimination Hidden Markov Models of Sequence for building hidden Markov models (HMMs) of protein or nucleic acid primary sequence consensus. The method. Keywords: hidden Markov model, database searching, sequence consensus, sequence weighting #12; Introduction

Eddy, Sean

104

Generalized Maximum Entropy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A long standing mystery in using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) is how to deal with constraints whose values are uncertain. This situation arises when constraint values are estimated from data, because of finite sample sizes. One approach to this problem, advocated by E.T. Jaynes [1], is to ignore this uncertainty, and treat the empirically observed values as exact. We refer to this as the classic MaxEnt approach. Classic MaxEnt gives point probabilities (subject to the given constraints), rather than probability densities. We develop an alternative approach that assumes that the uncertain constraint values are represented by a probability density {e.g: a Gaussian), and this uncertainty yields a MaxEnt posterior probability density. That is, the classic MaxEnt point probabilities are regarded as a multidimensional function of the given constraint values, and uncertainty on these values is transmitted through the MaxEnt function to give uncertainty over the MaXEnt probabilities. We illustrate this approach by explicitly calculating the generalized MaxEnt density for a simple but common case, then show how this can be extended numerically to the general case. This paper expands the generalized MaxEnt concept introduced in a previous paper [3].

Cheeseman, Peter; Stutz, John

2005-01-01

105

The Database for Reaching Experiments and Models  

PubMed Central

Reaching is one of the central experimental paradigms in the field of motor control, and many computational models of reaching have been published. While most of these models try to explain subject data (such as movement kinematics, reaching performance, forces, etc.) from only a single experiment, distinct experiments often share experimental conditions and record similar kinematics. This suggests that reaching models could be applied to (and falsified by) multiple experiments. However, using multiple datasets is difficult because experimental data formats vary widely. Standardizing data formats promises to enable scientists to test model predictions against many experiments and to compare experimental results across labs. Here we report on the development of a new resource available to scientists: a database of reaching called the Database for Reaching Experiments And Models (DREAM). DREAM collects both experimental datasets and models and facilitates their comparison by standardizing formats. The DREAM project promises to be useful for experimentalists who want to understand how their data relates to models, for modelers who want to test their theories, and for educators who want to help students better understand reaching experiments, models, and data analysis. PMID:24244351

Walker, Ben; Kording, Konrad

2013-01-01

106

The sun and heliosphere at solar maximum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent Ulysses observations from the Sun's equator to the poles reveal fundamental properties of the three-dimensional heliosphere at the maximum in solar activity. The heliospheric magnetic field originates from a magnetic dipole oriented nearly perpendicular to, instead of nearly parallel to, the Sun'rotation axis. Magnetic fields, solar wind, and energetic charged particles from low-latitude sources reach all latitudes, including the polar caps. The very fast high-latitude wind and polar coronal holes disappear and reappear together. Solar wind speed continues to be inversely correlated with coronal temperature. The cosmic ray flux is reduced symmetrically at all latitudes.

Smith, E. J.; Marsden, R. G.; Balogh, A.; Gloeckler, G.; Geiss, J.; McComas, D. J.; McKibben, R. B.; MacDowall, R. J.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Krupp, N.; Krueger, H.; Landgraf, M.

2003-01-01

107

Ebola Donations Slow to Reach West Africa  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Ebola Donations Slow to Reach West Africa Just 40 ... Preidt Wednesday, February 4, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Ebola International Health WEDNEDAY, Feb. 4, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- ...

108

Minimal length, Friedmann equations and maximum density  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inspired by Jacobson's thermodynamic approach [4], Cai et al. [5, 6] have shown the emergence of Friedmann equations from the first law of thermodynamics. We extend Akbar-Cai derivation [6] of Friedmann equations to accommodate a general entrop-yarea law. Studying the resulted Friedmann equations using a specific entropy-area law, which is motivated by the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), reveals the existence of a maximum energy density closed to Planck density. Allowing for a general continuous pressure p( ?, a) leads to bounded curvature invariants and a general nonsingular evolution. In this case, the maximum energy density is reached in a finite time and there is no cosmological evolution beyond this point which leaves the big bang singularity inaccessible from a spacetime prospective. The existence of maximum energy density and a general nonsingular evolution is independent of the equation of state and the spacial curvature k. As an example we study the evolution of the equation of state p = ?? through its phase-space diagram to show the existence of a maximum energy which is reachable in a finite time.

Awad, Adel; Ali, Ahmed Farag

2014-06-01

109

Effect of vapor-phase oxygen on chemical vapor deposition growth of graphene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To obtain a large-area single-crystal graphene, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth on Cu is considered the most promising. Recently, the surface oxygen on Cu has been found to suppress the nucleation of graphene. However, the effect of oxygen in the vapor phase was not elucidated sufficiently. Here, we investigate the effect of O2 partial pressure (PO2) on the CVD growth of graphene using radiation-mode optical microscopy. The nucleation density of graphene decreases monotonically with PO2, while its growth rate reaches a maximum at a certain pressure. Our results indicate that PO2 is an important parameter to optimize in the CVD growth of graphene.

Terasawa, Tomo-o.; Saiki, Koichiro

2015-03-01

110

Growth of Phragmites australis and Phalaris arundinacea in constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment in the Czech Republic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common reed (Phragmites australis) and reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea) are two most commonly used plant species in constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment in the Czech Republic. Growth characteristics of both plants (biomass, stem count, and length) have been measured in 13 horizontal sub-surface flow constructed wetlands since 1992. The results revealed that while Phalaris usually reaches its maximum biomass as

Jan Vymazal; Lenka Kr?pfelová

2005-01-01

111

Population Growth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These activities explore population growth rates and its consequences with regard to the distribution of natural resources. Population growth is perhaps the most important environmental issue of our time. As population increases and as people seek to raise their standard of living, more stress is put on our earth’s finite resources.One aspect of the population issue is the sheer magnitude of the numbers involved. World population did not reach 1 billion until the year 1800. Since then it has grown exponentially to reach our current 6.7 billion.

2009-01-01

112

Last Glacial Maximum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short lecture on CLIMAP project (see PowerPoint) 20 minutes Powerpoint (PowerPoint 444kB Nov7 10) Group activity - Reading for CLIMAP study assumptions, 20 minutes to read, 20 minutes for discussion Student Handout (Microsoft Word 50kB Nov7 10) Students break into groups (4 per group is good division of work) with 2 students per paper. Split the assumptions between students. Each group skims the CLIMAP papers for the assumptions (modern and/or LGM) used in the CLIMAP model-based reconstruction of the LGM. In the groups, students compare the assumptions between papers. Resources: CLIMAP (1976), The surface of the ice-age earth, Science, 191(4232), 1131-1137 and CLIMAP (1984), The last interglacial ocean, Quaternary Research, 21(2), 123. Class Discussion - Summarize assumptions used in CLIMAP studies. Group activity Exploring CLIMAP LGM Reconstructions, 40 minutes for model data, 20 minutes for discussion (Could be modified with as a "jigsaw" activity with a larger class). Learn more about the jigsaw teaching method. Students work on this activity in pairs; one person will create LGM maps, the other modern. Students should sit together with their computer monitors close together to compare. The students will use the IRI/LDEO Climate Data Library to access the CLIMAP reconstruction and produce maps using the tools available on this web site. In a web browser, go to http://iridl.ldeo.columbia.edu/SOURCES/.CLIMAP/ This is the main page for the CLIMAP Model output for the LGM 18,000 BP. In the middle of the page is the label "Datasets and variables" with two data sets below http://iridl.ldeo.columbia.edu/SOURCES/.CLIMAP/.LGM/ and http://iridl.ldeo.columbia.edu/SOURCES/.CLIMAP/.MOD/. Each student clicks on the link they are assigned to. There are several data sets listed for each period and the students will examine each data set and compare the LGM and Modern. As a class, go through each data set allowing pairs to compare the maps then summarize the results as a class. The worksheet has a table for the students and the PowerPoint has table for summarizing. Class Discussion - Summarize differences between modern and LGM in the CLIMAP model output. Discuss how the assumptions of the CLIMAP model studies may have influenced the results. Extra activities The students can explore the data further using the data selection and filters in the IRI/LDEO Climate Data Library. For the two SST data sets, click on "Data Selection" and narrow the data to the just the tropics (23.5º N-S). Click on "Filters" then select XY next to "Average over." The next window gives you the average over the tropics close to the top of the page. In the next class, the students repeat the Readings exercise by reading the COHMAP and MARGO papers to see how the scientific knowledge has progressed since the original CLIMAP studies. COHMAP Members, (1988), Climatic Changes of the Last 18,000 Years: Observations and Model Simulations, Science, 241(4869), 1043-1052. MARGO (2009), Constraints on the magnitude and patterns of ocean cooling at the Last Glacial Maximum, Nature Geoscience, 2(2), 127-132.

Kristine DeLong

113

A new model for Clausius'virial maximum theory: explanation of galaxy Fundamental Plane tilt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory of the Clausius' virial maximum proposed by Secco (2000, 2001, 2005) is based on the existence of a maximum in the Clausius' Virial potential energy of a baryonic component when it is completely embedded inside a dark matter (DM) halo. When this maximum is reached the baryonic inner component acquires a scale length in its own gravity field

D. Bindoni; L. Secco; E. Contini

2010-01-01

114

Unconstrained reaching modulates eye-hand coupling  

PubMed Central

Eye-hand coordination is a crucial element of goal-directed movements. However, few studies have looked at the extent to which unconstrained movements of the eyes and hand made to targets influence each other. We studied human participants who moved either their eyes, or both their eyes and hand to one of three static or flashed targets presented in 3D space. The eyes were directed and hand located at a common start position on either the right or left side of the body. We found that the velocity and scatter of memory-guided saccades (flashed targets) differed significantly when produced in combination with a reaching movement than when produced alone. Specifically, when accompanied by a reach, peak saccadic velocities were lower than when the eye moved alone. Peak saccade velocities, as well as latencies, were also highly correlated with those for reaching movements, especially for the briefly flashed targets compared to the continuous visible target. The scatter of saccade endpoints was greater when the saccades were produced with the reaching movement than when produced without, and the size of the scatter for both saccades and reaches were weakly correlated. These findings suggest that the saccades and reaches made to 3D targets are weakly to moderately coupled both temporally and spatially, and that this is partly the result of the arm movement influencing the eye movement. Taken together this study provides further evidence that the oculomotor and arm motor systems interact above and beyond any common target representations shared by the two motor systems. PMID:24121521

Lee, Dongpyo; Poizner, Howard; Corcos, Daniel M.; Henriques, Denise Y.

2013-01-01

115

Avaliação de diferentes pacientes neurológicos por meio do Teste de Functional Reach  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Introduction. The Functional Reach is a well-known clinical test that not only measures the balance but also the postural control. This test measures the distance between the arm leng- th and the anterior maximum reach, in the standing position, whileitkeepsafixedbaseofsupport.?Objective.??Thepurpose? of this study was to assess the balance of different neurological patients comparing them with healthful individuals. Method. The

Camila Torriani; Eliane Pires; Oliveira Mota; Claudia Regina Sieburth; Danielle Arcanjo Barcelos; Maurycio La Scala; Paloma Pereira Gregoraci; Théo A. Costa; Thatiana C. Baldini Luiz; Juliana L. Hayashi

116

Growth characteristics of bakers' yeast in ethanol  

SciTech Connect

The influence of temperature (15 - 40 degrees C) and pH (2.5 - 6.0) on the continuous growth of bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) at steady state in 1% ethanol was investigated. Optimal temperature and pH were 30 degrees C and 4.5, respectively. The short-term effect of ethanol concentration (0.1 - 10.0%) on the yeast growth was assessed in batch culture. Up to 1% of ethanol, the yeast growth increased in function of the ethanol concentration in the medium. The biomass reached a maximum within the interval of 1-4% of ethanol (7.9 and 31.6 g/L, respectively) and decreased at higher concentrations. The residual ethanol concentration in the medium increased rapidly when the initial ethanol concentration exceeded 4%. The best-fit model obtained for growth inhibition as a function of ethanol concentrations was that of Tseng and Wayman: mu m S/(K+S) - i (S-S0). With this model, the specific growth rate (mu) decreased linearly as the ethanol concentration increased between the threshold value (S0) of 11.26 g/L to be fully inhibited at 70.00 g/L (S); an inhibition constant (i) of 0.0048 g/L/hour, a maximum specific growth rate (mu m) of 0.284/hour, and a saturation constant (K) of 0.611 g/L were obtained. (Refs. 17).

Wasungu, K.M.; Simard, R.E.

1980-05-01

117

Creative Showcase: Reaching Out and Engaging Community  

E-print Network

to Stage: Drama / performance 6. Climate change #12;PACE Marketing Art work of urban university On-line;Study Group on China #12;Challenges 1. Recruiting 2. Marketing 3. Development 4. Growth? #12;Recruiting;Marketing Wider Life Span #12;Development #12;New Growth ? #12;Community Programs SPEAK ­ Intergenerational

Kambhampati, Patanjali

118

The smallest refrigerators can reach maximal efficiency  

E-print Network

We investigate whether size imposes a fundamental constraint on the efficiency of small thermal machines. We analyse in detail a model of a small self-contained refrigerator consisting of three qubits. We show analytically that this system can reach the Carnot efficiency, thus demonstrating that there exists no complementarity between size and efficiency.

Paul Skrzypczyk; Nicolas Brunner; Noah Linden; Sandu Popescu

2011-12-02

119

How Academic Libraries Reach Users on Facebook  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facebook is an extremely popular social networking site with college students. Many academic libraries have created their Facebook profiles to reach more users. This article studies the Facebook presence of Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member institutions, particularly academic ones. Their Facebook pages are analyzed comprehensively in terms of content, launch time, and popularity. The majority of these libraries maintain

Gang Wan

2011-01-01

120

Reaching Rural Women: Case Studies and Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although not often considered in the past by planners because their economic contributions are not performed for money, rural women are contributors to the development of their countries. The urgency of reaching women with important information to break the cycle of poverty is now being recognized by the major development agencies. While there are…

Colle, Royal D.; Fernandez de Colle, Susana

121

Intramural Sports Official Reaches All-American  

E-print Network

, a third-year sport and entertainment management major, is one of only 15 officials in the country to earnIntramural Sports Official Reaches All-American Status University of South Carolina Intramural Sports employee Corey Stevens was named an All-American Official at the 2012 NCCS NIRSA National

Almor, Amit

122

Project: "Teach 'n' Reach" Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first of five volumes for Project Teach 'n' Reach, designed to help teachers of grades 1-6 in regular classrooms to teach about various kinds of handicapping conditions, is a teacher's guide. Performance objectives, activities, worksheets, and resources are listed for the use of these teachers in the implementation of their social-science and…

Kagan, Arleen

123

Kinematic analysis of reaching in the cat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines the kinematic features of forelimb movements made by cats reaching for food in horizontal target wells located at different heights and distances. Wrist paths consisted of two relatively straight segments joined at a “via-point” in front of the aperture of the food well. In the initial lift phase, the paw was raised to the via-point in

J. H. Martin; S. E. Cooper; C. Ghez

1995-01-01

124

Polishing Difficult-To-Reach Cavities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Springy abrasive tool used to finish surfaces of narrow cavities made by electrical-discharge machining. Robot arm moves vibrator around perimeters of cavities, polishing walls of cavities as it does so. Tool needed because such cavities inaccessible or at least difficult to reach with most surface-finishing tools.

Malinzak, R. Michael; Booth, Gary N.

1990-01-01

125

Approximating Human Reaching Volumes Using Inverse Kinematics  

E-print Network

, Switzerland Abstract This paper presents a system to analyse the reaching capabilities of the human body. Our system for the human body. Our research is motivated due to the necessity of systems which help to manage. Introduction Virtual Humans are a valuable medium for gaining knowledge and understanding about the human body

Rodríguez, Inmaculada

126

New technology extends reach of stepouts  

SciTech Connect

Extended reach drilling (ERD), now commonplace, is used to probe the lateral extent of petroleum reservoirs, reduce drilling costs and safely drill in environmentally sensitive areas. The spatial and geologic control of well bore trajectory through directional surveys and logging-while-drilling (LWD) information allows ERD wells to follow subsurface formations along their lateral extent and more effectively drain petroleum reservoirs. The ERD envelope has been steadily expanding. Ratios of reach to true vertical depth (TVD) of more than 5 have been achieved. The longest stepout, or reach, of ERD wells is in the 25,000-ft range. The popularity and success of ERD is the result of recent advances in drilling technology. Tandem motors, downhole-adjustable stabilizers and performance stabilizers have contributed heavily to ERD progress. New integrated software designed especially for drilling is producing more effective well plans that can be quickly updated. Higher accuracy in directional surveys and increased information from LWD logs help keep actual well bore trajectories closely aligned with planned trajectories. Also, important drilling factors, such as torque, drag, hydraulics and hole cleaning are being better understood. A closer look at some of today`s technology will help explain how ERD operations have reached their present level and will give insight into stepout expectations for the near future.

Ryan, G.; Reynolds, J. [Halliburton Energy Services, London (United Kingdom); Raitt, F.

1995-11-01

127

Pumpdown assistance extends coiled tubing reach  

SciTech Connect

One of the most challenging coiled tubing applications to emerge in the last few years is horizontal well maintenance. When wireline cannot be used, techniques that offer some of the same flexibility, availability and relatively low cost must be used. During this same period, however, drilling technology has also made huge strides in horizontal and extended-reach areas. Wells are now being drilled with horizontal lengths in excess of 6,000 ft and measured depths of more than 22,000 ft. This paper reports that although horizontal wells are definitely here to stay, many operators have had to reevaluate their positions after being confronted with the problem of recompleting these wells to eliminate excessive water or gas production. A full workover with workstring using either a drilling rig or snubbing unit can be expensive and may lead to lost production because of limited rig availability. Coiled tubing has successfully been used in most cases thus far, but it has length and horizontal reach limitations that drilling technology will soon overtake. Within the constraints of current technology and tube capabilities, coiled tubing does not have the buckling resistance or reel capacity to service today's longest horizontal and extended reach wells or those planned and foreseen in the future. Even if coiled tubing can reach TD, operations requiring downward force are severely restricted.

Tailby, R.J. (Statoil A/S (NO))

1992-07-01

128

Well control procedures for extended reach wells  

E-print Network

that are likely to occur in extended-reach wells. An extensive simulation study covering a vide range of variables has been performed. Based on this investigation together with a literature review, well-control procedures have been developed for extended...

Gjorv, Bjorn

2004-09-30

129

ON BEING CONTROVERSIAL THE HUMANITIES REACH OUT  

E-print Network

ON BEING CONTROVERSIAL THE HUMANITIES REACH OUT The Academy of Science of South Africa (ASSAf that was released in August 2011. The Humanities thrive on controversy - matters of dispute in which voices differ. Controversy helps the Humanities to understand societal issues better: the argumentation which accompa- nies

Wagner, Stephan

130

Riparian Vegetation Mapping Along the Hanford Reach  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the biological survey and inventory of the Hanford Site conducted in the mid-1990s (1995 and 1996), preliminary surveys of the riparian vegetation were conducted along the Hanford Reach. These preliminary data were reported to The Nature Conservancy (TNC), but were not included in any TNC reports to DOE or stakeholders. During the latter part of FY2001, PNNL contracted with

2003-01-01

131

The branch with the furthest reach  

Microsoft Academic Search

How should a given amount of material be moulded into a cantilevered beam clamped at one end, so that it will have the furthest horizontal reach? Here, we formulate and solve this variational problem for the optimal variation of the cross-section area of a heavy cantilevered beam with a given volume V, Young's modulus E, and density ?, subject to

Z. Wei; S. Mandre; L. Mahadevan

2012-01-01

132

A Maximum Likelihood Stereo Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stereo algorithm is presented that optimizes a maximum likelihood cost function. The maximum likelihood cost function assumes that corresponding features in the left and right images are normally distributed about a common true value and consists of a weighted squared error term if two features are matched or a (fixed) cost if a feature is determined to be occluded.

Ingemar J. Cox; Sunita L. Hingorani; Satish B. Rao; Bruce M. Maggs

1996-01-01

133

Reach and Grasp reconfigurations reveal that proprioception assists reaching and hapsis assists grasping in peripheral vision.  

PubMed

The dual visuomotor channel theory proposes that prehension consists of a Reach that transports the hand in relation to an object's extrinsic properties (e.g., location) and a Grasp that shapes the hand to an object's intrinsic properties (e.g., size and shape). In central vision, the Reach and the Grasp are integrated but when an object cannot be seen, the movements can decompose with the Reach first used to locate the object and the Grasp postponed until it is assisted by touch. Reaching for an object in a peripheral visual field is an everyday act, and although it is reported that there are changes in Grasp aperture with target eccentricity, it is not known whether the configuration of the Reach and the Grasp also changes. The present study examined this question by asking participants to reach for food items at 0° or 22.5° and 45° from central gaze. Participants made 15 reaches for a larger round donut ball and a smaller blueberry, and hand movements were analyzed using frame-by-frame video inspection and linear kinematics. Perception of targets was degraded as participants could not identify objects in peripheral vision but did recognize their differential size. The Reach to peripheral targets featured a more dorsal trajectory, a more open hand, and less accurate digit placement. The Grasp featured hand adjustments or target manipulations after contact, which were associated with a prolonged Grasp duration. Thus, Grasps to peripheral vision did not consist only of a simple modification of visually guided reaching but included the addition of somatosensory assistance. The kinematic and behavioral changes argue that proprioception assists the Reach and touch assists the Grasp in peripheral vision, supporting the idea that Reach and Grasp movements are used flexibly in relation to sensory guidance depending upon the salience of target properties. PMID:24792500

Hall, Lauren A; Karl, Jenni M; Thomas, Brittany L; Whishaw, Ian Q

2014-09-01

134

Distance Reached in the Anteromedial Reach Test as a Function of Learning and Leg Length  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Anteromedial Reach Test (ART) is a new outcome measure for assessing dynamic knee stability in anterior cruciate ligament-injured patients. The effect of learning and leg length on distance reached in the ART was examined. Thirty-two healthy volunteers performed 15 trials of the ART on each leg. There was a moderate correlation (r = 0.44-0.50)…

Bent, Nicholas P.; Rushton, Alison B.; Wright, Chris C.; Batt, Mark E.

2012-01-01

135

Limitations of extended reach drilling in deepwater  

E-print Network

. The recent advancement of rotary steerable systems (e. g. mud motors) has eliminated the need for sliding drilling at extreme departures. This gives the ability to rotate the drillshing while sliding thereby enhancing well departures until it gets... to the torque limit. At the WOB limit, there is directional lost control using traditional bent sub with the mud motor. This is not really a technical limit for ERD because with rotary steerables directional control can be maintained. Extended Reach Drlfflng...

Akinfenwa, Akinwunmi Adebayo

2000-01-01

136

Modeling the growth of Enterococcus faecium in bologna sausage.  

PubMed Central

A study to set up mathematical models which allow the prediction of Enterococcus faecium growth in bologna sausage (mortadella) was carried out. Growth curves were obtained at different temperatures (5, 6, 12, 15, 25, 32, 35, 37, 42, 46, 50, 52, and 55 degrees C). The Gompertz and logistic models, modified by Zwietering, were found to fit with the representation of experimental curves. The variations of the parameters A (i.e., the asymptotic value reached by the relative population during the stationary growth phase), mu m (i.e., the maximum specific growth rate during the exponential growth phase), and lambda (i.e., the lag time) with temperature were then modeled. The variation of A with temperature can be described by an empirical polynomial model, whereas the variation of mu m and lambda can be described by the Ratkowsky model modified by Zwietering and the Adair model, respectively. Data processing of these models has shown that the minimum growth temperature for E. faecium is 0.1 degrees C, the maximum growth temperature is 53.4 degrees C, and the optimal growth temperature is 42 to 45 degrees C. PMID:8250562

Zanoni, B; Garzaroli, C; Anselmi, S; Rondinini, G

1993-01-01

137

Riparian Vegetation Mapping Along the Hanford Reach  

SciTech Connect

During the biological survey and inventory of the Hanford Site conducted in the mid-1990s (1995 and 1996), preliminary surveys of the riparian vegetation were conducted along the Hanford Reach. These preliminary data were reported to The Nature Conservancy (TNC), but were not included in any TNC reports to DOE or stakeholders. During the latter part of FY2001, PNNL contracted with SEE Botanical, the parties that performed the original surveys in the mid 1990s, to complete the data summaries and mapping associated with the earlier survey data. Those data sets were delivered to PNNL and the riparian mapping by vegetation type for the Hanford Reach is being digitized during the first quarter of FY2002. These mapping efforts provide the information necessary to create subsequent spatial data layers to describe the riparian zone according to plant functional types (trees, shrubs, grasses, sedges, forbs). Quantification of the riparian zone by vegetation types is important to a number of DOE'S priority issues including modeling contaminant transport and uptake in the near-riverine environment and the determination of ecological risk. This work included the identification of vegetative zones along the Reach by changes in dominant plant species covering the shoreline from just to the north of the 300 Area to China Bar near Vernita. Dominant and indicator species included Agropyron dasytachyudA. smithii, Apocynum cannabinum, Aristida longiseta, Artemisia campestris ssp. borealis var scouleriana, Artemisa dracunculus, Artemisia lindleyana, Artemisia tridentata, Bromus tectorum, Chrysothamnus nauseosus, Coreopsis atkinsoniana. Eleocharis palustris, Elymus cinereus, Equisetum hyemale, Eriogonum compositum, Juniperus trichocarpa, Phalaris arundinacea, Poa compressa. Salk exigua, Scirpus acutus, Solidago occidentalis, Sporobolus asper,and Sporobolus cryptandrus. This letter report documents the data received, the processing by PNNL staff, and additional data gathered in FY2002 to support development of a complete data layer describing riparian vegetation cover types on the Columbia River adjacent to the Hanford Site boundaries. Included with this report are the preliminary riparian vegetation maps and the associated metadata for that GIS layer.

FOGWELL, T.W.

2003-07-11

138

Spallation Neutron Source reaches megawatt power  

ScienceCinema

The Department of Energy's Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), already the world's most powerful facility for pulsed neutron scattering science, is now the first pulsed spallation neutron source to break the one-megawatt barrier. "Advances in the materials sciences are fundamental to the development of clean and sustainable energy technologies. In reaching this milestone of operating power, the Spallation Neutron Source is providing scientists with an unmatched resource for unlocking the secrets of materials at the molecular level," said Dr. William F. Brinkman, Director of DOE's Office of Science.

Dr. William F. Brinkman

2010-01-08

139

AGU Scholarship Fund Reaches Its Goal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Edmond M. Dewan Young Scientist Scholarship fund has reached its goal of $25,000. Those who donated to the fund share AGU's mission in taking an active role in educating and nurturing the next generation of scientists and ensuring a sustainable future for society. Thanks to the generosity of more than 100 members of the AGU and science community, a deserving graduate student of atmospheric or space physics will receive financial assistance to further his or her research and advance his or her research and future career.

Howard, Claire

2014-11-01

140

Progress Report, June 1974: Reaching Out...  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report reviews programs of individualized instruction in the basic skills of mathematics, language arts, science, and social education as well as in new curriculums which foster the skills needed for social education as well and emotional growth. The development and operation of an experience-based model for career education is described, and…

Research for Better Schools, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.

141

Reach and get capability in a computing environment  

DOEpatents

A reach and get technique includes invoking a reach command from a reach location within a computing environment. A user can then navigate to an object within the computing environment and invoke a get command on the object. In response to invoking the get command, the computing environment is automatically navigated back to the reach location and the object copied into the reach location.

Bouchard, Ann M. (Albuquerque, NM); Osbourn, Gordon C. (Albuquerque, NM)

2012-06-05

142

Can donated media placements reach intended audiences?  

PubMed

Donated media placements for public service announcements (PSAs) can be difficult to secure, and may not always reach intended audiences. Strategies used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Screen for Life: National Colorectal Cancer Action Campaign (SFL) to obtain donated media placements include producing a diverse mix of high-quality PSAs, co-branding with state and tribal health agencies, securing celebrity involvement, monitoring media trends to identify new distribution opportunities, and strategically timing the release of PSAs. To investigate open-ended recall of PSAs promoting colorectal cancer screening, CDC conducted 12 focus groups in three U.S. cities with men and women either nearing age 50 years, when screening is recommended to begin, or aged 50-75 years who were not in compliance with screening guidelines. In most focus groups, multiple participants recalled exposure to PSAs promoting colorectal cancer screening, and most of these individuals reported having seen SFL PSAs on television, in transit stations, or on the sides of public buses. Some participants reported exposure to SFL PSAs without prompting from the moderator, as they explained how they learned about the disease. Several participants reported learning key campaign messages from PSAs, including that colorectal cancer screening should begin at age 50 years and screening can find polyps so they can be removed before becoming cancerous. Donated media placements can reach and educate mass audiences, including millions of U.S. adults who have not been screened appropriately for colorectal cancer. PMID:23720533

Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Gelb, Cynthia A; Chu, Jennifer; Polonec, Lindsey

2013-09-01

143

Predicting species' maximum dispersal distances from simple plant traits.  

PubMed

Many studies have shown plant species' dispersal distances to be strongly related to life-history traits, but how well different traits can predict dispersal distances is not yet known. We used cross-validation techniques and a global data set (576 plant species) to measure the predictive power of simple plant traits to estimate species' maximum dispersal distances. Including dispersal syndrome (wind, animal, ant, ballistic, and no special syndrome), growth form (tree, shrub, herb), seed mass, seed release height, and terminal velocity in different combinations as explanatory variables we constructed models to explain variation in measured maximum dispersal distances and evaluated their power to predict maximum dispersal distances. Predictions are more accurate, but also limited to a particular set of species, if data on more specific traits, such as terminal velocity, are available. The best model (R2 = 0.60) included dispersal syndrome, growth form, and terminal velocity as fixed effects. Reasonable predictions of maximum dispersal distance (R2 = 0.53) are also possible when using only the simplest and most commonly measured traits; dispersal syndrome and growth form together with species taxonomy data. We provide a function (dispeRsal) to be run in the software package R. This enables researchers to estimate maximum dispersal distances with confidence intervals for plant species using measured traits as predictors. Easily obtainable trait data, such as dispersal syndrome (inferred from seed morphology) and growth form, enable predictions to be made for a large number of species. PMID:24669743

Tamme, Riin; Götzenberger, Lars; Zobel, Martin; Bullock, James M; Hooftman, Danny A P; Kaasik, Ants; Pärtel, Meelis

2014-02-01

144

Reaching Non-Traditional Audiences During IYA2009 in Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Canada's far reaching plans for IYA2009 are highly inter-related. Unification arises from the major focus on maximizing the number and diversity of Canadians who will experience sometime in 2009 a moment of personal astronomical discovery, the Galileo Moment, through participation in astronomical observation or broadly defined activities with significant astronomical content that evoke awe and wonder. Among the latter are three broad themes: a) programmes involving Aboriginal children, youth and elders, b) partnerships with arts and cultural organizations, and c) astronomical imagery exhibits in high-traffic areas. Delivery of these programs rests upon our strong partnership between amateur [Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, Fédération des astronomes amateurs du Québec and, we hope, independent clubs] and professional astronomers [Canadian Astronomical Society, including many active, enthusiastic graduate students] and collaborations with diverse sectors of society, the growth of which is encouraging. Our developing ideas and their implementation may be followed at http://www.astronomy2009.ca.

Hesser, J. E.; Lane, D.; Langill, P. P.; Percy, J. R.

2008-11-01

145

Reaching Non-Traditional Audiences During IYA2009 in Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Canada's far reaching plans for IYA2009 are highly inter-related. Unification arises from the major focus on maximizing the number and diversity of Canadians who will experience sometime in 2009 a moment of personal astronomical discovery, the Galileo Moment, through participation in astronomical observation or broadly defined activities with significant astronomical content that evoke awe and wonder. Among the latter are three broad themes that we will describe: a) programmes involving Aboriginal children, youth and elders, b) partnerships with arts and cultural organizations, and c) astronomical imagery exhibits in high-traffic areas. Delivery of these programs rests upon our strong partnership between amateur [Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, Fédération des astronomes amateurs du Québec and, we hope, independent clubs] and professional astronomers (Canadian Astronomical Society, including many active, enthusiastic graduate students) and collaborations with diverse sectors of society, the growth of which is encouraging. Our developing ideas and their implementation may be followed at www.astronomy2009.ca.

Hesser, James E.; Lane, D.; Langill, P. P. L.; Percy, J. R.; Canada Committee, IYA

2008-05-01

146

Speeded reaching movements around invisible obstacles.  

PubMed

We analyze the problem of obstacle avoidance from a Bayesian decision-theoretic perspective using an experimental task in which reaches around a virtual obstacle were made toward targets on an upright monitor. Subjects received monetary rewards for touching the target and incurred losses for accidentally touching the intervening obstacle. The locations of target-obstacle pairs within the workspace were varied from trial to trial. We compared human performance to that of a Bayesian ideal movement planner (who chooses motor strategies maximizing expected gain) using the Dominance Test employed in Hudson et al. (2007). The ideal movement planner suffers from the same sources of noise as the human, but selects movement plans that maximize expected gain in the presence of that noise. We find good agreement between the predictions of the model and actual performance in most but not all experimental conditions. PMID:23028276

Hudson, Todd E; Wolfe, Uta; Maloney, Laurence T

2012-01-01

147

Predicting Velocity Frequency Distributions in Stream Reaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quantification of management impacts on fish populations requires a reliable estimation of the local hydraulic habitat variability. In the case of complex natural flows, deterministic hydraulic models are expensive and not adapted to the description of local velocities. Statistical descriptions of the velocity distribution as a function of easily obtained input variables are therefore an attractive alternative. Existing velocity data on several French stream segments with intermediate-to large-scale roughness were analyzed statistically to define a shape parameter of the point velocity frequency distributions. Dimensional analysis was used to model this shape parameter, and thereby the velocity distributions, as a function of simple average descriptors of stream reaches (discharge, mean roughness, mean depth, and mean width). Such predictive models of the physical habitat availability for fish in the probability domain can provide stream managers with cost-effective decision tools.

Lamouroux, Nicolas; Souchon, Yves; Herouin, Eric

1995-09-01

148

Original article Approximate restricted maximum  

E-print Network

, the estimation of a genetic (co-)variance component involves the trace of the product of the inverse variances. Several examples are presented to illustrate the method. variance and covariance components de Maximum de Vraisemblance Restreint (REML), l'estimation des composantes de (co)variance génétique

Boyer, Edmond

149

Original article Restricted maximum likelihood  

E-print Network

to transform the constrained optimisation problem imposed in estimating covariance components-free algorithm. restricted maximum likelihood / derivative / algorithm / variance component esti- mation Résumé'optimisation avec contrainte que soulève l'estimation des composantes de variance en un problème sans contrainte, ce

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

150

Maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the formalism of maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography as applied to the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) prototype accelerator. The same formalism has also been used with streak camera data to produce an ultrahigh speed movie of the beam profile of the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) at Livermore.

Mottershead, C.T.

1985-10-01

151

Maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the formalism of maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography as applied to the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) prototype accelerator. The same formalism has also been used with streak camera data to produce an ultrahigh speed movie of the beam profile of the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) at Livermore. 11 refs., 4 figs.

Mottershead, C.T.

