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1

Perceiving action boundaries: learning effects in perceiving maximum jumping-reach affordances.  

PubMed

Coordinating with another person requires that one can perceive what the other is capable of doing. This ability often benefits from opportunities to practice and learn. Two experiments were conducted in which we investigated perceptual learning in the context of perceiving the maximum height to which an actor could jump to reach an object. Those estimates were compared with estimates that perceivers made for themselves. In Experiment 1, participants initially underestimated the maximum jumping-reach height both for themselves and for the actor. Over time, without explicit feedback, the participants were able to improve estimates of their own maximum jumping-reach height, but estimates for the actor did not improve. In Experiment 2, participants observed the actor perform either an action related but nonidentical to jumping (lifting a weight by squatting) or a nonrelated activity (rotating the torso). The participants who observed the actor perform the related action were able to improve the accuracy of their perceptual reports for the actor's maximum jumping-reach height, but the participants who watched the actor perform the nonrelated task were unable to do so. The results indicate some degree of independence between perceived affordances for the self and others, suggesting that affordance judgments are not entirely dependent on or determined by characteristics of the perceiver. PMID:20436204

Ramenzoni, Verónica C; Davis, Tehran J; Riley, Michael A; Shockley, Kevin

2010-05-01

2

REACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a REACH is an active OODBMS that was developed as a platform to experiment both with the issues arising from the implementation\\u000a of advanced active functionalities, and as a platform for the development of applications that are potential beneficiaries\\u000a of active database technology. To achieve the former, we chose an experimental OODBMS, Texas Instruments’ OpenOODB, for which\\u000a the source code was

Jiirgen Zimmermann; Alejandro P. Buchmann

1999-01-01

3

High resolution spectromicroscopy with MAXIMUM: Photoemission spectroscopy reaches the 1000 Å scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new results from the soft X-ray scanning photoemission microscope: MAXIMUM. The microscope is installed at the U41 undulator at the Synchrotron Radiation Center at the University of Wisconsin. The instrument is based on a multilayer-coated Schwarzchild objective, operating at 95 eV, and it has demonstrated spatial resolution better than 0.1 ?m and electron energy resolution of 300 meV. We review the design and the implementation of the microscope. We also present recent results as well as a summary of the research programs that are being conducted with MAXIMUM.

Ng, W.; Ray-Chaudhuri, A. K.; Liang, S.; Singh, S.; Solak, H.; Welnak, J.; Cerrina, F.; Margaritondo, G.; Underwood, J. H.; Kortright, J. B.; Perera, R. C. C.

1994-08-01

4

Impact of various noises on maximum reach in broadband light source based high-capacity WDM passive optical networks.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of various noises on the performance of extended-reach WDM-PONs based on broadband light sources (BLSs). The maximum reach in BLS based WDM-PONs was analyzed by taking into account the impact of relative intensity noise of optical source, chromatic dispersion of transmission fiber and in-band crosstalk. We confirmed that the system's performance of BLS based WDM-PONs would be strongly dependent on the equivalent optical bandwidth of optical source. From the results, we found that the maximum reach in BLS based WDM-PONs operating at 1.25 Gb/s could be increased to be approximately 70 km of single-mode fiber as long as the chirp and relative intensity noise (RIN) of optical source would be suppressed properly. PMID:20588835

Kim, Chul Han

2010-05-10

5

Occurrence and Impact of Insects in Maximum Growth Plantations  

SciTech Connect

Investigation of the relationships between intensive management practices and insect infestation using maximum growth potential studies of loblolly pine constructed over five years using a hierarchy of cultural treatments-monitoring differences in growth and insect infestation levels related to the increasing management intensities. This study shows that tree fertilization can increase coneworm infestation and demonstrated that tip moth management tree growth, at least initially.

Nowak, J.T.; Berisford, C.W.

2001-01-01

6

Instability conditions and maximum growth rate of aperiodic instabilities  

SciTech Connect

Three linear kinetic plasma instabilities are investigated for a counterstreaming Maxwellian distribution function with anisotropic temperatures such that aperiodic modes are generated. Concentration is focused on the instability condition, which is characterized by the marginally positive growth rate, and on the maximum growth rate and the associated fastest growing wavenumber. It is demonstrated that the simultaneous numerical solution of the dispersion relation and its derivative facilitates parameter studies for quantities such as the temperature anisotropy, thermal and streaming velocities, and the background magnetic field strength. Similarities and differences in the behavior of the three aperiodic modes are exemplified and implications for applications such as numerical simulations are illustrated.

Tautz, R. C. [Zentrum fuer Astronomie und Astrophysik, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Hardenbergstrasse 36, D-10623 Berlin (Germany)

2011-01-15

7

The vermetid gastropod Dendropoma maximum reduces coral growth and survival  

PubMed Central

Coral reefs are one of the most diverse systems on the planet; yet, only a small fraction of coral reef species have attracted scientific study. Here, we document strong deleterious effects of an often overlooked species—the vermetid gastropod, Dendropoma maximum—on growth and survival of reef-building corals. Our surveys of vermetids on Moorea (French Polynesia) revealed a negative correlation between the density of vermetids and the per cent cover of live coral. Furthermore, the incidence of flattened coral growth forms was associated with the presence of vermetids. We transplanted and followed the fates of focal colonies of four species of corals on natural reefs where we also manipulated presence/absence of vermetids. Vermetids reduced skeletal growth of focal corals by up to 81 per cent and survival by up to 52 per cent. Susceptibility to vermetids varied among coral species, suggesting that vermetids could shift coral community composition. Our work highlights the potential importance of a poorly studied gastropod to coral dynamics.

Shima, Jeffrey S.; Osenberg, Craig W.; Stier, Adrian C.

2010-01-01

8

Estimation of the maximum temperature reached in burned soils using near-infrared spectroscopy: Effects of soil sample pre-treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire causes changes in soil moisture content (MC) and also in other soil properties depending on the maximum temperature reached. However, after fire, MC is partially rapidly restored due to re-equilibrium with air moisture or following rainfall, which in turn affects the near infrared (NIR) spectra of soil. The degree to which MC is restored depends on other soil properties,

V. Arcenegui; J. Mataix-Solera; R. Zornoza; A. Pérez-Bejarano; J. Mataix-Beneyto; I. Gómez

2010-01-01

9

Blue-emitting InGaN–GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A?cm2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Auger recombination is determined to be the limiting factor for quantum efficiency for InGaN–GaN (0001) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) at high current density. High-power double-heterostructure (DH) LEDs are grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. By increasing the active layer thickness, DH LEDs can reach a maximum in quantum efficiency at current densities above 200 A?cm2. Encapsulated thin-film flip-chip DH LEDs with

N. F. Gardner; Y. C. Shen; G. Chen; S. Watanabe; M. R. Krames

2007-01-01

10

Impact of seed source power on dispersion-limited maximum reach in WDM-PONs using broadband light source seeded optical sources.  

PubMed

The maximum reach in a WDM-PON using a broadband light source (BLS) seeded optical source has been experimentally evaluated by taking into account both effects of dispersion-induced pulse broadening and excess intensity noise (EIN) increase. In order to investigate the impact of BLS seed source power on the dispersion-limited performance, the system's performance has been measured and compared as a function of the spectrum-sliced BLS seed power into a reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA). From the results, we confirmed that the maximum reach in a RSOA based WDM-PON was mainly degraded by the dispersion-induced EIN increase. Therefore, by mitigating the effect of dispersion-induced EIN increase with a high seed power into a RSOA, the maximum reach in the WDM-PON using a BLS seeded RSOA source could be achieved to be ~60 km of single-mode fiber at the spectrum-sliced BLS seed power of >-10 dBm and a 1.25 Gb/s signal without using any dispersion-compensating techniques. PMID:22418106

Kim, Chul Han

2012-02-13

11

Maximum Shell Size, Growth Rate, and Maturation Age Correlate With Longevity in Bivalve Molluscs  

PubMed Central

Bivalve molluscs are newly discovered models of successful aging, and this invertebrate group includes Arctica islandica, with the longest metazoan life span. Despite an increasing biogerontological focus on bivalves, their life history traits in relation to maximum age are not as comprehensively understood as those in vertebrate model aging organisms. We explore the allometric scaling of longevity and the relationship between development schedules (time to maturity and growth rate) and longevity in the Bivalvia. Using a traditional nonphylogenetic approach and the phylogenetically independent contrasts method, the relationship among these life history parameters is analyzed. It is demonstrated that in bivalves, maximum shell size, development, and growth rates all associate with longevity. Our findings support the observations of life history patterns in mammals and fish. This is the first investigation into the relationship among longevity, size, and development schedules throughout this group, and the results strengthened by the control for phylogenetic independence.

Richardson, C. A.; Austad, S. N.

2011-01-01

12

Maximum shell size, growth rate, and maturation age correlate with longevity in bivalve molluscs.  

PubMed

Bivalve molluscs are newly discovered models of successful aging, and this invertebrate group includes Arctica islandica, with the longest metazoan life span. Despite an increasing biogerontological focus on bivalves, their life history traits in relation to maximum age are not as comprehensively understood as those in vertebrate model aging organisms. We explore the allometric scaling of longevity and the relationship between development schedules (time to maturity and growth rate) and longevity in the Bivalvia. Using a traditional nonphylogenetic approach and the phylogenetically independent contrasts method, the relationship among these life history parameters is analyzed. It is demonstrated that in bivalves, maximum shell size, development, and growth rates all associate with longevity. Our findings support the observations of life history patterns in mammals and fish. This is the first investigation into the relationship among longevity, size, and development schedules throughout this group, and the results strengthened by the control for phylogenetic independence. PMID:20966102

Ridgway, I D; Richardson, C A; Austad, S N

2010-10-21

13

Growth of lake trout in Lake Superior before the maximum abundance of sea lampreys  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The growth in length of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from the inshore water of Lake Superior in 1953 increased with age from the 3rd to 9th year, and was nearly constant from the 9th to the 12th year. Growth was greatest in the 1st year (4.0 inches) and least in the 2nd and 3rd years (2.3 inches). Between the 4th and 9th years the increments increased from 2.6 to 3.5 inches. Growth was calculated from a curvilinear body-scale relation. Intraseasonal growth in length extended from late April until well after October; most growth was in late summer and fall. The younger fish started growth earlier, and some mature fish did not increase in length until after the October spawning. Lake trout reached the minimum legal weight (1.5 pounds) in the 7th year of life and the average size taken in the commercial fishery (about 3 pounds) in the 8th year. The annual increase in weight in the 8th year of life was over 64%. Fish used in this study grew more slowly than those from Lakes Michigan and Huron taken during the period when sea lamprey abundance was increasing, but at about the same rate as lake trout of Lake Michigan before the sea lamprey appeared.

Rahrer, Jerold F.

1967-01-01

14

Life-history correlates of maximum population growth rates in marine fishes.  

PubMed Central

Theory predicts that populations of animals with late maturity, low fecundity, large body size and low body growth rates will have low potential rates of population increase at low abundance. If this is true, then these traits may be used to predict the intrinsic rate of increase for species or populations, as well as extinction risks. We used life-history and population data for 63 stocks of commercially exploited fish species from the northeast Atlantic to test relationships between life-history parameters and the rate of population increase at low abundance. We used cross-taxonomic analyses among stocks and among species, and analyses that accounted for phylogenetic relationships. These analyses confirmed that large-bodied, slow-growing stocks and species had significantly lower rates of recruitment and adult production per spawning adult at low abundance. Furthermore, high ages at maturity were significantly correlated with low maximum recruit production. Contrary to expectation, fecundity was significantly negatively related to recruit production, due to its positive relationship with maximum body size. Our results support theoretical predictions, and suggest that a simply measured life-history parameter can provide a useful tool for predicting rates of recovery from low population abundance.

Denney, Nicola H; Jennings, Simon; Reynolds, John D

2002-01-01

15

Ammonia inhibition of the maximum growth rate (? m ) of hydrogenotrophic methanogens at various pH-levels and temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the quantitative measurement of the maximum growth rate (µm) of hydrogen-consuming methanogenic populations was applied to assess the toxicity of ammonia1 under various pH and temperature conditions. The maximum uninhibited growth rate of the hydrogenotrophic population present in sludge from an industrial anaerobic wastewater treatment system appeared to be 0.126 h-1 at pH=7 and 37°C. At 350

Iman W. Koster; Ernst Koomen

1988-01-01

16

Operation of suspended-growth shortcut biological nitrogen removal (SSBNR) based on the minimum/maximum substrate concentration.  

PubMed

This study exploited the concept of the minimum/maximum substrate concentrations (MSC values) for identifying proper start-up conditions and achieving stable and low effluent total ammonium nitrogen (TAN) concentrations in suspended-growth short-cut biological nitrogen removal (SSBNR). Calculations based on the MSC concept indicated that S(Dmax), the TAN concentration above which ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) are washed out, was around 450mgTAN/L at the given operating conditions of 2mg/L of dissolved oxygen and pH 8, while nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) should be washed out at around 40mgTAN/L. Therefore, the experimental research was focused on the optimal TAN-concentration range for SSBNR, between 50 and 100mg/L. Experimental results showed that a nitrification reactor with initial TAN concentration above 450mg/L did not give a successful start-up. However, two days of starvation, which decreased the TAN concentration in the reactor to 95mg/L, stabilized the reaction quickly, and stable SSBNR was sustained thereafter with 80mgTAN/L and 98% nitrite accumulation in the reactor. During stable SSBNR, the removal ratio of chemical oxygen demand per nitrite nitrogen (DeltaCOD/DeltaNO(2)-N) for denitrification was 1.94gCOD/gN, which is around 55% of that required for nitrate denitrification. Based on a clone library, Nitrosomonas occupied 14% of the total cells, while the sum of Nitrobacter and Nitrospira was less than the detection cut-off of 2%, confirming the NOB were washed out during SSBNR. A spiking test that doubled the influent ammonium loading caused the TAN concentration in the reactor to reach washout for AOB, which lasted until the loading was reduced. Thus, a loading increase should be controlled carefully such that the system does not exceed the washout range for AOB. PMID:20004929

Park, Seongjun; Bae, Wookeun; Rittmann, Bruce E; Kim, Seungjin; Chung, Jinwook

2009-11-20

17

Predicting tree mortality from diameter growth: a comparison of maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecologists and foresters have long noted a link between tree growth rate and mortality, and recent work sug- gests that interspecific differences in low growth tolerance is a key force shaping forest structure. Little information is available, however, on the growth-mortality relationship for most species. We present three methods for estimating growth-mortality functions from readily obtainable field data. All use

Peter H. Wyckoff; James S. Clark

2000-01-01

18

Dependence of the maximum temperature for growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on nutrient concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saccharomyces cerevisiae was grown in a chemostat under glucose limitation at three superoptimal temperatures. In each steady state the specific growth rate was the sum of the dilution rate and the specific death rate, exponential death concurring with exponential growth. The specific death rate was a function of the temperature while the specific growth rate was a function of both

N. VAN UDEN; A. Madeira-Lopes

1975-01-01

19

Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Population Growth Rates Based on the Coalescent  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a method for co-estimating 4Nem (four times the product of effective population size and neutral mutation rate) and population growth rate from sequence samples using Metropolis-Hastings sampling. Population growth (or decline) is assumed to be exponential. The estimates of growth rate are biased upwards, especially when 4Nem is low; there is also a slight upwards bias in the

Mary K. Kuhner; Jon Yamato; Joseph Felsenstein

1998-01-01

20

REACH Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document describes the REACH Program, an alternative school program for students who have been suspended for drug or alcohol related offenses, which includes a short-term (7-day) suspension program designed to provide education and assessment and a long-term suspension program which provides 3 to 4 hours of counseling and education per day…

Johnson, Teresa M.; And Others

21

REACH Presentation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to provide support for employees and their families, Red Deer College (RDC) developed the Resources, Employees, Assistance, Counselling, and Health (REACH) program. The program is administered by a committee of five people who represent the five major employee groups at the college (i.e., senior administration, middle administration,…

Bucklee, Joanne

22

REACH Presentation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In an effort to provide support for employees and their families, Red Deer College (RDC) developed the Resources, Employees, Assistance, Counselling, and Health (REACH) program. The program is administered by a committee of five people who represent the five major employee groups at the college (i.e., senior administration, middle administration,…

Bucklee, Joanne

23

Significance of river-aquifer interactions for reach-scale thermal patterns and trout growth potential in the Motueka River, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To assess whether reaches of the Motueka River (New Zealand) that gain water from groundwater were likely to represent significant cold-water refugia for brown trout during periods of high water temperatures, water temperature was monitored for more than 18 months in two gaining reaches of the Motueka River and three reaches that were predicted to be losing water to groundwater. These data were used to predict brown trout ( Salmo trutta) growth in gaining and losing reaches. Groundwater inputs had a small effect on water temperature at the reach-scale and modelling suggests that the differences observed were unlikely to result in appreciable differences in trout growth. Several coldwater patches were identified within the study reach that were up to 3.5°C cooler than the mainstem, but these were generally shallow and were unlikely to provide refuge for adult trout. The exception was Hinetai Spring, which had a mean water temperature of close to 16°C during the period January-March, when temperatures in the mainstem regularly exceeded 19°C. Trout were observed within the cold-water plume at the mouth of Hinetai Stream, which would allow them to thermoregulate when mainstem temperatures are unfavourable while still being able to capitalise on food resources available in the mainstem.

Olsen, Dean A.; Young, Roger G.

2009-02-01

24

Salinity effects on the maximum hydrostatic pressure for growth of the marine psychrophilic bacterium, Vibrio marinus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In nondefined basal medium containing 35% synthetic seawater salts Vibrio mchws MP-1 reproduces at hydrostatic pressures of 422 2 13.5 and 280 k 13.5 atm at 8 and 4C; in defined basal medium containing 35% NaCl, these maximums are 422 2 6.8 and 327 k 6.8 atm at 9 and 4C. Decreasing the NaC'l concentration results in a corresponding decrease

DOUGLAS S. PALMER; LAWRENCE J. ALBRIGHT

1970-01-01

25

Ion permeability of the cytoplasmic membrane limits the maximum growth temperature of bacteria and archaea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protons and sodium ions are the most commonly used coupling ions in energy transduction in bacteria and archaea. At their growth temperature, the permeability of the cytoplasmic membrane of thermophilic bacteria to protons is high compared with that of sodium ions. In some thermophiles, sodium is the sole energy-coupling ion. To test whether sodium is the preferred coupling ion at

Jack L. C. M. van de Vossenberg; Trees Ubbink-Kok; Marieke G. L. Elferink; Arnold J. M. Driessen; Wil N. Konings

1995-01-01

26

Physiological and growth responses of C3 and C4 plants at the Pleistocene glacial maximum  

SciTech Connect

A C3 plant (Abutilon theophrasti) and a C4 plant (Amaranthus retroflexus) were grown from seed in the Duke University Phytotron under four CO2 concentrations (15 Pa, below the Pleistocene minimum), 27 Pa (pre-industrial), 35 Pa (current), and 70 Pa (future) to examine photosynthetic, growth and reproduction responses of annual plants to historic and future levels of CO2. Net photosynthesis and growth were greatly inhibited at 15 Pa and greatly stimulated at 70 Pa. in the C3 Abutilon but only slightly affected in the C4 Amaranthus. Flower bud initiation was not affected by CO2 treatment in either species but all flower buds in 15 Pa CO2 aborted in the C3 within two days of appearance while no inhibition of reproduction was observed at low CO2 in the C4. Differences in physiology, growth and reproduction to the low levels of atmospheric CO2 of the Pleistocene suggest that competitive interactions of C3 and C4 annuals have changed through geologic time. A major question concerning the survival and evolution of obligate C3 annuals during the CO2 minima of the Pleistocene is raised by the results of this study.

Strain, B.R. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)

1995-06-01

27

Unusual Spherulite Radial Growth Rate Kinetics of Poly(ethylene adipate): Observation of a Double Maximum in Growth Rate Curve  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Poly(ethylene adipate) (PEA) is an aliphatic polyester often blended in small amounts with aromatic polyesters in order to impart some of its biodegradability to the resultant blend. Hot-stage polarized-light microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry have been used to investigate the isothermal melt-crystallization kinetics and thermal behaviour of PEA. The unusual spherulite radial growth rate dependence on isothermal crystallization temperature exhibits two maxima. A change in spherulite morphology from banded to non-banded spherulites is associated with the phase behaviour anomaly. The results are interpreted in terms of traditional Hoffmann-Lauritzen growth kinetics.

Singfield, Kathy; Rowe, Ashley

2009-03-01

28

THE POSSIBILITY OF CONTINUOUS GROWTH WITH EXHAUSTIBLE RESOURCES: UNKNOWINGLY AN AGREEMENT HAS BEEN REACHED, BUT IT MAY NOT BE CORRECT  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is the size of the elasticity of substitution that has been the central issue in the long debate over the possibility of continuous growth in the presence of exhaustible resources. This paper reviews the debate and comes to the surprising conclusion that , unnoticed by the pessimists, the optimist position has gradually evolved so that it now approximates that

HOWARD PETITH

2008-01-01

29

Effects of light intensity on growth, anatomy and forage quality of two tropical grasses (Brachiaria brizantha and Panicum maximum var. trichoglume)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of light intensity on growth, histology and anatomy, and nutritive value were studied in seedlings of two shade tolerant species: Brachiaria brizantha and Panicum maximum var. trichoglume. They were studied under greenhouse conditions in pots with sandy soil and sufficient N and cut after a growth period of 8 weeks. High light intensity stimulated growth, tillering and yield per

B. Deinum; R. D. Sulastri; M. H. J. Zeinab; A. Maassen

1996-01-01

30

Temperature profiles of ethanol tolerance: effects of ethanol on the minimum and the maximum temperatures for growth of the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces fragilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Difficulties experienced by brewers with yeast performance in the brewing of lager at low temperatures has led the authors to study the effect of ethanol on the minimum temperature for growth (T. min). It has been found that both the maximum temperature (T max) and T min were adversely affected by ethanol and that ethanol tolerance prevailed at intermediate temperatures.

I. Sa-Correia; N. Van Uden

1983-01-01

31

How Far Can You Reach?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of computing the maximum reach cong- urations of a 3D revolute-jointed manipulator is a long- standing open problem in robotics. In this paper we present an optimal algorithmic solution for orthogonal polygonal chains. This appears as a special case of a larger family, fully characterized here by a technical con- dition. Until now, in spite of the practical

Ciprian Borcea; Ileana Streinu

2010-01-01

32

AEROSOL NUCLEATION AND GROWTH DURING LAMINAR TUBE FLOW: MAXIMUM SATURATIONS AND NUCLEATION RATES. (R827354C008)  

EPA Science Inventory

An approximate method of estimating the maximum saturation, the nucleation rate, and the total number nucleated per second during the laminar flow of a hot vapour–gas mixture along a tube with cold walls is described. The basis of the approach is that the temperature an...

33

Human Fetal Weight and Placental Weight Growth Curves  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical analysis of human fetal and placental growth curves was made on data collected prospectively from a population at sea level. Both the fetal and placental growth curves can best be described by a form of the logistic equation inhibited growth model. The fetal growth rate reaches its maximum approximately 4 weeks after the placental growth rate has reached

Duane R. Bonds; Bwalya Mwape; Savitri Kumar; Steven G. Gabbe

1984-01-01

34

Paclobutrazol and plant-growth promoting bacterial endophyte Pantoea sp. enhance copper tolerance of guinea grass ( Panicum maximum ) in hydroponic culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

As most gramineous plants, guinea grass (Panicum maximum) comprise cellulosic biomass, which may be used as a feedstock for bioenergy. In order to develop such potential energy plants\\u000a on copper-polluted lands, the hydroponic experiments with Cu, Paclobutrazol (PP333, a kind of antigibberellin) and plant growth-promoting\\u000a bacterial endophyte (PGPB) treatments were carried out in a greenhouse. The seedlings of two cultivars

Wei HuoChun-hua; Chun-hua Zhuang; Ya Cao; Meng Pu; Hui Yao; Lai-qing Lou; Qing-sheng Cai

35

Improvement of growth yield of yeast on glucose to the maximum by using an additional energy source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experimentally determined growth yield on glucose under aerobic conditions is approximately 0.5 g\\/g, but on the basis of the carbon content a value of 0.71 g\\/g should be the upper limit if carbon conversion is improved by the use of an additional energy source. This assumption was investigated with the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha MH 20. Formate served as

Wolfgang Babel; Roland H. Miiller; Klaus D. Markuske

1983-01-01

36

Variation of maximum tree height and annual shoot growth of Smith fir at various elevations in the Sygera Mountains, southeastern Tibetan Plateau.  

PubMed

Little is known about tree height and height growth (as annual shoot elongation of the apical part of vertical stems) of coniferous trees growing at various altitudes on the Tibetan Plateau, which provides a high-elevation natural platform for assessing tree growth performance in relation to future climate change. We here investigated the variation of maximum tree height and annual height increment of Smith fir (Abies georgei var. smithii) in seven forest plots (30 m×40 m) along two altitudinal transects between 3,800 m and 4,200/4,390 m above sea level (a.s.l.) in the Sygera Mountains, southeastern Tibetan Plateau. Four plots were located on north-facing slopes and three plots on southeast-facing slopes. At each site, annual shoot growth was obtained by measuring the distance between successive terminal bud scars along the main stem of 25 trees that were between 2 and 4 m high. Maximum/mean tree height and mean annual height increment of Smith fir decreased with increasing altitude up to the tree line, indicative of a stress gradient (the dominant temperature gradient) along the altitudinal transect. Above-average mean minimum summer (particularly July) temperatures affected height increment positively, whereas precipitation had no significant effect on shoot growth. The time series of annual height increments of Smith fir can be used for the reconstruction of past climate on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. In addition, it can be expected that the rising summer temperatures observed in the recent past and anticipated for the future will enhance Smith fir's growth throughout its altitudinal distribution range. PMID:22396738

Wang, Yafeng; ?ufar, Katarina; Eckstein, Dieter; Liang, Eryuan

2012-03-01

37

Variation of Maximum Tree Height and Annual Shoot Growth of Smith Fir at Various Elevations in the Sygera Mountains, Southeastern Tibetan Plateau  

PubMed Central

Little is known about tree height and height growth (as annual shoot elongation of the apical part of vertical stems) of coniferous trees growing at various altitudes on the Tibetan Plateau, which provides a high-elevation natural platform for assessing tree growth performance in relation to future climate change. We here investigated the variation of maximum tree height and annual height increment of Smith fir (Abies georgei var. smithii) in seven forest plots (30 m×40 m) along two altitudinal transects between 3,800 m and 4,200/4,390 m above sea level (a.s.l.) in the Sygera Mountains, southeastern Tibetan Plateau. Four plots were located on north-facing slopes and three plots on southeast-facing slopes. At each site, annual shoot growth was obtained by measuring the distance between successive terminal bud scars along the main stem of 25 trees that were between 2 and 4 m high. Maximum/mean tree height and mean annual height increment of Smith fir decreased with increasing altitude up to the tree line, indicative of a stress gradient (the dominant temperature gradient) along the altitudinal transect. Above-average mean minimum summer (particularly July) temperatures affected height increment positively, whereas precipitation had no significant effect on shoot growth. The time series of annual height increments of Smith fir can be used for the reconstruction of past climate on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. In addition, it can be expected that the rising summer temperatures observed in the recent past and anticipated for the future will enhance Smith fir's growth throughout its altitudinal distribution range.

Wang, Yafeng; Cufar, Katarina; Eckstein, Dieter; Liang, Eryuan

2012-01-01

38

FOSTERING MAXIMUM GROWTH IN CHILDREN.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|SINCE SYMBOLS ARE SEEN AS REPRESENTATIVES OF THINGS, ACTION, RELATIONSHIPS, AND FEELINGS, YOUNG CHILDREN NEED TO LEARN TO PROCESS SYMBOLS. THE QUALITY OF A CHILD'S EDUCATION IN MANAGING AND UTILIZING SYMBOLS WILL AFFECT HIS ABILITY TO WORK, LOVE, AND GROW. SOME MAJOR IDEAS IN OUR CONCEPTUALIZATIONS OF MAN AND HIS DEVELOPMENT HAVE BEEN UPROOTED IN…

BOWER, ELI M.

39

FOSTERING MAXIMUM GROWTH IN CHILDREN.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

SINCE SYMBOLS ARE SEEN AS REPRESENTATIVES OF THINGS, ACTION, RELATIONSHIPS, AND FEELINGS, YOUNG CHILDREN NEED TO LEARN TO PROCESS SYMBOLS. THE QUALITY OF A CHILD'S EDUCATION IN MANAGING AND UTILIZING SYMBOLS WILL AFFECT HIS ABILITY TO WORK, LOVE, AND GROW. SOME MAJOR IDEAS IN OUR CONCEPTUALIZATIONS OF MAN AND HIS DEVELOPMENT HAVE BEEN UPROOTED IN…

BOWER, ELI M.

40

Reaching for the Stars.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes "Reaching for the Stars," a program which develops teaming and mentoring skills in senior physics students. Phase 1 requires student pairs to design a rocket; Phase 2 pairs seniors with gifted second graders who build the rocket from written instructions; and in Phase 3, pairs of seniors create a children's storybook explaining one of…

Roper-Davis, Sharon

1999-01-01

41

REACH. Heating Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized units in the area of heating. The instructional units focus on electric heating systems, gas heating systems, and oil burning systems. Each unit follows a typical format that includes a unit…

Stanfield, Carter; And Others

42

REACH. Refrigeration Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of refrigeration. The instructional units focus on refrigeration fundamentals, tubing and pipe, refrigerants, troubleshooting, window air conditioning, and…

Snow, Rufus; And Others

43

Reaching for the Stars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Dr. Mae Jemison is the world's first woman astronaut of color who continues to reach for the stars. Jemison was recently successful in leading a team that has secured a $500,000 federal grant to make interstellar space travel a reality. The Dorothy Jemison Foundation for Excellence (named after Jemison's mother) was selected in June by the…

Terry, Dorothy Givens

2012-01-01

44

REACH. Refrigeration Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of refrigeration. The instructional units focus on refrigeration fundamentals, tubing and pipe, refrigerants, troubleshooting, window air conditioning, and…

Snow, Rufus; And Others

45

Private power's global reach  

SciTech Connect

Competition and flat market growth in some world regions are driving more developers to explore innovative ways of successful development. Executives from three companies who are involved in projects around the world - J. Makowski Co., National Power, and Electricite de France - discussed their projects and their overall strategies for success, including partnerships, joint ventures and fuel choices.

Mandelker, J. (Montros, NY (United States)); Williams, P.L. (Independent Energy, Washington, DC (United States))

1994-04-01

46

Ethanol Production and Maximum Cell Growth Are Highly Correlated with Membrane Lipid Composition during Fermentation as Determined by Lipidomic Analysis of 22 Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains  

PubMed Central

Optimizing ethanol yield during fermentation is important for efficient production of fuel alcohol, as well as wine and other alcoholic beverages. However, increasing ethanol concentrations during fermentation can create problems that result in arrested or sluggish sugar-to-ethanol conversion. The fundamental cellular basis for these problem fermentations, however, is not well understood. Small-scale fermentations were performed in a synthetic grape must using 22 industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (primarily wine strains) with various degrees of ethanol tolerance to assess the correlation between lipid composition and fermentation kinetic parameters. Lipids were extracted at several fermentation time points representing different growth phases of the yeast to quantitatively analyze phospholipids and ergosterol utilizing atmospheric pressure ionization-mass spectrometry methods. Lipid profiling of individual fermentations indicated that yeast lipid class profiles do not shift dramatically in composition over the course of fermentation. Multivariate statistical analysis of the data was performed using partial least-squares linear regression modeling to correlate lipid composition data with fermentation kinetic data. The results indicate a strong correlation (R2 = 0.91) between the overall lipid composition and the final ethanol concentration (wt/wt), an indicator of strain ethanol tolerance. One potential component of ethanol tolerance, the maximum yeast cell concentration, was also found to be a strong function of lipid composition (R2 = 0.97). Specifically, strains unable to complete fermentation were associated with high phosphatidylinositol levels early in fermentation. Yeast strains that achieved the highest cell densities and ethanol concentrations were positively correlated with phosphatidylcholine species similar to those known to decrease the perturbing effects of ethanol in model membrane systems.

Henderson, Clark M.; Lozada-Contreras, Michelle; Jiranek, Vladimir; Longo, Marjorie L.

2013-01-01

47

Europe reaches the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A complex package of tests on new technologies was successfully performed during the cruise to the Moon, while the spacecraft was getting ready for the scientific investigations which will come next. These technologies pave the way for future planetary missions. SMART-1 reached its closest point to the lunar surface so far - its first ‘perilune’ - at an altitude of about 5000 kilometres at 18:48 Central European Time (CET) on 15 November. Just hours before that, at 06:24 CET, SMART-1’s solar-electric propulsion system (or ‘ion engine’) was started up and is now being fired for the delicate manoeuvre that will stabilise the spacecraft in lunar orbit. During this crucial phase, the engine will run almost continuously for the next four days, and then for a series of shorter burns, allowing SMART-1 to reach its final operational orbit by making ever-decreasing loops around the Moon. By about mid-January, SMART-1 will be orbiting the Moon at altitudes between 300 kilometres (over the lunar south pole) and 3000 kilometres (over the lunar north pole), beginning its scientific observations. The main purpose of the first part of the SMART-1 mission, concluding with the arrival at the Moon, was to demonstrate new spacecraft technologies. In particular, the solar-electric propulsion system was tested over a long spiralling trip to the Moon of more than 84 million kilometres. This is a distance comparable to an interplanetary cruise. For the first time ever, gravity-assist manoeuvres, which use the gravitational pull of the approaching Moon, were performed by an electrically-propelled spacecraft. The success of this test is important to the prospects for future interplanetary missions using ion engines. SMART-1 has demonstrated new techniques for eventually achieving autonomous spacecraft navigation. The OBAN experiment tested navigation software on ground computers to determine the exact position and velocity of the spacecraft using images of celestial objects taken by the AMIE camera on SMART-1 as references. Once used on board future spacecraft, the technique demonstrated by OBAN will allow spacecraft to know where they are in space and how fast they are moving, limiting the need for intervention by ground control teams. SMART-1 also carried out deep-space communication tests, with the KaTE and RSIS experiments, consisting of testing radio transmissions at very high frequencies compared to traditional radio frequencies. Such transmissions will allow the transfer of ever-increasing volumes of scientific data from future spacecraft. With the Laser Link experiment, SMART-1 tested the feasibility of pointing a laser beam from Earth at a spacecraft moving at deep-space distances for future communication purposes. During the cruise, to prepare for the lunar science phase, SMART-1 made preliminary tests on four miniaturised instruments, which are being used for the first time in space: the AMIE camera, which has already imaged Earth, the Moon and two total lunar eclipses from space, the D-CIXS and XSM X-ray instruments, and the SIR infrared spectrometer. In all, SMART-1 clocked up 332 orbits around Earth. It fired its engine 289 times during the cruise phase, operating for a total of about 3700 hours. Only 59 kilograms of xenon propellant were used (out of 82 kilograms). Overall, the engine performed extremely well, enabling the spacecraft to reach the Moon two months earlier than expected. The extra fuel available also allowed the mission designers to significantly reduce the altitude of the final orbit around the Moon. This closer approach to the surface will be even more favourable for the science observations that start in January. The extra fuel will also be used to boost the spacecraft back into a stable orbit, after six months of operations around the Moon, in June, if the scientific mission is extended.

2004-11-01

48

Reaching for a cyclostratigraphy  

SciTech Connect

In 1895, G.K. Gilbert suggested that cyclic patterns in certain sediments reflect climatic response to the Earth's scheduled orbital variations, endowing sensitive facies with high correlatability and built-in chronometers. In the following 90 years, varying lines of supporting evidence came to light. Three recent developments are: (1) the revelation of the complete precession-eccentricity syndrome (the -- 20 ka, -- 100 ka, and -- 400 ka cycles) by instrumental scanning of an Albian core, (2) the synoptic expression of the curves in mirror-plots, yielding a distinctive fingerprint, and (3) the recognition of this fingerprint in borehole logs of chalks and lacustrine sediments, opening a large body of existing data to new interpretation. A ''cyclostratigraphy'' may be within reach, and the Cretaceous chalks, climatically sensitive and amenable to global biostratigraphy, are a particularly promising target. A first step to test this prospect would be the mapping of Cretaceous cycle patterns in paleogeography, in time, and in relation to facies. The challenge calls for international cooperation in biostratigraphers and lithostratigraphers in industry, government, and academia.

Fischer, A.G.

1988-01-01

49

Effects of High-Flow Experiments from Glen Canyon Dam on Abundance, Growth, and Survival Rates of Early Life Stages of Rainbow Trout in the Lees Ferry Reach of the Colorado River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

High-flow experiments (HFEs) from Glen Canyon Dam are primarily intended to conserve fine sediment and improve habitat conditions for native fish in the Colorado River as it flows through Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona. These experimental flows also have the potential to affect the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) population in the Lees Ferry tailwater reach immediately below the dam, which supports a highly valued recreational fishery and likely influences the abundance of rainbow trout in Grand Canyon. Understanding how flow regimes affect the survival and growth of juvenile rainbow trout is critical to interpreting trends in adult abundance. This study reports on the effects of HFEs in 2004 and 2008 on early life stages of rainbow trout in the Lees Ferry reach on the basis of monthly sampling of redds (egg nests) and the abundance of the age-0 trout (fertilization to about 1 to 2 months from emergence) and their growth during a 7-year period between 2003 and 2009. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that the March 2008 HFE resulted in a large increase in early survival rates of age-0 trout because of an improvement in habitat conditions. A stock-recruitment analysis demonstrated that age-0 abundance in July 2008 was more than fourfold higher than expected, given the number of viable eggs that produced these fish. A hatch-date analysis showed that early survival rates were much higher for cohorts that hatched about 1 month after the 2008 HFE (about April 15, 2008) relative to those fish that hatched before this date. These cohorts, fertilized after the 2008 HFE, would have emerged into a benthic invertebrate community that had recovered, and was possibly enhanced by, the HFE. Interannual differences in growth of age-0 trout, determined on the basis of otolith microstructure, support this hypothesis. Growth rates in the summer and fall of 2008 (0.44 mm/day) were virtually the same as in 2006 (0.46 mm/day), the highest recorded during 6 years, even though abundance was eightfold greater in 2008. We speculate that the 60-hour-long 2008 HFE (with peak magnitude about twice that of the annual peak flow during the previous 4 years) increased interstitial spaces in the gravel bed substrate and food availability or quality, leading to higher early survival of recently emerged trout and better growth of these fish through summer and fall. Abundance in 2009 was more than twofold higher than expected, given the estimated number of viable eggs deposited in that year, perhaps indicating that the effect of the 2008 HFE on early life stages was somewhat persistent. In a 3-week interval that spanned the November 2004 HFE, abundance of age-0 trout that were approximately 7 months old from hatch experienced about a threefold decline, compared to the approximately twofold decrease observed between November and December 2008. Abundance of age-0 trout that were approximately 10 months old from hatch was very similar across sampling trips that spanned the March 2008 HFE. It is uncertain whether the decline in abundance after the November 2004 HFE was the result of higher flow-induced mortality or higher flow-induced downstream dispersal. A focused monitoring effort in Marble Canyon (the reach immediately downstream of the Lees Ferry tailwater) before and after future HFEs is recommended to resolve this uncertainty. Relatively detailed monitoring of early life stages-such as the program described in this study-is essential to establish linkages between Glen Canyon Dam operations, or possibly other factors, and trends in the abundance of important nonnative and native fish populations living downstream within Grand Canyon National Park.

Korman, Josh; Kaplinski, Matthew; Melis, Theodore S.

2010-01-01

50

The Last Glacial Maximum.  

PubMed

We used 5704 14C, 10Be, and 3He ages that span the interval from 10,000 to 50,000 years ago (10 to 50 ka) to constrain the timing of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in terms of global ice-sheet and mountain-glacier extent. Growth of the ice sheets to their maximum positions occurred between 33.0 and 26.5 ka in response to climate forcing from decreases in northern summer insolation, tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, and atmospheric CO2. Nearly all ice sheets were at their LGM positions from 26.5 ka to 19 to 20 ka, corresponding to minima in these forcings. The onset of Northern Hemisphere deglaciation 19 to 20 ka was induced by an increase in northern summer insolation, providing the source for an abrupt rise in sea level. The onset of deglaciation of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet occurred between 14 and 15 ka, consistent with evidence that this was the primary source for an abrupt rise in sea level approximately 14.5 ka. PMID:19661421

Clark, Peter U; Dyke, Arthur S; Shakun, Jeremy D; Carlson, Anders E; Clark, Jorie; Wohlfarth, Barbara; Mitrovica, Jerry X; Hostetler, Steven W; McCabe, A Marshall

2009-08-01

51

The last glacial maximum  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used 5704 14C, 10Be, and 3He ages that span the interval from 10,000 to 50,000 years ago (10 to 50 ka) to constrain the timing of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in terms of global ice-sheet and mountain-glacier extent. Growth of the ice sheets to their maximum positions occurred between 33.0 and 26.5 ka in response to climate forcing from decreases in northern summer insolation, tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, and atmospheric CO2. Nearly all ice sheets were at their LGM positions from 26.5 ka to 19 to 20 ka, corresponding to minima in these forcings. The onset of Northern Hemisphere deglaciation 19 to 20 ka was induced by an increase in northern summer insolation, providing the source for an abrupt rise in sea level. The onset of deglaciation of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet occurred between 14 and 15 ka, consistent with evidence that this was the primary source for an abrupt rise in sea level ???14.5 ka.

Clark, P. U.; Dyke, A. S.; Shakun, J. D.; Carlson, A. E.; Clark, J.; Wohlfarth, B.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Hostetler, S. W.; McCabe, A. M.

2009-01-01

52

Maximum Entropy Fundamentals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In its modern formulation, the Maximum Entropy Principle was promoted by E.T. Jaynes, starting in the mid-fifties. The principle dictates that one should look for a distribution, consistent with available information, which maximizes the entropy. However, this principle focuses only on distributions and it appears advantageous to bring information theoretical thinking more prominently into play by also focusing on the "observer" and on coding. This view was brought forward by the second named author in the late seventies and is the view we will follow-up on here. It leads to the consideration of a certain game, the Code Length Game and, via standard game theoretical thinking, to a principle of Game Theoretical Equilibrium. This principle is more basic than the Maximum Entropy Principle in the sense that the search for one type of optimal strategies in the Code Length Game translates directly into the search for distributions with maximum entropy. In the present paper we offer a self-contained and comprehensive treatment of fundamentals of both principles mentioned, based on a study of the Code Length Game. Though new concepts and results are presented, the reading should be instructional and accessible to a rather wide audience, at least if certain mathematical details are left aside at a rst reading. The most frequently studied instance of entropy maximization pertains to the Mean Energy Model which involves a moment constraint related to a given function, here taken to represent "energy". This type of application is very well known from the literature with hundreds of applications pertaining to several different elds and will also here serve as important illustration of the theory. But our approach reaches further, especially regarding the study of continuity properties of the entropy function, and this leads to new results which allow a discussion of models with so-called entropy loss. These results have tempted us to speculate over the development of natural languages. In fact, we are able to relate our theoretical findings to the empirically found Zipf's law which involves statistical aspects of words in a language. The apparent irregularity inherent in models with entropy loss turns out to imply desirable stability properties of languages.

Harremoeës, P.; Topsøe, F.

2001-09-01

53

Growth condition and bacterial community for maximum hydrolysis of suspended organic materials in anaerobic digestion of food waste-recycling wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the effects of changing pH (5–7) and temperature (T, 40–60 °C) on the efficiencies of bacterial hydrolysis of suspended organic matter (SOM) in wastewater from food waste recycling\\u000a (FWR) and the changes in the bacterial community responsible for this hydrolysis. Maximum hydrolysis efficiency (i.e., 50.5%\\u000a reduction of volatile suspended solids) was predicted to occur at pH 5.7 and

Man Deok Kim; Minkyung Song; Minho Jo; Seung Gu Shin; Jee Hyeong Khim; Seokhwan Hwang

2010-01-01

54

Fault growth by segment linkage: an explanation for scatter in maximum displacement and trace length data from the Canyonlands Grabens of SE Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maximum displacement (D) and trace length (L) data for a population of 97 normal faults from the Canyonlands Grabens region of SE Utah are presented. Values of L range from 100 to 6500 m, and of D from 1.5–155 m. The data exhibit a scatter between D and L of about half an order-of-magnitude. This is comparable to that exhibited

Joseph A. Cartwright; Bruce D. Trudgill; Christopher S. Mansfield

1995-01-01

55

Prehension with trunk assisted reaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

For prehensile tasks, where objects are located beyond the normal reaching space, the trunk is bent forward to assist in the transport of the wrist to the object. Such task behaviors raise complex motor control issues such as how is the trunk movement incorporated into the motor plan. In this experiment, seated subjects were asked to reach and grasp a

M. Saling; G. E. Stelmach; S. Mescheriakov; M. Berger

1996-01-01

56

Out of your hand's reach, out of my eyes' reach  

Microsoft Academic Search

When witnessing another's action, people recruit the same motor resources that enable them to efficiently perform that action, thus gazing at its target well before the agent's hand. But just to what extent does this recruitment help people in grabbing another's action target? If the latter seems to be out of the agent's reach, will this impact on people's gaze

Marcello Costantini; Ettore Ambrosini; Corrado Sinigaglia

2012-01-01

57

RV strings of maximum curvature  

SciTech Connect

To design an effective interceptor for a string of reentry vehicles (RV's) released by a post-boost vehicle (PBV), it is necessary to have information about possible geometries of the string when it reaches a given altitude above the target. The geometry of the string, assumed for simplicity to contain three RV's, is determined by the motion of the PBV which is controlled by varying its thrust direction. Of interest in this study is maximizing the curvature of the string, which is represented by the distance of RV{sub 2} from the line joining RV{sub 1} and RV{sub 3} when RV{sub 1} reaches the intercept attitude, subject to the constraints that all three RV's must land within 3000 ft distance of the target. The maximum curvature problem is formulated as a parameter optimization problem and solved by a nonlinear programming code known as GRG2. The thrust angles are assumed to be piecewise linear, and a total of 21 parameters is used. The maximum curvature is shown to be approximately 2900 ft. 4 refs., 8 figs.

Hull, D.G. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)); Zazworsky, R.M. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1991-01-01

58

Reaching All Students with Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics'"Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics" and "Professional Standards for Teaching Mathematics" reflect the belief that all students can learn a significant core of high-quality mathematics. Recognizing the magnitude of the task of reaching all students, this book was put together…

Cuevas, Gilbert, Ed.; Driscoll, Mark, Ed.

59

Reaching Politicians through the Media.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on using the media to reach the public and, through the public, politicians regarding literacy issues. The paper gives some tips gleaned from recent convention symposia about attracting the audience, such as involving students, teachers, or both in interviewing authors, announcing community calendars about literacy events,…

Berger, Allen

60

REACH. Residential Electrical Wiring Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of residential electrical wiring. The instructional units focus on grounded outlets, service entrance, and blueprint reading. Each unit follows a typical…

Ansley, Jimmy; Ennis, Mike

61

PNW RIVER REACH FILE DOCUMENTATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with Federal and state agencies, and NW Indian Tribes has produced a 1:100,000-scale River Reach data layer for the Pacific Northwest that will serve water-resource management applications for the next decade or more. The Pacific N...

62

Maximum Likelihood Stereo Matching  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the research literature, maximum likelihood principles were applied to stereo matching by altering the stereo pair so that the difference would have a Gaussian distribution. Here in this paper we present a novel method of applying maximum likelihood to stereo matching. In our approach, we measure the real noise distribution from a training set, and then construct a new

Nicu Sebe; Michael S. Lew

2000-01-01

63

Environmental Degradation, Disproportionality, and the Double Diversion: Reaching out, Reaching ahead, and Reaching beyond  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rather than seeking ivory-tower isolation, members of the Rural Sociological Society have always been distinguished by a willingness to work with specialists from a broad range of disciplines, and to work on some of the world's most challenging problems. What is less commonly recognized is that the willingness to reach beyond disciplinary…

Freudenburg, William R.

2006-01-01

64

Neural Correlates of Reach Errors  

PubMed Central

Reach errors may be broadly classified into errors arising from unpredictable changes in target location, called target errors, and errors arising from miscalibration of internal models, called execution errors. Execution errors may be caused by miscalibration of dynamics (e.g.. when a force field alters limb dynamics) or by miscalibration of kinematics (e.g., when prisms alter visual feedback). While all types of errors lead to similar online corrections, we found that the motor system showed strong trial-by-trial adaptation in response to random execution errors but not in response to random target errors. We used fMRI and a compatible robot to study brain regions involved in processing each kind of error. Both kinematic and dynamic execution errors activated regions along the central and the post-central sulci and in lobules V, VI, and VIII of the cerebellum, making these areas possible sites of plastic changes in internal models for reaching. Only activity related to kinematic errors extended into parietal area 5. These results are inconsistent with the idea that kinematics and dynamics of reaching are computed in separate neural entities. In contrast, only target errors caused increased activity in the striatum and the posterior superior parietal lobule. The cerebellum and motor cortex were as strongly activated as with execution errors. These findings indicate a neural and behavioral dissociation between errors that lead to switching of behavioral goals, and errors that lead to adaptation of internal models of limb dynamics and kinematics.

