Science.gov

Sample records for reached practical results

  1. [Reaching Target Groups--Shaping Accessibility. Results of a Survey Among Experts on Recommendations for Science and Practice].

    PubMed

    Jahn, I; Gansefort, D; Lehmann, F; Walter, U; Brand, T

    2015-09-01

    In an online survey, in which 18 experts participated, recommendations for research and practice to improve access to target groups were discussed. The recommendations were developed within the context of the KNP project. For the implementation of the recommendations, not only is an increased cooperation between science and practice particularly important, but also materials and training as well as standardization of methods. Furthermore, financial resources, especially for conducting evaluation studies are needed. PMID:26406533

  2. Aiming for Accountability: Oregon. Reaching Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Priscilla

    Interest is growing in planning and implementing new systems of holding child and family services accountable for results. The Results-Based Accountability (RBA) Project at the Harvard Family Research Project (HFRP) has supported and built upon recent state efforts to develop these new accountability systems for child and family services. The RBA…

  3. Aiming for Accountability: Florida. Reaching Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsch, Karen

    Interest is growing in planning and implementing new systems of holding child and family services accountable for results. The Results-Based Accountability (RBA) Project at the Harvard Family Research Project (HFRP) has supported and built upon recent state efforts to develop these new accountability systems for child and family services. The RBA…

  4. Aiming for Accountability: Iowa. Reaching Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Priscilla

    Interest is growing in planning and implementing new systems of holding child and family services accountable for results. The Results-Based Accountability (RBA) Project at the Harvard Family Research Project (HFRP) has supported and built upon recent state efforts to develop these new accountability systems for child and family services. The RBA…

  5. Aiming for Accountability: Ohio. Reaching Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilder, Diane

    Interest is growing in planning and implementing new systems of holding child and family services accountable for results. The Results-Based Accountability (RBA) Project at the Harvard Family Research Project (HFRP) has supported and built upon recent state efforts to develop these new accountability systems for child and family services. The RBA…

  6. Aiming for Accountability: North Carolina. Reaching Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsch, Karen

    Interest is growing in planning and implementing new systems of holding child and family services accountable for results. The Results-Based Accountability (RBA) Project at the Harvard Family Research Project (HFRP) has supported and built upon recent state efforts to develop these new accountability systems for child and family services. The RBA…

  7. Aiming for Accountability: Minnesota. Reaching Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilder, Diane

    Interest is growing in planning and implementing new systems of holding child and family services accountable for results. The Results-Based Accountability (RBA) Project at the Harvard Family Research Project (HFRP) has supported and built upon recent state efforts to develop these new accountability systems for child and family services. The RBA…

  8. Aiming for Accountability: Georgia. Reaching Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilder, Diane

    Interest is growing in planning and implementing new systems of holding child and family services accountable for results. The Results-Based Accountability (RBA) Project at the Harvard Family Research Project (HFRP) has supported and built upon recent state efforts to develop these new accountability systems for child and family services. The RBA…

  9. Aiming for Accountability: Vermont. Reaching Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsch, Karen

    Interest is growing in planning and implementing new systems of holding child and family services accountable for results. The Results-Based Accountability (RBA) Project at the Harvard Family Research Project (HFRP) has supported and built upon recent state efforts to develop these new accountability systems for child and family services. The RBA…

  10. Teacher Evaluation in Practice: Implementing Chicago's REACH Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sporte, Susan E.; Stevens, W. David; Healey, Kaleen; Jiang, Jennie; Hart, Holly

    2013-01-01

    This report focuses on the perceptions and experiences of teachers and administrators during the first year of REACH implementation, which was in many ways a particularly demanding year. These experiences can be helpful to Chicago Public Schools (CPS) and to other districts across the country as they work to restructure and transform teacher…

  11. Reaching Boys: An International Study of Effective Teaching Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichert, Michael; Hawley, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Despite a continuing stream of concern on the part of researchers, demographers, and cultural pundits about a crisis in boys' social development and schooling, surprisingly little attention has been paid to what is perhaps the richest pool of data: current, observable teaching practices that clearly work with boys. In schools of all types in all…

  12. Global Reach and Local Practice: The Promise of MOOCs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin-Jones, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Robert Goodwin-Jones opens his discussion with the thought "If you want to attract attention to a new online course, the foolproof strategy today is to label it a MOOC, a massive open online course." The hype surrounding MOOCs has resulted in substantial interest--from the general public to university presidents--in online learning, as…

  13. Preparing Every Teacher to Reach English Learners: A Practical Guide for Teacher Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutta, Joyce W., Ed.; Mokhtari, Kouider, Ed.; Strebel, Carine, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Preparing Every Teacher to Reach English Learners" presents a practical, flexible model for infusing English learner (EL) instruction into teacher education courses. The editors outline the key steps involved in this approach--winning faculty support, assessing needs, and developing capacity--and share strategies for avoiding pitfalls. The…

  14. Taking a Multi-pronged Approach to Expand the Reach of Climate Research Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauser, R.; Unger, M.; Eastburn, T.; Rockwell, A.; Laursen, K. K.; National CenterAtmospheric Research

    2011-12-01

    Recognizing the importance of tailoring content to a variety of audiences, the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) takes a multi-pronged approach to expand the reach of climate research results. The center's communications and education and outreach teams leverage Web 1.0 and 2.0 functionality - Google searches, Twitter, Facebook, YouTube - as well as face-to-face interactions and traditional media outlets to ensure climate change messages effectively connect with multiple audiences. Key to these efforts, NCAR seeks to frame messages that emphasize cultural cognition, that is, in a manner that recognizes and resonates with different audiences' values and thus their identities. Among the basic communications approaches NCAR uses to engage the public are one-on-one interactions with the visiting public, which ranges from school children and tourists, to dignitaries and journalists. As an example, the NCAR Journalism Fellowship brings a competitively selected group of internatoinal journalists to NCAR. During a week-long visit and ongoing contact, journalists are provided with a close-up, nuanced view of the science and individuals working on the bigger-picture research that drives climate-related sound bites reported by the press. NCAR provides media training for its scientists, giving them tools and practice in effectively handling interviews for print, Web and radio outlets. The institution hosts public events like "Super Science Saturday," and NCAR staff participate in external activities such as school science fairs, community events and continuing education sessions. In addition to interactive displays that allow the public to "experience" science directly and informally, NCAR develops educational programs and curricula targeted to specific age groups and levels of expertise. We will explore the importance of analogies, images and anecdotes in explaining complicated subjects to such a varied set of audiences, and identify key concepts in simplifying

  15. Reaching out for patients: public relations and events with real results.

    PubMed

    Kuechel, Marie Czenko

    2010-02-01

    In today's market, the aesthetic physician needs to connect with patients using methods that are personal, educational, and that will glean the interest of prospective patients whose attention and dollars are sought by countless facial plastic surgery competitors near and far. Public relations, or reaching your prospective patient without a direct solicitation (advertising) for services, are traditional means that include media relations and charitable and social events. With the added component of social media, today the opportunities to reach out for new patients and garner real results are more varied and more affordable than ever before. PMID:20094963

  16. Promoting early literacy in pediatric practice: twenty years of reach out and read.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, Barry

    2009-12-01

    Reach Out and Read (ROR) is the first pediatric, evidence-based strategy to prevent problems of early childhood development and learning. With a start in a single clinic in Boston City Hospital in 1989, doctors working in >4000 clinics and practices gave approximately 5.7 million new books to >3.5 million children in all 50 states in 2008. ROR also has become a model for a different way of thinking about parent education during primary care encounters, based less on telling and more on creating real-time learning experiences. ROR flourished because of (1) the growth of pediatric interest in child development, (2) local leadership of pediatric champions as well as nonmedical supporters, coordinators, and volunteers, (3) evidence of effectiveness, and (4) public financial support attributable to strong bipartisan support in Congress, led by Senator Edward Kennedy. Since ROR started, an increasing amount of research confirms the importance of reading aloud for the development of language and other emergent literacy skills, which in turn helps children get ready for school and leads to later success in reading. Future goals include continued growth until all low-income children are reached with pediatric advice and books, a national campaign led by physicians encouraging all parents to read to their children every day, additional evidence-based, parent information to increase the effectiveness of parents reading to children, quality-improvement efforts to achieve the full potential, and global expansion. PMID:19917584

  17. Numerical model of the lowermost Mississippi River as an alluvial-bedrock reach: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viparelli, E.; Nittrouer, J. A.; Mohrig, D. C.; Parker, G.

    2012-12-01

    Recent field studies reveal that the river bed of the Lower Mississippi River is characterized by a transition from alluvium (upstream) to bedrock (downstream). In particular, in the downstream 250 km of the river, fields of actively migrating bedforms alternate with deep zones where a consolidated substratum is exposed. Here we present a first version of a one-dimensional numerical model able to capture the alluvial-bedrock transition in the lowermost Mississippi River, defined herein as the 500-km reach between the Old River Control Structure and the Gulf of Mexico. The flow is assumed to be steady, and the cross-section is divided in two regions, the river channel and the floodplain. The streamwise variation of channel and floodplain geometry is described with synthetic relations derived from field observations. Flow resistance in the river channel is computed with the formulation for low-slope, large sand bed rivers due to Wright and Parker, while a Chezy-type formulation is implemented on the floodplain. Sediment is modeled in terms of bed material and wash load. Suspended load is computed with the Wright-Parker formulation. This treatment allows either uniform sediment or a mixture of different grain sizes, and accounts for stratification effects. Bedload transport rates are estimated with the relation for sediment mixtures of Ashida and Michiue. Previous work documents reasonable agreement between these load relations and field measurements. Washload is routed through the system solving the equation of mass conservation of sediment in suspension in the water column. The gradual transition from the alluvial reach to the bedrock reach is modeled in terms of a "mushy" layer of specified thickness overlying the non-erodible substrate. In the case of a fully alluvial reach, the channel bed elevation is above this mushy layer, while in the case of partial alluvial cover of the substratum, the channel bed elevation is within the mushy layer. Variations in base

  18. What Is the Best Way to Achieve Broader Reach of Improved Practices in Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna

    2011-01-01

    This article examines a common problem in higher education--how to create more widespread use of improved practices, often commonly referred to as innovations. I argue that policy models of scale-up are often advocated in higher education but that they have a dubious history in community development and K-12 education and that higher education…

  19. Defining Best Practices in Boating, Fishing, and Stewardship Education: Challenges and Opportunities for Reaching Diverse Audiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Myron F.

    Minority groups encounter barriers to participation in boating and fishing and may not have equal access to these activities. Racial and ethnic influences on outdoor recreation participation are viewed from four theoretical perspectives. For each perspective, practices are presented that would remove or lessen socioeconomic barriers that constrain…

  20. Reaching for Rigor: Identifying Practices of Effective High Schools. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannata, Marisa; Haynes, Katherine Taylor; Smith, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    What distinguishes high schools that "beat the odds" for students from traditionally lower-performing groups from schools that struggle to improve the achievement and graduation rates of these student populations? What types of programs, practices, and processes support better than expected outcomes for students at risk of failure? How…

  1. Reaching the Adult Learner: Teaching Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) to Practicing Technology Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adade, Anthony Kwasi

    2012-01-01

    A great deal has been written about adult learning in terms of approaches and strategies. However, very little has been published on best practices for teaching Information Technology Infrastructure Library ® (ITIL) certification course to IT professionals. This dearth of research, along with five years of experience teaching the course sparked my…

  2. The Challenges Never Stop! Two Decades of Reaching for the Best in Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Bruce E.; Van Scoy, Irma J.

    2014-01-01

    The University of South Carolina Professional Development School (USC PDS) Network has been engaged in designing and redesigning school-university partnerships for more than 20 years with a focus on ensuring that school-based practice lies at the heart of candidate preparation. In 2012-2013, the USC PDS Network once again reexamined their program…

  3. Applying attachment theory to effective practice with hard-to-reach youth: the AMBIT approach.

    PubMed

    Bevington, Dickon; Fuggle, Peter; Fonagy, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent Mentalization-Based Integrative Treatment (AMBIT) is a developing approach to working with "hard-to-reach" youth burdened with multiple co-occurring morbidities. This article reviews the core features of AMBIT, exploring applications of attachment theory to understand what makes young people "hard to reach," and provide routes toward increased security in their attachment to a worker. Using the theory of the pedagogical stance and epistemic ("pertaining to knowledge") trust, we show how it is the therapeutic worker's accurate mentalizing of the adolescent that creates conditions for new learning, including the establishment of alternative (more secure) internal working models of helping relationships. This justifies an individual keyworker model focused on maintaining a mentalizing stance toward the adolescent, but simultaneously emphasizing the critical need for such keyworkers to remain well connected to their wider team, avoiding activation of their own attachment behaviors. We consider the role of AMBIT in developing a shared team culture (shared experiences, shared language, shared meanings), toward creating systemic contexts supportive of such relationships. We describe how team training may enhance the team's ability to serve as a secure base for keyworkers, and describe an innovative approach to treatment manualization, using a wiki format as one way of supporting this process. PMID:25782529

  4. Nitrate reduction by denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidizing microorganisms can reach a practically useful rate.

    PubMed

    Cai, Chen; Hu, Shihu; Guo, Jianhua; Shi, Ying; Xie, Guo-Jun; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2015-12-15

    Methane in biogas has been proposed to be an electron donor to facilitate complete nitrogen removal using denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidizing (DAMO) microorganisms in an anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) reactor, by reducing the nitrate produced. However, the slow growth and the low activity of DAMO microorganisms cast a serious doubt about the practical usefulness of such a process. In this study, a previously established lab-scale membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR), with biofilms consisting of a coculture of DAMO and anammox microorganisms, was operated to answer if the DAMO reactor can achieve a nitrate reduction rate that can potentially be applied for wastewater treatment. Through progressively increasing nitrate and ammonium loading rates to the reactor, a nitrate removal rate of 684 ± 10 mg-N L(-1) d(-1) was achieved after 453 days of operation. This rate is, to our knowledge, by far the highest reported for DAMO reactors, and far exceeds what is predicted to be required for nitrate removal in a sidestream (5.6-135 mg-N L(-1) d(-1)) or mainstream anammox reactor (3.2-124 mg-N L(-1) d(-1)). Mass balance analysis showed that the nitrite produced by nitrate reduction was jointly reduced by anammox bacteria at a rate of 354 ± 3 mg-N L(-1) d(-1), accompanied by an ammonium removal rate of 268 ± 2 mg-N L(-1) d(-1), and DAMO bacteria at a rate of 330 ± 9 mg-N L(-1) d(-1). This study shows that the nitrate reduction rate achieved by the DAMO process can be high enough for removing nitrate produced by anammox process, which would enable complete nitrogen removal from wastewater. PMID:26414889

  5. Colleges 2006 Results Report: Ontario's Colleges Succeed in Reaching Higher. ACAATO Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colleges Ontario, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Ontario's 24 colleges drive economic growth and social prosperity in the province. Rapidly evolving technologies continue to change the nature of work in every industry sector and the requirements placed on workers at every level. As a result, Ontario must increasingly rely on a workforce with the skills and education to translate change into…

  6. Differences between late preterm and full-term infants: comparing effects of a short bout of practice on early reaching behavior.

    PubMed

    de Almeida Soares, Daniele; Cunha, Andréa Baraldi; Tudella, Eloisa

    2014-11-01

    This study compared the effects of a short bout of practice on reaching behavior between late preterm and full-term infants at the onset of goal-directed reaching. Twelve late preterm infants and twelve full-term infants received reaching practice based on a serial schedule. Late preterm and full-term infants were assessed in 3.3±1.4 and 2.6±1.0 days after the onset of goal-directed reaching in two measures in a single day: immediately before practice (pre-test) and immediately after practice (post-test). During the assessments, the infants were placed in a baby chair and a rubber toy was presented at their midline within reaching distance for 2 min. Between assessments, the infants received practice of toy-oriented reaching in 3 activities repeated for approximately 4 min. The activities were elicited in a pre-established serial sequence and were applied by a physical therapist. During the pre-test, late preterm infants presented lower range of proximal adjustments, greater proportion of reaches with semi-open hand, and greater proportion of reaches without grasping than the full-term infants. During the post-test, late preterm infants presented greater motor variability of proximal adjustments, but explored and selected distal control and grasping outcomes less compared to the full-term group. Differences in reaching and gross motor behavior between late preterm and full-term infants can be found at the age of reaching onset. Practice provided new opportunities for late preterm infants to improve perception-action coupling to reach; however, relative to full-terms, they seemed less advanced in benefiting from the experience for more refined manual tasks. PMID:25134076

  7. Medical Simulation Practices 2010 Survey Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCrindle, Jeffrey J.

    2011-01-01

    Medical Simulation Centers are an essential component of our learning infrastructure to prepare doctors and nurses for their careers. Unlike the military and aerospace simulation industry, very little has been published regarding the best practices currently in use within medical simulation centers. This survey attempts to provide insight into the current simulation practices at medical schools, hospitals, university nursing programs and community college nursing programs. Students within the MBA program at Saint Joseph's University conducted a survey of medical simulation practices during the summer 2010 semester. A total of 115 institutions responded to the survey. The survey resus discuss overall effectiveness of current simulation centers as well as the tools and techniques used to conduct the simulation activity

  8. Changes Resulting from Reflection Dialogues on Nursing Practice

    PubMed Central

    Okuda, Reiko; Fukada, Mika

    2014-01-01

    Background Reflection is defined here as a process by which, through self-conversation, one’s self and one’s behavior acquire meaning. However, people have limitations in terms of what they can express and be aware of during reflection. This finding points to the importance of facilitators. The purpose of this study was to determine what changes can be brought about through reflection dialogues on nursing practice. Methods The Participants were 9 nurses who worked at three institutions in City A, each with about 200 beds. Workplace topics were examined through self-reflections and reflection dialogues. The depth of reflection was assessed using the three levels of reflection described by Mezirow—{reflecting on the content}, {reflecting on the process} and {reflecting on the assumptions}. Results In reflecting on nursing practice, the participants were also divided into those who had already reached the highest level, {reflecting on assumptions}, via self-reflection, and those who remained at the level of {reflecting on processes}, despite the use of reflection dialogues. Conclusion The development of reflective thinking on nursing practice was connected not only to the participants’ desire to explore ways of accepting their individual experiences, but may also be connected to whether or not they are able to question themselves about their thoughts and preconceptions about nursing work. PMID:25067874

  9. The views of general practitioners and practice nurses towards the barriers and facilitators of proactive, internet-based chlamydia screening for reaching young heterosexual men

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chlamydia trachomatis is a common bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI), which disproportionately affects young people under 25 years. Commonly, more women are offered screening than men. This study obtained the views of general practitioners and practice nurses towards Internet-based screening and assessed levels of support for the development of proactive screening targeting young heterosexual men via the Internet. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews with 10 general practitioners and 8 practice nurses, across Central Scotland. Topics covered: experience of screening heterosexual men for chlamydia, views on the use of the Internet as a way to reach young men for chlamydia screening, beliefs about the potential barriers and facilitators to Internet-based screening. Transcripts from audio recordings were analysed with Framework Analysis, using QSR NVivo10. Results Experiences of chlamydia screening were almost exclusively with women, driven by the nature of consultations and ease of raising sexual health issues with female patients; few practice nurses reported seeing men during consultations. All participants spoke in favour of Internet-based screening for young men. Participants reported ease of access and convenience as potential facilitators of an Internet-based approach but anonymity and confidentiality could be potential barriers and facilitators to the success of an Internet approach to screening. Concerns over practical issues as well as those pertaining to gender and socio-cultural issues were raised. Conclusions Awareness of key barriers and facilitators, such as confidentiality, practicality and socio-cultural influences, will inform the development of an Internet-based approach to screening. However, this approach may have its limits in terms of being able to tackle wider social and cultural barriers, along with shifts in young people’s and health professionals’ attitudes towards screening. Nevertheless, employing

  10. 27 CFR 8.52 - Practices which result in exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Practices which result in..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXCLUSIVE OUTLETS Exclusion § 8.52 Practices which result in exclusion. The practices specified in this section result in exclusion under section 105(a) of the Act....

  11. 27 CFR 8.52 - Practices which result in exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Practices which result in..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXCLUSIVE OUTLETS Exclusion § 8.52 Practices which result in exclusion. The practices specified in this section result in exclusion under section 105(a) of the Act....

  12. 27 CFR 8.52 - Practices which result in exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Practices which result in..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXCLUSIVE OUTLETS Exclusion § 8.52 Practices which result in exclusion. The practices specified in this section result in exclusion under section 105(a) of the Act....

  13. 27 CFR 8.52 - Practices which result in exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Practices which result in..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXCLUSIVE OUTLETS Exclusion § 8.52 Practices which result in exclusion. The practices specified in this section result in exclusion under section 105(a) of the Act....

  14. Playway Mathematics: Theory, Practice and Some Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, P. J.; Miller, J. Valarie

    1984-01-01

    The use of play as a means of teaching elementary mathematics is discussed. Earlier work is summarized and fresh results offered, particularly those concerned with the retention and transfer of play-acquired learning. The mathematical content chosen (factor, multiple, prime number, common factor, prime factor, and factorizing) is discussed. (CT)

  15. 27 CFR 8.52 - Practices which result in exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Practices which result in exclusion. 8.52 Section 8.52 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXCLUSIVE OUTLETS Exclusion § 8.52 Practices which result in exclusion. The practices specified in...

  16. Aligning Theory and Design: The Development of an Online Learning Intervention to Teach Evidence-based Practice for Maximal Reach

    PubMed Central

    Vihstadt, Corrie; Evans, Roni

    2015-01-01

    Background: Online educational interventions to teach evidence-based practice (EBP) are a promising mechanism for overcoming some of the barriers to incorporating research into practice. However, attention must be paid to aligning strategies with adult learning theories to achieve optimal outcomes. Methods: We describe the development of a series of short self-study modules, each covering a small set of learning objectives. Our approach, informed by design-based research (DBR), involved 6 phases: analysis, design, design evaluation, redesign, development/implementation, and evaluation. Participants were faculty and students in 3 health programs at a complementary and integrative educational institution. Results: We chose a reusable learning object approach that allowed us to apply 4 main learning theories: events of instruction, cognitive load, dual processing, and ARCS (attention, relevance, confidence, satisfaction). A formative design evaluation suggested that the identified theories and instructional approaches were likely to facilitate learning and motivation. Summative evaluation was based on a student survey (N=116) that addressed how these theories supported learning. Results suggest that, overall, the selected theories helped students learn. Conclusion: The DBR approach allowed us to evaluate the specific intervention and theories for general applicability. This process also helped us define and document the intervention at a level of detail that covers almost all the proposed Guideline for Reporting Evidence-based practice Educational intervention and Teaching (GREET) items. This thorough description will facilitate the interpretation of future research and implementation of the intervention. Our approach can also serve as a model for others considering online EBP intervention development. PMID:26421233

  17. Reaching Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Charlotte E.; Kuriloff, Peter J.; Cox, Amanda B.

    2014-01-01

    If educators want to engage girls in learning, they must align teaching practices with girls' specific needs. In a study modeled after Reichert and Hawley's study of boys, the authors learned that lessons with hands-on learning, elements of creativity, multimodal projects, and class discussions all worked to stimulate girls'…

  18. Academic Advising Assessment Practices: Results of a National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Keith L.; Carlstrom, Aaron H.

    2014-01-01

    Best practices of academic advising assessment involve identification of student learning outcomes, the development and use of multiple measures of student learning, and sound professional judgment to understand the information gathered and to improve student learning. However, the assessment results often come from minimal, narrow, and…

  19. Best Practices for Reduction of Uncertainty in CFD Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendenhall, Michael R.; Childs, Robert E.; Morrison, Joseph H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a proposed best-practices system that will present expert knowledge in the use of CFD. The best-practices system will include specific guidelines to assist the user in problem definition, input preparation, grid generation, code selection, parameter specification, and results interpretation. The goal of the system is to assist all CFD users in obtaining high quality CFD solutions with reduced uncertainty and at lower cost for a wide range of flow problems. The best-practices system will be implemented as a software product which includes an expert system made up of knowledge databases of expert information with specific guidelines for individual codes and algorithms. The process of acquiring expert knowledge is discussed, and help from the CFD community is solicited. Benefits and challenges associated with this project are examined.

  20. Increasing the Reach of HIV Testing to Young Latino MSM: Results of a Pilot Study Integrating Outreach and Services

    PubMed Central

    Erausquin, Jennifer Toller; Duan, Naihua; Grusky, Oscar; Swanson, Aimee-Noelle; Kerrone, Dustin; Rudy, Ellen T.

    2015-01-01

    Background In the U.S., HIV infections are increasing among men who have sex with men (MSM), particularly young, racial/ethnic minority MSM. Objective To examine the feasibility of increasing HIV testing among young Latino MSM by integrating tailored outreach strategies with testing, counseling, and HIV medical services. Design Descriptive study comparing demographic characteristics, behaviors, and HIV test results of clients from the intervention period with clients who tested during other time periods. Results Clients in the intervention period were younger and more likely to be Latino than those in other time periods. In addition, clients who received outreach were more likely than those who did not receive outreach to report methamphetamine use, sex with an HIV-positive person, and sex with a sex worker. Conclusion Venue-based and selective media outreach, in combination with linking rapid testing to HIV care, may help overcome some of the barriers to testing among high-risk young Latino MSM. PMID:19648703

  1. Dentists’ practice patterns regarding caries prevention: results from a dental practice-based research network

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Yoko; Kakudate, Naoki; Sumida, Futoshi; Matsumoto, Yuki; Gilbert, Gregg H; Gordan, Valeria V

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purposes of this study were to (1) quantify dentists' practice patterns regarding caries prevention and (2) test the hypothesis that certain dentists' characteristics are associated with these practice patterns. Design The study used a cross-sectional study design consisting of a questionnaire survey. Participants The study queried dentists who worked in outpatient dental practices who were affiliated with the Dental Practice-Based Research Network Japan, which seeks to engage dentists in investigating research questions and sharing experiences and expertise (n=282). Measurement Dentists were asked about their practice patterns regarding caries preventive dentistry. Background data on patients, practice and dentist were also collected. Results 38% of dentists (n=72) provided individualised caries prevention to more than 50% of their patients. Overall, 10% of the time in daily practice was spent on caries preventive dentistry. Dentists who provided individualised caries prevention to more than 50% of their patients spent significantly more time on preventive care and less time on removable prosthetics treatment, compared to dentists who did not provide individualised caries prevention. Additionally, they provided oral hygiene instruction, patient education, fluoride recommendations, intraoral photographs taken and diet counselling to their patients significantly more often than dentists who did not provide individualised caries prevention. Multiple logistic regression analysis suggested that the percentage of patients interested in caries prevention and the percentage of patients who received hygiene instruction, were both associated with the percentage of patients who receive individualised caries prevention. Conclusions We identified substantial variation in dentists' practice patterns regarding preventive dentistry. Individualised caries prevention was significantly related to provision of other preventive services and to having a higher percentage

  2. Environmental scan of anal cancer screening practices: worldwide survey results

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Jigisha; Salit, Irving E; Berry, Michael J; de Pokomandy, Alexandra; Nathan, Mayura; Fishman, Fred; Palefsky, Joel; Tinmouth, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Anal squamous cell carcinoma is rare in the general population but certain populations, such as persons with HIV, are at increased risk. High-risk populations can be screened for anal cancer using strategies similar to those used for cervical cancer. However, little is known about the use of such screening practices across jurisdictions. Data were collected using an online survey. Health care professionals currently providing anal cancer screening services were invited to complete the survey via email and/or fax. Information was collected on populations screened, services and treatments offered, and personnel. Over 300 invitations were sent; 82 providers from 80 clinics around the world completed the survey. Fourteen clinics have each examined more than 1000 patients. Over a third of clinics do not restrict access to screening; in the rest, eligibility is most commonly based on HIV status and abnormal anal cytology results. Fifty-three percent of clinics require abnormal anal cytology prior to performing high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) in asymptomatic patients. Almost all clinics offer both anal cytology and HRA. Internal high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is most often treated with infrared coagulation (61%), whereas external high-grade AIN is most commonly treated with imiquimod (49%). Most procedures are performed by physicians, followed by nurse practitioners. Our study is the first description of global anal cancer screening practices. Our findings may be used to inform practice and health policy in jurisdictions considering anal cancer screening. PMID:24740973

  3. Environmental scan of anal cancer screening practices: worldwide survey results.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jigisha; Salit, Irving E; Berry, Michael J; de Pokomandy, Alexandra; Nathan, Mayura; Fishman, Fred; Palefsky, Joel; Tinmouth, Jill

    2014-08-01

    Anal squamous cell carcinoma is rare in the general population but certain populations, such as persons with HIV, are at increased risk. High-risk populations can be screened for anal cancer using strategies similar to those used for cervical cancer. However, little is known about the use of such screening practices across jurisdictions. Data were collected using an online survey. Health care professionals currently providing anal cancer screening services were invited to complete the survey via email and/or fax. Information was collected on populations screened, services and treatments offered, and personnel. Over 300 invitations were sent; 82 providers from 80 clinics around the world completed the survey. Fourteen clinics have each examined more than 1000 patients. Over a third of clinics do not restrict access to screening; in the rest, eligibility is most commonly based on HIV status and abnormal anal cytology results. Fifty-three percent of clinics require abnormal anal cytology prior to performing high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) in asymptomatic patients. Almost all clinics offer both anal cytology and HRA. Internal high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is most often treated with infrared coagulation (61%), whereas external high-grade AIN is most commonly treated with imiquimod (49%). Most procedures are performed by physicians, followed by nurse practitioners. Our study is the first description of global anal cancer screening practices. Our findings may be used to inform practice and health policy in jurisdictions considering anal cancer screening. PMID:24740973

  4. Evidence for a role of the reticulospinal system in recovery of skilled reaching after cortical stroke: initial results from a model of ischemic cortical injury.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Wendy J; Powell, Kimerly; Buford, John A

    2015-11-01

    The purposes of this pilot study were to create a model of focal cortical ischemia in Macaca fascicularis and to explore contributions of the reticulospinal system in recovery of reaching. Endothelin-1 was used to create a focal lesion in the shoulder/elbow representation of left primary motor cortex (M1) of two adult female macaques. Repetitive microstimulation was used to map upper limb motor outputs from right and left cortical motor areas and from the pontomedullary reticular formation (PMRF). In subject 1 with a small lesion and spontaneous recovery, reaching was mildly impaired. Changes were evident in the shoulder/elbow representations of both the lesioned and contralesional M1, and there appeared to be fewer than expected upper limb responses from the left (ipsilesional) PMRF. In subject 2 with a substantial lesion, reaching was severely impaired immediately after the lesion. After 12 weeks of intensive rehabilitative training, reach performance recovered to near-baseline levels, but movement times remained about 50% slower. Surprisingly, the shoulder/elbow representation in the lesioned M1 remained completely absent after recovery, and there was a little change in the contralesional M1. There was a definite difference in motor output patterns for left versus right PMRF for this subject, with an increase in right arm responses from right PMRF and a paucity of left arm responses from left PMRF. The results are consistent with increased reliance on PMRF motor outputs for recovery of voluntary upper limb motor control after significant cortical ischemic injury. PMID:26231990

  5. Good practices and health policy analysis in European sports stadia: results from the 'Healthy Stadia' project.

    PubMed

    Drygas, Wojciech; Ruszkowska, Joanna; Philpott, Matthew; Björkström, Olav; Parker, Mike; Ireland, Robin; Roncarolo, Federico; Tenconi, Maria

    2013-06-01

    Sport plays an important role within society and sports stadia provide significant settings for public health strategies. In addition to being places of mass gathering, stadia are often located in less affluent areas and are traditionally attended by 'harder to reach' communities. Unfortunately sports stadia and the clubs they host are rarely perceived as places that promote healthy lifestyles. Fast food, alcohol and tobacco are commonly advertized, served and consumed during sports games giving the spectators and TV fans contradictory messages concerning healthy choices. As part of a wider programme of work part-funded by the European Union, a study was therefore designed to explore current 'good practice' relating to positive health interventions in sports stadia across a number of European countries. Using a specially designed questionnaire, information about health policies and good practices relating to food offerings in stadia, physical activity promotion among local communities, tobacco policy, positive mental health initiatives, environmental sustainability practices and social responsibility policies were collected in 10 European countries (England and Northern Ireland, Finland, Georgia, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Poland, Spain and Sweden) involving 88 stadia. The audit results show that stadia health policies differ considerably between specific countries and sports. Based on the literature analysed, the examples of good practices collected through the study, and the subsequent instigation of a European Healthy Stadia Network, it shows that there is considerable potential for stadia to become health promoting settings. PMID:22139638

  6. [Eslicarbazepine acetate in clinical practice. Efficacy and safety results].

    PubMed

    Serrano-Castro, Pedro J; Payán-Ortiz, Manuel; Cimadevilla, José M; Quiroga-Subirana, Pablo; Fernández-Pérez, Javier

    2013-03-16

    INTRODUCTION. Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) is a new antiepileptic drug (AED) licensed in Spain in February 2011 as an adjunctive therapy in adults with partial seizures with or without secondary generalization. Clinical trials with ESL have demonstrated acceptable efficacy and safety. AIM. To evaluate the results of ESL in our epilepsy unit during its first year of clinical experience with this AED. PATIENTS AND METHODS. We included all patients who started treatment with ESL at our epilepsy unit from March 2011 to May 2012. We collected the following variables: gender, aetiology of epilepsy, epileptogenic area, reason for switch to ESL, clinical response after initiation of ESL, adverse effects of ESL, refractoriness criteria and treatment discontinuation. A bivariate factor-to-factor correlation study was carried out to establish associations between the independent variables and the clinical response. RESULTS. We recruited 105 patients (51.4% male). 20,7% of patients remained seizure-free and 58.4% showed > 50% improvement after introduction of ESL. At 6 months, 18.1% had experienced some type of side effect, with cognitive disorders being the most common, and 11.5% had discontinued treatment. Combination with lacosamide proved to be significantly less effective in the control of seizures. Combination of ESL with the rest of sodium channel inhibitors was similar in efficacy to others combinations. CONCLUSIONS. ESL is a well-tolerated and effective AED when is used as adjunctive treatment with most of other AED in clinical practice. PMID:23483464

  7. The MIDAS project at ASU: John Cowley's vision and practical results.

    PubMed

    Venables, J A; Hembree, G G; Drucker, J; Crozier, P A; Scheinfein, M R

    2005-06-01

    An overview of the conception and development of the MIDAS system at Arizona State University is given: a Microscope for Imaging, Diffraction and Analysis of Surfaces. John Cowley's vision in the early 1980s was ambitious and far-reaching, and it was because of him the authors came to ASU. We were centrally involved in the design and implementation of MIDAS from the mid 1980s onwards; the novel design features are briefly reviewed. Practical results obtained using this instrument are listed, and the scope for future development and applications are indicated. While it is clear that many new results have been demonstrated, even more possibilities still remain to be explored. Some comments are made about the feasibility of such developments in the light of competing instrumentation. PMID:16123069

  8. Trip Staff Training Practices: Survey and Discussion Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwaagstra, Lynn

    A discussion group and survey examined trip-staff training practices among outdoor and adventure recreation/education programs. Of the 40 participants, 80 percent worked with university noncredit programs, with the remaining participants representing university for-credit, military recreation, nonprofit, and for-profit programs. Although the…

  9. Mirror versus parallel bimanual reaching

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In spite of their importance to everyday function, tasks that require both hands to work together such as lifting and carrying large objects have not been well studied and the full potential of how new technology might facilitate recovery remains unknown. Methods To help identify the best modes for self-teleoperated bimanual training, we used an advanced haptic/graphic environment to compare several modes of practice. In a 2-by-2 study, we compared mirror vs. parallel reaching movements, and also compared veridical display to one that transforms the right hand’s cursor to the opposite side, reducing the area that the visual system has to monitor. Twenty healthy, right-handed subjects (5 in each group) practiced 200 movements. We hypothesized that parallel reaching movements would be the best performing, and attending to one visual area would reduce the task difficulty. Results The two-way comparison revealed that mirror movement times took an average 1.24 s longer to complete than parallel. Surprisingly, subjects’ movement times moving to one target (attending to one visual area) also took an average of 1.66 s longer than subjects moving to two targets. For both hands, there was also a significant interaction effect, revealing the lowest errors for parallel movements moving to two targets (p < 0.001). This was the only group that began and maintained low errors throughout training. Conclusion Combined with other evidence, these results suggest that the most intuitive reaching performance can be observed with parallel movements with a veridical display (moving to two separate targets). These results point to the expected levels of challenge for these bimanual training modes, which could be used to advise therapy choices in self-neurorehabilitation. PMID:23837908

  10. What results when firms implement practices: the differential relationship between specific practices, firm financial performance, customer service, and quality.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Cristina B; Porath, Christine L; Benson, George S; Lawler, Edward E

    2007-11-01

    Previous research on organizational practices is replete with contradictory evidence regarding their effects. Here, the authors argue that these contradictory findings may have occurred because researchers have often examined complex practice combinations and have failed to investigate a broad variety of firm-level outcomes. Thus, past research may obscure important differential effects of specific practices on specific firm-level outcomes. Extending this research, the authors develop hypotheses about the effects of practices that (a) enable information sharing, (b) set boundaries, and (c) enable teams on 3 different firm-level outcomes: financial performance, customer service, and quality. Relationships are tested in a sample of observations from over 200 Fortune 1000 firms. Results indicate that information-sharing practices were positively related to financial performance 1 year following implementation of the practices, boundary-setting practices were positively related to firm-level customer service, and team-enabling practices were related to firm-level quality. No single set of practices predicted all 3 firm-level outcomes, indicating practice-specific effects. These findings help resolve the theoretical tension in the literature regarding the effects of organizational practices and offer guidance as to how to best target practices to increase specific work-related outcomes. Implications for theory, research, and practice are discussed. PMID:18020790

  11. On Practical Results of the Differential Power Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breier, Jakub; Kleja, Marcel

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes practical differential power analysis attacks. There are presented successful and unsuccessful attack attempts with the description of the attack methodology. It provides relevant information about oscilloscope settings, optimization possibilities and fundamental attack principles, which are important when realizing this type of attack. The attack was conducted on the PIC18F2420 microcontroller, using the AES cryptographic algorithm in the ECB mode with the 128-bit key length. We used two implementations of this algorithm - in the C programming language and in the assembler.

  12. Reaching Your Fitness Goals

    MedlinePlus

    Everyday Fitness Ideas from the National Institute on Aging at NIH www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Reaching Your Fitness Goals You’ll begin to see results in ... longer, and more easily. As you increase your fitness level, you also might find that you need ...

  13. Comprehensive Guidance Results-Based Evaluation: Developing a Practical Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maliszewski, Stan J.; Mackiel, John J.

    Results-based evaluation and assessment of guidance and counseling is a difficult task. How to best evaluate whether the comprehensive guidance program was getting the intended results became an issue for Omaha Public Schools. They set about to draft a framework for measuring student behavior or learning resulting from activities associated with…

  14. Making Creativity Practical: Innovation That Gets Results. For the Practicing Manager. An Ideas into Action Guidebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gryskiewicz, Stan; Taylor, Sylvester

    This booklet discusses creativity and provides suggestions for instigating and implementing creativity in organizational settings. Specifically, the booklet discusses practical creativity (also called targeted innovation), an approach to generating ideas especially suited to organizational problem-solving. The targeted innovation process,…

  15. Reaching for the Unreachable: Reorganization of Reaching with Walking

    PubMed Central

    Grzyb, Beata J.; Smith, Linda B.; del Pobil, Angel P.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggests that reaching and walking behaviors may be linked developmentally as reaching changes at the onset of walking. Here we report new evidence on an apparent loss of the distinction between the reachable and nonreachable distances as children start walking. The experiment compared nonwalkers, walkers with help, and independent walkers in a reaching task to targets at varying distances. Reaching attempts, contact, leaning, and communication behaviors were recorded. Most of the children reached for the unreachable objects the first time it was presented. Nonwalkers, however, reached less on the subsequent trials showing clear adjustment of their reaching decisions with the failures. On the contrary, walkers consistently attempted reaches to targets at unreachable distances. We suggest that these reaching errors may result from inappropriate integration of reaching and locomotor actions, attention control and near/far visual space. We propose a reward-mediated model implemented on a NAO humanoid robot that replicates the main results from our study showing an increase in reaching attempts to nonreachable distances after the onset of walking. PMID:26110046

  16. Are SOFT and TEXT results practice changing and how?

    PubMed

    Pagani, Olivia; Regan, Meredith M; Francis, Prudence A

    2016-06-01

    Optimal adjuvant endocrine therapy for premenopausal women with hormone-receptor positive breast cancer has long been debated. In particular, the role of ovarian function suppression in addition to standard tamoxifen divided oncologists worldwide, and more recently, the role of aromatase inhibitors as an alternative to tamoxifen in the setting of ovarian suppression became a key question. In 2014, the long awaited results of the International Breast Cancer Study Group (IBCSG) led randomized, phase 3 trials, Suppression of Ovarian Function Trial (SOFT) and Tamoxifen and Exemestane Trial (TEXT), provided additional evidence to inform the discussion. The interpretation of the SOFT and TEXT trial data can facilitate better selection of appropriate endocrine therapy according to individual disease characteristics, recognizing the complexity of the puzzle, which is still not complete. PMID:27107153

  17. Astrometric exoplanet surveys in practice: challenges, opportunities, and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahlmann, Johannes

    2015-08-01

    Conversely to the transit photometry and radial velocity methods, the astrometric discovery of exoplanets is still limited by the sensitivity of available instruments. Furthermore, the signature of a planet (described by 7 free parameters) is orders of magnitude smaller than the standard motion of a star (5 free parameters), which has to be solved for first. This has important implications in the design and implementation of astrometric planet search surveys and the large parameter space to be explored calls for efficient fitting algorithms. I will present results of the so-far most precise astrometric planet search from the ground, targeting 20 very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs with an accuracy of 100 micro-arcseconds, which include the discovery of binaries with components in the planetary mass regime and several planet candidates with Neptune-to-Jupiter masses. The employed genetic and MCMC algorithms were shown to be efficient in constraining all astrometric parameters, which makes them important tools for the exploitation of the data currently collected by the Gaia satellite. Gaia is expected to astrometrically discover thousands of giant exoplanets and I will report on several ongoing projects in preparation of this unique harvest, including the expected yield of circumbinary planets.

  18. Conducting Outreach to Transition-Aged Youth: Strategies for Reaching out to Youth with Disabilities, Their Families, and Agencies that Serve Them. Policy and Practice Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheldon, James R., Jr.; Golden, Thomas P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this policy and practice brief is to provide readers with a resource for planning outreach to transition-aged youth, their parents, and the service providers who work with them (i.e., the authors' "target group"). The authors will first provide a summary of the laws governing how three key agencies--school districts, state…

  19. The classification of specialist student practice: results of an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Canham, J

    2001-08-01

    An exploratory study investigating the feasibility and acceptability of an assessment tool designed to allow practice educators(1)to classify Specialist Practitioner student practice, identifies issues of interest to all educators involved with practice assessment. Within 3 months of commencing education leading to Specialist Practitioner Awards, the spread of marks awarded for practice achievements was already consistent with final degree classification and within 6 months slightly higher than normal. By the end of the course, continued improvements in practice achievements resulted in 73% of practice marks being 70% and over. The implications for total degree classification are less catastrophic than they appear; even if this trend continues there will only be a slight increase in first class Honours degrees. Although the strategy for practice assessment includes practice educators and students working together to discuss and agree marks for practice achievements, in the study practice educators and students provided marks intentionally without discussion or consultation with each other. Two comparisons of these marks showed that many students overestimate or underestimate their practice achievements as perceived by practice educators. Continuous monitoring of how marks are determined will be a priority for the Specialist Practice team. In most cases, practice educators considered the marked assessment of practice to be a reasonable working proposition, though there were concerns about the timing of assessments and the applied terminology. The main conclusions are that some practice educators may award marks for effort, despite contradictory written comments, and that the ability of specialist students to self-assess remains an unknown quantity but a potential moderating influence. The role of the HEI will be to ensure essential preparation and ongoing support for practice educators to enable a tri-partite assessment process and to provide a robust strategy for

  20. CBOs: Reaching the Hardest to Reach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BCEL Newsletter for the Business Community, 1986

    1986-01-01

    The agents most successful in reaching and teaching those most in need of basic skills instruction are the community-based organizations (CBOs). They come into being in response to social and economic problems faced by their constituents--disadvantaged minorities, the poor, the unemployed, and the alienated. Because of their close ties to the…

  1. Out of the reach of children? Young people's health-seeking practices and agency in Africa's newly-emerging therapeutic landscapes.

    PubMed

    Hampshire, Kate R; Porter, Gina; Owusu, Samuel Asiedu; Tanle, Augustine; Abane, Albert

    2011-09-01

    Despite a dominant view within Western biomedicine that children and medicines should be kept apart, a growing literature suggests that children and adolescents often take active roles in health-seeking. Here, we consider young people's health-seeking practices in Ghana: a country with a rapidly-changing therapeutic landscape, characterised by the recent introduction of a National Health Insurance Scheme, mass advertising of medicines, and increased use of mobile phones. Qualitative and quantitative data are presented from eight field-sites in urban and rural Ghana, including 131 individual interviews, focus groups, plus a questionnaire survey of 1005 8-to-18-year-olds. The data show that many young people in Ghana play a major role in seeking healthcare for themselves and others. Young people's ability to secure effective healthcare is often constrained by their limited access to social, economic and cultural resources and information; however, many interviewees actively generated, developed and consolidated such resources in their quest for healthcare. Health insurance and the growth of telecommunications and advertising present new opportunities and challenges for young people's health-seeking practices. We argue that policy should take young people's medical realities as a starting point for interventions to facilitate safe and effective health-seeking. PMID:21824698

  2. Factors affecting outcomes in patients reaching end-stage kidney disease worldwide: differences in access to renal replacement therapy, modality use, and haemodialysis practices.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Bruce M; Akizawa, Tadao; Jager, Kitty J; Kerr, Peter G; Saran, Rajiv; Pisoni, Ronald L

    2016-07-16

    More than 2 million people worldwide are being treated for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). This Series paper provides an overview of incidence, modality use (in-centre haemodialysis, home dialysis, or transplantation), and mortality for patients with ESKD based on national registry data. We also present data from an international cohort study to highlight differences in haemodialysis practices that affect survival and the experience of patients who rely on this therapy, which is both life-sustaining and profoundly disruptive to their quality of life. Data illustrate disparities in access to renal replacement therapy of any kind and in the use of transplantation or home dialysis, both of which are widely considered preferable to in-centre haemodialysis for many patients with ESKD in settings where infrastructure permits. For most patients with ESKD worldwide who are treated with in-centre haemodialysis, overall survival is poor, but longer in some Asian countries than elsewhere in the world, and longer in Europe than in the USA, although this gap has reduced. Commendable haemodialysis practice includes exceptionally high use of surgical vascular access in Japan and in some European countries, and the use of longer or more frequent dialysis sessions in some countries, allowing for more effective volume management. Mortality is especially high soon after ESKD onset, and improved preparation for ESKD is needed including alignment of decision making with the wishes of patients and families. PMID:27226132

  3. The need for combination antihypertensive therapy to reach target blood pressures: what has been learned from clinical practice and morbidity-mortality trials?

    PubMed

    Struijker-Boudier, H A J; Ambrosioni, E; Holzgreve, H; Laurent, S; Mancia, G; Ruilope, L M; Waeber, B

    2007-09-01

    Pharmacological treatment of hypertension represents a cost-effective way for preventing cardiovascular and renal complications. To benefit maximally from antihypertensive treatment blood pressure (BP) should be brought to below 140/90 mmHg in every hypertensive patient, and even lower (< 130/80 mmHg) if diabetes or renal disease co-exists. Most of the time such targets cannot be reached using monotherapies. This is especially true in patients who exhibit a high cardiovascular risk. The co-administration of two agents acting by different mechanisms considerably increases BP control. Such preparations are not only efficacious, but also well tolerated, and some fixed low-dose combinations have a tolerability profile similar to placebo. This is for instance the case for the preparation containing the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor perindopril (2 mg) and the diuretic indapamide (0.625 mg), a fixed low-dose combination that has recently been shown in controlled interventional trials to be more effective than monotherapies in reducing albuminuria, regressing cardiac hypertrophy and improving macrovascular stiffness. Fixed-dose combinations are becoming more and more popular and are even proposed by current hypertension guidelines as a first-line option to treat hypertensive patients. PMID:17686100

  4. Increased Uptake of HCV Testing through a Community-Based Educational Intervention in Difficult-to-Reach People Who Inject Drugs: Results from the ANRS-AERLI Study

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Perrine; Rojas Castro, Daniela; Ndiaye, Khadim; Debrus, Marie; Protopopescu, Camélia; Le Gall, Jean-Marie; Haas, Aurélie; Mora, Marion; Spire, Bruno; Suzan-Monti, Marie; Carrieri, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Aims The community-based AERLI intervention provided training and education to people who inject drugs (PWID) about HIV and HCV transmission risk reduction, with a focus on drug injecting practices, other injection-related complications, and access to HIV and HCV testing and care. We hypothesized that in such a population where HCV prevalence is very high and where few know their HCV serostatus, AERLI would lead to increased HCV testing. Methods The national multisite intervention study ANRS-AERLI consisted in assessing the impact of an injection-centered face-to-face educational session offered in volunteer harm reduction (HR) centers (“with intervention”) compared with standard HR centers (“without intervention”). The study included 271 PWID interviewed on three occasions: enrolment, 6 and 12 months. Participants in the intervention group received at least one face-to-face educational session during the first 6 months. Measurements The primary outcome of this analysis was reporting to have been tested for HCV during the previous 6 months. Statistical analyses used a two-step Heckman approach to account for bias arising from the non-randomized clustering design. This approach identified factors associated with HCV testing during the previous 6 months. Findings Of the 271 participants, 127 and 144 were enrolled in the control and intervention groups, respectively. Of the latter, 113 received at least one educational session. For the present analysis, we selected 114 and 88 participants eligible for HCV testing in the control and intervention groups, respectively. In the intervention group, 44% of participants reported having being tested for HCV during the previous 6 months at enrolment and 85% at 6 months or 12 months. In the control group, these percentages were 51% at enrolment and 78% at 12 months. Multivariable analyses showed that participants who received at least one educational session during follow-up were more likely to report HCV testing

  5. Prevalence of STI related consultations in general practice: results from the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice

    PubMed Central

    van Bergen, Jan EAM; Kerssens, Jan J; Schellevis, Francois G; Sandfort, Theo G; Coenen, Ton J; Bindels, Patrick J

    2006-01-01

    Background The role of the GP in the care of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is unclear. Aim We studied the prevalence of STI related consultations in Dutch general practice in order to obtain insight into the contribution of the GP in STI control. Design of study A descriptive study. Setting The study took place within the framework of the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice in 2001, a large nationally representative population-based survey. Method During 1 year, data of all patient contacts with the participating GPs were recorded in electronic medical records. Contacts for the same health problem were clustered into disease episodes and their diagnosis coded according to the International Classification of Primary Care. All STI and STI related episodes were analysed. Results In total, 1 524 470 contacts of 375 899 registered persons in 104 practices were registered during 1 year and 2460 STI related episodes were found. The prevalence rate of STI was 39 per 10 000 persons and of STI/HIV related questions 23 per 10 000. More than half of all STIs were found in highly urbanised areas and STIs were overrepresented in deprived areas. Three quarters of all STIs diagnosed in the Netherlands are made in general practice. An important number of other reproductive health visits in general practice offer opportunities for meaningful STI counselling and tailored prevention. Discussion GPs contribute significantly to STI control, see the majority of patients with STI related symptoms and questions and are an important player in STI care. In particular, GPs in urban areas and inner-city practices should be targeted for accelerated sexual health programmes. PMID:16464323

  6. Test result communication in primary care: a survey of current practice

    PubMed Central

    Litchfield, Ian; Bentham, Louise; Lilford, Richard; McManus, Richard J; Hill, Ann; Greenfield, Sheila

    2015-01-01

    Background The number of blood tests ordered in primary care continues to increase and the timely and appropriate communication of results remains essential. However, the testing and result communication process includes a number of participants in a variety of settings and is both complicated to manage and vulnerable to human error. In the UK, guidelines for the process are absent and research in this area is surprisingly scarce; so before we can begin to address potential areas of weakness there is a need to more precisely understand the strengths and weaknesses of current systems used by general practices and testing facilities. Methods We conducted a telephone survey of practices across England to determine the methods of managing the testing and result communication process. In order to gain insight into the perspectives from staff at a large hospital laboratory we conducted paired interviews with senior managers, which we used to inform a service blueprint demonstrating the interaction between practices and laboratories and identifying potential sources of delay and failure. Results Staff at 80% of practices reported that the default method for communicating normal results required patients to telephone the practice and 40% of practices required that patients also call for abnormal results. Over 80% had no fail-safe system for ensuring that results had been returned to the practice from laboratories; practices would otherwise only be aware that results were missing or delayed when patients requested results. Persistent sources of missing results were identified by laboratory staff and included sample handling, misidentification of samples and the inefficient system for collating and resending misdirected results. Conclusions The success of the current system relies on patients both to retrieve results and in so doing alert staff to missing and delayed results. Practices appear slow to adopt available technological solutions despite their potential for

  7. Transfer Paths of Research Results to the Practice: Observations From the Receiving End

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Findikakis, A. N.

    2005-12-01

    A non-scientific poll of fellow practicing professionals suggests that there is a range of opinions regarding the effectiveness of different ways of becoming acquainted with and using the results of academic research in their practice. Journal articles remain the dominant path for transferring research results to the profession, even though accessing them is becoming more difficult with time. Driven primarily by cost considerations personal and corporate subscriptions seem to be on the decline. Libraries are one of the first victims of cost cutting measures in the industry. Even though the availability of journal articles in electronic form facilitates their availability, their prices are prohibitive. This is especially true during when a professional is searching for a solution to a problem and may have to review several papers on the subject. One colleague suggested that the professional organizations and other publishers of research articles could learn from the experience of the music industry, by lowering the cost of downloading individual papers to something like a dollar per article, recovering thus their production costs through the increase in the volume of purchased articles. The posting on the internet of special reports and dissertations by research institutions is viewed as very useful by those working in practice. The distribution through the internet of reports by federal organizations conducting or sponsoring research, such as the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is greatly appreciated by the practicing professionals. The use of leading researchers as consultants provides a direct path for bringing research results to the practice, but it is limited to a small number of cases where bringing in a consultant can be justified. Short courses are viewed as an effective way of familiarizing professionals with the latest research findings on specific subjects. The notes distributed in such courses are considered

  8. Always Connected, but Hard to Reach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rishi, Raju

    2007-01-01

    Students seem to be always connected through their computers, personal digital assistants (PDAs), or mobile phones, making it easy to reach them--if you are a peer. For colleges and universities, reaching students with timely and relevant information often proves a challenge. With rapid changes in both technology and social practices, what should…

  9. REACH. Electricity Units. Secondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gene; Sappe, Hoyt

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of electricity. The instructional units focus on electricity fundamentals and electric motors. Each unit follows a typical format that includes a unit sheet,…

  10. REACH. Heating Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanfield, Carter; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized units in the area of heating. The instructional units focus on electric heating systems, gas heating systems, and oil burning systems. Each unit follows a typical format that includes a unit…

  11. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  12. Reaching for the Stars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roper-Davis, Sharon

    1999-01-01

    Describes "Reaching for the Stars," a program which develops teaming and mentoring skills in senior physics students. Phase 1 requires student pairs to design a rocket; Phase 2 pairs seniors with gifted second graders who build the rocket from written instructions; and in Phase 3, pairs of seniors create a children's storybook explaining one of…

  13. REACH. Major Appliance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Charles; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of major appliances. The instructional units focus on installation of appliances, troubleshooting washing machines, troubleshooting electric dryers,…

  14. Reaching into Pictorial Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volcic, Robert; Vishwanath, Dhanraj; Domini, Fulvio

    2014-02-01

    While binocular viewing of 2D pictures generates an impression of 3D objects and space, viewing a picture monocularly through an aperture produces a more compelling impression of depth and the feeling that the objects are "out there", almost touchable. Here, we asked observers to actually reach into pictorial space under both binocular- and monocular-aperture viewing. Images of natural scenes were presented at different physical distances via a mirror-system and their retinal size was kept constant. Targets that observers had to reach for in physical space were marked on the image plane, but at different pictorial depths. We measured the 3D position of the index finger at the end of each reach-to-point movement. Observers found the task intuitive. Reaching responses varied as a function of both pictorial depth and physical distance. Under binocular viewing, responses were mainly modulated by the different physical distances. Instead, under monocular viewing, responses were modulated by the different pictorial depths. Importantly, individual variations over time were minor, that is, observers conformed to a consistent pictorial space. Monocular viewing of 2D pictures thus produces a compelling experience of an immersive space and tangible solid objects that can be easily explored through motor actions.

  15. REACH. Refrigeration Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Rufus; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of refrigeration. The instructional units focus on refrigeration fundamentals, tubing and pipe, refrigerants, troubleshooting, window air conditioning, and…

  16. "Brown's" Far Reaching Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinn, Philip C.

    2004-01-01

    Although the 1954 "Brown v. Board of Education" U.S. Supreme Court decision changed the face of American education forever, few individuals at that time could have fully realized its far-reaching implications. Certainly, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Legal Director Thurgood Marshall in his arguments was focusing on…

  17. Reaching for the Stars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Dorothy Givens

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Mae Jemison is the world's first woman astronaut of color who continues to reach for the stars. Jemison was recently successful in leading a team that has secured a $500,000 federal grant to make interstellar space travel a reality. The Dorothy Jemison Foundation for Excellence (named after Jemison's mother) was selected in June by the Defense…

  18. Frequency of yoga practice predicts health: results of a national survey of yoga practitioners.

    PubMed

    Ross, Alyson; Friedmann, Erika; Bevans, Margaret; Thomas, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Background. Yoga shows promise as a therapeutic intervention, but relationships between yoga practice and health are underexplored. Purpose. To examine the relationship between yoga practice and health (subjective well-being, diet, BMI, smoking, alcohol/caffeine consumption, sleep, fatigue, social support, mindfulness, and physical activity). Methods. Cross-sectional, anonymous internet surveys distributed to 4307 randomly selected from 18,160 individuals at 15 US Iyengar yoga studios; 1045 (24.3%) surveys completed. Results. Mean age 51.7 (± 11.7) years; 84.2% female. Frequency of home practice favorably predicted (P < .001): mindfulness, subjective well-being, BMI, fruit and vegetable consumption, vegetarian status, sleep, and fatigue. Each component of yoga practice (different categories of physical poses, breath work, meditation, philosophy study) predicted at least 1 health outcome (P < .05). Conclusions. Home practice of yoga predicted health better than years of practice or class frequency. Different physical poses and yoga techniques may have unique health benefits. PMID:22927885

  19. Pretoria Centre Reaches Out

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosman, Olivier

    2014-08-01

    On 5 July 2014 six members of the Pretoria Centre of ASSA braved the light pollution of one of the shopping malls in Centurion to reach out to shoppers a la John Dobson and to show them the moon, Mars and Saturn. Although the centre hosts regular monthly public observing evenings, it was felt that we should take astronomy to the people rather than wait for the people to come to us.

  20. Policies and Practices in Foreign Language Writing at the College Level: Survey Results and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Mary E.

    2007-01-01

    This article contains results from an online survey that asked 66 college-level language program directors of French, German, and Spanish in (he United States about policies and procedures governing foreign language writing at their respective institutions. Survey categories included (1) general Information, (2) Information regarding practices and…

  1. Current practice for diagnosis and management of silent atrial fibrillation: results of the European Heart Rhythm Association survey.

    PubMed

    Dobreanu, Dan; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Lewalter, Thorsten; Hernández-Madrid, Antonio; Lip, Gregory Y H; Blomström-Lundqvist, Carina

    2013-08-01

    Although it is well known that silent atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with morbidity and mortality rates similar to those of symptomatic AF, no specific strategy for screening and management of this form of AF has been advocated. The purpose of this survey was to identify current practices for the diagnosis and management of silent AF. This survey is based on an electronic questionnaire sent to the European Heart Rhythm Association Research Network partners. Responses were received from 33 centres in 16 countries. The preferred screening methods for silent AF in patients with rhythm control by pharmacological therapy was 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) at outpatient visits (31.3%) and periodical 24 h Holter ECG recordings (34.4%), while after pulmonary vein isolation the corresponding figures were 6.3 and 65.6%, respectively. No consensus has been reached concerning the therapeutic approach for such patients. Most responders preferred rate control over rhythm control in patients with silent AF, although some favoured pulmonary vein isolation in young patients. However, oral anticoagulant therapy in patients at high thromboembolic risk was considered mandatory by most, provided that at least one episode of silent AF was documented, without recommending further investigations. The results of this survey have confirmed that there is currently no consensus regarding the screening and management of patients with silent AF and that clinical practice is not always consistent with the few existing evidence-based recommendations. PMID:23878150

  2. Practice of Educating Engineer from the Global Viewpoint and the Educational Result

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Tadayosi

    Learning and education aims of the Fukui National College of Technology are “Ability rearing of the manufacturing, the environment coordinating and the system design with the engineer ethics of the global viewpoint”, and they practice educating engineer. What becomes the key subject are “Engineer ethics” and “Global environment”. We report the practiced content and the educational result in the inside which is of two subjects in charge. On using the self-made textbook, all students achieved the learning and educational goal aim A.