1985-01-01

152

TMDLs (Total Maximum Daily Loads)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Water Quality Information Center at the National Agricultural Library (USDA) offers this excellent resource on TMDLs (Total Maximum Daily Loads), with links to dozens of relevant and current publications. From basic questions and answers to current policies regarding TMDLs, this collection of resources is well worth browsing.

153

Maximum Margin Clustering Made Practical  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivated by the success of large margin methods in supervised learning, maximum margin clustering (MMC) is a recent approach that aims at extending large margin methods to unsupervised learning. However, its optimization problem is nonconvex and existing MMC methods all rely on reformulating and relaxing the nonconvex optimization problem as semidefinite programs (SDP). Though SDP is convex and standard solvers

Kai Zhang; Ivor W. Tsang; James T. Kwok

2009-01-01

154

Effects of cultivating conditions on the mycelial growth of Ganoderma lucidum in submerged flask cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the effects of environmental conditions on the mycelial growth of Ganoderma lucidum were investigated in shake flask cultures. The optimal temperature and pH were found to be around 30-35v°C and 4, respectively, in a glucose-ammonium chloride medium. The maximum mycelial concentration reached to around 350 mg\\/100 ml. The formation of mycelial pellets and their ultra structure was

F.-C. Yang; C.-B. Liau

1998-01-01

155

Sensitivity to prediction error in reach adaptation  

PubMed Central

It has been proposed that the brain predicts the sensory consequences of a movement and compares it to the actual sensory feedback. When the two differ, an error signal is formed, driving adaptation. How does an error in one trial alter performance in the subsequent trial? Here we show that the sensitivity to error is not constant but declines as a function of error magnitude. That is, one learns relatively less from large errors compared with small errors. We performed an experiment in which humans made reaching movements and randomly experienced an error in both their visual and proprioceptive feedback. Proprioceptive errors were created with force fields, and visual errors were formed by perturbing the cursor trajectory to create a visual error that was smaller, the same size, or larger than the proprioceptive error. We measured single-trial adaptation and calculated sensitivity to error, i.e., the ratio of the trial-to-trial change in motor commands to error size. We found that for both sensory modalities sensitivity decreased with increasing error size. A reanalysis of a number of previously published psychophysical results also exhibited this feature. Finally, we asked how the brain might encode sensitivity to error. We reanalyzed previously published probabilities of cerebellar complex spikes (CSs) and found that this probability declined with increasing error size. From this we posit that a CS may be representative of the sensitivity to error, and not error itself, a hypothesis that may explain conflicting reports about CSs and their relationship to error. PMID:22773782

Haith, Adrian M.; Harran, Michelle D.; Shadmehr, Reza

2012-01-01

156

Reaching the Next Generation of Marine Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The next generation of marine scientists are today at primary school, secondary school or at college. To encourage them in their career, and to introduce those who are as yet undecided to the wonders of marine science, the Irish Marine Institute has devised a series of three overlapping outreach programmes to reach children at all three levels. Beginning at primary school, the "Explorers" programme offers a range of resources to teachers to enable them to teach marine-related examples as part of the science or geography modules of the SESE curriculum. These include teacher training, expert visits to schools, the installation and stocking of aquaria, field trips and downloadable lesson plans. For older pupils, the "Follow the Fleet" programme is a web-based education asset that allows users to track individual merchant ships and research vessels across the world, to interact with senior crew members of ships and to learn about their cargoes, the ports they visit and the sea conditions along the way. Finally, the "Integrated Marine Exploration Programme (IMEP)" takes secondary school pupils and university students to sea aboard the Marine Institute's research vessels to give them a taste of life as a marine scientist or to educate them in the practical day-to-day sampling and data processing tasks that make up a marine scientist's job.

Joyce, J.

2009-04-01

157

Gravitational wave detector with cosmological reach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twenty years ago, construction began on the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO). Advanced LIGO, with a factor of 10 better design sensitivity than Initial LIGO, will begin taking data this year, and should soon make detections a monthly occurrence. While Advanced LIGO promises to make first detections of gravitational waves from the nearby universe, an additional factor of 10 increase in sensitivity would put exciting science targets within reach by providing observations of binary black hole inspirals throughout most of the history of star formation, and high signal to noise observations of nearby events. Design studies for future detectors to date rely on significant technological advances that are futuristic and risky. In this paper we propose a different direction. We resurrect the idea of using longer arm lengths coupled with largely proven technologies. Since the major noise sources that limit gravitational wave detectors do not scale trivially with the length of the detector, we study their impact and find that 40 km arm lengths are nearly optimal, and can incorporate currently available technologies to detect gravitational wave sources at cosmological distances (z ?7 ) .

Dwyer, Sheila; Sigg, Daniel; Ballmer, Stefan W.; Barsotti, Lisa; Mavalvala, Nergis; Evans, Matthew

2015-04-01

158

Using New Media to Reach Broad Audiences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Year of Astronomy New Media Working Group (IYA NMWG) has a singular mission: To flood the Internet with ways to learn about astronomy, interact with astronomers and astronomy content, and socially network with astronomy. Within each of these areas, we seek to build lasting programs and partnerships that will continue beyond 2009. Our weapon of choice is New Media. It is often easiest to define New Media by what it is not. Television, radio, print and their online redistribution of content are not New Media. Many forms of New Media start as user provided content and content infrastructures that answer that individual's creative whim in a way that is adopted by a broader audience. Classic examples include Blogs and Podcasts. This media is typically distributed through content specific websites and RSS feeds, which allow syndication. RSS aggregators (iTunes has audio and video aggregation abilities) allow subscribers to have content delivered to their computers automatically when they connect to the Internet. RSS technology is also being used in such creative ways as allowing automatically updating Google-maps that show the location of someone with an intelligent GPS system, and in sharing 100 word microblogs from anyone (Twitters) through a single feed. In this poster, we outline how the IYA NMWG plans to use New Media to reach target primary audiences of astronomy enthusiasts, image lovers, and amateur astronomers, as well as secondary audiences, including: science fiction fans, online gamers, and skeptics.

Gay, P. L.

2008-06-01

159

Reaching adolescents: a role for radio.  

PubMed

The radio is a powerful means to reach adolescents and to address their concerns, particularly those that are not being addressed by their families or by the school curriculum. Proving this point is a radio program, "Sandhikhan" (Bengali for adolescence), which aired on national radio covering adolescent health issues, particularly reproductive health. The program's impact was the subject of a WBVHA survey among adolescent radio listeners in West Bengal. About 79% (369 individual listeners) of the respondents rated the radio program very good, with only a negligible 1% describing it as unnecessary. Only 21% of respondents listened to the program alone, with the majority listening in the company of friends, mothers, sisters, brothers, fathers, and other relatives. This suggested a wider group of listeners in addition to the program's primary target audience. Clearly, findings pointed to the effectiveness of teaching adolescent health on the air and the role that was played by WBVHA in developing healthy attitudes and habits among its young audience. The findings of the survey will provide the basis for producing educational materials on reproductive health for students as well as teachers. PMID:12158256

1999-12-01

160

Tobacco Companies, State Attorneys Reach Settlement  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News examines the November 16, 1998 $206 billion settlement reached between tobacco industry leaders and eight US states. The twelve resources discussed provide press releases, opinion, and background information on the economics of tobacco production and consumption in the US. Following increasing pressure from anti-tobacco activists at the state level, Philip Morris Incorporated, R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, Brown & Williamson Tobacco Corporation, and the Lorillard Tobacco Company settled pending lawsuits with New York, California, and Wisconsin, among other states. The agreement requires the companies to pay the potential medical costs of sick smokers based on a formula that factors state-by-state population, tobacco use, and previous Medicaid cost. The agreement also provides for a $1.5 billion anti-smoking campaign fund and bans billboard and transit ads in addition to "branded" merchandising -- the sale and distribution of items bearing tobacco brands' names or logos. Although these provisions give anti-smoking organizations much needed funding for educational resources, critics fear that the settlement protects the tobacco industry more than it hinders it. According to Gary Black, an analyst at Sanford C. Bernstein & Co., the settlement "removes the remaining threat of bankruptcy from the stocks and reduces the litigation discount that has plagued tobacco companies since 1994." With little risk of future lawsuits according to Black, "we're back to business as usual."

Waters, Megan.

1998-01-01

161

Media perspective - new opportunities for reaching audiences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The world of media is experiencing a period of extreme and rapid change with the rise of internet television and the download generation. Many young people no longer watch standard TV. Instead, they go on-line, talking to friends and downloading pictures, videos, music clips to put on their own websites and watch/ listen to on their laptops and mobile phones. Gone are the days when TV controllers determined what you watched and when you watched it. Now the buzzword is IPTV, Internet Protocol Television, with companies such as JOOST offering hundreds of channels on a wide range of subjects, all of which you can choose to watch when and where you wish, on your high-def widescreen with stereo surround sound at home or on your mobile phone on the train. This media revolution is changing the way organisations get their message out. And it is encouraging companies such as advertising agencies to be creative about new ways of accessing audiences. The good news is that we have fresh opportunities to reach young people through internet-based media and material downloaded through tools such as games machines, as well as through the traditional media. And it is important for Europlanet to make the most of these new and exciting developments.

Haswell, Katy

2007-08-01

162

San Acacia Reach San Acacia Dam to Escondida Bridge  

E-print Network

San Acacia Reach San Acacia Dam to Escondida Bridge Hydraulic Modeling Analysis 1918-2006 Middle, hydraulic modeling analyses have been performed on the San Acacia reach to determine the changes by Reclamation on the San Acacia reach. The 11.6 mile long reach extends from the San Acacia Diversion dam (River

Julien, Pierre Y.

163

Prism Adaptation of Reaching Movements: Specificity for the Velocity of Reaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate reaching toward a visual target is disturbed after the visual field is displaced by prisms but recovers with practice. When the prisms are removed, subjects misreach in the direc- tion opposite to the prism displacement (aftereffect). The present study demonstrated that the severity of the aftereffect depends on the velocity of the movements during and after the visual displacement.

Shigeru Kitazawa; Tatsuya Kimura; Takanori Uk

164

Comparison of Robot-Assisted Reaching to Free Reaching in Promoting Recovery  

E-print Network

movement recovery following stroke. In these studies, the robotic devices mechanically assisted arm, the ARM Guide mechanically assisted in reaching to a series of targets. For the non-robotic group Department of Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA 3 Department of Mechanical

Reinkensmeyer, David J.

165

Original article Simulation of the maximum yield of sugar cane  

E-print Network

Original article Simulation of the maximum yield of sugar cane at different altitudes: effect - To minimize the production costs of sugar cane, for the diverse sites of production found in La Réunion. Existing mod- els simulate poorly the temperature-radiation interaction. A model of sugar cane growth has

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

166

Cell cycle checkpoint regulators reach a zillion.  

PubMed

Entry into mitosis is regulated by a checkpoint at the boundary between the G2 and M phases of the cell cycle (G2/M). In many organisms, this checkpoint surveys DNA damage and cell size and is controlled by both the activation of mitotic cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) and the inhibition of an opposing phosphatase, protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Misregulation of mitotic entry can often lead to oncogenesis or cell death. Recent research has focused on discovering the signaling pathways that feed into the core checkpoint control mechanisms dependent on Cdk and PP2A. Herein, we review the conserved mechanisms of the G2/M transition, including recently discovered upstream signaling pathways that link cell growth and DNA replication to cell cycle progression. Critical consideration of the human, frog and yeast models of mitotic entry frame unresolved and emerging questions in this field, providing a prediction of signaling molecules and pathways yet to be discovered. PMID:23598718

Yasutis, Kimberly M; Kozminski, Keith G

2013-05-15

167

Cancer costs projected to reach at least $158 billion in 2020;  

Cancer.gov

Based on growth and aging of the U.S. population, medical expenditures for cancer in the year 2020 are projected to reach at least $158 billion (in 2010 dollars) – an increase of 27 percent over 2010, according to a National Institutes of Health analysis.

168

Temperature effects on growth, maturation, and lifespan of the california sea hare (Aplysia californica).  

PubMed

We conducted a hatchery growth study to describe the variability in growth rates, spawning, and mortality of Aplysia californica in regard to rearing temperature. Animals were housed at a standard hatchery density of five animals per cage, at temperatures of 13, 15, 18, and 21 degrees Celsius. Animals reared at 13 or 15 degrees C grew as much as four times as large, lived twice as long, matured later, and spawned longer than did animals reared at 18 or 21 degrees C. At age 170 to 205 days the fastest growth rates occurred at 18 and 21 degrees C, and the slowest at 13 degrees C. As animals at 18 and 21 degrees C reached sexual maturity at ages 190 to 197 days, or approximately 60% through their lifespans, their growth rates slowed such that by age 260 days, the fastest growth rate was at 13 degrees C, and the slowest was at 21 degrees C. Animals reared at 13 and 15 degrees C reached sexual maturity at 242 and 208 days, respectively, or at approximately 40% of their life spans. Lifespan and maximum average animal weight were significantly inversely correlated with temperature (P maximum animal weight was reached when this age was expressed as a percentage of the life span: animals reached their maximum weight at approximately 80% of their life span. Aging rate was highest for animals reared at 21 degrees C, while the mortality rate doubling time was lowest at this temperature. This would be expected for the accelerated lifecycle observed at higher temperatures. PMID:15934721

Stommes, Dustin; Fieber, Lynne A; Beno, Christina; Gerdes, Robert; Capo, Thomas R

2005-05-01

169

Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification Hydrogeomorphic Reach  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Estuarine ecosystems are controlled by a variety of processes that operate at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Understanding the hierarchical nature of these processes will aid in prioritization of restoration efforts. This hierarchical Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification (henceforth "Classification") of the Columbia River estuary is a spatial database of the tidally-influenced reaches of the lower Columbia River, the tidally affected parts of its tributaries, and the landforms that make up their floodplains for the 230 kilometers between the Pacific Ocean and Bonneville Dam. This work is a collaborative effort between University of Washington School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences (henceforth "UW"), U.S. Geological Survey (henceforth "USGS"), and the Lower Columbia Estuary Partnership (henceforth "EP"). Consideration of geomorphologic processes will improve the understanding of controlling physical factors that drive ecosystem evolution along the tidal Columbia River. The Classification is organized around six hierarchical levels, progressing from the coarsest, regional scale to the finest, localized scale: (1) Ecosystem Province; (2) Ecoregion; (3) Hydrogeomorphic Reach; (4) Ecosystem Complex; (5) Geomorphic Catena; and (6) Primary Cover Class. For Levels 4 and 5, we mapped landforms within the Holocene floodplain primarily by visual interpretation of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) topography supplemented with aerial photographs, Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) soils data, and historical maps. Mapped landforms are classified as to their current geomorphic function, the inferred process regime that formed them, and anthropogenic modification. Channels were classified primarily by a set of depth-based rules and geometric relationships. Classification Level 5 floodplain landforms ("geomorphic catenae") were further classified based on multivariate analysis of land-cover within the mapped landform area and attributed as "sub-catena". The extent of detailed mapping is the interpreted Holocene geologic floodplain of the tidal Columbia River and its tributaries to the estimated head of tide. The extent of this dataset also includes tributary valleys that are not mapped in detail. The upstream extents of tributary valleys are an estimation of the limit of Columbia River influence and are for use as containers in future analyses. The geologic floodplain is the geomorphic surface that is actively accumulating sediment through occasional overbank deposition. Most features within the geologic floodplain are considered to be formed during the recent (Holocene-epoch) climatic regime. There are bedrock and pre-Holocene sedimentary deposits included where they are surrounded by Holocene sediment accumulations or have been shaped by Holocene floods. In some places, Holocene landforms such as landslides, tributary fans, and coastal dunes are mapped that extend outside of the modern floodplain. This map is not a floodplain hazard map or delineation of actual flood boundaries. Although wetlands are included in the Classification, they are based on different criteria than jurisdictional wetlands. The extent of mapping may differ from the actual limit of tidal influence.

Cannon, Charles M.; Ramirez, Mary F.; Heatwole, Danelle W.; Burke, Jennifer L.; Simenstad, Charles A.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Marcoe, Keith

2012-01-01

170

BGIM : Maximum Likelihood Estimation Primer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Shaun Purcell of the Social, Genetic and Development Pyschiatry Research Centre, this set of pages is an introduction to the maximum likelihood estimation. It discusses the likelihood and log-likelihood functions and the process of optimizing. The author breaks the page down in this way: introduction, model-fitting, MLE in practice, likelihood ratio test, MLE analysis of twin data and MLE analysis of linkage data. The author offers further reading for extra study of this statistical method.

Purcell, Shaun

171

Solar maximum: Solar array degradation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 5-year in-orbit power degradation of the silicon solar array aboard the Solar Maximum Satellite was evaluated. This was the first spacecraft to use Teflon R FEP as a coverglass adhesive, thus avoiding the necessity of an ultraviolet filter. The peak power tracking mode of the power regulator unit was employed to ensure consistent maximum power comparisons. Telemetry was normalized to account for the effects of illumination intensity, charged particle irradiation dosage, and solar array temperature. Reference conditions of 1.0 solar constant at air mass zero and 301 K (28 C) were used as a basis for normalization. Beginning-of-life array power was 2230 watts. Currently, the array output is 1830 watts. This corresponds to a 16 percent loss in array performance over 5 years. Comparison of Solar Maximum Telemetry and predicted power levels indicate that array output is 2 percent less than predictions based on an annual 1.0 MeV equivalent election fluence of 2.34 x ten to the 13th power square centimeters space environment.

Miller, T.

1985-01-01

172

Fifth Space Weather Enterprise Forum Reaches New Heights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the world's commercial infrastructure grows more dependent on sensitive electronics and space-based technologies, the global economy is becoming increasingly vulnerable to solar storms. Experts from the federal government, academia, and the private sector met to discuss the societal effects of major solar storms and other space weather at the fifth annual Space Weather Enterprise Forum (SWEF), held on 21 June 2011 at the National Press Club in Washington, D. C. More than 200 members of the space weather community attended this year's SWEF, which focused on the consequences of severe space weather for national security, critical infrastructure, and human safety. Participants also addressed the question of how to prepare for and mitigate those consequences as the current solar cycle approaches and reaches its peak, expected in 2013. This year's forum included details of plans for a "Unified National Space Weather Capability," a new interagency initiative which will be implemented over the next two years, designed to improve forecasting, warning, and other services ahead of the coming solar maximum.

Williamson, Samuel P.; Babcock, Michael R.; Bonadonna, Michael F.

2011-09-01

173

The Southern Glacial Maximum 65,000 years ago and its Unfinished Termination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glacial maxima and their terminations provide key insights into inter-hemispheric climate dynamics and the coupling of atmosphere, surface and deep ocean, hydrology, and cryosphere, which is fundamental for evaluating the robustness of earth's climate in view of ongoing climate change. The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ?26-19 ka ago) is widely seen as the global cold peak during the last glacial cycle, and its transition to the Holocene interglacial, dubbed 'Termination 1 (T1)', as the most dramatic climate reorganization during this interval. Climate records show that over the last 800 ka, ice ages peaked and terminated on average every 100 ka ('100 ka world'). However, the mechanisms pacing glacial-interglacial transitions remain controversial and in particular the hemispheric manifestations and underlying orbital to regional driving forces of glacial maxima and subsequent terminations remain poorly understood. Here we show evidence for a full glacial maximum in the Southern Hemisphere 65.1 ± 2.7 ka ago and its 'Unfinished Termination'. Our 10Be chronology combined with a model simulation demonstrates that New Zealand's glaciers reached their maximum position of the last glacial cycle during Marine Isotope Stage-4 (MIS-4). Southern ocean and greenhouse gas records indicate coeval peak glacial conditions, making the case for the Southern Glacial Maximum about halfway through the last glacial cycle and only 15 ka after the last warm period (MIS-5a). We present the hypothesis that subsequently, driven by boreal summer insolation forcing, a termination began but remained unfinished, possibly because the northern ice sheets were only moderately large and could not supply enough meltwater to the North Atlantic through Heinrich Stadial 6 to drive a full termination. Yet the Unfinished Termination left behind substantial ice on the northern continents (about 50% of the full LGM ice volume) and after another 45 ka of cooling and ice sheet growth the earth was at inter-hemispheric Last Glacial Maximum configuration, when similar orbital forcing hit maximum-size northern ice sheets and ushered in T1 and thus the ongoing interglacial. This argument highlights the critical role of full glacial conditions in both hemispheres for terminations and implies that the Southern Hemisphere climate could transition from interglacial to full glacial conditions in about 15,000 years, while the Northern Hemisphere and its continental ice-sheets required half a glacial cycle.

Schaefer, Joerg M.; Putnam, Aaron E.; Denton, George H.; Kaplan, Michael R.; Birkel, Sean; Doughty, Alice M.; Kelley, Sam; Barrell, David J. A.; Finkel, Robert C.; Winckler, Gisela; Anderson, Robert F.; Ninneman, Ulysses S.; Barker, Stephen; Schwartz, Roseanne; Andersen, Bjorn G.; Schluechter, Christian

2015-04-01

174

Reaching remote areas in Latin America.  

PubMed

Poor communities in remote and inaccessible areas tend to not only be cut off from family planning education and services, but they are also deprived of basic primary health care services. Efforts to bring family planning to such communities and populations should therefore be linked with other services. The author presents three examples of programs to bring effective family planning services to remote communities in Central and South America. Outside of the municipal center in the Tuxtlas region of Mexico, education and health levels are low and people live according to ancient customs. Ten years ago with the help of MEXFAM, the IPPF affiliate in Mexico, two social promoters established themselves in the town of Catemaco to develop a community program of family planning and health care offering education and prevention to improve the quality of people's lives. Through their health brigades taking health services to towns without an established health center, the program has influenced an estimated 100,000 people in 50 villages and towns. The program also has a clinic. In Guatemala, the Family Welfare Association (APROFAM) gave bicycles to 240 volunteer health care workers to facilitate their outreach work in rural areas. APROFAM since 1988 has operated an integrated program to treat intestinal parasites and promote family planning in San Lucas de Toliman, an Indian town close to Lake Atitlan. Providing health care to more than 10,000 people, the volunteer staff has covered the entire department of Solola, reaching each family in the area. Field educators travel on motorcycles through the rural areas of Guatemala coordinating with the health volunteers the distribution of contraceptives at the community level. The Integrated Project's Clinic was founded in 1992 and currently carries out pregnancy and Pap tests, as well as general lab tests. Finally, Puna is an island in the middle of the Gulf of Guayaquil, Ecuador. Women on the island typically have 10-14 pregnancies, families are extremely poor, and the population long had access to neither basic health services nor modern contraceptives and birth control. The Association for Ecuadorian Family Welfare (APROFE) realized the importance of finding some way to provide the residents of Puna with family planning, maternal and child health care, and primary health care. To that end, the organization built a fiberglass boat, installed modern equipment, and hired a doctor, nurse, and sociologist-educator trained in family planning and primary health care who now serve the population. PMID:12345742

Jaimes, R

1994-01-01

175

XMM classroom competitions : reaching for the stars!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Partnered by a unique education network 'European Schoolnet'(*), ESA is today launching these three competitions for schools (age range: 8 to final year) in its Member States: draw a telescope, describe the benefits of space-based astronomy or produce an astronomy observation proposal. Details can be found on the special competition website : http://sci.esa.int/xmm/competition "Draw me a telescope!" This competition for 8 to 12 year-olds asks the class to draw a telescope (inside a 20 - 50 cm diameter circle). The 14 winning entries, one per Member State, will be included in a specially-designed official XMM mission logo to go on the Ariane-5 launcher fairing for official unveiling on launch day. A representative of each winning class will be invited to Kourou for the launch. Deadline for entries : 8 October 1999. For full information on how to enter see : http://sci.esa.int/xmm/competition "What's new, Mr Galileo?" The essay competition for 13 to 15 year-olds challenges an English class, writing in the international language of space, to submit a single page (500 words maximum) description of space-based astronomy and its benefits for humanity. The 14 winners, one per Member States, will be invited to Kourou to visit the Guiana Space Centre, Europe's spaceport, and witness final XMM launch preparations. Deadline for entries : 15 October 1999. For full information on how to enter see : http://sci.esa.int/xmm/competition. "Stargazing" In the final-year class competition, ESA is providing a unique opportunity to use the XMM telescope. Here, the physics class, assisted by the scientific community, has to submit an observation project. The 14 winning proposals will be put into practice in 2000 at a summer camp. Further details will be announced once XMM is in orbit. Note to editors: The X-ray Multi-Mirror mission is the second Cornerstone of ESA's Horizon 2000 Plus science programme. The telescope will revolutionise cosmic X-ray astronomy by harvesting far more X-rays per hour than any previous mission. Its large effective collecting area (120 m2 of mirror, 4500 cm2 of X-ray collecting area) and highly eccentric orbit will allow long-duration observation of unprecedented sensitivity. This enormous capability will enable astronomers to analyse many strong sources of cosmic X-rays very quickly and also discover and characterise many faint sources.

1999-09-01

176

Increasing Internodal Distance in Myelinated Nerves Accelerates Nerve Conduction to a Flat Maximum  

PubMed Central

Summary Predictions that conduction velocities are sensitive to the distance between nodes of Ranvier in myelinated axons have implications for nervous system function during growth and repair [1–3]. Internodal lengths defined by Schwann cells in hindlimb nerves, for example, can undergo a 4-fold increase during mouse development, and regenerated nerves have internodes that are uniformly short [4, 5]. Nevertheless, the influence of internodal length on conduction speed has limited experimental support. Here, we examined this problem in mice expressing a mutant version of periaxin, a protein required for Schwann cell elongation [4]. Importantly, elongation of mutant Schwann cells was retarded without significant derangements to myelination or axon caliber. In young mice with short mutant Schwann cells, nerve conduction velocity was reduced and motor function was impaired. This demonstrates a functional relationship between internodal distance and conduction speed. Moreover, as internodes lengthened during postnatal growth, conduction velocities recovered to normal values and mutant mice exhibited normal motor and sensory behavior. This restoration of function confirms a further prediction by Huxley and Stämpfli that conduction speeds should increase as internodal distances lengthen until a “flat maximum” is reached, beyond which no further gains in conduction velocity accrue [6]. PMID:23022068

Wu, Lai Man N.; Williams, Anna; Delaney, Ada; Sherman, Diane L.; Brophy, Peter J.

2012-01-01

177

Development of microgravity, full body functional reach envelope using 3-D computer graphic models and virtual reality technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In microgravity conditions mobility is greatly enhanced and body stability is difficult to achieve. Because of these difficulties, optimum placement and accessibility of objects and controls can be critical to required tasks on board shuttle flights or on the proposed space station. Anthropometric measurement of the maximum reach of occupants of a microgravity environment provide knowledge about maximum functional placement for tasking situations. Calculations for a full body, functional reach envelope for microgravity environments are imperative. To this end, three dimensional computer modeled human figures, providing a method of anthropometric measurement, were used to locate the data points that define the full body, functional reach envelope. Virtual reality technology was utilized to enable an occupant of the microgravity environment to experience movement within the reach envelope while immersed in a simulated microgravity environment.

Lindsey, Patricia F.

1994-01-01

178

Effects of pH and temperature on growth and glycerol production kinetics of two indigenous wine strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from Turkey  

PubMed Central

The study was performed in a batch system in order to determine the effects of pH and temperature on growth and glycerol production kinetics of two indigenous wine yeast strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae Kalecik 1 and Narince 3. The highest values of dry mass and specific growth rate were obtained at pH 4.00 for both of the strains. Maximum specific glycerol production rates were obtained at pH 5.92 and 6.27 for the strains Kalecik 1 and Narince 3, respectively. Kalecik 1 strain produced maximum 8.8 gL?1 of glycerol at pH 6.46. Maximum glycerol concentration obtained by the strain Narince 3 was 9.1 gL?1 at pH 6.48. Both yeasts reached maximum specific growth rate at 30°C. Optimum temperature range for glycerol production was determined as 25-30°C for the strain Kalecik 1. The strain Narince 3 reached maximum specific glycerol production rate at 30°C. Maximum glycerol concentrations at 30°C were obtained as 8.5 and 7.6 gL?1 for Kalecik 1 and Narince 3, respectively. PMID:24031225

Yalcin, Seda Karasu; Yesim Ozbas, Z.

2008-01-01

179

Maximum life spur gear design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optimization procedures allow one to design a spur gear reduction for maximum life and other end use criteria. A modified feasible directions search algorithm permits a wide variety of inequality constraints and exact design requirements to be met with low sensitivity to initial guess values. The optimization algorithm is described, and the models for gear life and performance are presented. The algorithm is compact and has been programmed for execution on a desk top computer. Two examples are presented to illustrate the method and its application.

Savage, M.; Mackulin, M. J.; Coe, H. H.; Coy, J. J.

1991-01-01

180

Modulation of hand aperture during reaching in persons with incomplete cervical spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

The intact neuromotor system prepares for object grasp by first opening the hand to an aperture that is scaled according to object size and then closing the hand around the object. After cervical spinal cord injury (SCI), hand function is significantly impaired, but the degree to which object-specific hand aperture scaling is affected remains unknown. Here, we hypothesized that persons with incomplete cervical SCI have a reduced maximum hand opening capacity but exhibit novel neuromuscular coordination strategies that permit object-specific hand aperture scaling during reaching. To test this hypothesis, we measured hand kinematics and surface electromyography from seven muscles of the hand and wrist during attempts at maximum hand opening as well as reaching for four balls of different diameters. Our results showed that persons with SCI exhibited significantly reduced maximum hand aperture compared to able-bodied (AB) controls. However, persons with SCI preserved the ability to scale peak hand aperture with ball size during reaching. Persons with SCI also used distinct muscle coordination patterns that included increased co-activity of flexors and extensors at the wrist and hand compared to AB controls. These results suggest that motor planning for aperture modulation is preserved even though execution is limited by constraints on hand opening capacity and altered muscle co-activity. Thus, persons with incomplete cervical SCI may benefit from rehabilitation aimed at increasing hand opening capacity and reducing flexor-extensor co-activity at the wrist and hand. PMID:25511164

Stahl, Victoria A; Hayes, Heather B; Buetefisch, Cathrin M; Wolf, Steven L; Trumbower, Randy D

2015-03-01

181

Behavioral inflexibility and motor dedifferentiation in persons with Parkinson's disease: bilateral coordination deficits during a unimanual reaching task.  

PubMed

We evaluated kinematics of people with Parkinson's disease (PD) and age-matched controls during cued and uncued reaching movements. Maximum hand velocity, its variability and shoulder-to-shoulder coupling, quantified by phase locking value (PLV), were compared between PD (n=14) and Control (n=4). The PD group achieved significantly lower maximum hand velocities during the reaching movement in comparison to the Control group (p=0.05), whereas the Control group exhibited significantly greater variability (i.e., larger SDs) of maximum hand velocities across the blocks than the PD group (p=0.01). Persons with PD exhibited higher PLVs than the healthy elderly individuals when performing reaching movements with their dominant side (p=0.05), while the PLVs did not differ between groups when the movements were performed with their non-dominant hand. The present study suggests that persons with PD have a reduced ability to: (1) modulate maximum reaching velocity; and (2) alter coordination across the shoulders to different reaching actions. In persons with PD, the velocity-oriented (dominant) limb becomes slowed and less flexible, to the point that its movement dynamics are effectively similar to that of the position-oriented (non-dominant) limb. PMID:25451729

Amano, Shinichi; Hong, S Lee; Sage, Jacob I; Torres, Elizabeth B

2015-01-12

182

What causes cooling water temperature gradients in a forested stream reach?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies have suggested that shading by riparian vegetation may reduce maximum water temperatures and provide refugia for temperature-sensitive aquatic organisms. Longitudinal cooling gradients have been observed during the daytime for stream reaches shaded by coniferous trees downstream of clear cuts or deciduous woodland downstream of open moorland. However, little is known about the energy exchange processes that drive such gradients, especially in semi-natural woodland contexts without confounding cool groundwater inflows. To address this gap, this study quantified and modelled variability in stream temperature and heat fluxes along an upland reach of the Girnock Burn (a tributary of the Aberdeenshire Dee, Scotland) where riparian land use transitions from open moorland to semi-natural, predominantly deciduous woodland. Observations were made along a 1050 m reach using a spatially distributed network of 10 water temperature data loggers, 3 automatic weather stations and 211 hemispherical photographs that were used to estimate incoming solar radiation. These data parameterised a high-resolution energy flux model incorporating flow routing, which predicted spatio-temporal variability in stream temperature. Variability in stream temperature was controlled largely by energy fluxes at the water-column-atmosphere interface. Net energy gains occurred along the reach, predominantly during daylight hours, and heat exchange across the bed-water-column interface accounted for <1% of the net energy budget. For periods when daytime net radiation gains were high (under clear skies), differences between water temperature observations increased in the streamwise direction; a maximum instantaneous difference of 2.5 °C was observed between the upstream reach boundary and 1050 m downstream. Furthermore, daily maximum water temperature at 1050 m downstream was ?1 °C cooler than at the upstream reach boundary and lagged by >1 h. Temperature gradients were not generated by cooling of stream water but rather by a combination of reduced rates of heating in the woodland reach and advection of cooler (overnight and early morning) water from the upstream moorland catchment. Longitudinal thermal gradients were indistinct at night and on days when net radiation gains were low (under overcast skies), thus when changes in net energy gains or losses did not vary significantly in space and time, and heat advected into the reach was reasonably consistent. The findings of the study and the modelling approach employed are useful tools for assessing optimal planting strategies for mitigating against ecologically damaging stream temperature maxima.

Garner, G.; Malcolm, I. A.; Sadler, J. P.; Hannah, D. M.

2014-12-01

183

Sex education in the Cameroon. Reaching schoolchildren.  

PubMed

Four methods were used to learn about the sexual behavior, knowledge and use of contraception, and sexually transmitted diseases (STD) among 230 students aged 11-16 years in two bilingual schools in Yaounde. First, students discussed letters to an aunt explaining a teen's sexually-related problem. Premarital sex and the fear of STDs were at issue. Second, students filled in missing information on a line drawing relating to pregnancy. Most participants knew that a baby depends upon its mother for development and growth, but some were unclear on the nature of the biological connection to the uterus. Third, students completed a questionnaire upon which they indicated their agreement or lack thereof with statements on aspects of sex behavior. While both sexes indicated that love is more important than sex, they also find it necessary to have sex before marriage in order to gain experience and to know the other person better. Finally, students completed an anonymous questionnaire which produced the following results: 24% had experienced sexual intercourse; the most common age for initiating sexual activity was 15 and 13 years for boys and girls, respectively; 48% had heard about contraceptives; and 27% believed that contraceptives were dangerous and could permanently end one's fertility. Despite these students' limited amount of accurate knowledge about sexual matters, they are ready to confront real-life sexual situations. 130 parents, 110 teachers, and 26 health workers involved in clinics for family planning and STDs were also interviewed in the study. Contrary to the view of adults that adolescents should not discuss sexual matters, the youths initiated important discussions about their sexuality. 90% were interested in knowing about safer sex and STDs. Most parents believe that their children become sexually active later in life than they really do, with both parents and teachers supporting the withholding of information on birth control from adolescents out of fear that such knowledge will encourage them to experiment with sex. Young people instead need free and open access to family planning information and services to help them avoid unwanted pregnancy and infections with STDs. Moreover, the government campaign against HIV must start emphasizing condom use. PMID:12315650

1988-03-01

184

[Effects of nitrogen form on growth and quality of Chrysanthemums morifolium].  