Hashambhoy, Yasmin; Rane, Tushar; Shadmehr, Reza

2005-01-01

65

Hoodia Maximum Strength  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... reviewed your web site at the Internet address http://www.life-all.com and has determined that the product “Hoodia Maximum Strength” is promoted ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

66

Maximum</span> 255 Characters)></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://google2.fda.gov/search?client=FDAgov&site=FDAgov&lr=&proxystylesheet=FDAgov&output=xml_no_dtd&&proxycustom=%3CADVANCED/%3E">Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Text Version... shorter periods of euthymia, greater likelihood of suicide ... tolerated doses and the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> tolerable dose ... N Mean (SD) Median Min/ Max (95% CI ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">67</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1455682"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> ratio transmission</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents the concept, principles, and analysis of <span class="hlt">maximum</span> ratio transmission for wireless communications, where multiple antennas are used for both transmission and reception. The principles and analysis are applicable to general cases, including <span class="hlt">maximum</span>-ratio combining. Simulation results agree with the analysis. The analysis shows that the average overall signal-to-mise ratio (SNR) is proportional to the cross correlation between</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Titus K. Y. Lo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">68</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=three+AND+dimensional+AND+printing&id=ED035130"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reaching</span> the Retarded Through Art.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Included in the manual on art are suggestions concerning <span class="hlt">growth</span> through a good classroom climate, orderly arrangements, displays, and a good visual experience; a view of development through art, concept differentiation, motor and sensory skills, self fulfillment and thought processes, and art as therapy; and the art program itself. The program…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Baumgartner, Bernice B.; Shultz, Joyce B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">69</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18769588"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stroke rehabilitation <span class="hlt">reaches</span> a threshold.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Motor training with the upper limb affected by stroke partially reverses the loss of cortical representation after lesion and has been proposed to increase spontaneous arm use. Moreover, repeated attempts to use the affected hand in daily activities create a form of practice that can potentially lead to further improvement in motor performance. We thus hypothesized that if motor retraining after stroke increases spontaneous arm use sufficiently, then the patient will enter a virtuous circle in which spontaneous arm use and motor performance reinforce each other. In contrast, if the dose of therapy is not sufficient to bring spontaneous use above threshold, then performance will not increase and the patient will further develop compensatory strategies with the less affected hand. To refine this hypothesis, we developed a computational model of bilateral hand use in arm <span class="hlt">reaching</span> to study the interactions between adaptive decision making and motor relearning after motor cortex lesion. The model contains a left and a right motor cortex, each controlling the opposite arm, and a single action choice module. The action choice module learns, via reinforcement learning, the value of using each arm for <span class="hlt">reaching</span> in specific directions. Each motor cortex uses a neural population code to specify the initial direction along which the contralateral hand moves towards a target. The motor cortex learns to minimize directional errors and to maximize neuronal activity for each movement. The derived learning rule accounts for the reversal of the loss of cortical representation after rehabilitation and the increase of this loss after stroke with insufficient rehabilitation. Further, our model exhibits nonlinear and bistable behavior: if natural recovery, motor training, or both, brings performance above a certain threshold, then training can be stopped, as the repeated spontaneous arm use provides a form of motor learning that further bootstraps performance and spontaneous use. Below this threshold, motor training is "in vain": there is little spontaneous arm use after training, the model exhibits learned nonuse, and compensatory movements with the less affected hand are reinforced. By exploring the nonlinear dynamics of stroke recovery using a biologically plausible neural model that accounts for reversal of the loss of motor cortex representation following rehabilitation or the lack thereof, respectively, we can explain previously hard to reconcile data on spontaneous arm use in stroke recovery. Further, our threshold prediction could be tested with an adaptive train-wait-train paradigm: if spontaneous arm use has increased in the "wait" period, then the threshold has been <span class="hlt">reached</span>, and rehabilitation can be stopped. If spontaneous arm use is still low or has decreased, then another bout of rehabilitation is to be provided. PMID:18769588</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Han, Cheol E; Arbib, Michael A; Schweighofer, Nicolas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-08-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">70</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980JAP....51.4680G"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> windmill efficiency</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Consideration is given to the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> efficiency obtainable from a windmill as predicted by one-dimensional fluid flow theory. Considerations of the conservation of mass, energy and linear momentum for the one-dimensional flow of an incompressible fluid through an active windmill blade section are used to derive an expression for the windmill efficiency, or power coefficient, as a function of thrust force on the frame and mean stream velocity. It is noted that the present expression cannot be differentiated to obtain a theoretical <span class="hlt">maximum</span> power output as was done by Betz (1927) on the basis of an incorrect statement of the energy balance.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Greet, R. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">71</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22725137"> <span id="translatedtitle">Aptasensing of chloramphenicol in the presence of its analogues: <span class="hlt">reaching</span> the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> residue limit.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A novel, label-free folding induced aptamer-based electrochemical biosensor for the detection of chloramphenicol (CAP) in the presence of its analogues has been developed. CAP is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that has lost its favor due to its serious adverse toxic effects on human health. Aptamers are artificial nucleic acid ligands (ssDNA or RNA) able to specifically recognize a target such as CAP. In this article, the aptamers are fixed onto a gold electrode surface by a self-assembly approach. In the presence of CAP, the unfolded ssDNA on the electrode surface changes to a hairpin structure, bringing the target molecules close to the surface and triggering electron transfer. Detection limits were determined to be 1.6 × 10(-9) mol L(-1). In addition, thiamphenicol (TAP) and florfenicol (FF), antibiotics with a structure similar to CAP, did not influence the performance of the aptasensor, suggesting a good selectivity of the CAP-aptasensor. Its simplicity and low detection limit (because of the home-selected aptamers) suggest that the electrochemical aptasensor is suitable for practical use in the detection of CAP in milk samples. PMID:22725137</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pilehvar, Sanaz; Mehta, Jaytry; Dardenne, Freddy; Robbens, Johan; Blust, Ronny; De Wael, Karolien</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">72</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19048527"> <span id="translatedtitle">[When the throug is <span class="hlt">reached</span>].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The only option for a patient suffering from severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) despite fully developed medical therapy inclusive eventually supplemental oxygen is either lung transplantation or lung-volume-reduction surgery (LVRS). Indication for LVRS is based on the results of a large prostective controlled clinical trial and patients are selected for this intervention based on particular functional and radiomorphologic criteria. We report a patient with far advanced COPD, no longer able to walk to the toilette without support. Based on clinical reasoning and our experience with other unique cases the patient underwent unilateral LVRS despite a lack of scientific evidence that she might profit from this intervention. Luckily, the perioperative course was uneventful and she experienced an impressive subjective and objective improvement. This case illustrates, that in desperate situations it may be necessary to <span class="hlt">reach</span> a therapeutic decision outside scientifically based evidence. PMID:19048527</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Turk, Alexander J; Russi, Erich W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">73</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22722855"> <span id="translatedtitle">Neural population dynamics during <span class="hlt">reaching</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Most theories of motor cortex have assumed that neural activity represents movement parameters. This view derives from what is known about primary visual cortex, where neural activity represents patterns of light. Yet it is unclear how well the analogy between motor and visual cortex holds. Single-neuron responses in motor cortex are complex, and there is marked disagreement regarding which movement parameters are represented. A better analogy might be with other motor systems, where a common principle is rhythmic neural activity. Here we find that motor cortex responses during <span class="hlt">reaching</span> contain a brief but strong oscillatory component, something quite unexpected for a non-periodic behaviour. Oscillation amplitude and phase followed naturally from the preparatory state, suggesting a mechanistic role for preparatory neural activity. These results demonstrate an unexpected yet surprisingly simple structure in the population response. This underlying structure explains many of the confusing features of individual neural responses. PMID:22722855</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Churchland, Mark M; Cunningham, John P; Kaufman, Matthew T; Foster, Justin D; Nuyujukian, Paul; Ryu, Stephen I; Shenoy, Krishna V</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">74</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12158277"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reaching</span> the unreached in Afghanistan.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An estimated 4.3 million children were vaccinated against polio and given vitamin A supplements during the first round of the National Immunization Days (NIDs) in Afghanistan. In the remote areas, 20,000 health workers and volunteers were trained and deployed to <span class="hlt">reach</span> children for vaccination. Moreover, the WHO helped in the distribution of supplies and sent supervisors into three villages of the remote district of Badakshan. A strong-mounted, well-coordinated social mobilization campaign through the local radio was made possible by mosques, the BBC, Voice of America, and print media in Afghanistan and Pakistan. NIDs are jointly conducted by the WHO, the UN Children's Fund, the Ministry of Public Health, and nongovernmental organizations. Mass immunization campaigns and NIDs have been conducted in Afghanistan since 1994. PMID:12158277</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">75</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1585575"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> likelihood pitch estimation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A method for estimating the pitch period of voiced speech sounds is developed based on a <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood (ML) formulation. It is capable of resolution finer than one sampling period and is shown to perform better in the presence of noise than the cepstrum method.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Wise; J. Caprio; T. Parks</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1976-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">76</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/188840"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Entropy Discrimination</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a general framework for discriminative estimation based on the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> entropyprinciple and its extensions. All calculations involve distributions over structures and\\/orparameters rather than specic settings and reduce to relative entropy projections. This holdseven when the data is not separable within the chosen parametric class, in the context of anomalydetection rather than classication, or when the labels in the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tommi Jaakkola; Marina Meila; Tony Jebara</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">77</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/72711p13425r1253.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Finding <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Convex Polygons</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper considers the situation where one is given a finite set of n points in the plane each of which is labeled either positive or negative. The problem is to find a bounded convex polygon of <span class="hlt">maximum</span> area, the vertices of which are positive points and which does not contain any negative point. It is shown that this problem</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paul Fischer; Lehrstuhl Informatik II</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">78</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23639013"> <span id="translatedtitle">Feeding a diet contaminated with ochratoxin A for chickens at the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> level recommended by the EU for poultry feeds (0.1 mg/kg). 1. Effects on <span class="hlt">growth</span> and slaughter performance, haematological and serum traits.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The European Commission Recommendation 2006/576/EC, suggests that the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> level of Ochratoxin A (OTA) in poultry feeds should be set at 0.1 mg OTA/kg. Thirty-six one-day-old male Hubburd broiler chickens were divided into two groups, a Control (basal diet) and an Ochratoxin A (basal diet + 0.1 mg OTA/kg) group. The <span class="hlt">growth</span> and slaughter performance traits were recorded. The liver, spleen, bursa of Fabricius and thymus weights were measured. The erythrocyte and leukocyte numbers were assayed in blood samples, and the heterophils to lymphocytes (H/L) ratio was determined. Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), lysozyme, the total protein and the electrophoretic pattern were evaluated in serum samples. Liver enzymes (alanino aminotransferase, ALT and aspartate aminotransferase, AST) and kidney function parameters (uric acid and creatinine) were quantified. The results revealed that feeding a 0.1 mg OTA/kg contaminated diet to chicks caused a decrease in the absolute thymus weight (p < 0.05) and a lower total protein (p < 0.01), albumin (p < 0.01), alpha (p < 0.05), beta (p = 0.001) and gamma (p = 0.001) globulins serum concentration in the Ochratoxin A group. Moreover, the albumin-to-globulin (A/G) ratio of the OTA-treated animals resulted to be higher (p < 0.05). Feeding broiler chickens, a diet contaminated with the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> level admitted by the European Commission Recommendation (0.1 mg OTA/kg), did not affect the animal performance, slaughter traits, organ weights, haematological parameters, liver enzyme or renal function parameters concentrations but had an overall immunosuppressant effect, with reduction in the thymus weight and of the total serum protein, albumin, alpha, beta and gamma globulins concentration. PMID:23639013</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pozzo, L; Salamano, G; Mellia, E; Gennero, M S; Doglione, L; Cavallarin, L; Tarantola, M; Forneris, G; Schiavone, A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">79</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=height&pg=2&id=EJ804702"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tuning in to Another Person's Action Capabilities: Perceiving Maximal Jumping-<span class="hlt">Reach</span> Height from Walking Kinematics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Three experiments investigated the ability to perceive the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> height to which another actor could jump to <span class="hlt">reach</span> an object. Experiment 1 determined the accuracy of estimates for another actor's maximal <span class="hlt">reach</span>-with-jump height and compared these estimates to estimates of the actor's standing maximal <span class="hlt">reaching</span> height and to estimates of the…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ramenzoni, Veronica; Riley, Michael A.; Davis, Tehran; Shockley, Kevin; Armstrong, Rachel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">80</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=IPSILATERAL&pg=3&id=EJ697683"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Performance of Left-Handed Participants on a Preferential <span class="hlt">Reaching</span> Test</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Previous research in our laboratory has examined the distribution of preferred hand (PH) <span class="hlt">reaches</span> in working space with right-handed participants. In one study, we examined the effects of tool position and task demands on the frequency of PH <span class="hlt">reaches</span> with right-handers (Mamolo, Roy, Bryden, & Rohr, 2004). We found that PH <span class="hlt">reaches</span> were at a <span class="hlt">maximum</span>…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mamolo, Carla M.; Roy, Eric A.; Bryden, Pamela J.; Rohr, Linda E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a 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showDiv("page_6");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">81</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=61301"> <span id="translatedtitle">Infrastructure for <span class="hlt">Reaching</span> Disadvantaged Consumers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Both consumers and health service providers need access to up-to-date information, including patient and practice guidelines, that allows them to make decisions in partnership about individual and public health in line with the primary health care model of health service delivery. Only then is it possible for patient preferences to be considered while the health of the general population is improved. The Commonwealth Government of Australia has allocated $250 million over five years, starting July 1, 1997, to support activities and projects designed to meet a range of telecommunication needs in regional, rural, and remote Australia. This paper defines rural and remote communities, then reviews rural and remote health services, information, and telecommunication technology infrastructures and their use in Australia to establish the current state of access to information tools by rural and remote communities and rural health workers in Australia today. It is argued that a suitable telecommunication infrastructure is needed to <span class="hlt">reach</span> disadvantaged persons in extremely remote areas and that intersectoral support is essential to build this infrastructure. In addition, education will make its utilization possible.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hovenga, Evelyn J. S.; Hovel, Joe; Klotz, Jeanette; Robins, Patricia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">82</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40208689"> <span id="translatedtitle">Colony <span class="hlt">growth</span> and the ontogeny of worker polymorphism in the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Colony size and worker polymorphism (headwidth) were determined for fire ant colonies ranging from incipient to 12 years of age. Colonies grew approximately logistically, <span class="hlt">reaching</span> half size between 21\\/2 and 31\\/2 yr and <span class="hlt">reaching</span> their <span class="hlt">maximum</span> size of about 220000 workers after 4 to 6 yr. Colony size showed strong seasonal variation. There was some evidence that <span class="hlt">growth</span> rate may</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Walter R. Tschinkel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">83</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JEI....20a3007R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using image entropy <span class="hlt">maximum</span> for auto exposure</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To achieve auto exposure in digital cameras, image brightness is widely used because of its direct relationship with exposure value. To use image entropy as an alternative statistic to image brightness, it is required to establish how image entropy changes as exposure value is varied. This paper presents a mathematical proof along with experimental verification results to show that image entropy <span class="hlt">reaches</span> a <span class="hlt">maximum</span> value as exposure value is varied by changing shutter speed or aperture size.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rahman, Mohammad T.; Kehtarnavaz, Nasser; Razlighi, Qolamreza R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">84</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009eso..pres...35."> <span id="translatedtitle">ALMA telescope <span class="hlt">reaches</span> new heights</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) astronomical observatory has taken another step forward - and upwards. One of its state-of-the-art antennas was carried for the first time to the 5000m plateau of Chajnantor, in the Chilean Andes, on the back of a custom-built giant transporter. The antenna, which weighs about 100 tons and has a diameter of 12 metres, was transported up to the high-altitude Array Operations Site, where the extremely dry and rarefied air is ideal for ALMA's observations of the Universe. The conditions at the Array Operations Site on Chajnantor, while excellent for astronomy, are also very harsh. Only half as much oxygen is available as at sea level, making it very difficult to work there. This is why ALMA's antennas are assembled and tested at the lower 2900 m altitude of the ALMA Operations Support Facility. It was from this relatively hospitable base camp that the ALMA antenna began its journey to the high Chajnantor site. "This is an important moment for ALMA. We are very happy that the first transport of an antenna to the high site went flawlessly. This achievement was only possible through contributions from all international ALMA partners: this particular antenna is provided by Japan, the heavy-lift transporter by Europe, and the receiving electronics inside the antenna by North America, Europe, and Asia", said Wolfgang Wild, European ALMA Project Manager. The trip began when one of the two ALMA transporters, named Otto, lifted the antenna onto its back. It then carried its heavy load along the 28 km road from the Operations Support Facility up to the Array Operations Site. While the transporter is capable of speeds of up to 12 km/hour when carrying an antenna, this first journey was made more slowly to ensure that everything worked as expected, taking about seven hours. The ALMA antennas are the most advanced submillimetre-wavelength antennas ever made. They are designed to operate fully exposed in the harsh conditions of the Array Operations Site. This means surviving strong winds and temperatures between +20 and -20 Celsius whilst being able to point precisely enough that they could pick out a golf ball at a distance of 15 km, and to keep their smooth reflecting surfaces accurate to better than 25 micrometres (less than the typical thickness of a human hair). Once the transporter <span class="hlt">reached</span> the high plateau it carried the antenna to a concrete pad - a docking station with connections for power and fibre optics - and positioned it with an accuracy of a few millimetres. The transporter is guided by a laser steering system and, just like some cars today, also has ultrasonic collision detectors. These sensors ensure the safety of the state-of-the-art antennas as the transporter drives them across what will soon be a rather crowded plateau. Ultimately, ALMA will have at least 66 antennas distributed over about 200 pads, spread over distances of up to 18.5 km and operating as a single, giant telescope. Even when ALMA is fully operational, the transporters will be used to move the antennas between pads to reconfigure the telescope for different kinds of observations. "Transporting our first antenna to the Chajnantor plateau is a epic feat which exemplifies the exciting times in which ALMA is living. Day after day, our global collaboration brings us closer to the birth of the most ambitious ground-based astronomical observatory in the world", said Thijs de Graauw, ALMA Director. This first ALMA antenna at the high site will soon be joined by others and the ALMA team looks forward to making their first observations from the Chajnantor plateau. They plan to link three antennas by early 2010, and to make the first scientific observations with ALMA in the second half of 2011. ALMA will help astronomers answer important questions about our cosmic origins. The telescope will observe the Universe using light with millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths, between infrared light and radio waves in the electromagnetic spectrum. Light at these wavelengths comes from some of th</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">85</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009nrao.pres...11."> <span id="translatedtitle">ALMA Telescope <span class="hlt">Reaches</span> New Heights</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) astronomical observatory took another step forward and upward, as one of its state-of-the-art antennas was carried for the first time to Chile's 16,500-foot-high plateau of Chajnantor on the back of a giant, custom-built transporter. The 40-foot-diameter antenna, weighing about 100 tons, was moved to ALMA's high-altitude Array Operations Site, where the extremely dry and rarefied air is ideal for observing the Universe. The conditions at the Array Operations Site on Chajnantor, while excellent for astronomy, are also very harsh. Only about half as much oxygen is available as at sea level, making it very difficult to work there. This is why ALMA's antennas are assembled and tested at the lower 9,500-foot altitude of the ALMA Operations Support Facility (OSF). It was from this relatively hospitable base camp that the ALMA antenna began its journey to the high Chajnantor site. "The successful transport of the first ALMA Antenna to the high site marks the start of the next phase of the project. Now that we are starting to move the ALMA antennas to the high site, the real work begins and the exciting part is just beginning," said Adrian Russell, North American ALMA Project Manager. The antenna's trip began when one of the two ALMA transporters lifted the antenna onto its back, carrying its heavy load along the 17-mile road from the Operations Support Facility up to the Array Operations Site. While the transporter is capable of speeds of up to 8 miles per hour when carrying an antenna, this first journey was made more slowly to ensure that everything worked as expected, taking about seven hours. The ALMA antennas use state-of-the-art technology, and are the most advanced submillimeter-wavelength antennas ever made. They are designed to operate fully exposed in the harsh conditions of the Array Operations Site, to survive strong winds and extreme temperatures, to point precisely enough that they could pick out a golf ball at a distance of nine miles, and to keep their smooth reflecting surfaces accurate to less than the thickness of a human hair. Once the transporter <span class="hlt">reached</span> the high plateau it carried the antenna to a concrete pad -- a docking station with connections for power and fiber optics -- and positioned it with an accuracy of a small fraction of an inch. The transporter is guided by a laser steering system and, just like some cars, also has ultrasonic collision detectors. These sensors ensure the safety of the state-of-the-art antennas as the transporter drives them across what will soon be a rather crowded plateau. Ultimately, ALMA will have at least 66 antennas distributed over about 200 pads, spread over distances of up to 11.5 miles and operating as a single, giant telescope. Even when ALMA is fully operational, the transporters will be used to move the antennas between pads to reconfigure the telescope for different kinds of observations. This first ALMA antenna at the high site will soon be joined by others, and the ALMA team looks forward to making their first observations from the Chajnantor plateau. They plan to link three antennas by early 2010, and to make the first scientific observations with ALMA in the second half of 2011. ALMA will help astronomers answer important questions about our cosmic origins. The telescope will observe the Universe using light with millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths, between infrared light and radio waves in the electromagnetic spectrum. Light at these wavelengths comes from some of the coldest, and from some of the most distant objects in the cosmos. These include cold clouds of gas and dust where new stars are being born, or remote galaxies towards the edge of the observable universe. The Universe is relatively unexplored at submillimeter wavelengths, as the telescopes need extremely dry atmospheric conditions, such as those at Chajnantor, and advanced detector technology. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), an international astronomy facility, is a partnership of Europe, North Americ</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">86</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB278811"> <span id="translatedtitle">Human Factors Requirements for Fingertip <span class="hlt">Reach</span> Controls.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This project was instituted to develop human factors recommendations for fingertip <span class="hlt">reach</span> controls. Interviews were conducted with 405 drivers of cars equipped with fingertip <span class="hlt">reach</span> controls. A high percentage of finding problems was reported when the horn ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. R. Mourant E. Moussa-Hamouda J. M. Howard</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">87</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/47738339"> <span id="translatedtitle">Caerulein stimulates pancreatic <span class="hlt">growth</span> and somatic <span class="hlt">growth</span> in suckling rats</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary  This study deals with the stimulatory effect of caerulein on pancreatic and somatic <span class="hlt">growth</span> in CFY suckling rats before weaning.\\u000a After birth, caerulein (0.25, 0.5, 1, 3, 10 and 30 ?g\\/kg) was given subcutaneously (s.c.) 3 times daily for 10 days. Salinetreated\\u000a newborn rats were used as control. Caerulein increased pancreatic weight and total pancreatic trypsin activity <span class="hlt">reaching</span> the\\u000a <span class="hlt">maximum</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Miklós Papp; Gábor Varga; István Dobronyi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">88</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37001628"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stimulus–Target Compatibility for <span class="hlt">Reaching</span> Movements</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Reaction time, movement time, and initial direction of <span class="hlt">reaching</span> movements toward a target in left or right hemispace were measured. In Experiment 1, the target of movement and hand had to be selected; movements toward the imperative stimulus were initiated faster than movements toward the alternate target, and ipsilateral <span class="hlt">reaches</span> were initiated faster than contralateral <span class="hlt">reaches</span>. In Experiment 2, the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">John F. Stins; Claire F. Michaels</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">89</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhRvE..83f1146R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Distribution of the time at which N vicious walkers <span class="hlt">reach</span> their maximal height</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study the extreme statistics of N nonintersecting Brownian motions (vicious walkers) over a unit time interval in one dimension. Using path-integral techniques we compute exactly the joint distribution of the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> M and of the time ?M at which this <span class="hlt">maximum</span> is <span class="hlt">reached</span>. We focus in particular on nonintersecting Brownian bridges (“watermelons without wall”) and nonintersecting Brownian excursions (“watermelons with a wall”). We discuss in detail the relationships between such vicious walkers models in watermelon configurations and stochastic <span class="hlt">growth</span> models in curved geometry on the one hand and the directed polymer in a disordered medium (DPRM) with one free end point on the other hand. We also check our results using numerical simulations of Dyson’s Brownian motion and confront them with numerical simulations of the polynuclear <span class="hlt">growth</span> model (PNG) and of a model of DPRM on a discrete lattice. Some of the results presented here were announced in a recent letter [J. Rambeau and G. Schehr, Europhys. Lett.EULEEJ0295-507510.1209/0295-5075/91/60006 91, 60006 (2010)].</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rambeau, Joachim; Schehr, Grégory</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">90</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/35060528"> <span id="translatedtitle">Generation modulation and maintenance of the plasma membrane asymmetric phospholipid composition in yeast cells during <span class="hlt">growth</span>: their relation to surface potential and membrane protein activity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">During <span class="hlt">growth</span> a cyclic exposure of anionic phospholipids to the external surface of the plasma membrane was found. The surface charge density (?) increased gradually <span class="hlt">reaching</span> a <span class="hlt">maximum</span> in the first 5 h of <span class="hlt">growth</span> and returned gradually to their initial value at the end of the logarithmic phase of <span class="hlt">growth</span> (10–12 h). Phosphatidylinositol, that determines to a large extent</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jorge Cerbon; Victor Calderon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">91</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/h8k10402414425gq.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Growth</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">\\u000a This chapter is devoted to the <span class="hlt">growth</span> of ZnO. It starts with various techniques to grow bulk samples and presents in some\\u000a detail the <span class="hlt">growth</span> of epitaxial layers by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), and\\u000a pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The last section is devoted to the <span class="hlt">growth</span> of nanorods. Some properties of the resulting samples</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Andreas Waag</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">92</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/g1667320577233w8.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal <span class="hlt">growth</span> in Laminaria longicruris : Relations with dissolved inorganic nutrients and internal reserves of nitrogen</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Observations have been made on seasonal fluctuations in dissolved inorganic nutrients, internal reserves of nitrogen and <span class="hlt">growth</span> rates in Laminaria longicruris. The onset of winter <span class="hlt">growth</span> in shallow-water stations (6 and 9 m) correlated well with improved dissolved nitrate conditions in the sea. During the winter, reserves of NO3-were accumulated by the plants and <span class="hlt">reached</span> <span class="hlt">maximum</span> values of 150 µmoles</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. R. O. Chapman; J. S. Craigie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">93</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57877006"> <span id="translatedtitle">From hard to <span class="hlt">reach</span> to how to <span class="hlt">reach</span>: A systematic review of the literature on hard?to?<span class="hlt">reach</span> families</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents a review of the literature relating to hard?to?<span class="hlt">reach</span> families which has been published over the last 12 years in the UK, USA, Canada and Australia. The purpose of the review was twofold: to gain insights to understandings of the term ‘hard?to?<span class="hlt">reach</span>’ within these services – education, health and social – which might be aiming to access such</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Maria Evangelou</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">94</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57877200"> <span id="translatedtitle">From hard to <span class="hlt">reach</span> to how to <span class="hlt">reach</span>: A systematic review of the literature on hard-to-<span class="hlt">reach</span> families</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents a review of the literature relating to hard-to-<span class="hlt">reach</span> families which has been published over the last 12 years in the UK, USA, Canada and Australia. The purpose of the review was twofold: to gain insights to understandings of the term ‘hard-to-<span class="hlt">reach</span>’ within these services – education, health and social – which might be aiming to access such</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gill Boag-Munroe; Maria Evangelou</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">95</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3391459"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biology, not environment, drives major patterns in <span class="hlt">maximum</span> tetrapod body size through time</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abiotic and biological factors have been hypothesized as controlling <span class="hlt">maximum</span> body size of tetrapods and other animals through geological time. We analyse the effects of three abiotic factors—oxygen, temperature and land area—on <span class="hlt">maximum</span> size of Permian–Jurassic archosauromorphs and therapsids, and Cenozoic mammals, using time series generalized least-squares regression models. We also examine <span class="hlt">maximum</span> size <span class="hlt">growth</span> curves for the Permian–Jurassic data by comparing fits of Gompertz and logistic models. When serial correlation is removed, we find no robust correlations, indicating that these environmental factors did not consistently control tetrapod <span class="hlt">maximum</span> size. Gompertz models—i.e. exponentially decreasing rate of size increase at larger sizes—fit <span class="hlt">maximum</span> size curves far better than logistic models. This suggests that biological limits such as reduced fecundity and niche space availability become increasingly limiting as larger sizes are <span class="hlt">reached</span>. Environmental factors analysed may still have imposed an upper limit on tetrapod body size, but any environmentally imposed limit did not vary substantially during the intervals examined despite variation in these environmental factors.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sookias, Roland B.; Benson, Roger B. J.; Butler, Richard J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">96</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/7019037"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reaching</span> Reluctant Students: Insights from Torey Hayden</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abstract Students who fight or avoid adults cannot learn from them. This article illustrates important principles of <span class="hlt">reaching</span> these challenging youngsters by using examples drawn from the writings of Torey Hayden. Hayden’s series of books are based on her rich experiences as a teacher of troubled children. ,,,,,“<span class="hlt">Reaching</span>,Reluctant Students: Insights from Torey Hayden” ,,Torey Hayden's books are autobiographical accounts of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mike Marlowe</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">97</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=slope&pg=6&id=EJ766373"> <span id="translatedtitle">Calibrating <span class="hlt">Reach</span> Distance to Visual Targets</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|The authors investigated the calibration of <span class="hlt">reach</span> distance by gradually distorting the haptic feedback obtained when participants grasped visible target objects. The authors found that the modified relationship between visually specified distance and <span class="hlt">reach</span> distance could be captured by a straight-line mapping function. Thus, the relation could be…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mon-Williams, Mark; Bingham, Geoffrey P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">98</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=use+AND+of+AND+social+AND+media+AND+by+AND+college+AND+students&pg=5&id=EJ799780"> <span id="translatedtitle">Always Connected, but Hard to <span class="hlt">Reach</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Students seem to be always connected through their computers, personal digital assistants (PDAs), or mobile phones, making it easy to <span class="hlt">reach</span> them--if you are a peer. For colleges and universities, <span class="hlt">reaching</span> students with timely and relevant information often proves a challenge. With rapid changes in both technology and social practices, what should…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rishi, Raju</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">99</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=postural+AND+control&id=EJ1000200"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interference of Different Types of Seats on Postural Control System during a Forward-<span class="hlt">Reaching</span> Task in Individuals with Paraplegia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|We aimed to evaluate the influence of different types of wheelchair seats on paraplegic individuals' postural control using a <span class="hlt">maximum</span> anterior <span class="hlt">reaching</span> test. Balance evaluations during 50, 75, and 90% of each individual's <span class="hlt">maximum</span> <span class="hlt">reach</span> in the forward direction using two different cushions on seat (one foam and one gel) and a no-cushion condition…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">de Abreu, Daniela Cristina Carvalho; Takara, Kelly; Metring, Nathalia Lopes; Reis, Julia Guimaraes; Cliquet, Alberto, Jr.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">100</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://patft1.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO2&Sect2=HITOFF&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearch-adv.htm&r=1&p=1&f=G&l=50&d=PTXT&S1=%28Legrain+AND+pascal%29&OS=Legrain+and+pascal&RS=%28Legrain+AND+pascal%29"> <span id="translatedtitle">Generating <span class="hlt">growth</span> alternatives</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://patft.uspto.gov/netahtml/PTO/search-adv.htm">US Patent & Trademark Office Database</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The present invention is an apparatus and method for determining when a living animal <span class="hlt">reaches</span> its optimum rate of <span class="hlt">growth</span>. This information is then used to calculate the optimal parameters for achieving the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> Return On Investment. The computer determines the optimal number of birds for a flock, type and amount of feed, length of time between hatching and sale to food processor, etc. The computer consists of a microprocessor, random access memory, a storage device, a keyboard, a computer screen, a printer, a math co-processor.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-09-05</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">101</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=public+AND+service+AND+announcement&pg=7&id=EJ246639"> <span id="translatedtitle">Television Project to <span class="hlt">Reach</span> the Handicapped Deaf.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Describes a project designed to use television public service announcements to present basic nutrition concepts and the nutritional choices in the marketplace in a format that would <span class="hlt">reach</span> the handicapped deaf and the nonhandicapped as well. (CT)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hertzler, Ann A.; And Others</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">102</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.solarbridgetech.com/_shared/uploads/files/1241642642.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic <span class="hlt">maximum</span> power point tracker for photovoltaic applications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A dynamic process for <span class="hlt">reaching</span> the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> power point of a variable power source such as a solar cell is introduced. The process tracks <span class="hlt">maximum</span> power nearly cycle-by-cycle during transients. Information from the natural switching ripple instead of external perturbation is used to support the maximizing process. The method is globally stable for DC-DC power converters, provided that a switching</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pallab Midya; Philip T. Krein; Robert J. Turnbull; Robert Reppa; Jonathan Kimball</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">103</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19872316"> <span id="translatedtitle">HUMAN <span class="hlt">GROWTH</span> CURVE.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The human <span class="hlt">growth</span> curve shows two (and only two) outstanding periods of accelerated <span class="hlt">growth</span>-the circumnatal and the adolescent. The circumnatal <span class="hlt">growth</span> cycle attains great velocity, which <span class="hlt">reaches</span> a <span class="hlt">maximum</span> at the time of birth. The curve of this cycle is best fitted by a theoretical skew curve of Pearson's Type I. It has a theoretical range of 44 months and a standard deviation of 5.17 months. The modal velocity is 10.2 kilos per year. The adolescent <span class="hlt">growth</span> cycle has less <span class="hlt">maximum</span> velocity and greater range in time than the circumnatal cycle. The best fitting theoretical curve is a normal frequency curve ranging over about 10 years with a standard deviation of about 21 months and a modal velocity of 4.5 kilos per year. The two great <span class="hlt">growth</span> accelerations are superimposed on a residual curve of <span class="hlt">growth</span> which measures a substratum of <span class="hlt">growth</span> out of which the accelerations arise. This probably extends from conception to 55 years, on the average. It is characterized by low velocity, averaging about 2 kilos per year from 2 to 12 years. It is interpreted as due to many <span class="hlt">growth</span> operations coincident or closely blending in time. Our curve shows no third marked period of acceleration at between the 3rd and 6th years. The total <span class="hlt">growth</span> in weight of the body is the sum of the weight of its constituent organs. In some cases these keep pace with the <span class="hlt">growth</span> of the body as a whole; great accelerations of body <span class="hlt">growth</span> are due to great accelerations in <span class="hlt">growth</span> of the constituent organs. In other cases one of the organs of the body (like the thymus gland) may undergo a change in weight that is not in harmony with that of the body as a whole. The development of the weight in man is the resultant of many more or less elementary <span class="hlt">growth</span> processes. These result in two special episodes of <span class="hlt">growth</span> and numerous smaller, blending, <span class="hlt">growth</span> operations. Hypotheses are suggested as to the basis of the special <span class="hlt">growth</span> accelerations. PMID:19872316</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Davenport, C B</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1926-11-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">104</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48574105"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Growth</span> pattern of Picea rubens prior to canopy recruitment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A majority (72%) of Picea rubens Sarg. (red spruce) trees in an old-<span class="hlt">growth</span> spruce-fir forest in the Great Smoky Mountains underwent episodes of radial <span class="hlt">growth</span> suppression and release before they <span class="hlt">reached</span> the forest canopy. Prior to canopy recruitment, trees experienced an average of 1.43 and a <span class="hlt">maximum</span> of 7 suppression periods with an average ring width of 0.257 mm. Duration of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xinyuan Wu; J. Frank McCormick; Richard T. Busing</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">105</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010zofp.book...39W"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Growth</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This chapter is devoted to the <span class="hlt">growth</span> of ZnO. It starts with various techniques to grow bulk samples and presents in some detail the <span class="hlt">growth</span> of epitaxial layers by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), and pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The last section is devoted to the <span class="hlt">growth</span> of nanorods. Some properties of the resulting samples are also presented. If a comparison between GaN and ZnO is made, very often the huge variety of different <span class="hlt">growth</span> techniques available to fabricate ZnO is said to be an advantage of this material system. Indeed, <span class="hlt">growth</span> techniques range from low cost wet chemical <span class="hlt">growth</span> at almost room temperature to high quality MOCVD <span class="hlt">growth</span> at temperatures above 1, 000?C. In most cases, there is a very strong tendency of c-axis oriented <span class="hlt">growth</span>, with a much higher <span class="hlt">growth</span> rate in c-direction as compared to other crystal directions. This often leads to columnar structures, even at relatively low temperatures. However, it is, in general, not straight forward to fabricate smooth ZnO thin films with flat surfaces. Another advantage of a potential ZnO technology is said to be the possibility to grow thin films homoepitaxially on ZnO substrates. ZnO substrates are mostly fabricated by vapor phase transport (VPT) or hydrothermal <span class="hlt">growth</span>. These techniques are enabling high volume manufacturing at reasonable cost, at least in principle. The availability of homoepitaxial substrates should be beneficial to the development of ZnO technology and devices and is in contrast to the situation of GaN. However, even though a number of companies are developing ZnO substrates, only recently good quality substrates have been demonstrated. However, these substrates are not yet widely available. Still, the situation concerning ZnO substrates seems to be far from low-cost, high-volume production. The fabrication of dense, single crystal thin films is, in general, surprisingly difficult, even when ZnO is grown on a ZnO substrate. However, molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) delivers high quality ZnMgO-ZnO quantum well structures. Other thin film techniques such as PLD or MOCVD are also widely used. The main problem at present is to consistently achieve reliable p-type doping. For this topic, see also Chap. 5. In the past years, there have been numerous publications on p-type doping of ZnO, as well as ZnO p-n junctions and light emitting diodes (LEDs). However, a lot of these reports are in one way or the other inconsistent or at least incomplete. It is quite clear from optical data that once a reliable hole injection can be achieved, high brightness ZnO LEDs should be possible. In contrast to that expectation, none of the LEDs reported so far shows efficient light emission, as would be expected from a reasonable quality ZnO-based LED. See also Chap. 13. As a matter of fact, there seems to be no generally accepted and reliable technique for p-type doping available at present. The reason for this is the unfavorable position of the band structure of ZnO relative to the vacuum level, with a very low lying valence band. See also Fig. 5.1. This makes the incorporation of electrically active acceptors difficult. Another difficulty is the huge defect density in ZnO. There are many indications that defects play a major role in transport and doping. In order to solve the doping problem, it is generally accepted that the quality of the ZnO material grown by the various techniques needs to be improved. Therefore, the optimization of ZnO epitaxy is thought to play a key role in the further development of this material system. Besides being used as an active material in optoelectronic devices, ZnO plays a major role as transparent contact material in thin film solar cells. Polycrystalline, heavily n-type doped ZnO is used for this, combining a high electrical conductivity with a good optical transparency. In this case, ZnO thin films are fabricated by large area <span class="hlt">growth</span> techniques such as sputtering. For this and other applications, see also Chap. 13.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Waag, Andreas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">106</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16636792"> <span id="translatedtitle">Inhibitory control of <span class="hlt">reaching</span> movements in humans.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Behavioral flexibility provides a very large repertoire of actions and strategies, however, it carries a cost: a potential interference between different options. The voluntary control of behavior starts exactly with the ability of deciding between alternatives. Certainly inhibition plays a key role in this process. Here we examined the inhibitory control of <span class="hlt">reaching</span> arm movements with the countermanding paradigm. Right-handed human subjects were asked to perform speeded <span class="hlt">reaching</span> movements toward a visual target appearing either on the same or opposite side of the <span class="hlt">reaching</span> arm (no-stop trials), but to withhold the commanded movement whenever an infrequent stop signal was presented (stop trials). As the delay between go and stop signals increased, subjects increasingly failed to inhibit the movement. From this inhibitory function and the reaction times of movements in no-stop trials, we estimated the otherwise unobservable duration of the stopping process, the stop signal reaction time (SSRT). We found that the SSRT for <span class="hlt">reaching</span> movements was, on average, 206 ms and that it varied with the <span class="hlt">reaching</span> arm and the target position even though the stop signal was a central stimulus. In fact, subjects were always faster to withhold <span class="hlt">reaching</span> movements toward visual targets appearing on the same side of the <span class="hlt">reaching</span> arm. This behavior strictly parallels the course of the reaction times of no-stop trials. These data show that the stop and go processes interacting in this countermanding task are independent, but most likely influenced by a common factor when under the control of the same hemisphere. In addition, we show that the point beyond which the response cannot be inhibited, the so-called point-of-no-return that divides controlled and ballistic phases of movement processing, lies after the inter-hemispheric transfer. PMID:16636792</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mirabella, Giovanni; Pani, Pierpaolo; Paré, Martin; Ferraina, Stefano</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-04-25</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">107</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22808704"> <span id="translatedtitle">Distance <span class="hlt">reached</span> in the Anteromedial <span class="hlt">Reach</span> Test as a function of learning and leg length.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The anteromedial <span class="hlt">reach</span> test (ART) is a new outcome measure for assessing dynamic knee stability in anterior cruciate ligament-injured patients. The effect of learning and leg length on distance <span class="hlt">reached</span> in the ART was examined. Thirty-two healthy volunteers performed 15 trials of the ART on each leg. There was a moderate correlation (r = .44-.50) between <span class="hlt">reach</span> distance and leg length, therefore <span class="hlt">reach</span> distances were normalized for leg length. Normalized <span class="hlt">reach</span> distance increased significantly over the 15 trials (p < .01), <span class="hlt">reaching</span> a plateau after 8 trials, identified by a moving average graph. It is recommended that participants be afforded eight practice trials and that <span class="hlt">reach</span> distances be normalized by expressing them as a percentage of leg length. PMID:22808704</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bent, Nicholas P; Rushton, Alison B; Wright, Chris C; Batt, Mark E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">108</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3710691"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic Dominance Persists During Unsupported <span class="hlt">Reaching</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Previous studies examining lateralization of arm movements focused on supported movements in the horizontal plane, removing the effects of gravity. The authors hypothesized that interlimb differences in free <span class="hlt">reaching</span> would be consistent with the differences shown during supported <span class="hlt">reaching</span>. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected for the forearm and upper arm segments in a 3-direction <span class="hlt">reaching</span> task. Results showed lateralization of coordination, reflected by initial movement direction and trajectory curvature. The nondominant arm showed increased initial direction errors, and path curvature associated with a timing deficit between elbow and shoulder peak torques. These coordination deficits did not disrupt final position accuracy. The authors conclude that nondominant arm coordination deficits are similar to those reported previously for horizontal plane movements.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tomlinson, Tucker; Sainburg, Robert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">109</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23554437"> <span id="translatedtitle">Optimal control of <span class="hlt">reaching</span> includes kinematic constraints.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigate adaptation under a <span class="hlt">reaching</span> task with an acceleration-based force field perturbation designed to alter the nominal straight hand trajectory in a potentially benign manner: pushing the hand off course in one direction before subsequently restoring towards the target. In this particular task, an explicit strategy to reduce motor effort requires a distinct deviation from the nominal rectilinear hand trajectory. Rather, our results display a clear directional preference during learning, as subjects adapted perturbed curved trajectories towards their initial baselines. We model this behavior using the framework of stochastic optimal control theory and an objective function that trades off the discordant requirements of 1) target accuracy, 2) motor effort, and 3) kinematic invariance. Our work addresses the underlying objective of a <span class="hlt">reaching</span> movement, and we suggest that robustness, particularly against internal model uncertainly, is as essential to the <span class="hlt">reaching</span> task as terminal accuracy and energy efficiency. PMID:23554437</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mistry, Michael; Theodorou, Evangelos; Schaal, Stefan; Kawato, Mitsuo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-03</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">110</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE85012731"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Entropy Beam Diagnostic Tomography.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper reviews the formalism of <span class="hlt">maximum</span> entropy beam diagnostic tomography as applied to the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) prototype accelerator. The same formalism has also been used with streak camera data to produce an ultrahigh speed mo...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. T. Mottershead</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">111</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://video.nasa.gov/core-dl/423/0/593/202614731/1391/423/764/076ec919b8001ea2a34f10807e40ec97.mp4"> <span id="translatedtitle">Arctic Sea Ice <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> 2011</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p class="result-summary">AMSR-E Arctic Sea Ice: September 2010 to March 2011: Scientists tracking the annual <span class="hlt">maximum</span> extent of Arctic sea ice said that 2011 was among the lowest ice extents measured since satellites began collecting the data in 1979.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Holly Zell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-03-29</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">112</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/20322"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Rhododendron <span class="hlt">maximum</span> thickest on tree seed dispersal ...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/">Treesearch</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Source: Int. J. Plant Sci. ... We found no significant effect of R. <span class="hlt">maximum</span> on seed <span class="hlt">reaching</span> the forest floor for Acer rubrum, Liriodendron tulipifera, Quercus ... Germination of tree seeds (A. rubrum, L. tulipifera, Q. rubra, and Betula lenta) from the seed bank also was not reduced by leaves and substrates within the thickets.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">113</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/17268v4n54x243l7.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of physiological age on <span class="hlt">growth</span> vigour of seed potatoes of two cultivars. 5. Review of literature and integration of some experimental results</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The most important literature on physiological age is discussed and an attempt is made to describe the relationship between the chronological age and <span class="hlt">growth</span> vigour of seed of cvs. Jaerla and Désirée produced in three seasons and stored at 4 or 12°C in darkness. The seed of both cultivars <span class="hlt">reaches</span> <span class="hlt">maximum</span> <span class="hlt">growth</span> vigour earlier when stored at 12°C, although this</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. E. Van der Zaag; C. D. Van Loon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">114</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50871701"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simple photovoltaic solar cell dynamic sliding mode controlled <span class="hlt">maximum</span> power point tracker for battery charging applications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, we present a <span class="hlt">maximum</span> power point tracker and estimator for a PV system to estimate the point of <span class="hlt">maximum</span> power, to track this point and force it to <span class="hlt">reach</span> this point in finite time and to stay there for all future time in order to provide the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> power available to the load. The load will be</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Emil A. Jimenez Brea; Eduardo I. Ortiz-Rivera; Andres Salazar-Llinas; Jesus Gonzalez-Llorente</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">115</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60019351"> <span id="translatedtitle">Directional technology will extend drilling <span class="hlt">reach</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Extended <span class="hlt">reach</span> drilling (ERD) is an advanced methodology for drilling high-angle well bores with significantly increased horizontal displacements. Such well bores offer a variety of applications with the potential for reducing production costs. Problems of pipe movement, differential sticking, hole cleaning, and applying weight on bit can be reduced by the use of available technology. A field test drilling program</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. B. Dellinger; W. Gravley; G. C. Tolle</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">116</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57902203"> <span id="translatedtitle">How Academic Libraries <span class="hlt">Reach</span> Users on Facebook</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Facebook is an extremely popular social networking site with college students. Many academic libraries have created their Facebook profiles to <span class="hlt">reach</span> more users. This article studies the Facebook presence of Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member institutions, particularly academic ones. Their Facebook pages are analyzed comprehensively in terms of content, launch time, and popularity. The majority of these libraries maintain</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gang Wan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">117</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60526850"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pumpdown assistance extends coiled tubing <span class="hlt">reach</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">One of the most challenging coiled tubing applications to emerge in the last few years is horizontal well maintenance. When wireline cannot be used, techniques that offer some of the same flexibility, availability and relatively low cost must be used. During this same period, however, drilling technology has also made huge strides in horizontal and extended-<span class="hlt">reach</span> areas. Wells are now</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tailby</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">118</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22seeley%22&pg=6&id=EJ415952"> <span id="translatedtitle">Are Schools That Are "<span class="hlt">Reaching</span> Out" Restructuring?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Assesses the Schools <span class="hlt">Reaching</span> Out programs at two elementary schools in Roxbury (MA) and New York City. Emphasis has been on input goals, not on outcomes, so that little progress in academic achievement has actually been made. Input goals, however, have been met. (DM)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Seeley, David S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">119</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=hand+AND+dominance&pg=3&id=EJ701862"> <span id="translatedtitle">What Determines Limb Selection for <span class="hlt">Reaching</span>?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|While motor dominance appears to drive limb selection for <span class="hlt">reaching</span> movements at the midline and ipsilateral (dominant) side, this study examined the possible determinants associated with what drives the programming of movements in response to stimuli presented in contralateral space. Experiment 1 distinguished between object proximity and a…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Helbig, Casi Rabb; Gabbard, Carl</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">120</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=how+AND+media+AND+helps+AND+businesses&id=ED239013"> <span id="translatedtitle">Women <span class="hlt">Reaching</span> Women. Volunteer Coordinator's Training Program.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Based on the experiences of the Women <span class="hlt">Reaching</span> Women chapters in Wisconsin, this manual provides information on beginning and implementing a volunteer program to train women to help female drug and alcohol abusers. The materials are designed for volunteer coordinators who may be paid or unpaid persons. The manual, containing four sections, is…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pola, Yvonne; Ihlenfeld, Gayle</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">121</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50145359"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hydro automation. Rocky <span class="hlt">Reach</span> hydroelectric project</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The author describes how, in 1997, Rocky <span class="hlt">Reach</span> hydroelectric power plant (USA) became one of the first hydropower projects to use a Windows NT based plant control system with programmable logic controllers (PLCs) controlling the unit auxiliary systems. The new system uses off-the-shelf software and hardware to create an inexpensive yet versatile plant automation system</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. A. Mettler</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">122</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Guatemala+AND+rural+AND+Guatemala&pg=5&id=ED182083"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reaching</span> Rural Women: Case Studies and Strategies.