  3. Characteristics of advanced-level dietetics practice: a model and empirical results.

    PubMed

    Bradley, R T; Young, W Y; Ebbs, P; Martin, J

    1993-02-01

    This article, which is the first of a two-part series, presents results for the first objective of The American Dietetic Association (ADA) 1991 Dietetic Practice Study: to determine the characteristics of advanced-level dietetics practice. A nationwide mail survey of ADA members was conducted on a stratified random sample of 8,012 beyond-entry-level (registered before April 1988) registered dietitians who were members of dietetic practice groups (DPGs). The sample was supplemented with two randomly selected control groups of 1,000 entry-level and 1,000 beyond-entry-level registered dietitians. The overall response rate was 63.1%. The 5,852 usable returns were representative of the dietetics population surveyed. A model of advanced-level professional practice was developed that specified minimum necessary requirements for advanced practitioners on five components: education and experience, professional achievement, approach to practice, professional role positions, and professional role contacts; measurement of a sixth component, advanced-level practice performance, was unsuccessful. A series of validation analyses found the model to be a statistically sound and reliable means of distinguishing advanced practitioners from other groups of dietitians in 8 of every 10 cases. A total of 461 (8.9%) dietitians met all requirements of the model and were classified as advanced practitioners. Projected estimations of advanced practitioners in the population of beyond-entry-level ADA members who are also members of DPGs ranged between 2,126 and 2,640 dietitians (3.5% to 4.3% of the ADA membership).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8423288

  4. Proprioceptive Body Illusions Modulate the Visual Perception of Reaching Distance

    PubMed Central

    Petroni, Agustin; Carbajal, M. Julia; Sigman, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    The neurobiology of reaching has been extensively studied in human and non-human primates. However, the mechanisms that allow a subject to decide—without engaging in explicit action—whether an object is reachable are not fully understood. Some studies conclude that decisions near the reach limit depend on motor simulations of the reaching movement. Others have shown that the body schema plays a role in explicit and implicit distance estimation, especially after motor practice with a tool. In this study we evaluate the causal role of multisensory body representations in the perception of reachable space. We reasoned that if body schema is used to estimate reach, an illusion of the finger size induced by proprioceptive stimulation should propagate to the perception of reaching distances. To test this hypothesis we induced a proprioceptive illusion of extension or shrinkage of the right index finger while participants judged a series of LEDs as reachable or non-reachable without actual movement. Our results show that reach distance estimation depends on the illusory perceived size of the finger: illusory elongation produced a shift of reaching distance away from the body whereas illusory shrinkage produced the opposite effect. Combining these results with previous findings, we suggest that deciding if a target is reachable requires an integration of body inputs in high order multisensory parietal areas that engage in movement simulations through connections with frontal premotor areas. PMID:26110274

  5. Laboratory of Caribbean Brain Research Organization in the decade of the brain midpoint. Results in reaching behavior--interferences of subcortical motor centers, neurotransmitter blocking and brain function modeling.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Mesa, N; Antón, M; Arza-Marqués, M; Aneiros-Riba, R; Groning-Roque, E

    1996-01-01

    CARIBRO was founded in response to the United Nations declaration that the 1990s be designated the Decade of the Brain. The Program of Action is: 1. Annual meetings; 2. Training courses of the Caribbean School of Neurosciences; 3. Network scientific programs; 4. Fellowship programs; and 5. Dissemination of information on neuroscience. In the same program, a CARIBRO Laboratory was created in one of the Medical Faculties of Havana with the aim to teach students from the Caribbean in neuroscience research. As part of this program, we have been working in lateralized motor functions. Preliminary results in rats show that reaching acquisition allows classification of the animals as right-handed (40%), left-handed (40%), and ambidextrous (20%). Electrolytic lesion of caudate nucleus or amygdala impairs lateralized response. Contralateral lesions increase reaching attempts. Ipsilateral lesions to the preferred forepaw do not affect the reaction. The results remain the same 10, 20, and 90 d after the interference. Pharmacological experiments showed that trihexiphenidil (0.1 mg/kg i.p.) induced handedness reversion in 50% if the animals, whereas haloperidol (1 mg/kg i.p.) produced immobility, tremor, and autonomic symptoms. This effect remained the same in young as well as in old animals. We are also working on mathematical modelation. In this sense, preliminary reports about a model for synaptic modification in the framework of the Fukushima hypothesis is discussed. PMID:8871967

  6. How similar are the changes in neural activity resulting from mindfulness practice in contrast to spiritual practice?

    PubMed

    Barnby, Joseph M; Bailey, Neil W; Chambers, Richard; Fitzgerald, Paul B

    2015-11-01

    Meditation and spiritual practices are conceptually similar, eliciting similar subjective experiences, and both appear to provide similar benefits to the practicing individuals. However, no research has examined whether the mechanism of action leading to the beneficial effects is similar in both practices. This review examines the neuroimaging research that has focused on groups of meditating individuals, groups who engage in religious/spiritual practices, and research that has examined groups who perform both practices together, in an attempt to assess whether this may be the case. Differences in the balance of activity between the parietal and prefrontal cortical activation were found between the three groups. A relative prefrontal increase was reflective of mindfulness, which related to decreased anxiety and improved well-being. A relative decrease in activation of the parietal cortex, specifically the inferior parietal cortex, appears to be reflective of spiritual belief, whether within the context of meditation or not. Because mindful and spiritual practices differ in focus regarding the 'self' or 'other' (higher being), these observations about neurological components that reflect spirituality may continue work towards understanding how the definition of 'self' and 'other' is represented in the brain, and how this may be reflected in behaviour. Future research can begin to use cohorts of participants in mindfulness studies which are controlled for using the variable of spirituality to explicitly examine how functional and structural similarities and differences may arise. PMID:26172520

  7. Europe reaches the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-11-01

    A complex package of tests on new technologies was successfully performed during the cruise to the Moon, while the spacecraft was getting ready for the scientific investigations which will come next. These technologies pave the way for future planetary missions. SMART-1 reached its closest point to the lunar surface so far - its first ‘perilune’ - at an altitude of about 5000 kilometres at 18:48 Central European Time (CET) on 15 November. Just hours before that, at 06:24 CET, SMART-1’s solar-electric propulsion system (or ‘ion engine’) was started up and is now being fired for the delicate manoeuvre that will stabilise the spacecraft in lunar orbit. During this crucial phase, the engine will run almost continuously for the next four days, and then for a series of shorter burns, allowing SMART-1 to reach its final operational orbit by making ever-decreasing loops around the Moon. By about mid-January, SMART-1 will be orbiting the Moon at altitudes between 300 kilometres (over the lunar south pole) and 3000 kilometres (over the lunar north pole), beginning its scientific observations. The main purpose of the first part of the SMART-1 mission, concluding with the arrival at the Moon, was to demonstrate new spacecraft technologies. In particular, the solar-electric propulsion system was tested over a long spiralling trip to the Moon of more than 84 million kilometres. This is a distance comparable to an interplanetary cruise. For the first time ever, gravity-assist manoeuvres, which use the gravitational pull of the approaching Moon, were performed by an electrically-propelled spacecraft. The success of this test is important to the prospects for future interplanetary missions using ion engines. SMART-1 has demonstrated new techniques for eventually achieving autonomous spacecraft navigation. The OBAN experiment tested navigation software on ground computers to determine the exact position and velocity of the spacecraft using images of celestial objects taken

  8. Research Priorities in Correctional Nursing Practice: Results of a Three-Round Delphi Study.

    PubMed

    Schoenly, Lorry

    2015-10-01

    Correctional nursing has been recognized as a specialty since 1985, but research to describe and support nursing practice in the criminal justice system has been sparse. The development of a research agenda can stimulate the research necessary to provide an evidence base for specialty practice development. A three-round Delphi study was undertaken to elicit a prioritized list of research topics to guide future research efforts for meaningful results. Six predominant themes emerged from an analysis of top research questions generated by a panel of 18 correctional nursing experts. Research priorities include critical thinking and clinical judgment, competency and educational level, assessment, nursing protocols, effect on patient outcomes, and the environment of care. PMID:26285595

  9. Management of diabetes in Morocco: results of the International Diabetes Management Practices Study (IDMPS) – wave 5

    PubMed Central

    Chadli, Asmae; El Aziz, Siham; El Ansari, Nawal; Ajdi, Farida; Seqat, Mehdi; Latrech, Hanane; Belmejdoub, Ghizlaine

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The International Diabetes Mellitus Practice Study (IDMPS) is a 5-year survey documenting changes in diabetes treatment practices in developing countries. The primary objective of this survey was to assess the therapeutic management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in real-life medical practice. The secondary objectives were to evaluate the clinical management of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and to assess the proportion of all diabetic patients failing to reach the glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) <7% target. Methods: Data were analysed for 738 patients (240 with T1DM and 498 with T2DM) included in wave 5 of the IDMPS in Morocco in 2011. Results: Nearly two-thirds (61%) of T2DM patients were treated with oral glucose-lowering drugs (OGLDs) alone, 13.1% were treated with insulin alone and 23.3% were treated with OGLDs plus insulin. Insulin use was less frequent, was initiated later and involved a greater use of premixes versus basal/prandial schedules compared to other populations evaluated in the IDMPS. The majority (92.5%) of T1DM patients were treated with insulin alone and the remainder received insulin plus an OGLD. Insulin protocols included basal + prandial dosing (37.5%) and premix preparations (41.3%). The recommended target of HbA1c <7% was achieved by only 22.2% of T1DM patients and 26.8% of T2DM patients. More macrovascular but fewer microvascular complications were reported in T2DM compared to T1DM patients. Late complications increased with disease duration so that 20 years after diagnosis, 75.7% of T2DM patients were found to have at least one late complication. Conclusions: The clinical burden of diabetes is high in Morocco and the majority of patients do not achieve the recommended glycaemia target, suggesting that there is a huge gap between evidence-based diabetic management and real-life practice. Better education of patients and improved compliance with international recommendations are necessary to deliver a better quality of

  10. Reaching Beyond The Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Mariah; Rosenthal, L.; Gaughan, A.; Hopkins, E.

    2014-01-01

    Strawbridge Observatory at Haverford College is home to a undergraduate-led public observing program. Our program holds ~once monthly public events throughout the academic year that take advantage of eyepiece observing on our 16-inch and 12-inch telescopes as well as of the classroom, library, and projection system. These resources allow us to organize a variety of astronomy related activities that are engaging for individuals of all ages: accessible student talks, current film screenings and even arts and crafts for the families who attend with young children. These events aim to spark curiosity in others about scientific discovery and about the remarkable nature of the world in which we live. In addition to exciting local families about astronomy, this program has excited Haverford students from a range of disciplines about both science and education. Being entirely student led means that we are able to take the initiative in planning, coordinating and running all events, fostering an atmosphere of collaboration, experimentation and commitment amongst our volunteers. Additionally, this program is one of the few at Haverford that regularly reaches beyond the campus walls to promote and build relationships with the outside community. In light of this, our program presents a distinctive and enlightening opportunity for student volunteers: we get to use our scientific backgrounds to educate a general audience, while also learning from them about how to communicate and inspire in others the excitement we feel about the subject of astronomy. The work on this project has been supported by NSF AST-1151462.

  11. [Selective screening for hypercholesterolemia. Results from a screening model in general practice].

    PubMed

    Agner, E; Christensen, T E; Mahnfeldt, M S; Baastrup, A; Jacobsen, K; Jensen, S E

    1990-11-01

    At present, it appears to be probable that both dietary changes and medicinal treatment can reduce the risk of development of coronary disease in middle-aged men with moderately to severely raised blood cholesterol values. Internationally, the limits for cholesterol intervention are considerably lower than in Denmark. Extensive cholesterol screening is, however, very expensive and the identified persons with high cholesterol values will frequently be found in sex and age groups where the beneficial effect of intervention is probably limited. A model for selective cholesterol screening in high risk groups in general practice is described here. In 20 general practices, all of the men aged 45-59 years belonging to the practice were invited to examination of cholesterol and blood pressure. Plasma cholesterol was measured by means of a Reflotron (results are available within three minutes) and the blood pressure and tobacco consumption were registered. After this, the patient's own general practitioner calculated with each of the persons the risk for development of myocardial infarction within the next ten years and intervention could be commenced immediately. 41% of those invited came for examination. Out of these, 29% had cholesterol values greater than or equal to 7.0 mmol/l (Danish limiting value), 44% greater than or equal to 6.5 mmol/l (limiting value in the remainder of Western Europe), and 5% greater than or equal to 9.0 mmol/l (severe hypercholesterolaemia) while only 18% had completely normal cholesterol less than 5.2 mmol/l. In every practice, two patients on an average were found with severe hypercholesterolaemia greater than or equal to 9.0 mmol/l. 28% of the participants had at least two of the three risk factors investigated. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2238223

  12. Substance use and dietary practices among students attending alternative high schools: results from a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Substance use and poor dietary practices are prevalent among adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine frequency of substance use and associations between cigarette, alcohol and marijuana use and selected dietary practices, such as sugar-sweetened beverages, high-fat foods, fruits and vegetables, and frequency of fast food restaurant use among alternative high school students. Associations between multi-substance use and the same dietary practices were also examined. Methods A convenience sample of adolescents (n = 145; 61% minority, 52% male) attending six alternative high schools in the St Paul/Minneapolis metropolitan area completed baseline surveys. Students were participants in the Team COOL (Controlling Overweight and Obesity for Life) pilot study, a group randomized obesity prevention pilot trial. Mixed model multivariate analyses procedures were used to assess associations of interest. Results Daily cigarette smoking was reported by 36% of students. Cigarette smoking was positively associated with consumption of regular soda (p = 0.019), high-fat foods (p = 0.037), and fast food restaurant use (p = 0.002). Alcohol (p = 0.005) and marijuana use (p = 0.035) were positively associated with high-fat food intake. With increasing numbers of substances, a positive trend was observed in high-fat food intake (p = 0.0003). There were no significant associations between substance use and fruit and vegetable intake. Conclusions Alternative high school students who use individual substances as well as multiple substances may be at high risk of unhealthful dietary practices. Comprehensive health interventions in alternative high schools have the potential of reducing health-compromising behaviors that are prevalent among this group of students. This study adds to the limited research examining substance use and diet among at-risk youth. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01315743 PMID:21518437

  13. Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Guoxing; Mühlenbernd, Holger; Kenney, Mitchell; Li, Guixin; Zentgraf, Thomas; Zhang, Shuang

    2015-05-01

    Surfaces covered by ultrathin plasmonic structures—so-called metasurfaces—have recently been shown to be capable of completely controlling the phase of light, representing a new paradigm for the design of innovative optical elements such as ultrathin flat lenses, directional couplers for surface plasmon polaritons and wave plate vortex beam generation. Among the various types of metasurfaces, geometric metasurfaces, which consist of an array of plasmonic nanorods with spatially varying orientations, have shown superior phase control due to the geometric nature of their phase profile. Metasurfaces have recently been used to make computer-generated holograms, but the hologram efficiency remained too low at visible wavelengths for practical purposes. Here, we report the design and realization of a geometric metasurface hologram reaching diffraction efficiencies of 80% at 825 nm and a broad bandwidth between 630 nm and 1,050 nm. The 16-level-phase computer-generated hologram demonstrated here combines the advantages of a geometric metasurface for the superior control of the phase profile and of reflectarrays for achieving high polarization conversion efficiency. Specifically, the design of the hologram integrates a ground metal plane with a geometric metasurface that enhances the conversion efficiency between the two circular polarization states, leading to high diffraction efficiency without complicating the fabrication process. Because of these advantages, our strategy could be viable for various practical holographic applications.

  14. Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guoxing; Mühlenbernd, Holger; Kenney, Mitchell; Li, Guixin; Zentgraf, Thomas; Zhang, Shuang

    2015-04-01

    Surfaces covered by ultrathin plasmonic structures--so-called metasurfaces--have recently been shown to be capable of completely controlling the phase of light, representing a new paradigm for the design of innovative optical elements such as ultrathin flat lenses, directional couplers for surface plasmon polaritons and wave plate vortex beam generation. Among the various types of metasurfaces, geometric metasurfaces, which consist of an array of plasmonic nanorods with spatially varying orientations, have shown superior phase control due to the geometric nature of their phase profile. Metasurfaces have recently been used to make computer-generated holograms, but the hologram efficiency remained too low at visible wavelengths for practical purposes. Here, we report the design and realization of a geometric metasurface hologram reaching diffraction efficiencies of 80% at 825 nm and a broad bandwidth between 630 nm and 1,050 nm. The 16-level-phase computer-generated hologram demonstrated here combines the advantages of a geometric metasurface for the superior control of the phase profile and of reflectarrays for achieving high polarization conversion efficiency. Specifically, the design of the hologram integrates a ground metal plane with a geometric metasurface that enhances the conversion efficiency between the two circular polarization states, leading to high diffraction efficiency without complicating the fabrication process. Because of these advantages, our strategy could be viable for various practical holographic applications. PMID:25705870

  15. A method for obtaining practical flutter-suppression control laws using results of optimal control theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newson, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    The results of optimal control theory are used to synthesize a feedback filter. The feedback filter is used to force the output of the filtered frequency response to match that of a desired optimal frequency response over a finite frequency range. This matching is accomplished by employing a nonlinear programing algorithm to search for the coefficients of the feedback filter that minimize the error between the optimal frequency response and the filtered frequency response. The method is applied to the synthesis of an active flutter-suppression control law for an aeroelastic wind-tunnel model. It is shown that the resulting control law suppresses flutter over a wide range of subsonic Mach numbers. This is a promising method for synthesizing practical control laws using the results of optimal control theory.

  16. Neural Correlates of Reach Errors

    PubMed Central

    Hashambhoy, Yasmin; Rane, Tushar; Shadmehr, Reza

    2005-01-01

    Reach errors may be broadly classified into errors arising from unpredictable changes in target location, called target errors, and errors arising from miscalibration of internal models, called execution errors. Execution errors may be caused by miscalibration of dynamics (e.g.. when a force field alters limb dynamics) or by miscalibration of kinematics (e.g., when prisms alter visual feedback). While all types of errors lead to similar online corrections, we found that the motor system showed strong trial-by-trial adaptation in response to random execution errors but not in response to random target errors. We used fMRI and a compatible robot to study brain regions involved in processing each kind of error. Both kinematic and dynamic execution errors activated regions along the central and the post-central sulci and in lobules V, VI, and VIII of the cerebellum, making these areas possible sites of plastic changes in internal models for reaching. Only activity related to kinematic errors extended into parietal area 5. These results are inconsistent with the idea that kinematics and dynamics of reaching are computed in separate neural entities. In contrast, only target errors caused increased activity in the striatum and the posterior superior parietal lobule. The cerebellum and motor cortex were as strongly activated as with execution errors. These findings indicate a neural and behavioral dissociation between errors that lead to switching of behavioral goals, and errors that lead to adaptation of internal models of limb dynamics and kinematics. PMID:16251440

  17. Impact of agricultural management practices on DOC leaching - results of a long-term lysimeter study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, A.; Ollesch, G.; Seeger, J.; Meißner, R.; Rode, M.

    2009-04-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fluxes are recently increasing in surface waters of humid climate regions. Due to its substantial importance for leaching processes, aquatic foodwebs, and drinking water purification a better understanding of sources and pathways of DOC is needed. Therefore this study aims to analyse and simulate DOC fluxes in agricultural ecosystems with selected crop rotations. A data set of 24 lysimeters of the UFZ Lysimeter station at Falkenberg (Saxony-Anhalt) covering nine years of DOC investigation has been selected and examined. The data set covers a wide range of climatic conditions with deviating management practices for grasslands and agricultural crop rotations. The monthly DOC concentrations assessed in the leached water range from 2.4 to 34.1 mg /l. DOC concentrations depend on temperature, precipitation and discharge. The type of crop grown on the lysimeter is an important trigger for DOC leaching - especially lysimeters used as pasture, or planted with rape and carrots exhibit high DOC concentrations. Management practices and fertilizer application modify the leaching of DOC and offer potentials to reduce DOC losses. The results form the basis of further process simulation studies and upscaling of the results to the small catchment scale.

  18. Enhanced recovery for colorectal surgery: Practical hints, results and future challenges

    PubMed Central

    Gravante, Gianpiero; Elmussareh, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocols are now achieving worldwide diffusion in both university and district hospitals with special interest in colorectal surgery. The optimization of the patient’s preoperative clinical conditions, the careful intraoperative administration of fluids and drugs and the postoperative encouragement to resume the normal physiological functions as early as possible has produced results in a large amounts of studies. These approaches successfully challenged long-standing and well-established perioperative managements and finally achieved the status of gold standard treatments for the perioperative management of uncomplicated colorectal surgery. Even more important, it seems that the clinical improvement of the patient’s clinical management through ERAS protocols is now reaching his best outcomes (length of stay of 4-6 d after the operation) and therefore any further measures add little to the results already established (i.e., the adjunct of laparoscopic surgery to ERAS). Still dedicated meetings and courses around the world are exploring new aspects including the improvement the preoperative nutrition status to provide the energy necessary to face the surgical stress, the preoperative individuation of special requirements that could be properly addressed before the date of surgery and therefore would reduce the number of unnecessary days spent in hospital once fully recovered (i.e., rehabilitation, social discharges), and finally the development of an important web of out-of-hours direct access in order to individuate alarm symptoms in those patients at risk of complications that could prompt an early readmission. PMID:23293732

  19. [Implementation of Study Results in Guidelines and Adherence to Guidelines in Clinical Practice].

    PubMed

    Waldfahrer, F

    2016-04-01

    Guidelines were introduced in hospital and practice-based otorhinolaryngology in the 1990s, and have been undergoing further development ever since. There are currently 20 guidelines on file at the German Society of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Head and Neck Surgery. The Society has cooperated in a further 34 guidelines. The quality of the guidelines has been continually improved by concrete specifications put forward by the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany [Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Wissenschaftlichen Medizinischen Fachgesellschaften e.V.]. Since increasing digitalisation has made access to scientific publications quicker and more simple, relevant study results can be incorporated in guidelines more easily today than in the analogue world. S2e and S3 guidelines must be based on a formal literature search with subsequent evaluation of the evidence. The consensus procedure for S2k guidelines is also regulated. However, the implementation of guidelines in routine medical practice must still be considered inadequate, and there is still a considerable need for improvement in adherence to these guidelines. PMID:27128403

  20. Information preferences and practices among people living with HIV/AIDS: results from a nationwide survey

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Timothy P.; Palmer, Carole L.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to reach many segments of the diverse HIV/AIDS community and broaden understanding of how information can better assist people living with HIV/AIDS. Methods: Data were collected through a self-administered mail survey distributed nationwide at clinics, drug treatment centers, and other AIDS service organizations. Results: The 662 respondents preferred getting information from people—including health professionals, family, and friends—and considered people the most trustworthy, useful, understandable, and available information sources. Forty-three percent selected doctors as their most preferred source. The Internet was not rated highly overall but was preferred by those with more education or living in metropolitan areas. Seventy-two percent said they actively search for HIV/AIDS-related information, and 80% said they give advice or tell others where to get such information. However, 71% agreed that it is easy to feel overwhelmed by information, and 31% agreed that not seeking information can be beneficial. Conclusions: Overall, information seeking is an important activity for this sample of people living with HIV/AIDS. Many sources are widely available to them but, together, can be overwhelming. They rely on health professionals far more than print or media sources and receive encouragement and support from family and friends. PMID:16239938

  1. Professional expertise of occupational therapists in community practice: results of an Ontario survey.

    PubMed

    Lysack, C L; Stadnyk, R; Paterson, M; McLeod, K; Krefting, L

    1995-08-01

    This paper presents findings of a study, The Community Practice Project, that examined the situation of occupational therapists practising in community based settings in the province of Ontario, Canada in 1992. In addition to providing a profile of the typical community based therapist, the study considered issues relating to: the principal roles in places of employment; specific job skills and areas of professional expertise utilized in the community; and how well occupational therapists; formal training prepared them for their community oriented roles and tasks. Results indicate that great opportunities exist and job satisfaction is high in community settings. Nonetheless, therapists feel inadequately prepared for the new role of consultant and its concomitant skills in a field that has re-oriented itself toward the client and is increasingly focused on health promotion and disability prevention. PMID:10144601

  2. Parent education after separation: results from a multi-site study on best practices.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Brad; Bacon, Brenda

    2002-01-01

    Although parent education after separation in Canada is relatively new, most provinces and territories now have some type of program that provides separating parents with information on their children's needs, co-parenting options, and strategies for improving communication. A 1999-2000 survey of parents in 10 such program sites throughout Canada: (a) demonstrates a high level of parent satisfaction with the programs, (b) chronicles benefits related to reduced conflict and improved child well-being 3 to 4 months following program attendance, and (c) identifies several implications for best practices. Results of this study suggest that parent education is but one program within a network of services needed to support both parents and children after separation. PMID:14664107

  3. Homeopathic medical practice: Long-term results of a cohort study with 3981 patients

    PubMed Central

    Witt, Claudia M; Lüdtke, Rainer; Baur, Roland; Willich, Stefan N

    2005-01-01

    Background On the range of diagnoses, course of treatment, and long-term outcome in patients who chose to receive homeopathic medical treatment very little is known. We investigated homeopathic practice in an industrialized country under everyday conditions. Methods In a prospective, multicentre cohort study with 103 primary care practices with additional specialisation in homeopathy in Germany and Switzerland, data from all patients (age >1 year) consulting the physician for the first time were observed. The main outcome measures were: Patient and physician assessments (numeric rating scales from 0 to 10) and quality of life at baseline, and after 3, 12, and 24 months. Results A total of 3,981 patients were studied including 2,851 adults (29% men, mean age 42.5 ± 13.1 years; 71% women, 39.9 ± 12.4 years) and 1,130 children (52% boys, 6.5 ± 3.9 years; 48% girls, 7.0 ± 4.3 years). Ninety-seven percent of all diagnoses were chronic with an average duration of 8.8 ± 8 years. The most frequent diagnoses were allergic rhinitis in men, headache in women, and atopic dermatitis in children. Disease severity decreased significantly (p < 0.001) between baseline and 24 months (adults from 6.2 ± 1.7 to 3.0 ± 2.2; children from 6.1 ± 1.8 to 2.2 ± 1.9). Physicians' assessments yielded similar results. For adults and young children, major improvements were observed for quality of life, whereas no changes were seen in adolescents. Younger age and more severe disease at baseline were factors predictive of better therapeutic success. Conclusion Disease severity and quality of life demonstrated marked and sustained improvements following homeopathic treatment period. Our findings indicate that homeopathic medical therapy may play a beneficial role in the long-term care of patients with chronic diseases. PMID:16266440

  4. The BirthPlace collaborative practice model: results from the San Diego Birth Center Study.

    PubMed

    Swartz; Jackson; Lang; Ecker; Ganiats; Dickinson; Nguyen

    1998-07-01

    birth center and $5,535 for the traditional care group. Final results based on the full study sample (full data available February 1998) details of payor costs such as provider, facility, NICU, and ancillary along with costs from the health care system perspective and patient satisfaction results will be presented.Conclusion: Current results suggest similar morbidity and mortality between the birth center program and traditional care groups, with less resource utilization translating to lower costs in the collaborative practice model. Results suggest that collaborative practice using a freestanding birth center as an adjunct to an integrated perinatal health care system may provide a quality, lower-cost alternative for the provision of perinatal services. PMID:10838392

  5. Arctic Landscape Within Reach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image, one of the first captured by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander, shows flat ground strewn with tiny pebbles and marked by small-scale polygonal cracking, a pattern seen widely in Martian high latitudes and also observed in permafrost terrains on Earth. The polygonal cracking is believed to have resulted from seasonal contraction and expansion of surface ice.

    Phoenix touched down on the Red Planet at 4:53 p.m. Pacific Time (7:53 p.m. Eastern Time), May 25, 2008, in an arctic region called Vastitas Borealis, at 68 degrees north latitude, 234 degrees east longitude.

    This image was acquired at the Phoenix landing site by the Surface Stereo Imager on day 1 of the mission on the surface of Mars, or Sol 0, after the May 25, 2008, landing.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. Oncolytic virotherapy reaches adolescence.

    PubMed

    Hammill, Adrienne M; Conner, Joseph; Cripe, Timothy P

    2010-12-15

    Lytic viruses kill cells as a consequence of their normal replication life cycle. The idea of harnessing viruses to kill cancer cells arose over a century ago, before viruses were even discovered, from medical case reports of infections associated with cancer remissions. Since then, there has been no shortage of hype, hope, or fear regarding the prospect of oncolytic virotherapy for cancer. Early developments in the field included encouraging antitumor efficacy both in animal studies in the 1920s-1940s and in human clinical trials in the 1950s-1970s. Despite its long-standing history, oncolytic virotherapy was an idea ahead of its time. Without needed advances in molecular biology, virology, immunology, and clinical research ethics, early clinical trials resulted in infectious complications and were fraught with controversial research conduct, so that enthusiasm in the medical community waned. Oncolytic virotherapy is now experiencing a major growth spurt, having sustained numerous laboratory advances and undergone multiple encouraging adult clinical trials, and is now witnessing the emergence of pediatric trials. Here we review the history and salient biology of the field, including preclinical and clinical data, with a special emphasis on those agents now being tested in pediatric cancer patients. PMID:20734404

  7. Mexican agencies reach teenagers.

    PubMed

    Brito Lemus, R; Beamish, J

    1992-08-01

    The Gente Joven project of the Mexican Foundation for Family Planning (MEXFAM) trains young volunteers in 19 cities to spread messages about sexually transmitted diseases and population growth to their peers. They also distribute condoms and spermicides. It also uses films and materials to spread its messages. The project would like to influence young men's behavior, but the Latin image of machismo poses a big challenge. It would like to become more responsible toward pregnancy prevention. About 50% of adolescents have sexual intercourse, but few use contraceptives resulting in a high adolescent pregnancy rate. Many of these pregnant teenagers choose not to marry. Adolescent pregnancy leads to girls leaving school, few marketable skills, and rearing children alone. Besides women who began childbearing as a teenager have 1.5 times more children than other women. Male involvement in pregnancy prevention should improve these statistics. As late as 1973, the Health Code banned promotion and sales of contraceptives, but by 1992 about 50% of women of reproductive age use contraceptives. The Center for the Orientation of Adolescents has organized 8 Young Men's Clubs in Mexico City to involve male teenagers more in family planning and to develop self-confidence. It uses a holistic approach to their development through discussions with their peers. A MEXFAM study shows that young men are not close with their fathers who tend to exude a machismo attitude, thus the young men do not have a role model for responsible sexual behavior. MEXFAM's work is cut out for them, however, since the same study indicates that 50% of the young men believe it is fine to have 1 girlfriend and 33% think women should earn more than men. A teenager volunteer reports, however, that more boys have been coming to him for contraception and information than girls in 1992 while in other years girls outnumbered the boys. PMID:12317721

  8. An analysis of current pharmaceutical industry practices for making clinical trial results publicly accessible.

    PubMed

    Viereck, Christopher; Boudes, Pol

    2009-07-01

    We compared the clinical trial transparency practices of US/European pharma by analyzing the publicly-accessible clinical trial results databases of major drugs (doripenem, varenicline, lapatinib, zoledronic acid, adalimumab, insulin glargine, raltegravir, gefitinib). We evaluated their accessibility and utility from the perspective of the lay public. We included databases on company websites, http://www.clinicalstudyresults.org, http://www.clinicaltrials.gov and http://clinicaltrials.ifpma.org. Only 2 of 8 company homepages provide a direct link to the results. While the use of common terms on company search engines led to results for 5 of the 8 drugs following 2-4 clicks, no logical pathway was identified. The number of clinical trials in the databases was inconsistent: 0 for doripenem to 45 for insulin glargine. Results from all phases of clinical development were provided for 2 (insulin glargine and gefitinib) of the 8 drugs. Analyses of phase III reports revealed that most critical elements of the International Conference of Harmonization E3 Structure and Content of Synopses for Clinical Trial Reports were provided for 2 (varenicline, lapatinib) of the 8 drugs. For adalimumab and zoledronic acid, only citations were provided, which the lay public would be unable to access. None of the clinical trial reports was written in lay language. User-friendly support, when provided, was of marginal benefit. Only 1 of the databases (gefitinib) permitted the user to find the most recently updated reports. None of the glossaries included explanations for adverse events or statistical methodology. In conclusion, our study indicates that the public faces significant hurdles in finding and understanding clinical trial results databases. PMID:19348964

  9. Practice.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    Practice refers to a characteristic way professionals use common standards to customize solutions to a range of problems. Practice includes (a) standards for outcomes and processes that are shared with one's colleagues, (b) a rich repertoire of skills grounded in diagnostic acumen, (c) an ability to see the actual and the ideal and work back and forth between them, (d) functional artistry, and (e) learning by doing that transcends scientific rationality. Communities of practice, such as dental offices, are small groups that work together in interlocking roles to achieve these ends. PMID:19413050

  10. Daylighting practices of the architectural industry (baseline results of a national survey)

    SciTech Connect

    Hattrup, M.P.

    1990-05-01

    A national survey of over 300 commercial design architects was conducted to develop baseline information on their knowledge, perceptions, and use of daylighting in commercial building designs. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted the survey for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Building and Community Systems (BCS). In the survey daylighting was defined as the intentional use of natural light as a partial substitute for artificially generated light. The results suggested that architects need to be educated about the true benefits of daylighting and the impacts it can have on a building's energy performance. Educational programs that will increase the architects' understanding and awareness of modern daylighting technologies and practices should be developed by utilities, stage agencies, and the federal government. If more architects can be made aware of the true effectiveness and positive attributes of daylighting systems and technologies, daylighting may be used in more commercial buildings. The results of the survey show that the more familiar architects feel they are with daylighting, the more they use daylighting. 3 refs., 19 tabs.

  11. News Outreach: Polish physics club reaches out with practical demonstrations Networking: Online workspace helps teachers to share ideas Mauritius: Telescope inspires science specification Fusion: EFDA sparks resources Olympiad: British team enjoys success at the International Physics Olympiad 2009 Nanoscience: 'Quietest' building in the world opens in Bristol, UK Conference: University of Leicester hosts the GIREP EPEC 2009 international conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-11-01

    Outreach: Polish physics club reaches out with practical demonstrations Networking: Online workspace helps teachers to share ideas Mauritius: Telescope inspires science specification Fusion: EFDA sparks resources Olympiad: British team enjoys success at the International Physics Olympiad 2009 Nanoscience: 'Quietest' building in the world opens in Bristol, UK Conference: University of Leicester hosts the GIREP EPEC 2009 international conference

  12. Practices that Support the Transition to Public Preschool Programs: Results from a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rous, Beth; Hallam, Rena; McCormick, Katherine; Cox, Megan

    2010-01-01

    The number of children participating in public school preschool programs has steadily increased over the last two decades. While the use of specific practices to support the transition to kindergarten has received a great deal of attention, there are little data on the use of transition practices by public school preschool teachers to support…

  13. Implementation Integrity of Practice-Based Coaching: Preliminary Results from the BEST in CLASS Efficacy Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Kevin S.; Conroy, Maureen A.; Vo, Abigail; Ladwig, Crystal

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the practice-based coaching model used in BEST in CLASS, a Tier-2 classroom-based intervention comprised of evidence-based instructional practices designed to prevent and ameliorate the chronic problem behaviors of young children at risk for the development of emotional/behavioral disorders. Following a…

  14. Credit for Prior Learning Practices: Results of the AACRAO December 2014 60 Second Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers (AACRAO), 2015

    2015-01-01

    The American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers (AACRAO) initiated a series of surveys designed to capture member institutional practice snapshots in 60 seconds or less. The December 2014 "AACRAO 60 Second Survey" asked respondents to indicate their institutions' credit for prior learning practices (CPL). To…

  15. Embedding evidence-based practice among nursing undergraduates: Results from a pilot study.

    PubMed

    André, Beate; Aune, Anne G; Brænd, Jorunn A

    2016-05-01

    Evidence-based practice is currently one of the most important developments in health care. Research in nursing science is rapidly growing; however, translating the knowledge based on this research into clinical practice is often hampered, and may be dependent on reflective skills. The aim of this study was to see how undergraduate nursing students in nursing should increase their skills and knowledge related to evidence-based practice through participation in clinical research projects. A qualitative approach was used in collecting and analyzing the data. Students participated in a pilot clinical research project and a received guidance related to their bachelor thesis. After the project was completed, all students filled in a questionnaire. The students' motivation to participate in this study was reported to be high, but they reported low knowledge related to evidence-based practice. All students reported that their attitude towards evidence-based practice changed in a positive direction during their participation in the project. Evidence-based practice influenced nursing practices by putting more focus on critical thinking, increasing pride and giving a sense of ownership in the clinical field. The curricula and the pedagogical perspectives in nursing education can influence the attitude towards evidence-based practice and skills among nursing bachelor students. PMID:27235563

  16. Core Practices for Teaching History: The Results of a Delphi Panel Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogo, Bradley

    2014-01-01

    Recent education literature and research has focused on identifying effective core teaching practices to inform and help shape teacher education and professional development. Although a rich literature on the teaching and learning of history has continued to develop over the past decade, core practice research has largely overlooked…

  17. What Is Evidence-Based Practice? Research-to-Results Brief. Publication #2007-14

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metz, Allison J. R.; Espiritu, Rachele; Moore, Kristin A.

    2007-01-01

    This brief represents part 1 in a series on fostering the adoption of evidence-based practices in out-of-school time programs. The lag between discovering effective practices and using them "on the ground" can be unnecessarily long, sometimes taking 15 to 20 years! The purpose of this brief is to provide practitioners with a better understanding…

  18. Design and Practice on Metadata Service System of Surveying and Mapping Results Based on Geonetwork

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zha, Z.; Zhou, X.

    2011-08-01

    Based on the analysis and research on the current geographic information sharing and metadata service,we design, develop and deploy a distributed metadata service system based on GeoNetwork covering more than 30 nodes in provincial units of China.. By identifying the advantages of GeoNetwork, we design a distributed metadata service system of national surveying and mapping results. It consists of 31 network nodes, a central node and a portal. Network nodes are the direct system metadata source, and are distributed arround the country. Each network node maintains a metadata service system, responsible for metadata uploading and management. The central node harvests metadata from network nodes using OGC CSW 2.0.2 standard interface. The portal shows all metadata in the central node, provides users with a variety of methods and interface for metadata search or querying. It also provides management capabilities on connecting the central node and the network nodes together. There are defects with GeoNetwork too. Accordingly, we made improvement and optimization on big-amount metadata uploading, synchronization and concurrent access. For metadata uploading and synchronization, by carefully analysis the database and index operation logs, we successfully avoid the performance bottlenecks. And with a batch operation and dynamic memory management solution, data throughput and system performance are significantly improved; For concurrent access, , through a request coding and results cache solution, query performance is greatly improved. To smoothly respond to huge concurrent requests, a web cluster solution is deployed. This paper also gives an experiment analysis and compares the system performance before and after improvement and optimization. Design and practical results have been applied in national metadata service system of surveying and mapping results. It proved that the improved GeoNetwork service architecture can effectively adaptive for distributed deployment

  19. State Financial Control Practices and Public Universities: Results of a National Study. Revised. ASHE 1984 Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkwein, J. Fredericks

    Results of a national study of budgetary control imposed upon 88 Ph.D. granting public universities by 49 state governments (excluding Alaska) are presented. A comparative analysis is provided of financial control practices in each state, along with an index that places these practices along a continuum. Information is included on the nature and…

  20. Analysis of hemoglobin electrophoresis results and physicians investigative practices in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Mehdi, Syed Riaz; Al Dahmash, Badr Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Riyadh and central province falls in a moderate prevalent zone of hemoglobinopathies in Saudi Arabia. However, it has been observed that the physicians working in Saudi Arabia invariably advise all cases of anemia for hemoglobin electrophoresis (HE). The present work was carried out to study the yield of the HE in Riyadh and the investigative practices of the physicians advising HE. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: The study was carried out in the hospitals of King Saud University from 2009 to 2011 in order to assess the yield of HE in referred cases of clinical anemia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1073 cases divided in two groups of males and females had undergone complete blood count and red blood cell morphology. Cellulose acetate HE was performed and all the positive results were reconfirmed on the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results were analyzed for the type of hemoglobinopathies. For statistical analysis Statistical Package for Social Sciences 15 version (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) was used. RESULTS: A total of 405 males and 668 females blood samples were included in the present study. 116 (28.5%) males and 167 (25%) females showed an abnormal pattern on HE. The incidence of beta thalassemia trait was higher in females while sickle cell trait was predominantly seen in males. Red cell indices were reduced considerably in thalassemias, but were unaffected in sickle cell disorders, except those which had concurrent alpha trait. The total yield of HE was 26.6% which was much less than expected. CONCLUSION: The physicians are advised to rule out iron deficiency and other common causes of anemia before investigating the cases for hemoglobinopathies, which employs time consuming and expensive tests of HE and HPLC. PMID:24339548

  1. Summarising and validating test accuracy results across multiple studies for use in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Riley, Richard D; Ahmed, Ikhlaaq; Debray, Thomas P A; Willis, Brian H; Noordzij, J Pieter; Higgins, Julian P T; Deeks, Jonathan J

    2015-06-15

    Following a meta-analysis of test accuracy studies, the translation of summary results into clinical practice is potentially problematic. The sensitivity, specificity and positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values of a test may differ substantially from the average meta-analysis findings, because of heterogeneity. Clinicians thus need more guidance: given the meta-analysis, is a test likely to be useful in new populations, and if so, how should test results inform the probability of existing disease (for a diagnostic test) or future adverse outcome (for a prognostic test)? We propose ways to address this. Firstly, following a meta-analysis, we suggest deriving prediction intervals and probability statements about the potential accuracy of a test in a new population. Secondly, we suggest strategies on how clinicians should derive post-test probabilities (PPV and NPV) in a new population based on existing meta-analysis results and propose a cross-validation approach for examining and comparing their calibration performance. Application is made to two clinical examples. In the first example, the joint probability that both sensitivity and specificity will be >80% in a new population is just 0.19, because of a low sensitivity. However, the summary PPV of 0.97 is high and calibrates well in new populations, with a probability of 0.78 that the true PPV will be at least 0.95. In the second example, post-test probabilities calibrate better when tailored to the prevalence in the new population, with cross-validation revealing a probability of 0.97 that the observed NPV will be within 10% of the predicted NPV. PMID:25800943

  2. Estimation of Energy Savings Resulting From the BestPractices Program, Fiscal Year 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Truett, LF

    2003-09-24

    Within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) has a vision of a future with clean, abundant, reliable, and affordable energy. Within EERE, the Industrial Technologies Program (ITP), formerly the Office of Industrial Technologies, works in partnership with industry to increase energy efficiency, improve environmental performance, and boost productivity. The BestPractices (BP) Program, within ITP, works directly with industries to encourage energy efficiency. The purpose of the BP Program is to improve energy utilization and management practices in the industrial sector. The program targets distinct technology areas, including pumps, process heating, steam, compressed air, motors, and insulation. This targeting is accomplished with a variety of delivery channels, such as computer software, printed publications, Internet-based resources, technical training, technical assessments, and other technical assistance. A team of program evaluators from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked to evaluate the fiscal year 2002 (FY02) energy savings of the program. The ORNL assessment enumerates levels of program activity for technology areas across delivery channels. In addition, several mechanisms that target multiple technology areas--e.g., Plant-wide Assessments (PWAs), the ''Energy Matters'' newsletter, and special events--are also evaluated for their impacts. When possible, the assessment relies on published reports and the Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) database for estimates of energy savings that result from particular actions. Data were also provided by ORNL, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Project Performance Corporation (PPC), the ITP Clearinghouse at Washington State University, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Energetics Inc., and the Industrial Technologies Program Office. The estimated energy savings in FY02 resulting from activities of the BP Program are almost

  3. Design considerations &practical results with long duration systems for manned flight: cryogenic helium and superpressure balloons.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nott, J.

    The paper will describe two manned flights made in polyethylene zero pressure balloons with liquid helium carried to provide all in-flight buoyancy adjustment. These balloons were of 1,600 and 8,000 cubic meter volumes. Two flights have been made, both lasting 24 hours. The first flight cruised and flew through the sunset at 18,000 feet / 5,500 meters. The second flight using a pressurized cabin included flying through the night at about 32,000 feet / 10,000 meters. These flights highlight a wide range of theoretical and practical design concerns. For a craft carrying a crew, structural integrity and manageability &control in flight are naturally important. These flights demonstrated the complete feasibility of this system which will be described in detail. In addition the author constructed a 1,600 cubic meter pumpkin balloon used for a two day fight across Australia with a crew of two. Considerable problems were discovered during construction with distortion of the balloon. Although this work was done some time ago, the results have not been published in detail. The reason for publications at this time is that the work is very relevant to the problems recently encountered with the ULDB pumpkin design. The author, who is a physicist as well as a member of the Society of Experimental Test Pilots, was the principal desig ner as well as pilot of these craft. Ends...

  4. [Formalized dietary advice in hypercholesterolemia. Results in 110 men diagnosed by selective screening in general practice].

    PubMed

    Agner, E; Christensen, T E; Jacobsen, K; Baastrup, A; Mahnfeldt, M S; Jensen, S E

    1990-11-01

    In connection with a screening investigation for high blood cholesterol in middle-aged men in general practice in the Municipality of Copenhagen, all participants with cholesterol values greater than or equal to 7.5 mmol/l were given brief advice by their own general practitioner and were invited to come for fasting blood lipid tests approximately ten days later. In cases with continued cholesterol greater than or equal to 6.8 mmol/l, the participants together with wives or partners were invited to formalized dietary advice in small groups. Already before the formalized dietary advice, an average decrease in serum cholesterol of 10% was observed. This was attributed to biological variation, absence of fasting, the degree of error between the measuring methods and also a genuine decrease on the basis of the brief dietary advice by the general practitioner. On control after dietary advice, a further decrease in cholesterol of 15% was observed while low density lipoprotein cholesterol fell by 20% and triglycerides by 23%. These decreases must be considered to result mainly from the dietary advice. It is concluded that a single but professional session of dietary advice in small groups and with involvement of the wives or partners is an effective method of treatment in hypercholesterolaemia. If the decrease in cholesterol obtained can be maintained, the literature suggests that the risk of development of ischaemic heart disease during the subsequent 5-7 years is reduced by 20-30%. PMID:2238224

  5. Pelvic floor complaints in gastroenterology practice: results of a survey in the netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Nicolai, Melianthe P J; Fidder, Herma H; Bekker, Milou D; Putter, Hein; Pelger, Rob C M; Elzevier, Henk W

    2012-01-01

    Objective The pelvic floor is an integrated structure; dysfunctions may lead to a wide range of symptoms, involving voiding, defecation and sexual functioning (SF). Functional symptoms such as constipation and lower abdominal pain are often caused by pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD), and they highly impact the quality of life. Multiple specialists are responsible for a specific part of the pelvic floor, but its treatment asks for a holistic approach. The authors are still unaware of gastroenterologists' knowledge on PFD or whether they are addressing pelvic floor complaints in their daily practice. Design A 42-itemed anonymous questionnaire was mailed to all 402 members of the Dutch Society of Gastroenterology (gastroenterologists and residents-in-training). Results 169 (42%) questionnaires were analysed. Most gastroenterologists address lower urinary tract symptoms in their history-taking, 92% in female patients and 84% in male patients. When patients indicate irritable bowel syndrome-like complaints, more than 60% of the physicians inquire about SF to their female patients, compared with 38% inquiries to male patients (p<0.001). A reason not to inquire about SF is a lack of knowledge about female and male sexuality (19% and 23%, respectively). Forty-six per cent of the respondents regard it rather important to receive more training on PFD in male patients versus 61% in female patients. Conclusion Awareness of PFD is not yet routinely integrated into the history taken by gastroenterologists. PMID:24124626

  6. Bioactive maca (Lepidium meyenii) alkamides are a result of traditional Andean postharvest drying practices.

    PubMed

    Esparza, Eliana; Hadzich, Antonella; Kofer, Waltraud; Mithöfer, Axel; Cosio, Eric G

    2015-08-01

    Maca, Lepidium meyenii Walpers (Brassicaceae), is an annual herbaceous plant native to the high plateaus of the Peruvian central Andes. Its underground storage hypocotyls have been a traditional medicinal agent and dietary staple since pre-Columbian times. Reported properties include energizing and fertility-enhancing effects. Published reports have focused on the benzylalkamides (macamides) present in dry hypocotyls as one of the main bioactive components. Macamides are secondary amides formed by benzylamine and a fatty acid moiety, with varying hydrocarbon chain lengths and degree of unsaturation. Although it has been assumed that they are usually present in fresh undamaged tissues, analyses show them to be essentially absent from them. However, hypocotyls dried by traditional Andean postharvest practices or industrial oven drying contain up to 800μgg(-1) dry wt (2.3μmolg(-1) dry wt) of macamides. In this study, the generation of macamides and their putative precursors were studied during nine-week traditional drying trials at 4200m altitude and in ovens under laboratory conditions. Freeze-thaw cycles in the open field during drying result in tissue maceration and release of free fatty acids from storage and membrane lipids up to levels of 1200μgg(-1) dry wt (4.3μmolg(-1) dry wt). Endogenous metabolism of the isothiocyanates generated from glucosinolate hydrolysis during drying results in maximal benzylamine values of 4300μgg(-1) dry wt (40.2μmolg(-1) dry wt). Pearson correlation coefficients of the accumulation profiles of benzylamine and free fatty acid to that of macamides showed good values of 0.898 and 0.934, respectively, suggesting that both provide sufficient substrate for amide synthesis during the drying process. PMID:25817836

  7. Reaching street youth on substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Lowry, C

    1995-01-01

    Street children and youth involved in substance abuse are often felt to be the hardest people in the world to reach with counselling, as well as those most obviously in need of it. The idea of making a work of art that both captures their imagination and steers them towards a safer way of life may seem more like wishful thinking than a practical proposal, but the author explains how it is done. PMID:7794447

  8. Foreign exam management in practice: seamless access to foreign images and results in a regional environment.

    PubMed

    Nagels, Jason; MacDonald, David; Parker, David

    2015-04-01

    A challenge for many clinical users is that a patient may receive a diagnostic imaging (DI) service at a number of hospitals or private imaging clinics. The DI services that patients receive at other locations could be clinically relevant to current treatments, but typically, there is no seamless method for a clinical user to access longitudinal DI results for their patient. Radiologists, and other specialists that are intensive users of image data, require seamless ingestion of foreign exams into the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) to achieve full clinical value. Most commonly, a clinical user will depend on the patient to bring in a CD that contains imaging from another location. However, a number of issues can arise when using this type of solution. Firstly, a CD will not provide the clinical user with the full longitudinal record of the patient. Secondly, a CD often will not contain the report associated with the images. Finally, a CD is not seamless, due to the need to manually import the contents of the CD into the local PACS. In order to overcome these limitations, and provide clinical users with a greater benefit related to a patient's longitudinal DI history, the implementation of foreign exam management (FEM) at the local site level is required. This paper presents the experiences of FEM in practice. By leveraging industry standards and edge devices to support FEM, multiple sites with disparate PACS and radiology information system (RIS) vendors are able to seamlessly ingest foreign exams within their local PACS as if they are local exams. PMID:25273504

  9. Renegotiating cultural practices as a result of HIV in the eastern region of Malawi.

    PubMed

    Banda, Felix; Kunkeyani, Thokozani E

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that HIV awareness is very high among Malawians and yet infection rates are rising. Local cultural practices have been identified as contributing to this contradictory situation. Using data from 12 focus-group discussions collected in Balaka, Zomba, Machinga and Mangochi, the paper explores the reformulation of nine cultural practices as a preventive measure against HIV. The study reveals that cultural practices that involve sexual acts for completion are mediated through condoms and HIV tests. The study also shows that traditional herbs known for healing ailments are repurposed to symbolise sexual acts. We conclude that the idea of repurposing offers an avenue in which initiation and cleansing rites that involve sexual acts are replaced by other semiotics such as a traditional medicine called mtela. We also conclude that the modifications to cultural practices do not indicate complete abandonment of associated traditions, rather, they constitute the renegotiation of cultural practices and meanings associated with particular rites of passage. Lastly, we propose that a comprehensive prevention programme needs to be part of a wider national HIV-prevention effort combining a women and child rights and empowerment agenda and, critically, lifestyle lessons in a process of cultural renegotiation. PMID:25138154

  10. Assessing Rates of Inadequate Feeding Practices Among Children 12-24 months: Results from a Cross-Sectional Survey in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Thet, May Me; Richards, Leah-Mari; Sudhinaraset, May; Paw, Naw Eh Thi; Diamond-Smith, Nadia

    2016-08-01

    Objectives To ensure proper nutrition and optimal health outcomes, it is critical that infants are exclusively breastfed (0-6 months) and then receive adequate feeding from 6-23 months (breastfeeding and frequent feedings of complementary foods). Despite policies and guidelines on adequate feeding in Myanmar, past research has found low rates of adequately fed infants 0-11 months and little is known about the adequacy of feeding practices for children 12-23 months. The aim of this study is to understand the feeding practices of children aged 0-24 months in Myanmar and maternal characteristics associated with adequate feeding practices. Methods This study examines the rates of adequately fed infants and young children (0-23 months) in hard-to-reach townships in Myanmar from a cross-sectional, multistage cluster survey. Survey data on nutritional practices were collected from 489 mothers. Data were analyzed using multivariate regressions. Results We found that 41.8 % of infants under 6 months were exclusively breastfed, 63.2 % of those aged 6-11 months were adequately fed, and 10.3 % of 12-23 month-olds were adequately fed. In multivariate regressions we found that antenatal care visits [1-4 visits, AOR = 6.59 (p < 0.01) and >4 visits, AOR = 6.63 (p < 0.05)] was associated with exclusive breastfeeding for under 6 month old infants. Having >4 antenatal care visits [AOR = 9.97 (p < 0.05)] was associated with adequate feeding for 6-11 months old infants. Conclusions Future nutritional interventions and policies should focus on improving messaging about adequate feeding practices, especially for 12-23 months olds. PMID:27003151

  11. SIMULATED HYDROLOGIC IMPACT OF FOREST DEVELOPMENT RESULTING FROM CONSERVATION PRACTICE IMPLEMENTATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation programs developed and implemented by the U.S. Department of Agricultural have the potential to lead to large changes in agricultural watersheds across the U.S. One common conservation practice across the Southeast is the planting of pine trees. Different evapotranspiration and infiltr...

  12. College and University Dining Services Administrators' Intention to Adopt Sustainable Practices: Results from US Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chao-Jung; Gregoire, Mary B.; Arendt, Susan; Shelley, Mack C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine college and university dining services administrators' (CUDSAs) intention to adopt sustainable practices. Design/methodology/approach: The theory of planned behavior (TPB) including constructs of subjective norm (SN), attitude, perceived behavior control, and personal norm (PN), formed the…

  13. International Student Recruitment Practices. Summary Results of the AACRAO January 2015 60 Second Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers (AACRAO), 2015

    2015-01-01

    The January 2015 American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers (AACRAO) "60 Second Survey" asked respondents to indicate their institutions' international student recruiting practices. As with other 60 Second Surveys, the survey was distributed through the FluidSurveys platform to all AACRAO members. After…

  14. Distance Education Practices: Summary Results of the AACRAO February 2015 60 Second Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers (AACRAO), 2015

    2015-01-01

    The February 2015 American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers (AACRAO) "60 Second Survey" asked respondents to identify whether or not their institution offers distance education, and if so, to answer additional questions about distance education course practices. The survey received 838 unique institutional…

  15. FERPA Training Practices: Results of the AACRAO January 2016 60 Second Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers (AACRAO), 2016

    2016-01-01

    The January 2016 American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers (AACRAO) "60 Second Survey" focused on institutional Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) training practices and measuring the level of interest in an AACRAO-developed online FERPA training module. The survey received 878 usable responses.…

  16. Does Professional Development Change Teaching Practice? Results from a Three-Year Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Andrew C.; Garet, Michael S.; Desimone, Laura; Yoon, Kwang Suk; Birman, Beatrice F.

    This report, the third in a series of reports from the longitudinal evaluation of the Eisenhower Professional Development Program, examines the effects of professional development on improving classroom teaching practice. The Eisenhower Professional Development Program, Title II of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, is the federal…

  17. The Database for Reaching Experiments and Models

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Ben; Kording, Konrad

    2013-01-01

    Reaching is one of the central experimental paradigms in the field of motor control, and many computational models of reaching have been published. While most of these models try to explain subject data (such as movement kinematics, reaching performance, forces, etc.) from only a single experiment, distinct experiments often share experimental conditions and record similar kinematics. This suggests that reaching models could be applied to (and falsified by) multiple experiments. However, using multiple datasets is difficult because experimental data formats vary widely. Standardizing data formats promises to enable scientists to test model predictions against many experiments and to compare experimental results across labs. Here we report on the development of a new resource available to scientists: a database of reaching called the Database for Reaching Experiments And Models (DREAM). DREAM collects both experimental datasets and models and facilitates their comparison by standardizing formats. The DREAM project promises to be useful for experimentalists who want to understand how their data relates to models, for modelers who want to test their theories, and for educators who want to help students better understand reaching experiments, models, and data analysis. PMID:24244351

  18. Reaching ignition in the tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Furth, H.P.

    1985-06-01

    This review covers the following areas: (1) the physics of burning plasmas, (2) plasma physics requirements for reaching ignition, (3) design studies for ignition devices, and (4) prospects for an ignition project. (MOW)

  19. [Pharmacists' Behavior in Clinical Practice: Results from a Questionnaire Survey of Pharmacy Students].

    PubMed

    Nakada, Akiko; Akagawa, Keiko; Yamamoto, Hitomi; Kato, Yasuhisa; Yamamoto, Toshinori

    2016-01-01

    A questionnaire survey was performed to obtain pharmacy students' impressions of pharmacists' behavior, to classify these based on professionalism, and to analyze the relationship between these experiences and students' satisfaction with their clinical practice in Japan. The questionnaire was answered by 327 5th-year pharmacy school students upon completing clinical practice at community pharmacies from 2011 to 2012. They rated their satisfaction with their clinical practice using a 6-point Likert scale, and provided descriptions of their experience such as, "This health provider is professional", or "What a great person he/she is as a health provider". We counted the words and then categorized the responses into 10 traits, as defined by the American Pharmaceutical Association Academy of Students of Pharmacy-American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, Council of Deans Task Force on Professionalism 1999, using text mining. We analyzed the relationship between their experiences with respectful persons, and satisfaction, using the Mann-Whitney U-test (significance level<0.05). Most students (337 of 364, 92.6%) reported experiences with respectful health providers. These students experienced significantly more satisfaction than did other students (p<0.001). We analyzed 343 sentences written by 261 students, using text mining analysis after excluding unsuitable responses. The word most used was "patient" (121 times). Many students noted their impression that the pharmacists had answered patients' questions. Of the 10 trait categories, "professional knowledge and skills" was mentioned most often (151 students). PMID:26831812

  20. Practice of geriatric psychiatry and mental health services for the elderly: results of an international survey.

    PubMed

    Reifler, B V; Cohen, W

    1998-12-01

    The authors conducted a survey of members of the International Psychogeriatric Association (IPA) to determine the state of development of both the profession of geriatric psychiatry and services for mentally ill elderly. Ratings for both issues were based on a scale of 1 to 4, with 1 being little to no development and 4 being the highest. A rating of 2 was set as the desired minimum, and 12 countries met this goal in both categories, with 6 more countries reaching this goal in service development only. We conclude that although the field of geriatric psychiatry and services for mentally ill elderly are still underdeveloped in much of the world, in many countries they are developed sufficiently enough that the IPA is in an excellent position to provide both information and technical assistance to nations wishing to advance. PMID:9924830

  1. [Ezetimibe in clinical practice: from laboratory investigations to the IMPROVE-IT trial results].

    PubMed

    Borghi, Claudio; Filardi, Pasquale Perrone

    2015-01-01

    The impact of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels on cardiovascular risk has been extensively studied. Statins have been demonstrated to significantly reduce LDL cholesterol levels, contributing to cardiovascular risk reduction particularly in patients with high cardiovascular risk. However, low adherence to statin therapy, often due to adverse effects, has raised the need for new pharmacological approaches to combine with statin therapy in order to reach the target levels of LDL cholesterol. Ezetimibe is a selective inhibitor of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) protein that regulates the cholesterol uptake from the small intestine into the enterocytes. Ezetimibe has been demonstrated to significantly reduce LDL cholesterol levels in combination with statins and recent trials support its role in reducing the risk of cardiovascular events. PMID:26442834

  2. Consumer Shell Egg Consumption and Handling Practices: Results from a National Survey.

    PubMed

    Kosa, Katherine M; Cates, Sheryl C; Bradley, Samantha; Godwin, Sandria; Chambers, Delores

    2015-07-01

    Numerous cases and outbreaks of Salmonella infection are attributable to shell eggs each year in the United States. Safe handling and consumption of shell eggs at home can help reduce foodborne illness attributable to shell eggs. A nationally representative Web survey of 1,504 U.S. adult grocery shoppers was conducted to describe consumer handling practices and consumption of shell eggs at home. Based on self-reported survey data, most respondents purchase shell eggs from a grocery store (89.5%), and these eggs were kept refrigerated (not at room temperature; 98.5%). As recommended, most consumers stored shell eggs in the refrigerator (99%) for no more than 3 to 5 weeks (97.6%). After cracking eggs, 48.1% of respondents washed their hands with soap and water. More than half of respondents who fry and/or poach eggs cooked them so that the whites and/or the yolks were still soft or runny, a potentially unsafe practice. Among respondents who owned a food thermometer (62.0%), only 5.2% used it to check the doneness of baked egg dishes when they prepared such a dish. Consumers generally followed two of the four core "Safe Food Families" food safety messages ("separate" and "chill") when handling shell eggs at home. To prevent Salmonella infection associated with shell eggs, consumers should improve their practices related to the messages "clean" (i.e., wash hands after cracking eggs) and "cook" (i.e., cook until yolks and whites are firm and use a food thermometer to check doneness of baked egg dishes) when preparing shell eggs at home. These findings will be used to inform the development of science-based consumer education materials that can help reduce foodborne illness from Salmonella infection. PMID:26197282

  3. Integration of Complementary and Alternative Medicine into Family Practices in Germany: Results of a National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Joos, Stefanie; Musselmann, Berthold; Szecsenyi, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    More than two-thirds of patients in Germany use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) provided either by physicians or non-medical practitioners (“Heilpraktiker”). There is little information about the number of family physicians (FPs) providing CAM. Given the widespread public interest in the use of CAM, this study aimed to ascertain the use of and attitude toward CAM among FPs in Germany. A postal questionnaire developed based on qualitatively derived data was sent to 3000 randomly selected FPs in Germany. A reminder letter including a postcard (containing a single question about CAM use in practice and reasons for non-particpation in the survey) was sent to all FPs who had not returned the questionnaire. Of the 3000 FPs, 1027 (34%) returned the questionnaire and 444 (15%) returned the postcard. Altogether, 886 of the 1471 responding FPs (60%) reported using CAM in their practice. A positive attitude toward CAM was indicated by 503 FPs (55%), a rather negative attitude by 127 FPs (14%). Chirotherapy, relaxation and neural therapy were rated as most beneficial CAM therapies by FPs, whereas neural therapy, phytotherapy and acupuncture were the most commonly used therapies in German family practices. This survey clearly demonstrates that CAM is highly valued by many FPs and is already making a substantial contribution to first-contact primary care in Germany. Therefore, education and research about CAM should be increased. Furthermore, with the provision of CAM by FPs, the role of non-medical CAM practitioners within the German healthcare system is to be questioned. PMID:19293252

  4. Physician, Practice, and Patient Characteristics Related to Primary Care Physician Physical and Mental Health: Results from the Physician Worklife Study

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Eric S; Konrad, Thomas R; Linzer, Mark; McMurray, Julia; Pathman, Donald E; Gerrity, Martha; Schwartz, Mark D; Scheckler, William E; Douglas, Jeff

    2002-01-01

    Objective To study the impact that physician, practice, and patient characteristics have on physician stress, satisfaction, mental, and physical health. Data Sources Based on a survey of over 5,000 physicians nationwide. Four waves of surveys resulted in 2,325 complete responses. Elimination of ineligibles yielded a 52 percent response rate; 1,411 responses from primary care physicians were used. Study Design A conceptual model was tested by structural equation modeling. Physician job satisfaction and stress mediated the relationship between physician, practice, and patient characteristics as independent variables and physician physical and mental health as dependent variables. Principle Findings The conceptual model was generally supported. Practice and, to a lesser extent, physician characteristics influenced job satisfaction, whereas only practice characteristics influenced job stress. Patient characteristics exerted little influence. Job stress powerfully influenced job satisfaction and physical and mental health among physicians. Conclusions These findings support the notion that workplace conditions are a major determinant of physician well-being. Poor practice conditions can result in poor outcomes, which can erode quality of care and prove costly to the physician and health care organization. Fortunately, these conditions are manageable. Organizational settings that are both “physician friendly” and “family friendly” seem to result in greater well-being. These findings are particularly important as physicians are more tightly integrated into the health care system that may be less clearly under their exclusive control.