PubMed

This paper is aimed to study the effects of nitrogen form on the growth and quality of Chrysanthemums morifolium at the same nitrogen level. In order to provide references for nutrition regulation of Ch. morifolium in field production, pot experiments were carried out in the greenhouse at experimental station of Nanjing Agricultural University. Five proportions of ammonium and nitrate nitrogen were set up and a randomized block design was applied four times repeatedly. The results showed that the growth and quality of Ch. morifolium were significantly influenced by the nitrogen form. The content of chlorophyll and photosynthesis rate were the highest at the NH4(+) -N /NO3(-) -N ratio of 25:75; The activities of NR in different parts of Ch. -morifolium reached the highest at the NH4(+) - N/NO3(-) -N ratio of 0: 100. The contents of nitrate nitrogen in the root and leaves reached the highest at the NH4(+) -N/NO3(-) -N ratio of 50:50. The activities of GS, GOGAT and the content of amylum increased with the ratio of NO3(-) -N decreasing and reached it's maximum at the NH4 + -N/NO3 - -N ratio of 100: 0. The content of ammonium nitrogen were the highest at the NH4 + -N /NO3 --N ratio of 75: 25, while the content of soluble sugar reached the highest at the NH4(+)-N/NO3(-) -N ratio of 25: 75. The content of flavones, chlorogenic acid and 3,5-O-dicoffeoylqunic acid were 57.2 mg x g(-1), 0.673% and 1.838% respectively, reaching the maximum at the NH4(+) -N /NO3(-) -N ratio of 25:75; The content of luteoloside increased with the ratio of NO3(-) -N increasing and reached it's maximum at the NH4(+) -N/NO3(-) -N ratio of 0: 100. The yield of Ch. morifolium reached it's maximum at the NH4(+) -N /NO3(-) -N ratio of 25:75. Nitrogen form has some remarkable influence on the nitrogen metabolism, photosynthesis and growth, Nitrogen form conducive to the growth and quality of Ch. morifolium at the NH4(+) -N /NO3(-) -N ratio of 25: 75. PMID:25522608

Zhang, Peng; Wang, Kang-cai; Cheng, Ming-chao; Guo, Qing-hai; Zhao, Jie; Zhao, Xiu-Mei; Li, Li

2014-09-01

185

Reach and its Impact: NASA and US Aerospace Communities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

REACH is a European law that threatens to impact materials used within the US aerospace communities, including NASA. The presentation briefly covers REACH and generally, its perceived impacts to NASA and the aerospace community within the US.

Rothgeb, Matthew J.

2011-01-01

186

Education, Out-reach and In-reach Infrastructure Support for the Hydrologic Sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, incorporated (CUAHSI) is designed as an infrastructure support mechanism for research in the hydrologic sciences. Education, Out-reach and In-reach (EOI) is one of the five support thrusts of CUAHSI. EOI interfaces intimately with the other four thrusts (Hydrologic Science, Hydrologic Observatories, Hydrologic Information Systems, Hydrologic Measurement Technology). In addition, the EOI infrastructure will provide additional support to the scientific and educational communities as well as the general public. The EOI infrastructure aims to support scientists, educators, students and other interested parties through a variety of mechanisms including summer institutes, instrumentation training, student fellowships and institutional linkages. EOI's overall goal is to develop strategies, which have a broad impact and national significance. All EOI programs will link to CUAHSI science driven initiatives and will be evaluated in the basis of the impact of the program to the intended audience(s) and attainment of measurable outcomes. EOI, in addition to providing opportunities to the hydrologic science community, the broader scientific and education communities and the general public, will consistently interact with key members of pertinent communities to make them aware of available programs and to insure their participation by the interactive development of programs and opportunities. Potential activities include summer institutes at CUAHSI member universities for scientists, educators and students to exchange new ideas and learn new techniques. Potential exists for graduate student fellowships in support of research activities linked to CUAHSI science plans. Outreach to the general public and policy-makers may include distinguished speakers presenting general hydrologic science information and highlighting CUAHSI related research initiatives. In-reach is also a priority for EOI, and opportunities may include training seminars for hydrologic scientists interested in learning to use new technologies and forums designed to inform CUAHSI participants of emerging research, best educational practices or relevant policy issues. Ultimately EOI initiatives are designed to serve the community and provide opportunities suggested by the needs of the community.

Hannigan, R.; McCaffrey, M.

2002-05-01

187

Far-Reaching Impacts of African Dust- A Calipso Perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

African dust can transport across the tropical Atlantic and reach the Amazon basin, exerting far-reaching impacts on climate in downwind regions. The transported dust influences the surface-atmosphere interactions and cloud and precipitation processes through perturbing the surface radiative budget and atmospheric radiative heating and acting as cloud condensation nuclei and ice nuclei. Dust also influences biogeochemical cycle and climate through providing nutrients vital to the productivity of ocean biomass and Amazon forests. Assessing these climate impacts relies on an accurate quantification of dust transport and deposition. Currently model simulations show extremely large diversity, which calls for a need of observational constraints. Kaufman et al. (2005) estimated from MODIS aerosol measurements that about 144 Tg of dust is deposited into the tropical Atlantic and 50 Tg of dust into the Amazon in 2001. This estimated dust import to Amazon is a factor of 3-4 higher than other observations and models. However, several studies have argued that the oversimplified characterization of dust vertical profile in the study would have introduced large uncertainty and very likely a high bias. In this study we quantify the trans-Atlantic dust transport and deposition by using 7 years (2007-2013) observations from CALIPSO lidar. CALIPSO acquires high-resolution aerosol extinction and depolarization profiles in both cloud-free and above-cloud conditions. The unique CALIPSO capability of profiling aerosols above clouds offers an unprecedented opportunity of examining uncertainties associated with the use of MODIS clear-sky data. Dust is separated from other types of aerosols using the depolarization measurements. We estimated that on the basis of 7-year average, 118142 Tg of dust is deposited into the tropical Atlantic and 3860 Tg of dust into the Amazon basin. Substantial interannual variations are observed during the period, with the maximum to minimum ratio of about 1.6 and 2.5 for the deposition to the tropical Atlantic and Amazon, respectively. The MODIS-based estimates appear to fall within the range of CALIPSO-based estimates; and the difference between MODIS and CALIPSO estimates can be largely attributed to the interannual variability, which is corroborated by long-term surface dust concentration observations in the tropical Atlantic. Considering that CALIPSO generally tends to underestimate the aerosol loading, our estimate is likely to represent a low bound for the dust transport and deposition estimate. The finding suggests that models have substantial biases and considerable effort is needed to improve model simulations of dust cycle.

Yu, Hongbin; Chin, Mian; Yuan, Tianle; Bian, Huisheng; Prospero, Joseph; Omar, Ali; Remer, Lorraine; Winker, David; Yang, Yuekui; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Zhibo

2014-01-01

188

Salinity effect on plant growth and leaf demography of the mangrove, Avicennia germinans L  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the effect of salinity on plant growth and leaf expansion rates, as well as the leaf life span and the dynamics\\u000a of leaf production and mortality in seedlings of Avicennia germinans L. grown at 0, 170, 430, 680, and 940 mol m?3 NaCl. The relative growth rates (RGR) after 27 weeks reached a maximum (10.4 mg g?1 d?1) in 170 mol m?3 NaCl and decreased

N. Suárez; E. Medina

2005-01-01

189

DRAFT San Acacia Reach San Acacia Dam to Escondida Bridge  

E-print Network

DRAFT San Acacia Reach San Acacia Dam to Escondida Bridge Hydraulic Modeling Analysis 1918, hydraulic modeling analyses have been performed on the San Acacia reach to determine the changes by Reclamation on the San Acacia reach. The 11.6 mile long extends from the San Acacia Diversion dam (River Mile

Julien, Pierre Y.

190

Visual servoing for path reaching with nonholonomic robots Journal: Robotica  

E-print Network

Visual servoing for path reaching with nonholonomic robots Journal: Robotica Manuscript ID: ROB these files (e.g. movies) online. VisionBasedPathReaching-Robotica.tex figure.tar.gz VisionBasedPathReaching.mp4 Proof for review onlyhal-00639659,version1-9Nov2011 Author manuscript, published in "Robotica 29

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

191

Maximum performance tests of speech production.  

PubMed

The maximum performance tests of speech production are those tests that examine the upper limits of performance for selected speech tasks. Among the most commonly used maximum performance tests are the following: maximum duration of phonation, maximum fricative duration, maximum phonation volume, maximum expiratory pressure, fundamental frequency range, maximum sound pressure level, maximum occluding force of the articulators, and diadochokinetic (maximum repetition) rate. Many clinicians use at least some of these tasks as part of an assessment protocol. These tests are analogous to strength, range, or speed tests in clinical neurology. Given the widespread use of these tests and a rather scattered literature on normative values obtained for them, a survey of the data base seemed in order. This paper summarizes the published normative data, discusses the adequacy of these data for clinical application, and recommends interpretive guidelines to enhance the usefulness of maximum performance tests. PMID:3312817

Kent, R D; Kent, J F; Rosenbek, J C

1987-11-01

192

System for Memorizing Maximum Values  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The invention discloses a system capable of memorizing maximum sensed values. The system includes conditioning circuitry which receives the analog output signal from a sensor transducer. The conditioning circuitry rectifies and filters the analog signal and provides an input signal to a digital driver, which may be either liner or logarithmic. The driver converts the analog signal to discrete digital values, which in turn triggers an output signal on one of a plurality of driver output lines n. The particular output lines selected is dependent on the converted digital value. A microfuse memory device connects across the driver output lines, with n segments. Each segment is associated with one driver output line, and includes a microfuse that is blown when a signal appears on the associated driver output line.

Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor)

1996-01-01

193

Maximum vehicle cabin temperatures under different meteorological conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of studies have documented the dangerously high temperatures that may occur within the passenger compartment (cabin) of cars under clear sky conditions, even at relatively low ambient air temperatures. Our study, however, is the first to examine cabin temperatures under variable weather conditions. It uses a unique maximum vehicle cabin temperature dataset in conjunction with directly comparable ambient air temperature, solar radiation, and cloud cover data collected from April through August 2007 in Athens, GA. Maximum cabin temperatures, ranging from 41-76°C, varied considerably depending on the weather conditions and the time of year. Clear days had the highest cabin temperatures, with average values of 68°C in the summer and 61°C in the spring. Cloudy days in both the spring and summer were on average approximately 10°C cooler. Our findings indicate that even on cloudy days with lower ambient air temperatures, vehicle cabin temperatures may reach deadly levels. Additionally, two predictive models of maximum daily vehicle cabin temperatures were developed using commonly available meteorological data. One model uses maximum ambient air temperature and average daily solar radiation while the other uses cloud cover percentage as a surrogate for solar radiation. From these models, two maximum vehicle cabin temperature indices were developed to assess the level of danger. The models and indices may be useful for forecasting hazardous conditions, promoting public awareness, and to estimate past cabin temperatures for use in forensic analyses.

Grundstein, Andrew; Meentemeyer, Vernon; Dowd, John

2009-05-01

194

[Growth modeling of Albizia niopoides (Mimosaceae) using dendrochronological methods].  

PubMed

The annual growth rings in tropical trees are fairly common, but their study is relatively recent. Growth rings were found in trees of Albizia niopoides from the Porce River Canyon, Central Cordillera of the Colombian Andes. A total of 33 cross-sections were collected from trees distributed throughout the study area from 664-870masl. Cross-dating, spaguetti plot and 14C analyses were used to demonstrate ring annuality, assuming as hypothesis that these are real annual growth rings. A combination of descriptive analysis of time series (smoothing and pre-whitening) to filter climate noise and nonlinear regression with weighted residuals was used to fit the diameter to Korfs growth model, in which the coefficient of determination reaches values close to 100%. The positive residual autocorrelation of order 1, although not significant, is explained by the existence of energy reserves in the stem and by the accumulation of diameter increments required for the construction of the diameter growth model. The current and mean annual maximum increment rates are 1.03 and 0.94cm/year at ages 18 and 46 years old, respectively. These trees are classified within the group of fast growing species which can reach a cut diameter of over 50cm in approximately 52 years. PMID:23025084

Giraldo, Víctor David; del Valle, Jorge Ignacio

2012-09-01

195

Clades reach highest morphological disparity early in their evolution  

PubMed Central

There are few putative macroevolutionary trends or rules that withstand scrutiny. Here, we test and verify the purported tendency for animal clades to reach their maximum morphological variety relatively early in their evolutionary histories (early high disparity). We present a meta-analysis of 98 metazoan clades radiating throughout the Phanerozoic. The disparity profiles of groups through time are summarized in terms of their center of gravity (CG), with values above and below 0.50 indicating top- and bottom-heaviness, respectively. Clades that terminate at one of the “big five” mass extinction events tend to have truncated trajectories, with a significantly top-heavy CG distribution overall. The remaining 63 clades show the opposite tendency, with a significantly bottom-heavy mean CG (relatively early high disparity). Resampling tests are used to identify groups with a CG significantly above or below 0.50; clades not terminating at a mass extinction are three times more likely to be significantly bottom-heavy than top-heavy. Overall, there is no clear temporal trend in disparity profile shapes from the Cambrian to the Recent, and early high disparity is the predominant pattern throughout the Phanerozoic. Our results do not allow us to distinguish between ecological and developmental explanations for this phenomenon. To the extent that ecology has a role, however, the paucity of bottom-heavy clades radiating in the immediate wake of mass extinctions suggests that early high disparity more probably results from the evolution of key apomorphies at the base of clades rather than from physical drivers or catastrophic ecospace clearing. PMID:23884651

Hughes, Martin; Gerber, Sylvain; Wills, Matthew Albion

2013-01-01

196

Advanced Reach Tool (ART): development of the mechanistic model.  

PubMed

This paper describes the development of the mechanistic model within a collaborative project, referred to as the Advanced REACH Tool (ART) project, to develop a tool to model inhalation exposure for workers sharing similar operational conditions across different industries and locations in Europe. The ART mechanistic model is based on a conceptual framework that adopts a source receptor approach, which describes the transport of a contaminant from the source to the receptor and defines seven independent principal modifying factors: substance emission potential, activity emission potential, localized controls, segregation, personal enclosure, surface contamination, and dispersion. ART currently differentiates between three different exposure types: vapours, mists, and dust (fumes, fibres, and gases are presently excluded). Various sources were used to assign numerical values to the multipliers to each modifying factor. The evidence used to underpin this assessment procedure was based on chemical and physical laws. In addition, empirical data obtained from literature were used. Where this was not possible, expert elicitation was applied for the assessment procedure. Multipliers for all modifying factors were peer reviewed by leading experts from industry, research institutes, and public authorities across the globe. In addition, several workshops with experts were organized to discuss the proposed exposure multipliers. The mechanistic model is a central part of the ART tool and with advancing knowledge on exposure, determinants will require updates and refinements on a continuous basis, such as the effect of worker behaviour on personal exposure, 'best practice' values that describe the maximum achievable effectiveness of control measures, the intrinsic emission potential of various solid objects (e.g. metal, glass, plastics, etc.), and extending the applicability domain to certain types of exposures (e.g. gas, fume, and fibre exposure). PMID:22003239

Fransman, Wouter; Van Tongeren, Martie; Cherrie, John W; Tischer, Martin; Schneider, Thomas; Schinkel, Jody; Kromhout, Hans; Warren, Nick; Goede, Henk; Tielemans, Erik

2011-11-01

197

Maximum entropy production in daisyworld  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Daisyworld was first introduced in 1983 by Watson and Lovelock as a model that illustrates how life can influence a planet's climate. These models typically involve modeling a planetary surface on which black and white daisies can grow thus influencing the local surface albedo and therefore also the temperature distribution. Since then, variations of daisyworld have been applied to study problems ranging from ecological systems to global climate. Much of the interest in daisyworld models is due to the fact that they enable one to study self-regulating systems. These models are nonlinear, and as such they exhibit sensitive dependence on initial conditions, and depending on the specifics of the model they can also exhibit feedback loops, oscillations, and chaotic behavior. Many daisyworld models are thermodynamic in nature in that they rely on heat flux and temperature gradients. However, what is not well-known is whether, or even why, a daisyworld model might settle into a maximum entropy production (MEP) state. With the aim to better understand these systems, this paper will discuss what is known about the role of MEP in daisyworld models.

Maunu, Haley A.; Knuth, Kevin H.

2012-05-01

198

Time course of epiphyseal growth plate fusion in rat tibiae  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although the rat is the most common animal model used in studying osteoporosis, it is often used inappropriately. Osteoporosis is a disease that most commonly occurs in humans long after growth plate fusion with the associated cessation of longitudinal bone growth, but there has been a question as to when or to what extent the rat growth plate fuses. To investigate this question, we used microcomputed X-ray tomography, at voxel resolutions ranging from (5.7 micro m)(3) to (11 micro m)(3), to image the proximal epiphyseal growth plates of both male (n = 19) and female (n = 15) rat tibiae, ranging in age from 2 to 25 months. The three-dimensional images were used to evaluate fusion of the epiphyseal growth plate by quantitating the amount of cancellous bone that has bridged across the growth plate. The results suggest that the time course of fusion of the epiphyseal growth plate follows a sigmoidal pattern, with 10% of the maximum number of bridges having formed by 3.9 months in the male tibiae and 5.8 months in the female tibiae, 50% of the maximum number of bridges having formed by 5.6 months in the male tibiae and 5.9 months in the female tibiae, and 90% of the total maximum of bridges have formed by 7.4 months for the males and 6.5 months for the females. The total volume of bridges per tibia at the age at which the maximum number of bridges per tibia has first formed is 0.99 mm(3)/tibia for the males and 0.40 mm(3)/tibia for the females. After the maximum number of bridges (-290 for females, -360 for males) have formed the total volume of bridges per tibia continues to increase for an additional 7.0 months in the males and 17.0 months for the females until they reach maximum values (-1.5 mm(3)/tibia for the males and -2.2 mm(3)/tibia for the females).

Martin, E. A.; Ritman, E. L.; Turner, R. T.

2003-01-01

199

Postural control during standing reach in children with Down syndrome.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the dynamic postural control of children with Down syndrome (DS). Specifically, we compared postural control and goal-directed reaching performance between children with DS and typically developing children during standing reach. Standing reach performance was analyzed in three main phases using the kinematic and kinetic data collected from a force plate and a motion capture system. Fourteen children with DS, age and gender matched with fourteen typically developing children, were recruited for this study. The results showed that the demand of the standing reach task affected both dynamic postural control and reaching performance in children with DS, especially in the condition of beyond arm's length reaching. More postural adjustment strategies were recruited when reaching distance was beyond arm's length. Children with DS tended to use inefficient and conservative strategies for postural stability and reaching. That is, children with DS perform standing reach with increased reaction and execution time and decreased amplitudes of center of pressure displacements. Standing reach resembled functional balance that is required in daily activities. It is suggested to be considered as a part of strength and balance training program with graded task difficulty. PMID:25590172

Chen, Hao-Ling; Yeh, Chun-Fu; Howe, Tsu-Hsin

2015-03-01

200

Maximum entropy production and plant optimization theories.  

PubMed

Plant ecologists have proposed a variety of optimization theories to explain the adaptive behaviour and evolution of plants from the perspective of natural selection ('survival of the fittest'). Optimization theories identify some objective function--such as shoot or canopy photosynthesis, or growth rate--which is maximized with respect to one or more plant functional traits. However, the link between these objective functions and individual plant fitness is seldom quantified and there remains some uncertainty about the most appropriate choice of objective function to use. Here, plants are viewed from an alternative thermodynamic perspective, as members of a wider class of non-equilibrium systems for which maximum entropy production (MEP) has been proposed as a common theoretical principle. I show how MEP unifies different plant optimization theories that have been proposed previously on the basis of ad hoc measures of individual fitness--the different objective functions of these theories emerge as examples of entropy production on different spatio-temporal scales. The proposed statistical explanation of MEP, that states of MEP are by far the most probable ones, suggests a new and extended paradigm for biological evolution--'survival of the likeliest'--which applies from biomacromolecules to ecosystems, not just to individuals. PMID:20368261

Dewar, Roderick C

2010-05-12

201

Maximum entropy principal for transportation  

SciTech Connect

In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the maximum entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.

Bilich, F. [University of Brasilia (Brazil); Da Silva, R. [National Research Council (Brazil)

2008-11-06

202

Maximum Entropy Principle for Transportation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the maximum entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.

Bilich, F.; DaSilva, R.

2008-11-01

203

Aging, Maturation and Growth of Sauropodomorph Dinosaurs as Deduced from Growth Curves Using Long Bone Histological Data: An Assessment of Methodological Constraints and Solutions  

PubMed Central

Information on aging, maturation, and growth is important for understanding life histories of organisms. In extinct dinosaurs, such information can be derived from the histological growth record preserved in the mid-shaft cortex of long bones. Here, we construct growth models to estimate ages at death, ages at sexual maturity, ages at which individuals were fully-grown, and maximum growth rates from the growth record preserved in long bones of six sauropod dinosaur individuals (one indeterminate mamenchisaurid, two Apatosaurus sp., two indeterminate diplodocids, and one Camarasaurus sp.) and one basal sauropodomorph dinosaur individual (Plateosaurus engelhardti). Using these estimates, we establish allometries between body mass and each of these traits and compare these to extant taxa. Growth models considered for each dinosaur individual were the von Bertalanffy model, the Gompertz model, and the logistic model (LGM), all of which have inherently fixed inflection points, and the Chapman-Richards model in which the point is not fixed. We use the arithmetic mean of the age at the inflection point and of the age at which 90% of asymptotic mass is reached to assess respectively the age at sexual maturity or the age at onset of reproduction, because unambiguous indicators of maturity in Sauropodomorpha are lacking. According to an AIC-based model selection process, the LGM was the best model for our sauropodomorph sample. Allometries established are consistent with literature data on other Sauropodomorpha. All Sauropodomorpha reached full size within a time span similar to scaled-up modern mammalian megaherbivores and had similar maximum growth rates to scaled-up modern megaherbivores and ratites, but growth rates of Sauropodomorpha were lower than of an average mammal. Sauropodomorph ages at death probably were lower than that of average scaled-up ratites and megaherbivores. Sauropodomorpha were older at maturation than scaled-up ratites and average mammals, but younger than scaled-up megaherbivores. PMID:23840575

Griebeler, Eva Maria; Klein, Nicole; Sander, P. Martin

2013-01-01

204

Maximum allowable heat flux for a submerged horizontal tube bundle  

SciTech Connect

For application to industrial heating of large pools by immersed heat exchangers, the socalled maximum allowable (or {open_quotes}critical{close_quotes}) heat flux is studied for unconfined tube bundles aligned horizontally in a pool without forced flow. In general, we are considering boiling after the pool reaches its saturation temperature rather than sub-cooled pool boiling which should occur during early stages of transient operation. A combination of literature review and simple approximate analysis has been used. To date our main conclusion is that estimates of q inch chf are highly uncertain for this configuration.

McEligot, D.M.

1995-08-14

205

Mark III Space Suit Mobility: A Reach Evaluation Case Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary assessment of the reach envelope and field of vision (FOV) for a subject wearing a Mark III space suit was requested for use in human-machine interface design of the Science Crew Operations and Utility Testbed (SCOUT) vehicle. The reach and view of two suited and unsuited subjects were evaluated while seated in the vehicle using 3-dimensional position data collected during a series of reaching motions. Data was interpolated and displayed in orthogonal views and cross-sections. Compared with unsuited conditions, medio-lateral reach was not strongly affected by the Mark III suit, whereas vertical and antero-posterior reach were inhibited by the suit. Lateral FOV was reduced by approximately 40 deg. in the suit. The techniques used in this case study may prove useful in human-machine interface design by providing a new means of developing and displaying reach envelopes.

Thaxton, Sherry S.; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Onady, Elizabeth A.; Rajulu, Sudhakar L.

2007-01-01

206

Environmental changes after ecological water conveyance in the lower reaches of Heihe River, northwest China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzed the dynamic change of the groundwater level by 6 years’ monitoring in field monitoring and the change\\u000a of vegetation by the field survey and satellite remote sensing after watering in the lower reaches of Heihe River. The findings\\u000a indicated: (1) the groundwater level elevation and the plant growth are closely related to the volume and the duration of

Qiaoling Guo; Qi Feng; Jianlin Li

2009-01-01

207

Medium for Isolation and Growth of Bacteria Associated with Plum Leaf Scald and Phony Peach Diseases  

PubMed Central

Rickettsia-like bacteria associated with plum leaf scald and phony peach diseases were isolated from diseased but not from healthy tissues and cultured on charcoal-yeast extract medium (BCYE) buffered with ACES (2-[(2-amino-2-oxoethyl) amino]-ethanesulfonic acid). Optimum conditions for isolation and growth on BCYE medium were pH 6.5 to 6.9 at 20 and 25°C under normal atmosphere. Growth of primary colonies and first-passage subcultures was restricted, and colonies reached a maximum diameter of 0.6 mm in 60 days. After 12 passages, subcultures reached maximum growth in 21 days. The rickettsia-like bacteria from BCYE cultures were gram negative, serologically the same as those present in diseased peach and plum, and composed of rod-shaped cells measuring 0.35 by 5 ?m (average diameter and maximum length) in a matrix of filamentous strands of similar width but of variable length. Images PMID:16345835

Wells, J. M.; Raju, B. C.; Nyland, G.; Lowe, S. K.

1981-01-01

208

20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...maximum. (a) Family maximum...limited amount is called the family...more than one child's benefit), be entitled to a child's annuity...of $0.10, it will be rounded...1.00, if it is not already a multiple of...maximum. If a child is eligible...

2014-04-01

209

20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...maximum. (a) Family maximum...limited amount is called the family...more than one child's benefit), be entitled to a child's annuity...of $0.10, it will be rounded...1.00, if it is not already a multiple of...maximum. If a child is eligible...

2013-04-01

210

20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...maximum. (a) Family maximum...limited amount is called the family...more than one child's benefit), be entitled to a child's annuity...of $0.10, it will be rounded...1.00, if it is not already a multiple of...maximum. If a child is eligible...

2011-04-01

211

20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...maximum. (a) Family maximum...limited amount is called the family...more than one child's benefit), be entitled to a child's annuity...of $0.10, it will be rounded...1.00, if it is not already a multiple of...maximum. If a child is eligible...

2010-04-01

212

20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...maximum. (a) Family maximum...limited amount is called the family...more than one child's benefit), be entitled to a child's annuity...of $0.10, it will be rounded...1.00, if it is not already a multiple of...maximum. If a child is eligible...

2012-04-01

213

Maximum Likelihood Estimation in Generalized Rasch Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maximum likelihood procedures are presented for a general model to unify the various models and techniques that have been proposed for item analysis. Unconditional maximum likelihood estimation, proposed by Wright and Haberman, and conditional maximum likelihood estimation, proposed by Rasch and Andersen, are shown as important special cases. (JAZ)

de Leeuw, Jan; Verhelst, Norman

1986-01-01

214

Walking Is Not Like Reaching: Evidence from Periodic Mechanical Perturbations  

E-print Network

The control architecture underlying human reaching has been established, at least in broad outline. However, despite extensive research, the control architecture underlying human locomotion remains unclear. Some studies ...

Ahn, Jooeun

215

Environmental changes after ecological water conveyance in the lower reaches of Heihe River, northwest China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper analyzed the dynamic change of the groundwater level by 6 years’ monitoring in field monitoring and the change of vegetation by the field survey and satellite remote sensing after watering in the lower reaches of Heihe River. The findings indicated: (1) the groundwater level elevation and the plant growth are closely related to the volume and the duration of watering. In general, groundwater level elevates dramatically and plants are growing much more vigorously after watering; (2) Watering incidence on groundwater keeps extending with the watering times increasing; (3) Plants grew rapidly in 100-400 m away from the water channel after watering. Watering incidence on vegetation reached 1,000 m; (4) In terms of the function and structure of ecosystem after watering in the lower reaches of Heihe River, the ecological water conveyance does not still reach the goal of ecological restoration at a large spatial scale at present. In addition, in order to solve fundamentally the problem of ecological environment worsens in the lower reaches of Heihe River, some suggestions and countermeasures are put forward.

Guo, Qiaoling; Feng, Qi; Li, Jianlin

2009-10-01

216

The Holocene Thermal Maximum in the Greenland Sea and Fram Strait: Temporal and spatial variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM) is a distinct time interval in the early Holocene when strong advection of Atlantic Water to the northern Nordic Seas led to the development of conditions favorable for plankton growth due to limited sea ice coverage. Here we present a synthesis of records from the northern and western part of this area, reaching from the SW Greenland Sea (73°N) to the Yermak Plateau (81°N) and revealing temporal and spatial differences in HTM development. High-resolution radiocarbon dating enables us to constrain the timing of the HTM on (sub)millennial scale resolution. In the Fram Strait and on the Yermak Plateau, rapidly increasing subpolar foraminiferal amounts in the sediments and calculated fluxes indicate the arrival of subsurface warm and saline Atlantic Water at 11-10.5 ka. Depending on the temporal resolution, the records show that the maximum influx was terminated already 2000 years later (9-8 ka), contemporaneous to the short period of maximum sea surface temperatures (cf. Risebrobakken et al., 2011, Paleoceanography v. 26). In the northernmost Greenland Sea, low-resolution records show that the timing may have been similar here. A new submilliennial-scale record from the Vesterisbanken (73°N) in the Greenland Sea, however, reveals a somewhat different picture for this more southern area, affected by the Greenland Gyre. A reduction in annual ice coverage, as indicated by increasing total amounts of planktic foraminifers in the sediment, also occurred between 11 and 10 ka, but the maximum Atlantic Water advection came later (9 ka) and lasted until 6 ka. Apparently, the SW Greenland Sea site records the history of Atlantic Water in the Greenland Gyre that decoupled from the northward flowing Norwegian Atlantic Current/Westspitsbergen Current south of the Fram Strait and supplied relatively high amounts of heat to the subsurface Greenland Sea well into the middle Holocene. At that time, the more northerly sites had already experienced a substantial cooling and an increase in ice coverage, probably induced by a stronger sea ice production in the Arctic Ocean than in the Early Holocene.

Spielhagen, Robert F.; Bauch, Henning A.; Not, Christelle; Telesinski, Maciej M.; Werner, Kirstin

2014-05-01

217

Information models of software productivity - Limits on productivity growth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research into generalized information-metric models of software process productivity establishes quantifiable behavior and theoretical bounds. The models establish a fundamental mathematical relationship between software productivity and the human capacity for information traffic, the software product yield (system size), information efficiency, and tool and process efficiencies. An upper bound is derived that quantifies average software productivity and the maximum rate at which it may grow. This bound reveals that ultimately, when tools, methodologies, and automated assistants have reached their maximum effective state, further improvement in productivity can only be achieved through increasing software reuse. The reuse advantage is shown not to increase faster than logarithmically in the number of reusable features available. The reuse bound is further shown to be somewhat dependent on the reuse policy: a general 'reuse everything' policy can lead to a somewhat slower productivity growth than a specialized reuse policy.

Tausworthe, Robert C.

1992-01-01

218

Modelling floods in hydrologically complex lowland river reaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the modelling of lowland river reaches which contain complex within-reach hydrological interactions. It is clear that river and floodplain flow are the most important processes in terms of flood modelling in lowland systems, although there are often important lateral inflows from catchments and hillslopes bounding the floodplain and from interactions between the river and the floodplain, which

M. D. Stewart; P. D. Bates; M. G. Anderson; D. A. Price; T. P. Burt

1999-01-01

219

RACIAL AND ETHNIC APPROACHES TO COMMUNITY HEALTH (REACH)  

EPA Science Inventory

Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) 2010 is the cornerstone of CDC's efforts to eliminate racial and ethnic disparities in health. Launched in 1999, REACH 2010 is designed to eliminate disparities in the following six priority areas: cardiovascular disease, i...

220

Optic Ataxia: From Balint's Syndrome to the Parietal Reach Region  

E-print Network

Neuron Review Optic Ataxia: From Balint's Syndrome to the Parietal Reach Region Richard A. Andersen@vis.caltech.edu http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2014.02.025 Optic ataxia is a high-order deficit in reaching's syndrome that also includes attentional and gaze disorders. Aspects of optic ataxia are misreaching

Andersen, Richard

221

Corticospinal Control during Reach, Grasp, and Precision Lift in Man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transcranial magnetic brain stimulation (TMS) was used to assess the influence of the corticospinal system on motor output in seven human subjects during a task in which they had to reach out, grasp, and lift an object. Stimuli, directed at the hand area of the motor cortex, were delivered at eight defined points during the task: during reach, at grip

R. N. Lemon; R. S. Johanss; G. Westling

1995-01-01

222

Patterns of Arm Muscle Activation Involved in Octopus Reaching Movements  

E-print Network

Patterns of Arm Muscle Activation Involved in Octopus Reaching Movements Yoram Gutfreund,1 Tamar, Stazione Zoologica "A. Dohrn," Naples 80121, Italy The extreme flexibility of the octopus arm allows it to perform many different movements, yet octopuses reach toward a tar- get in a stereotyped manner using

Hochner, Binyamin

223

A biomimetic strategy for control of FES reaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Victims of spinal cord injury at the cervical level are usually left with a partially paralyzed arm whose upper arm is controlled voluntarily but the lower arm is largely paralyzed. Restoration of reach and grasp functions is essential for independence and quality of life of these patients. Here we describe a biomimetic approach for control of reaching that combines the

R. Davoodi; G. E. Loeb

2003-01-01

224

The dynamics of coordinated reaching and grasping: Scanning prehension properly  

E-print Network

to the object to be grasped, and with such precision? What is the basis of the seemingly simple pattern of hand of reaching and grasping. While bringing the hand to the object to be grasped, the hand assumes an appro in grasping) and the moment of peak hand deceleration (a key moment in reaching) coincided in his data. From

Jirsa, Viktor

225

Parallel Explicit and Implicit Control of Reaching Pietro Mazzoni1  

E-print Network

either automatically or while paying attention to how we move. We can mindlessly reach for a light switch: Human movement can be guided automatically (implicit control) or attentively (explicit control, the action of reaching for the light switch is thought to be guided by implicit control, which is abstract

226

Reaching out in many directions: the fight against prostate cancer.  

PubMed

The National Prostate Cancer Coalition, Washington, D.C., reaches out to men across the country with its travelling screening van. It also reaches a audience through promotions with NASCAR, the National Baseball League, and Spike TV. Its partnerships and lobbying efforts have resulted in this year's unprecedented 500 million dollars federal funding of prostate cancer research. PMID:16117254

Botvin, Judith D

2005-01-01

227

Energy dependence of CP-violation reach for monochromatic neutrino beam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ultimate goal of future neutrino facilities is the determination of CP violation in neutrino oscillations. Besides | U (e 3) | ? 0, this will require precision experiments with a very intense neutrino source and energy control. With this objective in mind, the creation of monochromatic neutrino beams from the electron capture decay of boosted ions by the SPS of CERN has been proposed. We discuss the capabilities of such a facility as a function of the energy of the boost and the baseline for the detector. We compare the physics potential for two different configurations: (I) ? = 90 and ? = 195 (maximum achievable at present SPS) to Frejus; (II) ? = 195 and ? = 440 (maximum achievable at upgraded SPS) to Canfranc. We conclude that the SPS upgrade to 1000 GeV is important to reach a better sensitivity to CP violation iff it is accompanied by a longer baseline.