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Although not often considered in the past by planners because their economic contributions are not performed for money, rural women are contributors to the development of their countries. The urgency of <span class="hlt">reaching</span> women with important information to break the cycle of poverty is now being recognized by the major development agencies. While there are…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Colle, Royal D.; Fernandez de Colle, Susana</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">123</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=refrigeration&pg=4&id=ED190844"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">REACH</span>. Teacher's Guide, Volume III. Task Analysis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Designed for use with individualized instructional units (CE 026 345-347, CE 026 349-351) in the electromechanical cluster, this third volume of the postsecondary teacher's guide presents the task analysis which was used in the development of the <span class="hlt">REACH</span> (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air Conditioning, Heating) curriculum. The major blocks of…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Morris, James Lee; And Others</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">124</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1743-0003-4-23.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reaching</span> within a dynamic virtual environment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">BACKGROUND: Planning and execution of <span class="hlt">reaching</span> requires a series of computational processes that involve localization of both the target and initial arm position, and the translation of this spatial information into appropriate motor commands that bring the hand to the target. We have investigated the effects of shifting the visual field on visuomotor control using a virtual visual environment in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Assaf Y Dvorkin; Robert V Kenyon; Emily A Keshner</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">125</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Interviewing+AND+tips&pg=6&id=ED239013"> <span id="translatedtitle">Women <span class="hlt">Reaching</span> Women. Volunteer Coordinator's Training Program.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Based on the experiences of the Women <span class="hlt">Reaching</span> Women chapters in Wisconsin, this manual provides information on beginning and implementing a volunteer program to train women to help female drug and alcohol abusers. The materials are designed for volunteer coordinators who may be paid or unpaid persons. The manual, containing four sections, is…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pola, Yvonne; Ihlenfeld, Gayle</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">126</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ899865.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reaching</span> out: Beyond School Walls. Spotlight Feature</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|In this article, the author features ideas and strategies for outreach that librarians can do to promote one's library media program and the good work it does. She stresses that by working together and <span class="hlt">reaching</span> out, librarians can help foster visibility and support for school library media programs and professionals alike nationwide. Here, she…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dopke-Wilson, MariRae</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">127</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50497304"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reaching</span> Within a Dynamic Virtual Environment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Planning and execution of <span class="hlt">reaching</span> movements requires a series of computational processes that involves the localization of both the target and initial arm position, and the translation of this spatial information into appropriate motor commands that will bring the hand to the target. Voluntary and\\/or involuntary changes in the spatial relationship between our hand and the space in which we</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Assaf Y. Dvorkin; Robert V. Kenyon; Emily A. Keshner</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">128</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22promotional+tool%22&pg=2&id=ED101104"> <span id="translatedtitle">Project <span class="hlt">Reach</span>: Final Report--Year 2.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|The second year of Project <span class="hlt">Reach</span>, a Federally funded two-year program, pursued two tactics for increasing the adult basic education (ABE) program relevance and effectiveness in South Bend, Indiana: (1) the training/hiring of ABE students as media paraprofessionals, and (2) a media enrollment campaign of various media promotions (television/radio…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McClelland, Samuel D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">129</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41052921"> <span id="translatedtitle">Last Glacial <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> age for the northwest Laurentide <span class="hlt">maximum</span> from the Eagle River spillway and delta complex, northern Yukon</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Eagle River spillway and braid delta complex provide a record of the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> extent of the northwest Laurentide Ice Sheet and diversion of meltwater from Bonnet Plume Basin into the interior basins of non-glaciated northern Yukon. Development of the spillway can be characterized in three distinct zones based on the distribution of erosion and deposition along each <span class="hlt">reach</span>: erosion-dominated</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. E. Kennedy; D. G. Froese; G. D. Zazula; B. Lauriol</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">130</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.H51E1122K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bedrock Incision Rates Through A Knickpoint <span class="hlt">Reach</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Bedrock river incision is a fundamental process in landscape evolution, controlling, for example, the rate at which base-level fall is propagated through the drainage net and hence the rate of sediment flux from source areas to sedimentary basin ­rsinks'. Particular attention has been focused on the processes and erosion rates upstream and downstream of knickpoints. These key bedrock river landforms propagate headwards to transmit the ­rmessage­_ to the drainage net that base-level has fallen. Knickpoints may be sharply defined as waterfalls or cascades, which separate <span class="hlt">reaches</span> controlled by different environmental settings. They may originate as a result of base-level changes, tectonic uplift, lithologic and structural controls, tributary sediment inputs or environmental changes. Information on changes in bed incision rates through a knickpoint <span class="hlt">reach</span> provides insight into the role of knickpoints in landscape evolution. The River Etive, Scotland, has alternating alluvial and bedrock <span class="hlt">reaches</span> and a stepped long profile caused by series of knickpoints. To investigate the controls over bedrock incision in this river, numerical simulations were performed using a process-based incision model. Physical modelling of the impact of bedload on abrasion has been used to verify the numerical simulations and cosmogenic nuclides have been used to estimate incision rates as a final test. To characterise and assess changes in incision rates through the knickpoint <span class="hlt">reach</span>, five bedrock samples were collected for cosmogenic isotope analysis from above and below a knickpoint in the bed of the River Etive. The samples were taken from as close to the low flow water surface as practically possible and are overtopped even at moderate flows; it is therefore highly unlikely that they have ever been shielded by either peat or alluvial sediment. The sample sites have clearly been fluvially sculpted and are smooth and rounded; they are therefore highly appropriate for the analysis. Quartz was extracted from the samples and fully prepared, following standard procedures. In addition, the overall incision rates in the <span class="hlt">reach</span> have been estimated using a bedrock incision model. The numerical model, in which incision is dominated by abrasion by saltating sediment particles, shows how interactions between sediment dynamics and hydraulic conditions determine the incision rates. Sensitivity analyses incorporating a wide range of model parameterisations confirmed that erosion rates in bedrock rivers are controlled by stream power, but changes in sediment discharge and size also play important roles in incision. The numerical simulation results are further tested through tumbling mill experiments. Topographic and sedimentological data from the River Etive are used to estimate the erosion rates in the knickpoint <span class="hlt">reach</span> using the numerical model. The numerical simulations show that the spatial patterns of incision are changed as model parameters are changed. A conventional, diffusion style, model produced declining slopes at knickpoints, while the new model, which incorporates sediment dynamics, produced more complicated pattern of incision. The physical processes operating in knickpoint <span class="hlt">reaches</span> determined the mode and rate of incision, and these physical processes change with location within the <span class="hlt">reach</span>. For abrasion, changes in effective sediment flux as transport stage changes plays the critical role in determining incision rates. These conclusions will be evaluated using the cosmogenically derived incision rates.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kim, J.; Hoey, T.; Bishop, P.; Fifield, K.; Levchenko, V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">131</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012IJMPA..2730008C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Underground Laboratories and Their Physics <span class="hlt">Reach</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Underground laboratories, shielded by the Earth's crust from the particles that rain down on the surface in the form of cosmic rays, provide the low radioactive background environment necessary to host key experiments in the field of particle and astroparticle physics, nuclear astrophysics and other disciplines that can profit of their characteristics and of their infrastructures. The cosmic silence condition existing in these laboratories allows the search for extremely rare phenomena and the exploration of the highest energy scales that cannot be <span class="hlt">reached</span> with accelerators. Major fundamental challenges are within the scope of these laboratories, notably, understanding the properties of neutrinos and dark matter, and exploring the unification of the fundamental forces of nature. I will review the physics <span class="hlt">reach</span> and briefly describe the main underground facilities that are presently in operation around the world.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Coccia, E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">132</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/r03427p6u6500650.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Experiential Jewish Education: <span class="hlt">Reaching</span> the Tipping Point</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">\\u000a Experiential Jewish education, building on some recent significant accomplishments, stands poised to <span class="hlt">reach</span> its Tipping Point\\u000a within the Jewish communal landscape. This chapter offers a comprehensive definition of experiential Jewish education as a\\u000a means of laying the foundation for describing the field in both theoretical and practical terms. Developing robust and compelling\\u000a instruments to measure its success; creating systematic and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">David Bryfman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">133</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=injured+AND+sports&id=EJ990083"> <span id="translatedtitle">Distance <span class="hlt">Reached</span> in the Anteromedial <span class="hlt">Reach</span> Test as a Function of Learning and Leg Length</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Anteromedial <span class="hlt">Reach</span> Test (ART) is a new outcome measure for assessing dynamic knee stability in anterior cruciate ligament-injured patients. The effect of learning and leg length on distance <span class="hlt">reached</span> in the ART was examined. Thirty-two healthy volunteers performed 15 trials of the ART on each leg. There was a moderate correlation (r = 0.44-0.50)…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bent, Nicholas P.; Rushton, Alison B.; Wright, Chris C.; Batt, Mark E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">134</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.vis.caltech.edu/Papers/PDFs%20of%20journal%20articles/NeuroReport/cohen_2002.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of neural activity preceding <span class="hlt">reaches</span> to auditory and visual stimuli in the parietal <span class="hlt">reach</span> region</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We examined the responses of neurons in the parietal <span class="hlt">reach</span> region (PRR) during <span class="hlt">reaches</span> to the remembered locations of auditory or visual stimuli. We found that the ¢ring rate of PRR neurons con- tained information about the location of auditory and visual stimuli. For neurons tested with visual stimuli, the amount of infor- mation remained constant throughout the task. In</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yale E. Cohen; Aaron P. Batista; Richard A. Andersen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">135</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/6469969"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reach</span>MAN: a personal robot to train <span class="hlt">reaching</span> and manipulation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Robotic devices able to train both <span class="hlt">reaching</span> and manipulation are often large and complex and thus not suitable for decentralized use at home or in local rehabilitation centers. This paper describes a compact device with only three degrees of freedom (DOF) to train <span class="hlt">reaching</span> and manipulation critical to activities of daily living. The design considers only the DOF necessary to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Che Fai Yeong; Alejandro Melendez-calderon; Roger Gassert; Etienne Burdet</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">136</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7737385"> <span id="translatedtitle">Kinematic analysis of <span class="hlt">reaching</span> in the cat.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The present study examines the kinematic features of forelimb movements made by cats <span class="hlt">reaching</span> for food in horizontal target wells located at different heights and distances. Wrist paths consisted of two relatively straight segments joined at a "via-point" in front of the aperture of the food well. In the initial lift phase, the paw was raised to the via-point in front of the target. In the second, or thrust phase, the paw was directed forward into the food well. During the lift, the paw was moved toward the target primarily by elbow flexion, accompanied by a sequence of biphasic shoulder and wrist movements. Thrust was accomplished primarily by shoulder flexion while the wrist and the paw were maintained at near-constant angles. The animals varied the height of the <span class="hlt">reach</span> primarily by varying elbow flexion with proportional changes in elbow angular velocity and angular acceleration and with corresponding variations in wrist speed. Thus, cats <span class="hlt">reached</span> for targets at different heights by scaling a common kinematic profile. Over a relatively large range of target heights, animals maintained movement duration constant, according to a simple "pulse-height" control strategy (isochronous scaling). For <span class="hlt">reaches</span> to a given target height, animals compensated for variability in peak acceleration by variations in movement time. We examined the coordination between the shoulder and the wrist with the elbow. Early during the lift, peak shoulder extensor and peak elbow flexor accelerations were synchronized. Late during the lift phase, wrist extensor acceleration was found to occur during the period of elbow flexor deceleration. We hypothesize that these linkages could, in part, be due to passive mechanical interactions. To determine how the angular trajectories of the different joints were organized in relation to target location, we plotted joint kinematic changes directly on the wrist and MCP joint paths. These plots revealed that for all target heights and movement speeds, wrist extensor deceleration occurred at approximately the same spatial location with respect to the target. This analysis also demonstrated that the second phase of MCP flexion occurred when the paw was below the lower lip of the food well, while the subsequent extension occurred after the tip cleared this obstacle. During thrust, wrist and MCP angles were maintained, reflecting the need to align the paw within the food well. Our findings suggest that cats plan the <span class="hlt">reaching</span> phase of prehension as a sequence of discrete movement segments, each serving a particular goal in the task, rather than as an single unit. PMID:7737385</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Martin, J H; Cooper, S E; Ghez, C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">137</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=244013"> <span id="translatedtitle">Medium for Isolation and <span class="hlt">Growth</span> of Bacteria Associated with Plum Leaf Scald and Phony Peach Diseases</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Rickettsia-like bacteria associated with plum leaf scald and phony peach diseases were isolated from diseased but not from healthy tissues and cultured on charcoal-yeast extract medium (BCYE) buffered with ACES (2-[(2-amino-2-oxoethyl) amino]-ethanesulfonic acid). Optimum conditions for isolation and <span class="hlt">growth</span> on BCYE medium were pH 6.5 to 6.9 at 20 and 25°C under normal atmosphere. <span class="hlt">Growth</span> of primary colonies and first-passage subcultures was restricted, and colonies <span class="hlt">reached</span> a <span class="hlt">maximum</span> diameter of 0.6 mm in 60 days. After 12 passages, subcultures <span class="hlt">reached</span> <span class="hlt">maximum</span> <span class="hlt">growth</span> in 21 days. The rickettsia-like bacteria from BCYE cultures were gram negative, serologically the same as those present in diseased peach and plum, and composed of rod-shaped cells measuring 0.35 by 5 ?m (average diameter and <span class="hlt">maximum</span> length) in a matrix of filamentous strands of similar width but of variable length. Images</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wells, J. M.; Raju, B. C.; Nyland, G.; Lowe, S. K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">138</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/6106183"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Expected Utility via MCMC</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abstract This paper provides a pure simulation approach to solving <span class="hlt">maximum</span>,expected utility (MEU) problems. MEU problems require both integration, to compute the expected utility, and optimization, to find the optimal decision. In most cases of interest, the expected utility does not have a analytical solution, even for a given value of the decision. One must apply gradient methods around numerical</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eric Jacquier; Michael Johannes; Nicholas Polson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">139</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6076654"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> entropy beam diagnostic tomography</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper reviews the formalism of <span class="hlt">maximum</span> entropy beam diagnostic tomography as applied to the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) prototype accelerator. The same formalism has also been used with streak camera data to produce an ultrahigh speed movie of the beam profile of the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) at Livermore.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mottershead, C.T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">140</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=N8534175"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solar <span class="hlt">Maximum</span>: Solar Array Degradation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The 5-year in-orbit power degradation of the silicon solar array aboard the Solar <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Satellite was evaluated. This was the first spacecraft to use Teflon R FEP as a coverglass adhesive, thus avoiding the necessity of an ultraviolet filter. The peak p...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. Miller</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">141</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26287312"> <span id="translatedtitle">Heliostats for <span class="hlt">maximum</span> ground coverage</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Most conventional heliostats consist of a rectangular reflector which is moved around a fixed vertical axis tracking the azimuth of the sun and a second moving horizontal axis which rotates around the vertical axis to allow tracking the elevation of the sun. The <span class="hlt">maximum</span> ground coverage possible of fields of such heliostats without colliding neighbouring reflectors is 58%. Applications of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Philipp Schramek; David R. Mills</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">142</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50850220"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> throughput of clandestine relay</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">maximum</span> throughput of relaying information flows while concealing their presence is studied. The concealment is achieved by embedding transmissions of information flows into truly independent transmission schedules that resemble the normal transmission behaviors without any flow. Such embedding may reduce the throughput for delay-sensitive flows, and the paper provides a quantitative characterization of the level of reduction. Under a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ting He; Lang Tong; Ananthram Swami</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">143</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/2178702"> <span id="translatedtitle">Graphs with <span class="hlt">maximum</span> connectivity index</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Let G be a graph and dv the degree (=number of first neighbors) of its vertex v. The connectivity index of G is ?=?(dudv)?1\\/2, with the summation ranging over all pairs of adjacent vertices of G. In a previous paper (Comput. Chem. 23 (1999) 469), by applying a heuristic combinatorial optimization algorithm, the structure of chemical trees possessing extremal (<span class="hlt">maximum</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gilles Caporossi; Ivan Gutman; Pierre Hansen; Ljiljana Pavlovic</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">144</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53951159"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> reentry drag deceleration revisited</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The analytic formulation of the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> reentry drag deceleration problem is modified to include (1) the motion of the atmosphere due to earth rotation and (2) an accurate, multi-layer atmospheric density model. It is demonstrated that peak deceleration depends on drag coefficient values except in the case of isothermal layers, where the density profile is an exponential function. Despite the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. E. Hough</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">145</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57469269"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Acceptable Weight of Lift</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper discusses the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> amount of weight that an individual can be expected to lift comfortably and without strain. Recommendations based on empirical estimates, biomechanical techniques, and psychophysical methods are reviewed, including those of the International Labour Office, the Swiss Accident Insurance Institute, the Danish National Association for Infantile Paralysis, and the U. S. Air Force. The approach used</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. H. Snook; C. H. Irvine</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1967-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">146</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5614119"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> entropy beam diagnostic tomography</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper reviews the formalism of <span class="hlt">maximum</span> entropy beam diagnostic tomography as applied to the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) prototype accelerator. The same formalism has also been used with streak camera data to produce an ultrahigh speed movie of the beam profile of the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) at Livermore. 11 refs., 4 figs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mottershead, C.T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">147</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22pay+for+performance%22&pg=3&id=ED510376"> <span id="translatedtitle">An Interim Evaluation of Teacher and Principal Experiences during the Pilot Phase of AISD <span class="hlt">Reach</span>. Policy Evaluation Report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In July 2007, the Austin Independent School District (AISD) began implementation of AISD <span class="hlt">REACH</span>, a comprehensive and strategic compensation initiative. The initiative addressed three key areas: student <span class="hlt">growth</span>, professional <span class="hlt">growth</span>, and recruitment and retention of teachers and principals at highest needs schools. <span class="hlt">REACH</span> combines an outcome-based pay…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Burns, Susan Freeman; Gardner, Catherine D.; Meeuwsen, Joyce</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">148</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42830485"> <span id="translatedtitle">Contribution of Mycorrhizae to Early <span class="hlt">Growth</span> and Phosphorus Uptake by a Neotropical Palm</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can act as an extension of the root system of their host plants. In Desmoncus orthacanthos Martius (Arecaceae), which has thick and unbranched roots (i.e., magnolioid roots) and low densities of root hairs, this association may be essential to <span class="hlt">reach</span> a <span class="hlt">maximum</span> <span class="hlt">growth</span> with minimum fertilizers. This is important because of the potential in the south</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">José Ramos-Zapata; Roger Orellana; Patricia Guadarrama; Salvador Medina-Peralta</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">149</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8289E..20S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Prediction of visually perceived location using <span class="hlt">reaching</span> action and effect of <span class="hlt">reaching</span> distance on it</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We examined what effect the <span class="hlt">reaching</span> distance had on the prediction of a visually perceived location using <span class="hlt">reaching</span> action. A system presenting a virtual object must execute the process of interaction when a body is directly at the visually perceived location of the virtual object to enable direct interaction between an observer's body and the virtual object. Conventional techniques assume that the visually perceived location is the same as the location defined by binocular disparity. However, both locations are often different. We proposed a new technique in our previous studies to predict the visually perceived location using an observer's action. We also demonstrated prediction using an action where an observer <span class="hlt">reached</span> out to a virtual object. This study was an examination into the range of applications of our proposed approach. An observer in an experiment <span class="hlt">reached</span> out to a virtual object, and the <span class="hlt">reaching</span> distance was the experimental variable. The results did not support the effect of the <span class="hlt">reaching</span> distance on prediction. We demonstrated that our technique could be applied to a wide range of <span class="hlt">reaching</span> distances.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Suzuki, Masahiro; Takazawa, Keigo; Uehira, Kazutake; Unno, Hiroshi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">150</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/814767"> <span id="translatedtitle">Riparian Vegetation Mapping Along the Hanford <span class="hlt">Reach</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">During the biological survey and inventory of the Hanford Site conducted in the mid-1990s (1995 and 1996), preliminary surveys of the riparian vegetation were conducted along the Hanford <span class="hlt">Reach</span>. These preliminary data were reported to The Nature Conservancy (TNC), but were not included in any TNC reports to DOE or stakeholders. During the latter part of FY2001, PNNL contracted with SEE Botanical, the parties that performed the original surveys in the mid 1990s, to complete the data summaries and mapping associated with the earlier survey data. Those data sets were delivered to PNNL and the riparian mapping by vegetation type for the Hanford <span class="hlt">Reach</span> is being digitized during the first quarter of FY2002. These mapping efforts provide the information necessary to create subsequent spatial data layers to describe the riparian zone according to plant functional types (trees, shrubs, grasses, sedges, forbs). Quantification of the riparian zone by vegetation types is important to a number of DOE'S priority issues including modeling contaminant transport and uptake in the near-riverine environment and the determination of ecological risk. This work included the identification of vegetative zones along the <span class="hlt">Reach</span> by changes in dominant plant species covering the shoreline from just to the north of the 300 Area to China Bar near Vernita. Dominant and indicator species included Agropyron dasytachyudA. smithii, Apocynum cannabinum, Aristida longiseta, Artemisia campestris ssp. borealis var scouleriana, Artemisa dracunculus, Artemisia lindleyana, Artemisia tridentata, Bromus tectorum, Chrysothamnus nauseosus, Coreopsis atkinsoniana. Eleocharis palustris, Elymus cinereus, Equisetum hyemale, Eriogonum compositum, Juniperus trichocarpa, Phalaris arundinacea, Poa compressa. Salk exigua, Scirpus acutus, Solidago occidentalis, Sporobolus asper,and Sporobolus cryptandrus. This letter report documents the data received, the processing by PNNL staff, and additional data gathered in FY2002 to support development of a complete data layer describing riparian vegetation cover types on the Columbia River adjacent to the Hanford Site boundaries. Included with this report are the preliminary riparian vegetation maps and the associated metadata for that GIS layer.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">FOGWELL, T.W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-07-11</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">151</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57722537"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of dynamic virtual and real robots on perceived safe waiting time and <span class="hlt">maximum</span> <span class="hlt">reach</span> of robot arms</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This research examines perception of dynamic objects and robots in a virtual and real industrial work environment. The studies are modelled after those of Karwowski and Rahimi from the early 1990s. By applying virtual reality technology, the real workplace can be simulated in the virtual world for the improvement of facility design. Perception of hazard and risk, safe waiting time,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Parry P. W. Ng; Vincent G. Duffy; Gulcin Yucel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">152</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57713913"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of dynamic virtual and real robots on perceived safe waiting time and <span class="hlt">maximum</span> <span class="hlt">reach</span> of robot arms</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This research examines perception of dynamic objects and robots in a virtual and real industrial work environment. The studies are modelled after those of Karwowski and Rahimi from the early 1990s. By applying virtual reality technology, the real workplace can be simulated in the virtual world for the improvement of facility design. Perception of hazard and risk, safe waiting time,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Parry P. W. Ng; Vincent G. Duffy; Gulcin Yucel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">153</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/biblio/987753/(((i+have)+a)+dream)"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spallation Neutron Source <span class="hlt">reaches</span> megawatt power</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/">ScienceCinema</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Department of Energy's Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), already the world's most powerful facility for pulsed neutron scattering science, is now the first pulsed spallation neutron source to break the one-megawatt barrier. "Advances in the materials sciences are fundamental to the development of clean and sustainable energy technologies. In <span class="hlt">reaching</span> this milestone of operating power, the Spallation Neutron Source is providing scientists with an unmatched resource for unlocking the secrets of materials at the molecular level," said Dr. William F. Brinkman, Director of DOE's Office of Science.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">154</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1030616"> <span id="translatedtitle">SNS target <span class="hlt">reaches</span> end-of-life</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">On Sunday, April 3, 2011, the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) target <span class="hlt">reached</span> an end-of-life condition, so user operations were shut down to change the stainless steel target housing the liquid mercury. This is the third change out of the target vessel; it is an expected event and took about two weeks. We took advantage of this time to do maintenance work that was planned for the longer summer shutdown. This will shorten that shutdown and recover the neutron production time. SNS restarted user operations on April 20.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ekkebus, Allen E [ORNL</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">155</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.epa.gov/owow/tmdl/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Total <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Daily Load Program</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provides this informative resource on Total <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Daily Loads (TMDL). A term used to discuss water quality, TMDL refers to "a calculation of the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> amount of a pollutant that a water body can receive and still meet water quality standards." The TMDL Program Website offers background information on TMDLs (including FAQs), a National Overview of Impaired Waters in the US, and two standard presentations on TMDLs (HTML and Power Point). The heart of the site, however, is the interactive map of the US, which allows users access to each state's TMDL Program. Within each state, watershed names and maps, as well as source information (Water body, Parameter of Concern, Priority for TMDL Development), are provided.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">156</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhRvC..73e8801S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> mass of neutron stars</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We determine the structure of neutron stars within a Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach based on realistic nucleon-nucleon, nucleon-hyperon, and hyperon-hyperon interactions. Our results indicate rather low <span class="hlt">maximum</span> masses below 1.4 solar masses. This feature is insensitive to the nucleonic part of the EOS due to a strong compensation mechanism caused by the appearance of hyperons and represents thus strong evidence for the presence of nonbaryonic “quark” matter in the interior of heavy stars.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schulze, H.-J.; Polls, A.; Ramos, A.; Vidaña, I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">157</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23720533"> <span id="translatedtitle">Can donated media placements <span class="hlt">reach</span> intended audiences?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Donated media placements for public service announcements (PSAs) can be difficult to secure, and may not always <span class="hlt">reach</span> intended audiences. Strategies used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Screen for Life: National Colorectal Cancer Action Campaign (SFL) to obtain donated media placements include producing a diverse mix of high-quality PSAs, co-branding with state and tribal health agencies, securing celebrity involvement, monitoring media trends to identify new distribution opportunities, and strategically timing the release of PSAs. To investigate open-ended recall of PSAs promoting colorectal cancer screening, CDC conducted 12 focus groups in three U.S. cities with men and women either nearing age 50 years, when screening is recommended to begin, or aged 50-75 years who were not in compliance with screening guidelines. In most focus groups, multiple participants recalled exposure to PSAs promoting colorectal cancer screening, and most of these individuals reported having seen SFL PSAs on television, in transit stations, or on the sides of public buses. Some participants reported exposure to SFL PSAs without prompting from the moderator, as they explained how they learned about the disease. Several participants reported learning key campaign messages from PSAs, including that colorectal cancer screening should begin at age 50 years and screening can find polyps so they can be removed before becoming cancerous. Donated media placements can <span class="hlt">reach</span> and educate mass audiences, including millions of U.S. adults who have not been screened appropriately for colorectal cancer. PMID:23720533</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Gelb, Cynthia A; Chu, Jennifer; Polonec, Lindsey</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-29</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">158</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.codesria.org/Links/Publications/media_review1_05/chuka.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reaching</span> Critical Mass in Nigeria's Telephone Industry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The sudden and rapid <span class="hlt">growth</span> in access to telephones in Nigeria has certainly raised major questions for telecommunications scholars. Access to telephones in Nigeria had been marginal by the end of the twentieth century with the teledensity rate well below 1:100 for a country of estimated 130 million persons (Ajayi, Salawu and Raji 1999). Today, over 10 million Nigerians have</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chuka Onwumechili</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">159</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.6250R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Global characterization of the Holocene Thermal <span class="hlt">Maximum</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We analyze the global variations in the timing and magnitude of the Holocene Thermal <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> (HTM) and their dependence on various forcings in transient simulations covering the last 9000 years (9 kyr), performed with the LOVECLIM global atmosphere-ocean-vegetation model (Goosse et al. 2010). In these experiments, we consider the influence of variations in orbital parameters and atmospheric greenhouse gases and the early-Holocene deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice sheet (LIS). Considering the LIS deglaciation, we quantify separately the impacts of the background melt-water fluxes and the changes in topography and surface albedo. In the analysis we focus on the intensity of the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> temperature deviation relative to the preindustrial level, its timing in the Holocene, and the seasonal expression. In the model, the warmest HTM conditions are found at high latitudes in both hemispheres, <span class="hlt">reaching</span> 5°C above the preindustrial level, while the smallest HTM signal is seen over tropical oceans (less than 0.5°C). This latitudinal contrast is mostly related to the nature of the orbitally-forced insolation forcing, which is also largest at high latitudes, and further enhanced by the polar amplification. The Holocene timing of the HTM is earliest (before 8 kyr BP) in regions not affected by the remnant LIS, particularly NW North America, E Asia, N Africa, N South America, the Middle East, NE Siberia and Australia. Compared to the early Holocene insolation <span class="hlt">maximum</span>, the HTM was delayed by 2 to 3 kyr over NE North America, and regions directly downwind from the LIS. A similar delay is simulated over the Southern Ocean, while an intermediate lag of about 1 kyr is found over most other continents and oceans. The seasonal timing of the HTM over continents generally occurs in the same month as the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> insolation anomaly, whereas over oceans the HTM is delayed by 2-3 months. Exceptions are the oceans covered by sea ice and North Africa, were additional feedbacks results in a different seasonal timing. The simulated timing and magnitude of the HTM are generally consistent with global proxy evidence, with some notable exceptions in the Mediterranean region, SW North America and eastern Eurasia.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Renssen, H.; Seppä, H.; Crosta, X.; Goosse, H.; Roche, D. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">160</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012QSRv...48....7R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Global characterization of the Holocene Thermal <span class="hlt">Maximum</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We analyze the global variations in the timing and magnitude of the Holocene Thermal <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> (HTM) and their dependence on various forcings in transient simulations covering the last 9000 years (9 ka), performed with a global atmosphere-ocean-vegetation model. In these experiments, we consider the influence of variations in orbital parameters and atmospheric greenhouse gases and the early-Holocene deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice sheet (LIS). Considering the LIS deglaciation, we quantify separately the impacts of the background melt-water fluxes and the changes in topography and surface albedo.In the analysis we focus on the intensity of the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> temperature deviation relative to the preindustrial level, its timing in the Holocene, and the seasonal expression. In the model, the warmest HTM conditions are found at high latitudes in both hemispheres, <span class="hlt">reaching</span> 5 °C above the preindustrial level, while the smallest HTM signal is seen over tropical oceans (less than 0.5 °C). This latitudinal contrast is mostly related to the nature of the orbitally-forced insolation forcing, which is also largest at high latitudes, and further enhanced by the polar amplification. The Holocene timing of the HTM is earliest (before 8 ka BP) in regions not affected by the remnant LIS, particularly NW North America, E Asia, N Africa, N South America, the Middle East, NE Siberia and Australia. Compared to the early Holocene insolation <span class="hlt">maximum</span>, the HTM was delayed by 2-3 ka over NE North America, and regions directly downwind from the LIS. A similar delay is simulated over the Southern Ocean, while an intermediate lag of about 1 ka is found over most other continents and oceans. The seasonal timing of the HTM over continents generally occurs in the same month as the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> insolation anomaly, whereas over oceans the HTM is delayed by 2-3 months. Exceptions are the oceans covered by sea ice and North Africa, were additional feedbacks results in a different seasonal timing. The simulated timing and magnitude of the HTM are generally consistent with global proxy evidence, with some notable exceptions in the Mediterranean region, SW North America and eastern Eurasia.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Renssen, H.; Seppä, H.; Crosta, X.; Goosse, H.; Roche, D. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">161</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/details.jsp?query_id=0&page=0&ostiID=1055710"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reach</span> and get capability in a computing environment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">reach</span> and get technique includes invoking a <span class="hlt">reach</span> command from a <span class="hlt">reach</span> location within a computing environment. A user can then navigate to an object within the computing environment and invoke a get command on the object. In response to invoking the get command, the computing environment is automatically navigated back to the <span class="hlt">reach</span> location and the object copied into the <span class="hlt">reach</span> location.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bouchard, Ann M. (Albuquerque, NM); Osbourn, Gordon C. (Albuquerque, NM)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-05</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">162</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhTea..51..400V"> <span id="translatedtitle">Is There a <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Size of Water Drops in Nature?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In nature, water drops can have a large variety of sizes and shapes. Small droplets with diameters of the order of 5 to 10 ?m are present in fog and clouds. This is not sufficiently large for gravity to dominate their behavior. In contrast, raindrops typically have sizes of the order of 1 mm, with observed <span class="hlt">maximum</span> sizes in nature of around 5 mm in tropical rain showers. Electric fields in the atmosphere lead to the largest sizes.1 Raindrops in natural rain showers cannot <span class="hlt">reach</span> arbitrarily large sizes. Which factors govern the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> size of water drops?</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vollmer, Michael; Möllmann, Klaus-Peter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">163</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20863905"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> freeze-out baryon density in nuclear collisions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using simple parametrizations of the thermodynamic freeze-out parameters extracted from the data over a wide beam-energy range, we reexpress the hadronic freeze-out line in terms of the underlying dynamic quantities, the net baryon density {rho}{sub B} and the energy density epsiv, which are subject to local conservation laws. This analysis reveals that {rho}{sub B} exhibits a <span class="hlt">maximum</span> as the collision energy is decreased. This <span class="hlt">maximum</span> freeze-out density has {mu}=400-500 MeV, which is above the critical value, and it is <span class="hlt">reached</span> for a fixed-target bombarding energy of 20-30 GeV/nucleon.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Randrup, J. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Cleymans, J. [Department of Physics, University of Cape Town (South Africa)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-10-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">164</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhRvC..74d7901R"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> freeze-out baryon density in nuclear collisions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using simple parametrizations of the thermodynamic freeze-out parameters extracted from the data over a wide beam-energy range, we reexpress the hadronic freeze-out line in terms of the underlying dynamic quantities, the net baryon density ?B and the energy density ?, which are subject to local conservation laws. This analysis reveals that ?B exhibits a <span class="hlt">maximum</span> as the collision energy is decreased. This <span class="hlt">maximum</span> freeze-out density has ?=400 500 MeV, which is above the critical value, and it is <span class="hlt">reached</span> for a fixed-target bombarding energy of 20 30 GeV/nucleon.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Randrup, J.; Cleymans, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">165</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3447970"> <span id="translatedtitle">Speeded <span class="hlt">Reaching</span> Movements around Invisible Obstacles</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We analyze the problem of obstacle avoidance from a Bayesian decision-theoretic perspective using an experimental task in which <span class="hlt">reaches</span> around a virtual obstacle were made toward targets on an upright monitor. Subjects received monetary rewards for touching the target and incurred losses for accidentally touching the intervening obstacle. The locations of target-obstacle pairs within the workspace were varied from trial to trial. We compared human performance to that of a Bayesian ideal movement planner (who chooses motor strategies maximizing expected gain) using the Dominance Test employed in Hudson et al. (2007). The ideal movement planner suffers from the same sources of noise as the human, but selects movement plans that maximize expected gain in the presence of that noise. We find good agreement between the predictions of the model and actual performance in most but not all experimental conditions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hudson, Todd E.; Wolfe, Uta; Maloney, Laurence T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">166</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18771672"> <span id="translatedtitle">Immediate and delayed <span class="hlt">reaching</span> in hemispatial neglect.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Milner and Goodale (The visual brain in action, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995; The visual brain in action, 2nd ed., Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006) propose a model of vision that makes a distinction between vision for perception and vision for action. One strong claim of the model is that the dorsal stream's control of action is designed for dealing with target stimuli in the 'here and now', yet when time is allowed to pass and a reaction has to be made on the basis of a visual memory, the ventral stream is required for successful performance. Regarding the syndrome of hemispatial neglect, Milner and Goodale further claim that the visual dorsal stream is relatively spared in these patients. In the current study we tested whether neglect patients would indeed be unimpaired in immediate pointing, yet show inaccurate pointing in a condition where a delay is interposed between the presentation of the stimulus and the response signal (in particular in left space). We tested the ability of nine neglect patients (and healthy and right hemisphere no neglect control groups) to perform <span class="hlt">reaches</span> towards immediate and delayed targets, placed in left, central and right locations. Neglect patients showed no accuracy impairments when asked to perform an immediate action. Conversely, when pointing towards remembered leftward locations, they markedly overshoot the target or failed to initiate a <span class="hlt">reach</span> altogether. These results confirm that patients with neglect are not specifically impaired when performing 'here and now' actions, but rather present deficits when the visuomotor task taps into more perceptual 'off-line' representations thought to depend on ventral visual stream activation. PMID:18771672</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rossit, Stéphanie; Muir, Keith; Reeves, Ian; Duncan, George; Birschel, Philip; Harvey, Monika</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-08-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">167</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/27292503312506tm.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Growth</span> Kinetics and Toxicity of Enterobacter cloacae Grown on Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate as Sole Carbon Source</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A successful attempt was made to isolate linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS)–degrading bacteria from soil irrigated with wastewater.\\u000a The isolated bacteria were able to use LAS as sole carbon and energy source. <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> <span class="hlt">growth</span> rates on LAS <span class="hlt">reached</span> only 0.27 h?1. 16S-rRNA sequencing and fatty-acid analysis placed the bacteria in the genus Enterobacter cloacae. The <span class="hlt">growth</span> curves of E. cloacae both in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Khaled M. Khleifat; Khaled A. Tarawneh; Mohammad Ali Wedyan; Amjad A. Al-Tarawneh; Khalid Al Sharafa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">168</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008ASPC..400..251H"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reaching</span> Non-Traditional Audiences During IYA2009 in Canada</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Canada's far <span class="hlt">reaching</span> plans for IYA2009 are highly inter-related. Unification arises from the major focus on maximizing the number and diversity of Canadians who will experience sometime in 2009 a moment of personal astronomical discovery, the Galileo Moment, through participation in astronomical observation or broadly defined activities with significant astronomical content that evoke awe and wonder. Among the latter are three broad themes: a) programmes involving Aboriginal children, youth and elders, b) partnerships with arts and cultural organizations, and c) astronomical imagery exhibits in high-traffic areas. Delivery of these programs rests upon our strong partnership between amateur [Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, Fédération des astronomes amateurs du Québec and, we hope, independent clubs] and professional astronomers [Canadian Astronomical Society, including many active, enthusiastic graduate students] and collaborations with diverse sectors of society, the <span class="hlt">growth</span> of which is encouraging. Our developing ideas and their implementation may be followed at http://www.astronomy2009.ca.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hesser, J. E.; Lane, D.; Langill, P. P.; Percy, J. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">169</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AAS...212.8503H"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reaching</span> Non-Traditional Audiences During IYA2009 in Canada</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Canada's far <span class="hlt">reaching</span> plans for IYA2009 are highly inter-related. Unification arises from the major focus on maximizing the number and diversity of Canadians who will experience sometime in 2009 a moment of personal astronomical discovery, the Galileo Moment, through participation in astronomical observation or broadly defined activities with significant astronomical content that evoke awe and wonder. Among the latter are three broad themes that we will describe: a) programmes involving Aboriginal children, youth and elders, b) partnerships with arts and cultural organizations, and c) astronomical imagery exhibits in high-traffic areas. Delivery of these programs rests upon our strong partnership between amateur [Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, Fédération des astronomes amateurs du Québec and, we hope, independent clubs] and professional astronomers (Canadian Astronomical Society, including many active, enthusiastic graduate students) and collaborations with diverse sectors of society, the <span class="hlt">growth</span> of which is encouraging. Our developing ideas and their implementation may be followed at www.astronomy2009.ca.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hesser, James E.; Lane, D.; Langill, P. P. L.; Percy, J. R.; Canada Committee, IYA</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">170</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUSMNB33K..06G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Recovery of Three Arctic Stream <span class="hlt">Reaches</span> From Experimental Nutrient Enrichment.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We examined multi-year patterns in community recovery from experimental low-concentration nutrient (N+P and P only) enrichment in three <span class="hlt">reaches</span> of two Arctic tundra streams (Kuparuk River and Oksrukuyik Creek) on the North Slope of Alaska (USA). Rates of recovery varied among community components and depended on duration of enrichment (2 to 13 consecutive growing seasons). Biomass and C:P ratio of epilithic algae returned to reference levels rapidly (within 2 years), regardless of enrichment duration. Bryophyte cover, which increased greatly after long-term enrichment (>8 years), recovered to reference levels only after 7 years, when a storm scoured most remnant moss in the recovering <span class="hlt">reach</span>. Persistence of bryophytes slowed recovery rates of insect taxa that had either been positively (e.g., Ephemerella, most chironomid taxa) or negatively (e.g., Orthocladius rivulorum) affected by this shift in dominant primary producer and its consequence for benthic habitat. <span class="hlt">Growth</span> of Arctic grayling (adults and young-of-year), the top predator, returned to reference rates within two years. Recovery of these Arctic stream ecosystems from nutrient enrichment was consequently controlled largely by interactions between duration of enrichment and physical disturbance, mediated through physical habitat shifts caused by bryophytes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Green, A. C.; Benstead, J. P.; Deegan, L. A.; Peterson, B. J.; Bowden, W. B.; Huryn, A. D.; Slavik, K.; Hershey, A. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">171</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5785999"> <span id="translatedtitle">Directional technology will extend drilling <span class="hlt">reach</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Extended <span class="hlt">reach</span> drilling (ERD) is an advanced methodology for drilling high-angle well bores with significantly increased horizontal displacements. Such well bores offer a variety of applications with the potential for reducing production costs. Problems of pipe movement, differential sticking, hole cleaning, and applying weight on bit can be reduced by the use of available technology. A field test drilling program will verify the ERD concepts. The ERD program calls for the use of advanced concepts and technology to achieve a significant increase in directional-drilling capability. The use of a special drilling mud, aluminum drill pipe, and continuous drill stem rotation and circulation when pipe is in the hole, will be used to reduce drag significantly. An eccentric tool joint will be used to decrease the tendency for differential sticking of the drill string while providing an increase in hole-cleaning efficiency. When necessary, a special wall-gripping, hydraulic drill collar may be used to pull pipe into the hole and produce bit weight.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dellinger, T.B.; Gravley, W.; Tolle, G.C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-09-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">172</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3774589"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sensitivity to prediction error in <span class="hlt">reach</span> adaptation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It has been proposed that the brain predicts the sensory consequences of a movement and compares it to the actual sensory feedback. When the two differ, an error signal is formed, driving adaptation. How does an error in one trial alter performance in the subsequent trial? Here we show that the sensitivity to error is not constant but declines as a function of error magnitude. That is, one learns relatively less from large errors compared with small errors. We performed an experiment in which humans made <span class="hlt">reaching</span> movements and randomly experienced an error in both their visual and proprioceptive feedback. Proprioceptive errors were created with force fields, and visual errors were formed by perturbing the cursor trajectory to create a visual error that was smaller, the same size, or larger than the proprioceptive error. We measured single-trial adaptation and calculated sensitivity to error, i.e., the ratio of the trial-to-trial change in motor commands to error size. We found that for both sensory modalities sensitivity decreased with increasing error size. A reanalysis of a number of previously published psychophysical results also exhibited this feature. Finally, we asked how the brain might encode sensitivity to error. We reanalyzed previously published probabilities of cerebellar complex spikes (CSs) and found that this probability declined with increasing error size. From this we posit that a CS may be representative of the sensitivity to error, and not error itself, a hypothesis that may explain conflicting reports about CSs and their relationship to error.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Haith, Adrian M.; Harran, Michelle D.; Shadmehr, Reza</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">173</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRC..115.9027T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Poleward <span class="hlt">reach</span> of the California Undercurrent extension</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The California Undercurrent is known to transport relatively warm, high-salinity, nutrient-rich water from the equatorial Pacific to Vancouver Island along the western continental slope of North America. This transport helps maintain the high productivity of the eastern boundary California Current system. In this study, we use several decades of water property survey data for the coasts of Oregon, Washington, British Columbia, and Alaska to show that equatorial Pacific water carried poleward by the undercurrent can eventually <span class="hlt">reach</span> the Aleutian Islands, roughly 11,000 km from the source region. Long-term current meter records confirm the undercurrent as far north as Vancouver Island, where the current is found to be weakest in spring but then to strengthen through the summer and fall before merging with the wind-forced, poleward flowing Davidson Current in winter. The core depth of the equatorial water increases from 150 m ± 25 m off northwest Washington (near the northern end of the western North America coastal upwelling domain) to 225 m ± 25 m off southeast Alaska (near the southern end of the Gulf of Alaska coastal downwelling domain).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thomson, Richard E.; Krassovski, Maxim V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">174</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007epsc.conf..945H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Media perspective - new opportunities for <span class="hlt">reaching</span> audiences</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The world of media is experiencing a period of extreme and rapid change with the rise of internet television and the download generation. Many young people no longer watch standard TV. Instead, they go on-line, talking to friends and downloading pictures, videos, music clips to put on their own websites and watch/ listen to on their laptops and mobile phones. Gone are the days when TV controllers determined what you watched and when you watched it. Now the buzzword is IPTV, Internet Protocol Television, with companies such as JOOST offering hundreds of channels on a wide range of subjects, all of which you can choose to watch when and where you wish, on your high-def widescreen with stereo surround sound at home or on your mobile phone on the train. This media revolution is changing the way organisations get their message out. And it is encouraging companies such as advertising agencies to be creative about new ways of accessing audiences. The good news is that we have fresh opportunities to <span class="hlt">reach</span> young people through internet-based media and material downloaded through tools such as games machines, as well as through the traditional media. And it is important for Europlanet to make the most of these new and exciting developments.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Haswell, Katy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">175</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3362247"> <span id="translatedtitle">The representations of <span class="hlt">reach</span> endpoints in posterior parietal cortex depend on which hand does the <span class="hlt">reaching</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Neurons in the parietal <span class="hlt">reach</span> region (PRR) have been implicated in the sensory-to-motor transformation required for <span class="hlt">reaching</span> toward visually defined targets. The neurons in each cortical hemisphere might be specifically involved in planning movements of just one limb, or the PRR might code <span class="hlt">reach</span> endpoints generically, independent of which limb will actually move. Previous work has shown that the preferred directions of PRR neurons are similar for right and left limb movements but that the amplitude of modulation may vary greatly. We now test the hypothesis that frames of reference and eye and hand gain field modulations will, like preferred directions, be independent of which hand moves. This was not the case. Many neurons show clear differences in both the frame of reference as well as in direction and strength of gain field modulations, depending on which hand is used to <span class="hlt">reach</span>. The results suggest that the information that is conveyed from the PRR to areas closer to the motor output (the readout from the PRR) is different for each limb and that individual PRR neurons contribute either to controlling the contralateral-limb or else bimanual-limb control.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Snyder, Lawrence H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">176</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.jneurosci.org/cgi/reprint/17/4/1481.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Prism Adaptation of <span class="hlt">Reaching</span> Movements: Specificity for the Velocity of <span class="hlt">Reaching</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Accurate <span class="hlt">reaching</span> toward a visual target is disturbed after the visual field is displaced by prisms but recovers with practice. When the prisms are removed, subjects misreach in the direc- tion opposite to the prism displacement (aftereffect). The present study demonstrated that the severity of the aftereffect depends on the velocity of the movements during and after the visual displacement.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shigeru Kitazawa; Tatsuya Kimura; Takanori Uk</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">177</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70046247"> <span id="translatedtitle">Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification Hydrogeomorphic <span class="hlt">Reach</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Estuarine ecosystems are controlled by a variety of processes that operate at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Understanding the hierarchical nature of these processes will aid in prioritization of restoration efforts. This hierarchical Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification (henceforth "Classification") of the Columbia River estuary is a spatial database of the tidally-influenced <span class="hlt">reaches</span> of the lower Columbia River, the tidally affected parts of its tributaries, and the landforms that make up their floodplains for the 230 kilometers between the Pacific Ocean and Bonneville Dam. This work is a collaborative effort between University of Washington School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences (henceforth "UW"), U.S. Geological Survey (henceforth "USGS"), and the Lower Columbia Estuary Partnership (henceforth "EP"). Consideration of geomorphologic processes will improve the understanding of controlling physical factors that drive ecosystem evolution along the tidal Columbia River. The Classification is organized around six hierarchical levels, progressing from the coarsest, regional scale to the finest, localized scale: (1) Ecosystem Province; (2) Ecoregion; (3) Hydrogeomorphic <span class="hlt">Reach</span>; (4) Ecosystem Complex; (5) Geomorphic Catena; and (6) Primary Cover Class. For Levels 4 and 5, we mapped landforms within the Holocene floodplain primarily by visual interpretation of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) topography supplemented with aerial photographs, Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) soils data, and historical maps. Mapped landforms are classified as to their current geomorphic function, the inferred process regime that formed them, and anthropogenic modification. Channels were classified primarily by a set of depth-based rules and geometric relationships. Classification Level 5 floodplain landforms ("geomorphic catenae") were further classified based on multivariate analysis of land-cover within the mapped landform area and attributed as "sub-catena". The extent of detailed mapping is the interpreted Holocene geologic floodplain of the tidal Columbia River and its tributaries to the estimated head of tide. The extent of this dataset also includes tributary valleys that are not mapped in detail. The upstream extents of tributary valleys are an estimation of the limit of Columbia River influence and are for use as containers in future analyses. The geologic floodplain is the geomorphic surface that is actively accumulating sediment through occasional overbank deposition. Most features within the geologic floodplain are considered to be formed during the recent (Holocene-epoch) climatic regime. There are bedrock and pre-Holocene sedimentary deposits included where they are surrounded by Holocene sediment accumulations or have been shaped by Holocene floods. In some places, Holocene landforms such as landslides, tributary fans, and coastal dunes are mapped that extend outside of the modern floodplain. This map is not a floodplain hazard map or delineation of actual flood boundaries. Although wetlands are included in the Classification, they are based on different criteria than jurisdictional wetlands. The extent of mapping may differ from the actual limit of tidal influence.