  5. Adoption, Reach, Implementation, and Maintenance of a Behavioral and Mental Health Assessment in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Krist, Alex H.; Phillips, Siobhan M.; Sabo, Roy T.; Balasubramanian, Bijal A.; Heurtin-Roberts, Suzanne; Ory, Marcia G.; Johnson, Sallie Beth; Sheinfeld-Gorin, Sherri N.; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Ritzwoller, Debra P.; Glasgow, Russell E.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE Guidelines recommend screening patients for unhealthy behaviors and mental health concerns. Health risk assessments can systematically identify patient needs and trigger care. This study seeks to evaluate whether primary care practices can routinely implement such assessments into routine care. METHODS As part of a cluster-randomized pragmatic trial, 9 diverse primary care practices implemented My Own Health Report (MOHR)—an electronic or paper-based health behavior and mental health assessment and feedback system paired with counseling and goal setting. We observed how practices integrated MOHR into their workflows, what additional practice staff time it required, and what percentage of patients completed a MOHR assessment (Reach). RESULTS Most practices approached (60%) agreed to adopt MOHR. How they implemented MOHR depended on practice resources, informatics capacity, and patient characteristics. Three practices mailed patients invitations to complete MOHR on the Web, 1 called patients and completed MOHR over the telephone, 1 had patients complete MOHR on paper in the office, and 4 had staff help patients complete MOHR on the Web in the office. Overall, 3,591 patients were approached and 1,782 completed MOHR (Reach = 49.6%). Reach varied by implementation strategy with higher reach when MOHR was completed by staff than by patients (71.2% vs 30.2%, P <.001). No practices were able to sustain the complete MOHR assessment without adaptations after study completion. Fielding MOHR increased staff and clinician time an average of 28 minutes per visit. CONCLUSIONS Primary care practices can implement health behavior and mental health assessments, but counseling patients effectively requires effort. Practices will need more support to implement and sustain assessments. PMID:25384814

  6. Improvement in fresh frozen plasma transfusion practice: results of an outcome audit.

    PubMed

    Kakkar, N; Kaur, R; Dhanoa, J

    2004-06-01

    Blood components have been in use in clinical practice for many decades now. In spite of fairly clear guidelines regarding their use, inappropriate prescriptions for components are still rampant. We undertook this work to assess the appropriateness of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) transfusions in our hospital. A prospective audit of 504 transfusion orders for 1761 FFP units was conducted over a 6-month period which was followed by a re-audit of 294 FFP prescriptions for 961 units. In the initial audit, we identified 304 (60.3%) prescriptions which were inappropriate according to the British Committee for Standardization in Hematology (BCSH) guidelines. The re-audit performed after an educational campaign among clinicians showed a reduction in inappropriate requests by 26.6%. The specific areas of misuse were FFP transfusions in patients with hypoproteinaemic states (40.5%), anaemia (36.5%), bleeding without coagulation factor deficiency (10.2%) and volume depletion (9.2%). A significant 50.3% of requests in the initial audit and 38.4% in the re-audit were for single- or two-unit transfusions, which were subtherapeutic. FFP transfusions carry the same risks to the patients as any other blood component. Prescribers of these transfusions need to be aware of the clinical setting where their use is appropriate. Local hospital transfusion committees can play a vital role in overseeing transfusion practices to ensure optimal use of blood/component therapy. PMID:15180815

  7. Colorectal cancer screening practices of primary care providers: results of a national survey in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Norwati, Daud; Harmy, Mohamed Yusoff; Norhayati, Mohd Noor; Amry, Abdul Rahim

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of colorectal cancer has been increasing in many Asian countries including Malaysia during the past few decades. A physician recommendation has been shown to be a major factor that motivates patients to undergo screening. The present study objectives were to describe the practice of colorectal cancer screening by primary care providers in Malaysia and to determine the barriers for not following recommendations. In this cross sectional study involving 132 primary care providers from 44 Primary Care clinics in West Malaysia, self-administered questionnaires which consisted of demographic data, qualification, background on the primary care clinic, practices on colorectal cancer screening and barriers to colorectal cancer screening were distributed. A total of 116 primary care providers responded making a response rate of 87.9%. About 21% recommended faecal occult blood test (FOBT) in more than 50% of their patients who were eligible. The most common barrier was "unavailability of the test". The two most common patient factors are "patient in a hurry" and "poor patient awareness". This study indicates that colorectal cancer preventive activities among primary care providers are still poor in Malaysia. This may be related to the low availability of the test in the primary care setting and poor awareness and understanding of the importance of colorectal cancer screening among patients. More awareness programmes are required for the public. In addition, primary care providers should be kept abreast with the latest recommendations and policy makers need to improve colorectal cancer screening services in health clinics. PMID:24761922

  8. New circuit theory of multiconductor transmission lines resulting from a new practice of noise reduction

    PubMed Central

    TOKI, Hiroshi; SATO, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    In modern life, we are surrounded by and filled with electromagnetic noise caused by the dominant use of energy in the form of electricity. This situation is brought about by the fact that the noise is not understood theoretically. A new practice of noise reduction was introduced for the construction of Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC). The key concept is a symmetric three-line circuit that arranges power supplies, noise filters and magnets around a third central ground line. A continuous theoretical effort forced us to find a new circuit theory involving a multiconductor transmission-line system starting from Maxwell’s equations without any approximation. We discuss the essence of all of these experimental and theoretical developments with the hope to remove unnecessary electromagnetic noise not only from power supplies, but also from all electric devices. The newly derived circuit theory of multiconductor transmission lines is universal, and establishes the validity of the practice of noise reduction. PMID:24522153

  9. The effect of quality management practices on operational and business results in the petroleum industry in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellat Parast, Mahour

    The trend toward globalization has challenged management thinking, organizational practices, and the ways companies interact with their customers and suppliers as well as with other segments of society. One such practice, Total Quality Management (TQM), has emerged as a management paradigm for enhancing organizational performance and profitability, to the extent that it has been regarded as "the second industrial revolution" (Kanji, 1990). Despite extensive research in quality management, little empirical research has been done on this in an international context, especially in the Middle East. This study attempts to investigate: (1) the relationship among quality management constructs based on the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award; and (2) the effect of quality management practices on operational and business results in the petroleum industry. A validated and reliable survey instrument was used for the study to collect data from 31 project managers/consultants in the petroleum industry in Iran. The results of the correlation analysis show that top management support is the major driver of quality management, which significantly correlates with other quality management practices. It was also found that customer orientation is not significantly correlated with external quality results (profitability). A regression analysis indicated top management support, employee training, and employee involvement as the three statistically significant variables in explaining the variability in internal quality results. Furthermore, it was found that internal quality results was statistically significant in explaining the variability of external quality results.

  10. The use of augmented auditory feedback to improve arm reaching in stroke: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Schlaug, Gottfried

    2016-01-01

    Purpose After practice, augmented feedback is the most important factor that facilitates motor learning. We assess the potential effectiveness of two types of augmented auditory feedback on the re-learning of arm reaching in individuals with stroke: (a) real-time knowledge of performance (KP) feedback and (b) rhythmic cueing in the form of knowledge of results (KR) feedback. Method Five participants with stroke underwent short-term practice, reaching with their affected arm with KP, KR and no feedback, on separate days. We assessed range of motion of the upper extremity (shoulder, elbow) and trunk, mean error and variability of the performed trajectory, and movement time, before and after training. Results All participants benefitted from practice with feedback, though the effects varied across participants and feedback type. In three participants, KP feedback increased elbow extension and reduced compensatory trunk flexion. In four participants, KR feedback reduced movement time taken to perform the reach. Of note, one participant benefitted mostly from KP feedback, which increased shoulder flexion and elbow extension, and decreased compensatory trunk flexion and mean error. Conclusions Within day practice with augmented auditory feedback improves reaching in individuals with stroke. This warrants further investigation with longer practice periods in a larger sample size. PMID:26314746

  11. Risk management policies and practices regarding radio frequency electromagnetic fields: results from a WHO survey

    PubMed Central

    Dhungel, Amit; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; van Deventer, Emilie

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to describe current risk management practices and policies across the world in relation to personal exposures from devices emitting radiofrequency fields, environmental exposures from fixed installations and exposures in the work environment. Data from 86 countries representing all WHO regions were collected through a survey. The majority of countries (76.8 %) had set exposure limits for mobile devices, almost all (90.7 %) had set public exposure limits for fixed installations and 76.5 % had specified exposure limits for personnel in occupational settings. A number of other policies had been implemented at the national level, ranging from information provisions on how to reduce personal exposures and restrictions of usage for certain populations, such as children or pregnant women to prevention of access around base stations. This study suggests that countries with higher mobile subscriptions tend to have set radiofrequency exposure limits for mobile devices and to have provisions on exposure measurements about fixed installations. PMID:25394650

  12. Risk management policies and practices regarding radio frequency electromagnetic fields: results from a WHO survey.

    PubMed

    Dhungel, Amit; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; van Deventer, Emilie

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to describe current risk management practices and policies across the world in relation to personal exposures from devices emitting radiofrequency fields, environmental exposures from fixed installations and exposures in the work environment. Data from 86 countries representing all WHO regions were collected through a survey. The majority of countries (76.8 %) had set exposure limits for mobile devices, almost all (90.7 %) had set public exposure limits for fixed installations and 76.5 % had specified exposure limits for personnel in occupational settings. A number of other policies had been implemented at the national level, ranging from information provisions on how to reduce personal exposures and restrictions of usage for certain populations, such as children or pregnant women to prevention of access around base stations. This study suggests that countries with higher mobile subscriptions tend to have set radiofrequency exposure limits for mobile devices and to have provisions on exposure measurements about fixed installations. PMID:25394650

  13. Reaching Patients Across the Web.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Joey

    2015-12-01

    The explosion of social media and the expectations of frequently refreshed content have changed the rules for physicians and practices looking to market themselves and bolster their online reputation. Just as static websites have become a relatively archaic part of the online equation, the marketing expectations for physician and practice websites have changed substantially. PMID:26630237

  14. REACH. Residential Electrical Wiring Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansley, Jimmy; Ennis, Mike

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of residential electrical wiring. The instructional units focus on grounded outlets, service entrance, and blueprint reading. Each unit follows a typical format…

  15. Project REACH Administrator's Manual. PRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piuma, Chesca; And Others

    The final volume in a series on Project REACH (Regular Education for All Children with Handicaps) is addressed to administrators involved in integrating severely disabled students into regular public schools. The manual is intended as a trouble-shooting tool with information on background theories and specific strategies. An introductory chapter…

  16. PNW RIVER REACH FILE DOCUMENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with Federal and state agencies, and NW Indian Tribes has produced a 1:100,000-scale River Reach data layer for the Pacific Northwest that will serve water-resource management applications for the next decade or more. The Pacific N...

  17. Reaching the "iBored"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauleke, Debra S.; Herrmann, Kathleen E.

    2010-01-01

    As teachers, they are always looking for creative ways to engage their students. They start the school year determined to bring to the classroom creative projects that generate student interest and foster critical thinking skills. Reaching today's Gen M student is challenging and changing the way they teach. The idea of using music to teach…

  18. Reaching All Students with Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuevas, Gilbert, Ed.; Driscoll, Mark, Ed.

    The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics'"Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics" and "Professional Standards for Teaching Mathematics" reflect the belief that all students can learn a significant core of high-quality mathematics. Recognizing the magnitude of the task of reaching all students, this book was put together…

  19. School Policies and Practices to Improve Health and Prevent Obesity: National Secondary School Survey Results. Volume 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Terry-McElrath, Yvonne; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    This report provides updated results from one of the most comprehensive studies of health-related policies and practices in U.S. public middle and high schools to date, which was released in August 2011. The major findings and trends presented in this report describe issues relevant to childhood obesity for four school years, from 2006-07 to…

  20. The Sustainability of Change in Teacher Beliefs and Practices as a Result of an Overseas Professional Development Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This article examines whether there are changes in students' teaching practices as a result of their experiencing an overseas professional development course (PDC); the process of any such changes; and whether any changes found are sustainable in the long term. Three forms of data gathering are used, lesson observation, in-depth interviews,…

  1. Inactivation of Parietal Reach Region Affects Reaching But Not Saccade Choices in Internally Guided Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Bonaiuto, James; Kagan, Igor; Andersen, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) has traditionally been considered important for awareness, spatial perception, and attention. However, recent findings provide evidence that the PPC also encodes information important for making decisions. These findings have initiated a running argument of whether the PPC is critically involved in decision making. To examine this issue, we reversibly inactivated the parietal reach region (PRR), the area of the PPC that is specialized for reaching movements, while two monkeys performed a memory-guided reaching or saccade task. The task included choices between two equally rewarded targets presented simultaneously in opposite visual fields. Free-choice trials were interleaved with instructed trials, in which a single cue presented in the peripheral visual field defined the reach and saccade target unequivocally. We found that PRR inactivation led to a strong reduction of contralesional choices, but only for reaches. On the other hand, saccade choices were not affected by PRR inactivation. Importantly, reaching and saccade movements to single instructed targets remained largely intact. These results cannot be explained as an effector-nonspecific deficit in spatial attention or awareness, since the temporary “lesion” had an impact only on reach choices. Hence, the PPR is a part of a network for reach decisions and not just reach planning. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT There has been an ongoing debate on whether the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) represents only spatial awareness, perception, and attention or whether it is also involved in decision making for actions. In this study we explore whether the parietal reach region (PRR), the region of the PPC that is specialized for reaches, is involved in the decision process. We inactivated the PRR while two monkeys performed reach and saccade choices between two targets presented simultaneously in both hemifields. We found that inactivation affected only the reach choices, while leaving

  2. [Inhuman practices in gynecology in national socialism and its victims. Study of concrete results].

    PubMed

    Stauber, M; Kindermann, G

    1994-08-01

    In our opinion German gynaecology has failed to adequately face what came to pass during the Nazi period. This can be proved objectively, for there is no evidence that, after 1945, gynaecology had in any way cared to take notice--either thermatically or medically--of the thousands of victims of inhuman practices such as forced termination of pregnancy, compulsory sterilisation and the like. During the past 50 years recollections of enforced sterilisations, compulsory abortions, deliberate and hence criminal negligence and problematic approaches in research and teaching were almost completely banished from the area of conscious awareness and largely suppressed or silently ignored. Most of the medical directors of Departments of Gynaecology of German universities shared this view whenever they were questioned on the connections between gynaecology and Nazism. Now that two generations have passed it seems possible to examine and explore with less guilt feelings and shame the immensely fateful rôle of gynaecology in that context. Accent should be on the fate of the victims of that period. To bring back these events to memory, however, does not permit to conceal the part played by the physicians committing of these inhuman Nazi crimes. Data collected from a psychosomatically oriented examination of victims exemplify that to concretely recall gynaecology during Nazism a1-so offers a chance in several respects. One of the possibilities in this context is to signal "late apology" and regret to patients who had been victims, in one's own area of work, after one has psychically worked over their fate. Besides, a gynaecological-psychosomatic expertise will help e.g. that compulsorily sterilised women are granted financial aid that has at long last become a legal possibility and can be applied for since 1980. However, the relevant patient records do show very clearly that the inhuman practice of gynaecology during the so-called "Third Reich" was not only a collective problem

  3. Use of the NHS Choices website for primary care consultations: results from online and general practice surveys

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Joanna; Majeed, Azeem; Khan, Muhammad Saleem; Lee, John Tayu; Nelson, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To determine the effect of using the NHS Choices website on primary care consultations in England and Wales. We examined the hypothesis that using NHS Choices may reduce the frequency of primary care consultations among young, healthy users. Design Two cross-sectional surveys of NHS Choices users. Setting Survey of NHS Choices users using an online pop-up questionnaire on the NHS Choices website and a snapshot survey of patients in six general practices in London. Participants NHS Choices website users and general practice patients. Main outcome measures For both surveys, we measured the proportion of people using NHS Choices when considering whether to consult their GP practice and on subsequent frequency of primary care consultations. Results Around 59% (n = 1559) of online and 8% (n = 125) of general practice survey respondents reported using NHS Choices in relation to their use of primary care services. Among these, 33% (n = 515) of online and 18% (n = 23) of general practice respondents reported reduced primary care consultations as a result of using NHS Choices. We estimated the equivalent capacity savings in primary care from reduced consultations as a result of using NHS Choices to be approximately £94 million per year. Conclusions NHS Choices has been shown to alter healthcare-seeking behaviour, attitudes and knowledge among its users. Using NHS Choices results in reduced demand for primary care consultations among young, healthy users for whom reduced health service use is likely to be appropriate. Reducing potentially avoidable consultations can result in considerable capacity savings in UK primary care. PMID:21847438

  4. Nutritional practices, knowledge, and attitudes of psychiatric healthcare professionals: unexpected results.

    PubMed

    Ryan, V C; Rao, L O; Rekers, G

    1990-01-01

    This study investigated inter-relationships among nutrition knowledge, habits, and attitudes of psychiatric healthcare providers. Data of nutritional intake was compared with that of the general population of the state of South Carolina, obtained from a previous public health study. Nutritional habits were determined from both a 24-hour recall and a separate three-day recall of dietary intake. Nutrition knowledge and attitudes were determined by validated questionnaires. The knowledge questionnaire consisted of 50 multiple-choice questions. Attitudes were determined using a semantic differential instrument consisting of phrases of descriptive bipolar adjectives. Dietary intake was analyzed using the Food Processor software and compared with the RDAs and with the intake of the general population. Nutrition knowledge was measured by the number of correct responses. Nutrition attitudes were assigned numerical scores and measured by a Likert scale. Only 3 of the subjects met 70% of indicator nutrients (iron, calcium, vitamin B6, and vitamin C). No significant relationships were established among attitudes, habits, and knowledge. Sixty-three percent of subjects perceived themselves as role models to patients, yet 90% of them practiced poor nutrition habits as compared with 97% of the general population. The higher the education level, the more likely that subjects felt nutrition is important for health. A comprehensive nutrition education program is essential for health care providers to promote successful nutrition education for the patients they serve. PMID:10112799

  5. Cardioversion for atrial fibrillation in current European practice: results of the European Heart Rhythm Association survey.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Madrid, Antonio; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Lip, Gregory Y H; Van Gelder, Isabelle C; Dobreanu, Dan; Blomstrom-Lundqvist, Carina

    2013-06-01

    This survey was conducted to provide an insight into the current clinical practice regarding the use of cardioversion for atrial fibrillation (AF) in Europe. Responses were received from 57 centres across Europe, 71.9% of which were university hospitals. For electrical cardioversion, general anaesthesia was managed by an anaesthesiologist in 73.9% of centres and by a cardiologist in 37%. In the majority of centres, electrical cardioversion was performed using a biphasic defibrillator (85.1%). Antiarrhythmic drugs were routinely prescribed prior to electrical cardioversion by 54.3% of hospitals. For pharmacological cardioversion in patients with no or minimal heart disease, the majority of centres (63.1%) chose intravenous flecainide or propafenone, whereas vernakalant was used by 35% of centres in patients with no or minimal-to-moderate structural heart disease. Most centres (71.7%) used a mandatory strategy of 3 weeks of oral anticoagulation prior to elective cardioversion in patients AF > 48 h, but 28.3% performed immediate cardioversion after a transoesophageal echocardiogram. Many centres are now performing electrical cardioversion on treatment with novel oral anticoagulants (up to 23.6% of cardioversions). PMID:23709570

  6. Four Years of Practical Arrangements between IAEA and Moscow SIA 'Radon': Preliminary Results - 13061

    SciTech Connect

    Batyukhnova, O.G.; Karlina, O.K.; Neveikin, P.P.

    2013-07-01

    The International Education Training Centre (IETC) at Moscow State Unitary Enterprise Scientific and Industrial Association 'Radon' (SIA 'Radon'), in co-operation with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), has developed expertise and provided training to waste management personnel for the last 15 years. Since 1997, the educational system of the enterprise with the support of the IAEA has acquired an international character: more than 470 experts from 35 countries- IAEA Member States completed the professional development. Training is conducted at various thematic courses or fellowships for individual programs and seminars on IAEA technical projects. In June 2008 a direct agreement (Practical Arrangements) was signed between SIA 'Radon' and the IAEA on cooperation in the field of development of new technologies, expert's advice to IAEA Member States, and, in particular, the training of personnel in the field of radioactive waste management (RWM), which opens up new perspectives for fruitful cooperation of industry professionals. The paper summarizes the current experience of the SIA 'Radon' in the organization and implementation of the IAEA sponsored training and others events and outlines some of strategic educational elements, which IETC will continue to pursue in the coming years. (authors)

  7. Environmental Degradation, Disproportionality, and the Double Diversion: Reaching out, Reaching ahead, and Reaching beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freudenburg, William R.

    2006-01-01

    Rather than seeking ivory-tower isolation, members of the Rural Sociological Society have always been distinguished by a willingness to work with specialists from a broad range of disciplines, and to work on some of the world's most challenging problems. What is less commonly recognized is that the willingness to reach beyond disciplinary…

  8. Records Reaching Recording Data Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gresik, G. W. L.; Siebe, S.; Drewello, R.

    2013-07-01

    The goal of RECORDS (Reaching Recording Data Technologies) is the digital capturing of buildings and cultural heritage objects in hard-to-reach areas and the combination of data. It is achieved by using a modified crane from film industry, which is able to carry different measuring systems. The low-vibration measurement should be guaranteed by a gyroscopic controlled advice that has been , developed for the project. The data were achieved by using digital photography, UV-fluorescence photography, infrared reflectography, infrared thermography and shearography. Also a terrestrial 3D laser scanner and a light stripe topography scanner have been used The combination of the recorded data should ensure a complementary analysis of monuments and buildings.

  9. The Intego database: background, methods and basic results of a Flemish general practice-based continuous morbidity registration project

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Intego is the only operational computerized morbidity registration network in Belgium based on general practice data. Intego collects data from over 90 general practitioners. All the information is routinely collected in the electronic health record during daily practice. Methods In this article we describe the design and methods used within the Intego network together with some of its basic results. The collected data, the quality control procedures, the ethical-legal aspects and the statistical procedures are discussed. Results Intego contains longitudinal information on 285 357 different patients, corresponding to over 2.3% of the Flemish population representative in terms of age and sex. More than 3 million diagnoses, 12 million drug prescriptions and 29 million laboratory tests have been recorded. Conclusions Intego enables us to present and compare data on health parameters, incidence and prevalence rates, laboratory results, and prescribed drugs for all relevant subgroups on a routine basis and is unique in Belgium. PMID:24906941

  10. Publication and non-publication of drug trial results: a 10-year cohort of trials in Norwegian general practice

    PubMed Central

    Brænd, Anja Maria; Straand, Jørund; Jakobsen, Rune Bruhn; Klovning, Atle

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Previously, we identified a 10-year cohort of protocols from applications to the Norwegian Medicines Agency 1998–2007, consisting of 196 drug trials in general practice. The aim of this study was to examine whether trial results were published and whether trial funding and conflicts of interest were reported. Design Cohort study of trials with systematic searches for published results. Setting Clinical drug trials in Norwegian general practice. Methods We performed systematic literature searches of MEDLINE, Embase and CENTRAL to identify publications originating from each trial using characteristics such as test drug, comparator and patient groups as search terms. When no publication was identified, we contacted trial sponsors for information regarding trial completion and reference to any publications. Main outcome measures We determined the frequency of publication of trial results and trial characteristics associated with publication of results. Results Of the 196 trials, 5 were never started. Of the remaining 191 trials, 71% had results published in a journal, 11% had results publicly available elsewhere and 18% of trials had no results available. Publication was more common among trials with an active comparator drug (χ2 test, p=0.040), with a larger number of patients (total sample size≥median, p=0.010) and with a longer trial period (duration≥median, p=0.025). Trial funding was reported in 85% of publications and increased over time, as did reporting of conflicts of interest among authors. Among the 134 main journal articles from the trials, 60% presented statistically significant results for the investigational drug, and the conclusion of the article was favourable towards the test drug in 78% of papers. Conclusions We did not identify any journal publication of results for 29% of the general practice drug trials. Trials with an active comparator, larger and longer trials were more likely to be published. PMID:27067893

  11. Control of Integrated Task Sequences Shapes Components of Reaching.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Priya; Whitall, Jill; Kagerer, Florian A

    2016-01-01

    Reaching toward an object usually consists of a sequence of elemental actions. Using a reaching task sequence, the authors investigated how task elements of that sequence affected feedforward and feedback components of the reaching phase of the movement. Nine right-handed adults performed, with their dominant and nondominant hands, 4 tasks of different complexities: a simple reaching task; a reach-to-grasp task; a reach-to-grasp and lift object task; and a reach-to-grasp, lift, and place object task. Results showed that in the reach-to-grasp and lift object task more time was allocated to the feedforward component of the reach phase, while latency between the task elements decreased. We also found between-hand differences, supporting previous findings of increased efficiency of processing planning-related information in the preferred hand. The presence of task-related modifications supports the concept of contextual effects when planning a movement. PMID:27254601

  12. Policy Impacts on Pedagogical Practice and ICT Use: An Exploration of the Results from Sites 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, N.; Lee, M. W.; Chan, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Second Information Technology in Education Study (SITES) 2006 results reveal that principals' perceived presence of lifelong learning-related pedagogical activities in their schools had changed markedly since the same data was collected in 1998 in SITES-M1. More intriguing was the fact that the directions of the changes were quite different…

  13. Practical Model and Protocol for Interpreting MCMI-III Results to Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staley, Joy D.; Brown, Nathan C.

    One ethical dilemma for psychologists is finding methods to share test results with their clients in such a way that the client is not deleteriously labeled, but is encouraged by the knowledge of assessed strength and growth areas. This paper offers one answer by presenting a structured protocol that draws on an iceberg metaphor for categorizing…

  14. Analyzing data in aquaculture: practical significance, a new paradigm for determining the importance of results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analyzing data and interpreting results is often the most difficult and yet important part of the scientific research process. Currently, aquaculture researchers almost exclusively employ null hypothesis significance testing (NHST), a synthesis of the Fisher test of significance and the Neyman-Pears...

  15. Incentive Pay Programs Do Not Affect Teacher Motivation or Reported Practices: Results from Three Randomized Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Kun; Le, Vi-Nhuan; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Marsh, Julie A.; Hamilton, Laura S.; Stecher, Brian M.; Springer, Matthew G.

    2013-01-01

    This study drew on teacher survey responses from randomized experiments exploring three different pay-for-performance programs to examine the extent to which these programs motivated teachers to improve student achievement and the impact of such programs on teachers' instruction, number of hours worked, job stress, and collegiality. Results showed…

  16. Timeliness of Colonoscopy After Abnormal Fecal Test Results in a Safety Net Practice.

    PubMed

    Oluloro, Ann; Petrik, Amanda F; Turner, Ann; Kapka, Tanya; Rivelli, Jennifer; Carney, Patricia A; Saha, Somnath; Coronado, Gloria D

    2016-08-01

    Fecal testing can only reduce colorectal cancer mortality if patients with an abnormal test result receive a follow-up colonoscopy. As part of the Strategies and Opportunities to STOP Colon Cancer in Priority Populations (STOP CRC) project, we examined factors associated with adherence to follow-up colonoscopy among patients with abnormal fecal test results. As part of STOP CRC outreach, Virginia Garcia Memorial Health Center staff distributed 1753 fecal immunochemical tests (FIT), of which 677 (39 %) were completed, and 56 had an abnormal result (8 %). Project staff used logistic regression analyses to examine factors associated with colonoscopy referral and completion. Of the 56 patients with abnormal FIT results; 45 (80 %) had evidence of a referral for colonoscopy, 32 (57 %) had evidence of a completed colonoscopy within 18 months, and 14 (25 %) within 60 days of an abnormal fecal test result. In adjusted analysis, Hispanics had lower odds of completing follow-up colonoscopy within 60 days than non-Hispanic whites (adjusted OR 0.20; 95 % CI 0.04, 0.92). Colonoscopy within 60 days trended lower for women than for men (adjusted OR 0.25; 95 % CI 0.06-1.04). Among the 24 patients lacking medical record evidence of a colonoscopy, 19 (79 %) had a documented reason, including clinician did not pursue, patient refused, and colonoscopy not indicated. No reason was found for 21 %. Improvements are needed to increase rates of follow-up colonoscopy completion, especially among female and Hispanic patients. PMID:26874943

  17. [Laboratory results in clinical practice: importance of interpretation in the clinical context].

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Annic; Schuetz, Philipp

    2015-02-01

    Recently, a plenitude of novel laboratory tests has become available for physicians to improve the diagnostic and prognostic work up of patients. Yet, as with all tests, laboratory test can be falsely positive or falsely negative and potentially misguide clinicians and caregivers. Shortcomings of pre-analytical factors, test performance as well as an inappropriate ordering of laboratory tests contributes to diagnostic errors and potentially generate unnecessary costs. Laboratory tests should only be ordered, if results have clinical consequences and improve the assessment of the patient. Within this review focusing on the example of the inflammatory biomarker "Procalcitonin" for antibiotic stewardship and the hormonal marker testosterone, we aim to exemplify important draw backs and shortcomings in laboratory tests and the importance of interpretation of these results in the context of the clinical situation. PMID:25630294

  18. Simulated surgery in the summative assessment of general practice training: results of a trial in the Trent and Yorkshire regions.

    PubMed Central

    Allen, J; Evans, A; Foulkes, J; French, A

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: General practice registrars are now required to undertake a summative assessment of their consulting skills. Simulated surgeries have been developed as an alternative to the existing method of assessing video-recorded consultations. AIM: To evaluate the simulated surgery assessment method, developed in the General Practice Postgraduate Education Department in Leicester, for use in assessing general practice consultation skills. METHOD: General practice registrars in Leicester performed two eight-patient simulated surgeries separated by four weeks. Assessment outcomes were compared to demonstrate the consistency of the method. Pilot surgeries in Yorkshire were videotaped, and then rated by video-raters trained for summative assessment. RESULTS: The method consistently identified those registrars who were competent and those who were not yet competent in consulting skills. It proved acceptable to candidate doctors and has fewer resource requirements for both examiners and candidates than other consulting skills assessment methods. CONCLUSION: The method developed in Leicester and successfully transferred to Yorkshire is feasible on a large scale, and offers an acceptable alternative to other consulting skills assessment methods. In this study it consistently identified competent from incompetent candidate doctors. PMID:9692278

  19. Reach-averaged sediment routing model of a canyon river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiele, S.M.; Wilcock, P.R.; Grams, P.E.

    2007-01-01

    Spatial complexity in channel geometry indicates that accurate prediction of sediment transport requires modeling in at least two dimensions. However, a one-dimensional model may be the only practical or possible alternative, especially for longer river reaches of practical concern in river management or landscape modeling. We have developed a one-dimensional model of the Colorado River through upper Grand Canyon that addresses this problem by reach averaging the channel properties and predicting changes in sand storage using separate source and sink functions coupled to the sand routing model. The model incorporates results from the application of a two-dimensional model of flow, sand transport, and bed evolution, and a new algorithm for setting the near-bed sand boundary condition for sand transported over an exposed bouldery bed. Model predictions were compared to measurements of sand discharge during intermittent tributary inputs and varying discharges controlled by dam releases. The model predictions generally agree well with the timing and magnitude of measured sand discharges but tend to overpredict sand discharge during the early stages of a high release designed to redistribute sand to higher-elevation deposits.

  20. The status of asthma control and asthma prescribing practices in the United States: results of a large prospective asthma control survey of primary care practices.

    PubMed

    Carlton, B Gwen; Lucas, Deborah O; Ellis, Elliot F; Conboy-Ellis, Kathleen; Shoheiber, Omar; Stempel, David A

    2005-09-01

    Control of asthma symptoms is, unfortunately, not a reality for many people with asthma. Asthma control is an ongoing challenge, requiring a multidisciplinary treatment approach. The National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (NAEPP) of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute published its Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma in 1997, but the extent of implementation of recommendations in physician's practices remains to be determined. We sought to determine if a systematic implementation of the NAEPP practice guidelines would impact physician's treatment decisions for patients with asthma. The Asthma Care Network is a large, national, point-of-care program developed to assist health care providers in the assessment and management of their patients with asthma. Outcome measurements for the program included level of asthma control, activity limitation, sleep disruption, use of rescue medications, use of controller medications, and urgent care services. A total of 4,901 primary care physicians at 2,876 practice sites enrolled more than 60,000 patients. Nearly three fourths of patients reported symptoms consistent with a lack of asthma control (mean 74%, range 69-81%). Approximately 68% of pediatric patients and 78% of adult patients reported limited activities due to asthma in the past week. Sixty-two percent of pediatric patients and 68% of adult patients reported more than two symptomatic days in the past week. Approximately 40% of the patients surveyed were not using controller therapy. The overall percentage of patients reporting uncontrolled asthma who were prescribed a controller medication increased from 60% to 81%, and the use of inhaled corticosteroids containing medications among these patients increased by 52%. As a result of the assessment of the patients' level of asthma control during the office visit, physicians changed their patterns of prescribing controller therapy in patients with uncontrolled asthma. PMID:16169784

  1. Automated antibody structure prediction using Accelrys tools: Results and best practices

    PubMed Central

    Fasnacht, Marc; Butenhof, Ken; Goupil-Lamy, Anne; Hernandez-Guzman, Francisco; Huang, Hongwei; Yan, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    We describe the methodology and results from our participation in the second Antibody Modeling Assessment experiment. During the experiment we predicted the structure of eleven unpublished antibody Fv fragments. Our prediction methods centered on template-based modeling; potential templates were selected from an antibody database based on their sequence similarity to the target in the framework regions. Depending on the quality of the templates, we constructed models of the antibody framework regions either using a single, chimeric or multiple template approach. The hypervariable loop regions in the initial models were rebuilt by grafting the corresponding regions from suitable templates onto the model. For the H3 loop region, we further refined models using ab initio methods. The final models were subjected to constrained energy minimization to resolve severe local structural problems. The analysis of the models submitted show that Accelrys tools allow for the construction of quite accurate models for the framework and the canonical CDR regions, with RMSDs to the X-ray structure on average below 1 Å for most of these regions. The results show that accurate prediction of the H3 hypervariable loops remains a challenge. Furthermore, model quality assessment of the submitted models show that the models are of quite high quality, with local geometry assessment scores similar to that of the target X-ray structures. Proteins 2014; 82:1583–1598. © 2014 The Authors. Proteins published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24833271

  2. [Practice report: the process-based indicator dashboard. Visualising quality assurance results in standardised processes].

    PubMed

    Petzold, Thomas; Hertzschuch, Diana; Elchlep, Frank; Eberlein-Gonska, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Process management (PM) is a valuable method for the systematic analysis and structural optimisation of the quality and safety of clinical treatment. PM requires a high motivation and willingness to implement changes of both employees and management. Definition of quality indicators is required to systematically measure the quality of the specified processes. One way to represent comparable quality results is the use of quality indicators of the external quality assurance in accordance with Sect. 137 SGB V—a method which the Federal Joint Committee (GBA) and the institutions commissioned by the GBA have employed and consistently enhanced for more than ten years. Information on the quality of inpatient treatment is available for 30 defined subjects throughout Germany. The combination of specified processes with quality indicators is beneficial for the information of employees. A process-based indicator dashboard provides essential information about the treatment process. These can be used for process analysis. In a continuous consideration of these indicator results values can be determined and errors will be remedied quickly. If due consideration is given to these indicators, they can be used for benchmarking to identify potential process improvements. PMID:25523849

  3. Adoption potential of conservation agriculture practices in sub-Saharan Africa: results from five case studies.

    PubMed

    Ndah, Hycenth Tim; Schuler, Johannes; Uthes, Sandra; Zander, Peter; Traore, Karim; Gama, Mphatso-S; Nyagumbo, Isaiah; Triomphe, Bernard; Sieber, Stefan; Corbeels, Marc

    2014-03-01

    Despite the reported benefits of conservation agriculture (CA), its wider up-scaling in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has remained fairly limited. This paper shows how a newly developed qualitative expert assessment approach for CA adoption (QAToCA) was applied to determine its adoption potential in SSA. CA adoption potential is not a predictor of observed adoption rates. Instead, our aim was to systematically check relevant factors that may be influencing its adoption. QAToCA delivers an assessment of how suitable conditions "and thus the likelihood for CA adoption" are. Results show that the high CA adoption potentials exhibited by the Malawi and Zambia case relate mostly to positive institutional factors. On the other hand, the low adoption potential of the Zimbabwe case, in spite of observed higher estimates, is attributed mainly to unstable and less secured market conditions for CA. In the case of Southern Burkina Faso, the potential for CA adoption is determined to be high, and this assessment deviates from lower observed figures. This is attributed mainly to strong competition of CA and livestock for residues in this region. Lastly, the high adoption potential found in Northern Burkina Faso is explained mainly by the fact that farmers here have no alternative other than to adopt the locally adapted CA system-Zaï farming. Results of this assessment should help promoters of CA in the given regions to reflect on their activities and to eventually adjust or redesign them based on a more explicit understanding of where problems and opportunities are found. PMID:24337194

  4. Adoption Potential of Conservation Agriculture Practices in Sub-Saharan Africa: Results from Five Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndah, Hycenth Tim; Schuler, Johannes; Uthes, Sandra; Zander, Peter; Traore, Karim; Gama, Mphatso-S.; Nyagumbo, Isaiah; Triomphe, Bernard; Sieber, Stefan; Corbeels, Marc

    2014-03-01

    Despite the reported benefits of conservation agriculture (CA), its wider up-scaling in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has remained fairly limited. This paper shows how a newly developed qualitative expert assessment approach for CA adoption (QAToCA) was applied to determine its adoption potential in SSA. CA adoption potential is not a predictor of observed adoption rates. Instead, our aim was to systematically check relevant factors that may be influencing its adoption. QAToCA delivers an assessment of how suitable conditions "and thus the likelihood for CA adoption" are. Results show that the high CA adoption potentials exhibited by the Malawi and Zambia case relate mostly to positive institutional factors. On the other hand, the low adoption potential of the Zimbabwe case, in spite of observed higher estimates, is attributed mainly to unstable and less secured market conditions for CA. In the case of Southern Burkina Faso, the potential for CA adoption is determined to be high, and this assessment deviates from lower observed figures. This is attributed mainly to strong competition of CA and livestock for residues in this region. Lastly, the high adoption potential found in Northern Burkina Faso is explained mainly by the fact that farmers here have no alternative other than to adopt the locally adapted CA system—Zaï farming. Results of this assessment should help promoters of CA in the given regions to reflect on their activities and to eventually adjust or redesign them based on a more explicit understanding of where problems and opportunities are found.

  5. Parietal Reach Region Encodes Reach Depth Using Retinal Disparity and Vergence Angle Signals

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Rajan; Musallam, Sam; Andersen, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    Performing a visually guided reach requires the ability to perceive the egocentric distance of a target in three-dimensional space. Previous studies have shown that the parietal reach region (PRR) encodes the two-dimensional location of frontoparallel targets in an eye-centered reference frame. To investigate how a reach target is represented in three dimensions, we recorded the spiking activity of PRR neurons from two rhesus macaques trained to fixate and perform memory reaches to targets at different depths. Reach and fixation targets were configured to explore whether neural activity directly reflects egocentric distance as the amplitude of the required motor command, which is the absolute depth of the target, or rather the relative depth of the target with reference to fixation depth. We show that planning activity in PRR represents the depth of the reach target as a function of disparity and fixation depth, the spatial parameters important for encoding the depth of a reach goal in an eye centered reference frame. The strength of modulation by disparity is maintained across fixation depth. Fixation depth gain modulates disparity tuning while preserving the location of peak tuning features in PRR neurons. The results show that individual PRR neurons code depth with respect to the fixation point, that is, in eye centered coordinates. However, because the activity is gain modulated by vergence angle, the absolute depth can be decoded from the population activity. PMID:19439678

  6. Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

  7. Moving formal methods into practice. Verifying the FTPP Scoreboard: Results, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivas, Mandayam; Bickford, Mark

    1992-01-01

    This report documents the Phase 1 results of an effort aimed at formally verifying a key hardware component, called Scoreboard, of a Fault-Tolerant Parallel Processor (FTPP) being built at Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (CSDL). The Scoreboard is part of the FTPP virtual bus that guarantees reliable communication between processors in the presence of Byzantine faults in the system. The Scoreboard implements a piece of control logic that approves and validates a message before it can be transmitted. The goal of Phase 1 was to lay the foundation of the Scoreboard verification. A formal specification of the functional requirements and a high-level hardware design for the Scoreboard were developed. The hardware design was based on a preliminary Scoreboard design developed at CSDL. A main correctness theorem, from which the functional requirements can be established as corollaries, was proved for the Scoreboard design. The goal of Phase 2 is to verify the final detailed design of Scoreboard. This task is being conducted as part of a NASA-sponsored effort to explore integration of formal methods in the development cycle of current fault-tolerant architectures being built in the aerospace industry.

  8. Survey results of the training, nutrition, and mental preparation of triathletes: practical implications of findings.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Shawn H; Houston, Melinda; Martin, Scott B

    2011-07-01

    Although triathlon is growing in popularity at a remarkable rate, it has not been extensively studied. The aims of this research were to identify preparation strategies used by triathletes and to categorize these strategies according to gender and consultation with triathlon coaches. Survey data collected from 401 triathletes (207 males, 194 females) revealed training, nutritional, and mental preparation habits. Most participants engaged in strength training, consumed food and/or fluids during and after training, set training and competition goals, and applied mental preparation strategies during training and the hour before racing. Water was the most commonly consumed fluid; positive self-talk was the most used mental strategy. Participants were more likely to consult with a triathlon coach than a nutrition or sport psychology professional. Athletes with more years of experience in triathlon and those competing in longer distances were more likely to consult a triathlon coach. Female triathletes were more likely than male triathletes to train with others, use mental preparation strategies, and report feeling anxious before competitions. More male triathletes reported using nutritional supplements during training than their female counterparts. These findings add to the limited research base on triathletes' training habits, and hopefully will help guide practitioners who work with this group. The results provide guidance for collaborative efforts among training, nutrition, and mental health professionals to best support triathletes. PMID:21623532

  9. Modelling Study at Kutlular Copper FIELD with Spat This Study, Evaluation Steps of Copper Mine Field SP Data Are Shown How to Reach More Accurate Results for SP Inversion Method.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, O. K.; Asci, M.

    2014-12-01

    At this study, determination of theoretical parameters for inversion process of Trabzon-Sürmene-Kutlular ore bed anomalies was examined. Making a decision of which model equation can be used for inversion is the most important step for the beginning. It is thought that will give a chance to get more accurate results. So, sections were evaluated with sphere-cylinder nomogram. After that, same sections were analyzed with cylinder-dike nomogram to determine the theoretical parameters for inversion process for every single model equations. After comparison of results, we saw that only one of them was more close to parameters of nomogram evaluations. But, other inversion result parameters were different from their nomogram parameters.

  10. Does "responsive insertion technology" improve practice of colonoscopy? Results of a randomized study.

    PubMed

    Cuesta, Rubén; Sola-Vera, Javier; Uceda, Francisco; García Sepulcre, Mariana Fe; Morillo, Elena; Vázquez, Narcís

    2014-03-01

    OBJECTIVE. During colonoscopy, advancing the endoscope can sometimes be difficult due to the appearance of loops or bends in the insertion tube. Therefore, research continues toward improving colonoscope technology. The aim of this study is to compare the use of colonoscopes equipped with "responsive insertion technology" (RIT) versus regular non-RIT colonoscopes. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Prospective, comparative and randomized trials that included patients submitted to colonoscopy. In group I, RIT colonoscopes were used, while in group II, colonoscopies with variable stiffness but without the other components of the RIT technology were used. Demographic variables and variables related to colonoscopy, as well as the pain perceived by the patient and the difficulty in performing endoscopy were recorded. RESULTS. A total of 122 patients were included in group I and 120 patients in group II. The cecal intubation rate was similar in both groups. The use of the RIT colonoscopes was associated with a lower cecal intubation time (4.4 ± 2.0 vs. 5.4 ± 3.5, p = 0.005) and a lower difficulty in performing examinations for both the endoscopist (19.1 ± 20.0 vs. 27.7 ± 22.2, p = 0.002) and the nursing staff (20.8 ± 17.0 vs. 26.3 ± 19.6, p = 0.04). No significant differences were found between both groups in the need for ancillary maneuvers or in the pain perceived by the patient. CONCLUSIONS. RIT colonoscopes allow cecal intubation in a shorter time compared to variable stiffness colonoscopes, and are associated with a greater level of ease of the procedure. PMID:24417584

  11. A review of the practices and results of the UTMB to South Pole teledermatology program over the past six years.

    PubMed

    Sun, Angel; Lanier, Russell; Diven, Dayna

    2010-01-01

    There is no place on earth more remote and inaccessible than Antarctica. In 2002, Raytheon Polar Services Co. (RPS) awarded The University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB) at Galveston the contract to provide specialty medical services via telemedicine to the approximately 3,500 National Science Foundation (NSF) researchers and support personnel who rotate through Antarctica in a given year. We present the practices and results of the UTMB to the South Pole teledermatology program over the past six years, from 2003 to 2008. Issues encountered include logistics of sending out biopsies for pathologic diagnosis, limited bandwidth, and satellite availability for data transmission. The UTMB to the South Pole teledermatology program demonstrates the clinical practicality of telemedicine in providing dermatologic care to remote populations in extreme climate conditions. PMID:20137758

  12. Proprioceptive recalibration arises slowly compared to reach adaptation.

    PubMed

    Zbib, Basel; Henriques, Denise Y P; Cressman, Erin K

    2016-08-01

    When subjects reach in a novel visuomotor environment (e.g. while viewing a cursor representing their hand that is rotated from their hand's actual position), they typically adjust their movements (i.e. bring the cursor to the target), thus reducing reaching errors. Additionally, research has shown that reaching with altered visual feedback of the hand results in sensory changes, such that proprioceptive estimates of hand position are shifted in the direction of the visual feedback experienced (Cressman and Henriques in J Neurophysiol 102:3505-3518, 2009). This study looked to establish the time course of these sensory changes. Additionally, the time courses of implicit sensory and motor changes were compared. Subjects reached to a single visual target while seeing a cursor that was either aligned with their hand position (50 trials) or rotated 30° clockwise relative to their hand (150 trials). Reach errors and proprioceptive estimates of felt hand position were assessed following the aligned reach training trials and at seven different times during the rotated reach training trials by having subjects reach to the target without visual feedback, and provide estimates of their hand relative to a visual reference marker, respectively. Results revealed a shift in proprioceptive estimates throughout the rotated reach training trials; however, significant sensory changes were not observed until after 70 trials. In contrast, results showed a greater change in reaches after a limited number of reach training trials with the rotated cursor. These findings suggest that proprioceptive recalibration arises more slowly than reach adaptation. PMID:27014777

  13. Segmental Trunk Control Acquisition and Reaching in Typically Developing Infants

    PubMed Central

    Rachwani, Jaya; Santamaria, Victor; Saavedra, Sandra L.; Wood, Stacy; Porter, Francine; Woollacott, Marjorie H.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the influence of an external support at the thoracic and pelvic level of the trunk on the success of reaching, postural stability and reaching kinematics while infants reached for a toy. Seventeen infants (4–6 months) were clustered into two groups according to their trunk control assessed with the Segmental Assessment of Trunk Control (SATCo). Major differences were seen between groups with pelvic support, whereas with thoracic support, all infants showed similar quality reaching behaviours. With the external pelvic support, infants who had acquired trunk control in the lumbar region were more accurate in their reaching movements (less movement time, improved straightness of reach, less movement units and path length per movement unit) and were more stable (decreased trunk and head displacement) during a reach than infants that had only acquired trunk control in the thoracic region. These results support the hypothesis that trunk control influences the quality of reaching behaviour. PMID:23681292

  14. Practice patterns of naturopathic physicians: results from a random survey of licensed practitioners in two US States

    PubMed Central

    Boon, Heather S; Cherkin, Daniel C; Erro, Janet; Sherman, Karen J; Milliman, Bruce; Booker, Jennifer; Cramer, Elaine H; Smith, Michael J; Deyo, Richard A; Eisenberg, David M

    2004-01-01

    Background Despite the growing use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) by consumers in the U.S., little is known about the practice of CAM providers. The objective of this study was to describe and compare the practice patterns of naturopathic physicians in Washington State and Connecticut. Methods Telephone interviews were conducted with state-wide random samples of licensed naturopathic physicians and data were collected on consecutive patient visits in 1998 and 1999. The main outcome measures were: Sociodemographic, training and practice characteristics of naturopathic physicians; and demographics, reasons for visit, types of treatments, payment source and visit duration for patients. Result One hundred and seventy practitioners were interviewed and 99 recorded data on a total of 1817 patient visits. Naturopathic physicians in Washington and Connecticut had similar demographic and practice characteristics. Both the practitioners and their patients were primarily White and female. Almost 75% of all naturopathic visits were for chronic complaints, most frequently fatigue, headache, and back symptoms. Complete blood counts, serum chemistries, lipids panels and stool analyses were ordered for 4% to 10% of visits. All other diagnostic tests were ordered less frequently. The most commonly prescribed naturopathic therapeutics were: botanical medicines (51% of visits in Connecticut, 43% in Washington), vitamins (41% and 43%), minerals (35% and 39%), homeopathy (29% and 19%) and allergy treatments (11% and 13%). The mean visit length was about 40 minutes. Approximately half the visits were paid directly by the patient. Conclusion This study provides information that will help other health care providers, patients and policy makers better understand the nature of naturopathic care. PMID:15496231

  15. An Examination of Growing Trends in Land Tenure and Conservation Practice Adoption: Results from a Farmer Survey in Iowa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varble, Sarah; Secchi, Silvia; Druschke, Caroline Gottschalk

    2016-02-01

    Tenants and part-owners are farming an increasing number of acres in the United States, while full-owners are farming fewer acres. This shift in ownership is a potential cause for concern because some previous research indicated that tenant and part-owner farmers were less likely to adopt conservation practices than farmers who owned the land they farmed. If that trend persists, ownership changes would signal a national drop in conservation adoption. Here we examine this issue using a survey of agricultural operators in the Clear Creek watershed in Iowa, a state with intensive agricultural production. We compare adoption of conservation practices, and preferences for conservation information sources and communication channels, between farmers who rent some portion of the land they farm (tenants and part-owners) and farmers who own all of the land they farm (full-owners). We find that renters are more likely to practice conservation tillage than full-owners, though they are less likely to rotate crops. In addition, renters report using federal government employees (specifically, Natural Resource Conservation Service and Farm Service Agency) as their primary sources of conservation information, while full-owners most frequently rely on neighbors, friends, and County Extension. These findings are significant for conservation policy because, unlike some past research, they indicate that renters are not resistant to all types of conservation practices, echoing recent studies finding an increase in conservation adoption among non-full-owners. Our results emphasize the importance of government conservation communication and can inform outreach efforts by helping tailor effective, targeted conservation strategies for owners and renters.

  16. Measuring the economic value of alternative clam fishing management practices in the Venice Lagoon: results from a conjoint valuation application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, Paulo A. L. D.; Rossetto, Luca; de Blaeij, Arianne

    2004-11-01

    This article focuses on the economic valuation of alternative clam management practices in the Venice Lagoon. The proposed valuation method is characterized by the design of a survey questionnaire applied to the fishermen population. In each questionnaire, two fishing alternatives are described. The respondent is asked to choose one of them. This valuation method, referred in the article as conjoint valuation, gives sufficient flexibility to set, alter, and combine the valuation of different clam management practices. Furthermore, this approach presents an important advantage to the well-known contingent valuation method since it makes the monetary valuation of each management attribute possible. Estimation results show that all three attributes used in the questionnaire to describe and value different clam management practices—price of the annual permit and fishing technological system—are statistically robust, indicating that fishermen bear a utility change whenever these attributes change. In particular, fishermen's willingness to pay for a larger clam fishing area ranges between 568 and 811 € per year. In addition, an individual's willingness to pay for a fishing practice exclusively based on the vibrant rake system ranges between 1005 and 2456 €. Finally, the adoption of a clam fish management practice in the Venice Lagoon that is exclusively based on the use of manual rakes, which is associated with the lowest damage to the lagoon ecosystem, will represent a welfare loss of 5904 € per fisherman per year. Combining such a value estimate with the total number of fishermen currently operating in the Lagoon of Venice, the welfare loss associated with the adoption of this type of clam management policy amounts to 11.8 € million per year. This figure can be regarded as an upper bound to the cost of implementation of a clam fishing system anchored in the use of manual, ecosystem friendly rakes.

  17. An Examination of Growing Trends in Land Tenure and Conservation Practice Adoption: Results from a Farmer Survey in Iowa.

    PubMed

    Varble, Sarah; Secchi, Silvia; Druschke, Caroline Gottschalk

    2016-02-01

    Tenants and part-owners are farming an increasing number of acres in the United States, while full-owners are farming fewer acres. This shift in ownership is a potential cause for concern because some previous research indicated that tenant and part-owner farmers were less likely to adopt conservation practices than farmers who owned the land they farmed. If that trend persists, ownership changes would signal a national drop in conservation adoption. Here we examine this issue using a survey of agricultural operators in the Clear Creek watershed in Iowa, a state with intensive agricultural production. We compare adoption of conservation practices, and preferences for conservation information sources and communication channels, between farmers who rent some portion of the land they farm (tenants and part-owners) and farmers who own all of the land they farm (full-owners). We find that renters are more likely to practice conservation tillage than full-owners, though they are less likely to rotate crops. In addition, renters report using federal government employees (specifically, Natural Resource Conservation Service and Farm Service Agency) as their primary sources of conservation information, while full-owners most frequently rely on neighbors, friends, and County Extension. These findings are significant for conservation policy because, unlike some past research, they indicate that renters are not resistant to all types of conservation practices, echoing recent studies finding an increase in conservation adoption among non-full-owners. Our results emphasize the importance of government conservation communication and can inform outreach efforts by helping tailor effective, targeted conservation strategies for owners and renters. PMID:26514123

  18. A case study in technology utilization: Industrial products and practices. [summary of benefits to national economy resulting from space programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    In pursuit of such missions as Apollo, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration has called into being unique equipment that obviously has little direct application beyond the achievement of mission objectives. Yet, to assume that further direct application of space program hardware is somehow a measure of the industrial benefits accruing to the nation is to misunderstand how the creation of new technology affects modern industrial capability. This document presents a profile of the significant ways in which technological developments in response to aerospace mission requirements have been coupled into industrial practice, with the result being that improved products and processes are now being utilized to benefit the nation.

  19. Rapid plasticity of motor corticospinal system with robotic reach training.

    PubMed

    Kantak, S S; Jones-Lush, L M; Narayanan, P; Judkins, T N; Wittenberg, G F

    2013-09-01

    Goal-directed reaching is important for the activities of daily living. Populations of neurons in the primary motor cortex that project to spinal motor circuits are known to represent the kinematics of reaching movements. We investigated whether repetitive practice of goal-directed reaching movements induces use-dependent plasticity of those kinematic characteristics, in a manner similar to finger movements, as had been shown previously. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to evoke upper extremity movements while the forearm was resting in a robotic cradle. Plasticity was measured by the change in kinematics of these evoked movements following goal-directed reaching practice. Baseline direction of TMS-evoked arm movements was determined for each subject. Subjects then practiced three blocks of 160 goal-directed reaching movements in a direction opposite to the baseline direction (14 cm reach 180° from baseline direction) against a 75-Nm spring field. Changes in TMS-evoked whole arm movements were assessed after each practice block and after 5 min following the end of practice. Direction and the position of the point of peak velocity of TMS-evoked movements were significantly altered following training and at a 5-min interval following training, while amplitude did not show significant changes. This was accompanied by changes in the motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) of the shoulder and elbow agonist muscles that partly explained the change in direction, mainly by increase in agonist MEP, without significant changes in antagonists. These findings demonstrate that the arm representation accessible by motor cortical stimulation under goes rapid plasticity induced by goal-directed robotic reach training in healthy subjects. PMID:23669007

  20. Rapid Plasticity of Motor Corticospinal system with Robotic Reach Training

    PubMed Central

    Kantak, Shailesh S.; Jones-Lush, Lauren M.; Narayanan, Priya; Judkins, Timothy N.; Wittenberg, George F.

    2013-01-01

    Goal-directed reaching is important for activities of daily living. Populations of neurons in the primary motor cortex (M1) that project to spinal motor circuits are known to represent kinematics of reaching movements. We investigated whether repetitive practice of goal-directed reaching movements induces use-dependent plasticity of those kinematic characteristics, in a manner similar to finger movements, as had been shown previously. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used over the scalp to evoke upper extremity movements while the forearm was resting in a robotic cradle. Plasticity was measured by the change in kinematics of these evoked movements following goal-directed reaching practice. Baseline direction of TMS-evoked arm movements was determined for each subject. Subjects then practiced 3 blocks of 160 goal-directed reaching movements in a direction opposite to the baseline direction (14 cm reach 180° from baseline direction) against a 75 N·m spring field. Changes in TMS-evoked whole arm movements were assessed after each practice block and after 5 minutes following the end of practice. Direction and the position of the point of peak velocity of TMS-evoked movements were significantly altered following training and at a 5-minute interval following training, while amplitude did not show significant changes. This was accompanied by changes in the motor evoked potentials (MEPs) of the shoulder and elbow agonist muscles that partly explained the change in direction, mainly by increase in agonist MEP, without significant changes in antagonists. These findings demonstrate that the arm representation accessible by motor cortical stimulation demonstrates rapid plasticity induced by goal-directed robotic reach training in healthy subjects. PMID:23669007

  1. Reaching for the red planet

    PubMed

    David, L

    1996-05-01

    The distant shores of Mars were reached by numerous U.S. and Russian spacecraft throughout the 1960s to mid 1970s. Nearly 20 years have passed since those successful missions which orbited and landed on the Martian surface. Two Soviet probes headed for the planet in July, 1988, but later failed. In August 1993, the U.S. Mars Observer suddenly went silent just three days before it was to enter orbit around the planet and was never heard from again. In late 1996, there will be renewed activity on the launch pads with three probes departing for the red planet: 1) The U.S. Mars Global Surveyor will be launched in November on a Delta II rocket and will orbit the planet for global mapping purposes; 2) Russia's Mars '96 mission, scheduled to fly in November on a Proton launcher, consists of an orbiter, two small stations which will land on the Martian surface, and two penetrators that will plow into the terrain; and finally, 3) a U.S. Discovery-class spacecraft, the Mars Pathfinder, has a December launch date atop a Delta II booster. The mission features a lander and a microrover that will travel short distances over Martian territory. These missions usher in a new phase of Mars exploration, setting the stage for an unprecedented volley of spacecraft that will orbit around, land on, drive across, and perhaps fly at low altitudes over the planet. PMID:11538726

  2. Intracompartmental pressure testing: results of an international survey of current clinical practice, highlighting the need for standardised protocols.

    PubMed

    Hislop, Matthew; Tierney, Paul

    2011-09-01

    Despite more recent non-invasive modalities generating some credence in the literature, intracompartmental pressure testing is still considered the 'gold standard' for investigating chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS). Intracompartmental pressure testing, when used correctly, has been shown to be accurate and reliable. However, it is a user-dependent investigation, and the manner in which the investigation is conducted plays a large role in the outcome of the test. Despite this, a standard, reproducible protocol for intracompartmental pressure testing has not been described. This results in confusion regarding interpretation of results and reduces the tests' reliability. A summary of the current understanding of CECS is presented, along with the results of a survey of specialists in Australia and New Zealand who perform intracompartmental pressure testing, which confirms that a uniform approach is currently not used in clinical practice. This highlights the need for a consensus and standardised approach to intracompartmental pressure testing. PMID:21900703

  3. A review of the psychosocial effects of false-positive results on parents and current communication practices in newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Hewlett, J; Waisbren, S E

    2006-10-01

    As more states adopt expanded newborn screening for metabolic disorders, the overall number of false positives increases. False-positive screening results have been associated with increased anxiety and stress in parents of infants who require follow-up testing, even after the infant's good health is confirmed. This article reviews the literature on the negative impact of false-positive newborn screening results on parents, along with a review of current communication practices for follow-up screening. The results of this review suggest that parental stress and anxiety can be reduced with improved education and communication to parents, specifically at the time of follow-up screening. Communication strategies with sample materials are proposed. PMID:16917730

  4. Chiropractic care for patients with acute neck pain: results of a pragmatic practice-based feasibility study☆

    PubMed Central

    Haneline, Michael T.; Cooperstein, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of a chiropractic practice-based research network to investigate the treatment of acute neck pain (ANP) and to report resulting findings. Methods Participating chiropractors recruited sequentially presenting ANP patients on their initial visit to the office. Patients were treated by the chiropractors using their usual methods. Data were prospectively collected by having patients complete the Neck Disability Index, Characteristic Pain Intensity score, and a patient satisfaction questionnaire. Questionnaires were completed during routine office visits at baseline and then at weeks 1, 2, 4, 8, and 26, either in the office or by mail. Results Ten chiropractors supplied data on 99 patients. The number of cases contributed by each of the participating chiropractors ranged from 1 to 54, with a mean (SD) of 9.2 (10.5). Mean (SD) Neck Disability Index scores were 36 (17.9) at baseline and 9.8 (12.2) at the final evaluation; the Characteristic Pain Intensity scores were initially 55.3 (20.4) and were 24.5 (21.5) at the final evaluation. Transient minimal adverse effects were reported by chiropractors for only 7 (7.8%) patients. No serious adverse reactions were reported. Conclusion The practice-based research methodology used in this study appears to be a feasible way to investigate chiropractic care for ANP, and its methodologies could be used to plan future research. PMID:19948305

  5. Intelligence Reach for Expertise (IREx)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadley, Christina; Schoening, James R.; Schreiber, Yonatan

    2015-05-01

    IREx is a search engine for next-generation analysts to find collaborators. U.S. Army Field Manual 2.0 (Intelligence) calls for collaboration within and outside the area of operations, but finding the best collaborator for a given task can be challenging. IREx will be demonstrated as part of Actionable Intelligence Technology Enabled Capability Demonstration (AI-TECD) at the E15 field exercises at Ft. Dix in July 2015. It includes a Task Model for describing a task and its prerequisite competencies, plus a User Model (i.e., a user profile) for individuals to assert their capabilities and other relevant data. These models use a canonical suite of ontologies as a foundation for these models, which enables robust queries and also keeps the models logically consistent. IREx also supports learning validation, where a learner who has completed a course module can search and find a suitable task to practice and demonstrate that their new knowledge can be used in the real world for its intended purpose. The IREx models are in the initial phase of a process to develop them as an IEEE standard. This initiative is currently an approved IEEE Study Group, after which follows a standards working group, then a balloting group, and if all goes well, an IEEE standard.