Bernabéu, José; Espinoza, Catalina

2008-06-01

228

Supermassive Black Hole Growth and Merger Rates from Cosmological N-body Simulations  

E-print Network

Understanding how seed black holes grow into intermediate and supermassive black holes (IMBHs and SMBHs, respectively) has important implications for the duty-cycle of active galactic nuclei (AGN), galaxy evolution, and gravitational wave astronomy. Most studies of the cosmological growth and merger history of black holes have used semianalytic models and have concentrated on SMBH growth in luminous galaxies. Using high resolution cosmological N-body simulations, we track the assembly of black holes over a large range of final masses -- from seed black holes to SMBHs -- over widely varying dynamical histories. We used the dynamics of dark matter halos to track the evolution of seed black holes in three different gas accretion scenarios. We have found that growth of Sagittarius A* - size SMBH reaches its maximum mass M_{SMBH}~10^6Msun at z~6 through early gaseous accretion episodes, after which it stays at near constant mass. At the same redshift, the duty-cycle of the host AGN ends, hence redshift z=6 marks the transition from an AGN to a starburst galaxy which eventually becomes the Milky Way. By tracking black hole growth as a function of time and mass, we estimate that the IMBH merger rate reaches a maximum of R_{max}=55 yr^-1 at z=11. From IMBH merger rates we calculate N_{ULX}=7 per Milky Way type galaxy per redshift in redshift range 2

Miroslav Micic; Kelly Holley-Bockelmann; Steinn Sigurdsson; Tom Abel

2007-03-20

229

Space Shuttle Main Engine reaches milestoneSpace Shuttle Main Engine reaches milestone One in a million . . .  

E-print Network

the long-term effects of space travel on humans, preparing for the longer journeys of the future. After in a million . . . A milestone in human spaceflight was achieved Wednesday, Jan. 21, at NASA Stennis SpaceSpace Shuttle Main Engine reaches milestoneSpace Shuttle Main Engine reaches milestone One

230

Reliability in the Parameterization of the Functional Reach Test in Elderly Stroke Patients: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Background. Postural instability is one of the major complications found in stroke survivors. Parameterising the functional reach test (FRT) could be useful in clinical practice and basic research. Objectives. To analyse the reliability, sensitivity, and specificity in the FRT parameterisation using inertial sensors for recording kinematic variables in patients who have suffered a stroke. Design. Cross-sectional study. While performing FRT, two inertial sensors were placed on the patient's back (lumbar and trunk). Participants. Five subjects over 65 who suffer from a stroke. Measurements. FRT measures, lumbosacral/thoracic maximum angular displacement, maximum time of lumbosacral/thoracic angular displacement, time return initial position, and total time. Speed and acceleration of the movements were calculated indirectly. Results. FRT measure is??12.75 ± 2.06?cm. Intrasubject reliability values range from 0.829 (time to return initial position (lumbar sensor)) to 0.891 (lumbosacral maximum angular displacement). Intersubject reliability values range from 0.821 (time to return initial position (lumbar sensor)) to 0.883 (lumbosacral maximum angular displacement). FRT's reliability was 0.987 (0.983–0.992) and 0.983 (0.979–0.989) intersubject and intrasubject, respectively. Conclusion. The main conclusion could be that the inertial sensors are a tool with excellent reliability and validity in the parameterization of the FRT in people who have had a stroke. PMID:24868537

Merchán-Baeza, Jose Antonio; González-Sánchez, Manuel; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio Ignacio

2014-01-01

231

Hydrogen induced crack growth in Grade-12 titanium  

SciTech Connect

Internal hydrogen induced crack growth rates were measured in Grade-12 titanium which is a candidate material for high-level nuclear waste containers. As-received and hydrogen charged samples (5 ppM to 330 ppM hydrogen) were used for slow crack growth measurements at constant loads using a Krak Gauge. The testing temperature ranged from room temperature to 148/sup 0/C. The crack growth kinetics under low to moderate loads are linear, but this linear rate is interrupted by discrete fast crack jump segments with parabolic or cubic type kinetics. These fast jump segments are thought to be associated with the passage of the crack front through the alpha-beta interface phase or with the initial loading sequence. By measuring striation spacings on the fracture surface, most crack growth rates observed are found to be in stage II. The striations are considered to be associated with hydride fracture. The crack path is either transgranular in the alpha phase or interfacial in the alpha phase adjacent to the beta phase. For transgranular growth, crack growth rates are constant and slower than those for interfacial growth which is associated with fast crack growth through a high hydrogen concentration region. Most stage II crack growth rates depend slightly on the stress intensity suggesting the contribution of plastic tearing process to stage II kinetics. The activation energies for crack growth are much lower than the activation energy of hydrogen diffusion through the alpha phase, implying that hydrogen is transported along dislocations, grain boundaries or interfaces. When the temperature is increased, the crack velocity first reaches a maximum and then decreases at higher temperatures. These temperature effects come from lower hydrogen concentration trapped at dislocations or from slower hydride nucleation kinetics, both at higher temperatures.

Ahn, T.M.; Lee, K.S.

1984-01-01

232

The impact of REACH on classification for human health hazards.  

PubMed

The REACH Regulation represents a major piece of chemical legislation in the EU and requires manufacturers and importers of chemicals to assess the safety of their substances. The classification of substances for their hazards is one of the crucial elements in this process. We analysed the effect of REACH on classification for human health endpoints by comparing information from REACH registration dossiers with legally binding, harmonised classifications. The analysis included 142 chemicals produced at very high tonnages in the EU, the majority of which have already been assessed in the past. Of 20 substances lacking a harmonised classification, 12 chemicals were classified in REACH registration dossiers. More importantly, 37 substances with harmonised classifications for human health endpoints had stricter classifications in registration dossiers and 29 of these were classified for at least one additional endpoint not covered by the harmonised classification. Substance-specific analyses suggest that one third of these additional endpoints emerged from experimental studies performed to fulfil information requirements under REACH, while two thirds resulted from a new assessment of pre-REACH studies. We conclude that REACH leads to an improved hazard characterisation even for substances with a potentially good data basis. PMID:25128672

Oltmanns, J; Bunke, D; Jenseit, W; Heidorn, C

2014-11-01

233

Preferential reaching across regions of hemispace in adults and children.  

PubMed

The purpose of the current study was to examine hand selection during reaching in children utilizing a developmental version of the preferential reaching paradigm (Bryden, Pryde, & Roy, 2000). A cross-sectional sample of eighty right-handed participants (ranging in age from 3 to 20 years) were asked to reach to objects located in different regions of hemispace. Each participant was asked to carry out two different actions, varying in degree of complexity, on the objects while the experimenter observed, which hand was used to perform each of the tasks. A repeated-measures ANOVA revealed that reaching towards the midline and ipsilateral positions in hemispace resulted in significantly more preferred hand reaches than reaching towards contralateral hemispace, regardless of age and task. With respect to age group effects, it was found that the 6 and 7 year olds and the 9 and 10 year olds relied heavily on their preferred hand to perform the task, indicating that hand selection in these children was driven primarily by motor dominance. In comparison, the youngest children and adults used their nonpreferred hand more frequently in contralateral space, indicating that object proximity cues or a hemispheric bias was driving hand selection. The implications of these findings for understanding hand preference and skill were discussed in terms of motor dominance versus spatial reasoning theory of hand selection in unimanual reaching. PMID:16489592

Bryden, Pamela J; Roy, E A

2006-03-01

234

Maximum cell productivity by repeated fed-batch culture for constant yield case  

SciTech Connect

Optimal operation of repeatedly fed-batch fermentation was determined by the continuous maximum principle for the constant yield case. The objective of maximum cell productivity for a fixed final cell concentration was achieved by finding the substrate feeding policy that minimized the processing time. Analytical criteria for the optimal filling policy show that an exponential policy is optimum when the specific growth rate has a maximum, and also that operation in the simple repeated batch model is optimum when the specific growth rate is optimum when the specific growth rate is monotonic increasing. Comparisons between optimal repeated fed-batch culture and other modes of operation were made for the case of substrate-inhibited growth. Cell productivity by repeated fed-batch exceeds both repeated batch and continuous operation for the case of low residual substrate concentration.

Weigand, W.A.

1981-02-01

235

Erich Regener and the maximum in ionisation of the atmosphere  

E-print Network

In the 1930s the German physicist Erich Regener (1881-1955) did important work on the measurement of the rate of production of ionisation deep under-water and in the atmosphere. He discovered, along with one of his students, Georg Pfotzer, the altitude at which the production of ionisation in the atmosphere reaches a maximum, often, but misleadingly, called the Pfotzer maximum. Regener was one of the first to estimate the energy density of cosmic rays, an estimate that was used by Baade and Zwicky to bolster their postulate that supernovae might be their source. Yet Regener's name is less recognised by present-day cosmic ray physicists than it should be largely because in 1937 he was forced to take early retirement by the National Socialists as his wife had Jewish ancestors. In this paper we briefly review his work on cosmic rays and recommend an alternative naming of the ionisation maximum. The influence that Regener had on the field through his son, his son-in-law, his grandsons and his students and through...

Carlson, P

2014-01-01

236

Erich Regener and the ionisation maximum of the atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the 1930s the German physicist Erich Regener (1881-1955) did important work on the measurement of the rate of production of ionisation deep under water and in the atmosphere. Along with one of his students, Georg Pfotzer, he discovered the altitude at which the production of ionisation in the atmosphere reaches a maximum, often, but misleadingly, called the Pfotzer maximum. Regener was one of the first to estimate the energy density of cosmic rays, an estimate that was used by Baade and Zwicky to bolster their postulate that supernovae might be their source. Yet Regener's name is less recognised by present-day cosmic ray physicists than it should be, largely because in 1937 he was forced to take early retirement by the National Socialists as his wife had Jewish ancestors. In this paper we briefly review his work on cosmic rays and recommend an alternative naming of the ionisation maximum. The influence that Regener had on the field through his son, his son-in-law, his grandsons and his students, and through his links with Rutherford's group in Cambridge, is discussed in an appendix. Regener was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Physics by Schrödinger in 1938. He died in 1955 at the age of 73.

Carlson, P.; Watson, A. A.

2014-12-01

237

Human Placement for Maximum Dexterity Karim Abdel-Malek and Wei Yu  

E-print Network

1 Human Placement for Maximum Dexterity Karim Abdel-Malek and Wei Yu Department of Mechanical/her dexterity, minimize the person's stress on each joint, and maximize their reach. This paper presents is indeed an optimization problem with many parameters. While only dexterity is presented in this paper

Abdel-Malek, Karim

238

Helping the Library Reach Out to the Future  

MedlinePLUS

... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Helping the Library Reach Out to the Future Past Issues / Fall ... On behalf of the Friends of the National Library of Medicine (FNLM), welcome to the Fall 2007 ...

239

Extended Reach GPON Using High Gain Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 1300 nm semiconductor optical amplifier has been developed for extended reach GPON applications. The high gain of 29 dB has and enabled a commercial GPON system to operate over 60 km and with 128-way split.

Derek Nesset; Shamil Appathurai; Russell Davey; T. Kelly

2008-01-01

240

Women Take Longer to Reach Hospital After Heart Attack  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. Women Take Longer to Reach Hospital After Heart Attack That delay may help explain ... News) -- Women having heart attacks get to the hospital for treatment later than men and are more ...

241

Dynamic reaching in infants during binocular and monocular viewing  

PubMed Central

This study examined reaching in 6-, 8-, and 10-month-olds during binocular and monocular viewing in a dynamic reaching situation. Infants were rotated toward a flat vertical board and reached for objects at one of seven positions along a horizontal line at shoulder height. Hand selection, time to contact the object, and reaching accuracy were examined in both viewing conditions. Hand selection was strongly dependent on object location, not infants’ age or whether one eye was covered. Monocular viewing and age did, however, affect time to object contact and contact errors: Infants showed longer contact times when one eye was covered, and 6-month-olds made more contact errors in the monocular condition. For right hand selection, contact times were longer when the covered right eye was leading during the chair rotation. For left hand selection, there were no differences in contact time due to whether the covered eye was leading during rotation. PMID:23771585

Ekberg, Therese L.; Rosander, Kerstin; von Hofsten, Claes; Olsson, Ulf; Soska, Kasey C.; Adolph, Karen E.

2014-01-01

242

The time to reach pseudosteady-state in horizontal wells  

E-print Network

Engineers need to estimate the expected productivity of horizontal wells. We need to know how long it takes to reach pseudosteady-state to accept that estimation. When all boundaries influence the pressure distribution in the drainage area...

Al-Kahtani, Abdulghafour

1998-01-01

243

The pasta matrix reaching task: a simple test for measuring skilled reaching distance, direction, and dexterity in rats.  

PubMed

Skilled forelimb use has been used in many studies to examine motor system status, learning, and recovery from nervous system damage in rats. The dependent measures in many current skilled reaching models rely on endpoint measures, number of successful reaches, or qualitative measures, the movements used in performing a reach. The present study describes a new reaching task, which allows measurement of distance and direction of skilled forelimb movement while also permitting end point and qualitative measurements. Animals reached from a clear Plexiglas box through an aperture to retrieve pieces of straight, uncooked pasta from an array of 260 vertically oriented pieces of pasta arranged in rows distally and laterally away from the aperture (a matrix). By extending the range of a reach, more pasta is obtained. Limb movements, pieces of pasta removed, and the pattern of pasta removal are dependent measures. The usefulness of the test is demonstrated using control, dorsal column lesion, and unilateral dopamine depleted animals. The task uses a desired food, tests learning and skill, the range of limb movement, and the ability to reach for different distances and directions. The task can also be modified to investigate other features of limb use including skill adjustments, laterality, and force. PMID:11248339

Ballermann, M; Metz, G A; McKenna, J E; Klassen, F; Whishaw, I Q

2001-03-30

244

Visual cortex activation in kinesthetic guidance of reaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to determine the cortical circuit involved in encoding and controlling kinesthetically guided\\u000a reaching movements. We used 15O-butanol positron emission tomography in ten blindfolded able-bodied volunteers in a factorial experiment in which arm (left\\/right)\\u000a used to encode target location and to reach back to the remembered location and hemispace of target location (left\\/right side\\u000a of

W. G. Darling; R. J. Seitz; S. Peltier; L. Tellmann; A. J. Butler

2007-01-01

245

Substrate Utilization by an Oxalate-Consuming Spirillum Species in Relation to Its Growth in Ozonated Water  

PubMed Central

The nutritional versatility of a vibrio-shaped, oxalate-utilizing isolate, strain NOX, obtained from tap water supplied with low concentrations of formate, glyoxylate, and oxalate, was determined by growth experiments with low-molecular-weight carbon compounds at high (grams per liter) and very low (micrograms per liter) concentrations. The organism, which was identified as a Spirillum species, appeared to be specialized in the utilization of a number of carboxylic acids. Yields of 2.9 × 106 CFU/?g of oxalate C and 1.2 × 107 CFU/?g of acetate C were obtained from growth experiments in tap water supplied with various low amounts of either oxalate or acetate. A substrate saturation constant of 0.64 ?M oxalate was calculated for strain NOX from the relationship between growth rate and concentration of added oxalate. Maximum colony counts of strain NOX grown in ozonated water (dosages of 2.0 to 3.2 mg of O3 per liter) were 15 to 20 times larger than the maximum colony counts of strain NOX grown in water before ozonation. Based on the nutritional requirements of strain NOX, it was concluded that carboxylic acids were produced by ozonation. Oxalate concentrations were calculated from the maximum colony counts of strain NOX grown in samples of ozonated water in which a non-oxalate-utilizing strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens had already reached maximum growth. The oxalate concentrations obtained by this procedure ranged from 130 to 220 ?g of C/liter. Images PMID:16346493

van der Kooij, D.; Hijnen, W. A. M.

1984-01-01

246

REACH: next step to a sound chemicals management.  

PubMed

REACH is the new European Regulation for Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals. It entered into force on 1st June 2007 to streamline and improve the former legislative framework on new and on existing chemical substances of the European Union. Companies which manufacture or import more than 1 tonne of a substance per year will be required to register the substance at the new EU Chemicals Agency located in Helsinki. REACH places greater responsibility on industry to manage the risks that chemicals may pose to the health and the environment and to provide safety information that will be passed down the supply chain. In principle, REACH applies to all chemicals as such, as components in preparations and as used in articles. REACH is a radical step forward in the EU chemicals management. The onus will move from the authorities to industry. In addition, REACH will allow the further evaluation of substances where there are grounds for concern, foresees an authorisation system for the use of substances of very high concern and a system of restrictions, where applicable, for substances of concern. The Authorisation system will require companies to switch progressively to safer alternatives where a suitable alternative exists. Current use restrictions will remain under REACH system. PMID:17637708

Van der Wielen, Arnold

2007-12-01

247

Riparian shading and groundwater enhance growth potential for smallmouth bass in Ozark streams.  

PubMed

Moderation of stream temperatures by riparian shading and groundwater are known to promote growth and survival of salmonid fishes, but effects of riparian shade and groundwater on to be growth of warmwater stream fishes are poorly understood or assumed to be negligible. We used stream temperature models to relate shading from riparian vegetation and groundwater inflow to summer water temperatures in Missouri Ozark streams and evaluated effects of summer water temperatures on smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieu, growth using a bioenergetics model. Bioenergetics model simulations revealed that adult smallmouth bass in non-spring-fed streams have lower growth potential during summer than fish in spring-fed streams, are subject to mass loss when stream temperatures exceed 27 degrees C, and will likely exhibit greater interannual variation in growth during summer if all growth-influencing factors, other than temperature, are identical between the two stream types. Temperature models indicated that increased riparian shading will expand the longitudinal extent of thermal habitat capable of supporting adult smallmouth bass growth in spring-fed stream reaches when mean daily air temperatures exceed 27 degrees C. Optimum growth temperature (22 degrees C) will be present only in spring-fed streams under these conditions. Potential for increasing shade through riparian restoration is greatest for streams <5 m wide and along north-south reaches of larger streams. However, temperature models also indicated that restoring riparian shading to maximum levels throughout a watershed would increase the total stream mileage capable of supporting positive growth of adult smallmouth bass by only 1-6% when air temperatures are at or near average summer maxima; increases in suitable thermal habitat would be greatest in watersheds with higher spring densities. Riparian management for maintenance or restoration of the thermal habitat of adult smallmouth bass during summer should be focused in areas strongly influenced by groundwater. Restoring riparian shading along spring-fed warmwater streams will likely benefit adult smallmouth bass growth and may ultimately influence population sizes. PMID:16937811

Whitledge, Gregory W; Rabeni, Charles F; Annis, Gust; Sowa, Scott P

2006-08-01

248

Maximum Likelihood Estimates of Age Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative merits of maxinmm likeli- hood estimates of age factors were ex- amined with 24,636 lactations from regis- tered Holsteins in Iowa Dairy Herd Im- provement Association herds. A table con- taining maximum-likellhood estimates of age effects on milk and fat yield was pre- sented. Maximum likelihood (ML) factors were compared to gross and paired com- parison factors. Gross

R. H. Miller; W. R. Harvey; K. A. Tabler; B. T. McDaniel; E. L. Corley

1966-01-01

249

Maximum likelihood training of probabilistic neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A maximum likelihood method is presented for training probabilistic neural networks (PNN's) using a Gaussian kernel, or Parzen window. The proposed training algorithm enables general nonlinear discrimination and is a generalization of Fisher's method for linear discrimination. Important features of maximum likelihood training for PNN's are: 1) it economizes the well known Parzen window estimator while preserving feedforward NN architecture,

Roy L. Streit; Tod E. Luginbuhl

1994-01-01

250

20 CFR 228.14 - Family maximum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Family maximum. (a) Family maximum...limited amount is called the family...attains age 62, has a period of disability...to more than one child's benefit), be entitled to a child's annuity on...attains age 62, has a period of disability...multiple of $0.10, it will be...

2010-04-01

251

49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the maximum civil penalty is $175,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness...no minimum civil penalty, except for a minimum...the maximum civil penalty is $175,000 if the violation results in death, serious...

2013-10-01

252

49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness...minimum $495 civil penalty applies to a violation...the maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious...

2011-10-01

253

49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...the maximum civil penalty is $175,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness...no minimum civil penalty, except for a minimum...the maximum civil penalty is $175,000 if the violation results in death, serious...

2014-10-01

254

49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness...minimum $495 civil penalty applies to a violation...the maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious...

2012-10-01

255

49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness...minimum $495 civil penalty applies to a violation...the maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious...

2010-10-01

256

Maximum Margin Discriminant Analysis based Face Recognition  

E-print Network

Maximum Margin Discriminant Analysis based Face Recognition Korn´el Kov´acs1 , Andr´as Kocsor1 Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Kende u. 13-17, 1111 Budapest, Hungary Abstract: Face ­ Maximum Margin Discriminant Analysis (MMDA) ­ to solve face recog- nition problems. MMDA is a feature

Szepesvari, Csaba

257

Temporal and temperature effects on the maximum rate of rewarming from hibernation  

PubMed Central

During hibernation animals oscillate from near ambient (Ta) to euthermic body temperatures (Tb). As animals arouse, the rate of rewarming (RRW) might be expected to simply increase as a function of time. We monitored the Tb of golden-mantled ground squirrels (Spermophilus lateralis) housed at 4, 8, 12, and 16° C during natural arousals. The maximum RRW, the time required to reach a maximum RRW, and the relative time index all demonstrated negative relationships with Ta. The Tb corresponding to maximal RRW demonstrated a positive relationship with Ta. Squirrels reached maximal RRW when they had generated 30 to 40% of the heat required to reach a euthermic Tb. These data suggest that arousal is more constrained than expected and that both time and temperature influence the RRW. PMID:17948068

Utz, Jenifer C.; Velickovska, Vanja; Shmereva, Anastacia; van Breukelen, Frank

2007-01-01

258

Food intake and growth in Macoma balthica (mollusca) in the laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groups of Macoma balthica were kept during 4-week periods in an experimental set up at a constant temperature and food concentration. Food concentrations (expressed in particulate organic carbon) for the different groups ranged from 0 to 16 mg C·I -1. The experiment was repeated 6 times, viz. in different months, and the temperatures were changed accordingly to correspond with levels found in the field. The rates of food intake, water clearance and growth were followed throughout the experiment. The flagellate Isochrysis galbana served as food. With increasing food concentration all 3 rates (food intake, water clearance and growth) increased up to maximum to decrease again at high food concentrations. Such bell-shaped relationships were observed in all seasons. The dependence of growth on food concentration was similar in all seasons. Zero growth or weight losses were observed at food concentrations below 1.3 mg C·I -1, and maximum growth rates were reached at food concentrations between 5 and 7 mg C·I -1. The daily maintenance ration amounted to about 1.2% of the body weight. Seasonal differences were observed in the relationships of the rates of both water clearance and food intake with food concentration. During the winter and spring the optimum curves for these relationships reached their maximum at food concentrations of 8 to 10 mg C·I -1. During summer and early autumn the optimum curves were shifted to lower food concentrations, around 2 to 4 mg C·I -1, probably as an adaptation to low food concentrations observed in the field during these periods.

Hummel, H.

259

'Reaching the hard to reach' - lessons learned from the VCS (voluntary and community Sector). A qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background The notion 'hard to reach' is a contested and ambiguous term that is commonly used within the spheres of social care and health, especially in discourse around health and social inequalities. There is a need to address health inequalities and to engage in services the marginalized and socially excluded sectors of society. Methods This paper describes a pilot study involving interviews with representatives from eight Voluntary and Community Sector (VCS) organisations. The purpose of the study was to explore the notion of 'hard to reach' and perceptions of the barriers and facilitators to accessing services for 'hard to reach' groups from a voluntary and community sector perspective. Results The 'hard to reach' may include drug users, people living with HIV, people from sexual minority communities, asylum seekers, refugees, people from black and ethnic minority communities, and homeless people although defining the notion of the 'hard to reach' is not straight forward. It may be that certain groups resist engaging in treatment services and are deemed hard to reach by a particular service or from a societal stance. There are a number of potential barriers for people who may try and access services, including people having bad experiences in the past; location and opening times of services and how services are funded and managed. A number of areas of commonality are found in terms of how access to services for 'hard to reach' individuals and groups could be improved including: respectful treatment of service users, establishing trust with service users, offering service flexibility, partnership working with other organisations and harnessing service user involvement. Conclusions If health services are to engage with groups that are deemed 'hard to reach' and marginalised from mainstream health services, the experiences and practices for engagement from within the VCS may serve as useful lessons for service improvement for statutory health services. PMID:20377850

2010-01-01

260

Maximum entropy principle for Kaniadakis statistics and networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this Letter we investigate a connection between Kaniadakis power-law statistics and networks. By following the maximum entropy principle, we maximize the Kaniadakis entropy and derive the optimal degree distribution of complex networks. We show that the degree distribution follows P(k)=P0exp?(-k/??) with exp?(x)=(, and |?|<1. In order to check our approach we study a preferential attachment growth model introduced by Soares et al. [Europhys. Lett. 70 (2005) 70] and a growing random network (GRN) model investigated by Krapivsky et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 (2000) 4629]. Our results are compared with the ones calculated through the Tsallis statistics.

Macedo-Filho, A.; Moreira, D. A.; Silva, R.; da Silva, Luciano R.

2013-05-01

261

The reach and impact of social marketing and reproductive health communication campaigns in Zambia  

PubMed Central

Background Like many sub-Saharan African countries, Zambia is dealing with major health issues, including HIV/AIDS, family planning, and reproductive health. To address reproductive health problems and the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Zambia, several social marketing and health communication programs focusing on reproductive and HIV/AIDS prevention programs are being implemented. This paper describes the reach of these programs and assesses their impact on condom use. Methods This paper assesses the reach of selected radio and television programs about family planning and HIV/AIDS and of communications about the socially marketed Maximum condoms in Zambia, as well as their impact on condom use, using data from the 2001–2002 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey. To control for self-selection and endogeneity, we use a two-stage regression model to estimate the effect of program exposure on the behavioural outcomes. Results Those who were exposed to radio and television programs about family planning and HIV/AIDS were more likely to have ever used a condom (OR = 1.16 for men and 1.06 for women). Men highly exposed to Maximum condoms social marketing communication were more likely than those with low exposure to the program to have ever used a condom (OR = 1.48), and to have used a condom at their last sexual intercourse (OR = 1.23). Conclusion Findings suggest that the reproductive health and social marketing campaigns in Zambia reached a large portion of the population and had a significant impact on condom use. The results suggest that future reproductive health communication campaigns that invest in radio programming may be more effective than those investing in television programming, and that future campaigns should seek to increase their impact among women, perhaps by focusing on the specific constrains that prevent females from using condoms. PMID:18088437

Van Rossem, Ronan; Meekers, Dominique

2007-01-01

262

Engineering growth Undergraduates enrolled in Engineering reach all-time high  

E-print Network

if a cruise ship knocked out the centre span of Auckland's harbour bridge. This real-life approach appeals, inductive power transfer, yacht and sail design, medical applications and earthquake engineering. One in the medical field," says Gordon. The faculty is renowned for its strong emphasis on design ­ introducing

Auckland, University of

263

Reaching for the Sky: The Growth of Mountain Tourism in Switzerland.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses the beginnings of Swiss tourism, its barriers, and the development and role of transportation in mountain tourism. Considers the environmental problems caused by mountain tourism in Switzerland and provides seven teaching ideas. (CMK)

Rothwell, Jennifer Truran

1999-01-01

264

Estimating the seasonal maximum light use efficiency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light use efficiency (LUE) is a key parameter in estimating gross primary production (GPP) based on global Earth-observation satellite data and model calculations. In current LUE-based GPP estimation models, the maximum LUE is treated as a constant for each biome type. However, the maximum LUE varies seasonally. In this study, seasonal maximum LUE values were estimated from the maximum incident LUE versus the incident photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and the fraction of absorbed PAR. First, an algorithm to estimate maximum incident LUE was developed to estimate GPP capacity using a light response curve. One of the parameters required for the light response curve was estimated from the linear relationship of the chlorophyll index and the GPP capacity at a high PAR level of 2000 (µmolm-2s-1), and was referred to as" the maximum GPP capacity at 2000". The relationship was determined for six plant functional types: needleleaf deciduous trees, broadleaf deciduous trees, needleleaf evergreen trees, broadleaf evergreen trees, C3 grass, and crops. The maximum LUE values estimated in this study displayed seasonal variation, especially those for deciduous broadleaf forest, but also those for evergreen needleleaf forest.

Muramatsu, Kanako; Furumi, Shinobu; Soyama, Noriko; Daigo, Motomasa

2014-11-01

265

[Difficulty in reaching objects due to posterior cerebral artery occlusion].  

PubMed

We reported two patients who developed an impairment of reaching movement with their right hand due to left posterior cerebral artery occlusion. Both patients showed abnormalities in reaching their own body parts with eyes closed, and in reaching objects presented before them with eyes fixed on the objects. No motor paralysis or ataxia was noted in either patient; nor was there any disturbance of the superficial or deep sensation except for a slight disturbance of articular localization of the right upper limb in one patient. The failure for these patients to reach their own body parts with eyes closed was thought to be caused by an impairment of kinesthesia of the right upper limb. The failure to reach objects with eyes fixed on them was also likely to be explained by the disturbance of kinesthesia besides the same mechanism as ataxie optique. CT scan revealed low density areas in the medial side of the left temporal and occipital lobes and left lateral pulvinar in both patients. These findings, together with anatomical and physiological findings in recent years, suggest that nerve fibers related to kinesthesia may be projected on the parietal association area via the lateral pulvinar. PMID:9805984

Takahashi, N; Kawamura, M

1998-05-01

266

Visually targeted reaching in horse-head grasshoppers  

PubMed Central

Visually targeted reaching to a specific object is a demanding neuronal task requiring the translation of the location of the object from a two-dimensionsal set of retinotopic coordinates to a motor pattern that guides a limb to that point in three-dimensional space. This sensorimotor transformation has been intensively studied in mammals, but was not previously thought to occur in animals with smaller nervous systems such as insects. We studied horse-head grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Proscopididae) crossing gaps and found that visual inputs are sufficient for them to target their forelimbs to a foothold on the opposite side of the gap. High-speed video analysis showed that these reaches were targeted accurately and directly to footholds at different locations within the visual field through changes in forelimb trajectory and body position, and did not involve stereotyped searching movements. The proscopids estimated distant locations using peering to generate motion parallax, a monocular distance cue, but appeared to use binocular visual cues to estimate the distance of nearby footholds. Following occlusion of regions of binocular overlap, the proscopids resorted to peering to target reaches even to nearby locations. Monocular cues were sufficient for accurate targeting of the ipsilateral but not the contralateral forelimb. Thus, proscopids are capable not only of the sensorimotor transformations necessary for visually targeted reaching with their forelimbs but also of flexibly using different visual cues to target reaches. PMID:22764161

Niven, Jeremy E.; Ott, Swidbert R.; Rogers, Stephen M.

2012-01-01

267

Unconstrained three-dimensional reaching in Rhesus monkeys  

PubMed Central

To better understand normative behavior for quantitative evaluation of motor recovery after injury, we studied arm movements by non-injured Rhesus monkeys during a food-retrieval task. While seated, monkeys reached, grasped, and retrieved food items. We recorded three-dimensional kinematics and muscle activity, and used inverse dynamics to calculate joint moments due to gravity, segmental interactions, and to the muscles and tissues of the arm. Endpoint paths showed curvature in three dimensions, suggesting that maintaining straight paths was not an important constraint. Joint moments were dominated by gravity. Generalized muscle and interaction moments were less than half of the gravitational moments. The relationships between shoulder and elbow resultant moments were linear during both reach and retrieval. Although both reach and retrieval required elbow flexor moments, an elbow extensor (triceps brachii) was active during both phases. Antagonistic muscles of both the elbow and hand were co-activated during reach and retrieval. Joint behavior could be described by lumped-parameter models analogous to torsional springs at the joints. Minor alterations to joint quasi-stiffness properties, aided by interaction moments, result in reciprocal movements that evolve under the influence of gravity. The strategies identified in monkeys to reach, grasp, and retrieve items will allow the quantification of prehension during recovery after a spinal cord injury and the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions. PMID:21170707

Courtine, Gregoire; Liu, James J.; McKay, Heather L.; Moseanko, Rod; Bernot, Timothy J.; Roy, Roland R.; Zhong, Hui; Tuszynski, Mark H.; Reggie Edgerton, V.

2010-01-01

268

Impacts on industry of Europe's emerging chemicals policy REACh.  

PubMed

For Europe, a new regime in chemicals regulation is about to start. After the proposal of the European Commission concerning the Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals (REACh) passed its readings in the European Parliament and some differences with the European Council of Ministers were resolved, the regulation will come into force in June 2007. This paper is focused on the question how serious the cost burdens for industry induced by REACh will be, and whether the New European Member States (NMS) which joined the European Union in May 2004 will be able to cope with the regulation. This evaluation has been done by assessing the legislative, administrative and economic framework in New Member States and by analysing real business cases in companies. The empirical showcase business impact studies are at the same time of interest for companies of EU-15 states, other European countries who may implement the regulation, and even for exporters of raw materials and chemicals outside Europe, who will also have to comply with REACh if they market in the European Community. The results give no indications that REACh adoption will bring significant drawbacks to companies in the NMS. The emerging regulation will bring challenges for individual companies, especially for small and medium-sized ones, but for the European chemical industry as a whole, there is no question that it will be able to cope with REACh burdens without losing its global competitiveness. PMID:17321032

Angerer, Gerhard; Nordbeck, Ralf; Sartorius, Christian

2008-03-01

269

Teaching for maximum learning: The Philippine experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The author tells about how the achievement level of Filipono grade school children is being improved through teaching for maximum learning. To promote teaching for maximum learning, it was imperative to identify minimum learning competencies in the new curriculum for each grade level, retrain teachers for teaching for maximum learning, develop appropriate instructional materials, improve the quality of supervision of instruction, install a multi-level (national to school) testing system and redress inequities in the distribution of human and material resources. This systematic approach to solving the problem of low quality of educational outcomes has resulted in a modest but steady improvement in the achievement levels of school children.

Sutaria, Minda C.

1990-06-01

270

Habitat and density-dependent growth of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus in Galicia (NW Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the small-scale spatial variability in the growth of Paracentrotus lividus in two populations in Galicia (NW Spain) by reading growth rings. A tetracycline marking experiment was carried out to verify that the rings form annually. The growth rings were read by two independent readers in order to estimate the uncertainty involved in assigning the age. Of the six growth models evaluated (Tanaka, von Bertalanffy, Gompertz, Richards, logistic and Jolicoeur) the Tanaka function obtained the best fit to the data. This function predicts unlimited growth and a maximum growth rate of 15.00 (± 0.97 SE) mm·year- 1 at 3.09 ± 0.10 years old, which progressively decreases at older ages. However, habitat characteristics lead to intrapopulation variations in this general function. Recruitment seems to occur mainly in shallow waters (? 4 m) and when the sea urchins reach 50 mm (approximately 4 years old) they migrate to deeper areas. Sea urchins larger than 50 mm that stayed in shallow waters grew at a rate between 0.41 and 0.43 mm·year- 1 less than the sea urchins that moved to depths of 8 and 12 m. The population density also influenced the growth, and individuals older than 4 years had higher growth rates in high-density patches than in low-density areas. This could be due to the better environmental conditions in aggregation areas, that is, better protection against waves and predators and/or more abundant food.

