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1

Have We Reached a Maximum Astronomical Research Output?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The US astronomical research output during the past 50 yr has been growing at 6 times the population increase and we wonder whether that ratio can continue. I counted pages of the AJ and ApJ for the past 50 yr, and corrected them for changes in format, foreign input, online contributions, and population increases. For the combined two journals, the American astronomical output is still increasing at a current 128 pages per million people. The same is true for UK contributions to the MNRAS, except that those lag behind the US by 10 yr. For Europe I did not want to dilute the contributions in A&A from the major producers with those of the countries still developing major astronomical centers. Therefore I counted pages for France, Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands (FGIN) only. However, Europeans still publish many of their articles in MNRAS, in particular, and ApJ. Counting FGIN articles in all four journals showed a steady rise but with a 12 yr lag behind the US. We conclude that the astronomical research rates in all three regions have not yet reached a maximum.

Abt, Helmut A.

2010-08-01

2

Maximum grasping reach of operators possessing functional impairments of the upper extremities  

E-print Network

Level Classification** Muscles Affected Cervical - 7 (C-7) Thoracic - 2 (T-2) Thoracic - 4 (T-4) Thoracic - 12 (T-12) Lumbar - 5 (L-5) Tri cepts, extensor di gi torum Intercostal (between ribs) Lateral hamstrings tibialis posterior, peroneals... **Burke 1975 Apparatus The apparatus described in this section was used to measure the grasping reach of subjects who were wheelchair bound or ambulatory. Each subject was handicapped by a spinal injury or had some degree of motor function impairment...

Goebel, Lucky Arlan

2012-06-07

3

The effects of container size, frequency and extended horizontal reach on maximum acceptable weights of lifting for female industrial workers.  

PubMed

In the development of our present manual materials handling (MMH) guidelines (Snook, S.H., Ciriello, V.M., 1991. The design of manual tasks: revised tables of maximum acceptable weights and forces. Ergonomics 34, 1197-1213), the assumption was made that the effects of frequency on maximum acceptable weights (MAWs) of lifting with a large box (hand distance, 38 cm from chest) were similar to that of lifting with a small box (hand distance, 17 cm from chest). The first purpose of the present experiment was to investigate this assumption with female industrial workers. The second purpose was to study the effects of extended horizontal reach lifting (hand distance, 44.6 cm from chest) on MAWs as a confirmation of the results of a previous studies on this variable with males (Ciriello, V.M., Snook, S.H., Hughes, G.J., 1993. Further studies of psychophysically determined maximum acceptable weights and forces. Hum. Factors 35(1), 175-186; Ciriello, V.M., 2003. The effects of box size, frequency, and extended horizontal reach on maximum acceptable weights of lifting. Int. J. Ind. Ergon. 32, 115-120). Lastly, we studied the effects of high frequency (20 lifts/min) on MAWs of lifting. Ten female industrial workers performed 15 variations of lifting using our psychophysical methodology whereby the subjects were asked to select a workload they could sustain for 8h without "straining themselves or without becoming unusually tired weakened, overheated or out of breath". The results confirmed that MAWs of lifting with the large box was significantly effected by frequency. The frequency factor pattern in this study was similar to the frequency pattern from a previous study using the small box (Ciriello, V.M., Snook, S.H., 1983. A study of size distance height, and frequency effects on manual handling tasks. Hum. Factors 25(5), 473-483) for all fast frequencies down to one lift every 2 min with deviations of 7%, 15%, and 13% for the one lift every 5 and 30 min tasks and the one lift in 8h task, respectively. The effects of lifting with an extended horizontal reach decreased MAW 22% and 18% for the mid and center lift and the effects of the 20 lifts/min frequency resulted in a MAW that was 47% of a 1 lift/min MAW. Incorporating these results in future guidelines should improve the design of MMH tasks for female workers. PMID:16616883

Ciriello, Vincent M

2007-01-01

4

A Comparison of Scoring Options for Omitted and Not-Reached Items through the Recovery of IRT Parameters When Utilizing the Rasch Model and Joint Maximum Likelihood Estimation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper utilized the Rasch model and Joint Maximum Likelihood Estimation to study different scoring options for omitted and not-reached items. Three scoring treatments were studied. The first method treated omitted and not-reached items as "ignorable/blank". The second treatment, scored omits as incorrect with "0" and left not-reached as blank…

Custer, Michael; Sharairi, Sid; Swift, David

2012-01-01

5

On the Maximum Enstrophy Growth in Burgers Equation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The regularity of solutions of the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equation is controlled by the boundedness of the enstrophy ?. The best estimate available to-date for its rate of growth is d?/dt <= C?3, where C > 0, which was recently found to be sharp by Lu & Doering (2008). Applying straightforward time-integration to this instantaneous estimate leads to the possibility of loss of regularity in finite time, the so-called "blow-up", and therefore the central question is to establish sharpness of such finite-time bounds. We consider an analogous problem for Burgers equation which is used as a "toy model". The problem of saturation of finite-time estimates for the enstrophy growth is stated as a PDE-constrained optimization problem where the control variable phi represents the initial condition, which is solved numerically for a wide range of time windows T > 0 and initial enstrophies ?0. We find that the maximum enstrophy growth in finite time scales as ?0? with ? ? 3/2. The exponent is smaller than ? = 3 predicted by analytic means, therefore suggesting lack of sharpness of analytical estimates.

Ayala, Diego; Protas, Bartosz

2011-12-01

6

The vermetid gastropod Dendropoma maximum reduces coral growth and survival  

PubMed Central

Coral reefs are one of the most diverse systems on the planet; yet, only a small fraction of coral reef species have attracted scientific study. Here, we document strong deleterious effects of an often overlooked species—the vermetid gastropod, Dendropoma maximum—on growth and survival of reef-building corals. Our surveys of vermetids on Moorea (French Polynesia) revealed a negative correlation between the density of vermetids and the per cent cover of live coral. Furthermore, the incidence of flattened coral growth forms was associated with the presence of vermetids. We transplanted and followed the fates of focal colonies of four species of corals on natural reefs where we also manipulated presence/absence of vermetids. Vermetids reduced skeletal growth of focal corals by up to 81 per cent and survival by up to 52 per cent. Susceptibility to vermetids varied among coral species, suggesting that vermetids could shift coral community composition. Our work highlights the potential importance of a poorly studied gastropod to coral dynamics. PMID:20484230

Shima, Jeffrey S.; Osenberg, Craig W.; Stier, Adrian C.

2010-01-01

7

Growth and Maximum Size of Tiger Sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) in Hawaii  

E-print Network

Growth and Maximum Size of Tiger Sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) in Hawaii Carl G. Meyer1 *, Joseph M. O, Stanford University, Pacific Grove, California, United States of America Abstract Tiger sharks (Galecerdo cuvier) are apex predators characterized by their broad diet, large size and rapid growth. Tiger shark

8

Maximum photosynthetic efficiency of biomass growth: a criticism of some measurements  

SciTech Connect

The yield of biomass produced in a photosynthetic culture is an expression of the photosynthetic efficiency. Microbial cells consume energy for both growth and for maintenance. The bioenergetics of Chlorella cultures and the maximum growth yields obtained by various researchers are examined in this paper.

Lee, Y.K.; Pirt, S.J.

1982-02-01

9

"To change the world." Cairo conference reaches consensus on plan to stabilize world growth by 2015.  

PubMed

After 6 days of debate and 200 speakers during September 5-13, 1994, participants from 180 countries at the Cairo International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) agreed on a strategy for curbing global population growth over the next 20 years. The objective was sustained economic growth and sustainable development. In his opening remarks, UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali said that the objective was to balance humanity and the environment with the means to sustain life, and that the efficacy of the world economic order depended to some extent on the ICPD. Participants were urged to use rigor, tolerance, and conscience in conference deliberations. Men and women should have the right and the means to choose their families' futures. The preamble stated that the ICPD would probably be the last opportunity in the twentieth century to address globally the issues relating to population and development. UN Population Fund Executive Director Nafis Sadik remarked that the ICPD had the potential to change the world. Egyptian President Mohamed Hosni Mubarak was elected president of the ICPD. Mubarak stated that solutions to population problems must go beyond demographic accounting and incorporate change in social, economic, and cultural conditions. Norway's Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundtland stated that development in many countries never reached many women. She called it a hypocritical morality that allowed women to suffer and die from unwanted pregnancies, illegal abortions, and miserable living conditions. US Vice President Albert Gore called for comprehensive and holistic solutions. The essential features of social change would involve democracy, economic reform, low rates of inflation, low levels of corruption, sound environmental management, free and open markets, and access to developed country markets. Pakistan's Prime Minister Benazir urged the empowerment of women. Many expressed the concern about unsustainable consumption in industrialized countries. Prior world population conferences had been held in Rome (1954), Belgrade (1965), Bucharest (1974), and Mexico City (1984). The first World Plan of Action was adopted in 1974 and changed at the 1984 conference. PMID:12288776

1994-12-01

10

Predicting Marine Phytoplankton Maximum Growth Rates from Temperature: Improving on the Eppley Curve Using Quantile Regression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Eppley curve describes an exponential function that defines the maximum attainable daily growth rate of marine phytoplankton as a function of temperature. The curve was originally fitted by eye as the upper envelope of a data set, and despite its wide use, the reliability of this function has not been statistically tested. Our analysis of the data using quantile

Jan E. Bissinger; David J. S. Montagnes; Jonathan Sharples; David Atkinson

2008-01-01

11

Vortices, maximum growth and the problem of finite-time singularity formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we are interested in extreme vortex states leading to the maximum possible growth of palinstrophy in 2D viscous incompressible flows on periodic domains. This study is a part of a broader research effort motivated by the question about the finite-time singularity formation in the 3D Navier-Stokes system and aims at a systematic identification of the most singular flow behaviors. We extend the results reported in Ayala and Protas (2014 J. Fluid Mech. 742 340-67) where extreme vortex states were found leading to the growth of palinstrophy, both instantaneously and in finite time, which saturates the estimates obtained with rigorous methods of mathematical analysis. Here we uncover the vortex dynamics mechanisms responsible for such extreme behavior in time-dependent 2D flows. While the maximum palinstrophy growth is achieved at short times, the corresponding long-time evolution is characterized by some nontrivial features, such as vortex scattering events.

Ayala, Diego; Protas, Bartosz

2014-06-01

12

Maximum Shell Size, Growth Rate, and Maturation Age Correlate With Longevity in Bivalve Molluscs  

PubMed Central

Bivalve molluscs are newly discovered models of successful aging, and this invertebrate group includes Arctica islandica, with the longest metazoan life span. Despite an increasing biogerontological focus on bivalves, their life history traits in relation to maximum age are not as comprehensively understood as those in vertebrate model aging organisms. We explore the allometric scaling of longevity and the relationship between development schedules (time to maturity and growth rate) and longevity in the Bivalvia. Using a traditional nonphylogenetic approach and the phylogenetically independent contrasts method, the relationship among these life history parameters is analyzed. It is demonstrated that in bivalves, maximum shell size, development, and growth rates all associate with longevity. Our findings support the observations of life history patterns in mammals and fish. This is the first investigation into the relationship among longevity, size, and development schedules throughout this group, and the results strengthened by the control for phylogenetic independence. PMID:20966102

Richardson, C. A.; Austad, S. N.

2011-01-01

13

Expanding the reach of youth mentoring: partnering with youth for personal growth and social change.  

PubMed

The goals of youth mentoring have broadened from redressing youth problems to promoting positive youth development. Yet, many of the principles associated with contemporary conceptualizations of development found in the positive youth development (PYD) and community psychology (CP) literature have yet to be fully integrated into mentoring research and practice. These approaches place greater emphasis on youth as assets to their communities and the promotion of positive development through the cultivation of these assets, often by fostering collaborative partnerships between youth and adults to effect social change. In this paper, we examine how bringing these systemic, asset-oriented approaches more fully to bear on the youth mentoring process creates opportunities that may both extend the reach and deepen the impact of youth mentoring through the promotion of community, social, and individual change. PMID:23267749

Liang, Belle; Spencer, Renée; West, Jennifer; Rappaport, Nancy

2013-04-01

14

Examining the influence of substrates and temperature on maximum specific growth rate of denitrifiers.  

PubMed

Facilities across North America are designing plants to meet stringent limits of technology (LOT) treatment for nitrogen removal (3-5 mg/L total effluent nitrogen). The anoxic capacity requirements for meeting LOT treatment are dependent on the growth rates of the denitrifying organisms. The Blue Plains Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant (AWTP) is one of many facilities in the Chesapeake Bay region that is evaluating its ability to meet LOT treatment capability. The plant uses methanol as an external carbon source in a post-denitrification process. The process is very sensitive to denitrification in the winter. One approach to improve anoxic capacity utilization is to use an alternative substrate for denitrification in the winter to promote the growth of organisms that denitrify at higher rates. The aim of this study was to evaluate denitrification maximum specific growth rates for three substrates, acetate, corn syrup and methanol, at two temperatures (13 degrees C and 19 degrees C). These temperatures approximately reflect the minimum monthly and average annual wastewater temperature at the Blue Plains AWTP. The results suggest that the maximum specific growth rate (mu(max)) for corn syrup (1.3 d(-1)) and acetate (1.2 d(-1)) are higher than that for methanol (0.5d(-1)) at low temperature of 13 degrees C. A similar trend was observed at 19 degrees C. PMID:17163024

Mokhayeri, Y; Nichols, A; Murthy, S; Riffat, R; Dold, P; Takacs, I

2006-01-01

15

Persistent growth of CO2 emissions and implications for reaching climate targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Efforts to limit climate change below a given temperature level require that global emissions of CO2 cumulated over time remain below a limited quota. This quota varies depending on the temperature level, the desired probability of staying below this level and the contributions of other gases. In spite of this restriction, global emissions of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion and cement production have continued to grow by 2.5% per year on average over the past decade. Two thirds of the CO2 emission quota consistent with a 2 °C temperature limit has already been used, and the total quota will likely be exhausted in a further 30 years at the 2014 emissions rates. We show that CO2 emissions track the high end of the latest generation of emissions scenarios, due to lower than anticipated carbon intensity improvements of emerging economies and higher global gross domestic product growth. In the absence of more stringent mitigation, these trends are set to continue and further reduce the remaining quota until the onset of a potential new climate agreement in 2020. Breaking current emission trends in the short term is key to retaining credible climate targets within a rapidly diminishing emission quota.

Friedlingstein, P.; Andrew, R. M.; Rogelj, J.; Peters, G. P.; Canadell, J. G.; Knutti, R.; Luderer, G.; Raupach, M. R.; Schaeffer, M.; van Vuuren, D. P.; Le Quéré, C.

2014-10-01

16

Phytoplankton growth rates in the freshwater tidal reaches of the Schelde estuary (Belgium) estimated using a simple light-limited primary production model  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the course of 1996, phytoplankton was monitored in the turbid, freshwater tidal reaches of the Schelde estuary. Using a simple light-limited primary production model, phytoplankton growth rates were estimated to evaluate whether phytoplankton could attain net positive growth rates and whether growth rates were high enough for a bloom to develop. Two phytoplankton blooms were observed in the freshwater

Koenraad Muylaert; Micky Tackx; Wim Vyverman

2005-01-01

17

Effect of intercropping Panicum maximum var. Ntchisi and Lablab purpureus on the growth, herbage yield and chemical composition of Panicum maximum var. Ntchisi at different harvesting times.  

PubMed

The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of intercropping Panicum maximum var. Ntchisi and Lablab purpureus on the growth, herbage yield and chemical composition of P. maximum var. Ntchisi at different harvesting times at the Teaching and Research farm, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta in a randomized complete block design. Samples were collected at different harvesting times (8, 10, 12, 14 weeks after planting). The growth parameters which were plant height, leaf length, leaf number and tiller number measured showed that the intercropping of grass with legume were higher than in the sole plot of P. maximum var. Ntchisi. The plant yield was consistently higher (p < 0.05) in intercropped forages than in sole throughout the harvesting times. The crude protein contents of the forages were also higher for the intercropped across the treatments. The values of the fibre components were significantly different (p < 0.05) at different harvesting times and it was increasing as the harvesting time was increasing. From this study, considering the herbage yield and chemical composition of intecropping Panicum maximum var. Ntchisi and Lablab purpureus, they can be grazed by ruminant animals or harvested at 12 weeks after planting when the quality and quantity will support livestock productivity and can be conserved to be fed to ruminant animals during dry season when feed availability and quality are extremely low. PMID:24511710

Ojo, V O A; Dele, P A; Amole, T A; Anele, U Y; Adeoye, S A; Hassan, O A; Olanite, J A; Idowu, O J

2013-11-15

18

Pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster reaches its maximum in Ethiopia and correlates most strongly with ultra-violet radiation in sub-Saharan Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Pigmentation has a long history of investigation in evolutionary biology. In Drosophila melanogaster, latitudinal and altitudinal clines have been found but their underlying causes remain unclear. Moreover, most studies were conducted on cosmopolitan populations which have a relatively low level of genetic structure and diversity compared to sub-Saharan African populations. We investigated: 1) the correlation between pigmentation traits within and between the thorax and the fourth abdominal segment, and 2) their associations with different geographical and ecological variables, using 710 lines belonging to 30 sub-Saharan and cosmopolitan populations. Results Pigmentation clines substantially differed between sub-Saharan and cosmopolitan populations. While positive correlations with latitude have previously been described in Europe, India and Australia, in agreement with Bogert's rule or the thermal melanism hypothesis, we found a significant negative correlation in Africa. This correlation persisted even after correction for altitude, which in its turn showed a positive correlation with pigmentation independently from latitude. More importantly, we found that thoracic pigmentation reaches its maximal values in this species in high-altitude populations of Ethiopia (1,600-3,100 m). Ethiopian flies have a diffuse wide thoracic trident making the mesonotum and the head almost black, a phenotype that is absent from all other sub-Saharan or cosmopolitan populations including high-altitude flies from Peru (~3,400 m). Ecological analyses indicated that the variable most predictive of pigmentation in Africa, especially for the thorax, was ultra-violet (UV) intensity, consistent with the so-called Gloger's rule invoking a role of melanin in UV protection. Conclusion Our data suggest that different environmental factors may shape clinal variation in tropical and temperate regions, and may lead to the evolution of different degrees of melanism in different high altitude populations in the tropics. PMID:25115161

2014-01-01

19

Life-history correlates of maximum population growth rates in marine fishes.  

PubMed Central

Theory predicts that populations of animals with late maturity, low fecundity, large body size and low body growth rates will have low potential rates of population increase at low abundance. If this is true, then these traits may be used to predict the intrinsic rate of increase for species or populations, as well as extinction risks. We used life-history and population data for 63 stocks of commercially exploited fish species from the northeast Atlantic to test relationships between life-history parameters and the rate of population increase at low abundance. We used cross-taxonomic analyses among stocks and among species, and analyses that accounted for phylogenetic relationships. These analyses confirmed that large-bodied, slow-growing stocks and species had significantly lower rates of recruitment and adult production per spawning adult at low abundance. Furthermore, high ages at maturity were significantly correlated with low maximum recruit production. Contrary to expectation, fecundity was significantly negatively related to recruit production, due to its positive relationship with maximum body size. Our results support theoretical predictions, and suggest that a simply measured life-history parameter can provide a useful tool for predicting rates of recovery from low population abundance. PMID:12427316

Denney, Nicola H; Jennings, Simon; Reynolds, John D

2002-01-01

20

Modelling the effect of temperature on the maximum growth rates of phytoplankton populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional relationships which parameterize growth based on the Eppley temperature relationship for phytoplankton maximal growth rates are increasingly being used in marine and freshwater ecosystem models. In this paper, we demonstrate the effect of using such generalized relationships in modelling studies. Two suites of numerical experiments are carried out to investigate the sensitivity of models to generalized growth relationships. In

John R. Moisan; Tiffany A. Moisan; Mark R. Abbott

2002-01-01

21

Significance of river-aquifer interactions for reach-scale thermal patterns and trout growth potential in the Motueka River, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To assess whether reaches of the Motueka River (New Zealand) that gain water from groundwater were likely to represent significant cold-water refugia for brown trout during periods of high water temperatures, water temperature was monitored for more than 18 months in two gaining reaches of the Motueka River and three reaches that were predicted to be losing water to groundwater. These data were used to predict brown trout ( Salmo trutta) growth in gaining and losing reaches. Groundwater inputs had a small effect on water temperature at the reach-scale and modelling suggests that the differences observed were unlikely to result in appreciable differences in trout growth. Several coldwater patches were identified within the study reach that were up to 3.5°C cooler than the mainstem, but these were generally shallow and were unlikely to provide refuge for adult trout. The exception was Hinetai Spring, which had a mean water temperature of close to 16°C during the period January-March, when temperatures in the mainstem regularly exceeded 19°C. Trout were observed within the cold-water plume at the mouth of Hinetai Stream, which would allow them to thermoregulate when mainstem temperatures are unfavourable while still being able to capitalise on food resources available in the mainstem.

Olsen, Dean A.; Young, Roger G.

2009-02-01

22

Growth of Lake Trout in Lake Superior before the Maximum Abundance of Sea Lampreys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth in length of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from the inshore water of Lake Superior in 1953 increased with age from the 3rd to 9th year, and was nearly constant from the 9th to the 12th year. Growth was greatest in the 1st year (4.0 inches) and least in the 2nd and 3rd years (2.3 inches). Between the 4th

Jerold F. Rahrer

1967-01-01

23

Correlation between maximum crystal growth rate and glass transition temperature of silicate glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent publications demonstrate that the maximum homogeneous nucleation rates, Imax, of silicate glasses strongly diminish with the reduced glass transition temperature, Tgr (=Tg\\/Tm\\/L, where Tg is the glass transition temperature and Tm\\/L is the melting point or liquidus temperature). In addition, the critical cooling rates for metallic glass formation, Rc, also drop with rising Tgr. From these empirical observations as

Vladimir M. Fokin; Marcio L. F. Nascimento; Edgar D. Zanotto

2005-01-01

24

Physiological and growth responses of C3 and C4 plants at the Pleistocene glacial maximum  

SciTech Connect

A C3 plant (Abutilon theophrasti) and a C4 plant (Amaranthus retroflexus) were grown from seed in the Duke University Phytotron under four CO2 concentrations (15 Pa, below the Pleistocene minimum), 27 Pa (pre-industrial), 35 Pa (current), and 70 Pa (future) to examine photosynthetic, growth and reproduction responses of annual plants to historic and future levels of CO2. Net photosynthesis and growth were greatly inhibited at 15 Pa and greatly stimulated at 70 Pa. in the C3 Abutilon but only slightly affected in the C4 Amaranthus. Flower bud initiation was not affected by CO2 treatment in either species but all flower buds in 15 Pa CO2 aborted in the C3 within two days of appearance while no inhibition of reproduction was observed at low CO2 in the C4. Differences in physiology, growth and reproduction to the low levels of atmospheric CO2 of the Pleistocene suggest that competitive interactions of C3 and C4 annuals have changed through geologic time. A major question concerning the survival and evolution of obligate C3 annuals during the CO2 minima of the Pleistocene is raised by the results of this study.

Strain, B.R. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)

1995-06-01

25

Applications of the maximum term and the central index in the asymptotic growth analysis of entire solutions to higher dimensional polynomial Cauchy–Riemann equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we deal with entire Clifford algebra valued solutions to polynomial Cauchy–Riemann equations in higher dimensional Euclidean spaces. We introduce generalizations of the maximum term and the central index within the context of this family of elliptic partial differential equations. These notions enable us to perform a basic study of the asymptotic growth behaviour of entire solutions to

Denis Constales; Regina De Almeida; Rolf Sören Kraußhar

2008-01-01

26

Paclobutrazol and plant-growth promoting bacterial endophyte Pantoea sp. enhance copper tolerance of guinea grass ( Panicum maximum ) in hydroponic culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

As most gramineous plants, guinea grass (Panicum maximum) comprise cellulosic biomass, which may be used as a feedstock for bioenergy. In order to develop such potential energy plants\\u000a on copper-polluted lands, the hydroponic experiments with Cu, Paclobutrazol (PP333, a kind of antigibberellin) and plant growth-promoting\\u000a bacterial endophyte (PGPB) treatments were carried out in a greenhouse. The seedlings of two cultivars

Wei HuoChun-hua; Chun-hua Zhuang; Ya Cao; Meng Pu; Hui Yao; Lai-qing Lou; Qing-sheng Cai

27

REACH. Refrigeration Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of refrigeration. The instructional units focus on refrigeration fundamentals, tubing and pipe, refrigerants, troubleshooting, window air conditioning, and…

Snow, Rufus; And Others

28

REALIZING POTENTIAL REACHING BEYOND  

E-print Network

, behavioral and social-emotional development and functioning of individuals across educational, familialREALIZING POTENTIAL REACHING BEYOND Nebraska Center for Research on Children, Youth, Families on Children, Youth, Families and Schools has served as the nucleus of collaborative efforts to help its

Farritor, Shane

29

Reaching for the Stars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dr. Mae Jemison is the world's first woman astronaut of color who continues to reach for the stars. Jemison was recently successful in leading a team that has secured a $500,000 federal grant to make interstellar space travel a reality. The Dorothy Jemison Foundation for Excellence (named after Jemison's mother) was selected in June by the Defense…

Terry, Dorothy Givens

2012-01-01

30

REACH. Heating Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized units in the area of heating. The instructional units focus on electric heating systems, gas heating systems, and oil burning systems. Each unit follows a typical format that includes a unit…

Stanfield, Carter; And Others

31

REACH. Air Conditioning Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

Garrison, Joe; And Others

32

Maximum Likelihood  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This material introduces the basic theory of maximum likelihood estimation by discussing the likelihood function, the log likelihood function, and maximizing these functions using calculus. Several exercises ask students to derive certain estimators, while others have students compare the behavior of those estimators with other possibilities through the use of various JAVA applets. The applets use the same control features: the sliders set the parameter values, the ÃÂStop #ÃÂ drop down menu sets the number of samples taken, the ÃÂUpdate #ÃÂ drop down menu sets how often the graph and tables update during the experiment, the single arrow takes one sample, the double arrow runs the full experiment, the square stops the experiment, and the back arrow resets the applet. This page is one lesson from the Virtual Laboratories in Statistics.

Siegrist, Kyle

2009-07-20

33

Pretoria Centre Reaches Out  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 5 July 2014 six members of the Pretoria Centre of ASSA braved the light pollution of one of the shopping malls in Centurion to reach out to shoppers a la John Dobson and to show them the moon, Mars and Saturn. Although the centre hosts regular monthly public observing evenings, it was felt that we should take astronomy to the people rather than wait for the people to come to us.

Olivier, Bosman

2014-08-01

34

High Performance “Reach” Codes  

E-print Network

Jim Edelson New Buildings Institute A Growing Role for Codes and Stretch Codes in Utility Programs Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency November 9, 2011 ESL-KT-11-11-39 CATEE 2011, Dallas, Texas, Nov. 7 ? 9, 2011 New Buildings Institute ESL..., Nov. 7 ? 9, 2011 ?31? Flavors of Codes ? Building Codes Construction Codes Energy Codes Stretch or Reach Energy Codes Above-code programs Green or Sustainability Codes Model Codes ?Existing Building? Codes Outcome-Based Codes ESL-KT-11...

Edelson, J.

2011-01-01

35

Treponema pallidum 3-phosphoglycerate mutase is a heat-labile enzyme that may limit the maximum growth temperature for the spirochete.  

PubMed

In the causative agent of syphilis, Treponema pallidum, the gene encoding 3-phosphoglycerate mutase, gpm, is part of a six-gene operon (tro operon) that is regulated by the Mn-dependent repressor TroR. Since substrate-level phosphorylation via the Embden-Meyerhof pathway is the principal way to generate ATP in T. pallidum and Gpm is a key enzyme in this pathway, Mn could exert a regulatory effect on central metabolism in this bacterium. To study this, T. pallidum gpm was cloned, Gpm was purified from Escherichia coli, and antiserum against the recombinant protein was raised. Immunoblots indicated that Gpm was expressed in freshly extracted infective T. pallidum. Enzyme assays indicated that Gpm did not require Mn(2+) while 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) was required for maximum activity. Consistent with these observations, Mn did not copurify with Gpm. The purified Gpm was stable for more than 4 h at 25 degrees C, retained only 50% activity after incubation for 20 min at 34 degrees C or 10 min at 37 degrees C, and was completely inactive after 10 min at 42 degrees C. The temperature effect was attenuated when 1 mM DPG was added to the assay mixture. The recombinant Gpm from pSLB2 complemented E. coli strain PL225 (gpm) and restored growth on minimal glucose medium in a temperature-dependent manner. Increasing the temperature of cultures of E. coli PL225 harboring pSLB2 from 34 to 42 degrees C resulted in a 7- to 11-h period in which no growth occurred (compared to wild-type E. coli). These data suggest that biochemical properties of Gpm could be one contributing factor to the heat sensitivity of T. pallidum. PMID:11466272

Benoit, S; Posey, J E; Chenoweth, M R; Gherardini, F C

2001-08-01

36

Treponema pallidum 3-Phosphoglycerate Mutase Is a Heat-Labile Enzyme That May Limit the Maximum Growth Temperature for the Spirochete  

PubMed Central

In the causative agent of syphilis, Treponema pallidum, the gene encoding 3-phosphoglycerate mutase, gpm, is part of a six-gene operon (tro operon) that is regulated by the Mn-dependent repressor TroR. Since substrate-level phosphorylation via the Embden-Meyerhof pathway is the principal way to generate ATP in T. pallidum and Gpm is a key enzyme in this pathway, Mn could exert a regulatory effect on central metabolism in this bacterium. To study this, T. pallidum gpm was cloned, Gpm was purified from Escherichia coli, and antiserum against the recombinant protein was raised. Immunoblots indicated that Gpm was expressed in freshly extracted infective T. pallidum. Enzyme assays indicated that Gpm did not require Mn2+ while 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) was required for maximum activity. Consistent with these observations, Mn did not copurify with Gpm. The purified Gpm was stable for more than 4 h at 25°C, retained only 50% activity after incubation for 20 min at 34°C or 10 min at 37°C, and was completely inactive after 10 min at 42°C. The temperature effect was attenuated when 1 mM DPG was added to the assay mixture. The recombinant Gpm from pSLB2 complemented E. coli strain PL225 (gpm) and restored growth on minimal glucose medium in a temperature-dependent manner. Increasing the temperature of cultures of E. coli PL225 harboring pSLB2 from 34 to 42°C resulted in a 7- to 11-h period in which no growth occurred (compared to wild-type E. coli). These data suggest that biochemical properties of Gpm could be one contributing factor to the heat sensitivity of T. pallidum. PMID:11466272

Benoit, Stéphane; Posey, James E.; Chenoweth, Matthew R.; Gherardini, Frank C.

2001-01-01

37

Ethanol Production and Maximum Cell Growth Are Highly Correlated with Membrane Lipid Composition during Fermentation as Determined by Lipidomic Analysis of 22 Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains  

PubMed Central

Optimizing ethanol yield during fermentation is important for efficient production of fuel alcohol, as well as wine and other alcoholic beverages. However, increasing ethanol concentrations during fermentation can create problems that result in arrested or sluggish sugar-to-ethanol conversion. The fundamental cellular basis for these problem fermentations, however, is not well understood. Small-scale fermentations were performed in a synthetic grape must using 22 industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (primarily wine strains) with various degrees of ethanol tolerance to assess the correlation between lipid composition and fermentation kinetic parameters. Lipids were extracted at several fermentation time points representing different growth phases of the yeast to quantitatively analyze phospholipids and ergosterol utilizing atmospheric pressure ionization-mass spectrometry methods. Lipid profiling of individual fermentations indicated that yeast lipid class profiles do not shift dramatically in composition over the course of fermentation. Multivariate statistical analysis of the data was performed using partial least-squares linear regression modeling to correlate lipid composition data with fermentation kinetic data. The results indicate a strong correlation (R2 = 0.91) between the overall lipid composition and the final ethanol concentration (wt/wt), an indicator of strain ethanol tolerance. One potential component of ethanol tolerance, the maximum yeast cell concentration, was also found to be a strong function of lipid composition (R2 = 0.97). Specifically, strains unable to complete fermentation were associated with high phosphatidylinositol levels early in fermentation. Yeast strains that achieved the highest cell densities and ethanol concentrations were positively correlated with phosphatidylcholine species similar to those known to decrease the perturbing effects of ethanol in model membrane systems. PMID:23064336

Henderson, Clark M.; Lozada-Contreras, Michelle; Jiranek, Vladimir; Longo, Marjorie L.

2013-01-01

38

Reaching Beyond The Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strawbridge Observatory at Haverford College is home to a undergraduate-led public observing program. Our program holds ~once monthly public events throughout the academic year that take advantage of eyepiece observing on our 16-inch and 12-inch telescopes as well as of the classroom, library, and projection system. These resources allow us to organize a variety of astronomy related activities that are engaging for individuals of all ages: accessible student talks, current film screenings and even arts and crafts for the families who attend with young children. These events aim to spark curiosity in others about scientific discovery and about the remarkable nature of the world in which we live. In addition to exciting local families about astronomy, this program has excited Haverford students from a range of disciplines about both science and education. Being entirely student led means that we are able to take the initiative in planning, coordinating and running all events, fostering an atmosphere of collaboration, experimentation and commitment amongst our volunteers. Additionally, this program is one of the few at Haverford that regularly reaches beyond the campus walls to promote and build relationships with the outside community. In light of this, our program presents a distinctive and enlightening opportunity for student volunteers: we get to use our scientific backgrounds to educate a general audience, while also learning from them about how to communicate and inspire in others the excitement we feel about the subject of astronomy. The work on this project has been supported by NSF AST-1151462.

Baker, Mariah; Rosenthal, L.; Gaughan, A.; Hopkins, E.

2014-01-01

39

Effects of Experimental High Flow Releases and Increased Fluctuations in Flow from Glen Canyon Dam on Abundance, Growth, and Survival Rates of Early Life Stages of Rainbow Trout in the Lee's Ferry Reach of the Colorado River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The abundance of adult fish populations is controlled by the growth and survival rates of early life stages. Evaluating the effects of flow regimes on early life stages is therefore critical to determine how these regimes affect the abundance of adult populations. Experimental high flow releases from Glen Canyon Dam, primarily intended to conserve fine sediment and improve habitat conditions for native fish in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, AZ, have been conducted in 1996, 2004, and 2008. These flows potentially affect the Lee's Ferry reach rainbow trout population, located immediately downstream of the dam, which supports a highly valued fishery and likely influences the abundance of rainbow trout in Grand Canyon. Due to concerns about negative effects of high trout abundance on endangered native fish, hourly variation in flow from Glen Canyon Dam was experimentally increased between 2003 and 2005 to reduce trout abundance. This study reports on the effects of experimental high flow releases and fluctuating flows on early life stages of rainbow trout in the Lee's Ferry reach based on monthly sampling of redds (egg nests) and the abundance and growth of age-0 trout between 2003 and 2009. Data on spawn timing, spawning elevations, and intergravel temperatures were integrated in a model to estimate the magnitude and seasonal trend in incubation mortality resulting from redd dewatering due to fluctuations in flow. Experimental fluctuations from January through March promoted spawning at higher elevations where the duration of dewatering was longer and intergravel temperatures exceeded lethal thresholds. Flow-dependent incubation mortality rates were 24% (2003) and 50% (2004) in years with higher flow fluctuations, compared to 5-11% under normal operations (2006-2009). Spatial and temporal predictions of mortality were consistent with direct observations of egg mortality determined from the excavation of 125 redds. The amount of variation in backcalculated hatch date distributions predicted by flow-independent (84-93%) and flow-dependent (82-91%) incubation loss models were similar. Age-0 abundance was generally independent of viable egg deposition, except in one year when egg deposition was 10-fold lower due to reduced spawning activity. There was no evidence from the hatch date or stock-recruitment analysis that flow-dependent incubation losses, although large in experimental years, affected the abundance of the age-0 population. The data indicate that strong compensation in survival rates shortly after emergence mitigated the impact of flow-dependent losses. Multiple lines of evidence demonstrated that the March 2008 high flow experiment (HFE) resulted in a large increase in early survival rates (fertilization to ~1-2 months from emergence) of age-0 trout due an improvement in habitat conditions. A stock-recruitment analysis indicated that age-0 abundance in July 2008 was over four-fold higher than expected given the number of viable redds that produced these fish. A hatch date analysis indicated that early survival rates were much higher for cohorts that emerged about two months after the HFE. These cohorts, which were fertilized after the HFE, were not exposed to high flows and emerged into better quality habitat. Inter annual differences in growth of age-0 trout based on otolith microstructure support this hypothesis. Growth rates in the summer and fall of 2008 (0.44 mm·day-1) were virtually the same as in 2006 (0.46 mm·day-1), the highest recorded over six years, even though abundance was eight-fold greater in 2008. I speculate that high flows in 2008 increased interstitial spaces in the substrate and food availability or quality, leading to higher early survival of recently emerged trout and better growth during summer and fall. Abundance in 2009 was over two-fold higher than expected, possibly indicating that the effect of the HFE on early life stages was somewhat persistent.

Korman, Josh

2010-05-01

40

Maximum plant height and the biophysical factors that limit it.  

PubMed

Basic engineering theory and empirically determined allometric relationships for the biomass partitioning patterns of extant tree-sized plants show that the mechanical requirements for vertical growth do not impose intrinsic limits on the maximum heights that can be reached by species with woody, self-supporting stems. This implies that maximum tree height is constrained by other factors, among which hydraulic constraints are plausible. A review of the available information on scaling relationships observed for large tree-sized plants, nevertheless, indicates that mechanical and hydraulic requirements impose dual restraints on plant height and thus, may play equally (but differentially) important roles during the growth of arborescent, large-sized species. It may be the case that adaptations to mechanical and hydraulic phenomena have optimized growth, survival and reproductive success rather than longevity and mature size. PMID:17241985

Niklas, Karl J

2007-03-01

41

The most rapid possible growth of the maximum modulus of a canonical product of noninteger order with a prescribed majorant of the counting function of zeros  

SciTech Connect

Asymptotically sharp estimates for the logarithm of the maximum modulus of a canonical product are obtained in the case when the counting function of zeros has a prescribed majorant, while the arguments of the zeros can be arbitrary. Bibliography: 9 titles.

Popov, Anton Yu [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2013-05-31

42

Polyamine concentrations in four Poa species, differing in their maximum relative growth rate, grown with free access to nitrate and at limiting nitrate supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyamines are thought to play a role in the control of inherent or environmentally-induced growth rates of plants. To test this contention, we grew plants of four grass species, the inherently fast-growing Poa annua L. and Poa trivialis L. and the inherently slow-growing Poa compressa L. and Poa pratensis (L.) Schreb., at three levels of nitrate supply. Firstly, plants were

Emanuil Karanov; Vera Alexieva; Hans Lambers

1998-01-01

43

weight of 7.1 kg. The growth rates were very low, the animals reaching the weight of 22-23 kg at six months, 60 kg at 12 months and ioo kg at 18 months. Some data uneasily collected on  

E-print Network

weight of 7.1 kg. The growth rates were very low, the animals reaching the weight of 22-23 kg performance testing methods intended for more conventional environments. He may attempt to determine. In addition hardy breeds may be used as laboratory animals. Heritability of individual performance in a pig

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

44

Reaching ignition in the tokamak  

SciTech Connect

This review covers the following areas: (1) the physics of burning plasmas, (2) plasma physics requirements for reaching ignition, (3) design studies for ignition devices, and (4) prospects for an ignition project. (MOW)

Furth, H.P.

1985-06-01

45

Out of your hand's reach, out of my eyes' reach  

Microsoft Academic Search

When witnessing another's action, people recruit the same motor resources that enable them to efficiently perform that action, thus gazing at its target well before the agent's hand. But just to what extent does this recruitment help people in grabbing another's action target? If the latter seems to be out of the agent's reach, will this impact on people's gaze

Marcello Costantini; Ettore Ambrosini; Corrado Sinigaglia

2012-01-01

46

INSIDE THIS ISSUE: Reaching farmers  

E-print Network

, across Minnesota, youth, community leaders, business owners, teachers and farmers engage with University community projects-- and the list goes on--Minnesotans learn new skills, make better decisions and take and families, to community leadership and economic development. The University's impact reaches into every

Blanchette, Robert A.

47

Microgravity Science Glovebox - Interior Reach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photo shows the interior reach in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) being developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Scientists will use the MSG to carry out multidisciplinary studies in combustion science, fluid physics and materials science. The MSG is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Photo Credit: NASA/MSFC

1997-01-01

48

Astronomical reach of fundamental physics.  

PubMed

Using basic physical arguments, we derive by dimensional and physical analysis the characteristic masses and sizes of important objects in the universe in terms of just a few fundamental constants. This exercise illustrates the unifying power of physics and the profound connections between the small and the large in the cosmos we inhabit. We focus on the minimum and maximum masses of normal stars, the corresponding quantities for neutron stars, the maximum mass of a rocky planet, the maximum mass of a white dwarf, and the mass of a typical galaxy. To zeroth order, we show that all these masses can be expressed in terms of either the Planck mass or the Chandrasekar mass, in combination with various dimensionless quantities. With these examples, we expose the deep interrelationships imposed by nature between disparate realms of the universe and the amazing consequences of the unifying character of physical law. PMID:24477692

Burrows, Adam S; Ostriker, Jeremiah P

2014-02-18

49

Astronomical reach of fundamental physics  

PubMed Central

Using basic physical arguments, we derive by dimensional and physical analysis the characteristic masses and sizes of important objects in the universe in terms of just a few fundamental constants. This exercise illustrates the unifying power of physics and the profound connections between the small and the large in the cosmos we inhabit. We focus on the minimum and maximum masses of normal stars, the corresponding quantities for neutron stars, the maximum mass of a rocky planet, the maximum mass of a white dwarf, and the mass of a typical galaxy. To zeroth order, we show that all these masses can be expressed in terms of either the Planck mass or the Chandrasekar mass, in combination with various dimensionless quantities. With these examples, we expose the deep interrelationships imposed by nature between disparate realms of the universe and the amazing consequences of the unifying character of physical law. PMID:24477692

Burrows, Adam S.; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

2014-01-01

50

Records Reaching Recording Data Technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of RECORDS (Reaching Recording Data Technologies) is the digital capturing of buildings and cultural heritage objects in hard-to-reach areas and the combination of data. It is achieved by using a modified crane from film industry, which is able to carry different measuring systems. The low-vibration measurement should be guaranteed by a gyroscopic controlled advice that has been , developed for the project. The data were achieved by using digital photography, UV-fluorescence photography, infrared reflectography, infrared thermography and shearography. Also a terrestrial 3D laser scanner and a light stripe topography scanner have been used The combination of the recorded data should ensure a complementary analysis of monuments and buildings.

Gresik, G. W. L.; Siebe, S.; Drewello, R.

2013-07-01

51

The Waldmeier rule and early diagnostics of the maximum of the current solar cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The well known Waldmeier rule and its modifications applied to forecasting of the solar activity are discussed. The maximum annual mean rate of the increase in the magnetic flux observed on the growth branch of the cycle is proposed as a predicting (diagnosing) parameter for the amplitude of the cycle currently in progress. The maximum Wolf number of the current (24th) cycle is estimated to reach 104 (±12) or more, and to occur in 2013 or later. The yearly average Wolf numbers observed during the 24th cycle are presented.

Nagovitsyn, Yu. A.; Kuleshova, A. I.

2012-10-01

52

Changes in biologically active ultraviolet radiation reaching the Earth's surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stratospheric ozone levels are near their lowest point since measurements began, so current ultraviolet-B (UV-B ) radiation levels are thought to be close to their maximum. Total stratospheric content of ozone-depleting substances is expected to reach a maximum before the year 2000. All other things eing equal, the current ozone losses and related UV-B increases should be close to their

S. Madronich; R. L. McKenzie; L. O. Björn; M. M. Caldwell; M. Ilyas

1998-01-01

53

Mirror versus parallel bimanual reaching  

PubMed Central

Background In spite of their importance to everyday function, tasks that require both hands to work together such as lifting and carrying large objects have not been well studied and the full potential of how new technology might facilitate recovery remains unknown. Methods To help identify the best modes for self-teleoperated bimanual training, we used an advanced haptic/graphic environment to compare several modes of practice. In a 2-by-2 study, we compared mirror vs. parallel reaching movements, and also compared veridical display to one that transforms the right hand’s cursor to the opposite side, reducing the area that the visual system has to monitor. Twenty healthy, right-handed subjects (5 in each group) practiced 200 movements. We hypothesized that parallel reaching movements would be the best performing, and attending to one visual area would reduce the task difficulty. Results The two-way comparison revealed that mirror movement times took an average 1.24 s longer to complete than parallel. Surprisingly, subjects’ movement times moving to one target (attending to one visual area) also took an average of 1.66 s longer than subjects moving to two targets. For both hands, there was also a significant interaction effect, revealing the lowest errors for parallel movements moving to two targets (p?reaching performance can be observed with parallel movements with a veridical display (moving to two separate targets). These results point to the expected levels of challenge for these bimanual training modes, which could be used to advise therapy choices in self-neurorehabilitation. PMID:23837908

2013-01-01

54

Physics Reach at Future Colliders  

SciTech Connect

The physics reach at future colliders is discussed, with focus on the Higgs sector. First we present the Standard Model and some results obtained at the existing high-energy hadron collider, Tevatron, together with the corresponding expectations for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which starts operating in 2008. Then we discuss important low energy measurements: the anomalous magnetic moment for muon and the leptonic B-decay together with b{yields}s{gamma}. Finally the potential of the planned e{sup +}e{sup -} International Linear Collider (ILC) and its possible option Photon Linear Collider (PLC), e{gamma} and {gamma}{gamma}, is shortly presented.

