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1

Production of a Biomimetic Fe(I)-S Phase on Pyrite by Atomic-Hydrogen Beam-Surface Reactive Scattering  

PubMed Central

Molecular beam-surface scattering and X-ray absorption spectroscopic experiments were employed to study the reaction of deuterium atoms with a pyrite, FeS2 (100), surface and to investigate the electronic and geometric structures of the resulting Fe-S phases. Incident D atoms, produced by a radio frequency plasma and expanded in an effusive beam, were directed at a pyrite surface held at various temperatures from ambient up to 200 °C. During exposure to the D-atom beam, D2S products were released with a thermal distribution of molecular speeds, indicating that the D atoms likely reacted in thermal equilibrium with the surface. The yield of D2S from the surface decreased approximately exponentially with exposure duration, suggesting that the surface accessible sulfur atoms were depleted, thus leaving an iron-rich surface. This conclusion is consistent with X-ray absorption measurements of the exposed surfaces, which indicated the formation of a layered structure, with elemental iron as the outermost layer on top of a formally Fe(I)-S phase as an intermediate layer and a formally Fe(II)-S2 bulk pyrite layer at lower depths. The reduced Fe(I)-S phase is particularly remarkable because of its similarity to the catalytically active sites of small molecule metalloenzymes, such as FeFe-hydrogenases and MoFe-nitrogenases. PMID:21526811

Che, Li; Gardenghi, David J.; Szilagyi, Robert K.; Minton, Timothy K.

2011-01-01

2

Quantum hydrodynamics: capturing a reactive scattering resonance.  

PubMed

The hydrodynamic equations of motion associated with the de Broglie-Bohm formulation of quantum mechanics are solved using a meshless method based upon a moving least-squares approach. An arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian frame of reference and a regridding algorithm which adds and deletes computational points are used to maintain a uniform and nearly constant interparticle spacing. The methodology also uses averaged fields to maintain unitary time evolution. The numerical instabilities associated with the formation of nodes in the reflected portion of the wave packet are avoided by adding artificial viscosity to the equations of motion. A new and more robust artificial viscosity algorithm is presented which gives accurate scattering results and is capable of capturing quantum resonances. The methodology is applied to a one-dimensional model chemical reaction that is known to exhibit a quantum resonance. The correlation function approach is used to compute the reactive scattering matrix, reaction probability, and time delay as a function of energy. Excellent agreement is obtained between the scattering results based upon the quantum hydrodynamic approach and those based upon standard quantum mechanics. This is the first clear demonstration of the ability of moving grid approaches to accurately and robustly reproduce resonance structures in a scattering system. PMID:16108631

Derrickson, Sean W; Bittner, Eric R; Kendrick, Brian K

2005-08-01

3

State-to-state inelastic and reactive molecular beam scattering from surfaces  

SciTech Connect

Resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) laser spectroscopic and molecular beam-surface scattering techniques are coupled to study inelastic and reactive gas-surface scattering with state-to-state specificity. Rotational, vibrational, translational and angular distributions have been measured for the inelastic scattering of HCI and N {sub 2} from Au(111). In both cases the scattering is direct-inelastic in nature and exhibits interesting dynamical features such as rotational rainbow scattering. In an effort to elucidate the dynamics of chemical reactions occurring on surfaces we have extended our quantum-resolved scattering studies to include the reactive scattering of a beam of gas phase H-atoms from a chlorinated metal surface M-CI. The nascent rotational and vibrational distributions of the HCI product are determined using REMPI. The thermochemistry for this reaction on Au indicates that the product formation proceeding through chemisorbed H-atoms is slightly endothermic while direct reaction of a has phase H-atom with M-CI is highly exothermic (ca. 50 kcal/mole). Details of the experimental techniques, results and implications regarding the scattering dynamics are discussed. 55 ref., 8 fig.