Ouréns, Rosana; Flores, Luis; Fernández, Luis; Freire, Juan

2013-02-01

271

Does assessing error in perceiving postural limits by testing functional reach predict likelihood of falls in hospitalized stroke patients?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the relationship between errors in perceiving postural limits and falls in hospitalized hemiplegic patients and to determine whether this relationship is useful for identifying patients at high risk of falls.Design: Observational study.Subjects: Seventy-six hemiplegic patients who were admitted to a rehabilitation hospital.Methods: Error in perceiving postural limits was defined as the difference between the estimated maximum reach

Katsuhiko Takatori; Yohei Okada; Koji Shomoto; Tomoaki Shimada

2009-01-01

272

Growth hormone and early treatment.  

PubMed

Growth hormone (GH) treatment is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) not only for GH deficiency (GHD) but also for other childhood growth disorders with growth failure and/or short stature. GHD is the most frequent endocrine disorder presenting with short stature in childhood. During neonatal period, metabolic effects due to congenital GHD require a prompt replacement therapy to avoid possible life-threatening complications. In childhood and adolescence, growth impairment is the most evident effect of GHD and early treatment has the aim of restore normal growth and to reach normal adult height. We reassume in this review the conditions causing GHD and the diagnostic challenge to reach an early diagnosis, and an early treatment, necessary to obtain the best results. Finally, we summarize results obtained in clinical studies about pediatric patients with GHD treated at an early age, in which a marked early catch-up growth and a normalization of adult height were obtained. PMID:25734895

Antoniazzi, F; Cavarzere, P; Gaudino, R

2015-06-01

273

Neural Dynamics of Reaching Following Incorrect or Absent Motor Preparation  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Moving is thought to take separate preparation and execution steps. While preparing, neural activity in primary motor and dorsal premotor cortices achieves a state specific to an upcoming action, but movements are not performed until the execution phase. We investigated whether this preparatory state (more precisely, prepare-and-hold state) is required for movement execution using two complementary experiments. We compared monkeys’ neural activity during delayed and non-delayed reaches, and in a delayed reaching task in which the target switched locations on a small percentage of trials. Neural population activity bypassed the prepare-and-hold state both in the absence of a delay and if the wrong reach was prepared. However, the initial neural response to the target was similar across behavioral conditions. This suggests that the prepare-and-hold state can be bypassed if needed, but there is a short-latency preparatory step which is performed prior to movement even without a delay. PMID:24462104

Ames, K. Cora; Ryu, Stephen I.; Shenoy, Krishna V.

2014-01-01

274

Stimulation of protein phosphatase activity by insulin and growth factors in 3T3 cells  

SciTech Connect

Incubation of Swiss mouse 3T3-D1 cells with physiological concentrations of insulin resulted in a rapid and transient activation of protein phosphatase activity as measure by using ({sup 32}P)phosphorylase {alpha} as substrate. Activation reached a maximum level (140% of control value) within 5 min of addition and returned to control levels within 20 min. The effect of insulin was dose-dependent with half-maximal activation occurring at {approx}5 nM insulin. This activity could be completely inhibited by addition of the heat-stable protein inhibitor 2, which suggests the presence of an activated type-1 phosphatase. Similar effects on phosphatase activity were seen when epidermal growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor were tested. These results suggest that some of the intracellular effects caused by insulin and growth factors are mediated through the activation of a protein phosphatase.

Chan, C.P.; McNall, S.J.; Krebs, E.G.; Fischer, E.H. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA))

1988-09-01

275

Chemical bath deposition of CdS thin films: Growth and structural studies  

SciTech Connect

Chemical-bath-deposited CdS thin films from an ammonia-thiourea solution have been studied by x-ray diffraction, surface profilometry, ellipsometry, and other techniques. The compactness of the CdS films, structural properties of the films, and the growth mechanism have been investigated. For the deposition conditions used, the authors found that the film compactness reaches its maximum at a deposition time of 35 minutes. Films grown at longer deposition times are less compact, consistent with the CdS duplex layer structure proposed previously. This transition from compact layer growth to porous layer growth is important for depositing CdS films in solar cell applications. Based on x-ray diffraction (XRD) studies, the authors were able to determine the crystal phase, lattice constant, and other structural properties.

Zhu, Y.; Mao, D.; Williamson, D.L.; Trefny, J.U. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Dept. of Physics

1996-12-31

276

Telerobotic operation of structurally flexible, long-reach manipulators  

SciTech Connect

As a part of the Department of Energy`s Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program, long-reach manipulators are being considered for the retrieval of waste from large storage tanks. Long-reach manipulators may have characteristics significantly different from those of typical industrial robots because of the flexibility of long links needed to cover the large workspace. To avoid structural vibrations during operation, control algorithms employing various types of shaping filters were investigated. A new approach that uses embedded simulation was developed and compared with others. In the new approach, generation of joint trajectories considering link flexibility was also investigated.

Kwon, D.S.; Hwang, D.H.; Babcock, S.M.

1994-09-01

277

Allocentric cues do not always improve whole body reaching performance.  

PubMed

The aim of this investigation was to gain further insight into control strategies used for whole body reaching tasks. Subjects were requested to step and reach to remembered target locations in normal room lighting (LIGHT) and complete darkness (DARK) with their gaze directed toward or eccentric to the remembered target location. Targets were located centrally at three different heights. Eccentric anchors for gaze direction were located at target height and initial target distance, either 30 degrees to the right or 20 degrees to the left of target location. Control trials, where targets remained in place, and remembered target trials were randomly presented. We recorded movements of the hand, eye and head, while subjects stepped and reached to real or remembered target locations. Lateral, vertical and anterior-posterior (AP) hand errors and eye location, and gaze direction deviations were determined relative to control trials. Final hand location errors varied by target height, lighting condition and gaze eccentricity. Lower reaches in the DARK compared to the LIGHT condition were common, and when matched with a tendency to reach above the low target, help explain more accurate reaches for this target in darkness. Anchoring the gaze eccentrically reduced hand errors in the AP direction and increased errors in the lateral direction. These results could be explained by deviations in eye locations and gaze directions, which were deemed significant predictors of final reach errors, accounting for a 17-47% of final hand error variance. Results also confirmed a link between gaze deviations and hand and head displacements, suggesting that gaze direction is used as a common input for movement of the hand and body. Additional links between constant and variable eye deviations and hand errors were common for the AP direction but not for lateral or vertical directions. When combined with data regarding hand error predictions, we found that subjects' alterations in body movement in the AP direction were associated with AP adjustments in their reach, but final hand position adjustments were associated with gaze direction alterations for movements in the vertical and horizontal directions. These results support the hypothesis that gaze direction provides a control signal for hand and body movement and that this control signal is used for movement direction and not amplitude. PMID:16565811

Hondzinski, Jan M; Cui, Yongqin

2006-09-01

278

CT evaluation of compensatory renal growth in relation to postnephrectomy time.  

PubMed

In 27 patients nephrectomized for renal carcinoma, the compensatory hypertrophy of the remaining kidney was assessed by 72 CT examinations performed one month before and during 32 months after nephrectomy. Kidney size was estimated on CT by multiple measurements of the renal parenchymal thickness. Kidney growth was evaluated by comparing the amount of renal parenchyma before and after contralateral nephrectomy. Renal compensatory hypertrophy varied with postnephrectomy time. Kidney enlargement was 15% in the first 3 months, reached maximum 30% about a year later, and was reduced to 5%, 2 1/2 years postoperatively. PMID:1449882

Prassopoulos, P; Gourtsoyiannis, N; Cavouras, D; Pantelidis, N

1992-11-01

279

The Maximum Size of Dynamic Data Structures  

E-print Network

This paper develops two probabilistic methods that allow the analysis of the maximum data structure size encountered during a sequence of insertions and deletions in data structures such as priority queues, dictionaries, ...

Kenyon-Mathieu, Claire M.; Vitter, Jeffrey Scott

1991-10-01

280

The Minimum Cannot Become the Maximum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper the author shares his concerns about minimal competency testing, fearing that the minimum may become the maximum. He discusses this fear based on examples from the English curriculum--Language, Writing, and Literature. (KC)

Bushman, John H.

1980-01-01

281

14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all duties...

2014-01-01

282

14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all duties...

2013-01-01

283

14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all duties...

2011-01-01

284

14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all duties...

2012-01-01

285

The Bacterial Growth Curve.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A procedure that allows students to view an entire bacterial growth curve during a two- to three-hour student laboratory period is described. Observations of the lag phase, logarithmic phase, maximum stationary phase, and phase of decline are possible. A nonpathogenic, marine bacterium is used in the investigation. (KR)

Paulton, Richard J. L.

1991-01-01

286

Maximum forces and deflections from orthodontic appliances.  

PubMed

The maximum bending moment of an orthodontic wire is an important parameter in the design and use of an orthodontic appliance. It is the wire property that determines how much force an appliance can deliver. A bending test which allows direct measurement of the maximum bending moment was developed. Data produced from this test are independent of wire length and configuration. The maximum bending moment, percent recovery, and maximum springback were determined for round and rectangular cross sections of stainless steel, nickel-titanium, and beta-titanium wires. The data suggest the need for more specifically defining maximum moment and maximum springback. Three maximum bending moments are described: Me, My, and Mult. My and Mult are clinically the most significant. Appliances that are required to have no permanent deformation must operate below My. Appliances that exhibit marked permanent deformation may be used in some applications and, if so, higher bending moments can be produced. In order of magnitude, the maximum bending moment at yield is largest in stainless steel, beta-titanium, and nickel-titanium for a given cross section. Nickel-titanium and beta-titanium have significantly larger springback than stainless steel determined at the moment at yield. Nickel-titanium did not follow the theoretical ratio between ultimate bending moment and the bending moment at yield, exhibiting a very large ratio. The study supports the hypothesis that most orthodontic appliances are activated in a range where both plastic and elastic behavior occurs; therefore, the use of yield strengths for calculation of force magnitude can lead to a significant error in predicting the forces delivered. PMID:6576645

Burstone, C J; Goldberg, A J

1983-08-01

287

Maximum-Likelihood Parameter-Estimation Algorithm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Efficient version of maximum-likelihood algorithm devised for calculating normal-mode frequencies and damping parameters of vibrating system from experimental data where both process noise and measurement noise present. Method applicable in vibration analysis of such complicated structures as vehicles, aircraft, and spacecraft. New algorithm simplification of existing maximum-likelihood formulation using Kalman filter that allows for both process and measurement noise.

Eldred, D. B.; Hamidi, M.; Rodriguez, G.

1986-01-01

288

Approximating Maximum Diameter-Bounded Subgraphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The paper studies the maximum diameter-bounded subgraph problem (MaxDBS for short) which is defined as follows: Given an n-vertex graph G and a fixed integer d???1, the goal is to find its largest subgraph of the diameter d. If d?=?1, the problem is identical to the maximum clique problem and thus it is NP{\\\\cal NP}-hard to approximate MaxDBS to within

Yuichi Asahiro; Eiji Miyano; Kazuaki Samizo

2010-01-01

289

Maximum, Minimum, and Current Temperature Protocol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this activity is to measure air (and optionally soil) temperature within one hour of solar noon and the maximum and minimum air temperatures for the previous 24 hours. Intended outcomes are that students will learn to read minimum, maximum, and current temperatures using a U-shaped thermometer, understand diurnal and annual temperature variations, and recognize factors that influence atmospheric temperatures. Supporting background materials for both student and teacher are included.

The GLOBE Program, UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)

2003-08-01

290

Head, arm and trunk coordination during reaching in children.  

PubMed

During postural and locomotor tasks, the orientation of the head with respect to space is maintained in order to serve as an egocentric reference value for maintaining balance. In young children during locomotor tasks, task difficulty determines the coordination of movements between head-trunk segments: the more difficult the task, the more the child limits the head on trunk movement ("en bloc") rather than letting the head move freely in space. For reaching tasks, however, there are no data about the development and maturation of coordination between the head and trunk movements and when the pattern of coordination is considered mature. The goal of this study was to characterize the development of head-trunk coordination during reaching from a sitting position in typically developing children. Forty-four typically-developing (TD) children aged from 2.8 to 11.8 years and six healthy adults participated. Children were divided into five groups (G1-G5) according to their age: 2-3, 4-5, 6-7, 8-9 and 10-11 years old. The task involved reaching towards and grasping a piece of food in the younger group or a wooden block in the older children and adults with the dominant hand, adequate to the grip size of each participant, and returning it to the mouth area to simulate self-feeding. The object was placed in line with the midline of the body at three different distances from the trunk according to the participant's arm length (two within and one beyond arm's length). Rotational movements of the head and trunk in three planes; yaw, roll and pitch, were recorded using three-dimensional tracking systems (Optotrak, Northern Digital, Model 3010 or Ariel Performance Analysis System). The variables analysed were relative head and trunk angle, absolute head and trunk angle, the anchoring index (AI) and initial direction of head and trunk rotation (direction index: DI). Patterns of head-trunk coupling were different along different axes of rotation and across groups. For the AI, a head-stabilized-on-trunk (HST) or "en bloc" pattern was observed with approximately the same frequency as a head-stabilized-in-space (HSS) pattern in the youngest children in the yaw plane for reaches within arm's length. In all other planes and for reaches of all distances, a HSS pattern was evident in the youngest children and remained consistent across the groups of children. Compared to the children, adult reaching was characterised by fixed head-trunk coordination (HST) in the roll plane at all reach distances, and greater decoupling in yaw plane motion for the two closest distances. There were no age-related differences in the pitch plane strategy which was mainly HSS. The DI patterns matured by 2-3 or 4-5 years of age, except for reaches to T1 in the pitch plane. In addition, in the roll plane, there was evidence of a two-step maturation that was not complete until adulthood. Maturation of strategies used to stabilize the head and trunk relative to each other and to the reaching arm differ across movement planes for a seated reaching task. Our data suggest that different aspects of head and trunk coordination during reaching movement mature at different rates, like for locomotor tasks previously described, and that the maturation follows a non-chronological and protracted course. These results can serve as a comparative database with which to contrast head and trunk coordination in children with movement disorders. However, in terms of typical development, these data should be considered specific for the task studied and may not reflect general principles of motor development. PMID:18392615

Sveistrup, H; Schneiberg, S; McKinley, P A; McFadyen, B J; Levin, M F

2008-06-01

291

The measurement of maximum cylinder pressures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work presented in this report was undertaken at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics to determine a suitable method for measuring the maximum pressures occurring in aircraft engine cylinders. The study and development of instruments for the measurement of maximum cylinder pressures has been conducted in connection with carburetor and oil engine investigations on a single cylinder aircraft-type engine. Five maximum cylinder-pressure devices have been designed, and tested, in addition to the testing of three commercial indicators. Values of maximum cylinder pressures are given as obtained with various indicators for the same pressures and for various kinds and values of maximum cylinder pressures, produced chiefly by variation of the injection advance angle in high-speed oil engine. The investigations indicate that the greatest accuracy in determining maximum cylinder pressures can be obtained with an electric, balanced-pressure, diaphragm or disk-type indicator so constructed as to have a diaphragm or disk of relatively large area and minimum seat width and mass.

Hicks, Chester W

1929-01-01

292

Photodegradation of dissolved organic matter in two contrasting reaches of a regulated river  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in a variety of ecosystem processes. Photodegradation by UV radiation is an important mechanism for DOM transformations including changes in molecular size, molecular structure, UV-absorbance, the relative size of recalcitrant and labile pools, and regeneration of nutrient sources such as N and P. The upper Klamath River is located in southern Oregon and is considered an important resource for anadromous fish populations. The river is hypereutrophic and experiences multiple impairments including organic enrichment, low dissolved oxygen, nutrients, and temperature. The river is highly regulated by a series of six dams, which compartmentalize the river into a series of riverine and reservoir reaches. Reservoirs create alternative physical and chemical environments than rivers, and these differences have implications in shifting DOM composition and availability. Four of the six dams on the Klamath River are slated for removal in 2020. Therefore, predicting changes in ecosystem characteristics following dam removal requires understanding of current DOM dynamics within both riverine and reservoir reaches. The role of photodegradation on DOM composition within a riverine reach and a reservoir reach of the Klamath River was examined during late July 2010. The reaches were located in series, with the river reach being upstream of the reservoir reach. Initial mean DOC concentrations were 7.34 mg/L for river water, and 8.57 mg/L for reservoir water. Tedlar bags of filtered (0.1µm) river and reservoir water were incubated in situ at both river and reservoir locations. Samples were treated either with or without UV-exposure for a total of 1-3 days. All bags were incubated at 55 cm depth, equivalent to 70% light transmittance in the river reach and 30% light transmittance in the reservoir reach. Bags were removed in triplicate after a total of 1, 2, and 3 days. Samples were analyzed for potential bacterial growth using standard plating and colony count methods. Water was analyzed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nutrients, and pH, UV-absorbance properties, including specific UV absorbance (SUVA) and selected spectral slopes (275-295 nm slope and 350-400 nm slope), were used to investigate changes in DOM characteristics. Spectrofluorometric techniques were used to determine the fluorescence index (emission at wavelength 450 nm to 500 nm at an excitation wavelength of 370 nm) for investigation of source material and transformations. Preliminary results suggest little to no change in DOC or nutrient concentrations. However, shifts in SUVA, spectral slope, and fluorescence index were apparent in both reservoir and river samples incubated at both sites, with larger changes observed for river samples incubated within the river reach at 70% light transmittance. These results provide information on how photodegradation may affect DOM recycling and regeneration as an energy source within different compartmentalized reaches of the Klamath River. This information will subsequently aid in developing models for predicting DOM dynamics over larger spatial and temporal scales, including predictions and implications for conditions following dam removal.

Oliver, A. A.; Dahlgren, R. A.; Spencer, R. G.

2010-12-01

293

Temporal dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates and xylem growth in Pinus sylvestris exposed to drought  

PubMed Central

Wood formation requires a continuous supply of carbohydrates for structural growth and metabolism. In the montane belt of the central Austrian Alps we monitored the temporal dynamics of xylem growth and non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) in stem sapwood of Pinus sylvestris L. during the growing season 2009, which was characterized by exceptional soil dryness within the study area. Soil water content dropped below 10 % at the time of maximum xylem growth end of May. Histological analyses have been used to describe cambial activity and xylem growth. Determination of NSC was performed using specific enzymatic assays revealing that total NSC ranged from 0.8 to 1.7 % dry matter throughout the year. Significant variations (P < 0.05) of the size of the NSC pool were observed during the growing season. Starch showed persistent abundance throughout the year reaching a maximum shortly before onset of late wood formation in mid-July. Seasonal dynamics of NSC and xylem growth suggest that (i) high sink activity occurred at start of the growing season in spring and during late wood formation in summer and (ii) there was no particular shortage in NSC, which caused P. sylvestris to draw upon stem reserves more heavily during drought in 2009. PMID:22003262

Oberhuber, Walter; Swidrak, Irene; Pirkebner, Daniela; Gruber, Andreas

2011-01-01

294

Project REACH. A Second Year Evaluation. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An evaluation was undertaken of the second year's work of a pilot adult literacy program called Project REACH (Reading, Education, Achievement), which was begun in 1987 in New York by the Governor's Office for Employee Relations (GOER) and the Civil Service Employees' Association (CSEA). The following findings were reported, among others: (1)…

Gross, Alan L.

295

Reaching a Moveable Visual Target: Dissociations in Brain Tumour Patients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Damage to the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) can lead to Optic Ataxia (OA), in which patients misreach to peripheral targets. Recent research suggested that the PPC might be involved not only in simple reaching tasks toward peripheral targets, but also in changing the hand movement trajectory in real time if the target moves. The present study…

Buiatti, Tania; Skrap, Miran; Shallice, Tim

2013-01-01

296

Reaching Part-Time Distance Students in Diverse Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the model used at the University of Kansas Medical Center to reach graduate students in the School of Nursing. Like many students returning for graduate degrees, distance students are balancing the demands of professional positions, graduate studies, and family life. Topics addressed include: point-of-need assistance,…

Whitehair, Kristin J.

2010-01-01

297

APPLIED ISSUES Recovery of three arctic stream reaches from experimental  

E-print Network

reaches of two Arctic tundra streams (Kuparuk River and Oksrukuyik Creek) on the North Slope of Alaska (U, University of North Carolina-Greensboro, Greensboro, NC, U.S.A. SUMMARY 1. Nutrient enrichment and resulting. Keywords: Alaska, before­after control­impact, bryophytes, disturbance, nitrogen, nutrient enrich- ment

Benstead, Jon

298

Reaching grid parity using BP Solar crystalline silicon technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on BP Solar's DOE sponsored Solar America Initiative, Technology Pathways Partnership. The paper presents the goals, the technical approach and progress from the first nine months of the program. The overall goals of the program are to reach grid parity for residential and commercial markets and to increase production volumes. This program is addressing all aspects of

John H. Wohlgemuth; Daniel W. Cunningham; Roger F. Clark; Jean P. Posbic; James M. Zahler; Paul Garvison; David E. Carlson; Mark Gleaton

2008-01-01

299

Early control of reaching: Effects of experience and body orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although research suggests that experience may be a better indicator of the acquisition of certain abilities by infants than age, little work addresses this issue in the development of reaching movements in particular. This longitudinal study fills this gap by verifying the effect of practice time on more- and less-skilled reachers of the same age group in different body orientations.

R. P. Carvalho; E. Tudella; S. R. Caljouw; G. J. P. Savelsbergh

2008-01-01

300

Reach for the Stars: Visions for Literacy Coaching Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief by the Literacy Coaching Clearinghouse is about reaching for the stars--stories of vision and commitment from educators in small and large schools. Everyone knows of people who are held up as "visionaries" throughout history: Leonardo Da Vinci, Mahatma Gandhi, Jules Verne, Thomas Edison, Susan Anthony, or John Dewey, to name a few. The…

DeFord, Diane

2012-01-01

301

12. INTERIOR VIEW WITH JAMES WILLIAMS REACHING FOR THE SAND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. INTERIOR VIEW WITH JAMES WILLIAMS REACHING FOR THE SAND RELEASE LEVER WHICH WILL OPEN THE OVERHEAD STORAGE BIN AND PERMIT A SET AMOUNT OF SAND TO BE DEPOSITED INTO THE FLASK PRIOR TO COMPRESSION BY THE MOLDING MACHINE INSIDE GREY IRON UNIT NO. 1. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

302

Functional reach: Does it really measure dynamic balance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Functional reach (FR) is a new clinical measurement intended to assess dynamic balance. The purposes of this study were (1) to measure the mean FR distance in healthy elders compared with individuals with known balance impairments, (2) to analyze the extent to which FR measures dynamic balance, and (3) to describe movement strategies used during FR.Methods: Thirteen healthy elders

Mara Wernick-Robinson; David E. Krebs; Marie M. Giorgetti

1999-01-01

303

Object motor representation and reaching–grasping control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following two competing hypotheses were tested in the present study. Is grasp guided by multiple representations of a single object, each of which codes a different grasp motor act according to the physical properties of that item? Conversely, is grasp guided by a single representation that codes all the possible affordances enabled by the object? Subjects reached different objects,

Maurizio Gentilucci

2002-01-01

304

The Art and Design Directory: Reaching the Parts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The title of this paper is derived from the advertising campaign of a well-known drinks company that claimed to reach the parts that its competitors did not. It could be argued that it is an equally appropriate description of the principles underpinning the Art and Design Directory, a weekend staff development event in Scotland. The mantra of…

Coutts, Glen

2004-01-01

305

Brood ecology of Canada geese on the Hanford Reach  

SciTech Connect

The objective was to examine the ecology of broods of the western Canada goose (Branta canadensis moffitti) on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River in southcentral Washington. Broods were captured and equipped with radio transmitters and their movements tracked. Major brood rearing areas were identified. 5 references, 2 tables. (ACR)

Eberhardt, L.E.

1983-12-01

306

How Can We Reach Reluctant Parents in Childcare Programmes?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young children benefit most from their experiences in childcare centres when their parents are actively involved in centre activities. However, childcare professionals sometimes face obstacles in engaging and maintaining cooperative working relationships with families. This is especially true for families that are hard to reach or families that…

Nalls, A. Mercedes; Mullis, Ronald L.; Cornille, Thomas A.; Mullis, Ann K.; Jeter, Nari

2010-01-01

307

Reaching and Grasping Movements in Infants at Risk: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on the development of reaching and grasping skills in typical infants has been extensively described in the literature, the effect of such factors on at-risk infants is still poorly understood. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to analyze the scientific publications, from 1980…

de Campos, Ana Carolina; Rocha, Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

2009-01-01

308

Posterior cortical atrophy: visuomotor deficits in reaching and grasping  

PubMed Central

Posterior Cortical Atrophy (PCA) is a rare clinical syndrome characterized by the predominance of higher-order visual disturbances such as optic ataxia, a characteristic of Balint's syndrome. Deficits result from progressive neurodegeneration of occipito-temporal and occipito-parietal cortices. The current study sought to explore the visuomotor functioning of four individuals with PCA by testing their ability to reach out and grasp real objects under various viewing conditions. Experiment 1 had participants reach out and grasp simple, rectangular blocks under visually- and memory-guided conditions. Experiment 2 explored participants' abilities to accurately reach for objects located in their visual periphery. This investigation revealed that PCA patients demonstrate many of the same deficits that have been previously reported in other individuals with optic ataxia, such as “magnetic misreaching”—a pathological reaching bias toward the point of visual fixation when grasping peripheral targets. Unlike many other individuals with optic ataxia, however, the patients in the current study also show symptoms indicative of damage to the more perceptual stream of visual processing, including abolished grip scaling during memory-guided grasping and deficits in face and object identification. These investigations are the first to perform a quantitative analysis of the visuomotor deficits exhibited by patients with PCA. Critically, this study helps characterize common symptoms of PCA, a vital first step for generating effective diagnostic criteria and therapeutic strategies for this understudied neurodegenerative disorder. PMID:23801956

Meek, Benjamin P.; Shelton, Paul; Marotta, Jonathan J.

2013-01-01

309

2009AnnualReport Jersey Roots, Global Reach  

E-print Network

2009AnnualReport Jersey Roots, Global Reach #12;88 Lipman Drive, Martin Hall · New Brunswick · New Jersey · 08901-8525 Leadership 88 Lipman Drive, Martin Hall · New Brunswick · New Jersey · 08901-8525 To enhance the vitality, health, sustainability, and overall quality of life in New Jersey by developing

Goodman, Robert M.

310

AgriculturalExperimentStation Jersey Roots, Global Reach  

E-print Network

CultuRE ................................................................................................................................................................... 8 Protecting new Jersey's aquatic Resources; engaging K-12 Youth in ocean scienceNewJersey AgriculturalExperimentStation Jersey Roots, Global Reach 02 1 annual Report 2010 #12................................................................................................ 5 EnvIRonmEnt and natuRal RESouRCES

Goodman, Robert M.

311

Reaching the Underserved: Complementary Models of Effective Schooling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many countries that have undergone expansion of access to public education still face significant disparities in school enrollment and attendance rates at sub-national levels, and fail to reach a high proportion of children who are outside of the government system. Completion and student learning have also continued to be system-wide challenges…

DeStefano, Joseph; Moore, Audrey-Marie Schuh; Balwanz, David; Hartwell, Ash

2007-01-01

312

Meet Marsha William: In Arms Reach Home Day Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Confident in what she knows, excited about what she's learning, eager to share her passion with others--this is Marsha Williams, director of In Arms Reach Home Day Care, Baltimore, Maryland. She enjoys being a family care provider, because with no more than eight children, she manages to give more individualized attention on a daily basis. She…

Exchange: The Early Childhood Leaders' Magazine Since 1978, 2006

2006-01-01

313

DWDM reach extension of a GPON to 135 km  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report operation of a GPON (gigabit-capable passive optical network) (2.488 Gbit\\/s downstream, 1.244 Gbit\\/s upstream) over 135 km giving performance consistent with ITU-T standards. Advanced DWDM equipment is used to extend the physical reach and provide fibre gain.

R. P. Davey; P. Healey; I. Hope; P. Watkinson; D. B. Payne; O. Marmur; J. Ruhmann; Y. Zuiderveld

2005-01-01

314

Full-Service MAC Protocol for Metro-Reach GPONs  

Microsoft Academic Search

An advanced medium access control protocol is presented demonstrating dynamic bandwidth allocation for long-reach gigabit-capable passive optical networks (GPONs). The protocol enables the optical line terminal to overlap the idle time slots in each packet transmission cycle with a virtual polling cycle to increase the effective transmission bandwidth. Contrasting the new scheme with developed algorithms, network modeling has exhibited significant

Ching-Hung Chang; Noemí M. Alvarez; Pandelis Kourtessis; Rubén M. Lorenzo; John M. Senior

2010-01-01

315

Visually Guided Reaching with the Forelimb Contralateral to a \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The P-'F-deoxyglucose method was used to map local ce- rebral metabolic activity in monkeys performing a unimanual task requiring visually guided arm reaching and key press- ing. The study was carried out with monkeys that either had intact brains or had one hemisphere deprived of visual input by unilateral optic tract section combined in some cases with forebrain commissurotomy. The

Helen E. Savaki; Charles Kennedy; Louis Sokoloff; Mortimer Mishkin

1993-01-01

316

Reach-averaged sediment routing model of a canyon river  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial complexity in channel geometry indicates that accurate prediction of sediment transport requires modeling in at least two dimensions. However, a one-dimensional model may be the only practical or possible alternative, especially for longer river reaches of practical concern in river management or landscape modeling. We have developed a one-dimensional model of the Colorado River through upper Grand Canyon that

S. M. Wiele; P. R. Wilcock; P. E. Grams

2007-01-01

317

Simulating the Cortical 3D Visuomotor Transformation of Reach Depth  

PubMed Central

We effortlessly perform reach movements to objects in different directions and depths. However, how networks of cortical neurons compute reach depth from binocular visual inputs remains largely unknown. To bridge the gap between behavior and neurophysiology, we trained a feed-forward artificial neural network to uncover potential mechanisms that might underlie the 3D transformation of reach depth. Our physiologically-inspired 4-layer network receives distributed 3D visual inputs (1st layer) along with eye, head and vergence signals. The desired motor plan was coded in a population (3rd layer) that we read out (4th layer) using an optimal linear estimator. After training, our network was able to reproduce all known single-unit recording evidence on depth coding in the parietal cortex. Network analyses predict the presence of eye/head and vergence changes of depth tuning, pointing towards a gain-modulation mechanism of depth transformation. In addition, reach depth was computed directly from eye-centered (relative) visual distances, without explicit absolute depth coding. We suggest that these effects should be observable in parietal and pre-motor areas. PMID:22815979

Blohm, Gunnar

2012-01-01

318

Reaching for Dexterous Manipulation MIT EECS Area Exam  

E-print Network

1 Reaching for Dexterous Manipulation MIT EECS Area Exam Exam Committee: Rodney Brooks (chair of dexterous manipulation by machines. These papers focus on different stages of the process of grasping. These three papers are good examples of mainstream work in dexterous manipulation. Following a brief review

319

"Terms of Engagement" Not "Hard to Reach Parents"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents findings of qualitative research commissioned by the Achievement for All project in a UK local authority. The research investigated how schools should engage parents, including those considered to be "hard to reach". A focus group methodology was adapted to enable parents to provide answers to the research questions. The…

Day, Sara

2013-01-01

320

Imaginative Play during Childhood: Required for Reaching Full Potential  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At a brisk pace, research findings focused on children's play are finally reaching the light of day in popular media. No longer left sitting in archives of academic journals, the benefits of play to lifelong success have been touted in radio, television, magazines, and newspapers. It gives early childhood professionals a powerful, credible…

Stephens, Karen

2009-01-01

321

MIDDLE REACH OF THE SNAKE RIVER: WATER QUALITY MONITORING  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the project was to collect, analyze, assemble, and assess water quality data and resulting chemical/nutrient loads entering and transported in the Middle Snake River Reach of Idaho, between Milner Dam and King Hill. Studies were conducted during the period of 1990 ...

322

Amounts of pesticides reaching target pests: Environmental impacts and ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Less than 0.1% of pesticides applied for pest control reach their target pests. Thus, more than 99.9% of pesticides used move into the environment where they adversely affect public health and beneficial biota, and contaminate soil, water, and the atmosphere of the ecosystem. Improved pesticide application technologies can improve pesticide use efficiency and protect public health and the environment.

David Pimentel

1995-01-01

323

Delay Analysis for Ethernet Long-Reach Passive Optical Networks  

E-print Network

1 Delay Analysis for Ethernet Long-Reach Passive Optical Networks Mohammad S. Kiaei, Kerim Fouli for next generation LR-PON, i.e., multi-thread polling (MT-P) and real-time polling (RT-P). We examine of RT-P method. The simulation results highly match the analysis for this framework. Also, our results

Reisslein, Martin

324

Reaching Approximate Agreement in the Presence of Faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers a variant on the Byzantine Generals problem, in which processes start with arbitrary real values rather than Boolean values or values from some bounded range, and in which approximate, rather than exact, agreement is the desired goal. Algorithms are presented to reach approximate agreement in asynchronous, as well as synchronous systems. The asynchronous agreement algorithm is an

Danny Dolev; Nancy A. Lynch

1985-01-01

325

Reaching Approximate Agreement in the Presence of Faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers a variant of the Byzantine Generals problem, in which processes start with arbitrary real values rather than Boolean values or values from some bounded range, and in which approximate, rather than exact, agreement is the desired goal. Algorithms are presented to reach approximate agreement in asynchronous, as well as synchronous systems. The asynchronous agreement algorithm is an

Danny Dolev; Nancy A. Lynch; Shlomit S. Pinter; Eugene W. Stark; William E. Weihl

1983-01-01

326

Overlapping representations for grip type and reach direction.  

PubMed

To grasp an object, we need to move the arm toward it and assume the appropriate hand configuration. While previous studies suggested dorsomedial and dorsolateral pathways in the brain specialized respectively for the transport and grip components, more recent studies cast doubt on such a clear-cut distinction. It is unclear, however, to which degree neuronal populations selective for the two components overlap, and if so, to which degree they interact. Here, we used multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA) of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data to investigate the representation of three center-out movements (touch, pincer grip, whole-hand grip) performed in five reach directions. We found selectivity exclusively for reach direction in posterior and rostral superior parietal lobes (SPLp, SPLr), supplementary motor area (SMA), and the superior portion of dorsal premotor cortex (PMDs). Instead, we found selectivity for both grip type and reach direction in the inferior portion of dorsal premotor cortex (PMDi), ventral premotor cortex (PMv), anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS), primary motor (M1), somatosensory (S1) cortices and the anterior superior parietal lobe (SPLa). Within these regions, PMv, M1, aIPS and SPLa showed weak interactions between the transport and grip components. Our results suggest that human PMDi and S1 contain both grip- and reach-direction selective neuronal populations that retain their functional independence, whereas this information might be combined at the level of PMv, M1, aIPS, and SPLa. PMID:24650596

Fabbri, Sara; Strnad, Lukas; Caramazza, Alfonso; Lingnau, Angelika

2014-07-01

327

DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SERVICES University of Maryland Reaches Gold  

E-print Network

DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SERVICES University of Maryland Reaches Gold The University of Maryland is awarded the gold level Bicycle Friendly University designation. October 22, 2014. Over the past Friendly University (BFU) program. One of only 10 schools to earn the gold level or higher designation

Lathrop, Daniel P.