Krawczyk, Maria [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Hoz-dota 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

2007-11-27

55

[Patterns of individual growth of gray garden slug Deroceras reticulatum].  

PubMed

Individual growth of gray garden slug Deroceras reticulatum was studied under laboratory conditions in the period from collection to death. The studied population demonstrated different patterns of growth. Three groups of slugs were recognized: (1) slugs that reached the maximum weight after 4 months of raring, after which their weight rapidly decreased (the life span in culture was 6-7 months); (2) slugs that have not reached the maximum weight until death (the life span was 6-7 months); (3) slugs that reached the maximum weight after 7-8 months, after which their weight oscillated with a trend to decrease (the life span was about 10 months). The obtained data were approximated by the equation of finite growth. PMID:18038621

Zotin, A A

2007-01-01

56

Stellar disks Maximum disk  

E-print Network

& Stellar Systems 5, ch.21 (1965) 7 P.C. van der Kruit & K.C. Freeman, K.C., Ap.J. 303, 556 (1986) Piet vanOutline Stellar disks Maximum disk Truncations Conclusions STRUCTURE, MASS AND STABILITY Stellar disks Maximum disk Truncations Conclusions Outline Stellar disks Vertical stellar dynamics Stellar

Kruit, Piet van der

57

Growth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Introduction to models of economic growth with a great deal of focus on the Solow Growth Model both its theory and testing it with data. Also contains a discussion of the effects of the Greenspan Put. From a macroeconomics course at the the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Technology, Massachusetts I.

58

Morphodynamics of a pseudomeandering gravel bar reach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large number of rivers in Tuscany have channel planforms, which are neither straight nor what is usually understood as meandering. In the typical case, they consist of an almost straight, slightly incised main channel fringed with large lateral bars and lunate-shaped embayments eroded into the former flood plain. In the past, these rivers have not been recognised as an individual category and have often been considered to be either braided or meandering. It is suggested here that this type of river planform be termed pseudomeandering. A typical pseudomeandering river (the Cecina River) is described and analysed to investigate the main factors responsible for producing this channel pattern. A study reach (100×300 m) was surveyed in detail and related to data on discharge, channel changes after floods and grain-size distribution of bed sediments. During 18 months of topographic monitoring, the inner lateral bar in the study reach expanded and migrated towards the concave outer bank which, concurrently, retreated by as much as 25 m. A sediment balance was constructed to analyse bar growth and bank retreat in relation to sediment supply and channel morphology. The conditions necessary to maintain the pseudomeandering morphology of these rivers by preventing them from developing a meandering planform, are discussed and interpreted as a combination of a few main factors such as the flashy character of floods, sediment supply (influenced by both natural processes and human impact), the morphological effects of discharges with contrasting return intervals and the short duration of flood events. Finally, the channel response to floods with variable sediment transport capacity (represented by bed shear stress) is analysed using a simple model. It is demonstrated that bend migration is associated with moderate floods while major floods are responsible for the development of chute channels, which act to suppress bend growth and maintain the low sinuosity configuration of the river.

Bartholdy, J.; Billi, P.

2002-01-01

59

Maximum thrust mode evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measured reductions in acceleration times which resulted from the application of the F-15 performance seeking control (PSC) maximum thrust mode during the dual-engine test phase is presented as a function of power setting and flight condition. Data were collected at altitudes of 30,000 and 45,000 feet at military and maximum afterburning power settings. The time savings for the supersonic acceleration is less than at subsonic Mach numbers because of the increased modeling and control complexity. In addition, the propulsion system was designed to be optimized at the mid supersonic Mach number range. Recall that even though the engine is at maximum afterburner, PSC does not trim the afterburner for the maximum thrust mode. Subsonically at military power, time to accelerate from Mach 0.6 to 0.95 was cut by between 6 and 8 percent with a single engine application of PSC, and over 14 percent when both engines were optimized. At maximum afterburner, the level of thrust increases were similar in magnitude to the military power results, but because of higher thrust levels at maximum afterburner and higher aircraft drag at supersonic Mach numbers the percentage thrust increase and time to accelerate was less than for the supersonic accelerations. Savings in time to accelerate supersonically at maximum afterburner ranged from 4 to 7 percent. In general, the maximum thrust mode has performed well, demonstrating significant thrust increases at military and maximum afterburner power. Increases of up to 15 percent at typical combat-type flight conditions were identified. Thrust increases of this magnitude could be useful in a combat situation.

Orme, John S.; Nobbs, Steven G.

1995-01-01

60

Agreement Reached on Fiji Hostages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fiji's military rulers and the group of gunmen holding 31 members of the former government hostage have apparently reached a deal that will end the five-week political crisis and free the hostages "within days." The crisis began when a group led by George Speight raided the parliament building on May 19, demanding more power for indigenous Fijians. Most of the demands made by Speight -- that the 1997 multiracial constitution be thrown out and that Prime Minister Mahendra Chaudhry, Fiji's first prime minister of Indian descent, be fired -- have already been met. In the 36 days since the storming of parliament, Fiji's economy has entered a steep downward spiral. On May 29, the military declared martial law and assumed control of the government. On June 6, Fiji was suspended from the Commonwealth, and Australia, New Zealand, and the United States have threatened economic sanctions if Fiji is not restored to democracy. Meanwhile, Australian trade unions have refused to handle cargo to and from Fiji, freezing much of the country's exports. The garment, sugar, and tourism industries have all reported large losses and layoffs. The military regime has announced that the details of the deal will be made known tomorrow, and the hostages will then be released. Previous announcements regarding their release, however, have come to nothing. Once the immediate crisis is solved, the military has said they will continue to run the country for another three months and would then create an interim government to make preparations for new elections within two years.

De Nie, Michael W.

61

Maximum ratio transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the concept, principles, and analysis of maximum ratio transmission for wireless communications, where multiple antennas are used for both transmission and reception. The principles and analysis are applicable to general cases, including maximum-ratio combining. Simulation results agree with the analysis. The analysis shows that the average overall signal-to-mise ratio (SNR) is proportional to the cross correlation between

Titus K. Y. Lo

1999-01-01

62

The Performance of Left-Handed Participants on a Preferential Reaching Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research in our laboratory has examined the distribution of preferred hand (PH) reaches in working space with right-handed participants. In one study, we examined the effects of tool position and task demands on the frequency of PH reaches with right-handers (Mamolo, Roy, Bryden, & Rohr, 2004). We found that PH reaches were at a maximum…

Mamolo, Carla M.; Roy, Eric A.; Bryden, Pamela J.; Rohr, Linda E.

2005-01-01

63

Tuning in to Another Person's Action Capabilities: Perceiving Maximal Jumping-Reach Height from Walking Kinematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments investigated the ability to perceive the maximum height to which another actor could jump to reach an object. Experiment 1 determined the accuracy of estimates for another actor's maximal reach-with-jump height and compared these estimates to estimates of the actor's standing maximal reaching height and to estimates of the…

Ramenzoni, Veronica; Riley, Michael A.; Davis, Tehran; Shockley, Kevin; Armstrong, Rachel

2008-01-01

64

Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood Methods Comparisons and Bootstrap Tests  

E-print Network

Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood Methods Comparisons and Bootstrap Tests Character Likelihood Methods Comparisons and Bootstrap Tests Character Reconstruction PHYLIP and T-REX Exercises Outline 1 Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood 2 Methods Comparisons and Bootstrap Tests 3 Character

Qiu, Weigang

65

Seasonal growth in Laminaria longicruris : Relations with dissolved inorganic nutrients and internal reserves of nitrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations have been made on seasonal fluctuations in dissolved inorganic nutrients, internal reserves of nitrogen and growth rates in Laminaria longicruris. The onset of winter growth in shallow-water stations (6 and 9 m) correlated well with improved dissolved nitrate conditions in the sea. During the winter, reserves of NO3-were accumulated by the plants and reached maximum values of 150 µmoles

A. R. O. Chapman; J. S. Craigie

1977-01-01

66

Distribution of the time at which N vicious walkers reach their maximal height  

E-print Network

We study the extreme statistics of N non-intersecting Brownian motions (vicious walkers) over a unit time interval in one dimension. Using path-integral techniques we compute exactly the joint distribution of the maximum M and of the time \\tau_M at which this maximum is reached. We focus in particular on non-intersecting Brownian bridges ("watermelons without wall") and non-intersecting Brownian excursions ("watermelons with a wall"). We discuss in detail the relationships between such vicious walkers models in watermelons configurations and stochastic growth models in curved geometry on the one hand and the directed polymer in a disordered medium (DPRM) with one free end-point on the other hand. We also check our results using numerical simulations of Dyson's Brownian motion and confront them with numerical simulations of the Polynuclear Growth Model (PNG) and of a model of DPRM on a discrete lattice. Some of the results presented here were announced in a recent letter [J. Rambeau and G. Schehr, Europhys. Lett. 91, 60006 (2010)].

Joachim Rambeau; Gregory Schehr

2011-02-08

67

Growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter is devoted to the growth of ZnO. It starts with various techniques to grow bulk samples and presents in some detail the growth of epitaxial layers by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), and pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The last section is devoted to the growth of nanorods. Some properties of the resulting samples are also presented. If a comparison between GaN and ZnO is made, very often the huge variety of different growth techniques available to fabricate ZnO is said to be an advantage of this material system. Indeed, growth techniques range from low cost wet chemical growth at almost room temperature to high quality MOCVD growth at temperatures above 1, 000?C. In most cases, there is a very strong tendency of c-axis oriented growth, with a much higher growth rate in c-direction as compared to other crystal directions. This often leads to columnar structures, even at relatively low temperatures. However, it is, in general, not straight forward to fabricate smooth ZnO thin films with flat surfaces. Another advantage of a potential ZnO technology is said to be the possibility to grow thin films homoepitaxially on ZnO substrates. ZnO substrates are mostly fabricated by vapor phase transport (VPT) or hydrothermal growth. These techniques are enabling high volume manufacturing at reasonable cost, at least in principle. The availability of homoepitaxial substrates should be beneficial to the development of ZnO technology and devices and is in contrast to the situation of GaN. However, even though a number of companies are developing ZnO substrates, only recently good quality substrates have been demonstrated. However, these substrates are not yet widely available. Still, the situation concerning ZnO substrates seems to be far from low-cost, high-volume production. The fabrication of dense, single crystal thin films is, in general, surprisingly difficult, even when ZnO is grown on a ZnO substrate. However, molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) delivers high quality ZnMgO-ZnO quantum well structures. Other thin film techniques such as PLD or MOCVD are also widely used. The main problem at present is to consistently achieve reliable p-type doping. For this topic, see also Chap. 5. In the past years, there have been numerous publications on p-type doping of ZnO, as well as ZnO p-n junctions and light emitting diodes (LEDs). However, a lot of these reports are in one way or the other inconsistent or at least incomplete. It is quite clear from optical data that once a reliable hole injection can be achieved, high brightness ZnO LEDs should be possible. In contrast to that expectation, none of the LEDs reported so far shows efficient light emission, as would be expected from a reasonable quality ZnO-based LED. See also Chap. 13. As a matter of fact, there seems to be no generally accepted and reliable technique for p-type doping available at present. The reason for this is the unfavorable position of the band structure of ZnO relative to the vacuum level, with a very low lying valence band. See also Fig. 5.1. This makes the incorporation of electrically active acceptors difficult. Another difficulty is the huge defect density in ZnO. There are many indications that defects play a major role in transport and doping. In order to solve the doping problem, it is generally accepted that the quality of the ZnO material grown by the various techniques needs to be improved. Therefore, the optimization of ZnO epitaxy is thought to play a key role in the further development of this material system. Besides being used as an active material in optoelectronic devices, ZnO plays a major role as transparent contact material in thin film solar cells. Polycrystalline, heavily n-type doped ZnO is used for this, combining a high electrical conductivity with a good optical transparency. In this case, ZnO thin films are fabricated by large area growth techniques such as sputtering. For this and other applications, see also Chap. 13.

Waag, Andreas

68

REACH: impact on the US cosmetics industry?  

PubMed

The Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and restriction of Chemicals (REACH) is a recent European regulation on chemical substances meant to protect human health and the environment. REACH imposes the "precautionary principle" where additional data and definitive action are required when uncertainty is identified. The cosmetics industry is only partially concerned by REACH: while the stages of registration and evaluation apply to cosmetics, those of authorization and restriction most likely will not, as cosmetic ingredients are already subject to regulation by various agencies and directives. REACH has potential benefits to the industry including the possibility of reassuring consumers and improving their image of chemicals and cosmetics. However, REACH also has potential disadvantages, mainly with regard to impeding innovation. The American cosmetics industry will be affected by REACH, because all US manufacturers who export substances to Europe will have to fully comply with REACH. PMID:19250158

Pouillot, Anne; Polla, Barbara; Polla, Ada

2009-03-01

69

EMPIRICAL TIME SERIES ANALYSIS and MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD ESTIMATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maximum likelihood (ML) estimation maximizes the likelihood function and is a celebrated principle in linear regression analysis. Asymptotically, the Cramér-Rao lower bound for the covariance matrix of unbiased estimated parameters is reached by the maximum likelihood estimator. With asymptotic arguments, it has been proved that this principle can also be applied to autoregression and to the more general autoregressive moving

P. M. T. Broersen; S. de Waele

2000-01-01

70

O(1)-Approximations for Maximum Movement Piotr Berman1  

E-print Network

O(1)-Approximations for Maximum Movement Problems Piotr Berman1 , Erik D. Demaine2 , and Morteza the maximum movement made by pebbles on a graph to reach a configuration in which the pebbles form a connected as satellite or the same radios with power turned up high), or via two traversals by aircraft to locate robots

Demaine, Erik

71

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: REACH OUT AND READ ASSESSMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Reach Out and Read Assessment (RORA) project was a quasi-experimental study designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a Reach Out and Read program. Reach Out and Read (ROR) is a non-profit, national organization that features giving parenting and literacy information to families. Books are given to their children at well-child visits between the ages of six months and five

Jacqueline Gramann

72

Reaching Older Adults with Nutrition Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Older Americans are at increased risk for malnutrition. Yet, health promotion efforts often fail to reach them. Studies suggest that existing channels (e.g., organized sites\\/systems such as churches, clubs, or schools) might be used to reach a hard-to-reach audience with information. Partners in Wellness: A Pilot Program Using a Holistic Approach to Improve the Nutritional Status of Older Adults at

Jacquelyn W. McClelland; Lucille B. Bearon; Angela M. Fraser; R. David Mustian; Susan Velazquez

2001-01-01

73

The Solar Maximum observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The successful retrieval and repair of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite by Shuttle astronauts in April 1984 permitted continuance of solar flare observations that began in 1980. The SMM carries a soft X ray polychromator, gamma ray, UV and hard X ray imaging spectrometers, a coronagraph/polarimeter and particle counters. The data gathered thus far indicated that electrical potentials of 25 MeV develop in flares within 2 sec of onset. X ray data show that flares are composed of compressed magnetic loops that have come too close together. Other data have been taken on mass ejection, impacts of electron beams and conduction fronts with the chromosphere and changes in the solar radiant flux due to sunspots.

Rust, D. M.

1984-01-01

74

From Hard to Reach to How to Reach: A Systematic Review of the Literature on Hard-to-Reach Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a review of the literature relating to hard-to-reach families which has been published over the last 12 years in the UK, USA, Canada and Australia. The purpose of the review was twofold: to gain insights to understandings of the term "hard-to-reach" within these services--education, health and social--which might be aiming to…

Boag-Munroe, Gill; Evangelou, Maria

2012-01-01

75

Limitations of extended reach drilling in deepwater  

E-print Network

4. 2. 1 Forces acting on drillstring 13 4. 2. 2 5", 19. 5ppf drillpipe base case TVD vs. reach @ 0. 18 friction factor, . . . 17 4. 2. 3 5", 19. 5ppf drillpipe base case TVD vs. reach @ 0. 30 friction factor . . . . 18 4. 2. 4 5", 19. 5ppf... drillpipe base case with BHA length increment N 0. 18ff 19 4. 2. 5 TVD vs reach for higher grade/wt. 5", 29. 2ppf, DPSHS drillpipe 0 0. 18 friction factor 20 4. 2. 6 TVD vs reach for 5-1/2", 21. 9ppf drillpipe @ 0. 18 friction factor . . 21 4. 2. 7 TVD...

Akinfenwa, Akinwunmi Adebayo

2012-06-07

76

The Role of Angiogenic Growth Factors in Arteriogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Collateral vessels restore only about 40% of the maximum dilatory reserve after femoral artery occlusion, whereas complete normalization is reached by increased fluid shear stress (FSS). We studied the role of known potent angiogenic growth factors (separately or in combination) in arteriogenesis by determining their expression in FSS-stimulated collaterals and close-to-collateral infusion of growth factor peptides in a rabbit

Wilma Schierling; Kerstin Troidl; Christian Troidl; Thomas Schmitz-Rixen; Wolfgang Schaper; Inka K. Eitenmüller

2009-01-01

77

Patterns of individual growth of gray garden slug Deroceras reticulatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual growth of gray garden slug Deroceras reticulatum was studied under laboratory conditions in the period from collection to death. The studied population demonstrated different\\u000a patterns of growth. Three groups of slugs were recognized: (1) slugs that reached the maximum weight after 4 months of raring,\\u000a after which their weight rapidly decreased (the life span in culture was 6–7 months);

A. A. Zotin

2007-01-01

78

Reaching Reluctant Students: Insights from Torey Hayden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Students who fight or avoid adults cannot learn from them. This article illustrates important principles of reaching these challenging youngsters by using examples drawn from the writings of Torey Hayden. Hayden’s series of books are based on her rich experiences as a teacher of troubled children. ,,,,,“Reaching,Reluctant Students: Insights from Torey Hayden” ,,Torey Hayden's books are autobiographical accounts of

Mike Marlowe

79

Always Connected, but Hard to Reach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students seem to be always connected through their computers, personal digital assistants (PDAs), or mobile phones, making it easy to reach them--if you are a peer. For colleges and universities, reaching students with timely and relevant information often proves a challenge. With rapid changes in both technology and social practices, what should…

Rishi, Raju

2007-01-01

80

School Furniture Dimensions: Standing and Reaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Performance of school children in regard to their standing and reach postures are described with dimensions given on the limits of their performance only. The facts of task performances are presented for the following tasks--(1) seeing into a shelf, (2) reaching into a shelf, (3) drawing on a vertical surface, (4) sitting or standing while…

Department of Education and Science, London (England).

81

The REACH Youth Program Learning Toolkit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Believing in the value of using video documentaries and data as learning tools, members of the REACH technical assistance team collaborated to develop this toolkit. The learning toolkit was designed using and/or incorporating components of the "Engaging Youth in Community Change: Outcomes and Lessons Learned from Sierra Health Foundation's REACH…

Sierra Health Foundation, 2011

2011-01-01

82

Calibrating Reach Distance to Visual Targets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors investigated the calibration of reach distance by gradually distorting the haptic feedback obtained when participants grasped visible target objects. The authors found that the modified relationship between visually specified distance and reach distance could be captured by a straight-line mapping function. Thus, the relation could be…

Mon-Williams, Mark; Bingham, Geoffrey P.

2007-01-01

83

Generalized Maximum Entropy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A long standing mystery in using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) is how to deal with constraints whose values are uncertain. This situation arises when constraint values are estimated from data, because of finite sample sizes. One approach to this problem, advocated by E.T. Jaynes [1], is to ignore this uncertainty, and treat the empirically observed values as exact. We refer to this as the classic MaxEnt approach. Classic MaxEnt gives point probabilities (subject to the given constraints), rather than probability densities. We develop an alternative approach that assumes that the uncertain constraint values are represented by a probability density {e.g: a Gaussian), and this uncertainty yields a MaxEnt posterior probability density. That is, the classic MaxEnt point probabilities are regarded as a multidimensional function of the given constraint values, and uncertainty on these values is transmitted through the MaxEnt function to give uncertainty over the MaXEnt probabilities. We illustrate this approach by explicitly calculating the generalized MaxEnt density for a simple but common case, then show how this can be extended numerically to the general case. This paper expands the generalized MaxEnt concept introduced in a previous paper [3].

Cheeseman, Peter; Stutz, John

2005-01-01

84

The Database for Reaching Experiments and Models  

PubMed Central

Reaching is one of the central experimental paradigms in the field of motor control, and many computational models of reaching have been published. While most of these models try to explain subject data (such as movement kinematics, reaching performance, forces, etc.) from only a single experiment, distinct experiments often share experimental conditions and record similar kinematics. This suggests that reaching models could be applied to (and falsified by) multiple experiments. However, using multiple datasets is difficult because experimental data formats vary widely. Standardizing data formats promises to enable scientists to test model predictions against many experiments and to compare experimental results across labs. Here we report on the development of a new resource available to scientists: a database of reaching called the Database for Reaching Experiments And Models (DREAM). DREAM collects both experimental datasets and models and facilitates their comparison by standardizing formats. The DREAM project promises to be useful for experimentalists who want to understand how their data relates to models, for modelers who want to test their theories, and for educators who want to help students better understand reaching experiments, models, and data analysis. PMID:24244351

Walker, Ben; Kording, Konrad

2013-01-01

85

Well control procedures for extended reach wells  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT Well Control Procedures for Extended Reach Wells. (August 2003) Bjorn Gjorv, B.S., Stavanger University College, Norway Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Hans C. Juvkam-Wold The limits of directional drilling continue to be pushed... ABSTRACT Well Control Procedures for Extended Reach Wells. (August 2003) Bjorn Gjorv, B.S., Stavanger University College, Norway Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Hans C. Juvkam-Wold The limits of directional drilling continue to be pushed...

Gjorv, Bjorn

2004-09-30

86

Last Glacial Maximum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short lecture on CLIMAP project (see PowerPoint) 20 minutes Powerpoint (PowerPoint 444kB Nov7 10) Group activity - Reading for CLIMAP study assumptions, 20 minutes to read, 20 minutes for discussion Student Handout (Microsoft Word 50kB Nov7 10) Students break into groups (4 per group is good division of work) with 2 students per paper. Split the assumptions between students. Each group skims the CLIMAP papers for the assumptions (modern and/or LGM) used in the CLIMAP model-based reconstruction of the LGM. In the groups, students compare the assumptions between papers. Resources: CLIMAP (1976), The surface of the ice-age earth, Science, 191(4232), 1131-1137 and CLIMAP (1984), The last interglacial ocean, Quaternary Research, 21(2), 123. Class Discussion - Summarize assumptions used in CLIMAP studies. Group activity Exploring CLIMAP LGM Reconstructions, 40 minutes for model data, 20 minutes for discussion (Could be modified with as a "jigsaw" activity with a larger class). Learn more about the jigsaw teaching method. Students work on this activity in pairs; one person will create LGM maps, the other modern. Students should sit together with their computer monitors close together to compare. The students will use the IRI/LDEO Climate Data Library to access the CLIMAP reconstruction and produce maps using the tools available on this web site. In a web browser, go to http://iridl.ldeo.columbia.edu/SOURCES/.CLIMAP/ This is the main page for the CLIMAP Model output for the LGM 18,000 BP. In the middle of the page is the label "Datasets and variables" with two data sets below http://iridl.ldeo.columbia.edu/SOURCES/.CLIMAP/.LGM/ and http://iridl.ldeo.columbia.edu/SOURCES/.CLIMAP/.MOD/. Each student clicks on the link they are assigned to. There are several data sets listed for each period and the students will examine each data set and compare the LGM and Modern. As a class, go through each data set allowing pairs to compare the maps then summarize the results as a class. The worksheet has a table for the students and the PowerPoint has table for summarizing. Class Discussion - Summarize differences between modern and LGM in the CLIMAP model output. Discuss how the assumptions of the CLIMAP model studies may have influenced the results. Extra activities The students can explore the data further using the data selection and filters in the IRI/LDEO Climate Data Library. For the two SST data sets, click on "Data Selection" and narrow the data to the just the tropics (23.5º N-S). Click on "Filters" then select XY next to "Average over." The next window gives you the average over the tropics close to the top of the page. In the next class, the students repeat the Readings exercise by reading the COHMAP and MARGO papers to see how the scientific knowledge has progressed since the original CLIMAP studies. COHMAP Members, (1988), Climatic Changes of the Last 18,000 Years: Observations and Model Simulations, Science, 241(4869), 1043-1052. MARGO (2009), Constraints on the magnitude and patterns of ocean cooling at the Last Glacial Maximum, Nature Geoscience, 2(2), 127-132.

Delong, Kristine

87

The Parietal Reach Region Codes the Next Planned Movement in a Sequential Reach Task  

E-print Network

) is active during the delay period of a memory- guided reach task but generally not active during a memory the target for the impending reach and may not contribute to storing the memory of subsequent reach targets that process different types of movements (Snyder et al. 1997). In that study, monkeys performed memory

Andersen, Richard

88

Modeling the impact of the indigenous microbial population on the maximum population density of Salmonella on alfalfa.  

PubMed

Within a microbial risk assessment framework, modeling the maximum population density (MPD) of a pathogenic microorganism is important but often not considered. This paper describes a model predicting the MPD of Salmonella on alfalfa as a function of the initial contamination level, the total count of the indigenous microbial population, the maximum pathogen growth rate and the maximum population density of the indigenous microbial population. The model is parameterized by experimental data describing growth of Salmonella on sprouting alfalfa seeds at inoculum size, native microbial load and Pseudomonas fluorescens 2-79. The obtained model fits well to the experimental data, with standard errors less than ten percent of the fitted average values. The results show that the MPD of Salmonella is not only dictated by performance characteristics of Salmonella but depends on the characteristics of the indigenous microbial population like total number of cells and its growth rate. The model can improve the predictions of microbiological growth in quantitative microbial risk assessments. Using this model, the effects of preventive measures to reduce pathogenic load and a concurrent effect on the background population can be better evaluated. If competing microorganisms are more sensitive to a particular decontamination method, a pathogenic microorganism may grow faster and reach a higher level. More knowledge regarding the effect of the indigenous microbial population (size, diversity, composition) of food products on pathogen dynamics is needed in order to make adequate predictions of pathogen dynamics on various food products. PMID:23456855

Rijgersberg, Hajo; Franz, Eelco; Nierop Groot, Masja; Tromp, Seth-Oscar

2013-07-01

89

Stennis exhibits reach out to public  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One way Stennis Space Center reaches out to its surrounding communities is to bring the space center to them. SSC offers exhibits at numerous trade shows, special events, school programs, etc., to inform the public of the unique capabilities in their own backyard.

1997-01-01

90

How Academic Libraries Reach Users on Facebook  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facebook is an extremely popular social networking site with college students. Many academic libraries have created their Facebook profiles to reach more users. This article studies the Facebook presence of Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member institutions, particularly academic ones. Their Facebook pages are analyzed comprehensively in terms of content, launch time, and popularity. The majority of these libraries maintain

Gang Wan

2011-01-01

91

Kinematic analysis of reaching in the cat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines the kinematic features of forelimb movements made by cats reaching for food in horizontal target wells located at different heights and distances. Wrist paths consisted of two relatively straight segments joined at a “via-point” in front of the aperture of the food well. In the initial lift phase, the paw was raised to the via-point in

J. H. Martin; S. E. Cooper; C. Ghez

1995-01-01

92

To Reach Us: UNH Mediation and  

E-print Network

To Reach Us: UNH Mediation and Conflict Resolution Services Hitchcock Hall, 5 Quad Way University, comments, or suggestions. We strive to create an atmosphere conducive to successful resolution of conflict-3377 UNH Mediation Services: Promoting peaceful coexistence in our diverse community Special Needs

New Hampshire, University of

93

Increasing TLB reach using TCAM cells  

E-print Network

. To support dynamic aggregation, we introduce the use of ternary-CAM (TCAM) cells at the second-level TLB. The modified TLB architecture results in an increase of TLB reach without additional CAM entries. We also adopt bulk prefetching concurrently...

Kumar, Anuj

2005-02-17

94

Do Important Drugs Reach the Market Sooner?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Amendments of 1962, the average time from a drug's first worldwide patent application to its approval by the FDA has risen from 3.5 to 13.5 years. FDA policies and manufacturers' incentives suggest that more important drugs may have reached the market sooner. To test this, we develop measures of \\

David Dranove; David Meltzer

1994-01-01

95

Reaching and grasping with restricted peripheral vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To investigate how prehensile movements, such as reaching and grasping, are affected by different fields of view when both haptic and visual information are available. Methods: Ten volunteers with normal vision (mean age 24.5 years) participated. Subjects picked up an object with a full monocular field of view (FOV) and with two different sizes of pinholes which simulated a

Carmen González-Alvarez; Ahalya Subramanian; Shahina Pardhan

2007-01-01

96

Riparian Vegetation Mapping Along the Hanford Reach  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the biological survey and inventory of the Hanford Site conducted in the mid-1990s (1995 and 1996), preliminary surveys of the riparian vegetation were conducted along the Hanford Reach. These preliminary data were reported to The Nature Conservancy (TNC), but were not included in any TNC reports to DOE or stakeholders. During the latter part of FY2001, PNNL contracted with

2003-01-01

97

REACH. Teacher's Guide, Volume III. Task Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for use with individualized instructional units (CE 026 345-347, CE 026 349-351) in the electromechanical cluster, this third volume of the postsecondary teacher's guide presents the task analysis which was used in the development of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air Conditioning, Heating) curriculum. The major blocks of…

Morris, James Lee; And Others

98

IPv6 Challenge Reach everything from anywhere  

E-print Network

IPv6 Challenge Reach everything from anywhere Juan Antonio Cordero , Ulrich Herberg , and Vivek of the Internet, many visionaries forecasted that soon all devices would be remotely accessible from anywhere. However, as the number of available IPv4 addresses becomes more restricted, the current Internet

Nigam, Vivek

99

REACH. Electricity Units, Post-Secondary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this postsecondary student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of electricity. The instructional units focus on electricity fundamentals, electric motors, electrical components, and controls and installation.…

Smith, Gene; And Others

100

Reaching Wider South West Wales Partnership Strategy  

E-print Network

in Communities First areas of high relative poverty. It interlocks with higher education strategic approaches sectors of education in the South West together in a joint regional effort to offset poverty of aspiration1 Reaching Wider South West Wales Partnership Strategy 2011-14 #12;2 `Poverty is when someone

Martin, Ralph R.

101

The smallest refrigerators can reach maximal efficiency  

E-print Network

We investigate whether size imposes a fundamental constraint on the efficiency of small thermal machines. We analyse in detail a model of a small self-contained refrigerator consisting of three qubits. We show analytically that this system can reach the Carnot efficiency, thus demonstrating that there exists no complementarity between size and efficiency.

Paul Skrzypczyk; Nicolas Brunner; Noah Linden; Sandu Popescu

2010-09-04

102

Maximum norms of chaotic quantum eigenstates and random waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of the maximum norms of quantum eigenstates of classically chaotic systems with increasing energy is investigated. The maximum norms provide a measure for localization effects in eigenfunctions. An upper bound for the maxima of random superpositions of random functions is derived. For the random-wave model this gives the boundc p lnE in the semiclassical limit E !1 .

R. Aurich; A. Bäcker; R. Schubert; M. Taglieber

1998-01-01

103

The Astronomical Reach of Fundamental Physics  

E-print Network

Using basic physical arguments, we derive by dimensional and physical analysis the characteristic masses and sizes of important objects in the Universe in terms of just a few fundamental constants. This exercise illustrates the unifying power of physics and the profound connections between the small and the large in the Cosmos we inhabit. We focus on the minimum and maximum masses of normal stars, the corresponding quantities for neutron stars, the maximum mass of a rocky planet, the maximum mass of a white dwarf, and the mass of a typical galaxy. To zeroth order, we show that all these masses can be expressed in terms of either the Planck mass or the Chandrasekar mass, in combination with various dimensionless quantities. With these examples we expose the deep interrelationships imposed by Nature between disparate realms of the Universe and the amazing consequences of the unifying character of physical law.

Burrows, Adam

2014-01-01

104

Dynamic maximum power point tracker for photovoltaic applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dynamic process for reaching the maximum power point of a variable power source such as a solar cell is introduced. The process tracks maximum power nearly cycle-by-cycle during transients. Information from the natural switching ripple instead of external perturbation is used to support the maximizing process. The method is globally stable for DC-DC power converters, provided that a switching

Pallab Midya; Philip T. Krein; Robert J. Turnbull; Robert Reppa; Jonathan Kimball

1996-01-01

105

Reach-to-grasp movements during obstacle avoidance.  

PubMed

The transport and grip components are two controlled components of a prehensile movement. These components are coordinated so that objects of varying size and shape resting in diverse locations can be grasped easily. It has been suggested that the timing between these two components is a specified parameter, although the origin of such timing is unknown. The present study examines the interdependency of the reach and grasp components when the transport component is modified by placing an obstacle of varying height (9 cm and 11 cm) in the hand path between the starting position and the target object location. Subjects were asked to reach over a Plexiglas barrier and grasp a 2-cm dowel. To reach the object, the subject had to elevate the hand. At issue in this experiment is whether changes in hand path trajectory caused by obstacle avoidance produce corresponding changes in the kinematics of grip aperture. The findings showed that reaching in the presence of an obstacle resulted in the prolongation of most transport component time parameters except peak acceleration and a few amplitude parameters. Changes in the transport component also produced systematic prolongation in all time parameters of grip kinematics, including grip closure time. Temporal prolongation was also reflected in a significant decrease in grip opening and closing velocity; only relative time-to-peak closing velocity was maintained. Closure distance and maximum grip aperture were smaller for the obstacle conditions. Together with the observed smaller variability for the distance to peak aperture, these findings suggest that spatial localization of the hand aperture is an important prehensile movement control feature. Parameterization processes for the grip component are closely linked to those of the transport component, and their organization appears to be interdependent. PMID:9547095

Saling, M; Alberts, J; Stelmach, G E; Bloedel, J R

1998-01-01

106

Maximum entropy discrimination Tommi Jaakkola  

E-print Network

;) that maximizes the entropy H(P ) subject to the classi#12;cation constraints R P(#2;) [ y t L(X t j#2;) ] d#2Maximum entropy discrimination Tommi Jaakkola MIT AI Lab 545 Technology Sq. Cambridge, MA 02139 framework for discriminative estimation based on the maximum entropy principle and its extensions. All

Jaakkola, Tommi S.

107

[Implications of the REACH registry for endocrinologists].  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus is a major public health problem due to its increasing incidence in the general population and the morbidity and mortality associated with micro- and macrovascular complications. Patients with diabetes have a 2-5-fold increased risk of coronary heart disease, stroke and peripheral artery disease. The REACH registry is the largest observational study in the world designed to assess prognostic and therapeutic data in the population with elevated risk for atherothrombotic events. The results of this study show a high prevalence of obesity, diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome in the population with increased cardiovascular risk. Moreover, the data demonstrate that metabolic control of diabetes mellitus is clearly inadequate. Data from the REACH registry show endocrinologists and diabetologists that a multidisciplinary approach is imperative and that adequate management of diabetic patients should include stratification of cardiovascular risk, including assessment of associated conditions such as obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, microalbuminuria and smoking. PMID:19631834

Alonso, Guillermo

2009-09-01

108

Bedrock Incision Rates Through A Knickpoint Reach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bedrock river incision is a fundamental process in landscape evolution, controlling, for example, the rate at which base-level fall is propagated through the drainage net and hence the rate of sediment flux from source areas to sedimentary basin ­rsinks'. Particular attention has been focused on the processes and erosion rates upstream and downstream of knickpoints. These key bedrock river landforms propagate headwards to transmit the ­rmessage­_ to the drainage net that base-level has fallen. Knickpoints may be sharply defined as waterfalls or cascades, which separate reaches controlled by different environmental settings. They may originate as a result of base-level changes, tectonic uplift, lithologic and structural controls, tributary sediment inputs or environmental changes. Information on changes in bed incision rates through a knickpoint reach provides insight into the role of knickpoints in landscape evolution. The River Etive, Scotland, has alternating alluvial and bedrock reaches and a stepped long profile caused by series of knickpoints. To investigate the controls over bedrock incision in this river, numerical simulations were performed using a process-based incision model. Physical modelling of the impact of bedload on abrasion has been used to verify the numerical simulations and cosmogenic nuclides have been used to estimate incision rates as a final test. To characterise and assess changes in incision rates through the knickpoint reach, five bedrock samples were collected for cosmogenic isotope analysis from above and below a knickpoint in the bed of the River Etive. The samples were taken from as close to the low flow water surface as practically possible and are overtopped even at moderate flows; it is therefore highly unlikely that they have ever been shielded by either peat or alluvial sediment. The sample sites have clearly been fluvially sculpted and are smooth and rounded; they are therefore highly appropriate for the analysis. Quartz was extracted from the samples and fully prepared, following standard procedures. In addition, the overall incision rates in the reach have been estimated using a bedrock incision model. The numerical model, in which incision is dominated by abrasion by saltating sediment particles, shows how interactions between sediment dynamics and hydraulic conditions determine the incision rates. Sensitivity analyses incorporating a wide range of model parameterisations confirmed that erosion rates in bedrock rivers are controlled by stream power, but changes in sediment discharge and size also play important roles in incision. The numerical simulation results are further tested through tumbling mill experiments. Topographic and sedimentological data from the River Etive are used to estimate the erosion rates in the knickpoint reach using the numerical model. The numerical simulations show that the spatial patterns of incision are changed as model parameters are changed. A conventional, diffusion style, model produced declining slopes at knickpoints, while the new model, which incorporates sediment dynamics, produced more complicated pattern of incision. The physical processes operating in knickpoint reaches determined the mode and rate of incision, and these physical processes change with location within the reach. For abrasion, changes in effective sediment flux as transport stage changes plays the critical role in determining incision rates. These conclusions will be evaluated using the cosmogenically derived incision rates.

Kim, J.; Hoey, T.; Bishop, P.; Fifield, K.; Levchenko, V.

2003-12-01

109

Initial conditions for reaching the critical velocity  

E-print Network

The aim of this paper is to determine the initial rotational velocities required on the ZAMS for single stars to reach the critical velocity, sometimes called the break-up velocity, during the Main-Sequence (MS) phase. Some useful relations between $\\Omega/\\Omega_{\\rm crit}$, $\\upsilon/\\upsilon_{\\rm crit}$ ($\\upsilon$ is the velocity at the equator), the moments of inertia, the angular momenta, the kinetic energy in the rotation and various other basic physical quantities are obtained.

Georges Meynet; Sylvia Ekström; André Maeder; Fabio Barblan

2006-01-16

110

Distance Reached in the Anteromedial Reach Test as a Function of Learning and Leg Length  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Anteromedial Reach Test (ART) is a new outcome measure for assessing dynamic knee stability in anterior cruciate ligament-injured patients. The effect of learning and leg length on distance reached in the ART was examined. Thirty-two healthy volunteers performed 15 trials of the ART on each leg. There was a moderate correlation (r = 0.44-0.50)…

Bent, Nicholas P.; Rushton, Alison B.; Wright, Chris C.; Batt, Mark E.

2012-01-01

111

Maximum entropy in the finite Stieltjes and Hamburger moment problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

A necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of the maximum entropy (ME) functiondefined in an infinite or semiinfinite interval, is provided. The conclusions reached show that,except in a few particular cases, the necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of maximumentropy function are identical to the conditions for the solution of the moment problemwhen the first M+1 moments are

M. Frontini; A. Tagliani

1994-01-01

112

Maximum power point tracker for a photovoltaic system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for renewable energy sources is on the rise because of the acute energy crisis in the world today. The main hindrance for the penetration and reach of solar PV system is its low efficiency and high capital cost. The output characteristics of photovoltaic arrays are nonlinear and change with the cell's temperature and solar radiation. Maximum power point

J. Suganya; M. Carolin Mabel

2012-01-01

113

Parietal Reach Region Encodes Reach Depth Using Retinal Disparity and Vergence Angle Signals  

PubMed Central

Performing a visually guided reach requires the ability to perceive the egocentric distance of a target in three-dimensional space. Previous studies have shown that the parietal reach region (PRR) encodes the two-dimensional location of frontoparallel targets in an eye-centered reference frame. To investigate how a reach target is represented in three dimensions, we recorded the spiking activity of PRR neurons from two rhesus macaques trained to fixate and perform memory reaches to targets at different depths. Reach and fixation targets were configured to explore whether neural activity directly reflects egocentric distance as the amplitude of the required motor command, which is the absolute depth of the target, or rather the relative depth of the target with reference to fixation depth. We show that planning activity in PRR represents the depth of the reach target as a function of disparity and fixation depth, the spatial parameters important for encoding the depth of a reach goal in an eye centered reference frame. The strength of modulation by disparity is maintained across fixation depth. Fixation depth gain modulates disparity tuning while preserving the location of peak tuning features in PRR neurons. The results show that individual PRR neurons code depth with respect to the fixation point, that is, in eye centered coordinates. However, because the activity is gain modulated by vergence angle, the absolute depth can be decoded from the population activity. PMID:19439678

Bhattacharyya, Rajan; Musallam, Sam; Andersen, Richard A.

2009-01-01

114

Riparian Vegetation Mapping Along the Hanford Reach  

SciTech Connect

During the biological survey and inventory of the Hanford Site conducted in the mid-1990s (1995 and 1996), preliminary surveys of the riparian vegetation were conducted along the Hanford Reach. These preliminary data were reported to The Nature Conservancy (TNC), but were not included in any TNC reports to DOE or stakeholders. During the latter part of FY2001, PNNL contracted with SEE Botanical, the parties that performed the original surveys in the mid 1990s, to complete the data summaries and mapping associated with the earlier survey data. Those data sets were delivered to PNNL and the riparian mapping by vegetation type for the Hanford Reach is being digitized during the first quarter of FY2002. These mapping efforts provide the information necessary to create subsequent spatial data layers to describe the riparian zone according to plant functional types (trees, shrubs, grasses, sedges, forbs). Quantification of the riparian zone by vegetation types is important to a number of DOE'S priority issues including modeling contaminant transport and uptake in the near-riverine environment and the determination of ecological risk. This work included the identification of vegetative zones along the Reach by changes in dominant plant species covering the shoreline from just to the north of the 300 Area to China Bar near Vernita. Dominant and indicator species included Agropyron dasytachyudA. smithii, Apocynum cannabinum, Aristida longiseta, Artemisia campestris ssp. borealis var scouleriana, Artemisa dracunculus, Artemisia lindleyana, Artemisia tridentata, Bromus tectorum, Chrysothamnus nauseosus, Coreopsis atkinsoniana. Eleocharis palustris, Elymus cinereus, Equisetum hyemale, Eriogonum compositum, Juniperus trichocarpa, Phalaris arundinacea, Poa compressa. Salk exigua, Scirpus acutus, Solidago occidentalis, Sporobolus asper,and Sporobolus cryptandrus. This letter report documents the data received, the processing by PNNL staff, and additional data gathered in FY2002 to support development of a complete data layer describing riparian vegetation cover types on the Columbia River adjacent to the Hanford Site boundaries. Included with this report are the preliminary riparian vegetation maps and the associated metadata for that GIS layer.

FOGWELL, T.W.

2003-07-11

115

Spallation Neutron Source reaches megawatt power  

ScienceCinema

The Department of Energy's Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), already the world's most powerful facility for pulsed neutron scattering science, is now the first pulsed spallation neutron source to break the one-megawatt barrier. "Advances in the materials sciences are fundamental to the development of clean and sustainable energy technologies. In reaching this milestone of operating power, the Spallation Neutron Source is providing scientists with an unmatched resource for unlocking the secrets of materials at the molecular level," said Dr. William F. Brinkman, Director of DOE's Office of Science.