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cannon, Charles M.; Ramirez, Mary F.; Heatwole, Danelle W.; Burke, Jennifer L.; Simenstad, Charles A.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Marcoe, Keith</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">178</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2843137"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reaching</span> Healthy People 2010 by 2013</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Healthy People 2010 (HP 2010) set as a goal to reduce adult smoking prevalence to 12% by 2010. Purpose This paper uses simulation modeling to examine the effects of three tobacco control policies and cessation treatment policies—alone and in conjunction—on population smoking prevalence. Methods Building on previous versions of the SimSmoke model, the effects of a defined set of policies on quit attempts, treatment use, and treatment effectiveness are estimated as potential levers to reduce smoking prevalence. The analysis considers the effects of (1) price increases through cigarette tax increases, (2) smokefree indoor air laws, (3) mass media/educational policies, and (4) evidence-based and promising cessation treatment policies. Results Evidence-based cessation treatment policies have the strongest effect, boosting the population quit rate by 78.8% in relative terms. Treatment policies are followed by cigarette tax increases (65.9%), smokefree air laws (31.8%), and mass media/educational policies (18.2%). Relative to the status quo in 2020, the model projects that smoking prevalence is reduced by 14.3% by a nationwide tax increase of $2.00, by 7.2% by smokefree laws, by 4.7% by mass media/educational policies, and by 16.5% by cessation treatment policies alone. Implementing all of the above policies in tandem would increase the quit rate by 296% such that the HP 2010 smoking prevalence goal of 12% is <span class="hlt">reached</span> by 2013. Conclusions The impact of a combination of policies led to some surprisingly optimistic possible futures in lowering smoking prevalence to 12% within just several years. Simulation models can be a useful tool to evaluate complex scenarios where policies are implemented in tandem and for which there are limited data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Levy, David T.; Mabry, Patricia L.; Graham, Amanda L.; Orleans, C. Tracy; Abrams, David B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">179</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2760763"> <span id="translatedtitle">Parallel Explicit and Implicit Control of <span class="hlt">Reaching</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Human movement can be guided automatically (implicit control) or attentively (explicit control). Explicit control may be engaged when learning a new movement, while implicit control enables simultaneous execution of multiple actions. Explicit and implicit control can often be assigned arbitrarily: we can simultaneously drive a car and tune the radio, seamlessly allocating implicit or explicit control to either action. This flexibility suggests that sensorimotor signals, including those that encode spatially overlapping perception and behavior, can be accurately segregated to explicit and implicit control processes. Methodology/Principal Findings We tested human subjects' ability to segregate sensorimotor signals to parallel control processes by requiring dual (explicit and implicit) control of the same <span class="hlt">reaching</span> movement and testing for interference between these processes. Healthy control subjects were able to engage dual explicit and implicit motor control without degradation of performance compared to explicit or implicit control alone. We then asked whether segregation of explicit and implicit motor control can be selectively disrupted by studying dual-control performance in subjects with no clinically manifest neurologic deficits in the presymptomatic stage of Huntington's disease (HD). These subjects performed successfully under either explicit or implicit control alone, but were impaired in the dual-control condition. Conclusion/Significance The human nervous system can exert dual control on a single action, and is therefore able to accurately segregate sensorimotor signals to explicit and implicit control. The impairment observed in the presymptomatic stage of HD points to a possible crucial contribution of the striatum to the segregation of sensorimotor signals to multiple control processes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mazzoni, Pietro; Wexler, Nancy S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">180</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23598718"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cell cycle checkpoint regulators <span class="hlt">reach</span> a zillion.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Entry into mitosis is regulated by a checkpoint at the boundary between the G2 and M phases of the cell cycle (G2/M). In many organisms, this checkpoint surveys DNA damage and cell size and is controlled by both the activation of mitotic cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) and the inhibition of an opposing phosphatase, protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Misregulation of mitotic entry can often lead to oncogenesis or cell death. Recent research has focused on discovering the signaling pathways that feed into the core checkpoint control mechanisms dependent on Cdk and PP2A. Herein, we review the conserved mechanisms of the G2/M transition, including recently discovered upstream signaling pathways that link cell <span class="hlt">growth</span> and DNA replication to cell cycle progression. Critical consideration of the human, frog and yeast models of mitotic entry frame unresolved and emerging questions in this field, providing a prediction of signaling molecules and pathways yet to be discovered. PMID:23598718</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yasutis, Kimberly M; Kozminski, Keith G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-17</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a 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onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">181</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.curriki.org/xwiki/bin/view/Coll_Group_SanDiegoCommunityCollegesDevelopmentalMathExchange/PopulationGrowth"> <span id="translatedtitle">Population <span class="hlt">Growth</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">These activities explore population <span class="hlt">growth</span> rates and its consequences with regard to the distribution of natural resources. Population <span class="hlt">growth</span> is perhaps the most important environmental issue of our time. As population increases and as people seek to raise their standard of living, more stress is put on our earthâs finite resources.One aspect of the population issue is the sheer magnitude of the numbers involved. World population did not <span class="hlt">reach</span> 1 billion until the year 1800. Since then it has grown exponentially to <span class="hlt">reach</span> our current 6.7 billion.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">182</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..DFD.M8005H"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">maximum</span> drag reduction asymptote</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Addition of a small amount of long chain polymers to a Newtonian solvent can lead to a dramatic drag reduction in turbulent flows. This effect has been extensively studied since its discovery in the late 1940's. The drag reduction at first is proportional to the polymer concentration (Weisenberg number) but then saturates to the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> drag reduction (MDR) asymptote. It is commonly believed that drag reduction results from an adjustment of the turbulent flow structure due to the action of the polymers. We here present experimental results of turbulent pipe flows using dilute polyacrylamid solutions at relatively large Weisenberg numbers (˜10). Our results show that for relatively low polymer concentrations transition to turbulence is postponed to higher Reynolds numbers. However when the Weisenberg number is increased further we find that the subcritical transition to turbulence, typical for Newtonian pipe flow disappears. Instead a supercritical instability is found at much lower Reynolds numbers which gives rise to a disordered flow. The observed drag of this disordered flow is identical to the well known MDR asymptote.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hof, Björn; Samanta, Devranjan; Wagner, Christian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">183</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AIPC.1443..290M"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> entropy production in daisyworld</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Daisyworld was first introduced in 1983 by Watson and Lovelock as a model that illustrates how life can influence a planet's climate. These models typically involve modeling a planetary surface on which black and white daisies can grow thus influencing the local surface albedo and therefore also the temperature distribution. Since then, variations of daisyworld have been applied to study problems ranging from ecological systems to global climate. Much of the interest in daisyworld models is due to the fact that they enable one to study self-regulating systems. These models are nonlinear, and as such they exhibit sensitive dependence on initial conditions, and depending on the specifics of the model they can also exhibit feedback loops, oscillations, and chaotic behavior. Many daisyworld models are thermodynamic in nature in that they rely on heat flux and temperature gradients. However, what is not well-known is whether, or even why, a daisyworld model might settle into a <span class="hlt">maximum</span> entropy production (MEP) state. With the aim to better understand these systems, this paper will discuss what is known about the role of MEP in daisyworld models.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Maunu, Haley A.; Knuth, Kevin H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">184</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21115513"> <span id="translatedtitle">When could global warming <span class="hlt">reach</span> 4°C?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) assessed a range of scenarios of future greenhouse-gas emissions without policies to specifically reduce emissions, and concluded that these would lead to an increase in global mean temperatures of between 1.6°C and 6.9°C by the end of the twenty-first century, relative to pre-industrial. While much political attention is focused on the potential for global warming of 2°C relative to pre-industrial, the AR4 projections clearly suggest that much greater levels of warming are possible by the end of the twenty-first century in the absence of mitigation. The centre of the range of AR4-projected global warming was approximately 4°C. The higher end of the projected warming was associated with the higher emissions scenarios and models, which included stronger carbon-cycle feedbacks. The highest emissions scenario considered in the AR4 (scenario A1FI) was not examined with complex general circulation models (GCMs) in the AR4, and similarly the uncertainties in climate-carbon-cycle feedbacks were not included in the main set of GCMs. Consequently, the projections of warming for A1FI and/or with different strengths of carbon-cycle feedbacks are often not included in a wider discussion of the AR4 conclusions. While it is still too early to say whether any particular scenario is being tracked by current emissions, A1FI is considered to be as plausible as other non-mitigation scenarios and cannot be ruled out. (A1FI is a part of the A1 family of scenarios, with 'FI' standing for 'fossil intensive'. This is sometimes erroneously written as A1F1, with number 1 instead of letter I.) This paper presents simulations of climate change with an ensemble of GCMs driven by the A1FI scenario, and also assesses the implications of carbon-cycle feedbacks for the climate-change projections. Using these GCM projections along with simple climate-model projections, including uncertainties in carbon-cycle feedbacks, and also comparing against other model projections from the IPCC, our best estimate is that the A1FI emissions scenario would lead to a warming of 4°C relative to pre-industrial during the 2070s. If carbon-cycle feedbacks are stronger, which appears less likely but still credible, then 4°C warming could be <span class="hlt">reached</span> by the early 2060s in projections that are consistent with the IPCC's 'likely range'. PMID:21115513</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Betts, Richard A; Collins, Matthew; Hemming, Deborah L; Jones, Chris D; Lowe, Jason A; Sanderson, Michael G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">185</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/460750"> <span id="translatedtitle">China <span class="hlt">reaches</span> crossroads for strategic choices</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">China is not only the world`s sixth largest oil producer but also one of the top 20 natural gas producers. Oil output and gas production account for 19.95% and 2% of the country`s primary energy mix, respectively. From 1963 through 1989, Chinese indigenous production increased steadily as a whole, thanks to major discoveries in eastern China. However, since 1990, the country`s crude production has stagnated, while oil imports have increased constantly. The large gap that will exist inevitably between demand and domestic oil supply will be satisfied by crude imports and natural gas, instead. However, ample imports and further development of natural gas are constrained by financial problems, inadequate infrastructure and the current, central governmental planning system. In addition, environmental concerns have become a stronger factor than ever before. Several solutions are recommended to address these problems. However, it will be difficult to freely pursue these challenges without making several, hard strategic choices. The paper discusses economic <span class="hlt">growth</span> vs. supply shortfalls; regional imbalances and frontier challenges; infrastructue and financing; marketization and regulatory reform; and geopolitical and security impacts.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xu Xiaojie [China National Petroleum Corp., Beijing (China)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">186</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999xmm..pres...37."> <span id="translatedtitle">XMM classroom competitions : <span class="hlt">reaching</span> for the stars!</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Partnered by a unique education network 'European Schoolnet'(*), ESA is today launching these three competitions for schools (age range: 8 to final year) in its Member States: draw a telescope, describe the benefits of space-based astronomy or produce an astronomy observation proposal. Details can be found on the special competition website : http://sci.esa.int/xmm/competition "Draw me a telescope!" This competition for 8 to 12 year-olds asks the class to draw a telescope (inside a 20 - 50 cm diameter circle). The 14 winning entries, one per Member State, will be included in a specially-designed official XMM mission logo to go on the Ariane-5 launcher fairing for official unveiling on launch day. A representative of each winning class will be invited to Kourou for the launch. Deadline for entries : 8 October 1999. For full information on how to enter see : http://sci.esa.int/xmm/competition "What's new, Mr Galileo?" The essay competition for 13 to 15 year-olds challenges an English class, writing in the international language of space, to submit a single page (500 words <span class="hlt">maximum</span>) description of space-based astronomy and its benefits for humanity. The 14 winners, one per Member States, will be invited to Kourou to visit the Guiana Space Centre, Europe's spaceport, and witness final XMM launch preparations. Deadline for entries : 15 October 1999. For full information on how to enter see : http://sci.esa.int/xmm/competition. "Stargazing" In the final-year class competition, ESA is providing a unique opportunity to use the XMM telescope. Here, the physics class, assisted by the scientific community, has to submit an observation project. The 14 winning proposals will be put into practice in 2000 at a summer camp. Further details will be announced once XMM is in orbit. Note to editors: The X-ray Multi-Mirror mission is the second Cornerstone of ESA's Horizon 2000 Plus science programme. The telescope will revolutionise cosmic X-ray astronomy by harvesting far more X-rays per hour than any previous mission. Its large effective collecting area (120 m2 of mirror, 4500 cm2 of X-ray collecting area) and highly eccentric orbit will allow long-duration observation of unprecedented sensitivity. This enormous capability will enable astronomers to analyse many strong sources of cosmic X-rays very quickly and also discover and characterise many faint sources.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">187</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Geomo.184...98H"> <span id="translatedtitle">A case of rapid rock riverbed incision in a coseismic uplift <span class="hlt">reach</span> and its implications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">During the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake (Mw = 7.6) in Taiwan, the coseismic displacement induced fault scarps and a pop-up structure in the Taan River. The fault scarps across the river experienced <span class="hlt">maximum</span> vertical slip of 10 m, which disturbed the dynamic equilibrium of the fluvial system. As a result, rapid incision in the weak bedrock, with a <span class="hlt">maximum</span> depth of 20 m, was activated within a decade after its armor layer was removed. This case provides an excellent opportunity for closely tracking and recording the progressive evolution of river morphology that is subjected to coseismic uplift. Based on multistaged orthophotographs and digital elevation model (DEM) data, the process of morphology evolution in the uplift <span class="hlt">reach</span> was divided into four consecutive stages. Plucking is the dominant mechanism of bedrock erosion associated with channel incision and knickpoint migration. The astonishingly high rate of knickpoint retreat (KPR), as rapid as a few hundred meters per year, may be responsible for the rapid incision in the main channel. The reasons for the high rate of KPR are discussed in depth. The total length of the river affected by the coseismic uplift is 5 km: 1 km in the uplift <span class="hlt">reach</span> and 4 km in the downstream <span class="hlt">reach</span>. The downstream <span class="hlt">reach</span> was affected by a reduction in sediment supply and increase in stream power. The KPR cut through the uplift <span class="hlt">reach</span> within roughly a decade; further significant flooding in the future will mainly cause widening instead of deepening of the channel.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Huang, Ming-Wan; Pan, Yii-Wen; Liao, Jyh-Jong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">188</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AIPC.1073..252B"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Entropy Principle for Transportation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bilich, F.; Dasilva, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">189</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EPJB...86..431I"> <span id="translatedtitle">Size dependence of efficiency at <span class="hlt">maximum</span> power of heat engine</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We perform a molecular dynamics computer simulation of a heat engine model to study how the engine size difference affects its performance. Upon tactically increasing the size of the model anisotropically, we determine that there exists an optimum size at which the model attains the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> power for the shortest working period. This optimum size locates between the ballistic heat transport region and the diffusive heat transport one. We also study the size dependence of the efficiency at the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> power. Interestingly, we find that the efficiency at the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> power around the optimum size attains a value that has been proposed as a universal upper bound, and it even begins to exceed the bound as the size further increases. We explain this behavior of the efficiency at <span class="hlt">maximum</span> power by using a linear response theory for the heat engine operating under a finite working period, which naturally extends the low-dissipation Carnot cycle model [M. Esposito, R. Kawai, K. Lindenberg, C. Van den Broeck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 150603 (2010)]. The theory also shows that the efficiency at the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> power under an extreme condition may <span class="hlt">reach</span> the Carnot efficiency in principle.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Izumida, Y.; Ito, N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">190</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/n5281464x1662163.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Growth</span> and production of free-living heterotrophic nanoflagellates in a eutrophic lake – Lake Donghu, Wuhan, China</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In situ <span class="hlt">growth</span> of heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF) in Lake Donghu, a eutrophic shallow lake in mainland China, was studied from January 1999 to March 2000 using a modified Weisse protocol. The study results indicated that the <span class="hlt">growth</span> rates of HNF showed pronounced seasonal variation (-0.37–1.25 d-1), <span class="hlt">reaching</span> the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> during spring to early summer. When the water temperature was higher</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yufeng Zhao; Yuhe Yu; Weisong Feng; Yunfen Shen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">191</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20890401"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Flux Transition Paths of Conformational Change.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Given two metastable states A and B of a biomolecular system, the problem is to calculate the likely paths of the transition from A to B. Such a calculation is more informative and more manageable if done for a reduced set of collective variables chosen so that paths cluster in collective variable space. The computational task becomes that of computing the "center" of such a cluster. A good way to define the center employs the concept of a committor, whose value at a point in collective variable space is the probability that a trajectory at that point will <span class="hlt">reach</span> B before A. The committor "foliates" the transition region into a set of isocommittors. The <span class="hlt">maximum</span> flux transition path is defined as a path that crosses each isocommittor at a point which (locally) has the highest crossing rate of distinct reactive trajectories. This path is based on the same principle as the minimum resistance path of Berkowitz et al (1983), but it has two advantages: (i) the path is invariant with respect to a change of coordinates in collective variable space and (ii) the differential equations that define the path are simpler. It is argued that such a path is nearer to an ideal path than others that have been proposed with the possible exception of the finite-temperature string method path. To make the calculation tractable, three approximations are introduced, yielding a path that is the solution of a nonsingular two-point boundary-value problem. For such a problem, one can construct a simple and robust algorithm. One such algorithm and its performance is discussed. PMID:20890401</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhao, Ruijun; Shen, Juanfang; Skeel, Robert D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-08-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">192</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23811736"> <span id="translatedtitle">Role of peripheral vision in rapid perturbation-evoked <span class="hlt">reach</span>-to-grasp reactions.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Onset and execution of compensatory <span class="hlt">reaches</span> are faster than the most rapid voluntary <span class="hlt">reaches</span>. With onset latencies near 100 ms, it is proposed that initial control of compensatory <span class="hlt">reaches</span> cannot rely on visual information obtained after perturbation onset; rather, they rely on a visuospatial map acquired prior to instability. In natural conditions, it is not practical to direct gaze toward every potential support surface in preparation for a perturbation, suggesting that peripheral vision may be uniquely important. This study aimed to determine whether visuospatial mapping achieved using only peripheral visual information could be used to control <span class="hlt">reach</span>-to-grasp reactions. Participants sat in an unstable chair. Whole body perturbations were used to evoke rapid <span class="hlt">reach</span>-to-grasp reactions. A handle was positioned at midline or to the right of the participant. Gaze was directed toward the center or right to view the handle in peripheral or central visual fields. Electromyographic and kinematic data were recorded. Peripheral information acquired prior to perturbation was sufficient for successful execution of <span class="hlt">reach</span>-to-grasp without delay. Differences in <span class="hlt">reach</span> kinematics, however, did exist between vision conditions (e.g., <span class="hlt">maximum</span> lateral wrist displacement and magnitude of hand overshoot relative to the handle were greater for peripheral vs. central vision). Handle location led to target-specific differences in initial muscle recruitment revealing information acquired prior to perturbation were used to guide initial limb trajectory. Results reveal the capacity to rely on a visuospatial map constructed from peripheral visual information for compensatory <span class="hlt">reaching</span> but also highlight limitations leading to more conservative <span class="hlt">reach</span> trajectories. PMID:23811736</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Akram, Sakineh B; Miyasike-Dasilva, Veronica; Van Ooteghem, Karen; McIlroy, William E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">193</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6720450"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Growth</span> characteristics of bakers' yeast in ethanol</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The influence of temperature (15 - 40 degrees C) and pH (2.5 - 6.0) on the continuous <span class="hlt">growth</span> of bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) at steady state in 1% ethanol was investigated. Optimal temperature and pH were 30 degrees C and 4.5, respectively. The short-term effect of ethanol concentration (0.1 - 10.0%) on the yeast <span class="hlt">growth</span> was assessed in batch culture. Up to 1% of ethanol, the yeast <span class="hlt">growth</span> increased in function of the ethanol concentration in the medium. The biomass <span class="hlt">reached</span> a <span class="hlt">maximum</span> within the interval of 1-4% of ethanol (7.9 and 31.6 g/L, respectively) and decreased at higher concentrations. The residual ethanol concentration in the medium increased rapidly when the initial ethanol concentration exceeded 4%. The best-fit model obtained for <span class="hlt">growth</span> inhibition as a function of ethanol concentrations was that of Tseng and Wayman: mu m S/(K+S) - i (S-S0). With this model, the specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> rate (mu) decreased linearly as the ethanol concentration increased between the threshold value (S0) of 11.26 g/L to be fully inhibited at 70.00 g/L (S); an inhibition constant (i) of 0.0048 g/L/hour, a <span class="hlt">maximum</span> specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> rate (mu m) of 0.284/hour, and a saturation constant (K) of 0.611 g/L were obtained. (Refs. 17).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wasungu, K.M.; Simard, R.E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">194</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUSM.H31C..03H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Education, Out-<span class="hlt">reach</span> and In-<span class="hlt">reach</span> Infrastructure Support for the Hydrologic Sciences</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, incorporated (CUAHSI) is designed as an infrastructure support mechanism for research in the hydrologic sciences. Education, Out-<span class="hlt">reach</span> and In-<span class="hlt">reach</span> (EOI) is one of the five support thrusts of CUAHSI. EOI interfaces intimately with the other four thrusts (Hydrologic Science, Hydrologic Observatories, Hydrologic Information Systems, Hydrologic Measurement Technology). In addition, the EOI infrastructure will provide additional support to the scientific and educational communities as well as the general public. The EOI infrastructure aims to support scientists, educators, students and other interested parties through a variety of mechanisms including summer institutes, instrumentation training, student fellowships and institutional linkages. EOI's overall goal is to develop strategies, which have a broad impact and national significance. All EOI programs will link to CUAHSI science driven initiatives and will be evaluated in the basis of the impact of the program to the intended audience(s) and attainment of measurable outcomes. EOI, in addition to providing opportunities to the hydrologic science community, the broader scientific and education communities and the general public, will consistently interact with key members of pertinent communities to make them aware of available programs and to insure their participation by the interactive development of programs and opportunities. Potential activities include summer institutes at CUAHSI member universities for scientists, educators and students to exchange new ideas and learn new techniques. Potential exists for graduate student fellowships in support of research activities linked to CUAHSI science plans. Outreach to the general public and policy-makers may include distinguished speakers presenting general hydrologic science information and highlighting CUAHSI related research initiatives. In-<span class="hlt">reach</span> is also a priority for EOI, and opportunities may include training seminars for hydrologic scientists interested in learning to use new technologies and forums designed to inform CUAHSI participants of emerging research, best educational practices or relevant policy issues. Ultimately EOI initiatives are designed to serve the community and provide opportunities suggested by the needs of the community.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hannigan, R.; McCaffrey, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">195</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3482659"> <span id="translatedtitle">Increasing Internodal Distance in Myelinated Nerves Accelerates Nerve Conduction to a Flat <span class="hlt">Maximum</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary Predictions that conduction velocities are sensitive to the distance between nodes of Ranvier in myelinated axons have implications for nervous system function during <span class="hlt">growth</span> and repair [1–3]. Internodal lengths defined by Schwann cells in hindlimb nerves, for example, can undergo a 4-fold increase during mouse development, and regenerated nerves have internodes that are uniformly short [4, 5]. Nevertheless, the influence of internodal length on conduction speed has limited experimental support. Here, we examined this problem in mice expressing a mutant version of periaxin, a protein required for Schwann cell elongation [4]. Importantly, elongation of mutant Schwann cells was retarded without significant derangements to myelination or axon caliber. In young mice with short mutant Schwann cells, nerve conduction velocity was reduced and motor function was impaired. This demonstrates a functional relationship between internodal distance and conduction speed. Moreover, as internodes lengthened during postnatal <span class="hlt">growth</span>, conduction velocities recovered to normal values and mutant mice exhibited normal motor and sensory behavior. This restoration of function confirms a further prediction by Huxley and Stämpfli that conduction speeds should increase as internodal distances lengthen until a “flat <span class="hlt">maximum</span>” is <span class="hlt">reached</span>, beyond which no further gains in conduction velocity accrue [6].</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wu, Lai Man N.; Williams, Anna; Delaney, Ada; Sherman, Diane L.; Brophy, Peter J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">196</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE99613666"> <span id="translatedtitle">Topics in Bayesian statistics and <span class="hlt">maximum</span> entropy.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Notions of Bayesian decision theory and <span class="hlt">maximum</span> entropy methods are reviewed with particular emphasis on probabilistic inference and Bayesian modeling. The axiomatic approach is considered as the best justification of Bayesian analysis and <span class="hlt">maximum</span> entropy...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. Mutihac A. Cicuttin A. Cerdeira C. Stanciulescu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">197</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/5520091"> <span id="translatedtitle">Guaranteed performance in <span class="hlt">reaching</span> mode of sliding mode controlled systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Conventionally, the parameters of a sliding mode controller (SMC) are selected so as to reduce the time spent in the <span class="hlt">reaching</span>\\u000a mode. Although, an upper bound on the time to <span class="hlt">reach</span> (<span class="hlt">reaching</span> time) the sliding surface is easily derived, performance guarantee\\u000a in the state\\/error space needs more consideration. This paper addresses the design of constant plus proportional rate <span class="hlt">reaching</span>\\u000a law-based</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. K. Singh; K. E. Hole</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">198</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUSM...H52A10G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Channel steps and <span class="hlt">reach</span> morphology in headwater streams of southeast Alaska</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effect of five management and disturbance regimes on channel steps and <span class="hlt">reach</span> morphology was examined in 16 headwater streams of southeast Alaska. Stepped-bed structures formed by woody debris and boulders are significant geomorphic attributes. Numbers, intervals, and heights of steps did not differ among management and disturbance regimes. However, a negative exponential relationship between channel gradient and average length of step interval was observed in the fluvial <span class="hlt">reaches</span> (< 25% gradient) of recent landslide and old-<span class="hlt">growth</span> channels. No such relationship was found in steep (> 25%) upper <span class="hlt">reaches</span> where colluvial processes dominated. Random recruitment of old and recent logging slash as well as recruitment from regenerating riparian stands obscured any strong relationship between step geometry and channel gradient in young alder, young conifer, and recent clear cut channels. Channel <span class="hlt">reaches</span> are described as pool-riffle, step-pool, step-step, cascade, plain-bed, and bedrock. Source, runout, and deposition of sediment and woody debris from landslides and debris flows modified the distribution of <span class="hlt">reach</span> types and the structure of steps within <span class="hlt">reaches</span>. In contrast, woody debris recruited by logging formed steps and sequentially modified channel <span class="hlt">reach</span> types.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gomi, T.; Sidle, R. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">199</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title20-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title20-vol1-sec229-48.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">20 CFR 229.48 - Family <span class="hlt">maximum</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Family <span class="hlt">maximum</span>. 229.48 Section 229.48 Employees...Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.48 Family <span class="hlt">maximum</span>. (a) Family <span class="hlt">maximum</span> defined. Under the Social...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">200</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22072511"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spiking and LFP activity in PRR during symbolically instructed <span class="hlt">reaches</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The spiking activity in the parietal <span class="hlt">reach</span> region (PRR) represents the spatial goal of an impending <span class="hlt">reach</span> when the <span class="hlt">reach</span> is directed toward or away from a visual object. The local field potentials (LFPs) in this region also represent the <span class="hlt">reach</span> goal when the <span class="hlt">reach</span> is directed to a visual object. Thus PRR is a candidate area for reading out a patient's intended <span class="hlt">reach</span> goals for neural prosthetic applications. For natural behaviors, <span class="hlt">reach</span> goals are not always based on the location of a visual object, e.g., playing the piano following sheet music or moving following verbal directions. So far it has not been directly tested whether and how PRR represents <span class="hlt">reach</span> goals in such cognitive, nonlocational conditions, and knowing the encoding properties in various task conditions would help in designing a <span class="hlt">reach</span> goal decoder for prosthetic applications. To address this issue, we examined the macaque PRR under two <span class="hlt">reach</span> conditions: <span class="hlt">reach</span> goal determined by the stimulus location (direct) or shape (symbolic). For the same goal, the spiking activity near <span class="hlt">reach</span> onset was indistinguishable between the two tasks, and thus a <span class="hlt">reach</span> goal decoder trained with spiking activity in one task performed perfectly in the other. In contrast, the LFP activity at 20-40 Hz showed small but significantly enhanced <span class="hlt">reach</span> goal tuning in the symbolic task, but its spatial preference remained the same. Consequently, a decoder trained with LFP activity performed worse in the other task than in the same task. These results suggest that LFP decoders in PRR should take into account the task context (e.g., locational vs. nonlocational) to be accurate, while spike decoders can robustly provide <span class="hlt">reach</span> goal information regardless of the task context in various prosthetic applications. PMID:22072511</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hwang, Eun Jung; Andersen, Richard A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-11-09</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">201</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3289477"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spiking and LFP activity in PRR during symbolically instructed <span class="hlt">reaches</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The spiking activity in the parietal <span class="hlt">reach</span> region (PRR) represents the spatial goal of an impending <span class="hlt">reach</span> when the <span class="hlt">reach</span> is directed toward or away from a visual object. The local field potentials (LFPs) in this region also represent the <span class="hlt">reach</span> goal when the <span class="hlt">reach</span> is directed to a visual object. Thus PRR is a candidate area for reading out a patient's intended <span class="hlt">reach</span> goals for neural prosthetic applications. For natural behaviors, <span class="hlt">reach</span> goals are not always based on the location of a visual object, e.g., playing the piano following sheet music or moving following verbal directions. So far it has not been directly tested whether and how PRR represents <span class="hlt">reach</span> goals in such cognitive, nonlocational conditions, and knowing the encoding properties in various task conditions would help in designing a <span class="hlt">reach</span> goal decoder for prosthetic applications. To address this issue, we examined the macaque PRR under two <span class="hlt">reach</span> conditions: <span class="hlt">reach</span> goal determined by the stimulus location (direct) or shape (symbolic). For the same goal, the spiking activity near <span class="hlt">reach</span> onset was indistinguishable between the two tasks, and thus a <span class="hlt">reach</span> goal decoder trained with spiking activity in one task performed perfectly in the other. In contrast, the LFP activity at 20–40 Hz showed small but significantly enhanced <span class="hlt">reach</span> goal tuning in the symbolic task, but its spatial preference remained the same. Consequently, a decoder trained with LFP activity performed worse in the other task than in the same task. These results suggest that LFP decoders in PRR should take into account the task context (e.g., locational vs. nonlocational) to be accurate, while spike decoders can robustly provide <span class="hlt">reach</span> goal information regardless of the task context in various prosthetic applications.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Andersen, Richard A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">202</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/117789"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> allowable heat flux for a submerged horizontal tube bundle</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">For application to industrial heating of large pools by immersed heat exchangers, the socalled <span class="hlt">maximum</span> allowable (or {open_quotes}critical{close_quotes}) heat flux is studied for unconfined tube bundles aligned horizontally in a pool without forced flow. In general, we are considering boiling after the pool <span class="hlt">reaches</span> its saturation temperature rather than sub-cooled pool boiling which should occur during early stages of transient operation. A combination of literature review and simple approximate analysis has been used. To date our main conclusion is that estimates of q inch chf are highly uncertain for this configuration.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McEligot, D.M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-08-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">203</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17138280"> <span id="translatedtitle">The impact of object size and rigidity on infant <span class="hlt">reaching</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Although the changes in kinematics of infant <span class="hlt">reaching</span> have been studied, few researchers have investigated the improvement of <span class="hlt">reaching</span> regarding objects of distinct physical properties. The aim of this longitudinal study was to verify the impact of object size and rigidity on the development of <span class="hlt">reaching</span> in 4-6-month-old infants. Four infants were observed with a motion capture system during trials with four objects of distinct sizes and rigidity. A total of 188 <span class="hlt">reaches</span> were analyzed by using the 3D movement reconstruction. Our results showed that <span class="hlt">reaching</span> frequency, mean velocity, and straightness index increased with age. The number of movement units decreased with age and increased for small objects. Rigidity was not shown to affect <span class="hlt">reaching</span> trajectories. These findings suggest that infants are capable of perceiving the more relevant object properties, thus using their available motor capabilities to modify the essential variables so that they can <span class="hlt">reach</span> the target more accurately. PMID:17138280</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rocha, Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira; Silva, Fernanda Pereira dos Santos; Tudella, Eloisa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-19</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">204</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=170677"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Growth</span> characteristics of a new methylomonad.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A methylomonad culture was isolated from pond water and examined as a potential source of single-cell protein. A medium containing magnesium sulfate, ammonium hydroxide, sodium phosphate, tap water, and methanol supported the <span class="hlt">growth</span> of the isolate. Optimal <span class="hlt">growth</span> conditions in batch cultures for the organism were: temperature, 30 to 33 degrees C; pH 7.1; and phosphate concentration, 0.015 M. The minimum doubling time obtained was 1.6 h. The specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> rate in batch culture was dependent on the methanol concentration, <span class="hlt">reaching</span> a <span class="hlt">maximum</span> around 0.2% (wt/vol). <span class="hlt">Growth</span> inhibition was apparent above 0.3% (wt/vol), and <span class="hlt">growth</span> was completely inhibited above 4.6% (wt/vol) methanol. Although the inhibitory effect of formaldehyde on the specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> rate was much greater than that of formate, the organism utilized formaldehyde, but not formate, as a sole carbon and energy source in batch cultures. The isolate was identified primarily by its inability to utilize any carbon source other than methanol and formaldehyde for <span class="hlt">growth</span>. Although it is capable of rapid <span class="hlt">growth</span> on methanol, the organism showed a very weak catalase activity. The amino acid content of the cells compared favorably with the reference levels for the essential amino acids specific by the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, B J; Hirt, W; Lim, H C; Tsao, G T</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">205</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16255823"> <span id="translatedtitle">Delayed transmission of a parasite is compensated by accelerated <span class="hlt">growth</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Compensatory or 'catch-up' <span class="hlt">growth</span> following prolonged periods of food shortages is known to exist in many free-living animals. It is generally assumed that <span class="hlt">growth</span> rates under normal circumstances are below <span class="hlt">maximum</span> because elevated rates of <span class="hlt">growth</span> are costly. The present paper gives experimental evidence that such compensatory <span class="hlt">growth</span> mechanisms also exist in parasitic species. We explored the effect of periodic host unavailability on survival, infectivity and <span class="hlt">growth</span> of the fish ectoparasite Argulus coregoni. Survival and infectivity of A. coregoni metanauplii deprived of a host for selected time periods were age dependent, which indicates that all metanauplii carry similar energy resources for host seeking. Following the periods off-host, metanauplii were allowed to settle on rainbow trout and were length measured until they <span class="hlt">reached</span> gravidity. During early development on fish, body length of attached A. coregoni was negatively correlated with off-host period indicating a mechanism that creates size variance in an attached parasite cohort originally containing equal amounts of resources. However, over time the size differences between parasites became less pronounced and eventually parasites that were kept off-host for longest periods of time <span class="hlt">reached</span> the length of those individuals that had been allowed to infect a host sooner. A. coregoni thus appears to compensate for delayed <span class="hlt">growth</span> resulting from an extended host searching period by elevated <span class="hlt">growth</span> rates, although we show that such accelerated <span class="hlt">growth</span> incurred a cost, through decreased life-expectancy. PMID:16255823</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hakalahti, T; Bandilla, M; Valtonen, E T</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">206</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://homepage.mac.com/bradmarston/Papers/chpt04.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">4 <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Entropy Production and Non-equilibrium Statistical Mechanics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Over the last 30 years empirical evidence in favour of the <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Entropy Production (MEP) principle for non-equilibrium\\u000a systems has been accumulating from studies of phenomena as diverse as planetary climates, crystal <span class="hlt">growth</span> morphology, bacterial\\u000a metabolism and photosynthesis. And yet MEP is still regarded by many as nothing other than a curiosity, largely because a\\u000a theoretical justification for it has</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roderick C. Dewar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">207</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2427.2007.01723.x"> <span id="translatedtitle">Recovery of three arctic stream <span class="hlt">reaches</span> from experimental nutrient enrichment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">1. Nutrient enrichment and resulting eutrophication is a widespread anthropogenic influence on freshwater ecosystems, but recovery from nutrient enrichment is poorly understood, especially in stream environments. We examined multi-year patterns in community recovery from experimental low-concentration nutrient enrichment (N + P or P only) in three <span class="hlt">reaches</span> of two Arctic tundra streams (Kuparuk River and Oksrukuyik Creek) on the North Slope of Alaska (U.S.A.). 2. Rates of recovery varied among community components and depended on duration of enrichment (2-13 consecutive growing seasons). Biomass of epilithic algae returned to reference levels rapidly (within 2 years), regardless of nutrients added or enrichment duration. Aquatic bryophyte cover, which increased greatly in the Kuparuk River only after long-term enrichment (8 years), took 8 years of recovery to approach reference levels, after storms had scoured most remnant moss in the recovering <span class="hlt">reach</span>. 3. Multi-year persistence of bryophytes in the Kuparuk River appeared to prevent recovery of insect populations that had either been positively (e.g. the mayfly Ephemerella, most chironomid midge taxa) or negatively (e.g. the tube-building chironomid Orthocladius rivulorum) affected by this shift in dominant primary producer. These lags in recovery (of >3 years) were probably driven by the persistent effect of bryophytes on physical benthic habitat. 4. Summer <span class="hlt">growth</span> rates of Arctic grayling (both adults and young-of-year) in Oksrukuyik Creek (fertilised for 6 years with no bryophyte colonisation), which were consistently increased by nutrient addition, returned to reference rates within 1-2 years. 5. Rates of recovery of these virtually pristine Arctic stream ecosystems from low-level nutrient enrichment appeared to be controlled largely by duration of enrichment, mediated through physical habitat shifts caused by eventual bryophyte colonisation, and subsequent physical disturbance that removed bryophytes. Nutrient enrichment of oligotrophic Arctic stream ecosystems caused by climate change or local anthropogenic activity may have dramatic and persistent consequences if it results in the colonisation of long-lived primary producers that alter physical habitat. ?? 2007 The Authors.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Benstead, J. P.; Green, A. C.; Deegan, L. A.; Peterson, B. J.; Slavik, K.; Bowden, W. B.; Hershey, A. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">208</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40028731"> <span id="translatedtitle">Receiver function estimated by <span class="hlt">maximum</span> entropy deconvolution</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> entropy deconvolution is presented to estimate receiver function, with the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> entropy as the rule to determine\\u000a auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions. The Toeplitz equation and Levinson algorithm are used to calculate the iterative\\u000a formula of error-predicting filter, and receiver function is then estimated. During extrapolation, reflective coefficient\\u000a is always less than 1, which keeps <span class="hlt">maximum</span> entropy deconvolution stable. The</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Qing-Ju Wu; Xiao-Bo Tian; Nai-Ling Zhang; Wei-Ping Li; Rong-Sheng Zeng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">209</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26331299"> <span id="translatedtitle">Flow of a fluid near its density <span class="hlt">maximum</span> in a differentially rotating cylinder</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A numerical study is made of the basic-state flow field of a fluid with a density <span class="hlt">maximum</span> in a differentially rotating cylinder. The fluid density <span class="hlt">reaches</span> a <span class="hlt">maximum</span> ?m at temperature Tm, and a quadratic (?–T) relationship is used to model the fluid behavior near Tm. The temperature at the bottom (top) endwall disk is TB(TT), with ?T?TT?TB>0, and Tm</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chang Ho Lee; Jae Min Hyun; Ho Sang Kwak</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">210</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26266508"> <span id="translatedtitle">Measured stopping powers of hydrogen and helium in polystyrene near their <span class="hlt">maximum</span> values</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Rutherford backscattering at two different angles on multilayer targets is used to measure the stopping powers of hydrogen and helium ions in polystyrene in the energy range near their <span class="hlt">maximum</span> values. In the energy range from 40 to 300 keV\\/amu, the hydrogen stopping power <span class="hlt">reaches</span> a <span class="hlt">maximum</span> value of 9.8 eV\\/(1015 atoms\\/cm2) at 81 keV\\/amu. As the energy increases from</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L. Leblanc; G. G. Ross; W. E. Wallace</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">211</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2009-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2009-title49-vol2-sec107-329.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">49 CFR 107.329 - <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> penalties.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> civil penalty is $100,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness...minimum $450 civil penalty applies to a violation...the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> civil penalty is $100,000 if the violation results in death, serious...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">212</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title49-vol2-sec107-329.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">49 CFR 107.329 - <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> penalties.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness...minimum $495 civil penalty applies to a violation...the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">213</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title49-vol2-sec107-329.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">49 CFR 107.329 - <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> penalties.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness...minimum $495 civil penalty applies to a violation...the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">214</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title49-vol2-sec107-329.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">49 CFR 107.329 - <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> penalties.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness...minimum $495 civil penalty applies to a violation...the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">215</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/16316934"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">MAXIMUM</span> LIKELIHOOD ESTIMATION FOR GENERALISED LOGISTIC DISTRIBUTIONS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> likelihood estimation for the type I generalised logistic distributions is investigated. We show that the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood estimation usually exists, except when the so-called embedded model problem occurs. A full set of embedded distributions is derived, including Gumbel distribution and a two-parameter reciprocal exponential distribution. Properties relating the embedded distributions are given. We also provide criteria to determine when</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Quanxi Shao</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">216</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013IJMPE..2230018C"> <span id="translatedtitle">On the <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Mass of Neutron Stars</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">One of the most intriguing questions about neutron stars concerns their <span class="hlt">maximum</span> mass. The answer is intimately related to the properties of matter at densities far beyond that found in heavy atomic nuclei. The current view on the internal constitution of neutron stars and on their <span class="hlt">maximum</span> mass, both from theoretical and observational studies, are briefly reviewed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chamel, N.; Haensel, P.; Zdunik, J. L.; Fantina, A. F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">217</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52792935"> <span id="translatedtitle">Lift modulation for <span class="hlt">maximum</span> endurance planetary entry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Optimal lift modulation for <span class="hlt">maximum</span> endurance planetary entry trajectories of Shuttle type vehicles is investigated. The force field of the planet is considered Newtonian, and the atmosphere is assumed to be exponential. Motion is confined to the plane of a great circle to obtain <span class="hlt">maximum</span> endurance, and a set of dimensionless variables and a normalized lift coefficient are used to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C.-Y. Yang; J.-S. Chern</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">218</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/2377284"> <span id="translatedtitle">On the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> empty rectangle problem</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Given a rectangle A and a set S of n points in A, we consider the problem, called the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> empty rectangle problem, of finding a <span class="hlt">maximum</span> area rectangle that is fully contained in A and does not contain any point of S in its interior. An O(n') time algorithm is presented. Further-more, it is shown that if the points</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. NAAMAD; D. T. LEE</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">219</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/18657985"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">MAXIMUM</span> NOISE LEVELS IN CITY TRAFFIC</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Manual and automatic noise measurements were made along 13 streets in Gothenburg, Sweden to explore sources of <span class="hlt">maximum</span> noise levels. Noise from different types of vehicles driven in a realistic way in inner city traffic was measured. In summary, the results show that the most important vehicle component as regards the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> noise level in inner city traffic was a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Bjorkman; R. Rylander</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">220</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.unites.uqam.ca/eco/CREFE/cahiers/cah100.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Costly Sanctions and the <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Penalty Principle</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study the problem of deterring undesirable behavior in a moral hazard framework with risk averse individuals, noisy information and costly sanctions. We find that, if sanctions are a pure loss, a utilitarian society should use a bang-bang penalty scheme satisfying the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> penalty principle. If sanctions are monetary but imposing sanctions involves a sufficiently large resource cost, the <span class="hlt">maximum</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dominique Demougin; Claude Fluet</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a 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showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">221</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cmss.monash.edu.au/assets/files/Miller-E9.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Principle for Singular Stochastic Control Problems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, an optimal singular stochastic control problem is considered. For this model, it is obtained a general stochastic <span class="hlt">maximum</span> principle by using a time transformation. This is the first version of the stochastic <span class="hlt">maximum</span> principle that covers the singular control problem in the nonlinear case.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">F. Dufour; Boris M. Miller</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">222</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57641288"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Likelihood Estimation with the Weibull Model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Some of the questions concerning the uniqueness of the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood estimates for the parameters in the Weibull distribution are considered for both censored and noncensored samples. In some cases answers previously known are reviewed, while new results are presented for some other cases. In particular, it is shown that with the shape parameter known, the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood estimates of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Howard Rockette; Charles Antle; Lawrence A. Klimko</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1974-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">223</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/5907854"> <span id="translatedtitle">The coordination of <span class="hlt">reaching</span> and grasping in spastic hemiparesis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The kinematics and intrinsic dynamics of <span class="hlt">reaching</span> and grasping movements in six subjects with spastic hemiparesis were studied. Movements were performed with both hands together as well as with each hand in isolation, and two target widths were used. As expected, large manual asymmetries existed in unimanual task performance. These asymmetries were more pronounced for grasping than for <span class="hlt">reaching</span>, which</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bert Steenbergen; Edwin van Thiel; Wouter Hulstijn; Ruud G. J. Meulenbroek</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">224</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/6688299"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stature, Age, and Gender Effects on <span class="hlt">Reach</span> Motion Postures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The rapid adoption of software to simulate human <span class="hlt">reach</span> motions in the design of vehicle interiors and manufacturing and office workstations has required a sophisticated understanding of human motions. This paper describes how more than 3000 right-arm <span class="hlt">reaching</span> motions of a diverse group of participants were captured and statistically modeled. The results demonstrate that stature and age have a larger</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Don B. Chaffin; Julian J. Faraway; Xudong Zhang; Charles Woolley</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">225</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51141840"> <span id="translatedtitle">Developmental robotics architecture for active vision and <span class="hlt">reaching</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A robotic architecture is presented which is inspired by the process of developmental learning of human infants in their twelve months after birth. The architecture integrates active vision and simple object manipulation (<span class="hlt">reaching</span> and grasping). Robotic experiments demonstrate how visual and non-visual features determine visual attention and <span class="hlt">reaching</span>. However, more important and main objective of this paper is the organisation</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Martin Hulse; Sebastian McBride; Mark Lee</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">226</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/59613442"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">REACH</span> en de Bio-based economy : achtergrond en consequenties</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Op 1 juni 2007 is de <span class="hlt">REACH</span> verordening (Registratie, Evaluatie en Autorisatie van CHemische stoffen) van kracht geworden. Als gevolg hiervan is de verantwoordelijkheid voor de veilige productie en het gebruik van stoffen in de Europese Unie verschoven naar het bedrijfsleven. De <span class="hlt">REACH</span> verordening geldt voor zowel petrochemische als natuurlijke grondstoffen en hun derivaten, zodra deze in meer dan 1</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Klerk-Engels de B; Es van D. S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">227</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=public+AND+service+AND+announcement&pg=5&id=EJ560744"> <span id="translatedtitle">Health Campaign Channels: Tradeoffs among <span class="hlt">Reach</span>, Specificity, and Impact.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Examines comparative effects of five health campaign channels used in a risk-reduction project. Reveals that among three variables--<span class="hlt">reach</span>, specificity, and impact--<span class="hlt">reach</span> was highest for tip sheets, specificity was highest for booklets and then television programs. Finds newspaper messages had the most impact, followed by booklets and television…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schooler, Caroline; Chaffee, Steven H.; Flora, June A.; Roser, Connie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">228</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=flexibility+AND+muscles&pg=2&id=EJ592362"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modifications to the Standard Sit-and-<span class="hlt">Reach</span> Flexibility Protocol.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Describes several modifications of the standard sit-and-<span class="hlt">reach</span> flexibility protocol using a new device called the multitest flexometer (MTF). Using the MTF, researchers could take six flexibility measures beyond the stand-and-<span class="hlt">reach</span> test. The modified protocol allowed the indirect assessment of the influence of the four major muscle groups that…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Holt, Laurence E.; Burke, Darren G.; Pelham, Thomas W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">229</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Teaching+AND+Training%3a+AND+Student+AND+Retention+AND+Motivation&pg=3&id=ED289300"> <span id="translatedtitle">Capital Projects, 1985-86: Teach & <span class="hlt">Reach</span>, Gifted & Talented, BEST.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|The Austin Independent School District (Texas) evaluated three district-funded projects for 1985-86: Project Teach and <span class="hlt">Reach</span>, the Gifted and Talented Program, and Project BEST (Basic Effective Strategies for Teaching). Teach and <span class="hlt">Reach</span> focuses on compensatory education in reading and mathematics for low achieving black students in grades K-3. The…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wilkinson, David; Luna, Natalia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">230</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/35406224"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hand trajectory formation during whole body <span class="hlt">reaching</span> movements in man</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">End-effector trajectory formation was studied during a <span class="hlt">reaching</span> movement using the whole body. The movements of various parts of the body were measured with the optoelectronic ELITE system. Wrist <span class="hlt">reaching</span> movement paths showed noticeable curvatures. The analysis of various marker onset latencies revealed that the wrist was the last to move, always after the head, knee or trunk, suggesting a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thierry Pozzo; Joseph McIntyre; Guy Cheron; Charalambos Papaxanthis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">231</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60540408"> <span id="translatedtitle">Key design requirements for long-<span class="hlt">reach</span> manipulators</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Long-<span class="hlt">reach</span> manipulators differ from industrial robots and teleoperators typically used in the nuclear industry in that the aspect ratio (length to diameter) of links is much greater and link flexibility, as well as joint or drive train flexibility, is likely to be significant. Long-<span class="hlt">reach</span> manipulators will be required for a variety of applications in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. S. Kwon; S. March-Leuba; S. M. Babcock; W. R. Hamel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">232</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60771678"> <span id="translatedtitle">Key Design Requirements for Long-<span class="hlt">Reach</span> Manipulators</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Long-<span class="hlt">reach</span> manipulators differ from industrial robots and teleoperators typically used in the nuclear industry in that the aspect ratio (length to diameter) of links is much greater and link flexibility, as well as joint or drive train flexibility, is likely to be significant. Long-<span class="hlt">reach</span> manipulators will be required for a variety of applications in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">233</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://jn.physiology.org/cgi/reprint/01180.2006v1.