  6. Practices to "Avoid" in Out-of-School Time Programs. Research-to-Results Brief. Publication #2010-03

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin Anderson; Collins, Ashleigh; Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta

    2010-01-01

    Perhaps one of the fastest ways to improve the quality of out-of-school time programs would be to replace practices that individuals know do not work with practices that appear to be more effective. In this brief, the authors highlight lessons from an expanding body of knowledge about specific program practices that should be avoided or minimized…

  7. Knowledge, Beliefs and Practices Regarding Antiretroviral Medications for HIV Prevention: Results from a Survey of Healthcare Providers in New England

    PubMed Central

    Krakower, Douglas S.; Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Mitty, Jennifer A.; Wilson, Ira B.; Kurth, Ann E.; Maloney, Kevin M.; Gallagher, Donna; Mayer, Kenneth H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral treatment for HIV-infection before immunologic decline (early ART) and pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis (PrEP) can prevent HIV transmission, but routine adoption of these practices by clinicians has been limited. Methods Between September and December 2013, healthcare practitioners affiliated with a regional AIDS Education and Training Center in New England were invited to complete online surveys assessing knowledge, beliefs and practices regarding early ART and PrEP. Multivariable models were utilized to determine characteristics associated with prescribing intentions and practices. Results Surveys were completed by 184 practitioners. Respondent median age was 44 years, 58% were female, and 82% were white. Among ART-prescribing clinicians (61% of the entire sample), 64% were aware that HIV treatment guidelines from the Department of Health and Human Services recommended early ART, and 69% indicated they would prescribe ART to all HIV-infected patients irrespective of immunologic status. However, 77% of ART-prescribing clinicians would defer ART for patients not ready to initiate treatment. Three-fourths of all respondents were aware of guidance from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommending PrEP provision, 19% had prescribed PrEP, and 58% of clinicians who had not prescribed PrEP anticipated future prescribing. Practitioners expressed theoretical concerns and perceived practical barriers to prescribing early ART and PrEP. Clinicians with higher percentages of HIV-infected patients (aOR 1.16 per 10% increase in proportion of patients with HIV-infection, 95% CI 1.01–1.34) and infectious diseases specialists (versus primary care physicians; aOR 3.32, 95% CI 0.98–11.2) were more likely to report intentions to prescribe early ART. Higher percentage of HIV-infected patients was also associated with having prescribed PrEP (aOR 1.19, 95% CI 1.06–1.34), whereas female gender (aOR 0.26, 95% CI 0.10–0.71) was associated

  8. Reach performance while wearing the Space Shuttle launch and entry suit during exposure to launch accelerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagian, James P.; Greenisen, Michael C.; Schafer, Lauren E.; Probe, John D.; Krutz, Robert W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Crewmen aboard the Space Shuttle are subjected to accelerations during ascent (the powered flight phase of launch) which range up to +3 G(sub x). Despite having 33 missions and nine years experience, not to mention all the time spent in development prior to the first flight, no truly quantitative reach study wearing actual crew equipment, using actual Shuttle seats and restraints has ever been done. What little information exists on reach performance while under acceleration has been derived primarily from subjective comments gathered retrospectively from Shuttle flight crews during their post mission debrief. This lack of reach performance data has resulted in uncertainty regarding emergency procedures that can realistically be performed during and actual Shuttle ascent versus what is practiced in the ground-fixed and motion-based Shuttle Simulators. With the introduction on STS-26 of the current Shuttle escape system, the question of reach performance under launch accelerations was once again raised. The escape system's requirement that each crewman wear a Launch/Entry Suit (LES), parachute harness, and parachute were all anticipated to contribute to a further degradation of reach performance during Shuttle ascent accelerations. In order to answer the reach performance question in a quantitative way, a photogrammetric method was chosen so that the actual reach values and associated envelopes could be captured. This would allow quantitative assessment of potential task performance impact and identify areas where changes to our Shuttle ascent emergency procedures might be required. Also, such a set of reach values would be valid for any similar acceleration profile using the same crew equipment. Potential Space Station applications of this data include predicting reach performance during Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) operations.

  9. Comprehensive Coach Education and Practice Contact Restriction Guidelines Result in Lower Injury Rates in Youth American Football

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Zachary Y.; Yeargin, Susan; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C.; Nittoli, Vincent C.; Mensch, James; Dodge, Thomas; Hayden, Ross; Dompier, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research evaluating the effect of comprehensive coach education and practice contact restriction in youth football injury rates is sparse. In 2012, USA Football released their Heads Up Football coaching education program (HUF), and Pop Warner Football (PW) instituted guidelines to restrict contact during practice. Purpose: To compare injury rates among youth football players aged 5 to 15 years by whether their leagues implemented HUF and/or were PW-affiliated. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: Athletic trainers (ATs) evaluated and tracked injuries at each practice and game during the 2014 youth football season. Players were drawn from 10 leagues across 4 states. The non–Heads Up Football (NHUF) group consisted of 704 players (none of whom were PW-affiliated) from 29 teams within 4 leagues. The HUF+PW group consisted of 741 players from 27 teams within 2 leagues. The HUF-only group consisted of 663 players from 44 teams within 4 leagues. Injury rates and injury rate ratios (IRRs) were reported with 95% CIs. Results: A total of 370 injuries were reported during 71,262 athlete-exposures (AEs) (rate, 5.19/1000 AEs). Compared with the NHUF group (7.32/1000 AEs), the practice injury rates were lower for the HUF+PW group (0.97/1000 AEs; IRR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.08-0.21) and the HUF-only group (2.73/1000 AEs; IRR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.26-0.53). Compared with the NHUF group (13.42/1000 AEs), the game injury rate was lower for the HUF+PW group (3.42/1000 AEs; IRR, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.15-0.44) but not for the HUF-only group (13.76/1000 AEs; IRR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.73-1.43). Also, the HUF+PW game injury rate was lower than that of HUF-only (IRR, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.12-0.36). Higher injury rates were typically found in those aged 11 to 15 years compared with those aged 5 to 10 years. However, stronger effects related to HUF implementation and PW affiliation were seen among 11- to 15-year-olds. When restricted to concussions only, the sole difference was found

  10. Reaching the community in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    1996-08-01

    A knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) survey in the area near San Lucas Toliman, Solola State, where JOICFP is implementing its integrated project (IP) in Guatemala, will target the ethnic Mayan people living in the area. The IP is promoted by the Family Planning Association of Guatemala (APROFAM) and uses community participation with the support of women's clubs and traditional birth attendants (TBAs). The survey of about 1000 women of reproductive age will gauge progress in family planning, maternal and child health, reproductive health, and environmental sanitation using a method sensitive to the Mayan culture. A JOICFP mission to Guatemala, which included Saeko Ichikawa (Global Link Management) and Ayumi Shingo (a public health nurse serving with the Japan Overseas Cooperation Volunteers in Guatemala) pretested the survey. The team also discussed the work plan for the approved JOICFP/UNFPA Latin American regional project RLA/96//P02 and the country-level Integrated Reproductive Health/Family Planning with IEC for Adolescents Project. The mission met three volunteers at the IP laboratory, which provides basic examinations for a fee and uses volunteers who learn skills for future employment. The team discussed the laboratory as a model for the 13 new laboratories planned by APROFAM throughout the country. Another IP activity is the Chilam Balam education center in Aldea Panimatzalam, San Andres Semetabaj. Covering a population of 4616 in 8 communities, the center provides literacy education, vocational training, and education on adolescent health and environmental protection. The team discussed plans to start a revolving fund and received a request for typewriters for skills training. The team donated 8 typewriters to the women's club. PMID:12347296

  11. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Concerning Malaria in Pregnancy: Results from a Qualitative Study in Madang, Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Andrew, Erin V. W.; Pell, Christopher; Angwin, Angeline; Auwun, Alma; Daniels, Job; Mueller, Ivo; Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Pool, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Background Malaria is the leading cause of illness and death in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Infection during pregnancy with falciparum or vivax malaria, as occurs in PNG, has health implications for mother and child, causing complications such as maternal anemia, low birth weight and miscarriage. This article explores knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning malaria during pregnancy and it’s prevention in Madang, PNG, a high prevalence area. Methods As part of a qualitative study in Madang, exploring MiP, participatory techniques (free-listing and sorting) were conducted along with focus group discussions, in-depth interviews (with pregnant women, health staff and other community members) and observations in the local community and health facilities. Results The main themes explored were attitudes towards and knowledge of MiP, its risks, and prevention. Although there was a general awareness of the term “malaria”, it was often conflated with general sickness or with pregnancy-related symptoms. Moreover, many preventive methods for MiP were related to practices of general healthy living. Indeed, varied messages from health staff about the risks of MiP were observed. In addition to ideas about the seriousness and risk of MiP, other factors influenced the uptake of interventions: availability and perceived comfort of sleeping under insecticide-treated mosquito nets were important determinants of usage, and women’s heavy workload influenced Chloroquine adherence. Conclusion The non-specific symptoms of MiP and its resultant conflation with symptoms of pregnancy that are perceived as normal have implications for MiP prevention and control. However, in Madang, PNG, this was compounded by the inadequacy of health staff’s message about MiP. PMID:25893405

  12. ALMA telescope reaches new heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-09-01

    of the Array Operations Site. This means surviving strong winds and temperatures between +20 and -20 Celsius whilst being able to point precisely enough that they could pick out a golf ball at a distance of 15 km, and to keep their smooth reflecting surfaces accurate to better than 25 micrometres (less than the typical thickness of a human hair). Once the transporter reached the high plateau it carried the antenna to a concrete pad - a docking station with connections for power and fibre optics - and positioned it with an accuracy of a few millimetres. The transporter is guided by a laser steering system and, just like some cars today, also has ultrasonic collision detectors. These sensors ensure the safety of the state-of-the-art antennas as the transporter drives them across what will soon be a rather crowded plateau. Ultimately, ALMA will have at least 66 antennas distributed over about 200 pads, spread over distances of up to 18.5 km and operating as a single, giant telescope. Even when ALMA is fully operational, the transporters will be used to move the antennas between pads to reconfigure the telescope for different kinds of observations. "Transporting our first antenna to the Chajnantor plateau is a epic feat which exemplifies the exciting times in which ALMA is living. Day after day, our global collaboration brings us closer to the birth of the most ambitious ground-based astronomical observatory in the world", said Thijs de Graauw, ALMA Director. This first ALMA antenna at the high site will soon be joined by others and the ALMA team looks forward to making their first observations from the Chajnantor plateau. They plan to link three antennas by early 2010, and to make the first scientific observations with ALMA in the second half of 2011. ALMA will help astronomers answer important questions about our cosmic origins. The telescope will observe the Universe using light with millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths, between infrared light and radio waves in

  13. ALMA Telescope Reaches New Heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-09-01

    ball at a distance of nine miles, and to keep their smooth reflecting surfaces accurate to less than the thickness of a human hair. Once the transporter reached the high plateau it carried the antenna to a concrete pad -- a docking station with connections for power and fiber optics -- and positioned it with an accuracy of a small fraction of an inch. The transporter is guided by a laser steering system and, just like some cars, also has ultrasonic collision detectors. These sensors ensure the safety of the state-of-the-art antennas as the transporter drives them across what will soon be a rather crowded plateau. Ultimately, ALMA will have at least 66 antennas distributed over about 200 pads, spread over distances of up to 11.5 miles and operating as a single, giant telescope. Even when ALMA is fully operational, the transporters will be used to move the antennas between pads to reconfigure the telescope for different kinds of observations. This first ALMA antenna at the high site will soon be joined by others, and the ALMA team looks forward to making their first observations from the Chajnantor plateau. They plan to link three antennas by early 2010, and to make the first scientific observations with ALMA in the second half of 2011. ALMA will help astronomers answer important questions about our cosmic origins. The telescope will observe the Universe using light with millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths, between infrared light and radio waves in the electromagnetic spectrum. Light at these wavelengths comes from some of the coldest, and from some of the most distant objects in the cosmos. These include cold clouds of gas and dust where new stars are being born, or remote galaxies towards the edge of the observable universe. The Universe is relatively unexplored at submillimeter wavelengths, as the telescopes need extremely dry atmospheric conditions, such as those at Chajnantor, and advanced detector technology. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array

  14. EFNEP Reaches Refugee Youth Using a Mobile Van

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gossett, Linda S.

    2012-01-01

    New groups of refugees settled in apartments far from city services. Their children lacked access to organized after-school activities and the opportunity to practice English. The Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) wanted to reach and teach the young refugees but lacked the staff and budget to do so. This article discusses how…

  15. Our Global Reach: UNESCO and ICAE as Catalysts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucouvalas, Marcie

    2012-01-01

    Globalization has become a household word, permeating workplaces and communities, while internationalizing the curriculum has become common practice, not just in higher education, but also reaching into the primary grades and outward into program planning efforts in the non-formal sector. Few fields, however, can claim two international bodies…

  16. Reaching Teenagers with Sex Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Margaret

    The problem of teenage pregnancy can be viewed as endemic, a part of American culture not easy to change. Although the number of girls under 15 who are becoming pregnant is not very large (13,000 in 1978), the cost of pregnancy to the girls themselves, their families, and society is very great. Results of data analyses from action research,…

  17. Crossing new uncharted territory: shifts in academic identity as a result of modifying teaching practice in undergraduate mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kensington-Miller, Barbara; Sneddon, Jamie; Stewart, Sepideh

    2014-08-01

    The changes in academic identity a teacher may undergo, as they modify their teaching practice, will vary depending on their experiences and the support they receive. In this paper, we describe the shifts in academic identity of two lecturers, a mathematician and a mathematics educator, as they both made changes to their teaching practice by implementing new questioning techniques in a large undergraduate mathematics course. Both the lecturers were members of the research group, which became their community of practice. Our findings recommend that lecturers endeavouring to step out and try changes to their teaching practice, particularly with large groups of students, belong to a community of practice. The community of practice provides a place for shared reflection, new learning, and opportunities to negotiate new identities.

  18. Evidence-Based Practice Knowledge, Use, and Factors that Influence Decisions: Results from an Evidence-Based Practice Survey of Providers in American Indian/Alaska Native Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Angela; Walrath-Greene, Christine; Fisher, Sylvia; Crossbear, Shannon; Walker, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Data from the Evidence-based Treatment Survey were used to compare providers serving families in American Indian and Alaska Native communities to their counterparts in non-American Indian/Alaska Native communities on provider characteristics and factors that influence their decision to use evidence-based practices (N = 467). The findings suggest…

  19. Patterns of Radiotherapy Practice for Pancreatic Cancer in Japan: Results of the Japanese Radiation Oncology Study Group (JROSG) Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Ito, Yoshinori; Karasawa, Katsuyuki; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Onishi, Hiroshi; Kazumoto, Tomoko; Shibuya, Keiko; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Okuno, Yoshishige; Nishino, Shigeo; Ogo, Etsuyo; Uchida, Nobue; Karasawa, Kumiko; Nemoto, Kenji; Nishimura, Yasumasa

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: To determine the patterns of radiotherapy practice for pancreatic cancer in Japan. Methods and Materials: A questionnaire-based national survey of radiotherapy for pancreatic cancer treated between 2000 and 2006 was conducted by the Japanese Radiation Oncology Study Group (JROSG). Detailed information on 870 patients from 34 radiation oncology institutions was accumulated. Results: The median age of all patients was 64 years (range, 36-88), and 80.2% of the patients had good performance status. More than 85% of patients had clinical Stage T3-T4 disease, and 68.9% of patients had unresectable disease at diagnosis. Concerning radiotherapy (RT), 49.8% of patients were treated with radical external beam RT (EBRT) (median dose, 50.4 Gy), 44.4% of patients were treated with intraoperative RT (median dose, 25 Gy) with or without EBRT (median dose, 45 Gy), and 5.9% of patients were treated with postoperative radiotherapy (median dose, 50 Gy). The treatment field consisted of the primary tumor (bed) only in 55.6% of the patients. Computed tomography-based treatment planning and conformal RT was used in 93.1% and 83.1% of the patients treated with EBRT, respectively. Chemotherapy was used for 691 patients (79.4%; before RT for 66 patients; during RT for 531; and after RT for 364). Gemcitabine was the most frequently used drug, followed by 5-fluorouracil. Conclusion: This study describes the general patterns of RT practice for pancreatic cancer in Japan. Most patients had advanced unresectable disease, and radical EBRT, as well as intraoperative RT with or without EBRT, was frequently used. Chemotherapy with gemcitabine was commonly used in conjunction with RT during the survey period.

  20. Teach to Reach: The Effects of Active Versus Passive Reaching Experiences on Action and Perception

    PubMed Central

    Libertus, Klaus; Needham, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Reaching is an important and early emerging motor skill that allows infants to interact with the physical and social world. However, few studies have considered how reaching experiences shape infants’ own motor development and their perception of actions performed by others. In the current study, two groups of infants received daily parent guided play sessions over a two-week training period. Using “Sticky Mittens”, one group was enabled to independently pick up objects whereas the other group only passively observed their parent’s actions on objects. Following training, infants’ manual and visual exploration of objects, agents, and actions in a live and a televised context were assessed. Our results showed that only infants who experienced independent object apprehension advanced in their reaching behavior, and showed changes in their visual exploration of agents and objects in a live setting. Passive observation was not sufficient to change infants’ behavior. To our surprise, the effects of the training did not seem to generalize to a televised observation context. Together, our results suggest that early motor training can jump-start infants’ transition into reaching and inform their perception of others’ actions. PMID:20828580

  1. Changes in Storm Flow as a Result of Direct Seed Farming Practices on the Columbia Plateau Semiarid Croplands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, J. D.

    2004-12-01

    -time precipitation patterns for the Columbia Plateau. Four runoff events were recorded from October 2002 through September 2003; the stage recorder failed in the conventionally tilled drainage during two of the events. During the events in which the runoff was recorded, the conventionally tilled drainage yielded 19.39 m3 and 20.83 m3; for those same events the 10.0 ha direct seed drainage yielded 0 m3 and 7.24 m3. Total recorded runoff for the year from the conventionally tilled drainage was 40.21 m3, and 40.96 m3 from the 10.0 ha direct seeded drainage. Total annual erosion from the conventionally tilled drainage was 127.05 kg/ha and 8.18 kg/ha from the direct seeded drainage. No runoff or erosion were recorded from the direct seeded 25.0, 18.1 drainages, or the 1.6 ha hillslope. From October 2003 through September 2004, one runoff event was missed and eight events were recorded from the conventionally tilled drainage, yielding 149.89-m3 runoff, and 286.71-kg/ha soil loss. The direct seeded drainages and hillslope produced no runoff or erosion. Under the climatic conditions during these two winters, the direct seed practices used in this study effectively controlled, runoff and erosion compared to a conventionally farmed drainage, at scales both larger than and smaller than the conventionally drained area. These results demonstrate the immediate soil and water conservation effectiveness of the direct seed technology. They also portend changes in the downstream processes as channels adjust to reduced stormflow volume and energy, and a reduced sediment supply.

  2. Crossing New Uncharted Territory: Shifts in Academic Identity as a Result of Modifying Teaching Practice in Undergraduate Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kensington-Miller, Barbara; Sneddon, Jamie; Stewart, Sepideh

    2014-01-01

    The changes in academic identity a teacher may undergo, as they modify their teaching practice, will vary depending on their experiences and the support they receive. In this paper, we describe the shifts in academic identity of two lecturers, a mathematician and a mathematics educator, as they both made changes to their teaching practice by…

  3. Using a Class to Conduct a Carbon Inventory: A Case Study with Practical Results at Macalester College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Christopher W.; Savanick, Suzanne; Manning, Christie

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the practical realities of using a college seminar to fulfill the carbon audit requirement for signatories to the American College and University Presidents Climate Commitment (ACUPCC) and presents evidence of this approach's advantages as an educational and practical tool.…

  4. Kindergarten Teachers' Use of Developmentally Appropriate Practices: Results from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathbun, Amy H.; Walston, Jill T.; Hausken, Elvira Germino

    This longitudinal study examined the extent to which developmentally appropriate practices of teaching and evaluation are accepted and implemented in primary schools and the relationship of teacher educational background and experience with the use of these practices. Data were obtained from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study kindergarten…

  5. US Urban Elementary Teachers' Knowledge and Practices in Teaching Science to English Language Learners: Results from the first year of a professional development intervention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santau, Alexandra O.; Secada, Walter; Maerten-Rivera, Jaime; Cone, Neporcha; Lee, Okhee

    2010-10-01

    The study examined US elementary teachers' knowledge and practices in four key domains of science instruction with English language learning (ELL) students. The four domains included: (1) teachers' knowledge of science content, (2) teaching practices to promote scientific understanding, (3) teaching practices to promote scientific inquiry, and (4) teaching practices to support English language development during science instruction. The study was part of a larger five-year research and development intervention aimed at promoting science and literacy achievement of ELL students in urban elementary schools. It involved 32 third grade, 21 fourth grade, and 17 fifth grade teachers participating in the first-year implementation of the intervention. Based on teachers' questionnaire responses and classroom observation ratings, results indicated that (1) teachers' knowledge and practices were within the bounds of acceptability but short of reform-oriented practices and (2) grade-level differences existed, especially between Grades 3 and 5.

  6. Reaching the Next Generation of Marine Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyce, J.

    2009-04-01

    The next generation of marine scientists are today at primary school, secondary school or at college. To encourage them in their career, and to introduce those who are as yet undecided to the wonders of marine science, the Irish Marine Institute has devised a series of three overlapping outreach programmes to reach children at all three levels. Beginning at primary school, the "Explorers" programme offers a range of resources to teachers to enable them to teach marine-related examples as part of the science or geography modules of the SESE curriculum. These include teacher training, expert visits to schools, the installation and stocking of aquaria, field trips and downloadable lesson plans. For older pupils, the "Follow the Fleet" programme is a web-based education asset that allows users to track individual merchant ships and research vessels across the world, to interact with senior crew members of ships and to learn about their cargoes, the ports they visit and the sea conditions along the way. Finally, the "Integrated Marine Exploration Programme (IMEP)" takes secondary school pupils and university students to sea aboard the Marine Institute's research vessels to give them a taste of life as a marine scientist or to educate them in the practical day-to-day sampling and data processing tasks that make up a marine scientist's job.

  7. CFO compensation reaches record levels.

    PubMed

    2001-06-01

    HFMA's 2001 CFO compensation survey finds that CFOs of hospitals and health systems are receiving higher compensation today than ever before. The current average compensation of $127,00--15.5 percent higher than was reported in a similar survey conducted in 1999--is the highest ever recorded by HFMA. Moreover, comparison of the 2001 findings with results of previous surveys shows that the earnings gains for CFOs over the past two years are stronger than they have been at many times in recent history. Factors that were found to influence CFO compensation in 2001 are location, years of service, number of employees reporting to the CFO, supervisory responsibility at the system versus hospital level, experience, and gender. Significant findings of the survey were that the average earnings of CFOs in urban areas are nearly twice those of CFOs in rural areas and that the average difference between earnings of male and female CFOs narrowed from $45,100 in 1999 to $36,800 in 2001. PMID:11407122

  8. RECONS Reaches to 25 Parsecs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Todd J.; Boyd, M. R.; Dieterich, S. B.; Finch, C. T.; Ianna, P. A.; Jao, W.; Riedel, A. R.; Subsavage, J. P.; Tanner, A. M.; Winters, J. G.

    2011-01-01

    RECONS (Research Consortium on Nearby Stars, www.recons.org) is expanding its careful reconnaissance of the solar neighborhood from the original 10 parsec core sample to 25 parsecs. The resulting RECONS Database will expand the number of stellar systems for which we have detailed observations (astrometry, photometry, spectroscopy) and derived information (metallicity, multiplicity, exoplanets) from about 250 systems to 4000-6000 systems. Here we outline the new-and-improved 25 parsec sample, significantly updated from the NStars effort of a decade ago. To date, only 2000 systems have trigonometric parallaxes placing them within 25 parsecs, with more than 10% contributed by the RECONS effort at CTIO. In fact, an accurate estimate of the expected population is elusive, as new systems are being found as close as 4 parsecs, making extrapolations to 25 parsecs highly uncertain. We look forward to upcoming contributions made to the census by RECONS, SkyMapper, Pan-STARRS, LSST, and Gaia, and discuss how each of these efforts will play a role. During the next decade, census work is important because of surging interest in the nearest stars --- our stellar neighbors will offer the best answers to such fundamental questions as "What types of stars really populate the Galaxy?", "How many planets orbit nearby stars?", and "Is there life on any of those planets?" This work is currently supported by the NSF under AST 09-08402.

  9. Infants' Predictive Reaching for Moving Objects in the Dark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robin, Daniel J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Thirteen infants were presented with a moving object under two lighting conditions to investigate the role of vision in early reaching. Infants were tested twice, at 5 and 7.5 months of age. The results suggest that proprioceptive feedback and sight of the target allowed for successful reaching with limited visual information, even in relatively…

  10. Ecohydrological responses on water diversion in the lower reaches of the Tarim River, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Hui; Gemmer, Marco; Song, Yudong; Jiang, Tong

    2008-08-01

    During the past 30 years, water ceased to flow in the lower reaches of the Tarim River in northwest China. A project was initiated that aims for ecosystem recovery and rehabilitation by means of transporting water through an open canal to the lower reaches of the Tarim River. In this study, the ecohydrological responses of this rare type project are assessed. Water loss-runoff relationships and an index model for water loss rates and runoff are analyzed. The detected ecohydrological responses of the canal project include that water diversion dominates the dynamics of (1) the groundwater depth and (2) the tempo-spatial variation of riparian vegetation close to the water channel. The relationships between groundwater depth, vegetation coverage, species richness and soil water content are clearly the main factors contributing to the riparian vegetation. Variations of water mineralization are significant, both temporally and spatially, at each sampling station within the lower reaches of the Tarim River. The study provides basic information on water diversion and stream corridor restoration in the lower reaches of the Tarim River. The results show associated mechanisms between riparian vegetation and hydrological variation in arid zone. This lays the theoretical and practical foundation for improving the evaluation system for supplementary water delivery and comprehensive improvement in the Tarim Basin. It also provides information on strengths and weakness in current practices. These are needed for the planning of ecological recovery and rehabilitation of damaged ecosystems in this and other arid areas in western and northern China.

  11. Validating CAR - A comparison study of experimentally-derived and computer-generated reach envelopes. [Crewstation Assessment of Reach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, R.; Bennett, J.; Stokes, J.

    1982-01-01

    In the present investigation, Crewstation Assessment of Reach (CAR) results in the form of male hand reach envelopes were generated and compared with an anthropometric survey performed by Kennedy (1978) to determine the extent of the validity of the CAR model with respect to experimentally-derived anthropometric data. The CAR-generated reach envelopes extensively matched the Kennedy envelopes. The match was particularly good in the areas to the front and side from which the reach originated. Attention is given to the crewstation model, the operator sample population, the CAR analysis, aspects of validation methodology, and the modeling of experimental parameters.

  12. AIDSCAP: reaching communities through local organizations.

    PubMed

    1994-05-01

    More than 100 community-based private voluntary organizations and nongovernmental organizations in more than 30 developing countries carry out 70% of the activities funded by the US Agency for International Development's (USAID) AIDS Control and Prevention Project (AIDSCAP). This reflects USAID's wish to capitalize on both the ability of community-based organizations to reach diverse populations and the years of experience these organizations have in working in their communities. By improving local technical and managerial capabilities, AIDSCAP is acting on its belief that containment of the AIDS epidemic depends upon the grassroots prevention efforts of community groups. One of the AIDSCAP-funded projects in Tanzania has trained more than 6000 peer educators who have reached more than 60,000 members of trade unions. In Brazil, one of the AIDSCAP-supported efforts has resulted in the training of 227 peer educators who have provided prevention information to more than 40,000 men who have sex with men. AIDSCAP is collaborating with the Red Cross, the Pharmacists' Association, Planned Parenthood, World Vision, and government agencies in Thailand and is improving the ability of a consortium of 40 NGOs to disseminate information and advocate for policy changes. PMID:12345908

  13. Mass reach scaling for future hadron colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, Thomas G.

    2015-04-01

    The primary goal of any future hadron collider is to discover new physics (NP) associated with a high mass scale, , beyond the range of the LHC. In order to maintain the same relative mass reach for rate-limited NP, , as increases, Richter recently reminded us that the required integrated luminosity obtainable at future hadron colliders (FHC) must grow rapidly, , in the limit of naive scaling. This would imply, e.g., a 50-fold increase in the required integrated luminosity when going from the 14 TeV LHC to a FHC with TeV, an increase that would prove quite challenging on many different fronts. In this paper we point out, due to the scaling violations associated with the evolution of the parton density functions (PDFs) and the running of the strong coupling, , that the actual luminosity necessary in order to maintain any fixed value of the relative mass reach is somewhat greater than this scaling result indicates. However, the actual values of the required luminosity scaling are found to be dependent upon the detailed nature of the NP being considered. Here we elucidate this point explicitly by employing several specific benchmark examples of possible NP scenarios and briefly discuss the (relatively weak) search impact in each case if these luminosity goals are not met.

  14. A model for learning human reaching movements.

    PubMed

    Karniel, A; Inbar, G F

    1997-09-01

    Reaching movement is a fast movement towards a given target. The main characteristics of such a movement are straight path and a bell-shaped speed profile. In this work a mathematical model for the control of the human arm during ballistic reaching movements is presented. The model of the arm contains a 2 degrees of freedom planar manipulator, and a Hill-type, non-linear mechanical model of six muscles. The arm model is taken from the literature with minor changes. The nervous system is modeled as an adjustable pattern generator that creates the control signals to the muscles. The control signals in this model are rectangular pulses activated at various amplitudes and timings, that are determined according to the given target. These amplitudes and timings are the parameters that should be related to each target and initial conditions in the work-space. The model of the nervous system consists of an artificial neural net that maps any given target to the parameter space of the pattern generator. In order to train this net, the nervous system model includes a sensitivity model that transforms the error from the arm end-point coordinates to the parameter coordinates. The error is assessed only at the termination of the movement from knowledge of the results. The role of the non-linearity in the muscle model and the performance of the learning scheme are analysed, illustrated in simulations and discussed. The results of the present study demonstrate the central nervous system's (CNS) ability to generate typical reaching movements with a simple feedforward controller that controls only the timing and amplitude of rectangular excitation pulses to the muscles and adjusts these parameters based on knowledge of the results. In this scheme, which is based on the adjustment of only a few parameters instead of the whole trajectory, the dimension of the control problem is reduced significantly. It is shown that the non-linear properties of the muscles are essential to achieve

  15. Applicability and generalisability of the results of systematic reviews to public health practice and policy: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The purpose of the study was to evaluate systematic reviews of research into two public health priorities, tobacco consumption and HIV infection, in terms of the reporting of data related to the applicability of trial results (i.e., whether the results of a trial can be reasonably applied or generalized to a definable group of patients in a particular setting in routine practice, also called external validity or generalisability). Methods All systematic reviews of interventions aimed at reducing or stopping tobacco use and treating or preventing HIV infection published in the Cochrane database of systematic reviews and in journals indexed in MEDLINE between January 1997 and December 2007 were selected. We used a standardized data abstraction form to extract data related to applicability in terms of the context of the trial, (country, centres, settings), participants (recruitment, inclusion and exclusion criteria, baseline characteristics of participants such as age, sex, ethnicity, coexisting diseases or co-morbidities, and socioeconomic status), treatment (duration, intensity/dose of treatment, timing and delivery format), and the outcomes assessment from selected reviews. Results A total of 98 systematic reviews were selected (57 Cochrane reviews and 41 non-Cochrane reviews); 49 evaluated interventions aimed at reducing or stopping tobacco use and 49 treating or preventing HIV infection. The setting of the individual studies was reported in 45 (46%) of the systematic reviews, the number of centres in 21 (21%), and the country where the trial took place in 62 (63%). Inclusion and exclusion criteria of the included studies were reported in 16 (16%) and 13 (13%) of the reviews, respectively. Baseline characteristics of participants in the included studies were described in 59 (60%) of the reviews. These characteristics concerned age in about half of the reviews, sex in 46 (47%), and ethnicity in 9 (9%). Applicability of results was discussed in 13 (13

  16. REVERSE AUCTION RESULTS FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF DECENTRALIZED RETROFIT BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN A SMALL URBAN WATERSHED (CINCINNATI OH)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although urban stormwater is typically conveyed to centralized infrastructure, there is great potential for reducing stormwater runoff quantity through decentralization. In this case we hypothesize that smaller-scale retrofit best management practices (BMPs) such as rain gardens ...

  17. Translating Evidence-Based Falls Prevention into Clinical Practice in Nursing Facilities: Results and Lessons from a Quality Improvement Collaborative

    PubMed Central

    Colón-Emeric, Cathleen; Schenck, Anna; Gorospe, Joel; McArdle, Jill; Dobson, Lee; DePorter, Cindy; McConnell, Eleanor

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To describe the changes in process of care before and after an evidence-based fall reduction quality improvement collaborative in nursing facilities. DESIGN Natural experiment with nonparticipating facilities serving as controls. SETTING Community nursing homes. PARTICIPANTS Thirty-six participating and 353 non-participating nursing facilities in North Carolina. INTERVENTION Two in-person learning sessions, monthly teleconferences, and an e-mail discussion list over 9 months. The change package emphasized screening, labeling, and risk-factor reduction. MEASUREMENTS Compliance was measured using facility self-report and chart abstraction (n = 832) before and after the intervention. Fall rates as measured using the Minimum Data Set (MDS) were compared with those of nonparticipating facilities as an exploratory outcome. RESULTS Self-reported compliance with screening, labeling, and risk-factor reduction approached 100%. Chart abstraction revealed only modest improvements in screening (51% to 68%, P<.05), risk-factor reduction (4% to 7%, P = .30), and medication assessment (2% to 6%, P = .34). There was a significant increase in vitamin D prescriptions (40% to 48%, P = .03) and decrease in sedative-hypnotics (19% to 12%, P = .04) but no change in benzodiazepine, neuroleptic, or calcium use. No significant changes in proportions of fallers or fall rates were observed according to chart abstraction (28.6% to 37.5%, P = .17), MDS (18.2% to 15.4%, P = .56), or self-report (6.1–5.6 falls/1,000 bed days, P = .31). CONCLUSON Multiple-risk-factor reduction tasks are infrequently implemented, whereas screening tasks appear more easily modifiable in a real-world setting. Substantial differences between self-reported practice and medical record documentation require that additional data sources be used to assess the change-in-care processes resulting from quality improvement programs. Interventions to improve interdisciplinary collaboration need to be developed. PMID

  18. Real-world treatment practice in patients with advanced melanoma in the era before ipilimumab: results from the IMAGE study.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Mark R; Dalle, Stéphane; Claveau, Joel; Mut, Pilar; Hallmeyer, Sigrun; Plantin, Patrice; Highley, Martin; Kotapati, Srividya; Le, Trong Kim; Brokaw, Jane; Abernethy, Amy P

    2016-07-01

    The therapeutic landscape for advanced melanoma has recently been transformed by several novel agents (immune checkpoint inhibitors and molecular-targeted agents). The prospective, multi-site, observational study IMAGE (ipilimumab: management of advanced melanoma in real practice) included a retrospective cohort to describe real-world treatment prior to approval of the immune checkpoint inhibitor ipilimumab. This retrospective cohort of patients, who started second-line/subsequent treatment (index therapy) for advanced melanoma within 3 years before ipilimumab approval, was selected randomly by chart review. Collected data included treatment history, patient outcomes, and healthcare resource utilization. All patients had ≥1 year of follow-up data. This analysis included 177 patients from Europe (69%) and North America (31%). The most common index therapies (used alone or in combination) were fotemustine (23%), dacarbazine (21%), temozolomide (14%), and platinum-based chemotherapy (14%). Most patients (89%) discontinued index treatment during the study period; the most common reason was disease progression (59%). Among patients with tumor assessment (153/177; 86%), 2% had complete response, 5% had partial response, and 12% had stable disease on last tumor assessment. At 1-year study follow-up, median progression-free survival was 2.6 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1-2.9) and median overall survival was 8.8 months (95% CI, 6.5-9.7). During follow-up, 95% of the patients had healthcare visits for advanced melanoma, 74% of whom were hospitalized or admitted to a hospice facility. These results provide insights into patient care with advanced melanoma in the era before ipilimumab and may serve as a benchmark for new agents in future real-world studies. PMID:27118102

  19. Practice Guidance for Buprenorphine for the Treatment of Opioid Use Disorders: Results of an Expert Panel Process

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Carrie M.; Lindsay, Dawn; Williams, Jessica; Ayers, Amanda; Schuster, James; Cilia, Alyssa; Flaherty, Michael T.; Mandell, Todd; Gordon, Adam J.; Stein, Bradley D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although numbers of physicians credentialed to prescribe buprenorphine has increased over time, many credentialed physicians may be reluctant to treat individuals with opioid use disorders due to discomfort with prescribing buprenorphine. Though prescribing physicians are required to complete a training course, many have questions about buprenorphine and treatment guidelines have not been updated to reflect clinical experience in recent years. We report on an expert panel process to update and expand buprenorphine guidelines. Methods We identified candidate guidelines through expert opinion and a review of the literature and used a modified RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method to assess the validity of the candidate guidelines. An expert panel completed two rounds of rating, with a meeting to discuss the guidelines between the first and second rating. Results Through the rating process, expert panel members rated 90 candidate guideline statements across eight domains, including candidacy for buprenorphine treatment, dosing of buprenorphine, psychosocial counseling, and treatment of co-occurring depression and anxiety. A total of 65 guideline statements (72%) were rated as valid. Expert panel members had agreement in some areas, such as the treatment of co-occurring mental health problems, but disagreement in others, including the appropriate dosing of buprenorphine given patient complexities. Conclusions Through an expert panel process, we developed an updated and expanded set of buprenorphine treatment guidelines; this additional guidance may increase credentialed physicians’ comfort with prescribing buprenorphine to patients with opioid use disorders. Future efforts should focus on appropriate dosing guidance and ensuring that guidelines can be adapted to a variety of practice settings. PMID:25844527

  20. Forecasting the Effect of the Change in Timing of the ABR Diagnostic Radiology Examinations: Results of the ACR Survey of Practice Leaders.

    PubMed

    Bluth, Edward I; Muroff, Lawrence R; Cernigliaro, Joseph G; Moore, Arl V; Smith, Geoffrey G; Flug, Jonathan; DeStigter, Kristen K; Allen, Bibb; Thorwarth, William T; Roberts, Anne C

    2015-05-01

    The results of a survey sent to practice leaders in the ACR Practice of Radiology Environment Database show that the majority of responding groups will continue to hire recently trained residents and fellows even though they have been unable to take the final ABR diagnostic radiology certifying examination. However, a significant minority of private practice groups will not hire these individuals. The majority of private practices expect the timing change for the ABR certifying examinations to affect their groups' function. In contrast, the majority of academic medical school practices expect little or no impact. Residents and fellows should not expect work time off or protected time to study for the certifying examination or for their maintenance of certification examinations in the future. PMID:25737379

  1. [Achievement of therapeutic target in subjects on statin treatment in clinical practice. Results of the STAR (Statins Target Assessment in Real practice) study].

    PubMed

    Degli Esposti, Luca; Sangiorgi, Diego; Arca, Marcello; Vigna, Giovanni B; Budal, Stefano; Degli Esposti, Ezio

    2011-12-01

    The primary aim of the STAR Study (Statins Target Assessment in Real practice) was to determine the LDL-cholesterol reduction and to analyse patient's and therapeutic factors associated to LDL-cholesterol target attainment in newly treated subjects with statins in an unselected population in clinical practice setting. Administrative databases (including pharmaceutical prescriptions and hospital admissions) and laboratory test databases (including LDL-cholesterol values) of five local health units, distributed in Emilia Romagna, Toscana and Umbria, were linked. A retrospective cohort study was conducted and all subjects aged > or =18 years with a first prescription for statins (newly treated subjects) between January 1st, 2007 and June 30th, 2008 were included. All statin prescriptions over a 12 months follow-up period were considered and used to calculate adherence to treatment. Baseline and follow-up LDL-cholesterol, respectively, were defined according to the nearest determination to the first prescription for statins and to the end of the follow-up period. A total of 3.232 subjects was included, 1.516 males (47%) and 1.716 females (53%), with an average age equal to 65.9 +/- 11.3 years. Among included subjects, 22.,6% had a gap to LDL-cholesterol target <10%, 30.0% between 10 and 29%, 20.7% between 30 and 49%, and 26.7% . or =50%. Among those with a gap to target > or =50%, 30-49%, and 10-29%, respectively, LDL-cholesterol target was attained by 7.1%, 41.8%, and 62.% of subjects. LDL-cholesterol target attainment was associated to gap to target, adherence with treatment, and type of statin. PMID:22567731

  2. Changing practice with changing research: results of two UK national surveys of intensive insulin therapy in intensive care patients.

    PubMed

    Paddle, J J; Eve, R L; Sharpe, K A

    2011-02-01

    We conducted two telephone surveys of all United Kingdom adult intensive care units in 2007/8 and 2010 to assess practice with regard to intensive insulin therapy for glycaemic control in critically ill patients, and to assess the change in practice following publications in 2008 and 2009 that challenged the evidence for this therapy. Of 243 units that had a written policy for intensive insulin therapy in 2007/8, 232 (96%) still had a policy in 2010. One hundred and six (46%) units had updated their policy in response to new evidence, whereas 126 (54%) stated that it had remained the same. Where intensive care units had changed their policy, we found a significant increase in target limits and a wider target range. Regional variations in practice were also seen. Across seven regions, the percentage of units where the glycaemic control policy had been updated since 2007/8 varied from nil to 78.9%. PMID:21254983

  3. Risky sexual practices among men who have sex with men in Northeast Brazil: results from four sequential surveys.

    PubMed

    Gondim, Rogério Costa; Kerr, Ligia Regina Franco Sansigolo; Werneck, Guilherme L; Macena, Raimunda Hermelinda Maia; Pontes, Marta Kerr; Kendall, Carl

    2009-06-01

    This paper focuses on recent trends in risky sexual practices for HIV/AIDS among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Fortaleza, Ceará State, Brazil. Four cross-sectional surveys were conducted (1995, 1998, 2002, and 2005) among MSM 14 years or older who reported oral or anal sex in the previous 12 months. Sexual practices were considered risky whenever the respondent reported unprotected receptive or insertive anal intercourse in the six months preceding the interview. Different selection techniques were used to recruit the study population: snowball (1995, 1998, 2002 - 32%); time-space sampling (2002 - 68%); and respondent-driven sampling (2005). Analyses were based on the comparison between proportions. High rates of risky sexual practices were reported in 1995 (49.9%), decreasing in 1998 (32.6%), increasing again in 2002 (51.3%), and showing the lowest level in 2005 (31.4%). Participants with more schooling increased their risky practices from 1998 to 2002, decreasing in 2005. Among individuals with medium or low schooling, risky behavior declined from 2002 to 2005. The article highlights the need for behavioral surveillance to properly address STD/HIV prevention. PMID:19503969

  4. Results from an Exploratory Study of Sun Protection Practice: Implications for the Design of Health Promotion Messages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eadie, Douglas; MacAskill, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The primary aim of the research reported here is to provide strategic guidance for the development of a national communication strategy to improve sun protection practice amongst young people. Design/methodology/approach: The research adopted an exploratory approach, employing qualitative focus groups to represent three population groups,…

  5. Relationships between Electronic Information Media and Records Management Practices: Results of a Survey of United Nations Organizations. A Rand Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bikson, T. K.; Schieber, L.

    A Technical Panel on Electronic Records Management (TP/REM), which was established by the Advisory Committee for the Co-ordination of Information Systems (ACCIS), conducted a survey of existing electronic records management practices and standards related to new information and communication technologies and their interrelationships within the…

  6. Teaching Practice of Life Study Lesson of Classroom Teacher Candidates Analysis of the Results of Peer Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bektas, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine peer assessments that the classroom candidates applied at teaching practice on life study lesson. The cross sectional survey method which is one of the survey methods has been used in the research. In this study the sampling criteria, one of the purposive sampling methods, is used. Thus, in the fall semester…

  7. Practices to "Foster" in Out-of-School Time Programs. Research-to-Results Brief. Publication #2010-02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin Anderson; Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Collins, Ashleigh

    2010-01-01

    A lot has been learned about effective approaches to realizing intended out-of-school time program outcomes. As program practitioners consider fostering evidence-based practices, program administrators, staff, and stakeholders must keep in mind that it is difficult to change behavior overnight, even among children. Efforts to improve outcomes for…

  8. Use of Alternate Assessment Results in Reporting and Accountability Systems: Conditions for Use Based on Research and Practice. Synthesis Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quenemoen, Rachel; Rigney, Susan; Thurlow, Martha

    State assessment systems must address both technical and policy issues as assessments and accountability practices are developed and implemented. These technical and policy issues have been expanded from traditional large-scale assessment to new alternative assessment approaches required by law and developed in every state. The primary purpose of…

  9. Federal-State partnership yields success in remote sensing evaluation of conservation practice effectiveness: Results from the Choptank river CEAP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of winter cover crops to sequester residual soil nitrogen (N) following the summer row-crop growing season has been identified as an important and successful conservation practice in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Nitrogen losses to groundwater are reduced during the winter season, provided ...

  10. Calibrating Reach Distance to Visual Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mon-Williams, Mark; Bingham, Geoffrey P.

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated the calibration of reach distance by gradually distorting the haptic feedback obtained when participants grasped visible target objects. The authors found that the modified relationship between visually specified distance and reach distance could be captured by a straight-line mapping function. Thus, the relation could be…

  11. School Furniture Dimensions: Standing and Reaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education and Science, London (England).

    Performance of school children in regard to their standing and reach postures are described with dimensions given on the limits of their performance only. The facts of task performances are presented for the following tasks--(1) seeing into a shelf, (2) reaching into a shelf, (3) drawing on a vertical surface, (4) sitting or standing while…

  12. Use of event recorders and loop recorders in clinical practice: results of the European Heart Rhythm Association Survey.

    PubMed

    Sciaraffia, Elena; Chen, Jian; Hocini, Meleze; Larsen, Torben Bierregaard; Potpara, Tatjana; Blomström-Lundqvist, Carina

    2014-09-01

    Several kinds of electrocardiogram monitoring systems are now available in the clinical practice. The aim of this European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) survey was to assess the use of different monitoring techniques in the evaluation of patients with unexplained syncope, palpitations, and in those with established diagnosis of atrial fibrillation. Forty-five centres in Europe answered the questionnaire and the majority (78%) were university hospitals. The answers showed a discrepancy between the recommended use of implantable loop recorders (ILRs) in patients with unexplained syncope and the use of this device in clinical practice. In most of the cases only a minority of patients (<20%) seemed to actually receive an ILR as a part of the diagnostic process in accordance to the current guidelines. Holter monitoring systems and external loop recorders seemed to be the preferred monitoring techniques both in patients with recurrent palpitations and in those with established diagnosis of atrial fibrillation. PMID:25172620

  13. Multicentre study on hand hygiene facilities and practice in the Mediterranean area: results from the NosoMed Network.

    PubMed

    Amazian, K; Abdelmoumène, T; Sekkat, S; Terzaki, S; Njah, M; Dhidah, L; Caillat-Vallet, E; Saadatian-Elahi, M; Fabry, J

    2006-03-01

    Hand hygiene literature is scarce in the southern Mediterranean area. In order to establish a baseline position, a study was performed in four Mediterranean countries. Seventy-seven hospital wards in 22 hospitals were enrolled and information on hand hygiene practice and facilities were collected. The overall compliance rate was very low (27.6%), and was significantly higher where the perceived risk was considered to be high. Intensive care units showed the highest level of compliance. Analysis by country indicated higher compliance in Egypt (52.8%) and Tunisia (32.3%) compared with Algeria (18.6%) and Morocco (16.9%). Facilities for hand hygiene, particularly consumables, were shown to be deficient. Multi-approach programmes combining the production of official local recommendations, education and regular evaluation of hand hygiene practice are much needed to improve the present situation. PMID:16376457

  14. Environmental stressors afflicting tailwater stream reaches across the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Krogman, R. M.

    2014-01-01

    The tailwater is the reach of a stream immediately below an impoundment that is hydrologically, physicochemically and biologically altered by the presence and operation of a dam. The overall goal of this study was to gain a nationwide awareness of the issues afflicting tailwater reaches in the United States. Specific objectives included the following: (i) estimate the percentage of reservoirs that support tailwater reaches with environmental conditions suitable for fish assemblages throughout the year, (ii) identify and quantify major sources of environmental stress in those tailwaters that do support fish assemblages and (iii) identify environmental features of tailwater reaches that determine prevalence of key fish taxa. Data were collected through an online survey of fishery managers. Relative to objective 1, 42% of the 1306 reservoirs included in this study had tailwater reaches with sufficient flow to support a fish assemblage throughout the year. The surface area of the reservoir and catchment most strongly delineated reservoirs maintaining tailwater reaches with or without sufficient flow to support a fish assemblage throughout the year. Relative to objective 2, major sources of environmental stress generally reflected flow variables, followed by water quality variables. Relative to objective 3, zoogeography was the primary factor discriminating fish taxa in tailwaters, followed by a wide range of flow and water quality variables. Results for objectives 1–3 varied greatly among nine geographic regions distributed throughout the continental United States. Our results provide a large-scale view of the effects of reservoirs on tailwater reaches and may help guide research and management needs.

  15. [New oral anticoagulants for prophylaxis of stroke : Results of an expert conference on practical use in geriatric patients].

    PubMed

    Bahrmann, Philipp; Harms, Fred; Schambeck, Christian Martin; Wehling, Martin; Flohr, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Geriatric patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) are increasingly being treated with novel oral anticoagulants (NOAC) to prevent ischemic stroke. This article highlights the outcome of an expert meeting on the practical use of NOAC in elderly patients. An interdisciplinary group of experts discussed the current situation of stroke prevention in geriatric patients and its practical management in daily clinical practice. The topic was examined through focused impulse presentations and critical analyses as the basis for the expert consensus. The key issues are summarized in this paper. The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines from 2012 for the management of patients with non-valvular AF recommend NOAC as the preferred treatment and vitamin K antagonists (VKA) only as an alternative option. Currently, the NOAC factor Xa inhibitors apixaban and rivaroxaban and the thrombin inhibitor dabigatran are more commonly used in clinical practice for patients with AF. Although these drugs have many similarities and are often grouped together it is important to recognize that the pharmacology and dose regimes differ between compounds. Especially n elderly patients NOAC drugs have some advantages compared to VKA, e.g. less drug-drug interactions with concomitant medication and a more favorable risk-benefit ratio mostly driven by the reduction of bleeding. Treatment of anticoagulation in geriatric patients requires weighing the serious risk of stroke against an equally high risk of major bleeding and pharmacoeconomic considerations. Geriatric patients in particular have the greatest benefit from NOAC, which can also be administered in cases of reduced renal function. Regular control of the indications is indispensable, as also for all other medications of the patient. The use of NOAC should certainly not be withheld from geriatric patients who have a clear need for oral anticoagulation. PMID:26861870

  16. Maternal feeding practices predict fruit and vegetable consumption in young children. Results of a 12-month longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Jane E; Paxton, Susan J; Brozovic, Anna M

    2011-08-01

    This study aimed to explore the prospective relationship between maternal feeding practices and young children's frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables and sweets, and also child weight-for-height z-scores. Participants were 60 mothers who completed questionnaires when their children were 1 year old and again when their children were 2 years old. Regression analyses were performed. After controlling for availability and prior child consumption of the target food, maternal use of pressure to eat at 1 year predicted lower child frequency of fruit consumption at 2 years and approached significance for lower vegetable consumption. Maternal modelling of healthy eating at 1 year predicted higher child frequency of vegetable consumption at 2 years. Restriction did not significantly predict child frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables or sweets over time. Child weight-for-height scores at 2 years were predicted by weight-for-height at 1 year but not by feeding practices. The findings suggest that maternal feeding practices can influence child eating at a very young age. Interventions should focus on encouraging parents to model healthy eating to promote healthy eating in children. PMID:21569809

  17. Reach tracking reveals dissociable processes underlying cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Erb, Christopher D; Moher, Jeff; Sobel, David M; Song, Joo-Hyun

    2016-07-01

    The current study uses reach tracking to investigate how cognitive control is implemented during online performance of the Stroop task (Experiment 1) and the Eriksen flanker task (Experiment 2). We demonstrate that two of the measures afforded by reach tracking, initiation time and reach curvature, capture distinct patterns of effects that have been linked to dissociable processes underlying cognitive control in electrophysiology and functional neuroimaging research. Our results suggest that initiation time reflects a response threshold adjustment process involving the inhibition of motor output, while reach curvature reflects the degree of co-activation between response alternatives registered by a monitoring process over the course of a trial. In addition to shedding new light on fundamental questions concerning how these processes contribute to the cognitive control of behavior, these results present a framework for future research to investigate how these processes function across different tasks, develop across the lifespan, and differ among individuals. PMID:27045465

  18. Reaching the Overlooked Student in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esslinger, Keri; Esslinger, Travis; Bagshaw, Jarad

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the use of live action role-playing, or "LARPing," as a non-traditional activity that has the potential to reach students who are not interested in traditional physical education.

  19. Relationships among moral distress, level of practice independence, and intent to leave of nurse practitioners in emergency departments: results from a national survey.

    PubMed

    Trautmann, Jennifer; Epstein, Elizabeth; Rovnyak, Virginia; Snyder, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this research study were to investigate moral distress among emergency department (ED) nurse practitioners (NPs) and examine relationships between moral distress and level of practice independence as well as intent to leave a position. Moral distress has been studied regarding registered nurses and physicians (MDs) but less so in NPs. It is important to explore moral distress in NPs because they tread a unique path between nursing and physician roles. Moral distress may play a significant role in staff nurses' intention to leave practice, and level of practice independence is found to have a relationship with NPs' intention to leave. A convenience sample of ED NPs was obtained from a mailing list of a national nursing specialty organization, the Emergency Nurses Association. Using a correlational design, survey methods assessed moral distress with the Moral Distress Scale-Revised (MDS-R), level of practice independence with the Dempster Practice Behavior Scale, and intent to leave with self-report. Correlational and regression analyses of data were conducted to characterize moral distress among ED NPs and associations between moral distress, level of practice independence, and intent to leave. Results found ED NPs do experience moral distress with poor patient care results from inadequate staff communication and working with incompetent coworkers in their practice. The MDS-R was a significant predictor of intention to leave among respondents. This study is the first of its kind to explore moral distress in ED NPs. Results suggest moral distress influences ED NPs' intent to leave their position. Further studies are needed to explore the findings from this research and to formulate interventions to alleviate moral distress in ED NPs and improve retention in the clinical setting. PMID:25929224

  20. Family planning reaches Mongolia's spacious steppes.

    PubMed

    Davaasuren, L; Naranchimeg, J

    1997-01-01

    In 1995, Mr. Bolooj organized a branch of the Mongolian Family Welfare Association (MFWA), an affiliate of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), in the smallest administrative district in western Mongolia. Most of the people are nomadic shepherds, and there are 10 times as many domestic animals as humans in the sparsely population country. In rural areas, the idea of family planning is alien, and Mongolia's mass media also has a difficult time understanding population concerns. Mr. Bolooj began by using the media to explain the goals of the IPPF and the MFWA. He then recruited and trained volunteer medical workers to provide reproductive health services. In its first six months of operation, the MFWA branch created 38 hours of reproductive health lessons for use in local schools. These lessons included information on the importance of good hygiene despite the scarcity of water for bathing. The population is so scattered, however, that it is very expensive to reach individual households. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, maternal health services have deteriorated, and maternal mortality has increased. The new National Reproductive Health Program seeks to provide delivery rooms in remote areas. The MFWA branch is also working to help women who are heading households. A course on contraceptive choices organized for 50 women of childbearing age resulted in 12 acceptors of the IUD, 15 of oral contraceptives, and six of injectables. PMID:12293466

  1. Optic ataxia: from Balint's syndrome to the parietal reach region.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Richard A; Andersen, Kristen N; Hwang, Eun Jung; Hauschild, Markus

    2014-03-01

    Optic ataxia is a high-order deficit in reaching to visual goals that occurs with posterior parietal cortex (PPC) lesions. It is a component of Balint's syndrome that also includes attentional and gaze disorders. Aspects of optic ataxia are misreaching in the contralesional visual field, difficulty preshaping the hand for grasping, and an inability to correct reaches online. Recent research in nonhuman primates (NHPs) suggests that many aspects of Balint's syndrome and optic ataxia are a result of damage to specific functional modules for reaching, saccades, grasp, attention, and state estimation. The deficits from large lesions in humans are probably composite effects from damage to combinations of these functional modules. Interactions between these modules, either within posterior parietal cortex or downstream within frontal cortex, may account for more complex behaviors such as hand-eye coordination and reach-to-grasp. PMID:24607223

  2. Transfer of learning between the arms during bimanual reaching.

    PubMed

    Harley, Linda R; Prilutsky, Boris I

    2012-01-01

    This study examined how movement of one arm affects the rate of motor adaptation of the other arm during bimanual reaching in a viscous force-field. Forty healthy adult subjects performed four reaching tasks: (1) by dominant arm, (2) by nondominant arm, (3) by both arms with only dominant arm experiencing force-field and (4) by both arms with only nondominant arm experiencing the force-field. For dominant arm rate of motor adaptation was greater during the bimanual task than the unimanual task. For nondominant arm reaching errors were higher during the bimanual than unimanual task. These results suggest that during bimanual reaching, transfer of learning between arms occur in both directions and movement information transferred depends on arm dominance. PMID:23367487

  3. Simulated crop yield in response to changes in climate and agricultural practices: results from a simple process based model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldararu, S.; Smith, M. J.; Purves, D.; Emmott, S.

    2013-12-01

    Global agriculture will, in the future, be faced with two main challenges: climate change and an increase in global food demand driven by an increase in population and changes in consumption habits. To be able to predict both the impacts of changes in climate on crop yields and the changes in agricultural practices necessary to respond to such impacts we currently need to improve our understanding of crop responses to climate and the predictive capability of our models. Ideally, what we would have at our disposal is a modelling tool which, given certain climatic conditions and agricultural practices, can predict the growth pattern and final yield of any of the major crops across the globe. We present a simple, process-based crop growth model based on the assumption that plants allocate above- and below-ground biomass to maintain overall carbon optimality and that, to maintain this optimality, the reproductive stage begins at peak nitrogen uptake. The model includes responses to available light, water, temperature and carbon dioxide concentration as well as nitrogen fertilisation and irrigation. The model is data constrained at two sites, the Yaqui Valley, Mexico for wheat and the Southern Great Plains flux site for maize and soybean, using a robust combination of space-based vegetation data (including data from the MODIS and Landsat TM and ETM+ instruments), as well as ground-based biomass and yield measurements. We show a number of climate response scenarios, including increases in temperature and carbon dioxide concentrations as well as responses to irrigation and fertiliser application.

  4. Can coronal hole spicules reach coronal temperatures?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madjarska, M. S.; Vanninathan, K.; Doyle, J. G.

    2011-08-01

    Aims: The present study aims to provide observational evidence of whether coronal hole spicules reach coronal temperatures. Methods: We combine multi-instrument co-observations obtained with the SUMER/SoHO and with the EIS/SOT/XRT/Hinode. Results: The analysed three large spicules were found to be comprised of numerous thin spicules that rise, rotate, and descend simultaneously forming a bush-like feature. Their rotation resembles the untwisting of a large flux rope. They show velocities ranging from 50 to 250 kms-1. We clearly associated the red- and blue-shifted emissions in transition region lines not only with rotating but also with rising and descending plasmas. Our main result is that these spicules although very large and dynamic, are not present in the spectral lines formed at temperatures above 300 000 K. Conclusions: In this paper we present the analysis of three Ca ii H large spicules that are composed of numerous dynamic thin spicules but appear as macrospicules in lower resolution EUV images. We found no coronal counterpart of these and smaller spicules. We believe that the identification of phenomena that have very different origins as macrospicules is due to the interpretation of the transition region emission, and especially the He ii emission, wherein both chromospheric large spicules and coronal X-ray jets are present. We suggest that the recent observation of spicules in the coronal AIA/SDO 171 Å and 211 Å channels probably comes from the existence of transition region emission there. Movie is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  5. Identification of educational needs in the management of overweight and obesity: results of an international survey of attitudes and practice.

    PubMed

    Leiter, L A; Astrup, A; Andrews, R C; Cuevas, A; Horn, D B; Kunešová, M; Wittert, G; Finer, N

    2015-10-01

    Despite the availability of a growing range of interventions to assist control of body weight for people with excess weight or obesity, only a small proportion of people achieve their weight loss goals and are able to maintain body weight reductions in the long term. Negative attitudes and beliefs are often found among physicians and others involved in treating obesity and may adversely impact the effectiveness of management. In this international study, healthcare professionals were invited to complete an online survey of their attitudes and practice in the management of excess body weight. A total of 335 clinicians completed the survey of whom approximately half were based in Europe. A key finding from the survey is that, while participants are generally confident in their ability to manage overweight and obesity effectively, they also report that most of their patients are not successful in achieving their weight loss goals. At the same time, participants tended to overestimate the effectiveness of current medical management in maintaining reductions in body weight. Educational initiatives addressing the real-life effectiveness of different weight control interventions may help to close the gap between clinicians' perceptions and reality in the management of excess body weight. PMID:26238414

  6. Impacts of river recharge on groundwater level and hydrochemistry in the lower reaches of Heihe River Watershed, northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Haiyang; Feng, Qi; Si, Jianhua; Chang, Zongqiang; Cao, Shengkui

    2010-05-01

    Water resources have been overexploited for agricultural irrigation and industrial production in the upper and middle reaches of the Heihe River, northwestern China. Due to inadequate water resources management, the runoff entering into the lower reaches has been continuously reduced in recent years. The Heihe River is the primary recharge source for the groundwater of the lower reaches, so the decrease in runoff has caused the groundwater level to decline. As a result, a series of ecological and environmental problems has now appeared in the lower reaches, including river-flow interruptions, drying up of associated lakes, degeneration of vegetative cover and so on. In view of these issues, the National Water Diversion Project was put into practice in July 2000. It has significantly increased the quantity and frequency of flows entering into the lower reaches of the Heihe River, and has recharged the groundwater and improved the water quality to some degree along the length of the river. The water deliveries have had obvious influences on the groundwater in the lower reaches. The groundwater level increase and groundwater quality improvement have been of great benefit in restoring the ecological environment that was destroyed in past years.