Dr. William F. Brinkman

2010-01-08

116

How do microorganisms reach the stratosphere?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of studies have demonstrated that bacteria and fungi are present in the stratosphere. Since the tropopause is generally regarded as a barrier to the upward movement of particles it is difficult to see how such microorganisms can reach heights above 17 km. Volcanoes provide an obvious means by which this could be achieved, but these occur infrequently and any microorganisms entering the stratosphere from this source will rapidly fall out of the stratosphere. Here, we suggest mechanisms by which microorganisms might reach the stratosphere on a more regular basis; such mechanisms are, however, likely only to explain how micrometre to submicrometre particles could be elevated into the stratosphere. Intriguingly, clumps of bacteria of size in excess of 10 ?m have been found in stratospheric samples. It is difficult to understand how such clumps could be ejected from the Earth to this height, suggesting that such bacterial masses may be incoming to Earth. We suggest that the stratospheric microflora is made up of two components: (a) a mixed population of bacteria and fungi derived from Earth, which can occasionally be cultured; and (b) a population made up of clumps of, viable but non-culturable, bacteria which are too large to have originated from Earth; these, we suggest, have arrived in the stratosphere from space. Finally, we speculate on the possibility that the transfer of bacteria from the Earth to the highly mutagenic stratosphere may have played a role in bacterial evolution.

Wainwright, M.; Alharbi, S.; Wickramasinghe, N. C.

2006-04-01

117

Maximum entropy in the finite Stieltjes and Hamburger moment problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of the maximum entropy (ME) function, defined in an infinite or semiinfinite interval, is provided. The conclusions reached show that, except in a few particular cases, the necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of maximum entropy function are identical to the conditions for the solution of the moment problem when the first M+1 moments are assigned. Even if the conclusions reached are very similar to the Hausdorff case, the specificity of the Hamburger and Stieltjes cases demands a different handling. A sufficient condition for the entropy convergence of the resulting sequence of maximum entropy estimators to the entropy of the recovering function is also provided.

Frontini, M.; Tagliani, A.

1994-12-01

118

Constitutional supercooling in heavily As-doped Czochralski Si crystal growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavily arsenic (As) doped Si crystals were grown by the Czochralski (CZ) method, and constitutional supercooling in As-doped CZ-Si crystal growth was investigated. When the As concentration in the crystal was high, cellular growth was induced and SiAs precipitates were then observed following the cellular structure. The As concentration increases in the cellular structure along the growth direction and around the precipitates it reaches approximately 4 at%, which corresponds to the maximum solid solubility of As in Si. According to the estimation of critical growth conditions for constitutional supercooling, it qualitatively obeys the theoretical equation of constitutional supercooling.

Taishi, Toshinori; Ohno, Yutaka; Yonenaga, Ichiro

2014-05-01

119

Reaching low density lipoprotein cholesterol targets.  

PubMed

Abstract Cardiovascular disease is a major health problem and within the leading causes of death worldwide. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is strongly associated with the development and progression of cardiovascular disease and is among the main targets of lipid lowering therapy. Despite the various lipid lowering agents for the management of hyperlipidemia, a significant number of patients do not reach their LDL-C target goals. Data from studies in various world regions identify an often poor achievement of LDL-C goals, especially in high risk patient groups. The causes of this suboptimal management of hyperlipidemia are multifactorial and measures should be taken in order to identify and address these shortcomings in dyslipidemia therapy. PMID:25055191

Rizos, Christos V; Barkas, Fotios; Elisaf, Moses S

2014-10-01

120

OSMOTIC STRESS-INDUCED CHANGES IN GERMINATION, GROWTH AND SOLUBLE SUGAR CONTENT OF SORGHUM BICOLOR (L.) MOENCH SEEDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The effect of osmotic stress on germination, growth and soluble sugar content in Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench cv. CSH 9 seeds and seedling components (endosperm and embryos) during early germination was inves- tigated. Under stress conditions germination decreased markedly, whereas the control at the same time reached its maximum germination (99%). A high percentage (67%) of ungerminated seeds from

Prabhjot Kaur Gill; Arun Dev Sharma; Prabhjeet Singh; Sukdev Singh Bhullar

2002-01-01

121

Growth of Phragmites australis and Phalaris arundinacea in constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment in the Czech Republic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common reed (Phragmites australis) and reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea) are two most commonly used plant species in constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment in the Czech Republic. Growth characteristics of both plants (biomass, stem count, and length) have been measured in 13 horizontal sub-surface flow constructed wetlands since 1992. The results revealed that while Phalaris usually reaches its maximum biomass as

Jan Vymazal; Lenka Kr?pfelová

2005-01-01

122

Characteristics and runoff volume of the Yangtze River paleo-valley at Nanjing reach in the Last Glacial Maximum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stratigraphical cross-sections of the Yangtze River incised-valley near the No.1, No.3 and No.4 Nanjing Yangtze River\\u000a bridges were established with respective bore date and documents. By 14C age analysis of the samples of four drilling cores near the No.4 Bridge (to be built), we can find that the time range of\\u000a paleo-valley is dated in the LGM at a

Guangjie Cao; Jian Wang; Lingjun Wang; Yanyan Li

2010-01-01

123

Project Outreach: Organizations Unified to Reach Youth.  

PubMed

Youths of today are forced to deal with the external pressures of alcohol and drug abuse on all levels-from the older youngsters across the street pressuring them to be "cool," to the "cute dog" enticing them with the glamour of being the original "party animal." Through today's mass communications, young people are exposed to negative, self-destructive attitudes. It is important, therefore, to expose them to a more positive influence and try to reach them through parental guidance, personal contact, and peer pressure. To achieve this, the University of Missouri's Kansas City Chapter of the American Pharmaceutical Association's Academy of Students of Pharmacy, in conjunction with the Metropolitan Kansas City Area Task Force on Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse, proposed the development of an annual drug abuse prevention program that specifically targets fifth graders in the greater Kansas City metropolitan area. A primary goal of Project Outreach (Organizations Unified to Reach Youth) is to unite drug abuse prevention programs in the greater Kansas City metropolitan area in their outreach efforts to give positive support to Kansas City's youth against alcohol and other drugs. Phase I of Project Outreach consisted of a series of programs for the parents in the community. Phase II entailed college students who spoke to fifth graders in their classrooms. These students also participated in poster and poem contents centered around drug abuse prevention. In Phase III, which featured an outstanding, motivated speaker, the sample group of 600 fifth graders in the area participated in a major event to give positive peer pressure to say no to drugs. Pertinent entertainment also was provided, and the governor of Missouri, John Ashcroft, attended the rally. In the future, each fifth grader will receive a free T-shirt as a tangible reminder of the main event. In Phase IV, to reinforce concepts presented in previous programming, the college students returned to the fifth grade classrooms to speak. Project Outreach programs are incorporated into existing drug abuse prevention programs and provide the foundation for the development of new drug abuse prevention programs in the greater Kansas City metropolitan area. PMID:2493666

Dunnington, B C; Hayes, M L

1989-01-01

124

Maximum Entropy Inverse Reinforcement Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has shown the benefit of framing problems of imitation learning as solutions to Markov Decision Prob- lems. This approach reduces learning to the problem of re- covering a utility function that makes the behavior induced by a near-optimal policy closely mimic demonstrated behav- ior. In this work, we develop a probabilistic approach based on the principle of maximum

Brian Ziebart; Andrew L. Maas; J. Andrew Bagnell; Anind K. Dey

2008-01-01

125

Tobacco Companies, State Attorneys Reach Settlement  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News examines the November 16, 1998 $206 billion settlement reached between tobacco industry leaders and eight US states. The twelve resources discussed provide press releases, opinion, and background information on the economics of tobacco production and consumption in the US. Following increasing pressure from anti-tobacco activists at the state level, Philip Morris Incorporated, R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, Brown & Williamson Tobacco Corporation, and the Lorillard Tobacco Company settled pending lawsuits with New York, California, and Wisconsin, among other states. The agreement requires the companies to pay the potential medical costs of sick smokers based on a formula that factors state-by-state population, tobacco use, and previous Medicaid cost. The agreement also provides for a $1.5 billion anti-smoking campaign fund and bans billboard and transit ads in addition to "branded" merchandising -- the sale and distribution of items bearing tobacco brands' names or logos. Although these provisions give anti-smoking organizations much needed funding for educational resources, critics fear that the settlement protects the tobacco industry more than it hinders it. According to Gary Black, an analyst at Sanford C. Bernstein & Co., the settlement "removes the remaining threat of bankruptcy from the stocks and reduces the litigation discount that has plagued tobacco companies since 1994." With little risk of future lawsuits according to Black, "we're back to business as usual."

Waters, Megan.

1998-01-01

126

Media perspective - new opportunities for reaching audiences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The world of media is experiencing a period of extreme and rapid change with the rise of internet television and the download generation. Many young people no longer watch standard TV. Instead, they go on-line, talking to friends and downloading pictures, videos, music clips to put on their own websites and watch/ listen to on their laptops and mobile phones. Gone are the days when TV controllers determined what you watched and when you watched it. Now the buzzword is IPTV, Internet Protocol Television, with companies such as JOOST offering hundreds of channels on a wide range of subjects, all of which you can choose to watch when and where you wish, on your high-def widescreen with stereo surround sound at home or on your mobile phone on the train. This media revolution is changing the way organisations get their message out. And it is encouraging companies such as advertising agencies to be creative about new ways of accessing audiences. The good news is that we have fresh opportunities to reach young people through internet-based media and material downloaded through tools such as games machines, as well as through the traditional media. And it is important for Europlanet to make the most of these new and exciting developments.

Haswell, Katy

2007-08-01

127

Reaching site closure for groundwater under multiple regulatory agencies  

SciTech Connect

Groundwater at the Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company (CYAPCO) Haddam Neck Plant (HNP) has been impacted by both radionuclides and chemical constituents. Furthermore, the cleanup standards and closure requirements for HNP are regulated both by federal and state agencies. The only consistent requirement is the development of a site conceptual model and an understanding of the hydrogeologic conditions that will govern contaminant transport and identify potential receptors. The cleanup criteria to reach site closure for radionuclides is regulated by both the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection (CTDEP) Bureau of Air Management, Radiological Division. For license termination under the NRC, the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) for all media can not exceed 25 milli-Rem per year (mRem/yr) plus As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). The CTDEP has a similar requirement with the TEDE not to exceed 19 mRem/yr plus ALARA. To reach these criteria, derived concentration guideline levels (DCGLs) were developed for radiological exposures from three (3) media components; soil, existing groundwater and future groundwater from left-in place foundations or footings. Based on current conditions, the target dose contribution from existing and future groundwater is not to exceed 2 mRem/yr TEDE. After source (soil) remediation is complete, the NRC requires two (2) years of quarterly monitoring to demonstrate that groundwater quality meets the DCGLs and does not show an upward trend. CYAPCO's NRC License Termination Plan (LTP) specifies a minimum 18-month period of groundwater monitoring, as long as samples are collected during two spring/high water seasons, to verify the efficacy of remedial actions at HNP. In addition to the 19 mRem/yr criteria, the CTDEP also requires groundwater to be in compliance with the Remediation Standards Regulation (RSRs). There are no published criteria for radionuclides in the RSRs, however CTDEP has approved the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA's) Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) as the clean up standards for individual constituents. After remediation of an identified contamination source, the RSRs require that at least one groundwater monitoring well, hydraulically down-gradient of the remediation area, be sampled to confirm that the remediation has not impacted groundwater quality. After four quarters of groundwater monitoring with results below the MCLs, additional groundwater sampling must continue for up to three years to reach site closure in accordance with the RSRs. The cleanup criteria for chemical constituents, including boron, are regulated by the USEPA under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the CTDEP Bureau of Water Protection and Land Reuse. The USEPA, however, has accepted the CTDEP RSRs as the cleanup criteria for RCRA. Therefore attainment of the CTDEP RSRs is the only set of criteria needed to reach closure, but both agencies retain oversight, interpretation, and closure authority. As stated above, under the RSRs, groundwater must be monitored following a source remediation for a minimum of four quarters. After demonstrating that the remediation was successful, then additional groundwater sampling is required for up to three additional years. However, the number of monitoring wells and frequency of sampling are not defined in the RSRs and must be negotiated with CTDEP. To successfully reach closure, the conceptual site model, groundwater transport mechanisms, and potential receptors must be defined. Once the hydrogeology is understood, a long term groundwater monitoring program can then be coordinated to meet each agencies requirement to both terminate the NRC license and reach site closure under RCRA. (authors)

Glucksberg, N. [MACTEC, Inc., Portland, ME (United States); Couture, B. [Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company, East Ham (United States)

2007-07-01

128

Cell cycle checkpoint regulators reach a zillion  

PubMed Central

Entry into mitosis is regulated by a checkpoint at the boundary between the G2 and M phases of the cell cycle (G2/M). In many organisms, this checkpoint surveys DNA damage and cell size and is controlled by both the activation of mitotic cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) and the inhibition of an opposing phosphatase, protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Misregulation of mitotic entry can often lead to oncogenesis or cell death. Recent research has focused on discovering the signaling pathways that feed into the core checkpoint control mechanisms dependent on Cdk and PP2A. Herein, we review the conserved mechanisms of the G2/M transition, including recently discovered upstream signaling pathways that link cell growth and DNA replication to cell cycle progression. Critical consideration of the human, frog and yeast models of mitotic entry frame unresolved and emerging questions in this field, providing a prediction of signaling molecules and pathways yet to be discovered. PMID:23598718

Yasutis, Kimberly M.; Kozminski, Keith G.

2013-01-01

129

Cell cycle checkpoint regulators reach a zillion.  

PubMed

Entry into mitosis is regulated by a checkpoint at the boundary between the G2 and M phases of the cell cycle (G2/M). In many organisms, this checkpoint surveys DNA damage and cell size and is controlled by both the activation of mitotic cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) and the inhibition of an opposing phosphatase, protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Misregulation of mitotic entry can often lead to oncogenesis or cell death. Recent research has focused on discovering the signaling pathways that feed into the core checkpoint control mechanisms dependent on Cdk and PP2A. Herein, we review the conserved mechanisms of the G2/M transition, including recently discovered upstream signaling pathways that link cell growth and DNA replication to cell cycle progression. Critical consideration of the human, frog and yeast models of mitotic entry frame unresolved and emerging questions in this field, providing a prediction of signaling molecules and pathways yet to be discovered. PMID:23598718

Yasutis, Kimberly M; Kozminski, Keith G

2013-05-15

130

Solar maximum thermal surface assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The inflight repair of the Solar Maximum Spacecraft provided the first opportunity to make actual measurements of thermal control surfaces after 4 years exposure in low Earth orbit. Defective hardware was replaced by astronauts and returned to Earth while protected from reentry damage in the Shuttle Payload bay. A preliminary thermal surface assessment was made soon after retrieval in support of Space Telescope and other current spacecraft programs. This included visual examination and measurement of Kapton and Teflon film to determine change in thermal radiative properties after 4 years exposure to solar radiation and reaction with atomic oxygen. Comparative measurements were made with a portable solar reflectometer used for inspection of spacecraft hardware. Post flight measurements and observations reveal significant surface changes that further confirm Kapton mass loss predictions made prior to Solar Maximum repair. Details of thermal surface application, measurements and experimental results are presented and discussed.

Rhoads, G. D.

1985-01-01

131

Maximum Sustainable Yield Lives On  

Microsoft Academic Search

I examined 142 papers published from 1977 through 1985 that used the concept of maximum sustainable yield (MSY). I classified them as to how MSY was used, year of publication, subject, and publication forum. The primary uses of MSY were in estimating long-term yield (28.9%), evaluating stock condition (28.2%), and analyzing policy (21.8%). The number of such publications declined significantly

Willard E. Barber

1988-01-01

132

BGIM : Maximum Likelihood Estimation Primer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Shaun Purcell of the Social, Genetic and Development Pyschiatry Research Centre, this set of pages is an introduction to the maximum likelihood estimation. It discusses the likelihood and log-likelihood functions and the process of optimizing. The author breaks the page down in this way: introduction, model-fitting, MLE in practice, likelihood ratio test, MLE analysis of twin data and MLE analysis of linkage data. The author offers further reading for extra study of this statistical method.

Purcell, Shaun

2009-02-26

133

LCLS Maximum Credible Beam Power  

SciTech Connect

The maximum credible beam power is defined as the highest credible average beam power that the accelerator can deliver to the point in question, given the laws of physics, the beam line design, and assuming all protection devices have failed. For a new accelerator project, the official maximum credible beam power is determined by project staff in consultation with the Radiation Physics Department, after examining the arguments and evidence presented by the appropriate accelerator physicist(s) and beam line engineers. The definitive parameter becomes part of the project's safety envelope. This technical note will first review the studies that were done for the Gun Test Facility (GTF) at SSRL, where a photoinjector similar to the one proposed for the LCLS is being tested. In Section 3 the maximum charge out of the gun for a single rf pulse is calculated. In Section 4, PARMELA simulations are used to track the beam from the gun to the end of the photoinjector. Finally in Section 5 the beam through the matching section and injected into Linac-1 is discussed.

Clendenin, J.

2005-01-12

134

Degradation of land reaching critical global proportions.  

PubMed

The Population Institute recently published a report, titled, Our Diminishing World: The Land/Population Crisis, that explains the relationship between rapid population growth and land degradation in the developing world. As populations in the poorest parts of the world increase, the percentage of land/person continues to decrease. There are approximately 32 billion acres of land, excluding Antarctica, on the planet. That equals only 5.98 acres/person; however, not all this land is suitable for habitation or food production. 1.2 acres is too steep, 1.3 acres is to arid, and 1 acre is too cold. Also, the population of the world is not spread out evenly across the land; thus, in many areas the population density is so high that the demands placed upon the land are greater than its capacity to produce. The Green Revolution that lasted from 1950 through the mid 80s did increase the total amount of yield/acre. Unfortunately the price for such productivity was a degradation of the land. Chemical inputs have contaminated ground water and sterilized the soil, irrigation has caused salinization and water logging (which is a form of decertification), and new tillage practices have eroded the top soil. Grazing cattle have caused enormous amounts of soil erosion and deforestation has removed 911 million acres of tropical forest alone to make room for a growing population. Wood is the single most important fuel source for the people of the developing world; yet, as it becomes scarce from deforestation, animal manures and crop residues have been substituted which further the diminishes the availability of fertile land. It must be understood that family planning save lives, reduces suffering, and slows the damage to the environment. Family planning is the single best way to make an impact in the attempt to end poverty and hunger. PMID:12343551

Smith, A

1992-01-01

135

Delayed transmission of a parasite is compensated by accelerated growth.  

PubMed

Compensatory or 'catch-up' growth following prolonged periods of food shortages is known to exist in many free-living animals. It is generally assumed that growth rates under normal circumstances are below maximum because elevated rates of growth are costly. The present paper gives experimental evidence that such compensatory growth mechanisms also exist in parasitic species. We explored the effect of periodic host unavailability on survival, infectivity and growth of the fish ectoparasite Argulus coregoni. Survival and infectivity of A. coregoni metanauplii deprived of a host for selected time periods were age dependent, which indicates that all metanauplii carry similar energy resources for host seeking. Following the periods off-host, metanauplii were allowed to settle on rainbow trout and were length measured until they reached gravidity. During early development on fish, body length of attached A. coregoni was negatively correlated with off-host period indicating a mechanism that creates size variance in an attached parasite cohort originally containing equal amounts of resources. However, over time the size differences between parasites became less pronounced and eventually parasites that were kept off-host for longest periods of time reached the length of those individuals that had been allowed to infect a host sooner. A. coregoni thus appears to compensate for delayed growth resulting from an extended host searching period by elevated growth rates, although we show that such accelerated growth incurred a cost, through decreased life-expectancy. PMID:16255823

Hakalahti, T; Bandilla, M; Valtonen, E T

2005-11-01

136

Maximum life spur gear design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optimization procedures allow one to design a spur gear reduction for maximum life and other end use criteria. A modified feasible directions search algorithm permits a wide variety of inequality constraints and exact design requirements to be met with low sensitivity to initial guess values. The optimization algorithm is described, and the models for gear life and performance are presented. The algorithm is compact and has been programmed for execution on a desk top computer. Two examples are presented to illustrate the method and its application.

Savage, M.; Mackulin, B. J.; Coe, H. H.; Coy, J. J.

1991-01-01

137

Maximum likelihood techniques in QELS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A framework for the analysis of Quasi Elastic Light Scattering (QELS) experiments designed to be used in microgravity environment is derived. Example calculations of the type to be used to design the QELS system are given. The framework for the analysis is based on the concepts of parameter estimation typified by Maximum Likelihood Estimation methods. These methods not only serve as the template for parameter estimation algorithms, but can also be used for optimal design of the experiments. Optimal design of experiments is facilitated by the fact that these methods not only give procedures for parameter estimation, but also estimates of the errors associated with the parameter estimation.

Edwards, Robert V.

1989-01-01

138

Fifth Space Weather Enterprise Forum Reaches New Heights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the world's commercial infrastructure grows more dependent on sensitive electronics and space-based technologies, the global economy is becoming increasingly vulnerable to solar storms. Experts from the federal government, academia, and the private sector met to discuss the societal effects of major solar storms and other space weather at the fifth annual Space Weather Enterprise Forum (SWEF), held on 21 June 2011 at the National Press Club in Washington, D. C. More than 200 members of the space weather community attended this year's SWEF, which focused on the consequences of severe space weather for national security, critical infrastructure, and human safety. Participants also addressed the question of how to prepare for and mitigate those consequences as the current solar cycle approaches and reaches its peak, expected in 2013. This year's forum included details of plans for a "Unified National Space Weather Capability," a new interagency initiative which will be implemented over the next two years, designed to improve forecasting, warning, and other services ahead of the coming solar maximum.

Williamson, Samuel P.; Babcock, Michael R.; Bonadonna, Michael F.

2011-09-01

139

Sex education in the Cameroon. Reaching schoolchildren.  

PubMed

Four methods were used to learn about the sexual behavior, knowledge and use of contraception, and sexually transmitted diseases (STD) among 230 students aged 11-16 years in two bilingual schools in Yaounde. First, students discussed letters to an aunt explaining a teen's sexually-related problem. Premarital sex and the fear of STDs were at issue. Second, students filled in missing information on a line drawing relating to pregnancy. Most participants knew that a baby depends upon its mother for development and growth, but some were unclear on the nature of the biological connection to the uterus. Third, students completed a questionnaire upon which they indicated their agreement or lack thereof with statements on aspects of sex behavior. While both sexes indicated that love is more important than sex, they also find it necessary to have sex before marriage in order to gain experience and to know the other person better. Finally, students completed an anonymous questionnaire which produced the following results: 24% had experienced sexual intercourse; the most common age for initiating sexual activity was 15 and 13 years for boys and girls, respectively; 48% had heard about contraceptives; and 27% believed that contraceptives were dangerous and could permanently end one's fertility. Despite these students' limited amount of accurate knowledge about sexual matters, they are ready to confront real-life sexual situations. 130 parents, 110 teachers, and 26 health workers involved in clinics for family planning and STDs were also interviewed in the study. Contrary to the view of adults that adolescents should not discuss sexual matters, the youths initiated important discussions about their sexuality. 90% were interested in knowing about safer sex and STDs. Most parents believe that their children become sexually active later in life than they really do, with both parents and teachers supporting the withholding of information on birth control from adolescents out of fear that such knowledge will encourage them to experiment with sex. Young people instead need free and open access to family planning information and services to help them avoid unwanted pregnancy and infections with STDs. Moreover, the government campaign against HIV must start emphasizing condom use. PMID:12315650

1988-03-01

140

Process-Conditioned Investing with Incomplete Information using Maximum Causal Entropy  

E-print Network

. The maximum entropy distributions for joint, conditional, and marginal distri- butions with moment the relative variant of maximum entropy applicable for maximizing the worst-case growth rate in the KellyProcess-Conditioned Investing with Incomplete Information using Maximum Causal Entropy Brian D

Gordon, Geoffrey J.

141

Coral mortality increases wave energy reaching shores protected by reef flats: Examples from the Seychelles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the granitic Seychelles, many shores and beaches are fringed by coral reef flats which provide protection to shores from erosion by waves. The surfaces of these reef flats support a complex ecology. About 10 years ago their seaward zones were extensively covered by a rich coral growth, which reached approximately to mean low water level, but in 1998 this

Charles Sheppard; David J. Dixon; Michael Gourlay; Anne Sheppard; Rolph Payet

2005-01-01

142

Innovating resource regimes: Water, wastewater, and the institutional dynamics of urban hydraulic reach in northwest Mexico  

E-print Network

-making, better explains the causes, forms, and out- comes of hydraulic reach than do more structural approaches­rural power disparities and water resource landscapes of urban growth will drive continued expansion not necessarily entail an outright sectoral change of use. In this paper we seek to better understand the causes

Scott, Christopher

143

Maximum frequency acceptable to female workers for one-handed lifts in the horizontal plane  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory study was conducted to determine the maximum frequencies acceptable to female workers for one-handed lifts in the horizontal plane. A psychophysical method was used to determine maximum acceptable frequency for an 8-hour workday. Ten female college students were required to lift continuously three different loads to two different reach distances (38 and 63 cm) on a 91 cm

A. GARG; U. SAXENA

1982-01-01

144

Frequency Tracking to Maximum Power of Piezoelectric Transformer HV Converters under Load Variations  

E-print Network

that the operating frequency of the PT, at which maximum voltage gain is reached, is a function of the load. Hence frequency [1]. Fig. 1. Rosen type piezoelectric transformer. Hence, to maintain maximum output voltage under) it is necessary to lock the operating frequency to the one that will ensure highest possible output voltage

145

Education, Out-reach and In-reach Infrastructure Support for the Hydrologic Sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, incorporated (CUAHSI) is designed as an infrastructure support mechanism for research in the hydrologic sciences. Education, Out-reach and In-reach (EOI) is one of the five support thrusts of CUAHSI. EOI interfaces intimately with the other four thrusts (Hydrologic Science, Hydrologic Observatories, Hydrologic Information Systems, Hydrologic Measurement Technology). In addition, the EOI infrastructure will provide additional support to the scientific and educational communities as well as the general public. The EOI infrastructure aims to support scientists, educators, students and other interested parties through a variety of mechanisms including summer institutes, instrumentation training, student fellowships and institutional linkages. EOI's overall goal is to develop strategies, which have a broad impact and national significance. All EOI programs will link to CUAHSI science driven initiatives and will be evaluated in the basis of the impact of the program to the intended audience(s) and attainment of measurable outcomes. EOI, in addition to providing opportunities to the hydrologic science community, the broader scientific and education communities and the general public, will consistently interact with key members of pertinent communities to make them aware of available programs and to insure their participation by the interactive development of programs and opportunities. Potential activities include summer institutes at CUAHSI member universities for scientists, educators and students to exchange new ideas and learn new techniques. Potential exists for graduate student fellowships in support of research activities linked to CUAHSI science plans. Outreach to the general public and policy-makers may include distinguished speakers presenting general hydrologic science information and highlighting CUAHSI related research initiatives. In-reach is also a priority for EOI, and opportunities may include training seminars for hydrologic scientists interested in learning to use new technologies and forums designed to inform CUAHSI participants of emerging research, best educational practices or relevant policy issues. Ultimately EOI initiatives are designed to serve the community and provide opportunities suggested by the needs of the community.

Hannigan, R.; McCaffrey, M.

2002-05-01

146

Reaching hard-to-reach migrants by letters: an HIV/AIDS awareness programme in Nepal.  

PubMed

We assessed the impact of an HIV/AIDS programme for Nepalese migrants to India that involved writing letters. The programme created opportunities for sending HIV/AIDS-related messages to the migrants in India, and encouraging them practicing safer sex. Initially, they received the messages only from the programme, but later from their colleagues, spouses or other family members. They discussed the messages in groups, disseminated them, and sought more knowledge in their destinations. These findings indicated that using letters could be an effective way to reach inaccessible migrants at their destinations, and help them to improve their HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, and safer sex practices. PMID:16427348

Poudel, Krishna C; Jimba, Masamine; Poudel-Tandukar, Kalpana; Wakai, Susumu

2007-03-01

147

System for memorizing maximum values  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The invention discloses a system capable of memorizing maximum sensed values. The system includes conditioning circuitry which receives the analog output signal from a sensor transducer. The conditioning circuitry rectifies and filters the analog signal and provides an input signal to a digital driver, which may be either linear or logarithmic. The driver converts the analog signal to discrete digital values, which in turn triggers an output signal on one of a plurality of driver output lines n. The particular output lines selected is dependent on the converted digital value. A microfuse memory device connects across the driver output lines, with n segments. Each segment is associated with one driver output line, and includes a microfuse that is blown when a signal appears on the associated driver output line.

Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

1992-08-01

148

Reach and its Impact: NASA and US Aerospace Communities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

REACH is a European law that threatens to impact materials used within the US aerospace communities, including NASA. The presentation briefly covers REACH and generally, its perceived impacts to NASA and the aerospace community within the US.

Rothgeb, Matthew J.

2011-01-01

149

Reaching hard-to-reach individuals: Nonselective versus targeted outbreak response vaccination for measles.  

PubMed

Current mass vaccination campaigns in measles outbreak response are nonselective with respect to the immune status of individuals. However, the heterogeneity in immunity, due to previous vaccination coverage or infection, may lead to potential bias of such campaigns toward those with previous high access to vaccination and may result in a lower-than-expected effective impact. During the 2010 measles outbreak in Malawi, only 3 of the 8 districts where vaccination occurred achieved a measureable effective campaign impact (i.e., a reduction in measles cases in the targeted age groups greater than that observed in nonvaccinated districts). Simulation models suggest that selective campaigns targeting hard-to-reach individuals are of greater benefit, particularly in highly vaccinated populations, even for low target coverage and with late implementation. However, the choice between targeted and nonselective campaigns should be context specific, achieving a reasonable balance of feasibility, cost, and expected impact. In addition, it is critical to develop operational strategies to identify and target hard-to-reach individuals. PMID:24131555

Minetti, Andrea; Hurtado, Northan; Grais, Rebecca F; Ferrari, Matthew

2014-01-15

150

Reaching through Learned Forward Model GANGHUA SUN & BRIAN SCASSELLATI  

E-print Network

Reaching through Learned Forward Model GANGHUA SUN & BRIAN SCASSELLATI Computer Science Department, Yale University New Haven, Connecticut 06511, United States {ganghua.sun, brian. Human infants typically start goal-directed reaches around 4 to 5 months of age. Adult-level reaching

Scassellati, Brian

151

Visual servoing for path reaching with nonholonomic robots Journal: Robotica  

E-print Network

Visual servoing for path reaching with nonholonomic robots Journal: Robotica Manuscript ID: ROB these files (e.g. movies) online. VisionBasedPathReaching-Robotica.tex figure.tar.gz VisionBasedPathReaching.mp4 Proof for review onlyhal-00639659,version1-9Nov2011 Author manuscript, published in "Robotica 29

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

152

San Acacia Reach San Acacia Dam to Escondida Bridge  

E-print Network

by Reclamation on the San Acacia reach. The 11.6 mile long reach extends from the San Acacia Diversion dam (River and the construction of the diversion dam. Due to the degradation, the particle diameter has coarsened from about 0San Acacia Reach San Acacia Dam to Escondida Bridge Hydraulic Modeling Analysis 1918-2006 Middle

Julien, Pierre Y.

153

Suspended Sediment Transport in the Freshwater Reach of the Hudson River Estuary in Eastern New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deposition of Hudson River sediment into New York Harbor interferes with navigation lanes and requires continuous dredging.\\u000a Sediment dynamics at the Hudson estuary turbidity maximum (ETM) have received considerable study, but delivery of sediment\\u000a to the ETM through the freshwater reach of the estuary has received relatively little attention and few direct measurements.\\u000a An acoustic Doppler current profiler was positioned

G. R. Wall; E. A. Nystrom; S. Litten

2008-01-01

154

Spiking and LFP activity in PRR during symbolically instructed reaches  

PubMed Central

The spiking activity in the parietal reach region (PRR) represents the spatial goal of an impending reach when the reach is directed toward or away from a visual object. The local field potentials (LFPs) in this region also represent the reach goal when the reach is directed to a visual object. Thus PRR is a candidate area for reading out a patient's intended reach goals for neural prosthetic applications. For natural behaviors, reach goals are not always based on the location of a visual object, e.g., playing the piano following sheet music or moving following verbal directions. So far it has not been directly tested whether and how PRR represents reach goals in such cognitive, nonlocational conditions, and knowing the encoding properties in various task conditions would help in designing a reach goal decoder for prosthetic applications. To address this issue, we examined the macaque PRR under two reach conditions: reach goal determined by the stimulus location (direct) or shape (symbolic). For the same goal, the spiking activity near reach onset was indistinguishable between the two tasks, and thus a reach goal decoder trained with spiking activity in one task performed perfectly in the other. In contrast, the LFP activity at 20–40 Hz showed small but significantly enhanced reach goal tuning in the symbolic task, but its spatial preference remained the same. Consequently, a decoder trained with LFP activity performed worse in the other task than in the same task. These results suggest that LFP decoders in PRR should take into account the task context (e.g., locational vs. nonlocational) to be accurate, while spike decoders can robustly provide reach goal information regardless of the task context in various prosthetic applications. PMID:22072511

Andersen, Richard A.

2012-01-01

155

Formative research on MySpace: online methods to engage hard-to-reach populations.  

PubMed

The Internet, particularly online social networks, can be an effective and culturally relevant communications channel to engage hard-to-reach populations with HIV prevention interventions. This article describes the process of conducting formative research on a popular social networking site, MySpace, in an effort to involve youth of color in design of programmatic content and formats for an Internet intervention. We discovered that asynchronous focus groups worked well to engage hard-to-reach populations. The synchronous groups allowed maximum participation and easy transcription for analysis. The authors found that using a social networking site to conduct formative research was useful to guide the development of a social networking intervention for youth of color. Researchers need to be flexible in adapting their research methods and interventions to the context of online social networking sites to most effectively engage hard-to-reach populations. PMID:21391040

Levine, Deborah; Madsen, Allegra; Wright, Erin; Barar, Rana E; Santelli, John; Bull, Sheana

2011-04-01

156

Maximum entropy production in daisyworld  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Daisyworld was first introduced in 1983 by Watson and Lovelock as a model that illustrates how life can influence a planet's climate. These models typically involve modeling a planetary surface on which black and white daisies can grow thus influencing the local surface albedo and therefore also the temperature distribution. Since then, variations of daisyworld have been applied to study problems ranging from ecological systems to global climate. Much of the interest in daisyworld models is due to the fact that they enable one to study self-regulating systems. These models are nonlinear, and as such they exhibit sensitive dependence on initial conditions, and depending on the specifics of the model they can also exhibit feedback loops, oscillations, and chaotic behavior. Many daisyworld models are thermodynamic in nature in that they rely on heat flux and temperature gradients. However, what is not well-known is whether, or even why, a daisyworld model might settle into a maximum entropy production (MEP) state. With the aim to better understand these systems, this paper will discuss what is known about the role of MEP in daisyworld models.

Maunu, Haley A.; Knuth, Kevin H.

2012-05-01

157

Clades reach highest morphological disparity early in their evolution  

PubMed Central

There are few putative macroevolutionary trends or rules that withstand scrutiny. Here, we test and verify the purported tendency for animal clades to reach their maximum morphological variety relatively early in their evolutionary histories (early high disparity). We present a meta-analysis of 98 metazoan clades radiating throughout the Phanerozoic. The disparity profiles of groups through time are summarized in terms of their center of gravity (CG), with values above and below 0.50 indicating top- and bottom-heaviness, respectively. Clades that terminate at one of the “big five” mass extinction events tend to have truncated trajectories, with a significantly top-heavy CG distribution overall. The remaining 63 clades show the opposite tendency, with a significantly bottom-heavy mean CG (relatively early high disparity). Resampling tests are used to identify groups with a CG significantly above or below 0.50; clades not terminating at a mass extinction are three times more likely to be significantly bottom-heavy than top-heavy. Overall, there is no clear temporal trend in disparity profile shapes from the Cambrian to the Recent, and early high disparity is the predominant pattern throughout the Phanerozoic. Our results do not allow us to distinguish between ecological and developmental explanations for this phenomenon. To the extent that ecology has a role, however, the paucity of bottom-heavy clades radiating in the immediate wake of mass extinctions suggests that early high disparity more probably results from the evolution of key apomorphies at the base of clades rather than from physical drivers or catastrophic ecospace clearing. PMID:23884651

Hughes, Martin; Gerber, Sylvain; Wills, Matthew Albion

2013-01-01

158

Clades reach highest morphological disparity early in their evolution.  

PubMed

There are few putative macroevolutionary trends or rules that withstand scrutiny. Here, we test and verify the purported tendency for animal clades to reach their maximum morphological variety relatively early in their evolutionary histories (early high disparity). We present a meta-analysis of 98 metazoan clades radiating throughout the Phanerozoic. The disparity profiles of groups through time are summarized in terms of their center of gravity (CG), with values above and below 0.50 indicating top- and bottom-heaviness, respectively. Clades that terminate at one of the "big five" mass extinction events tend to have truncated trajectories, with a significantly top-heavy CG distribution overall. The remaining 63 clades show the opposite tendency, with a significantly bottom-heavy mean CG (relatively early high disparity). Resampling tests are used to identify groups with a CG significantly above or below 0.50; clades not terminating at a mass extinction are three times more likely to be significantly bottom-heavy than top-heavy. Overall, there is no clear temporal trend in disparity profile shapes from the Cambrian to the Recent, and early high disparity is the predominant pattern throughout the Phanerozoic. Our results do not allow us to distinguish between ecological and developmental explanations for this phenomenon. To the extent that ecology has a role, however, the paucity of bottom-heavy clades radiating in the immediate wake of mass extinctions suggests that early high disparity more probably results from the evolution of key apomorphies at the base of clades rather than from physical drivers or catastrophic ecospace clearing. PMID:23884651

Hughes, Martin; Gerber, Sylvain; Wills, Matthew Albion

2013-08-20

159

Increasing Internodal Distance in Myelinated Nerves Accelerates Nerve Conduction to a Flat Maximum  

PubMed Central

Summary Predictions that conduction velocities are sensitive to the distance between nodes of Ranvier in myelinated axons have implications for nervous system function during growth and repair [1–3]. Internodal lengths defined by Schwann cells in hindlimb nerves, for example, can undergo a 4-fold increase during mouse development, and regenerated nerves have internodes that are uniformly short [4, 5]. Nevertheless, the influence of internodal length on conduction speed has limited experimental support. Here, we examined this problem in mice expressing a mutant version of periaxin, a protein required for Schwann cell elongation [4]. Importantly, elongation of mutant Schwann cells was retarded without significant derangements to myelination or axon caliber. In young mice with short mutant Schwann cells, nerve conduction velocity was reduced and motor function was impaired. This demonstrates a functional relationship between internodal distance and conduction speed. Moreover, as internodes lengthened during postnatal growth, conduction velocities recovered to normal values and mutant mice exhibited normal motor and sensory behavior. This restoration of function confirms a further prediction by Huxley and Stämpfli that conduction speeds should increase as internodal distances lengthen until a “flat maximum” is reached, beyond which no further gains in conduction velocity accrue [6]. PMID:23022068

Wu, Lai Man N.; Williams, Anna; Delaney, Ada; Sherman, Diane L.; Brophy, Peter J.

2012-01-01

160

Increasing internodal distance in myelinated nerves accelerates nerve conduction to a flat maximum.  

PubMed

Predictions that conduction velocities are sensitive to the distance between nodes of Ranvier in myelinated axons have implications for nervous system function during growth and repair. Internodal lengths defined by Schwann cells in hindlimb nerves, for example, can undergo a 4-fold increase during mouse development, and regenerated nerves have internodes that are uniformly short. Nevertheless, the influence of internodal length on conduction speed has limited experimental support. Here, we examined this problem in mice expressing a mutant version of periaxin, a protein required for Schwann cell elongation. Importantly, elongation of mutant Schwann cells was retarded without significant derangements to myelination or axon caliber. In young mice with short mutant Schwann cells, nerve conduction velocity was reduced and motor function was impaired. This demonstrates a functional relationship between internodal distance and conduction speed. Moreover, as internodes lengthened during postnatal growth, conduction velocities recovered to normal values and mutant mice exhibited normal motor and sensory behavior. This restoration of function confirms a further prediction by Huxley and Stämpfli that conduction speeds should increase as internodal distances lengthen until a "flat maximum" is reached, beyond which no further gains in conduction velocity accrue. PMID:23022068

Wu, Lai Man N; Williams, Anna; Delaney, Ada; Sherman, Diane L; Brophy, Peter J

2012-10-23

161

Maximum entropy principal for transportation  

SciTech Connect

In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the maximum entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.

Bilich, F. [University of Brasilia (Brazil); Da Silva, R. [National Research Council (Brazil)

2008-11-06

162

Recovery of three arctic stream reaches from experimental nutrient enrichment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. Nutrient enrichment and resulting eutrophication is a widespread anthropogenic influence on freshwater ecosystems, but recovery from nutrient enrichment is poorly understood, especially in stream environments. We examined multi-year patterns in community recovery from experimental low-concentration nutrient enrichment (N + P or P only) in three reaches of two Arctic tundra streams (Kuparuk River and Oksrukuyik Creek) on the North Slope of Alaska (U.S.A.). 2. Rates of recovery varied among community components and depended on duration of enrichment (2-13 consecutive growing seasons). Biomass of epilithic algae returned to reference levels rapidly (within 2 years), regardless of nutrients added or enrichment duration. Aquatic bryophyte cover, which increased greatly in the Kuparuk River only after long-term enrichment (8 years), took 8 years of recovery to approach reference levels, after storms had scoured most remnant moss in the recovering reach. 3. Multi-year persistence of bryophytes in the Kuparuk River appeared to prevent recovery of insect populations that had either been positively (e.g. the mayfly Ephemerella, most chironomid midge taxa) or negatively (e.g. the tube-building chironomid Orthocladius rivulorum) affected by this shift in dominant primary producer. These lags in recovery (of >3 years) were probably driven by the persistent effect of bryophytes on physical benthic habitat. 4. Summer growth rates of Arctic grayling (both adults and young-of-year) in Oksrukuyik Creek (fertilised for 6 years with no bryophyte colonisation), which were consistently increased by nutrient addition, returned to reference rates within 1-2 years. 5. Rates of recovery of these virtually pristine Arctic stream ecosystems from low-level nutrient enrichment appeared to be controlled largely by duration of enrichment, mediated through physical habitat shifts caused by eventual bryophyte colonisation, and subsequent physical disturbance that removed bryophytes. Nutrient enrichment of oligotrophic Arctic stream ecosystems caused by climate change or local anthropogenic activity may have dramatic and persistent consequences if it results in the colonisation of long-lived primary producers that alter physical habitat. ?? 2007 The Authors.

Benstead, J.P.; Green, A.C.; Deegan, L.A.; Peterson, B.J.; Slavik, K.; Bowden, W.B.; Hershey, A.E.

2007-01-01

163

Differences in the heritability of growth and growth velocity during infancy and associations with FTO variants.  

PubMed

While the associations of common variants in the FTO gene with obesity have been widely replicated in adults, there is conflicting evidence regarding their effects in infancy. We hypothesize that the genetic influences on growth traits vary during infancy, and that conflicting results may stem from variation in the ages at which FTO associations have been examined. Using longitudinal weight and length data at 0, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months in 917 (444 females, 473 males) family members from the Fels Longitudinal Study, we used a variance components-based approach (SOLAR) to: (i) examine differences in heritability (gene-by-age interaction) in weight, length, relative weight (BMI and ponderal index (PI)) and instantaneous weight and length velocities over the course of infancy, and (ii) test whether a common FTO variant (rs9939609) was associated with infant growth at three ages (maximum trait heritability, birth and 36 months). All heritabilities at birth (of 39-74%) were significant (P < 3.9 × 10(-10)), but changed with age (gene-by-age interaction, P < 0.05). Weight, relative weight, and weight velocity reached maximum heritabilities (of 76-89%) at 6-9 months, while length and length velocity reached maximum heritabilities (of 96-99%) at 18-30 months. We found no association of rs9939609 with growth status or velocity measured at any age (P > 0.11). This study for the first time demonstrates the fluctuation of genetic influences on infant growth, but further work is required to determine which gene variants explain the strong additive genetic effects observed. PMID:21720422

Choh, Audrey C; Curran, Joanne E; Odegaard, Andrew O; Nahhas, Ramzi W; Czerwinski, Stefan A; Blangero, John; Towne, Bradford; Demerath, Ellen W

2011-09-01

164

Maximum vehicle cabin temperatures under different meteorological conditions.  