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Motor Cortical Representation of Position and Velocity During <span class="hlt">Reaching</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">representation of position and velocity during <span class="hlt">reaching</span>. This study examines motor cortical representation of hand position and its relationship to the representation of hand velocity during <span class="hlt">reaching</span> movements. 978 motor cortical neurons were recorded from the proximal arm area of rostral motor cortex. The results demonstrate that position and velocity are encoded by single motor cortical neurons simultaneously in an</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">WEI WANG; SHERWIN S. CHAN; DUSTIN A. HELDMAN; DANIEL W. MORAN</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">234</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26646626"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> loading and cost of energy loss of radial distribution feeders</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The paper presents a method for obtaining the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> allowable loading of radial distribution feeders for different types of loads without violating the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> current carrying capacity of branch conductors. Minimum voltage of the feeders can also be maintained by allowing the feeders to take load <span class="hlt">growth</span> up to a specific period of time. A simple mathematical formula for calculating</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. Das</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">235</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/34791662"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of cultivating conditions on the mycelial <span class="hlt">growth</span> of Ganoderma lucidum in submerged flask cultures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper the effects of environmental conditions on the mycelial <span class="hlt">growth</span> of Ganoderma lucidum were investigated in shake flask cultures. The optimal temperature and pH were found to be around 30-35v°C and 4, respectively, in a glucose-ammonium chloride medium. The <span class="hlt">maximum</span> mycelial concentration <span class="hlt">reached</span> to around 350 mg\\/100 ml. The formation of mycelial pellets and their ultra structure was</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">F.-C. Yang; C.-B. Liau</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">236</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9846810"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hepatocyte <span class="hlt">growth</span> factor(HGF): a new biochemical marker for acute myocardial infarction.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of hepatocyte <span class="hlt">growth</span> factor as a biochemical marker for acute myocardial infarction. Several biochemical markers are used for noninvasive detection of acute myocardial infarction. However, hepatocyte <span class="hlt">growth</span> factor has not been used previously for this purpose. We measured hepatocyte <span class="hlt">growth</span> factor, creatine phosphokinase, and MB isoenzyme (CK-MB) levels in 6 patients with stable effort angina after diagnostic catheterization (controls) and in 12 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The measurements in the AMI patients were recorded twice a day for the first 3 days after onset of chest pain and once a day for the next 4 days. Furthermore, in each patient we evaluated the time to <span class="hlt">reach</span> the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> level and the time for the level to decline to less than half the <span class="hlt">maximum</span>. Hepatocyte <span class="hlt">growth</span> factor levels (ng/ml) were 0.3+/-0.1 for angina pectoris patients, and 15.7+/-9.1 within 6h and 12.5+/-4.6 within 12h after the onset for AMI patients, respectively. The correlation coefficients between hepatocyte <span class="hlt">growth</span> factor and creatine phosphokinase and between hepatocyte <span class="hlt">growth</span> factor and CK-MB were 0.68 and 0.74, respectively. The time to <span class="hlt">reach</span> the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> (h) and the time to decline to less than half of the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> level (days) were 6.6+/-2.6 and 1.2 +/-0.2 for hepatocyte <span class="hlt">growth</span> factor, 19.4+/-8.7 and 2.5+/-1.4 for creatine phosphokinase, and 16.6+/-7.7 and 1.5+/-0.4 for CK-MB, respectively. Hepatocyte <span class="hlt">growth</span> factor is useful as a prognostic indicator and reflects the clinical course in patients with acute myocardial infarction. PMID:9846810</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sato, T; Yoshinouchi, T; Sakamoto, T; Fujieda, H; Murao, S; Sato, H; Kobayashi, H; Ohe, T</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">237</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2365509"> <span id="translatedtitle">Target selection for visually-guided <span class="hlt">reaching</span> in macaque</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We examined target selection for visually-guided <span class="hlt">reaching</span> in monkeys using a visual search task in which an odd-colored target was presented with distractors. The colors of the target and distractors were randomly switched in each trial between red and green, and the number of distractors was varied. Previous studies of saccades and attention have shown that target selection in this task is easier when a greater number of homogenous distractors is present. We found that monkeys made fewer <span class="hlt">reaches</span> to distractors and that <span class="hlt">reaches</span> to the target were completed more quickly when a greater number of homogenous distractors was present. When the target was presented in a sparse array of distractors, <span class="hlt">reaches</span> had longer movement durations and greater trajectory curvature. <span class="hlt">Reaching</span> errors were directed more often to a distractor adjacent to the target, suggesting a spatially coarse-to-fine progression during target selection. <span class="hlt">Reaches</span> were also influenced by the properties of trials in the recent past. When the colors of the target and distractors remained the same from trial to trial rather than switching, <span class="hlt">reaches</span> were completed more quickly and accurately, indicating that color priming across trials facilitates target selection. Moreover, when difficult search trials were randomly intermixed with easier trials without distractors, <span class="hlt">reach</span> latencies were influenced by the difficulty of previous trials, indicating that motor initiation strategies are gradually adjusted based on accumulated experience. Overall, these results are consistent with <span class="hlt">reaching</span> results in humans, indicating that the monkey provides a sound model for understanding the neural underpinnings of <span class="hlt">reach</span> target selection.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Song, Joo-Hyun; Takahashi, Naomi; McPeek, Robert M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">238</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvA..85f2322N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantum teleportation via <span class="hlt">maximum</span>-confidence quantum measurements</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigate the problem of teleporting unknown qudit states via pure quantum channels with nonmaximal Schmidt rank. This process is mapped to the problem of discriminating among nonorthogonal symmetric states which are linearly dependent and equally likely. It is shown that by applying an optimized <span class="hlt">maximum</span>-confidence (MC) measurement for accomplishing this task, one <span class="hlt">reaches</span> the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> possible teleportation fidelity after a conclusive event in the discrimination process, which in turn occurs with the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> success probability. In this case, such fidelity depends only on the Schmidt rank of the channel and it is larger than the optimal one achieved, deterministically, by the standard teleportation protocol. Furthermore, we show that there are quantum channels for which it is possible to apply a k-stage sequential MC measurement in the discrimination process such that a conclusive event at any stage leads to a teleportation fidelity above the aforementioned optimal one and, consequently, increases the overall success probability of teleportation with a fidelity above this limit.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Neves, L.; Solís-Prosser, M. A.; Delgado, A.; Jiménez, O.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">239</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009MNRAS.397.1302B"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> spin of black holes driving jets</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Unbound outflows in the form of highly collimated jets and broad winds appear to be a ubiquitous feature of accreting black hole systems. The most powerful jets are thought to derive a significant fraction, if not the majority, of their power from the rotational energy of the black hole. Whatever the precise mechanism that causes them, these jets must, therefore, exert a braking torque on the black hole. Consequently, we expect jet production to play a significant role in limiting the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> spin attainable by accreting black holes. We calculate the spin-up function - the rate of change of black hole spin normalized to the black hole mass and accretion rate - for an accreting black hole, accounting for this braking torque. We assume that the accretion flow on to a Kerr black hole is advection-dominated (ADAF) and construct easy-to-use analytic fits to describe the global structure of such flows based on the numerical solutions of Popham & Gammie. We find that the predicted black hole spin-up function depends only on the black hole spin and dimensionless parameters describing the accretion flow. Using recent relativistic magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) numerical simulation results to calibrate the efficiency of angular momentum transfer in the flow, we find that an ADAF flow will spin a black hole up (or down) to an equilibrium value of about 96 per cent of the maximal spin value in the absence of jets. Combining our ADAF system with a simple model for jet power, we demonstrate that an equilibrium is <span class="hlt">reached</span> at approximately 93 per cent of the maximal spin value, as found in the numerical simulation studies of the spin-up of accreting black holes, at which point the spin-up of the hole by accreted material is balanced by the braking torque arising from jet production. The existence of equilibrium spin means that optically dim active galactic nuclei (AGNs) that have grown via accretion from an advection-dominated flow will not be maximally rotating. It also offers a possible explanation for the tight correlation observed by Allen et al. between the Bondi accretion rate and jet power in nine, nearby, X-ray luminous giant elliptical galaxies. We suggest that the black holes in these galaxies must all be rotating close to their equilibrium value. Our model also yields a relationship between jet efficiency and black hole spin that is in surprisingly good agreement with that seen in the simulation studies, indicating that our simple model is a useful and convenient description of ADAF inflow - jet outflow about a spinning black hole for incorporation in semi-analytic modelling as well as cosmological numerical simulation studies focusing on the formation and evolution of galaxies, groups and clusters of galaxies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Benson, Andrew J.; Babul, Arif</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">240</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56963086"> <span id="translatedtitle">100G upgrade over legacy submarine dispersion-managed fiber link using fiber nonlinearity compensation and <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood sequence estimation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">maximum</span> transmission <span class="hlt">reach</span> of 127 Gb\\/s DP-QPSK over legacy DMF link is extended to 4,800 km with 7.4 dB Q-factor using hybrid nonlinearity compensation and <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood sequence estimation, amounting to ?37% distance increase.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shaoliang Zhang; Eduardo Mateo; Lei Xu; Ming-Fang Huang; Fatih Yaman; Yin Shao; Ting Wang; Yoshihisa Inada; Takanori Inoue; Takaaki Ogata; Yasuhiro Aoki</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div 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class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">241</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8418672"> <span id="translatedtitle">The use of a game to promote arm <span class="hlt">reach</span> in persons with traumatic brain injury.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study tested a principle of occupational therapy and motor learning theory in the context of neurodevelopmental treatment techniques. Ten trials of occupationally embedded intervention (playing Simon, a computer-controlled game) were compared with 10 trials of rote arm-<span class="hlt">reach</span> exercise. A counterbalanced design was structured so that each subject experienced each condition one week apart. Subjects were 17 men and 3 women with traumatic brain injury who exhibited mild to moderate spasticity in the upper extremity. <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> distance from hip to wrist during active <span class="hlt">reach</span> of the affected extremity was measured by digitization of videotape with the Motion Analysis EV-3D system. Results indicated that the use of the game elicited significantly more range of motion than the rote exercise (t (19) = 5.77, p < .001). These results support the use of an occupationally embedded intervention for persons with traumatic brain injury and add to the theoretical base of occupational therapy. PMID:8418672</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sietsema, J M; Nelson, D L; Mulder, R M; Mervau-Scheidel, D; White, B E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">242</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title5-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title5-vol1-sec534-203.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">5 CFR 534.203 - <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> stipends.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...<span class="hlt">Maximum</span> stipends for positions in the Public Health Service in which duty requires intimate contact with persons afflicted with leprosy are increased above the rates prescribed in paragraph (a) of this section to the same extent that additional pay is...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">243</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2009-title5-vol1/pdf/CFR-2009-title5-vol1-sec534-203.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">5 CFR 534.203 - <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> stipends.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...<span class="hlt">Maximum</span> stipends for positions in the Public Health Service in which duty requires intimate contact with persons afflicted with leprosy are increased above the rates prescribed in paragraph (a) of this section to the same extent that additional pay is...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">244</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB2008109319"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Likelihood Estimation for Random Sequential Adsorption.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Existence and uniqueness of a <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood estimator for the time and range parameters in random sequential adsorption models is established. Nuisance parameters of the reference distribution are estimated by means of profile likelihoods. The approa...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. N. M. Van Lieshout</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">245</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EL....10340001A"> <span id="translatedtitle">On the efficiency at <span class="hlt">maximum</span> cooling power</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The efficiency at <span class="hlt">maximum</span> power (EMP) of heat engines operating as generators is one corner stone of finite-time thermodynamics, the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency \\eta_CA being considered as a universal upper bound. Yet, no valid counterpart to \\eta_CA has been derived for the efficiency at <span class="hlt">maximum</span> cooling power (EMCP) for heat engines operating as refrigerators. In this letter we analyse the reasons of the failure to obtain such a bound and we demonstrate that, despite the introduction of several optimisation criteria, the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> cooling power condition should be considered as the genuine equivalent of <span class="hlt">maximum</span> power condition in the finite-time thermodynamics frame. We then propose and discuss an analytic expression for the EMCP in the specific case of exoreversible refrigerators.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Apertet, Y.; Ouerdane, H.; Michot, A.; Goupil, C.; Lecoeur, Ph.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">246</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ofmpub.epa.gov/sor_internet/registry/termreg/searchandretrieve/glossariesandkeywordlists/search.do?details=&glossaryName=Sediment%20TMDLs%20(Oct%201999)"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sediment Total <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Daily Loads (TMDLs) Glossary</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Water Quality:  The biological, chemical, and physical conditions of a waterbody. It is a measure of a waterbody's ability to support beneficial uses.   From Sediment Total <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Daily Loads (TMDLs) Glossary  -  Search all glossaries for terms containing water quality</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">247</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990PhyS...41..758N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Photoemission spectromicroscopy with <span class="hlt">MAXIMUM</span> at Wisconsin</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We describe the development of the scanning photoemission spectromicroscope <span class="hlt">MAXIMUM</span> at the Wisoncsin Synchrotron Radiation Center, which uses radiation from a 30-period undulator. The article includes a discussion of the first tests after the initial commissioning.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ng, W.; Ray-Chaudhuri, A. K.; Cole, R. K.; Wallace, J.; Crossley, S.; Crossley, D.; Chen, G.; Green, M.; Guo, J.; Hansen, R. W. C.; Cerrina, F.; Margaritondo, G.; Underwood, J. H.; Korthright, J.; Perera, R. C. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">248</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006Entrp...8...18D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Utility Function from <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Entropy Principle</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recently we used the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> entropy principle for finding the price density in a multi agent insurance market. The result is similar to what the Buhlmann had obtained by maximizing the utility function. Here we begin with the price density that is derived by applying the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> entropy principle to a conservative economic system (exchange market), then reverse the Buhlmann calculation to find the utility function and the risk aversion of agents with respect to this density.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Darooneh, Amir H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">249</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/313270"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Entropy for Text Classification</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper proposes the use of <span class="hlt">maximum</span> entropytechniques for text classification. Maximumentropy is a probability distribution estimationtechnique widely used for a variety ofnatural language tasks, such as language modeling,part-of-speech tagging, and text segmentation.The underlying principle of maximumentropy is that without external knowledge, oneshould prefer distributions that are uniform.Constraints on the distribution, derived fromlabeled training data, inform <span class="hlt">maximum</span> entropy...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kamal Nigam; John Lafferty; Andrew Mccallum</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">250</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ChPhB..22c0312Z"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> confidence measurements via probabilistic quantum cloning</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Probabilistic quantum cloning (PQC) cannot copy a set of linearly dependent quantum states. In this paper, we show that if incorrect copies are allowed to be produced, linearly dependent quantum states may also be cloned by the PQC. By exploiting this kind of PQC to clone a special set of three linearly dependent quantum states, we derive the upper bound of the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> confidence measure of a set. An explicit transformation of the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> confidence measure is presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Wen-Hai; Yu, Long-Bao; Cao, Zhuo-Liang; Ye, Liu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">251</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1686048"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood map of chromosome 1.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Thirteen loci are mapped on chromosome 1 from genetic evidence. The <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood map presented permits confirmation that Scianna (SC) and a fourteenth locus, phenylketonuria (PKU), are on chromosome 1, although the location of the latter on the PGM1-AMY segment is uncertain. Eight other controversial genetic assignments are rejected, providing a practical demonstration of the resolution which <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood theory brings to mapping.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rao, D C; Keats, B J; Lalouel, J M; Morton, N E; Yee, S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">252</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57523324"> <span id="translatedtitle">Significance of biomechanical and physiological variables during the determination of <span class="hlt">maximum</span> acceptable weight of lift</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim was to identify which biomechanical and physiological variables were associated with the decision to change the weight of lift during the determination of the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> acceptable weight of lift (MAWL) in a psychophysical study. Fifteen male college students lifted a box of unknown weight at 4.3 lifts\\/min, and adjusted the weight until their MAWL was <span class="hlt">reached</span>. Variables such</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">MICHAEL J. JORGENSEN; KERMIT G. DAVIS; BRYAN C. KIRKING; KAREN E. K. LEWIS; WILLIAM S. MARRAS</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">253</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://biodynamics.osu.edu/publication%20pdf/Ergonomics,%201999,%2042(9),%201216-1232.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Signi® cance of biomechanical and physiological variables during the determination of <span class="hlt">maximum</span> acceptable weight of lift</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim was to identify which biomechanical and physiological variables were associated with the decision to change the weight of lift during the determination of the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> acceptable weight of lift (MAWL) in a psychophysical study. Fifteen male college students lifted a box of unknown weight at 4.3 lifts\\/min, and adjusted the weight until their MAWL was <span class="hlt">reached</span>. Variables such</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">MICHAEL J. JORGENSEN; KERMIT G. DAVIS; BRYAN C. KIRKING; KAREN E. K. LEWIS; WILLIAM S. MARRAS</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">254</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/magazine/issues/fall07/articles/fall07insidecover.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Helping the Library <span class="hlt">Reach</span> Out to the Future</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Helping the Library <span class="hlt">Reach</span> Out to the Future Past Issues / Fall ... On behalf of the Friends of the National Library of Medicine (FNLM), welcome to the Fall 2007 ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">255</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51055729"> <span id="translatedtitle">Taking the cost out of short-<span class="hlt">reach</span> optical interconnects</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Short-<span class="hlt">reach</span> optical interconnects have enjoyed significant cost reductions over the years competing with copperbased solutions at ever shorter lengths. This talk looks at future developments that may maintain this downward cost trend.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kenneth P. Jackson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">256</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cdc.gov/Features/dsREACHUS/index.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Minority Health Surveillance -- <span class="hlt">REACH</span> U.S., 2009</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... at a rapid pace, large-scale community-based surveys and surveillance systems designed to monitor the health ... Health across the U.S. (<span class="hlt">REACH</span> U.S.) Risk Factor Survey is conducted annually in minority communities by CDC. ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">257</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22200852"> <span id="translatedtitle">Complementary ecophysiological strategies combine to facilitate survival in the hostile conditions of a deep chlorophyll <span class="hlt">maximum</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the deep, cooler layers of clear, nutrient-poor, stratified water bodies, phytoplankton often accumulate to form a thin band or "deep chlorophyll <span class="hlt">maximum</span>" (DCM) of ecological importance. Under such conditions, these photosynthetic microorganisms may be close to their physiological compensation points and to the boundaries of their ecological tolerance. To grow and survive any resulting energy limitation, DCM species are thought to exhibit highly specialised or flexible acclimation strategies. In this study, we investigated several of the adaptable ecophysiological strategies potentially employed by one such species, Chlamydomonas acidophila: a motile, unicellular, phytoplanktonic flagellate that often dominates the DCM in stratified, acidic lakes. Physiological and behavioural responses were measured in laboratory experiments and were subsequently related to field observations. Results showed moderate light compensation points for photosynthesis and <span class="hlt">growth</span> at 22°C, relatively low maintenance costs, a behavioural preference for low to moderate light, and a decreased compensation point for photosynthesis at 8°C. Even though this flagellated alga exhibited a physiologically mediated diel vertical migration in the field, migrating upwards slightly during the day, the ambient light <span class="hlt">reaching</span> the DCM was below compensation points, and so calculations of daily net photosynthetic gain showed that survival by purely autotrophic means was not possible. Results suggested that strategies such as low-light acclimation, small-scale directed movements towards light, a capacity for mixotrophic <span class="hlt">growth</span>, acclimation to low temperature, in situ exposure to low O(2), high CO(2) and high P concentrations, and an avoidance of predation, could combine to help overcome this energetic dilemma and explain the occurrence of the DCM. Therefore, corroborating the deceptive ecophysiological complexity of this and similar organisms, only a suite of complementary strategies can facilitate the survival of C. acidophila in this DCM. PMID:22200852</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Clegg, Mark R; Gaedke, Ursula; Boehrer, Bertram; Spijkerman, Elly</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">258</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/gc56uf361aq1hv4h.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Parieto-frontal coding of <span class="hlt">reaching</span>: an integrated framework</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the last few years, anatomical and physiological studies have provided new insights into the organization of the parieto-frontal\\u000a network underlying visually guided arm-<span class="hlt">reaching</span> movements in at least three domains. (1) Network architecture. It has been\\u000a shown that the different classes of neurons encoding information relevant to <span class="hlt">reaching</span> are not confined within individual cortical\\u000a areas, but are common to different</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yves Burnod; Pierre Baraduc; Alexandra Battaglia-Mayer; Emmanuel Guigon; Etienne Koechlin; Stefano Ferraina; Francesco Lacquaniti; Roberto Caminiti</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">259</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/47874603"> <span id="translatedtitle">Regulating Chemical Risk: <span class="hlt">REACH</span> in a Global Governance Perspective</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">\\u000a This chapter analyses the EU <span class="hlt">REACH</span> Regulation as a blueprint for an international model of risk governance. It reviews the\\u000a institutional set-up of <span class="hlt">REACH</span>, documenting a shift of decision-making authority away from the State level towards the private\\u000a and European level, and explains why the Member States of the EU agreed to limit their decision-making power. It then considers\\u000a the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Veerle Heyvaert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">260</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.wjh.harvard.edu/~lds/pdfs/vonhofsten1998.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Predictive action in infancy: tracking and <span class="hlt">reaching</span> for moving objects</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Because action plans must anticipate the states of the world which will be obtained when the actions take place, effective actions depend on predictions. The present experiments begin to explore the principles underlying early-developing predictions of object motion, by focusing on 6-month-old infants' head tracking and <span class="hlt">reaching</span> for moving objects. Infants were presented with an object that moved into <span class="hlt">reaching</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Claes von Hofsten; Peter Vishton; Elizabeth S. Spelke; Qi Fengd; Kerstin Rosander</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return 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Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">261</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://labs.seas.wustl.edu/bme/dmoran/pubs%20&%20media/articles/heldman_moran_ieee_2006.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Local field potential spectral tuning in motor cortex during <span class="hlt">reaching</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, intracortical local field potentials (LFPs) and single units were recorded from the motor cortices of monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) while they preformed a standard three-dimensional (3-D) center-out <span class="hlt">reaching</span> task. During the center-out task, the subjects held their hands at the location of a central target and then <span class="hlt">reached</span> to one of eight peripheral targets forming the corners of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dustin A. Heldman; Wei Wang; Sherwin S. Chan; Daniel W. Moran</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">262</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23571500"> <span id="translatedtitle">Action, perception and postural planning when <span class="hlt">reaching</span> for tools.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The dorsal and ventral streams model of action and perception suggests that <span class="hlt">reaching</span> to grasp a tool for use involves integrated operation of the two streams. Few attempts have been made to test the limits of this integration in normal subjects. Twenty normal subjects <span class="hlt">reached</span> for tools or geometric objects which were rotated rapidly during <span class="hlt">reaching</span> or immediately beforehand. In a first experiment it was shown that <span class="hlt">reaching</span> for an inverted tool was slower than <span class="hlt">reaching</span> for objects which required hand inversion due to proximity to a physical barrier. Also, for the right hand, tool rotation during <span class="hlt">reaching</span> provoked a higher incidence of hand rotation in the wrong direction than did rotation of objects. In a second similar experiment, hand inversion when grasping objects was induced by the need to plan a future action rather than by proximity of a physical barrier. Despite this balancing of complexity of postural planning for tools and objects, hand rotation errors for both hands were more common for tools than objects. This was consistent with the two-stream model in suggesting that there was a process which produced rapid online tracking of stimulus rotation and this had to be overcome by a slower process which dictated grasping in accordance with knowledge of tool use. PMID:23571500</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sunderland, Alan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">263</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15860623"> <span id="translatedtitle">Early local last glacial <span class="hlt">maximum</span> in the tropical Andes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The local last glacial <span class="hlt">maximum</span> in the tropical Andes was earlier and less extensive than previously thought, based on 106 cosmogenic ages (from beryllium-10 dating) from moraines in Peru and Bolivia. Glaciers <span class="hlt">reached</span> their greatest extent in the last glacial cycle approximately 34,000 years before the present and were retreating by approximately 21,000 years before the present, implying that tropical controls on ice volumes were asynchronous with those in the Northern Hemisphere. Our estimates of snowline depression reflect about half the temperature change indicated by previous widely cited figures, which helps resolve the discrepancy between estimates of terrestrial and marine temperature depression during the last glacial cycle. PMID:15860623</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smith, Jacqueline A; Seltzer, Geoffrey O; Farber, Daniel L; Rodbell, Donald T; Finkel, Robert C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-04-29</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">264</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18480145"> <span id="translatedtitle">Concept of <span class="hlt">REACH</span> and impact on evaluation of chemicals.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Industrial chemicals have been in use for many decades and new products are regularly invented and introduced to the market. Also for decades, many different chemical laws have been introduced to regulate safe handling of chemicals in different use patterns. The patchwork of current regulation in the European Union is to be replaced by the new regulation on industrial chemical control, <span class="hlt">REACH</span>. <span class="hlt">REACH</span> stands for registration, evaluation, and authorization of chemicals. <span class="hlt">REACH</span> entered force on June 1, 2007. <span class="hlt">REACH</span> aims to overcome limitations in testing requirements of former regulation on industrial chemicals to enhance competitiveness and innovation with regard to manufacture safer substances and to promote the development of alternative testing methods. A main task of <span class="hlt">REACH</span> is to address data gaps regarding the properties and uses of industrial chemicals. Producers, importers, and downstream users will have to compile and communicate standard information for all chemicals. Information sets to be prepared include safety data sheets (SDS), chemical safety reports (CSR), and chemical safety assessments (CSA). These are designed to guarantee adequate handling in the production chain, in transport and in use and to prevent the substances from being released to and distributed within the environment. Another important aim is to identify the most harmful chemicals and to set incentives to substitute them with safer alternatives. On one hand, <span class="hlt">REACH</span> will have substantial impact on the basic understanding of the evaluation of chemicals. However, the toxicological sciences can also substantially influence the workability of <span class="hlt">REACH</span> that supports the transformation of data to the information required to understand and manage acceptable and non acceptable risks in the use of industrial chemicals. The <span class="hlt">REACH</span> regulation has been laid down in the main document and 17 Annexes of more than 849 pages. Even bigger technical guidance documents will follow and will inform about the rules for application and work out of dossiers. The following article gives a comprehensive overview on the concept of <span class="hlt">REACH</span> to give deeper insight into this document. Members of the scientific community will have to define their own position as researchers, teachers, and experts to support the efforts to protect human health and the environment. The concept of <span class="hlt">REACH</span> as well as new approaches to adapt standard testing regimes to foster a risk oriented approach in required work load to decrease animal based tests and to strengthen weight of evidence are explained in detail in this article. PMID:18480145</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Foth, H; Hayes, Aw</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">265</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12314595"> <span id="translatedtitle">Population <span class="hlt">growth</span> and economic <span class="hlt">growth</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This discussion of the issues relating to the problem posed by population explosion in the developing countries and economic <span class="hlt">growth</span> in the contemporary world covers the following: predictions of economic and social trends; the Malthusian theory of population; the classical or stationary theory of population; the medical triage model; ecological disaster; the Global 2000 study; the limits to <span class="hlt">growth</span>; critiques of the Limits to <span class="hlt">Growth</span> model; nonrenewable resources; food and agriculture; population explosion and stabilization; space and ocean colonization; and the limits perspective. The Limits to <span class="hlt">Growth</span> model, a general equilibrium anti-<span class="hlt">growth</span> model, is the gloomiest economic model ever constructed. None of the doomsday models, the Malthusian theory, the classical stationary state, the neo-Malthusian medical triage model, the Global 2000 study, are so far <span class="hlt">reaching</span> in their consequences. The course of events that followed the publication of the "Limits to <span class="hlt">Growth</span>" in 1972 in the form of 2 oil shocks, food shock, pollution shock, and price shock seemed to bear out formally the gloomy predictions of the thesis with a remarkable speed. The 12 years of economic experience and the knowledge of resource trends postulate that even if the economic pressures visualized by the model are at work they are neither far <span class="hlt">reaching</span> nor so drastic. Appropriate action can solve them. There are several limitations to the Limits to <span class="hlt">Growth</span> model. The central theme of the model, which is overshoot and collapse, is unlikely to be the course of events. The model is too aggregative to be realistic. It exaggerates the ecological disaster arising out of the exponential <span class="hlt">growth</span> of population and industry. The gross underestimation of renewable resources is a basic flaw of the model. The most critical weakness of the model is its gross underestimation of the historical trend of technological progress and the technological possiblities within industry and agriculture. The model does correctly emphasize the exponential <span class="hlt">growth</span> of population as the source of several complications for economic <span class="hlt">growth</span> and human welfare. Stabilization of population by reducing fertility is conducive for improving the quality of population and also advances the longterm management of the population <span class="hlt">growth</span> and work force utilization. The perspective of longterm economic management involves populatio n planning, control of environmental pollution, conservation of scarce resources, exploration of resources, realization of technological possibilities in agriculture and industry and in farm and factory, and achievement of economic <span class="hlt">growth</span> and its equitable distribution. PMID:12314595</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Narayana, D L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">266</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11353717"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mediterranean climate effects. II. Conifer <span class="hlt">growth</span> phenology across a Sierra Nevada ecotone.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Growth</span> and xylem water potential of the lower elevation conifers Pinus jeffreyi and Abies concolor and the higher elevation Pinus monticola and Abies magnifica were monitored in their montane Mediterranean habitat of the southernmost Sierra Nevada mountains of California. Measurements were made across the ecotone between the midmontane and upper montane forests and through light and heavy snowfall years.Radial stem <span class="hlt">growth</span>, averaging ?1.5 mm/yr, started 2 wk after snow melt, providing that <span class="hlt">maximum</span> air temperatures had <span class="hlt">reached</span> 21°C, and ended when predawn water potentials fell rapidly at the onset of the summer drought. Leader <span class="hlt">growth</span> started on or after a fixed date, providing that minimum air temperatures were above -4°C for Pinus species or +2.5°C for Abies species. The cue for leader <span class="hlt">growth</span> was inferred to be photoperiodic. Leader <span class="hlt">growth</span> ended when either a determinate internode length of ?1 mm was <span class="hlt">reached</span> or predawn water potentials fell rapidly. Abies magnifica grew more rapidly than the low-elevation species, but had a shorter <span class="hlt">growth</span> period; its annual leader <span class="hlt">growth</span>, as a consequence, was only 35 mm/yr vs. 50 mm/yr for the low-elevation species. Needle <span class="hlt">growth</span> was similarly determinate in the absence of early drought. This <span class="hlt">growth</span> phenology contributes to determining species distribution across the ecotone. PMID:11353717</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Royce, E B; Barbour, M G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">267</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21484397"> <span id="translatedtitle">Discovering affordances that determine the spatial structure of <span class="hlt">reach</span>-to-grasp movements.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Extensive research has identified the affordances used to guide actions, as originally conceived by Gibson (Perceiving, acting, and knowing: towards an ecological psychology. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, 1977; The ecological approach to visual perception. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, 1979/1986). We sought to discover the object affordance properties that determine the spatial structure of <span class="hlt">reach</span>-to-grasp movements--movements that entail both collision avoidance and targeting. First, we constructed objects that presented a significant collision hazard and varied properties relevant to targeting, namely, object width and size of contact surface. Participants <span class="hlt">reached</span>-to-grasp objects at three speeds (slow, normal, and fast). In Experiment 1, we explored a "stop" task where participants grasped the objects without moving them. In Experiment 2, we studied "fly-through" movements where the objects were lifted. We discovered the object affordance properties that produced covariance in the spatial structure of <span class="hlt">reaches</span>-to-grasp. <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> grasp aperture (MGA) reflected affordances determined by collision avoidance. Terminal grasp aperture (TGA)--when the hand stops moving but prior to finger contact--reflected affordances relevant to targeting accuracy. A model with a single free parameter predicted the prehensile spatial structure and provided a functional affordance-based account of that structure. In Experiment 3, we investigated a "slam" task where participants <span class="hlt">reached</span>-to-grasp flat rectangular objects on a tabletop. The affordance structure of this task was found to eliminate the collision risk and thus reduced safety margins in MGA and TGA to zero for larger objects. The results emphasize the role of affordances in determining the structure and scaling of <span class="hlt">reach</span>-to-grasp actions. Finally, we report evidence supporting the opposition vector as an appropriate unit of analysis in the study of grasping and a unit of action that maps directly to affordance properties. PMID:21484397</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mon-Williams, Mark; Bingham, Geoffrey P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-04-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">268</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23669007"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rapid plasticity of motor corticospinal system with robotic <span class="hlt">reach</span> training.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Goal-directed <span class="hlt">reaching</span> is important for the activities of daily living. Populations of neurons in the primary motor cortex that project to spinal motor circuits are known to represent the kinematics of <span class="hlt">reaching</span> movements. We investigated whether repetitive practice of goal-directed <span class="hlt">reaching</span> movements induces use-dependent plasticity of those kinematic characteristics, in a manner similar to finger movements, as had been shown previously. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to evoke upper extremity movements while the forearm was resting in a robotic cradle. Plasticity was measured by the change in kinematics of these evoked movements following goal-directed <span class="hlt">reaching</span> practice. Baseline direction of TMS-evoked arm movements was determined for each subject. Subjects then practiced three blocks of 160 goal-directed <span class="hlt">reaching</span> movements in a direction opposite to the baseline direction (14 cm <span class="hlt">reach</span> 180° from baseline direction) against a 75-Nm spring field. Changes in TMS-evoked whole arm movements were assessed after each practice block and after 5 min following the end of practice. Direction and the position of the point of peak velocity of TMS-evoked movements were significantly altered following training and at a 5-min interval following training, while amplitude did not show significant changes. This was accompanied by changes in the motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) of the shoulder and elbow agonist muscles that partly explained the change in direction, mainly by increase in agonist MEP, without significant changes in antagonists. These findings demonstrate that the arm representation accessible by motor cortical stimulation under goes rapid plasticity induced by goal-directed robotic <span class="hlt">reach</span> training in healthy subjects. PMID:23669007</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kantak, S S; Jones-Lush, L M; Narayanan, P; Judkins, T N; Wittenberg, G F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-11</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">269</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2856561"> <span id="translatedtitle">'<span class="hlt">Reaching</span> the hard to <span class="hlt">reach</span>' - lessons learned from the VCS (voluntary and community Sector). A qualitative study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background The notion 'hard to <span class="hlt">reach</span>' is a contested and ambiguous term that is commonly used within the spheres of social care and health, especially in discourse around health and social inequalities. There is a need to address health inequalities and to engage in services the marginalized and socially excluded sectors of society. Methods This paper describes a pilot study involving interviews with representatives from eight Voluntary and Community Sector (VCS) organisations. The purpose of the study was to explore the notion of 'hard to <span class="hlt">reach</span>' and perceptions of the barriers and facilitators to accessing services for 'hard to <span class="hlt">reach</span>' groups from a voluntary and community sector perspective. Results The 'hard to <span class="hlt">reach</span>' may include drug users, people living with HIV, people from sexual minority communities, asylum seekers, refugees, people from black and ethnic minority communities, and homeless people although defining the notion of the 'hard to <span class="hlt">reach</span>' is not straight forward. It may be that certain groups resist engaging in treatment services and are deemed hard to <span class="hlt">reach</span> by a particular service or from a societal stance. There are a number of potential barriers for people who may try and access services, including people having bad experiences in the past; location and opening times of services and how services are funded and managed. A number of areas of commonality are found in terms of how access to services for 'hard to <span class="hlt">reach</span>' individuals and groups could be improved including: respectful treatment of service users, establishing trust with service users, offering service flexibility, partnership working with other organisations and harnessing service user involvement. Conclusions If health services are to engage with groups that are deemed 'hard to <span class="hlt">reach</span>' and marginalised from mainstream health services, the experiences and practices for engagement from within the VCS may serve as useful lessons for service improvement for statutory health services.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">270</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6742322"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> cell productivity by repeated fed-batch culture for constant yield case</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Optimal operation of repeatedly fed-batch fermentation was determined by the continuous <span class="hlt">maximum</span> principle for the constant yield case. The objective of <span class="hlt">maximum</span> cell productivity for a fixed final cell concentration was achieved by finding the substrate feeding policy that minimized the processing time. Analytical criteria for the optimal filling policy show that an exponential policy is optimum when the specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> rate has a <span class="hlt">maximum</span>, and also that operation in the simple repeated batch model is optimum when the specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> rate is optimum when the specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> rate is monotonic increasing. Comparisons between optimal repeated fed-batch culture and other modes of operation were made for the case of substrate-inhibited <span class="hlt">growth</span>. Cell productivity by repeated fed-batch exceeds both repeated batch and continuous operation for the case of low residual substrate concentration.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Weigand, W.A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">271</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6593963"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> likelihood deconvolution: a new perspective</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span>-likelihood deconvolution can be presented from at least two very different points of view. Unfortunately, in most journal articles, it is couched in the mystique of state-variable models and estimation theory, both of which, are generally quite foreign to geophysical signal processors. This paper explains <span class="hlt">maximum</span>-likelihood deconvolution using the well-known convolutional model and some relatively simple ideas from optimization theory. Both of these areas should be well known to geophysical signal processors. Although it is straightforward to develop the theory of <span class="hlt">maximum</span>-likelihood deconvolution using the convolutional model and optimization theory, this approach does not lead to practical computational algorithms. Recursive algorithms must be used; they are orders of magnitude faster than the batch algorithms that are associated with the convolutional model.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mendel, J.M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">272</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22764161"> <span id="translatedtitle">Visually targeted <span class="hlt">reaching</span> in horse-head grasshoppers.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Visually targeted <span class="hlt">reaching</span> to a specific object is a demanding neuronal task requiring the translation of the location of the object from a two-dimensionsal set of retinotopic coordinates to a motor pattern that guides a limb to that point in three-dimensional space. This sensorimotor transformation has been intensively studied in mammals, but was not previously thought to occur in animals with smaller nervous systems such as insects. We studied horse-head grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Proscopididae) crossing gaps and found that visual inputs are sufficient for them to target their forelimbs to a foothold on the opposite side of the gap. High-speed video analysis showed that these <span class="hlt">reaches</span> were targeted accurately and directly to footholds at different locations within the visual field through changes in forelimb trajectory and body position, and did not involve stereotyped searching movements. The proscopids estimated distant locations using peering to generate motion parallax, a monocular distance cue, but appeared to use binocular visual cues to estimate the distance of nearby footholds. Following occlusion of regions of binocular overlap, the proscopids resorted to peering to target <span class="hlt">reaches</span> even to nearby locations. Monocular cues were sufficient for accurate targeting of the ipsilateral but not the contralateral forelimb. Thus, proscopids are capable not only of the sensorimotor transformations necessary for visually targeted <span class="hlt">reaching</span> with their forelimbs but also of flexibly using different visual cues to target <span class="hlt">reaches</span>. PMID:22764161</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Niven, Jeremy E; Ott, Swidbert R; Rogers, Stephen M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-04</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">273</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GeoRL..38.5402M"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> discharge from snowmelt in a changing climate</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Predicted changes in precipitation and air temperature patterns can lead to major alterations in timing and volume of mountain snowmelt runoff with a possible increased incidence of catastrophic events such as flooding and summer droughts. Here, the role of the temperature seasonal cycle and the relative duration of cold and warm seasons on the partitioning of precipitation into snow and rainfall, snow accumulation and melting dynamics, and the resulting mountain runoff formation are investigated. Using a minimalist analytical model, it is shown that while increased air temperatures reduce snow accumulation in the winter, thus reducing the subsequent snowmelt volumes, they also intensify the rate of snowmelt, thus increasing the discharge peaks per given accumulated snow. The main consequence is the existence of an optimal energy input for which the annual peak discharge <span class="hlt">reaches</span> an absolute <span class="hlt">maximum</span>. Such <span class="hlt">maximum</span> separates a cold regime, where peak discharge is limited by slow melting dynamics, from a warm regime in which peak discharge is reduced by decreased winter snow accumulation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Molini, Annalisa; Katul, Gabriel G.; Porporato, Amilcare</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">274</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48712247"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Growth</span>-associated changes in glutathione content correlate with liver metastatic activity of B16 melanoma cells</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">B16 melanoma (B16M) was used to study the relationship between glutathione (GSH) metabolism and the metastatic acitivity of\\u000a malignant cells. GSH content increased in B16M cells during the initial period of exponential <span class="hlt">growth</span> in vitro, to <span class="hlt">reach</span> a <span class="hlt">maximum</span> of 37 ± 3 nmol\\/106 cells 12 h after plating, and then gradually decreased to control values (10 ± nmol\\/106 cells)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Julian Carretero; Elena Obrador; Miren J. Anasagasti; Javier J. Martin; Fernando Vidal-Vanaclocha; José M. Estrela</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/31526412"> <span id="translatedtitle">Testosterone-estradiol-binding globulin in patients with Turner's syndrome: effects of estrogens and acute <span class="hlt">growth</span> hormone administration</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The TeBG activity of plasma from patients with Turner's syndrome was measured quantitatively using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Human <span class="hlt">growth</span> hormone administration did not significantly change the plasma TeBG levels. However, oral replacement therapy with estrogens elevated plasma TeBG within 3 days; after 9 days these levels <span class="hlt">reached</span> a <span class="hlt">maximum</span> of three- to four-fold greater than that observed at a time</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. W. Bergink; D. L. Wolf; J. L. Wittliff; G. J. Bruining; M. F. Bryson; G. B. Forbes</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1976-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19772205"> <span id="translatedtitle">Senior <span class="hlt">reach</span> outcomes in comparison with the Spokane Gatekeeper program.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Senior <span class="hlt">Reach</span> program outcomes for older adults referred for care management and mental health services through a Gatekeeper model were examined in this study and compared with the Spokane Gatekeeper model. The two programs were compared for seniors served on service variables and outcome ratings for isolation, depression, and functioning. Approximately 41% of seniors served by both programs were referred by nontraditional sources: community gatekeepers. Findings indicate that individuals served by the Senior <span class="hlt">Reach</span> program demonstrated significant improvement in reduction of isolators (such as social isolation), improved functioning, increased optimism about the future, increased positive activities with others, decreased emotional disturbance, and improvements on the Geriatric Depression Scale. Additional program comparisons and findings are discussed. Findings for the Senior <span class="hlt">Reach</span> program demonstrate that the gatekeeper approach to training community partners is effective in finding at-risk seniors and meeting their needs, resulting in positive impacts on their lives. PMID:19772205</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bartsch, David A; Rodgers, Vicki K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2009-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2009-title40-vol20-sec94-107.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 94.107 - Determination of <span class="hlt">maximum</span> test speed.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...false Determination of <span class="hlt">maximum</span> test speed. 94.107 Section 94.107 Protection...107 Determination of <span class="hlt">maximum</span> test speed. (a) Overview. This section specifies how to determine <span class="hlt">maximum</span> test speed from a lug curve. This <span class="hlt">maximum</span>...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol20-sec94-107.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 94.107 - Determination of <span class="hlt">maximum</span> test speed.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...false Determination of <span class="hlt">maximum</span> test speed. 94.107 Section 94.107 Protection...107 Determination of <span class="hlt">maximum</span> test speed. (a) Overview. This section specifies how to determine <span class="hlt">maximum</span> test speed from a lug curve. This <span class="hlt">maximum</span>...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol22/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol22-sec141-65.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 141.65 - <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> residual disinfectant levels.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...2010-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> residual disinfectant levels. 141.65 Section 141...Contaminant Levels and <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Residual Disinfectant Levels § 141.65 <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> residual disinfectant levels. (a) <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> residual...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2009-title40-vol22/pdf/CFR-2009-title40-vol22-sec141-65.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 141.65 - <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> residual disinfectant levels.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Sec. 141.65 - <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> residual disinfectant levels.] 40 PROTECTION OF ENVIRONMENT...<span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Sec. 141.65 <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> residual disinfectant levels. (a) <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> residual disinfectant levels (MRDLs) are as...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title24-vol4/pdf/CFR-2013-title24-vol4-sec886-108.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">24 CFR 886.108 - <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> annual contract commitment.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...2013-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> annual contract commitment. 886.108 Section 886.108 ...886.108 <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> annual contract commitment. (a) Number of units assisted...conversion. (b) <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> annual Contract commitment. The <span class="hlt">maximum</span> annual housing...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53333712"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> power configuration for multireservoir chemical engines</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A model of a multireservoir isothermal endoreversible chemical engine is put forward in this paper. Optimal control theory is used to determine the optimal configuration of the multireservoir isothermal endoreversible chemical engine for <span class="hlt">maximum</span> power output. The optimal cycle consists of two constant chemical potential branches and two instantaneous constant mass-flux branches, which is independent of the number of mass</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shaojun Xia; Lingen Chen; Fengrui Sun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/58431052"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic Programming, <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Principle and Vintage Capital</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present an application of the Dynamic Programming (DP) and of the <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Principle (MP) to solve an optimization over time when the production function is linear in the stock of capital (Ak model). Two views of capital are considered. In one, which is embraced by the great majority of macroeconomic models, capital is homogeneous and depreciates at a constant</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Giorgio Fabbri; Maurizio Iacopetta</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eng.swu.ac.th/mme/%c2%c8%c8%d1%a1%b4%d4%ec.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">??????????????????????????????? <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Velocity of a Racing Car</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this paper is to analysis optimum <span class="hlt">maximum</span> velocity of a racing car along the given path by using the minimum time optimization method. The simple mathematical model are the equations of motion with geometrical path constraints, also total driving and braking forces are upper and lower bounds, respectively. The usefulness of this paper is to predict optimum</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tawiwat Veeraklaew; Yotsak Saisanit</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1577970"> <span id="translatedtitle">Step motor control for <span class="hlt">maximum</span> torque</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The relationship between the switching angle and the output torque of a step motor is derived, and the optimal angle, which maximized the output torque, is found. The resulting <span class="hlt">maximum</span> torque, which varies with the velocity, is an upper limit for the torque that can be generated by the step motor.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Tal</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1976-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/4775670"> <span id="translatedtitle">Relaxed <span class="hlt">maximum</span> a posteriori fault identification</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We consider the problem of estimating a pattern of faults, represented as a binary vector, from a set of measurements. The measurements can be noise corrupted real values, or quantized versions of noise corrupted signals, including even 1-bit (sign) measurements. <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> a posteriori probability (MAP) estimation of the fault pattern leads to a difficult combinatorial optimization problem, so we propose</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Argyrios Zymnis; Stephen P. Boyd; Dimitry M. Gorinevsky</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1420348"> <span id="translatedtitle">Integrated photovoltaic <span class="hlt">maximum</span> power point tracking converter</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A low-power low-cost highly efficient <span class="hlt">maximum</span> power point tracker (MPPT) to be integrated into a photovoltaic (PV) panel is proposed. This can result in a 25% energy enhancement compared to a standard photovoltaic panel, while performing functions like battery voltage regulation and matching of the PV array with the load. Instead of using an externally connected MPPT, it is proposed</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Johan H. R. Enslin; Mario S. Wolf; D. B. Snyman; Wernher Swiegers</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985A%26A...143...77C"> <span id="translatedtitle">A simple <span class="hlt">maximum</span> entropy deconvolution algorithm</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A simple <span class="hlt">maximum</span> entropy image deconvolution algorithm, now implemented in the Astronomical Image Processing System AIPS as task VM, is described. VM uses a simple Newton-Raphson approach to optimise the relative entropy of the image subject to constraints upon the rms error and total power enforced by Lagrange multipliers. Some examples of the application of VM to VLA data are given.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cornwell, T. J.; Evans, K. F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/310335"> <span id="translatedtitle">Filters, Random fields And <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Entropy (FRAME)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article presents a statistical theory for texture modeling. This theory combines filteringtheory and Markov random field modeling through the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> entropy principle, and interpretsand clarifies many previous concepts and methods for texture analysis and synthesis from a unifiedpoint of view. Our theory characterizes the ensemble of images I with the same texture appearanceby a probability distribution f(I) on a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">David Mumford; Song Chun Zhu; Yingnian Wu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1037535"> <span id="translatedtitle">Integrating Correlated Bayesian Networks Using <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Entropy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We consider the problem of generating a joint distribution for a pair of Bayesian networks that preserves the multivariate marginal distribution of each network and satisfies prescribed correlation between pairs of nodes taken from both networks. We derive the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> entropy distribution for any pair of multivariate random vectors and prescribed correlations and demonstrate numerical results for an example integration of Bayesian networks.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jarman, Kenneth D.; Whitney, Paul D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-08-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/44458612"> <span id="translatedtitle">Computer Forecasts of <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> and Minimum Temperatures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An automated system for predicting <span class="hlt">maximum</span> and minimum surface temperatures for 12- to 60-hr projections is described. The system uses multiple regression equations derived for 131 cities in the United States and 12 in southern Canada from 18 years of daily data stratified by 2-month periods. The predictors are selected by screening upper level heights and thicknesses observed at 67</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">William H. Klein; Frank Lewis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1970-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB296131"> <span id="translatedtitle">Uncertainties in Adaptive <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Entropy Frequency Estimators.