  7. Compensatory Versus Noncompensatory Shoulder Movements Used for Reaching in Stroke.

    PubMed

    Levin, Mindy F; Liebermann, Dario G; Parmet, Yisrael; Berman, Sigal

    2016-08-01

    Background The extent to which the upper-limb flexor synergy constrains or compensates for arm motor impairment during reaching is controversial. This synergy can be quantified with a minimal marker set describing movements of the arm-plane. Objectives To determine whether and how (a) upper-limb flexor synergy in patients with chronic stroke contributes to reaching movements to different arm workspace locations and (b) reaching deficits can be characterized by arm-plane motion. Methods Sixteen post-stroke and 8 healthy control subjects made unrestrained reaching movements to targets located in ipsilateral, central, and contralateral arm workspaces. Arm-plane, arm, and trunk motion, and their temporal and spatial linkages were analyzed. Results Individuals with moderate/severe stroke used greater arm-plane movement and compensatory trunk movement compared to those with mild stroke and control subjects. Arm-plane and trunk movements were more temporally coupled in stroke compared with controls. Reaching accuracy was related to different segment and joint combinations for each target and group: arm-plane movement in controls and mild stroke subjects, and trunk and elbow movements in moderate/severe stroke subjects. Arm-plane movement increased with time since stroke and when combined with trunk rotation, discriminated between different subject groups for reaching the central and contralateral targets. Trunk movement and arm-plane angle during target reaches predicted the subject group. Conclusions The upper-limb flexor synergy was used adaptively for reaching accuracy by patients with mild, but not moderate/severe stroke. The flexor synergy, as parameterized by the amount of arm-plane motion, can be used by clinicians to identify levels of motor recovery in patients with stroke. PMID:26510934

  8. Infant feeding practices at routine PMTCT sites, South Africa: results of a prospective observational study amongst HIV exposed and unexposed infants - birth to 9 months

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background We sought to investigate infant feeding practices amongst HIV-positive and -negative mothers (0-9 months postpartum) and describe the association between infant feeding practices and HIV-free survival. Methods Infant feeding data from a prospective observational cohort study conducted at three (of 18) purposively-selected routine South African PMTCT sites, 2002-2003, were analysed. Infant feeding data (previous 4 days) were gathered during home visits at 3, 5, 7, 9, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32 and 36 weeks postpartum. Four feeding groups were of interest, namely exclusive breastfeeding, mixed breastfeeding, exclusive formula feeding and mixed formula feeding. Cox proportional hazards models were fitted to investigate associations between feeding practices (0-12 weeks) and infant HIV-free survival. Results Six hundred and sixty five HIV-positive and 218 HIV-negative women were recruited antenatally and followed-up until 36 weeks postpartum. Amongst mothers who breastfed between 3 weeks and 6 months postpartum, significantly more HIV-positive mothers practiced exclusive breastfeeding compared with HIV-negative: at 3 weeks 130 (42%) versus 33 (17%) (p < 0.01); this dropped to 17 (11%) versus 1 (0.7%) by four months postpartum. Amongst mothers practicing mixed breastfeeding between 3 weeks and 6 months postpartum, significantly more HIV-negative mothers used commercially available breast milk substitutes (p < 0.02) and use of these peaked between 9 and 12 weeks. The probability of postnatal HIV or death was lowest amongst infants living in the best resourced site who avoided breastfeeding, and highest amongst infants living in the rural site who stopped breastfeeding early (mean and standard deviations: 10.7% ± 3% versus 46% ± 11%). Conclusions Although feeding practices were poor amongst HIV-positive and -negative mothers, HIV-positive mothers undertake safer infant feeding practices, possibly due to counseling provided through the routine PMTCT programme. The

  9. Clinical practice in perioperative monitoring in adult cardiac surgery: is there a standard of care? Results from an national survey.

    PubMed

    Bignami, Elena; Belletti, Alessandro; Moliterni, Paola; Frati, Elena; Guarnieri, Marcello; Tritapepe, Luigi

    2016-06-01

    This study was to investigate and define what is considered as a current clinical practice in hemodynamic monitoring and vasoactive medication use after cardiac surgery in Italy. A 33-item questionnaire was sent to all intensive care units (ICUs) admitting patients after cardiac surgery. 71 out of 92 identified centers (77.2 %) returned a completed questionnaire. Electrocardiogram, invasive blood pressure, central venous pressure, pulse oximetry, diuresis, body temperature and blood gas analysis were identified as routinely used hemodynamic monitoring, whereas advanced monitoring was performed with pulmonary artery catheter or echocardiography. Crystalloids were the fluids of choice for volume replacement (86.8 % of Centers). To guide volume management, central venous pressure (26.7 %) and invasive blood pressure (19.7 %) were the most frequently used parameters. Dobutamine was the first choice for treatment of left heart dysfunction (40 %) and epinephrine was the first choice for right heart dysfunction (26.8 %). Half of the Centers had an internal protocol for vasoactive drugs administration. Intra-aortic balloon pump and extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation were widely available among Cardiothoracic ICUs. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors were suspended in 28 % of the Centers. The survey shows what is considered as standard monitoring in Italian Cardiac ICUs. Standard, routinely used monitoring consists of ECG, SpO2, etCO2, invasive BP, CVP, diuresis, body temperature, and BGA. It also shows that there is large variability among the various Centers regarding hemodynamic monitoring of fluid therapy and inotropes administration. Further research is required to better standardize and define the indicators to improve the standards of intensive care after cardiac surgery among Italian cardiac ICUs. PMID:26089166

  10. Can ESD Reach the Year 2020?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenglet, Frans

    2014-01-01

    In order to have long-term impact ESD concepts, practices and policies should move into societal, policy and research arenas with high visibility and traction. In the process of going "transboundary", the ESD label may fade but the practice and organization of social and collaborative learning may gain.

  11. REACH. Electricity Units, Post-Secondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gene; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this postsecondary student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of electricity. The instructional units focus on electricity fundamentals, electric motors, electrical components, and controls and installation.…

  12. REACH: An Individualized AE Program for Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, Karen E.

    1980-01-01

    Renewed Expectations for Adults in Continuing Higher Education (Project REACH) provides educational services tailored to the needs of blue-collar workers, including courses on audiocassette tapes and simplified registration procedures. The program has been enthusiastically received by people who had faced many barriers to continuing education. (SK)

  13. REACH. Teacher's Guide, Volume III. Task Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, James Lee; And Others

    Designed for use with individualized instructional units (CE 026 345-347, CE 026 349-351) in the electromechanical cluster, this third volume of the postsecondary teacher's guide presents the task analysis which was used in the development of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air Conditioning, Heating) curriculum. The major blocks of…

  14. What Determines Limb Selection for Reaching?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helbig, Casi Rabb; Gabbard, Carl

    2004-01-01

    While motor dominance appears to drive limb selection for reaching movements at the midline and ipsilateral (dominant) side, this study examined the possible determinants associated with what drives the programming of movements in response to stimuli presented in contralateral space. Experiment 1 distinguished between object proximity and a…

  15. Project: "Teach 'n' Reach" Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, Arleen

    The first of five volumes for Project Teach 'n' Reach, designed to help teachers of grades 1-6 in regular classrooms to teach about various kinds of handicapping conditions, is a teacher's guide. Performance objectives, activities, worksheets, and resources are listed for the use of these teachers in the implementation of their social-science and…

  16. REACH. Teacher's Guide Volume II. Check Points.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Div. of Vocational Education.

    Designed for use with individualized instructional units (CE 026 345-347, CE 026 349-351) in the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this second volume of the postsecondary teacher guide contains the check points which the instructor may want to refer to when the unit sheet directs the…

  17. Project Reach: Final Report--Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Samuel D.

    The second year of Project Reach, a Federally funded two-year program, pursued two tactics for increasing the adult basic education (ABE) program relevance and effectiveness in South Bend, Indiana: (1) the training/hiring of ABE students as media paraprofessionals, and (2) a media enrollment campaign of various media promotions (television/radio…

  18. Science Experiments: Reaching Out to Our Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Maureen; Tschirhart, Lori; Wright, Stephanie; Barrett, Laura; Parsons, Matthew; Whang, Linda

    2008-01-01

    As more users access library services remotely, it has become increasingly important for librarians to reach out to their user communities and promote the value of libraries. Convincing the faculty and students in the sciences of the value of libraries and librarians can be a particularly "hard sell" as more and more of their primary journal…

  19. Reaching Rural Women: Case Studies and Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colle, Royal D.; Fernandez de Colle, Susana

    Although not often considered in the past by planners because their economic contributions are not performed for money, rural women are contributors to the development of their countries. The urgency of reaching women with important information to break the cycle of poverty is now being recognized by the major development agencies. While there are…

  20. A Rotation Invariant in 3-D Reaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitra, Suvobrata; Turvey, M. T.

    2004-01-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors investigated changes in hand orientation during a 3-D reaching task that imposed specific position and orientation requirements on the hand's initial and final postures. Instantaneous hand orientation was described using 3-element rotation vectors representing current orientation as a rotation from a fixed reference…

  1. The REACH Youth Program Learning Toolkit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierra Health Foundation, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Believing in the value of using video documentaries and data as learning tools, members of the REACH technical assistance team collaborated to develop this toolkit. The learning toolkit was designed using and/or incorporating components of the "Engaging Youth in Community Change: Outcomes and Lessons Learned from Sierra Health Foundation's REACH…

  2. Best Practices in Grid Integration of Variable Wind Power: Summary of Recent US Case Study Results and Mitigation Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J. Charles; Parsons, Brian; Acker, Thomas; Milligan, Michael; Zavidil, Robert; Schuerger, Matthew; DeMeo, Edgar

    2010-01-22

    This paper will summarize results from a number of utility wind integration case studies conducted recently in the US, and outline a number of mitigation measures based on insights from those studies.

  3. Community health nurses’ learning needs in relation to the Canadian community health nursing standards of practice: results from a Canadian survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Canadian Community health nurses (CHNs) work in diverse urban, rural, and remote settings such as: public health units/departments, home health, community health facilities, family practices, and other community-based settings. Research into specific learning needs of practicing CHNs is sparsely reported. This paper examines Canadian CHNs learning needs in relation to the 2008 Canadian Community Health Nursing Standards of Practice (CCHN Standards). It answers: What are the learning needs of CHNs in Canada in relation to the CCHN Standards? What are differences in CHNs’ learning needs by: province and territory in Canada, work setting (home health, public health and other community health settings) and years of nursing practice? Methods Between late 2008 and early 2009 a national survey was conducted to identify learning needs of CHNs based on the CCHN Standards using a validated tool. Results Results indicated that CHNs had learning needs on 25 of 88 items (28.4%), suggesting CHNs have confidence in most CCHN Standards. Three items had the highest learning needs with mean scores > 0.60: two related to epidemiology (means 0.62 and 0.75); and one to informatics (application of information and communication technology) (mean = 0.73). Public health nurses had a greater need to know about “…evaluating population health promotion programs systematically” compared to home health nurses (mean 0.66 vs. 0.39, p <0.010). Nurses with under two years experience had a greater need to learn “… advocating for healthy public policy…” than their more experienced peers (p = 0.0029). Also, NPs had a greater need to learn about “…using community development principles when engaging the individual/community in a consultative process” compared to RNs (p = 0.05). Many nurses were unsure if they applied foundational theoretical frameworks (i.e., the Ottawa Charter of Health Promotion, the Jakarta Declaration, and the Population Health Promotion Model) in

  4. Unconstrained three-dimensional reaching in Rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Courtine, Gregoire; Liu, James J.; McKay, Heather L.; Moseanko, Rod; Bernot, Timothy J.; Roy, Roland R.; Zhong, Hui; Tuszynski, Mark H.; Reggie Edgerton, V.

    2010-01-01

    To better understand normative behavior for quantitative evaluation of motor recovery after injury, we studied arm movements by non-injured Rhesus monkeys during a food-retrieval task. While seated, monkeys reached, grasped, and retrieved food items. We recorded three-dimensional kinematics and muscle activity, and used inverse dynamics to calculate joint moments due to gravity, segmental interactions, and to the muscles and tissues of the arm. Endpoint paths showed curvature in three dimensions, suggesting that maintaining straight paths was not an important constraint. Joint moments were dominated by gravity. Generalized muscle and interaction moments were less than half of the gravitational moments. The relationships between shoulder and elbow resultant moments were linear during both reach and retrieval. Although both reach and retrieval required elbow flexor moments, an elbow extensor (triceps brachii) was active during both phases. Antagonistic muscles of both the elbow and hand were co-activated during reach and retrieval. Joint behavior could be described by lumped-parameter models analogous to torsional springs at the joints. Minor alterations to joint quasi-stiffness properties, aided by interaction moments, result in reciprocal movements that evolve under the influence of gravity. The strategies identified in monkeys to reach, grasp, and retrieve items will allow the quantification of prehension during recovery after a spinal cord injury and the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions. PMID:21170707

  5. Improving Library Service Quality to Graduate Students: LibQual+[TM] Survey Results in a Practical Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jankowska, Maria Anna; Hertel, Karen; Young, Nancy J.

    2006-01-01

    The LibQUAL+[TM] survey was conducted to determine user satisfaction and expectations concerning library service quality. The results of the "22 items and a box" constituted a rich source of information for the University of Idaho (UI) Library's strategic planning process. Focusing on graduate students, this study used three methodologies to…

  6. 49 CFR 385.321 - What failures of safety management practices disclosed by the safety audit will result in a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... disclosed by the safety audit will result in a notice to a new entrant that its USDOT new entrant... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES New Entrant Safety Assurance Program § 385... to a new entrant that its USDOT new entrant registration will be revoked? (a) General. The...

  7. Early Learning Standards: Results from a National Survey to Document Trends in State-Level Policies and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott-Little, Catherine; Lesko, Jim; Martella, Jana; Milburn, Penny

    2007-01-01

    Early learning standards--documents that outline what children should know and be able to do before kindergarten entry--are increasingly common in the United States. Data from a national survey are presented to illustrate trends in how states have developed and implemented early learning standards within the past four years. Results indicate that…

  8. Stage by Stage Integration of Theory and Practice in the Initiation to Technology Course (Results and Analysis).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Gurbax S.

    1987-01-01

    The didactical material developed for the course Initiation to Technology at Laval University was tested by four teachers at Les Etchemins School with a group of 500 students in the area of mechanics. Software was developed to analyze the results, which proved encouraging. (Author/CH)

  9. Reach-Scale Channel Geometry of a Mountain River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, E.; Kuzma, J.; Brown, N.

    2002-12-01

    N. St. Vrain Creek drains 250 km2 of the Colorado Front Range. The basin is underlain by granitic rocks, and the upper half was glaciated. We used 25 study reaches to examine controls on reach-scale channel geometry. Variables measured included channel geometry (width, depth, gradient, bedforms), grain size, and mean velocity. Drainage area at each study reach ranged from 2.2-245 km2, and gradient from 0.013-0.147 m/m. The increase in discharge with drainage area is strongly linear. Channel types included cascade, step-pool, plane-bed and pool-riffle. We examined correlations among (1) the reach-scale response variables bankfull width (w), hydraulic radius (R), mean velocity (v), Darcy-Weisbach ff, bedform wavelength (bw) and amplitude (a), grain size, relative roughness (R/D84) and shear stress (ss), and (2) potential control variables that change progressively downstream (drainage area, discharge) or that are reach-specific (bed gradient). Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that response variables correlate most strongly with local gradient because of the segmented nature of mountain channels. Results from linear regression analyses indicate that most response variables(R/D84, D50, D84, ff, ss) correlate best with gradient, although w, w/d ratio, and bw correlate best with discharge. Multiple regression analyses using Mallow's Cp selection criterion produced similar results in that most response variables correlate strongly with gradient, although the specific variables differ from those selected with linear regressions: w, a, v, ff and ss correlate with gradient, whereas R, bw and v correlate with discharge. These results suggest that the hypothesis is partially supported: channel bed gradient is likely to be a good predictor for many reach-scale response variables along mountain rivers, but discharge is also a good predictor for some response variables. Thus, although subject to strong constraints imposed by changes in gradient and grain size supplied by

  10. Randomised controlled trial evaluating cardiovascular screening and intervention in general practice: principal results of British family heart study. Family Heart Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To measure the change in cardiovascular risk factors achievable in families over one year by a cardiovascular screening and lifestyle intervention in general practice. DESIGN--Randomised controlled trial in 26 general practices in 13 towns in Britain. SUBJECTS--12,472 men aged 40-59 and their partners (7460 men and 5012 women) identified by household. INTERVENTION--Nurse led programme using a family centred approach with follow up according to degree of risk. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--After one year the pairs of practices were compared for differences in (a) total coronary (Dundee) risk score and (b) cigarette smoking, weight, blood pressure, and random blood cholesterol and glucose concentrations. RESULTS--In men the overall reduction in coronary risk score was 16% (95% confidence interval 11% to 21%) in the intervention practices at one year. This was partitioned between systolic pressure (7%), smoking (5%), and cholesterol concentration (4%). The reduction for women was similar. For both sexes reported cigarette smoking at one year was lower by about 4%, systolic pressure by 7 mm Hg, diastolic pressure by 3 mm Hg, weight by 1 kg, and cholesterol concentration by 0.1 mmol/l, but there was no shift in glucose concentration. Weight, blood pressure, and cholesterol concentration showed the greatest difference at the top of the distribution. If maintained long term the differences in risk factors achieved would mean only a 12% reduction in risk of coronary events. CONCLUSIONS--As most general practices are not using such an intensive programme the changes in coronary risk factors achieved by the voluntary health promotion package for primary care are likely to be even smaller. The government's screening policy cannot be justified by these results. PMID:8124121

  11. Memory-guided reaching in a patient with visual hemiagnosia.

    PubMed

    Cornelsen, Sonja; Rennig, Johannes; Himmelbach, Marc

    2016-06-01

    The two-visual-systems hypothesis (TVSH) postulates that memory-guided movements rely on intact functions of the ventral stream. Its particular importance for memory-guided actions was initially inferred from behavioral dissociations in the well-known patient DF. Despite of rather accurate reaching and grasping movements to visible targets, she demonstrated grossly impaired memory-guided grasping as much as impaired memory-guided reaching. These dissociations were later complemented by apparently reversed dissociations in patients with dorsal damage and optic ataxia. However, grasping studies in DF and optic ataxia patients differed with respect to the retinotopic position of target objects, questioning the interpretation of the respective findings as a double dissociation. In contrast, the findings for reaching errors in both types of patients came from similar peripheral target presentations. However, new data on brain structural changes and visuomotor deficits in DF also questioned the validity of a double dissociation in reaching. A severe visuospatial short-term memory deficit in DF further questioned the specificity of her memory-guided reaching deficit. Therefore, we compared movement accuracy in visually-guided and memory-guided reaching in a new patient who suffered a confined unilateral damage to the ventral visual system due to stroke. Our results indeed support previous descriptions of memory-guided movements' inaccuracies in DF. Furthermore, our data suggest that recently discovered optic-ataxia like misreaching in DF is most likely caused by her parieto-occipital and not by her ventral stream damage. Finally, multiple visuospatial memory measurements in HWS suggest that inaccuracies in memory-guided reaching tasks in patients with ventral damage cannot be explained by visuospatial short-term memory or perceptual deficits, but by a specific deficit in visuomotor processing. PMID:27085893

  12. Dark Matter Reach of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorren, Kristopher; Majorana Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    Neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments are reducing backgrounds to unprecedented levels, allowing them to expand their physics reach. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is currently being built at the 4850 ft level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. The experiment will utilize multiple p-type point-contact (PPC) germanium detectors constructed from approximately 40 kg of ultra-pure germanium (30 kg enriched) and radiopure components. Because of the large overburdern, low thresholds, and low background of the experiment, the DEMONSTRATOR will be well positioned to search for light (<10 GeV/c2) WIMPs. To do so, the low energy region (<20 keV) of the DEMONSTRATOR spectrum will need to be well characterized. This talk will discuss backgrounds in this region and the potential dark matter reach of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR. This work is supported by grants from the DOE Office of Nuclear Physics and the NSF Particle Astrophysics program.

  13. Visuomotor transformations: early cortical mechanisms of reaching.

    PubMed

    Caminiti, R; Ferraina, S; Mayer, A B

    1998-12-01

    Recent studies of visually guided reaching in monkeys support the hypothesis that the visuomotor transformations underlying arm movements to spatial targets involve a parallel mechanism that simultaneously engages functionally related frontal and parietal areas linked by reciprocal cortico-cortical connections. The neurons in these areas possess similar combinations of response properties. The multimodal combinatorial properties of these neurons and the gradient architecture of the parietofrontal network emerge as a potential substrate to link the different sensory and motor signals that arise during reaching behavior into common hybrid reference frames. This convergent combinatorial process is evident at early stages of visual information processing in the occipito-parietal cortex, suggesting the existence of re-entrant motor influences on cortical areas once believed to have only visual functions. PMID:9914239

  14. Rules of engagement: reaching out to communities.

    PubMed

    Rellon, Lakhvir

    2009-06-01

    With the right form of engagement, so-called hard-to-reach communities can play vital roles in shaping and improving services. This article describes some of the innovative ways in which Birmingham and Solihull Mental Health NHS Foundation Trust engages with local communities and offers some advice to senior nurses and managers who want to make contact with people in their localities PMID:19534178

  15. Olefins and chemical regulation in Europe: REACH.

    PubMed

    Penman, Mike; Banton, Marcy; Erler, Steffen; Moore, Nigel; Semmler, Klaus

    2015-11-01

    REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals) is the European Union's chemical regulation for the management of risk to human health and the environment (European Chemicals Agency, 2006). This regulation entered into force in June 2007 and required manufacturers and importers to register substances produced in annual quantities of 1000 tonnes or more by December 2010, with further deadlines for lower tonnages in 2013 and 2018. Depending on the type of registration, required information included the substance's identification, the hazards of the substance, the potential exposure arising from the manufacture or import, the identified uses of the substance, and the operational conditions and risk management measures applied or recommended to downstream users. Among the content developed to support this information were Derived No-Effect Levels or Derived Minimal Effect Levels (DNELs/DMELs) for human health hazard assessment, Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNECs) for environmental hazard assessment, and exposure scenarios for exposure and risk assessment. Once registered, substances may undergo evaluation by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) or Member State authorities and be subject to requests for additional information or testing as well as additional risk reduction measures. To manage the REACH registration and related activities for the European olefins and aromatics industry, the Lower Olefins and Aromatics REACH Consortium was formed in 2008 with administrative and technical support provided by Penman Consulting. A total of 135 substances are managed by this group including 26 individual chemical registrations (e.g. benzene, 1,3-butadiene) and 13 categories consisting of 5-26 substances. This presentation will describe the content of selected registrations prepared for 2010 in addition to the significant post-2010 activities. Beyond REACH, content of the registrations may also be relevant to other European activities, for

  16. Distance Reached in the Anteromedial Reach Test as a Function of Learning and Leg Length

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bent, Nicholas P.; Rushton, Alison B.; Wright, Chris C.; Batt, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    The Anteromedial Reach Test (ART) is a new outcome measure for assessing dynamic knee stability in anterior cruciate ligament-injured patients. The effect of learning and leg length on distance reached in the ART was examined. Thirty-two healthy volunteers performed 15 trials of the ART on each leg. There was a moderate correlation (r = 0.44-0.50)…

  17. Quality initiatives: improving patient flow for a bone densitometry practice: results from a Mayo Clinic radiology quality initiative.

    PubMed

    Aakre, Kenneth T; Valley, Timothy B; O'Connor, Michael K

    2010-03-01

    Lean Six Sigma process improvement methodologies have been used in manufacturing for some time. However, Lean Six Sigma process improvement methodologies also are applicable to radiology as a way to identify opportunities for improvement in patient care delivery settings. A multidisciplinary team of physicians and staff conducted a 100-day quality improvement project with the guidance of a quality advisor. By using the framework of DMAIC (define, measure, analyze, improve, and control), time studies were performed for all aspects of patient and technologist involvement. From these studies, value stream maps for the current state and for the future were developed, and tests of change were implemented. Comprehensive value stream maps showed that before implementation of process changes, an average time of 20.95 minutes was required for completion of a bone densitometry study. Two process changes (ie, tests of change) were undertaken. First, the location for completion of a patient assessment form was moved from inside the imaging room to the waiting area, enabling patients to complete the form while waiting for the technologist. Second, the patient was instructed to sit in a waiting area immediately outside the imaging rooms, rather than in the main reception area, which is far removed from the imaging area. Realignment of these process steps, with reduced technologist travel distances, resulted in a 3-minute average decrease in the patient cycle time. This represented a 15% reduction in the initial patient cycle time with no change in staff or costs. Radiology process improvement projects can yield positive results despite small incremental changes. PMID:20067999

  18. Impacts on industry of Europe's emerging chemicals policy REACh.

    PubMed

    Angerer, Gerhard; Nordbeck, Ralf; Sartorius, Christian

    2008-03-01

    For Europe, a new regime in chemicals regulation is about to start. After the proposal of the European Commission concerning the Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals (REACh) passed its readings in the European Parliament and some differences with the European Council of Ministers were resolved, the regulation will come into force in June 2007. This paper is focused on the question how serious the cost burdens for industry induced by REACh will be, and whether the New European Member States (NMS) which joined the European Union in May 2004 will be able to cope with the regulation. This evaluation has been done by assessing the legislative, administrative and economic framework in New Member States and by analysing real business cases in companies. The empirical showcase business impact studies are at the same time of interest for companies of EU-15 states, other European countries who may implement the regulation, and even for exporters of raw materials and chemicals outside Europe, who will also have to comply with REACh if they market in the European Community. The results give no indications that REACh adoption will bring significant drawbacks to companies in the NMS. The emerging regulation will bring challenges for individual companies, especially for small and medium-sized ones, but for the European chemical industry as a whole, there is no question that it will be able to cope with REACh burdens without losing its global competitiveness. PMID:17321032

  19. The Cognition of Maximal Reach Distance in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Satoru; Nagaoka, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether the cognition of spatial distance in reaching movements was decreased in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and whether this cognition was associated with various symptoms of PD. Estimated and actual maximal reaching distances were measured in three directions in PD patients and healthy elderly volunteers. Differences between estimated and actual measurements were compared within each group. In the PD patients, the associations between "error in cognition" of reaching distance and "clinical findings" were also examined. The results showed that no differences were observed in any values regardless of dominance of hand and severity of symptoms. The differences between the estimated and actual measurements were negatively deviated in the PD patients, indicating that they tended to underestimate reaching distance. "Error in cognition" of reaching distance correlated with the items of posture in the motor section of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. This suggests that, in PD patients, postural deviation and postural instability might affect the cognition of the distance from a target object. PMID:27597927

  20. The Cognition of Maximal Reach Distance in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nagaoka, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether the cognition of spatial distance in reaching movements was decreased in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and whether this cognition was associated with various symptoms of PD. Estimated and actual maximal reaching distances were measured in three directions in PD patients and healthy elderly volunteers. Differences between estimated and actual measurements were compared within each group. In the PD patients, the associations between “error in cognition” of reaching distance and “clinical findings” were also examined. The results showed that no differences were observed in any values regardless of dominance of hand and severity of symptoms. The differences between the estimated and actual measurements were negatively deviated in the PD patients, indicating that they tended to underestimate reaching distance. “Error in cognition” of reaching distance correlated with the items of posture in the motor section of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. This suggests that, in PD patients, postural deviation and postural instability might affect the cognition of the distance from a target object. PMID:27597927

  1. Implementation of Departmental Quality Strategies Is Positively Associated with Clinical Practice: Results of a Multicenter Study in 73 Hospitals in 7 European Countries

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Given the amount of time and resources invested in implementing quality programs in hospitals, few studies have investigated their clinical impact and what strategies could be recommended to enhance its effectiveness. Objective To assess variations in clinical practice and explore associations with hospital- and department-level quality management systems. Design Multicenter, multilevel cross-sectional study. Setting and Participants Seventy-three acute care hospitals with 276 departments managing acute myocardial infarction, deliveries, hip fracture, and stroke in seven countries. Intervention None. Measures Predictor variables included 3 hospital- and 4 department-level quality measures. Six measures were collected through direct observation by an external surveyor and one was assessed through a questionnaire completed by hospital quality managers. Dependent variables included 24 clinical practice indicators based on case note reviews covering the 4 conditions (acute myocardial infarction, deliveries, hip fracture and stroke). A directed acyclic graph was used to encode relationships between predictors, outcomes, and covariates and to guide the choice of covariates to control for confounding. Results and Limitations Data were provided on 9021 clinical records by 276 departments in 73 hospitals. There were substantial variations in compliance with the 24 clinical practice indicators. Weak associations were observed between hospital quality systems and 4 of the 24 indicators, but on analyzing department-level quality systems, strong associations were observed for 8 of the 11 indicators for acute myocardial infarction and stroke. Clinical indicators supported by higher levels of evidence were more frequently associated with quality systems and activities. Conclusions There are significant gaps between recommended standards of care and clinical practice in a large sample of hospitals. Implementation of department-level quality strategies was significantly

  2. Current worldwide nuclear cardiology practices and radiation exposure: results from the 65 country IAEA Nuclear Cardiology Protocols Cross-Sectional Study (INCAPS)

    PubMed Central

    Einstein, Andrew J.; Pascual, Thomas N. B.; Mercuri, Mathew; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Vitola, João V.; Mahmarian, John J.; Better, Nathan; Bouyoucef, Salah E.; Hee-Seung Bom, Henry; Lele, Vikram; Magboo, V. Peter C.; Alexánderson, Erick; Allam, Adel H.; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H.; Flotats, Albert; Jerome, Scott; Kaufmann, Philipp A.; Luxenburg, Osnat; Shaw, Leslee J.; Underwood, S. Richard; Rehani, Madan M.; Kashyap, Ravi; Paez, Diana; Dondi, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Aims To characterize patient radiation doses from nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and the use of radiation-optimizing ‘best practices’ worldwide, and to evaluate the relationship between laboratory use of best practices and patient radiation dose. Methods and results We conducted an observational cross-sectional study of protocols used for all 7911 MPI studies performed in 308 nuclear cardiology laboratories in 65 countries for a single week in March–April 2013. Eight ‘best practices’ relating to radiation exposure were identified a priori by an expert committee, and a radiation-related quality index (QI) devised indicating the number of best practices used by a laboratory. Patient radiation effective dose (ED) ranged between 0.8 and 35.6 mSv (median 10.0 mSv). Average laboratory ED ranged from 2.2 to 24.4 mSv (median 10.4 mSv); only 91 (30%) laboratories achieved the median ED ≤ 9 mSv recommended by guidelines. Laboratory QIs ranged from 2 to 8 (median 5). Both ED and QI differed significantly between laboratories, countries, and world regions. The lowest median ED (8.0 mSv), in Europe, coincided with high best-practice adherence (mean laboratory QI 6.2). The highest doses (median 12.1 mSv) and low QI (4.9) occurred in Latin America. In hierarchical regression modelling, patients undergoing MPI at laboratories following more ‘best practices’ had lower EDs. Conclusion Marked worldwide variation exists in radiation safety practices pertaining to MPI, with targeted EDs currently achieved in a minority of laboratories. The significant relationship between best-practice implementation and lower doses indicates numerous opportunities to reduce radiation exposure from MPI globally. PMID:25898845

  3. Kinematic analysis of reaching in the cat.

    PubMed

    Martin, J H; Cooper, S E; Ghez, C

    1995-01-01

    The present study examines the kinematic features of forelimb movements made by cats reaching for food in horizontal target wells located at different heights and distances. Wrist paths consisted of two relatively straight segments joined at a "via-point" in front of the aperture of the food well. In the initial lift phase, the paw was raised to the via-point in front of the target. In the second, or thrust phase, the paw was directed forward into the food well. During the lift, the paw was moved toward the target primarily by elbow flexion, accompanied by a sequence of biphasic shoulder and wrist movements. Thrust was accomplished primarily by shoulder flexion while the wrist and the paw were maintained at near-constant angles. The animals varied the height of the reach primarily by varying elbow flexion with proportional changes in elbow angular velocity and angular acceleration and with corresponding variations in wrist speed. Thus, cats reached for targets at different heights by scaling a common kinematic profile. Over a relatively large range of target heights, animals maintained movement duration constant, according to a simple "pulse-height" control strategy (isochronous scaling). For reaches to a given target height, animals compensated for variability in peak acceleration by variations in movement time. We examined the coordination between the shoulder and the wrist with the elbow. Early during the lift, peak shoulder extensor and peak elbow flexor accelerations were synchronized. Late during the lift phase, wrist extensor acceleration was found to occur during the period of elbow flexor deceleration. We hypothesize that these linkages could, in part, be due to passive mechanical interactions. To determine how the angular trajectories of the different joints were organized in relation to target location, we plotted joint kinematic changes directly on the wrist and MCP joint paths. These plots revealed that for all target heights and movement speeds, wrist

  4. Error Signals in Motor Cortices Drive Adaptation in Reaching.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Masato; Uchimura, Motoaki; Kitazawa, Shigeru

    2016-06-01

    Reaching movements are subject to adaptation in response to errors induced by prisms or external perturbations. Motor cortical circuits have been hypothesized to provide execution errors that drive adaptation, but human imaging studies to date have reported that execution errors are encoded in parietal association areas. Thus, little evidence has been uncovered that supports the motor hypothesis. Here, we show that both primary motor and premotor cortices encode information on end-point errors in reaching. We further show that post-movement microstimulation to these regions caused trial-by-trial increases in errors, which subsided exponentially when the stimulation was terminated. The results indicate for the first time that motor cortical circuits provide error signals that drive trial-by-trial adaptation in reaching movements. PMID:27181058

  5. Family Stories, by the Members of the Reach One Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Peg, Ed.

    This collection of stories is the result of a publishing project conducted with adult learners in the Reach One Program. The first page describes the steps that led to the finished product: providing a catalyst to stress the value of maintaining a family history; providing activities to stimulate memories of family stories; encouraging prewriting…

  6. MIDDLE REACH OF THE SNAKE RIVER: WATER QUALITY MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the project was to collect, analyze, assemble, and assess water quality data and resulting chemical/nutrient loads entering and transported in the Middle Snake River Reach of Idaho, between Milner Dam and King Hill. Studies were conducted during the period of 1990 ...

  7. Priming of Reach and Grasp Actions by Handled Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masson, Michael E. J.; Bub, Daniel N.; Breuer, Andreas T.

    2011-01-01

    Pictures of handled objects such as a beer mug or frying pan are shown to prime speeded reach and grasp actions that are compatible with the object. To determine whether the evocation of motor affordances implied by this result is driven merely by the physical orientation of the object's handle as opposed to higher-level properties of the object,…

  8. Integrated Georeferencing of Stereo Image Sequences Captured with a Stereovision Mobile Mapping System - Approaches and Practical Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eugster, H.; Huber, F.; Nebiker, S.; Gisi, A.

    2012-07-01

    Stereovision based mobile mapping systems enable the efficient capturing of directly georeferenced stereo pairs. With today's camera and onboard storage technologies imagery can be captured at high data rates resulting in dense stereo sequences. These georeferenced stereo sequences provide a highly detailed and accurate digital representation of the roadside environment which builds the foundation for a wide range of 3d mapping applications and image-based geo web-services. Georeferenced stereo images are ideally suited for the 3d mapping of street furniture and visible infrastructure objects, pavement inspection, asset management tasks or image based change detection. As in most mobile mapping systems, the georeferencing of the mapping sensors and observations - in our case of the imaging sensors - normally relies on direct georeferencing based on INS/GNSS navigation sensors. However, in urban canyons the achievable direct georeferencing accuracy of the dynamically captured stereo image sequences is often insufficient or at least degraded. Furthermore, many of the mentioned application scenarios require homogeneous georeferencing accuracy within a local reference frame over the entire mapping perimeter. To achieve these demands georeferencing approaches are presented and cost efficient workflows are discussed which allows validating and updating the INS/GNSS based trajectory with independently estimated positions in cases of prolonged GNSS signal outages in order to increase the georeferencing accuracy up to the project requirements.

  9. Infectious Diseases Physicians' Attitudes and Practices Related to Complementary and Integrative Medicine: Results of a National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Shere-Wolfe, Kalpana D.; Tilburt, Jon C.; D'Adamo, Chris; Berman, Brian; Chesney, Margaret A.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and integrative medicine (IM) modalities are widely used by patients, including those with infectious diseases (ID). Methods. One thousand randomly selected ID practitioners were surveyed. The survey was divided into domains related to familiarity and recommendation, beliefs and attitudes, and use of CAM/IM modalities. Results. The response rate was 31%. ID physicians were most familiar with vitamin and mineral supplementation (83%), massage (80%), acupuncture (79%), chiropractic (77%), yoga (74%), and herbal medicine (72%). ID physicians most recommended vitamin and mineral supplementation (80%) and massage (62%). Yoga, meditation, and acupuncture were recommended by 52%, 45%, and 46%, respectively. Drug interactions, clinical research, and knowledge of CAM/IM modalities were factors that were considered a major influence. Almost 80% of respondents indicated an interest in IM versus 11% for CAM. Most respondents (75%) felt that IM modalities are useful, and more than 50% believed that they could directly affect the immune system or disease process. Conclusion. ID physicians expressed a markedly greater interest for IM versus CAM. They appear to be familiar and willing to recommend some CAM/IM modalities and see a role for these in the management of certain infectious diseases. Data regarding clinical efficacy and safety appear to be important factors. PMID:23935658

  10. Clinical practice guidelines proposed by the Hellenic Foundation of Osteoporosis for the management of osteoporosis based on DXA results.

    PubMed

    Baltas, C S; Balanika, A P; Raptou, P D; Tournis, S; Lyritis, G P

    2005-01-01

    In recent years guidelines for the testing and treatment of osteoporotic patients have been published by recognised organisations, including the World Health Organisation (WHO), the National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF) and the International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF). Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) has been considered the technique of choice because of its excellent precision and ability to predict osteoporotic fractures. Last December, based on the Appraisal of the Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE), the Hellenic Foundation of Osteoporosis, in collaboration with other scientific societies, provided guidelines for the use of DXA for the diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of osteoporosis and Quality Assurance (QA) of these systems. According to these guidelines, the adequacy of the present number of DXA units in Greece was assessed. There are 367 DXA units in Greece, and almost 50% are located in the capital city, Athens, where 34.1% of the population lives. The distribution of DXA devices per resident in the Greek provinces (except Attica) is between 4.2 units/100,000 heads (Ionian Islands) and 1.6 units/100,000 heads (Sterea Hellas). These guidelines have resulted in a suggestive yearly repeat of the measurements, to ensure the precision of the method, but mainly for reasons of compliance. Finally, these guidelines are viewed as a work in progress and will be updated periodically in response to advances in this field. PMID:16340144

  11. Contraceptive Practices and Fertility Desires Among HIV-Infected and Uninfected Women in Kenya: Results From a Nationally Representative Study

    PubMed Central

    Ngugi, Evelyn W.; Kim, Andrea A.; Nyoka, Raymond; Ng’ang’a, Lucy; Mukui, Irene; Ng’eno, Bernadette; Rutherford, George W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Prevention of unplanned pregnancies is a critical element in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection, but its potential has not been fully realized. We assessed the utilization of family planning (FP) and fertility desires among women of reproductive age by HIV status. Methods We selected a nationally representative sample of households using a stratified 2-stage cluster design and surveyed women aged 15–49 years. We administered questionnaires and examined predictors of current use of FP and desire for children among sexually active women with known HIV infection and women who were HIV uninfected. Results Of 3583 respondents, 68.2% were currently using FP, and 57.7% did not desire children in the future. Among women who did not desire children in the future, 70.9% reported that they were using FP, including 68.7% of women with known HIV infection and 71.0% of women who were HIV uninfected. Women with known HIV infection had similar odds of using FP as women with no HIV infection (odds ratio, 1.12; 95% confidence interval: 0.81 to 1.54). Women with no HIV infection had significantly higher adjusted odds of desiring future children (adjusted OR, 2.27; 95% confidence interval: 1.31 to 3.93) than women with known HIV infection. Conclusions There is unmet need for FP for HIV-infected women, underscoring a gap in the national prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV strategy. Efforts to empower HIV-infected women to prevent unintended pregnancies should lead to expanded access to contraceptive methods and take into account women’s reproductive intentions. PMID:24413040

  12. Practice guidance on the management of acute and chronic gastrointestinal problems arising as a result of treatment for cancer

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Susan E; Gillespie, Catherine; Allum, William H; Swarbrick, Edwin

    2011-01-01

    Backgound The number of patients with chronic gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms after cancer therapies which have a moderate or severe impact on quality of life is similar to the number diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease annually. However, in contrast to patients with inflammatory bowel disease, most of these patients are not referred for gastroenterological assessment. Clinicians who do see these patients are often unaware of the benefits of targeted investigation (which differ from those required to exclude recurrent cancer), the range of available treatments and how the pathological processes underlying side effects of cancer treatment differ from those in benign GI disorders. This paper aims to help clinicians become aware of the problem and suggests ways in which the panoply of syndromes can be managed. Methods A multidisciplinary literature review was performed to develop guidance to facilitate clinical management of GI side effects of cancer treatments. Results Different pathological processes within the GI tract may produce identical symptoms. Optimal management requires appropriate investigations and coordinated multidisciplinary working. Lactose intolerance, small bowel bacterial overgrowth and bile acid malabsorption frequently develop during or after chemotherapy. Toxin-negative Clostridium difficile and cytomegalovirus infection may be fulminant in immunosuppressed patients and require rapid diagnosis and treatment. Hepatic side effects include reactivation of viral hepatitis, sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, steatosis and steatohepatitis. Anticancer biological agents have multiple interactions with conventional drugs. Colonoscopy is contraindicated in neutropenic enterocolitis but endoscopy may be life-saving in other patients with GI bleeding. After cancer treatment, simple questions can identify patients who need referral for specialist management of GI symptoms. Other troublesome pelvic problems (eg, urinary, sexual, nutritional) are frequent

  13. Riparian Vegetation Mapping Along the Hanford Reach

    SciTech Connect

    FOGWELL, T.W.

    2003-07-11

    During the biological survey and inventory of the Hanford Site conducted in the mid-1990s (1995 and 1996), preliminary surveys of the riparian vegetation were conducted along the Hanford Reach. These preliminary data were reported to The Nature Conservancy (TNC), but were not included in any TNC reports to DOE or stakeholders. During the latter part of FY2001, PNNL contracted with SEE Botanical, the parties that performed the original surveys in the mid 1990s, to complete the data summaries and mapping associated with the earlier survey data. Those data sets were delivered to PNNL and the riparian mapping by vegetation type for the Hanford Reach is being digitized during the first quarter of FY2002. These mapping efforts provide the information necessary to create subsequent spatial data layers to describe the riparian zone according to plant functional types (trees, shrubs, grasses, sedges, forbs). Quantification of the riparian zone by vegetation types is important to a number of DOE'S priority issues including modeling contaminant transport and uptake in the near-riverine environment and the determination of ecological risk. This work included the identification of vegetative zones along the Reach by changes in dominant plant species covering the shoreline from just to the north of the 300 Area to China Bar near Vernita. Dominant and indicator species included Agropyron dasytachyudA. smithii, Apocynum cannabinum, Aristida longiseta, Artemisia campestris ssp. borealis var scouleriana, Artemisa dracunculus, Artemisia lindleyana, Artemisia tridentata, Bromus tectorum, Chrysothamnus nauseosus, Coreopsis atkinsoniana. Eleocharis palustris, Elymus cinereus, Equisetum hyemale, Eriogonum compositum, Juniperus trichocarpa, Phalaris arundinacea, Poa compressa. Salk exigua, Scirpus acutus, Solidago occidentalis, Sporobolus asper,and Sporobolus cryptandrus. This letter report documents the data received, the processing by PNNL staff, and additional data gathered in FY2002

  14. Feldenkrais sensory imagery and forward reach.

    PubMed

    Dunn, P A; Rogers, D K

    2000-12-01

    To investigate the effect of sensory imagery on subsequent movement, a unilateral Fleldenkrais lesson of imaging a soft bristle brush passing over one half of the body and in which no movement occurred, was given to 12 naive subjects. Forward flexion for each side of the body was measured at a sit-and-reach box. For 8 and 10 subjects who reported the perception of a side as being longer and lighter following the sensory imagery, there was also a significant increase in the forward flexion range on that side. PMID:11153843

  15. Spallation Neutron Source reaches megawatt power

    ScienceCinema

    Dr. William F. Brinkman

    2010-01-08

    The Department of Energy's Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), already the world's most powerful facility for pulsed neutron scattering science, is now the first pulsed spallation neutron source to break the one-megawatt barrier. "Advances in the materials sciences are fundamental to the development of clean and sustainable energy technologies. In reaching this milestone of operating power, the Spallation Neutron Source is providing scientists with an unmatched resource for unlocking the secrets of materials at the molecular level," said Dr. William F. Brinkman, Director of DOE's Office of Science.

  16. Spallation Neutron Source reaches megawatt power

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. William F. Brinkman

    2009-09-30

    The Department of Energy's Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), already the world's most powerful facility for pulsed neutron scattering science, is now the first pulsed spallation neutron source to break the one-megawatt barrier. "Advances in the materials sciences are fundamental to the development of clean and sustainable energy technologies. In reaching this milestone of operating power, the Spallation Neutron Source is providing scientists with an unmatched resource for unlocking the secrets of materials at the molecular level," said Dr. William F. Brinkman, Director of DOE's Office of Science.

  17. Integrated Curricular Approaches in Reaching Adult Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerick-Brown, Dylan

    2013-01-01

    In the field of adult basic education, there are two strategies that have been found to be of particular value to student learning: multiple intelligences and purpose-based learning. However, putting these learning theories into practice is not always as easy as an educator might at first believe. Adult basic education teacher Dylan Emerick-Brown…

  18. Instructor Manuals That Reach beyond the Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eney, Patricia; Davidson, Evelyn; Lau, Pam

    2008-01-01

    Providing instructor manuals for part-time faculty is not a new practice. Post-secondary institutions often produce manuals filled with everything from the college calendar to the procedure for obtaining a parking pass. However, in the age of stretched budgets and waning support from their institutions, developmental education programs are looking…

  19. An international effort towards developing standards for best practices in analysis, interpretation and reporting of clinical genome sequencing results in the CLARITY Challenge

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is tremendous potential for genome sequencing to improve clinical diagnosis and care once it becomes routinely accessible, but this will require formalizing research methods into clinical best practices in the areas of sequence data generation, analysis, interpretation and reporting. The CLARITY Challenge was designed to spur convergence in methods for diagnosing genetic disease starting from clinical case history and genome sequencing data. DNA samples were obtained from three families with heritable genetic disorders and genomic sequence data were donated by sequencing platform vendors. The challenge was to analyze and interpret these data with the goals of identifying disease-causing variants and reporting the findings in a clinically useful format. Participating contestant groups were solicited broadly, and an independent panel of judges evaluated their performance. Results A total of 30 international groups were engaged. The entries reveal a general convergence of practices on most elements of the analysis and interpretation process. However, even given this commonality of approach, only two groups identified the consensus candidate variants in all disease cases, demonstrating a need for consistent fine-tuning of the generally accepted methods. There was greater diversity of the final clinical report content and in the patient consenting process, demonstrating that these areas require additional exploration and standardization. Conclusions The CLARITY Challenge provides a comprehensive assessment of current practices for using genome sequencing to diagnose and report genetic diseases. There is remarkable convergence in bioinformatic techniques, but medical interpretation and reporting are areas that require further development by many groups. PMID:24667040

  20. NASA's Astronomy Education Program: Reaching Diverse Audiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Hashima; Smith, Denise Anne; Hertz, Paul; Meinke, Bonnie

    2015-08-01

    An overview will be given of the rich programs developed by NASA to inject the science from it's Astrophysics missions into STEM activities targeted to diverse audiences. For example, Astro4Girls was started as a pilot program during IYA2009. This program partners NASA astrophysics education programs with public libraries to provide NASA-themed hands-on education activities for girls and their families, and has been executed across the country. School curricula and NASA websites have been translated in Spanish; Braille books have been developed for the visually impaired; programs have been developed for the hearing impaired. Special effort has been made to reach underrepresented minorities. Audiences include students, teachers, and the general public through formal and informal education settings, social media and other outlets. NASA Astrophysics education providers include teams embedded in its space flight missions; professionals selected though peer reviewed programs; as well as the Science Mission Directorate Astrophysics Education forum. Representative examples will be presented to demonstrate the reach of NASA education programs, as well as an evaluation of the effectiveness of these programs.

  1. Can donated media placements reach intended audiences?

    PubMed

    Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Gelb, Cynthia A; Chu, Jennifer; Polonec, Lindsey

    2013-09-01

    Donated media placements for public service announcements (PSAs) can be difficult to secure, and may not always reach intended audiences. Strategies used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Screen for Life: National Colorectal Cancer Action Campaign (SFL) to obtain donated media placements include producing a diverse mix of high-quality PSAs, co-branding with state and tribal health agencies, securing celebrity involvement, monitoring media trends to identify new distribution opportunities, and strategically timing the release of PSAs. To investigate open-ended recall of PSAs promoting colorectal cancer screening, CDC conducted 12 focus groups in three U.S. cities with men and women either nearing age 50 years, when screening is recommended to begin, or aged 50-75 years who were not in compliance with screening guidelines. In most focus groups, multiple participants recalled exposure to PSAs promoting colorectal cancer screening, and most of these individuals reported having seen SFL PSAs on television, in transit stations, or on the sides of public buses. Some participants reported exposure to SFL PSAs without prompting from the moderator, as they explained how they learned about the disease. Several participants reported learning key campaign messages from PSAs, including that colorectal cancer screening should begin at age 50 years and screening can find polyps so they can be removed before becoming cancerous. Donated media placements can reach and educate mass audiences, including millions of U.S. adults who have not been screened appropriately for colorectal cancer. PMID:23720533

  2. Effectiveness of an educational intervention to improve child feeding practices and growth in rural China: updated results at 18 months of age.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingxu; Shi, Ling; Chen, Da-Fang; Wang, Jing; Wang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Inappropriate complementary feeding practices have led to, in part, significant disparities in growth and nutritional status between rural and urban children in China. A cluster-randomised, controlled trial was implemented in Laishui, China to assess the effectiveness of an educational intervention on caregivers' feeding practices and children's growth. Eight townships were randomly assigned to the intervention or control. Five hundred ninety-nine healthy infants were enrolled at 2-4 months old, and were followed up at ages 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 months. The intervention group received information on enhanced home-prepared recipes and food preparation and hygiene through group training, counselling and home visit. Key outcomes were children's physical growth, caregivers' knowledge and behaviours on complementary feeding, and the infant and child feeding index (ICFI). Analysis was by intention to treat. The intervention group achieved better knowledge and practices related to complementary feeding, and significantly higher ICFI scores at each follow-up point. Children in the intervention group achieved higher z-scores for weight-for-age (WAZ) and weight-for-height (WHZ) than the control (0.18 vs. 0.01 and 0.49 vs. 0.19, respectively) at 18 months old, and were less likely to have stunted growth (odds ratio = 0.71, 95% confidence interval: 0.53-0.94). Mixed model showed that the intervention group achieved significantly better linear growth over time, including WAZ (P = 0.016), WHZ (P = 0.030) and HAZ (P = 0.078). These results indicated that an educational intervention delivered through local health services can enhance caregivers' knowledge and practices of complementary feeding and ultimately improve children's growth. PMID:23020102

  3. Use of evidence based practices to improve survival without severe morbidity for very preterm infants: results from the EPICE population based cohort

    PubMed Central

    Manktelow, Bradley N; Piedvache, Aurelie; Cuttini, Marina; Boyle, Elaine; van Heijst, Arno; Gadzinowski, Janusz; Van Reempts, Patrick; Huusom, Lene; Weber, Tom; Schmidt, Stephan; Barros, Henrique; Dillalo, Dominico; Toome, Liis; Norman, Mikael; Blondel, Beatrice; Bonet, Mercedes; Draper, Elisabeth S; Maier, Rolf F

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the implementation of four high evidence practices for the care of very preterm infants to assess their use and impact in routine clinical practice and whether they constitute a driver for reducing mortality and neonatal morbidity. Design Prospective multinational population based observational study. Setting 19 regions from 11 European countries covering 850 000 annual births participating in the EPICE (Effective Perinatal Intensive Care in Europe for very preterm births) project. Participants 7336 infants born between 24+0 and 31+6 weeks’ gestation in 2011/12 without serious congenital anomalies and surviving to neonatal admission. Main outcome measures Combined use of four evidence based practices for infants born before 28 weeks’ gestation using an “all or none” approach: delivery in a maternity unit with appropriate level of neonatal care; administration of antenatal corticosteroids; prevention of hypothermia (temperature on admission to neonatal unit ≥36°C); surfactant used within two hours of birth or early nasal continuous positive airway pressure. Infant outcomes were in-hospital mortality, severe neonatal morbidity at discharge, and a composite measure of death or severe morbidity, or both. We modelled associations using risk ratios, with propensity score weighting to account for potential confounding bias. Analyses were adjusted for clustering within delivery hospital. Results Only 58.3% (n=4275) of infants received all evidence based practices for which they were eligible. Infants with low gestational age, growth restriction, low Apgar scores, and who were born on the day of maternal admission to hospital were less likely to receive evidence based care. After adjustment, evidence based care was associated with lower in-hospital mortality (risk ratio 0.72, 95% confidence interval 0.60 to 0.87) and in-hospital mortality or severe morbidity, or both (0.82, 0.73 to 0.92), corresponding to an estimated 18% decrease

  4. The integration of minimally invasive surgery in surgical practice in a Canadian setting: results from 2 consecutive province-wide practice surveys of general surgeons over a 5-year period

    PubMed Central

    Hallet, Julie; Mailloux, Olivier; Chhiv, Mony; Grégoire, Roger C.; Gagné, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Background Although minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has been quickly embraced, the introduction of advanced procedures appears more complex. We assessed the evolution of MIS in the province of Quebec over a 5-year period to identify areas for improvement in the modern surgical era. Methods We developed, test-piloted and conducted a self-administered questionnaire among Quebec general surgeons in 2007 and 2012 to examine stated MIS practice, MIS training and barriers and facilitators to the use of MIS. Results Response rates were 51.3% (251 of 489) in 2007 and 31.3% (153 of 491) in 2012. A significant increase was observed for performance of most advanced MIS procedures, especially for colectomy for benign (66.0% v. 84.3%, p < 0,001) and malignant diseases (43.3% v. 77.8%, p < 0,001) and for rectal surgery for malignancy (21.0% v. 54.6%, p < 0.001). More surgeons practised 3 or more advanced MIS procedures in 2012 than in 2007 (82.3% v. 64.3%, p < 0,001). At multivariate analysis, the 2007 survey administration was associated with fewer surgeons practising advanced MIS (odds ratio 0.13, 95% confidence interval 0.06–0.29). In 2012, more respondents stated they gained their skills during residency (p = 0.028). Conclusion From 2007 to 2012 there was a significant increase in advanced MIS procedures practised by general surgeons in Québec. This technique appears well established in current surgical practice. The growing place of MIS in residency training seems to be a paramount part of this development. Results from this study could be used as a baseline for studies focusing on ways to further improve the MIS practice. PMID:25598180

  5. Review of the mechanism of cell death resulting from streptozotocin challenge in experimental animals, its practical use and potential risk to humans

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Streptozotocin (STZ) (2-deoxy-2-({[methyl(nitroso)amino]carbonyl}amino)-β-D-glucopyranose) is a naturally occurring diabetogenic compound, produced by the soil bacterium streptomyces achromogenes, that exhibits broad spectrum of antibacterial properties. Streptozotocin functions as a DNA synthesis inhibitor in both bacterial and mammalian cells. In mammalian cells, the actual mechanism and metabolic targets of STZ toxicity that results in cell death is not known. This review identifies four key areas that explain the mechanism of the cytotoxicity of STZ in mammalian cell lines, investigates the practical aspects of using STZ in experimental animals and the potential risks of its exposure to human health. PMID:24364898

  6. Evaluation of a hydrological model based on Bidirectional Reach (BReach)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Eerdenbrugh, Katrien; Van Hoey, Stijn; Verhoest, Niko E. C.

    2016-04-01

    Evaluation and discrimination of model structures is crucial to ensure an appropriate use of hydrological models. When evaluating model results by aggregating their quality in (a subset of) individual observations, overall results of this analysis sometimes conceal important detailed information about model structural deficiencies. Analyzing model results within their local (time) context can uncover this detailed information. In this research, a methodology called Bidirectional Reach (BReach) is proposed to evaluate and analyze results of a hydrological model by assessing the maximum left and right reach in each observation point that is used for model evaluation. These maximum reaches express the capability of the model to describe a subset of the evaluation data both in the direction of the previous (left) and of the following data (right). This capability is evaluated on two levels. First, on the level of individual observations, the combination of a parameter set and an observation is classified as non-acceptable if the deviation between the accompanying model result and the measurement exceeds observational uncertainty. Second, the behavior in a sequence of observations is evaluated by means of a tolerance degree. This tolerance degree expresses the condition for satisfactory model behavior in a data series and is defined by the percentage of observations within this series that can have non-acceptable model results. Based on both criteria, the maximum left and right reaches of a model in an observation represent the data points in the direction of the previous respectively the following observations beyond which none of the sampled parameter sets both are satisfactory and result in an acceptable deviation. After assessing these reaches for a variety of tolerance degrees, results can be plotted in a combined BReach plot that show temporal changes in the behavior of model results. The methodology is applied on a Probability Distributed Model (PDM) of the river

  7. Reaching out. India: beyond the monsoon.

    PubMed

    Kavi, A R

    1991-09-01

    Bombay has a teeming and mobile, yet comparatively invisible, population of approximately 600 male prostitutes who ply their trade on and from Chowpatty beach. These men, aged 12-50 years, masturbate and/or perform fellatio for male clients in exchange for financial reward ranging from US$0.75 - $2. Unprotected penetrative anal sex also takes place, though it is generally not acknowledged by the prostitutes. These men and their clients are therefore in great need of information and access to condoms for the practice of safer sex. Both self- and social denial of the practice of anal sex must, however, be overcome. To this end, Bombay Dost, the 1st openly gay organization in India, distributes condoms and information to gay men on railway platforms, and in public toilets and parks. These efforts are unfortunately not welcomed by the prostitutes of Chowpatty beach for fear that acceptance of the intervention would imply their practice of anal sex and a more substantial degree of homosexuality within their subpopulation. Recruiting and training men as health educators from their ranks may be a viable, effective promotion approach. Any interventions must also understand the friendly and supportive, yet competitive, relationships within this community. PMID:12284683

  8. Reach and get capability in a computing environment

    DOEpatents

    Bouchard, Ann M.; Osbourn, Gordon C.

    2012-06-05

    A reach and get technique includes invoking a reach command from a reach location within a computing environment. A user can then navigate to an object within the computing environment and invoke a get command on the object. In response to invoking the get command, the computing environment is automatically navigated back to the reach location and the object copied into the reach location.

  9. Reaching Consensus by Allowing Moments of Indecision.

    PubMed

    Svenkeson, A; Swami, A

    2015-01-01

    Group decision-making processes often turn into a drawn out and costly battle between two opposing subgroups. Using analytical arguments based on a master equation description of the opinion dynamics occurring in a three-state model of cooperatively interacting units, we show how the capability of a social group to reach consensus can be enhanced when there is an intermediate state for indecisive individuals to pass through. The time spent in the intermediate state must be relatively short compared to that of the two polar states in order to create the beneficial effect. Furthermore, the cooperation between individuals must not be too low, as the benefit to consensus is possible only when the cooperation level exceeds a specific threshold. We also discuss how zealots, agents that remain in one state forever, can affect the consensus among the rest of the population by counteracting the benefit of the intermediate state or making it virtually impossible for an opposition to form. PMID:26439503

  10. Reaching Consensus by Allowing Moments of Indecision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svenkeson, A.; Swami, A.

    2015-10-01

    Group decision-making processes often turn into a drawn out and costly battle between two opposing subgroups. Using analytical arguments based on a master equation description of the opinion dynamics occurring in a three-state model of cooperatively interacting units, we show how the capability of a social group to reach consensus can be enhanced when there is an intermediate state for indecisive individuals to pass through. The time spent in the intermediate state must be relatively short compared to that of the two polar states in order to create the beneficial effect. Furthermore, the cooperation between individuals must not be too low, as the benefit to consensus is possible only when the cooperation level exceeds a specific threshold. We also discuss how zealots, agents that remain in one state forever, can affect the consensus among the rest of the population by counteracting the benefit of the intermediate state or making it virtually impossible for an opposition to form.

  11. Reaching Consensus by Allowing Moments of Indecision

    PubMed Central

    Svenkeson, A.; Swami, A.

    2015-01-01

    Group decision-making processes often turn into a drawn out and costly battle between two opposing subgroups. Using analytical arguments based on a master equation description of the opinion dynamics occurring in a three-state model of cooperatively interacting units, we show how the capability of a social group to reach consensus can be enhanced when there is an intermediate state for indecisive individuals to pass through. The time spent in the intermediate state must be relatively short compared to that of the two polar states in order to create the beneficial effect. Furthermore, the cooperation between individuals must not be too low, as the benefit to consensus is possible only when the cooperation level exceeds a specific threshold. We also discuss how zealots, agents that remain in one state forever, can affect the consensus among the rest of the population by counteracting the benefit of the intermediate state or making it virtually impossible for an opposition to form. PMID:26439503

  12. Reaching the people--the Indonesian experience.

    PubMed

    1989-10-01

    This 1st section of INTEGRATION is a 27-page special report entitled REACHING THE PEOPLE - THE INDONESIAN EXPERIENCE. The section includes 6 articles: 1) NGOs (Nongovernmental organizations) Promote Human Resource Development-Oriented Project, 2) Front Line of Integral Health: First Step is Parasite Control, 3) Mothers Should be Informed of Health Advantages: A Perception of Marriage, Family Planning, and Children by an Indonesian Woman of the New Generation, 4) BKKBN Chairman Haryona Suyono: Building a Self-Reliant Family Planning Program, 5) Developing a Fee-Charging Contraceptive Distribution System in Indonesia: The Experience of Kusuma Buana Foundation, and 6) President Soeharto's Speech at UN Award Rites: Transforming Population into an Asset for Development. PMID:12315967

  13. Project Outreach: Organizations Unified to Reach Youth.

    PubMed Central

    Dunnington, B C; Hayes, M L

    1989-01-01

    Youths of today are forced to deal with the external pressures of alcohol and drug abuse on all levels-from the older youngsters across the street pressuring them to be "cool," to the "cute dog" enticing them with the glamour of being the original "party animal." Through today's mass communications, young people are exposed to negative, self-destructive attitudes. It is important, therefore, to expose them to a more positive influence and try to reach them through parental guidance, personal contact, and peer pressure. To achieve this, the University of Missouri's Kansas City Chapter of the American Pharmaceutical Association's Academy of Students of Pharmacy, in conjunction with the Metropolitan Kansas City Area Task Force on Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse, proposed the development of an annual drug abuse prevention program that specifically targets fifth graders in the greater Kansas City metropolitan area. A primary goal of Project Outreach (Organizations Unified to Reach Youth) is to unite drug abuse prevention programs in the greater Kansas City metropolitan area in their outreach efforts to give positive support to Kansas City's youth against alcohol and other drugs. Phase I of Project Outreach consisted of a series of programs for the parents in the community. Phase II entailed college students who spoke to fifth graders in their classrooms. These students also participated in poster and poem contents centered around drug abuse prevention. In Phase III, which featured an outstanding, motivated speaker, the sample group of 600 fifth graders in the area participated in a major event to give positive peer pressure to say no to drugs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2493666

  14. Postural optimization during functional reach while kneeling and standing

    PubMed Central

    Fujisawa, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiroto; Kawakami, Shingo; Murakami, Kenichi; Suzuki, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the validity of functional reach models by comparing actual values with estimated values. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight volunteers were included in this study (male: 14, female: 14, age: 21 ± 1 years, height: 166.8 ± 9.0 cm, and body mass: 60.1 ± 8.5 kg). The maximum forward fingertip position and joint angles were measured using the original equipment. In addition, the maximum forward fingertip position, shoulder joint angle, and knee or ankle joint angle were estimated using the functional reach model. [Results] The correlation coefficients between actual data and estimated data for the maximum forward fingertip position, shoulder joint angle, and ankle joint angle while standing were 0.93, 0.83, and 0.73, respectively. The correlation coefficients between actual data and estimated data for the maximum forward fingertip position, shoulder joint angle, and knee joint angle while kneeling were 0.86, 0.81, and 0.72, respectively. [Conclusion] The validity of both functional reach models in estimating optimal posture was confirmed. Therefore, the functional reach model is useful for evaluation of postural control and optimal postural control exercises.