PubMed

A variety of studies have documented the dangerously high temperatures that may occur within the passenger compartment (cabin) of cars under clear sky conditions, even at relatively low ambient air temperatures. Our study, however, is the first to examine cabin temperatures under variable weather conditions. It uses a unique maximum vehicle cabin temperature dataset in conjunction with directly comparable ambient air temperature, solar radiation, and cloud cover data collected from April through August 2007 in Athens, GA. Maximum cabin temperatures, ranging from 41-76 degrees C, varied considerably depending on the weather conditions and the time of year. Clear days had the highest cabin temperatures, with average values of 68 degrees C in the summer and 61 degrees C in the spring. Cloudy days in both the spring and summer were on average approximately 10 degrees C cooler. Our findings indicate that even on cloudy days with lower ambient air temperatures, vehicle cabin temperatures may reach deadly levels. Additionally, two predictive models of maximum daily vehicle cabin temperatures were developed using commonly available meteorological data. One model uses maximum ambient air temperature and average daily solar radiation while the other uses cloud cover percentage as a surrogate for solar radiation. From these models, two maximum vehicle cabin temperature indices were developed to assess the level of danger. The models and indices may be useful for forecasting hazardous conditions, promoting public awareness, and to estimate past cabin temperatures for use in forensic analyses. PMID:19234721

Grundstein, Andrew; Meentemeyer, Vernon; Dowd, John

2009-05-01

165

Maximum vehicle cabin temperatures under different meteorological conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of studies have documented the dangerously high temperatures that may occur within the passenger compartment (cabin) of cars under clear sky conditions, even at relatively low ambient air temperatures. Our study, however, is the first to examine cabin temperatures under variable weather conditions. It uses a unique maximum vehicle cabin temperature dataset in conjunction with directly comparable ambient air temperature, solar radiation, and cloud cover data collected from April through August 2007 in Athens, GA. Maximum cabin temperatures, ranging from 41-76°C, varied considerably depending on the weather conditions and the time of year. Clear days had the highest cabin temperatures, with average values of 68°C in the summer and 61°C in the spring. Cloudy days in both the spring and summer were on average approximately 10°C cooler. Our findings indicate that even on cloudy days with lower ambient air temperatures, vehicle cabin temperatures may reach deadly levels. Additionally, two predictive models of maximum daily vehicle cabin temperatures were developed using commonly available meteorological data. One model uses maximum ambient air temperature and average daily solar radiation while the other uses cloud cover percentage as a surrogate for solar radiation. From these models, two maximum vehicle cabin temperature indices were developed to assess the level of danger. The models and indices may be useful for forecasting hazardous conditions, promoting public awareness, and to estimate past cabin temperatures for use in forensic analyses.

Grundstein, Andrew; Meentemeyer, Vernon; Dowd, John

2009-05-01

166

Blood lactate concentration following maximum exercise in trained subjects.  

PubMed Central

The time when blood lactate reaches peak concentration following maximum exercise is unclear. The post exercise venous blood lactate concentration was determined serially for 30 minutes in 13 trained men following maximum exercise on a motor driven treadmill. Lactates were determined enzymatically in duplicate. The VO2 max and percent body fat was 65.1 +/- 4.8 ml.kg-1.min-1 and 11.4 +/- 1.4, respectively. The venous lactate reached a peak concentration at the 6th minute (14.2 mmol.L-1) of an inactive recovery, and declined linearly thereafter to reach a concentration of 7.43 +/- 0.60 mmol.L-1 at the 30th minute. The net rate of lactate removal was .30 mmol.L-1.min-1. Statistical analysis found no significant difference in lactate concentration during the 4th, 5th and 6th minute post exercise, indicating that these post exercise times may be appropriate to sample venous blood for peak lactate concentration. PMID:7272661

Gass, G. C.; Rogers, S.; Mitchell, R.

1981-01-01

167

Effects of cultivating conditions on the mycelial growth of Ganoderma lucidum in submerged flask cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the effects of environmental conditions on the mycelial growth of Ganoderma lucidum were investigated in shake flask cultures. The optimal temperature and pH were found to be around 30-35v°C and 4, respectively, in a glucose-ammonium chloride medium. The maximum mycelial concentration reached to around 350 mg\\/100 ml. The formation of mycelial pellets and their ultra structure was

F.-C. Yang; C.-B. Liau

1998-01-01

168

Maximum Flux Transition Paths of Conformational Change  

PubMed Central

Given two metastable states A and B of a biomolecular system, the problem is to calculate the likely paths of the transition from A to B. Such a calculation is more informative and more manageable if done for a reduced set of collective variables chosen so that paths cluster in collective variable space. The computational task becomes that of computing the “center” of such a cluster. A good way to define the center employs the concept of a committor, whose value at a point in collective variable space is the probability that a trajectory at that point will reach B before A. The committor “foliates” the transition region into a set of isocommittors. The maximum flux transition path is defined as a path that crosses each isocommittor at a point which (locally) has the highest crossing rate of distinct reactive trajectories. This path is based on the same principle as the minimum resistance path of Berkowitz et al (1983), but it has two advantages: (i) the path is invariant with respect to a change of coordinates in collective variable space and (ii) the differential equations that define the path are simpler. It is argued that such a path is nearer to an ideal path than others that have been proposed with the possible exception of the finite-temperature string method path. To make the calculation tractable, three approximations are introduced, yielding a path that is the solution of a nonsingular two-point boundary-value problem. For such a problem, one can construct a simple and robust algorithm. One such algorithm and its performance is discussed. PMID:20890401

Zhao, Ruijun; Shen, Juanfang; Skeel, Robert D.

2010-01-01

169

Discovery mass reach for excited quarks at hadron colliders  

Microsoft Academic Search

If quarks are composite particles then excited states are expected. We estimate the discovery mass reach as a function of integrated luminosity for excited quarks decaying to dijets at the Tevatron the mass reach is 0.94 TeV for Run 11 (2 fb⁻¹) and 1. 1 TeV for TeV33 (30 fb⁻¹). At the LHC the mass reach is 6.3 TeV for

Robert M. Harris

1996-01-01

170

14 CFR 1261.102 - Maximum amount.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Maximum amount. 1261.102 Section 1261.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND... Employees' Personal Property Claims § 1261.102 Maximum amount. From October 1, 1982,...

2010-01-01

171

Walking Is Not Like Reaching: Evidence from Periodic Mechanical Perturbations  

E-print Network

The control architecture underlying human reaching has been established, at least in broad outline. However, despite extensive research, the control architecture underlying human locomotion remains unclear. Some studies ...

Ahn, Jooeun

172

Maximum Urban Heat Island Intensity in Seoul  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maximum urban heat island (UHI) intensity in Seoul, Korea, is investigated using data measured at two meteorological observatories (an urban site and a rural site) during the period of 1973-96. The average maximum UHI is weakest in summer and is strong in autumn and winter. Similar to previous studies for other cities, the maximum UHI intensity is more frequently

Yeon-Hee Kim; Jong-Jin Baik

2002-01-01

173

HYDROMETEOROLOGICAL REPORT NO. 39 PROBABLE MAXIMUM PRECIPITATION"  

E-print Network

HYDROMETEOROLOGICAL REPORT NO. 39 PROBABLE MAXIMUM PRECIPITATION" IN THE HAWAllAN ISLANDS LOAN COPY (Nos. 6-22 Numbered Retroactively) *No: 1. Maximum possible precipitation over the Ompompanoos~c Basin above Union Villag~, Vt. 1943. *No. 2. Maximum possible precipitation over'the Ohio River-Basin above

174

4 Maximum Entropy Production and Non-equilibrium Statistical Mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last 30 years empirical evidence in favour of the Maximum Entropy Production (MEP) principle for non-equilibrium\\u000a systems has been accumulating from studies of phenomena as diverse as planetary climates, crystal growth morphology, bacterial\\u000a metabolism and photosynthesis. And yet MEP is still regarded by many as nothing other than a curiosity, largely because a\\u000a theoretical justification for it has

Roderick C. Dewar

175

[A growth study of Prioria copaifera (Caesalpinaceae) using dendrochronological techniques].  

PubMed

The Cativo (Prioria copaifera) forms very homogeneous forests called cativales in the flooded plains of some rivers from Costa Rica to Colombia. For over 70 years Cativo has been the main base of the timber industry in the Colombian Darien area. Because of high productivity and high-dominance of Cativo trees, they represent one of the most prone tropical forests for sustainable forest management. The objective of this research is to model diameter and timber volume growth and growth rates (absolute, mean and relative) of Cativo as a function of age, using tree ring data derived from dendrochronologycal techniques. We evaluated the annual nature of the tree rings by radiocarbon analysis and crossdating techniques. Besides, the diameter and volume growth was modeled using von Bertalanffy's model. As of our results, we estimated the life span of Cativo in 614 years as the time required to reach 99% of the asymptotic diameter. By the mean value we have found that the mean rate of diameter growth is 0.31cm/y. The species requires 90 years to reach 40cm in diameter, the regulated cut diameter in Colombia. We find that Cativo reaches maximum current annual increment (ICA) in diameter at 40 years and in volume at 90 years with rates of 0.5cm/y and 0.032m3/y per tree, respectively. The maximum diameter mean annual increments (MAI) are achieved at 80 years and for the volume at 140 year, with growth rates of 0.45cm/y and 0.018m3/y per tree, respectively. The generated information is useful for the sustainable management of Cativò forests. PMID:22208095

Giraldo Jiménez, Jorge Andrés; del Valle Arango, Jorge Ignacio

2011-12-01

176

Mediterranean climate effects. II. Conifer growth phenology across a Sierra Nevada ecotone.  

PubMed

Growth and xylem water potential of the lower elevation conifers Pinus jeffreyi and Abies concolor and the higher elevation Pinus monticola and Abies magnifica were monitored in their montane Mediterranean habitat of the southernmost Sierra Nevada mountains of California. Measurements were made across the ecotone between the midmontane and upper montane forests and through light and heavy snowfall years.Radial stem growth, averaging ?1.5 mm/yr, started 2 wk after snow melt, providing that maximum air temperatures had reached 21°C, and ended when predawn water potentials fell rapidly at the onset of the summer drought. Leader growth started on or after a fixed date, providing that minimum air temperatures were above -4°C for Pinus species or +2.5°C for Abies species. The cue for leader growth was inferred to be photoperiodic. Leader growth ended when either a determinate internode length of ?1 mm was reached or predawn water potentials fell rapidly. Abies magnifica grew more rapidly than the low-elevation species, but had a shorter growth period; its annual leader growth, as a consequence, was only 35 mm/yr vs. 50 mm/yr for the low-elevation species. Needle growth was similarly determinate in the absence of early drought. This growth phenology contributes to determining species distribution across the ecotone. PMID:11353717

Royce, E B; Barbour, M G

2001-05-01

177

Validating CAR - A comparison study of experimentally-derived and computer-generated reach envelopes. [Crewstation Assessment of Reach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the present investigation, Crewstation Assessment of Reach (CAR) results in the form of male hand reach envelopes were generated and compared with an anthropometric survey performed by Kennedy (1978) to determine the extent of the validity of the CAR model with respect to experimentally-derived anthropometric data. The CAR-generated reach envelopes extensively matched the Kennedy envelopes. The match was particularly good in the areas to the front and side from which the reach originated. Attention is given to the crewstation model, the operator sample population, the CAR analysis, aspects of validation methodology, and the modeling of experimental parameters.

Harris, R.; Bennett, J.; Stokes, J.

1982-01-01

178

Data Enrichment for Incremental Reach Aiyou Chen1  

E-print Network

panel bias, but borrows strength from modeling conditional dependence of cross-media reaches. We in measuring the overlap and/or incremental reach of cross-media campaigns. The direct method is to use a cross-media panel but these are expensive to scale across all media. Typically, the cross-media panel is too small

Tomkins, Andrew

179

Learning precise 3D reaching in a humanoid robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we discuss the implementation of a precise reaching controller on an upper-torso humanoid robot. The proposed solution is based on a learning strategy which does not rely on a priori models of the kinematics of the arm nor of that of the head. After learning, the robot can reach for visually identified objects in 3-D space by

Lorenzo Natale; Francesco Nori; Giulio Sandini; Giorgio Metta

2007-01-01

180

Modelling floods in hydrologically complex lowland river reaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the modelling of lowland river reaches which contain complex within-reach hydrological interactions. It is clear that river and floodplain flow are the most important processes in terms of flood modelling in lowland systems, although there are often important lateral inflows from catchments and hillslopes bounding the floodplain and from interactions between the river and the floodplain, which

M. D. Stewart; P. D. Bates; M. G. Anderson; D. A. Price; T. P. Burt

1999-01-01

181

The Transition to Reaching: Mapping Intention and Intrinsic Dynamics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Weekly observations of 4 infants in a standard arm-extended reaching task demonstrated that the infants first reached at ages ranging from 12 to 22 weeks. Results suggest that the infant central nervous system does not contain programs that detail hand trajectory or muscle activation patterns; rather, these patterns are the consequence of the…

Thelen, Esther; And Others

1993-01-01

182

Reach Survival Estimates, 2008 Bill Muir, Steve Smith, Doug Marsh,  

E-print Network

Reach Survival Estimates, 2008 Bill Muir, Steve Smith, Doug Marsh, John Williams, and Jim FaulknerDalles JohnDay Hells Canyon Oxbow Brownlee Priest Rapids Wanapum Rock Island Rocky Reach Wells Chief Joseph. . Date at McNary Number released McNary to John Day Dam John Day to Bonneville Dam McNary to Bonneville

183

Local Impact, National Influence, Global Reach UC San Diego's  

E-print Network

Local Impact, National Influence, Global Reach UC San Diego's Economic Impact and Benefits in our, Global Reach Impacting the Economy Overall Impact in San Diego County · Total economic impact of UC San Diego in San Diego County: $5.7B ­$3.7B in direct and indirect spending ­Nearly $2B in personal income

Russell, Lynn

184

A biomimetic reach and grasp approach for mechanical hands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reach and grasp are the two key functions of human prehension. The Central Nervous System controls these two functions in a separate but interdependent way. The choice between different solutions to reach and grasp an object–provided by multiple and redundant degrees of freedom (dof)–depends both on the properties and on the use (affordance) of the object to be manipulated. This

F. Touvet; N. Daoud; J.-P. Gazeau; S. Zeghloul; M. A. Maier; S. Eskiizmirliler

185

RACIAL AND ETHNIC APPROACHES TO COMMUNITY HEALTH (REACH)  

EPA Science Inventory

Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) 2010 is the cornerstone of CDC's efforts to eliminate racial and ethnic disparities in health. Launched in 1999, REACH 2010 is designed to eliminate disparities in the following six priority areas: cardiovascular disease, i...

186

DRAFT San Acacia Reach San Acacia Dam to Escondida Bridge  

E-print Network

by Reclamation on the San Acacia reach. The 11.6 mile long extends from the San Acacia Diversion dam (River Mile and the construction of the diversion dam. Due to the degradation, the particle diameter has coarsened from a 0.1 mmDRAFT San Acacia Reach San Acacia Dam to Escondida Bridge Hydraulic Modeling Analysis 1918

Julien, Pierre Y.

187

A biomimetic strategy for control of FES reaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Victims of spinal cord injury at the cervical level are usually left with a partially paralyzed arm whose upper arm is controlled voluntarily but the lower arm is largely paralyzed. Restoration of reach and grasp functions is essential for independence and quality of life of these patients. Here we describe a biomimetic approach for control of reaching that combines the

R. Davoodi; G. E. Loeb

2003-01-01

188

Modifications to the Standard Sit-and-Reach Flexibility Protocol.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes several modifications of the standard sit-and-reach flexibility protocol using a new device called the multitest flexometer (MTF). Using the MTF, researchers could take six flexibility measures beyond the stand-and-reach test. The modified protocol allowed the indirect assessment of the influence of the four major muscle groups that…

Holt, Laurence E.; Burke, Darren G.; Pelham, Thomas W.

1999-01-01

189

Reaching Year 12 in Victoria, Australia: Student and School Influences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines student and school influences on reaching Year 12, the final year of schooling in Victoria, Australia. It analyses data from the population of students who were in Year 9 in 2008. Male, English-speaking background, government school, and especially Indigenous students were less likely to reach Year 12 than comparison groups.…

Marks, Gary

2014-01-01

190

Surface attraction fish bypass at Rocky Reach Dam  

SciTech Connect

Public Utility District No. 1 of Chelan County, Washington, (Chelan) owns and operates the Rocky Reach and Rock Island hydroelectric projects located on the Columbia River. Chelan is actively seeking the best measures to protect juvenile salmon and steelhead trout as they pass these projects in their downstream migration to the Pacific Ocean. In 1994 Chelan shifted its efforts at Rocky Reach from a turbine intake diversion screen design to an alternative collection system concept. The alternative concept is expected to attract the migrating fish away from the turbine intakes using a combination of the fish`s natural behavioral tendencies and the unique Rocky Reach forebay approach flow characteristics. This paper describes the attraction system being tested during the spring and summer of 1995 at Rocky Reach Dam, the migrating salmon and steelhead trout behavioral tendencies and unique forebay hydraulic characteristics at Rocky Reach, and the tools used to develop the surface fish attraction prototype.

Sweeney, C.E. [ENSR Consulting and Engineering, Redmond, WA (United States); Christman, B. [ASCE, Wenatchee, WA (United States); Weitkamp, D.E. [Parametrix, Inc., Kirkland, WA (United States)

1995-12-31

191

THE EFFECTS OF WRIST SPLINTS ON WHEN FEMALES REACH THE PEAK GRIP STRENGTH UNDER DIFFERENT WRIST AND FOREARM POSITIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

When peak grip strength is reached may be a useful and interesting index for evaluating strength generation and the relationship between resistance and response time, and as one of selected criteria to quantify the muscle fatigue and the static peak strengths. The present study investigates the influence of wearing splints under different forearm and wrist postures on grip MVC (maximum

Yuh-Chuan Shih; Sung-Ping Lo; Wen-Shu Huang

2006-01-01

192

Integrated modelling of island growth, stabilization and mode locking: consequences for NTM control on ITER  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Full suppression of neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) using electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) should be reached before mode locking (stop of rotation) makes suppression impossible. For an ITER scenario 2 plasma, the similar time scales for locking and island growth necessitate the combined modelling of the growth of the mode and its slow down due to wall induced drag. Using such a model, the maximum allowed latency between the seeding of the mode and the start of ECCD deposition and maximum deviation in the radial position are determined. The maximum allowed latency is determined for two limiting models for island growth; the polarization model with wmarg = 2 cm, representing the worst case, and the transport model with wmarg = 6 cm, representing the best case. NTMs with seed island widths up to 9.5 cm and 12 cm for the 2/1 and the 3/2 NTM, respectively, are suppressible. The maximum allowed latency is 1.05 s and 2.95 s for the 2/1 and 3/2 NTM, respectively, for the worst case model. Radial misalignment should not exceed 7-10 mm for the 2/1 NTM and 5-16 mm for the 3/2 NTM depending on the model for island growth. As long as the alignment suffices, it does not reduce the maximum allowed latency. Mode locking has serious implications for any real-time NTM control system on ITER that aims to suppress NTMs by ECCD.

van den Brand, H.; de Baar, M. R.; Lopes Cardozo, N. J.; Westerhof, E.

2012-09-01

193

Effect of Carbon Dioxide on Growth of Meat Spoilage Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The ability of CO2 to inhibit respiration and growth of representative strains of seven species of meat spoilage bacteria was examined. Enterobacter and Microbacterium thermosphactum were unaffected by CO2. Both respiration and growth of the other species were inhibited. With four of the species (fluorescent and nonfluorescent Pseudomonas, Alteromonas putrefaciens, and Yersinia enterocolitica), the inhibition pattern in a complex medium was similar, and inhibition was incomplete and reached a maximum level at comparatively low concentrations of CO2. With Acinetobacter, inhibition continued to increase with increasing CO2 concentration. The degree of inhibition with a constant concentration of CO2 in solution increased with decreasing temperature for all CO2-susceptible species except the nonfluorescent Pseudomonas. Anaerobic growth of CO2-susceptible facultative anaerobes was unaffected by CO2. PMID:16345503

Gill, C. O.; Tan, K. H.

1980-01-01

194

Effect of carbon dioxide on growth of meat spoilage bacteria.  

PubMed

The ability of CO(2) to inhibit respiration and growth of representative strains of seven species of meat spoilage bacteria was examined. Enterobacter and Microbacterium thermosphactum were unaffected by CO(2). Both respiration and growth of the other species were inhibited. With four of the species (fluorescent and nonfluorescent Pseudomonas, Alteromonas putrefaciens, and Yersinia enterocolitica), the inhibition pattern in a complex medium was similar, and inhibition was incomplete and reached a maximum level at comparatively low concentrations of CO(2). With Acinetobacter, inhibition continued to increase with increasing CO(2) concentration. The degree of inhibition with a constant concentration of CO(2) in solution increased with decreasing temperature for all CO(2)-susceptible species except the nonfluorescent Pseudomonas. Anaerobic growth of CO(2)-susceptible facultative anaerobes was unaffected by CO(2). PMID:16345503

Gill, C O; Tan, K H

1980-02-01

195

Salinity effect on plant growth and leaf demography of the mangrove, Avicennia germinans L  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the effect of salinity on plant growth and leaf expansion rates, as well as the leaf life span and the dynamics\\u000a of leaf production and mortality in seedlings of Avicennia germinans L. grown at 0, 170, 430, 680, and 940 mol m?3 NaCl. The relative growth rates (RGR) after 27 weeks reached a maximum (10.4 mg g?1 d?1) in 170 mol m?3 NaCl and decreased

N. Suárez; E. Medina

2005-01-01

196

[Growth modeling of Albizia niopoides (Mimosaceae) using dendrochronological methods].  

PubMed

The annual growth rings in tropical trees are fairly common, but their study is relatively recent. Growth rings were found in trees of Albizia niopoides from the Porce River Canyon, Central Cordillera of the Colombian Andes. A total of 33 cross-sections were collected from trees distributed throughout the study area from 664-870masl. Cross-dating, spaguetti plot and 14C analyses were used to demonstrate ring annuality, assuming as hypothesis that these are real annual growth rings. A combination of descriptive analysis of time series (smoothing and pre-whitening) to filter climate noise and nonlinear regression with weighted residuals was used to fit the diameter to Korfs growth model, in which the coefficient of determination reaches values close to 100%. The positive residual autocorrelation of order 1, although not significant, is explained by the existence of energy reserves in the stem and by the accumulation of diameter increments required for the construction of the diameter growth model. The current and mean annual maximum increment rates are 1.03 and 0.94cm/year at ages 18 and 46 years old, respectively. These trees are classified within the group of fast growing species which can reach a cut diameter of over 50cm in approximately 52 years. PMID:23025084

Giraldo, Víctor David; del Valle, Jorge Ignacio

2012-09-01

197

Reaching Consensus with Imprecise Probabilities over a Network  

E-print Network

This paper discusses the problem of a distributed network of agents attempting to agree on an imprecise probability over a network. Unique from other related work however, the agents must reach agreement while accounting ...

Bertuccelli, Luca F.

2008-12-20

198

Optic ataxia: from Balint's syndrome to the parietal reach region.  

PubMed

Optic ataxia is a high-order deficit in reaching to visual goals that occurs with posterior parietal cortex (PPC) lesions. It is a component of Balint's syndrome that also includes attentional and gaze disorders. Aspects of optic ataxia are misreaching in the contralesional visual field, difficulty preshaping the hand for grasping, and an inability to correct reaches online. Recent research in nonhuman primates (NHPs) suggests that many aspects of Balint's syndrome and optic ataxia are a result of damage to specific functional modules for reaching, saccades, grasp, attention, and state estimation. The deficits from large lesions in humans are probably composite effects from damage to combinations of these functional modules. Interactions between these modules, either within posterior parietal cortex or downstream within frontal cortex, may account for more complex behaviors such as hand-eye coordination and reach-to-grasp. PMID:24607223

Andersen, Richard A; Andersen, Kristen N; Hwang, Eun Jung; Hauschild, Markus

2014-03-01

199

Optic Ataxia: From Balint's Syndrome to the Parietal Reach Region  

E-print Network

behaviors such as hand-eye coordination and reach-to-grasp. Introduction Optic ataxia (OA) is a fascinating of coordination between visual input and motor outputs and thus the term ataxia, Greek for ``lack of order

Andersen, Richard

200

Saturated Collision Amplifier reach extender for XGPON1 and TDM/DWDM PON.  

PubMed

Saturated Collision Amplifier (SCA) is a novel amplification scheme that uses SOA saturation in order to maximize the output power and minimize the ASE noise and the polarization sensitivity. We demonstrate the SCA reach extension in a commercial single-wavelength XGPON1 prototype system where bidirectional optical budget of up to 50 dB is obtained. The traffic performances are compared between the SCA and the conventional SOA extender. The novel extension scheme is demonstrated also for two- and four-wavelength 10 Gbit/s unidirectional downstream configurations with 45 km and 100 km transmission distances with 58-dB maximum total optical budget for each wavelength. PMID:22274083

von Lerber, Tuomo; Tervonen, Ari; Saliou, Fabienne; Le, Quang Trung; Chanclou, Philippe; Xia, Rui; Mattila, Marco; Weiershausen, Werner; Honkanen, Seppo; Küppers, Franko

2011-12-12

201

The Holocene Thermal Maximum in the Greenland Sea and Fram Strait: Temporal and spatial variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM) is a distinct time interval in the early Holocene when strong advection of Atlantic Water to the northern Nordic Seas led to the development of conditions favorable for plankton growth due to limited sea ice coverage. Here we present a synthesis of records from the northern and western part of this area, reaching from the SW Greenland Sea (73°N) to the Yermak Plateau (81°N) and revealing temporal and spatial differences in HTM development. High-resolution radiocarbon dating enables us to constrain the timing of the HTM on (sub)millennial scale resolution. In the Fram Strait and on the Yermak Plateau, rapidly increasing subpolar foraminiferal amounts in the sediments and calculated fluxes indicate the arrival of subsurface warm and saline Atlantic Water at 11-10.5 ka. Depending on the temporal resolution, the records show that the maximum influx was terminated already 2000 years later (9-8 ka), contemporaneous to the short period of maximum sea surface temperatures (cf. Risebrobakken et al., 2011, Paleoceanography v. 26). In the northernmost Greenland Sea, low-resolution records show that the timing may have been similar here. A new submilliennial-scale record from the Vesterisbanken (73°N) in the Greenland Sea, however, reveals a somewhat different picture for this more southern area, affected by the Greenland Gyre. A reduction in annual ice coverage, as indicated by increasing total amounts of planktic foraminifers in the sediment, also occurred between 11 and 10 ka, but the maximum Atlantic Water advection came later (9 ka) and lasted until 6 ka. Apparently, the SW Greenland Sea site records the history of Atlantic Water in the Greenland Gyre that decoupled from the northward flowing Norwegian Atlantic Current/Westspitsbergen Current south of the Fram Strait and supplied relatively high amounts of heat to the subsurface Greenland Sea well into the middle Holocene. At that time, the more northerly sites had already experienced a substantial cooling and an increase in ice coverage, probably induced by a stronger sea ice production in the Arctic Ocean than in the Early Holocene.

Spielhagen, Robert F.; Bauch, Henning A.; Not, Christelle; Telesinski, Maciej M.; Werner, Kirstin

2014-05-01

202

Absorption of bioactive human growth hormone after oral administration in the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) and its enhancement by deoxycholate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombinant human growth hormone was administered orally to carp and serum levels of absorbed bioactive hormone were investigated using a highly sensitive Nb2 rat lymphoma cell bioassay and radioimmumoassay. Serum levels of bioactive hGH reached maximum values 30 min after oral intubation and then gradually decreased. Co-administration of the hormone with deoxycholate to fasted carp resulted in up to a

Yitzhak Hertz; Amir Tchelet; Zecharia Madar; Arieh Gertler

1991-01-01

203

Local field potential spectral tuning in motor cortex during reaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, intracortical local field potentials (LFPs) and single units were recorded from the motor cortices of monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) while they preformed a standard three-dimensional (3-D) center-out reaching task. During the center-out task, the subjects held their hands at the location of a central target and then reached to one of eight peripheral targets forming the corners of

Dustin A. Heldman; Wei Wang; Sherwin S. Chan; Daniel W. Moran

2006-01-01

204

[REACH: a European programme for renewed management of health risks].  

PubMed

The new European directive REACH constitutes a potential step forward for the prevention of health risks linked to industrial chemical production. The conflicts of interest expressed throughout its development and the compromises resulting from those opposing interest situate this directive at the cross-roads of the multiple rationales operating in the occupational health field. The precautionary principal, risk assessment, prevention, regulation, and corporate responsibility will have a role to play in the practical implementation of REACH. PMID:18773843

Gisquet, Elsa; Goldberg, Stephen; Canet, Christine; Brixi, Omar

2008-01-01

205

Discovery Mass Reach for Excited Quarks at Hadron Colliders  

Microsoft Academic Search

If quarks are composite particles then excited states are expected. We estimate the discovery mass reach as a function of integrated luminosity for excited quarks decaying to dijets at the Tevatron, LHC, and a Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC). At the Tevatron the mass reach is 0.94 TeV for Run II (2 fb^-1) and 1.1 TeV for TeV33 (30 fb^-1).

Robert M. Harris

1996-01-01

206

Reliability in the Parameterization of the Functional Reach Test in Elderly Stroke Patients: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Background. Postural instability is one of the major complications found in stroke survivors. Parameterising the functional reach test (FRT) could be useful in clinical practice and basic research. Objectives. To analyse the reliability, sensitivity, and specificity in the FRT parameterisation using inertial sensors for recording kinematic variables in patients who have suffered a stroke. Design. Cross-sectional study. While performing FRT, two inertial sensors were placed on the patient's back (lumbar and trunk). Participants. Five subjects over 65 who suffer from a stroke. Measurements. FRT measures, lumbosacral/thoracic maximum angular displacement, maximum time of lumbosacral/thoracic angular displacement, time return initial position, and total time. Speed and acceleration of the movements were calculated indirectly. Results. FRT measure is??12.75 ± 2.06?cm. Intrasubject reliability values range from 0.829 (time to return initial position (lumbar sensor)) to 0.891 (lumbosacral maximum angular displacement). Intersubject reliability values range from 0.821 (time to return initial position (lumbar sensor)) to 0.883 (lumbosacral maximum angular displacement). FRT's reliability was 0.987 (0.983–0.992) and 0.983 (0.979–0.989) intersubject and intrasubject, respectively. Conclusion. The main conclusion could be that the inertial sensors are a tool with excellent reliability and validity in the parameterization of the FRT in people who have had a stroke. PMID:24868537

Merchan-Baeza, Jose Antonio; Gonzalez-Sanchez, Manuel; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio Ignacio

2014-01-01

207

Inverse maximum flow and minimum cut problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we consider two inverse problems in combinatorial optimization: inverse maximum flow (IMF) problem and inverse minimum cut (IMC) problem. IMF (or IMC) problem can be described as: how to change the capacity vector C of a network as little as possible so that a given flow (or cut) becomes a maximum flow (or minimum cut) in the

C. Yang; J. Zhang; Z. Ma

1997-01-01

208

Maximum Allowable Load of Two Cooperative Manipulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a computational technique for determining the maximum allowable load of two cooperative manipulators for a desired trajectory of the load is presented. There are number of factors that limit the maximum allowable load of two cooperative robotic arms. With attention to configuration of cooperative manipulators with redundant actuation as a closed form chain, the most important limitation

H. Ghariblu; A. Javanmard

2010-01-01

209

Learning Markov Structure by Maximum Entropy Relaxation  

E-print Network

the maximum entropy re- laxation (MER) within an exponential fam- ily, which maximizes entropy subject to con on a set of statis- tics, the entropy-maximizing distribution among all distributions liesLearning Markov Structure by Maximum Entropy Relaxation Jason K. Johnson, Venkat Chandrasekaran

Willsky, Alan S.

210

Maximum likelihood training of probabilistic neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A maximum likelihood method is presented for training probabilistic neural networks (PNN's) using a Gaussian kernel, or Parzen window. The proposed training algorithm enables general nonlinear discrimination and is a generalization of Fisher's method for linear discrimination. Important features of maximum likelihood training for PNN's are: 1) it economizes the well known Parzen window estimator while preserving feedforward NN architecture,

Roy L. Streit; Tod E. Luginbuhl

1994-01-01

211

The maximum modulus of a trigonometric trinomial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let ? be a set of three integers and let \\u000a be the space of 2?-periodic functions with spectrum in ? endowed with the maximum modulus norm. We isolate the maximum modulus points x of trigonometric trinomials T ? \\u000a and prove that x is unique unless |T| has an axis of symmetry. This enables us to compute the exposed and the

Stefan Neuwirth

2008-01-01

212

Concept of REACH and impact on evaluation of chemicals.  

PubMed

Industrial chemicals have been in use for many decades and new products are regularly invented and introduced to the market. Also for decades, many different chemical laws have been introduced to regulate safe handling of chemicals in different use patterns. The patchwork of current regulation in the European Union is to be replaced by the new regulation on industrial chemical control, REACH. REACH stands for registration, evaluation, and authorization of chemicals. REACH entered force on June 1, 2007. REACH aims to overcome limitations in testing requirements of former regulation on industrial chemicals to enhance competitiveness and innovation with regard to manufacture safer substances and to promote the development of alternative testing methods. A main task of REACH is to address data gaps regarding the properties and uses of industrial chemicals. Producers, importers, and downstream users will have to compile and communicate standard information for all chemicals. Information sets to be prepared include safety data sheets (SDS), chemical safety reports (CSR), and chemical safety assessments (CSA). These are designed to guarantee adequate handling in the production chain, in transport and in use and to prevent the substances from being released to and distributed within the environment. Another important aim is to identify the most harmful chemicals and to set incentives to substitute them with safer alternatives. On one hand, REACH will have substantial impact on the basic understanding of the evaluation of chemicals. However, the toxicological sciences can also substantially influence the workability of REACH that supports the transformation of data to the information required to understand and manage acceptable and non acceptable risks in the use of industrial chemicals. The REACH regulation has been laid down in the main document and 17 Annexes of more than 849 pages. Even bigger technical guidance documents will follow and will inform about the rules for application and work out of dossiers. The following article gives a comprehensive overview on the concept of REACH to give deeper insight into this document. Members of the scientific community will have to define their own position as researchers, teachers, and experts to support the efforts to protect human health and the environment. The concept of REACH as well as new approaches to adapt standard testing regimes to foster a risk oriented approach in required work load to decrease animal based tests and to strengthen weight of evidence are explained in detail in this article. PMID:18480145

Foth, H; Hayes, Aw

2008-01-01

213

Rapid plasticity of motor corticospinal system with robotic reach training.  

PubMed

Goal-directed reaching is important for the activities of daily living. Populations of neurons in the primary motor cortex that project to spinal motor circuits are known to represent the kinematics of reaching movements. We investigated whether repetitive practice of goal-directed reaching movements induces use-dependent plasticity of those kinematic characteristics, in a manner similar to finger movements, as had been shown previously. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to evoke upper extremity movements while the forearm was resting in a robotic cradle. Plasticity was measured by the change in kinematics of these evoked movements following goal-directed reaching practice. Baseline direction of TMS-evoked arm movements was determined for each subject. Subjects then practiced three blocks of 160 goal-directed reaching movements in a direction opposite to the baseline direction (14 cm reach 180° from baseline direction) against a 75-Nm spring field. Changes in TMS-evoked whole arm movements were assessed after each practice block and after 5 min following the end of practice. Direction and the position of the point of peak velocity of TMS-evoked movements were significantly altered following training and at a 5-min interval following training, while amplitude did not show significant changes. This was accompanied by changes in the motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) of the shoulder and elbow agonist muscles that partly explained the change in direction, mainly by increase in agonist MEP, without significant changes in antagonists. These findings demonstrate that the arm representation accessible by motor cortical stimulation under goes rapid plasticity induced by goal-directed robotic reach training in healthy subjects. PMID:23669007

Kantak, S S; Jones-Lush, L M; Narayanan, P; Judkins, T N; Wittenberg, G F

2013-09-01

214

An investigation of the neural circuits underlying reaching and reach-to-grasp movements: from planning to execution  

PubMed Central

Experimental evidence suggests the existence of a sophisticated brain circuit specifically dedicated to reach-to-grasp planning and execution, both in human and non-human primates (Castiello, 2005). Studies accomplished by means of neuroimaging techniques suggest the hypothesis of a dichotomy between a “reach-to-grasp” circuit, involving the anterior intraparietal area, the dorsal and ventral premotor cortices (PMd and PMv – Castiello and Begliomini, 2008; Filimon, 2010) and a “reaching” circuit involving the medial intraparietal area and the superior parieto-occipital cortex (Culham et al., 2006). However, the time course characterizing the involvement of these regions during the planning and execution of these two types of movements has yet to be delineated. A functional magnetic resonance imaging study has been conducted, including reach-to-grasp and reaching only movements, performed toward either a small or a large stimulus, and Finite Impulse Response model (Henson, 2003) was adopted to monitor activation patterns from stimulus onset for a time window of 10 s duration. Data analysis focused on brain regions belonging either to the reaching or to the grasping network, as suggested by Castiello and Begliomini (2008). Results suggest that reaching and grasping movements planning and execution might share a common brain network, providing further confirmation to the idea that the neural underpinnings of reaching and grasping may overlap in both spatial and temporal terms (Verhagen et al., 2013). But, although responsive for both actions, they show a significant predominance for either one of the two actions and such a preference is evident on a temporal scale. PMID:25228872

Begliomini, Chiara; De Sanctis, Teresa; Marangon, Mattia; Tarantino, Vincenza; Sartori, Luisa; Miotto, Diego; Motta, Raffaella; Stramare, Roberto; Castiello, Umberto

2014-01-01

215

'Reaching the hard to reach' - lessons learned from the VCS (voluntary and community Sector). A qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background The notion 'hard to reach' is a contested and ambiguous term that is commonly used within the spheres of social care and health, especially in discourse around health and social inequalities. There is a need to address health inequalities and to engage in services the marginalized and socially excluded sectors of society. Methods This paper describes a pilot study involving interviews with representatives from eight Voluntary and Community Sector (VCS) organisations. The purpose of the study was to explore the notion of 'hard to reach' and perceptions of the barriers and facilitators to accessing services for 'hard to reach' groups from a voluntary and community sector perspective. Results The 'hard to reach' may include drug users, people living with HIV, people from sexual minority communities, asylum seekers, refugees, people from black and ethnic minority communities, and homeless people although defining the notion of the 'hard to reach' is not straight forward. It may be that certain groups resist engaging in treatment services and are deemed hard to reach by a particular service or from a societal stance. There are a number of potential barriers for people who may try and access services, including people having bad experiences in the past; location and opening times of services and how services are funded and managed. A number of areas of commonality are found in terms of how access to services for 'hard to reach' individuals and groups could be improved including: respectful treatment of service users, establishing trust with service users, offering service flexibility, partnership working with other organisations and harnessing service user involvement. Conclusions If health services are to engage with groups that are deemed 'hard to reach' and marginalised from mainstream health services, the experiences and practices for engagement from within the VCS may serve as useful lessons for service improvement for statutory health services. PMID:20377850

2010-01-01

216

Quantum teleportation via maximum-confidence quantum measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the problem of teleporting unknown qudit states via pure quantum channels with nonmaximal Schmidt rank. This process is mapped to the problem of discriminating among nonorthogonal symmetric states which are linearly dependent and equally likely. It is shown that by applying an optimized maximum-confidence (MC) measurement for accomplishing this task, one reaches the maximum possible teleportation fidelity after a conclusive event in the discrimination process, which in turn occurs with the maximum success probability. In this case, such fidelity depends only on the Schmidt rank of the channel and it is larger than the optimal one achieved, deterministically, by the standard teleportation protocol. Furthermore, we show that there are quantum channels for which it is possible to apply a k-stage sequential MC measurement in the discrimination process such that a conclusive event at any stage leads to a teleportation fidelity above the aforementioned optimal one and, consequently, increases the overall success probability of teleportation with a fidelity above this limit.

Neves, L.; Solís-Prosser, M. A.; Delgado, A.; Jiménez, O.

2012-06-01

217

Rates of maximum food intake in young northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) and the seasonal  

E-print Network

between an animal's physiology and its biotic environment. We determined how food intake and growth of sixRates of maximum food intake in young northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) and the seasonal effects of food intake on body growth D.A.S. Rosen, B.L. Young, and A.W. Trites Abstract: Accurate

218

Time course of epiphyseal growth plate fusion in rat tibiae  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although the rat is the most common animal model used in studying osteoporosis, it is often used inappropriately. Osteoporosis is a disease that most commonly occurs in humans long after growth plate fusion with the associated cessation of longitudinal bone growth, but there has been a question as to when or to what extent the rat growth plate fuses. To investigate this question, we used microcomputed X-ray tomography, at voxel resolutions ranging from (5.7 micro m)(3) to (11 micro m)(3), to image the proximal epiphyseal growth plates of both male (n = 19) and female (n = 15) rat tibiae, ranging in age from 2 to 25 months. The three-dimensional images were used to evaluate fusion of the epiphyseal growth plate by quantitating the amount of cancellous bone that has bridged across the growth plate. The results suggest that the time course of fusion of the epiphyseal growth plate follows a sigmoidal pattern, with 10% of the maximum number of bridges having formed by 3.9 months in the male tibiae and 5.8 months in the female tibiae, 50% of the maximum number of bridges having formed by 5.6 months in the male tibiae and 5.9 months in the female tibiae, and 90% of the total maximum of bridges have formed by 7.4 months for the males and 6.5 months for the females. The total volume of bridges per tibia at the age at which the maximum number of bridges per tibia has first formed is 0.99 mm(3)/tibia for the males and 0.40 mm(3)/tibia for the females. After the maximum number of bridges (-290 for females, -360 for males) have formed the total volume of bridges per tibia continues to increase for an additional 7.0 months in the males and 17.0 months for the females until they reach maximum values (-1.5 mm(3)/tibia for the males and -2.2 mm(3)/tibia for the females).

Martin, E. A.; Ritman, E. L.; Turner, R. T.

2003-01-01

219

Saturated muscle activation contributes to compensatory reaching strategies following stroke  

PubMed Central

The control and execution of movement could potentially be altered by the presence of stroke-induced weakness if muscles are incapable of generating sufficient power. The purpose of this study was to identify compensatory strategies during a forward (sagittal) reaching task for twenty persons with chronic stroke and ten healthy age-matched controls. We hypothesized that the paretic anterior deltoid would be maximally activated (i.e., saturated) during a reaching task and that task completion would require activation of additional muscles, resulting in compensatory movements out of the sagittal plane. For reaching movements by control subjects, joint motion remained largely in the sagittal plane and hand trajectories were smooth and direct. Movement characteristics of the non-paretic arm of stroke subjects were similar to control subjects except for small increases in the abduction angle and the percentage that anterior deltoid was activated. In contrast, reaching movements of the paretic arm of stroke subjects were characterized by increased activation of all muscles, especially the lateral deltoid, in addition to the anterior deltoid, with resulting shoulder abduction power and segmented and indirect hand motion. For the paretic arm of stroke subjects, muscle and kinetic compensations increased with impairment severity and weaker muscles were used at a higher percentage of their available muscle activity. These results suggest that the inability to generate sufficient force with the typical agonists involved during a forward reaching task may necessitate compensatory muscle recruitment strategies to complete the task. PMID:16014786

McCrea, Patrick H; Eng, Janice J; Hodgson, Antony J

2012-01-01

220

Unconstrained three-dimensional reaching in Rhesus monkeys  

PubMed Central

To better understand normative behavior for quantitative evaluation of motor recovery after injury, we studied arm movements by non-injured Rhesus monkeys during a food-retrieval task. While seated, monkeys reached, grasped, and retrieved food items. We recorded three-dimensional kinematics and muscle activity, and used inverse dynamics to calculate joint moments due to gravity, segmental interactions, and to the muscles and tissues of the arm. Endpoint paths showed curvature in three dimensions, suggesting that maintaining straight paths was not an important constraint. Joint moments were dominated by gravity. Generalized muscle and interaction moments were less than half of the gravitational moments. The relationships between shoulder and elbow resultant moments were linear during both reach and retrieval. Although both reach and retrieval required elbow flexor moments, an elbow extensor (triceps brachii) was active during both phases. Antagonistic muscles of both the elbow and hand were co-activated during reach and retrieval. Joint behavior could be described by lumped-parameter models analogous to torsional springs at the joints. Minor alterations to joint quasi-stiffness properties, aided by interaction moments, result in reciprocal movements that evolve under the influence of gravity. The strategies identified in monkeys to reach, grasp, and retrieve items will allow the quantification of prehension during recovery after a spinal cord injury and the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions. PMID:21170707

Courtine, Gregoire; Liu, James J.; McKay, Heather L.; Moseanko, Rod; Bernot, Timothy J.; Roy, Roland R.; Zhong, Hui; Tuszynski, Mark H.; Reggie Edgerton, V.

2010-01-01

221

Early control of reaching: effects of experience and body orientation.  