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">For a real sinusoid in white noise, the weight vector noise associated with an adaptive <span class="hlt">maximum</span> entropy frequency estimator causes the peak of the spectrum estimator to shift away from the input frequency. For a long adaptive filter and a normalized frequ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. J. Keeler</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cmb.usc.edu/papers/msw_papers/msw-019.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Locating <span class="hlt">maximum</span> variance segments in sequential data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An automated method is presented for the identification of peaks in sets of sequential data. The method is based upon the location of those segments with <span class="hlt">maximum</span> variance and has the advantage of guarding against the masking of small-scale effects by large-scale effects. The procedure is illustrated with data taken as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation project.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. R. Bement; M. S. Waterman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41950001"> <span id="translatedtitle">Preparing for the Upcoming Solar <span class="hlt">Maximum</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">As the next solar <span class="hlt">maximum</span> approaches, society is increasingly reliant on satellite communications and navigation technologies, which are vulnerable to solar storms. To prepare for the upcoming peak in solar activity, expected in 2013, the U.S. National Space Weather Program Council organized the 2009 Space Weather Enterprise Forum, held 19-20 May in Washington, D. C. The conference, themed \\</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ernie Tretkoff</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3184154"> <span id="translatedtitle">Predicting <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Lake Depth from Surrounding Topography</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Information about lake morphometry (e.g., depth, volume, size, etc.) aids understanding of the physical and ecological dynamics of lakes, yet is often not readily available. The data needed to calculate measures of lake morphometry, particularly lake depth, are usually collected on a lake-by-lake basis and are difficult to obtain across broad regions. To span the gap between studies of individual lakes where detailed data exist and regional studies where access to useful data on lake depth is unavailable, we developed a method to predict <span class="hlt">maximum</span> lake depth from the slope of the topography surrounding a lake. We use the National Elevation Dataset and the National Hydrography Dataset – Plus to estimate the percent slope of surrounding lakes and use this information to predict <span class="hlt">maximum</span> lake depth. We also use field measured <span class="hlt">maximum</span> lake depths from the US EPA's National Lakes Assessment to empirically adjust and cross-validate our predictions. We were able to predict <span class="hlt">maximum</span> depth for ?28,000 lakes in the Northeastern United States with an average cross-validated RMSE of 5.95 m and 5.09 m and average correlation of 0.82 and 0.69 for Hydrological Unit Code Regions 01 and 02, respectively. The depth predictions and the scripts are openly available as supplements to this manuscript.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hollister, Jeffrey W.; Milstead, W. Bryan; Urrutia, M. Andrea</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26945128"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Oxygen Intake in Himalayan Mountaineers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The results of 20 studies of <span class="hlt">maximum</span> oxygen intake at sea level on members of Himalayan expeditions from 1953 to 1971 are presented. The data include results on two men who have climbed to the summit of Mount Everest (8,848 m) and two who have ascended Mount Annapurna (8,078 m). The average values were: age 33 years; weight 72 kg;</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L. G. C. E. PUGH</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1972-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52665289"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Second <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> in the Rossi Curve</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">IT is well known that the rate of production of cosmic ray showers by layers of any material increases to a <span class="hlt">maximum</span> as the thickness of the layer increases, and then falls off very slowly for much greater thicknesses, giving the familiar `Rossi curve'. Certain observers1 have investigated the rate of production of showers under large thicknesses of iron and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. B. O. Mohr; G. H. Stafford</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1942-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JASS...30..163C"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Sunspot Numbers and Active Days</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Parameters associated with solar minimum have been studied to relate them to solar activity at solar <span class="hlt">maximum</span> so that one could possibly predict behaviors of an upcoming solar cycle. The number of active days has been known as a reliable indicator of solar activity around solar minimum. Active days are days with sunspots reported on the solar disk. In this work, we have explored the relationship between the sunspot numbers at solar <span class="hlt">maximum</span> and the characteristics of the monthly number of active days. Specifically, we have statistically examined how the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> monthly sunspot number of a given solar cycle is correlated with the slope of the linear relationship between monthly sunspot numbers and the monthly number of active days for the corresponding solar cycle. We have calculated the linear correlation coefficient r and the Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient rs for data sets prepared under various conditions. Even though marginal correlations are found, they turn out to be insufficiently significant (r ~ 0.3). Nonetheless, we have confirmed that the slope of the linear relationship between monthly sunspot numbers and the monthly number of active days is less steep when solar cycles belonging to the "Modern <span class="hlt">Maximum</span>" are considered compared with rests of solar cycles. We conclude, therefore, that the slope of the linear relationship between monthly sunspot numbers and the monthly number of active days is indeed dependent on the solar activity at its maxima, but that this simple relationship should be insufficient as a valid method to predict the following solar activity amplitude.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chang, Heon-Young</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21984945"> <span id="translatedtitle">Predicting <span class="hlt">maximum</span> lake depth from surrounding topography.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Information about lake morphometry (e.g., depth, volume, size, etc.) aids understanding of the physical and ecological dynamics of lakes, yet is often not readily available. The data needed to calculate measures of lake morphometry, particularly lake depth, are usually collected on a lake-by-lake basis and are difficult to obtain across broad regions. To span the gap between studies of individual lakes where detailed data exist and regional studies where access to useful data on lake depth is unavailable, we developed a method to predict <span class="hlt">maximum</span> lake depth from the slope of the topography surrounding a lake. We use the National Elevation Dataset and the National Hydrography Dataset - Plus to estimate the percent slope of surrounding lakes and use this information to predict <span class="hlt">maximum</span> lake depth. We also use field measured <span class="hlt">maximum</span> lake depths from the US EPA's National Lakes Assessment to empirically adjust and cross-validate our predictions. We were able to predict <span class="hlt">maximum</span> depth for ?28,000 lakes in the Northeastern United States with an average cross-validated RMSE of 5.95 m and 5.09 m and average correlation of 0.82 and 0.69 for Hydrological Unit Code Regions 01 and 02, respectively. The depth predictions and the scripts are openly available as supplements to this manuscript. PMID:21984945</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hollister, Jeffrey W; Milstead, W Bryan; Urrutia, M Andrea</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/2415185"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Entropy Based Restoration of Arabic Diacritics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Short vowels and other diacritics are not part of written Arabic scripts. Exceptions are made for important political and reli- gious texts and in scripts for beginning stu- dents of Arabic. Script without diacritics have considerable ambiguity because many words with dieren t diacritic patterns ap- pear identical in a diacritic-less setting. We propose in this paper a <span class="hlt">maximum</span> entropy</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Imed Zitouni; Jeffrey S. Sorensen; Ruhi Sarikaya</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return 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href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_15 div --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ece.umassd.edu/Faculty/acosta/ICASSP/Icassp_2004/pdfs/0300929.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Distributed <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood estimation for sensor networks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The problem of finding the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood estimator of a commonly observed model, based on data collected by a sensor network under power and bandwidth constraints, is considered. In particular, a case where the sensors cannot fully share their data is treated. An iterative algorithm that relaxes the requirement of sharing all the data is given. The algorithm is based</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Doron Blatt; Alfred Hero</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/36054436"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> efforts in contests with asymmetric valuations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Efforts may be reduced when players with different valuations participate in a contest. This paper considers the problem of designing a contest to elicit <span class="hlt">maximum</span> aggregate effort from players with asymmetric valuations. Optimal designs for different classes of contest technologies are computed and characterized. A value weighted contest is optimal in the concave case. In the unconstrained case, the optimal</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kofi O. Nti</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007IJTIA.127.1215V"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of Photovoltaic <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Power Point Trackers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The photovoltaic generator exhibits a non-linear i-v characteristic and its <span class="hlt">maximum</span> power point (MPP) varies with solar insolation. An intermediate switch-mode dc-dc converter is required to extract <span class="hlt">maximum</span> power from the photovoltaic array. In this paper buck, boost and buck-boost topologies are considered and a detailed mathematical analysis, both for continuous and discontinuous inductor current operation, is given for MPP operation. The conditions on the connected load values and duty ratio are derived for achieving the satisfactory <span class="hlt">maximum</span> power point operation. Further, it is shown that certain load values, falling out of the optimal range, will drive the operating point away from the true <span class="hlt">maximum</span> power point. Detailed comparison of various topologies for MPPT is given. Selection of the converter topology for a given loading is discussed. Detailed discussion on circuit-oriented model development is given and then MPPT effectiveness of various converter systems is verified through simulations. Proposed theory and analysis is validated through experimental investigations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Veerachary, Mummadi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/58845022"> <span id="translatedtitle">30 = 20: ‘Understanding’ <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Sentence Enhancements</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this article, Professor Herrmann argues that the due process protections of a criminal trial should apply to aggravating factors that under current “<span class="hlt">maximum</span>-enhancing statutes” allow judges to impose lengthier punishments in the sentencing phase. Part I considers the Supreme Court's rationale for refusing to apply full due process safeguards to all types of sentencing schemes. This background will reveal</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Herrmann Frank R. S. J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/66098"> <span id="translatedtitle">Boosting and <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Likelihood for Exponential Models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We derive an equivalence between AdaBoost and the dual of a convex optimization problem, showing that the only difference between mini- mizing the exponential loss used by AdaBoost and <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood for exponential models is that the latter requires the model to be normal- ized to form a conditional probability distribution over labels. In addi- tion to establishing a simple</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Lafferty</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22theory+of+relativity%22&pg=3&id=EJ426340"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Possible Transverse Velocity in Special Relativity.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using a physical picture, an expression for the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> possible transverse velocity and orientation required for that by a linear emitter in special theory of relativity has been derived. A differential calculus method is also used to derive the expression. (Author/KR)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Medhekar, Sarang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49870955"> <span id="translatedtitle">A suboptimal, low cost <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood algorithm</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A simple, noniterative algorithm is presented for resolving closely space sinusoids. The method is based on a <span class="hlt">maximum</span>-likelihood algorithm and is specifically designed to resolve two signals of similar power with minimum complexity. The algorithm consists of three phases: conventional beamforming, beamforming with a projection operator, and solution of a single nonlinear equation. It is shown that the method can</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. R. Farrier; R. Mardani</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10183492"> <span id="translatedtitle">Telerobotic operation of structurally flexible, long-<span class="hlt">reach</span> manipulators</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">As a part of the Department of Energy`s Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program, long-<span class="hlt">reach</span> manipulators are being considered for the retrieval of waste from large storage tanks. Long-<span class="hlt">reach</span> manipulators may have characteristics significantly different from those of typical industrial robots because of the flexibility of long links needed to cover the large workspace. To avoid structural vibrations during operation, control algorithms employing various types of shaping filters were investigated. A new approach that uses embedded simulation was developed and compared with others. In the new approach, generation of joint trajectories considering link flexibility was also investigated.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kwon, D.S.; Hwang, D.H.; Babcock, S.M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11355394"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effect of obstacle position on <span class="hlt">reach</span>-to-grasp movements.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Numerous everyday tasks require the nervous system to program a prehensile movement towards a target object positioned in a cluttered environment. Adult humans are extremely proficient in avoiding contact with any non-target objects (obstacles) whilst carrying out such movements. A number of recent studies have highlighted the importance of considering the control of <span class="hlt">reach</span>-to-grasp (prehension) movements in the presence of such obstacles. The current study was constructed with the aim of beginning the task of studying the relative impact on prehension as the position of obstacles is varied within the workspace. The experimental design ensured that the obstacles were positioned within the workspace in locations where they did not interfere physically with the path taken by the hand when no obstacle was present. In all positions, the presence of an obstacle caused the hand to slow down and the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> grip aperture to decrease. Nonetheless, the effect of the obstacle varied according to its position within the workspace. In the situation where an obstacle was located a small distance to the right of a target object, the obstacle showed a large effect on <span class="hlt">maximum</span> grip aperture but a relatively small effect on movement time. In contrast, an object positioned in front and to the right of a target object had a large effect on movement speed but a relatively small effect on <span class="hlt">maximum</span> grip aperture. It was found that the presence of two obstacles caused the system to decrease further the movement speed and <span class="hlt">maximum</span> grip aperture. The position of the two obstacles dictated the extent to which their presence affected the movement parameters. These results show that the anticipated likelihood of a collision with potential obstacles affects the planning of movement duration and <span class="hlt">maximum</span> grip aperture in prehension. PMID:11355394</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mon-Williams, M; Tresilian, J R; Coppard, V L; Carson, R G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23747917"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cell development obeys <span class="hlt">maximum</span> Fisher information.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Eukaryotic cell development has been optimized by natural selection to obey maximal intracellular flux of messenger proteins. This, in turn, implies <span class="hlt">maximum</span> Fisher information on angular position about a target nuclear pore complex (NPR). The cell is simply modeled as spherical, with cell membrane (CM) diameter 10 micrometer and concentric nuclear membrane (NM) diameter 6 micrometer. The NM contains approximately 3000 nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Development requires messenger ligands to travel from the CM-NPC-DNA target binding sites. Ligands acquire negative charge by phosphorylation, passing through the cytoplasm over Newtonian trajectories toward positively charged NPCs (utilizing positive nuclear localization sequences). The CM-NPC channel obeys maximized mean protein flux F and Fisher information I at the NPC. Therefore the first-order change in I = 0. But also, the 2nd-order change in I is likewise close to zero, indicating significant stability to environmental perturbations. Many predictions are confirmed, including the dominance of protein pathways of from 1-4 proteins, a 4 nm size for the EGFR protein and the flux value F approximately 10(16) proteins/m2-s. After entering the nucleus, each protein ultimately delivers its ligand information to a DNA target site with <span class="hlt">maximum</span> probability, i.e. <span class="hlt">maximum</span> Kullback-Liebler entropy H(KL). In a smoothness limit H(KL) --> I(DNA)/2, so that the total CM-NPC-DNA channel obeys <span class="hlt">maximum</span> Fisher I. It is also shown that such <span class="hlt">maximum</span> information --> a cell state far from thermodynamic equilibrium, one condition for life. PMID:23747917</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Frieden, B Roy; Gatenby, Robert A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23382882"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of pictorial cues on <span class="hlt">reaching</span> depend on the distinctiveness of target objects.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">There is an ongoing debate under what conditions learned object sizes influence visuomotor control under preserved stereovision. Using meaningful objects (matchboxes of locally well-known brands in the UK) a previous study has nicely shown that the recognition of these objects influences action programming by means of <span class="hlt">reach</span> amplitude and grasp pre-shaping even under binocular vision. Using the same paradigm, we demonstrated that short-term learning of colour-size associations was not sufficient to induce any visuomotor effects under binocular viewing conditions. Now we used the same matchboxes, for which the familiarity effect was shown in the UK, with German participants who have never seen these objects before. We addressed the question whether simply a high degree of distinctness, or whether instead actual prior familiarity of these objects, are required to affect motor computations. We found that under monocular and binocular viewing conditions the learned size and location influenced the amplitude of the <span class="hlt">reaching</span> component significantly. In contrast, the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> grip aperture remained unaffected for binocular vision. We conclude that visual distinctness is sufficient to form reliable associations in short-term learning to influence <span class="hlt">reaching</span> even for preserved stereovision. Grasp pre-shaping instead seems to be less susceptible to such perceptual effects. PMID:23382882</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Christensen, Andrea; Borchers, Svenja; Himmelbach, Marc</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3559638"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Pictorial Cues on <span class="hlt">Reaching</span> Depend on the Distinctiveness of Target Objects</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">There is an ongoing debate under what conditions learned object sizes influence visuomotor control under preserved stereovision. Using meaningful objects (matchboxes of locally well-known brands in the UK) a previous study has nicely shown that the recognition of these objects influences action programming by means of <span class="hlt">reach</span> amplitude and grasp pre-shaping even under binocular vision. Using the same paradigm, we demonstrated that short-term learning of colour-size associations was not sufficient to induce any visuomotor effects under binocular viewing conditions. Now we used the same matchboxes, for which the familiarity effect was shown in the UK, with German participants who have never seen these objects before. We addressed the question whether simply a high degree of distinctness, or whether instead actual prior familiarity of these objects, are required to affect motor computations. We found that under monocular and binocular viewing conditions the learned size and location influenced the amplitude of the <span class="hlt">reaching</span> component significantly. In contrast, the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> grip aperture remained unaffected for binocular vision. We conclude that visual distinctness is sufficient to form reliable associations in short-term learning to influence <span class="hlt">reaching</span> even for preserved stereovision. Grasp pre-shaping instead seems to be less susceptible to such perceptual effects.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Himmelbach, Marc</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2245935"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">reach</span> and impact of social marketing and reproductive health communication campaigns in Zambia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Like many sub-Saharan African countries, Zambia is dealing with major health issues, including HIV/AIDS, family planning, and reproductive health. To address reproductive health problems and the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Zambia, several social marketing and health communication programs focusing on reproductive and HIV/AIDS prevention programs are being implemented. This paper describes the <span class="hlt">reach</span> of these programs and assesses their impact on condom use. Methods This paper assesses the <span class="hlt">reach</span> of selected radio and television programs about family planning and HIV/AIDS and of communications about the socially marketed <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> condoms in Zambia, as well as their impact on condom use, using data from the 2001–2002 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey. To control for self-selection and endogeneity, we use a two-stage regression model to estimate the effect of program exposure on the behavioural outcomes. Results Those who were exposed to radio and television programs about family planning and HIV/AIDS were more likely to have ever used a condom (OR = 1.16 for men and 1.06 for women). Men highly exposed to <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> condoms social marketing communication were more likely than those with low exposure to the program to have ever used a condom (OR = 1.48), and to have used a condom at their last sexual intercourse (OR = 1.23). Conclusion Findings suggest that the reproductive health and social marketing campaigns in Zambia <span class="hlt">reached</span> a large portion of the population and had a significant impact on condom use. The results suggest that future reproductive health communication campaigns that invest in radio programming may be more effective than those investing in television programming, and that future campaigns should seek to increase their impact among women, perhaps by focusing on the specific constrains that prevent females from using condoms.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Van Rossem, Ronan; Meekers, Dominique</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=412111"> <span id="translatedtitle">Relationship of Critical Temperature to Macromolecular Synthesis and <span class="hlt">Growth</span> Yield in Psychrobacter cryopegella</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Most microorganisms isolated from low-temperature environments (below 4°C) are eury-, not steno-, psychrophiles. While psychrophiles maximize or maintain <span class="hlt">growth</span> yield at low temperatures to compensate for low <span class="hlt">growth</span> rate, the mechanisms involved remain unknown, as does the strategy used by eurypsychrophiles to survive wide ranges of temperatures that include subzero temperatures. Our studies involve the eurypsychrophilic bacterium Psychrobacter cryopegella, which was isolated from a briny water lens within Siberian permafrost, where the temperature is ?12°C. P. cryopegella is capable of reproducing from ?10 to 28°C, with its <span class="hlt">maximum</span> <span class="hlt">growth</span> rate at 22°C. We examined the temperature dependence of <span class="hlt">growth</span> rate, <span class="hlt">growth</span> yield, and macromolecular (DNA, RNA, and protein) synthesis rates for P. cryopegella. Below 22°C, the <span class="hlt">growth</span> of P. cryopegella was separated into two domains at the critical temperature (Tcritical = 4°C). RNA, protein, and DNA synthesis rates decreased exponentially with decreasing temperatures. Only the temperature dependence of the DNA synthesis rate changed at Tcritical. When normalized to <span class="hlt">growth</span> rate, RNA and protein synthesis <span class="hlt">reached</span> a minimum at Tcritical, while DNA synthesis remained constant over the entire temperature range. <span class="hlt">Growth</span> yield peaked at about Tcritical and declined rapidly as temperature decreased further. Similar to some stenopsychrophiles, P. cryopegella maximized <span class="hlt">growth</span> yield at low temperatures and did so by streamlining <span class="hlt">growth</span> processes at Tcritical. Identifying the specific processes which result in Tcritical will be vital to understanding both low-temperature <span class="hlt">growth</span> and <span class="hlt">growth</span> over a wide range of temperatures.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bakermans, Corien; Nealson, Kenneth H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3688633"> <span id="translatedtitle">Role of TNF alpha and PLF in bone remodeling in a rat model of repetitive <span class="hlt">reaching</span> and grasping</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have previously developed a voluntary rat model of highly repetitive <span class="hlt">reaching</span> that provides an opportunity to study effects of non-weight bearing muscular loads on bone and mechanisms of naturally occurring inflammation on upper limb tissues in vivo. In this study, we investigated the relationship between inflammatory cytokines and matricellular proteins (Periostin-like-factor, PLF, and connective tissue <span class="hlt">growth</span> factor, CTGF) using our model. We also examined the relationship between inflammatory cytokines, PLF and bone formation processes. Rats underwent initial training for 5 weeks, and then performed a high repetition high force (HRHF) task (12 <span class="hlt">reaches</span>/min, 60% <span class="hlt">maximum</span> grip force, 2 hr/day, 3 days/week) for 6 weeks. We then examined the effect of training or task performance with or without treatment with a rat specific TNF? antibody on inflammatory cytokines, osteocalcin (a bone formation marker), PLF, CTGF, and behavioral indicators of pain or discomfort. The HRHF task decreased grip strength and induced forepaw mechanical hypersensitivity in both trained control and 6-week HRHF animals. Two weeks of anti-TNF? treatment improved grip strength in both groups, but did not ameliorate forepaw hypersensitivity. Moreover, anti-TNF? treatment attenuated task-induced increases in inflammatory cytokines (TNF?, IL-1?, and MIP2 in serum; TNF? in forelimb bone and muscles) and serum osteocalcin in 6-week HRHF animals. PLF levels in forelimb bones and flexor digitorum muscles increased significantly in 6-week HRHF animals, increases attenuated by anti-TNF? treatment. CTGF levels were unaffected by task performance or anti-TNF? treatment in 6-week HRHF muscles. In primary osteoblast cultures, TNF?, MIP2 and MIP3a treatment increased PLF levels in a dose dependent manner. Also in primary osteoblast cultures, increased PLF promoted proliferation and differentiation, the latter assessed by measuring Runx2, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin mRNA levels; ALP activity; as well as calcium deposition and mineralization. Increased PLF also promoted cell adhesion in MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cell cultures. Thus, tissue loading in vivo resulted in increased TNF?, which increased PLF, which then induced anabolic bone formation, the latter results confirmed in vitro.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rani, Shobha; Barbe, Mary F; Barr, Ann E; Litivn, Judith</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED502045.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reaching</span> Higher Ground: Parental Outreach Programs at the Postsecondary Level</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|In this follow-up study to "College Knowledge: What Latino Parents Need to Know and Why They Don't Know It," [see ED469295], the Tomas Rivera Policy Institute examines how postsecondary institutions are mobilizing to address the need for college information among Latino parents. The primary objective of "<span class="hlt">Reaching</span> Higher Ground" is to profile in…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Torres, Celina; Marquez, Amalia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60414079"> <span id="translatedtitle">Drilling engineering package used for extended <span class="hlt">reach</span> project</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Extended <span class="hlt">reach</span> drilling can improve the economics of some field developments by minimizing the number of facilities required to access remote reserves. The technique requires detailed engineering design and monitoring, however, to minimize the risk of operating at the limits of drilling equipment. Working as a team over the past 4 years, BP Exploration (BPX) and Baker Hughes Inteq have</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. Chapman; A. Good</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42098750"> <span id="translatedtitle">Inhaled carbon nanotubes <span class="hlt">reach</span> the subpleural tissue in mice</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Carbon nanotubes are shaped like fibres and can stimulate inflammation at the surface of the peritoneum when injected into the abdominal cavity of mice, raising concerns that inhaled nanotubes may cause pleural fibrosis and\\/or mesothelioma. Here, we show that multiwalled carbon nanotubes <span class="hlt">reach</span> the subpleura in mice after a single inhalation exposure of 30 mg m?3 for 6 h. Nanotubes</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jessica P. Ryman-Rasmussen; Mark F. Cesta; Arnold R. Brody; Jeanette K. Shipley-Phillips; Jeffrey I. Everitt; Earl W. Tewksbury; Owen R. Moss; Brian A. Wong; Darol E. Dodd; Melvin E. Andersen; James C. Bonner</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/al1087.photos.046787p/"> <span id="translatedtitle">12. INTERIOR VIEW WITH JAMES WILLIAMS <span class="hlt">REACHING</span> FOR THE SAND ...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p class="result-summary">12. INTERIOR VIEW WITH JAMES WILLIAMS <span class="hlt">REACHING</span> FOR THE SAND RELEASE LEVER WHICH WILL OPEN THE OVERHEAD STORAGE BIN AND PERMIT A SET AMOUNT OF SAND TO BE DEPOSITED INTO THE FLASK PRIOR TO COMPRESSION BY THE MOLDING MACHINE INSIDE GREY IRON UNIT NO. 1. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Beer&pg=2&id=EJ945657"> <span id="translatedtitle">Priming of <span class="hlt">Reach</span> and Grasp Actions by Handled Objects</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Pictures of handled objects such as a beer mug or frying pan are shown to prime speeded <span class="hlt">reach</span> and grasp actions that are compatible with the object. To determine whether the evocation of motor affordances implied by this result is driven merely by the physical orientation of the object's handle as opposed to higher-level properties of the object,…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Masson, Michael E. J.; Bub, Daniel N.; Breuer, Andreas T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a 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Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/102460"> <span id="translatedtitle">Eliminating the <span class="hlt">Reaching</span> Phase From Variable Structure Control</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, we present a variable structure control method that eliminates the <span class="hlt">reaching</span> phase. The approach is based on modifying the sliding domain equations through the use of exponential functions. In addition, the proposed method insures optimal convergence param- eters with respect to the tracking errors and control efiort.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cuneyt Yilmaz; Yildirim Hurmuzlu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/535175"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rocky <span class="hlt">Reach</span>: Preparing for the 21st century</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Technical information regarding construction and operation of the 1,287-MW Rocky <span class="hlt">Reach</span> hydroelectric project is outlined in this article. The project is on the Columbia River in Washington. A brief summary of historical and financial aspects is provided. Project modifications discussed include powerhouse rehabilitation and new fisheries projects.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smith, J.L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=brain+AND+cancer&pg=3&id=EJ1006445"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reaching</span> a Moveable Visual Target: Dissociations in Brain Tumour Patients</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Damage to the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) can lead to Optic Ataxia (OA), in which patients misreach to peripheral targets. Recent research suggested that the PPC might be involved not only in simple <span class="hlt">reaching</span> tasks toward peripheral targets, but also in changing the hand movement trajectory in real time if the target moves. The present study…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Buiatti, Tania; Skrap, Miran; Shallice, Tim</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22environmental+hazard%22&pg=2&id=EJ631158"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reaching</span> Out to the Next Generation of Scientists.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Discusses the need for research scientists to come out of their labs and establish links with communities and the need for scientists of color who can better gain access to the communities most often affected by problems such as environmental hazards. Describes ways to encourage this <span class="hlt">reaching</span> out and breaking of stereotypes about scientists among…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Claudio, Luz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JHyd..496...31C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Studying <span class="hlt">reach</span>-scale spatial hydrology in ungauged catchments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">New approach directly maps spatial hydrology in ungauged, large rivers.Combines MODIS and topographic data to map spatial hydrology."Virtual" gauging stations measure and map hydrologic metrics at <span class="hlt">reach</span>-scale.We map flood flow, pulse shape, duration, amplitude and connectivity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Callow, J. N.; Boggs, G. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=lilacs&id=EJ837564"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reaching</span> and Grasping Movements in Infants at Risk: A Review</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Although the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on the development of <span class="hlt">reaching</span> and grasping skills in typical infants has been extensively described in the literature, the effect of such factors on at-risk infants is still poorly understood. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to analyze the scientific publications, from 1980…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">de Campos, Ana Carolina; Rocha, Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3397995"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simulating the Cortical 3D Visuomotor Transformation of <span class="hlt">Reach</span> Depth</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We effortlessly perform <span class="hlt">reach</span> movements to objects in different directions and depths. However, how networks of cortical neurons compute <span class="hlt">reach</span> depth from binocular visual inputs remains largely unknown. To bridge the gap between behavior and neurophysiology, we trained a feed-forward artificial neural network to uncover potential mechanisms that might underlie the 3D transformation of <span class="hlt">reach</span> depth. Our physiologically-inspired 4-layer network receives distributed 3D visual inputs (1st layer) along with eye, head and vergence signals. The desired motor plan was coded in a population (3rd layer) that we read out (4th layer) using an optimal linear estimator. After training, our network was able to reproduce all known single-unit recording evidence on depth coding in the parietal cortex. Network analyses predict the presence of eye/head and vergence changes of depth tuning, pointing towards a gain-modulation mechanism of depth transformation. In addition, <span class="hlt">reach</span> depth was computed directly from eye-centered (relative) visual distances, without explicit absolute depth coding. We suggest that these effects should be observable in parietal and pre-motor areas.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Blohm, Gunnar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60425138"> <span id="translatedtitle">Extending the <span class="hlt">reach</span> of the SSC (Superconducting Super Collider)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The physics <span class="hlt">reach</span> of the SSC can eventually be extended considerably by an increase in luminosity. New heavy particles and other phenomena with robust signatures would be readily identified even in the presence of large numbers of simultaneous background interactions. As an example, this note examines the case in which the number of protons per SSC bunch is increased by</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Diebold</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=united+AND+states+AND+economy&pg=2&id=EJ751196"> <span id="translatedtitle">Now and Then: The U.S. <span class="hlt">Reaches</span> 300 Million</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Today, the Census Bureau compiles extensive information every year about the people and the economy of the United States. That is how the authors know that in 2006 the United States is going to <span class="hlt">reach</span> an extraordinary milestone--300 million people. In this article, the authors discuss the "now and then" of the U.S. society. The authors observed…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Waldrop, Judith; Crews, Kimberly</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=corpus+AND+callosum&pg=5&id=EJ837564"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reaching</span> and Grasping Movements in Infants at Risk: A Review</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Although the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on the development of <span class="hlt">reaching</span> and grasping skills in typical infants has been extensively described in the literature, the effect of such factors on at-risk infants is still poorly understood. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to analyze the scientific publications, from 1980…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">de Campos, Ana Carolina; Rocha, Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=childhood%2c+AND+media&pg=3&id=EJ839476"> <span id="translatedtitle">Imaginative Play during Childhood: Required for <span class="hlt">Reaching</span> Full Potential</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|At a brisk pace, research findings focused on children's play are finally <span class="hlt">reaching</span> the light of day in popular media. No longer left sitting in archives of academic journals, the benefits of play to lifelong success have been touted in radio, television, magazines, and newspapers. It gives early childhood professionals a powerful, credible…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stephens, Karen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=hinzen&id=ED257973"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reaching</span> and Helping Unorganized and Disadvantaged People. Courier No. 33.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|The articles in this issue are mainly concerned with how to <span class="hlt">reach</span> the poorest and most disadvantaged sections of the population and how best to help once contact has been made. "Nijera Kori in Retrospect: In Search of an Organization of the Rural Poor" (Mohiuddin Ahmad) provides extracts from an evaluation of this grassroots, village-based,…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">ASPBAE Courier, 1985</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=distance&pg=5&id=EJ896815"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reaching</span> Part-Time Distance Students in Diverse Environments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article focuses on the model used at the University of Kansas Medical Center to <span class="hlt">reach</span> graduate students in the School of Nursing. Like many students returning for graduate degrees, distance students are balancing the demands of professional positions, graduate studies, and family life. Topics addressed include: point-of-need assistance,…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Whitehair, Kristin J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=swimming&pg=5&id=EJ947895"> <span id="translatedtitle">Perceiving Children's Behavior and <span class="hlt">Reaching</span> Limits in a Risk Environment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of parents' perception of children's <span class="hlt">reaching</span> limits in a risk scenario. A sample of 68 parents of 1- to 4-year-olds were asked to make a prior estimate of their children's behavior and action limits in a task that involved retrieving a toy out of the water. The action modes used for…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cordovil, Rita; Santos, Carlos; Barreiros, Joao</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.up.ac.za/academic/education/alarpm/PRP_pdf/Friedman,Razar,Sulimani&Sykes.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">'<span class="hlt">Reaching</span> Out': A strategy for reversing exclusion in education</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper we present the idea of '<span class="hlt">reaching</span> out', a kind of practice knowledge that can be employed for overcoming 'exclusion' in education. We use the concept of 'social exclusion' (Klassen, 1999; Rosenfeld & Tardieu, 2000) as a way of framing the problem of young people who possess the ability to succeed in school but become caught up in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michal Razer; Victor Friedman; Rami Sulimani</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ms0224.photos.093610p/"> <span id="translatedtitle">12. RAILROAD BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, MONROE CO., ABERDEEN <span class="hlt">Reach</span> by foot ...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p class="result-summary">12. RAILROAD BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, MONROE CO., ABERDEEN <span class="hlt">Reach</span> by foot from E end of Vine St. St.Louis and San Francisco RR bridge, mid-1960s. From S. Credit: St. Louis and San Francisco RR, photographer unknown, date 1962-1969. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3689034"> <span id="translatedtitle">Posterior cortical atrophy: visuomotor deficits in <span class="hlt">reaching</span> and grasping</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Posterior Cortical Atrophy (PCA) is a rare clinical syndrome characterized by the predominance of higher-order visual disturbances such as optic ataxia, a characteristic of Balint's syndrome. Deficits result from progressive neurodegeneration of occipito-temporal and occipito-parietal cortices. The current study sought to explore the visuomotor functioning of four individuals with PCA by testing their ability to <span class="hlt">reach</span> out and grasp real objects under various viewing conditions. Experiment 1 had participants <span class="hlt">reach</span> out and grasp simple, rectangular blocks under visually- and memory-guided conditions. Experiment 2 explored participants' abilities to accurately <span class="hlt">reach</span> for objects located in their visual periphery. This investigation revealed that PCA patients demonstrate many of the same deficits that have been previously reported in other individuals with optic ataxia, such as “magnetic misreaching”—a pathological <span class="hlt">reaching</span> bias toward the point of visual fixation when grasping peripheral targets. Unlike many other individuals with optic ataxia, however, the patients in the current study also show symptoms indicative of damage to the more perceptual stream of visual processing, including abolished grip scaling during memory-guided grasping and deficits in face and object identification. These investigations are the first to perform a quantitative analysis of the visuomotor deficits exhibited by patients with PCA. Critically, this study helps characterize common symptoms of PCA, a vital first step for generating effective diagnostic criteria and therapeutic strategies for this understudied neurodegenerative disorder.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Meek, Benjamin P.; Shelton, Paul; Marotta, Jonathan J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37855826"> <span id="translatedtitle">Identifying and <span class="hlt">reaching</span> an ethnic market: methodological issues</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The potential for segmenting and targeting consumers, using ethnicity as a segmenting variable, is widely recognised in the marketing literature. However, attention to the problems of identifying and <span class="hlt">reaching</span> a single, often relatively small, ethnic group, as opposed to some aggregate of groups, has been minimal. This paper proposes a framework for ethnic marketing research that is currently lacking. A</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Guilherme Pires; John Stanton; Bruce Cheek</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.lib.usm.my/elmu-equip/conference/Documents/ICOL%202005%20Paper%2010%20Lela%20Ruzma.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">REACHING</span> OUT TO THE COMMUNITY: THE CASE OF UKM LIBRARY</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The paper gives a general overview of the role of the academic libraries in the digital era which have undergone a tremendous change.Today the librarians are expected to demonstrate to the campus community that the library remains central to the academic effort. The libraries are needed to extend their services and <span class="hlt">reaching</span> out not only to their core client, the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Haji Mohd Shaari; Rosnah Yusof</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40349238"> <span id="translatedtitle">Measured variation in boron loads <span class="hlt">reaching</span> European sewage treatment works</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Per capita boron loads <span class="hlt">reaching</span> 48 sewage treatment works (STWs) in The Netherlands, Germany, Italy, and the UK have been determined from monitoring data. These have been compared with the per capita input predicted from boron in detergents, as determined from detergent product sales data. The resulting distribution of the ratios of measured boron to boron predicted from consumer usage</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. K. Fox; G. Cassani; A. Facchi; F. R. Schröder; C. Poelloth; M. S. Holt</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18484859"> <span id="translatedtitle">The statistical determinants of adaptation rate in human <span class="hlt">reaching</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Rapid <span class="hlt">reaching</span> to a target is generally accurate but also contains random and systematic error. Random errors result from noise in visual measurement, motor planning, and <span class="hlt">reach</span> execution. Systematic error results from systematic changes in the mapping between the visual estimate of target location and the motor command necessary to <span class="hlt">reach</span> the target (e.g., new spectacles, muscular fatigue). Humans maintain accurate <span class="hlt">reaching</span> by recalibrating the visuomotor system, but no widely accepted computational model of the process exists. Given certain boundary conditions, a statistically optimal solution is a Kalman filter. We compared human to Kalman filter behavior to determine how humans take into account the statistical properties of errors and the reliability with which those errors can be measured. For most conditions, human and Kalman filter behavior was similar: Increasing measurement uncertainty caused similar decreases in recalibration rate; directionally asymmetric uncertainty caused different rates in different directions; more variation in systematic error increased recalibration rate. However, behavior differed in one respect: Inserting random error by perturbing feedback position causes slower adaptation in Kalman filters but had no effect in humans. This difference may be due to how biological systems remain responsive to changes in environmental statistics. We discuss the implications of this work. PMID:18484859</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Burge, Johannes; Ernst, Marc O; Banks, Martin S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-04-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Society%2c+AND+Human+AND+Experience.&pg=6&id=EJ839476"> <span id="translatedtitle">Imaginative Play during Childhood: Required for <span class="hlt">Reaching</span> Full Potential</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">At a brisk pace, research findings focused on children's play are finally <span class="hlt">reaching</span> the light of day in popular media. No longer left sitting in archives of academic journals, the benefits of play to lifelong success have been touted in radio, television, magazines, and newspapers. It gives early childhood professionals a powerful, credible…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stephens, Karen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60563499"> <span id="translatedtitle">Parametric design studies of long-<span class="hlt">reach</span> manipulators</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A number of different approaches have been studied for remediation of waste storage tanks at various sites. One of the most promising approaches is the use of a high-capacity, long-<span class="hlt">reach</span> manipulation (LRM) system with a variety of end effectors for dislodging the waste. LRMs may have characteristics significantly different from those of industrial robots due to the long links needed</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. S. Kwon; S. March-Leuba; S. M. Babcock; B. L. Burks; W. R. Hamel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/788519"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reaching</span> approximate agreement in the presence of faults</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper considers a variant of the Byzantine Generals problem, in which processes start with arbitrary real values rather than Boolean values or values from some bounded range, and in which approximate, rather than exact, agreement is the desired goal. Algorithms are presented to <span class="hlt">reach</span> approximate agreement in asynchronous, as well as synchronous systems. The asynchronous agreement algorithm is an</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Danny Dolev; Nancy A. Lynch; Shlomit S. Pinter; Eugene W. Stark; William E. Weihl</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cs.virginia.edu/~cl7v/cs851-papers/Reaching%20Approximate%20Agreement%20in%20the%20Presence%20of%20Faults.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reaching</span> Approximate Agreement in the Presence of Faults</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper considers a variant of the Byzantine Generals problem, in which processes start with arbitrary real values rather than Boolean values or values from some bounded range, and in which approximate, rather than exact, agreement is the desired goal. Algorithms are presented to <span class="hlt">reach</span> approximate agreement in asynchronous, as well as synchronous systems. The asynchronous agreement algorithm is an</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Danny Dolev; Nancy A. Lynch; Shlomit S. Pinter; Eugene W. Stark; William E. Weihl</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/10111764"> <span id="translatedtitle">Selective <span class="hlt">reaching</span>: Evidence for multiple frames of reference</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Students participated in 3 experiments investigating the use of environment- and action-centered reference frames in selective <span class="hlt">reaching</span>. They pointed to a green target appearing either with or without a red distractor. Target- distractor distance was manipulated, and distractor interference (difference between distractor trials and no-distractor trials) was measured in reaction time, movement time, and movement endpoint. Target- distractor distance determined</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ron F. Keulen; Jos J. Adam; Martin H. Fischer; Harm Kuipers; Jelle Jolles</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22correction%22&pg=7&id=EJ1006445"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reaching</span> a Moveable Visual Target: Dissociations in Brain Tumour Patients</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Damage to the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) can lead to Optic Ataxia (OA), in which patients misreach to peripheral targets. Recent research suggested that the PPC might be involved not only in simple <span class="hlt">reaching</span> tasks toward peripheral targets, but also in changing the hand movement trajectory in real time if the target moves. The present study…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Buiatti, Tania; Skrap, Miran; Shallice, Tim</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/4721374"> <span id="translatedtitle">Motor Control-Learning Model for <span class="hlt">Reaching</span> Movements</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">One of the great abilities of the central nervous system (CNS) is that it can learn by itself how to control our body to execute required tasks. Although several motor control models have been proposed to explain well-learned arm <span class="hlt">reaching</span> movements, those models do not fully consider how the CNS learns to control our body. In this paper, we propose</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hiroyuki Kambara; Kyoungsik Kim; Duk Shin; Makoto Sato</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/59706787"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reaching</span> ultra low phosphorus concentrations by filtration techniques</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This research deals with tertiary treatment techniques used for the removal of phosphorus from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent. The main objective of this research is to obtain ultra low total phosphorus (<0.15 mg total phosphorus\\/L) concentrations by coagulation, flocculation and filtration of wastewater treatment plant effluent. Knowledge of the different phosphorus forms in WWTP effluent is essential to <span class="hlt">reach</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. M. Scherrenberg</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA363454"> <span id="translatedtitle">Air Refueling: The Cornerstone of Global <span class="hlt">Reach</span> - Global Power.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper focuses on the strategic mobility aspect of Global <span class="hlt">Reach</span>- Global Power, and more specifically the role of air refueling in accomplishing the U.S. power projection strategy. No aircraft in the Air Force inventory is capable of responsive global ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. J. Dougherty</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2113680"> <span id="translatedtitle">Is there a hard-to-<span class="hlt">reach</span> audience?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The "hard-to-<span class="hlt">reach</span>" label has been applied to many different audiences. Persons who have a low socioeconomic status (SES), members of ethnic minorities, and persons who have a low level of literacy often are tagged as "hard-to-<span class="hlt">reach</span>." The authors identify reasons why these groups have been labelled "hard-to-<span class="hlt">reach</span>," discuss preconceptions associated with the "hard-to-<span class="hlt">reach</span>" label, propose alternative conceptualizations of these audiences, and present implications of such conceptualizations for health communication campaigns. Pejorative labels and preconceptions about various groups may lead to depicting these audiences as powerless, apathetic, and isolated. The authors discuss alternative conceptualizations, which highlight the strengths of different audience segments and encourage innovative approaches to the communication process. These alternative conceptualizations emphasize interactive communication, a view of society in which individuals are seen as members of equivalent--albeit different--cultures, and a shift of responsibility for health problems from individuals to social systems. Recommendations for incorporating these alternative concepts into health campaigns include formative research techniques that create a dialogue among participants, more sophisticated segmentation techniques to capture audience diversity, and new roles for mass media that are more interactive and responsive to individual needs. PMID:2113680</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Freimuth, V S; Mettger, W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/298339"> <span id="translatedtitle">Well out of <span class="hlt">reach</span>: Why hard problems are hard</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">. We show that problems at the uncolorability phase transitionare well out of <span class="hlt">reach</span> of intelligent algorithms. Since there are not smalland easily checkable subgraphs which can be used to confirm uncolorabilityquickly, we cannot hope to build more intelligent algorithms to avoidhard problems at the phase transition. Also, our results suggest that aconjectured double phase transition in graph coloring occurs</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Joseph Culberson; Ian P. Gent</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3774560"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effector selection precedes <span class="hlt">reach</span> planning in the dorsal parietofrontal cortex</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Experimental evidence and computational modeling suggest that target selection for <span class="hlt">reaching</span> is associated with the parallel encoding of multiple movement plans in the dorsomedial posterior parietal cortex (dmPPC) and the caudal part of the dorsal premotor cortex (PMdc). We tested the hypothesis that a similar mechanism also accounts for arm selection for unimanual <span class="hlt">reaching</span>, with simultaneous and separate motor goal representations for the left and right arms existing in the right and left parietofrontal cortex, respectively. We recorded simultaneous electroencephalograms and functional MRI and studied a condition in which subjects had to select the appropriate arm for <span class="hlt">reaching</span> based on the color of an appearing visuospatial target, contrasting it to a condition in which they had full knowledge of the arm to be used before target onset. We showed that irrespective of whether subjects had to select the arm or not, activity in dmPPC and PMdc was only observed contralateral to the <span class="hlt">reaching</span> arm after target onset. Furthermore, the latency of activation in these regions was significantly delayed when arm selection had to be achieved during movement planning. Together, these results demonstrate that effector selection is not achieved through the simultaneous specification of motor goals tied to the two arms in bilateral parietofrontal cortex, but suggest that a motor goal is formed in these regions only after an arm is selected for action.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cieslak, Matthew; Grafton, Scott T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Air+AND+resistance&pg=3&id=EJ742680"> <span id="translatedtitle">Theoretical Analysis of <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Flow Declination Rate versus <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Area Declination Rate in Phonation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> flow declination rate (MFDR) in the glottis is known to correlate strongly with vocal intensity in voicing. This declination, or negative slope on the glottal airflow waveform, is in part attributable to the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> area declination rate (MADR) and in part to the overall inertia of the air column of the vocal tract (lungs to…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Titze, Ingo R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=flow+AND+rates&pg=2&id=EJ742680"> <span id="translatedtitle">Theoretical Analysis of <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Flow Declination Rate versus <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Area Declination Rate in Phonation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Purpose: <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> flow declination rate (MFDR) in the glottis is known to correlate strongly with vocal intensity in voicing. This declination, or negative slope on the glottal airflow waveform, is in part attributable to the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> area declination rate (MADR) and in part to the overall inertia of the air column of the vocal tract (lungs to…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Titze, Ingo R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-07-27/pdf/2010-18321.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 43840 - Inflation Adjustment of the Ordinary <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> and Aggravated <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Civil Monetary Penalties for...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...The aggravated <span class="hlt">maximum</span> penalty is available only for a violation that results in death, serious illness, or...follows: --<span class="hlt">Maximum</span> civil penalty: $50,000, except...violation that results in death, serious illness, or...property. --Minimum civil penalty: $250, except...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-27</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.H31A1270H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Amplified Erosion above Waterfalls and Oversteepened Bedrock <span class="hlt">Reaches</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Although waterfalls are abundant along steep bedrock channels, none of the conventional erosion laws can predict incision at the lip of a waterfall where flow is non-uniform and bed slope can be vertical. Considering the expected increase in flow velocity and shear stress at the lip of a vertical waterfall we determine erosion amplification at a waterfall lip as: Elip/Enormal= (1+0.4/Fr2)3n, where Fr is the Froude number and n ranges between 0.5-1.7. This amplification expression suggests that erosion at the lip could be as much as 2-5 times higher than normally expected in a setting with identical hydraulic geometry. It also demonstrates that a freefall is expected to amplify upstream incision rates even when the flow approaching the waterfall is highly supercritical. Utilizing this erosion amplification expression in numerical simulations in conjunction with a standard detachment-limited incision model we demonstrate its impact on <span class="hlt">reach</span>-scale morphology above waterfalls. These simulations indicate that amplified erosion at the lip of a waterfall can trigger the formation of an oversteepened <span class="hlt">reach</span> whose length is longer than the flow acceleration zone, provided incision velocity (Vi) at the edge of the flow acceleration zone is higher than the retreat velocity of the waterfall face. Such an oversteepened <span class="hlt">reach</span> is expected to be more pronounced when Vi increases with increasing slope. The simulations also suggest that oversteepening can eventually lead to quasi steady-state gradients upstream from a waterfall provided Vi decreases with increasing slope. Flow acceleration above waterfalls can thus account, at least partially, for oversteepened bedrock <span class="hlt">reaches</span> that are prevalent above waterfalls. Such <span class="hlt">reaches</span> have been reported for the escarpments of southeast Australia, western Dead Sea, and at Niagara Falls. Using the cosmogenic isotope 36Cl we demonstrate that Vi upstream of a waterfall at the Dead Sea western escarpment is high enough for freefall-induced oversteepening to be feasible.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Haviv, I.; Enzel, Y.; Whipple, K. X.; Zilberman, E.; Stone, J.; Matmon, A.; Fifield, K. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ESRv..125..171H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Timing of glaciation during the last glacial cycle: evaluating the concept of a global 'Last Glacial <span class="hlt">Maximum</span>' (LGM)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It has long been known that mountain glaciers and continental ice sheets around the globe <span class="hlt">reached</span> their respective <span class="hlt">maximum</span> extent at different times during the last glacial cycle, often well before the global Last Glacial <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> (LGM; c. 23–19 ka), which is formally defined by peaks in global sea-level and marine oxygen isotope records. However, there is increasing evidence from around the world that it was not only mountain glaciers which were asynchronous with the global LGM but also some regions of the large continental glaciers. The Barents–Kara Ice Sheet in northern Eurasia together with a majority of ice masses throughout Asia and Australasia <span class="hlt">reached</span> their <span class="hlt">maximum</span> early in the last glacial cycle, a few thousand years before the global LGM period. The East Antarctic Ice Sheet also <span class="hlt">reached</span> its <span class="hlt">maximum</span> extent several millennia before the global LGM. In numerous mountainous regions at high-, mid- and low-latitudes across the world, glaciers <span class="hlt">reached</span> their <span class="hlt">maximum</span> extent before Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 2, in MIS 5, 4 and 3. This is in contrast to most sectors of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, the Cordilleran Ice Sheet, the SE sector of the Fennoscandinavian Ice Sheet and the Alpine Ice Sheet in central Europe, which appear to have <span class="hlt">reached</span> their <span class="hlt">maximum</span> close to the global LGM in MIS 2. The diachronous <span class="hlt">maximum</span> extents of both mountain glaciers and continental ice sheets during the last glacial cycle, means that the term and acronym Last Glacial <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> (LGM) has limited chronostratigraphical meaning when correlating glacial deposits and landforms.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hughes, Philip D.; Gibbard, Philip L.; Ehlers, Jürgen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23509858"> <span id="translatedtitle">Finding <span class="hlt">maximum</span> colorful subtrees in practice.