328

Volume 10, No. 2 REACH...OF NURSING  

E-print Network

, experienced Duke as patient, student, nurse Duke Nursing Magazine is published by the Duke Nursing Alumni Connections projects by members of our faculty. Advocacy has long been seen as a responsibility of the nurseSummer 2014 Volume 10, No. 2 REACH...OF NURSING Putting Bass Connections Funds to Work Nurses

Valdivia, Raphael

329

Beyond Gazing, Pointing, and Reaching A Survey of Developmental Robotics  

E-print Network

of developmental psychology and robotics that has come to be known as developmen- tal robotics.1 Developmental robots to instantiate and investi- gate models originating from developmental psychology or developmentalBeyond Gazing, Pointing, and Reaching A Survey of Developmental Robotics Max Lungarella

Sandini, Giulio

330

Hydraulic characterization of the middle reach of the Congo River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The middle reach of the Congo remains one of the most difficult places to access, with ongoing conflicts and a lack of infrastructure. This has resulted in the Congo being perhaps the least understood large river hydraulically, particularly compared to the Amazon, Nile, or Mississippi. Globally the Congo River is important; it is the largest river in Africa and the basin contains some of the largest areas of tropical forests and wetlands in the world, which are important to both the global carbon and methane cycles. This study produced the first detailed hydraulic characterization of the middle reach, utilizing mostly remotely sensed data sets. Using Landsat imagery, a 30 m resolution water-mask was created for the middle reach, from which effective river widths and the number of channels and islands were determined. Water surface slopes were determined using ICESat observations for three different periods during the annual flood pulse, and while the overall slope calculated was similar to previous estimates, greater spatial variability was identified. We find that the water surface slope varies markedly in space but relatively little in time and that this appears to contrast with the Amazon where previous studies indicate that time and spatial variations are of equal magnitude. Five key hydraulic constraints were also identified, which play an important role in the overall dynamics of the Congo. Finally, backwater lengths were approximated for four of these constraints, with the results showing that at high water, over a third of the middle reach is affected by backwater effects.

O'Loughlin, F.; Trigg, M. A.; Schumann, G. J.-P.; Bates, P. D.

2013-08-01

331

The statistical determinants of adaptation rate in human reaching  

PubMed Central

Rapid reaching to a target is generally accurate but also contains random and systematic error. Random errors result from noise in visual measurement, motor planning, and reach execution. Systematic error results from systematic changes in the mapping between the visual estimate of target location and the motor command necessary to reach the target (e.g., new spectacles, muscular fatigue). Humans maintain accurate reaching by recalibrating the visuomotor system, but no widely accepted computational model of the process exists. Given certain boundary conditions, a statistically optimal solution is a Kalman filter. We compared human to Kalman filter behavior to determine how humans take into account the statistical properties of errors and the reliability with which those errors can be measured. For most conditions, human and Kalman filter behavior was similar: Increasing measurement uncertainty caused similar decreases in recalibration rate; directionally asymmetric uncertainty caused different rates in different directions; more variation in systematic error increased recalibration rate. However, behavior differed in one respect: Inserting random error by perturbing feedback position causes slower adaptation in Kalman filters but had no effect in humans. This difference may be due to how biological systems remain responsive to changes in environmental statistics. We discuss the implications of this work. PMID:18484859

Burge, Johannes; Ernst, Marc O.; Banks, Martin S.

2009-01-01

332

Dexterous Reaching, Grasp Transfer and Planning Using Electrostatic Representations  

E-print Network

reach and grasp movements while being agnostic and invariant to finger kinematics, hand configurations and grasping are difficult to synthesize, due to collisions between the hand model and its environment to successfully guide the hand to grasp the object using the electric flux as a control parameter. Using

Vijayakumar, Sethu

333

Priming of Reach and Grasp Actions by Handled Objects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pictures of handled objects such as a beer mug or frying pan are shown to prime speeded reach and grasp actions that are compatible with the object. To determine whether the evocation of motor affordances implied by this result is driven merely by the physical orientation of the object's handle as opposed to higher-level properties of the object,…

Masson, Michael E. J.; Bub, Daniel N.; Breuer, Andreas T.

2011-01-01

334

46 CFR 154.556 - Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure. 154.556 Section 154.556...Hose § 154.556 Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure. A cargo hose must have a maximum working pressure not less than the maximum...

2011-10-01

335

46 CFR 154.556 - Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure. 154.556 Section 154.556...Hose § 154.556 Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure. A cargo hose must have a maximum working pressure not less than the maximum...

2010-10-01

336

Effect of temperature on growth of Vibrio parahaemolyticus [corrected] and Vibrio vulnificus in flounder, salmon sashimi and oyster meat.  

PubMed

Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus are the major pathogenic Vibrio species which contaminate ready-to-eat seafood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk of human illness resulting from consumption of ready-to-eat seafood such as sashimi and raw oyster meat due to the presence of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus. We compared the growth kinetics of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus strains in broth and ready-to-eat seafood, including flounder and salmon sashimi, as a function of temperature. The growth kinetics of naturally occurring V. vulnificus in raw oyster meat was also evaluated. The minimum growth temperatures of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in broth were 13 °C and 11 °C, respectively. Overall, significant differences in lag time (LT) and specific growth rate (SGR) values between flounder and salmon sashimi were observed at temperatures ranging from 13 °C to 30 °C (p < 0.05). The growth of naturally occurring V. vulnificus reached stationary phase at ~4 log CFU/g in oysters, regardless of the storage temperature. This data indicates that the population of V. vulnificus in oysters did not reach the maximum population density as observed in the broth, where growth of V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus isolated from oysters grew up to >8 log CFU/mL. PMID:23330227

Kim, Yoo Won; Lee, Soon Ho; Hwang, In Gun; Yoon, Ki Sun

2012-12-01

337

Annual growth and environmental relationships of the invasive species Sargassum muticum and Undaria pinnatifida in the lagoon of Venice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growth and autoecology of two alien invasive species: Sargassum muticum and Undaria pinnatifida spreading in the Venice Lagoon were studied monthly, during one year, in two sites of different depth. S. muticum was present year-round and reached its largest size (485 cm) and maximum growth (8.33 cm d-1) at the deepest station. U. pinnatifida was present only from November to May, reaching the highest size (130 cm) in March-April in the shallow station with growth peaks of 2.32 cm d-1. The growth of both species was mainly regulated by water temperature, nutrient concentration, especially nitrogen, and water turbidity. The study highlights the different ecological role already observed for the two species: U. pinnatifida prefers eutrophic areas and is not present along the sea-coastline. Its total standing crop does not exceed 0.2 ktonnes fwt for all the Venice Lagoon. Conversely, S. muticum colonizes areas with a lower eutrophication level, such as the lagoon inlets, reaching a total lagoon standing crop of 4-6 ktonnes fwt.

Sfriso, A.; Facca, C.

2013-09-01

338

Maximum magnitude earthquakes induced by fluid injection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of numerous case histories of earthquake sequences induced by fluid injection at depth reveals that the maximum magnitude appears to be limited according to the total volume of fluid injected. Similarly, the maximum seismic moment seems to have an upper bound proportional to the total volume of injected fluid. Activities involving fluid injection include (1) hydraulic fracturing of shale formations or coal seams to extract gas and oil, (2) disposal of wastewater from these gas and oil activities by injection into deep aquifers, and (3) the development of enhanced geothermal systems by injecting water into hot, low-permeability rock. Of these three operations, wastewater disposal is observed to be associated with the largest earthquakes, with maximum magnitudes sometimes exceeding 5. To estimate the maximum earthquake that could be induced by a given fluid injection project, the rock mass is assumed to be fully saturated, brittle, to respond to injection with a sequence of earthquakes localized to the region weakened by the pore pressure increase of the injection operation and to have a Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution with a b value of 1. If these assumptions correctly describe the circumstances of the largest earthquake, then the maximum seismic moment is limited to the volume of injected liquid times the modulus of rigidity. Observations from the available case histories of earthquakes induced by fluid injection are consistent with this bound on seismic moment. In view of the uncertainties in this analysis, however, this should not be regarded as an absolute physical limit.

McGarr, A.

2014-02-01

339

Cell development obeys maximum Fisher information  

E-print Network

Eukaryotic cell development has been optimized by natural selection to obey maximal intracellular flux of messenger proteins. This, in turn, implies maximum Fisher information on angular position about a target nuclear pore complex (NPR). The cell is simply modeled as spherical, with cell membrane (CM) diameter 10 micron and concentric nuclear membrane (NM) diameter 6 micron. The NM contains about 3000 nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Development requires messenger ligands to travel from the CM-NPC-DNA target binding sites. Ligands acquire negative charge by phosphorylation, passing through the cytoplasm over Newtonian trajectories toward positively charged NPCs (utilizing positive nuclear localization sequences). The CM-NPC channel obeys maximized mean protein flux F and Fisher information I at the NPC, with first-order delta I = 0 and approximate 2nd-order delta I = 0 stability to environmental perturbations. Many of its predictions are confirmed, including the dominance of protein pathways of from 1-4 proteins, a 4nm size for the EGFR protein and the approximate flux value F =10^16 proteins/m2-s. After entering the nucleus, each protein ultimately delivers its ligand information to a DNA target site with maximum probability, i.e. maximum Kullback-Liebler entropy HKL. In a smoothness limit HKL approaches IDNA/2, so that the total CM-NPC-DNA channel obeys maximum Fisher I. Thus maximum information approaches non-equilibrium, one condition for life.

B. R. Frieden; R. A. Gatenby

2014-04-29

340

Zeolites US market to reach $1 billion by 2000  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the growth of the U.S. market for zeolites, specifically sodium aluminosilicate. The largest application for zeolites is for petrochemical and petroleum catalysts; however, detergents are also a specific application addressed in the article.

Morris, G.D.L.

1997-02-05

341

Nonequilibrium thermodynamics and maximum entropy production in the Earth system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth system is maintained in a unique state far from thermodynamic equilibrium, as, for instance, reflected in the high concentration of reactive oxygen in the atmosphere. The myriad of processes that transform energy, that result in the motion of mass in the atmosphere, in oceans, and on land, processes that drive the global water, carbon, and other biogeochemical cycles, all have in common that they are irreversible in their nature. Entropy production is a general consequence of these processes and measures their degree of irreversibility. The proposed principle of maximum entropy production (MEP) states that systems are driven to steady states in which they produce entropy at the maximum possible rate given the prevailing constraints. In this review, the basics of nonequilibrium thermodynamics are described, as well as how these apply to Earth system processes. Applications of the MEP principle are discussed, ranging from the strength of the atmospheric circulation, the hydrological cycle, and biogeochemical cycles to the role that life plays in these processes. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics and the MEP principle have potentially wide-ranging implications for our understanding of Earth system functioning, how it has evolved in the past, and why it is habitable. Entropy production allows us to quantify an objective direction of Earth system change (closer to vs further away from thermodynamic equilibrium, or, equivalently, towards a state of MEP). When a maximum in entropy production is reached, MEP implies that the Earth system reacts to perturbations primarily with negative feedbacks. In conclusion, this nonequilibrium thermodynamic view of the Earth system shows great promise to establish a holistic description of the Earth as one system. This perspective is likely to allow us to better understand and predict its function as one entity, how it has evolved in the past, and how it is modified by human activities in the future.

Kleidon, Axel

2009-02-01

342

THOMASSIN et al.: IDENTIFICATION OF A RIVER REACH BY A BAYESIAN APPROACH 1 Identification of a Managed River Reach  

E-print Network

-delay estimation, of a river reach managed to produce hydroelectric power. Difficulties lie in the obligation risks or fall-off in hydroelectric power production, the implementation of experimental protocols, the control stabilization [13]. This is particularly true for cascaded systems like run-of-river hydroelectric

Boyer, Edmond

343

Reaching to Throw Compared to Reaching to Place: A Comparison across Individuals with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When picking up an object, adults show a longer deceleration phase when the onward action has a greater precision requirement. Tailoring action in this way is thought to need forward modelling in order to predict the consequences of movement. Some evidence suggests that young children also tailor reaching in this way; however, how this skill…

Wilmut, Kate; Byrne, Maia; Barnett, Anna L.

2013-01-01

344

Redesigning Schools to Reach Every Student with Excellent Teachers: Change Management--Key Theories to Consider when Extending Reach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As schools, their teachers, and outside facilitators redesign jobs and incorporate technology to extend the reach of excellent teachers to more students and develop an Opportunity Culture for all, choosing the right school models is just one part of the task. The human experience--and experience in education--says that even perfect design will not…

Barrett, Sharon Kebschull

2012-01-01

345

Modification of the functional reach test: Analysis of lateral and anterior functional reach in community-dwelling older people  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and reproducibility of the modified lateral functional reach (FR), and to examine the associations between a variety of functional variables and the FR in community-dwelling older people (>65 years of age). A total of 383 aged Japanese participated in this study at the rural district Kahoku, Kochi, Japan, in 2002.

Toshiaki Takahashi; Kenji Ishida; Haruyasu Yamamoto; Jun Takata; Masanori Nishinaga; Yoshinori Doi; Hiroshi Yamamoto

2006-01-01

346

Translating the REACH Caregiver Intervention for Use by Area Agency on Aging Personnel: the REACH OUT Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The aim of this study was to translate the evidence-based Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregiver Health (REACH) II intervention for use in 4 Area Agencies on Aging (AAAs). A secondary aim was to examine possible moderators of treatment outcome. Design and Methods: We used a quasi-experimental pre-post treatment design with no…

Burgio, Louis D.; Collins, Irene B.; Schmid, Bettina; Wharton, Tracy; McCallum, Debra; DeCoster, Jamie

2009-01-01

347

'Reaching the hard to reach' - lessons learned from the VCS (voluntary and community Sector). A qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The notion 'hard to reach' is a contested and ambiguous term that is commonly used within the spheres of social care and health, especially in discourse around health and social inequalities. There is a need to address health inequalities and to engage in services the marginalized and socially excluded sectors of society. METHODS: This paper describes a pilot study

Sarah M Flanagan; Beverley Hancock

2010-01-01

348

Does aerobic capacity set a limit on fish growth rate?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fish growth is an energetically demanding process. It has been suggested that fish maximum growth rate is limited by the organism's capacity to support energetic demand. We reexamined gill surface area data and found no evidence that maximum growth rate could be limited by the ability to extract oxygen from the environment. We also compared the relationship between aerobic capacity

P. U. Blier; D. Pelletier

1997-01-01

349

Global CO2 rise leads to reduced maximum stomatal conductance in Florida vegetation  

PubMed Central

A principle response of C3 plants to increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO2 (CO2) is to reduce transpirational water loss by decreasing stomatal conductance (gs) and simultaneously increase assimilation rates. Via this adaptation, vegetation has the ability to alter hydrology and climate. Therefore, it is important to determine the adaptation of vegetation to the expected anthropogenic rise in CO2. Short-term stomatal opening–closing responses of vegetation to increasing CO2 are described by free-air carbon enrichments growth experiments, and evolutionary adaptations are known from the geological record. However, to date the effects of decadal to centennial CO2 perturbations on stomatal conductance are still largely unknown. Here we reconstruct a 34% (±12%) reduction in maximum stomatal conductance (gsmax) per 100 ppm CO2 increase as a result of the adaptation in stomatal density (D) and pore size at maximal stomatal opening (amax) of nine common species from Florida over the past 150 y. The species-specific gsmax values are determined by different evolutionary development, whereby the angiosperms sampled generally have numerous small stomata and high gsmax, and the conifers and fern have few large stomata and lower gsmax. Although angiosperms and conifers use different D and amax adaptation strategies, our data show a coherent response in gsmax to CO2 rise of the past century. Understanding these adaptations of C3 plants to rising CO2 after decadal to centennial environmental changes is essential for quantification of plant physiological forcing at timescales relevant for global warming, and they are likely to continue until the limits of their phenotypic plasticity are reached. PMID:21330552

Lammertsma, Emmy I.; de Boer, Hugo Jan; Dekker, Stefan C.; Dilcher, David L.; Lotter, André F.; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike

2011-01-01

350

[Human appropriation of net primary production in the middle reach of Heihe River basin].  

PubMed

Based on Miami model, this paper calculated the human appropriation of net primary production (HANPP) in the middle reach of Heihe River basin, discussed the relations between the HANPP and ecosystem diversity, and compared the values of HANPP and ecological footprint (EF) in sustainability assessment. The results showed that the increase of HANPP decreased the ecosystem diversity, and the current average HANPP in study area was 38.61%. The HANPP in Suzhou and Ganzhou districts already exceeded the potential maximum productivity. Considering the climate change and the development of social-economics, the ecosystems in study area would face more stress in the coming 40 years. Comparing with EF, HANPP was more available for the assessment of sustainability in the sight of ecosystem function change. PMID:18593049

Long, Ai-hua; Wang, Hao; Cheng, Guo-dong; Yu, Fu-liang

2008-04-01

351

[Landscape change in upper reaches of Minjiang River].  

PubMed

Based on the fuzzy logic knowledge database designed by NetWeaver tools, and using ecosystem management decision support system (EMDS), a quantitative evaluation was made on the landscape change in the upper reaches of Minjiang River from 1986 to 2000. The results showed that the type, area, amount, and spatial distribution of landscape patches in the reaches changed greatly, and the changing direction was in favor of ecosystem restoration. The changes of forest landscape mainly occurred in the north part of study area (Songpan County and Heishui County), while those of grass landscape mainly occurred both in the north part and in the furthest south part (Wenchuan County). The joint effect of increasing human activities and nature change was the driving force of the landscape changes. PMID:18333464

Hu, Zhi-Bin; He, Xing-Yuan; Li, Yue-Hui; Zhu, Jiao-Jun; Mu, Yang; Guan, Zhu-Xin

2007-12-01

352

Hand preferences in preschool children: Reaching, pointing and symbolic gestures.  

PubMed

Manual asymmetries emerge very early in development and several researchers have reported a significant right-hand bias in toddlers although this bias fluctuates depending on the nature of the activity being performed. However, little is known about the further development of asymmetries in preschoolers. In this study, patterns of hand preference were assessed in 50 children aged 3-5 years for different activities, including reaching movements, pointing gestures and symbolic gestures. Contrary to what has been reported in children before 3 years of age, we did not observe any difference in the mean handedness indices obtained in each task. Moreover, the asymmetry of reaching was found to correlate with that of pointing gestures, but not with that of symbolic gestures. In relation to the results reported in infants and adults, this study may help deciphering the mechanisms controlling the development of handedness by providing measures of manual asymmetries in an age range that has been so far rather neglected. PMID:25651377

Cochet, Hélène; Centelles, Laurie; Jover, Marianne; Plachta, Suzy; Vauclair, Jacques

2015-07-01

353

Key design requirements for long-reach manipulators  

SciTech Connect

Long-reach manipulators differ from industrial robots and teleoperators typically used in the nuclear industry in that the aspect ratio (length to diameter) of links is much greater and link flexibility, as well as joint or drive train flexibility, is likely to be significant. Long-reach manipulators will be required for a variety of applications in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. While each application will present specific functional kinematic, and performance requirements an approach for determining the kinematic applicability and performance characteristics is presented, with a focus on waste storage tank remediation. Requirements are identified, kinematic configurations are considered, and a parametric study of link design parameters and their effects on performance characteristics is presented.

Kwon, D.S.; March-Leuba, S.; Babcock, S.M.; Hamel, W.R.

1993-09-01

354

Discovery Reach of Charged MSSM Higgs Bosons at CMS  

SciTech Connect

We review the 5{sigma} discovery contours for the charged MSSM Higgs boson at the CMS experiment with 30 fb{sup -1} for the two cases M{sub H{sup {+-}}}m{sub t}. In order to analyze the search reach we combine the latest results for the CMS experimental sensitivities based on full simulation studies with state-of-the-art theoretical predictions of MSSM Higgs-boson production and decay properties. Special emphasis is put on the SUSY parameter dependence of the 5{sigma} contours. The variation of {mu} can shift the prospective discovery reach in tan{beta} by up to {delta}tan{beta} = 40.

Heinemeyer, S. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria (CSIC-UC), Santander (Spain); Nikitenko, A. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Weiglein, G. [IPPP, University of Durham, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

2008-11-23

355

Maximum likelihood clustering with dependent feature trees  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The decomposition of mixture density of the data into its normal component densities is considered. The densities are approximated with first order dependent feature trees using criteria of mutual information and distance measures. Expressions are presented for the criteria when the densities are Gaussian. By defining different typs of nodes in a general dependent feature tree, maximum likelihood equations are developed for the estimation of parameters using fixed point iterations. The field structure of the data is also taken into account in developing maximum likelihood equations. Experimental results from the processing of remotely sensed multispectral scanner imagery data are included.

Chittineni, C. B. (principal investigator)

1981-01-01

356

[Local anesthetics--maximum recommended doses].  

PubMed

"Maximum doses" determined up to now do not take account of such important pharmacokinetic and toxicological data as: 1) the dependence of blood levels measured on the technique of regional anaesthesia, 2) and the raised toxicity of a local anaesthetic solution containing adrenaline following inadvertent intravascular (intravenous) injection. A maximum dose recommendation differs according to the technique of local anaesthesia for A: subcutaneous injection, B: injection in regions of high absorption, C: single injection (perineural, e.g. plexus), D: protracted injection (catheter, combined techniques), E: injection into vasoactive regions (near to the spinal cord, spinal, epidural, sympathetic). This sequential categorization also underscores the need to select appropriate techniques as well as concomitant monitoring according to the technique of administration and to the expected and possible plasma level curve. The "maximum recommended doses" (in mg) of mepivacaine for use with the above five different techniques of regional anaesthesia are (doses together with the vasoconstrictor adrenaline are in brackets): A: 400 (500), B: 200, C: 400 (500), D: 500, E: 1-25 ml; those for lidocaine: A: 400 (500), B: 200, C: 400 (500), D: 500, E: 1-25 ml, for prilocaine: A: 600, B: 300, C: 600, D: 700, E: 1-25 ml, for bupivacaine: A: 150, B: 75, C: 150, D: 200, E: 1-25 ml, for etidocaine: A: 300, B: 150, C: 300, D: 300, E: up to 25 ml (no spinal anaesthesia). These "recommended maximum doses" are low for zones of raised absorption and higher for techniques of protracted injection. For prilocaine, bupivacaine and etidocaine, the "maximum recommended doses" are the same regardless of whether or not the solutions contain adrenaline. The preparation containing adrenaline is limited by the total adrenaline content (0.25 mg). The dose spectrum must be specified for all injections carried out close to the spinal cord because of the specific risk: even very tiny volumes can have an intensive effect and they involve high risks. The values specified for techniques C and D also restrict the overall dose for the techniques specified under E when high doses are necessary. The amount of the repetition dose of bupivacaine can be reliably given as 30 mg/h. Recommended maximum doses given here relate to normal conditions (70 kg body weight). They must be varied individually depending on the body weight and condition of the patient. Recommended maximum doses are of orientative significance, they do not constitute a maximum dose. There is no quantitative limit for ropivaccine because the recommended techniques do not allow higher volumes of this long acting local anaesthetic. PMID:9324365

Niesel, H C

1997-01-01

357

Maximum predictive power and the superposition principle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In quantum physics the direct observables are probabilities of events. We ask how observed probabilities must be combined to achieve what we call maximum predictive power. According to this concept the accuracy of a prediction must only depend on the number of runs whose data serve as input for the prediction. We transform each probability to an associated variable whose uncertainty interval depends only on the amount of data and strictly decreases with it. We find that for a probability which is a function of two other probabilities maximum predictive power is achieved when linearly summing their associated variables and transforming back to a probability. This recovers the quantum mechanical superposition principle.

Summhammer, Johann

1994-01-01

358

DWDM Reach Extension of a GPON to 135 km  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the operation of a gigabit-capable passive optical network (GPON, 2.488 Gb/s downstream and 1.244 Gb/s upstream) over 135 km giving performance that is consistent with the standards of International Telecommunication Union-Telecommunications Standardization Sector (ITU-T). Advanced dense-wavelength-division-multiplexing (DWDM) equipment is used to extend the physical reach and to provide fiber gain.

Davey, Russell P.; Healey, Peter; Hope, Ian; Watkinson, Phil; Payne, Dave B.; Marmur, Oren; Ruhmann, Jörg; Zuiderveld, Yvonne

2006-01-01

359

DWDM reach extension of a GPON to 135 km  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the operation of a gigabit-capable passive optical network (GPON, 2.488 Gb\\/s downstream and 1.244 Gb\\/s upstream) over 135 km giving performance that is consistent with the standards of International Telecommunication Union-Telecommunications Standardization Sector (ITU-T). Advanced dense-wavelength-division-multiplexing (DWDM) equipment is used to extend the physical reach and to provide fiber gain.

R. P. Davey; Peter Healey; Ian Hope; Phil Watkinson; D. B. Payne; Oren Marmur; Jörg Ruhmann; Yvonne Zuiderveld

2006-01-01

360

Rain and hail can reach the surface of Titan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have calculated the condensation and evaporation of ternary CH4 N2 C2H6 liquid drops and solid CH4 hail as they fall through Titan's lower atmosphere to determine the likelihood that precipitation reaches the ground. Assuming the humidity profile determined by the Huygens probe, binary liquid CH4\\/N2 condensate grows in the region from ˜8 to 15 km in Titan's atmosphere because

S. D. B. Graves; C. P. McKay; C. A. Griffith; F. Ferri; M. Fulchignoni

2008-01-01

361

Rain and hail can reach the surface of Titan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have calculated the condensation and evaporation of ternary CH4–N2–C2H6 liquid drops and solid CH4 hail as they fall through Titan's lower atmosphere to determine the likelihood that precipitation reaches the ground. Assuming the humidity profile determined by the Huygens probe, binary liquid CH4\\/N2 condensate grows in the region from ?8 to 15km in Titan's atmosphere because the combined humidity

S. D. B. Graves; C. P. McKay; C. A. Griffith; F. Ferri; M. Fulchignoni

2008-01-01

362

The challenge of reproductive and developmental toxicology under REACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Union’s REACH regulation has explicit requirements for reproductive and developmental toxicity data on all substances manufactured in or imported into the European Union at ?10metric tons\\/year. Meeting the data requirements with whole-animal testing could result in the use of almost 22 million vertebrate animals for the registration of existing chemicals and cost up to several hundred thousand dollars

Anthony R. Scialli

2008-01-01

363

Integrated testing and intelligent assessment—new challenges under REACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim and scope  Due to a number of drawbacks associated with the previous regime for the assessment of new and existing chemicals, the European\\u000a Union established a new regulation concerning the registration, evaluation, authorisation and restriction of chemicals (REACH).\\u000a All relevant industrial chemicals must now be assessed. Instead of the authorities, industry itself is responsible for the\\u000a risk assessment. To

Jan Ahlers; Frauke Stock; Barbara Werschkun

2008-01-01

364

Advanced Torque and Drag Considerations in Extended-Reach Wells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excessive torque and drag can be critical limitations in extended-reach drilling (ERD). This paper details issues related to torque-and-drag prediction, monitoring, and management in ERD wells. Results are presented from sensitivity analyses of extreme ERD trajectories such as 7- to 8-km departures at 1,600 m true vertical depth (TVD). Several such wells have now been successfully drilled at the Wytch

M. L. Payne; F. Abbassian

1997-01-01

365

The personal space station: Bringing interaction within reach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near-field virtual re- ality allows users to interact with virtual objects within arm's reach of the user. Environments for near-field VR are well suited for direct precise interaction by tak- ing advantage of the user's hand- eye co-ordination. We discuss the design and initial experience of a near-field virtual environment, the Personal Space Station (PSS). In this system, all interactive

Jurriaan D. Mulder; Robert van Liere

2002-01-01

366

Changes in corticospinal excitability during reach adaptation in force fields  

PubMed Central

Both abrupt and gradually imposed perturbations produce adaptive changes in motor output, but the neural basis of adaptation may be distinct. Here, we measured the state of the primary motor cortex (M1) and the corticospinal network during adaptation by measuring motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) before reach onset using transcranial magnetic stimulation of M1. Subjects reached in a force field in a schedule in which the field was introduced either abruptly or gradually over many trials. In both groups, by end of the training, muscles that countered the perturbation in a given direction increased their activity during the reach (labeled as the on direction for each muscle). In the abrupt group, in the period before the reach toward the on direction, MEPs in these muscles also increased, suggesting a direction-specific increase in the excitability of the corticospinal network. However, in the gradual group, these MEP changes were missing. After training, there was a period of washout. The MEPs did not return to baseline. Rather, in the abrupt group, off direction MEPs increased to match on direction MEPs. Therefore, we observed changes in corticospinal excitability in the abrupt but not gradual condition. Abrupt training includes the repetition of motor commands, and repetition may be the key factor that produces this plasticity. Furthermore, washout did not return MEPs to baseline, suggesting that washout engaged a new network that masked but did not erase the effects of previous adaptation. Abrupt but not gradual training appears to induce changes in M1 and/or corticospinal networks. PMID:23034365

Ahmadi-Pajouh, Mohammad Ali; Harran, Michelle D.; Salimpour, Yousef; Shadmehr, Reza

2013-01-01

367

Changes in corticospinal excitability during reach adaptation in force fields.  

PubMed

Both abrupt and gradually imposed perturbations produce adaptive changes in motor output, but the neural basis of adaptation may be distinct. Here, we measured the state of the primary motor cortex (M1) and the corticospinal network during adaptation by measuring motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) before reach onset using transcranial magnetic stimulation of M1. Subjects reached in a force field in a schedule in which the field was introduced either abruptly or gradually over many trials. In both groups, by end of the training, muscles that countered the perturbation in a given direction increased their activity during the reach (labeled as the on direction for each muscle). In the abrupt group, in the period before the reach toward the on direction, MEPs in these muscles also increased, suggesting a direction-specific increase in the excitability of the corticospinal network. However, in the gradual group, these MEP changes were missing. After training, there was a period of washout. The MEPs did not return to baseline. Rather, in the abrupt group, off direction MEPs increased to match on direction MEPs. Therefore, we observed changes in corticospinal excitability in the abrupt but not gradual condition. Abrupt training includes the repetition of motor commands, and repetition may be the key factor that produces this plasticity. Furthermore, washout did not return MEPs to baseline, suggesting that washout engaged a new network that masked but did not erase the effects of previous adaptation. Abrupt but not gradual training appears to induce changes in M1 and/or corticospinal networks. PMID:23034365

Orban de Xivry, Jean-Jacques; Ahmadi-Pajouh, Mohammad Ali; Harran, Michelle D; Salimpour, Yousef; Shadmehr, Reza

2013-01-01

368

Reaching Magnitude +16 with the Modified Video Drift Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The video drift method of measuring double stars is a quick and efficient way to obtain position angle and separation measurements. With ordinary video cameras magnitude +12 and deeper double star systems often prove difficult or even impossible to measure without using an image intensifier. A simple modification to the video drift method and corresponding VidPro analysis program now makes reaching magnitude +16 a reality for modest amateur equipment.

Iverson, Ernest; Nugent, Richard

2015-04-01

369

Did Early Man reach Java during the Late Pliocene?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homo erectus (Pithecanthropus) reached Java from the Asian continent and became one of the oldest islanders in the world. This article deals with the palaeomagnetic and40Ar\\/39Ar dating of the “lower lahar”, a layer located at the base of the fossil-bearing series of the Sangiran dome. Combined40Ar\\/39Ar and palaeomagnetic data show that the deposition of the lower lahar, marking the emergence

François Sémah; Hassane Saleki; Christophe Falguères; Gilbert Féraud; Tony Djubiantono

2000-01-01

370

On stiffening cables of a long reach manipulator  

SciTech Connect

A long reach manipulator will be used for waste remediation in large underground storage tanks. The manipulator`s slenderness makes it flexible and difficult to control. A low-cost and effective method to enhance the manipulator`s stiffness is proposed in this research by using suspension cables. These cables can also be used to accurately measure the position of the manipulator`s wrist.

Wang, S.L.; Santiago, P. [North Carolina A& T State Univ., Greensboro, NC (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1996-02-01

371

The Agreement: Agreement Reached in the Multi-party Negotiations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CELT, an archive of documents relating to Irish culture and history at University College, Cork, has made available the full text of the historic proposed peace treaty for Northern Ireland. Aimed at ending many years of sectarian violence, the treaty was reached after arduous and intense negotiations. The agreement is to be voted upon by the people of both Northern Ireland and the Irish Republic in late May, 1998.

1998-01-01

372

Compensatory arm reaching strategies after stroke: Induced position analysis  

PubMed Central

After stroke, movement patterns of the upper limb (UL) during functional arm reaching change to accommodate altered constraints. These compensatory movement control strategies do not, however, have a one-to-one mapping with posttraining outcomes. In this study, we quantify arm movement control strategies in unilateral and bilateral reaching tasks using induced position analysis. In addition, we assess how those strategies are associated with UL residual impairments and with functional improvement after a specific bilateral arm training intervention. Twelve individuals with chronic stroke were measured while reaching to a box as part of their pre- and posttesting assessments. Other measurements included the Fugl-Meyer Upper Extremity Assessment (FM), Modified Wolf Motor Function Test (WT), and the University of Maryland Arm Questionnaire for Stroke (UMAQS). We identified arm control strategies that did not differ between unilateral and bilateral tasks but did differ by FM impairment level and by predicted gains in WT but not UMAQS. Increased shoulder relative to elbow moment contribution was associated with less impairment and greater gains of speed in functional tasks. These results suggest that one goal of training to achieve better outcomes may be to decrease the abnormal coupling of the shoulder and elbow. PMID:23516085

Liu, Wei; Waller, Sandy McCombe; Kepple, Tom; Whitall, Jill

2013-01-01

373

Compensatory arm reaching strategies after stroke: induced position analysis.  

PubMed

After stroke, movement patterns of the upper limb (UL) during functional arm reaching change to accommodate altered constraints. These compensatory movement control strategies do not, however, have a one-to-one mapping with posttraining outcomes. In this study, we quantify arm movement control strategies in unilateral and bilateral reaching tasks using induced position analysis. In addition, we assess how those strategies are associated with UL residual impairments and with functional improvement after a specific bilateral arm training intervention. Twelve individuals with chronic stroke were measured while reaching to a box as part of their pre- and posttesting assessments. Other measurements included the Fugl-Meyer Upper Extremity Assessment (FM), Modified Wolf Motor Function Test (WT), and the University of Maryland Arm Questionnaire for Stroke (UMAQS). We identified arm control strategies that did not differ between unilateral and bilateral tasks but did differ by FM impairment level and by predicted gains in WT but not UMAQS. Increased shoulder relative to elbow moment contribution was associated with less impairment and greater gains of speed in functional tasks. These results suggest that one goal of training to achieve better outcomes may be to decrease the abnormal coupling of the shoulder and elbow. PMID:23516085

Liu, Wei; McCombe Waller, Sandy; Kepple, Thomas M; Whitall, Jill

2013-01-01

374

WDM extended reach passive optical networks using OFDM-QAM.  