PubMed

Although research suggests that experience may be a better indicator of the acquisition of certain abilities by infants than age, little work addresses this issue in the development of reaching movements in particular. This longitudinal study fills this gap by verifying the effect of practice time on more- and less-skilled reachers of the same age group in different body orientations. Less- (n=6) and more-skilled (n=4) reachers were evaluated at the acquisition of reaching and again after 1 month of spontaneous practice. Kinematic analyses examined 3D wrist motion during reaching trials in supine (0 degrees ), reclined (45 degrees ) and seated (70 degrees ) orientations. The results indicated that skill level was a relevant factor in dealing with gravitational constraints imposed by different body orientations. Time of practice affected the way less- and more-skilled reachers explored and adapted the kinematic parameters of reaching to constraints imposed by body orientations. These findings suggest that not only age, but also experience and body orientations are important constraints that should be taken into account when examining infant reaching development. PMID:17658609

Carvalho, R P; Tudella, E; Caljouw, S R; Savelsbergh, G J P

2008-01-01

222

[The REACH legislation: the consumer and environment protection perspective].  

PubMed

REACH has been initiated with the aim of improving existing legislation. In order to assist in the interpretation of the REACH legislation, guidance documents have been developed, which have only lately become available. According to the REACH annexes and supported by guidance documents, waiving of test requirements will be possible, thus, opening the possibility that under REACH no new (eco)toxicological data will be required. Concerning products, a guidance document was released in April 2008 stating that the substance concentration threshold of 0.1 % (w/w) applies to the article as produced or imported and it does not relate to the homogeneous materials or parts of an article, but relates to the article as such (i.e., as produced or imported). Hence, notification will not be required for many products containing chemicals with properties which place them on the candidate list for authorization. In summary, it is at present not foreseeable whether the expected benefit of the REACH legislation will materialise for the environment and for the health of consumers and at the work place. PMID:19137218

Gundert-Remy, Ursula

2008-12-01

223

Engineering growth Undergraduates enrolled in Engineering reach all-time high  

E-print Network

programme works with maths and physics teachers in high schools to encourage their students to start, inductive power transfer, yacht and sail design, medical applications and earthquake engineering. One device and the interface between that and robotics is where engineering is really growing, particularly

Auckland, University of

224

Reaching for the Sky: The Growth of Mountain Tourism in Switzerland.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses the beginnings of Swiss tourism, its barriers, and the development and role of transportation in mountain tourism. Considers the environmental problems caused by mountain tourism in Switzerland and provides seven teaching ideas. (CMK)

Rothwell, Jennifer Truran

1999-01-01

225

Reaching Every Reader: Promotional Strategies for the Elementary School Library Media Specialist. Professional Growth Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is designed for overextended librarians and for those who are looking for fresh approaches to what they have been doing for years. The intent in the book is to incorporate traditional techniques, such as storytelling and puppetry, with the use of technology, particularly the Internet--many different learning styles are incorporated to…

Miller, Pat

226

Expanding the Reach of Youth Mentoring: Partnering with Youth for Personal Growth and Social Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goals of youth mentoring have broadened from redressing youth problems to promoting positive youth development. Yet, many of the principles associated with contemporary conceptualizations of development found in the positive youth development (PYD) and community psychology (CP) literature have yet to be fully integrated into mentoring research…

Liang, Belle; Spencer, Renee; West, Jennifer; Rappaport, Nancy

2013-01-01

227

Aging, Maturation and Growth of Sauropodomorph Dinosaurs as Deduced from Growth Curves Using Long Bone Histological Data: An Assessment of Methodological Constraints and Solutions  

PubMed Central

Information on aging, maturation, and growth is important for understanding life histories of organisms. In extinct dinosaurs, such information can be derived from the histological growth record preserved in the mid-shaft cortex of long bones. Here, we construct growth models to estimate ages at death, ages at sexual maturity, ages at which individuals were fully-grown, and maximum growth rates from the growth record preserved in long bones of six sauropod dinosaur individuals (one indeterminate mamenchisaurid, two Apatosaurus sp., two indeterminate diplodocids, and one Camarasaurus sp.) and one basal sauropodomorph dinosaur individual (Plateosaurus engelhardti). Using these estimates, we establish allometries between body mass and each of these traits and compare these to extant taxa. Growth models considered for each dinosaur individual were the von Bertalanffy model, the Gompertz model, and the logistic model (LGM), all of which have inherently fixed inflection points, and the Chapman-Richards model in which the point is not fixed. We use the arithmetic mean of the age at the inflection point and of the age at which 90% of asymptotic mass is reached to assess respectively the age at sexual maturity or the age at onset of reproduction, because unambiguous indicators of maturity in Sauropodomorpha are lacking. According to an AIC-based model selection process, the LGM was the best model for our sauropodomorph sample. Allometries established are consistent with literature data on other Sauropodomorpha. All Sauropodomorpha reached full size within a time span similar to scaled-up modern mammalian megaherbivores and had similar maximum growth rates to scaled-up modern megaherbivores and ratites, but growth rates of Sauropodomorpha were lower than of an average mammal. Sauropodomorph ages at death probably were lower than that of average scaled-up ratites and megaherbivores. Sauropodomorpha were older at maturation than scaled-up ratites and average mammals, but younger than scaled-up megaherbivores. PMID:23840575

Griebeler, Eva Maria; Klein, Nicole; Sander, P. Martin

2013-01-01

228

EXTENSION OF THE MAXIMUM POWER REGION OF DOUBLY-SALIENT VARIABLE RELUCTANCE MOTORS  

E-print Network

angles reach their limits. This new mode is often called Incomplete Demagnetization Operating Mode advantages in terms of fabrication cost and robustness thanks to its simple and perfectly balanced rotor, email multon@ens-cachan.fr 16th IMACS World Congress ( c 2000 IMACS) 1 #12;Extension of the Maximum

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

229

Energy Production, Frictional Dissipation, and Maximum Intensity of a Numerically Simulated Tropical Cyclone  

E-print Network

0 Energy Production, Frictional Dissipation, and Maximum Intensity of a Numerically Simulated is eventually dissipated due to surface friction. Since the energy production rate is a linear function while intensifies. When the dissipation rate eventually reaches the production rate, the TC has no excess energy

Wang, Yuqing

230

Discovery Reach of Charged MSSM Higgs Bosons at CMS  

E-print Network

We review the 5 sigma discovery contours for the charged MSSM Higgs boson at the CMS experiment with 30/fb for the two cases M_H+ m_t. In order to analyze the search reach we combine the latest results for the CMS experimental sensitivities based on full simulation studies with state-of-the-art theoretical predictions of MSSM Higgs-boson production and decay properties. Special emphasis is put on the SUSY parameter dependence of the 5 sigma contours. The variation of $\\mu$ can shift the prospective discovery reach in tan_beta by up to Delta tan_beta = 40.

S. Heinemeyer; A. Nikitenko; G. Weiglein

2008-09-14

231

Landscape pattern dynamic change analysis based on eco-hydrological process in the lower reaches of Tarim River, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landscape pattern and eco-hydrological process had changed greatly after seven times emergency water transportation in the lower reaches of Tarim River, Xinjiang, China. After analyzing the changes of eco-hydrological process, ground water level, soil moisture and vegetation growth etc. of emergency water transportation, remote sensing images in 2000 and 2005 year which present the situation before and after the emergency

Qing Huang; Qing-bo Zhou; Xiao-qian Cheng; Wen Wang; Hong-bin Zhang

2009-01-01

232

Estimating morphological parameters of Tamarix ramosissima by Digital hemispherical image in the lower reaches of heihe river, northwest China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tamarix ramosissima is a dominant shrub and mainly contributes to total biomass in the lower reaches of Heihe River. In order to study the biomass and growth status of the shrub, we need to measure the morphological parameters. Usually, the morphological parameters are measured by field survey. However, the method is low in efficient and accurate. In this study, the

Huanhua Peng; Chuanyan Zhao; Zhaodong Feng; Zhonglin Xu

2010-01-01

233

The Minimum Cannot Become the Maximum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper the author shares his concerns about minimal competency testing, fearing that the minimum may become the maximum. He discusses this fear based on examples from the English curriculum--Language, Writing, and Literature. (KC)

Bushman, John H.

1980-01-01

234

On the efficiency at maximum cooling power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The efficiency at maximum power (EMP) of heat engines operating as generators is one corner stone of finite-time thermodynamics, the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency \\eta_CA being considered as a universal upper bound. Yet, no valid counterpart to \\eta_CA has been derived for the efficiency at maximum cooling power (EMCP) for heat engines operating as refrigerators. In this letter we analyse the reasons of the failure to obtain such a bound and we demonstrate that, despite the introduction of several optimisation criteria, the maximum cooling power condition should be considered as the genuine equivalent of maximum power condition in the finite-time thermodynamics frame. We then propose and discuss an analytic expression for the EMCP in the specific case of exoreversible refrigerators.

Apertet, Y.; Ouerdane, H.; Michot, A.; Goupil, C.; Lecoeur, Ph.

2013-08-01

235

A dual method for maximum entropy restoration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple iterative dual algorithm for maximum entropy image restoration is presented. The dual algorithm involves fewer parameters than conventional minimization in the image space. Minicomputer test results for Fourier synthesis with inadequate phantom data are given.

Smith, C. B.

1979-01-01

236

Maximum Throughput in Multiple-Antenna Systems  

E-print Network

The point-to-point multiple-antenna channel is investigated in uncorrelated block fading environment with Rayleigh distribution. The maximum throughput and maximum expected-rate of this channel are derived under the assumption that the transmitter is oblivious to the channel state information (CSI), however, the receiver has perfect CSI. First, we prove that in multiple-input single-output (MISO) channels, the optimum transmission strategy maximizing the throughput is to use all available antennas and perform equal power allocation with uncorrelated signals. Furthermore, to increase the expected-rate, multi-layer coding is applied. Analogously, we establish that sending uncorrelated signals and performing equal power allocation across all available antennas at each layer is optimum. A closed form expression for the maximum continuous-layer expected-rate of MISO channels is also obtained. Moreover, we investigate multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channels, and formulate the maximum throughput in the asympt...

Zamani, Mahdi

2012-01-01

237

5 CFR 534.203 - Maximum stipends.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Maximum stipends for positions in the Public Health Service in which duty requires intimate contact with persons afflicted with leprosy are increased above the rates prescribed in paragraph (a) of this section to the same extent that additional pay is...

2011-01-01

238

5 CFR 534.203 - Maximum stipends.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Maximum stipends for positions in the Public Health Service in which duty requires intimate contact with persons afflicted with leprosy are increased above the rates prescribed in paragraph (a) of this section to the same extent that additional pay is...

2013-01-01

239

5 CFR 534.203 - Maximum stipends.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Maximum stipends for positions in the Public Health Service in which duty requires intimate contact with persons afflicted with leprosy are increased above the rates prescribed in paragraph (a) of this section to the same extent that additional pay is...

2012-01-01

240

14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.  

...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all duties...

2014-01-01

241

14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all duties...

2013-01-01

242

14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all duties...

2011-01-01

243

14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all duties...

2012-01-01

244

14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all duties...

2010-01-01

245

Incremental Network Design with Maximum Flows  

E-print Network

Dec 21, 2013 ... We study an incremental network design problem, where in each time period of ... In a series of computational experiments, we compare ...... maximum flow (F - f), the number of instances not solved to optimality within the time.

2013-12-21

246

Photoemission spectromicroscopy with MAXIMUM at Wisconsin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the development of the scanning photoemission spectromicroscope MAXIMUM at the Wisoncsin Synchrotron Radiation Center, which uses radiation from a 30-period undulator. The article includes a discussion of the first tests after the initial commissioning.

Ng, W.; Ray-Chaudhuri, A. K.; Cole, R. K.; Wallace, J.; Crossley, S.; Crossley, D.; Chen, G.; Green, M.; Guo, J.; Hansen, R. W. C.; Cerrina, F.; Margaritondo, G.; Underwood, J. H.; Korthright, J.; Perera, R. C. C.

1990-06-01

247

Theoretical maximum concentration factors for solar concentrators  

SciTech Connect

The theoretical maximum concentration factors are determined for different definitions of the factor for two-dimensional and three-dimensional solar concentrators that are valid for any source with nonuniform intensity distribution. Results are obtained starting from those derived by Winston (1970) for Lambertian sources. In particular, maximum concentration factors for three models of the solar-disk intensity distribution are calculated. 12 references.

Nicolas, R.O.; Duran, J.C.

1984-11-01

248

Maximum-Likelihood Detection Of Noncoherent CPM  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simplified detectors proposed for use in maximum-likelihood-sequence detection of symbols in alphabet of size M transmitted by uncoded, full-response continuous phase modulation over radio channel with additive white Gaussian noise. Structures of receivers derived from particular interpretation of maximum-likelihood metrics. Receivers include front ends, structures of which depends only on M, analogous to those in receivers of coherent CPM. Parts of receivers following front ends have structures, complexity of which would depend on N.

Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.

1993-01-01

249

Maximum-Likelihood Parameter-Estimation Algorithm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Efficient version of maximum-likelihood algorithm devised for calculating normal-mode frequencies and damping parameters of vibrating system from experimental data where both process noise and measurement noise present. Method applicable in vibration analysis of such complicated structures as vehicles, aircraft, and spacecraft. New algorithm simplification of existing maximum-likelihood formulation using Kalman filter that allows for both process and measurement noise.

Eldred, D. B.; Hamidi, M.; Rodriguez, G.

1986-01-01

250

Shape-enhanced maximum intensity projection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maximum intensity projection (MIP) displays the voxel with the maximum intensity along the viewing ray, and this offers simplicity\\u000a in usage, as it does not require a complex transfer function, the specification of which is a highly challenging and time-consuming\\u000a process in direct volume rendering (DVR). However, MIP also has its inherent limitation, the loss of spatial context and shape

Zhiguang Zhou; Yubo Tao; Hai Lin; Feng Dong; Gordon Clapworthy

2011-01-01

251

Flood Frequency Analysis using different flood descriptors - the Warsaw reach of the river Vistula case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood frequency analysis (FFA) is customarily performed using annual maximum flows. However, there is a number of different flood descriptors that could be used. Among them are water levels, peaks over the threshold, flood-wave duration, flood volume, etc. In this study we compare different approaches to FFA for their suitability for flood risk assessment. The main goal is to obtain the FFA curve with the smallest possible uncertainty limits, in particular for the distribution tail. The extrapolation of FFA curves is crucial in future flood risk assessment in a changing climate. We compare the FFA curves together with their uncertainty limits obtained using flows, water levels, flood inundation area and volumes for the Warsaw reach of the river Vistula. Moreover, we derive the FFA curves obtained using simulated flows. The results are used to derive the error distribution for the maximum simulated and observed values under different modelling techniques and assess its influence on flood risk predictions for ungauged catchments. MIKE11, HEC-RAS and transfer function model are applied in average and extreme conditions to model flow propagation in the Warsaw Vistula reach. The additional questions we want to answer are what is the range of application of different modelling tools under various flow conditions and how can the uncertainty of flood risk assessment be decreased. This work was partly supported by the projects "Stochastic flood forecasting system (The River Vistula reach from Zawichost to Warsaw)" and "Modern statistical models for analysis of flood frequency and features of flood waves", carried by the Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences on the order of the National Science Centre (contracts Nos. 2011/01/B/ST10/06866 and 2012/05/B/ST10/00482, respectively). The water level and flow data were provided by the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (IMGW), Poland.

Karamuz, Emilia; Kochanek, Krzysztof; Romanowicz, Renata

2014-05-01

252

75 FR 43840 - Inflation Adjustment of the Ordinary Maximum and Aggravated Maximum Civil Monetary Penalties for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

FRA is adjusting the ordinary maximum penalty and the aggravated maximum penalty that it will apply when assessing a civil monetary penalty for a violation of the Federal hazardous material transportation laws or a regulation, special permit, or approval issued under those laws. The aggravated maximum penalty is available only for a violation that results in death, serious illness, or severe......

2010-07-27

253

Temporal and temperature effects on the maximum rate of rewarming from hibernation  

PubMed Central

During hibernation animals oscillate from near ambient (Ta) to euthermic body temperatures (Tb). As animals arouse, the rate of rewarming (RRW) might be expected to simply increase as a function of time. We monitored the Tb of golden-mantled ground squirrels (Spermophilus lateralis) housed at 4, 8, 12, and 16° C during natural arousals. The maximum RRW, the time required to reach a maximum RRW, and the relative time index all demonstrated negative relationships with Ta. The Tb corresponding to maximal RRW demonstrated a positive relationship with Ta. Squirrels reached maximal RRW when they had generated 30 to 40% of the heat required to reach a euthermic Tb. These data suggest that arousal is more constrained than expected and that both time and temperature influence the RRW. PMID:17948068

Utz, Jenifer C.; Velickovska, Vanja; Shmereva, Anastacia; van Breukelen, Frank

2007-01-01

254

The measurement of maximum cylinder pressures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work presented in this report was undertaken at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics to determine a suitable method for measuring the maximum pressures occurring in aircraft engine cylinders. The study and development of instruments for the measurement of maximum cylinder pressures has been conducted in connection with carburetor and oil engine investigations on a single cylinder aircraft-type engine. Five maximum cylinder-pressure devices have been designed, and tested, in addition to the testing of three commercial indicators. Values of maximum cylinder pressures are given as obtained with various indicators for the same pressures and for various kinds and values of maximum cylinder pressures, produced chiefly by variation of the injection advance angle in high-speed oil engine. The investigations indicate that the greatest accuracy in determining maximum cylinder pressures can be obtained with an electric, balanced-pressure, diaphragm or disk-type indicator so constructed as to have a diaphragm or disk of relatively large area and minimum seat width and mass.

Hicks, Chester W

1929-01-01

255

TeachEach: Classroom Strategies To Reach All Learners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Photographs and text present highlights in the work of three teachers and one teaching team honored by TeachEach, a Northern California privately supported program to recognize and award K-12 teachers or teaching teams who teach and reach all the students in their classrooms. Quotes from the honorees and photographs showing the teachers in action…

Swift, Steve

256

Within Our Reach: How America Can Educate Every Child  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is bolder than all previous federal education laws, setting ambitious goals for universal student achievement and authorizing severe remedies for schools not reaching them. In a nation where most youngsters are far from proficient in reading and mathematics and where innumerable efforts to boost learning levels…

Chubb, John E.

2005-01-01

257

Reaching Consensus with Imprecise Probabilities Over a Network  

E-print Network

Reaching Consensus with Imprecise Probabilities Over a Network Cameron S. R. Fraser , Luca F to agreement on a probability vec- tor over a network, such as would be required in a decentralized estimation of state transition probabilities or agreement on a probabilistic search map. Unique from other recent

How, Jonathan P.

258

MIDDLE REACH OF THE SNAKE RIVER: WATER QUALITY MONITORING  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the project was to collect, analyze, assemble, and assess water quality data and resulting chemical/nutrient loads entering and transported in the Middle Snake River Reach of Idaho, between Milner Dam and King Hill. Studies were conducted during the period of 1990 ...

259

Posterior cortical atrophy: visuomotor deficits in reaching and grasping  

PubMed Central

Posterior Cortical Atrophy (PCA) is a rare clinical syndrome characterized by the predominance of higher-order visual disturbances such as optic ataxia, a characteristic of Balint's syndrome. Deficits result from progressive neurodegeneration of occipito-temporal and occipito-parietal cortices. The current study sought to explore the visuomotor functioning of four individuals with PCA by testing their ability to reach out and grasp real objects under various viewing conditions. Experiment 1 had participants reach out and grasp simple, rectangular blocks under visually- and memory-guided conditions. Experiment 2 explored participants' abilities to accurately reach for objects located in their visual periphery. This investigation revealed that PCA patients demonstrate many of the same deficits that have been previously reported in other individuals with optic ataxia, such as “magnetic misreaching”—a pathological reaching bias toward the point of visual fixation when grasping peripheral targets. Unlike many other individuals with optic ataxia, however, the patients in the current study also show symptoms indicative of damage to the more perceptual stream of visual processing, including abolished grip scaling during memory-guided grasping and deficits in face and object identification. These investigations are the first to perform a quantitative analysis of the visuomotor deficits exhibited by patients with PCA. Critically, this study helps characterize common symptoms of PCA, a vital first step for generating effective diagnostic criteria and therapeutic strategies for this understudied neurodegenerative disorder. PMID:23801956

Meek, Benjamin P.; Shelton, Paul; Marotta, Jonathan J.

2013-01-01

260

The Effects of Motivational Graphing on Students Reaching Educational Goals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research project was to conclude if motivational graphing strategies, when used in Math Response to Intervention (RTI) classes, could increase the students' ability to reach their goals. To complete this investigation the researcher assessed the Math RTI students' ability to count orally within one minute on a biweekly basis.…

Graves, Loren Adair

2011-01-01

261

Perceiving Children's Behavior and Reaching Limits in a Risk Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of parents' perception of children's reaching limits in a risk scenario. A sample of 68 parents of 1- to 4-year-olds were asked to make a prior estimate of their children's behavior and action limits in a task that involved retrieving a toy out of the water. The action modes used for…

Cordovil, Rita; Santos, Carlos; Barreiros, Joao

2012-01-01

262

The reach of the ATLAS experiment in SUSY parameter space  

E-print Network

Already with very first data, the ATLAS experiment should be sensitive to a SUSY signal well beyond the regions explored by the Tevatron. We present a detailed study of the ATLAS discovery reach in the parameter space for various SUSY models. The expected uncertainties on the background estimates are taken ito account.

Janet Dietrich

2009-10-29

263

The Art and Design Directory: Reaching the Parts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The title of this paper is derived from the advertising campaign of a well-known drinks company that claimed to reach the parts that its competitors did not. It could be argued that it is an equally appropriate description of the principles underpinning the Art and Design Directory, a weekend staff development event in Scotland. The mantra of…

Coutts, Glen

2004-01-01

264

Getting down to basics. Providers reach out to strengthen families.  

PubMed

According to two health care execs, a healthy family unit is crucial to the health of a community. Recognizing the impact that divorce and other family stresses can have on health, several providers have decided to reach out to strengthen families before those tensions cause permanent damage. PMID:10169162

Mycek, S

1997-01-01

265

"Terms of Engagement" Not "Hard to Reach Parents"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents findings of qualitative research commissioned by the Achievement for All project in a UK local authority. The research investigated how schools should engage parents, including those considered to be "hard to reach". A focus group methodology was adapted to enable parents to provide answers to the research questions. The…

Day, Sara

2013-01-01

266

Online control of the direction of rapid reaching movements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Online visual control of the direction of rapid reaching movements was assessed by evaluating how human subjects reacted to shifts in seen hand position near movement onsets. Participants ( N=10) produced saccadic eye and rapid arm movements (mean duration = 328 ms) towards a peripheral visual target in complete darkness. During the saccade, visual feedback of hand position could be shifted

Fabrice Sarlegna; Jean Blouin; Jean-Louis Vercher; Jean-Pierre Bresciani; Christophe Bourdin; Gabriel M. Gauthier

2004-01-01

267

Reaching and Grasping Movements in Infants at Risk: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on the development of reaching and grasping skills in typical infants has been extensively described in the literature, the effect of such factors on at-risk infants is still poorly understood. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to analyze the scientific publications, from 1980…

de Campos, Ana Carolina; Rocha, Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

2009-01-01

268

Simulating the cortical 3D visuomotor transformation of reach depth.  

PubMed

We effortlessly perform reach movements to objects in different directions and depths. However, how networks of cortical neurons compute reach depth from binocular visual inputs remains largely unknown. To bridge the gap between behavior and neurophysiology, we trained a feed-forward artificial neural network to uncover potential mechanisms that might underlie the 3D transformation of reach depth. Our physiologically-inspired 4-layer network receives distributed 3D visual inputs (1(st) layer) along with eye, head and vergence signals. The desired motor plan was coded in a population (3(rd) layer) that we read out (4(th) layer) using an optimal linear estimator. After training, our network was able to reproduce all known single-unit recording evidence on depth coding in the parietal cortex. Network analyses predict the presence of eye/head and vergence changes of depth tuning, pointing towards a gain-modulation mechanism of depth transformation. In addition, reach depth was computed directly from eye-centered (relative) visual distances, without explicit absolute depth coding. We suggest that these effects should be observable in parietal and pre-motor areas. PMID:22815979

Blohm, Gunnar

2012-01-01

269

Functional reach: Does it really measure dynamic balance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Functional reach (FR) is a new clinical measurement intended to assess dynamic balance. The purposes of this study were (1) to measure the mean FR distance in healthy elders compared with individuals with known balance impairments, (2) to analyze the extent to which FR measures dynamic balance, and (3) to describe movement strategies used during FR.Methods: Thirteen healthy elders

Mara Wernick-Robinson; David E. Krebs; Marie M. Giorgetti

1999-01-01

270

Research Within Reach: Resources for School Improvement. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A detailed report is given on the mechanics involved in conducting a successful bi-regional workshop for educators. The theme of the workshop was designed around two Research Within Reach (RWR) documents dealing with oral/written communications and secondary mathematics; however, papers and discussion generated by the workshop are not included in…

Meehan, Merrill L.

271

Reaching a Moveable Visual Target: Dissociations in Brain Tumour Patients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Damage to the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) can lead to Optic Ataxia (OA), in which patients misreach to peripheral targets. Recent research suggested that the PPC might be involved not only in simple reaching tasks toward peripheral targets, but also in changing the hand movement trajectory in real time if the target moves. The present study…

Buiatti, Tania; Skrap, Miran; Shallice, Tim

2013-01-01

272

RESEARCH ARTICLE Vestibular contribution to the planning of reach trajectories  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Vestibular contribution to the planning of reach trajectories Christopher J. We investigated whether the nervous system uses vestibular signals of head rotation to predict stationary, but experienced a strong vestibular rotation signal. We achieved this by rotating subjects at 360

Haslwanter, Thomas

273

Control of reaching movements by muscle synergy combinations  

PubMed Central

Controlling the movement of the arm to achieve a goal, such as reaching for an object, is challenging because it requires coordinating many muscles acting on many joints. The central nervous system (CNS) might simplify the control of reaching by directly mapping initial states and goals into muscle activations through the combination of muscle synergies, coordinated recruitment of groups of muscles with specific activation profiles. Here we review recent results from the analysis of reaching muscle patterns supporting such a control strategy. Muscle patterns for point-to-point movements can be reconstructed by the combination of a small number of time-varying muscle synergies, modulated in amplitude and timing according to movement directions and speeds. Moreover, the modulation and superposition of the synergies identified from point-to-point movements captures the muscle patterns underlying multi-phasic movements, such as reaching through a via-point or to a target whose location changes after movement initiation. Thus, the sequencing of time-varying muscle synergies might implement an intermittent controller which would allow the construction of complex movements from simple building blocks. PMID:23626534

d'Avella, Andrea; Lacquaniti, Francesco

2013-01-01

274

12. RAILROAD BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, MONROE CO., ABERDEEN Reach by foot ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. RAILROAD BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, MONROE CO., ABERDEEN Reach by foot from E end of Vine St. St.Louis and San Francisco RR bridge, mid-1960s. From S. Credit: St. Louis and San Francisco RR, photographer unknown, date 1962-1969. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

275

Reaching the Underserved: Complementary Models of Effective Schooling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many countries that have undergone expansion of access to public education still face significant disparities in school enrollment and attendance rates at sub-national levels, and fail to reach a high proportion of children who are outside of the government system. Completion and student learning have also continued to be system-wide challenges…

DeStefano, Joseph; Moore, Audrey-Marie Schuh; Balwanz, David; Hartwell, Ash

2007-01-01

276

Reaching Approximate Agreement in the Presence of Faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers a variant of the Byzantine Generals problem, in which processes start with arbitrary real values rather than Boolean values or values from some bounded range, and in which approximate, rather than exact, agreement is the desired goal. Algorithms are presented to reach approximate agreement in asynchronous, as well as synchronous systems. The asynchronous agreement algorithm is an

Danny Dolev; Nancy A. Lynch; Shlomit S. Pinter; Eugene W. Stark; William E. Weihl

1983-01-01

277

Air Refueling: The Cornerstone of Global Reach - Global Power.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper focuses on the strategic mobility aspect of Global Reach- Global Power, and more specifically the role of air refueling in accomplishing the U.S. power projection strategy. No aircraft in the Air Force inventory is capable of responsive global ...

S. J. Dougherty

1996-01-01

278

NOTESSuccess Within Reach Student Handbook 2013-2014  

E-print Network

Responsibilities of Great Dane Spectators Responsibilities of Student Athletes Health and SafetyNOTESSuccess Within Reach Student Handbook 2013-2014 Dear Student: Welcome to the 2013. Sincerely, Christine A. Bouchard Christine A. Bouchard Vice President for Student Success Follow the Vice

Linsley, Braddock K.

279

Priming of Reach and Grasp Actions by Handled Objects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pictures of handled objects such as a beer mug or frying pan are shown to prime speeded reach and grasp actions that are compatible with the object. To determine whether the evocation of motor affordances implied by this result is driven merely by the physical orientation of the object's handle as opposed to higher-level properties of the object,…

Masson, Michael E. J.; Bub, Daniel N.; Breuer, Andreas T.

2011-01-01

280

Brood ecology of Canada geese on the Hanford Reach  

SciTech Connect

The objective was to examine the ecology of broods of the western Canada goose (Branta canadensis moffitti) on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River in southcentral Washington. Broods were captured and equipped with radio transmitters and their movements tracked. Major brood rearing areas were identified. 5 references, 2 tables. (ACR)

Eberhardt, L.E.

1983-12-01

281

Meet Marsha William: In Arms Reach Home Day Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Confident in what she knows, excited about what she's learning, eager to share her passion with others--this is Marsha Williams, director of In Arms Reach Home Day Care, Baltimore, Maryland. She enjoys being a family care provider, because with no more than eight children, she manages to give more individualized attention on a daily basis. She…

Exchange: The Early Childhood Leaders' Magazine Since 1978, 2006

2006-01-01

282

The Effect of Posture on Early Reaching Movements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infants of about 5 months of age who have just mastered the ability to reach succeed more frequently in contacting an object when they are seated upright than when they are supine or reclined. That effect of posture disappears in the subsequent months. Whether that effect can be attributed either to insufficient muscular strength or to insufficient control over the

L. Out; G. J. P. Savelsbergh; B. Hopkins

1998-01-01

283

The Personal Space Station: Bringing Interaction Within Reach  

E-print Network

in which stereo- scopic images are reflected. The user reaches un- der the mirror to interact interaction, ergonomics, and costs. The PSS consists of a mirror in which a stereoscopic image is reflected: hands and other body parts block the display resulting in occlusion of the image, and the physical

Liere, Robert van

284

Simulating the Cortical 3D Visuomotor Transformation of Reach Depth  

PubMed Central

We effortlessly perform reach movements to objects in different directions and depths. However, how networks of cortical neurons compute reach depth from binocular visual inputs remains largely unknown. To bridge the gap between behavior and neurophysiology, we trained a feed-forward artificial neural network to uncover potential mechanisms that might underlie the 3D transformation of reach depth. Our physiologically-inspired 4-layer network receives distributed 3D visual inputs (1st layer) along with eye, head and vergence signals. The desired motor plan was coded in a population (3rd layer) that we read out (4th layer) using an optimal linear estimator. After training, our network was able to reproduce all known single-unit recording evidence on depth coding in the parietal cortex. Network analyses predict the presence of eye/head and vergence changes of depth tuning, pointing towards a gain-modulation mechanism of depth transformation. In addition, reach depth was computed directly from eye-centered (relative) visual distances, without explicit absolute depth coding. We suggest that these effects should be observable in parietal and pre-motor areas. PMID:22815979

Blohm, Gunnar

2012-01-01

285

Reaching Approximate Agreement in the Presence of Faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers a variant on the Byzantine Generals problem, in which processes start with arbitrary real values rather than Boolean values or values from some bounded range, and in which approximate, rather than exact, agreement is the desired goal. Algorithms are presented to reach approximate agreement in asynchronous, as well as synchronous systems. The asynchronous agreement algorithm is an

Danny Dolev; Nancy A. Lynch

1985-01-01

286

Calibrating Reach Distance to Visual Targets Mark Mon-Williams  

E-print Network

Calibrating Reach Distance to Visual Targets Mark Mon-Williams University of Aberdeen Geoffrey P of the hand is prevented (vision-open-loop) during the movement (e.g., Loftus, Murphy, McKenna, & Mon-Williams to the hand and in coordinating appropriate movements accordingly. Indeed, Tresilian, Mon- Williams, & Kelly

Bingham, Geoffrey P.

287

Imaginative Play during Childhood: Required for Reaching Full Potential  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At a brisk pace, research findings focused on children's play are finally reaching the light of day in popular media. No longer left sitting in archives of academic journals, the benefits of play to lifelong success have been touted in radio, television, magazines, and newspapers. It gives early childhood professionals a powerful, credible…

Stephens, Karen

2009-01-01

288

EFNEP Reaches Refugee Youth Using a Mobile Van  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New groups of refugees settled in apartments far from city services. Their children lacked access to organized after-school activities and the opportunity to practice English. The Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) wanted to reach and teach the young refugees but lacked the staff and budget to do so. This article discusses how…

Gossett, Linda S.

2012-01-01

289

Information models of software productivity - Limits on productivity growth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research into generalized information-metric models of software process productivity establishes quantifiable behavior and theoretical bounds. The models establish a fundamental mathematical relationship between software productivity and the human capacity for information traffic, the software product yield (system size), information efficiency, and tool and process efficiencies. An upper bound is derived that quantifies average software productivity and the maximum rate at which it may grow. This bound reveals that ultimately, when tools, methodologies, and automated assistants have reached their maximum effective state, further improvement in productivity can only be achieved through increasing software reuse. The reuse advantage is shown not to increase faster than logarithmically in the number of reusable features available. The reuse bound is further shown to be somewhat dependent on the reuse policy: a general 'reuse everything' policy can lead to a somewhat slower productivity growth than a specialized reuse policy.

Tausworthe, Robert C.

1992-01-01

290

Coordinated turn-and-reach movements. I. Anticipatory compensation for self-generated coriolis and interaction torques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When reaching movements involve simultaneous trunk rotation, additional interaction torques are generated on the arm that are absent when the trunk is stable. To explore whether the CNS compensates for such self-generated interaction torques, we recorded hand trajectories in reaching tasks involving various amplitudes and velocities of arm extension and trunk rotation. Subjects pointed to three targets on a surface slightly above waist level. Two of the target locations were chosen so that a similar arm configuration relative to the trunk would be required for reaching to them, one of these targets requiring substantial trunk rotation, the other very little. Significant trunk rotation was necessary to reach the third target, but the arm's radial distance to the body remained virtually unchanged. Subjects reached at two speeds-a natural pace (slow) and rapidly (fast)-under normal lighting and in total darkness. Trunk angular velocity and finger velocity relative to the trunk were higher in the fast conditions but were not affected by the presence or absence of vision. Peak trunk velocity increased with increasing trunk rotation up to a maximum of 200 degrees /s. In slow movements, peak finger velocity relative to the trunk was smaller when trunk rotation was necessary to reach the targets. In fast movements, peak finger velocity was approximately 1.7 m/s for all targets. Finger trajectories were more curved when reaching movements involved substantial trunk rotation; however, the terminal errors and the maximal deviation of the trajectory from a straight line were comparable in slow and fast movements. This pattern indicates that the larger Coriolis, centripetal, and inertial interaction torques generated during rapid reaches were compensated by additional joint torques. Trajectory characteristics did not vary with the presence or absence of vision, indicating that visual feedback was unnecessary for anticipatory compensations. In all reaches involving trunk rotation, the finger movement generally occurred entirely during the trunk movement, indicating that the CNS did not minimize Coriolis forces incumbent on trunk rotation by sequencing the arm and trunk motions into a turn followed by a reach. A simplified model of the arm/trunk system revealed that additional interaction torques generated on the arm during voluntary turning and reaching were equivalent to < or =1.8 g (1 g = 9.81 m/s(2)) of external force at the elbow but did not degrade performance. In slow-rotation room studies involving reaching movements during passive rotation, Coriolis forces as small as 0.2 g greatly deflect movement trajectories and endpoints. We conclude that compensatory motor innervations are engaged in a predictive fashion to counteract impending self-generated interaction torques during voluntary reaching movements.

Pigeon, Pascale; Bortolami, Simone B.; DiZio, Paul; Lackner, James R.

2003-01-01

291

Early local last glacial maximum in the tropical Andes.  

PubMed

The local last glacial maximum in the tropical Andes was earlier and less extensive than previously thought, based on 106 cosmogenic ages (from beryllium-10 dating) from moraines in Peru and Bolivia. Glaciers reached their greatest extent in the last glacial cycle approximately 34,000 years before the present and were retreating by approximately 21,000 years before the present, implying that tropical controls on ice volumes were asynchronous with those in the Northern Hemisphere. Our estimates of snowline depression reflect about half the temperature change indicated by previous widely cited figures, which helps resolve the discrepancy between estimates of terrestrial and marine temperature depression during the last glacial cycle. PMID:15860623

Smith, Jacqueline A; Seltzer, Geoffrey O; Farber, Daniel L; Rodbell, Donald T; Finkel, Robert C

2005-04-29

292

A Maximum Likelihood Approach to Estimating Correlation Functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We define a maximum likelihood (ML for short) estimator for the correlation function, ?, that uses the same pair counting observables (D, R, DD, DR, RR) as the standard Landy & Szalay (LS for short) estimator. The ML estimator outperforms the LS estimator in that it results in smaller measurement errors at any fixed random point density. Put another way, the ML estimator can reach the same precision as the LS estimator with a significantly smaller random point catalog. Moreover, these gains are achieved without significantly increasing the computational requirements for estimating ?. We quantify the relative improvement of the ML estimator over the LS estimator and discuss the regimes under which these improvements are most significant. We present a short guide on how to implement the ML estimator and emphasize that the code alterations required to switch from an LS to an ML estimator are minimal.

Baxter, Eric Jones; Rozo, Eduardo

2013-12-01

293

Cell development obeys maximum Fisher information  

E-print Network

Eukaryotic cell development has been optimized by natural selection to obey maximal intracellular flux of messenger proteins. This, in turn, implies maximum Fisher information on angular position about a target nuclear pore complex (NPR). The cell is simply modeled as spherical, with cell membrane (CM) diameter 10 micron and concentric nuclear membrane (NM) diameter 6 micron. The NM contains about 3000 nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Development requires messenger ligands to travel from the CM-NPC-DNA target binding sites. Ligands acquire negative charge by phosphorylation, passing through the cytoplasm over Newtonian trajectories toward positively charged NPCs (utilizing positive nuclear localization sequences). The CM-NPC channel obeys maximized mean protein flux F and Fisher information I at the NPC, with first-order delta I = 0 and approximate 2nd-order delta I = 0 stability to environmental perturbations. Many of its predictions are confirmed, including the dominance of protein pathways of from 1-4 proteins, a 4nm size for the EGFR protein and the approximate flux value F =10^16 proteins/m2-s. After entering the nucleus, each protein ultimately delivers its ligand information to a DNA target site with maximum probability, i.e. maximum Kullback-Liebler entropy HKL. In a smoothness limit HKL approaches IDNA/2, so that the total CM-NPC-DNA channel obeys maximum Fisher I. Thus maximum information approaches non-equilibrium, one condition for life.

B. R. Frieden; R. A. Gatenby

2014-04-29

294

Photodegradation of dissolved organic matter in two contrasting reaches of a regulated river  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in a variety of ecosystem processes. Photodegradation by UV radiation is an important mechanism for DOM transformations including changes in molecular size, molecular structure, UV-absorbance, the relative size of recalcitrant and labile pools, and regeneration of nutrient sources such as N and P. The upper Klamath River is located in southern Oregon and is considered an important resource for anadromous fish populations. The river is hypereutrophic and experiences multiple impairments including organic enrichment, low dissolved oxygen, nutrients, and temperature. The river is highly regulated by a series of six dams, which compartmentalize the river into a series of riverine and reservoir reaches. Reservoirs create alternative physical and chemical environments than rivers, and these differences have implications in shifting DOM composition and availability. Four of the six dams on the Klamath River are slated for removal in 2020. Therefore, predicting changes in ecosystem characteristics following dam removal requires understanding of current DOM dynamics within both riverine and reservoir reaches. The role of photodegradation on DOM composition within a riverine reach and a reservoir reach of the Klamath River was examined during late July 2010. The reaches were located in series, with the river reach being upstream of the reservoir reach. Initial mean DOC concentrations were 7.34 mg/L for river water, and 8.57 mg/L for reservoir water. Tedlar bags of filtered (0.1µm) river and reservoir water were incubated in situ at both river and reservoir locations. Samples were treated either with or without UV-exposure for a total of 1-3 days. All bags were incubated at 55 cm depth, equivalent to 70% light transmittance in the river reach and 30% light transmittance in the reservoir reach. Bags were removed in triplicate after a total of 1, 2, and 3 days. Samples were analyzed for potential bacterial growth using standard plating and colony count methods. Water was analyzed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nutrients, and pH, UV-absorbance properties, including specific UV absorbance (SUVA) and selected spectral slopes (275-295 nm slope and 350-400 nm slope), were used to investigate changes in DOM characteristics. Spectrofluorometric techniques were used to determine the fluorescence index (emission at wavelength 450 nm to 500 nm at an excitation wavelength of 370 nm) for investigation of source material and transformations. Preliminary results suggest little to no change in DOC or nutrient concentrations. However, shifts in SUVA, spectral slope, and fluorescence index were apparent in both reservoir and river samples incubated at both sites, with larger changes observed for river samples incubated within the river reach at 70% light transmittance. These results provide information on how photodegradation may affect DOM recycling and regeneration as an energy source within different compartmentalized reaches of the Klamath River. This information will subsequently aid in developing models for predicting DOM dynamics over larger spatial and temporal scales, including predictions and implications for conditions following dam removal.

Oliver, A. A.; Dahlgren, R. A.; Spencer, R. G.

2010-12-01

295

Translating the REACH Caregiver Intervention for Use by Area Agency on Aging Personnel: the REACH OUT Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The aim of this study was to translate the evidence-based Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregiver Health (REACH) II intervention for use in 4 Area Agencies on Aging (AAAs). A secondary aim was to examine possible moderators of treatment outcome. Design and Methods: We used a quasi-experimental pre-post treatment design with no…

Burgio, Louis D.; Collins, Irene B.; Schmid, Bettina; Wharton, Tracy; McCallum, Debra; DeCoster, Jamie

2009-01-01

296

Reaching to Throw Compared to Reaching to Place: A Comparison across Individuals with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When picking up an object, adults show a longer deceleration phase when the onward action has a greater precision requirement. Tailoring action in this way is thought to need forward modelling in order to predict the consequences of movement. Some evidence suggests that young children also tailor reaching in this way; however, how this skill…

Wilmut, Kate; Byrne, Maia; Barnett, Anna L.

2013-01-01

297

Redesigning Schools to Reach Every Student with Excellent Teachers: Change Management--Key Theories to Consider when Extending Reach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As schools, their teachers, and outside facilitators redesign jobs and incorporate technology to extend the reach of excellent teachers to more students and develop an Opportunity Culture for all, choosing the right school models is just one part of the task. The human experience--and experience in education--says that even perfect design will not…

Barrett, Sharon Kebschull

2012-01-01

298

Binaural Hearing Relies on the differences in information reaching ears Relies on the differences in information reaching ears  

E-print Network

Binaural Hearing · Relies on the differences in information reaching ears· Relies environments · Fusion: "Two ears but one world" #12;The Major Binaural Cues Interaural Temporal Disparities different nature of input to the binaural processor Frequency Ampl Frequency Ampl Binaural ProcessorBinaural

Oliver, Douglas L.

299

The day the world population reached five billion--July 11, 1987.  