  15. Effector selection precedes reach planning in the dorsal parietofrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Cieslak, Matthew; Grafton, Scott T.

    2012-01-01

    Experimental evidence and computational modeling suggest that target selection for reaching is associated with the parallel encoding of multiple movement plans in the dorsomedial posterior parietal cortex (dmPPC) and the caudal part of the dorsal premotor cortex (PMdc). We tested the hypothesis that a similar mechanism also accounts for arm selection for unimanual reaching, with simultaneous and separate motor goal representations for the left and right arms existing in the right and left parietofrontal cortex, respectively. We recorded simultaneous electroencephalograms and functional MRI and studied a condition in which subjects had to select the appropriate arm for reaching based on the color of an appearing visuospatial target, contrasting it to a condition in which they had full knowledge of the arm to be used before target onset. We showed that irrespective of whether subjects had to select the arm or not, activity in dmPPC and PMdc was only observed contralateral to the reaching arm after target onset. Furthermore, the latency of activation in these regions was significantly delayed when arm selection had to be achieved during movement planning. Together, these results demonstrate that effector selection is not achieved through the simultaneous specification of motor goals tied to the two arms in bilateral parietofrontal cortex, but suggest that a motor goal is formed in these regions only after an arm is selected for action. PMID:22457458

  16. Patterns of arm muscle activation involved in octopus reaching movements.

    PubMed

    Gutfreund, Y; Flash, T; Fiorito, G; Hochner, B

    1998-08-01

    The extreme flexibility of the octopus arm allows it to perform many different movements, yet octopuses reach toward a target in a stereotyped manner using a basic invariant motor structure: a bend traveling from the base of the arm toward the tip (Gutfreund et al., 1996a). To study the neuronal control of these movements, arm muscle activation [electromyogram (EMG)] was measured together with the kinematics of reaching movements. The traveling bend is associated with a propagating wave of muscle activation, with maximal muscle activation slightly preceding the traveling bend. Tonic activation was occasionally maintained afterward. Correlation of the EMG signals with the kinematic variables (velocities and accelerations) reveals that a significant part of the kinematic variability can be explained by the level of muscle activation. Furthermore, the EMG level measured during the initial stages of movement predicts the peak velocity attained toward the end of the reaching movement. These results suggest that feed-forward motor commands play an important role in the control of movement velocity and that simple adjustment of the excitation levels at the initial stages of the movement can set the velocity profile of the whole movement. A simple model of octopus arm extension is proposed in which the driving force is set initially and is then decreased in proportion to arm diameter at the bend. The model qualitatively reproduces the typical velocity profiles of octopus reaching movements, suggesting a simple control mechanism for bend propagation in the octopus arm. PMID:9671683

  17. Macroscopic Neural Oscillation during Skilled Reaching Movements in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Chun Kee

    2016-01-01

    The neural mechanism of skilled movements, such as reaching, has been considered to differ from that of rhythmic movement such as locomotion. It is generally thought that skilled movements are consciously controlled by the brain, while rhythmic movements are usually controlled autonomously by the spinal cord and brain stem. However, several studies in recent decades have suggested that neural networks in the spinal cord may also be involved in the generation of skilled movements. Moreover, a recent study revealed that neural activities in the motor cortex exhibit rhythmic oscillations corresponding to movement frequency during reaching movements as rhythmic movements. However, whether the oscillations are generated in the spinal cord or the cortical circuit in the motor cortex causes the oscillations is unclear. If the spinal cord is involved in the skilled movements, then similar rhythmic oscillations with time delays should be found in macroscopic neural activity. We measured whole-brain MEG signals during reaching. The MEG signals were analyzed using a dynamical analysis method. We found that rhythmic oscillations with time delays occur in all subjects during reaching movements. The results suggest that the corticospinal system is involved in the generation and control of the skilled movements as rhythmic movements. PMID:27524996

  18. Macroscopic Neural Oscillation during Skilled Reaching Movements in Humans.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Hong Gi; Kim, June Sic; Chung, Chun Kee

    2016-01-01

    The neural mechanism of skilled movements, such as reaching, has been considered to differ from that of rhythmic movement such as locomotion. It is generally thought that skilled movements are consciously controlled by the brain, while rhythmic movements are usually controlled autonomously by the spinal cord and brain stem. However, several studies in recent decades have suggested that neural networks in the spinal cord may also be involved in the generation of skilled movements. Moreover, a recent study revealed that neural activities in the motor cortex exhibit rhythmic oscillations corresponding to movement frequency during reaching movements as rhythmic movements. However, whether the oscillations are generated in the spinal cord or the cortical circuit in the motor cortex causes the oscillations is unclear. If the spinal cord is involved in the skilled movements, then similar rhythmic oscillations with time delays should be found in macroscopic neural activity. We measured whole-brain MEG signals during reaching. The MEG signals were analyzed using a dynamical analysis method. We found that rhythmic oscillations with time delays occur in all subjects during reaching movements. The results suggest that the corticospinal system is involved in the generation and control of the skilled movements as rhythmic movements. PMID:27524996

  19. Changes in biologically active ultraviolet radiation reaching the Earth's surface.

    PubMed

    Madronich, S; McKenzie, R L; Björn, L O; Caldwell, M M

    1998-10-01

    Stratospheric ozone levels are near their lowest point since measurements began, so current ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation levels are thought to be close to their maximum. Total stratospheric content of ozone-depleting substances is expected to reach a maximum before the year 2000. All other things being equal, the current ozone losses and related UV-B increases should be close to their maximum. Increases in surface erythemal (sunburning) UV radiation relative to the values in the 1970s are estimated to be: about 7% at Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes in winter/spring; about 4% at Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes in summer/fall; about 6% at Southern Hemisphere mid-latitudes on a year-round basis; about 130% in the Antarctic in spring; and about 22% in the Arctic in spring. Reductions in atmospheric ozone are expected to result in higher amounts of UV-B radiation reaching the Earth's surface. The expected correlation between increases in surface UV-B radiation and decreases in overhead ozone has been further demonstrated and quantified by ground-based instruments under a wide range of conditions. Improved measurements of UV-B radiation are now providing better geographical and temporal coverage. Surface UV-B radiation levels are highly variable because of cloud cover, and also because of local effects including pollutants and surface reflections. These factors usually decrease atmospheric transmission and therefore the surface irradiances at UV-B as well as other wavelengths. Occasional cloud-induced increases have also been reported. With a few exceptions, the direct detection of UV-B trends at low- and mid-latitudes remains problematic due to this high natural variability, the relatively small ozone changes, and the practical difficulties of maintaining long-term stability in networks of UV-measuring instruments. Few reliable UV-B radiation measurements are available from pre-ozone-depletion days. Satellite-based observations of atmospheric ozone and clouds are

  20. Patients with Postpartum Depression in Gynaecological Practices in Germany – Results of a Representative Survey of Local Gynaecologists about Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Pawils, S.; Metzner, F.; Wendt, C.; Raus, S.; Shedden-Mora, M.; Wlodarczyk, O.; Härter, M.

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical Background and Current Issues: For the sake of pre-emptive child protection it is necessary to recognise signs of postpartum depression (PPD) in pregnant women and young mothers as early as possible and to initiate adequate assistance. Because of their high acceptance, especially in the phases of pregnancy and birth, the local gynaecologists offer ideal prerequisites for access to the parents. This study evaluates the current status of diagnosis and management of PPD in gynaecological practices. Material and Methods: In a representative German nation-wide questionnaire survey taking the regional distribution into account n = 3000 local gynaecologists were selected at random and contacted by post. The questionnaire addressed their approaches to the diagnosis and management of PPD as well as the encountered barriers. Results: Among the n = 1034 participating gynaecologists (response rate: 35 %) half of them dealt actively with PPD; 16 % used a questionnaire for this purpose. Consultation by the gynaecologist (84 %) or referral to therapists or hospitals (86 %) were among the most common interventions in the management of PPD. A need for improvement in the management of women with PPD was recognised equally often. As barriers the gynaecologists mentioned above all the lack of time, the low reimbursements for consultations and the lack of effective treatment options. Predictors for an active anamnesis were found to be female gender of the gynaecologist, possession of an additional psychosomatic qualification and practice located in an urban catchment area or state of the former West Germany. Conclusion: The results clearly demonstrate a high acceptance for the management of PPD by gynaecologists as well as the need for further action to improve the care of patients with PPD in gynaecological practices. PMID:27582583

  1. Reaching for the stars: SLPs shine on literacy teams.

    PubMed

    Staskowski, Maureen; Zagaiski, Kelley

    2003-08-01

    Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) who work with school-age children have the opportunity to contribute to the literacy development of specific students as well as the literacy instruction and intervention programs in their district. These efforts are made in collaboration with other professionals and parents and may be referred to as participation on literacy teams. This article describes successful literacy teams in elementary schools including the variety of possible members as well as common characteristics of successful literacy teams. We describe how SLPs participate by developing collegial relationships with their team, using best practices for literacy, and supporting children as they progress in the general curriculum. Finally, we discuss some strategies for SLPs to take stock of their own literacy team participation, identify new goals, and map out a plan to reach new heights in literacy as integral members of literacy teams. PMID:14533053

  2. [Reaching Target Groups--Shaping Accessibility].

    PubMed

    Walter, U; Jahn, I

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes the public health discourse on the accessibility and access paths, theoretical approaches as well as factors influencing the utilisation of prevention and health promotion interventions, and requirements for their evaluation. Various projects funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research address many aspects of accessibility and describe extensive experiences with access paths, approaches to information transfer, target group-driven supply chain design, etc. Recommendations for practice and research are given at the end of the article. PMID:24081569

  3. Investigation of Ice Phenomena On The Hungarian Danube Reach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keve, G.; Kontur, I.

    The importance of scientific work in the field of ice floods is high on the southern Hungarian reach of the Danube. The most dangerous floods of the reach in the past were almost all icy. This used to be so for two main reasons, out of which one is a hydro-meteorological, the other is a morphological factor. River training works on the reach have been completed, only maintenance and small corrections are being done. In spite of the process of global warming, that can be concluded analyzing the past few decades' data, an unfortunate constellation of hydro-meteorological factors can anytime cause serious frosts, and, consequently, ice floods. In our study we statisti- cally analyzed the past hundred years' data series of the reach in question. The results proved the existence of a 30-years long, almost iceless period, that we investigated the reasons for. Because of the above-mentioned rare occurence of ice phenomena, the observation and study of these processes also deteriorated. It is a big luck that Hungarian experts have dealt a lot with past ice phenomena up to 1970. Starting out from literal data and ideas, our investigations and new observations can be massively based. The newest computer technology features are now used for ice observations on the southern Hungarian Danube reach. We could gain useful experience already in the winter of 2001-2002 in computer-aided ice observation (CAIO). In our presenta- tion we would like to give an overall impression about the current issues of CAIO in southern Hungary.

  4. A single comb laser source for short reach WDM interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojcik, Gregory L.; Yin, Dongliang; Kovsh, Alexey R.; Gubenko, Alexey E.; Krestnikov, Igor L.; Mikhrin, Sergey S.; Livshits, Daniil A.; Fattal, David A.; Fiorentino, Marco; Beausoleil, Raymond G.

    2009-02-01

    High-channel-count WDM will eventually be used for short reach optical interconnects since it maximizes link bandwidth and efficiency. An impediment to adoption is the fact that each WDM wavelength currently requires its own DFB laser. The alternative is a single, multi-wavelength laser, but noise, size and/or expense make existing options impractical. In contrast, a new low-noise, diode comb laser based on InAs/GaAs quantum dots provides a practical and timely alternative, albeit in the O-band. Samples are being evaluated in short reach WDM development systems. Tests show this type of Fabry-Perot laser permits >10 Gb/s error-free modulation of 10 to over 50 separate channels, as well as potential for 1.25 Gb/s direct modulation. The paper describes comb laser requirements, noise measurements for external and direct modulation, O-band issues, transmitter photonic circuitry and components, future CMP applications, and optical couplers that may help drive down packaging costs to below a dollar.

  5. Project Outreach: Organizations Unified to Reach Youth.

    PubMed

    Dunnington, B C; Hayes, M L

    1989-01-01

    Youths of today are forced to deal with the external pressures of alcohol and drug abuse on all levels-from the older youngsters across the street pressuring them to be "cool," to the "cute dog" enticing them with the glamour of being the original "party animal." Through today's mass communications, young people are exposed to negative, self-destructive attitudes. It is important, therefore, to expose them to a more positive influence and try to reach them through parental guidance, personal contact, and peer pressure. To achieve this, the University of Missouri's Kansas City Chapter of the American Pharmaceutical Association's Academy of Students of Pharmacy, in conjunction with the Metropolitan Kansas City Area Task Force on Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse, proposed the development of an annual drug abuse prevention program that specifically targets fifth graders in the greater Kansas City metropolitan area. A primary goal of Project Outreach (Organizations Unified to Reach Youth) is to unite drug abuse prevention programs in the greater Kansas City metropolitan area in their outreach efforts to give positive support to Kansas City's youth against alcohol and other drugs. Phase I of Project Outreach consisted of a series of programs for the parents in the community. Phase II entailed college students who spoke to fifth graders in their classrooms. These students also participated in poster and poem contents centered around drug abuse prevention. In Phase III, which featured an outstanding, motivated speaker, the sample group of 600 fifth graders in the area participated in a major event to give positive peer pressure to say no to drugs. Pertinent entertainment also was provided, and the governor of Missouri, John Ashcroft, attended the rally. In the future, each fifth grader will receive a free T-shirt as a tangible reminder of the main event. In Phase IV, to reinforce concepts presented in previous programming, the college students returned to the fifth grade

  6. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 31: The technical communications practices of US aerospace engineers and scientists: Results of the phase 1 SME mail survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical communications practices of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists affiliated with, not necessarily belonging to, the Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME).

  7. The use of risk sharing tools for post adoption surveillance of a non pharmacological technology in routine practice: results after one year

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To report results obtained by combining risk sharing tools with post-adoption surveillance mechanisms in order to control quality of care and implement a value-based reimbursement scheme for Neuro-reflexotherapy (NRT), a non-pharmacological treatment proven effective for neck pain (NP), thoracic pain (TP) and low back pain (LBP). Methods Pre-post prospective cohort study in routine clinical practice, carried out in primary care centers in the Spanish National Health Service in the Balearic Islands (Ib-Salut). Eight-hundred and seventy-one subacute and chronic NP, TP and LBP patients treated in Ib-Salut, who underwent NRT during 2011. A shared risk contract (SRC) was developed, where payments for NRT were linked to results on patients’ clinical evolution, reduction in medication and proportion of patients undergoing spinal surgery. Main outcome measures were local pain (NP, TP or LBP), referred pain, LBP-related disability and NP-related disability, measured using previously validated instruments at referral and 3 months later, use of medication assessed at referral and discharge, and rates of spinal surgery prescription after undergoing NRT. Results Median improvements at discharge corresponded to 57.1% of baseline value for local pain, 75.0% for referred pain, 53.8% for LBP-related disability and 45.0% for NP-related disability. Patients taking medication at discharge represented 29.0% of those taking it at referral. The proportion of patients in whom spinal surgery was prescribed after undergoing NRT was 0%. These results were consistent with those from previous randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and studies in routine practice, and complied with the standards set in the SRC. Conclusions It is feasible and effective to enhance post adoption surveillance methods with risk sharing tools to improve quality control and support value-based reimbursement decisions for NRT. The feasibility of generalising this approach to other settings and to other non

  8. Media perspective - new opportunities for reaching audiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haswell, Katy

    2007-08-01

    The world of media is experiencing a period of extreme and rapid change with the rise of internet television and the download generation. Many young people no longer watch standard TV. Instead, they go on-line, talking to friends and downloading pictures, videos, music clips to put on their own websites and watch/ listen to on their laptops and mobile phones. Gone are the days when TV controllers determined what you watched and when you watched it. Now the buzzword is IPTV, Internet Protocol Television, with companies such as JOOST offering hundreds of channels on a wide range of subjects, all of which you can choose to watch when and where you wish, on your high-def widescreen with stereo surround sound at home or on your mobile phone on the train. This media revolution is changing the way organisations get their message out. And it is encouraging companies such as advertising agencies to be creative about new ways of accessing audiences. The good news is that we have fresh opportunities to reach young people through internet-based media and material downloaded through tools such as games machines, as well as through the traditional media. And it is important for Europlanet to make the most of these new and exciting developments.

  9. Has Athletic Performance Reached its Peak?

    PubMed

    Berthelot, Geoffroy; Sedeaud, Adrien; Marck, Adrien; Antero-Jacquemin, Juliana; Schipman, Julien; Saulière, Guillaume; Marc, Andy; Desgorces, François-Denis; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2015-09-01

    Limits to athletic performance have long been a topic of myth and debate. However, sport performance appears to have reached a state of stagnation in recent years, suggesting that the physical capabilities of humans and other athletic species, such as greyhounds and thoroughbreds, cannot progress indefinitely. Although the ultimate capabilities may be predictable, the exact path for the absolute maximal performance values remains difficult to assess and relies on technical innovations, sport regulation, and other parameters that depend on current societal and economic conditions. The aim of this literature review was to assess the possible plateau of top physical capabilities in various events and detail the historical backgrounds and sociocultural, anthropometrical, and physiological factors influencing the progress and regression of athletic performance. Time series of performances in Olympic disciplines, such as track and field and swimming events, from 1896 to 2012 reveal a major decrease in performance development. Such a saturation effect is simultaneous in greyhound, thoroughbred, and frog performances. The genetic condition, exhaustion of phenotypic pools, economic context, and the depletion of optimal morphological traits contribute to the observed limitation of physical capabilities. Present conditions prevailing, we approach absolute physical limits and endure a continued period of world record scarcity. Optional scenarios for further improvements will mostly depend on sport technology and modification competition rules. PMID:26094000

  10. Using New Media to Reach Broad Audiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, P. L.

    2008-06-01

    The International Year of Astronomy New Media Working Group (IYA NMWG) has a singular mission: To flood the Internet with ways to learn about astronomy, interact with astronomers and astronomy content, and socially network with astronomy. Within each of these areas, we seek to build lasting programs and partnerships that will continue beyond 2009. Our weapon of choice is New Media. It is often easiest to define New Media by what it is not. Television, radio, print and their online redistribution of content are not New Media. Many forms of New Media start as user provided content and content infrastructures that answer that individual's creative whim in a way that is adopted by a broader audience. Classic examples include Blogs and Podcasts. This media is typically distributed through content specific websites and RSS feeds, which allow syndication. RSS aggregators (iTunes has audio and video aggregation abilities) allow subscribers to have content delivered to their computers automatically when they connect to the Internet. RSS technology is also being used in such creative ways as allowing automatically updating Google-maps that show the location of someone with an intelligent GPS system, and in sharing 100 word microblogs from anyone (Twitters) through a single feed. In this poster, we outline how the IYA NMWG plans to use New Media to reach target primary audiences of astronomy enthusiasts, image lovers, and amateur astronomers, as well as secondary audiences, including: science fiction fans, online gamers, and skeptics.

  11. ESO telbib: Linking In and Reaching Out

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grothkopf, U.; Meakins, S.

    2015-04-01

    Measuring an observatory's research output is an integral part of its science operations. Like many other observatories, ESO tracks scholarly papers that use observational data from ESO facilities and uses state-of-the-art tools to create, maintain, and further develop the Telescope Bibliography database (telbib). While telbib started out as a stand-alone tool mostly used to compile lists of papers, it has by now developed into a multi-faceted, interlinked system. The core of the telbib database is links between scientific papers and observational data generated by the La Silla Paranal Observatory residing in the ESO archive. This functionality has also been deployed for ALMA data. In addition, telbib reaches out to several other systems, including ESO press releases, the NASA ADS Abstract Service, databases at the CDS Strasbourg, and impact scores at Altmetric.com. We illustrate these features to show how the interconnected telbib system enhances the content of the database as well as the user experience.

  12. Gravitational wave detector with cosmological reach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer, Sheila; Sigg, Daniel; Ballmer, Stefan W.; Barsotti, Lisa; Mavalvala, Nergis; Evans, Matthew

    2015-04-01

    Twenty years ago, construction began on the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO). Advanced LIGO, with a factor of 10 better design sensitivity than Initial LIGO, will begin taking data this year, and should soon make detections a monthly occurrence. While Advanced LIGO promises to make first detections of gravitational waves from the nearby universe, an additional factor of 10 increase in sensitivity would put exciting science targets within reach by providing observations of binary black hole inspirals throughout most of the history of star formation, and high signal to noise observations of nearby events. Design studies for future detectors to date rely on significant technological advances that are futuristic and risky. In this paper we propose a different direction. We resurrect the idea of using longer arm lengths coupled with largely proven technologies. Since the major noise sources that limit gravitational wave detectors do not scale trivially with the length of the detector, we study their impact and find that 40 km arm lengths are nearly optimal, and can incorporate currently available technologies to detect gravitational wave sources at cosmological distances (z ≳7 ) .

  13. US Urban Elementary Teachers' Knowledge and Practices in Teaching Science to English Language Learners: Results from the First Year of a Professional Development Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santau, Alexandra O.; Secada, Walter; Maerten-Rivera, Jaime; Cone, Neporcha; Lee, Okhee

    2010-01-01

    The study examined US elementary teachers' knowledge and practices in four key domains of science instruction with English language learning (ELL) students. The four domains included: (1) teachers' knowledge of science content, (2) teaching practices to promote scientific understanding, (3) teaching practices to promote scientific inquiry, and (4)…

  14. Practical Results from the Application of Model Checking and Test Generation from UML/SysML Models of On-Board Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, J. M.; Mahomad, S.; Silva, N.

    2009-05-01

    The deployment of complex safety-critical applications requires rigorous techniques and powerful tools both for the development and V&V stages. Model-based technologies are increasingly being used to develop safety-critical software, and arguably, turning to them can bring significant benefits to such processes, however, along with new challenges. This paper presents the results of a research project where we tried to extend current V&V methodologies to be applied on UML/SysML models and aiming at answering the demands related to validation issues. Two quite different but complementary approaches were investigated: (i) model checking and the (ii) extraction of robustness test-cases from the same models. These two approaches don't overlap and when combined provide a wider reaching model/design validation ability than each one alone thus offering improved safety assurance. Results are very encouraging, even though they either fell short of the desired outcome as shown for model checking, or still appear as not fully matured as shown for robustness test case extraction. In the case of model checking, it was verified that the automatic model validation process can become fully operational and even expanded in scope once tool vendors help (inevitably) to improve the XMI standard interoperability situation. For the robustness test case extraction methodology, the early approach produced interesting results but need further systematisation and consolidation effort in order to produce results in a more predictable fashion and reduce reliance on expert's heuristics. Finally, further improvements and innovation research projects were immediately apparent for both investigated approaches, which point to either circumventing current limitations in XMI interoperability on one hand and bringing test case specification onto the same graphical level as the models themselves and then attempting to automate the generation of executable test cases from its standard UML notation.

  15. Risk Factors of Antibiotic Misuse for Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Children: Results from a Cross-Sectional Knowledge-Attitude-Practice Study in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Panagakou, Sotiria G.; Papaevangelou, Vassiliki; Chadjipanayis, Adamos; Syrogiannopoulos, George A.; Theodoridou, Maria; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos S.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) are common in children. The cause of URTIs is usually viral, but parents' attitudes often contribute to inappropriate prescription of antibiotics, promoting antibiotic resistance. The objective of this study was to identify possible risk factors associated with antibiotic misuse in Greece, a country with high levels of antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance. Methods. A knowledge-attitude-practice (KAP) questionnaire was developed and distributed to Greek parents caring for children who were 5-6 years old, between January and July of the same school year. Results. The sample of the study contained 5312 parents from all geographic areas of Greece. The risk factors of being a father, having low education, having immigrant status, being a single parent, having low income, having <2 or >3 children, living in the islands, and being without experience in recurrent URTIs were significantly associated to inadequate knowledge, inappropriate attitudes, and wrong practices. Conclusions. This study has identified the main groups of parents that should be targeted in future intervention programs. PMID:23209933

  16. [Nurses in geriatrics and Alzheimer's disease: knowledge, image, and common practice-results from a survey in a French area (Alsace)].

    PubMed

    Grosclaude, Michèle

    2007-06-01

    From the data of a multicentric investigation, performed in a French area (Alsace) using questionnaires filled by 800 geriatrics nurses, the author analyses their current knowledge and representations of Alzheimer's disease, their attitudes and practice concerning the disclosure of the diagnosis to the patients, and the influence of these data for the patients care. The results show three principal common aspects: first very important gaps, difficulties and contradictions concerning Alzheimer's disease knowledge; then heavy feelings of incompetence, loneliness, and therapeutic inanity with regard to the problems of their practice; last of all, their requests insisting on their need of information, formation, and aid, all missing for them. The nurses' language was devoid of specific and professional contents. It was similar to the general public, mediatic, and societal speeches, loaded with aprioristic assertions, reducing Alzheimer's disease to an organic process of humanity decline. This alarming picture calls to question its ground, mechanisms and solutions concerning the needs conveyed by the nurses, and the pertinency of the common concept of Alzheimer's disease. It enjoins to reconsider the nurses formation and a transdisciplinar further reflection about the notion of Alzheimer's disease and the messages which are transmitted by it. PMID:17556220

  17. Detection of self-paced reaching movement intention from EEG signals

    PubMed Central

    Lew, Eileen; Chavarriaga, Ricardo; Silvoni, Stefano; Millán, José del R.

    2012-01-01

    Future neuroprosthetic devices, in particular upper limb, will require decoding and executing not only the user's intended movement type, but also when the user intends to execute the movement. This work investigates the potential use of brain signals recorded non-invasively for detecting the time before a self-paced reaching movement is initiated which could contribute to the design of practical upper limb neuroprosthetics. In particular, we show the detection of self-paced reaching movement intention in single trials using the readiness potential, an electroencephalography (EEG) slow cortical potential (SCP) computed in a narrow frequency range (0.1–1 Hz). Our experiments with 12 human volunteers, two of them stroke subjects, yield high detection rates prior to the movement onset and low detection rates during the non-movement intention period. With the proposed approach, movement intention was detected around 500 ms before actual onset, which clearly matches previous literature on readiness potentials. Interestingly, the result obtained with one of the stroke subjects is coherent with those achieved in healthy subjects, with single-trial performance of up to 92% for the paretic arm. These results suggest that, apart from contributing to our understanding of voluntary motor control for designing more advanced neuroprostheses, our work could also have a direct impact on advancing robot-assisted neurorehabilitation. PMID:23055968

  18. Parieto-frontal coding of reaching: an integrated framework.

    PubMed

    Burnod, Y; Baraduc, P; Battaglia-Mayer, A; Guigon, E; Koechlin, E; Ferraina, S; Lacquaniti, F; Caminiti, R

    1999-12-01

    -direction axis is identified by the regular distribution of information over large populations of neurons processing both positional and directional signals (concerning the arm, gaze, visual stimuli, etc.) Therefore, the activity of gaze- and arm-related neurons can represent virtual three-dimensional (3D) pathways for gaze shifts or hand movement. Virtual 3D pathways are thus defined by a combination of directional and positional information. The sensory-motor axis is defined by neurons displaying different temporal relationships with the different reach-related signals, such as target presentation, preparation for intended arm movement, onset of movements, etc. These properties reflect the computation performed by local networks, which are formed by two types of processing units: matching and condition units. Matching units relate different neural representations of virtual 3D pathways for gaze or hand, and can predict motor commands and their sensory consequences. Depending on the units involved, different matching operations can be learned in the network, resulting in the acquisition of different visuo-motor transformations, such as those underlying reaching to foveated targets, reaching to extrafoveal targets, and visual tracking of hand movement trajectory. Condition units link these matching operations to reinforcement contingencies and therefore can shape the collective neural recruitment along the three axes of the network. This will result in a progressive match of retinal, gaze, arm, and muscle signals suitable for moving the hand toward the target. PMID:10591906

  19. An examination of adolescents who were and were not exposed to "Teens Stopping AIDS": reaching the hard-to-reach.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Yuko; Kennedy, May; Weeks-Norton, Kristen; Myllyluoma, Jaana

    2002-01-01

    Teens Stopping AIDS (TSA) was an HIV prevention project in Sacramento, California, that involved coalitions of volunteers in designing and launching a social marketing intervention. Mounted in 15 zip codes where teen sexually transmitted disease (STD) and pregnancy rates were high, TSA delivered HIV prevention messages for one year through various communication channels (e.g., radio spots, posters, skills-building workshops). Sixty-seven percent of 521 sexually active adolescents surveyed in a random sample phone interview reported exposure to TSA. To inform future refinements in the intervention, logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with exposure to the program. Eighteen-year-olds were less likely than their younger counterparts to report exposure to TSA (OR [odds ratio] = .54, p <.05). Adolescents living in zip codes where a concentrated effort had been made to hold workshops, display posters, and organize peer outreach were more likely than adolescents living outside of these zip codes to report any program exposure (OR= 2.57, p <.01). Adolescents traditionally viewed as "hard to reach" (i.e., males, minorities, and those with a history of high-risk behavior) were no less likely than other adolescents to report exposure to TSA. Characterizing the members of the unexposed segment of the target audience made it possible to offer practical suggestions for expanding the reach of the program. PMID:12166873

  20. Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification Hydrogeomorphic Reach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Charles M.; Ramirez, Mary F.; Heatwole, Danelle W.; Burke, Jennifer L.; Simenstad, Charles A.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Marcoe, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Estuarine ecosystems are controlled by a variety of processes that operate at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Understanding the hierarchical nature of these processes will aid in prioritization of restoration efforts. This hierarchical Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification (henceforth "Classification") of the Columbia River estuary is a spatial database of the tidally-influenced reaches of the lower Columbia River, the tidally affected parts of its tributaries, and the landforms that make up their floodplains for the 230 kilometers between the Pacific Ocean and Bonneville Dam. This work is a collaborative effort between University of Washington School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences (henceforth "UW"), U.S. Geological Survey (henceforth "USGS"), and the Lower Columbia Estuary Partnership (henceforth "EP"). Consideration of geomorphologic processes will improve the understanding of controlling physical factors that drive ecosystem evolution along the tidal Columbia River. The Classification is organized around six hierarchical levels, progressing from the coarsest, regional scale to the finest, localized scale: (1) Ecosystem Province; (2) Ecoregion; (3) Hydrogeomorphic Reach; (4) Ecosystem Complex; (5) Geomorphic Catena; and (6) Primary Cover Class. For Levels 4 and 5, we mapped landforms within the Holocene floodplain primarily by visual interpretation of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) topography supplemented with aerial photographs, Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) soils data, and historical maps. Mapped landforms are classified as to their current geomorphic function, the inferred process regime that formed them, and anthropogenic modification. Channels were classified primarily by a set of depth-based rules and geometric relationships. Classification Level 5 floodplain landforms ("geomorphic catenae") were further classified based on multivariate analysis of land-cover within the mapped landform area and attributed as "sub

  1. Parallel Explicit and Implicit Control of Reaching

    PubMed Central

    Mazzoni, Pietro; Wexler, Nancy S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Human movement can be guided automatically (implicit control) or attentively (explicit control). Explicit control may be engaged when learning a new movement, while implicit control enables simultaneous execution of multiple actions. Explicit and implicit control can often be assigned arbitrarily: we can simultaneously drive a car and tune the radio, seamlessly allocating implicit or explicit control to either action. This flexibility suggests that sensorimotor signals, including those that encode spatially overlapping perception and behavior, can be accurately segregated to explicit and implicit control processes. Methodology/Principal Findings We tested human subjects' ability to segregate sensorimotor signals to parallel control processes by requiring dual (explicit and implicit) control of the same reaching movement and testing for interference between these processes. Healthy control subjects were able to engage dual explicit and implicit motor control without degradation of performance compared to explicit or implicit control alone. We then asked whether segregation of explicit and implicit motor control can be selectively disrupted by studying dual-control performance in subjects with no clinically manifest neurologic deficits in the presymptomatic stage of Huntington's disease (HD). These subjects performed successfully under either explicit or implicit control alone, but were impaired in the dual-control condition. Conclusion/Significance The human nervous system can exert dual control on a single action, and is therefore able to accurately segregate sensorimotor signals to explicit and implicit control. The impairment observed in the presymptomatic stage of HD points to a possible crucial contribution of the striatum to the segregation of sensorimotor signals to multiple control processes. PMID:19847295

  2. Discovery Reach of Charged MSSM Higgs Bosons at CMS

    SciTech Connect

    Heinemeyer, S.; Nikitenko, A.; Weiglein, G.

    2008-11-23

    We review the 5{sigma} discovery contours for the charged MSSM Higgs boson at the CMS experiment with 30 fb{sup -1} for the two cases M{sub H{sup {+-}}}m{sub t}. In order to analyze the search reach we combine the latest results for the CMS experimental sensitivities based on full simulation studies with state-of-the-art theoretical predictions of MSSM Higgs-boson production and decay properties. Special emphasis is put on the SUSY parameter dependence of the 5{sigma} contours. The variation of {mu} can shift the prospective discovery reach in tan{beta} by up to {delta}tan{beta} = 40.

  3. Hand preferences in preschool children: Reaching, pointing and symbolic gestures.

    PubMed

    Cochet, Hélène; Centelles, Laurie; Jover, Marianne; Plachta, Suzy; Vauclair, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Manual asymmetries emerge very early in development and several researchers have reported a significant right-hand bias in toddlers although this bias fluctuates depending on the nature of the activity being performed. However, little is known about the further development of asymmetries in preschoolers. In this study, patterns of hand preference were assessed in 50 children aged 3-5 years for different activities, including reaching movements, pointing gestures and symbolic gestures. Contrary to what has been reported in children before 3 years of age, we did not observe any difference in the mean handedness indices obtained in each task. Moreover, the asymmetry of reaching was found to correlate with that of pointing gestures, but not with that of symbolic gestures. In relation to the results reported in infants and adults, this study may help deciphering the mechanisms controlling the development of handedness by providing measures of manual asymmetries in an age range that has been so far rather neglected. PMID:25651377

  4. Ice breakup forecast in the reach of the Yellow River: the support vector machines approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, H.; Li, W.; Zhang, C.; Liu, J.

    2009-04-01

    Accurate lead-time forecast of ice breakup is one of the key aspects for ice flood prevention and reducing losses. In this paper, a new data-driven model based on the Statistical Learning Theory was employed for ice breakup prediction. The model, known as Support Vector Machine (SVM), follows the principle that aims at minimizing the structural risk rather than the empirical risk. In order to estimate the appropriate parameters of the SVM, Multiobjective Shuffled Complex Evolution Metropolis (MOSCEM-UA) algorithm is performed through exponential transformation. A case study was conducted in the reach of the Yellow River. Results from the proposed model showed a promising performance compared with that from artificial neural network, so the model can be considered as an alternative and practical tool for ice breakup forecast.

  5. [Dimensions of parental rearing styles in alcohol dependent patients: first results of the questionnaire on parental attitudes and rearing practices (FEPS)].

    PubMed

    Lotzin, Annett; Kriston, Levente; Richter-Appelt, Hertha; Leichsenring, Irina; Ramsauer, Brigitte; Schäfer, Ingo

    2013-07-01

    To date no instrument for the assessment of parenting styles is available in the German -language area that has been validated in patients with addictive disorders. Therefore the aim of this study was the confirmatory evaluation of the factor structure of the Questionnaire on Parental Attitudes and Rearing Practices (FEPS) in 186 alcohol dependent patients. The model as proposed by the test developers with the 4 factors Care, Autonomy, Low Punishment, and Low Material Reinforcement showed acceptable fit when residual correlations were allowed (mother: χ(2)/df=1,92, RMSEA=0,07, TLI=0,79; father: χ(2)/df=1,75, RMSEA=0,07, TLI=0,82). All factors showed sufficient factor reliabilities as well as good to very good internal consistencies. Factor loadings, discriminations and difficulties of the indicators could be regarded as good, with the exception of 2 items. These results indicate the factorial validity of the FEPS in patients with alcohol dependence. PMID:23446826

  6. Combining Real-Time fMRI Neurofeedback Training of the DLPFC with N-Back Practice Results in Neuroplastic Effects Confined to the Neurofeedback Target Region.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, Matthew S; Weisend, Michael P; Kane, Jessica H; Parker, Jason G

    2016-01-01

    In traditional fMRI, individuals respond to exogenous stimuli and are naïve to the effects of the stimuli on their neural activity patterns. Changes arising in the fMRI signal are analyzed post-hoc to elucidate the spatial and temporal activation of brain regions associated with the tasks performed. The advent of real-time fMRI has enabled a new method to systematically alter brain activity across space and time using neurofeedback training (NFT), providing a new tool to study internally-driven processes such as neuroplasticity. In this work, we combined n-back practice with fMRI-NFT of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to better understand the relationship between open- and closed-loop neuromodulation. FMRI data were acquired during both traditional n-back and NFT across five imaging sessions. Region-of-interest (ROI) and voxel-wise 2 × 2 within subjects ANOVAs were carried out to determine the effects of, and interaction between, training session and neuromodulation type. A main effect of training session was identified for only a single, highly focused cluster that shared spatial properties with the fMRI-NFT target region (left DLPFC). This finding indicates that combined open- and closed-loop neuroplastic enhancement techniques result in focal changes that are confined to the target area of NFT, and do not affect up- or down-stream network components that are normally engaged during working memory. Additionally, we identified a main effect of neuromodulation type for 15 clusters with significantly different activation between open- and closed-loop neuromodulation during training, 12 of which demonstrated higher activity during the open-loop neuromodulation. Our results, taken together with previous reports, indicate that fMRI-NFT combined with n-back practice leads to a highly focal volume exhibiting neuroplasticity without additional network effects. PMID:27445733

  7. Combining Real-Time fMRI Neurofeedback Training of the DLPFC with N-Back Practice Results in Neuroplastic Effects Confined to the Neurofeedback Target Region

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, Matthew S.; Weisend, Michael P.; Kane, Jessica H.; Parker, Jason G.

    2016-01-01

    In traditional fMRI, individuals respond to exogenous stimuli and are naïve to the effects of the stimuli on their neural activity patterns. Changes arising in the fMRI signal are analyzed post-hoc to elucidate the spatial and temporal activation of brain regions associated with the tasks performed. The advent of real-time fMRI has enabled a new method to systematically alter brain activity across space and time using neurofeedback training (NFT), providing a new tool to study internally-driven processes such as neuroplasticity. In this work, we combined n-back practice with fMRI-NFT of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to better understand the relationship between open- and closed-loop neuromodulation. FMRI data were acquired during both traditional n-back and NFT across five imaging sessions. Region-of-interest (ROI) and voxel-wise 2 × 2 within subjects ANOVAs were carried out to determine the effects of, and interaction between, training session and neuromodulation type. A main effect of training session was identified for only a single, highly focused cluster that shared spatial properties with the fMRI-NFT target region (left DLPFC). This finding indicates that combined open- and closed-loop neuroplastic enhancement techniques result in focal changes that are confined to the target area of NFT, and do not affect up- or down-stream network components that are normally engaged during working memory. Additionally, we identified a main effect of neuromodulation type for 15 clusters with significantly different activation between open- and closed-loop neuromodulation during training, 12 of which demonstrated higher activity during the open-loop neuromodulation. Our results, taken together with previous reports, indicate that fMRI-NFT combined with n-back practice leads to a highly focal volume exhibiting neuroplasticity without additional network effects. PMID:27445733

  8. Solomon Islands: reaching street children in Honiara.

    PubMed

    Gatu, R

    2000-01-01

    The situation of homeless children in Honiara, Solomon Islands had attracted the attention of Sister Doreen of the Angelican Sisters of the Church. One discovery was that these young people had little knowledge of sexuality but were often sexually active. This article discusses the workshop developed by the Angelican Sisters of the Church that addresses the needs of the youth, particularly on the topics of adolescent sexual and reproductive health and HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). About 34 young people attended the 4-day seminar, which aimed to empower the kids into making the right decision and changing their behavior. Among the activities during the program were the use of games, information and practical sessions, which included a condom demonstration in the form of a bingo game. The workshop was a success, with kids started teaching their peers and parents and more requests for such workshops indicated that young people in Honoria are hungry for information on sex, sexuality, HIV/AIDS and STDs. PMID:12295868

  9. Compensatory arm reaching strategies after stroke: Induced position analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Waller, Sandy McCombe; Kepple, Tom; Whitall, Jill

    2013-01-01

    After stroke, movement patterns of the upper limb (UL) during functional arm reaching change to accommodate altered constraints. These compensatory movement control strategies do not, however, have a one-to-one mapping with posttraining outcomes. In this study, we quantify arm movement control strategies in unilateral and bilateral reaching tasks using induced position analysis. In addition, we assess how those strategies are associated with UL residual impairments and with functional improvement after a specific bilateral arm training intervention. Twelve individuals with chronic stroke were measured while reaching to a box as part of their pre- and posttesting assessments. Other measurements included the Fugl-Meyer Upper Extremity Assessment (FM), Modified Wolf Motor Function Test (WT), and the University of Maryland Arm Questionnaire for Stroke (UMAQS). We identified arm control strategies that did not differ between unilateral and bilateral tasks but did differ by FM impairment level and by predicted gains in WT but not UMAQS. Increased shoulder relative to elbow moment contribution was associated with less impairment and greater gains of speed in functional tasks. These results suggest that one goal of training to achieve better outcomes may be to decrease the abnormal coupling of the shoulder and elbow. PMID:23516085

  10. When rheumatologists report that they agree with a guideline, does this mean that they practise the guideline in clinical practice? Results of the International Recommendation Implementation Study (IRIS)

    PubMed Central

    Gvozdenović, Emilia; Allaart, Cornelia F; van der Heijde, Désirée; Ferraccioli, Gianfranco; Smolen, Josef S; Huizinga, Tom W J; Landewé, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) recommendations for the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the treat-to-target (T2T) principles have been developed in order to improve the treatment outcome of patients with RA, and have received broad attention. It is not clear, though, whether these recommendations are indeed followed up in clinical practice. Objective To investigate if rheumatologists that report to agree with existing guidelines indeed follow them up in clinical practice. Methods The International Recommendation Implementation Study (IRIS) included 132 participating rheumatologists from 14 countries. Participating rheumatologists received a questionnaire measuring their awareness/commitment with the EULAR/T2T recommendations and followed a dedicated educational programme. Subsequently, they were asked to enrol 5–10 patients with new-onset RA in the online IRIS database and monitor disease activity and treatment for a period of 1–2 years. Four recommendations (3 from the EULAR recommendations and one from the T2T recommendations) were selected on the basis of testability, and analysed with regard to compliance by participating rheumatologists. Results In total, 72 of the 132 participating rheumatologists contributed 378 patients to the database. Of these participants, 70 (98%) agreed upfront with the recommendation that disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) therapy should be started as soon as possible after diagnosis in every patient; 69 (96%) of the rheumatologists agreed with the recommendation that methotrexate (MTX) should be part of the first treatment strategy. When measuring the actual performance, it was found that the recommendation on early DMARD start was met in 253 (67%) of the recorded patients, and the recommendation on MTX in 225 (60%) of the recorded patients. Of the participants, 60 (83%) agreed that composite measures should be recorded regularly, but only in 134(54%) of the patients were

  11. Current Practices and the Provider Perspectives on Inconclusive Genetic Test Results for Osteogenesis Imperfecta in Children with Unexplained Fractures: ELSI Implications.

    PubMed

    Youngblom, Emily; Murray, Mitzi Leah; Byers, Peter H

    2016-09-01

    Genetic testing can be used to determine if unexplained fractures in children could have resulted from a predisposition to bone fractures, e.g., osteogenesis imperfecta. However, uncertainty is introduced if a variant of unknown significance (VUS) is identified. Proper interpretation of VUS in these situations is critical because of its influence on clinical care and in court rulings. This study sought to understand how VUS are interpreted and used by practitioners when there is a differential diagnosis including both osteogenesis imperfecta and non-accidental injury.A 15-question survey was emailed to physicians who requested analysis of two genes, COL1A1 and COL1A2, from the University of Washington from 2005-2013 for patient cases involving suspicion of child abuse.Among the 89 participants, responses differed about when genetic testing should be ordered for osteogenesis imperfecta, who should be consulted about utilization of VUS test results, follow-up procedures, and who should receive the VUS results.There are no clear guidelines for how to interpret and follow up on VUS. In the legal setting, misinterpreted VUS could lead to unintended consequences and deleterious ramifications for family members. The need for better practice guidelines to help promote more equitable handling of these sensitive legal cases is clear. PMID:27587455

  12. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 24: The technical communications practices of US aerospace engineers and scientists: Results of the phase 1 SAE mail survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the technical communications practices of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists affiliated with the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE).

  13. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 33: The technical communications practices of US aerospace engineers and scientists: Results of the phase 1 AIAA mail survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the technical communications practices of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists who are members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA).

  14. Reach-scale effects of riparian forest cover on urban stream ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roy, A.H.; Faust, C.L.; Freeman, Mary C.; Meyer, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    We compared habitat and biota between paired open and forested reaches within five small streams (basin area 10?20 km2) in suburban catchments (9%?49% urban land cover) in the Piedmont of Georgia, USA. Stream reaches with open canopies were narrower than forested reaches (4.1 versus 5.0 m, respectively). There were no differences in habitat diversity (variation in velocity, depth, or bed particle size) between open and forested reaches. However, absence of local forest cover corresponded to decreased large wood and increased algal chlorophyll a standing crop biomass. These differences in basal food resources translated into higher densities of fishes in open (9.0 individuals?m?2) versus forested (4.9 individuals?m?2) reaches, primarily attributed to higher densities of the herbivore Campostoma oligolepis. Densities of terrestrial invertebrate inputs were higher in open reaches; however, trends suggested higher biomass of terrestrial inputs in forested reaches and a corresponding higher density of terrestrial prey consumed by water column feeding fishes. Reach-scale biotic integrity (macroinvertebrates, salamanders, and fishes) was largely unaffected by differences in canopy cover. In urbanizing areas where catchment land cover drives habitat and biotic quality, management practices that rely exclusively on forested riparian areas for stream protection are unlikely to be effective at maintaining ecosystem integrity.

  15. The processing of visual and auditory information for reaching movements.

    PubMed

    Glazebrook, Cheryl M; Welsh, Timothy N; Tremblay, Luc

    2016-09-01

    Presenting target and non-target information in different modalities influences target localization if the non-target is within the spatiotemporal limits of perceptual integration. When using auditory and visual stimuli, the influence of a visual non-target on auditory target localization is greater than the reverse. It is not known, however, whether or how such perceptual effects extend to goal-directed behaviours. To gain insight into how audio-visual stimuli are integrated for motor tasks, the kinematics of reaching movements towards visual or auditory targets with or without a non-target in the other modality were examined. When present, the simultaneously presented non-target could be spatially coincident, to the left, or to the right of the target. Results revealed that auditory non-targets did not influence reaching trajectories towards a visual target, whereas visual non-targets influenced trajectories towards an auditory target. Interestingly, the biases induced by visual non-targets were present early in the trajectory and persisted until movement end. Subsequent experimentation indicated that the magnitude of the biases was equivalent whether participants performed a perceptual or motor task, whereas variability was greater for the motor versus the perceptual tasks. We propose that visually induced trajectory biases were driven by the perceived mislocation of the auditory target, which in turn affected both the movement plan and subsequent control of the movement. Such findings provide further evidence of the dominant role visual information processing plays in encoding spatial locations as well as planning and executing reaching action, even when reaching towards auditory targets. PMID:26253323

  16. Monkey see, Monkey reach: Action selection of reaching movements in the macaque monkey

    PubMed Central

    Sartori, Luisa; Camperio-Ciani, Andrea; Bulgheroni, Maria; Castiello, Umberto

    2014-01-01

    Highly efficient systems are needed to link perception with action in the context of the highly complex environments in which primates move and interact. Another important component is, nonetheless, needed for action: selection. When one piece of fruit from a branch is being chosen by a monkey, many other pieces are within reach and visible: do the perceptual features of the objects surrounding a target determine interference effects? In humans, reaching to grasp a desired object appears to integrate the motor features of the objects which might become potential targets - a process which seems to be driven by inhibitory attention mechanisms. Here we show that non-human primates use similar mechanisms when carrying out goal-directed actions. The data indicate that the volumetric features of distractors are internally represented, implying that the basic cognitive operations allowing for action selection have deep evolutionary roots. PMID:24503774

  17. Mobile Technology and Social Media in the Clinical Practice of Young Radiation Oncologists: Results of a Comprehensive Nationwide Cross-sectional Study

    SciTech Connect

    Bibault, Jean-Emmanuel; Leroy, Thomas; Blanchard, Pierre; Biau, Julian; Cervellera, Mathilde; Diaz, Olivia; Faivre, Jean Christophe; and others

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: Social media and mobile technology are transforming the way in which young physicians are learning and practicing medicine. The true impact of such technologies has yet to be evaluated. Methods and Materials: We performed a nationwide cross-sectional survey to better assess how young radiation oncologists used these technologies. An online survey was sent out between April 24, 2013, and June 1, 2013. All residents attending the 2013 radiation oncology French summer course were invited to complete the survey. Logistic regressions were performed to assess predictors of use of these tools in the hospital on various clinical endpoints. Results: In all, 131 of 140 (93.6%) French young radiation oncologists answered the survey. Of these individuals, 93% owned a smartphone and 32.8% owned a tablet. The majority (78.6%) of the residents owning a smartphone used it to work in their department. A total of 33.5% had more than 5 medical applications installed. Only 60.3% of the residents verified the validity of the apps that they used. In all, 82.9% of the residents had a social network account. Conclusions: Most of the residents in radiation oncology use their smartphone to work in their department for a wide variety of tasks. However, the residents do not consistently check the validity of the apps that they use. Residents also use social networks, with only a limited impact on their relationship with their patients. Overall, this study highlights the irruption and the risks of new technologies in the clinical practice and raises the question of a possible regulation of their use in the hospital.

  18. Series: The research agenda for general practice/family medicine and primary health care in Europe. Part 4. Results: specific problem solving skills.

    PubMed

    Hummers-Pradier, Eva; Beyer, Martin; Chevallier, Patrick; Eilat-Tsanani, Sophia; Lionis, Christos; Peremans, Lieve; Petek, Davorina; Rurik, Imre; Soler, Jean Karl; Stoffers, Henri Ejh; Topsever, Pinar; Ungan, Mehmet; van Royen, Paul

    2010-09-01

    The 'Research Agenda for General Practice/Family Medicine and Primary Health Care in Europe' summarizes the evidence relating to the core competencies and characteristics of the Wonca Europe definition of GP/FM, and its implications for general practitioners/family doctors, researchers and policy makers. The European Journal of General Practice publishes a series of articles based on this document. The previous articles presented background, objectives, and methodology, as well results on 'primary care management' and 'community orientation' and the person-related core competencies of GP/FM. This article reflects on the general practitioner's 'specific problem solving skills'. These include decision making on diagnosis and therapy of specific diseases, accounting for the properties of primary care, but also research questions related to quality management and resource use, shared decision making, or professional education and development. Clinical research covers most specific diseases, but often lacks pragmatism and primary care relevance. Quality management is a stronghold of GP/FM research. Educational interventions can be effective when well designed for a specific setting and situation. However, their message that 'usual care' by general practitioners is insufficient may be problematic. GP and their patients need more research into diagnostic reasoning with a step-wise approach to increase predictive values in a setting characterized by uncertainty and low prevalence of specific diseases. Pragmatic comparative effectiveness studies of new and established drugs or non-pharmaceutical therapy are needed. Multi-morbidity and complexity should be addressed. Studies on therapy, communication strategies and educational interventions should consider impact on health and sustainability of effects. PMID:20825274

  19. Degradation of land reaching critical global proportions.

    PubMed

    Smith, A

    1992-01-01

    The Population Institute recently published a report, titled, Our Diminishing World: The Land/Population Crisis, that explains the relationship between rapid population growth and land degradation in the developing world. As populations in the poorest parts of the world increase, the percentage of land/person continues to decrease. There are approximately 32 billion acres of land, excluding Antarctica, on the planet. That equals only 5.98 acres/person; however, not all this land is suitable for habitation or food production. 1.2 acres is too steep, 1.3 acres is to arid, and 1 acre is too cold. Also, the population of the world is not spread out evenly across the land; thus, in many areas the population density is so high that the demands placed upon the land are greater than its capacity to produce. The Green Revolution that lasted from 1950 through the mid 80s did increase the total amount of yield/acre. Unfortunately the price for such productivity was a degradation of the land. Chemical inputs have contaminated ground water and sterilized the soil, irrigation has caused salinization and water logging (which is a form of decertification), and new tillage practices have eroded the top soil. Grazing cattle have caused enormous amounts of soil erosion and deforestation has removed 911 million acres of tropical forest alone to make room for a growing population. Wood is the single most important fuel source for the people of the developing world; yet, as it becomes scarce from deforestation, animal manures and crop residues have been substituted which further the diminishes the availability of fertile land. It must be understood that family planning save lives, reduces suffering, and slows the damage to the environment. Family planning is the single best way to make an impact in the attempt to end poverty and hunger. PMID:12343551

  20. Reaching Consensus on Essential Biomedical Science Learning Objectives in a Dental Curriculum.

    PubMed

    Best, Leandra; Walton, Joanne N; Walker, Judith; von Bergmann, HsingChi

    2016-04-01

    This article describes how the University of British Columbia Faculty of Dentistry reached consensus on essential basic biomedical science objectives for DMD students and applied the information to the renewal of its DMD curriculum. The Delphi Method was used to build consensus among dental faculty members and students regarding the relevance of over 1,500 existing biomedical science objectives. Volunteer panels of at least three faculty members (a basic scientist, a general dentist, and a dental specialist) and a fourth-year dental student were formed for each of 13 biomedical courses in the first two years of the program. Panel members worked independently and anonymously, rating each course objective as "need to know," "nice to know," "irrelevant," or "don't know." Panel members were advised after each round which objectives had not yet achieved a 75% consensus and were asked to reconsider their ratings. After a maximum of three rounds to reach consensus, a second group of faculty experts reviewed and refined the results to establish the biomedical science objectives for the renewed curriculum. There was consensus on 46% of the learning objectives after round one, 80% after round two, and 95% after round three. The second expert group addressed any remaining objectives as part of its review process. Only 47% of previous biomedical science course objectives were judged to be essential or "need to know" for the general dentist. The consensus reached by participants in the Delphi Method panels and a second group of faculty experts led to a streamlined, better integrated DMD curriculum to prepare graduates for future practice. PMID:27037450

  1. XMM classroom competitions : reaching for the stars!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-09-01

    Partnered by a unique education network 'European Schoolnet'(*), ESA is today launching these three competitions for schools (age range: 8 to final year) in its Member States: draw a telescope, describe the benefits of space-based astronomy or produce an astronomy observation proposal. Details can be found on the special competition website : http://sci.esa.int/xmm/competition "Draw me a telescope!" This competition for 8 to 12 year-olds asks the class to draw a telescope (inside a 20 - 50 cm diameter circle). The 14 winning entries, one per Member State, will be included in a specially-designed official XMM mission logo to go on the Ariane-5 launcher fairing for official unveiling on launch day. A representative of each winning class will be invited to Kourou for the launch. Deadline for entries : 8 October 1999. For full information on how to enter see : http://sci.esa.int/xmm/competition "What's new, Mr Galileo?" The essay competition for 13 to 15 year-olds challenges an English class, writing in the international language of space, to submit a single page (500 words maximum) description of space-based astronomy and its benefits for humanity. The 14 winners, one per Member States, will be invited to Kourou to visit the Guiana Space Centre, Europe's spaceport, and witness final XMM launch preparations. Deadline for entries : 15 October 1999. For full information on how to enter see : http://sci.esa.int/xmm/competition. "Stargazing" In the final-year class competition, ESA is providing a unique opportunity to use the XMM telescope. Here, the physics class, assisted by the scientific community, has to submit an observation project. The 14 winning proposals will be put into practice in 2000 at a summer camp. Further details will be announced once XMM is in orbit. Note to editors: The X-ray Multi-Mirror mission is the second Cornerstone of ESA's Horizon 2000 Plus science programme. The telescope will revolutionise cosmic X-ray astronomy by harvesting far more X

  2. Does Simulation-based Medical Education with Deliberate Practice Yield Better Results than Traditional Clinical Education? A Meta-Analytic Comparative Review of the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    McGaghie, William C.; Issenberg, S. Barry; Cohen, Elaine R.; Barsuk, Jeffrey H.; Wayne, Diane B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This article presents a comparison of the effectiveness of traditional clinical education toward skill acquisition goals versus simulation-based medical education (SBME) with deliberate practice (DP). Method This is a quantitative meta-analysis that spans twenty years, 1990 to 2010. A search strategy involving three literature databases, 12 search terms, and four inclusion criteria was used. Four authors independently retrieved and reviewed articles. Main outcome measures were extracted to calculate effect sizes. Results Of 3,742 articles identified, 14 met inclusion criteria. The overall effect size for the 14 studies evaluating the comparative effectiveness of SBME compared to traditional clinical medical education was 0.71 (95% confidence interval, 0.65–0.76; P < .001). Conclusions Although the number of reports analyzed in this meta analysis is small, these results show that SBME with DP is superior to traditional clinical medical education in achieving specific clinical skill acquisition goals. SBME is a complex educational intervention that should be introduced thoughtfully and evaluated rigorously at training sites. Further research on incorporating SBME with DP into medical education is needed to amplify its power, utility, and cost-effectiveness. PMID:21512370

  3. Problems, Visions and Concerns of Pre-Service Music and General Education Teachers in Greece Resulting from Their Teaching Practice in Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokkidou, May; Dionyssiou, Zoe; Androutsos, Polyvios

    2014-01-01

    This study explores music education teaching practice in Greece, collecting data from three university departments: two music departments (M1 and M2) and one primary education department (P) during the academic year 2006-2007. The project was based on data from 84 students (N = 84). Fieldwork in students' teaching practice comprised a…

  4. "Reaching Every Student" with a Pyramid of Intervention Approach: One District's Journey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howery, Kathy; McClellan, Tony; Pedersen-Bayus, Karen

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a description of ongoing work of an Alberta school district that is working to support and enhance effective inclusive practices that reach and teach every student. The district is implementing a Pyramid of Supports model that is built upon four critical elements: a belief in social justice and the value of every child, a…

  5. Reach Out for Health: A Church-Based Pilot Breast Cancer Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Jennifer Dacey; Peterson, Karen; Stoddard, Anne M.; Colditz, Graham; Sorensen, Gloria

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development and testing of Reach Out For Health, a peer-led, church-based breast cancer education program for African American and Hispanic communities. Pretest-posttest evaluation of screening practices and attitudes among women over age 40 indicated that the intervention was associated with improved attitudes toward mammography,…

  6. Forum on Flexible Education. Reaching Nomadic Populations in Africa. Summary Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Souza, Alba

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the Forum on Flexible Education: Reaching Nomadic Populations in Africa, which was held in Garissa, Kenya, from 20-23 June 2006. The objectives of the Forum were to share experiences and best practices, create linkages and encourage collaboration in order to make education more accessible to nomadic communities.…

  7. Reaching English Language Learners in Every Classroom: Energizers for Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arechiga, Debbie

    2012-01-01

    Reach all of your English language learners with the effective and engaging approaches in this book. It's filled with practical tools, strategies, and real-world vignettes that will help you teach reading and writing to a diverse student population. The book features "Mental Energizers," aptitudes that will help sustain your commitment as you work…

  8. First generation long-reach manipulator for retrieval of waste from Hanford single-shell tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, P.W.; McDaniel, L.B.

    1994-10-01

    The US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, has established the Tank Waste Remediation System to resolve environmental and safety issues related to underground waste-storage tanks at the Hanford Site. The Tank Waste Remediation System has identified the use of an advanced-technology, long-reach manipulator system as a low-water-addition retrieval alternative to past-practice sluicing.