PubMed

In order to reduce the cost for delivering future broadband services, network operators are inclined to simplify the network architectures by integrating the metro and access networks into a single system. Hence, extended reach passive optical networks (ER-PONs) have been proposed. ER-PON usually has four new features: high data rate in both upstream and downstream signals (>1 Gb/s); reach extension to >100 km; a high split ratio (>100); and using wavelength division multiplexing (WDM). In this work, we propose and demonstrate a highly spectral efficient ER-PON using 4 Gb/s OFDM-QAM for both upstream and downstream signals, while achieving a high split-ratio of 256. The ER-PON employs optical components optimized for GPON (bandwidth of approximately 1 GHz) and reaches 100 km without dispersion compensation. Numerical analysis using 16, 64 and 256-QAM OFDM are also performed to study the back-to-back receiver sensitivities and power penalties at different electrical driving ratios. PMID:18679484

Chow, Chi-Wai; Yeh, Chien-Hung; Wang, Chia-Hsuan; Shih, Fu-Yuan; Pan, Ci-Ling; Chi, Sien

2008-08-01

375

Functional Corticomuscular Connection During Reaching Is Weakened Following Stroke  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the functional connection between motor cortex and muscles, we measured Electroencephalogram-Electromyogram (EEG-EMG) coherence of stroke patients and controls. Methods Eight healthy controls and 21 patients with shoulder and elbow coordination deficits were enrolled. All subjects performed a reaching task involving shoulder flexion and elbow extension. EMG of the anterior deltoid (AD) and brachii muscles (BB, TB) and 64-channel scalp EEG were recorded during the task. Time-frequency coherence was calculated using the bivariate autoregressive model. Results Stroke patients had significantly lower corticomuscular coherence compared with healthy controls for the AD and BB muscles at both the beta (20-30 Hz) and lower gamma (30-40 Hz) bands during the movement. BH procedure (FDR) identified a reduced corticomuscular coherence for stroke patients in 11 of 15 scalp area-muscle combinations. There was no statistically significant difference between stroke patients and control subjects according to coherence in other frequency bands. Conclusion Poorly recovered stroke survivors with persistent upper-limb motor deficits exhibited significantly lower gamma-band corticomuscular coherence in performing a reaching task. Significance The study suggests poor brain-muscle communication or poor integration of the EEG and EMG signals in higher frequency band during reaching task may reflect an underlying mechanism producing movement deficits post stroke. PMID:19362515

Fang, Yin; Daly, Janis J; Sun, Jiayang; Hvorat, Ken; Fredrickson, Eric; Pundik, Svetlana; Sahgal, Vinod; Yue, Guang H.

2009-01-01

376

Dealing with Target Uncertainty in a Reaching Control Interface  

PubMed Central

Prosthetic devices need to be controlled by their users, typically using physiological signals. People tend to look at objects before reaching for them and we have shown that combining eye movements with other continuous physiological signal sources enhances control. This approach suffers when subjects also look at non-targets, a problem we addressed with a probabilistic mixture over targets where subject gaze information is used to identify target candidates. However, this approach would be ineffective if a user wanted to move towards targets that have not been foveated. Here we evaluated how the accuracy of prior target information influenced decoding accuracy, as the availability of neural control signals was varied. We also considered a mixture model where we assumed that the target may be foveated or, alternatively, that the target may not be foveated. We tested the accuracy of the models at decoding natural reaching data, and also in a closed-loop robot-assisted reaching task. The mixture model worked well in the face of high target uncertainty. Furthermore, errors due to inaccurate target information were reduced by including a generic model that relied on neural signals only. PMID:24489788

Corbett, Elaine A.; Körding, Konrad P.; Perreault, Eric J.

2014-01-01

377

Enhancement of the maximum energy density in atomic layer deposited oxide based thin film capacitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin film capacitors on areas up to 6 mm2 have been measured regarding capacitance density, relative permittivity, and electrical breakdown. The maximum storable energy density of the thin film capacitors will be discussed as a parameter to evaluate the thin film capacitors applicability. Therefore the measurements of the layer thickness, capacitance density, and the breakdown voltage were combined to achieve the maximum storable areal and volume energy density depending on the dielectric layer thickness. Thickness dependent volume energy densities of up to 50 J/cm3 for pure Al2O3 and 60 J/cm3 for Al2O3/TiO2 nanolaminates were reached.

Spahr, Holger; Nowak, Christine; Hirschberg, Felix; Reinker, Johannes; Kowalsky, Wolfgang; Hente, Dirk; Johannes, Hans-Hermann

2013-07-01

378

Application of maximum entropy method for droplet size distribution prediction using instability analysis of liquid sheet  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the implementation of the instability analysis of wave growth on liquid jet surface, and maximum entropy\\u000a principle (MEP) for prediction of droplet diameter distribution in primary breakup region. The early stage of the primary\\u000a breakup, which contains the growth of wave on liquid–gas interface, is deterministic; whereas the droplet formation stage\\u000a at the end of primary breakup

E. Movahednejad; F. Ommi; S. M. Hosseinalipour; C. P. Chen; S. A. Mahdavi

379

Multiple target tracking using maximum likelihood principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proposes a method (tracking algorithm (TAL)) based on the maximum likelihood (ML) principle for multiple target tracking in near-field using outputs from a large uniform linear array of passive sensors. The targets are assumed to be narrowband signals and modeled as sample functions of a Gaussian stochastic process. The phase delays of these signals are expressed as functions of both

A. Satish; Rangasami L. Kashyap

1995-01-01

380

Dynamic Programming, Maximum Principle and Vintage Capital  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an application of the Dynamic Programming (DP) and of the Maximum Principle (MP) to solve an optimization over time when the production function is linear in the stock of capital (Ak model). Two views of capital are considered. In one, which is embraced by the great majority of macroeconomic models, capital is homogeneous and depreciates at a constant

Giorgio Fabbri; Maurizio Iacopetta

2007-01-01

381

Predicting Maximum Lake Depth from Surrounding Topography  

PubMed Central

Information about lake morphometry (e.g., depth, volume, size, etc.) aids understanding of the physical and ecological dynamics of lakes, yet is often not readily available. The data needed to calculate measures of lake morphometry, particularly lake depth, are usually collected on a lake-by-lake basis and are difficult to obtain across broad regions. To span the gap between studies of individual lakes where detailed data exist and regional studies where access to useful data on lake depth is unavailable, we developed a method to predict maximum lake depth from the slope of the topography surrounding a lake. We use the National Elevation Dataset and the National Hydrography Dataset – Plus to estimate the percent slope of surrounding lakes and use this information to predict maximum lake depth. We also use field measured maximum lake depths from the US EPA's National Lakes Assessment to empirically adjust and cross-validate our predictions. We were able to predict maximum depth for ?28,000 lakes in the Northeastern United States with an average cross-validated RMSE of 5.95 m and 5.09 m and average correlation of 0.82 and 0.69 for Hydrological Unit Code Regions 01 and 02, respectively. The depth predictions and the scripts are openly available as supplements to this manuscript. PMID:21984945

Hollister, Jeffrey W.; Milstead, W. Bryan; Urrutia, M. Andrea

2011-01-01

382

Integrated photovoltaic maximum power point tracking converter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low-power low-cost highly efficient maximum power point tracker (MPPT) to be integrated into a photovoltaic (PV) panel is proposed. This can result in a 25% energy enhancement compared to a standard photovoltaic panel, while performing functions like battery voltage regulation and matching of the PV array with the load. Instead of using an externally connected MPPT, it is proposed

Johan H. R. Enslin; Mario S. Wolf; D. B. Snyman; Wernher Swiegers

1997-01-01

383

REDUCTION OF RESTRICTED MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD FOR  

E-print Network

maximum likelihood (REML) estimator of the dispersion matrix for random coeÃ?cient models is rewritten) estimators are widely used to estimate the free parameters in the dispersion matrix for mixed models to be Gaussian random variables. Thus the kth individual, y k , is a Gaussian random variable with the block

384

REDUCTION OF RESTRICTED MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD FOR  

E-print Network

maximum likelihood (REML) estimator of the dispersion matrix for random coefficient models is rewritten (REML) estimators are widely used to estimate the free parameters in the dispersion matrix for mixed , . . . T N ) and eT = (eT 1 , . . . eT N ). We also require y, and e to be Gaussian random variables. Thus

385

On Using Unsatisfiability for Solving Maximum Satisfiability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maximum Satisfiability (M AXSAT) is a well-known optimization pro- blem, with several practical applications. The most widely known MAXSAT algo- rithms are ineffective at solving hard problems instances f rom practical applica- tion domains. Recent work proposed using efficient Boolean S atisfiability (SAT) solvers for solving the MAXSAT problem, based on identifying and eliminating unsatisfiable subformulas. However, these algorithms do

Joao Marques-Silva; Jordi Planes

2007-01-01

386

Weak Scale From the Maximum Entropy Principle  

E-print Network

The theory of multiverse and wormholes suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model are fixed in such a way that the radiation of the $S^{3}$ universe at the final stage $S_{rad}$ becomes maximum, which we call the maximum entropy principle. Although it is difficult to confirm this principle generally, for a few parameters of the Standard Model, we can check whether $S_{rad}$ actually becomes maximum at the observed values. In this paper, we regard $S_{rad}$ at the final stage as a function of the weak scale ( the Higgs expectation value ) $v_{h}$, and show that it becomes maximum around $v_{h}={\\cal{O}}(300\\text{GeV})$ when the dimensionless couplings in the Standard Model, that is, the Higgs self coupling, the gauge couplings, and the Yukawa couplings are fixed. Roughly speaking, we find that the weak scale is given by \\begin{equation} v_{h}\\sim\\frac{T_{BBN}^{2}}{M_{pl}y_{e}^{5}},\

Yuta Hamada; Hikaru Kawai; Kiyoharu Kawana

2014-09-23

387

Weak Scale From the Maximum Entropy Principle  

E-print Network

The theory of multiverse and wormholes suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model are fixed in such a way that the radiation of the $S^{3}$ universe at the final stage $S_{rad}$ becomes maximum, which we call the maximum entropy principle. Although it is difficult to confirm this principle generally, for a few parameters of the Standard Model, we can check whether $S_{rad}$ actually becomes maximum at the observed values. In this paper, we regard $S_{rad}$ at the final stage as a function of the weak scale ( the Higgs expectation value ) $v_{h}$, and show that it becomes maximum around $v_{h}={\\cal{O}}(300\\text{GeV})$ when the dimensionless couplings in the Standard Model, that is, the Higgs self coupling, the gauge couplings, and the Yukawa couplings are fixed. Roughly speaking, we find that the weak scale is given by \\begin{equation} v_{h}\\sim\\frac{T_{BBN}^{2}}{M_{pl}y_{e}^{5}},\

Yuta Hamada; Hikaru Kawai; Kiyoharu Kawana

2015-03-28

388

Pointing at Maximum Power for PV  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Student teams measure voltage and current in order to determine the power output of a photovoltaic (PV) panel. They vary the resistance in a simple circuit connected to the panel to demonstrate the effects on voltage, current, and power output. After collecting data, they calculate power for each resistance setting, creating a graph of current vs. voltage, and indentifying the maximum power point.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

389

Hurricane Maximum Intensity: Past and Present  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hurricane intensity forecasting has lagged far behind the forecasting of hurricane track. In an effort to improve the understanding of the hurricane intensity dilemma, several attempts have been made to compute an upper bound on the intensity of tropical cyclones. This paper investigates the strides made into determining the maximum intensity of hurricanes. Concentrating on the most recent attempts to

J. Parks Camp; Michael T. Montgomery

2001-01-01

390

Maximum phonation time: variability and reliability.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to determine maximum phonation time reliability as a function of the number of trials, days, and raters in dysphonic and control subjects. Two groups of adult subjects participated in this reliability study: a group of outpatients with functional or organic dysphonia versus a group of healthy control subjects matched by age and gender. Over a period of maximally 6 weeks, three video recordings were made of five subjects' maximum phonation time trials. A panel of five experts were responsible for all measurements, including a repeated measurement of the subjects' first recordings. Patients showed significantly shorter maximum phonation times compared with healthy controls (on average, 6.6 seconds shorter). The averaged interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) over all raters per trial for the first day was 0.998. The averaged reliability coefficient per rater and per trial for repeated measurements of the first day's data was 0.997, indicating high intrarater reliability. The mean reliability coefficient per day for one trial was 0.939. When using five trials, the reliability increased to 0.987. The reliability over five trials for a single day was 0.836; for 2 days, 0.911; and for 3 days, 0.935. To conclude, the maximum phonation time has proven to be a highly reliable measure in voice assessment. A single rater is sufficient to provide highly reliable measurements. PMID:19111437

Speyer, Renée; Bogaardt, Hans C A; Passos, Valéria Lima; Roodenburg, Nel P H D; Zumach, Anne; Heijnen, Mariëlle A M; Baijens, Laura W J; Fleskens, Stijn J H M; Brunings, Jan W

2010-05-01

391

Muscle coordination of maximum-speed pedaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simulation based on a forward dynamical musculoskeletal model was computed from an optimal control algorithm to understand uni- and bi-articular muscle coordination of maximum-speed startup pedaling. The muscle excitations, pedal reaction forces, and crank and pedal kinematics of the simulation agreed with measurements from subjects. Over the crank cycle, uniarticular hip and knee extensor muscles provide 55% of the

Christine C. Raasch; Felix E. Zajac; Baoming Ma; William S. Levine

1997-01-01

392

Comparing maximum pressures in internal combustion engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thin metal diaphragms form a satisfactory means for comparing maximum pressures in internal combustion engines. The diaphragm is clamped between two metal washers in a spark plug shell and its thickness is chosen such that, when subjected to explosion pressure, the exposed portion will be sheared from the rim in a short time.

Sparrow, Stanwood W; Lee, Stephen M

1922-01-01

393

Weak scale from the maximum entropy principle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theory of the multiverse and wormholes suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model (SM) are fixed in such a way that the radiation of the S3 universe at the final stage S_rad becomes maximum, which we call the maximum entropy principle. Although it is difficult to confirm this principle generally, for a few parameters of the SM, we can check whether S_rad actually becomes maximum at the observed values. In this paper, we regard S_rad at the final stage as a function of the weak scale (the Higgs expectation value) vh, and show that it becomes maximum around vh = {{O}} (300 GeV) when the dimensionless couplings in the SM, i.e., the Higgs self-coupling, the gauge couplings, and the Yukawa couplings are fixed. Roughly speaking, we find that the weak scale is given by vh ˜ T_{BBN}2 / (M_{pl}ye5), where ye is the Yukawa coupling of electron, T_BBN is the temperature at which the Big Bang nucleosynthesis starts, and M_pl is the Planck mass.

Hamada, Yuta; Kawai, Hikaru; Kawana, Kiyoharu

2015-03-01

394

Maximum entropy analysis of hydraulic pipe networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) method is developed to infer mean external and internal flow rates and mean pressure gradients (potential differences) in hydraulic pipe networks, without or with sufficient constraints to render the system deterministic. The proposed method substantially extends existing methods for the analysis of flow networks (e.g. Hardy-Cross), applicable only to deterministic networks.

Waldrip, Steven H.; Niven, Robert K.; Abel, Markus; Schlegel, Michael

2014-12-01

395

Maximum entropy models for speech confidence estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we implement a confidence estimation system based on a Naive Bayes classifier, by using the maximum entropy paradigm. The model takes information from various sources including a set of scores which have proved to be useful in confidence estimation tasks. Two different approaches are modeled. First a basic model which takes advantages of smoothing techniques used in

Claudio Estienne; Alberto Sanchís; Alfons Juan; Enrique Vidal

2008-01-01

396

Maximum Possible Transverse Velocity in Special Relativity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a physical picture, an expression for the maximum possible transverse velocity and orientation required for that by a linear emitter in special theory of relativity has been derived. A differential calculus method is also used to derive the expression. (Author/KR)

Medhekar, Sarang

1991-01-01

397

: runout specimen max : maximum fatigue stress  

E-print Network

: runout specimen max : maximum fatigue stress fe,i : elastic limit strength of each specimen 750 uniaxial tensile fatigue stress. Interests in tensile fatigue strength and behaviour come from the fact.g. cantilever of bridge deck slab). Tensile Fatigue behaviour of UHPFRC Doctoral student: Tohru Makita

398

Maximum rotation frequency of strange stars  

SciTech Connect

Using the MIT bag model of strange-quark matter, we calculate the maximum angular frequency of the uniform rotation of strange stars. After studying a broad range of the MIT bag-model parameters, we obtain an upper bound of 12.3 kHz.

Zdunik, J.L.; Haensel, P. (Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, Bartycka 18, PL-00-716 Warsaw (Poland))

1990-07-15

399

Maximum Frictional Charge Generation on Polymer Surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maximum amount of charge that a given surface area can hold is limited by the surrounding environmental conditions such as the atmospheric composition, pressure, humidity, and temperature. Above this charge density limit, the surface will discharge to the atmosphere or to a nearby conductive surface that is at a different electric potential. We have performed experiments using the MECA

Carlos Calle; Ellen Groop; James Mantovani; Martin Buehler

2001-01-01

400

A carbon accumulation maximum during the Medieval Climate Anomaly in the world’s biggest bog, Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The West Siberia Lowland is the most carbon-rich northern wetland region, holding an important portion of total northern peatland carbon (70 Gt of 270-450 Gt C) mainly in the southern lowland (44 Gt) in very large peatlands. The largest of these, the Great Vasyugan Bog complex, spans 63,252 km2 and alone holds ~11 Gt C. Our previous work has shown that recent-past growth of WSL peat C pool has been greatest in southern WSL in large peatlands close to the southern limit of peatland distribution. In this study, we investigate a Great Vasyugan site to investigate peat carbon sensitivity in two ways: 1) assess past changes in vegetation, species-specific 13C geochemistry, and rate of carbon accumulation relative to recent-past climate variation, and 2) assess the relative lability of this deep peat C through laboratory incubations. Carbon accumulation over the last 2000 years, a period of relatively consistent vegetation and litter inputs but variable local hydrology, reached a maximum between 1150 and 1350 AD during Medieval Climate Anomaly conditions. A carbon accumulation minimum occurred between about 1350 and 1550 AD. Regardless of depth, age, or rate of carbon burial, deep peat from between 30 and 230 cm below the surface showed a similar rate of potential aerobic respiration that changed little over 42 days of incubation. Taken together, these data suggest that in some peatlanlds warmer and hydrologically-variable conditions can promote long-term belowground carbon storage.

Beilman, D.; MacDonald, G. M.

2009-12-01

401

Prediction of Maximum Oxygen Uptake Using Both Exercise and Non-Exercise Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to develop a regression model to predict maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) based on submaximal treadmill exercise (EX) and non-exercise (N-EX) data involving 116 participants, ages 18–65 years. The EX data included the participants' self-selected treadmill speed (at a level grade) when exercise heart rate first reached at least 70% of predicted maximum heart rate (HRmax; 220 –

James D. George; Samantha L. Paul; Annette Hyde; Danielle I. Bradshaw; Pat R. Vehrs; Ronald L. Hager; Frank G. Yanowitz

2009-01-01

402

Interference of different types of seats on postural control system during a forward-reaching task in individuals with paraplegia.  

PubMed

We aimed to evaluate the influence of different types of wheelchair seats on paraplegic individuals' postural control using a maximum anterior reaching test. Balance evaluations during 50, 75, and 90% of each individual's maximum reach in the forward direction using two different cushions on seat (one foam and one gel) and a no-cushion condition were carried out on 11 individuals with a spinal cord injury (SCI) and six individuals without SCI. Trunk anterior displacement and the time spent to perform the test were assessed. No differences were found for the three types of seats in terms of trunk anterior displacement and the time spent to perform the test when intragroup comparisons were made in both groups (P>0.05). The intergroup comparison showed that body displacement was less prominent and the time spent to perform the test was more prolonged for individuals with SCI (P<0.05), which suggests a postural control deficit. The seat type did not affect the ability of the postural control system to maintain balance during the forward-reaching task. PMID:22517377

de Abreu, Daniela Cristina Carvalho; Takara, Kelly; Metring, Nathália Lopes; Reis, Júlia Guimarães; Cliquet, Alberto

2012-09-01

403

Properties of spike train spectra in two parietal reach areas.  

PubMed

In the lateral intraparietal area (LIP), a saccade-related region of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC), spiking activity recorded during the memory period of an instructed-delay task exhibits temporal structure that is spatially tuned. These results provide evidence for the existence of 'dynamic memory fields' which can be read-out by other brain areas, along with information contained in the mean firing rate, to give the direction of a planned movement. We looked for evidence of dynamic memory fields in spiking activity in two parietal reach areas, the parietal reach region (PRR) and area 5. Monkeys made center-out reaches to eight target locations in an instructed-delay task with a memory component. Neurons in both areas exhibited sustained activity during the delay period that was spatially tuned. Many single cell PRR spectra exhibited spatially tuned temporal structure, as evidenced by a significant and spatially tuned peak in the 20-50 Hz band. The PRR population spectrum of spike trains was also tuned, with the peak power centered on approximately 25 Hz. In contrast, area 5 spiking activity did not exhibit any significant temporal structure. These results suggest that different mechanisms underlie sustained delay period activity in these two areas and that dynamic memory fields, as revealed by our techniques, are more prominent in PRR than in area 5. Temporal structure in the spike train and local field potential (LFP) are related in at least one other brain area (LIP). The present results suggest then that LFP activity obtained from PRR may be better suited than area 5 LFP activity for use in neural prosthetic systems that incorporate analysis of temporal structure as part of a decode mechanism for extracting intended movement goals. PMID:14610632

Buneo, C A; Jarvis, M R; Batista, A P; Andersen, R A

2003-11-01

404

Defining a controller architecture for the Long-Reach Manipulator  

SciTech Connect

To draft a procurement specification for the Long-Reach Manipulator (LRM), the benefits and limitations of the various robotic control system architectures available need to be determined. This report identifies and describes the advantages and potential disadvantages of using an open control system versus a closed (or proprietary) system, focusing on integration of interfaces for sensors, end effectors, tooling, and operator interfaces. In addition, the various controls methodologies of several recent systems are described. Finally, the reasons behind the recommendation to procure an open control system are discussed.

Ford, W.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Intelligent Systems Dept. III

1994-06-01

405

Disappointment Reach, Australia as seen from STS-67 Endeavour  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A nearly vertical view of Disappointment Reach and surroundings. Ripple-like patterns extending at right angles to the tidal flow can be discerned on shoals. Relict sand dune patterns, crests unvegetated, are evident on the western side of the estuary. Red mud brought down the Mooramel River on the east side of the estuary does extend into the shallow water of the inter-tidal lagoons. Most of the light-colored water along the coast, represents shoals of lime sediment. Patterns of sediment distribution by tides, waves, streams, and wind combine to create a complex and colorful scene.

1995-01-01

406

East Ohio gas 'bridges' service to reach new customers  

SciTech Connect

A lift bridge across the Cuyahoga River at the eastern end of Whiskey Island provided the most feasible route to five new industrial customers for East Ohio Gas Co. in Cleveland. Previously considered ''unpipeable'', the island was reached by building a line along the stationary bridgework 125 ft above the bridge. The 6-in pipe is protected by a heat-fused epoxy coating; welded joints were covered in the field with heat-shrink sleeves. The line is fully electrically insulated and protected from lightning.

Not Available

1982-12-01

407

Brief: Critical technologies for success in extended-reach drilling  

SciTech Connect

Extended-reach drilling (ERD) is a pivotal industry activity to optimize field development through a fewer drillsites and structures and access to otherwise unavailable reserves. ERD technologies are specialized and rapidly changing. This review is based on technology assessments and field experience gained in the pursuit of world-record ERD objectives. Six wells have now been drilled in the Wytch Farm ERD project, and many lessons have been learned. This review has highlighted some of the significant ERD issues to be considered. Time/depth performance to date has improved dramatically as a result of critical technologies being recognized, resolved, and adopted.

Payne, M.L. [Arco Oil and Gas Co., Plano, TX (United States); Cocking, D.A.; Hatch, A.J.

1995-02-01

408

Drilling dynamic problems and solutions for extended-reach operations  

SciTech Connect

Drillstring, BHA, and bit dynamics continue to receive increased industry focus due to their potential for detrimental impact on drilling operations. This paper reviews drilling dynamics and presents case studies of dynamic observations in a record setting Extended Reach Drilling (ERD) project. Background on the nature of the vibrations and field data demonstrating the phenomena are provided. Rigsite measures to remedy these dynamic problems are detailed including rotary-feedback systems, Measurement-While-Drilling (MWD) accelerometer instrumentation, mud logging data, and improvements to Positive-Displacement Motor (PDM) designs. Recommendations are made for improving current dynamic monitoring and suppression technologies.

Payne, M.L. [ARCO British Ltd., Poole (United Kingdom); Abbassian, F.; Eng, C. [BP Exploration Operating Co., Ltd., Sunbury-on-Thames (United Kingdom); Hatch, A.J. [Anadrill/Schlumberger, Poole (United Kingdom)

1995-12-31

409

Microdroplet growth mechanism during water condensation on superhydrophobic surfaces.  

PubMed

By promoting dropwise condensation of water, nanostructured superhydrophobic coatings have the potential to dramatically increase the heat transfer rate during this phase change process. As a consequence, these coatings may be a facile method of enhancing the efficiency of power generation and water desalination systems. However, the microdroplet growth mechanism on surfaces which evince superhydrophobic characteristics during condensation is not well understood. In this work, the sub-10 ?m dynamics of droplet formation on nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces are studied experimentally and theoretically. A quantitative model for droplet growth in the constant base (CB) area mode is developed. The model is validated using optimized environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) imaging of microdroplet growth on a superhydrophobic surface consisting of immobilized alumina nanoparticles modified with a hydrophobic promoter. The optimized ESEM imaging procedure increases the image acquisition rate by a factor of 10-50 as compared to previous research. With the improved imaging temporal resolution, it is demonstrated that nucleating nanodroplets coalesce to create a wetted flat spot with a diameter of a few micrometers from which the microdroplet emerges in purely CB mode. After the droplet reaches a contact angle of 130-150°, its base diameter increases in a discrete steplike fashion. The droplet height does not change appreciably during this steplike base diameter increase, leading to a small decrease of the contact angle. Subsequently, the drop grows in CB mode until it again reaches the maximum contact angle and increases its base diameter in a steplike fashion. This microscopic stick-and-slip motion can occur up to four times prior to the droplet coalescence with neighboring drops. Lastly, the constant contact angle (CCA) and the CB growth models are used to show that modeling formation of a droplet with a 150° contact angle in the CCA mode rather than in the CB mode severely underpredicts both the drop formation time and the average heat transfer rate through the drop. PMID:22548441

Rykaczewski, Konrad

2012-05-22

410

Fe XIV Synoptic Observations as a Predictor for the Time of Solar Maximum in Cycle 24  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2012 (Am. Geophys. Union Fall Meeting, Abstract SH12A-05) and 2013 (Solar Phys. Online First, DOI 10.1007/s11207-012-0216-1) Altrock discussed the status of Cycle 24 relative to synoptic observations ofFe XIV from Sacramento Peak (http://nsosp.nso.edu/corona). He found that using earlier cycles, in which solar maximum occurred when Fe XIV emission features associated with the classic "Rush to the Poles" reached latitudes 76 ± 2 degrees, the *northern hemisphere* Fe XIV features predicted a maximum in the north at 2011.6 ± 0.3. This was confirmed by hemispheric sunspot numbers from SIDC (http://www.sidc.be/silso/) and sunspot areas from NASA MSFC http://solarscience.msfc.nasa.gov/greenwch.shtml). The earlier papersalso noted that southern high-latitude Fe XIV emission indicated the possibility of a southern maximum early in 2014. At low latitudes, earlier cycles reached solar maximum when Fe XIV emission features reached latitudes 20 ± 1.7 degrees. In 2013, these features were at 21 and 15 degrees in the north, again indicating that northern maximum had already occurred. In the south, the Fe XIV features were at 24 degrees. Gopalswamy et al. (2012, Ap. J. Let. 750:L42) come to similar conclusions from a study of microwave brightness and prominence eruptions. This paper will extend the previous studies up to 2014 to include the recent extraordinary surge of activity in the southern hemisphere. In particular we will examine in more detail the relationship between hemispheric Fe XIV emission features and both global and hemispheric sunspot numbers to see (i) if the previous studies correctly predicted the times of hemispheric solar maxima and (ii) what we can learn from the inclusion of two more years of data. The observations used herein are the result of a cooperative program of the Air Force Research Laboratory and the National Solar Observatory.

Altrock, Richard

2015-04-01

411

Growth and puberty after growth hormone treatment after irradiation for brain tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of treatment with either cranial or craniospinal irradiation with or without cytotoxic chemotherapy for a brain tumour distant from the hypothalamic-pituitary axis was assessed in 29 children who had reached final height. All had received growth hormone treatment for radiation induced growth hormone deficiency. Final height, segmental growth during puberty, and duration of puberty were studied. Both craniospinal

A L Ogilvy-Stuart; S M Shalet

1995-01-01

412

Evaluation of approximate methods to estimate maximum inelastic displacement demands  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Six approximate methods to estimate the maximum inelastic displacement demand of single-degree-of- freedom systems are evaluated. In all methods, the maximum displacement demand of inelastic systems is estimated from the maximum displacement demand of linear elastic systems. Of the methods evalu- ated herein, four are based on equivalent linearization in which the maximum deformation is estimated as the maximum

Eduardo Miranda

2002-01-01

413

Maximum-entropy description of animal movement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a class of maximum-entropy states that naturally includes within it all of the major continuous-time stochastic processes that have been applied to animal movement, including Brownian motion, Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, integrated Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, a recently discovered hybrid of the previous models, and a new model that describes central-place foraging. We are also able to predict a further hierarchy of new models that will emerge as data quality improves to better resolve the underlying continuity of animal movement. Finally, we also show that Langevin equations must obey a fluctuation-dissipation theorem to generate processes that fall from this class of maximum-entropy distributions when the constraints are purely kinematic.

Fleming, Chris H.; Suba??, Yi?it; Calabrese, Justin M.

2015-03-01

414

Finding maximum colorful subtrees in practice.  

PubMed

In metabolomics and other fields dealing with small compounds, mass spectrometry is applied as a sensitive high-throughput technique. Recently, fragmentation trees have been proposed to automatically analyze the fragmentation mass spectra recorded by such instruments. Computationally, this leads to the problem of finding a maximum weight subtree in an edge-weighted and vertex-colored graph, such that every color appears, at most once in the solution. We introduce new heuristics and an exact algorithm for this Maximum Colorful Subtree problem and evaluate them against existing algorithms on real-world and artificial datasets. Our tree completion heuristic consistently scores better than other heuristics, while the integer programming-based algorithm produces optimal trees with modest running times. Our fast and accurate heuristic can help determine molecular formulas based on fragmentation trees. On the other hand, optimal trees from the integer linear program are useful if structure is relevant, for example for tree alignments. PMID:23509858

Rauf, Imran; Rasche, Florian; Nicolas, François; Böcker, Sebastian

2013-04-01

415

Pareto versus lognormal: A maximum entropy test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is commonly found that distributions that seem to be lognormal over a broad range change to a power-law (Pareto) distribution for the last few percentiles. The distributions of many physical, natural, and social events (earthquake size, species abundance, income and wealth, as well as file, city, and firm sizes) display this structure. We present a test for the occurrence of power-law tails in statistical distributions based on maximum entropy. This methodology allows one to identify the true data-generating processes even in the case when it is neither lognormal nor Pareto. The maximum entropy approach is then compared with other widely used methods and applied to different levels of aggregation of complex systems. Our results provide support for the theory that distributions with lognormal body and Pareto tail can be generated as mixtures of lognormally distributed units.

Bee, Marco; Riccaboni, Massimo; Schiavo, Stefano

2011-08-01

416

Maximum speed of dewetting on a fiber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A solid object can be coated by a nonwetting liquid since a receding contact line cannot exceed a critical speed. We theoretically investigate this forced wetting transition for axisymmetric menisci on fibers of varying radii. First, we use a matched asymptotic expansion and derive the maximum speed of dewetting. For all radii, we find the maximum speed occurs at vanishing apparent contact angle. To further investigate the transition, we numerically determine the bifurcation diagram for steady menisci. It is found that the meniscus profiles on thick fibers are smooth, even when there is a film deposited between the bath and the contact line, while profiles on thin fibers exhibit strong oscillations. We discuss how this could lead to different experimental scenarios of film deposition.

Shing Chan, Tak; Gueudré, Thomas; Snoeijer, Jacco H.

2011-11-01

417

Zipf's law, power laws, and maximum entropy  

E-print Network

Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines - from astronomy to demographics to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation [RGF] attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present article I argue that the cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.

Visser, Matt

2012-01-01

418

Zipf's law, power laws, and maximum entropy  

E-print Network

Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines - from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation [RGF] attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present article I argue that the cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.

Matt Visser

2013-04-07

419

MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD ESTIMATION FOR SOCIAL NETWORK DYNAMICS  

PubMed Central

A model for network panel data is discussed, based on the assumption that the observed data are discrete observations of a continuous-time Markov process on the space of all directed graphs on a given node set, in which changes in tie variables are independent conditional on the current graph. The model for tie changes is parametric and designed for applications to social network analysis, where the network dynamics can be interpreted as being generated by choices made by the social actors represented by the nodes of the graph. An algorithm for calculating the Maximum Likelihood estimator is presented, based on data augmentation and stochastic approximation. An application to an evolving friendship network is given and a small simulation study is presented which suggests that for small data sets the Maximum Likelihood estimator is more efficient than the earlier proposed Method of Moments estimator. PMID:25419259

Snijders, Tom A.B.; Koskinen, Johan; Schweinberger, Michael

2014-01-01

420

The Relation of Unimanual and Bimanual Reaching to Crossing the Midline.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship of crossing the midline while reaching for objects to the development of bimanual reaching among infants ages 12, 18, and 26 weeks. Findings indicated that the frequency of two-hand grabbing and the number of midline reaches increased with age; most midline reaches were part of two-handed reaches and occurred…

van Hof, P.; van der Kamp, J.; Savelsbergh, G. J. P.

2002-01-01

421

Integrated testing strategy (ITS) for bioaccumulation assessment under REACH.  