PubMed

Only 13 years ago, world population numbered 4 billion; on July 11, 1987, it reached 5 billion. By the turn of the century world population will have reached 6 billion, half of the world's population will be urban, and most of it will live in developing countries. Not only will there be a larger population, it will also be older. The world's population growth is slowing down, but it will take about 100 years before it stops. Developing countries are expected to grow 3 times faster than their developed country counterparts. Sub-Saharan Africa's growth rate of 3% is about double that of the rest of the world. Falling birth rates throughout Europe reflect a profound shift in norms and attitudes away from concerns for family and offspring to the rights and self-fulfillment of individuals. A tide of materialism, progressiveness, and post-materialism is moving people away from marriage and parenthood in Northern and Western Europe. Cohabitation is increasingly accepted as normal, and there are indications that as few as 50-60% of men and women in future generations will ever marry. Having a child is now more and more a deliberate choice made to achieve greater individual self-fulfillment. Many Europeans are convinced that below-replacement fertility and aging populations signal the end of national influence in world affairs and the collapse of social security funds. Large-scale immigration may become a major component of European population growth if recent restrictions are eased. The world's least developed countries are experiencing the slowest economic growth, with upper-middle income countries growing the fastest. PMID:12341237

Rusoff, D

1987-08-01

300

Translating the REACH Caregiver Intervention for Use by Area Agency on Aging Personnel: the REACH OUT Program  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The aim of this study was to translate the evidence-based Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregiver Health (REACH) II intervention for use in 4 Area Agencies on Aging (AAAs). A secondary aim was to examine possible moderators of treatment outcome. Design and Methods: We used a quasi-experimental pre–post treatment design with no control group. A partnership was formed between the Alabama Department of Senior Services and the University of Alabama. The partnership trimmed the REACH II intervention used in the clinical trial for feasible use in a social service agency. The condensed REACH intervention, termed REACH OUT, was delivered to 272 dementia caregivers during 4 home visits and 3 phone calls for a period of 4 months. The assessment examined pre–post treatment effects on a number of outcomes, including care recipient risk, mood, memory, and behavior problems; caregiver stress and emotional well-being; caregiver health; and program satisfaction. All aspects of the program except for training, periodic consultation, and data analysis were controlled by the AAA staff. Results: Analyses were conducted on the 236 dyads that completed at least 3 of the 4 planned sessions. Significant positive pre–post effects were found on caregiver subjective burden, social support, caregiver frustration, depression, caregiver health, care recipient behavior problems and mood, and 2 of 4 care recipient risk behaviors. Site of intervention and certain participant characteristics (e.g., caregiver relationship) moderated several pre–post differences. A caregiver survey and interventionist focus group reported high acceptability of the program Implications: This project suggests that the REACH II intervention can be modified for feasible and effective use in AAAs. The next step is to integrate the intervention into usual service delivery to achieve sustainability. PMID:19363008

Burgio, Louis D.; Collins, Irene B.; Schmid, Bettina; Wharton, Tracy; McCallum, Debra; DeCoster, Jamie

2009-01-01

301

Maximum likelihood deconvolution: a new perspective  

SciTech Connect

Maximum-likelihood deconvolution can be presented from at least two very different points of view. Unfortunately, in most journal articles, it is couched in the mystique of state-variable models and estimation theory, both of which, are generally quite foreign to geophysical signal processors. This paper explains maximum-likelihood deconvolution using the well-known convolutional model and some relatively simple ideas from optimization theory. Both of these areas should be well known to geophysical signal processors. Although it is straightforward to develop the theory of maximum-likelihood deconvolution using the convolutional model and optimization theory, this approach does not lead to practical computational algorithms. Recursive algorithms must be used; they are orders of magnitude faster than the batch algorithms that are associated with the convolutional model.

Mendel, J.M.

1988-03-01

302

Maximum stabilizer dimension for nonproduct states  

SciTech Connect

Composite quantum states can be classified by how they behave under local unitary transformations. Each quantum state has a stabilizer subgroup and a corresponding Lie algebra, the structure of which is a local unitary invariant. In this paper, we study the structure of the stabilizer subalgebra for n-qubit pure states, and find its maximum dimension to be n-1 for nonproduct states of three qubits and higher. The n-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state has a stabilizer subalgebra that achieves the maximum possible dimension for pure nonproduct states. The converse, however, is not true: We show examples of pure 4-qubit states that achieve the maximum nonproduct stabilizer dimension, but have stabilizer subalgebra structures different from that of the n-qubit GHZ state.

Walck, Scott N.; Lyons, David W. [Lebanon Valley College, Annville, Pennsylvania 17003 (United States)

2007-08-15

303

Maximum stabilizer dimension for nonproduct states  

E-print Network

Composite quantum states can be classified by how they behave under local unitary transformations. Each quantum state has a stabilizer subgroup and a corresponding Lie algebra, the structure of which is a local unitary invariant. In this paper, we study the structure of the stabilizer subalgebra for n-qubit pure states, and find its maximum dimension to be n-1 for nonproduct states of three qubits and higher. The n-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state has a stabilizer subalgebra that achieves the maximum possible dimension for pure nonproduct states. The converse, however, is not true: we show examples of pure 4-qubit states that achieve the maximum nonproduct stabilizer dimension, but have stabilizer subalgebra structures different from that of the n-qubit GHZ state.

Scott N. Walck; David W. Lyons

2007-06-12

304

Implicit motor learning from target error during explicit reach control.  

PubMed

Many studies have shown adapted reaching in the face of altered visual feedback. These studies typically involve iterative corrections to the error induced by the perturbation until relatively normal performance is achieved. Here, we investigate whether adaptation (indexed by aftereffects) can occur when direct corrections to a target are inhibited by giving participants an explicit reach task. During the exposure phase of our study, participants were instructed to undershoot a target that imperceptibly moved between movement onset and movement end. The size of the target displacement was gradually increased, while the instructed undershoot distance was equivalently increased, such that participants were, unknowingly, aiming to the same location throughout exposure. When participants were subsequently instructed to aim at the target during the post-test, they overshot the target, suggesting that adaptation had occurred in the presence of an explicit task and in the absence of direct corrections to the target perturbation. PMID:20820762

Cameron, Brendan D; Franks, Ian M; Inglis, J Timothy; Chua, Romeo

2010-09-01

305

Key design requirements for long-reach manipulators  

SciTech Connect

Long-reach manipulators differ from industrial robots and teleoperators typically used in the nuclear industry in that the aspect ratio (length to diameter) of links is much greater and link flexibility, as well as joint or drive train flexibility, is likely to be significant. Long-reach manipulators will be required for a variety of applications in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. While each application will present specific functional kinematic, and performance requirements an approach for determining the kinematic applicability and performance characteristics is presented, with a focus on waste storage tank remediation. Requirements are identified, kinematic configurations are considered, and a parametric study of link design parameters and their effects on performance characteristics is presented.

Kwon, D.S.; March-Leuba, S.; Babcock, S.M.; Hamel, W.R.

1993-09-01

306

Extended reach and horizontal wells experienced on the Statfjord field  

SciTech Connect

Statfjord field, the largest producing field in Europe, is located 200 km northwest of Bergen, Norway on the United Kingdom/Norwegian boundary. Statfjord field is being developed with three fully integrated platforms of concrete gravity based on Condeep design. The Statfjord field consists of four reservoirs: Upper Brent, Lower Brent, Dunlin, and Statfjord, which are developed separately. The overall objective for the horizontal and extended reach wells on Statfjord is to maximize the field recovery and accelerate production at a minimal cost. This is done by drilling extended reach wells to the far-away flanks of the field and drilling horizontal wells to drain fault blocks and erosion zones in the Brent reservoir and wedge zones in the Statfjord reservoir. To date, a total of 11 horizontal and extended reach wells have been drilled and completed on Statfjord field. The following have been key factors in drilling the horizontal and extended reach wells: well profile, torque and drag, equipment limitations, hole cleaning, hole stability, mud and cement programs, and surveying. To optimize the well profiles, extensive work has been put into simulating torque, drag, and ECDs. The well profiles are optimized with regards to drilling, completion, and workover, in addition to the reservoir targets. The completion is designed to be able to perform all future work through tubing. Factors like zone isolation requirements, well profile, casing program, logging/testing/perforating requirements, and sand production are considered when planning the completion. A 7 in. monobore completion string together with a 7 in. cemented liner is used to meet the completion objective. Several production logging tool, bridge plug, and perforation jobs have been performed on coiled tubing in horizontal wells on Statfjord field. Problems related to hole cleaning, well killing, fishing, and packer setting have been experienced during drilling and completion of the wells.

Kostol, P.; Tjotta, H. (Statoil, Stavanger (Norway))

1993-09-01

307

Unconstrained three-dimensional reaching in Rhesus monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better understand normative behavior for quantitative evaluation of motor recovery after injury, we studied arm movements\\u000a by non-injured Rhesus monkeys during a food-retrieval task. While seated, monkeys reached, grasped, and retrieved food items.\\u000a We recorded three-dimensional kinematics and muscle activity, and used inverse dynamics to calculate joint moments due to\\u000a gravity, segmental interactions, and to the muscles and tissues

Devin L. Jindrich; Gregoire Courtine; James J. Liu; Heather L. McKay; Rod Moseanko; Timothy J. Bernot; Roland R. Roy; Hui Zhong; Mark H. Tuszynski; V. Reggie Edgerton

2011-01-01

308

Changes in corticospinal excitability during reach adaptation in force fields  

PubMed Central

Both abrupt and gradually imposed perturbations produce adaptive changes in motor output, but the neural basis of adaptation may be distinct. Here, we measured the state of the primary motor cortex (M1) and the corticospinal network during adaptation by measuring motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) before reach onset using transcranial magnetic stimulation of M1. Subjects reached in a force field in a schedule in which the field was introduced either abruptly or gradually over many trials. In both groups, by end of the training, muscles that countered the perturbation in a given direction increased their activity during the reach (labeled as the on direction for each muscle). In the abrupt group, in the period before the reach toward the on direction, MEPs in these muscles also increased, suggesting a direction-specific increase in the excitability of the corticospinal network. However, in the gradual group, these MEP changes were missing. After training, there was a period of washout. The MEPs did not return to baseline. Rather, in the abrupt group, off direction MEPs increased to match on direction MEPs. Therefore, we observed changes in corticospinal excitability in the abrupt but not gradual condition. Abrupt training includes the repetition of motor commands, and repetition may be the key factor that produces this plasticity. Furthermore, washout did not return MEPs to baseline, suggesting that washout engaged a new network that masked but did not erase the effects of previous adaptation. Abrupt but not gradual training appears to induce changes in M1 and/or corticospinal networks. PMID:23034365

Ahmadi-Pajouh, Mohammad Ali; Harran, Michelle D.; Salimpour, Yousef; Shadmehr, Reza

2013-01-01

309

The Agreement: Agreement Reached in the Multi-party Negotiations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CELT, an archive of documents relating to Irish culture and history at University College, Cork, has made available the full text of the historic proposed peace treaty for Northern Ireland. Aimed at ending many years of sectarian violence, the treaty was reached after arduous and intense negotiations. The agreement is to be voted upon by the people of both Northern Ireland and the Irish Republic in late May, 1998.

1998-01-01

310

The challenge of reproductive and developmental toxicology under REACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Union’s REACH regulation has explicit requirements for reproductive and developmental toxicity data on all substances manufactured in or imported into the European Union at ?10metric tons\\/year. Meeting the data requirements with whole-animal testing could result in the use of almost 22 million vertebrate animals for the registration of existing chemicals and cost up to several hundred thousand dollars

Anthony R. Scialli

2008-01-01

311

A short-wavelength selective reach-through avalanche photodiode  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new reach-through avalanche photodiode, designed for use with sources of short-wavelength light such as scintillators, is described. The device has a double junction p+-p-n-p--n+ structure in which the central three layers, which comprise about 99% of the device thickness, are fully depleted. The p+ light-entry surface extends across the whole device and can be placed in contact with a

R. J. McIntyre; P. P. Webb; H. Dautet

1996-01-01

312

Density estimation by maximum quantum entropy  

SciTech Connect

A new Bayesian method for non-parametric density estimation is proposed, based on a mathematical analogy to quantum statistical physics. The mathematical procedure is related to maximum entropy methods for inverse problems and image reconstruction. The information divergence enforces global smoothing toward default models, convexity, positivity, extensivity and normalization. The novel feature is the replacement of classical entropy by quantum entropy, so that local smoothing is enforced by constraints on differential operators. The linear response of the estimate is proportional to the covariance. The hyperparameters are estimated by type-II maximum likelihood (evidence). The method is demonstrated on textbook data sets.

Silver, R.N.; Wallstrom, T.; Martz, H.F.

1993-11-01

313

Entropy generation: Minimum inside and maximum outside  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extremum of entropy generation is evaluated for both maximum and minimum cases using a thermodynamic approach which is usually applied in engineering to design energy transduction systems. A new result in the thermodynamic analysis of the entropy generation extremum theorem is proved by the engineering approach. It follows from the proof that the entropy generation results as a maximum when it is evaluated by the exterior surroundings of the system and a minimum when it is evaluated within the system. The Bernoulli equation is analyzed as an example in order to evaluate the internal and external dissipations, in accordance with the theoretical results obtained.

Lucia, Umberto

2014-02-01

314

Functional Corticomuscular Connection During Reaching Is Weakened Following Stroke  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the functional connection between motor cortex and muscles, we measured Electroencephalogram-Electromyogram (EEG-EMG) coherence of stroke patients and controls. Methods Eight healthy controls and 21 patients with shoulder and elbow coordination deficits were enrolled. All subjects performed a reaching task involving shoulder flexion and elbow extension. EMG of the anterior deltoid (AD) and brachii muscles (BB, TB) and 64-channel scalp EEG were recorded during the task. Time-frequency coherence was calculated using the bivariate autoregressive model. Results Stroke patients had significantly lower corticomuscular coherence compared with healthy controls for the AD and BB muscles at both the beta (20-30 Hz) and lower gamma (30-40 Hz) bands during the movement. BH procedure (FDR) identified a reduced corticomuscular coherence for stroke patients in 11 of 15 scalp area-muscle combinations. There was no statistically significant difference between stroke patients and control subjects according to coherence in other frequency bands. Conclusion Poorly recovered stroke survivors with persistent upper-limb motor deficits exhibited significantly lower gamma-band corticomuscular coherence in performing a reaching task. Significance The study suggests poor brain-muscle communication or poor integration of the EEG and EMG signals in higher frequency band during reaching task may reflect an underlying mechanism producing movement deficits post stroke. PMID:19362515

Fang, Yin; Daly, Janis J; Sun, Jiayang; Hvorat, Ken; Fredrickson, Eric; Pundik, Svetlana; Sahgal, Vinod; Yue, Guang H.

2009-01-01

315

Distractor interference during a choice limb reaching task.  

PubMed

According to action-centered models of attention, the patterns of distractor interference that emerge in selective reaching tasks are related to the time and effort required to resolve a race for activation between competing target and non-target response producing processes. Previous studies have only used unimanual aiming tasks and, as such, only examined the effects of competition that occurs within a limb. The results of studies using unimanual aiming movements often reveal an "ipsilateral effect"--distractors on the same side of space as the effector cause greater interference than distractors on the opposite side of space. The cost of the competition when response selection is between the limbs has yet to be addressed. Participants in the present study executed reaching movements to 1 of 4 (2 left, 2 right) possible target locations with and without a distractor. Participants made ipsilateral reaches (left hand to left targets, right hand to right targets). In contrast to studies using unimanual aiming movements, a "contralateral effect" was observed; distractors affording responses for the other hand (in contralateral space) caused more interference than distractors affording responses for the same hand. The findings from the present research demonstrate that when certain portions of response planning must be resolved prior to response initiation, distractors that code for that dimension cause the greatest interference. PMID:24465813

Ray, Matthew; Weeks, Daniel; Welsh, Timothy N

2014-01-01

316

Compensatory arm reaching strategies after stroke: Induced position analysis  

PubMed Central

After stroke, movement patterns of the upper limb (UL) during functional arm reaching change to accommodate altered constraints. These compensatory movement control strategies do not, however, have a one-to-one mapping with posttraining outcomes. In this study, we quantify arm movement control strategies in unilateral and bilateral reaching tasks using induced position analysis. In addition, we assess how those strategies are associated with UL residual impairments and with functional improvement after a specific bilateral arm training intervention. Twelve individuals with chronic stroke were measured while reaching to a box as part of their pre- and posttesting assessments. Other measurements included the Fugl-Meyer Upper Extremity Assessment (FM), Modified Wolf Motor Function Test (WT), and the University of Maryland Arm Questionnaire for Stroke (UMAQS). We identified arm control strategies that did not differ between unilateral and bilateral tasks but did differ by FM impairment level and by predicted gains in WT but not UMAQS. Increased shoulder relative to elbow moment contribution was associated with less impairment and greater gains of speed in functional tasks. These results suggest that one goal of training to achieve better outcomes may be to decrease the abnormal coupling of the shoulder and elbow. PMID:23516085

Liu, Wei; Waller, Sandy McCombe; Kepple, Tom; Whitall, Jill

2013-01-01

317

Influence of reaching direction on visuomotor adaptation: an explorative study.  

PubMed

Robotics is increasingly used in rehabilitation therapy of the hemiparetic arm after stroke. Several studies performed adaptation experiments to gain more insight in the underlying learning processes. In these studies adaptation during reaching movements in different directions is assessed. No information about influence of direction on the amount of learning to these separate directions is present. In this paper we assessed the effect of reaching direction on visuomotor learning. Forty healthy subjects performed 48 movements to five different directions during adaptation to a 30 degrees visuomotor rotation. The execution error was defined as the initial direction error at peak velocity and after 100 ms after onset of the movement. The amount of learning was defined as the difference between the start value and the end value of the execution error. A significant higher amount of adaptation in the movement towards the contralateral part of the body (-72) compared to reaching towards other directions was observed. When possible feedback and corrections mechanisms are taken into account; results indicate that subjects adapt most towards -72 direction and least towards -144 direction. Data of healthy elderly and stroke survivors would be essential to test whether observed results are present in these populations as well, which could have implications for motor relearning in rehabilitation therapy. PMID:22275578

Molier, Birgit I; van Asseldonk, Edwin H F; Prange, Gerdienke B; Buurke, Jaap H

2011-01-01

318

Temperature and Phytoplankton Growth in the Sea.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The review suggests maximum growth and photosynthetic rates which might be reasonably expected for natural marine phytoplankton and points out the interrelationship among growth rate, photosynthetic assimilation number, and carbon/chlorophyll alpha ratios...

R. W. Eppley

1972-01-01

319

40 CFR 94.107 - Determination of maximum test speed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Determination of maximum test speed. 94.107 Section 94.107 Protection...107 Determination of maximum test speed. (a) Overview. This section specifies how to determine maximum test speed from a lug curve. This maximum...

2010-07-01

320

40 CFR 94.107 - Determination of maximum test speed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Determination of maximum test speed. 94.107 Section 94.107 Protection...107 Determination of maximum test speed. (a) Overview. This section specifies how to determine maximum test speed from a lug curve. This maximum...

2011-07-01

321

Promoting early literacy in pediatric practice: twenty years of reach out and read.  

PubMed

Reach Out and Read (ROR) is the first pediatric, evidence-based strategy to prevent problems of early childhood development and learning. With a start in a single clinic in Boston City Hospital in 1989, doctors working in >4000 clinics and practices gave approximately 5.7 million new books to >3.5 million children in all 50 states in 2008. ROR also has become a model for a different way of thinking about parent education during primary care encounters, based less on telling and more on creating real-time learning experiences. ROR flourished because of (1) the growth of pediatric interest in child development, (2) local leadership of pediatric champions as well as nonmedical supporters, coordinators, and volunteers, (3) evidence of effectiveness, and (4) public financial support attributable to strong bipartisan support in Congress, led by Senator Edward Kennedy. Since ROR started, an increasing amount of research confirms the importance of reading aloud for the development of language and other emergent literacy skills, which in turn helps children get ready for school and leads to later success in reading. Future goals include continued growth until all low-income children are reached with pediatric advice and books, a national campaign led by physicians encouraging all parents to read to their children every day, additional evidence-based, parent information to increase the effectiveness of parents reading to children, quality-improvement efforts to achieve the full potential, and global expansion. PMID:19917584

Zuckerman, Barry

2009-12-01

322

Toy-oriented changes in hand and joint kinematics during the emergence of purposeful reaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infants first consistently reach for objects between 3 and 5 months of age. In the months before reaching, infants produce a variety of arm movements. The relationship between these early arm movements and the emergence of purposeful reaching is still unclear. The purpose of the present study was to determine how groups of non-reaching, nearly reaching, and newly reaching infants

A. Bhat; J. Heathcock; J. C. Galloway

2005-01-01

323

Last Glacial Maximum age for the northwest Laurentide maximum from the Eagle River spillway and delta complex, northern Yukon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Eagle River spillway and braid delta complex provide a record of the maximum extent of the northwest Laurentide Ice Sheet and diversion of meltwater from Bonnet Plume Basin into the interior basins of non-glaciated northern Yukon. Development of the spillway can be characterized in three distinct zones based on the distribution of erosion and deposition along each reach: erosion-dominated channel initiation and incision; followed by channelization and coarse clastic deposition along channel margins and into tributary valleys; and lastly, fine-grained deltaic and lacustrine sedimentation in the lower channel reach. Deltaic sedimentation within the spillway is crudely-coarsening upward from alternating beds of massive clay and silt to ripple-cross-bedded sand. All sediments occur in rapidly-aggrading forms with no evidence for a significant hiatus in deposition. Radiocarbon ages on woody plant macrofossils and spruce needles are non-finite, while radiocarbon ages on macrofossils from herbaceous plant taxa and insects with 'steppe-tundra' ecological affinity from the upper part of the delta range from 15?840 ± 90 to 21?600 ± 1300 14C yr BP. These ages, coupled with the rapidly-aggrading nature of the delta sediments and landform, suggest an age of ca 15-16?000 14C yr BP. Non-finite and mixed ages underscore the significant problem of reworked, well-preserved macrofossils in Arctic environments and the need for careful selection of both fragile and ecologically-representative macrofossils to establish reliable chronologies.

Kennedy, K. E.; Froese, D. G.; Zazula, G. D.; Lauriol, B.

2010-05-01

324

20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM...defined. Under the Social Security Act, the...maximum used to adjust the social security overall minimum...Secretary of Health and Human Services on the...with the entitlement to more than one child's...

2010-04-01

325

Integrated photovoltaic maximum power point tracking converter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low-power low-cost highly efficient maximum power point tracker (MPPT) to be integrated into a photovoltaic (PV) panel is proposed. This can result in a 25% energy enhancement compared to a standard photovoltaic panel, while performing functions like battery voltage regulation and matching of the PV array with the load. Instead of using an externally connected MPPT, it is proposed

Johan H. R. Enslin; Mario S. Wolf; D. B. Snyman; Wernher Swiegers

1997-01-01

326

Maximum entropy models for speech confidence estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we implement a confidence estimation system based on a Naive Bayes classifier, by using the maximum entropy paradigm. The model takes information from various sources including a set of scores which have proved to be useful in confidence estimation tasks. Two different approaches are modeled. First a basic model which takes advantages of smoothing techniques used in

Claudio Estienne; Alberto Sanchís; Alfons Juan; Enrique Vidal

2008-01-01

327

Weak Scale From the Maximum Entropy Principle  

E-print Network

The theory of multiverse and wormholes suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model are fixed in such a way that the radiation of the $S^{3}$ universe at the final stage $S_{rad}$ becomes maximum, which we call the maximum entropy principle. Although it is difficult to confirm this principle generally, for a few parameters of the Standard Model, we can check whether $S_{rad}$ actually becomes maximum at the observed values. In this paper, we regard $S_{rad}$ at the final stage as a function of the weak scale ( the Higgs expectation value ) $v_{h}$, and show that it becomes maximum around $v_{h}={\\cal{O}}(300\\text{GeV})$ when the dimensionless couplings in the Standard Model, that is, the Higgs self coupling, the gauge couplings, and the Yukawa couplings are fixed. Roughly speaking, we find that the weak scale is given by \\begin{equation} v_{h}\\sim\\frac{T_{BBN}^{2}}{M_{pl}y_{e}^{5}},\

Yuta Hamada; Hikaru Kawai; Kiyoharu Kawana

2014-09-23

328

Muscle coordination of maximum-speed pedaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simulation based on a forward dynamical musculoskeletal model was computed from an optimal control algorithm to understand uni- and bi-articular muscle coordination of maximum-speed startup pedaling. The muscle excitations, pedal reaction forces, and crank and pedal kinematics of the simulation agreed with measurements from subjects. Over the crank cycle, uniarticular hip and knee extensor muscles provide 55% of the

Christine C. Raasch; Felix E. Zajac; Baoming Ma; William S. Levine

1997-01-01

329

: runout specimen max : maximum fatigue stress  

E-print Network

: runout specimen max : maximum fatigue stress fe,i : elastic limit strength of each specimen 750 uniaxial tensile fatigue stress. Interests in tensile fatigue strength and behaviour come from the fact.g. cantilever of bridge deck slab). Tensile Fatigue behaviour of UHPFRC Doctoral student: Tohru Makita

330

Maximum Entropy Models for Named Entity Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe a system that applies maximum entropy (ME) models to the task of named entity recognition (NER). Starting with an annotated corpus and a set of features which are easily obtainable for almost any language, we first build a baseline NE recognizer which is then used to extract the named entities and their context information from

Oliver Bender; Franz Josef Och; Hermann Ney

331

Maximum Entropy Models for Named Entity Recoginition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe a system that applies maximum entropy (ME) models to the task of named entity recognition (NER). Starting with an annotated corpus and a set of features which are easily obtainable for almost any language, we first build a baseline NE recognizer which is then used to extract the named entities and their context information from

O. Bender; F. J. Och; H. Ney

2003-01-01

332

Learning Graphical Models by Maximum Entropy Relaxation  

E-print Network

.t. dE(, ) E, E H Maximize entropy subject to constraint that, for each subset E H, the marginal. Dual Problem: Maximize entropy h(r) -Er{log r} over all r M that satisfy linear moment con- straintsLearning Graphical Models by Maximum Entropy Relaxation Jason K. Johnson (Joint work with V

Willsky, Alan S.

333

Maximum Entropy MIMO Wireless Channel Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this contribution, models of wireless channels are derived from the maximum entropy principle, for several cases where only limited information about the propagation environment is available. First, ana- lytical models are derived for the cases where certain parameters (channel energy, average energy, spatial correlation matrix) are known deterministically. Frequently, these parameters are unknown (typically because the received energy or

Maxime Guillaud; Mérouane Debbah; Aris L. Moustakas

2006-01-01

334

Learning Markov Structure by Maximum Entropy Relaxation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new approach for learning a sparse graphical model approximation to a specified multivariate probability distri- bution (such as the empirical distribution of sample data). The selection of sparse graph structure arises naturally in our ap- proach through solution of a convex opti- mization problem, which differentiates our method from standard combinatorial ap- proaches. We seek the maximum

Jason K. Johnson; Venkat Chandrasekaran; Alan S. Willsky

2006-01-01

335

Maximum entropy methods for generating simulated rainfall  

E-print Network

Maximum entropy methods for generating simulated rainfall Julia Piantadosi Co-authors Phil Howlett entropy that matches an observed set of grade correlation coefficients. This problem is formulated as the maximization of a concave function on a convex polytope. · Under mild constraint qualifications we show

Borwein, Jonathan

336

Maximum terminal velocity of relativistic rocket  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maximum terminal velocity problem of the classical propulsion is extended to a relativistic rocket assumed broken down into active mass, inert mass and gross payload. A fraction of the active mass is converted into energy shared between inert mass and active mass residual. Significant effects are considered. State and co-state equations are carried out to find the exhaust speed

G. Vulpetti

1985-01-01

337

Menu Plans: Maximum Nutrition for Minimum Cost.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that menu planning is the key to getting maximum nutrition in day care meals and snacks for minimum cost. Explores United States Department of Agriculture food pyramid guidelines for children and tips for planning menus and grocery shopping. Includes suggested meal patterns and portion sizes. (HTH)

Texas Child Care, 1995

1995-01-01

338

Timing of glaciation during the last glacial cycle: evaluating the concept of a global 'Last Glacial Maximum' (LGM)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has long been known that mountain glaciers and continental ice sheets around the globe reached their respective maximum extent at different times during the last glacial cycle, often well before the global Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; c. 23-19 ka), which is formally defined by peaks in global sea-level and marine oxygen isotope records. However, there is increasing evidence from around the world that it was not only mountain glaciers which were asynchronous with the global LGM but also some regions of the large continental glaciers. The Barents-Kara Ice Sheet in northern Eurasia together with a majority of ice masses throughout Asia and Australasia reached their maximum early in the last glacial cycle, a few thousand years before the global LGM period. The East Antarctic Ice Sheet also reached its maximum extent several millennia before the global LGM. In numerous mountainous regions at high-, mid- and low-latitudes across the world, glaciers reached their maximum extent before Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 2, in MIS 5, 4 and 3. This is in contrast to most sectors of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, the Cordilleran Ice Sheet, the SE sector of the Fennoscandinavian Ice Sheet and the Alpine Ice Sheet in central Europe, which appear to have reached their maximum close to the global LGM in MIS 2. The diachronous maximum extents of both mountain glaciers and continental ice sheets during the last glacial cycle, means that the term and acronym Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) has limited chronostratigraphical meaning when correlating glacial deposits and landforms.

Hughes, Philip D.; Gibbard, Philip L.; Ehlers, Jürgen

2013-10-01

339

Abstract Nine infants were tested, at the age of onset of reaching, seated on their parent's lap and reaching for a  

E-print Network

in a way that simplifies learning to reach. Key words Human infant · Motor development · Reaching Introduction The ability of human infants to reach for and retrieve ob- jects in their environment develops fact of neural development that might appropriately limit the kinematics of infant reaching

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

340

Planning reaching and grasping movements: the problem of obstacle avoidance.  

PubMed

In this article, we review a model of the movement-planning processes that people use for direct reaching, reaching around obstacles, and grasping, and we present observations of subjects' repeated movements of the hand to touch 2 target locations, circumventing an intervening obstacle. The model defines an obstacle as a posture that, if adopted, would intersect with any part of the environment (including the actor himself or herself). The model finds a trajectory that is likely to bring the end-effector to the target by means of a one-or two- stage planning process. Each stage exploits the principles of instance retrieval and instance generation. In the first stage, a goal posture is identified, and the trajectory of a direct transition to that posture is tested for collision. If the direct movement has no collision, the movement to the target is immediately executed in joint space. If, however, the direct movement is foreseen to result in a collision, a second planning stage is invoked. The second planing stage identifies a via posture, movement through which will probably avoid the collision. Movement to and from the via posture is then superimposed on the main movement to the target so that the combined movement reaches the target without colliding with intervening obstacles. We describe the details of instance retrieval and instance generation for each of these planning stages and compare the model's performance with the observed kinematics of direct movements as well as movements around an obstacle. Then we suggest how the model might contribute to the study of movements in people with motor disorders such as spastic hemiparesis. PMID:11303109

Vaughan, J; Rosenbaum, D A; Meulenbroek, R G

2001-04-01

341

Energy Reduction Projects to Help Nissan Reach BBBP Goals  

E-print Network

Energy Reduction Projects to Help Nissan Reach BBBP Goals Brett Rasmussen, PE, CEM Senior Energy Engineer Nissan North America May 23, 2013 ESL-IE-13-05-38 Proceedings of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans..., LA. May 21-24, 2013 ? ? ? Smyrna, TN Decherd, TN Canton, MS NISSAN?S U.S. PLANTS 2 ESL-IE-13-05-38 Proceedings of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 21-24, 2013 Bill Kruger Signs the Save Energy Now...

Rasmussen, B.

2013-01-01

342

Reaching biological timescales with all-atom molecular dynamics simulations.  

PubMed

Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations can provide atomically detailed views of protein motions, sampling multiple timescales ranging from femtoseconds to nanoseconds on typical computing resources. The 'reach' of these computer simulations toward biologically relevant timescales (microseconds and beyond) has been improving with advances in hardware and software, as well as the development of enhanced sampling techniques. This review outlines these advances, focusing on techniques that also provide realistic, unperturbed kinetics. These longer-timescale MD simulations can provide detailed insights into the mechanisms of biological events, potentially aiding the design of pharmaceuticals. PMID:20934381

Zwier, Matthew C; Chong, Lillian T

2010-12-01

343

The perceived relative worth of reaching and maintaining goal weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To examine the perceived relative worth of reaching and maintaining a self-selected goal weight, for obese and non-obese individuals.DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.SUBJECTS: Twenty-five obese treatment-seekers (age 41.0 y, BMI 42.5) and a community sample of 31 obese (age 40.8 y, BMI 32.2) and 64 non-obese participants (age 32.4 y, BMI 23.4).MEASUREMENT: An 18-item forced-choice questionnaire evaluating what participants would hypothetically

P M O’Neil; CF Smith; GD Foster; DA Anderson

2000-01-01

344

Riparian shading and groundwater enhance growth potential for smallmouth bass in Ozark streams.  

PubMed

Moderation of stream temperatures by riparian shading and groundwater are known to promote growth and survival of salmonid fishes, but effects of riparian shade and groundwater on to be growth of warmwater stream fishes are poorly understood or assumed to be negligible. We used stream temperature models to relate shading from riparian vegetation and groundwater inflow to summer water temperatures in Missouri Ozark streams and evaluated effects of summer water temperatures on smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieu, growth using a bioenergetics model. Bioenergetics model simulations revealed that adult smallmouth bass in non-spring-fed streams have lower growth potential during summer than fish in spring-fed streams, are subject to mass loss when stream temperatures exceed 27 degrees C, and will likely exhibit greater interannual variation in growth during summer if all growth-influencing factors, other than temperature, are identical between the two stream types. Temperature models indicated that increased riparian shading will expand the longitudinal extent of thermal habitat capable of supporting adult smallmouth bass growth in spring-fed stream reaches when mean daily air temperatures exceed 27 degrees C. Optimum growth temperature (22 degrees C) will be present only in spring-fed streams under these conditions. Potential for increasing shade through riparian restoration is greatest for streams <5 m wide and along north-south reaches of larger streams. However, temperature models also indicated that restoring riparian shading to maximum levels throughout a watershed would increase the total stream mileage capable of supporting positive growth of adult smallmouth bass by only 1-6% when air temperatures are at or near average summer maxima; increases in suitable thermal habitat would be greatest in watersheds with higher spring densities. Riparian management for maintenance or restoration of the thermal habitat of adult smallmouth bass during summer should be focused in areas strongly influenced by groundwater. Restoring riparian shading along spring-fed warmwater streams will likely benefit adult smallmouth bass growth and may ultimately influence population sizes. PMID:16937811

Whitledge, Gregory W; Rabeni, Charles F; Annis, Gust; Sowa, Scott P

2006-08-01

345

Beyond Gazing, Pointing, and Reaching A Survey of Developmental Robotics  

E-print Network

development, and the acquisition of motor skills. and developmental psychologists, but also engineers, may studies on ontogenetic development. We believe that the growth of the affinity between devel- opmental development provide a valuable source of inspiration (Asada et al., 2001; Brooks et al., 1998; Metta, 2000

Sandini, Giulio

346

Theoretical Analysis of Maximum Flow Declination Rate versus Maximum Area Declination Rate in Phonation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Maximum flow declination rate (MFDR) in the glottis is known to correlate strongly with vocal intensity in voicing. This declination, or negative slope on the glottal airflow waveform, is in part attributable to the maximum area declination rate (MADR) and in part to the overall inertia of the air column of the vocal tract (lungs to…

Titze, Ingo R.

2006-01-01

347

Maximum entropy and maximum likelihood criteria for feature selection from multivariate data  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss several numerical methods for optimum feature selection for multivariate data based on maximum entropy and maximum likelihood criteria. Our point of view is to consider observed data x1, x2,..., xN in Rd to be samples from some unknown pdf P. We project this data onto d directions, subsequently estimate the pdf of the univariate data, then find the

Sankar Basu; Charles A. Micchelli; Peder Olsen

2000-01-01

348

Using maximum likelihood to estimate population size from temporal changes in allele frequencies.  

PubMed Central

We develop a maximum-likelihood framework for using temporal changes in allele frequencies to estimate the number of breeding individuals in a population. We use simulations to compare the performance of this estimator to an F-statistic estimator of variance effective population size. The maximum-likelihood estimator had a lower variance and smaller bias. Taking advantage of the likelihood framework, we extend the model to include exponential growth and show that temporal allele frequency data from three or more sampling events can be used to test for population growth. PMID:10353915

Williamson, E G; Slatkin, M

1999-01-01

349

Maximum-Flow Neural Network: A Novel Neural Network for the Maximum Flow Problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In advance of network communication society by the internet, the way how to send data fast with a little loss becomes an important transportation problem. A generalized maximum flow algorithm gives the best solution for the transportation problem that which route is appropriated to exchange data. Therefore, the importance of the maximum flow algorithm is growing more and more. In this paper, we propose a Maximum-Flow Neural Network (MF-NN) in which branch nonlinearity has a saturation characteristic and by which the maximum flow problem can be solved with analog high-speed parallel processing. That is, the proposed neural network for the maximum flow problem can be realized by a nonlinear resistive circuit where each connection weight between nodal neurons has a sigmodal or piece-wise linear function. The parallel hardware of the MF-NN will be easily implemented.

Sato, Masatoshi; Aomori, Hisashi; Tanaka, Mamoru

350

Global CO2 rise leads to reduced maximum stomatal conductance in Florida vegetation  

PubMed Central

A principle response of C3 plants to increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO2 (CO2) is to reduce transpirational water loss by decreasing stomatal conductance (gs) and simultaneously increase assimilation rates. Via this adaptation, vegetation has the ability to alter hydrology and climate. Therefore, it is important to determine the adaptation of vegetation to the expected anthropogenic rise in CO2. Short-term stomatal opening–closing responses of vegetation to increasing CO2 are described by free-air carbon enrichments growth experiments, and evolutionary adaptations are known from the geological record. However, to date the effects of decadal to centennial CO2 perturbations on stomatal conductance are still largely unknown. Here we reconstruct a 34% (±12%) reduction in maximum stomatal conductance (gsmax) per 100 ppm CO2 increase as a result of the adaptation in stomatal density (D) and pore size at maximal stomatal opening (amax) of nine common species from Florida over the past 150 y. The species-specific gsmax values are determined by different evolutionary development, whereby the angiosperms sampled generally have numerous small stomata and high gsmax, and the conifers and fern have few large stomata and lower gsmax. Although angiosperms and conifers use different D and amax adaptation strategies, our data show a coherent response in gsmax to CO2 rise of the past century. Understanding these adaptations of C3 plants to rising CO2 after decadal to centennial environmental changes is essential for quantification of plant physiological forcing at timescales relevant for global warming, and they are likely to continue until the limits of their phenotypic plasticity are reached. PMID:21330552

Lammertsma, Emmy I.; de Boer, Hugo Jan; Dekker, Stefan C.; Dilcher, David L.; Lotter, Andre F.; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike

2011-01-01

351

Minimum Convex Partitions and Maximum Empty Polytopes  

E-print Network

Let S be a set of n points in d-space. A convex Steiner partition is a tiling of CH(S) with empty convex bodies. For every integer d, we show that S admits a convex Steiner partition with at most (n-1)/d tiles. This bound is the best possible for affine independent points in the plane, and it is best possible apart from constant factors in every dimension d>= 3. We also give the first constant-factor approximation algorithm for computing a minimum Steiner convex partition of an affine independent point set in the plane. Determining the maximum possible volume of a single tile in a Steiner partition is equivalent to a famous problem of Danzer and Rogers. We give a (1-epsilon)-approximation for the maximum volume of an empty convex body when S lies in the d-dimensional unit box [0,1]^d.

Dumitrescu, Adrian; Tóth, Csaba D

2011-01-01

352

The maximum possible magnetocaloric ?T effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current boom of research activity in magnetocaloric materials science is fuelled by the expectation that new advanced refrigerants may be found whose ?T will significantly surpass that of gadolinium (Gd) metal (2.6-2.9 K/T). Because of this expectation, the main effort in the field has been diverted from the important issues of refrigerator design to the routine characterization of magnetic materials. Estimating the maximum adiabatic temperature change that can be achieved in principle by applying a certain magnetic field, say 1 T, is a matter of priority. In this work the problem of maximum ?T is approached from general principles. According to the most optimistic estimates, ?T can never exceed ˜18 K/T, the more realistic upper limit lying somewhere in high single figures. We therefore deem it most unlikely that a refrigerant much better than Gd, in respect of the ?T value, will ever be found.

Zverev, V. I.; Tishin, A. M.; Kuz'min, M. D.

2010-02-01

353

Maximum likelihood estimation of turbulence spectrum parameters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Estimation of the integral scale and intensity of a generic turbulence record is treated as a statistical problem of parameter estimation. Properties of parameter estimators and the method of maximum likelihood are reviewed. Likelihood equations are derived for estimation of the integral scale and intensity applicable to a general class of turbulence spectra that includes the von Karman and Dryden transverse and longitudinal spectra as special cases. The method is extended to include the Bullen transverse and longitudinal spectra. Coefficients of variation are given for maximum likelihood estimates of the integral scale and intensity of the von Karman spectra. Application of the method is illustrated by estimating the integral scale and intensity of an atmospheric turbulence vertical velocity record assumed to be governed by the von Karman transverse spectrum.

Mark, W. D.

1984-01-01

354

MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD ESTIMATION FOR SOCIAL NETWORK DYNAMICS  

PubMed Central

A model for network panel data is discussed, based on the assumption that the observed data are discrete observations of a continuous-time Markov process on the space of all directed graphs on a given node set, in which changes in tie variables are independent conditional on the current graph. The model for tie changes is parametric and designed for applications to social network analysis, where the network dynamics can be interpreted as being generated by choices made by the social actors represented by the nodes of the graph. An algorithm for calculating the Maximum Likelihood estimator is presented, based on data augmentation and stochastic approximation. An application to an evolving friendship network is given and a small simulation study is presented which suggests that for small data sets the Maximum Likelihood estimator is more efficient than the earlier proposed Method of Moments estimator.

Snijders, Tom A.B.; Koskinen, Johan; Schweinberger, Michael

2014-01-01

355

Generalization of unconstrained reaching with hand-weight changes.  

PubMed

Studies of motor generalization usually perturb hand reaches by distorting visual feedback with virtual reality or by applying forces with a robotic manipulandum. Whereas such perturbations are useful for studying how the central nervous system adapts and generalizes to novel dynamics, they are rarely encountered in daily life. The most common perturbations that we experience are changes in the weights of objects that we hold. Here, we use a center-out, free-reaching task, in which we can manipulate the weight of a participant's hand to examine adaptation and generalization following naturalistic perturbations. In both trial-by-trial paradigms and block-based paradigms, we find that learning converges rapidly (on a timescale of approximately two trials), and this learning generalizes mostly to movements in nearby directions with a unimodal pattern. However, contrary to studies using more artificial perturbations, we find that the generalization has a strong global component. Furthermore, the generalization is enhanced with repeated exposure of the same perturbation. These results suggest that the familiarity of a perturbation is a major factor in movement generalization and that several theories of the neural control of movement, based on perturbations applied by robots or in virtual reality, may need to be extended by incorporating prior influence that is characterized by the familiarity of the perturbation. PMID:23054601

Yan, Xiang; Wang, Qining; Lu, Zhengchuan; Stevenson, Ian H; Körding, Konrad; Wei, Kunlin

2013-01-01

356

Reaching the hip-hop generation: Final (symposium proceedings) report  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this final (closing) report is to capture the flavor of the symposium held March 1 and 2, 1993 in New York City convened by Motivational Educational Entertainment, Inc. (MEE), a black-owned communications research, consulting, and video production company based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The mission of MEE is to understand, reach, and positively affect inner-city youth. Traditional communication approaches from mainstream sources to at-risk youth often don`t account for the unique way youth communicate among themselves and how they relate to the media. This understanding, however, is crucial. To understand youth communication, the people who create and send both entertaining and educational messages to urban youth must be brought into the dialogue. The meeting in New York was intended to provide an important opportunity for senders to meet and evaluate the appropriateness and effectiveness of their messages. In addition, the MEE symposium provided a forum for the continuing public debate about what needs to be done to reach today`s urban teens. Included in this document is a description of symposium goals/objectives, symposium activities, the reaction to and analysis of the symposium, recommendations for future MEE courses of action, and an appendix containing copies of press articles.

Not Available

1993-05-01

357

Tactile gating in a reaching and grasping task.  

PubMed

Abstract A multitude of events bombard our sensory systems at every moment of our lives. Thus, it is important for the sensory cortex to gate unimportant events. Tactile suppression is a well-known phenomenon defined as a reduced ability to detect tactile events on the skin before and during movement. Previous experiments found detection rates decrease just prior to and during finger abduction, and decrease according to the proximity of the moving effector. This study examined how tactile detection changes during a reach to grasp. Fourteen human participants used their right hand to reach and grasp a cylinder. Tactors were attached to the index finger, the fifth digit, and the forearm of both the right and left arm and vibrated at various epochs relative to a "go" tone. Results showed that detection rates at the forearm decreased before movement onset; whereas at the right index finger, right fifth digit and at the left index finger, left fifth digit, and forearm sites did not decrease like in the right forearm. These results indicate that the task affects gating dynamics in a temporally- and contextually dependent manner and implies that feed-forward motor planning processes can modify sensory signals. PMID:24760521

Colino, Francisco L; Buckingham, Gavin; Cheng, Darian T; van Donkelaar, Paul; Binsted, Gordon

2014-01-01

358

Enthalpy Recovery of Polystyrene: Is the Liquid Equilibrium Line Reached?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glasses are not in thermodynamic equilibrium below the glass transition temperature (Tg), and consequently, their properties such as enthalpy, volume, and mechanical properties evolve toward equilibrium in a process known as structural recovery or physical aging. However, several recent studies have suggested that the equilibrium liquid line is not reached even when properties have ceased to evolve. In this work, we present measurements of the enthalpy recovery of polystyrene at the aging temperature of 15^oC below the nominal Tg, for aging times up to 1 year. The results are analyzed in the context of the TNM model of structural recovery. The results show that the equilibrium liquid enthalpy line is indeed reached at temperatures below Tg when enthalpy recovery ceases to evolve. Our results will be discussed and compared to results from works leading to different conclusions. We also use our results to probe the issue of whether or not equilibrium relaxation times diverge from super-Arrhenius behavior below Tg.