  9. School Leadership Teams: Extending the Reach of School Based Literacy Coaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Denise N.; Clonts, Christy M.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how establishing a literacy-focused school leadership team can strengthen and expand the reach of the literacy coach. This team helps bring faculty into dialogue to critique and transform their current literacy practices and works towards developing a common vision, beliefs, and a shared language within the school. This…

  10. Safety and effectiveness of controlled-release paroxetine in routine clinical practice: results of a postmarketing surveillance study of patients with depression

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Masaki; Kimura, Toshifumi; Kimura, Takeshi; Hara, Terufumi

    2015-01-01

    Objective Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are commonly used in the pharmacotherapy of depression. However, adverse events can lead to their early discontinuation. This study evaluated the safety and effectiveness of paroxetine controlled-release (CR) tablets in Japanese patients with depression/depressive state (hereafter referred to as depression) in routine clinical practice in Japan. Patients and methods This was an open-label, noninterventional, prospective, postmarketing surveillance study. A total of 3,213 patients aged 12–92 years with depression were prescribed paroxetine CR for 8 weeks at the physician’s discretion. Safety was evaluated on the basis of the reporting of adverse drug reactions. Effectiveness was evaluated on the basis of the physician’s assessment using the Clinical Global Impression-Global Improvement (CGI-GI) and the Clinical Global Impression-Severity of Illness (CGI-SI) scales, as well as on the basis of the patients’ self-reported satisfaction. The primary effectiveness outcome was the improvement rate based on the physician’s assessment using the CGI-GI. Results The incidence of adverse drug reactions was 11.2% (359/3,213; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.1%–12.3%). The common adverse drug reactions that accounted for 1.0% or more of the incidence were nausea (3.5%) and somnolence (2.7%). The proportion of patients who continued paroxetine CR at week 8 was 80.2% (2,577/3,213; 95% CI: 78.8%–81.6%). The improvement rate at week 8 (last observation carried forward) was 72.8% (2,132/2,927; 95% CI: 71.2%–74.4%). The proportion of patients with CGI-SI scores of moderately or severely ill decreased from 63.6% at baseline to 17.9% at week 8. The proportion of patients who were satisfied with paroxetine CR treatment was 69.8% (2,040/2,921; 95% CI: 68.1%–71.5%). Conclusion The results of this study suggest that paroxetine CR is a well-tolerated and efficacious treatment for depression in routine clinical practice. PMID

  11. ESA's Venus Express to reach final destination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-04-01

    burn, at 09:45 (CEST), Venus Express will disappear behind the planet and will not be visible from Earth. This is known as its ‘occultation’ period. The spacecraft will re-emerge from behind Venus’s disc some ten minutes later. So, even with the low gain antenna’s signal, it will only be visible during the first half of the burn and the last six minutes. Receiving the spacecraft signal after the occultation period will be the first positive sign of successful orbit insertion. 11 April, h 11:13 (CEST), re-establish communication with Earth. At the end of the burn, Venus Express still has to perform a few automatic operations. These re-orient the solar panels towards the sun and one of the high gain antennas (the smaller High Gain Antenna 2) towards Earth. If everything goes as expected, at 11:13 the spacecraft should be able to establish its first communication link with ESA’s Cebreros ground station near Madrid. Over the next few hours, it will send much-awaited information about its state of health. Information about its actual trajectory will be available from ESOC’s flight dynamics team around 12:30 (CEST). 12 to 13 April 2006, full reactivation starts. During the 24 hours following orbital capture, time will be devoted to reactivating all spacecraft functions, including all internal monitoring capacity. By the morning of the 13th, the larger ‘High Gain Antenna 1, hitherto unused, will be oriented and fed by the transmitter to communicate with Earth. The two high gain antennas, located on different sides of the spacecraft, will be used alternately during the mission, to avoid exposure to the sun of critical equipment on the outside. Reaching final orbit A series of further manoeuvres and many more days will be required to settle Venus Express into its final orbit. The preliminary nine-day orbit is elliptical, ranging from 350 000 kilometres at its furthest point from the planet (apocentre) to less than 400 kilometres at its closest (pericentre). During

  12. Near IR observations of η Car: Reaching its critical rotation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishibashi, Kazunori; Mehner, Andrea; Nagayama, Takahiro

    2016-07-01

    We report a preliminary result in the monitoring of η Carinae in JHKs bands through the “spectroscopic” event of 2014.5 at InfraRed Survey Facility (IRSF) located in South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO). The latest photometric data, combined with the data taken with the MK-II photometer [1], show a sign of the same cyclic variation in the J-H vs. H-K diagram reported by Mehner et al.[2]. The change can still be attributed to an apparent increase in black-body temperature, potentially reaching 3,000 to 6,000K as of March 2015.

  13. Generalization patterns for reach adaptation and proprioceptive recalibration differ after visuomotor learning.

    PubMed

    Cressman, Erin K; Henriques, Denise Y P

    2015-07-01

    Visuomotor learning results in changes in both motor and sensory systems (Cressman EK, Henriques DY. J Neurophysiol 102: 3505-3518, 2009), such that reaches are adapted and sense of felt hand position recalibrated after reaching with altered visual feedback of the hand. Moreover, visuomotor learning has been shown to generalize such that reach adaptation achieved at a trained target location can influence reaches to novel target directions (Krakauer JW, Pine ZM, Ghilardi MF, Ghez C. J Neurosci 20: 8916-8924, 2000). We looked to determine whether proprioceptive recalibration also generalizes to novel locations. Moreover, we looked to establish the relationship between reach adaptation and changes in sense of felt hand position by determining whether proprioceptive recalibration generalizes to novel targets in a similar manner as reach adaptation. On training trials, subjects reached to a single target with aligned or misaligned cursor-hand feedback, in which the cursor was either rotated or scaled in extent relative to hand movement. After reach training, subjects reached to the training target and novel targets (including targets from a second start position) without visual feedback to assess generalization of reach adaptation. Subjects then performed a proprioceptive estimation task, in which they indicated the position of their hand relative to visual reference markers placed at similar locations as the trained and novel reach targets. Results indicated that shifts in hand position generalized across novel locations, independent of reach adaptation. Thus these distinct sensory and motor generalization patterns suggest that reach adaptation and proprioceptive recalibration arise from independent error signals and that changes in one system cannot guide adjustments in the other. PMID:25972587

  14. Pacific lamprey artificial propogation and rearing investigations: Rocky Reach Lamprey Management Plan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chelan County PUD; Rocky Reach Fish Forum; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; United States Geological Survey; GeoEngineers

    2011-01-01

    The impetus for developing this document is through implementing the Rocky Reach Pacific Lamprey Management Plan (PLMP), a component of the Rocky Reach Comprehensive Settlement Agreement, both of which are discussed more thoroughly in Section 1.2. The ultimate goal of the PLMP is to achieve No Net Impact (NNI) to Pacific lamprey of ongoing operations of the Rocky Reach Hydroelectric Project. Conducting artificial propagation of Pacific lamprey was considered by the state and federal fishery agencies and Tribes that are parties to the Settlement Agreement as a potential Protection, Mitigation, and Enhancement measure (PME) for achieving NNI during the term of the current Rocky Reach license. This document is intended to provide guidance as to the feas ibility of culturing Pacific lamprey, the associated facilities necessary for culture practices, and identifying uncertainties for monitoring culture efficacy and rationale for implementing Pacific lamprey artificial propagation

  15. Personal Breathing Zone Exposures among Hot-Mix Asphalt Paving Workers; Preliminary Analysis for Trends and Analysis of Work Practices That Resulted in the Highest Exposure Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Osborn, Linda V.; Snawder, John E.; Kriech, Anthony J.; Cavallari, Jennifer M.; McClean, Michael D.; Herrick, Robert F.; Blackburn, Gary R.; Olsen, Larry D.

    2015-01-01

    An exposure assessment of hot-mix asphalt (HMA) paving workers was conducted to determine which of four exposure scenarios impacted worker exposure and dose. Goals of this report are to present the personal-breathing zone (PBZ) data, discuss the impact of substituting the releasing/cleaning agent, and discuss work practices that resulted in the highest exposure concentration for each analyte. One-hundred-seven PBZ samples were collected from HMA paving workers on days when diesel oil was used as a releasing/cleaning agent. An additional 36 PBZ samples were collected on days when B-100 (100% biodiesel, containing no petroleum-derived products) was used as a substitute releasing/cleaning agent. Twenty-four PBZ samples were collected from a reference group of concrete workers, who also worked in outdoor construction but had no exposure to asphalt emissions. Background and field blank samples were also collected daily. Total particulates and the benzene soluble fraction were determined gravimetrically. Total organic matter was determined using gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detection and provided qualitative information about other exposure sources contributing to worker exposure besides asphalt emissions. Thirty-three individual polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) were determined using GC with time-offlight mass spectrometry; results were presented as either the concentration of an individual PAC or a summation of the individual PACs containing either 2- to 3-rings or 4- to 6-rings. Samples were also screened for PACs containing 4- to 6-rings using fluorescence spectroscopy. Arithmetic means, medians, and box plots of the PBZ data were used to evaluate trends in the data. Box plots illustrating the diesel oil results were more variable than the B-100. Also, the highest diesel oil results were much higher in concentration than the highest B-100 results. An analysis of the highest exposure results and field notes revealed a probable association between

  16. Effect of aircraft on ultraviolet radiation reaching the ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumb, I. C.; Ryan, K. R.

    1998-12-01

    Changes in ozone levels for a range of scenarios, including those for present and projected future aircraft emissions and for present and future halogen loadings, are calculated using the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization two-dimensional chemical transport model. These changes are applied to measured ozone columns and vertical profiles based on measurements to produce vertical profiles of ozone for each scenario considered, which are traceable to measurements. A radiative transfer model is then used to investigate changes in biologically active radiation reaching the surface of the Earth resulting from current and future fleets of aircraft and those resulting from changing levels of halogen compounds in the atmosphere. It is shown that equal changes in ozone column for these scenarios do not produce equal changes in biologically weighted fluxes reaching the ground. This is because aircraft affect ozone mainly in the upper troposphere, whereas the effects of halogens are greatest in the middle and lower stratosphere. The magnitude of the ratio of the biologically weighted flux change to the ozone column change is greater for the case of the aircraft, due to the larger contribution to multiple scattering in the troposphere. For the same reason, projected fleets of supersonic aircraft are shown to have a smaller effect on UV radiation for a given change in ozone column than subsonic aircraft. While aerosols reduce the UV radiation reaching the ground for all scenarios investigated, they have minimal impact on the ratios of UV changes to ozone column changes because the bulk of the aerosol loading is below the altitudes where ozone changes due to aircraft or halogens occur.

  17. [First annual report of practitioners of interventional cardiology in private practice in Germany. Results of procedures of left heart catheterization and coronary interventions in the year 1996].

    PubMed

    Silber, S; Albrecht, A; Göhring, S; Kaltenbach, M; Kneissl, D; Kokott, N; Levenson, B; Mathey, D; Pöhler, E; Reifart, N; Sauer, G; Schofer, J; Schwarzbach, F

    1998-02-01

    The German Society for Cardiac Angiography and Interventions in Private Practice has started a registry of cardiac procedures since 1996 in order to establish a standard for performance. Although quality management for the cath lab makes sense and is also legally required, there is no generally recommended infrastructure for quality assurance existing in Germany at this time. Therefore, the German Society of Cardiologists in Private Practice (BNK) initiated a project in 1994 to develop a computer program for paperless documentation of diagnostic cardiac catheterizations and coronary interventions (PTCA) using a minimal data set. In 1996, 8 private associated groups participated in this project. The (anonymous) analysis of 10,316 diagnostic cardiac catheterizations and 2597 PTCA yielded the following results: In 95% of the patients, diagnostic cardiac catheterization was performed using the femoral and in 5% the brachial/radial approach. The mean volume of administered contrast medium was 164 +/- 138 ml/patient. The mean LV-EF was greater than 50% in 58.4% of the patients and between 30% and 50% in 10.1%. Coronary artery disease was diagnosed in 69.6% of the patients and valvular/congenital heart disease in 8.5%. In 18.4% of the patients undergoing diagnostic cardiac catheterizations no significant heart disease was identified. Mortality in the cath lab as well as the rate of cerebral insults was 0.05%. In 22.9% and 19% of the patients PTCA and cardiac surgery respectively was recommended. In patients undergoing PTCA, stable angina was present in 74.4% and unstable angina in 13.1%. Of the total number of PTCA procedures, 5.8% were performed in the setting of acute myocardial infarction. The PTCA lesion success rate was 96%, the mean diameter stenosis was 81% pre and 6% post-intervention. The mortality rate at 1 month post-PTCA was 0.4%, and myocardial infarction 1.0%. An acute occlusion occurred in 1.3% of the PTCA patients; 0.6% had to be transferred for emergency

  18. Randomized controlled trial of a computer-tailored multiple health behaviour intervention in general practice: 12-month follow-up results

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Effective strategies to address risk factors of non-communicable diseases are required to curtail the expanding costs of health care. This trial tested the effectiveness over one year of a minimal intervention targeting multiple health behaviours (diet, physical activity, alcohol and smoking) in a general practice setting, through the provision of personalised, computer-tailored feedback. Methods Patients who had attended a general practice in the previous 6 months were recruited from 21 general practitioners in Brisbane, Australia. Baseline data were collected using self-reports on adherence to ten health behaviours and summarised into a health score from 0 to 10. This randomised controlled trial used a 2×2 factorial design, with one arm randomising subjects to the intervention or control group. The other arm was either feedback at baseline (single contact) or an additional assessment with feedback at 3 months (dual contact). As such, 4 study groups created were, to which participants were randomised blindly: A. Intervention with single contact; B. Intervention with dual contact; C. Control with single contact and D. Control with dual contact. All participants were assessed again at 12 months. Results Of the 4676 participants randomised, 3065 completed questionnaires at 12 months. Both single and dual contact groups improved their 10 item health scores (+0.31 and +0.49 respectively) relative to control group outcomes (+0.02; p < 0.01). Improvement in adherence to guidelines for fish intake, type of milk consumed, vegetable and fruit intake, and alcohol intake were observed in single and dual contact intervention groups (p < 0.01). Both intervention groups showed greater improvement than controls for individual health behaviours, apart from red meat intake, smoking behaviour, physical activity and body weight. Interestingly, there was an improvement in reported non-smoking rates in both intervention and control groups (3% single contact; 4

  19. Channel Morphodynamics in Four Reaches of the Lower Missouri River, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, Caroline M.; Reuter, Joanna M.; Jacobson, Robert B.

    2009-01-01

    Channel morphodynamics in response to flow modifications from Gavins Point Dam are examined in four reaches of the Lower Missouri River. Measures include changes in channel morphology and indicators of sediment transport in four 6 kilometer long reaches located downstream from Gavins Point Dam, near Yankton, South Dakota, Kenslers Bend, Nebraska, Little Sioux, Iowa, and Miami, Missouri. Each of the four reaches was divided into 300 transects with a 20-meter spacing and surveyed during the summer in 2006 and 2007. A subset of 30 transects was randomly selected and surveyed 7-10 times in 2006-07 over a wide range of discharges including managed and natural flow events. Hydroacoustic mapping used a survey-grade echosounder and a Real Time Kinematic Global Positioning System to evaluate channel change. Acoustic Doppler current profiler measurements were used to evaluate bed-sediment velocity. Results indicate varying amounts of deposition, erosion, net change, and sediment transport in the four Lower Missouri River reaches. The Yankton reach was the most stable over monthly and annual time-frames. The Kenslers Bend and Little Sioux reaches exhibited substantial amounts of deposition and erosion, although net change was generally low in both reaches. Total, or gross geomorphic change was greatest in the Kenslers Bend reach. The Miami reach exhibited varying rates of deposition and erosion, and low net change. The Yankton, Kenslers Bend, and Miami reaches experienced net erosion during the time period that bracketed the managed May 2006 spring rise event from Gavins Point Dam.

  20. Reach and its Impact: NASA and US Aerospace Communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothgeb, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    REACH is a European law that threatens to impact materials used within the US aerospace communities, including NASA. The presentation briefly covers REACH and generally, its perceived impacts to NASA and the aerospace community within the US.

  1. Characteristics of interventional cardiologists and their work practices for the study on radiation-induced lens opacities based on the methodology developed by ELDO—preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Domienik, Joanna; Gryglak, Szymon; Jurewicz, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Preliminary results of the Polish epidemiology study on eye lens opacities among interventional cardiologists (ICs), based on the methodology proposed by ELDO (epidemiological studies of radio-induced cataracts in interventional cardiologists and radiologists: methodology implementation), are presented. The aim of the study is to test the hypothesis concerning the excess risk of cataract in the group of ICs. The first results concern the study population characteristics, including the most important confounding factors for cataract, as well as a detailed description of the work practices in interventional cardiology needed in order to reconstruct the cumulative eye lens dose. The data from 69 ICs and 23 controls collected based on the general medical questionnaire and the occupational questionnaire (for ICs only) were analyzed. The mean age of ICs and of the control group was 41 and 44, respectively, while the mean duration of work for exposed physicians was 9 years. The analysis of the data from the occupational questionnaire concerning the procedures performed, the use of various access routes, as well as radiation protection tools (eye lens glasses, ceiling suspended transparent shield, etc.) are also presented. On the basis of this information and additional assumptions about the doses per procedure (as well as reduction factors for various types of radiation measures), the cumulative doses to the eye lens of ICs were evaluated. They ranged up to 1.55 Sv and 0.4 Sv for left and right eye, respectively; however, the dose to only 3% of ICs exceeded the new threshold for development of eye lens opacities (0.5 Gy) proposed by the ICRP. PMID:26983990

  2. ERF1 -- Enhanced River Reach File 1.2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, Richard B.; Brakebill, John W.; Brew, Robert E.; Smith, Richard A.

    1999-01-01

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's River Reach File 1 (RF1) to ensure the hydrologic integrity of the digital reach traces and to quantify the mean water time of travel in river reaches and reservoirs [see USEPA (1996) for a description of the original RF1].

  3. Spatial location and pathway memory compared in the reaching vs. walking domains.

    PubMed

    Piccardi, L; Bianchini, F; Nori, R; Marano, A; Iachini, F; Lasala, L; Guariglia, C

    2014-04-30

    Spatial information processing is influenced by the space in which an individual acts and the nature of the stimulus. This distinction is also present in spatial memory, where stimuli are processed differently because of their nature and the space in which they are released. The aim of the present study was to compare college students' performance on spatial location and pathway memory tasks in two different domains (reaching and walking). Reaching space refers to the portion of space within "grasping distance" and walking space to that beyond arm's reach. Research results indicate that it is easier to remember a pathway in the walking than the reaching domain and to remember single spatial locations in the reaching domain. Women are more able to perform the task in the walking domain than the reaching domain and men perform equally well in both domains. PMID:24631564

  4. Marine Shale reaches agreement with US Department of Justice

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    Marine Shale Processors, Inc., and the U.S. Department of Justice on July 24 reached an accord that ended a three-year investigation into allegations by Marine Shale competitors of corporate wrongdoing. Under the agreement, Marine Shale agreed to one violation of each of three statutes: the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Refuse Act of 1899, and the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899, and the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899. To bring the three years of uncertainty to an end, Marine Shale also agreed to pay a fine of $1 million. Since 1985 Marine Shale has operated a facility in Amelia, Louisiana, that recycles materials that would otherwise be disposed of as hazardous wastes into an inert aggregate material used in road building and other construction applications. The government's only allegations were (1) that Marine Shale stored soil containing creosole on a concrete pad at its recycling facility without a federal permit (Marine Shale has halted use of this storage facility and all of the soils were subsequently removed and recycled at the plant); (2) that Marine Shale created an obstacle to navigation by the placement of a barge in a river; and (3) that Marine Shale had allowed finished product and process area water to wash into the river during rainstorms. These practices or conditions have been discontinued or corrected.

  5. Advanced REACH Tool: a Bayesian model for occupational exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    McNally, Kevin; Warren, Nicholas; Fransman, Wouter; Entink, Rinke Klein; Schinkel, Jody; van Tongeren, Martie; Cherrie, John W; Kromhout, Hans; Schneider, Thomas; Tielemans, Erik

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes a Bayesian model for the assessment of inhalation exposures in an occupational setting; the methodology underpins a freely available web-based application for exposure assessment, the Advanced REACH Tool (ART). The ART is a higher tier exposure tool that combines disparate sources of information within a Bayesian statistical framework. The information is obtained from expert knowledge expressed in a calibrated mechanistic model of exposure assessment, data on inter- and intra-individual variability in exposures from the literature, and context-specific exposure measurements. The ART provides central estimates and credible intervals for different percentiles of the exposure distribution, for full-shift and long-term average exposures. The ART can produce exposure estimates in the absence of measurements, but the precision of the estimates improves as more data become available. The methodology presented in this paper is able to utilize partially analogous data, a novel approach designed to make efficient use of a sparsely populated measurement database although some additional research is still required before practical implementation. The methodology is demonstrated using two worked examples: an exposure to copper pyrithione in the spraying of antifouling paints and an exposure to ethyl acetate in shoe repair. PMID:24665110

  6. Advanced REACH Tool: A Bayesian Model for Occupational Exposure Assessment

    PubMed Central

    McNally, Kevin; Warren, Nicholas; Fransman, Wouter; Entink, Rinke Klein; Schinkel, Jody; van Tongeren, Martie; Cherrie, John W.; Kromhout, Hans; Schneider, Thomas; Tielemans, Erik

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a Bayesian model for the assessment of inhalation exposures in an occupational setting; the methodology underpins a freely available web-based application for exposure assessment, the Advanced REACH Tool (ART). The ART is a higher tier exposure tool that combines disparate sources of information within a Bayesian statistical framework. The information is obtained from expert knowledge expressed in a calibrated mechanistic model of exposure assessment, data on inter- and intra-individual variability in exposures from the literature, and context-specific exposure measurements. The ART provides central estimates and credible intervals for different percentiles of the exposure distribution, for full-shift and long-term average exposures. The ART can produce exposure estimates in the absence of measurements, but the precision of the estimates improves as more data become available. The methodology presented in this paper is able to utilize partially analogous data, a novel approach designed to make efficient use of a sparsely populated measurement database although some additional research is still required before practical implementation. The methodology is demonstrated using two worked examples: an exposure to copper pyrithione in the spraying of antifouling paints and an exposure to ethyl acetate in shoe repair. PMID:24665110

  7. Tactile gating in a reaching and grasping task

    PubMed Central

    Colino, Francisco L.; Buckingham, Gavin; Cheng, Darian T.; van Donkelaar, Paul; Binsted, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A multitude of events bombard our sensory systems at every moment of our lives. Thus, it is important for the sensory cortex to gate unimportant events. Tactile suppression is a well‐known phenomenon defined as a reduced ability to detect tactile events on the skin before and during movement. Previous experiments found detection rates decrease just prior to and during finger abduction, and decrease according to the proximity of the moving effector. This study examined how tactile detection changes during a reach to grasp. Fourteen human participants used their right hand to reach and grasp a cylinder. Tactors were attached to the index finger, the fifth digit, and the forearm of both the right and left arm and vibrated at various epochs relative to a “go” tone. Results showed that detection rates at the forearm decreased before movement onset; whereas at the right index finger, right fifth digit and at the left index finger, left fifth digit, and forearm sites did not decrease like in the right forearm. These results indicate that the task affects gating dynamics in a temporally‐ and contextually dependent manner and implies that feed‐forward motor planning processes can modify sensory signals. PMID:24760521

  8. Delta's role in reaching the fourth environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimes, D. W.; Ganoung, J. K.

    1981-01-01

    The Delta launch vehicle has played a significant role in spaceand airborne studies since its first launch in 1960, and a high volume period of service is planned for the 1980s. The historical role played by Delta in launching satellites from 1960 to the present is discussed, and vehicle modifications made during this period are summarized. It is shown that out of 154 launches, 143 proved successful for an overall reliability of 93%. The forecasted launch schedule through 1985 is also presented. Various modifications are now under way to provide spacecraft interchangeability with the Shuttle: a Payload Assist Module (PAM) is proposed to provide an orderly transition from the Delta expendable vehicle to the Shuttle reusable vehicle; the new Delta 3920 Improved Second Stage is the result of a need for improved Delta performance to meet 3910 payload capabilities; the firing sequence of the solid rocket motors was altered from five at liftoff and four during ascent to a sequence of six and three, thereby increasing spacecraft weight in geosynchronous transfer orbit. Potential future improvements discussed include the Delta 4920, 9-ft-diam fairing, booster engine performance, PAM solid motor performance, a universal second stage, a hydrogen-oxygen second stage, and large strap-on solids.

  9. Development of the southern reaches of Laurentia

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, J.C. Jr. . Federal Center)

    1993-02-01

    Laurentia, the Late Proterozoic continental fragment that now forms the core of North America, has a long and complex history, much of which involves development along its southern margin. The southernmost parts of the Archean continental core are the Wyoming and Superior cratons, both of which contain gneisses that record crust-forming events in the interval 3.8--3.1 Ga as well as greenstone belts that reflect continental growth in the interval 2.8--2.6 Ga. Each of these cratonic elements was assembled and stabilized prior to deposition of passive margin sequences along their southern flanks during the interval [approximately]2.5--1.9 Ga. Between [approximately]1.8 Ga and 1.6 Ga arc-related sedimentary and volcanic rocks were accreted to the southern margin of the Laurentian core during a complex series of tectonic episodes that included events locally referred to as the Penokean, Ivanpah, Yavapai, and Mazatzal orogenies, resulting in the addition of a belt of continental crust at least 1,000 km wide. Voluminous highly evolved granite and rhyolite were emplaced along this southern marginal belt between [approximately] 1.45 and 1.35 Ga under conditions of general tectonic stability, or perhaps dispersed regional extension. This same interval was also marked by onset of deposition of thick Middle Proterozoic sedimentary sequences along the western and southern margins of Laurentia. The eastern margin of Laurentia contains the complexly deformed and metamorphosed rocks of the 1.25 to 1.1 Ga Grenville orogen which, according to recent reconstructions, may record a collision with cratonic elements in western South America. The 2,000 km-long Midcontinent rift system in central Laurentia opened and filled with basalt and sediments at about the same time as the end of Grenville activity.

  10. Dynamic channel adjustments in the Jingjiang Reach of the Middle Yangtze River.

    PubMed

    Xia, Junqiang; Deng, Shanshan; Lu, Jinyou; Xu, Quanxi; Zong, Quanli; Tan, Guangming

    2016-01-01

    Significant channel adjustments have occurred in the Jingjiang Reach of the Middle Yangtze River, because of the operation of the Three Gorges Project (TGP). The Jingjiang Reach is selected as the study area, covering the Upper Jingjiang Reach (UJR) and Lower Jingjiang Reach (LJR). The reach-scale bankfull channel dimensions in the study reach were calculated annually from 2002 to 2013 by means of a reach-averaged approach and surveyed post-flood profiles at 171 sections. We find from the calculated results that: the reach-scale bankfull widths changed slightly in the UJR and LJR, with the corresponding depths increasing by 1.6 m and 1.0 m; the channel adjustments occurred mainly with respect to bankfull depth because of the construction of large-scale bank revetment works, although there were significant bank erosion processes in local regions without the bank protection engineering. The reach-scale bankfull dimensions in the UJR and LJR generally responded to the previous five-year average fluvial erosion intensity during flood seasons, with higher correlations being obtained for the depth and cross-sectional area. It is concluded that these dynamic adjustments of the channel geometry are a direct result of recent human activities such as the TGP operation. PMID:26965069

  11. Dynamic channel adjustments in the Jingjiang Reach of the Middle Yangtze River

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Junqiang; Deng, Shanshan; Lu, Jinyou; Xu, Quanxi; Zong, Quanli; Tan, Guangming

    2016-01-01

    Significant channel adjustments have occurred in the Jingjiang Reach of the Middle Yangtze River, because of the operation of the Three Gorges Project (TGP). The Jingjiang Reach is selected as the study area, covering the Upper Jingjiang Reach (UJR) and Lower Jingjiang Reach (LJR). The reach-scale bankfull channel dimensions in the study reach were calculated annually from 2002 to 2013 by means of a reach-averaged approach and surveyed post-flood profiles at 171 sections. We find from the calculated results that: the reach-scale bankfull widths changed slightly in the UJR and LJR, with the corresponding depths increasing by 1.6 m and 1.0 m; the channel adjustments occurred mainly with respect to bankfull depth because of the construction of large-scale bank revetment works, although there were significant bank erosion processes in local regions without the bank protection engineering. The reach-scale bankfull dimensions in the UJR and LJR generally responded to the previous five-year average fluvial erosion intensity during flood seasons, with higher correlations being obtained for the depth and cross-sectional area. It is concluded that these dynamic adjustments of the channel geometry are a direct result of recent human activities such as the TGP operation. PMID:26965069

  12. Dynamic channel adjustments in the Jingjiang Reach of the Middle Yangtze River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Junqiang; Deng, Shanshan; Lu, Jinyou; Xu, Quanxi; Zong, Quanli; Tan, Guangming

    2016-03-01

    Significant channel adjustments have occurred in the Jingjiang Reach of the Middle Yangtze River, because of the operation of the Three Gorges Project (TGP). The Jingjiang Reach is selected as the study area, covering the Upper Jingjiang Reach (UJR) and Lower Jingjiang Reach (LJR). The reach-scale bankfull channel dimensions in the study reach were calculated annually from 2002 to 2013 by means of a reach-averaged approach and surveyed post-flood profiles at 171 sections. We find from the calculated results that: the reach-scale bankfull widths changed slightly in the UJR and LJR, with the corresponding depths increasing by 1.6 m and 1.0 m the channel adjustments occurred mainly with respect to bankfull depth because of the construction of large-scale bank revetment works, although there were significant bank erosion processes in local regions without the bank protection engineering. The reach-scale bankfull dimensions in the UJR and LJR generally responded to the previous five-year average fluvial erosion intensity during flood seasons, with higher correlations being obtained for the depth and cross-sectional area. It is concluded that these dynamic adjustments of the channel geometry are a direct result of recent human activities such as the TGP operation.

  13. Reaching for the APEX at Ames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohut, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    The multidimensional design of the APEX program is the result of an extensive research and development effort dating back nearly a decade. "In the late 1990s and early 2000, we were pretty successful at getting new research and technology projects here at the center," Johnson says, "and we had a lack of critical mass of project managers. We were taking people who were primarily researchers and putting them in the position of managing projects." Smith and Johnson held a series of workshops across the center during 2000 and 2001 to gather feedback about how to address this issue. When they briefed the center's senior management on their findings, one of the top recommendations was to establish a project manager development program at Ames. At that point, they cast a wide net for ideas and information. "We did centerwide needs assessment, we did focus groups, we did surveys," Smith says. "We came up with a proposal for what a program would look like, tying in what we knew about the Academy of Program1 Project Leadership (now the Academy for Program/Project and Engineering Leadership, or APPEL), what we've seen at other centers, what other centers have tried. We were always checking to make sure our program mapped to APPEL. We also looked at the PMI [Project Management Institute] model, INCOSE [International Council on Systems Engineering], CMMI [Capability Maturity Model Integration], you name it." "We had a lot of conversations with the Jet Propulsion Lab and Goddard," Johnson adds. "We saw those centers as models for what Ames was aspiring to be in terms of a center for managing space flight missions." Their research confirmed what they already knew-that strong practitioner involvement would be critical to their program design process. 'XPEX is for the practitioner by the practitioner," Smith says. "They have to be a part of designing it. Otherwise there's no way we could design a program that meets their needs." At the same time that they worked at the grassroots

  14. TB deaths reach historic levels. International (global).

    PubMed

    More tuberculosis (TB)-related deaths occurred in 1995 than in any other year in history (almost 3 million, vs. 2.1 million for the TB epidemic around 1990). In the next 50 years, as many as 500 million people may develop TB if current rates continue. More and more of these people will develop multidrug resistant TB. TB affects all social groups. It is the leading fatal infection in youth and adults. HIV positive people are more likely to die from TB than any other condition. More women die from TB than all causes of maternal mortality combined. Almost 50% of the world's refugees may have TB. All people are at risk of TB since TB bacteria, which enter the air via coughing or sneezing, can be suspended in the air for hours. Increased air travel and migration have brought TB back to industrialized countries. Multi-drug resistant TB has emerged in New York City, London, Milan, Paris, Atlanta, Chicago, and cities in developing countries. Governments of industrialized and developing countries have been slow to understand the effects of multi-drug resistant TB for public health. During the 1970s and 1980s, TB was greatly neglected resulting in the current multi-drug resistant TB epidemic. Policy makers have not applied the tools discovered by scientists to help eliminate TB. The World Health Organization recommends directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS) to fight TB. DOTS can increase the number of cured TB patients two-fold. It can cure almost 95% of TB patients with medicines costing less than $11 in some areas of the world. Yet DOTS is being used to cure only 10% of all TB patients in the world. If it were used in Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Russian Federation, South Africa, and Zaire, about 75% of all TB cases would be cured. In DOTS, health workers, not the TB patient, are responsible for curing the TB patient. Poor patient compliance is responsible for the current TB epidemic because TB patients remain

  15. Physicians’ attitudes and practice toward treating injection drug users infected with hepatitis C virus: Results from a national specialist survey in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Myles, Angelique; Mugford, Gerry J; Zhao, Jing; Krahn, Murray; Wang, Peizhong Peter

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Canada, more than 70% of new cases of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection per year involve injection drug users (IDUs) and, currently, there is no consensus on how to offer them medical care. OBJECTIVE: To examine the characteristics of Canadian specialist physicians and their likelihood to provide treatment to HCV patients who are IDUs. METHODS: A nationwide, cross-sectional study was conducted in the specialty areas of hepatology, gastroenterology and infectious diseases to examine HCV services. The questionnaire requested information regarding basic demographics, referral pathways and opinions (yes/no), and examined how a physician’s treatment regimen is influenced by factors such as treatment eligibility, HCV care management and barriers to providing quality service. RESULTS: Despite the fact that the majority of prevalent and incident cases of HCV are associated with injection drug use, very few specialist physicians actually provide the necessary therapy to this population. Only 19 (19.79%) comprehensive service providers were likely to provide treatment to a current IDU who uses a needle exchange on a regular basis. The majority of comprehensive service providers (n=86 [89.58%]) were likely to provide treatment to a former IDU who was stable on substitution therapy. On bivariate analysis, factors associated with the likelihood to provide treatment to current IDUs included physicians’ type, ie, infectious disease specialists compared with noninfectious specialists (OR 3.27 [95% CI 1.11 to 9.63]), and the size of the community where they practice (OR 4.16 [95% CI 1.36 to 12.71] [population 500,000 or greater versus less than 500,000]). Results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis were largely consistent with the results observed in the bivariate analyses. After controlling for other confounding variables, only community size was significantly associated with providing treatment to current IDUs (OR 3.89 [95% CI 1.06 to 14

  16. Occupational health legislation and practices related to seafarers on passenger ships focused on communicable diseases: results from a European cross-sectional study (EU SHIPSAN PROJECT)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Seafarers play an important role in the transmission of communicable diseases. The aim of the present study is to draw information and identify possible gaps on occupational health practices related to seafarers sailing on ships within the European Union Member States (EU MS) with focus on communicable diseases. Methods A structured questionnaire was sent to competent authorities from 21 EU MS. The questionnaire included questions about occupational health policies, medical certification of seafarers, communicable diseases reporting and relevant legislation. Descriptive analysis of the data was conducted by the use of Epi Info software: EU MS were categorized in four priority groups (A, B, C, D) based on: number of passenger ships visits, volume of passengers, and number of ports in each country. Moreover, EU MS were categorized to old and new, based on the date of entry in the EU. Results All 21 countries with relevant competent authorities responded to the questionnaire. The existence of specific national legislation/regulation/guidelines related to vaccination of seafarers was reported by three out of the 21 (14%) responding authorities. Surveillance data of communicable diseases related to seafarers are collected and analyzed by 4 (19%) authorities. Five out of 21 of the responding countries (24%) reported that tuberculin test result is required for the issuance of seafarer's medical certificate while a great variety of medical examination is required for the issuance of this certificate among countries. Gaps on occupational health services focused on communicable diseases related to maritime occupation have been reported by 33% of the responding countries. Responding authorities from Group A and B had the highest percentage of reported gaps followed by groups C and D. Old MS reported a higher frequency regarding gaps on occupational health services in comparison to new MS. Conclusion Our results revealed heterogeneity regarding occupational health

  17. Reaching site closure for groundwater under multiple regulatory agencies

    SciTech Connect

    Glucksberg, N.; Couture, B.

    2007-07-01

    , however CTDEP has approved the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA's) Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) as the clean up standards for individual constituents. After remediation of an identified contamination source, the RSRs require that at least one groundwater monitoring well, hydraulically down-gradient of the remediation area, be sampled to confirm that the remediation has not impacted groundwater quality. After four quarters of groundwater monitoring with results below the MCLs, additional groundwater sampling must continue for up to three years to reach site closure in accordance with the RSRs. The cleanup criteria for chemical constituents, including boron, are regulated by the USEPA under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the CTDEP Bureau of Water Protection and Land Reuse. The USEPA, however, has accepted the CTDEP RSRs as the cleanup criteria for RCRA. Therefore attainment of the CTDEP RSRs is the only set of criteria needed to reach closure, but both agencies retain oversight, interpretation, and closure authority. As stated above, under the RSRs, groundwater must be monitored following a source remediation for a minimum of four quarters. After demonstrating that the remediation was successful, then additional groundwater sampling is required for up to three additional years. However, the number of monitoring wells and frequency of sampling are not defined in the RSRs and must be negotiated with CTDEP. To successfully reach closure, the conceptual site model, groundwater transport mechanisms, and potential receptors must be defined. Once the hydrogeology is understood, a long term groundwater monitoring program can then be coordinated to meet each agencies requirement to both terminate the NRC license and reach site closure under RCRA. (authors)

  18. Red meat and poultry, cooking practices, genetic susceptibility and risk of prostate cancer: results from a multiethnic case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Mariana C.

    2012-01-01

    Red meat, processed and unprocessed, has been considered a potential prostate cancer (PCA) risk factor; epidemiological evidence, however, is inconclusive. An association between meat intake and PCA may be due to potent chemical carcinogens that are generated when meats are cooked at high temperatures. We investigated the association between red meat and poultry intake and localized and advanced PCA taking into account cooking practices and polymorphisms in enzymes that metabolize carcinogens that accumulate in cooked meats. We analyzed data for 1096 controls, 717 localized and 1140 advanced cases from the California Collaborative Prostate Cancer Study, a multiethnic, population-based case–control study. We examined nutrient density-adjusted intake of red meat and poultry and tested for effect modification by 12 SNPs and 2 copy number variants in 10 carcinogen metabolism genes: GSTP1, PTGS2, CYP1A2, CYP2E1, EPHX1, CYP1B1, UGT1A6, NAT2, GSTM1 and GSTT1. We observed a positive association between risk of advanced PCA and high intake of red meat cooked at high temperatures (trend P = 0.026), cooked by pan-frying (trend P = 0.035), and cooked until well-done (trend P = 0.013). An inverse association was observed for baked poultry and advanced PCA risk (trend P = 0.023). A gene-by-diet interaction was observed between an SNP in the PTGS2 gene and the estimated levels of meat mutagens (interaction P = 0.008). Our results support a role for carcinogens that accumulate in meats cooked at high temperatures as potential PCA risk factors, and may support a role for heterocyclic amines (HCAs) in PCA etiology. PMID:22822096

  19. Factors that Determine Academic Versus Private Practice Career Interest in Radiation Oncology Residents in the United States: Results of a Nationwide Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Daniel T.; Shaffer, Jenny L.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Wilson, Lynn D.

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To determine what factors US radiation oncology residents consider when choosing academic or nonacademic careers. Methods and Materials: A 20-question online survey was developed and sent to all US radiation oncology residents to assess factors that influence their career interest. Residents were asked to rate their interest in academics (A) versus private practice (PP) on a 0 (strong interest in A) to 100 (strong interest in PP) scale. Responses were classified as A (0-30), undecided (40-60), and PP (70-100). Residents were also asked to rank 10 factors that most strongly influenced their career interest. Results: Three hundred thirty-one responses were collected, of which 264 were complete and form the basis for this analysis. Factors that correlated with interest in A included having a PhD (P=.018), postgraduate year level (P=.0006), research elective time (P=.0003), obtaining grant funding during residency (P=.012), and number of publications before residency (P=.0001), but not number of abstracts accepted in the past year (P=.65) or publications during residency (P=.67). The 3 most influential factors for residents interested in A were: (1) baseline interest before residency; (2) academic role models; and (3) research opportunities during residency. The 3 most influential factors for residents interested in PP were: (1) baseline interest before residency; (2) academic role models; and (3) academic pressure and obligations. Conclusions: Interest in A correlated with postgraduate year level, degree, and research time during residency. Publications before but not during residency correlated with academic interest, and baseline interest was the most influential factor. These data can be used by residency program directors to better understand what influences residents' career interest.

  20. Infants' Perception of Illusions in Sound Localization: Reaching to Sounds in the Dark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillier, Loretta; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Infants between four and eight months of age were tested for their ability to reach for visible and unseen toys that made sounds. Infants reached for toys in the dark under two auditory illusion conditions, the Haas effect and the midline illusion. Results indicated that, by four months of age, infants perceived the Haas effect and the midline…

  1. Effect of Visual Field Presentation on Action Planning (Estimating Reach) in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabbard, Carl; Cordova, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors examined the effects of target information presented in different visual fields (lower, upper, central) on estimates of reach via use of motor imagery in children (5-11 years old) and young adults. Results indicated an advantage for estimating reach movements for targets placed in lower visual field (LoVF), with all…

  2. Evaluating the User Experience of Exercising Reaching Motions With a Robot That Predicts Desired Movement Difficulty.

    PubMed

    Shirzad, Navid; Van der Loos, H F Machiel

    2016-01-01

    The notion of an optimal difficulty during practice has been articulated in many areas of cognitive psychology: flow theory, the challenge point framework, and desirable difficulties. Delivering exercises at a participant's desired difficulty has the potential to improve both motor learning and users' engagement in therapy. Motivation and engagement are among the contributing factors to the success of exercise programs. The authors previously demonstrated that error amplification can be used to introduce levels of challenge into a robotic reaching task, and that machine-learning algorithms can dynamically adjust difficulty to the desired level with 85% accuracy. Building on these findings, we present the results of a proof-of-concept study investigating the impacts of practicing under desirable difficulty conditions. A control condition with a predefined random order for difficulty levels was deemed more suitable for this study (compared to constant or continuously increasing difficulty). By practicing the task at their desirable difficulties, participants in the experimental group perceived their performance at a significantly higher level and reported lower required effort to complete the task, in comparison to a control group. Moreover, based on self-reports, participants in the experimental group were willing, on average, to continue the training session for 4.6 more training blocks (∼45 min) compared to the control group's average. This study demonstrates the efficiency of delivering the exercises at the user's desired difficulty level to improve the user's engagement in exercise tasks. Future work will focus on clinical feasibility of this approach in increasing stroke survivors' engagement in their therapy programs. PMID:25945816

  3. Livestock First Reached Southern Africa in Two Separate Events

    PubMed Central

    Sadr, Karim

    2015-01-01

    After several decades of research on the subject, we now know when the first livestock reached southern Africa but the question of how they got there remains a contentious topic. Debate centres on whether they were brought with a large migration of Khoe-speakers who originated from East Africa; or whether the livestock were traded down-the-line among hunter-gatherer communities; or indeed whether there was a long history of diverse small scale population movements in this part of the world, one or more of which ‘infiltrated’ livestock into southern Africa. A new analysis of the distribution of stone toolkits from a sizeable sample of sub-equatorial African Later Stone Age sites, coupled with existing knowledge of the distribution of the earliest livestock remains and ceramics vessels, has allowed us to isolate two separate infiltration events that brought the first livestock into southern Africa just over 2000 years ago; one infiltration was along the Atlantic seaboard and another entered the middle reaches of the Limpopo River Basin. These findings agree well with the latest results of genetic research which together indicate that multiple, small-scale infiltrations probably were responsible for bringing the first livestock into southern Africa. PMID:26295347

  4. Livestock First Reached Southern Africa in Two Separate Events.

    PubMed

    Sadr, Karim

    2015-01-01

    After several decades of research on the subject, we now know when the first livestock reached southern Africa but the question of how they got there remains a contentious topic. Debate centres on whether they were brought with a large migration of Khoe-speakers who originated from East Africa; or whether the livestock were traded down-the-line among hunter-gatherer communities; or indeed whether there was a long history of diverse small scale population movements in this part of the world, one or more of which 'infiltrated' livestock into southern Africa. A new analysis of the distribution of stone toolkits from a sizeable sample of sub-equatorial African Later Stone Age sites, coupled with existing knowledge of the distribution of the earliest livestock remains and ceramics vessels, has allowed us to isolate two separate infiltration events that brought the first livestock into southern Africa just over 2000 years ago; one infiltration was along the Atlantic seaboard and another entered the middle reaches of the Limpopo River Basin. These findings agree well with the latest results of genetic research which together indicate that multiple, small-scale infiltrations probably were responsible for bringing the first livestock into southern Africa. PMID:26295347

  5. Transient Storage Parameterization of Wetland-dominated Stream Reaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilderotter, S. M.; Lightbody, A.; Kalnejais, L. H.; Wollheim, W. M.

    2014-12-01

    Current understanding of the importance of transient storage in fluvial wetlands is limited. Wetlands that have higher connectivity to the main stream channel are important because they have the potential to retain more nitrogen within the river system than wetlands that receive little direct stream discharge. In this study, we investigated how stream water accesses adjacent fluvial wetlands in New England coastal watersheds to improve parameterization in network-scale models. Break through curves of Rhodamine WT were collected for eight wetlands in the Ipswich and Parker (MA) and Lamprey River (NH) watersheds, USA. The curves were inverse modeled using STAMMT-L to optimize the connectivity and size parameters for each reach. Two approaches were tested, a single dominant storage zone and a range of storage zones represented using a power-law distribution of storage zone connectivity. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to relate transient storage parameters to stream discharge, area, length-to-width ratio, and reach slope. Resulting regressions will enable more accurate parameterization of surface water transient storage in network-scale models.

  6. Implementing Evidence Based Practices: Six "Drivers" of Success. Part 3 in a Series on Fostering the Adoption of Evidence-Based Practices in Out-Of-School Time Programs. Research-to-Results Brief. Publication #2007-29

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metz, Allison J. R.; Blase, Karen; Bowie, Lillian

    2007-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges for practitioners is implementing a new program or a new practice. This challenge is due, in large part, to a lack of information on strategies that promote effective and efficient program implementation. In most cases, implementation strategies have been limited to paper-based manuals that focus on describing…

  7. Analytically derived three-dimensional reach volumes based on multijoint movements.

    PubMed

    Kee, Dohyung; Karwowski, Waldemar

    2002-01-01

    The main objectives of this study were to quantify the range of reaching for the upper body with eight degrees of freedom (the trunk and shoulder, elbow, and wrist joints) and the lower body with six degrees of freedom (the hip, knee, and ankle joints). A sweeping algorithm that included trunk and foot motions was used to generate the analytical total reach volume of the human body for young men. Three types of reach volume--unconstrained arm reach, shoulder-restricted arm reach, and foot reach--were generated depending on the joint involved in reach activities. The robot kinematics methodology was employed to represent the human body as a multilink system, which was needed for calculating three-dimensional coordinates of the involved joints. The statistical test results showed that the total reach volume analytically generated in this study was nearly identical to that obtained from the direct human body measurements. Applications of this research include generating the human body's reach volume for the purpose of designing work spaces and products. PMID:12691363

  8. Physical Demand but Not Dexterity Is Associated with Motor Flexibility during Rapid Reaching in Healthy Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Greve, Christian; Hortobàgyi, Tibor; Bongers, Raoul M

    2015-01-01

    Healthy humans are able to place light and heavy objects in small and large target locations with remarkable accuracy. Here we examine how dexterity demand and physical demand affect flexibility in joint coordination and end-effector kinematics when healthy young adults perform an upper extremity reaching task. We manipulated dexterity demand by changing target size and physical demand by increasing external resistance to reaching. Uncontrolled manifold analysis was used to decompose variability in joint coordination patterns into variability stabilizing the end-effector and variability de-stabilizing the end-effector during reaching. Our results demonstrate a proportional increase in stabilizing and de-stabilizing variability without a change in the ratio of the two variability components as physical demands increase. We interpret this finding in the context of previous studies showing that sensorimotor noise increases with increasing physical demands. We propose that the larger de-stabilizing variability as a function of physical demand originated from larger sensorimotor noise in the neuromuscular system. The larger stabilizing variability with larger physical demands is a strategy employed by the neuromuscular system to counter the de-stabilizing variability so that performance stability is maintained. Our findings have practical implications for improving the effectiveness of movement therapy in a wide range of patient groups, maintaining upper extremity function in old adults, and for maximizing athletic performance. PMID:25970465

  9. Physical Demand but Not Dexterity Is Associated with Motor Flexibility during Rapid Reaching in Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Greve, Christian; Hortobàgyi, Tibor; Bongers, Raoul M.

    2015-01-01

    Healthy humans are able to place light and heavy objects in small and large target locations with remarkable accuracy. Here we examine how dexterity demand and physical demand affect flexibility in joint coordination and end-effector kinematics when healthy young adults perform an upper extremity reaching task. We manipulated dexterity demand by changing target size and physical demand by increasing external resistance to reaching. Uncontrolled manifold analysis was used to decompose variability in joint coordination patterns into variability stabilizing the end-effector and variability de-stabilizing the end-effector during reaching. Our results demonstrate a proportional increase in stabilizing and de-stabilizing variability without a change in the ratio of the two variability components as physical demands increase. We interpret this finding in the context of previous studies showing that sensorimotor noise increases with increasing physical demands. We propose that the larger de-stabilizing variability as a function of physical demand originated from larger sensorimotor noise in the neuromuscular system. The larger stabilizing variability with larger physical demands is a strategy employed by the neuromuscular system to counter the de-stabilizing variability so that performance stability is maintained. Our findings have practical implications for improving the effectiveness of movement therapy in a wide range of patient groups, maintaining upper extremity function in old adults, and for maximizing athletic performance. PMID:25970465

  10. Does the Responsive Classroom Approach Affect the Use of Standards-Based Mathematics Teaching Practices?: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottmar, Erin R.; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Berry, Robert Q.; Larsen, Ross A.

    2013-01-01

    This study highlights the connections between two facets of teachers' skills--those supporting teachers' mathematical instructional interactions and those underlying social interactions within the classroom. The impact of the Responsive Classroom (RC) approach and use of RC practices on the use of standards-based mathematics teaching…

  11. Ethnic Variation in the Association between Family Structures and Practices on Child Outcomes at 36 Months: Results from Early Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iruka, Iheoma U.

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: This study analyzed data from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Study (EHSRES) to examine whether the association between family structural characteristics (maternal education, number of parents, employment status, and number of children), parenting practices (sensitive and negative parenting, cognitively stimulating…

  12. National Educational Technology Standards and Technology Beliefs and Practices of Social Studies Faculty: Results from a Seven-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Adam; Bolick, Cheryl; Berson, Michael; Porfeli, Erik

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from the third survey administration of a longitudinal study that explores the beliefs, practices, and efficacy of social studies faculty members from across the United States in terms of instructional technology use. The findings of this study demonstrate that familiarity with the "National Educational Technology…

  13. Results from a Survey of Current Practices for Sampling of Nervous System in Rodents and Non-rodents in General Toxicity Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    A survey of current practices for sampling and examination of the nervous system in rodents and non-rodents for general and neurotoxicity (NT) studies was conducted by the Nervous System Sampling Subcommittee of the STP. For general toxicity studies most of those surveyed (>63%) ...

  14. The Identification and Description of Critical Thinking Behaviors in the Practice of Clinical Laboratory Science, Part 1: Design, Implementation, Evaluation, and Results of a National Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenimer, Elizabeth A.

    2002-01-01

    A survey of 1,562 clinical laboratory scientists ranked critical thinking behaviors used in practice. Important behaviors were cognitive, behavioral, affective, and situated/contextual. Findings support a view of critical thinking as a metaprocess that spans learning domains. (Contains 17 references.) (SK)

  15. Impaired motor preparation and execution during standing reach in people with chronic stroke.

    PubMed

    McCombe Waller, Sandy; Yang, Chieh-Ling; Magder, Laurence; Yungher, Don; Gray, Vicki; Rogers, Mark W

    2016-09-01

    be indicative of interference of a classical startle reflex activating elbow flexors. Results indicated impairments in movement preparation of both APA's and goal directed UE movement in individuals with stroke which impact the functional performance of reaching in the standing position. PMID:27436481

  16. Effect of savings-led economic empowerment on HIV preventive practices among orphaned adolescents in rural Uganda: results from the Suubi-Maka randomized experiment.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Larissa; Ssewamala, Fred M; Nabunya, Proscovia

    2016-01-01

    Improving economic resources of impoverished youth may alter intentions to engage in sexual risk behaviors by motivating positive future planning to avoid HIV risk and by altering economic contexts contributing to HIV risk. Yet, few studies have examined the effect of economic-strengthening on economic and sexual behaviors of orphaned youth, despite high poverty and high HIV infection in this population. Hierarchal longitudinal regressions were used to examine the effect of a savings-led economic empowerment intervention, the Suubi-Maka Project, on changes in orphaned adolescents' cash savings and attitudes toward savings and HIV-preventive practices over time. We randomized 346 Ugandan adolescents, aged 10-17 years, to either the control group receiving usual orphan care plus mentoring (n = 167) or the intervention group receiving usual orphan care plus mentoring, financial education, and matched savings accounts (n = 179). Assessments were conducted at baseline, 12, and 24 months. Results indicated that intervention adolescents significantly increased their cash savings over time (b = $US12.32, ±1.12, p < .001) compared to adolescents in the control group. At 24 months post-baseline, 92% of intervention adolescents had accumulated savings compared to 43% in the control group (p < .001). The largest changes in savings goals were the proportion of intervention adolescents valuing saving for money to buy a home (ΔT1-T0 = +14.9, p < .001), pursue vocational training (ΔT1-T0 = +8.8, p < .01), and start a business (T1-T0 = +6.7, p < .01). Intervention adolescents also had a significant relative increase over time in HIV-preventive attitudinal scores (b = +0.19, ±0.09, p < .05), most commonly toward perceived risk of HIV (95.8%, n = 159), sexual abstinence or postponement (91.6%, n = 152), and consistent condom use (93.4%, n = 144). In addition, intervention adolescents had 2.017 significantly greater

  17. Practical results of heat conservation in a housing estate scale-actions implemented by the Pradnik-Bialy-Zachod housing cooperative in Cracow

    SciTech Connect

    Piotrowski, L.

    1995-12-31

    There are 11,600,000 apartments occupied in Poland. More than 7,700,000 of these apartments are located in towns. Energy consumption for heating, ventilation and district hot water in residential housing reaches 40% of the national power balance. A portion of district heat distribution and relatively low energy efficiency is characteristic for Polish residential housing. Seventy five percent of apartments in towns are provided with central heating installations and 55% of the entire heat demand in Polish buildings is covered by district heating systems. The total installed heat power of these systems reaches 46,000 MW. The situation with regard to conservation in Polish residential housing is directly related to the legacy of central planning of the national economy and to the current phase of its re-organization to the market-oriented system. The standard value of the overall heat-transfer coefficient for external walls in Poland until 1980 was 1.16 W/m{sup 2}K; at present it is reduced to 0.55 W/m{sup 2}K. There are numerous reasons for the low energy efficiency in residential housing. These reasons are discussed.

  18. Efficacy and safety of insulin degludec in Japanese patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes: 24-week results from the observational study in routine clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Kobuke, Kazuhiro; Yoneda, Masayasu; Nakanishi, Shuhei; Ohno, Haruya; Maeda, Shusaku; Egusa, Genshi

    2016-01-01

    This is first observational prospective study of insulin degludec in routine clinical practice that we evaluated the effect on glycemic control and risk of hypoglycemia in basal-bolus insulin therapy. We found that insulin degludec can maintain glycemic control at a lower insulin dose and frequency of hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes, while it can improve glycemic control at equally insulin dose in type 2 diabetes. These results mean that insulin degludec is of use in routine clinical practice. PMID:26816606

  19. Mark III Space Suit Mobility: A Reach Evaluation Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaxton, Sherry S.; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Onady, Elizabeth A.; Rajulu, Sudhakar L.

    2007-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of the reach envelope and field of vision (FOV) for a subject wearing a Mark III space suit was requested for use in human-machine interface design of the Science Crew Operations and Utility Testbed (SCOUT) vehicle. The reach and view of two suited and unsuited subjects were evaluated while seated in the vehicle using 3-dimensional position data collected during a series of reaching motions. Data was interpolated and displayed in orthogonal views and cross-sections. Compared with unsuited conditions, medio-lateral reach was not strongly affected by the Mark III suit, whereas vertical and antero-posterior reach were inhibited by the suit. Lateral FOV was reduced by approximately 40 deg. in the suit. The techniques used in this case study may prove useful in human-machine interface design by providing a new means of developing and displaying reach envelopes.

  20. Pilot study to test effectiveness of video game on reaching performance in stroke

    PubMed Central

    Acosta, Ana Maria; Dewald, Hendrik A.; Dewald, Jules P. A.

    2012-01-01

    Robotic systems currently used in upper-limb rehabilitation following stroke rely on some form of visual feedback as part of the intervention program. We evaluated the effect of a video game environment (air hockey) on reaching in stroke with various levels of arm support. We used the Arm Coordination Training 3D system to provide variable arm support and to control the hockey stick. We instructed seven subjects to reach to one of three targets covering the workspace of the impaired arm during the reaching task and to reach as far as possible while playing the video game. The results from this study showed that across subjects, support levels, and targets, the reaching distances achieved with the reaching task were greater than those covered with the video game. This held even after further restricting the mapped workspace of the arm to the area most affected by the flexion synergy (effectively forcing subjects to fight the synergy to reach the hockey puck). The results from this study highlight the importance of designing video games that include specific reaching targets in the workspace compromised by the expression of the flexion synergy. Such video games would also adapt the target location online as a subject’s success rate increases. PMID:21674392

  1. Pilot study to test effectiveness of video game on reaching performance in stroke.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Ana Maria; Dewald, Hendrik A; Dewald, Jules P A

    2011-01-01

    Robotic systems currently used in upper-limb rehabilitation following stroke rely on some form of visual feedback as part of the intervention program. We evaluated the effect of a video game environment (air hockey) on reaching in stroke with various levels of arm support. We used the Arm Coordination Training 3D system to provide variable arm support and to control the hockey stick. We instructed seven subjects to reach to one of three targets covering the workspace of the impaired arm during the reaching task and to reach as far as possible while playing the video game. The results from this study showed that across subjects, support levels, and targets, the reaching distances achieved with the reaching task were greater than those covered with the video game. This held even after further restricting the mapped workspace of the arm to the area most affected by the flexion synergy (effectively forcing subjects to fight the synergy to reach the hockey puck). The results from this study highlight the importance of designing video games that include specific reaching targets in the workspace compromised by the expression of the flexion synergy. Such video games would also adapt the target location online as a subject's success rate increases. PMID:21674392

  2. Walking Is Not Like Reaching: Evidence from Periodic Mechanical Perturbations

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jooeun; Hogan, Neville

    2012-01-01

    The control architecture underlying human reaching has been established, at least in broad outline. However, despite extensive research, the control architecture underlying human locomotion remains unclear. Some studies show evidence of high-level control focused on lower-limb trajectories; others suggest that nonlinear oscillators such as lower-level rhythmic central pattern generators (CPGs) play a significant role. To resolve this ambiguity, we reasoned that if a nonlinear oscillator contributes to locomotor control, human walking should exhibit dynamic entrainment to periodic mechanical perturbation; entrainment is a distinctive behavior of nonlinear oscillators. Here we present the first behavioral evidence that nonlinear neuro-mechanical oscillators contribute to the production of human walking, albeit weakly. As unimpaired human subjects walked at constant speed, we applied periodic torque pulses to the ankle at periods different from their preferred cadence. The gait period of 18 out of 19 subjects entrained to this mechanical perturbation, converging to match that of the perturbation. Significantly, entrainment occurred only if the perturbation period was close to subjects' preferred walking cadence: it exhibited a narrow basin of entrainment. Further, regardless of the phase within the walking cycle at which perturbation was initiated, subjects' gait synchronized or phase-locked with the mechanical perturbation at a phase of gait where it assisted propulsion. These results were affected neither by auditory feedback nor by a distractor task. However, the convergence to phase-locking was slow. These characteristics indicate that nonlinear neuro-mechanical oscillators make at most a modest contribution to human walking. Our results suggest that human locomotor control is not organized as in reaching to meet a predominantly kinematic specification, but is hierarchically organized with a semi-autonomous peripheral oscillator operating under episodic

  3. Ethnic differences in infant feeding practices and their relationship with BMI at 3 years of age - results from the Born in Bradford birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Santorelli, Gillian; Fairley, Lesley; Petherick, Emily S; Cabieses, Baltica; Sahota, Pinki

    2014-05-28

    The present study aimed to explore previously unreported ethnic differences in infant feeding practices during the introduction of solid foods, accounting for maternal and birth factors, and to determine whether these feeding patterns are associated with BMI at 3 years of age. An observational study using Poisson regression was carried out to investigate the relationship between ethnicity and infant feeding practices and linear regression was used to investigate the relationship between feeding practices and BMI at 3 years of age in a subsample of 1327 infants in Bradford. It was found that compared with White British mothers, mothers of Other ethnicities were less likely to replace breast milk with formula milk before introducing solid foods (adjusted relative risk (RR) - Pakistani: 0·76 (95 % CI 0·64, 0·91), Other South Asian: 0·58 (95 % CI 0·39, 0·86), and Other ethnicities: 0·50 (95 % CI 0·34, 0·73)). Pakistani and Other South Asian mothers were less likely to introduce solid foods early ( < 17 weeks) (adjusted RR - Pakistani: 0·92 (95 % CI 0·87, 0·96) and Other South Asian: 0·87 (95 % CI 0·81, 0·93)). Other South Asian mothers and mothers of Other ethnicities were more likely to continue breast-feeding after introducing solid foods (adjusted RR - 1·72 (95 % CI 1·29, 2·29) and 2·12 (95 % CI 1·60, 2·81), respectively). Pakistani and Other South Asian infants were more likely to be fed sweetened foods (adjusted RR - 1·18 (95 % CI 1·13, 1·23) and 1·19 (95 % CI 1·10, 1·28), respectively) and Pakistani infants were more likely to consume sweetened drinks (adjusted RR 1·72 (95 % CI 1·15, 2·57)). No association between infant feeding practices and BMI at 3 years was observed. Although ethnic differences in infant feeding practices were found, there was no association with BMI at 3 years of age. Interventions targeting infant feeding practices need to consider ethnicity to identify which populations are failing to follow

  4. Data and safety monitoring in social behavioral intervention trials: the REACH II experience

    PubMed Central

    Czaja, Sara J; Schulz, Richard; Belle, Steven H; Burgio, Louis D; Armstrong, Nell; Gitlin, Laura N; Coon, David W; Martindale-Adams, Jennifer; Klinger, Julie; Stahl, Sidney M

    2006-01-01

    Background Psychosocial and behavioral interventions trials targeting a broad range of complex social and behavioral problems such as smoking, obesity and family caregiving have proliferated in the past 30 years. At the same time the use of Data and Safety Monitoring Boards (DSMBs) to monitor the progress and quality of intervention trials and the safety of study participants has increased substantially. Most of the existing literature and guidelines for safety monitoring and reporting of adverse events focuses on medical interventions. Consequently, there is little guidance for investigators conducting social and behavior trials. Purpose This paper summarizes how issues associated with safety monitoring and adverse event reporting were handled in the Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer’s Caregiver Health (REACH II) program, a multisite randomized clinical trial, funded by the National Institutes on Aging (NIA) and the National Institutes of Nursing Research (NINR), that tested the efficacy of a multicomponent social/behavioral intervention for caregivers of persons with Alzheimer’s disease. Methods A task force was formed to define adverse events for the trial and protocols for reporting and resolving events that occurred. The task force conducted a review of existing polices and protocols for data and safety monitoring and adverse event reporting and identified potential risks particular to the study population. An informal survey regarding data and safety monitoring procedures with investigators on psychosocial intervention trials was also conducted. Results Two categories of events were defined for both caregivers and patients; adverse events and safety alerts. A distinction was also made between events detected at baseline assessment and those detected post-randomization. Standardized protocols were also developed for the reporting and resolution of events that occurred and training of study personnel. Results from the informal survey indicated wide

  5. Engaging All Americans: Innovative Strategies for Reaching the Public with Climate and Environmental Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinoza, S.