Lykke, K.R. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Kay, B.D. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1990-01-01

4

Inelastic and reactive scattering of hyperthermal atomic oxygen from amorphous carbon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The reaction of hyperthermal oxygen atoms with an amorphous carbon-13 surface was studied using a modified universal crossed molecular beams apparatus. Time-of-flight distributions of inelastically scattered O-atoms and reactively scattered CO-13 and CO2-13 were measured with a rotatable mass spectrometer detector. Two inelastic scattering channels were observed, corresponding to a direct inelastic process in which the scattered O-atoms retain 20 to 30 percent of their initial kinetic energy and to a trapping desorption process whereby O-atoms emerge from the surface at thermal velocities. Reactive scattering data imply the formation of two kinds of CO products, slow products whose translational energies are determined by the surface temperature and hyperthermal (Approx. 3 eV) products with translational energies comprising roughly 30 percent of the total available energy (E sub avl), where E sub avl is the sum of the collision energy and the reaction exothermicity. Angular data show that the hyperthermal CO is scattered preferentially in the specular direction. CO2 product was also observed, but at much lower intensities than CO and with only thermal velocities.

Minton, Timothy K.; Nelson, Christine M.; Brinza, David E.; Liang, Ranty H.

1991-01-01

5

A quantum reactive scattering perspective on electronic nonadiabaticity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on quantum reactive-scattering theory, we propose a method for studying the electronic nonadiabaticity in collision processes involving electron-ion rearrangements. We investigate the state-to-state transition probability for electron-ion rearrangements with two comparable approaches. In the first approach the information of the electron is only contained in the ground-state Born-Oppenheimer potential-energy surface, which is the starting point of common reactive-scattering calculations. In the second approach, the electron is explicitly taken into account and included in the calculations at the same level as the ions. Hence, the deviation in the results between the two approaches directly reflects the electronic nonadiabaticity during the collision process. To illustrate the method, we apply it to the well-known proton-transfer model of Shin and Metiu, generalized in order to allow for reactive scattering channels. We show that our explicit electron approach is able to capture electronic nonadiabaticity and the renormalization of the reaction barrier near the classical turning points of the potential in nuclear configuration space. In contrast, system properties near the equilibrium geometry of the asymptotic scattering channels are hardly affected by electronic nonadiabatic effects. We also present an analytical expression for the transition amplitude of the asymmetric proton-transfer model based on the direct evaluation of integrals over the involved Airy functions.

Peng, Yang; Ghiringhelli, Luca M.; Appel, Heiko

2014-07-01

6

Time-dependent quantum dynamics of reactive scattering and the calculation of product quantum state distributions — A study of the collinear F+H 2 ( v =0) ? HF( v ?)+H reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A new method for the calculation of partial cross sections in the time-dependent quantum theory of molecular reactive scattering processes is discussed. Preliminary calculations are presented which clearly illustrate the power of the method. They show how all the partial cross sections associated with a single initial quantum state may be computed over a very wide energy range from

C. Clay Marston; Gabriel G. Balint-Kurti; Richard N. Dixon

1991-01-01

7

CLASSIFICATION AND REACTIVITY OF SECONDARY ALUMINUM PRODUCTION WASTE  

E-print Network

CLASSIFICATION AND REACTIVITY OF SECONDARY ALUMINUM PRODUCTION WASTE Navid H. Jafari Student Member and Reactivity of Secondary Aluminum Production Waste1 Navid H. Jafari1 , Timothy D. Stark2 and Ralph Roper3 2 3

8

Crossed-molecular-beams reactive scattering of oxygen atoms  

SciTech Connect

The reactions of O(/sup 3/P) with six prototypical unsaturated hydrocarbons, and the reaction of O(/sup 1/D) with HD, have been studied in high-resolution crossed-molecular-beams scattering experiments with mass-spectrometric detection. The observed laboratory-product angular and velocity distributions unambiguously identify parent-daughter ion pairs, distinguish different neutral sources of the same ion, and have been used to identify the primary products of the reactions. The derived center-of-mass product angular and translational energy distributions have been used to elucidate the detailed reaction dynamics. These results demonstrate that O(/sup 3/P)-unsaturated hydrocarbon chemistry is dominated by single bond cleavages, leading to radical products exclusively.

Baseman, R.J.