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In metabolomics and other fields dealing with small compounds, mass spectrometry is applied as a sensitive high-throughput technique. Recently, fragmentation trees have been proposed to automatically analyze the fragmentation mass spectra recorded by such instruments. Computationally, this leads to the problem of finding a <span class="hlt">maximum</span> weight subtree in an edge-weighted and vertex-colored graph, such that every color appears, at most once in the solution. We introduce new heuristics and an exact algorithm for this <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Colorful Subtree problem and evaluate them against existing algorithms on real-world and artificial datasets. Our tree completion heuristic consistently scores better than other heuristics, while the integer programming-based algorithm produces optimal trees with modest running times. Our fast and accurate heuristic can help determine molecular formulas based on fragmentation trees. On the other hand, optimal trees from the integer linear program are useful if structure is relevant, for example for tree alignments. PMID:23509858</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rauf, Imran; Rasche, Florian; Nicolas, François; Böcker, Sebastian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-19</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvE..86d6304G"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> drag reduction simulation using rodlike polymers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Simulations of <span class="hlt">maximum</span> drag reduction (MDR) in channel flow using constitutive equations for suspensions of noninteracting rods predict a few-fold larger turbulent kinetic energy than in experiments using rodlike polymers. These differences are attributed to the neglect of interactions between polymers in the simulations. Despite these inconsistencies the simulations correctly reproduce the essential features of MDR, with universal profiles of the mean flow and the shear stress budgets that do not depend on the polymer concentration.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gillissen, J. J. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.lptms.u-psud.fr/ressources/publis/0506195.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Precise asymptotics for a random walker's <span class="hlt">maximum</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We consider a discrete time random walk in one dimension. At each time step the walker jumps by a random distance, independent from step to step, drawn from an arbitrary symmetric density function. We show that the expected positive <span class="hlt">maximum</span> E[Mn] of the walk up to n steps behaves asymptotically for large n as E[M_n]\\/\\\\sigma=\\\\sqrt {2n\\/\\\\pi }+\\\\gamma+\\\\Or (n^{-1\\/2}) , where</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alain Comtet; Satya N. Majumdar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21467017"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tissue Radiation Response with <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Tsallis Entropy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The expression of survival factors for radiation damaged cells is currently based on probabilistic assumptions and experimentally fitted for each tumor, radiation, and conditions. Here, we show how the simplest of these radiobiological models can be derived from the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> entropy principle of the classical Boltzmann-Gibbs expression. We extend this derivation using the Tsallis entropy and a cutoff hypothesis, motivated by clinical observations. The obtained expression shows a remarkable agreement with the experimental data found in the literature.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sotolongo-Grau, O.; Rodriguez-Perez, D.; Antoranz, J. C.; Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar [UNED, Departamento de Fisica Matematica y de Fluidos, 28040 Madrid (Spain); UNED, Departamento de Fisica Matematica y de Fluidos, 28040 Madrid (Spain) and University of Havana, Catedra de Sistemas Complejos Henri Poincare, Havana 10400 (Cuba); University of Havana, Catedra de Sistemas Complejos Henri Poincare, Havana 10400 (Cuba)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-08</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991FTP....43.....G"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> entropy and Bayesian methods. Proceedings.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This volume contains a selection of papers presented at the Tenth Annual Workshop on <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Entropy and Bayesian Methods. The thirty-six papers included cover a wide range of applications in areas such as economics and econometrics, astronomy and astrophysics, general physics, complex systems, image reconstruction, and probability and mathematics. Together they give an excellent state-of-the-art overview of fundamental methods of data analysis.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grandy, W. T., Jr.; Schick, L. H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51184591"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Correntropy Criterion for Robust Face Recognition</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, we present a sparse correntropy framework for computing robust sparse representations of face images for recognition. Compared with the state-of-the-art l 1 norm-based sparse representation classifier (SRC), which assumes that noise also has a sparse representation, our sparse algorithm is developed based on the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> correntropy criterion, which is much more insensitive to outliers. In order to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ran He; Wei-Shi Zheng; Bao-Gang Hu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1479449"> <span id="translatedtitle">Noise-predictive <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood (NPML) detection</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sequence detectors for the digital magnetic recording channel that are based on noise-predictive partial-response equalization are described. Called Noise-Predictive <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Likelihood (NPML) detectors, they arise by imbedding a noise prediction\\/whitening process into the branch metric computation of a Viterbi detector. NPML detectors can be realized in a form that allows RAM table look-up implementation of the imbedded feedback. Alternatively, the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. D. Coker; Evangelos Eleftheriou; Richard L. Galbraith; Walter Hirt</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ofmpub.epa.gov/sor_internet/registry/termreg/searchandretrieve/glossariesandkeywordlists/search.do?details=&glossaryName=TMDLs%20(303d)%20Glossary"> <span id="translatedtitle">Total <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Daily Loads (303d) Glossary</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Water quality standards:  State or federal law or regulation consisting of a designated use or uses for the waters of the United States, water quality criteria for such waters based upon such uses, and an antidegradation policy and implementation procedures. Water quality standards protect the public health or welfare, enhance the quality of water and serve the purposes of the Clean Water Act.   From Total <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Daily Loads (303d) Glossary  -  Search all glossaries for terms containing (((health policy) in) US)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-09</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48904195"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> entropy production and earthquake dynamics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We examine the consistency of natural and model seismicity with the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> entropy production hypothesis for open, slowly-driven, steady-state, dissipative systems. Assuming the commonly-observed power-law feedback between remote boundary stress and strain rate at steady state, several natural observations are explained by the system organizing to maximize entropy production in a near but strictly sub-critical state. These include the low</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ian G. Main; Mark Naylor</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AIPC.1443..263L"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> entropy production - Full steam ahead</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The application of a principle of <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Entropy Production (MEP, or less ambiguously MaxEP) to planetary climate is discussed. This idea suggests that if sufficiently free of dynamical constraints, the atmospheric and oceanic heat flows across a planet may conspire to maximize the generation of mechanical work, or entropy. Thermodynamic and information-theoretic aspects of this idea are discussed. These issues are also discussed in the context of dust devils, convective vortices found in strongly-heated desert areas.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lorenz, Ralph D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=tourism&pg=6&id=EJ612175"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reaching</span> for the Sky: The <span class="hlt">Growth</span> of Mountain Tourism in Switzerland.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Addresses the beginnings of Swiss tourism, its barriers, and the development and role of transportation in mountain tourism. Considers the environmental problems caused by mountain tourism in Switzerland and provides seven teaching ideas. (CMK)|</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rothwell, Jennifer Truran</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22Assets%22&pg=2&id=EJ1007987"> <span id="translatedtitle">Expanding the <span class="hlt">Reach</span> of Youth Mentoring: Partnering with Youth for Personal <span class="hlt">Growth</span> and Social Change</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The goals of youth mentoring have broadened from redressing youth problems to promoting positive youth development. Yet, many of the principles associated with contemporary conceptualizations of development found in the positive youth development (PYD) and community psychology (CP) literature have yet to be fully integrated into mentoring research…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liang, Belle; Spencer, Renee; West, Jennifer; Rappaport, Nancy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=mountain&pg=7&id=EJ612175"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reaching</span> for the Sky: The <span class="hlt">Growth</span> of Mountain Tourism in Switzerland.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Addresses the beginnings of Swiss tourism, its barriers, and the development and role of transportation in mountain tourism. Considers the environmental problems caused by mountain tourism in Switzerland and provides seven teaching ideas. (CMK)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rothwell, Jennifer Truran</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22Promotion%22&pg=6&id=EJ1007987"> <span id="translatedtitle">Expanding the <span class="hlt">Reach</span> of Youth Mentoring: Partnering with Youth for Personal <span class="hlt">Growth</span> and Social Change</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|The goals of youth mentoring have broadened from redressing youth problems to promoting positive youth development. Yet, many of the principles associated with contemporary conceptualizations of development found in the positive youth development (PYD) and community psychology (CP) literature have yet to be fully integrated into mentoring…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liang, Belle; Spencer, Renee; West, Jennifer; Rappaport, Nancy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22308461"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">maximum</span> rate of mammal evolution.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade <span class="hlt">maximum</span> rate, which represents the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in <span class="hlt">maximum</span> mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes. PMID:22308461</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Evans, Alistair R; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G; Brown, James H; Costa, Daniel P; Ernest, S K Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L; Hamilton, Marcus J; Harding, Larisa E; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G; Saarinen, Juha J; Sibly, Richard M; Smith, Felisa A; Stephens, Patrick R; Theodor, Jessica M; Uhen, Mark D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3306709"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">maximum</span> rate of mammal evolution</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade <span class="hlt">maximum</span> rate, which represents the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in <span class="hlt">maximum</span> mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Evans, Alistair R.; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G.; Brown, James H.; Costa, Daniel P.; Ernest, S. K. Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Harding, Larisa E.; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S. Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G.; Saarinen, Juha J.; Sibly, Richard M.; Smith, Felisa A.; Stephens, Patrick R.; Theodor, Jessica M.; Uhen, Mark D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55752262"> <span id="translatedtitle">Thermodynamics of Biological <span class="hlt">Growth</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">ACCORDING to some recent opinions, living organisms are nearer to open systems in the thermodynamic sense than to classical closed systems, although an organism plus its environment constitute a system which must be regarded as closed. While closed systems eventually <span class="hlt">reach</span> equilibria characterized by minimum Gibbs free energy and <span class="hlt">maximum</span> entropy, Prigogine1 and de Groot2 have predicted that open systems</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. J. Stoward</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1962-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=alzheimers+AND+stress&pg=2&id=EJ839739"> <span id="translatedtitle">Translating the <span class="hlt">REACH</span> Caregiver Intervention for Use by Area Agency on Aging Personnel: the <span class="hlt">REACH</span> OUT Program</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Purpose: The aim of this study was to translate the evidence-based Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregiver Health (<span class="hlt">REACH</span>) II intervention for use in 4 Area Agencies on Aging (AAAs). A secondary aim was to examine possible moderators of treatment outcome. Design and Methods: We used a quasi-experimental pre-post treatment design with no…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Burgio, Louis D.; Collins, Irene B.; Schmid, Bettina; Wharton, Tracy; McCallum, Debra; DeCoster, Jamie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=aaa&pg=2&id=EJ839739"> <span id="translatedtitle">Translating the <span class="hlt">REACH</span> Caregiver Intervention for Use by Area Agency on Aging Personnel: the <span class="hlt">REACH</span> OUT Program</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: The aim of this study was to translate the evidence-based Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregiver Health (<span class="hlt">REACH</span>) II intervention for use in 4 Area Agencies on Aging (AAAs). A secondary aim was to examine possible moderators of treatment outcome. Design and Methods: We used a quasi-experimental pre-post treatment design with no…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Burgio, Louis D.; Collins, Irene B.; Schmid, Bettina; Wharton, Tracy; McCallum, Debra; DeCoster, Jamie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=kinematics&pg=7&id=EJ1003358"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reaching</span> to Throw Compared to <span class="hlt">Reaching</span> to Place: A Comparison across Individuals with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|When picking up an object, adults show a longer deceleration phase when the onward action has a greater precision requirement. Tailoring action in this way is thought to need forward modelling in order to predict the consequences of movement. Some evidence suggests that young children also tailor <span class="hlt">reaching</span> in this way; however, how this skill…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wilmut, Kate; Byrne, Maia; Barnett, Anna L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED539982.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Redesigning Schools to <span class="hlt">Reach</span> Every Student with Excellent Teachers: Change Management--Key Theories to Consider when Extending <span class="hlt">Reach</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">As schools, their teachers, and outside facilitators redesign jobs and incorporate technology to extend the <span class="hlt">reach</span> of excellent teachers to more students and develop an Opportunity Culture for all, choosing the right school models is just one part of the task. The human experience--and experience in education--says that even perfect design will not…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Barrett, Sharon Kebschull</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21448853"> <span id="translatedtitle">ON THE <span class="hlt">MAXIMUM</span> MASS OF STELLAR BLACK HOLES</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present the spectrum of compact object masses: neutron stars and black holes (BHs) that originate from single stars in different environments. In particular, we calculate the dependence of <span class="hlt">maximum</span> BH mass on metallicity and on some specific wind mass loss rates (e.g., Hurley et al. and Vink et al.). Our calculations show that the highest mass BHs observed in the Galaxy M{sub bh} {approx} 15 M{sub sun} in the high metallicity environment (Z = Z{sub sun} = 0.02) can be explained with stellar models and the wind mass loss rates adopted here. To <span class="hlt">reach</span> this result we had to set luminous blue variable mass loss rates at the level of {approx}10{sup -4} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} and to employ metallicity-dependent Wolf-Rayet winds. With such winds, calibrated on Galactic BH mass measurements, the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> BH mass obtained for moderate metallicity (Z = 0.3 Z{sub sun} = 0.006) is M{sub bh,max} = 30 M{sub sun}. This is a rather striking finding as the mass of the most massive known stellar BH is M{sub bh} = 23-34 M{sub sun} and, in fact, it is located in a small star-forming galaxy with moderate metallicity. We find that in the very low (globular cluster-like) metallicity environment the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> BH mass can be as high as M{sub bh,max} = 80 M{sub sun} (Z = 0.01 Z{sub sun} = 0.0002). It is interesting to note that X-ray luminosity from Eddington-limited accretion onto an 80 M{sub sun} BH is of the order of {approx}10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1} and is comparable to luminosities of some known ultra-luminous X-ray sources. We emphasize that our results were obtained for single stars only and that binary interactions may alter these <span class="hlt">maximum</span> BH masses (e.g., accretion from a close companion). This is strictly a proof-of-principle study which demonstrates that stellar models can naturally explain even the most massive known stellar BHs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Belczynski, Krzysztof; Fryer, Chris L. [Los Alamos National Lab, P.O. Box 1663, MS 466, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Bulik, Tomasz [Astronomical Observatory, University of Warsaw, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warsaw (Poland); Ruiter, Ashley [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, 1320 Frenger Mall, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Valsecchi, Francesca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Vink, Jorick S. [Armagh Observatory, College Hill, Armagh BT61, 9DG, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Hurley, Jarrod R., E-mail: kbelczyn@nmsu.ed, E-mail: tb@astrouw.edu.p, E-mail: clfreyer@lanl.go, E-mail: aruiter@nmsu.ed, E-mail: francesca@u.northwestern.ed, E-mail: jsv@arm.ac.u, E-mail: JHurley@groupwise.swin.edu.a [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" 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onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.B13D0501O"> <span id="translatedtitle">Photodegradation of dissolved organic matter in two contrasting <span class="hlt">reaches</span> of a regulated river</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in a variety of ecosystem processes. Photodegradation by UV radiation is an important mechanism for DOM transformations including changes in molecular size, molecular structure, UV-absorbance, the relative size of recalcitrant and labile pools, and regeneration of nutrient sources such as N and P. The upper Klamath River is located in southern Oregon and is considered an important resource for anadromous fish populations. The river is hypereutrophic and experiences multiple impairments including organic enrichment, low dissolved oxygen, nutrients, and temperature. The river is highly regulated by a series of six dams, which compartmentalize the river into a series of riverine and reservoir <span class="hlt">reaches</span>. Reservoirs create alternative physical and chemical environments than rivers, and these differences have implications in shifting DOM composition and availability. Four of the six dams on the Klamath River are slated for removal in 2020. Therefore, predicting changes in ecosystem characteristics following dam removal requires understanding of current DOM dynamics within both riverine and reservoir <span class="hlt">reaches</span>. The role of photodegradation on DOM composition within a riverine <span class="hlt">reach</span> and a reservoir <span class="hlt">reach</span> of the Klamath River was examined during late July 2010. The <span class="hlt">reaches</span> were located in series, with the river <span class="hlt">reach</span> being upstream of the reservoir <span class="hlt">reach</span>. Initial mean DOC concentrations were 7.34 mg/L for river water, and 8.57 mg/L for reservoir water. Tedlar bags of filtered (0.1µm) river and reservoir water were incubated in situ at both river and reservoir locations. Samples were treated either with or without UV-exposure for a total of 1-3 days. All bags were incubated at 55 cm depth, equivalent to 70% light transmittance in the river <span class="hlt">reach</span> and 30% light transmittance in the reservoir <span class="hlt">reach</span>. Bags were removed in triplicate after a total of 1, 2, and 3 days. Samples were analyzed for potential bacterial <span class="hlt">growth</span> using standard plating and colony count methods. Water was analyzed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nutrients, and pH, UV-absorbance properties, including specific UV absorbance (SUVA) and selected spectral slopes (275-295 nm slope and 350-400 nm slope), were used to investigate changes in DOM characteristics. Spectrofluorometric techniques were used to determine the fluorescence index (emission at wavelength 450 nm to 500 nm at an excitation wavelength of 370 nm) for investigation of source material and transformations. Preliminary results suggest little to no change in DOC or nutrient concentrations. However, shifts in SUVA, spectral slope, and fluorescence index were apparent in both reservoir and river samples incubated at both sites, with larger changes observed for river samples incubated within the river <span class="hlt">reach</span> at 70% light transmittance. These results provide information on how photodegradation may affect DOM recycling and regeneration as an energy source within different compartmentalized <span class="hlt">reaches</span> of the Klamath River. This information will subsequently aid in developing models for predicting DOM dynamics over larger spatial and temporal scales, including predictions and implications for conditions following dam removal.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Oliver, A. A.; Dahlgren, R. A.; Spencer, R. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20628637"> <span id="translatedtitle">Collaborative double robust targeted <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood estimation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Collaborative double robust targeted <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood estimators represent a fundamental further advance over standard targeted <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood estimators of a pathwise differentiable parameter of a data generating distribution in a semiparametric model, introduced in van der Laan, Rubin (2006). The targeted <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood approach involves fluctuating an initial estimate of a relevant factor (Q) of the density of the observed data, in order to make a bias/variance tradeoff targeted towards the parameter of interest. The fluctuation involves estimation of a nuisance parameter portion of the likelihood, g. TMLE has been shown to be consistent and asymptotically normally distributed (CAN) under regularity conditions, when either one of these two factors of the likelihood of the data is correctly specified, and it is semiparametric efficient if both are correctly specified. In this article we provide a template for applying collaborative targeted <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood estimation (C-TMLE) to the estimation of pathwise differentiable parameters in semi-parametric models. The procedure creates a sequence of candidate targeted <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood estimators based on an initial estimate for Q coupled with a succession of increasingly non-parametric estimates for g. In a departure from current state of the art nuisance parameter estimation, C-TMLE estimates of g are constructed based on a loss function for the targeted <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood estimator of the relevant factor Q that uses the nuisance parameter to carry out the fluctuation, instead of a loss function for the nuisance parameter itself. Likelihood-based cross-validation is used to select the best estimator among all candidate TMLE estimators of Q(0) in this sequence. A penalized-likelihood loss function for Q is suggested when the parameter of interest is borderline-identifiable. We present theoretical results for "collaborative double robustness," demonstrating that the collaborative targeted <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood estimator is CAN even when Q and g are both mis-specified, providing that g solves a specified score equation implied by the difference between the Q and the true Q(0). This marks an improvement over the current definition of double robustness in the estimating equation literature. We also establish an asymptotic linearity theorem for the C-DR-TMLE of the target parameter, showing that the C-DR-TMLE is more adaptive to the truth, and, as a consequence, can even be super efficient if the first stage density estimator does an excellent job itself with respect to the target parameter. This research provides a template for targeted efficient and robust loss-based learning of a particular target feature of the probability distribution of the data within large (infinite dimensional) semi-parametric models, while still providing statistical inference in terms of confidence intervals and p-values. This research also breaks with a taboo (e.g., in the propensity score literature in the field of causal inference) on using the relevant part of likelihood to fine-tune the fitting of the nuisance parameter/censoring mechanism/treatment mechanism. PMID:20628637</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">van der Laan, Mark J; Gruber, Susan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-17</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3695600"> <span id="translatedtitle">Translating the <span class="hlt">REACH</span> Caregiver Intervention for Use by Area Agency on Aging Personnel: the <span class="hlt">REACH</span> OUT Program</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: The aim of this study was to translate the evidence-based Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregiver Health (<span class="hlt">REACH</span>) II intervention for use in 4 Area Agencies on Aging (AAAs). A secondary aim was to examine possible moderators of treatment outcome. Design and Methods: We used a quasi-experimental pre–post treatment design with no control group. A partnership was formed between the Alabama Department of Senior Services and the University of Alabama. The partnership trimmed the <span class="hlt">REACH</span> II intervention used in the clinical trial for feasible use in a social service agency. The condensed <span class="hlt">REACH</span> intervention, termed <span class="hlt">REACH</span> OUT, was delivered to 272 dementia caregivers during 4 home visits and 3 phone calls for a period of 4 months. The assessment examined pre–post treatment effects on a number of outcomes, including care recipient risk, mood, memory, and behavior problems; caregiver stress and emotional well-being; caregiver health; and program satisfaction. All aspects of the program except for training, periodic consultation, and data analysis were controlled by the AAA staff. Results: Analyses were conducted on the 236 dyads that completed at least 3 of the 4 planned sessions. Significant positive pre–post effects were found on caregiver subjective burden, social support, caregiver frustration, depression, caregiver health, care recipient behavior problems and mood, and 2 of 4 care recipient risk behaviors. Site of intervention and certain participant characteristics (e.g., caregiver relationship) moderated several pre–post differences. A caregiver survey and interventionist focus group reported high acceptability of the program Implications: This project suggests that the <span class="hlt">REACH</span> II intervention can be modified for feasible and effective use in AAAs. The next step is to integrate the intervention into usual service delivery to achieve sustainability.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Burgio, Louis D.; Collins, Irene B.; Schmid, Bettina; Wharton, Tracy; McCallum, Debra; DeCoster, Jamie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12667553"> <span id="translatedtitle">Time course of epiphyseal <span class="hlt">growth</span> plate fusion in rat tibiae.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Although the rat is the most common animal model used in studying osteoporosis, it is often used inappropriately. Osteoporosis is a disease that most commonly occurs in humans long after <span class="hlt">growth</span> plate fusion with the associated cessation of longitudinal bone <span class="hlt">growth</span>, but there has been a question as to when or to what extent the rat <span class="hlt">growth</span> plate fuses. To investigate this question, we used microcomputed X-ray tomography, at voxel resolutions ranging from (5.7 micro m)(3) to (11 micro m)(3), to image the proximal epiphyseal <span class="hlt">growth</span> plates of both male (n = 19) and female (n = 15) rat tibiae, ranging in age from 2 to 25 months. The three-dimensional images were used to evaluate fusion of the epiphyseal <span class="hlt">growth</span> plate by quantitating the amount of cancellous bone that has bridged across the <span class="hlt">growth</span> plate. The results suggest that the time course of fusion of the epiphyseal <span class="hlt">growth</span> plate follows a sigmoidal pattern, with 10% of the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> number of bridges having formed by 3.9 months in the male tibiae and 5.8 months in the female tibiae, 50% of the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> number of bridges having formed by 5.6 months in the male tibiae and 5.9 months in the female tibiae, and 90% of the total <span class="hlt">maximum</span> of bridges have formed by 7.4 months for the males and 6.5 months for the females. The total volume of bridges per tibia at the age at which the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> number of bridges per tibia has first formed is 0.99 mm(3)/tibia for the males and 0.40 mm(3)/tibia for the females. After the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> number of bridges (-290 for females, -360 for males) have formed the total volume of bridges per tibia continues to increase for an additional 7.0 months in the males and 17.0 months for the females until they <span class="hlt">reach</span> <span class="hlt">maximum</span> values (-1.5 mm(3)/tibia for the males and -2.2 mm(3)/tibia for the females). PMID:12667553</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Martin, E A; Ritman, E L; Turner, R T</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JON.....2..285K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Wavelength assignment for partially transparent networks with <span class="hlt">reach</span> constraints</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We propose a class of distributed, online wavelength-assignment algorithms for optical networks that take <span class="hlt">reach</span> constraints into account. Given a desired route, the goal of the assignment algorithm is to find a low-cost sequence of unoccupied wavelength channels along the route. The sequence must satisfy constraints that involve the availability of wavelength converters, regenerators, and <span class="hlt">reach</span> limitations. The proposed class of algorithms use least-cost computations in auxiliary graphs. The graph structure enforces the constraints, while costs may be assigned to the graph to represent the cost of network resources. In particular, graph weights can be chosen to perform load-balancing of regenerator and fiber resources. Simulations of the algorithm in ring and mesh networks demonstrate the effectiveness of the load-balancing approach.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kumaran, Krishnan; Nuzman, Carl J.; Widjaja, Indra</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19449574"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Ecological sensitivity of jingnanxia-heishanxia <span class="hlt">reach</span> of Yellow River].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Aiming at the ecological problems such as soil erosion, desertification, and salinization in the Jingnanxia-Heishanxia <span class="hlt">reach</span> of Yellow River, the single-factorial ecological problem's sensitivity and the comprehensive ecological sensitivity of the <span class="hlt">reach</span> were analyzed by GIS spatial analysis, grid computing and superposition, and RS image feature extraction. The results showed that the regions with medium- and high ecological sensitivities almost covered the whole study area, including the Wufo Town of Jingtai County, the Beiwan Town, Wulan Town, Mitan Town, Dongwan Town, and Santan Town of Jingyuan County, and the area between Doucheng and Hongliutan of Pingchuan District. The high, medium, and low sensitive areas should be accordingly programmed as forbidden, medium, and deep constructing areas. During the development process of regional hydropower, effective measures should be adopted to protect the ecological environment to achieve the sustainable development of the drainage area. PMID:19449574</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu, Yao-long; Wang, Jun; Xu, Shi-yuan; Xie, Cui-na; Chen, Jing-jing; Ye, Ming-wu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/5321648"> <span id="translatedtitle">A conductance <span class="hlt">maximum</span> observed in an inward-rectifier potassium channel</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">ABSTRACT One,prediction,of a multi-ion pore,is that its conductance,should <span class="hlt">reach</span> a <span class="hlt">maximum</span>,and,then begin to decrease,as the concentration,of permeant,ion is raised equally on both sides of the membrane.,A conductance,<span class="hlt">maximum</span>,has been observed,at the,single-channel,level in gramicidin,and,in a Ca2+-activated K + channel at extremely high ion concentration ( > 1,000 mM) (Hladky, S. B., and D. A. Haydon. 1972. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 274:294-312; Eisenmam,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhe Lu; Roderick Mackinnon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6964249"> <span id="translatedtitle">Extended <span class="hlt">reach</span> and horizontal wells experienced on the Statfjord field</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Statfjord field, the largest producing field in Europe, is located 200 km northwest of Bergen, Norway on the United Kingdom/Norwegian boundary. Statfjord field is being developed with three fully integrated platforms of concrete gravity based on Condeep design. The Statfjord field consists of four reservoirs: Upper Brent, Lower Brent, Dunlin, and Statfjord, which are developed separately. The overall objective for the horizontal and extended <span class="hlt">reach</span> wells on Statfjord is to maximize the field recovery and accelerate production at a minimal cost. This is done by drilling extended <span class="hlt">reach</span> wells to the far-away flanks of the field and drilling horizontal wells to drain fault blocks and erosion zones in the Brent reservoir and wedge zones in the Statfjord reservoir. To date, a total of 11 horizontal and extended <span class="hlt">reach</span> wells have been drilled and completed on Statfjord field. The following have been key factors in drilling the horizontal and extended <span class="hlt">reach</span> wells: well profile, torque and drag, equipment limitations, hole cleaning, hole stability, mud and cement programs, and surveying. To optimize the well profiles, extensive work has been put into simulating torque, drag, and ECDs. The well profiles are optimized with regards to drilling, completion, and workover, in addition to the reservoir targets. The completion is designed to be able to perform all future work through tubing. Factors like zone isolation requirements, well profile, casing program, logging/testing/perforating requirements, and sand production are considered when planning the completion. A 7 in. monobore completion string together with a 7 in. cemented liner is used to meet the completion objective. Several production logging tool, bridge plug, and perforation jobs have been performed on coiled tubing in horizontal wells on Statfjord field. Problems related to hole cleaning, well killing, fishing, and packer setting have been experienced during drilling and completion of the wells.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kostol, P.; Tjotta, H. (Statoil, Stavanger (Norway))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41912546"> <span id="translatedtitle">Novel spaceways for <span class="hlt">reaching</span> the Moon: an assessment for exploration</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The renewed interest of the major space agencies for the exploration of the Moon has made a review of the present\\/near future\\u000a scenario and the related accessible mission profiles desirable. In particular the application of the dynamical systems approach\\u000a to spaceflight dynamics could bring a significant contribution. A simple method for evaluating the efficiency of these novel\\u000a spaceways for <span class="hlt">reaching</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ettore Perozzi; Alessio Di Salvo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/27611840"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling Basal Ganglia for Understanding Parkinsonian <span class="hlt">Reaching</span> Movements</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a computational model that highlights the role of basal ganglia\\u000a(BG) in generating simple <span class="hlt">reaching</span> movements. The model is cast within the\\u000areinforcement learning (RL) framework with the correspondence between RL\\u000acomponents and neuroanatomy as follows: dopamine signal of substantia nigra\\u000apars compacta as the Temporal Difference error, striatum as the substrate for\\u000athe Critic, and the motor</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. N. Magdoom; D. Subramanian; V. S. Chakravarthy; B. Ravindran; Shun-ichi Amari; N. Meenakshisundaram</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/12132850"> <span id="translatedtitle">The challenge of reproductive and developmental toxicology under <span class="hlt">REACH</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The European Union’s <span class="hlt">REACH</span> regulation has explicit requirements for reproductive and developmental toxicity data on all substances manufactured in or imported into the European Union at ?10metric tons\\/year. Meeting the data requirements with whole-animal testing could result in the use of almost 22 million vertebrate animals for the registration of existing chemicals and cost up to several hundred thousand dollars</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Anthony R. Scialli</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/535176"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rocky <span class="hlt">Reach</span>: Gaining new equipment, skills for a new century</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A summary is provided of modifications being made to the 1,287-MW Rocky <span class="hlt">Reach</span> hydroelectric project on the Columbia River in Washington. Project modifications discussed include powerhouse rehabilitation and new fisheries projects. Replacement and retrofitting on all turbines is being performed to lower mortality rates of juvenile fishes migrating downstream. An electrical system overhaul is also described; performance testing indicates a 3.15 percent efficiency increase.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McKee, C.A.; Christman, W.G.; Showalter, A.W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JLwT...24...29D"> <span id="translatedtitle">DWDM <span class="hlt">Reach</span> Extension of a GPON to 135 km</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report the operation of a gigabit-capable passive optical network (GPON, 2.488 Gb/s downstream and 1.244 Gb/s upstream) over 135 km giving performance that is consistent with the standards of International Telecommunication Union-Telecommunications Standardization Sector (ITU-T). Advanced dense-wavelength-division-multiplexing (DWDM) equipment is used to extend the physical <span class="hlt">reach</span> and to provide fiber gain.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Davey, Russell P.; Healey, Peter; Hope, Ian; Watkinson, Phil; Payne, Dave B.; Marmur, Oren; Ruhmann, Jörg; Zuiderveld, Yvonne</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">394</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/12678510"> <span id="translatedtitle">Standard model stability bounds for new physics within LHC <span class="hlt">reach</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We analyse the stability lower bounds on the Standard Model Higgs mass by carefully controlling the scale independence of the effective potential. We include resummed leading and next-to-leading-log corrections, and physical pole masses for the Higgs boson, MH, and the top-quark, Mt. Particular attention is devoted to the cases where the scale of new physics ? is within LHC <span class="hlt">reach</span>,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. A. Casas; J. R. Espinosa; M. Quirós</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">395</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54068799"> <span id="translatedtitle">Standard model stability bounds for new physics within LHC <span class="hlt">reach</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We analyse the stability lower bounds on the Standard Model Higgs mass by carefully controlling the scale independence of the effective potential. We include resummed leading and next-to-leading-log corrections, and physical pole masses for the Higgs boson, MH, and the top-quark, Mt. Particular attention is devoted to the cases where the scale of new physics Lambda is within LHC <span class="hlt">reach</span>,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. A. Casas; J. R. Espinosa; M. Quirós</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">396</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8827149"> <span id="translatedtitle">Taking family planning services to hard-to-<span class="hlt">reach</span> populations.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Interviews were conducted in 1995 among 100 US family planning program personnel who serve hard-to-<span class="hlt">reach</span> populations, such as drug abusers, prisoners, the disabled, homeless persons, and non-English speaking minorities. Findings indicate that a range of services is available for hard-to-<span class="hlt">reach</span> groups. Most family planning agencies focus on drug abusers because of the severity of HIV infections and the availability of funding. This article describes the activities of various agencies in Michigan, Pennsylvania, and Massachusetts that serve substance abuse centers with family planning services. One recommendation for a service provider is to present services in an environment where it is safe to talk about a person's needs. One other program offered personal greetings upon arrival and the continuity of having a familiar face to oversee all reproductive and health needs. Programs for prisoners ranged from basic sex education classes to comprehensive reproductive health care. Some prisons offered individual counseling. Some programs were presented in juvenile offender facilities. Outreach to the homeless involved services at homeless shelters, outreach workers who recruited women into traditional family planning clinics, and establishment of nontraditional sites for the homeless and other hard-to-<span class="hlt">reach</span> persons. One provider's suggestion was to offer services where high-risk women already go for other services. Most services to the disabled target the developmentally disabled rather than the physically disabled. Experience has shown that many professionals working with the disabled do not recognize their clients' sexual needs. Other hard-to-<span class="hlt">reach</span> groups include women in housing projects and shelters for battered women, welfare applicants, and sex workers. Key to service provision is creating trust, overcoming language and cultural differences, and subsidizing the cost of care. PMID:8827149</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Donovan, P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">397</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JGRF..111.4004H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Amplified erosion above waterfalls and oversteepened bedrock <span class="hlt">reaches</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">None of the conventional bedrock erosion laws can predict incision immediately upslope of a waterfall lip where the flow is accelerating toward a freefall. Considering the expected increase in flow velocity and shear stress at the lip of a waterfall, we determine erosion amplification at a waterfall lip as ?, where E(?) is the erosion rate at the upstream end of the flow acceleration zone above a waterfall, Fr is the Froude number at this setting, and n ranges between 0.5-1.7. This amplification expression suggests that erosion at the lip could be as much as 2-5 times higher relative to erosion at a normal setting with identical hydraulic geometry. Utilizing this erosion amplification expression in numerical simulations, we demonstrate its impact on <span class="hlt">reach</span>-scale morphology above waterfalls. Amplified erosion at the lip of a waterfall can trigger the formation of an oversteepened <span class="hlt">reach</span> whose length is longer than the flow acceleration zone, provided incision wave velocity (Vi) at the upstream edge of the flow acceleration zone is higher than the retreat velocity of the waterfall face. Such an oversteepened <span class="hlt">reach</span> is expected to be more pronounced when Vi increases with increasing slope. The simulations also suggest that oversteepening can eventually lead to steady state gradients adjacent to a waterfall lip provided Vi decreases with increasing slope. Flow acceleration above waterfalls can thus account, at least partially, for prevalent oversteepened bedrock <span class="hlt">reaches</span> above waterfalls. Using the cosmogenic isotope Cl-36, we demonstrate that incision wave velocity upstream of a waterfall at the Dead Sea western escarpment is probably high enough for freefall-induced oversteepening to be feasible.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Haviv, I.; Enzel, Y.; Whipple, K. X.; Zilberman, E.; Stone, J.; Matmon, A.; Fifield, L. K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">398</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/E900003-006/"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Agreement: Agreement <span class="hlt">Reached</span> in the Multi-party Negotiations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">CELT, an archive of documents relating to Irish culture and history at University College, Cork, has made available the full text of the historic proposed peace treaty for Northern Ireland. Aimed at ending many years of sectarian violence, the treaty was <span class="hlt">reached</span> after arduous and intense negotiations. The agreement is to be voted upon by the people of both Northern Ireland and the Irish Republic in late May, 1998.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">399</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/14525456"> <span id="translatedtitle">Visuomotor Transformations for <span class="hlt">Reaching</span> to Memorized Targets: A PET Study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Positron emission tomography (PET) was used to identify cortical and subcortical regions involved in the control of <span class="hlt">reaching</span> to visual targets. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in eight healthy subjects using H215O PET during the performance of three different tasks. All tasks required central fixation while a 400-ms target was flashed every 5 s at a random location</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">F. Lacquaniti; D. Perani; E. Guigon; V. Bettinardi; M. Carrozzo; F. Grassi; Y. Rossetti; F. Fazio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">400</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53847994"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hard x-ray Zernike microscopy <span class="hlt">reaches</span> 30 nm resolution</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Since its invention in 1930, Zernike phase contrast has been a pillar in optical microscopy and more recently in x-ray microscopy, in particular for low-absorption-contrast biological specimens. We experimentally demonstrate that hard-x-ray Zernike microscopy now <span class="hlt">reaches</span> a lateral resolution below 30?nm while strongly enhancing the contrast, thus opening many new research opportunities in biomedicine and materials science.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yu-Tung Chen; Tsung-Yu Chen; Jaemock Yi; Yong S. Chu; Wah-Keat Lee; Cheng-Liang Wang; Ivan M. Kempson; Y. Hwu; Vincent Gajdosik; G. Margaritondo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">401</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/v073477v7p344843.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Automatic movement error detection and correction processes in <span class="hlt">reaching</span> movements</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Manual aiming movements can be amended during their execution. Recent evidence suggests that error detection and correction\\u000a are based on automatic and even reflexive processing of afferent information. In this study, we wanted to determine whether\\u000a these processes are affected by the occurrence of successive events requiring adjustments of the originally planned movement.\\u000a To <span class="hlt">reach</span> our goal, we used a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Julien Brière; Luc Proteau</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">402</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23229774"> <span id="translatedtitle">The leading joint hypothesis for spatial <span class="hlt">reaching</span> arm motions.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The leading joint hypothesis (LJH), developed for planar arm <span class="hlt">reaching</span>, proposes that the interaction torques experienced by the proximal joint are low compared to the corresponding muscle torques. The human central nervous system could potentially ignore these interaction torques at the proximal (leading) joint with little effect on the wrist trajectory, simplifying joint-level control. This paper investigates the extension of the LJH to spatial <span class="hlt">reaching</span>. In spatial motion, a number of terms in the governing equation (Euler's angular momentum balance) that vanish for planar movements are non-trivial, so their contributions to the joint torque must be classified as net, interaction or muscle torque. This paper applies definitions from the literature to these torque components to establish a general classification for all terms in Euler's equation. This classification is equally applicable to planar and spatial motion. Additionally, a rationale for excluding gravity torques from the torque analysis is provided. Subjects performed point-to-point <span class="hlt">reaching</span> movements between targets whose locations ensured that the wrist paths lay in various portions of the arm's spatial workspace. Movement kinematics were recorded using electromagnetic sensors located on the subject's arm segments and thorax. The arm was modeled as a three-link kinematic chain with idealized spherical and revolute joints at the shoulder and elbow. Joint torque components were computed using inverse dynamics. Most movements were 'shoulder-led' in that the interaction torque impulse was significantly lower than the muscle torque impulse for the shoulder, but not the elbow. For the few elbow-led movements, the interaction impulse at the elbow was low, while that at the shoulder was high, and these typically involved large elbow and small shoulder displacements. These results support the LJH and extend it to spatial <span class="hlt">reaching</span> motion. PMID:23229774</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ambike, Satyajit; Schmiedeler, James P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-11</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">403</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1018201"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hard x-ray Zernike microscopy <span class="hlt">reaches</span> 30 nm resolution.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Since its invention in 1930, Zernike phase contrast has been a pillar in optical microscopy and more recently in x-ray microscopy, in particular for low-absorption-contrast biological specimens. We experimentally demonstrate that hard-x-ray Zernike microscopy now <span class="hlt">reaches</span> a lateral resolution below 30?nm while strongly enhancing the contrast, thus opening many new research opportunities in biomedicine and materials science.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, Y.; Chen, T.; Yi, J.; Chu, Y.; Lee, W.-K.; Wang, C.; Kempson, I.; Hwu, Y.; Gajdosik, V.; Margaritondo, G. (X-Ray Science Division); (Academia Sinica); (BNL); (National Tsing Hua Univ,); (National Taiwan Ocean Univ.); (Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-03-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">404</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1019511"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hard x-ray Zernike Microscopy <span class="hlt">Reaches</span> 30 nm Resolution</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Since its invention in 1930, Zernike phase contrast has been a pillar in optical microscopy and more recently in x-ray microscopy, in particular for low-absorption-contrast biological specimens. We experimentally demonstrate that hard-x-ray Zernike microscopy now <span class="hlt">reaches</span> a lateral resolution below 30 nm while strongly enhancing the contrast, thus opening many new research opportunities in biomedicine and materials science.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, Y.T.; Chu, Y.; Chen, T-Y.; Yi, J.; Lee, W-K.; Wang, C-L.; Kempson, I. M.; Hwu, Y.; Gajdosik, V.; Margaritondo, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-03-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">405</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3711110"> <span id="translatedtitle">Compensatory arm <span class="hlt">reaching</span> strategies after stroke: Induced position analysis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">After stroke, movement patterns of the upper limb (UL) during functional arm <span class="hlt">reaching</span> change to accommodate altered constraints. These compensatory movement control strategies do not, however, have a one-to-one mapping with posttraining outcomes. In this study, we quantify arm movement control strategies in unilateral and bilateral <span class="hlt">reaching</span> tasks using induced position analysis. In addition, we assess how those strategies are associated with UL residual impairments and with functional improvement after a specific bilateral arm training intervention. Twelve individuals with chronic stroke were measured while <span class="hlt">reaching</span> to a box as part of their pre- and posttesting assessments. Other measurements included the Fugl-Meyer Upper Extremity Assessment (FM), Modified Wolf Motor Function Test (WT), and the University of Maryland Arm Questionnaire for Stroke (UMAQS). We identified arm control strategies that did not differ between unilateral and bilateral tasks but did differ by FM impairment level and by predicted gains in WT but not UMAQS. Increased shoulder relative to elbow moment contribution was associated with less impairment and greater gains of speed in functional tasks. These results suggest that one goal of training to achieve better outcomes may be to decrease the abnormal coupling of the shoulder and elbow.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu, Wei; Waller, Sandy McCombe; Kepple, Tom; Whitall, Jill</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">406</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22256037"> <span id="translatedtitle">Control of <span class="hlt">reaching</span> finger movement accompanied with inhibitory intention.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the present study, we investigated the motor control of <span class="hlt">reaching</span> finger movement interfered by the inhibitory intention triggered by the stop-signal. In the experiment, the subject started the <span class="hlt">reaching</span> movement of the index finger with the go-signal of a green LED and stopped the ongoing movement with the stop-signal of a red LED. The stop-signal delay (SSD) was set at 0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 ms. The movement trajectory was measured during the task. The index finger was able to stop prior to the target point when SSD was less than 400 ms, whereas not when SSD was 400 ms. We also measured electroencephalogram (EEG) during the task. A negative peak around the stop-signal response time (SSRT) and a positive peak around 400-600 ms of the event-related potentials (ERPs) were observed at Fz and Cz. These results indicate that these components of the ERPs were associated with the stop-signal task in the human <span class="hlt">reaching</span> movement. PMID:22256037</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fukuda, Hiroshi; Hiwaki, Osamu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">407</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18679484"> <span id="translatedtitle">WDM extended <span class="hlt">reach</span> passive optical networks using OFDM-QAM.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In order to reduce the cost for delivering future broadband services, network operators are inclined to simplify the network architectures by integrating the metro and access networks into a single system. Hence, extended <span class="hlt">reach</span> passive optical networks (ER-PONs) have been proposed. ER-PON usually has four new features: high data rate in both upstream and downstream signals (>1 Gb/s); <span class="hlt">reach</span> extension to >100 km; a high split ratio (>100); and using wavelength division multiplexing (WDM). In this work, we propose and demonstrate a highly spectral efficient ER-PON using 4 Gb/s OFDM-QAM for both upstream and downstream signals, while achieving a high split-ratio of 256. The ER-PON employs optical components optimized for GPON (bandwidth of approximately 1 GHz) and <span class="hlt">reaches</span> 100 km without dispersion compensation. Numerical analysis using 16, 64 and 256-QAM OFDM are also performed to study the back-to-back receiver sensitivities and power penalties at different electrical driving ratios. PMID:18679484</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chow, Chi-Wai; Yeh, Chien-Hung; Wang, Chia-Hsuan; Shih, Fu-Yuan; Pan, Ci-Ling; Chi, Sien</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">408</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/49321"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simple PC program plans extended <span class="hlt">reach</span>, horizontal wells</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Horizontal drilling is an outgrowth of the latest advances in directional drilling systems. However, horizontal wells require substantial engineering work compared to conventional deviated wells. Because of the difficulties encountered in drilling horizontally, a substantial effort must be expended in properly planning the entire well. Proper planning of the overall operation also ensures the ultimate success of horizontal drilling projects. Very little information is available, however, on how to calculate the horizontal well bore trajectory from limited data. A computer program was developed that will calculate these trajectories quickly and easily. The program can be run on any IBM-compatible computer using MS-DOS version 5 or higher with QBasic, or any basic program that does not require line numbers. Horizontal wells are classified technically as extended <span class="hlt">reach</span>, near-horizontal and horizontal wells. Extended <span class="hlt">reach</span> refers to wells between 60{degree} and 70{degree}, final hold angle. Near-horizontal wells are defined as those wells having over 80{degree} final hold angle, and they apply to slightly dipped reservoirs. Horizontal wells, by comparison, are defined as those that <span class="hlt">reach</span> 90{degree}, final hold angle. Wiggins, et al, published a simple equation for directional and horizontal drilling plans. However, this equation needs to be modified for adaptation to each type of directional and horizontal well.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hashem, A.A. [King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">409</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23501699"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reaching</span> a moveable visual target: dissociations in brain tumour patients.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Damage to the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) can lead to Optic Ataxia (OA), in which patients misreach to peripheral targets. Recent research suggested that the PPC might be involved not only in simple <span class="hlt">reaching</span> tasks toward peripheral targets, but also in changing the hand movement trajectory in real time if the target moves. The present study investigated whether patients with a lesion arising from operation for prefrontal, premotor or parietal tumours are selectively impaired in three experimental pointing conditions: (i) pointing to peripheral targets, (ii) pointing to fixatable targets, and (iii) pointing to moved targets (on-line movement corrections). The study confirmed the selective importance of the parietal cortex in all three tasks. Surprisingly, given clinical claims about OA, the degree of peripheral <span class="hlt">reaching</span> errors correlated strongly in parietal patients with that to fixatable targets. However, there was no relation between peripheral <span class="hlt">reaching</span> errors and the 'shift cost' of making on-line correction to moved targets, and classical double dissociations between the two skills were observed. The findings suggest that deficits in pointing to peripheral and to moved targets reflect two at least partly independent processes. PMID:23501699</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Buiatti, Tania; Skrap, Miran; Shallice, Tim</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">410</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/530443"> <span id="translatedtitle">Zeolites US market to <span class="hlt">reach</span> $1 billion by 2000</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article describes the <span class="hlt">growth</span> of the U.S. market for zeolites, specifically sodium aluminosilicate. The largest application for zeolites is for petrochemical and petroleum catalysts; however, detergents are also a specific application addressed in the article.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Morris, G.D.L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-02-05</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">411</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3054011"> <span id="translatedtitle">Global CO2 rise leads to reduced <span class="hlt">maximum</span> stomatal conductance in Florida vegetation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A principle response of C3 plants to increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO2 (CO2) is to reduce transpirational water loss by decreasing stomatal conductance (gs) and simultaneously increase assimilation rates. Via this adaptation, vegetation has the ability to alter hydrology and climate. Therefore, it is important to determine the adaptation of vegetation to the expected anthropogenic rise in CO2. Short-term stomatal opening–closing responses of vegetation to increasing CO2 are described by free-air carbon enrichments <span class="hlt">growth</span> experiments, and evolutionary adaptations are known from the geological record. However, to date the effects of decadal to centennial CO2 perturbations on stomatal conductance are still largely unknown. Here we reconstruct a 34% (±12%) reduction in <span class="hlt">maximum</span> stomatal conductance (gsmax) per 100 ppm CO2 increase as a result of the adaptation in stomatal density (D) and pore size at maximal stomatal opening (amax) of nine common species from Florida over the past 150 y. The species-specific gsmax values are determined by different evolutionary development, whereby the angiosperms sampled generally have numerous small stomata and high gsmax, and the conifers and fern have few large stomata and lower gsmax. Although angiosperms and conifers use different D and amax adaptation strategies, our data show a coherent response in gsmax to CO2 rise of the past century. Understanding these adaptations of C3 plants to rising CO2 after decadal to centennial environmental changes is essential for quantification of plant physiological forcing at timescales relevant for global warming, and they are likely to continue until the limits of their phenotypic plasticity are <span class="hlt">reached</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lammertsma, Emmy I.; de Boer, Hugo Jan; Dekker, Stefan C.; Dilcher, David L.; Lotter, Andre F.; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">412</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21330552"> <span id="translatedtitle">Global CO2 rise leads to reduced <span class="hlt">maximum</span> stomatal conductance in Florida vegetation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A principle response of C3 plants to increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO(2) (CO(2)) is to reduce transpirational water loss by decreasing stomatal conductance (g(s)) and simultaneously increase assimilation rates. Via this adaptation, vegetation has the ability to alter hydrology and climate. Therefore, it is important to determine the adaptation of vegetation to the expected anthropogenic rise in CO(2). Short-term stomatal opening-closing responses of vegetation to increasing CO(2) are described by free-air carbon enrichments <span class="hlt">growth</span> experiments, and evolutionary adaptations are known from the geological record. However, to date the effects of decadal to centennial CO(2) perturbations on stomatal conductance are still largely unknown. Here we reconstruct a 34% (±12%) reduction in <span class="hlt">maximum</span> stomatal conductance (g(smax)) per 100 ppm CO(2) increase as a result of the adaptation in stomatal density (D) and pore size at maximal stomatal opening (a(max)) of nine common species from Florida over the past 150 y. The species-specific g(smax) values are determined by different evolutionary development, whereby the angiosperms sampled generally have numerous small stomata and high g(smax), and the conifers and fern have few large stomata and lower g(smax). Although angiosperms and conifers use different D and a(max) adaptation strategies, our data show a coherent response in g(smax) to CO(2) rise of the past century. Understanding these adaptations of C3 plants to rising CO(2) after decadal to centennial environmental changes is essential for quantification of plant physiological forcing at timescales relevant for global warming, and they are likely to continue until the limits of their phenotypic plasticity are <span class="hlt">reached</span>. PMID:21330552</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lammertsma, Emmy I; de Boer, Hugo Jan; Dekker, Stefan C; Dilcher, David L; Lotter, André F; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-02-17</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">413</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1460624"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood to estimate population size from temporal changes in allele frequencies.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We develop a <span class="hlt">maximum</span>-likelihood framework for using temporal changes in allele frequencies to estimate the number of breeding individuals in a population. We use simulations to compare the performance of this estimator to an F-statistic estimator of variance effective population size. The <span class="hlt">maximum</span>-likelihood estimator had a lower variance and smaller bias. Taking advantage of the likelihood framework, we extend the model to include exponential <span class="hlt">growth</span> and show that temporal allele frequency data from three or more sampling events can be used to test for population <span class="hlt">growth</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Williamson, E G; Slatkin, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">414</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21503950"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling <span class="hlt">maximum</span> astrophysical gravitational recoil velocities</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We measure the recoil velocity as a function of spin for equal-mass, highly spinning black-hole binaries, with spins in the orbital plane, equal in magnitude, and opposite in direction. We confirm that the leading-order effect is linear in the spin and the cosine of angle between the spin direction and the infall direction at the merger. We find higher-order corrections that are proportional to the odd powers in both the spin and cosine of this angle. Taking these corrections into account, we predict that the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> recoil will be 3680{+-}130 km s{sup -1}.