    2014-12-01

    From extensive drought and heat waves to floods, tornadoes and Superstorm Sandy, extreme weather and climate events provide teachable moments to help communities prepare for and respond to related environmental, economic and health impacts. The National Environmental Education Foundation (www.neefusa.org) works with the American Meteorological Society, the media and other trusted messengers to provide weather, climate and environmental information to the public in accessible and widely used formats, whether via TV, radio or social media. NEEF will provide an overview of innovative partnerships and projects that are engaging Americans in understanding and using climate and environmental information to make the best choices in their daily lives and improve the health of their communities, including: Assessing knowledge, attitudes and behaviors: NEEF will share results from its national survey research and targeted focus groups on current attitudes and practices relating to our nation's environment. Simplifying and amplifying key messages: NEEF provides a national network of more than 350 meteorologists, radio broadcasters and journalists with the science-based information and resources they need to present climate and environmental topics to their viewers on-air, online and in community outreach. Engaging television viewers in citizen science: Eyes on Central PA, a pilot project of NEEF, Project Noah and WTAJ-TV, harnesses Project Noah's citizen science platform to collect and display photos of wildlife from WTAJ-TV viewers. NEEF and WTAJ provide regular blogs and on-air stories that highlight viewers' photos and link them to local weather conditions and climate trends. Expanding the conversation: NEEF's multimedia strategy in the Mid-Atlantic U.S. is reaching Spanish-speaking audiences with climate and environmental information through regular radio and television broadcasts. We are also exploring ways to reach other non-traditional audiences, including faith

  6. Augmenting sensorimotor control using "goal-aware" vibrotactile stimulation during reaching and manipulation behaviors.

    PubMed

    Tzorakoleftherakis, Emmanouil; Murphey, Todd D; Scheidt, Robert A

    2016-08-01

    We describe two sets of experiments that examine the ability of vibrotactile encoding of simple position error and combined object states (calculated from an optimal controller) to enhance performance of reaching and manipulation tasks in healthy human adults. The goal of the first experiment (tracking) was to follow a moving target with a cursor on a computer screen. Visual and/or vibrotactile cues were provided in this experiment, and vibrotactile feedback was redundant with visual feedback in that it did not encode any information above and beyond what was already available via vision. After only 10 minutes of practice using vibrotactile feedback to guide performance, subjects tracked the moving target with response latency and movement accuracy values approaching those observed under visually guided reaching. Unlike previous reports on multisensory enhancement, combining vibrotactile and visual feedback of performance errors conferred neither positive nor negative effects on task performance. In the second experiment (balancing), vibrotactile feedback encoded a corrective motor command as a linear combination of object states (derived from a linear-quadratic regulator implementing a trade-off between kinematic and energetic performance) to teach subjects how to balance a simulated inverted pendulum. Here, the tactile feedback signal differed from visual feedback in that it provided information that was not readily available from visual feedback alone. Immediately after applying this novel "goal-aware" vibrotactile feedback, time to failure was improved by a factor of three. Additionally, the effect of vibrotactile training persisted after the feedback was removed. These results suggest that vibrotactile encoding of appropriate combinations of state information may be an effective form of augmented sensory feedback that can be applied, among other purposes, to compensate for lost or compromised proprioception as commonly observed, for example, in stroke

  7. Evidence for a reference frame transformation of vestibular signal contributions to voluntary reaching.

    PubMed

    Moreau-Debord, Ian; Martin, Christophe Z; Landry, Marianne; Green, Andrea M

    2014-05-01

    To contribute appropriately to voluntary reaching during body motion, vestibular signals must be transformed from a head-centered to a body-centered reference frame. We quantitatively investigated the evidence for this transformation during online reach execution by using galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) to simulate rotation about a head-fixed, roughly naso-occipital axis as human subjects made planar reaching movements to a remembered location with their head in different orientations. If vestibular signals that contribute to reach execution have been transformed from a head-centered to a body-centered reference frame, the same stimulation should be interpreted as body tilt with the head upright but as vertical-axis rotation with the head inclined forward. Consequently, GVS should perturb reach trajectories in a head-orientation-dependent way. Consistent with this prediction, GVS applied during reach execution induced trajectory deviations that were significantly larger with the head forward compared with upright. Only with the head forward were trajectories consistently deviated in opposite directions for rightward versus leftward simulated rotation, as appropriate to compensate for body vertical-axis rotation. These results demonstrate that vestibular signals contributing to online reach execution have indeed been transformed from a head-centered to a body-centered reference frame. Reach deviation amplitudes were comparable to those predicted for ideal compensation for body rotation using a biomechanical limb model. Finally, by comparing the effects of application of GVS during reach execution versus prior to reach onset we also provide evidence that spatially transformed vestibular signals contribute to at least partially distinct compensation mechanisms for body motion during reach planning versus execution. PMID:24523527

  8. Reclaiming the vision of reaching for heart as well as hands.

    PubMed

    Peloquin, Suzanne M

    2002-01-01

    Although infrequently discussed in the professional literature, visionary language and visual imagery are identifiable elements within occupational therapy's culture. They seem part of the profession's desire to characterize, affirm, and renew itself. One early vision of practice, that of reaching for heart as well as hands, is the subject of this inquiry that extends a prior discussion of visions in occupational therapy. Central to the inquiry are the early vision's (a) origin, exemplification, and clarity of meaning within one autobiographical text and (b) merits for the profession's characterization, affirmation, and renewal. The early vision of reaching for heart as well as hands may benefit the profession today by characterizing the ethos of occupational therapy as integrative, affirming its practice as occupational, and inspiring its practitioners to renew a commitment to caring. PMID:12269506

  9. Quality Markers in Cardiology. Main Markers to Measure Quality of Results (Outcomes) and Quality Measures Related to Better Results in Clinical Practice (Performance Metrics). INCARDIO (Indicadores de Calidad en Unidades Asistenciales del Área del Corazón): A SEC/SECTCV Consensus Position Paper.

    PubMed

    López-Sendón, José; González-Juanatey, José Ramón; Pinto, Fausto; Cuenca Castillo, José; Badimón, Lina; Dalmau, Regina; González Torrecilla, Esteban; López-Mínguez, José Ramón; Maceira, Alicia M; Pascual-Figal, Domingo; Pomar Moya-Prats, José Luis; Sionis, Alessandro; Zamorano, José Luis

    2015-11-01

    Cardiology practice requires complex organization that impacts overall outcomes and may differ substantially among hospitals and communities. The aim of this consensus document is to define quality markers in cardiology, including markers to measure the quality of results (outcomes metrics) and quality measures related to better results in clinical practice (performance metrics). The document is mainly intended for the Spanish health care system and may serve as a basis for similar documents in other countries. PMID:26315766

  10. Reaching and grasping behavior in Macaca fascicularis: a kinematic study.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Luisa; Camperio Ciani, Andrea; Bulgheroni, Maria; Castiello, Umberto

    2013-01-01

    The prehensile hand is one of the major traits distinguishing primates from other mammal species. All primates, in fact, are able to grasp an object and hold it in part or entirely using a single hand. Although there is a wealth of behavioral data regarding grasping movements in humans and apes, there is relatively little material on macaques, the animal model often used to investigate neuronal mechanisms responsible for grip control in humans. To date, evidence regarding free-ranging macaques is confined to observational data, while quantitative reports describe studies carried out in laboratory settings or in captivity. The purpose of the present study was to provide the first kinematic descriptions of basic grip behavior with regard to precision and power grips in free-ranging macaque monkeys. Video footage of those animals grasping objects was analyzed frame-by-frame using digitalization techniques. The results revealed that the two types of grips considered are each characterized by specific kinematic signatures. It was also found that hand kinematics was scaled depending on the type of grasp needing to be adopted and the intrinsic properties of the object to be grasped. In accordance with data concerning humans, these findings indicate that the intrinsic features of an object affect the planning and control of reach-to-grasp movements even in free-ranging macaques. The data presented here take research in the field of comparative reach-to-grasp kinematics in human and non-human primates another step forward as they are based on precise measurements of spontaneous grasping movements by animals living/acting in their natural environment. PMID:23064847

  11. Does a patient-managed insulin intensification strategy with insulin glargine and insulin glulisine provide similar glycemic control as a physician-managed strategy? Results of the START (Self-Titration With Apidra to Reach Target) Study: a randomized noninferiority trial.

    PubMed

    Harris, Stewart B; Yale, Jean-François; Berard, Lori; Stewart, John; Abbaszadeh, Babak; Webster-Bogaert, Susan; Gerstein, Hertzel C

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Diabetes self-management is universally regarded as a foundation of diabetes care. We determined whether comparable glycemic control could be achieved by self-titration versus physician titration of a once-daily bolus insulin dose in patients with type 2 diabetes who are unable to achieve optimal glycemia control with a basal insulin. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Patients with type 2 diabetes, an HbA1c level >7% (53 mmol/mol), and either nocturnal hypoglycemia episodes or an insufficient basal insulin glargine level (with or without oral agents) to achieve a fasting plasma glucose level ≤6 mmol/L (108 mg/dL) were studied. Participants all had bolus insulin glulisine added at breakfast and were allocated to either algorithm-guided patient self-titration or physician titration. The primary outcome was an HbA1c level ≤7% (53 mmol/mol) without severe hypoglycemia. RESULTS After a mean (SD) follow-up of 159.4 days (36.2 days), 28.4% of participants in the self-titration arm vs. 21.2% in the physician titration arm achieved an HbA1c level of ≤7% (53 mmol/mol) without severe hypoglycemia (between-group absolute difference 7.2%; 95% CI -3.2 to 17.7). The lower end of this 95% confidence interval was within the predetermined noninferiority boundary of -5% (P noninferiority = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS In stable patients with type 2 diabetes who are receiving doses of basal insulin glargine who require bolus insulin, a simple bolus insulin patient-managed titration algorithm is as effective as a physician-managed algorithm. PMID:24170757

  12. Association between imagined and actual functional reach (FR): a comparison of young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Gabbard, Carl; Cordova, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the ability to mentally represent action using motor imagery declines with advanced age (>64 years). As the ability to represent action declines, the elderly may experience increasing difficulty with movement planning and execution. Here, we determined the association between estimation of reach via use of motor imagery and actual FR. Young adults (M=22 years) and older adults (M=66 years) estimated reach while standing with targets randomly presented in peripersonal (within actual reach) and extrapersonal (beyond reach) space. Imagined responses were compared to the individual's scaled maximum reach. FR, also while standing, was assessed using the standardized Functional Reach Test (FRT). Results for total score estimation accuracy showed that there was no difference for age; however, results for mean bias and distribution of error revealed that the older group underestimated while the younger group overestimated. In reference to FR, younger adults outperformed older adults (30 versus 14in.) and most prominent, only the younger group showed a significant relationship between estimation and FR. In addition to gaining insight to the effects of advanced age on the ability to mentally represent action and its association with movement execution, these results although preliminary, may have clinical implications based on the question of whether motor imagery training could improve movement estimations and how that might affect actual reach. PMID:23312569

  13. Reaching Year 12 in Victoria, Australia: Student and School Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Gary

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines student and school influences on reaching Year 12, the final year of schooling in Victoria, Australia. It analyses data from the population of students who were in Year 9 in 2008. Male, English-speaking background, government school, and especially Indigenous students were less likely to reach Year 12 than comparison groups.…

  14. Reference frames for reach planning in macaque dorsal premotor cortex.

    PubMed

    Batista, Aaron P; Santhanam, Gopal; Yu, Byron M; Ryu, Stephen I; Afshar, Afsheen; Shenoy, Krishna V

    2007-08-01

    When a human or animal reaches out to grasp an object, the brain rapidly computes a pattern of muscular contractions that can acquire the target. This computation involves a reference frame transformation because the target's position is initially available only in a visual reference frame, yet the required control signal is a set of commands to the musculature. One of the core brain areas involved in visually guided reaching is the dorsal aspect of the premotor cortex (PMd). Using chronically implanted electrode arrays in two Rhesus monkeys, we studied the contributions of PMd to the reference frame transformation for reaching. PMd neurons are influenced by the locations of reach targets relative to both the arm and the eyes. Some neurons encode reach goals using limb-centered reference frames, whereas others employ eye-centered reference fames. Some cells encode reach goals in a reference frame best described by the combined position of the eyes and hand. In addition to neurons like these where a reference frame could be identified, PMd also contains cells that are influenced by both the eye- and limb-centered locations of reach goals but for which a distinct reference frame could not be determined. We propose two interpretations for these neurons. First, they may encode reach goals using a reference frame we did not investigate, such as intrinsic reference frames. Second, they may not be adequately characterized by any reference frame. PMID:17581846

  15. RACIAL AND ETHNIC APPROACHES TO COMMUNITY HEALTH (REACH)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) 2010 is the cornerstone of CDC's efforts to eliminate racial and ethnic disparities in health. Launched in 1999, REACH 2010 is designed to eliminate disparities in the following six priority areas: cardiovascular disease, i...

  16. Communities of Practice in a Voluntary Youth Organisation: Reaching for the Sky and Building Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Bill; Short, Tom

    2011-01-01

    The study is situated within a national youth organisation called the Australian Air League Inc (Air League). We examine the recent progress of the Air League in South Australia, starting as a loose network of volunteers engaged in a sporadic array of activities, to become a learning community that worked collaboratively and then developed further…

  17. Best Practice in Early Reading Intervention: Implementing a Reading Intervention Program to Reach below Level Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niedringhaus, Bridgett

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a reading intervention program used with second and third grade students identified as not meeting grade level expectancy. Studies have indicated students who are not reading at grade level by the end of the third grade have an increasingly difficult time achieving at the rate of their…

  18. The Continued Development and Practice of School Psychology in Singapore: Using REACH as an Illustration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Ang, Rebecca P.; Ibrahim, Noor Haslinda; Koh, Delphine; Lee, Poh Yin; Ong, Lue Ping; Wong, Geraldine; Fung, Daniel S. S.

    2014-01-01

    School psychology in Singapore gained greater prominence with the development of the National Mental Health Blueprint in 2007 that included a focus on children and adolescents. A partnership between the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Education was formed to develop a community mental health pilot program called 'Response, Early…

  19. Cost-Effectiveness and Clinical Practice Guidelines: Have We Reached a Tipping Point?-An Overview.

    PubMed

    Garrison, Louis P

    2016-01-01

    Given recent developments in the United States, where professional clinical societies have attempted to define "value" and consider it in their deliberations about appropriate care, this thematic article describes those recent specialty society efforts in the United States in cardiology and oncology and the multispecialty efforts in the United Kingdom for over 10 years. Despite our high levels of health spending, and our field's long and consistent approach to the basic tools of cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA), US private and public payers are not routinely or explicitly using CEAs in their reimbursement decisions. This is a puzzle that raises the following question: Why does the United States have so many skilled pharmacoeconomic practitioners and produce so many CEAs given this apparent lack of interest and trust? There are multiple reasons, but the lack of incentives to use the information certainly matters. This article identifies and discusses a number of key issues and challenges for incorporating CEA into US clinical guidelines development: potential bias in manufacturer-sponsored CEAs, the role of societal perspective, payer-subscriber and physician-patient agency relationships, the need for disease area CEA studies and modeling, patient heterogeneity, investigators' conflicts of interest, assessing the quality of economic studies, and aggregation of information using multicriteria decision analysis. These developments suggest that the application of CEA in health care decision making in the United States is evolving and may be approaching a tipping point. With increasing pressures on drug prices, perhaps reflecting challenges to industry sustainability, payers, providers, and patients are looking for value for money. CEA should be an important part of this process. PMID:27565265

  20. Reaching Out: Best Practices for Educating Mexican-Origin Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romo, Harriett D.

    School systems in the United States are not serving Latino students well, especially those from low-income families. This book examines difficulties encountered by Mexican-origin students--one of the fastest growing minority groups--and describes why some schools fall short and how others have improved student outcomes. The focus throughout the…

  1. Reaching targets in the national cervical screening programme: are current practices unethical?

    PubMed Central

    Foster, P; Anderson, C M

    1998-01-01

    The principle of informed consent is now well established within the National Health Service (NHS) in relation to any type of medical treatment. However, this ethical principle appears to be far less well established in relation to medical screening programmes such as Britain's national cervical screening programme. This article will critically examine the case for health care providers vigorously pursuing women to accept an invitation to be screened. It will discuss the type of information which women would need in order to make an informed decision about whether or not to be screened. The lack of such information in current patient leaflets on the "smear test" will then be documented. Finally, the article will explore possible ways of maximising women's autonomy in relation to the cervical screening programme without sacrificing any of its main benefits. PMID:9650108

  2. Effectiveness of trivalent and pandemic influenza vaccines in England and Wales 2008-2010: results from a cohort study in general practice.

    PubMed

    Hardelid, Pia; Fleming, Douglas M; Andrews, Nick; Barley, Michele; Durnall, Hayley; Mangtani, Punam; Pebody, Richard

    2012-02-01

    Estimation of influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) is complicated by various degrees of mismatch between circulating and vaccine strains each season. We carried out a cohort study to estimate VE of trivalent (TIV) and pandemic influenza vaccines (PIV) in preventing various respiratory outcomes among general practice (GP) patients in England and Wales between 2008 and 2010. Dates of consultations for influenza-like illness (ILI), acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI), lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) and nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained from the patient-level electronic records of the 100 practices enrolled in a national GP network. Dates of vaccination with TIV and PIV were also extracted. Confounders including age, time period and consultation frequency were adjusted for through Poisson regression models. In the winter of 2008/9, adjusted VE of TIV in preventing ILI was 22.3% (95% CI 13.5%, 30.2%). During the 2009/10 winter VE for PIV in preventing ILI was 21.0% (5.3%, 34.0%). The VE for PIV in preventing PCR-confirmed influenza A/H1N1 (2009) was 63.7% (-6.1%, 87.6%). TIV during the period of influenza circulation of 2008/9 and PIV in the winter of 2009/10 were effective in preventing GP consultations for ILI. The cohort study design could be used each season to estimate VE; however, residual confounding by indication could still present issues, despite adjustment for propensity to consult. PMID:22178524

  3. A Rapid Tactile-Motor Reflex Automatically Guides Reaching toward Handheld Objects.

    PubMed

    Pruszynski, J Andrew; Johansson, Roland S; Flanagan, J Randall

    2016-03-21

    The ability to respond quickly and effectively when objects in the world suddenly change position is essential for skilled action, and previous work has documented how unexpected changes in the location of a visually presented target during reaching can elicit rapid reflexive (i.e., automatic) corrections of the hand's trajectory [1-12]. In object manipulation and tool use, the sense of touch can also provide information about changes in the location of reach targets. Consider the many tasks where we reach with one hand to part of an object grasped by the other hand: reaching to a berry while holding a branch, reaching for a cap while grasping a bottle, and reaching toward a dog's collar while holding the dog's leash. In such cases, changes in the position of the reach target, due to wind, slip, or an active agent, can be detected, in principle, through touch. Here, we show that when people reach with their right hand to a target attached to the far end of a rod contacted, at the near end, by their left hand, an unexpected change in target location caused by rod rotation rapidly evokes an effective reach correction. That is, spatial information about a change in target location provided by tactile inputs to one hand elicits a rapid correction of the other hand's trajectory. In addition to uncovering a tactile-motor reflex that can support manipulatory actions, our results demonstrate that automatic reach corrections to moving targets are not unique to visually registered changes in target location. PMID:26898466

  4. A predictive model for reach morphology classification in mountain streams using multilayer perceptron methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altunkaynak, Abdüsselam; Strom, Kyle B.

    2009-12-01

    This study uses multilayer perceptron (MP) methods to develop classification models for predicting cascade, step-pool, plane bed, and pool-riffle type reach morphologies in mountain streams. Several models were developed with MP and classical linear regression methods on the basis of the following input variables: channel slope (S), sediment size (d84), bankfull depth (h), and bankfull width (w). Data for model calibration and testing were compiled from previous studies in mountain environments. The data were divided into separate calibration (training) and testing (prediction) sets for both the MP and classical linear regression methods; model performance was based on the percentage of accurately predicted reach morphologies using the testing portion of the data. The results indicate that (1) the MP models outperformed the linear regression models for reach morphology classification; (2) relative submergence (h/d84) was useful for classifying step-pool and pool-riffle reaches but performed poorly in discriminating cascade and plane bed type reaches; (3) inclusion of channel slope in models was important for classifying cascade type reaches; and (4) plane bed reaches were the most difficult to classify and delineate from pool-riffle reaches. The two best performing MP models included the input variables (S, h/d84) and (S, h/d84, w). The overall predictive accuracy for classification of reach type for the two models was 81% and 83%, respectively, with predictive accuracies by reach type as follows: cascade, 100%; step-pool, 81%; plane bed, 67%; pool-riffle, 88% (first model) and cascade, 100%; step-pool, 87%; plane bed, 70%; pool-riffle, 90% (second model).

  5. Reduced cortical motor potentials underlie reductions in memory-guided reaching performance.

    PubMed

    Krigolson, Olav; Bell, Jon; Kent, Courtney M; Heath, Matthew; Holroyd, Clay B

    2012-07-01

    We used the event-related potential (ERP) methodology to examine differences in neural processing between visually and memory-guided reaches. Consistent with previous findings (e.g., Westwood, Heath, & Roy, 2003), memory-guided reaches undershot veridical target location to a greater extent than their visually guided counterparts. Analysis of the ERP data revealed that memory-guided reaches were associated with reduced potentials over medial-frontal cortex at target presentation and following movement onset. Further, we found that the amplitudes of the potentials over medial-frontal cortex for visually and memory-guided reaches were significantly correlated with the peak accelerations and decelerations of the reaching movements. Our results suggest that memory-guided reaches are mediated by a motor plan that is generated while a target is visible, and then stored in memory until needed--a result counter to recent behavioral theories asserting that memory-guided reaches are planned just before movement onset via a stored, sensory-based target representation. PMID:22643098

  6. The far reaches of the solar wind - Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 plasma results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kayser, S. E.; Barnes, A.; Mihalov, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    Selected plasma parameters observed by Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 between launch (1972 and 1973) and the end of 1979 are used to find the large-scale radial structure of the solar wind. Comparison of data from the two spacecraft is used to separate temporal from spatial variations. The average bulk speed is found to remain constant at about 430 km/s, with stream structure still evident, though of diminished amplitude, at 20.5 AU (Pioneer 10's distance by the end of 1979). Proton density, flux, pressure, and kinetic energy flux are found to have radial profiles consistent with 1/R-squared. Proton temperatures decrease as R to the -0.6 power, too slowly for an adiabatic expansion.

  7. Model Lessons for Social Studies Grades 4 & 8. Reaching for Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge.

    These Louisiana state social studies model lessons, developed and written with the assumption that the lessons would be presented by teachers who are certified in the content areas, are designed to be student driven instruction, is inquiry- and performance-based, and assessment is meaningful and authentic. The lessons focus on understanding…

  8. Evaluation of Intervention Reach on a Citywide Health Behavior Change Campaign: Cross-Sectional Study Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimazaki, Takashi; Takenaka, Koji

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about dissemination strategies that contribute to health information recognition. This study examined (a) health campaign exposure and awareness (slogan and logo recognition); (b) perceived communication channels; (c) differences between perceptions of researcher-developed and enhancement community health information materials; and…

  9. Evaluation of Intervention Reach on a Citywide Health Behavior Change Campaign: Cross-Sectional Study Results.

    PubMed

    Shimazaki, Takashi; Takenaka, Koji

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about dissemination strategies that contribute to health information recognition. This study examined (a) health campaign exposure and awareness (slogan and logo recognition); (b) perceived communication channels; (c) differences between perceptions of researcher-developed and enhancement community health information materials; and (d) differences in campaign awareness and communication channels, according to Japanese community demographic characteristics. A cross-sectional survey (N = 508) was conducted in Tokigawa, Japan, in 2013. The Small Change Campaign focused on increasing physical activity and improving dietary habits. Information dissemination was carried out using leaflets, newsletters, posters, website, local public relations magazines, health classes, events, and online newsletters. The participants completed a survey assessing their campaign awareness (i.e., slogan and logo) and exposure to the informational materials presented during the campaign. Fewer than half (45.4%) knew the slogan, and only 24.4% were aware of the logo. Public relations magazines, leaflets, and newsletters were significantly better-perceived health communication channels. Researcher-developed and enhancement community health information materials were equally recognized (p = .34, w = .08). Furthermore, women and those who were employed were significantly more aware of the slogan, logo, and communication materials. Further research should explore effective communication strategies for community-based health promotion intervention via randomized control trials. PMID:25869407

  10. Visual information throughout a reach determines endpoint precision.

    PubMed

    Ma-Wyatt, Anna; McKee, Suzanne P

    2007-05-01

    People make rapid, goal-directed movements to interact with their environment. Because these movements have consequences, it is important to be able to control them with a high level of precision and accuracy. Our hypothesis is that vision guides rapid hand movements, thereby enhancing their accuracy and precision. To test this idea, we asked observers to point to a briefly presented target (110 ms). We measured the impact of visual information on endpoint precision by using a shutter to close off view of the hand 50, 110 and 250 ms into the reach. We found that precision was degraded if the view of the hand was restricted at any time during the reach, despite the fact that the target disappeared long before the reach was completed. We therefore conclude that vision keeps the hand on the planned trajectory. We then investigated the effects of a perturbation of target position during the reach. For these experiments, the target remained visible until the reach was completed. The target position was shifted at 110, 180 or 250 ms into the reach. Early shifts in target position were easily compensated for, but late shifts led to a shift in the mean position of the endpoints; observers pointed to the center of the two locations, as a kind of best bet on the position of the target. Visual information is used to guide the hand throughout a reach and has a significant impact on endpoint precision. PMID:17109109

  11. The Social Reach: 8-Month-Olds Reach for Unobtainable Objects in the Presence of Another Person.

    PubMed

    Ramenzoni, Verónica C; Liszkowski, Ulf

    2016-09-01

    Linguistic communication builds on prelinguistic communicative gestures, but the ontogenetic origins and complexities of these prelinguistic gestures are not well known. The current study tested whether 8-month-olds, who do not yet point communicatively, use instrumental actions for communicative purposes. In two experiments, infants reached for objects when another person was present and when no one else was present; the distance to the objects was varied. When alone, the infants reached for objects within their action boundaries and refrained from reaching for objects out of their action boundaries; thus, they knew about their individual action efficiency. However, when a parent (Experiment 1) or a less familiar person (Experiment 2) sat next to them, the infants selectively increased their reaching for out-of-reach objects. The findings reveal that before they communicate explicitly through pointing gestures, infants use instrumental actions with the apparent expectation that a partner will adopt and complete their goals. PMID:27481910

  12. Consumer exposure modelling under REACH: Assessing the defaults.

    PubMed

    Oltmanns, J; Neisel, F; Heinemeyer, G; Kaiser, E; Schneider, K

    2015-07-01

    Consumer exposure to chemicals from products and articles is rarely monitored. Since an assessment of consumer exposure has become particularly important under the European REACH Regulation, dedicated modelling approaches with exposure assessment tools are applied. The results of these tools are critically dependent on the default input values embedded in the tools. These inputs were therefore compiled for three lower tier tools (ECETOC TRA (version 3.0), EGRET and REACT)) and benchmarked against a higher tier tool (ConsExpo (version 4.1)). Mostly, conservative input values are used in the lower tier tools. Some cases were identified where the lower tier tools used less conservative values than ConsExpo. However, these deviations only rarely resulted in less conservative exposure estimates compared to ConsExpo, when tested in reference scenarios. This finding is mainly due to the conservatism of (a) the default value for the thickness of the product layer (with complete release of the substance) used for the prediction of dermal exposure and (b) the complete release assumed for volatile substances (i.e. substances with a vapour pressure ⩾10Pa) for inhalation exposure estimates. The examples demonstrate that care must be taken when changing critical defaults in order to retain conservative estimates of consumer exposure to chemicals. PMID:25908511

  13. Recovery of three arctic stream reaches from experimental nutrient enrichment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benstead, J.P.; Green, A.C.; Deegan, Linda A.; Peterson, B.J.; Slavik, K.; Bowden, W.B.; Hershey, A.E.

    2007-01-01

    1. Nutrient enrichment and resulting eutrophication is a widespread anthropogenic influence on freshwater ecosystems, but recovery from nutrient enrichment is poorly understood, especially in stream environments. We examined multi-year patterns in community recovery from experimental low-concentration nutrient enrichment (N + P or P only) in three reaches of two Arctic tundra streams (Kuparuk River and Oksrukuyik Creek) on the North Slope of Alaska (U.S.A.). 2. Rates of recovery varied among community components and depended on duration of enrichment (2-13 consecutive growing seasons). Biomass of epilithic algae returned to reference levels rapidly (within 2 years), regardless of nutrients added or enrichment duration. Aquatic bryophyte cover, which increased greatly in the Kuparuk River only after long-term enrichment (8 years), took 8 years of recovery to approach reference levels, after storms had scoured most remnant moss in the recovering reach. 3. Multi-year persistence of bryophytes in the Kuparuk River appeared to prevent recovery of insect populations that had either been positively (e.g. the mayfly Ephemerella, most chironomid midge taxa) or negatively (e.g. the tube-building chironomid Orthocladius rivulorum) affected by this shift in dominant primary producer. These lags in recovery (of >3 years) were probably driven by the persistent effect of bryophytes on physical benthic habitat. 4. Summer growth rates of Arctic grayling (both adults and young-of-year) in Oksrukuyik Creek (fertilised for 6 years with no bryophyte colonisation), which were consistently increased by nutrient addition, returned to reference rates within 1-2 years. 5. Rates of recovery of these virtually pristine Arctic stream ecosystems from low-level nutrient enrichment appeared to be controlled largely by duration of enrichment, mediated through physical habitat shifts caused by eventual bryophyte colonisation, and subsequent physical disturbance that removed bryophytes. Nutrient

  14. [Depth of edge influence on agriculture-forestry boundary in arid valley of upper reaches of Minjiang River, China].

    PubMed

    Li, Liguang; He, Xingyuan; Li, Xiuzhen; Wen, Qingchun; Zhao, Yonghua; Hu, Zhibin; Chang, Yu; Zhu, Yaping

    2004-10-01

    By using moving split-window techniques (MSWT), this study estimated how far the edge effects penetrated the forest and agricultural fields in the arid valley of upper reaches of Minjiang River, southwestern China. Its aim was to provide general information on vegetation along edge to interior gradients in order to assist in interpretation and prediction of biological phenomena associated with agriculture-forestry boundary, and to improve current management practices in such areas. Three types of boundaries (10 transects) were investigated and sampled. The results showed that when the window width reached 6-10, the change of the SED curve on the graph tended to become stable, and one or two peaks occurred. The depth of edge influence was clearly different for different types of boundaries, and could be estimated within 50 m from the edge to interior. The depth of edge influence (DEI) on vegetation diversity almost varied between 12-30 m, mainly depending on the patch type, topography and microclimate, but seldom on slope orientation. Of the 6 forest transects in the three types of boundaries, the DEI was detected only in the forest part transects M2 and M6, but almost detectable in the agricultural part of all transects. MSWT was considered to be a useful tool for characterizing edge dynamics if enough data was available, and became a simple and powerful technique for analyzing the boundary. The results will provide further knowledge for understanding the interaction between forestry and agriculture in the arid valley. PMID:15624812

  15. Comparison of current Shuttle and pre-Challenger flight suit reach capability during launch accelerations.

    PubMed

    Bagian, J P; Schafer, L E

    1992-07-01

    The Challenger accident prompted the creation of a crew escape system which replaced the former Launch Entry Helmet (LEH) ensemble with the current Launch Entry Suit (LES). However, questions were raised regarding the impact of this change on crew reach capability. Our study addressed the question of reach capability and its effect on realistic ground-based training for Space Shuttle missions. Eleven subjects performed reach sweeps in both the LEH and LES suits during 1 and 3 Gx acceleration trials in the Brooks AFB, TX, centrifuge. These reach sweeps were recorded on videotape and subsequently analyzed using a three-dimensional motion analysis system. The ANOVA procedure of the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) program was used to evaluate differences in forward and overhead reach. The results showed that the LES provided less reach capability than its predecessor, the LEH. This study also demonstrated that, since there was no substantial difference between 1 and 3 Gx reach sweeps in the LES, realistic Shuttle launch training may be accomplished in ground-based simulators. PMID:1616441

  16. Comparison of current Shuttle and pre-Challenger flight suit reach capability during launch accelerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagian, James P.; Schafer, Lauren E.

    1992-01-01

    The Challenger accident prompted the creation of a crew escape system which replaced the former Launch Entry Helmet (LEH) ensemble with the current Launch Entry Suit (LES). However, questions were raised regarding the impact of this change on crew reach capability. This study addressed the question of reach capability and its effects on realistic ground-based training for Space Shuttle missions. Eleven subjects performed reach sweeps in both the LEH and LES suits during 1 and 3 Gx acceleration trials in the Brooks AFB centrifuge. These reach sweeps were recorded on videotape and subsequently analyzed using a 3D motion analysis system. The ANOVA procedure of the Statistical Analysis System program was used to evaluate differences in forward and overhead reach. The results showed that the LES provided less reach capability than its predecessor, the LEH. This study also demonstrated that, since there was no substantial difference between 1 and 3 Gx reach sweeps in the LES, realistic Shuttle launch training may be accomplished in ground based simulators.

  17. New Stream-Reach Hydropower Development (NSD) Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2014-04-25

    This fact sheet explores the more than 65 gigawatts (GW) of sustainable hydropower potential in U.S. stream-reaches, according to the hydropower resource assessment funded by DOE and executed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  18. Helping the Library Reach Out to the Future

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Helping the Library Reach Out to the Future Past Issues / Fall ... On behalf of the Friends of the National Library of Medicine (FNLM), welcome to the Fall 2007 ...

  19. Helping the Library Reach Out to the Future

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Helping the Library Reach Out to the Future Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents For ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Encouraging future medical researchers: (l-r) NLM Director Dr. Donald ...

  20. Multimodal perception in the control of infant reaching.

    PubMed

    Clifton, R K; Rochat, P; Robin, D J; Berthier, N E

    1994-08-01

    Six-month-old infants were presented with sounding objects under 3 conditions of illumination: in full vision, in the dark with target location specified by a glowing and sounding object, and in the dark with location specified by sound alone. Reaching behavior was videotaped with an infrared camera, and hand movement was measured by infrared-emitting diodes on the hand that were tracked by a motion analysis system. No differences were found in reaching behavior for objects in the light and glowing objects in the dark. Reaches for sounding objects in the dark had higher speeds, shorter durations, and more errors compared to the other 2 conditions. These findings indicate that vision of the hand did not appear to affect infants' reaching in this situation, whereas vision of the target did. PMID:8083641

  1. Analysis of changes in teachers concerning constructivist perceptions, philosophies, and practices resulting from the year-long Iowa Chautauqua Professional Development Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd Hamid, Nor Hashidah

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which teachers were able to make changes needed to move toward the use of more constructivist behaviors after being involved in the year long Iowa Chautauqua Professional Development Program (ICPDP). Constructivist behaviors were investigated from four perspectives; namely, actual classroom performances as viewed from videotapes, teachers and student perceptions of teacher use of constructivist teaching practices, teacher philosophy as revealed from the open-ended Philosophy of Teaching and Learning Instrument (PTL), and teacher reflections about their inquiry classrooms and uses of questioning strategies. Twenty-seven teacher participants and 321 of their students volunteered to participant in this study. Four types of data were collected to answer the research questions, namely (a) Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES), (b) Philosophies of Teaching and Learning (PTL), (c) Videotapes evaluated with the Expert Science Teaching Evaluation Model (ESTEEM), and (d) Teacher Reflections regarding teaching strategies and questioning. Major findings include the following: (1) Teachers in the project showed significant growth concerning constructivist perceptions over time and for all six sub-scales of TCLES, namely personal relevance, scientific uncertainty, critical voice, shared control, student negotiation, and attitude toward science. (2) Teachers in the project indicated significant growth concerning philosophy of teaching and learning as measured by the PTL. (3) Teachers in the project indicated significant growth concerning constructivist teaching practices as evaluated by videotapes (using the ESTEEM instrument); significant differences were found for all four sub-scales of the ESTEEM. (4) Students in the project indicated significant growth concerning their constructivist perceptions over time for the total SCLES score and on the sub-scales of scientific uncertainty, shared control, and student

  2. Enhancing the Quality of Prescribing Practices for Older Veterans Discharged from the Emergency Department (EQUiPPED): Preliminary Results from Enhancing Quality of Prescribing Practices for Older Veterans Discharged from the Emergency Department, a Novel Multicomponent Interdisciplinary Quality Improvement Initiative.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Melissa B; Hastings, Susan Nicole; Powers, James; Vandenberg, Ann E; Echt, Katharina V; Bryan, William E; Peggs, Kiffany; Markland, Alayne D; Hwang, Ula; Hung, William W; Schmidt, Anita J; McGwin, Gerald; Ikpe-Ekpo, Edidiong; Clevenger, Carolyn; Johnson, Theodore M; Vaughan, Camille P

    2015-05-01

    Suboptimal medication prescribing for older adults has been described in a number of emergency department (ED) studies. Despite this, few studies have examined ED-targeted interventions aimed at reducing the use of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs). Enhancing Quality of Prescribing Practices for Older Veterans Discharged from the ED (EQUiPPED) is an ongoing multicomponent, interdisciplinary quality improvement initiative in eight Department of Veterans Affairs EDs. The project aims to decrease the use of PIMs, as identified by the Beers criteria, prescribed to veterans aged 65 and older at the time of ED discharge. Interventions include provider education; informatics-based clinical decision support with electronic medical record-embedded geriatric pharmacy order sets and links to online geriatric content; and individual provider education including academic detailing, audit and feedback, and peer benchmarking. Poisson regression was used to compare the number of PIMs that staff providers prescribed to veterans aged 65 and older discharged from the ED before and after the initiation of the EQUiPPED intervention. Initial data from the first implementation site show that the average monthly proportion of PIMs that staff providers prescribed was 9.4±1.5% before the intervention and 4.6±1.0% after the initiation of EQUiPPED (relative risk=0.48, 95% confidence interval=0.40-0.59, P<.001). Preliminary evaluation demonstrated a significant and sustained reduction of ED-prescribed PIMs in older veterans after implementation of EQUiPPED. Longer follow-up and replication at collaborating sites would allow for an assessment of the effect on health outcomes and costs. PMID:25945692

  3. Predicting targets of human reaching motions using different sensing technologies.

    PubMed

    Novak, Domen; Omlin, Ximena; Leins-Hess, Rebecca; Riener, Robert

    2013-09-01

    Rapid recognition of voluntary motions is crucial in human-computer interaction, but few studies compare the predictive abilities of different sensing technologies. This paper thus compares performances of different technologies when predicting targets of human reaching motions: electroencephalography (EEG), electrooculography, camera-based eye tracking, electromyography (EMG), hand position, and the user's preferences. Supervised machine learning is used to make predictions at different points in time (before and during limb motion) with each individual sensing modality. Different modalities are then combined using an algorithm that takes into account the different times at which modalities provide useful information. Results show that EEG can make predictions before limb motion onset, but requires subject-specific training and exhibits decreased performance as the number of possible targets increases. EMG and hand position give high accuracy, but only once the motion has begun. Eye tracking is robust and exhibits high accuracy at the very onset of limb motion. Several advantages of combining different modalities are also shown, including advantages of combining measurements with contextual data. Finally, some recommendations are given for sensing modalities with regard to different criteria and applications. The information could aid human-computer interaction designers in selecting and evaluating appropriate equipment for their applications. PMID:23674417

  4. On reaching the adiabatic limit in multi-field inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renaux-Petel, Sébastien; Turzyński, Krzysztof

    2015-06-01

    We calculate the scalar spectral index ns and the tensor-to-scalar ratio r in a class of recently proposed two-field no-scale inflationary models in supergravity. We show that, in order to obtain correct predictions, it is crucial to take into account the coupling between the curvature and the isocurvature perturbations induced by the noncanonical form of the kinetic terms. This coupling enhances the curvature perturbation and suppresses the resulting tensor-to-scalar ratio to the per mille level even for values of the slow-roll parameter epsilon ~ 0.01. Beyond these particular models, we emphasise that multifield models of inflation are a priori not predictive, unless one supplies a prescription for the post-inflationary era, or an adiabatic limit is reached before the end of inflation. We examine the conditions that enabled us to actually derive predictions in the models under study, by analysing the various contributions to the effective isocurvature mass in general two-field inflationary models. In particular, we point out a universal geometrical contribution that is important at the end of inflation, and which can be directly extracted from the inflationary Lagrangian, independently of a specific trajectory. Eventually, we point out that spectator fields can lead to oscillatory features in the time-dependent power spectra at the end of inflation. We demonstrate how these features can be model semi-analytically as well as the theoretical uncertainties they can entail.

  5. Breakthrough capability for UVOIR space astronomy: Reaching the darkest sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Benson, Scott W.; Englander, Jacob; Falck, Robert D.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Kruk, Jeffrey W.; Oleson, Steven R.; Thronson, Harley A.

    2015-02-01

    We describe how availability of new solar electric propulsion (SEP) technology can substantially increase the science capability of space astronomy missions working within the near-UV to far-infrared (UVOIR) spectrum by making dark sky orbits accessible for the first time. We present a proof of concept case study in which SEP is used to enable a 700 kg Explorer-class observatory payload to reach an orbit beyond where the zodiacal dust limits observatory sensitivity. The resulting scientific performance advantage relative to a Sun-Earth L2 point orbit is presented and discussed. We find that making SEP available to astrophysics Explorers can enable this small payload program to rival the science performance of much larger long development-time systems. We also present flight dynamics analysis which illustrates that this concept can be extended beyond Explorers to substantially improve the sensitivity performance of heavier (7000 kg) flagship-class astrophysics payloads such as the UVOIR successor to the James Webb Space Telescope by using high power SEP that is being developed for the Asteroid Redirect Robotics Mission.

  6. Lotic community responses in the Lees Ferry reach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinney, T.; Rogers, R. S.; Ayers, A. D.; Persons, W. R.

    Responses of periphyton, aquatic macrophytes, benthic macroinvertebrates, and rainbow trout to the 1996 controlled flood were investigated in the Lees Ferry tailwater reach below Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado River. Lotic biota differed spatially and temporally in abundance and distribution following recession of flood waters, and there was no evidence that the flood benefitted trout or lower trophic levels. The flood was associated with short-term changes in lower trophic levels, but benthic vegetation and macrofauna with low resistance were resilient. Adverse impacts of the flood on lower trophic levels were greater and more prolonged in depositional areas than on cobble bar habitat, but recovery occurred in both habitat types 4-8 months after the flood. The flood likely resulted in some downstream displacement of smaller fish but had no effects on catch rate or condition indices of trout. Percentage of young-of-the-year trout 8 months after the event indicates that the flood did not prevent successful spawning. The flood had little direct influence on diets of trout, but relative gut volume increased in the week after the event, remained high in summer, and composition changed seasonally. Amphipods (Gammarus lacustris), chironomids, and snails were predominant food items, and Gammarus generally were eaten more often and comprised greater relative volume in the diet than other macroinvertebrate taxa.

  7. Task goals influence online corrections and adaptation of reaching movements

    PubMed Central

    Ivry, Richard B.

    2011-01-01

    Everyday movements often have multiple solutions. Many of these solutions arise from biomechanical redundancies. Often, however, the goal does not require a unique movement. To examine how people exploit task-related redundancy, we observed as participants produced three-dimensional (3-D) reaching movements, moving to one of two rectangular targets that were diagonally oriented in the frontal (x, y) plane. On most trials, the movement was perturbed by a vertical, velocity-dependent force. Since participants were free to move in 3-D space, online corrections could involve movement along the perturbed, vertical dimension, as well as the nonperturbed, horizontal dimension. If the motor system exploits task redundancies, then corrections along the horizontal dimension should depend on the orientation of the target. Consistent with this prediction, participants modified both the horizontal and vertical coordinates of the trajectory over the course of learning, and the horizontal component was sensitive to the orientation of the target. Furthermore, participants produced online corrections with a horizontal component that brought the hand closer to the target. These results suggest that we not only correct for mismatches between expected and experienced forces but also exploit task-specific redundancies to efficiently improve performance. PMID:21849618

  8. Breakthrough Capability for UVOIR Space Astronomy: Reaching the Darkest Sky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Benson, Scott W.; Englander, Jacob; Falck, Robert D.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Kruk, Jeffery W.; Oleson, Steven R.; Thronson, Harley A.

    2015-01-01

    We describe how availability of new solar electric propulsion (SEP) technology can substantially increase the science capability of space astronomy missions working within the near-UV to far-infrared (UVOIR) spectrum by making dark sky orbits accessible for the first time. We present two case studies in which SEP is used to enable a 700 kg Explorer-class and 7000 kg flagship-class observatory payload to reach an orbit beyond where the zodiacal dust limits observatory sensitivity. The resulting scientific performance advantage relative to a Sun-Earth L2 point (SEL2) orbit is presented and discussed. We find that making SEP available to astrophysics Explorers can enable this small payload program to rival the science performance of much larger long development-time systems. Similarly, we find that astrophysics utilization of high power SEP being developed for the Asteroid Redirect Robotics Mission (ARRM) can have a substantial impact on the sensitivity performance of heavier flagship-class astrophysics payloads such as the UVOIR successor to the James Webb Space Telescope.

  9. Breakthrough Capability for UVOIR Space Astronomy: Reaching the Darkest Sky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Benson, Scott W.; Englander, Jacob; Falck, Robert D.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Kruk, Jeffrey W.; Oleson, Steven R.; Thronson, Harley A.

    2014-01-01

    We describe how availability of new solar electric propulsion (SEP) technology can substantially increase the science capability of space astronomy missions working within the near-UV to far-infrared (UVOIR) spectrum by making dark sky orbits accessible for the first time. We present a proof of concept case study in which SEP is used to enable a 700 kg Explorer-class observatory payload to reach an orbit beyond where the zodiacal dust limits observatory sensitivity. The resulting scientific performance advantage relative to a Sun-Earth L2 point orbit is presented and discussed. We find that making SEP available to astrophysics Explorers can enable this small payload program to rival the science performance of much larger long development-time systems. We also present flight dynamics analysis which illustrates that this concept can be extended beyond Explorers to substantially improve the sensitivity performance of heavier (7000 kg) flagship-class astrophysics payloads such as the UVOIR successor to the James Webb Space Telescope by using high power SEP that is being developed for the Asteroid Redirect Robotics Mission.

  10. Characterization of streamflow, water quality, and instantaneous dissolved solids, selenium, and uranium loads in selected reaches of the Arkansas River, southeastern Colorado, 2009-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ivahnenko, Tamara; Ortiz, Roderick F.; Stogner, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    As a result of continued water-quality concerns in the Arkansas River, including metal contamination from historical mining practices, potential effects associated with storage and movement of water, point- and nonpoint-source contamination, population growth, storm-water flows, and future changes in land and water use, the Arkansas River Basin Regional Resource Planning Group (RRPG) developed a strategy to address these issues. As such, a cooperative strategic approach to address the multiple water-quality concerns within selected reaches of the Arkansas River was developed to (1) identify stream reaches where stream-aquifer interactions have a pronounced effect on water quality and (or) where reactive transport, and physical and (or) chemical alteration of flow during conveyance, is occurring, (2) quantify loading from point sources, and (3) determine source areas and mass loading for selected constituents. (To see the complete abstract, open Report PDF.)

  11. Impact of eLearning course on nurses' professional competence in seclusion and restraint practices: 9-month follow-up results of a randomized controlled study (ISRCTN32869544).

    PubMed

    Kontio, R; Hätönen, H; Joffe, G; Pitkänen, A; Lahti, M; Välimäki, M

    2013-04-01

    eLearning may facilitate continuing vocational education, but data on the long-term effects of an eLearning course are lacking. The aim of this study was to explore the long-term impact of an eLearning course entitled ePsychNurse.Net on psychiatric nurses' professional competence in practicing seclusion and restraint and on their job satisfaction and general self-efficacy at 9-month follow-up. In a randomized controlled study, 12 wards were randomly assigned to the ePsychNurse.Net (intervention) or training as usual (control). Baseline and 9-month follow-up data on nurses' knowledge of coercion-related legislation, physical restraint and seclusion, their attitudes towards physical restraint and seclusion, job satisfaction and general self-efficacy were analysed for 137 completers (those who participated in the 9-month follow-up assessment). No between-group differences were found on any variable, with the exception of a change in attitude to seclusion in favour of the control group. The findings of the long-term effects did not differ from the immediate outcomes (3-month follow-up) and the improved level of knowledge acquired and further consolidation of that knowledge did not take place in the 6-month period after the 3-month ePsychNurse.Net course. The ePsychNurse.Net should be further developed and its future modifications will require additional studies, probably with some new outcome measures. PMID:22672441

  12. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 27: The technical communication practices of engineering and science students: Results of the phase 3 academic surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Hecht, Laura M.; Kennedy, John M.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes similarities and differences between undergraduate and graduate engineering science students in the context of two general aspects of the educational experience. First, we explore the extent to which students differ regarding the factors that lead to the choice of becoming an engineer or a scientist, current satisfaction with that choice, and career-related goals and objectives. Second, we look at the technical communication practices, habits, and training of engineers and science (Physics) students. The reported data were obtained from a survey of students enrolled in the College of Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Bowling Green State University, and Texas A&M University. The survey was undertaken as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Data are reported for the following categories: student demographics; skill importance, skill training, and skill helpfulness; collaborative writing; computer and information technology use and importance, use of electronic networks; use and importance of libraries and library services; use and importance of information sources and products; use of foreign technical reports; and foreign language (reading and speaking) skills.

  13. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 26: The technical communication practices of aerospace engineering students: Results of the phase 3 AIAA National Student Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Hecht, Laura M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes similarities and differences between undergraduate and graduate engineering students in the context of two general aspects of the educational experience. First, we explore the extent to which students differ regarding the factors that lead to the choice of becoming an engineer, current satisfaction with that choice, and career-related goals and objectives. Second, we look at the technical communication practices, habits, and training of aerospace engineering students. The reported data were obtained from a survey of student members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). The survey was undertaken as a phase 3 activity of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Data are reported for the following categories: student demographics; skill importance, skill training, and skill helpfulness; collaborative writing; computer and information technology use and importance; use of electronic networks; use and importance of libraries and library services; use and importance of information sources and products; use of foreign language technical reports; and foreign language (reading and speaking) skills.

  14. Management of patients at risk of osteoradionecrosis: results of survey of dentists and oral & maxillofacial surgery units in the United Kingdom, and suggestions for best practice.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Niall M H; Bater, Michael C; Brennan, Peter A

    2010-06-01

    We aimed to find out whether dental practitioners take specific measures to identify patients who are at risk of osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the jawbones; how oral and maxillofacial surgery units in the United Kingdom manage patients who have had radiotherapy and require dental extractions, and the evidence behind current practice. We sent postal questionnaires to 60 dentists and 117 maxillofacial units. Dentists were questioned about measures used to identify radiotherapy patients, and use of antibiotic prophylaxis. Maxillofacial units were questioned about the existence of written protocols and the measures used to minimise the risk of ORN. Thirty-five percent of dentists questioned ask specifically about head and neck cancer or radiotherapy as part of their medical history, and 5% of maxillofacial units questioned had written protocols for the management of patients who had had radiotherapy or had previously been diagnosed with ORN. Prophylactic antibiotics are recommended for patients at risk of ORN by 16% of dentists and 81% of maxillofacial units. Preoperative mouthwash is recommended by 59% of maxillofacial units. Identification of patients at risk of ORN is the first step in prevention but it is not done efficiently at present. Recommendations include the use of preoperative mouthwash and prophylactic antibiotics. Operations should be atraumatic and should be done by experienced clinicians. PMID:19660845

  15. Reducing antibiotic prescriptions for respiratory tract infections in family practice: results of a cluster randomized controlled trial evaluating a multifaceted peer-group-based intervention.

    PubMed

    Vervloet, Marcia; Meulepas, Marianne A; Cals, Jochen W L; Eimers, Mariëtta; van der Hoek, Lucas S; van Dijk, Liset

    2016-01-01

    Irrational antibiotic use for respiratory tract infections (RTI) is a major driver of bacterial resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a multifaceted peer-group based intervention aiming to reduce RTI-related antibiotic prescriptions in family practice. This was a cluster randomized controlled trial with pre- and follow-up measurement. The intervention was implemented through PharmacoTherapy Audit Meetings (PTAM) in which family physicians (FPs) and pharmacists collaborate. Four PTAM groups received the intervention consisting of: (1) FP communication skills training, including communication about delayed prescribing; (2) implementation of antibiotic prescribing agreements in FPs' Electronic Prescribing Systems; (3) quarterly feedback figures for FPs. Four other PTAM groups were matched controls. Primary outcome measure was the number of RTI-related antibiotic prescriptions after the intervention, assessed with multilevel linear regression analyses. Total number and number of prescriptions stratified by age (under/over 12 years) were analysed. At baseline, the average total number of RTI-related antibiotic prescriptions per 1,000 patients was 207.9 and 176.7 in the intervention and control PTAM groups, respectively. At follow-up, FPs in both the intervention and control groups prescribed significantly less antibiotics. For adolescents and adults, the drop in number of antibiotic prescription was significantly larger in the intervention groups (-27.8 per 1,000 patients) than the control groups (-7.2 per 1,000 patients; P<0.05). This multifaceted peer-group-based intervention was effective in reducing the number of RTI-related antibiotic prescriptions for adolescents and adults. To affect antibiotic prescribing in children other methods are needed. PMID:26845640

  16. Factor XI replacement for inherited factor XI deficiency in routine clinical practice: results of the HEMOLEVEN prospective 3-year postmarketing study

    PubMed Central

    Bauduer, F; de Raucourt, E; Boyer-Neumann, C; Trossaert, M; Beurrier, P; Faradji, A; Peynet, J; Borg, J-Y; Chamouni, P; Chatelanaz, C; Henriet, C; Bridey, F; Goudemand, J

    2015-01-01

    Factor XI (FXI)-deficient patients may develop excessive bleeding after trauma or surgery. Replacement therapy should be considered in high-risk situations, especially when FXI levels are below 20 IU dL−1. HEMOLEVEN is a human plasma-derived factor XI concentrate available in France since 1992, but there are few data regarding its use by physicians. This prospective study assessed the use, efficacy and safety of HEMOLEVEN in common clinical practice. HEMOLEVEN was evaluated in FXI-deficient patients in 13 French centres in a 3-year postmarketing study. Forty-four patients (30 females, 14 males) received 67 treatments. The median age was 37 years (8 months–91 years). Basal FXI levels were <1 to 51 IU dL−1 (median: 5.5); 29 patients were severely FXI-deficient (<20 IU dL−1). FXI was administered prophylactically before 43 surgical procedures, 10 invasive procedures, 8 vaginal deliveries, or as curative treatment for six bleeds. The efficacy was assessed as excellent/good in 63, moderate in two and undetermined in two treatments. Seven patients experienced seven adverse effects, including two rated as serious: one sudden massive pulmonary embolism with fatal outcome and one case of inhibitor to FXI. HEMOLEVEN is effective for bleeding prevention in FXI deficiency. However, considering the benefit/risk ratio observed in relation to dosage in this study; firstly, it should be used sparingly due to its potential prothrombotic effect; secondly, new prescription procedures should be defined to adapt the dosage, especially in patients with intrinsic and/or acquired risk factors for thrombosis. PMID:25817556

  17. Reducing antibiotic prescriptions for respiratory tract infections in family practice: results of a cluster randomized controlled trial evaluating a multifaceted peer-group-based intervention

    PubMed Central

    Vervloet, Marcia; Meulepas, Marianne A; Cals, Jochen W L; Eimers, Mariëtta; van der Hoek, Lucas S; van Dijk, Liset

    2016-01-01

    Irrational antibiotic use for respiratory tract infections (RTI) is a major driver of bacterial resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a multifaceted peer-group based intervention aiming to reduce RTI-related antibiotic prescriptions in family practice. This was a cluster randomized controlled trial with pre- and follow-up measurement. The intervention was implemented through PharmacoTherapy Audit Meetings (PTAM) in which family physicians (FPs) and pharmacists collaborate. Four PTAM groups received the intervention consisting of: (1) FP communication skills training, including communication about delayed prescribing; (2) implementation of antibiotic prescribing agreements in FPs’ Electronic Prescribing Systems; (3) quarterly feedback figures for FPs. Four other PTAM groups were matched controls. Primary outcome measure was the number of RTI-related antibiotic prescriptions after the intervention, assessed with multilevel linear regression analyses. Total number and number of prescriptions stratified by age (under/over 12 years) were analysed. At baseline, the average total number of RTI-related antibiotic prescriptions per 1,000 patients was 207.9 and 176.7 in the intervention and control PTAM groups, respectively. At follow-up, FPs in both the intervention and control groups prescribed significantly less antibiotics. For adolescents and adults, the drop in number of antibiotic prescription was significantly larger in the intervention groups (−27.8 per 1,000 patients) than the control groups (−7.2 per 1,000 patients; P<0.05). This multifaceted peer-group-based intervention was effective in reducing the number of RTI-related antibiotic prescriptions for adolescents and adults. To affect antibiotic prescribing in children other methods are needed. PMID:26845640

  18. The Effectiveness of Visual Short-Time Neurofeedback on Brain Activity and Clinical Characteristics in Alcohol Use Disorders: Practical Issues and Results.

    PubMed

    Lackner, Nina; Unterrainer, Human F; Skliris, Dimitris; Wood, Guilherme; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra J; Neuper, Christa; Gruzelier, John H

    2016-07-01

    The present study was carried out to examine the efficacy of alpha/theta neurofeedback (NF) with a new visual paradigm in a cohort of alcohol use disordered (AUD) patients (n = 25) treated in an Austrian therapeutic community center. The experimental study design focused on changes in absolute and relative resting EEG band power as well as in clinical variables, including depression (Beck Depresion Inventory [BDI-V]), psychiatric symptoms (Brief Symptom Inventory [BSI], coping (Freiburg Questionnaire on Coping with Illness [FKV-lis]), psychotherapy motivation (Therapy Motivation Questionnaire [FPTM-23]), sense of coherence (Sense of Coherence Scale [SOC-13]), posttraumatic growth (Posttraumatic Growth Inventory [PPR]), and alcohol cravings (Alcohol Craving Questionnaire [ACQ]). For measuring training effects, participants were randomly allocated to 2 groups: an experimental group (EG, n = 13) and a control group (CG, n = 12). Patients in EG received 12 sessions of visual NF training over a period of 6 weeks to enhance alpha (8-12 Hz) and theta (4-7 Hz) frequency band power in addition to the standard treatment program of the rehabilitation center. Participants in CG received no additional NF intervention. The multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) showed a change by trend in absolute alpha and theta power in the EG. Even though no MANCOVA effects were found in the clinical scales, AUD patients reported increasing control of their brain activity during the course of NF. However, changes in several clinical scales (BDI-V, BSI, FKV-lis, PPR) from pre- to posttest were observed only in the EG contrary to the CG. The findings of this pilot study provide first evidence for the practicality and effectiveness of visual short-term NF as an additive intervention in the therapeutic community. PMID:26415612

  19. A practice-based clinical evaluation of the survival and success of metal-ceramic and zirconia molar crowns: 5-year results.

    PubMed

    Rinke, S; Kramer, K; Bürgers, R; Roediger, M

    2016-02-01

    This practice-based study evaluates the survival and success of conventionally luted metal-ceramic and zirconia molar crowns fabricated by using a prolonged cooling period for the veneering porcelain. Fifty-three patients were treated from 07/2008 to 07/2009 with either metal-ceramic crowns (MCC) or zirconia crowns (ZC). Forty-five patients (26 female) with 91 restorations (obser-vational period: 64.0 ± 4.8 months) participated in a clinical follow-up examination and were included in the study. Estimated cumulative survival (ECSv), success (ECSc) and veneering ceramic success (ECVCSc) were calculated (Kaplan-Meier) and analysed by the crown fabrication technique and the position of the restoration (Cox regression model) (P < 0.05). Five complete failures (MCC: 2, ZC: 3) were recorded (5-year ECSv: MCC: 97.6%, (95% confidence interval (95%-CI): [93%; 100%]/ZC: 94.0%, (95%-CI): [87%; 100%]). Of the MCCs (n = 41), 85.0%, [95%-CI: (77%; 96%)] remained event-free, whereas the ECSc for the ZCs (n = 50) was 74.3% (95%-CI): [61%; 87%]. No significant differences in ECSv (P = 0.51), ECSc (P = 0.43) and ECVCSc (P = 0.36) were detected between the two fabrication techniques. Restorations placed on terminal abutments (n = 44) demonstrated a significantly lower ECVCSc (P = 0.035), (5-year VCF-rate: 14.8%) than crowns placed on tooth-neighboured abutments (n = 47), (5-year VCF-rate: 4.3%). In the present study, zirconia molar crowns demonstrated a 5-year ECSv, ECSc and ECVCSc comparable to MCCs. Irrespective of the fabrication technique, crowns on terminal abutments bear a significantly increased risk for VCFs. Clinical investigations with an increased number of restorations are needed. PMID:26393865

  20. Runoff and soil loss under different land management practices in vineyards: grass cover treatments and traditional tillage. Results from simulated rainfall.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Colmenero, Marta; Bienes, Ramon; Marques, Maria-Jose

    2010-05-01

    second simulation). Before tillage the average runoff coefficient in "till" was 19% (six times higher than in plant cover treatments) probably because of its sealing and compaction due to the lack of plants. After tillage, in spite of the increase of roughness, and on the contrary to obtained in summer, the runoff increases. It is explained by the soil moisture: In the first simulated rainfall, the soil was 72% of its water holding capacity at 10 cm, and 44% at 35 cm soil depth. However, in the second simulated rainfall the surface was completely wet, and at 35 cm it reached the 85% of water holding capacity. Comparing the runoff and erosion behavior in each treatment for both seasons, it is shown that in summer a shallow tillage increases the infiltration significantly. However in autumn, when the soil is wetter, the tillage increases runoff and erosion significantly. This has to be taken into account in order to change traditional uses in steep crops. Keywords: erosion, runoff, simulated rainfall, vineyard, tillage, vegetable cover Aknowledgements: Projects FP06-DR3 IMIDRA and RTA2007-0086 INIA. Predoctoral grant from INIA. Bodegas and Viñedos Gosálbez-Ortí.