PubMed

REACH (registration, evaluation, authorisation and restriction of chemicals) regulation requires that all the chemicals produced or imported in Europe above 1 tonne/year are registered. To register a chemical, physicochemical, toxicological and ecotoxicological information needs to be reported in a dossier. REACH promotes the use of alternative methods to replace, refine and reduce the use of animal (eco)toxicity testing. Within the EU OSIRIS project, integrated testing strategies (ITSs) have been developed for the rational use of non-animal testing approaches in chemical hazard assessment. Here we present an ITS for evaluating the bioaccumulation potential of organic chemicals. The scheme includes the use of all available data (also the non-optimal ones), waiving schemes, analysis of physicochemical properties related to the end point and alternative methods (both in silico and in vitro). In vivo methods are used only as last resort. Using the ITS, in vivo testing could be waived for about 67% of the examined compounds, but bioaccumulation potential could be estimated on the basis of non-animal methods. The presented ITS is freely available through a web tool. PMID:24806447

Lombardo, Anna; Roncaglioni, Alessandra; Benfentati, Emilio; Nendza, Monika; Segner, Helmut; Fernández, Alberto; Kühne, Ralph; Franco, Antonio; Pauné, Eduard; Schüürmann, Gerrit

2014-08-01

422

Tactile gating in a reaching and grasping task  

PubMed Central

Abstract A multitude of events bombard our sensory systems at every moment of our lives. Thus, it is important for the sensory cortex to gate unimportant events. Tactile suppression is a well?known phenomenon defined as a reduced ability to detect tactile events on the skin before and during movement. Previous experiments found detection rates decrease just prior to and during finger abduction, and decrease according to the proximity of the moving effector. This study examined how tactile detection changes during a reach to grasp. Fourteen human participants used their right hand to reach and grasp a cylinder. Tactors were attached to the index finger, the fifth digit, and the forearm of both the right and left arm and vibrated at various epochs relative to a “go” tone. Results showed that detection rates at the forearm decreased before movement onset; whereas at the right index finger, right fifth digit and at the left index finger, left fifth digit, and forearm sites did not decrease like in the right forearm. These results indicate that the task affects gating dynamics in a temporally? and contextually dependent manner and implies that feed?forward motor planning processes can modify sensory signals. PMID:24760521

Colino, Francisco L.; Buckingham, Gavin; Cheng, Darian T.; van Donkelaar, Paul; Binsted, Gordon

2014-01-01

423

An optically trapped mirror for reaching the standard quantum limit  

E-print Network

The preparation of a mechanical oscillator driven by quantum back-action is a fundamental requirement to reach the standard quantum limit (SQL) for force measurement, in optomechanical systems. However, thermal fluctuating force generally dominates a disturbance on the oscillator. In the macroscopic scale, an optical linear cavity including a suspended mirror has been used for the weak force measurement, such as gravitational-wave detectors. This configuration has the advantages of reducing the dissipation of the pendulum (i.e., suspension thermal noise) due to a gravitational dilution by using a thin wire, and of increasing the circulating laser power. However, the use of the thin wire is weak for an optical torsional anti-spring effect in the cavity, due to the low mechanical restoring force of the wire. Thus, there is the trade-off between the stability of the system and the sensitivity. Here, we describe using a triangular optical cavity to overcome this limitation for reaching the SQL. The triangular cavity can provide a sensitive and stable system, because it can optically trap the mirror's motion of the yaw, through an optical positive torsional spring effect. To show this, we demonstrate a measurement of the torsional spring effect caused by radiation pressure forces.

Nobuyuki Matsumoto; Yuta Michimura; Yoichi Aso; Kimio Tsubono

2014-05-19

424

Ricin A chain reaches the endoplasmic reticulum after endocytosis  

SciTech Connect

Ricin is a potent ribosome inactivating protein and now has been widely used for synthesis of immunotoxins. To target ribosome in the mammalian cytosol, ricin must firstly retrograde transport from the endomembrane system to reach the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where the ricin A chain (RTA) is recognized by ER components that facilitate its membrane translocation to the cytosol. In the study, the fusion gene of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-RTA was expressed with the pET-28a (+) system in Escherichia coli under the control of a T7 promoter. The fusion protein showed a green fluorescence. The recombinant protein can be purified by metal chelated affinity chromatography on a column of NTA. The rabbit anti-GFP antibody can recognize the fusion protein of EGFP-RTA just like the EGFP protein. The cytotoxicity of EGFP-RTA and RTA was evaluated by the MTT assay in HeLa and HEP-G2 cells following fluid-phase endocytosis. The fusion protein had a similar cytotoxicity of RTA. After endocytosis, the subcellular location of the fusion protein can be observed with the laser scanning confocal microscopy and the immuno-gold labeling Electro Microscopy. This study provided important evidence by a visualized way to prove that RTA does reach the endoplasmic reticulum.

Liu Qiong [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Zhejiang University Medical School, Hangzhou 310006 (China); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Ningbo University Medical School, Ningbo 315211 (China); Zhan Jinbiao [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Zhejiang University Medical School, Hangzhou 310006 (China) and Second Affiliated Hospital (Cancer Institute), Zhejiang University Medical School, Hangzhou 310006 (China)]. E-mail: jzhan2k@zju.edu.cn; Chen Xinhong [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Yangzhou University Medical School, Yangzhou 225001 (China); Zheng Shu [Second Affiliated Hospital (Cancer Institute), Zhejiang University Medical School, Hangzhou 310006 (China)

2006-05-12

425

CP-violation reach of an electron capture neutrino beam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article extends the work of Bernabeu and Espinoza by examining the CP-violation reach of a 150Dy electron capture beam through the variation of the two Lorentz boosts, the number of useful electron capture decays, the relative run time of each boost and the number of atmospheric backgrounds. The neutrinos are assumed to be sourced at CERN with an upgraded SPS and are directed towards a 440 kton Water Cerenkov detector located at the Canfranc laboratory. Two large ‘CP-coverage’ choices for the boost pairings are found; a ?-symmetrical coverage for ( ? 1, ? 2) = (280, 160) and an ?-asymmetric coverage for ( ? 1 , ? 2) = (440,150). With a nominal useful decay rate of N ions = 1018 ions per year, the ?-symmetric setup can rule out CP-conservation down to sin2 2 ? 13 = 3•10-4. To reach sin2 2 ? 13 =1•10-3 for both ? < 0 and ? > 0 requires a useful decay rate of N ions = 6•1017 ions per year.

Orme, Christopher

2010-07-01

426

CP-violation reach of an electron capture neutrino beam  

E-print Network

This article extends the work of Bernabeu and Espinoza by examining the CP-violation reach of a $^{150}$Dy electron capture beam through the variation of the two Lorentz boosts, the number of useful electron capture decays, the relative run time of each boost and the number of atmospheric backgrounds. The neutrinos are assumed to be sourced at CERN with an upgraded SPS and are directed towards a 440 kton Water Cerenkov detector located at the Canfranc laboratory. Two large `CP-coverage' choices for the boost pairings are found; a $\\delta$-symmetrical coverage for $(\\gamma_{1}, \\gamma_{2})$ = (280, 160) and an $\\delta$-asymmetric coverage for $(\\gamma_{1}, \\gamma_{2})$ = (440,150). With a nominal useful decay rate of $N_{\\rm ions} = 10^{18}$ per year, the $\\delta$-symmetric setup can rule out CP-conservation down to $\\sin^{2}2\\theta_{13} = 3\\cdot 10^{-4}$. To reach $\\sin^{2}2\\theta_{13} = 1\\cdot 10^{-3}$ for both $\\delta 0$ requires a useful decay rate of $N_{\\rm ions} = 6\\cdot 10^{17}$ per year.

Orme, Christopher

2009-01-01

427

CP-violation reach of an electron capture neutrino beam  

E-print Network

This article extends the work of Bernabeu and Espinoza by examining the CP-violation reach of a $^{150}$Dy electron capture beam through the variation of the two Lorentz boosts, the number of useful electron capture decays, the relative run time of each boost and the number of atmospheric backgrounds. The neutrinos are assumed to be sourced at CERN with an upgraded SPS and are directed towards a 440 kton Water Cerenkov detector located at the Canfranc laboratory. Two large `CP-coverage' choices for the boost pairings are found; a $\\delta$-symmetrical coverage for $(\\gamma_{1}, \\gamma_{2})$ = (280, 160) and an $\\delta$-asymmetric coverage for $(\\gamma_{1}, \\gamma_{2})$ = (440,150). With a nominal useful decay rate of $N_{\\rm ions} = 10^{18}$ ions per year, the $\\delta$-symmetric setup can rule out CP-conservation down to $\\sin^{2}2\\theta_{13} = 3\\cdot 10^{-4}$. To reach $\\sin^{2}2\\theta_{13} = 1\\cdot 10^{-3}$ for both $\\delta 0$ requires a useful decay rate of $N_{\\rm ions} = 6\\cdot 10^{17}$ ions per year.

Christopher Orme

2010-07-12

428

Google Hangouts: Leveraging Social Media to Reach the Education Community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research shows that educator professional development is most effective when it is sustained and/or when a follow-on component is included to support the learning process. In order to create more comprehensive learning experiences for our workshop participants, the education team at the Space Telescope Science Institute is working collaboratively with scientific staff and other experts to create a follow-on component for our professional development program. The new component utilizes video conferencing platforms, such as Google's Hangouts On Air, to provide educators with content updates and extended learning opportunities in between in-person professional development experiences. The goal is to enhance our professional development program in a cost-effective way while reaching a greater cross-section of educators. Video broadcasts go live on Google+, YouTube, and our website - thus providing access to any user with a web browser. Additionally, the broadcasts are automatically recorded and archived for future viewing on our YouTube channel. This provides educators with anywhere, anytime training that best suits their needs and schedules. This poster will highlight our new Hangouts for educators as well as our cross-departmental efforts to expand the reach of our Hubble Hangouts for the public through a targeted recruitment strategy.

Eisenhamer, Bonnie; Summers, Frank; McCallister, Dan; Ryer, Holly

2015-01-01

429

Optically trapped mirror for reaching the standard quantum limit.  

PubMed

The preparation of a mechanical oscillator driven by quantum back-action is a fundamental requirement to reach the standard quantum limit (SQL) for force measurement, in optomechanical systems. However, thermal fluctuating force generally dominates a disturbance on the oscillator. In the macroscopic scale, an optical linear cavity including a suspended mirror has been used for the weak force measurement, such as gravitational-wave detectors. This configuration has the advantages of reducing the dissipation of the pendulum (i.e., suspension thermal noise) due to a gravitational dilution by using a thin wire, and of increasing the circulating laser power. However, the use of the thin wire is weak for an optical torsional anti-spring effect in the cavity, due to the low mechanical restoring force of the wire. Thus, there is the trade-off between the stability of the system and the sensitivity. Here, we describe using a triangular optical cavity to overcome this limitation for reaching the SQL. The triangular cavity can provide a sensitive and stable system, because it can optically trap the mirror's motion of the yaw, through an optical positive torsional spring effect. To show this, we demonstrate a measurement of the torsional spring effect caused by radiation pressure forces. PMID:24921489

Matsumoto, Nobuyuki; Michimura, Yuta; Aso, Yoichi; Tsubono, Kimio

2014-06-01

430

Reach the Unreached – A Systematic Review on Mobile Dental Units  

PubMed Central

Provision of health care facilities and the extent of their utilization is one of the indices of human development. The services for the masses need to be designed with the basic objective of alleviating and preventing the vast amounts of diseases of the mass. This could be achieved by mobile dental units (MDUs). The present systemic review access the efficacy of MDUs for community settings. A review of literature was performed both electronically and manually using MeSH Terms- Mobile Dental Units/clinics. Eight articles, which fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected for the review. MDUs help in overcoming the accessibility, affordability and sustainability barrier. They are able to reach more people than fixed-site clinics. Even in Government sector, mobile dental vans can help reach the underserved at an affordable cost.The present systematic review revealed that MDUs prove to be an effective adjunct to the oral health service providers like dental colleges and private practitioners. PMID:25302288

Kote, Sunder; Basavaraj, Patthi; Singla, Ashish; Pandita, Venisha; Malhi, Ravneet Kaur

2014-01-01

431

[Responsibilities of the European Chemical Agency under REACH].  

PubMed

A new independent institution, the European Chemical Agency (ECHA), will be established after the new Regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) has come into effect, in order to ensure effective management at the community level. The Agency shall be managed by an executive director. The secretariat shall undertake all tasks related to the registration, the management of dossiers and the coordination of the evaluation of chemicals. The Agency also comprises a management board and committees for risk assessment, socio-economic analyses, a member state committee, a forum and a board of appeal. The Agency shall provide the Member States and the institutions of the Community with the best possible scientific and technical advice on questions related to chemicals. The innovations under REACH will introduce some flexibility, such as waiving of standard tests and simplification of administrative procedures, in order to gain resources. Until now no regulation on chemical safety has required such a large work load in such a short time with implemented new tasks and methods. PMID:19137215

Foth, Heidi

2008-12-01

432

Reach-averaged sediment routing model of a canyon river  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial complexity in channel geometry indicates that accurate prediction of sediment transport requires modeling in at least two dimensions. However, a one-dimensional model may be the only practical or possible alternative, especially for longer river reaches of practical concern in river management or landscape modeling. We have developed a one-dimensional model of the Colorado River through upper Grand Canyon that addresses this problem by reach averaging the channel properties and predicting changes in sand storage using separate source and sink functions coupled to the sand routing model. The model incorporates results from the application of a two-dimensional model of flow, sand transport, and bed evolution, and a new algorithm for setting the near-bed sand boundary condition for sand transported over an exposed bouldery bed. Model predictions were compared to measurements of sand discharge during intermittent tributary inputs and varying discharges controlled by dam releases. The model predictions generally agree well with the timing and magnitude of measured sand discharges but tend to overpredict sand discharge during the early stages of a high release designed to redistribute sand to higher-elevation deposits.

Wiele, S. M.; Wilcock, P. R.; Grams, P. E.

2007-02-01

433

Reaching the hip-hop generation: Final (symposium proceedings) report  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this final (closing) report is to capture the flavor of the symposium held March 1 and 2, 1993 in New York City convened by Motivational Educational Entertainment, Inc. (MEE), a black-owned communications research, consulting, and video production company based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The mission of MEE is to understand, reach, and positively affect inner-city youth. Traditional communication approaches from mainstream sources to at-risk youth often don`t account for the unique way youth communicate among themselves and how they relate to the media. This understanding, however, is crucial. To understand youth communication, the people who create and send both entertaining and educational messages to urban youth must be brought into the dialogue. The meeting in New York was intended to provide an important opportunity for senders to meet and evaluate the appropriateness and effectiveness of their messages. In addition, the MEE symposium provided a forum for the continuing public debate about what needs to be done to reach today`s urban teens. Included in this document is a description of symposium goals/objectives, symposium activities, the reaction to and analysis of the symposium, recommendations for future MEE courses of action, and an appendix containing copies of press articles.

Not Available

1993-05-01

434

Generalization of unconstrained reaching with hand-weight changes.  

PubMed

Studies of motor generalization usually perturb hand reaches by distorting visual feedback with virtual reality or by applying forces with a robotic manipulandum. Whereas such perturbations are useful for studying how the central nervous system adapts and generalizes to novel dynamics, they are rarely encountered in daily life. The most common perturbations that we experience are changes in the weights of objects that we hold. Here, we use a center-out, free-reaching task, in which we can manipulate the weight of a participant's hand to examine adaptation and generalization following naturalistic perturbations. In both trial-by-trial paradigms and block-based paradigms, we find that learning converges rapidly (on a timescale of approximately two trials), and this learning generalizes mostly to movements in nearby directions with a unimodal pattern. However, contrary to studies using more artificial perturbations, we find that the generalization has a strong global component. Furthermore, the generalization is enhanced with repeated exposure of the same perturbation. These results suggest that the familiarity of a perturbation is a major factor in movement generalization and that several theories of the neural control of movement, based on perturbations applied by robots or in virtual reality, may need to be extended by incorporating prior influence that is characterized by the familiarity of the perturbation. PMID:23054601

Yan, Xiang; Wang, Qining; Lu, Zhengchuan; Stevenson, Ian H; Körding, Konrad; Wei, Kunlin

2013-01-01

435

Maximum entropy production and the fluctuation theorem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently the author used an information theoretical formulation of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics (MaxEnt) to derive the fluctuation theorem (FT) concerning the probability of second law violating phase-space paths. A less rigorous argument leading to the variational principle of maximum entropy production (MEP) was also given. Here a more rigorous and general mathematical derivation of MEP from MaxEnt is presented, and

R C Dewar

2005-01-01

436

Maximum likelihood estimation in pooled sample tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pooled sample tests, firstly used on the classification problem (identifying all individuals with some characteristic), may also be applied to estimate the prevalence rate. Moreover, the pooled sample methods may attain greater efficiency when applied to estimate some prevalence rate, since it is no longer necessary to perform any individual test. We develop a maximum likelihood computational algorithm for the prevalence rate estimation, and we analyze its performance.

Martins, João Paulo; Felgueiras, Miguel; Santos, Rui

2014-10-01

437

Maximum A Posteriori Estimation of Time Delay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time-delay estimation (TDE) is an important topic of array signal processing for applications such as source localization and beam-forming. With a pair of sensors, the generalized cross correlation (GCC) method is widely used for TDE and the maximum-likelihood (ML) estimation can be considered as a GCC prefilter. Unfortunately, the ML estimation suffers from performance degradation due to the limitation of

Bowon Lee; T. Kalker

2007-01-01

438

Maximum entropy and Bayesian methods. Proceedings.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This volume contains a selection of papers presented at the Tenth Annual Workshop on Maximum Entropy and Bayesian Methods. The thirty-six papers included cover a wide range of applications in areas such as economics and econometrics, astronomy and astrophysics, general physics, complex systems, image reconstruction, and probability and mathematics. Together they give an excellent state-of-the-art overview of fundamental methods of data analysis.

Grandy, W. T., Jr.; Schick, L. H.

439

Random graph processes with maximum degree $2$  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suppose that a process begins with n isolated vertices, to which\\u000aedges are added randomly one by one so that the maximum degree of the induced\\u000agraph is always at most 2. In a previous article, the authors showed that as $n\\u000a\\\\to \\\\infty$, with probability tending to 1, the result of this process is a\\u000agraph with n edges.

A. Ruci?ski; N. C. Wormald

1997-01-01

440

An ESS maximum principle for matrix games.  

PubMed

Previous work has demonstrated that for games defined by differential or difference equations with a continuum of strategies, there exists a G-function, related to individual fitness, that must take on a maximum with respect to a virtual variable v whenever v is one of the vectors in the coalition of vectors which make up the evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS). This result, called the ESS maximum principle, is quite useful in determining candidates for an ESS. This principle is reformulated here, so that it may be conveniently applied to matrix games. In particular, we define a matrix game to be one in which fitness is expressed in terms of strategy frequencies and a matrix of expected payoffs. It is shown that the G-function in the matrix game setting must again take on a maximum value at all the strategies which make up the ESS coalition vector. The reformulated maximum principle is applicable to both bilinear and nonlinear matrix games. One advantage in employing this principle to solve the traditional bilinear matrix game is that the same G-function is used to find both pure and mixed strategy solutions by simply specifying an appropriate strategy space. Furthermore we show how the theory may be used to solve matrix games which are not in the usual bilinear form. We examine in detail two nonlinear matrix games: the game between relatives and the sex ratio game. In both of these games an ESS solution is determined. These examples not only illustrate the usefulness of this approach to finding solutions to an expanded class of matrix games, but aids in understanding the nature of the ESS as well. PMID:11120647

Vincent, T L; Cressman, R

2000-11-01

441

Maximum concentration for ideal asymmetrical radiation concentrators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new relation between the maximum geometric concentration factor C and the angular acceptance interval for asymmetrical ideal non-imaging concentrators is proposed. A generalization of the well-known relation for the two-dimensional case, sin?c=1\\/C where ?c is the acceptance half-angle, results in the proposed relation sin?2?sin?1=2\\/C, where ?1 and ?2 are the angles of the acceptance interval limits relative to the

S. Nordlander

2005-01-01

442

Vegetation controls on the maximum size of coastal dunes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal dunes, in particular foredunes, support a resilient ecosystem and reduce coastal vulnerability to storms. In contrast to dry desert dunes, coastal dunes arise from interactions between biological and physical processes. Ecologists have traditionally addressed coastal ecosystems by assuming that they adapt to preexisting dune topography, whereas geomorphologists have studied the properties of foredunes primarily in connection to physical, not biological, factors. Here, we study foredune development using an ecomorphodynamic model that resolves the co-evolution of topography and vegetation in response to both physical and ecological factors. We find that foredune growth is eventually limited by a negative feedback between wind flow and topography. As a consequence, steady state foredunes are scale invariant, which allows us to derive scaling relations for maximum foredune height and formation time. These relations suggest that plant zonation (in particular for strand `dune-building' species) is the primary factor controlling the maximum size of foredunes and therefore the amount of sand stored in a coastal dune system. We also find that aeolian sand supply to the dunes determines the time scale of foredune formation. These results offer a potential explanation for the empirical relation between beach type and foredune size, in which large (small) foredunes are found on dissipative (reflective) beaches: higher waves associated with dissipative beaches increase the disturbance of strand species which shifts foredune formation landwards and thus leads to larger foredunes.

Duran Vinent, Orencio; Moore, Laura J.

2014-05-01

443

Vegetation controls on the maximum size of coastal dunes  

PubMed Central

Coastal dunes, in particular foredunes, support a resilient ecosystem and reduce coastal vulnerability to storms. In contrast to dry desert dunes, coastal dunes arise from interactions between biological and physical processes. Ecologists have traditionally addressed coastal ecosystems by assuming that they adapt to preexisting dune topography, whereas geomorphologists have studied the properties of foredunes primarily in connection to physical, not biological, factors. Here, we study foredune development using an ecomorphodynamic model that resolves the coevolution of topography and vegetation in response to both physical and ecological factors. We find that foredune growth is eventually limited by a negative feedback between wind flow and topography. As a consequence, steady-state foredunes are scale invariant, which allows us to derive scaling relations for maximum foredune height and formation time. These relations suggest that plant zonation (in particular for strand “dune-building” species) is the primary factor controlling the maximum size of foredunes and therefore the amount of sand stored in a coastal dune system. We also find that aeolian sand supply to the dunes determines the timescale of foredune formation. These results offer a potential explanation for the empirical relation between beach type and foredune size, in which large (small) foredunes are found on dissipative (reflective) beaches. Higher waves associated with dissipative beaches increase the disturbance of strand species, which shifts foredune formation landward and thus leads to larger foredunes. In this scenario, plants play a much more active role in modifying their habitat and altering coastal vulnerability than previously thought. PMID:24101481

Durán, Orencio; Moore, Laura J.

2013-01-01

444

Vegetation controls on the maximum size of coastal dunes.  

PubMed

Coastal dunes, in particular foredunes, support a resilient ecosystem and reduce coastal vulnerability to storms. In contrast to dry desert dunes, coastal dunes arise from interactions between biological and physical processes. Ecologists have traditionally addressed coastal ecosystems by assuming that they adapt to preexisting dune topography, whereas geomorphologists have studied the properties of foredunes primarily in connection to physical, not biological, factors. Here, we study foredune development using an ecomorphodynamic model that resolves the coevolution of topography and vegetation in response to both physical and ecological factors. We find that foredune growth is eventually limited by a negative feedback between wind flow and topography. As a consequence, steady-state foredunes are scale invariant, which allows us to derive scaling relations for maximum foredune height and formation time. These relations suggest that plant zonation (in particular for strand "dune-building" species) is the primary factor controlling the maximum size of foredunes and therefore the amount of sand stored in a coastal dune system. We also find that aeolian sand supply to the dunes determines the timescale of foredune formation. These results offer a potential explanation for the empirical relation between beach type and foredune size, in which large (small) foredunes are found on dissipative (reflective) beaches. Higher waves associated with dissipative beaches increase the disturbance of strand species, which shifts foredune formation landward and thus leads to larger foredunes. In this scenario, plants play a much more active role in modifying their habitat and altering coastal vulnerability than previously thought. PMID:24101481

Durán, Orencio; Moore, Laura J

2013-10-22

445

Subsurface chlorophyll maximum layers: enduring enigma or mystery solved?  

PubMed

The phenomenon of subsurface chlorophyll maximum layers (SCMLs) is not a unique ecological response to environmental conditions; rather, a broad range of interacting processes can contribute to the formation of persistent layers of elevated chlorophyll a concentration (Chl) that are nearly ubiquitous in stratified surface waters. Mechanisms that contribute to the formation and maintenance of the SCMLs include a local maximum in phytoplankton growth rate near the nutricline, photoacclimation of pigment content that leads to elevated Chl relative to phytoplankton biomass at depth, and a range of physiologically influenced swimming behaviors in motile phytoplankton and buoyancy control in diatoms and cyanobacteria that can lead to aggregations of phytoplankton in layers, subject to grazing and physical control. A postulated typical stable water structure characterizes consistent patterns in vertical profiles of Chl, phytoplankton biomass, nutrients, and light across a trophic gradient structured by the vertical flux of nutrients and characterized by the average daily irradiance at the nutricline. Hypothetical predictions can be tested using a nascent biogeochemical global ocean observing system. Partial results to date are generally consistent with predictions based on current knowledge, which has strong roots in research from the twentieth century. PMID:25251268

Cullen, John J

2015-01-01

446

Subsurface Chlorophyll Maximum Layers: Enduring Enigma or Mystery Solved?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phenomenon of subsurface chlorophyll maximum layers (SCMLs) is not a unique ecological response to environmental conditions; rather, a broad range of interacting processes can contribute to the formation of persistent layers of elevated chlorophyll a concentration (Chl) that are nearly ubiquitous in stratified surface waters. Mechanisms that contribute to the formation and maintenance of the SCMLs include a local maximum in phytoplankton growth rate near the nutricline, photoacclimation of pigment content that leads to elevated Chl relative to phytoplankton biomass at depth, and a range of physiologically influenced swimming behaviors in motile phytoplankton and buoyancy control in diatoms and cyanobacteria that can lead to aggregations of phytoplankton in layers, subject to grazing and physical control. A postulated typical stable water structure characterizes consistent patterns in vertical profiles of Chl, phytoplankton biomass, nutrients, and light across a trophic gradient structured by the vertical flux of nutrients and characterized by the average daily irradiance at the nutricline. Hypothetical predictions can be tested using a nascent biogeochemical global ocean observing system. Partial results to date are generally consistent with predictions based on current knowledge, which has strong roots in research from the twentieth century.

Cullen, John J.

2015-01-01

447

The maximum mass of a neutron star.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of neutron star maximum mass is revisited. In particular we show that when the dynamical processes occuring in the first few seconds after the neutron star birth are considered, the concept of neutron star maximum mass, as introduced by Oppenheimer and Volkoff, is partially inadequate. We show that both the maximum mass concept and the final stages of the evolution of massive stars depend on the composition of the neutron star material. In particular, we find two different scenarios depending on the absence or presence of negatively charged hadrons among the constituents. In the first scenario, we show that the Oppenheimer Volkoff mass M_OV_ does not represent the boundary between the value of the masses of neutron stars and black holes. In fact, we find a mass range in which both a neutron star and a black hole may exist. In the second scenario we show that, contrary to the standard view, it is possible to have a supernova explosion (accompained by nucleosynthesis and neutrino emission) followed by the delayed formation of a black hole. The latter mechamism could explain the lack of any observational evidence for a neutron star in the remnant of the supernova 1987A.

Bombaci, I.

1996-01-01

448

Automatic maximum entropy spectral reconstruction in NMR.  

PubMed

Developments in superconducting magnets, cryogenic probes, isotope labeling strategies, and sophisticated pulse sequences together have enabled the application, in principle, of high-resolution NMR spectroscopy to biomolecular systems approaching 1 megadalton. In practice, however, conventional approaches to NMR that utilize the fast Fourier transform, which require data collected at uniform time intervals, result in prohibitively lengthy data collection times in order to achieve the full resolution afforded by high field magnets. A variety of approaches that involve nonuniform sampling have been proposed, each utilizing a non-Fourier method of spectrum analysis. A very general non-Fourier method that is capable of utilizing data collected using any of the proposed nonuniform sampling strategies is maximum entropy reconstruction. A limiting factor in the adoption of maximum entropy reconstruction in NMR has been the need to specify non-intuitive parameters. Here we describe a fully automated system for maximum entropy reconstruction that requires no user-specified parameters. A web-accessible script generator provides the user interface to the system. PMID:17701276

Mobli, Mehdi; Maciejewski, Mark W; Gryk, Michael R; Hoch, Jeffrey C

2007-10-01

449

"SPURS" in the North Atlantic Salinity Maximum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The North Atlantic Salinity Maximum is the world's saltiest open ocean salinity maximum and was the focus of the recent Salinity Processes Upper-ocean Regional Study (SPURS) program. SPURS was a joint venture between US, French, Irish, and Spanish investigators. Three US and two EU cruises were involved from August, 1012 - October, 2013 as well as surface moorings, glider, drifter and float deployments. Shipboard operations included underway meteorological and oceanic data, hydrographic surveys and turbulence profiling. The goal is to improve our understanding of how the salinity maximum is maintained and how it may be changing. It is formed by an excess of evaporation over precipitation and the wind-driven convergence of the subtropical gyre. Such salty areas are getting saltier with global warming (a record high SSS was observed in SPURS) and it is imperative to determine the relative roles of surface water fluxes and oceanic processes in such trends. The combination of accurate surface flux estimates with new assessments of vertical and horizontal mixing in the ocean will help elucidate the utility of ocean salinity in quantifying the changing global water cycle.

Schmitt, Raymond

2014-05-01

450

The maximum rate of mammal evolution.  

PubMed

How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes. PMID:22308461

Evans, Alistair R; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G; Brown, James H; Costa, Daniel P; Ernest, S K Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L; Hamilton, Marcus J; Harding, Larisa E; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G; Saarinen, Juha J; Sibly, Richard M; Smith, Felisa A; Stephens, Patrick R; Theodor, Jessica M; Uhen, Mark D

2012-03-13

451

Continuity of the Maximum-Entropy Inference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the inverse problem of inferring the state of a finite-level quantum system from expected values of a fixed set of observables, by maximizing a continuous ranking function. We have proved earlier that the maximum-entropy inference can be a discontinuous map from the convex set of expected values to the convex set of states because the image contains states of reduced support, while this map restricts to a smooth parametrization of a Gibbsian family of fully supported states. Here we prove for arbitrary ranking functions that the inference is continuous up to boundary points. This follows from a continuity condition in terms of the openness of the restricted linear map from states to their expected values. The openness condition shows also that ranking functions with a discontinuous inference are typical. Moreover it shows that the inference is continuous in the restriction to any polytope which implies that a discontinuity belongs to the quantum domain of non-commutative observables and that a geodesic closure of a Gibbsian family equals the set of maximum-entropy states. We discuss eight descriptions of the set of maximum-entropy states with proofs of accuracy and an analysis of deviations.

Stephan, Weis

2014-09-01

452

Factors affecting the age-C resident fish community along shorelines of the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Hanford Reach is one of the few remaining unimpounded sections of the Columbia River. However, because of flow management at upstream dams, there are often large fluctuations in water level. To determine how environmental conditions might affect age-0 resident fishes in the Hanford Reach, we evaluated species composition, distribution, abundance, and standard lengths of larval and juvenile fishes along shoreline habitats during July and August 1998, 1999, and 2000. Catches in beach seine hauls during all three years were highly variable. The four most abundant taxa collected were three cyprinids, peamouth (Mylocheilus caurinus), northern pikeminnow (Plychocheilus oregonensis), and redside shiner (Richardson ius balteatus); and suckers (Catostoinus spp.). Highest overall catches were in sloughs of the Hanford Reach in 1999, a year with high flows, lower water level fluctuations, and more vegetation. Mean shoreline summer water temperatures were higher in 1998 than in 1999 and 2000, and mean lengths of the four most abundant taxa in late August were also greater in 1998, due presumably to enhanced growth or an earlier spawning season. In spite of flow fluctuations, overall catches of age-0 resident fishes were greater in the riverine Hanford Reach compared to past catches in a more lentic Columbia River reservoir. High abundances of age-0 resident fishes in the Hanford Reach could be due to more spawning and rearing habitat in this structurally complex area, and may mitigate for negative effects of variable flow regimes.

Gadomski, D.M.; Wagner, P.G.

2009-01-01

453

Flower Power: Sunflowers as a Model for Logistic Growth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Logistic growth displays an interesting pattern: It starts fast, exhibiting the rapid growth characteristic of exponential models. As time passes, it slows in response to constraints such as limited resources or reallocation of energy. The growth continues to slow until it reaches a limit, called capacity. When the growth describes a population,…

Fernandez, Eileen; Geist, Kristi A.

2011-01-01

454

Near-infrared light curves of Type Ia supernovae: studying properties of the second maximum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have been proposed to be much better distance indicators at near-infrared (NIR) compared to optical wavelengths - the effect of dust extinction is expected to be lower and it has been shown that SNe Ia behave more like `standard candles' at NIR wavelengths. To better understand the physical processes behind this increased uniformity, we have studied the Y, J and H-filter light curves of 91 SNe Ia from the literature. We show that the phases and luminosities of the first maximum in the NIR light curves are extremely uniform for our sample. The phase of the second maximum, the late-phase NIR luminosity and the optical light-curve shape are found to be strongly correlated, in particular more luminous SNe Ia reach the second maximum in the NIR filters at a later phase compared to fainter objects. We also find a strong correlation between the phase of the second maximum and the epoch at which the SN enters the Lira law phase in its optical colour curve (epochs ˜ 15 to 30 d after B-band maximum). The decline rate after the second maximum is very uniform in all NIR filters. We suggest that these observational parameters are linked to the nickel and iron mass in the explosion, providing evidence that the amount of nickel synthesized in the explosion is the dominating factor shaping the optical and NIR appearance of SNe Ia.

Dhawan, S.; Leibundgut, B.; Spyromilio, J.; Maguire, K.

2015-04-01

455

Collaborative double robust targeted maximum likelihood estimation.  

PubMed

Collaborative double robust targeted maximum likelihood estimators represent a fundamental further advance over standard targeted maximum likelihood estimators of a pathwise differentiable parameter of a data generating distribution in a semiparametric model, introduced in van der Laan, Rubin (2006). The targeted maximum likelihood approach involves fluctuating an initial estimate of a relevant factor (Q) of the density of the observed data, in order to make a bias/variance tradeoff targeted towards the parameter of interest. The fluctuation involves estimation of a nuisance parameter portion of the likelihood, g. TMLE has been shown to be consistent and asymptotically normally distributed (CAN) under regularity conditions, when either one of these two factors of the likelihood of the data is correctly specified, and it is semiparametric efficient if both are correctly specified. In this article we provide a template for applying collaborative targeted maximum likelihood estimation (C-TMLE) to the estimation of pathwise differentiable parameters in semi-parametric models. The procedure creates a sequence of candidate targeted maximum likelihood estimators based on an initial estimate for Q coupled with a succession of increasingly non-parametric estimates for g. In a departure from current state of the art nuisance parameter estimation, C-TMLE estimates of g are constructed based on a loss function for the targeted maximum likelihood estimator of the relevant factor Q that uses the nuisance parameter to carry out the fluctuation, instead of a loss function for the nuisance parameter itself. Likelihood-based cross-validation is used to select the best estimator among all candidate TMLE estimators of Q(0) in this sequence. A penalized-likelihood loss function for Q is suggested when the parameter of interest is borderline-identifiable. We present theoretical results for "collaborative double robustness," demonstrating that the collaborative targeted maximum likelihood estimator is CAN even when Q and g are both mis-specified, providing that g solves a specified score equation implied by the difference between the Q and the true Q(0). This marks an improvement over the current definition of double robustness in the estimating equation literature. We also establish an asymptotic linearity theorem for the C-DR-TMLE of the target parameter, showing that the C-DR-TMLE is more adaptive to the truth, and, as a consequence, can even be super efficient if the first stage density estimator does an excellent job itself with respect to the target parameter. This research provides a template for targeted efficient and robust loss-based learning of a particular target feature of the probability distribution of the data within large (infinite dimensional) semi-parametric models, while still providing statistical inference in terms of confidence intervals and p-values. This research also breaks with a taboo (e.g., in the propensity score literature in the field of causal inference) on using the relevant part of likelihood to fine-tune the fitting of the nuisance parameter/censoring mechanism/treatment mechanism. PMID:20628637

van der Laan, Mark J; Gruber, Susan

2010-01-01

456

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A global maximum power point tracking DC-DC converter  

E-print Network

This thesis describes the design, and validation of a maximum power point tracking DC-DC converter capable of following the true global maximum power point in the presence of other local maximum. It does this without the ...

Duncan, Joseph, 1981-

2005-01-01

460

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Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

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49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.  

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