Koh, Yung P.; Simon, Sindee L.

2013-03-01

359

Reach the unreached - a systematic review on mobile dental units.  

PubMed

Provision of health care facilities and the extent of their utilization is one of the indices of human development. The services for the masses need to be designed with the basic objective of alleviating and preventing the vast amounts of diseases of the mass. This could be achieved by mobile dental units (MDUs). The present systemic review access the efficacy of MDUs for community settings. A review of literature was performed both electronically and manually using MeSH Terms- Mobile Dental Units/clinics. Eight articles, which fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected for the review. MDUs help in overcoming the accessibility, affordability and sustainability barrier. They are able to reach more people than fixed-site clinics. Even in Government sector, mobile dental vans can help reach the underserved at an affordable cost.The present systematic review revealed that MDUs prove to be an effective adjunct to the oral health service providers like dental colleges and private practitioners. PMID:25302288

Vashishtha, Vaibhav; Kote, Sunder; Basavaraj, Patthi; Singla, Ashish; Pandita, Venisha; Malhi, Ravneet Kaur

2014-08-01

360

Ricin A chain reaches the endoplasmic reticulum after endocytosis  

SciTech Connect

Ricin is a potent ribosome inactivating protein and now has been widely used for synthesis of immunotoxins. To target ribosome in the mammalian cytosol, ricin must firstly retrograde transport from the endomembrane system to reach the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where the ricin A chain (RTA) is recognized by ER components that facilitate its membrane translocation to the cytosol. In the study, the fusion gene of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-RTA was expressed with the pET-28a (+) system in Escherichia coli under the control of a T7 promoter. The fusion protein showed a green fluorescence. The recombinant protein can be purified by metal chelated affinity chromatography on a column of NTA. The rabbit anti-GFP antibody can recognize the fusion protein of EGFP-RTA just like the EGFP protein. The cytotoxicity of EGFP-RTA and RTA was evaluated by the MTT assay in HeLa and HEP-G2 cells following fluid-phase endocytosis. The fusion protein had a similar cytotoxicity of RTA. After endocytosis, the subcellular location of the fusion protein can be observed with the laser scanning confocal microscopy and the immuno-gold labeling Electro Microscopy. This study provided important evidence by a visualized way to prove that RTA does reach the endoplasmic reticulum.

Liu Qiong [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Zhejiang University Medical School, Hangzhou 310006 (China); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Ningbo University Medical School, Ningbo 315211 (China); Zhan Jinbiao [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Zhejiang University Medical School, Hangzhou 310006 (China) and Second Affiliated Hospital (Cancer Institute), Zhejiang University Medical School, Hangzhou 310006 (China)]. E-mail: jzhan2k@zju.edu.cn; Chen Xinhong [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Yangzhou University Medical School, Yangzhou 225001 (China); Zheng Shu [Second Affiliated Hospital (Cancer Institute), Zhejiang University Medical School, Hangzhou 310006 (China)

2006-05-12

361

Reach the Unreached - A Systematic Review on Mobile Dental Units  

PubMed Central

Provision of health care facilities and the extent of their utilization is one of the indices of human development. The services for the masses need to be designed with the basic objective of alleviating and preventing the vast amounts of diseases of the mass. This could be achieved by mobile dental units (MDUs). The present systemic review access the efficacy of MDUs for community settings. A review of literature was performed both electronically and manually using MeSH Terms- Mobile Dental Units/clinics. Eight articles, which fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected for the review. MDUs help in overcoming the accessibility, affordability and sustainability barrier. They are able to reach more people than fixed-site clinics. Even in Government sector, mobile dental vans can help reach the underserved at an affordable cost.The present systematic review revealed that MDUs prove to be an effective adjunct to the oral health service providers like dental colleges and private practitioners. PMID:25302288

Kote, Sunder; Basavaraj, Patthi; Singla, Ashish; Pandita, Venisha; Malhi, Ravneet Kaur

2014-01-01

362

Maximum Likelihood Based Quantum Set Separation  

E-print Network

In this paper we introduce a method, which is used for set separation based on quantum computation. In case of no a-priori knowledge about the source signal distribution, it is a challenging task to find an optimal decision rule which could be implemented in the separating algorithm. We lean on the Maximum Likelihood approach and build a bridge between this method and quantum counting. The proposed method is also able to distinguish between disjunct sets and intersection sets.

Sándor Imre; Ferenc Balázs

2004-02-12

363

Maximum entropy production - Full steam ahead  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of a principle of Maximum Entropy Production (MEP, or less ambiguously MaxEP) to planetary climate is discussed. This idea suggests that if sufficiently free of dynamical constraints, the atmospheric and oceanic heat flows across a planet may conspire to maximize the generation of mechanical work, or entropy. Thermodynamic and information-theoretic aspects of this idea are discussed. These issues are also discussed in the context of dust devils, convective vortices found in strongly-heated desert areas.

Lorenz, Ralph D.

2012-05-01

364

Maximum likelihood estimation in pooled sample tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pooled sample tests, firstly used on the classification problem (identifying all individuals with some characteristic), may also be applied to estimate the prevalence rate. Moreover, the pooled sample methods may attain greater efficiency when applied to estimate some prevalence rate, since it is no longer necessary to perform any individual test. We develop a maximum likelihood computational algorithm for the prevalence rate estimation, and we analyze its performance.

Martins, João Paulo; Felgueiras, Miguel; Santos, Rui

2014-10-01

365

Tissue Radiation Response with Maximum Tsallis Entropy  

SciTech Connect

The expression of survival factors for radiation damaged cells is currently based on probabilistic assumptions and experimentally fitted for each tumor, radiation, and conditions. Here, we show how the simplest of these radiobiological models can be derived from the maximum entropy principle of the classical Boltzmann-Gibbs expression. We extend this derivation using the Tsallis entropy and a cutoff hypothesis, motivated by clinical observations. The obtained expression shows a remarkable agreement with the experimental data found in the literature.

Sotolongo-Grau, O.; Rodriguez-Perez, D.; Antoranz, J. C.; Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar [UNED, Departamento de Fisica Matematica y de Fluidos, 28040 Madrid (Spain); UNED, Departamento de Fisica Matematica y de Fluidos, 28040 Madrid (Spain) and University of Havana, Catedra de Sistemas Complejos Henri Poincare, Havana 10400 (Cuba); University of Havana, Catedra de Sistemas Complejos Henri Poincare, Havana 10400 (Cuba)

2010-10-08

366

Maximum likelihood identification using an array processor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) is a method used to calculate the parameters of a dynamic system. It can be applied to a large class of problems and has good statistical properties. The main disadvantage of the MLE method is the amount of computation required. This paper describes how the computation time can be reduced significantly by using an array processor. The estimation of the parameters of a dynamic model of the Space Station is used as an example to evaluate the method.

Sridhar, Banavar; Aubrun, Jean-Noel

1987-01-01

367

Polyenes with maximum HOMO–LUMO gap  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of a variable neighbourhood search with the AutoGraphiX software, it is conjectured that for even numbers of atoms the fully conjugated acyclic ? system of maximum HOMO–LUMO gap is a `comb' in which each vertex of a backbone carries a single pendant edge. Chemically, this represents CnH3n\\/2+2, an ?,?-diene with methylene groups attached at all intermediate positions.

P. W. Fowler; P. Hansen; G. Caporossi; A. Soncini

2001-01-01

368

Maximum Bounded Rooted-Tree Packing Problem  

E-print Network

Given a graph and a root, the Maximum Bounded Rooted-Tree Packing (MBRTP) problem aims at finding K rooted-trees that span the largest subset of vertices, when each vertex has a limited outdegree. This problem is motivated by peer-to-peer streaming overlays in under-provisioned systems. We prove that the MBRTP problem is NP-complete. We present two polynomial-time algorithms that computes an optimal solution on complete graphs and trees respectively.

Kerivin, Herve; Simon, Gwendal; Zhou, Fen

2011-01-01

369

Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeons from the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River  

SciTech Connect

We summarized radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeons Acipenser transmontanus from the Columbia River during a period when several plutonium-production reactors were operating at the Hanford Site in Washington State and compared these values to those measured several years after reactor shutdown. Studies conducted in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River during 1953-1955 indicated that high concentrations of radionuclides (as total beta) were present in some internal organs on the external surface of white sturgeons. Average concentrations were about 1,480 Bq/kg for liver and kidney and exceeded 2,200 Bq/kg for fins and scutes. The principal radionuclides in the tissues of white sturgeons from the Hanford Reach during 1963-1967, the peak reactor operation interval, were [sup 32]P, [sup 65]Zn, and [sup 51]Cr. Average concentrations of [sup 32]P in muscle ranged from 925 to 2,109 Bq/kg and were typically two to seven times greater than [sup 65]Zn. Average concentrations of radionuclides were usually in the order of gut contents [much gt] carcass > muscle. Studies from 1989 to 1990 showed that radionuclide concentrations had decreased dramatically in white sturgeon tissue since the time of reactor operation. Maximum concentrations for artificial radionuclides ([sup 90]Sr, [sup 60]Co, [sup 137]Cs) in muscle and cartilage of white sturgeons in the Columbia River had declined to less than 4 Bq/kg. Formerly abundant radionuclides, including [sup 32]P, [sup 65]Zn, and [sup 51]Cr, could not be detected in recent tissue samples. Further, radionuclide tissue burden in populations of sturgeons from the Hanford Reach and the upstream or downstream reference locations did not differ significantly. 34 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Dauble, D.D.; Poston, T.M. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

1994-07-01

370

ON THE MAXIMUM MASS OF STELLAR BLACK HOLES  

SciTech Connect

We present the spectrum of compact object masses: neutron stars and black holes (BHs) that originate from single stars in different environments. In particular, we calculate the dependence of maximum BH mass on metallicity and on some specific wind mass loss rates (e.g., Hurley et al. and Vink et al.). Our calculations show that the highest mass BHs observed in the Galaxy M{sub bh} {approx} 15 M{sub sun} in the high metallicity environment (Z = Z{sub sun} = 0.02) can be explained with stellar models and the wind mass loss rates adopted here. To reach this result we had to set luminous blue variable mass loss rates at the level of {approx}10{sup -4} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} and to employ metallicity-dependent Wolf-Rayet winds. With such winds, calibrated on Galactic BH mass measurements, the maximum BH mass obtained for moderate metallicity (Z = 0.3 Z{sub sun} = 0.006) is M{sub bh,max} = 30 M{sub sun}. This is a rather striking finding as the mass of the most massive known stellar BH is M{sub bh} = 23-34 M{sub sun} and, in fact, it is located in a small star-forming galaxy with moderate metallicity. We find that in the very low (globular cluster-like) metallicity environment the maximum BH mass can be as high as M{sub bh,max} = 80 M{sub sun} (Z = 0.01 Z{sub sun} = 0.0002). It is interesting to note that X-ray luminosity from Eddington-limited accretion onto an 80 M{sub sun} BH is of the order of {approx}10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1} and is comparable to luminosities of some known ultra-luminous X-ray sources. We emphasize that our results were obtained for single stars only and that binary interactions may alter these maximum BH masses (e.g., accretion from a close companion). This is strictly a proof-of-principle study which demonstrates that stellar models can naturally explain even the most massive known stellar BHs.

Belczynski, Krzysztof; Fryer, Chris L. [Los Alamos National Lab, P.O. Box 1663, MS 466, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Bulik, Tomasz [Astronomical Observatory, University of Warsaw, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warsaw (Poland); Ruiter, Ashley [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, 1320 Frenger Mall, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Valsecchi, Francesca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Vink, Jorick S. [Armagh Observatory, College Hill, Armagh BT61, 9DG, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Hurley, Jarrod R., E-mail: kbelczyn@nmsu.ed, E-mail: tb@astrouw.edu.p, E-mail: clfreyer@lanl.go, E-mail: aruiter@nmsu.ed, E-mail: francesca@u.northwestern.ed, E-mail: jsv@arm.ac.u, E-mail: JHurley@groupwise.swin.edu.a [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia)

2010-05-10

371

Enhancement of the maximum energy density in atomic layer deposited oxide based thin film capacitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin film capacitors on areas up to 6 mm2 have been measured regarding capacitance density, relative permittivity, and electrical breakdown. The maximum storable energy density of the thin film capacitors will be discussed as a parameter to evaluate the thin film capacitors applicability. Therefore the measurements of the layer thickness, capacitance density, and the breakdown voltage were combined to achieve the maximum storable areal and volume energy density depending on the dielectric layer thickness. Thickness dependent volume energy densities of up to 50 J/cm3 for pure Al2O3 and 60 J/cm3 for Al2O3/TiO2 nanolaminates were reached.

Spahr, Holger; Nowak, Christine; Hirschberg, Felix; Reinker, Johannes; Kowalsky, Wolfgang; Hente, Dirk; Johannes, Hans-Hermann

2013-07-01

372

Ethylene and the Growth of Rice Seedlings 1  

PubMed Central

Etiolated whole rice seedlings enclosed in sealed vials produced ethylene at a rate of 0.9 picomole per hour per seedling. When 2-centimeter-long shoots were subdivided into 5-millimeter-long sections, the sections containing the tip of the shoot evolved 37% of the total ethylene with the remaining 63% being produced along a gradient decreasing to the base of the shoot. The tip of the coleoptile also had the highest level of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and of the ethylene-forming enzyme activity. Ethylene is one of the factors controlling coleoptile elongation. Decapitation of the seedling reduced ethylene evolution to one-third its original level and inhibited coleoptile growth. In short-term experiments, the growth rate of decapitated seedlings was restored to almost that of intact seedlings by application of ethylene at a concentration of 10 microliters per liter. Apart from ethylene, O2 also participates in the control of coleoptile growth. When rice seedlings were grown in a gas mixture of N2 and O2, the length of the coleoptiles reached a maximum at a concentration of 2.5% O2. Lower and higher concentrations of O2 reduced coleoptile growth. The effect of exogenous ethylene on coleoptile growth was also O2 dependent. PMID:16664369

Satler, Sergio O.; Kende, Hans

1985-01-01

373

Online control of the direction of rapid reaching movements.  

PubMed

Online visual control of the direction of rapid reaching movements was assessed by evaluating how human subjects reacted to shifts in seen hand position near movement onsets. Participants ( N=10) produced saccadic eye and rapid arm movements (mean duration = 328 ms) towards a peripheral visual target in complete darkness. During the saccade, visual feedback of hand position could be shifted by 1, 2, 3 or 4 cm perpendicularly to the main movement direction. The resulting discrepancies between visual and proprioceptive information about hand position were never consciously perceived by the subjects. Following the shifts, hand trajectories deviated from those produced in a control condition (without shift) in order to bring seen hand position closer to the target. Globally, the deviations corresponded to 45% of the shifts, regardless of their magnitude or movement duration. This finding highlights not only the efficiency of visual feedback processing in online motor control but also underlines the significant contribution of limb proprioception. PMID:15007583

Sarlegna, Fabrice; Blouin, Jean; Vercher, Jean-Louis; Bresciani, Jean-Pierre; Bourdin, Christophe; Gauthier, Gabriel M

2004-08-01

374

Reaching 10 ms single photon lifetimes for superconducting aluminum cavities  

E-print Network

Three-dimensional microwave cavities have recently been combined with superconducting qubits in the circuit quantum electrodynamics (cQED) architecture. These cavities should have less sensitivity to dielectric and conductor losses at surfaces and interfaces, which currently limit the performance of planar resonators. We expect that significantly (>10^3) higher quality factors and longer lifetimes should be achievable for 3D structures. Motivated by this principle, we have reached internal quality factors greater than 0.5x10^9 and intrinsic lifetimes of 0.01 seconds for multiple aluminum superconducting cavity resonators at single photon energies and millikelvin temperatures. These improvements could enable long lived quantum memories with submicrosecond access times when strongly coupled to superconducting qubits.

M. Reagor; Hanhee Paik; G. Catelani; L. Sun; C. Axline; E. Holland; I. M. Pop; N. A. Masluk; T. Brecht; L. Frunzio; M. H. Devoret; L. I. Glazman; R. J. Schoelkopf

2013-02-18

375

Bell Atlantic and Communications Workers of America (CWA) Reach Agreement  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News examines the recent labor dispute between the Bell Atlantic Corporation and the Communications Workers of America (CWA). The ten resources discussed provide background information on the telecommunications industry and press coverage of the August 9-11, 1998 strike as well as Bell Atlantic's corporate history. Adding a human dimension to typical technological and economic coverage of the telecommunications industry, 73,000 telephone workers paralyzed Bell Atlantic services in thirteen Eastern states on August 9, 1998. Union fear concerning Bell Atlantic's recent acquisition of GTE is cited as a major strike cause as job losses due to new Internet technologies became a reality following the merger. A tentative two-year agreement was reached on August 11, however, ending the conflict with the promise of "high-skill, good paying jobs" that allow workers to reap the benefits of information-age ventures as well as employers.

Waters, Megan.

376

Reach the Bottom Line of the Sbottom Search  

SciTech Connect

We propose a new search strategy for directly-produced sbottoms at the LHC with a small mass splitting between the sbottom and its decayed stable neutralino. Our search strategy is based on boosting sbottoms through an energetic initial state radiation jet. In the final state, we require a large missing transverse energy and one or two b-jets besides the initial state radiation jet. We also define a few kinematic variables to further increase the discovery reach. For the case that the sbottom mainly decays into the bottom quark and the stable neutralino, we have found that even for a mass splitting as small as 10 GeV sbottoms with masses up to around 400 GeV can be excluded at the 95% confidence level with 20 inverse femtobarn data at the 8 TeV LHC.

Alvarez, Ezequiel; Bai, Yang

2012-05-22

377

Evaluation of influence of historical changes in land use along the middle Vistula river reach on flood risk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a vast literature on the influence of land use changes on rainfall-runoff processes. The problem is difficult as it requires separation of climatic and water management related changes from land use influences. The present paper addresses the problem of the influence of land use changes on maximum flows at cross-sections along the middle River Vistula reach. We adopt a methodology tested at the catchment scale, which consists of an optimisation of a rainfall-runoff model using a moving time horizon and analysis of the variability of model parameters. In the present application, it consists of an analysis of changes of roughness coefficients of a distributed HEC-RAS model, optimised using a moving five-year window. The chosen river reach (between Annopol and Gusin) has a recorded history of land use changes over 50 years (from 1949 to 2001), which included 36% of the study area. The nature of the changes is complex and shows different trends for different plant communities and sections of the valley. Generally, there has been a several percent increase in the area occupied by forests and grassland communities and a slight increase in the proportion of scrub. The first step of the procedure is to define the river reaches that have recorded information on land use changes. The second step is to perform a moving window optimisation of the HEC-RAS model for a chosen river reach. In order to assess the influence of land use changes on maximum flow values, the goodness-of-fit of the simulation of annual maximum water levels is used as an optimisation criterion. In this way the influence of land use changes on maximum inundation extent related to flood risk assessment can be estimated. The final step is to analyse the results and relate the model parameter changes to historical land use changes. We report here the results of the first two steps of the procedure. This work was partly supported from the project "Stochastic flood forecasting system (The River Vistula reach from Zawichost to Warsaw)" carried out by the Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences on the order of the National Science Centre (contract No. 2011/01/B/ST10/06866). The water level and flow data were provided by the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (IMGW), Poland.

Karamuz, Emilia; Romanowicz, Renata; Booij, Martijn

2014-05-01

378

Walking Is Not Like Reaching: Evidence from Periodic Mechanical Perturbations  

PubMed Central

The control architecture underlying human reaching has been established, at least in broad outline. However, despite extensive research, the control architecture underlying human locomotion remains unclear. Some studies show evidence of high-level control focused on lower-limb trajectories; others suggest that nonlinear oscillators such as lower-level rhythmic central pattern generators (CPGs) play a significant role. To resolve this ambiguity, we reasoned that if a nonlinear oscillator contributes to locomotor control, human walking should exhibit dynamic entrainment to periodic mechanical perturbation; entrainment is a distinctive behavior of nonlinear oscillators. Here we present the first behavioral evidence that nonlinear neuro-mechanical oscillators contribute to the production of human walking, albeit weakly. As unimpaired human subjects walked at constant speed, we applied periodic torque pulses to the ankle at periods different from their preferred cadence. The gait period of 18 out of 19 subjects entrained to this mechanical perturbation, converging to match that of the perturbation. Significantly, entrainment occurred only if the perturbation period was close to subjects' preferred walking cadence: it exhibited a narrow basin of entrainment. Further, regardless of the phase within the walking cycle at which perturbation was initiated, subjects' gait synchronized or phase-locked with the mechanical perturbation at a phase of gait where it assisted propulsion. These results were affected neither by auditory feedback nor by a distractor task. However, the convergence to phase-locking was slow. These characteristics indicate that nonlinear neuro-mechanical oscillators make at most a modest contribution to human walking. Our results suggest that human locomotor control is not organized as in reaching to meet a predominantly kinematic specification, but is hierarchically organized with a semi-autonomous peripheral oscillator operating under episodic supervisory control. PMID:22479311

Ahn, Jooeun; Hogan, Neville

2012-01-01

379

Arabidopsis growth curves Antibody effect on fibrinogen to fibrin conversion  

E-print Network

�40 Typical growth trajectory for one plant zero up to day t0 35 (plant-specific) reaches full height aroundArabidopsis growth curves Antibody effect on fibrinogen to fibrin conversion Growth curve modelsCullagh, Mei Wang Growth curve models #12;Arabidopsis growth curves Antibody effect on fibrinogen to fibrin

McCullagh, Peter

380

Vegetation controls on the maximum size of coastal dunes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal dunes, in particular foredunes, support a resilient ecosystem and reduce coastal vulnerability to storms. In contrast to dry desert dunes, coastal dunes arise from interactions between biological and physical processes. Ecologists have traditionally addressed coastal ecosystems by assuming that they adapt to preexisting dune topography, whereas geomorphologists have studied the properties of foredunes primarily in connection to physical, not biological, factors. Here, we study foredune development using an ecomorphodynamic model that resolves the co-evolution of topography and vegetation in response to both physical and ecological factors. We find that foredune growth is eventually limited by a negative feedback between wind flow and topography. As a consequence, steady state foredunes are scale invariant, which allows us to derive scaling relations for maximum foredune height and formation time. These relations suggest that plant zonation (in particular for strand `dune-building' species) is the primary factor controlling the maximum size of foredunes and therefore the amount of sand stored in a coastal dune system. We also find that aeolian sand supply to the dunes determines the time scale of foredune formation. These results offer a potential explanation for the empirical relation between beach type and foredune size, in which large (small) foredunes are found on dissipative (reflective) beaches: higher waves associated with dissipative beaches increase the disturbance of strand species which shifts foredune formation landwards and thus leads to larger foredunes.

Duran Vinent, Orencio; Moore, Laura J.

2014-05-01

381

Metabolic networks evolve towards states of maximum entropy production  

PubMed Central

A metabolic network can be described by a set of elementary modes or pathways representing discrete metabolic states that support cell function. We have recently shown that in the most likely metabolic state the usage probability of individual elementary modes is distributed according to the Boltzmann distribution law while complying with the principle of maximum entropy production. To demonstrate that a metabolic network evolves towards such state we have carried out adaptive evolution experiments with Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum operating with a reduced metabolic functionality based on a reduced set of elementary modes. In such reduced metabolic network metabolic fluxes can be conveniently computed from the measured metabolite secretion pattern. Over a time span of 300 generations the specific growth rate of the strain continuously increased together with a continuous increase in the rate of entropy production. We show that the rate of entropy production asymptotically approaches the maximum entropy production rate predicted from the state when the usage probability of individual elementary modes is distributed according to the Boltzmann distribution. Therefore, the outcome of evolution of a complex biological system can be predicted in highly quantitative terms using basic statistical mechanical principles. PMID:21903175

Unrean, Pornkamol; Srienc, Friedrich

2011-01-01

382

Preliminary findings of a study of the upper reaches of the Tamar Estuary, UK, throughout a complete tidal cycle: Part II: In-situ floc spectra observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of field experiments funded by the Natural Environmental Research Council were conducted in the upper reaches of the Tamar estuary (UK), which placed the measurements within the tidal trajectory of the turbidity maximum. The aim of the study was to examine how the distribution of floc characteristics evolved with respect to changes in the turbulent shear stress, suspended

S. J. Bass; K. R. Dyer

2007-01-01

383

Non-induced cyclic hydroxamic acids in wheat during juvenile stage of growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

2,4-Dihydroxy-1,4-benzoxazine-3-one glucoside (DIBOA-G) and its methoxy analogue, 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazine-3-one glucoside (DIMBOA-G), were present in germinating wheat (Triticum aestivum); the corresponding aglycones, DIBOA and DIMBOA, appeared soon after germination. The amounts of these compounds reached a maximum 12–48 hours after germination, and then decreased to undetectable levels as the plants began autotrophic growth. The time of their appearance was little affected by

Eri Nakagawa; Takashi Amano; Nobuhiro Hirai; Hajime Iwamura

1995-01-01

384

The Maximum Size of Dynamic Data Structures  

E-print Network

SIAM J. COMPUT.Vol. 20, No. 5, pp. 807-823, October 1991 1991 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics001 THE MAXIMUM SIZE OF DYNAMIC DATA STRUCTURES* CLAIRE M. KENYON-MATHIEU’ AND JEFFREY SCOTT VITTER$ Abstract. This paper develops two... Science Foundation grant andby a National Science Foundation Presidential Young Investigator Award with matching funds from IBM. 807 808 C. M. KENYON-MATHIEU AND J. S. VITTER Data structures process a sequence ofitems over time; at time the data structure...

Kenyon-Mathieu, Claire M.; Vitter, Jeffrey Scott

1991-10-01

385

Maximum a posteriori decoder for digital communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system and method for decoding by identification of the most likely phase coded signal corresponding to received data. The present invention has particular application to communication with signals that experience spurious random phase perturbations. The generalized estimator-correlator uses a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimator to generate phase estimates for correlation with incoming data samples and for correlation with mean phases indicative of unique hypothesized signals. The result is a MAP likelihood statistic for each hypothesized transmission, wherein the highest value statistic identifies the transmitted signal.

Altes, Richard A. (Inventor)

1997-01-01

386

Dynamical maximum entropy approach to flocking.  

PubMed

We derive a new method to infer from data the out-of-equilibrium alignment dynamics of collectively moving animal groups, by considering the maximum entropy model distribution consistent with temporal and spatial correlations of flight direction. When bird neighborhoods evolve rapidly, this dynamical inference correctly learns the parameters of the model, while a static one relying only on the spatial correlations fails. When neighbors change slowly and the detailed balance is satisfied, we recover the static procedure. We demonstrate the validity of the method on simulated data. The approach is applicable to other systems of active matter. PMID:24827278

Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene; Ginelli, Francesco; Mora, Thierry; Piovani, Duccio; Tavarone, Raffaele; Walczak, Aleksandra M

2014-04-01

387

Dynamical maximum entropy approach to flocking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive a new method to infer from data the out-of-equilibrium alignment dynamics of collectively moving animal groups, by considering the maximum entropy model distribution consistent with temporal and spatial correlations of flight direction. When bird neighborhoods evolve rapidly, this dynamical inference correctly learns the parameters of the model, while a static one relying only on the spatial correlations fails. When neighbors change slowly and the detailed balance is satisfied, we recover the static procedure. We demonstrate the validity of the method on simulated data. The approach is applicable to other systems of active matter.

Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene; Ginelli, Francesco; Mora, Thierry; Piovani, Duccio; Tavarone, Raffaele; Walczak, Aleksandra M.

2014-04-01

388

Superstatistical distributions from a maximum entropy principle.  

PubMed

We deal with a generalized statistical description of nonequilibrium complex systems based on least biased distributions given some prior information. A maximum entropy principle is introduced that allows for the determination of the distribution of the fluctuating intensive parameter beta of a superstatistical system, given certain constraints on the complex system under consideration. We apply the theory to three examples: the superstatistical quantum-mechanical harmonic oscillator, the superstatistical classical ideal gas, and velocity time series as measured in a turbulent Taylor-Couette flow. PMID:19113089

Van der Straeten, Erik; Beck, Christian

2008-11-01

389

Maximum aposteriori joint source/channel coding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A maximum aposteriori probability (MAP) approach to joint source/channel coder design is presented in this paper. This method attempts to explore a technique for designing joint source/channel codes, rather than ways of distributing bits between source coders and channel coders. For a nonideal source coder, MAP arguments are used to design a decoder which takes advantage of redundancy in the source coder output to perform error correction. Once the decoder is obtained, it is analyzed with the purpose of obtaining 'desirable properties' of the channel input sequence for improving overall system performance. Finally, an encoder design which incorporates these properties is proposed.

Sayood, Khalid; Gibson, Jerry D.

1991-01-01

390

Maximum likelihood identification for large space structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper examines the use of on-orbit identification based on Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) to provide these high-order, high-accuracy control design models for large space structures (LSS's). First, it outlines a general MLE identification algorithm, together with a covariance-analysis procedure to assess algorithm performance in terms of systematic and stochastic errors. Next, it examines various simplifications appropriate for the LSS identification application. Simplified analytical performance results are presented, as are numerical results to support these analyses. Finally, a graphical interpretation of these results is given.

Barrett, Michael F.; Enns, Dale F.

1988-01-01

391

The 2009 Perseid Maximum - Photographic Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An astronomical camp was organized by Comet and Meteors Workshop during the 2009 Perseids maximum. 69 meteors were photographed during four consecutive nights. We found that photographic Perseid radiant was very compact and located at alpha=48.7 deg, delta=58.6 deg. Our main goal was the determination of the radiant from single station photographic observations, however we also calculated two double station trajectories using additional data which were send to us by casual photographic observer from other parts of Poland. Dozens of radio reflections were observed with simple radio receiver, some of them were identified with photographic images.

Zolcadek, P.; Wisniewski, M.; Polakowski, K.; Wala, E.; Walczak, K.; Poleski, R.

2010-01-01

392

Conductivity maximum in a charged colloidal suspension  

SciTech Connect

Molecular dynamics simulations of a charged colloidal suspension in the salt-free regime show that the system exhibits an electrical conductivity maximum as a function of colloid charge. We attribute this behavior to two main competing effects: colloid effective charge saturation due to counterion 'condensation' and diffusion slowdown due to the relaxation effect. In agreement with previous observations, we also find that the effective transported charge is larger than the one determined by the Stern layer and suggest that it corresponds to the boundary fluid layer at the surface of the colloidal particles.

Bastea, S

2009-01-27

393

An optimal control model for maximum-height human jumping.  

PubMed

To understand how intermuscular control, inertial interactions among body segments, and musculotendon dynamics coordinate human movement, we have chosen to study maximum-height jumping. Because this activity presents a relatively unambiguous performance criterion, it fits well into the framework of optimal control theory. The human body is modeled as a four-segment, planar, articulated linkage, with adjacent links joined together by frictionless revolutes. Driving the skeletal system are eight musculotendon actuators, each muscle modeled as a three-element, lumped-parameter entity, in series with tendon. Tendon is assumed to be elastic, and its properties are defined by a stress-strain curve. The mechanical behavior of muscle is described by a Hill-type contractile element, including both series and parallel elasticity. Driving the musculotendon model is a first-order representation of excitation-contraction (activation) dynamics. The optimal control problem is to maximize the height reached by the center of mass of the body subject to body-segmental, musculotendon, and activation dynamics, a zero vertical ground reaction force at lift-off, and constraints which limit the magnitude of the incoming neural control signals to lie between zero (no excitation) and one (full excitation). A computational solution to this problem was found on the basis of a Mayne-Polak dynamic optimization algorithm. Qualitative comparisons between the predictions of the model and previously reported experimental findings indicate that the model reproduces the major features of a maximum-height squat jump (i.e. limb-segmental angular displacements, vertical and horizontal ground reaction forces, sequence of muscular activity, overall jump height, and final lift-off time). PMID:2292598

Pandy, M G; Zajac, F E; Sim, E; Levine, W S

1990-01-01

394

Maximum acceptable weights and maximum voluntary isometric strengths for asymmetric lifting  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory study was conducted to determine the effects of asymmetric lifting on psychophysically determined maximum acceptable weights and maximum voluntary isometric strengths. Thirteen male college students lifted three different boxes in the sagittal plane and at three different angles of asymmetry (30,60 and 90°) from floor to an 81-cm high table using a free-style lifting technique. For each lifting

A. GARG; DON BADGER

1986-01-01

395

Optimising the Yield of Energy From Biomass by Analytical Models of the Rate of Growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the reported study of growth-rates of grey alder (Alnus incana) stands at different quality sites the authors, as a continuation of an earlier study, propose and use analytical models to approximate experimental data of mean annual increments of standing stock. The model equations of growth-rate functions are further used to optimise the cutting age by minimising the total area of stands for sustainable annual supply of biomass. The growth-rate behaviour with the age of natural grey alder stands is described by an exponential function of three parameters defining the initial and the maximum growth-rates, and the age at which the growth-rate maximum is reached. None of the parameters is known from experiment, and they are found by least-square fit of the available experimental mean values appraised at the chosen time intervals into the model. A high correlation between the experimental data and the model function is found. The optimum cutting age of 18 years determined in the earlier study is confirmed. In farmed stands the growth-rate is made to continue increasing at a lower speed, and is well approximated by a linear function, in which case it is shown that the cutting age cannot be optimised with respect to the area minimum existing under the condition of a decreasing growth-rate after passing a maximum. In the case of a constant or slowly growing annual increment the authors suggest considering the ratio between the increment of stock per unit of the total area to the increase in the area. The overall efficiency of using the product of photosynthesis for a 20-year-old grey alder stand is roughly estimated to be 0.3%.

Abolins, J.; Gravitis, J.; Kosmacha, J.

2010-01-01

396

Risk evaluation and management to reaching a suggested FSO in a steam meal.  

PubMed

Steam meals are ready-to-eat meals composed of raw and semi-cooked ingredients, which get cooked while microwave heating. In this study, an Indian style meal was selected, Chicken Tandoori, from two different producers. These meals were first evaluated with the Risk Ranger® to identify the main foodborne pathogens risks, which were Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium and Bacillus cereus. Thereafter, quantitative microbiology was applied using different models and verified with growth and inactivation challenge tests. It was observed that the gamma model and the ComBase program® showed very similar results. However, in some cases the results obtained with the challenge tests showed different results. The information gathered was used to create different scenarios which indicate how to manage the risks by setting Performance Objectives during the different stages of the food chain of this product and hence reaching a suggested Food Safety Objective. PMID:21511122

Mejia, Z Sosa; Beumer, R R; Zwietering, M H

2011-06-01

397

77 FR 26049 - Reaching Zero: Actions to Eliminate Substance-Impaired Driving Forum  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD Reaching Zero: Actions to Eliminate Substance-Impaired...science- based actions needed to ``reach zero'' accidents resulting from substance-impaired...Panel Eight: Actions Needed to Reach Zero --Closing Remarks A detailed agenda...

2012-05-02

398

Factors affecting the age-C resident fish community along shorelines of the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Hanford Reach is one of the few remaining unimpounded sections of the Columbia River. However, because of flow management at upstream dams, there are often large fluctuations in water level. To determine how environmental conditions might affect age-0 resident fishes in the Hanford Reach, we evaluated species composition, distribution, abundance, and standard lengths of larval and juvenile fishes along shoreline habitats during July and August 1998, 1999, and 2000. Catches in beach seine hauls during all three years were highly variable. The four most abundant taxa collected were three cyprinids, peamouth (Mylocheilus caurinus), northern pikeminnow (Plychocheilus oregonensis), and redside shiner (Richardson ius balteatus); and suckers (Catostoinus spp.). Highest overall catches were in sloughs of the Hanford Reach in 1999, a year with high flows, lower water level fluctuations, and more vegetation. Mean shoreline summer water temperatures were higher in 1998 than in 1999 and 2000, and mean lengths of the four most abundant taxa in late August were also greater in 1998, due presumably to enhanced growth or an earlier spawning season. In spite of flow fluctuations, overall catches of age-0 resident fishes were greater in the riverine Hanford Reach compared to past catches in a more lentic Columbia River reservoir. High abundances of age-0 resident fishes in the Hanford Reach could be due to more spawning and rearing habitat in this structurally complex area, and may mitigate for negative effects of variable flow regimes.

Gadomski, D.M.; Wagner, P.G.

2009-01-01

399

Maximum Diameter of Impacting Liquid Droplets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The maximum diameter a droplet that impacts on a surface will attain is the subject of controversy, notably for high-velocity impacts of low-viscosity liquids such as water or blood. We study the impact of droplets of simple liquids of different viscosities, and a shear-thinning complex fluid (blood), for a wide range of surfaces, impact speeds, and impact angles. We show that the spreading behavior cannot simply be predicted by equating the inertial to either capillary or viscous forces, since, for most situations of practical interest, all three forces are important. We determine the correct scaling behaviors for the viscous and capillary regimes and, by interpolating between the two, allow for a universal rescaling. The results for different impact angles can be rescaled on this universal curve also, by doing a simple geometrical correction for the impact angle. For blood, we show that the shear-thinning properties do not affect the maximum diameter and only the high-shear rate viscosity is relevant. With our study, we solve a long-standing problem within the fluid-dynamics community: We attest that the spreading behavior of droplets is governed by the conversion of kinetic energy into surface energy or dissipated heat. Energy transfer into internal flows marginally hinders droplet spreading upon impact.

Laan, Nick; de Bruin, Karla G.; Bartolo, Denis; Josserand, Christophe; Bonn, Daniel

2014-10-01

400

An overview of the solar maximum mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Solar Maximum Mission (SMM), devoted to the study of active solar phenomena is expected to be launched in February 1980 and operate throughout the peak of the current maximum of solar activity. The SMM observatory consists of two main sections: the instrument module which houses the solar payload instruments and the Fine Pointing Sun Sensor System, and the Multimission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) which carries the spacecraft subsystem modules. The entire observatory is 4m long and 2.3m in diameter. The SMM will carry a payload of six instruments specifically selected to study the short wavelength and coronal manifestations of flares. These include: gamma ray spectrometer, hard X-ray burst spectrometer, hard-X-ray imaging spectrometer, soft X-ray polychromator, UV spectrometer and polarimeter, coronagraph/polarimeter and solar constant monitoring package which will measure the total solar irradiance to an accuracy of 0.1 percent. Specific scientific objectives will include: chromospheric evaporation, thermalization, electron acceleration and flare build-up. Complementary studies will be made as part of an SMM Guest Investigator Program. The SMM observation program will be operated on a 24 hour cycle.

Chipman, E. C.; Frost, K. J.

1980-01-01

401

40 CFR 141.13 - Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. 141.13 Section 141.13 Protection...141.13 Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. The maximum contaminant levels for turbidity are applicable to both community...

2013-07-01

402

40 CFR 141.13 - Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. 141.13 Section 141.13 Protection...141.13 Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. The maximum contaminant levels for turbidity are applicable to both community...

2012-07-01

403

40 CFR 141.13 - Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity.  

... false Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. 141.13 Section 141.13 Protection...141.13 Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. The maximum contaminant levels for turbidity are applicable to both community...

2014-07-01

404

40 CFR 141.13 - Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. 141.13 Section 141.13 Protection...141.13 Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. The maximum contaminant levels for turbidity are applicable to both community...

2010-07-01

405

40 CFR 141.13 - Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. 141.13 Section 141.13 Protection...141.13 Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. The maximum contaminant levels for turbidity are applicable to both community...

2011-07-01

406

33 CFR 183.35 - Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats. 183.35 ...EQUIPMENT Safe Loading § 183.35 Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats. (a) The maximum weight capacity marked on a boat that is...

2010-07-01

407

33 CFR 183.35 - Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats. 183.35 ...EQUIPMENT Safe Loading § 183.35 Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats. (a) The maximum weight capacity marked on a boat that is...

2013-07-01

408

33 CFR 183.35 - Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats. 183.35 ...EQUIPMENT Safe Loading § 183.35 Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats. (a) The maximum weight capacity marked on a boat that is...

2011-07-01

409

33 CFR 183.35 - Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats. 183.35 ...EQUIPMENT Safe Loading § 183.35 Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats. (a) The maximum weight capacity marked on a boat that is...

2014-07-01

410

33 CFR 183.35 - Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats. 183.35 ...EQUIPMENT Safe Loading § 183.35 Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats. (a) The maximum weight capacity marked on a boat that is...

2012-07-01

411

49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24 Transportation...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value....

2011-10-01

412

49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24 Transportation...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value....

2012-10-01

413

49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24 Transportation...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value....

2010-10-01

414

49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24 Transportation...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value....

2013-10-01

415

49 CFR 230.27 - Maximum shearing strength of rivets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Maximum shearing strength of rivets. 230.27 Section 230...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.27 Maximum shearing strength of rivets. The maximum shearing...

2011-10-01

416

49 CFR 230.27 - Maximum shearing strength of rivets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Maximum shearing strength of rivets. 230.27 Section 230...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.27 Maximum shearing strength of rivets. The maximum shearing...

2012-10-01

417

49 CFR 230.27 - Maximum shearing strength of rivets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Maximum shearing strength of rivets. 230.27 Section 230...STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.27 Maximum shearing strength of rivets. The maximum shearing...

2013-10-01

418

14 CFR 25.1505 - Maximum operating limit speed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Maximum operating limit speed. 25.1505 Section 25.1505 Aeronautics...Limitations § 25.1505 Maximum operating limit speed. The maximum operating limit speed (V MO /M MO airspeed or Mach...

2010-01-01

419

14 CFR 25.1505 - Maximum operating limit speed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Maximum operating limit speed. 25.1505 Section 25.1505 Aeronautics...Limitations § 25.1505 Maximum operating limit speed. The maximum operating limit speed (V MO /M MO airspeed or Mach...

2011-01-01

420

Comparison of Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood Bootstrap Measures of Phylogenetic Reliability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Owing to the exponential growth of genome databases, phylogenetic trees are now widely used to test a variety of evolutionary hypotheses. Nevertheless, computation time burden limits the application of methods such as maximum likelihood nonparametric bootstrap to assess reliability of evolutionary trees. As an alternative, the much faster Bayesian inference of phylogeny, which expresses branch support as posterior probabilities, has

Christophe J. Douady; Frederic Delsuc; Yan Boucher; W. Ford Doolittle; Emmanuel J. P. Douzery

2003-01-01

421

Relationship between improvements in motor performance and changes in anticipatory postural adjustments during whole-body reaching training.  

PubMed

Anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) provide postural stability and play an important role in ensuring appropriate motor performance. APAs also change in various situations. However, it is unknown whether changes in APAs during repetitive movement training contribute to improvement in motor performance. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between improvement in motor performance and changes in APAs during repeated reaching training, as well as the learning effects on APA changes. Sixteen healthy subjects (23±2years of age) stood barefoot on a force platform and reached as quickly and accurately as possible to a target placed at their maximum reach distance immediately following a beep signal in a reaction time condition. Whole-body reaching training with the right arm was repeated 100 times for three consecutive days. Motor performance and APAs were evaluated on the first day, after discontinuation of training for one day, and again at three months. In addition, reaching with the left arm (untrained limb) was tested on the first and the fifth training day. Body position segments were measured using three-dimensional motion analysis. Surface electromyography of eight postural muscles in both lower limbs was recorded. Kinetics data were recorded using the force platform. Whole-body reaching training induced not only improvements in motor performance (e.g., increased peak hand velocity), but also changes in APAs (e.g., earlier APA onset and increased amplitude). These changes were strongly correlated with and occurred earlier than improvements in motor performance. The learning effects on APAs were retained after the discontinuation of training and were generalized to the untrained limb. These results suggest that change in APAs contributes to improvement in motor performance; that is, the central nervous system may be able to adapt APAs for improvement in motor performance. PMID:25108269

Saito, Hiroshi; Yamanaka, Masanori; Kasahara, Satoshi; Fukushima, Junko

2014-10-01

422

Modeling the natural attenuation of benzene in groundwater impacted by ethanol-blended fuels: Effect of ethanol content on the lifespan and maximum length of benzene plumes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical model was used to evaluate how the concentration of ethanol in reformulated gasoline affects the length and longevity of benzene plumes in fuel-contaminated groundwater. Simulations considered a decaying light nonaqueous phase liquid source with a total mass of ˜85 kg and a groundwater seepage velocity of 9 cm d-1 and corroborated previous laboratory, field, and modeling studies showing benzene plume elongation due to the presence of ethanol. Benzene plume elongation reached a maximum of 59% for 20% ethanol content (E20) relative to regular gasoline without ethanol. Elongation was due to accelerated depletion of dissolved oxygen during ethanol degradation and to a lower specific rate of benzene utilization caused by metabolic flux dilution and catabolite repression. The lifespan of benzene plumes was shorter for all ethanol blends compared to regular gasoline (e.g., 17 years for regular gasoline, 15 years for E10, 9 years for E50, and 3 years for E85), indicating greater natural attenuation potential for higher-ethanol blends. This was attributed to a lower mass of benzene released for higher-ethanol blends and increased microbial activity associated with fortuitous growth of benzene degraders on ethanol. Whereas site-specific conditions will determine actual benzene plume length and longevity, these decaying-source simulations imply that high-ethanol blends (e.g., E85) pose a lower risk of benzene reaching a receptor via groundwater migration than low-ethanol blends such as E10.