1982-11-01

9

Characterization of corrosion products in the permeable reactive barriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of geochemical processes and microbial activity has been a major concern for the long-term performance of reactive\\u000a iron barriers because corrosion products and precipitates during the water treatment with reactive materials will decrease\\u000a the reactivity and permeability of the iron bed. This study characterizes corrosion products in reactive iron barrier as well\\u000a as evaluates the effect of the

Y. Roh; S. Y. Lee; M. P. Elless

2000-01-01

10

Modern Integral Equation Techniques for Quantum Reactive Scattering Theory.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rigorous calculations of cross sections and rate constants for elementary gas phase chemical reactions are performed for comparison with experiment, to ensure that our picture of the chemical reaction is complete. We focus on the H/D + H_2 to H _2/DH + H reaction, and use the time independent integral equation technique in quantum reactive scattering theory. We examine the sensitivity of H + H_2 state resolved integral cross sections sigma_{v^' j^ ',vj}(E) for the transitions (v = 0, j = 0) to (v^' = 1,j^ ' = 1,3), to the difference between the Liu-Siegbahn-Truhlar-Horowitz (LSTH) and double many body expansion (DMBE) ab initio potential energy surfaces (PES). This sensitivity analysis is performed to determine the origin of a large discrepancy between experimental cross sections with sharply peaked energy dependence and theoretical ones with smooth energy dependence. We find that the LSTH and DMBE PESs give virtually identical cross sections, which lends credence to the theoretical energy dependence. To facilitate quantum calculations on more complex reactive systems, we develop a new method to compute the energy Green's function with absorbing boundary conditions (ABC), for use in calculating the cumulative reaction probability. The method is an iterative technique to compute the inverse of a non-Hermitian matrix which is based on Fourier transforming time dependent dynamics, and which requires very little core memory. The Hamiltonian is evaluated in a sinc-function based discrete variable representation (DVR) which we argue may often be superior to the fast Fourier transform method for reactive scattering. We apply the resulting power series Green's function to the benchmark collinear H + H_2 system over the energy range 3.37 to 1.27 eV. The convergence of the power series is stable at all energies, and is accelerated by the use of a stronger absorbing potential. The practicality of computing the ABC-DVR Green's function in a polynomial of the Hamiltonian is discussed. We find no feasible expansion which has a fixed and small memory requirement, and is guaranteed to converge. We have found, however, that exploiting the time dependent picture of the ABC-DVR Green's function leads to a stable and efficient algorithm. The new method, which uses Newton interpolation polynomials to compute the time dependent wavefunction, gives a vastly improved version of the power series Green's function. We show that this approach is capable of obtaining converged reaction probabilities with very straightforward accuracy control. We use the ABC-DVR-Newton method to compute cross sections and rate constants for the initial state selected D + H_2(v = 1,j) to DH + H reaction. We obtain converged cross sections using no more than 4 Mbytes of core memory, and in as little CPU time as 10 minutes on a small workstation. With these cross sections, we calculate exact thermal rate constants for comparison with experiment. For the first time, quantitative agreement with experiment is obtained for the rotationally averaged rate constant k_{v=1}(T = 310 K) = 1.9 times 10^{-13} cm^3 sec^ {-1} molecule^{-1 }. The J-shifting approximation using accurate J = 0 reaction probabilities is tested against the exact results. It reliably predicts k_{v=1 }(T) for temperatures up to 700 K, but individual (v = 1, j)-selected rate constants are in error by as much as 41%.

Auerbach, Scott Michael

11

Production and Consumption of Reactive Oxygen Species by Fullerenes  

EPA Science Inventory

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are one of the most important intermediates in chemical, photochemical, and biological processes. To understand the environmental exposure and toxicity of fullerenes better, the production and consumption of ROS (singlet oxygen, superoxide, hydrogen ...

12

Production of reactive sintered nickel aluminide  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report pertaining to the development of aluminides by reactive synthesis. Included in this report is an overview of results during the scope of this effort, details on specific task accomplishments, and a summary of customer evaluations. Opportunities for future work are also included at the end of this report.

NONE

1995-10-01

13

Quantum Theory of Reactive Scattering and Adsorption at Surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction of atoms and molecules with surfaces is of great technological relevance [1]. Both advantageous and harmful processes can occur at surfaces. Catalytic reactions at surfaces represent a desired process while corrosion is an unwanted process. If light atoms and molecules such as hydrogen or helium are interacting with the surface, then quantum effects in the interaction dynamics between the incoming beam and the substrate have to be taken into account. First of all there are quantum effects in the energy transfer to the substrate vibrations, the phonons. While classically there will always be an energy loss of the incident particles to the substrate, quantum mechanically there is a certain probability for elastic scattering, i.e., without any energy transfer between the substrate and the scattered particles. This has also important consequences on the sticking probabilities of weakly bound species such as rare gases at low kinetic energies.