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lousto, Carlos O.; Zlochower, Yosef [Center for Computational Relativity and Gravitation, School of Mathematical Sciences, Rochester Institute of Technology, 78 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">415</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=433082"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span>-valence radii of transition metals</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In many of their compounds the transition metals have covalence 9, forming nine bonds with use of nine hybrid spd bond orbitals. A set of <span class="hlt">maximum</span>-valence single-bond radii is formulated for use in these compounds. These radii are in reasonably good agreement with observed bond lengths. Quadruple bonds between two transition metal atoms are about 50 pm (iron-group atoms) or 55 pm (palladium and platinum-group atoms) shorter than single bonds. This amount of shortening corresponds to four bent single bonds with the best set of bond angles, 79.24° and 128.8°.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pauling, Linus</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1975-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">416</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhyA..382..235R"> <span id="translatedtitle">On the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> drawdown during speculative bubbles</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A taxonomy of large financial crashes proposed in the literature locates the burst of speculative bubbles due to endogenous causes in the framework of extreme stock market crashes, defined as falls of market prices that are outlier with respect to the bulk of drawdown price movement distribution. This paper goes on deeper in the analysis providing a further characterization of the rising part of such selected bubbles through the examination of drawdown and <span class="hlt">maximum</span> drawdown movement of indices prices. The analysis of drawdown duration is also performed and it is the core of the risk measure estimated here.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rotundo, Giulia; Navarra, Mauro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">417</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1020333"> <span id="translatedtitle">Conductivity <span class="hlt">maximum</span> in a charged colloidal suspension</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Molecular dynamics simulations of a charged colloidal suspension in the salt-free regime show that the system exhibits an electrical conductivity <span class="hlt">maximum</span> as a function of colloid charge. We attribute this behavior to two main competing effects: colloid effective charge saturation due to counterion 'condensation' and diffusion slowdown due to the relaxation effect. In agreement with previous observations, we also find that the effective transported charge is larger than the one determined by the Stern layer and suggest that it corresponds to the boundary fluid layer at the surface of the colloidal particles.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bastea, S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-27</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">418</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3686781"> <span id="translatedtitle">Aging, Maturation and <span class="hlt">Growth</span> of Sauropodomorph Dinosaurs as Deduced from <span class="hlt">Growth</span> Curves Using Long Bone Histological Data: An Assessment of Methodological Constraints and Solutions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Information on aging, maturation, and <span class="hlt">growth</span> is important for understanding life histories of organisms. In extinct dinosaurs, such information can be derived from the histological <span class="hlt">growth</span> record preserved in the mid-shaft cortex of long bones. Here, we construct <span class="hlt">growth</span> models to estimate ages at death, ages at sexual maturity, ages at which individuals were fully-grown, and <span class="hlt">maximum</span> <span class="hlt">growth</span> rates from the <span class="hlt">growth</span> record preserved in long bones of six sauropod dinosaur individuals (one indeterminate mamenchisaurid, two Apatosaurus sp., two indeterminate diplodocids, and one Camarasaurus sp.) and one basal sauropodomorph dinosaur individual (Plateosaurus engelhardti). Using these estimates, we establish allometries between body mass and each of these traits and compare these to extant taxa. <span class="hlt">Growth</span> models considered for each dinosaur individual were the von Bertalanffy model, the Gompertz model, and the logistic model (LGM), all of which have inherently fixed inflection points, and the Chapman-Richards model in which the point is not fixed. We use the arithmetic mean of the age at the inflection point and of the age at which 90% of asymptotic mass is <span class="hlt">reached</span> to assess respectively the age at sexual maturity or the age at onset of reproduction, because unambiguous indicators of maturity in Sauropodomorpha are lacking. According to an AIC-based model selection process, the LGM was the best model for our sauropodomorph sample. Allometries established are consistent with literature data on other Sauropodomorpha. All Sauropodomorpha <span class="hlt">reached</span> full size within a time span similar to scaled-up modern mammalian megaherbivores and had similar <span class="hlt">maximum</span> <span class="hlt">growth</span> rates to scaled-up modern megaherbivores and ratites, but <span class="hlt">growth</span> rates of Sauropodomorpha were lower than of an average mammal. Sauropodomorph ages at death probably were lower than that of average scaled-up ratites and megaherbivores. Sauropodomorpha were older at maturation than scaled-up ratites and average mammals, but younger than scaled-up megaherbivores.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Griebeler, Eva Maria; Klein, Nicole; Sander, P. Martin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">419</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title50-vol11/pdf/CFR-2012-title50-vol11-sec259-34.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">50 CFR 259.34 - Minimum and <span class="hlt">maximum</span> deposits; <span class="hlt">maximum</span> time to deposit.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AID TO FISHERIES CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND Capital Construction Fund Agreement § 259.34 Minimum and <span class="hlt">maximum</span>...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">420</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19504088"> <span id="translatedtitle">Training-induced changes in the pattern of triceps to biceps activation during <span class="hlt">reaching</span> tasks after chronic and severe stroke.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This exploratory study was undertaken to investigate the mechanisms that contributed to improvements in upper limb function following a novel training program. Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to examine training-induced changes in the pattern of triceps and biceps activation during <span class="hlt">reaching</span> tasks in stroke survivors with severe paresis in the chronic stage of recovery. The EMG data were obtained in the context of a single blind randomised clinical trial conducted with 42 stroke survivors with minimal upper limb muscle activity and who were more than 6 months post-stroke. Of the 33 participants who completed the study, 10 received training of <span class="hlt">reaching</span> using a non-robotic upper limb training device, the SMART Arm, with EMG triggered functional electrical stimulation (EMG-stim), 13 received training of <span class="hlt">reaching</span> using the SMART Arm alone, and 10 received no intervention. Each intervention group engaged in 12 1-h training sessions over a 4-week period. Clinical and laboratory measures of upper limb function were administered prior to training (0 weeks), at completion (4 weeks) and 2 months (12 weeks) after training. The primary outcome measure was 'upper arm function' which is Item 6 of the Motor Assessment Scale (MAS). Laboratory measures consisted of two multijoint <span class="hlt">reaching</span> tasks to assess '<span class="hlt">maximum</span> isometric force' and '<span class="hlt">maximum</span> distance <span class="hlt">reached</span>'. Surface EMG was used to monitor triceps brachii and biceps brachii during the two <span class="hlt">reaching</span> tasks. To provide a comparison with normal values, seven healthy adults were tested on one of the <span class="hlt">reaching</span> tasks according to the same procedure. Study findings demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in upper limb function for stroke participants in the two training groups compared to those who received no training however no difference was found between the two training groups. For the <span class="hlt">reaching</span> tasks, all stroke participants, when compared to normal healthy adults, exhibited lower triceps and biceps activation and a lower ratio of triceps to biceps activation. Following training, stroke participants demonstrated increased triceps activation and an increased ratio of triceps to biceps activation for the task that was trained. Better performance was associated with greater triceps activation and a higher ratio of triceps to biceps activation. The findings suggest that increased activation of triceps as an agonist and an improved coordination between triceps and biceps could have mediated the observed changes in arm function. The changes in EMG activity were small relative to the changes in arm function indicating that factors, such as the contribution of other muscles of <span class="hlt">reaching</span>, may also be implicated. PMID:19504088</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Barker, Ruth Nancy; Brauer, Sandra; Carson, Richard</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-06-06</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">421</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41178303"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">maximum</span> power point tracking for photovoltaic-SPE system using a <span class="hlt">maximum</span> current controller</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Processes to produce hydrogen from solar photovoltaic (PV)-powered water electrolysis using solid polymer electrolysis (SPE) are reported. An alternative control of <span class="hlt">maximum</span> power point tracking (MPPT) in the PV-SPE system based on the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> current searching methods has been designed and implemented.Based on the characteristics of voltage–current and theoretical analysis of SPE, it can be shown that the tracking of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Riza Muhida; Mohammed Dakkak; Kenji Matsuura; Akira Tsuyoshi; Masakazu Michira</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">422</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22821205"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stoichiometric identification with <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood principal component analysis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study presents an effective procedure for the determination of a biologically inspired, black-box model of cultures of microorganisms (including yeasts, bacteria, plant and animal cells) in bioreactors. This procedure is based on sets of experimental data measuring the time-evolution of a few extracellular species concentrations, and makes use of <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood principal component analysis to determine, independently of the kinetics, an appropriate number of macroscopic reactions and their stoichiometry. In addition, this paper provides a discussion of the geometric interpretation of a stoichiometric matrix and the potential equivalent reaction schemes. The procedure is carefully evaluated within the stoichiometric identification framework of the <span class="hlt">growth</span> of the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus on cheese whey. Using Monte Carlo studies, it is also compared with two other previously published approaches. PMID:22821205</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mailier, Johan; Remy, Marcel; Vande Wouwer, Alain</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">423</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009OptEn..48d7205H"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> neighborhood margin criterion in face recognition</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Feature extraction is a data analysis technique devoted to removing redundancy and extracting the most discriminative information. In face recognition, feature extractors are normally plagued with small sample size problems, in which the total number of training images is much smaller than the image dimensionality. Recently, an optimized facial feature extractor, <span class="hlt">maximum</span> marginal criterion (MMC), was proposed. MMC computes an optimized projection by solving the generalized eigenvalue problem in a standard form that is free from inverse matrix operation, and thus it does not suffer from the small sample size problem. However, MMC is essentially a linear projection technique that relies on facial image pixel intensity to compute within- and between-class scatters. The nonlinear nature of faces restricts the discrimination of MMC. Hence, we propose an improved MMC, namely <span class="hlt">maximum</span> neighborhood margin criterion (MNMC). Unlike MMC, which preserves global geometric structures that do not perfectly describe the underlying face manifold, MNMC seeks a projection that preserves local geometric structures via neighborhood preservation. This objective function leads to the enhancement of classification capability, and this is testified by experimental results. MNMC shows its performance superiority compared to MMC, especially in pose, illumination, and expression (PIE) and face recognition grand challenge (FRGC) databases.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Han, Pang Ying; Teoh, Andrew Beng Jin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">424</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013A%26A...551A...9A"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> likelihood estimation of local stellar kinematics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Context. Kinematical data such as the mean velocities and velocity dispersions of stellar samples are useful tools to study galactic structure and evolution. However, observational data are often incomplete (e.g., lacking the radial component of the motion) and may have significant observational errors. For example, the majority of faint stars observed with Gaia will not have their radial velocities measured. Aims: Our aim is to formulate and test a new <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood approach to estimating the kinematical parameters for a local stellar sample when only the transverse velocities are known (from parallaxes and proper motions). Methods: Numerical simulations using synthetically generated data as well as real data (based on the Geneva-Copenhagen survey) are used to investigate the statistical properties (bias, precision) of the method, and to compare its performance with the much simpler "projection method" described by Dehnen & Binney (1998, MNRAS, 298, 387). Results: The <span class="hlt">maximum</span> likelihood method gives more correct estimates of the dispersion when observational errors are important, and guarantees a positive-definite dispersion matrix, which is not always obtained with the projection method. Possible extensions and improvements of the method are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aghajani, T.; Lindegren, L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">425</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMPP34A..08C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Variability in the timing of the late Holocene <span class="hlt">maximum</span> extent of the southwest Greenland Ice Sheet</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Boreal summer climate generally cooled across the mid to late Holocene, driving <span class="hlt">growth</span> of the Greenland Ice Sheet. The timing of <span class="hlt">maximum</span> late Holocene Greenland Ice Sheet extent is usually assigned to the Little Ice Age (LIA), although earlier more extensive Neoglacial advances may have occurred. Here we present new 10-Be surface exposure ages from erratic boulders on bedrock just outside of historical moraines deposited during the LIA near Kangerlussuaq, Paamiut and Narsarsuaq in southwest Greenland to date when ice was more extensive than during the LIA. A more extensive Neoglacial advance at ~2 ka was previously proposed near Kangerlussuaq. Our cosmogenic dates just outside the historical moraine at Kangerlussuaq indicate, however, that ice has been within its historical limit since 6.8±0.1 ka (n=6, 1 std. error), which is similar to recently published age constraints further north in the Disko Bugt region of west Greenland. Near Narsarsuaq in south Greenland, cosmogenic boulder dates indicate that at 1.2±0.2 ka (n=4, 1 std. error), the outlet glacier Kiagtût sermiat was ~200 m thicker than its historical limit. The timing of thicker ice near Narsarsuaq is likely concurrent with an ~8 km advance the same outlet glacier relative to the modern ice margin previously inferred from one minimum limiting radiocarbon date of 1.2±0.1 ka (1?). Cosmogenic dates from near Paamiut in southwest Greenland and additional Narsarsuaq dates are forthcoming. The timing of ice thinning and retreat near Narsarsuaq beginning at ~1.2 ka is concurrent with a switch from the dominance of Arctic- to Atlantic-sourced water masses within southern Greenland fjords, inferred from changes in fjord faunal assemblages. Modern switches in the source of fjord waters are related to variations in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), with a switch from a positive to a negative phase causing the incursion of relatively warm Irminger Current waters around southern Greenland. We hypothesize that similar variations in North Atlantic atmospheric-oceanic circulation at centennial time-scales could have resulted in relatively cold southern Greenland fjord waters prior to ~1.2 ka during a positive NAO-like state, which forced a more extensive Neoglacial advance in southern Greenland than during the LIA. Conversely, during the LIA, warmer Atlantic waters may have dominated southern Greenland fjords, resulting in less extensive ice. The importance of this effect may have diminished northward up the coast, such that at Kangerlussuaq and further north, temperatures <span class="hlt">reached</span> Holocene minima and the ice sheet margin its Holocene <span class="hlt">maximum</span> extent during the LIA.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Carlson, A. E.; Winsor, K.; Ullman, D. J.; Murray, D. S.; Rood, D. H.; Axford, Y.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">426</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/36880892"> <span id="translatedtitle">Individual Differences in Skilled <span class="hlt">Reaching</span> for Food Related to Increased Number of Gestures: Evidence for Goal and Habit Learning of Skilled <span class="hlt">Reaching</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Skilled <span class="hlt">reaching</span> in rodents and primate is motorically similar, but success in <span class="hlt">reaching</span> by rodents is distinctively variable. The source of this variability has not been examined previously. Long–Evans rats were videotaped as they <span class="hlt">reached</span> for food in 2 different <span class="hlt">reaching</span> tasks, and endpoint measures of performance were examined in relation to variables previously associated with individual differences, including testing</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gita Gholamrezaei; Ian Q. Whishaw</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">427</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18593049"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Human appropriation of net primary production in the middle <span class="hlt">reach</span> of Heihe River basin].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Based on Miami model, this paper calculated the human appropriation of net primary production (HANPP) in the middle <span class="hlt">reach</span> of Heihe River basin, discussed the relations between the HANPP and ecosystem diversity, and compared the values of HANPP and ecological footprint (EF) in sustainability assessment. The results showed that the increase of HANPP decreased the ecosystem diversity, and the current average HANPP in study area was 38.61%. The HANPP in Suzhou and Ganzhou districts already exceeded the potential <span class="hlt">maximum</span> productivity. Considering the climate change and the development of social-economics, the ecosystems in study area would face more stress in the coming 40 years. Comparing with EF, HANPP was more available for the assessment of sustainability in the sight of ecosystem function change. PMID:18593049</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Long, Ai-hua; Wang, Hao; Cheng, Guo-dong; Yu, Fu-liang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">428</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3775399"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Tree-Like Model for Brain <span class="hlt">Growth</span> and Structure</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Flory-Stockmayer theory for the polycondensation of branched polymers, modified for finite systems beyond the gel point, is applied to the connection (synapses) of neurons, which can be considered highly branched “monomeric” units. Initially, the process is a linear <span class="hlt">growth</span> and tree-like branching between dendrites and axons of nonself-neurons. After the gel point and at the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> “tree” size, the tree-like model prescribes, on average, one pair of twin synapses per neuron. About 13% of neurons, “unconnected” to the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> tree, migrate to the surface to form cortical layers. The number of synapses in each neuron may <span class="hlt">reach</span> 10000, indicating a tremendous amount of flexible, redundant, and neuroplastic loop-forming linkages which can be preserved or pruned by experience and learning.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yan, Benjamin C.; Yan, Johnson F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">429</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24101481"> <span id="translatedtitle">Vegetation controls on the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> size of coastal dunes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Coastal dunes, in particular foredunes, support a resilient ecosystem and reduce coastal vulnerability to storms. In contrast to dry desert dunes, coastal dunes arise from interactions between biological and physical processes. Ecologists have traditionally addressed coastal ecosystems by assuming that they adapt to preexisting dune topography, whereas geomorphologists have studied the properties of foredunes primarily in connection to physical, not biological, factors. Here, we study foredune development using an ecomorphodynamic model that resolves the coevolution of topography and vegetation in response to both physical and ecological factors. We find that foredune <span class="hlt">growth</span> is eventually limited by a negative feedback between wind flow and topography. As a consequence, steady-state foredunes are scale invariant, which allows us to derive scaling relations for <span class="hlt">maximum</span> foredune height and formation time. These relations suggest that plant zonation (in particular for strand "dune-building" species) is the primary factor controlling the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> size of foredunes and therefore the amount of sand stored in a coastal dune system. We also find that aeolian sand supply to the dunes determines the timescale of foredune formation. These results offer a potential explanation for the empirical relation between beach type and foredune size, in which large (small) foredunes are found on dissipative (reflective) beaches. Higher waves associated with dissipative beaches increase the disturbance of strand species, which shifts foredune formation landward and thus leads to larger foredunes. In this scenario, plants play a much more active role in modifying their habitat and altering coastal vulnerability than previously thought. PMID:24101481</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Durán, Orencio; Moore, Laura J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">430</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title49-vol4/pdf/CFR-2011-title49-vol4-sec230-24.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">49 CFR 230.24 - <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> allowable stress.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... 2011-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24 Transportation...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.24 <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> allowable stress. (a) <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> allowable stress value....</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">431</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol1-sec35-2205.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 35.2205 - <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> allowable project cost.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> allowable project cost. 35.2205 Section 35...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS... <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> allowable project cost. (a) Grants awarded on...the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> allowable project cost will be the sum of:...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">432</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title49-vol4/pdf/CFR-2012-title49-vol4-sec230-27.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">49 CFR 230.27 - <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> shearing strength of rivets.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...2012-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> shearing strength of rivets. 230.27 Section 230...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.27 <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> shearing strength of rivets. The <span class="hlt">maximum</span> shearing...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">433</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title49-vol4/pdf/CFR-2011-title49-vol4-sec230-27.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">49 CFR 230.27 - <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> shearing strength of rivets.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...2011-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> shearing strength of rivets. 230.27 Section 230...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.27 <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> shearing strength of rivets. The <span class="hlt">maximum</span> shearing...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">434</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol1-sec35-2205.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 35.2205 - <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> allowable project cost.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...2010-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> allowable project cost. 35.2205 Section 35.2205...35.2205 <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> allowable project cost. (a) Grants awarded on or...regulation, the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> allowable project cost will be the sum of: (1)...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">435</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2009-title40-vol1/pdf/CFR-2009-title40-vol1-sec35-2205.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 35.2205 - <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> allowable project cost.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...2009-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> allowable project cost. 35.2205 Section 35.2205...35.2205 <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> allowable project cost. (a) Grants awarded on or...regulation, the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> allowable project cost will be the sum of: (1)...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">436</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title49-vol4/pdf/CFR-2010-title49-vol4-sec230-24.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">49 CFR 230.24 - <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> allowable stress.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... 2010-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24 Transportation...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.24 <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> allowable stress. (a) <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> allowable stress value....</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">437</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2009-title49-vol4/pdf/CFR-2009-title49-vol4-sec230-24.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">49 CFR 230.24 - <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> allowable stress.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... 2009-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24 Transportation...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.24 <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> allowable stress. (a) <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> allowable stress value....</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">438</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title30-vol1-sec57-19062.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">30 CFR 57.19062 - <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> acceleration and deceleration.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... 2013-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> acceleration and deceleration. 57.19062 Section...Procedures § 57.19062 <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> acceleration and deceleration. <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> normal operating acceleration and deceleration shall not exceed...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">439</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title30-vol1-sec56-19062.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">30 CFR 56.19062 - <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> acceleration and deceleration.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... 2013-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> acceleration and deceleration. 56.19062 Section...Procedures § 56.19062 <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> acceleration and deceleration. <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> normal operating acceleration and deceleration shall not exceed...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">440</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title24-vol4/pdf/CFR-2013-title24-vol4-sec886-308.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">24 CFR 886.308 - <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> total annual contract commitment.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...false <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> total annual contract commitment. 886.308 Section 886.308 ...308 <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> total annual contract commitment. (a) Number of units assisted...by which the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> annual contract commitment per year exceeds amounts paid...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return 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href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...false <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> weight capacity: Outboard boats. 183.35 Section 183.35 Navigation...SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Safe Loading...35 <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> weight capacity: Outboard boats. (a) The <span class="hlt">maximum</span> weight capacity...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">442</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol2-sec183-35.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">33 CFR 183.35 - <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> weight capacity: Outboard boats.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...false <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> weight capacity: Outboard boats. 183.35 Section 183.35 Navigation...SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Safe Loading...35 <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> weight capacity: Outboard boats. (a) The <span class="hlt">maximum</span> weight capacity...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">443</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title49-vol4/pdf/CFR-2010-title49-vol4-sec230-27.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">49 CFR 230.27 - <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> shearing strength of rivets.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...2010-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> shearing strength of rivets. 230.27 Section 230...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.27 <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> shearing strength of rivets. The <span class="hlt">maximum</span> shearing...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">444</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2009-title49-vol4/pdf/CFR-2009-title49-vol4-sec230-27.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">49 CFR 230.27 - <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> shearing strength of rivets.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...2009-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> shearing strength of rivets. 230.27 Section 230...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.27 <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> shearing strength of rivets. The <span class="hlt">maximum</span> shearing...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">445</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998JGR...10331231P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of aircraft on ultraviolet radiation <span class="hlt">reaching</span> the ground</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Changes in ozone levels for a range of scenarios, including those for present and projected future aircraft emissions and for present and future halogen loadings, are calculated using the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization two-dimensional chemical transport model. These changes are applied to measured ozone columns and vertical profiles based on measurements to produce vertical profiles of ozone for each scenario considered, which are traceable to measurements. A radiative transfer model is then used to investigate changes in biologically active radiation <span class="hlt">reaching</span> the surface of the Earth resulting from current and future fleets of aircraft and those resulting from changing levels of halogen compounds in the atmosphere. It is shown that equal changes in ozone column for these scenarios do not produce equal changes in biologically weighted fluxes <span class="hlt">reaching</span> the ground. This is because aircraft affect ozone mainly in the upper troposphere, whereas the effects of halogens are greatest in the middle and lower stratosphere. The magnitude of the ratio of the biologically weighted flux change to the ozone column change is greater for the case of the aircraft, due to the larger contribution to multiple scattering in the troposphere. For the same reason, projected fleets of supersonic aircraft are shown to have a smaller effect on UV radiation for a given change in ozone column than subsonic aircraft. While aerosols reduce the UV radiation <span class="hlt">reaching</span> the ground for all scenarios investigated, they have minimal impact on the ratios of UV changes to ozone column changes because the bulk of the aerosol loading is below the altitudes where ozone changes due to aircraft or halogens occur.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Plumb, I. C.; Ryan, K. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">446</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21138745"> <span id="translatedtitle">Relation between reaction time and <span class="hlt">reach</span> errors during visuomotor adaptation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Adaptation of <span class="hlt">reaching</span> movements to visuomotor transformations is generally thought to involve implicit or procedural learning. However, there is evidence that explicit or cognitive processes can also play a role (Redding and Wallace, 2006 [31]). For example, the early phase of adaptation to a visuomotor rotation appears to involve spatial working memory processes linked to mental rotation (Anguera et al., 2010 [11]). Since it is known that cognitive processes like mental rotation lead to larger reaction times (Georgopoulos and Massey, 1987 [12]), here we explored the relation between reaction time (RT) and <span class="hlt">reach</span> error reduction. Two groups of subjects adapted their <span class="hlt">reaching</span> movements to a 60° visuomotor rotation either without RT constraints or with RT limited to 350 ms. In the unconstrained group, we found that adaption rate varied widely across subjects and was strongly correlated with RT. Subjects who decreased hand direction error (DE) rapidly exhibited prolonged RTs whereas little RT cost was seen in subjects who decreased DE gradually. RTs were also correlated with after-effects seen when the visuomotor rotation was removed. Subjects with the longest RTs exhibited the smallest after-effects. In the RT constrained group, all subjects exhibited gradual DE adaptation and large after-effects, similar to the fast responders in the free group. These results suggest that adaptation to a visuomotor rotation can involve processes that produce faster error reductions without increasing after-effects, but at an expense of larger reaction times. Possible candidates are processes related to spatial working memory, and more specifically, to mental rotation. PMID:21138745</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fernandez-Ruiz, Juan; Wong, William; Armstrong, Irene T; Flanagan, J Randall</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-05</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">447</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1818597"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Kinematic study of <span class="hlt">reaching</span>-grasping movements in the monkey].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Kinematics of <span class="hlt">reaching</span>-grasping movement towards stimuli of three different sizes located at two different distances were studied in one monkey (Macaca nemestrina). Transport and manipulation components were analyzed using the ELITE system. Transport time, peak velocity and deceleration phase of velocity were influenced by stimulus size, whilst acceleration phase remained unmodified. Peak velocity clearly increased with distance, while transport time remained constant (isochrony ). The main parameters of manipulation component were all influenced by stimulus size but they did not vary with distance. A comparison with kinematic data obtained from human subjects was made. PMID:1818597</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fogassi, L; Gallese, V; Gentilucci, M; Chieffi, S; Rizzolatti, G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">448</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JHEP...05..058T"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">reach</span> of INO for atmospheric neutrino oscillation parameters</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) will host a 50 kt magnetized iron calorimeter (ICAL@INO) for the study of atmospheric neutrinos. Using the detector resolutions and efficiencies obtained by the INO collaboration from a full-detector GEANT4-based simulation, we determine the <span class="hlt">reach</span> of this experiment for the measurement of the atmospheric neutrino mixing parameters ( {sin^2 {?_{23 }}and| {\\varDelta m_{32}^2} |} ) . We also explore the sensitivity of this experiment to the octant of ? 23, and its deviation from maximal mixing.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thakore, Tarak; Ghosh, Anushree; Choubey, Sandhya; Dighe, Amol</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">449</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3062268"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spinal Cord Recordings in Rats During Skilled <span class="hlt">Reaching</span> Task</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Descending signals in the rat cervical spinal cord (C5/C6) were recorded using a 15-channel microelectrode array during <span class="hlt">reach</span>-to-grasp task. Signals were segregated into frequency bands to investigate the frequency content. Population activity was obtained by band-pass filtering the signals between 300Hz-3kHz. Local field potentials (LFPs) were analyzed between 0-13Hz, 13-30Hz, and 30-100Hz. The population activity and the LFPs in 0-13Hz were able to predict the behavior onset. Spectrograms indicated a clear difference between the quiet and behavioral state of the animal.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Prasad, Abhishek; Sahin, Mesut</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">450</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6523310"> <span id="translatedtitle">East Ohio gas 'bridges' service to <span class="hlt">reach</span> new customers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A lift bridge across the Cuyahoga River at the eastern end of Whiskey Island provided the most feasible route to five new industrial customers for East Ohio Gas Co. in Cleveland. Previously considered ''unpipeable'', the island was <span class="hlt">reached</span> by building a line along the stationary bridgework 125 ft above the bridge. The 6-in pipe is protected by a heat-fused epoxy coating; welded joints were covered in the field with heat-shrink sleeves. The line is fully electrically insulated and protected from lightning.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Not Available</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">451</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2577090"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interaction torque contributes to planar <span class="hlt">reaching</span> at slow speed</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background How the central nervous system (CNS) organizes the joint dynamics for multi-joint movement is a complex problem, because of the passive interaction among segmental movements. Previous studies have demonstrated that the CNS predictively compensates for interaction torque (INT) which is arising from the movement of the adjacent joints. However, most of these studies have mainly examined quick movements, presumably because the current belief is that the effects of INT are not significant at slow speeds. The functional contribution of INT for multijoint movements performed in various speeds is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of INT to a planer <span class="hlt">reaching</span> in a wide range of motion speeds for healthy subjects. Methods Subjects performed <span class="hlt">reaching</span> movements toward five targets under three different speed conditions. Joint position data were recorded using a 3-D motion analysis device (50 Hz). Torque components, muscle torque (MUS), interaction torque (INT), gravity torque (G), and net torque (NET) were calculated by solving the dynamic equations for the shoulder and elbow. NET at a joint which produces the joint kinematics will be an algebraic sum of torque components; NET = MUS - G - INT. Dynamic muscle torque (DMUS = MUS-G) was also calculated. Contributions of INT impulse and DMUS impulse to NET impulse were examined. Results The relative contribution of INT to NET was not dependent on speed for both joints at every target. INT was additive (same direction) to DMUS at the shoulder joint, while in the elbow DMUS counteracted (opposed to) INT. The trajectory of <span class="hlt">reach</span> was linear and two-joint movements were coordinated with a specific combination at each target, regardless of motion speed. However, DMUS at the elbow was opposed to the direction of elbow movement, and its magnitude varied from trial to trial in order to compensate for the variability of INT. Conclusion Interaction torque was important at slow speeds. Muscle torques at the two joints were not directly related to each other to produce coordinated joint movement during a <span class="hlt">reach</span>. These results support Bernstein's idea that coordinated movement is not completely determined by motor command in multi-joint motion. Based on the data presented in this study and the work of others, a model for the connection between joint torques (muscle and passive torques including interaction torque) and joint coordination is proposed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Tagami, Yoshiyuki; Fujisawa, Hiroyuki; Hoshi, Fumihiko; Nagasaki, Hiroshi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">452</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23265016"> <span id="translatedtitle">Visual landmarks and response delay in estimates of <span class="hlt">reach</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Visual background information may facilitate visually guided and memory guided estimates of <span class="hlt">reach</span>, as estimates have been linked to the mental representation of action. Right-handed adults were asked to give verbal estimates of distance reachability using motor imagery in conditions with no visual background or with visual background. In each condition, four delays were used: 0, 1, 2, and 4 sec. There were no distinctions between conditions; however, comparisons at each delay were significantly different at 2 and 4 sec. With each delay, participants displayed significantly less error when the visual background was presented. These findings are consistent with the notion that motor simulation approximates motor planning and execution. PMID:23265016</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cordova, Alberto; Gabbard, Carl; Caçola, Priscila</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">453</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3768946"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Growth</span> of Byssochlamys Nivea in Pineapple Juice Under the Effect of Water Activity and Ascospore Age</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The study of thermal resistant mould, including Byssochlamys nivea, is of extreme importance since it has been associated with fruit and fruit products. The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of water activity (aw) and ascospore age (I) on the <span class="hlt">growth</span> of Byssochlamys nivea in pineapple juice. Mold <span class="hlt">growth</span> was carried out under different conditions of water activity (aw) (0.99, 0.96, 0.95, 0.93, 0.90) and ascospore age (I) (30, 51, 60, 69, 90 days). <span class="hlt">Growth</span> parameters as length of adaptation phase (?), <span class="hlt">maximum</span> specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> rate (µmax) and <span class="hlt">maximum</span> diameter <span class="hlt">reached</span> by the colony (A) were obtained through the fit of the Modified Gompertz model to experimental data (measuring radial colony diameter). Statistica 6.0 was used for statistical analyses (significance level ? = 0.05). The results obtained clearly showed that water activity is statistically significant and that it influences all <span class="hlt">growth</span> parameters, while ascospore age does not have any statistically significant influence on <span class="hlt">growth</span> parameters. Also, these data showed that by increasing aw from 0.90 to 0.99, the ? value substantially decreased, while µmax and A values rose. The data contributed for the understanding of the behavior of B. nivea in pineapple juice. Therefore, it provided mathematical models that can well predict <span class="hlt">growth</span> parameters, also helping on microbiological control and products’ shelf life determination.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zimmermann, M.; Miorelli, S.; Massaguer, P.R.; Aragao, G.M.F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">454</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24031622"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Growth</span> of byssochlamys nivea in pineapple juice under the effect of water activity and ascospore age.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The study of thermal resistant mould, including Byssochlamys nivea, is of extreme importance since it has been associated with fruit and fruit products. The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of water activity (aw) and ascospore age (I) on the <span class="hlt">growth</span> of Byssochlamys nivea in pineapple juice. Mold <span class="hlt">growth</span> was carried out under different conditions of water activity (aw) (0.99, 0.96, 0.95, 0.93, 0.90) and ascospore age (I) (30, 51, 60, 69, 90 days). <span class="hlt">Growth</span> parameters as length of adaptation phase (?), <span class="hlt">maximum</span> specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> rate (µmax) and <span class="hlt">maximum</span> diameter <span class="hlt">reached</span> by the colony (A) were obtained through the fit of the Modified Gompertz model to experimental data (measuring radial colony diameter). Statistica 6.0 was used for statistical analyses (significance level ? = 0.05). The results obtained clearly showed that water activity is statistically significant and that it influences all <span class="hlt">growth</span> parameters, while ascospore age does not have any statistically significant influence on <span class="hlt">growth</span> parameters. Also, these data showed that by increasing aw from 0.90 to 0.99, the ? value substantially decreased, while µmax and A values rose. The data contributed for the understanding of the behavior of B. nivea in pineapple juice. Therefore, it provided mathematical models that can well predict <span class="hlt">growth</span> parameters, also helping on microbiological control and products' shelf life determination. PMID:24031622</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zimmermann, M; Miorelli, S; Massaguer, P R; Aragão, G M F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">455</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMSA41C..08S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Variations of Ozone at the Secondary <span class="hlt">Maximum</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Multiyear global observations from the SABER and MIPAS satellite instruments show the variations of the secondary <span class="hlt">maximum</span> of ozone in the upper mesosphere (90-100 km). The ozone concentrations have large diurnal and seasonal cycles and also vary on daily to weekly timescales. We investigate the relative contributions and timescales of photochemistry, temperature dependent chemical reactions, and transport and diffusion of ozone and other trace species. Additional satellite observations from these and other instruments contribute to and constrain the analysis. Simulations with the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model reproduce much of the variability but the ozone concentrations in the model are lower than observed. Detailed comparisons between model and observations are used to investigate the processes responsible for the differences. At high latitudes during NH winter, variations in ozone are forced at some times by temperature variations, through temperature dependent chemical reaction rates, and at others by variations in atomic hydrogen concentration.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smith, A. K.; Lopez-Puertas, M.; Harvey, V.; Mlynczak, M. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">456</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3397562"> <span id="translatedtitle">Diffusivity <span class="hlt">Maximum</span> in a Reentrant Nematic Phase</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report molecular dynamics simulations of confined liquid crystals using the Gay–Berne–Kihara model. Upon isobaric cooling, the standard sequence of isotropic–nematic–smectic A phase transitions is found. Upon further cooling a reentrant nematic phase occurs. We investigate the temperature dependence of the self-diffusion coefficient of the fluid in the nematic, smectic and reentrant nematic phases. We find a <span class="hlt">maximum</span> in diffusivity upon isobaric cooling. Diffusion increases dramatically in the reentrant phase due to the high orientational molecular order. As the temperature is lowered, the diffusion coefficient follows an Arrhenius behavior. The activation energy of the reentrant phase is found in reasonable agreement with the reported experimental data. We discuss how repulsive interactions may be the underlying mechanism that could explain the occurrence of reentrant nematic behavior for polar and non-polar molecules.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stieger, Tillmann; Mazza, Marco G.; Schoen, Martin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">457</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001APS..MARY19008C"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> Frictional Charge Generation on Polymer Surfaces</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">maximum</span> amount of charge that a given surface area can hold is limited by the surrounding environmental conditions such as the atmospheric composition, pressure, humidity, and temperature. Above this charge density limit, the surface will discharge to the atmosphere or to a nearby conductive surface that is at a different electric potential. We have performed experiments using the MECA Electrometer, a flight instrument developed jointly by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and NASA Kennedy Space Center to study the electrostatic properties of the Martian soil. The electrometer contains five types of polymers: fiberglass/epoxy, polycarbonate (Lexan), polytetraflouroethylene (Teflon), Rulon J, and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA, Lucite). We repeatedly rubbed the polymers with another material until each polymer's charge saturation was determined. We will discuss the correlation of our data with the triboelectric series.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Calle, Carlos; Groop, Ellen; Mantovani, James; Buehler, Martin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">458</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992jpnt.confRR...S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maximum</span> life spiral bevel reduction design</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Optimization is applied to the design of a spiral bevel gear reduction for <span class="hlt">maximum</span> life at a given size. A modified feasible directions search algorithm permits a wide variety of inequality constraints and exact design requirements to be met with low sensitivity to initial values. Gear tooth bending strength and minimum contact ratio under load are included in the active constraints. The optimal design of the spiral bevel gear reduction includes the selection of bearing and shaft proportions in addition to gear mesh parameters. System life is maximized subject to a fixed backcone distance of the spiral bevel gear set for a specified speed reduction, shaft angle, input torque, and power. Design examples show the influence of the bearing lives on the gear parameters in the optimal configurations. For a fixed back-cone distance, optimal designs with larger shaft angles have larger service lives.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Savage, M.; Prasanna, M. G.; Coe, H. H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">459</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982EnMan...6..103G"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reaching</span> environmental decisions: Making subjective and objective judgments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective judgments, external to the judge, are compared with subjective, internal judgments. This analysis is made in the context of <span class="hlt">reaching</span> regulatory decisions affecting the human environment. Examples given include evaluating the potential risk of industrial chemicals and comparing the potential effects of short- and long-term changes in land use. The analysis deals not with the decisions themselves, but rather with the kinds of questions that must be posed in orderto <span class="hlt">reach</span> such decisions. Decision makers may spuriously distinguish objective from subjective types of judgment, though these are rarely wholly separate. Judges can hardly dispute about objective statements, if truly identical definitions are used. But subjective statements can reasonably be voted upon. Scientists, engineers, and economists represent logical or objective decision makers, tending to work in groups. Subjective thinkers include artists and performers, and others who often work alone. Moral and aesthetic aspects of questions, usually seen as intangible, are treated as if subjective. Financial decisions, usually viewed as tangible, are handled as objective problems. This mechanism for making decisions is well-established in environmental assessment. Though objective questions can be treated well in the monetary terms of cost-benefit analysis, subjective ones cannot. Mathematical and other variants are discussed in relation to the comparison of alternative types of tests.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ghiselin, Jon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">460</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23054601"> <span id="translatedtitle">Generalization of unconstrained <span class="hlt">reaching</span> with hand-weight changes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Studies of motor generalization usually perturb hand <span class="hlt">reaches</span> by distorting visual feedback with virtual reality or by applying forces with a robotic manipulandum. Whereas such perturbations are useful for studying how the central nervous system adapts and generalizes to novel dynamics, they are rarely encountered in daily life. The most common perturbations that we experience are changes in the weights of objects that we hold. Here, we use a center-out, free-<span class="hlt">reaching</span> task, in which we can manipulate the weight of a participant's hand to examine adaptation and generalization following naturalistic perturbations. In both trial-by-trial paradigms and block-based paradigms, we find that learning converges rapidly (on a timescale of approximately two trials), and this learning generalizes mostly to movements in nearby directions with a unimodal pattern. However, contrary to studies using more artificial perturbations, we find that the generalization has a strong global component. Furthermore, the generalization is enhanced with repeated exposure of the same perturbation. These results suggest that the familiarity of a perturbation is a major factor in movement generalization and that several theories of the neural control of movement, based on perturbations applied by robots or in virtual reality, may need to be extended by incorporating prior influence that is characterized by the familiarity of the perturbation. PMID:23054601</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yan, Xiang; Wang, Qining; Lu, Zhengchuan; Stevenson, Ian H; Körding, Konrad; Wei, Kunlin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a 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class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">461</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2783819"> <span id="translatedtitle">Iron deficiency anemia in infancy and <span class="hlt">reach</span> and grasp development</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study assessed 9 kinematic characteristics of infants’ <span class="hlt">reach</span> and grasp to test the hypothesis that iron deficiency anemia (IDA) delays upper extremity motor development. <span class="hlt">Reach</span> and grasp movements, recorded with a 3D-motion capture system, were compared in 9- to 10-month-old infants (4 IDA vs. 5 iron-sufficient [IS]). Based on normative motor development data available for 6 characteristics, the results indicated poorer upper extremity control in IDA infants: 2 characteristics showed statistically significant group differences despite small n, and the other 4 had strong indications for such results (effect sizes [Cohen's d] > 1.2). The remaining 3 measures, for which normative studies do not show developmental changes in this age period, showed significant or moderate-to- large effect differences. Poorer upper-extremity control in IDA infants in the short-term in this study and in the long-term despite iron therapy in other studies suggests that a motor intervention may be warranted when IDA is detected in infancy.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shafir, Tal; Angulo-Barroso, Rosa; Su, Jing; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Lozoff, Betsy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">462</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3743308"> <span id="translatedtitle">From <span class="hlt">reaching</span> every district to <span class="hlt">reaching</span> every community: analysis and response to the challenge of equity in immunization in Cambodia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background An international review of the Cambodian Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) in 2010 and other data show that despite immunization coverage increases and vaccine preventable diseases incidence reductions, inequities in access to immunization services exist. Utilizing immunization and health systems literature, analysis of global health databases and the EPI review findings, this paper examines the characteristics of immunization access and outcome inequities, and describes proposed longer-term strategic and operational responses to these problems. Findings The national programme has evolved from earlier central and provincial level planning to strengthening routine immunization coverage through the District level ‘<span class="hlt">Reaching</span> Every District Strategy’. However, despite remarkable improvements, the review found over 20% of children surveyed were not fully immunized, primarily from communities where inequities of both access and impact persist. These inequities relate mainly to socio-economic exposures including wealth and education level, population mobility and ethnicity. To address these problems, a shift in strategic and operational response is proposed that will include (a) a re-focus of planning on facility level to detect disadvantaged communities, (b) establishment of monitoring systems to provide detailed information on community access and utilization, (c) development of communication strategies and health networks that enable providers to adjust service delivery according to the needs of vulnerable populations, and (d) securing financial, management and political commitment for ‘<span class="hlt">reaching</span> every community’. Conclusions For Cambodia to achieve its immunization equity objectives and disease reduction goals, a shift of emphasis to health centre and community is needed. This approach will maximize the benefits of new vaccine introduction in the coming ‘Decade of Vaccines’, plus potentially extend the <span class="hlt">reach</span> of other life-saving maternal and child health interventions to the socially disadvantaged, both in Cambodia and in other countries with a similar level of development.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chan Soeung, Sann; Grundy, John; Duncan, Richard; Thor, Rasoka; Bilous, Julian B</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">463</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.B41A0288B"> <span id="translatedtitle">A carbon accumulation <span class="hlt">maximum</span> during the Medieval Climate Anomaly in the world’s biggest bog, Siberia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The West Siberia Lowland is the most carbon-rich northern wetland region, holding an important portion of total northern peatland carbon (70 Gt of 270-450 Gt C) mainly in the southern lowland (44 Gt) in very large peatlands. The largest of these, the Great Vasyugan Bog complex, spans 63,252 km2 and alone holds ~11 Gt C. Our previous work has shown that recent-past <span class="hlt">growth</span> of WSL peat C pool has been greatest in southern WSL in large peatlands close to the southern limit of peatland distribution. In this study, we investigate a Great Vasyugan site to investigate peat carbon sensitivity in two ways: 1) assess past changes in vegetation, species-specific 13C geochemistry, and rate of carbon accumulation relative to recent-past climate variation, and 2) assess the relative lability of this deep peat C through laboratory incubations. Carbon accumulation over the last 2000 years, a period of relatively consistent vegetation and litter inputs but variable local hydrology, <span class="hlt">reached</span> a <span class="hlt">maximum</span> between 1150 and 1350 AD during Medieval Climate Anomaly conditions. A carbon accumulation minimum occurred between about 1350 and 1550 AD. Regardless of depth, age, or rate of carbon burial, deep peat from between 30 and 230 cm below the surface showed a similar rate of potential aerobic respiration that changed little over 42 days of incubation. Taken together, these data suggest that in some peatlanlds warmer and hydrologically-variable conditions can promote long-term belowground carbon storage.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Beilman, D.; MacDonald, G. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">464</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17556729"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stepwise advancement versus <span class="hlt">maximum</span> jumping with headgear activator.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of this study was to compare the effects of stepwise mandibular advancement versus <span class="hlt">maximum</span> jumping and extended treatment versus early retention. The material was obtained prospectively and consisted of lateral cephalograms taken at the start (T0), after initial (T1), and at the end (T2) of treatment, from two groups of consecutively treated skeletal Class II patients who had undergone therapy with headgear activators. The first headgear activator group, HGA-S (n=24; mean age 11.9 +/- 1.2 years), was treated for 13 months and had 4-mm mandibular advancement every 3 months. The second headgear activator group, HGA-M (n=31; mean age 11.2 +/- 1.5 years), had <span class="hlt">maximum</span> jumping, 6-8 mm interincisal opening, for a total of 15.4 months, and with reduced wear for the last 6.9 months. The dropout over 12 months was 41 and 46 per cent, respectively. Pre-treatment <span class="hlt">growth</span> changes were obtained as a reference. An independent t-test was used to determine differences in baseline dentofacial morphology between the groups, a paired t-test for intra-group comparisons, and an independent t-test to evaluate differences between the groups. The results, in both groups, showed enhanced mandibular prognathism during the initial phase (T0-T1), followed by normal <span class="hlt">growth</span> (T1-T2), and lower face height enhancement throughout treatment (T0-T2). For both groups, the mandibular plane and occlusal angle increased, possibly enhanced by 'extrusion' of the lower molars. For both groups, maxillary forward <span class="hlt">growth</span> was restrained only during the initial phase, but the effect remained significant at T2 for the HGA-S group. In the HGA-M group, the lower incisors were protruded, while in the HGA-S group, they were unaffected. The findings indicate that both modes of mandibular jumping resulted in skeletal and dental effects. The length of active treatment seemed to be decisive in maintaining the treatment effects; stepwise advancement had less dental effects. PMID:17556729</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wey, Mang Chek; Bendeus, Margareta; Peng, Li; Hägg, Urban; Rabie, A Bakr M; Robinson, Wayne</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">465</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23783658"> <span id="translatedtitle">Early <span class="hlt">maximum</span> extent of paleoglaciers from Mediterranean mountains during the last glaciation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mountain glaciers respond directly to changes in precipitation and temperature, thus their margin extent is a high-sensitivity climate proxy. Here, we present a robust (10)Be chronology for the glacier <span class="hlt">maximum</span> areal extent of central Spain paleoglaciers dated at 26.1 ± 1.3?ka BP. These glaciers <span class="hlt">reached</span> their <span class="hlt">maximum</span> extent several thousand years earlier than those from central Europe due to the increased precipitation within a cold period between 25 to 29?ka BP, as confirmed by a local speleothem record. These paleoclimate conditions impacted the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> extent of mountain glaciers along the western and central Mediterranean region. The cause and timing of the enhanced precipitation implies a southward shift of the North Atlantic Polar Front followed by storm tracks in response to changes in insolation via orbital parameters modulation. Thus, these mountain paleoglaciers from the Mediterranean region record an ocean-continent climate interaction triggered by external forcing. PMID:23783658</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Domínguez-Villar, D; Carrasco, R M; Pedraza, J; Cheng, H; Edwards, R L; Willenbring, J K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">466</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3687224"> <span id="translatedtitle">Early <span class="hlt">maximum</span> extent of paleoglaciers from Mediterranean mountains during the last glaciation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mountain glaciers respond directly to changes in precipitation and temperature, thus their margin extent is a high-sensitivity climate proxy. Here, we present a robust 10Be chronology for the glacier <span class="hlt">maximum</span> areal extent of central Spain paleoglaciers dated at 26.1 ± 1.3?ka BP. These glaciers <span class="hlt">reached</span> their <span class="hlt">maximum</span> extent several thousand years earlier than those from central Europe due to the increased precipitation within a cold period between 25 to 29?ka BP, as confirmed by a local speleothem record. These paleoclimate conditions impacted the <span class="hlt">maximum</span> extent of mountain glaciers along the western and central Mediterranean region. The cause and timing of the enhanced precipitation implies a southward shift of the North Atlantic Polar Front followed by storm tracks in response to changes in insolation via orbital parameters modulation. Thus, these mountain paleoglaciers from the Mediterranean region record an ocean-continent climate interaction triggered by external forcing.</p>