Gomez, Diego E.; Alvarez, Pedro J. J.

2009-03-01

423

Treatment of dyslipidemia: the problem of reaching the goal.  

PubMed

Dyslipidemia is a major contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although awareness of the importance of the risk of dyslipidemia has increased, treatment of dyslipidemia has not improved accordingly. Even though the actual number of individuals receiving treatment has increased, the proportion of those who are treated but did not reach the recommended treatment goal, is still disturbing. This problem is highlighted in this issue of Atherosclerosis by the article of S. Zhao et al. who in a cross-sectional study involving 25,697 Chinese individuals found that overall 38.5% of those receiving lipid-lowering treatment did not achieve the treatment goal for low density lipoprotein. Of particular concern is the authors' finding that the majority of these were individuals with a high cardiovascular risk and/or with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Some of the main reasons for this problem relate to patients' compliance with treatment and inertia on the side of physicians and patients to increase the dose of a given medication or move to a combination treatment. New medications with various and different pharmacological modes of actions and increased possibility for combination treatment may help to improve the treatment for dyslipidemia. PMID:25038298

Bolli, Peter

2014-09-01

424

Reaching youth in the Central African Republic. Programme feature.  

PubMed

The Central African Republic's National Program for Sex Education of Youths of School Age has developed programs for students and out-of-school youth aimed at reducing the high incidence of adolescent pregnancy and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). One such program, Support to Youth for Responsible Sexuality, has targeted out-of-school youth 10-22 years of age from Bangui. The program operates from the Information Center for Sexual Health, established in 1994. Educational videos are shown at the center, followed by discussion groups. Peer counselors are available for young people who wish to discuss sexual concerns privately. The center also has a small health post staffed by a nurse who performs pregnancy tests and simple STD diagnoses. A troupe of children perform puppet shows (written by program participants) about reproductive health issues throughout the city. Videos on condom use produced by local youth are being shown at movie theaters before the main feature, and condoms are sold at these locations. A newsletter and radio programming are also used to reach out to adolescents with sexual health messages. Plans are underway to establish a mobile information center. Key to the success of this program has been collaboration with the local family planning association, a condom social marketing program, youth clubs, a woman's nongovernmental organization, private video parlors, United Nations agencies, and governmental ministries. PMID:12291988

Supe, G; Blankhart, D

1996-01-01

425

The chemical and environmental property space of REACH chemicals.  

PubMed

The European regulation on chemicals, REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals), came into force on 1 June 2007. With pre-registration complete in 2008, data for these substances may provide an overview of the expected chemical space and its characteristics. In this paper, using various in silico computation tools, we evaluate 48782 neutral organic compounds from the list to identify hazardous and safe compounds. Two different classification schemes (modified Verhaar and ECOSAR) identified between 17% and 25% of the compounds as expressing only baseline toxicity (narcosis). A smaller portion could be identified as reactive (19%) or specifically acting (2.7%), while the majority were non-assigned (61%). Overall environmental persistence, bioaccumulation and long-range transport potential were evaluated using structure-activity relationships and a multimedia fugacity-based model. A surprisingly high proportion of compounds (20%), mainly aromatic and halogenated, had a very high estimated persistence (>195 d). The proportion of compounds with a very high estimated bioconcentration or bioaccumulation factor (>5000) was substantially less (6.9%). Finally, a list was compiled of those compounds within the applicability domain of the models used, meeting both persistence and bioaccumulation criteria, and with a long-range transport potential comparable to PCB. This list of 68 potential persistent organic pollutants contained many well-known compounds (all halogenated), but notably also five fluorinated compounds that were not included in the EINECS inventory. This study demonstrates the usability of in silico tools for identification of potentially environmentally hazardous chemicals. PMID:22386455

Öberg, Tomas; Iqbal, M Sarfraz

2012-05-01

426

Reach Scale Hydraulic Assessment of Instream Salmonid Habitat Restoration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the use of a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model (River2D) for an assessment of the effects of instream large woody debris and rock groyne habitat structures. The bathymetry of a study reach (a side channel of the Chilliwack River located in southwestern British Columbia) was surveyed after the installation of 11 instream restoration structures. A digital elevation model was developed and used with a hydrodynamic model to predict local velocity, depth, scour, and habitat characteristics. The channel was resurveyed after the fall high-flow season during which a bankfull event occurred. Pre-flood and post-flood bathymetry pool distributions were compared. Measured scour was compared to predicted shear and pre-flood and post-flood fish habitat indices for coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and steelhead trout (O. mykiss) were compared. Two-dimensional flow model velocity and depth predictions compare favorably to measured field values with mean standard errors of 24 percent and 6 percent, respectively, while areas of predicted high shear coincide with the newly formed pool locations. At high flows, the fish habitat index used (weighted usable area) increased by 150 percent to 210 percent. The application of the hydrodynamic model indicated a net habitat benefit from the restoration activities and provides a means of assessing and optimizing planned works.

Lacey, R. W. Jay; Millar, Robert G.

2004-12-01

427

Reaching men: at work and in social settings.  

PubMed

Targeting men with the message of AIDS prevention is vital because men are the major sexual decision makers in developing countries; reaching them at work and social settings is an effective way to intervene. Men who work as truckers, police, miners and other migrant workers, soldiers and seamen are highly mobile, spend time away from home and are likely to engage in high risk behavior. A targeted intervention operated by the African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF) with the assistance of AIDSTECH has trained peer educators, usually barmaids, bar owners and health workers, to talk to transport workers driving between Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and Zambia. Thousands of AIDS prevention posters, stickers and flyers, and 130,000 condoms per month have been distributed. KAP surveys have been conducted on the project by graduate students from University of Dar es Salaam. Condom distribution points were opened in offices of 2 major trucking companies, a fat in Tanzania where condoms are only supplied by medical outlets. AIDSTECH has also helped set up AIDS interventions for the Ghana Armed Forces, involving HIV testing, condom distribution and education. The military is a conducive milieu for communicating AIDS health messages because of the authoritarian structure. PMID:12316893

Robinson, E T

1991-06-01

428

Hypothesis: Origin of Life in Deep-Reaching Tectonic Faults  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The worldwide discussion on the origin of life encounters difficulties when it comes to estimate the conditions of the early earth and to define plausible environments for the development of the first complex organic molecules. Until now, the role of the earth's crust has been more or less ignored. In our opinion, deep-reaching open, interconnected tectonic fault systems may provide possible reaction habitats ranging from nano- to centimetre and even larger dimensions for the formation of prebiotic molecules. In addition to the presence of all necessary raw materials including phosphate, as well as variable pressure and temperature conditions, we suggest that supercritical CO2 as a nonpolar solvent could have played an important role. A hypothetical model for the origin of life is proposed which will be used to design crucial experiments for the model's verification. Because all proposed processes could still occur in tectonic faults at the present time, it may be possible to detect and analyse the formation of prebiotic molecules in order to assess the validity of the proposed hypothesis.

Schreiber, Ulrich; Locker-Grütjen, Oliver; Mayer, Christian

2012-02-01

429

Breakthrough capability for UVOIR space astronomy: reaching the darkest sky  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe how availability of new solar electric propulsion (SEP) technology can substantially increase the science capability of space astronomy missions working within the near-UV to far-infrared (UVOIR) spectrum by making dark sky orbits accessible for the first time. We present two case studies in which SEP is used to enable a 700 kg Explorer-class and 7000 kg flagship-class observatory payload to reach an orbit beyond where the zodiacal dust limits observatory sensitivity. The resulting scientific performance advantage relative to a Sun-Earth L2 point (SEL2) orbit is presented and discussed. We find that making SEP available to astrophysics Explorers can enable this small payload program to rival the science performance of much larger long development-time systems. Similarly, we find that astrophysics utilization of high power SEP being developed for the Asteroid Redirect Robotics Mission (ARRM) can have a substantial impact on the sensitivity performance of heavier flagship-class astrophysics payloads such as the UVOIR successor to the James Webb Space Telescope.

Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Benson, Scott W.; Englander, Jacob; Falck, Robert D.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Kruk, Jeffrey W.; Oleson, Steven R.; Thronson, Harley A.

2014-08-01

430

Lotic community responses in the Lees Ferry reach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Responses of periphyton, aquatic macrophytes, benthic macroinvertebrates, and rainbow trout to the 1996 controlled flood were investigated in the Lees Ferry tailwater reach below Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado River. Lotic biota differed spatially and temporally in abundance and distribution following recession of flood waters, and there was no evidence that the flood benefitted trout or lower trophic levels. The flood was associated with short-term changes in lower trophic levels, but benthic vegetation and macrofauna with low resistance were resilient. Adverse impacts of the flood on lower trophic levels were greater and more prolonged in depositional areas than on cobble bar habitat, but recovery occurred in both habitat types 4-8 months after the flood. The flood likely resulted in some downstream displacement of smaller fish but had no effects on catch rate or condition indices of trout. Percentage of young-of-the-year trout 8 months after the event indicates that the flood did not prevent successful spawning. The flood had little direct influence on diets of trout, but relative gut volume increased in the week after the event, remained high in summer, and composition changed seasonally. Amphipods (Gammarus lacustris), chironomids, and snails were predominant food items, and Gammarus generally were eaten more often and comprised greater relative volume in the diet than other macroinvertebrate taxa.

McKinney, T.; Rogers, R. S.; Ayers, A. D.; Persons, W. R.

431

Advanced REACH Tool: a Bayesian model for occupational exposure assessment.  

PubMed

This paper describes a Bayesian model for the assessment of inhalation exposures in an occupational setting; the methodology underpins a freely available web-based application for exposure assessment, the Advanced REACH Tool (ART). The ART is a higher tier exposure tool that combines disparate sources of information within a Bayesian statistical framework. The information is obtained from expert knowledge expressed in a calibrated mechanistic model of exposure assessment, data on inter- and intra-individual variability in exposures from the literature, and context-specific exposure measurements. The ART provides central estimates and credible intervals for different percentiles of the exposure distribution, for full-shift and long-term average exposures. The ART can produce exposure estimates in the absence of measurements, but the precision of the estimates improves as more data become available. The methodology presented in this paper is able to utilize partially analogous data, a novel approach designed to make efficient use of a sparsely populated measurement database although some additional research is still required before practical implementation. The methodology is demonstrated using two worked examples: an exposure to copper pyrithione in the spraying of antifouling paints and an exposure to ethyl acetate in shoe repair. PMID:24665110

McNally, Kevin; Warren, Nicholas; Fransman, Wouter; Entink, Rinke Klein; Schinkel, Jody; van Tongeren, Martie; Cherrie, John W; Kromhout, Hans; Schneider, Thomas; Tielemans, Erik

2014-06-01

432

Stepwise advancement versus maximum jumping with headgear activator.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare the effects of stepwise mandibular advancement versus maximum jumping and extended treatment versus early retention. The material was obtained prospectively and consisted of lateral cephalograms taken at the start (T0), after initial (T1), and at the end (T2) of treatment, from two groups of consecutively treated skeletal Class II patients who had undergone therapy with headgear activators. The first headgear activator group, HGA-S (n=24; mean age 11.9 +/- 1.2 years), was treated for 13 months and had 4-mm mandibular advancement every 3 months. The second headgear activator group, HGA-M (n=31; mean age 11.2 +/- 1.5 years), had maximum jumping, 6-8 mm interincisal opening, for a total of 15.4 months, and with reduced wear for the last 6.9 months. The dropout over 12 months was 41 and 46 per cent, respectively. Pre-treatment growth changes were obtained as a reference. An independent t-test was used to determine differences in baseline dentofacial morphology between the groups, a paired t-test for intra-group comparisons, and an independent t-test to evaluate differences between the groups. The results, in both groups, showed enhanced mandibular prognathism during the initial phase (T0-T1), followed by normal growth (T1-T2), and lower face height enhancement throughout treatment (T0-T2). For both groups, the mandibular plane and occlusal angle increased, possibly enhanced by 'extrusion' of the lower molars. For both groups, maxillary forward growth was restrained only during the initial phase, but the effect remained significant at T2 for the HGA-S group. In the HGA-M group, the lower incisors were protruded, while in the HGA-S group, they were unaffected. The findings indicate that both modes of mandibular jumping resulted in skeletal and dental effects. The length of active treatment seemed to be decisive in maintaining the treatment effects; stepwise advancement had less dental effects. PMID:17556729

Wey, Mang Chek; Bendeus, Margareta; Peng, Li; Hägg, Urban; Rabie, A Bakr M; Robinson, Wayne

2007-06-01

433

Maximum gravitational-wave energy emissible in magnetar flares  

SciTech Connect

Recent searches of gravitational-wave data raise the question of what maximum gravitational-wave energies could be emitted during gamma-ray flares of highly magnetized neutron stars (magnetars). The highest energies ({approx}10{sup 49} erg) predicted so far come from a model [K. Ioka, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 327, 639 (2001), http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001MNRAS.327..639I] in which the internal magnetic field of a magnetar experiences a global reconfiguration, changing the hydromagnetic equilibrium structure of the star and tapping the gravitational potential energy without changing the magnetic potential energy. The largest energies in this model assume very special conditions, including a large change in moment of inertia (which was observed in at most one flare), a very high internal magnetic field, and a very soft equation of state. Here we show that energies of 10{sup 48}-10{sup 49} erg are possible under more generic conditions by tapping the magnetic energy, and we note that similar energies may also be available through cracking of exotic solid cores. Current observational limits on gravitational waves from magnetar fundamental modes are just reaching these energies and will beat them in the era of advanced interferometers.

Corsi, Alessandra; Owen, Benjamin J. [LIGO Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 100-36, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Center for Gravitational Wave Physics, Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States) and Max Planck Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert Einstein Institut), Callinstr. 38, 30167 Hannover (Germany)

2011-05-15

434

Effect of Temperature on Growth of Vibrio paraphemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in Flounder, Salmon Sashimi and Oyster Meat  

PubMed Central

Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus are the major pathogenic Vibrio species which contaminate ready-to-eat seafood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk of human illness resulting from consumption of ready-to-eat seafood such as sashimi and raw oyster meat due to the presence of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus. We compared the growth kinetics of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus strains in broth and ready-to-eat seafood, including flounder and salmon sashimi, as a function of temperature. The growth kinetics of naturally occurring V. vulnificus in raw oyster meat was also evaluated. The minimum growth temperatures of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in broth were 13 °C and 11 °C, respectively. Overall, significant differences in lag time (LT) and specific growth rate (SGR) values between flounder and salmon sashimi were observed at temperatures ranging from 13 °C to 30 °C (p < 0.05). The growth of naturally occurring V. vulnificus reached stationary phase at ~4 log CFU/g in oysters, regardless of the storage temperature. This data indicates that the population of V. vulnificus in oysters did not reach the maximum population density as observed in the broth, where growth of V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus isolated from oysters grew up to >8 log CFU/mL. PMID:23330227

Kim, Yoo Won; Lee, Soon Ho; Hwang, In Gun; Yoon, Ki Sun

2012-01-01

435

Growth rates of the infaunal bivalve Soletellina alba (Lamarck, 1818) (Bivalvia: Psammobiidae) in an intermittent estuary of southern Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Caging and a mark-recapture design were used to estimate the growth rate of the brittle, infaunal bivalve Soletellina alba in the Hopkins River estuary. The growth of both caged and uncaged individuals was monitored at three sites near the mouth of the estuary over 180 days. Growth rates did not differ for caged and uncaged bivalves, or for bivalves subject to different amounts of handling, or between sites. Growth did differ between consecutive time intervals, which was attributable to negligible growth occurring during the colder months of autumn/winter. Comparisons of the condition (as indicated by total mass for length 3) of S. alba were inconsistent between sites for caged and uncaged bivalves and for those subject to different amounts of handling. Soletellina alba is a rapidly growing bivalve with mean growth rates for the three time intervals being 0.04±0.002 mm day-1 in summer, 0.02±0.001 mm day-1 in autumn and 0.03±0.001 mm day-1 from summer to winter. Using existing literature, it was shown that a significant relationship exists between maximum shell length and onset of sexual maturity in bivalve molluscs. This relationship predicts that S. alba should reach the onset of sexual maturity at 15.8 mm length. Therefore, it appears that it may be possible for juvenile S. alba (<1 mm) to grow, reach sexual maturity and reproduce in between annual mass-mortality events caused by winter flooding.

Matthews, Ty G.; Fairweather, Peter G.

2003-12-01

436

Upper Branch, Energy Maximum, and Ferromagnetism in Strongly Interacting Fermi Gases  

E-print Network

We present a new theoretical description of the upper branch of an atomic Fermi gas across a Feshbach resonance and apply it to study the possibility of itinerant ferromagnetism. The interaction energy is obtained by summing the perturbative contributions of the Galitskii-Feynman type to all orders in the gas parameter $g$. It can be expressed by a simple phase space integral of the in-medium scattering phase shift, which naturally includes solely the scattering part of the many-body energy spectrum. In both 3D and 2D, the interaction energy shows a maximum before reaching the resonance from the $g>0$ side. This phenomenon can be clearly explained by the qualitative change of the nature of the binary interaction in medium. In 3D, the in-medium binary interaction becomes attractive at low energy for large positive $g$ and a sharp energy maximum appears. In 2D, the in-medium binary interaction is always attractive for all values of $g$ and the energy maximum becomes much flatter, consistent with recent experimental measurement. The appearance of an energy maximum has significant effects on the itinerant ferromagnetism. In 3D, the ferromagnetic transition is reentrant and ferromagnetism exists in a narrow window around the energy maximum. In 2D, itinerant ferromagnetism is ruled out, which reflects the fact that the energy maximum in 2D becomes much lower the the energy of the fully polarized state.

Lianyi He

2014-05-20

437

Diffusivity Maximum in a Reentrant Nematic Phase  

PubMed Central

We report molecular dynamics simulations of confined liquid crystals using the Gay–Berne–Kihara model. Upon isobaric cooling, the standard sequence of isotropic–nematic–smectic A phase transitions is found. Upon further cooling a reentrant nematic phase occurs. We investigate the temperature dependence of the self-diffusion coefficient of the fluid in the nematic, smectic and reentrant nematic phases. We find a maximum in diffusivity upon isobaric cooling. Diffusion increases dramatically in the reentrant phase due to the high orientational molecular order. As the temperature is lowered, the diffusion coefficient follows an Arrhenius behavior. The activation energy of the reentrant phase is found in reasonable agreement with the reported experimental data. We discuss how repulsive interactions may be the underlying mechanism that could explain the occurrence of reentrant nematic behavior for polar and non-polar molecules. PMID:22837730

Stieger, Tillmann; Mazza, Marco G.; Schoen, Martin

2012-01-01

438

Distributed Maximum Likelihood Sensor Network Localization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a class of convex relaxations to solve the sensor network localization problem, based on a maximum likelihood (ML) formulation. This class, as well as the tightness of the relaxations, depends on the noise probability density function (PDF) of the collected measurements. We derive a computational efficient edge-based version of this ML convex relaxation class and we design a distributed algorithm that enables the sensor nodes to solve these edge-based convex programs locally by communicating only with their close neighbors. This algorithm relies on the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM), it converges to the centralized solution, it can run asynchronously, and it is computation error-resilient. Finally, we compare our proposed distributed scheme with other available methods, both analytically and numerically, and we argue the added value of ADMM, especially for large-scale networks.

Simonetto, Andrea; Leus, Geert

2014-03-01

439

On Using Unsatisfiability for Solving Maximum Satisfiability  

E-print Network

Maximum Satisfiability (MaxSAT) is a well-known optimization pro- blem, with several practical applications. The most widely known MAXS AT algorithms are ineffective at solving hard problems instances from practical application domains. Recent work proposed using efficient Boolean Satisfiability (SAT) solvers for solving the MaxSAT problem, based on identifying and eliminating unsatisfiable subformulas. However, these algorithms do not scale in practice. This paper analyzes existing MaxSAT algorithms based on unsatisfiable subformula identification. Moreover, the paper proposes a number of key optimizations to these MaxSAT algorithms and a new alternative algorithm. The proposed optimizations and the new algorithm provide significant performance improvements on MaxSAT instances from practical applications. Moreover, the efficiency of the new generation of unsatisfiability-based MaxSAT solvers becomes effectively indexed to the ability of modern SAT solvers to proving unsatisfiability and identifying unsatisfi...

Marques-Silva, Joao

2007-01-01

440

On the Maximum Separation of Visual Binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, an efficient algorithm is established for computing the maximum (minimum) angular separation ? max( ? min), the corresponding apparent position angles (?|_{?_max}, ?|_{?_min}) and the individual masses of visual binary systems. The algorithm uses Reed's formulae (1984) for the masses, and a technique of one-dimensional unconstrained minimization, together with the solution of Kepler's equation for (?_max, ?|_{?_max}) and (?_min, ?|_{?_min}). Iterative schemes of quadratic coverage up to any positive integer order are developed for the solution of Kepler's equation. A sample of 110 systems is selected from the Sixth Catalog of Orbits (Hartkopf et al. 2001). Numerical studies are included and some important results are as follows: (1) there is no dependence between ? max and the spectral type and (2) a minor modification of Giannuzzi's (1989) formula for the upper limits of ? max functions of spectral type of the primary.

Nouh, M. I.; Sharaf, M. A.

2012-12-01

441

Maximum entropy model for business cycle synchronization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global economy is a complex dynamical system, whose cyclical fluctuations can mainly be characterized by simultaneous recessions or expansions of major economies. Thus, the researches on the synchronization phenomenon are key to understanding and controlling the dynamics of the global economy. Based on a pairwise maximum entropy model, we analyze the business cycle synchronization of the G7 economic system. We obtain a pairwise-interaction network, which exhibits certain clustering structure and accounts for 45% of the entire structure of the interactions within the G7 system. We also find that the pairwise interactions become increasingly inadequate in capturing the synchronization as the size of economic system grows. Thus, higher-order interactions must be taken into account when investigating behaviors of large economic systems.

Xi, Ning; Muneepeerakul, Rachata; Azaele, Sandro; Wang, Yougui

2014-11-01

442

The 1988 Solar Maximum Mission event list  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information on solar burst and transient activity observed by the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) during 1988 pointed observations is presented. Data from the following SMM experiments are included: (1) gamma ray spectrometer; (2) hard x ray burst spectrometer; (3) flat crystal spectrometers; (4) bent crystal spectrometer; (5) ultraviolet spectrometer polarimeter; and (6) coronagraph/polarimeter. Correlative optical, radio, and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) x ray data are also presented. Where possible, bursts, or transients observed in the various wavelengths were grouped into discrete flare events identified by unique event numbers. Each event carries a qualifier denoting the quality or completeness of the observation. Spacecraft pointing coordinates and flare site angular displacement values from sun center are also included.

Dennis, B. R.; Licata, J. P.; Tolbert, A. K.

1992-01-01

443

Maximum Information and Quantum Prediction Algorithms  

E-print Network

This paper describes an algorithm for selecting a consistent set within the consistent histories approach to quantum mechanics and investigates its properties. The algorithm uses a maximum information principle to select from among the consistent sets formed by projections defined by the Schmidt decomposition. The algorithm unconditionally predicts the possible events in closed quantum systems and ascribes probabilities to these events. A simple spin model is described and a complete classification of all exactly consistent sets of histories formed from Schmidt projections in the model is proved. This result is used to show that for this example the algorithm selects a physically realistic set. Other tentative suggestions in the literature for set selection algorithms using ideas from information theory are discussed.

Jim McElwaine

1996-11-28

444

Approximate maximum likelihood decoding of block codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Approximate maximum likelihood decoding algorithms, based upon selecting a small set of candidate code words with the aid of the estimated probability of error of each received symbol, can give performance close to optimum with a reasonable amount of computation. By combining the best features of various algorithms and taking care to perform each step as efficiently as possible, a decoding scheme was developed which can decode codes which have better performance than those presently in use and yet not require an unreasonable amount of computation. The discussion of the details and tradeoffs of presently known efficient optimum and near optimum decoding algorithms leads, naturally, to the one which embodies the best features of all of them.

Greenberger, H. J.

1979-01-01

445

CLASSY: An adaptive maximum likelihood clustering algorithm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The CLASSY clustering method alternates maximum likelihood iterative techniques for estimating the parameters of a mixture distribution with an adaptive procedure for splitting, combining, and eliminating the resultant components of the mixture. The adaptive procedure is based on maximizing the fit of a mixture of multivariate normal distributions to the observed data using its first through fourth central moments. It generates estimates of the number of multivariate normal components in the mixture as well as the proportion, mean vector, and covariance matrix for each component. The basic mathematical model for CLASSY and the actual operation of the algorithm as currently implemented are described. Results of applying CLASSY to real and simulated LANDSAT data are presented and compared with those generated by the iterative self-organizing clustering system algorithm on the same data sets.

Lennington, R. K.; Rassbach, M. E. (principal investigators)

1979-01-01

446

The worst case complexity of maximum parsimony.  

PubMed

Abstract One of the core classical problems in computational biology is that of constructing the most parsimonious phylogenetic tree interpreting an input set of sequences from the genomes of evolutionarily related organisms. We reexamine the classical maximum parsimony (MP) optimization problem for the general (asymmetric) scoring matrix case, where rooted phylogenies are implied, and analyze the worst case bounds of three approaches to MP: The approach of Cavalli-Sforza and Edwards, the approach of Hendy and Penny, and a new agglomerative, "bottom-up" approach we present in this article. We show that the second and third approaches are faster than the first one by a factor of [Formula: see text] and ?(n), respectively, where n is the number of species. PMID:25302568

Carmel, Amir; Musa-Lempel, Noa; Tsur, Dekel; Ziv-Ukelson, Michal

2014-11-01

447

Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Airborne Contaminants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The enclosed table lists official spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs), which are guideline values set by the NASA/JSC Toxicology Group in cooperation with the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology (NRCCOT). These values should not be used for situations other than human space flight without careful consideration of the criteria used to set each value. The SMACs take into account a number of unique factors such as the effect of space-flight stress on human physiology, the uniform good health of the astronauts, and the absence of pregnant or very young individuals. Documentation of the values is given in a 5 volume series of books entitled "Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants" published by the National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. These books can be viewed electronically at http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=9786&page=3. Short-term (1 and 24 hour) SMACs are set to manage accidental releases aboard a spacecraft and permit risk of minor, reversible effects such as mild mucosal irritation. In contrast, the long-term SMACs are set to fully protect healthy crewmembers from adverse effects resulting from continuous exposure to specific air pollutants for up to 1000 days. Crewmembers with allergies or unusual sensitivity to trace pollutants may not be afforded complete protection, even when long-term SMACs are not exceeded. Crewmember exposures involve a mixture of contaminants, each at a specific concentration (C(sub n)). These contaminants could interact to elicit symptoms of toxicity even though individual contaminants do not exceed their respective SMACs. The air quality is considered acceptable when the toxicity index (T(sub grp)) for each toxicological group of compounds is less than 1, where T(sub grp), is calculated as follows: T(sub grp) = C(sub 1)/SMAC(sub 1) + C(sub 2/SMAC(sub 2) + ...+C(sub n)/SMAC(sub n).

James, John T.

2008-01-01

448

ILP-based maximum likelihood genome scaffolding  

PubMed Central

Background Interest in de novo genome assembly has been renewed in the past decade due to rapid advances in high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies which generate relatively short reads resulting in highly fragmented assemblies consisting of contigs. Additional long-range linkage information is typically used to orient, order, and link contigs into larger structures referred to as scaffolds. Due to library preparation artifacts and erroneous mapping of reads originating from repeats, scaffolding remains a challenging problem. In this paper, we provide a scalable scaffolding algorithm (SILP2) employing a maximum likelihood model capturing read mapping uncertainty and/or non-uniformity of contig coverage which is solved using integer linear programming. A Non-Serial Dynamic Programming (NSDP) paradigm is applied to render our algorithm useful in the processing of larger mammalian genomes. To compare scaffolding tools, we employ novel quantitative metrics in addition to the extant metrics in the field. We have also expanded the set of experiments to include scaffolding of low-complexity metagenomic samples. Results SILP2 achieves better scalability throughg a more efficient NSDP algorithm than previous release of SILP. The results show that SILP2 compares favorably to previous methods OPERA and MIP in both scalability and accuracy for scaffolding single genomes of up to human size, and significantly outperforms them on scaffolding low-complexity metagenomic samples. Conclusions Equipped with NSDP, SILP2 is able to scaffold large mammalian genomes, resulting in the longest and most accurate scaffolds. The ILP formulation for the maximum likelihood model is shown to be flexible enough to handle metagenomic samples. PMID:25253180

2014-01-01

449

Early maximum extent of paleoglaciers from Mediterranean mountains during the last glaciation.  

PubMed

Mountain glaciers respond directly to changes in precipitation and temperature, thus their margin extent is a high-sensitivity climate proxy. Here, we present a robust (10)Be chronology for the glacier maximum areal extent of central Spain paleoglaciers dated at 26.1 ± 1.3?ka BP. These glaciers reached their maximum extent several thousand years earlier than those from central Europe due to the increased precipitation within a cold period between 25 to 29?ka BP, as confirmed by a local speleothem record. These paleoclimate conditions impacted the maximum extent of mountain glaciers along the western and central Mediterranean region. The cause and timing of the enhanced precipitation implies a southward shift of the North Atlantic Polar Front followed by storm tracks in response to changes in insolation via orbital parameters modulation. Thus, these mountain paleoglaciers from the Mediterranean region record an ocean-continent climate interaction triggered by external forcing. PMID:23783658

Domínguez-Villar, D; Carrasco, R M; Pedraza, J; Cheng, H; Edwards, R L; Willenbring, J K

2013-01-01

450

Early maximum extent of paleoglaciers from Mediterranean mountains during the last glaciation  

PubMed Central

Mountain glaciers respond directly to changes in precipitation and temperature, thus their margin extent is a high-sensitivity climate proxy. Here, we present a robust 10Be chronology for the glacier maximum areal extent of central Spain paleoglaciers dated at 26.1 ± 1.3?ka BP. These glaciers reached their maximum extent several thousand years earlier than those from central Europe due to the increased precipitation within a cold period between 25 to 29?ka BP, as confirmed by a local speleothem record. These paleoclimate conditions impacted the maximum extent of mountain glaciers along the western and central Mediterranean region. The cause and timing of the enhanced precipitation implies a southward shift of the North Atlantic Polar Front followed by storm tracks in response to changes in insolation via orbital parameters modulation. Thus, these mountain paleoglaciers from the Mediterranean region record an ocean-continent climate interaction triggered by external forcing. PMID:23783658

Dominguez-Villar, D.; Carrasco, R. M.; Pedraza, J.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R. L.; Willenbring, J. K.

2013-01-01

451

WINNERSS - Reaching a broad audience from an academic institution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Wisconsin Idea National Network - Education and Research in Space Sciences: Our Home in the Universe" is a Thematic Outreach Program from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. WINNERSS addresses the main current and future research topics in space sciences - origins of the universe, beginning(s) of life in the universe, the abitability of our home planet. These themes have origins in what we have learned in the age of space exploration and bring together the diverse disciplines of physics, astronomy, astrophysics, geology and geophysics, chemistry, atmospheric science, oceanography, astrobiology - or collectively, the space sciences. This has come about through evolution of our knowledge and our understanding of the role of different processes that have shaped our environment. These include the asteroid impacts on the earth and in our solar system, the discovery of possible microbial of life in Martian rocks that came to earth as meteorites, the discovery of planetary systems around other stars. At the same time, there has been a significant evolution in our knowledge and understanding of the universe and the fragility of the environment on our home planet. The sustainability and global environment are highlighted by global change processes such as weather extremes, "ozone hole", and concerns about the global warming illustrated by events such as the break-up of Antarctic icebergs the size of Rhode sland. Following the long tradition of the Wisconsin Idea, WINNERSS will strive to highlight research in these and related topics through Informal Science Education, K-12 programs and teacher development in space sciences. Broad geographic reach is enabled through the alumni clubs and the UW-Madison Speakers Bureau. WINNERSS is funded by the Wisconin Idea Program of the University of Wisconsin and is being implemented in collaboration with the Wisconsin Alumni Association, and the following components of the University of Wisconsin-Madison: the Graduate School, College of Letters and Science and the Office of Education Outreach of the School of Education.

Limaye, S. S.; Pertzborn, R. A.

2001-12-01

452

An EVA Suit Fatigue, Strength, and Reach Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The number of Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVAs) performed will increase dramatically with the upcoming Space Station assembly missions. It is estimated that up to 900 EVA hours may be required to assemble the Space Station with an additional 200 hours per year for maintenance requirements. Efficient modeling tools will be essential to assist in planning these EVAS. Important components include strength and fatigue parameters, multi-body dynamics and kinematics. This project is focused on building a model of the EVA crew member encompassing all these capabilities. Phase 1, which is currently underway, involves collecting EMU suited and unsuited fatigue, strength and range of motion data, for all major joints of the body. Phase 2 involves processing the data for model input, formulating comparisons between the EMU suits and deriving generalized relationships between suited and unsuited data. Phase 3 will be formulation of a multi-body dynamics model of the EMU capable of predicting mass handling properties and integration of empirical data into the model. Phase 4 will be validation of the model with collected EMU data from the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory at NASA/JSC. Engineers and designers will use tie EVA suit database to better understand the capabilities of the suited individuals. This knowledge will lead to better design of tools and planned operations. Mission planners can use the modeling system and view the animations and the visualizations of the various parameters, such as overall fatigue, motion, timelines, reach, and strength to streamline the timing, duration, task arrangement, personnel and overall efficiency of the EVA tasks. Suit designers can use quantifiable data at common biomechanical structure points to better analyze and compare suit performance.

Maida, James C.

1999-01-01

453

Reach on laser imaging technology to terminal guidance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of range-imaging devices is motivated by various ground and space applications. Tasks in space missions include docking, rendezvous, manipulating robotic arms, landing and autonomous rover applications, sample identification and surface mapping. The ground applications include the guidance of vehicles, robotic and manipulator arms, and other autonomous or teleoperated machines, as well as surface or construction model generation. Without the scanner devices, scannerless imaging lidars have the characteristic of high frame rate, wide field of view and high reliability,which can be successful used in terminal guidance. Diode pumped laser radar with high repetition rate is studied in this paper. A bistatic system is set up and a high speed signal processor for the system is researched. In a conceptual sense, the imaging lidar has two parts, a transmitter and a receiver. Their field of views overlap throughout the measuring range.The imaging lidar operates as follows. Based on principle of pulsed time-of-flight (TOF) laser range finding, the solid-state laser diode-pumped laser produces short laser pulses, which though the expanded lens, then reach the target. The back reflected light is collected with a receiver lens and fed through optical fibres to discrete avalanche photo diodes (APDs). When a received pulse is detected by the comparator a time to digital converter (TDC) stops counting and a time interval, corresponding to the range, is produced. The precision of a single measurement is about +/-4.0cm, but better precision is achieved by averaging. Information about the reflectivity of the target is gathered by recording the amplitude of the received pulse. Range images with the lidar prototype were taken indoors, the measuring distance was about 14m.

Tan, Xue-chun; Jin, Guang-yong; Wu, Zhi-chao; Ling, Ming; Liang, Zhu

2009-07-01

454

Transport pathways in the lower reaches of Hood Canal  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2003, studies revealed that the waters in the lower reaches of Hood Canal in Washington State had very low dissolved-oxygen concentrations, low enough to cause some fish kills between June and October of that year. In order to determine the transport patterns and the persistence of the low oxygen level in this portion of the canal, the U. S. Geological Survey deployed two instrumented platforms on the seabed near the head of the canal that measured currents over the whole water column, water level, near-bed temperature, salinity and oxygen for 2 months in the fall of 2004. Tidal currents, the dominant current component in the canal, flowed primarily along the canal axis and had speeds of 15-20 cm/s. There was also a persistent internal seiche that caused currents to flow along the canal axis with speeds of a few cm/s. The seiche, which had a period of a few days, caused currents in the surface layer to flow in an opposite direction to currents in water depths deeper than 15 m. A pool of warmer, saltier and more oxygenated water moved past the measurement sites toward the head of the canal with a speed of 1 cm/s. CTD measurements taken near the 2 measurement sites during the deployment indicated that this more oxygenated layer of water extended from the bed to the thermocline. Oxygen data from the tripods showed that this water remained in the region until at least the end of October 2004, when the tripods were recovered.

Noble, Marlene A.; Gartner, Anne L.; Paulson, Anthony J.; Xu, Jingping; Josberger, Edward G.; Curran, Christopher

2006-01-01

455

What can be learnt from an ecotoxicity database in the framework of the REACh regulation?  

PubMed

Since REACh applies in all of EU, special emphasis has been put on the reduction of systematic ecotoxicity testing. In this context, it is important to extract a maximum of information from existing ecotoxicity databases in order to propose alternative methods aimed at replacing and reducing experimental testing. Consequently, we analyzed a database of new chemicals registered in France and Europe during the last twenty years reporting aquatic ecotoxicity data with respect to three trophic levels (i.e., Algae EC50 72 h, Daphnia EC50 48 h and Fish LC50 96 h). In order to ensure the relevance of the comparison between these three experimental tests, we performed a stringent data selection based on the pertinence and quality of available ecotoxicological information. At the end of this selection, less than 5% of the initial number of chemicals was retained for subsequent analysis. Such an analysis showed that fish was the least sensitive trophic level, whereas Daphnia had the highest sensitivity. Moreover, thanks to an analysis of the relative sensitivity of trophic levels, it was possible to establish that respective correction factors of 50 and 10 would be necessary if only one or two test values were available. From a physicochemical point of view, it was possible to characterize two significant correlations relating the sensitivity of the aforementioned trophic levels with the chemical structure of the retained substances. This analysis showed that algae displayed a higher sensitivity towards chemicals containing acid fragments whereas fish presented a higher sensitivity towards chemicals containing aromatic ether fragments. Overall, our work suggests that statistical analysis of historical data combined with data yielded by the REACh regulation should permit the derivation of robust safety factors, testing strategies and mathematical models. These alternative methods, in turn, could allow a replacement and reduction of ecotoxicological testing. PMID:21093016

Henegar, Adina; Mombelli, Enrico; Pandard, Pascal; Péry, Alexandre R R

2011-01-01

456

Application of multi-objective technique in modeling water and sediment flow in river reaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Usually water resources problems consist of multiple objectives that may be conflicting and competing in nature. To evaluate optimal water resources system performances often it is required to obtain a compromise solution satisfying several goals and objectives. For example, in the case of multipurpose reservoir operations, a number of conflicting and competing purposes such as supply of water for conservation uses, downstream flood control, hydropower generation and related environmental objectives are to be optimally satisfied. It may be noted that for deriving maximum benefit from conservation uses reservoir storage should be as high as possible; on the other hand to achieve maximum flood control benefits the storage should be kept as low as possible. Since flood control and conservation objectives are conflicting in nature, higher achievement in flood control objective results in lower attainment of the conservation objectives. In other areas of water resources such as, rainfall runoff modeling, water quality problems, watershed management etc often a number of objectives are required to be satisfied to derive optimal system performances. It is known that one prominent cause of soil erosion and runoff generation from a catchment is related to the effect of rainfall over the catchment and thus water and the sediment discharge at a river station are mainly depended on rainfall and the catchment characteristics. Water and sediment discharge for a river section can be considered as two outputs due to a rainfall input over the catchment. To describe sediment and water flow through river reaches usually separate models are used and the model parameters are estimated using single/multiple optimization routines. Since water and sediment flow are effects with a common cause, a new model can be obtained that can quantify and explain both the effects that is, flow of sediment and water in a river course. In the present study, application of multiple objective optimization technique has described in obtaining parameters of the integrated water-sediment flow model. The integrated model needs to be calibrated using both water and sediment data for a river reach and requires separate objective functions to independently match water and sediment flow variations for a station. The integrated model describing two hydrological variables is highly nonlinear with exponential model form and requires efficient algorithm to identify model parameters. Multiple objectives were framed to calibrate the model using water and sediment data and the model parameters were estimated applying non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II). The proposed model formulations are demonstrated for simulating suspended sediment load and water discharge in the Mississippi River Basin, USA. Results obtained show that an integrated model having multiple objectives can be developed to describe two hydrological variables with satisfactory performances.

Sil, Briti Sundar; Choudhury, Parthasarathi

2010-10-01

457

Solar neutron observations during the coming solar maximum: a plan on the Japan-China collaborative project.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutrons are sometimes released from solar flares accompanied by generation of high energy protons and other nuclei and some of them occasionally reach the earth before they decay radio-actively. A review is given on the Japan-China collaborative program on the ground-based observations of these neutrons for the coming solar maximum, though there still remain obstacles to be resolved.

Sakurai, K.

458

Evaluation of the Validity of a Maximum Likelihood Adaptive Staircase Procedure for Measurement of Olfactory Detection Threshold in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Threshold is defined as the stimulus intensity necessary for a subject to reach a specified percent correct on a detection test. MLPEST (maximum likelihood parameter estimation by sequential testing) is a method that is able to determine threshold accurately and more rapidly than many other methods. Originally developed for human auditory and visual tasks, it has been adapted for human

Amy C. Clevenger; Diego Restrepo

2006-01-01

459

Work Element B: 157. Sampling in Fish-Bearing Reaches [Variation in Productivity in Headwater Reaches of the Wenatchee Subbasin], Final Report for PNW Research Station.  

SciTech Connect

We studied variation in productivity in headwater reaches of the Wenatchee subbasin for multiple field seasons with the objective that we could develop methods for monitoring headwater stream conditions at the subcatchment and stream levels, assign a landscape-scale context via the effects of geoclimatic parameters on biological productivity (macroinvertebrates and fish) and use this information to identify how variability in productivity measured in fishless headwaters is transmitted to fish communities in downstream habitats. In 2008, we addressed this final objective. In collaboration with the University of Alaska Fairbanks we found some broad differences in the production of aquatic macroinvertebrates and in fish abundance across categories that combine the effects of climate and management intensity within the subbasin (ecoregions). From a monitoring standpoint, production of benthic macroinvertebrates was not a good predictor of drifting macroinvertebrates and therefore might be a poor predictor of food resources available to fish. Indeed, there is occasionally a correlation between drifting macroinvertebrate abundance and fish abundance which suggests that headwater-derived resources are important. However, fish in the headwaters appeared to be strongly food-limited and there was no evidence that fishless headwaters provided a consistent subsidy to fish in reaches downstream. Fish abundance and population dynamics in first order headwaters may be linked with similar metrics further down the watershed. The relative strength of local dynamics and inputs into productivity may be constrained or augmented by large-scale biogeoclimatic control. Headwater streams are nested within watersheds, which are in turn nested within ecological subregions; thus, we hypothesized that local effects would not necessarily be mutually exclusive from large-scale influence. To test this we examined the density of primarily salmonid fishes at several spatial and temporal scales within a major sub-basin of the Columbia River and associations of density with ecoregion and individuals drainages within the sub-basin. We further examined habitat metrics that show positive associations with fish abundance to see if these relationships varied at larger spatial scales. We examined the extent to which headwater fish density and temporal variation in density were correlated between the headwaters and the main tributaries of the sub-basin, and the influence of ecoregion influence on density differences, particularly at wider temporal scales. Finally, we examined demographic parameters such as growth and emigration to determine whether density-dependence differs among ecoregions or whether responses were more strongly influenced by the demography of the local fish population.

Polivka, Karl; Bennett, Rita L. [USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Wenatchee, WA

2009-03-31

460

The Optimal Mix of TV and Online Ads to Maximize Reach  

E-print Network

The Optimal Mix of TV and Online Ads to Maximize Reach Yuxue Jin, Georg M. Goerg, Nicolas Remy, Jim allocate budget between TV and online ads in order to maximize reach or maintain the same reach at a lower budget allocation between TV and online ads to maximize reach to the target demographics. We take

Tomkins, Andrew