Groß, Axel

14

Time-dependent and time-independent wavepacket approaches to reactive scattering and photodissociation dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantum mechanical wavepacket treatments of reactive scattering and photodissociation dynamics are reviewed and discussed. Initially these treatments arose within a time-dependent framework, but as the cross sections of interest depend on energy rather than on time, it was realised that by Fourier transforming the basic equations over time an equivalent time-independent wavepacket methodology could be formulated. Other methods, namely the

Gabriel G. Balint-Kurti

2008-01-01

15

Reactive scattering of B+ (3Pu) by molecular deuterium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The angular and energy distribution of the ionic products from the reaction of B+ in its first excited state, 3Pu, with molecular deuterium was studied over a projectile energy range of 1 to 40 eV in the laboratory system. The product states as determined from the limiting values of the translational exoergicity were BD+ (2?+) and BD+ (2&Pgr;). The experimental

Neal A. Sondergaard; Isidor Sauers; Andrew C. Jones; Joyce J. Kaufman; Walter S. Koski

1979-01-01

16

Reactive scattering of B+ (3Pu) by molecular deuterium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The angular and energy distribution of the ionic products from the reaction of B+ in its first excited state, 3Pu, with molecular deuterium was studied over a projectile energy range of 1 to 40 eV in the laboratory system. The product states as determined from the limiting values of the translational exoergicity were BD+ (2Sigma+) and BD+ (2Pi). The experimental

Neal A. Sondergaard; Isidor Sauers; Andrew C. Jones; Joyce J. Kaufman; Walter S. Koski

1979-01-01

17

GriF: A Grid framework for a Web Service approach to reactive scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grid empowered calculations are becoming an important advanced tool indispensable for scientific advances. The possibility of simplifying and harmonizing the work carried out by computational scientists using a Web Service approach is considered here. To this end, a new Collaborative Grid Framework has been developed and tested. As a study case a three dimensional reactive scattering code dealing with atom-diatom systems has been considered. To this end an extended study of the energy dependence of the electronically adiabatic reactivity of N+N has been performed on the EGEE Grid.

Manuali, C.; Laganà, A.; Rampino, S.

2010-07-01

18

Novel Algorithms for Quantum Simulation of 3 D Atom-Diatom Reactive Scattering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach is described to the evaluation of the S-matrix in three-dimensional atom-diatom reactive quantum scattering theory. A theory based on natural collision coordinates\\u000a is developed, where the reaction coordinate can be viewed as fulfilling the same role as time in a time-dependent formulation.\\u000a By writing the full wavefunction in coupled-channel form it is proved that the 3D multi-channel

Ashot S. Gevorkyan; Gabriel G. Balint-kurti; Alexander V. Bogdanov; Gunnar Nyman

2007-01-01

19

Production of reactive sintered nickel aluminide  

SciTech Connect

Effort over the past 3 months was directed at increasing manufacturing capacity (ball milling) and improving product quality. Orders for the powder have increased, mainly for plasma spray powders. NiAl is an excellent coat between a metal and a ceramic, and its use instead of cobalt should extending operating range for carbide tools. The feather phase in the sintered Ni[sub 3]Al was identified to be a Ni-rich phase nucleated on the grain boundaries with 10 wt % Al composition. The ductile to brittle temperature of powder extruded NiAl was found to be between 500 and 600 C, and shows a 50% elongation at 600 C.

Cooper, R.M.

1993-01-01

20

Light scatter from high reflectors deposited by reactive dc magnetron sputtering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scatter from optical thin film coatings is a significant problem for high power laser optics. Theoretical aspects of the problem have ben well explored for scattering due to surface roughness. Over the past twenty years the surface roughness of optics has been significantly reduced. Improvements in optical surface fabrication and film deposition techniques have progressed to the point that even for complex coatings, surfaces of less than 1nm rms roughness are routinely achievable. As the surface roughness of optics decreases, bulk scatter, rather than topographic scatter, may be the major scatter source in these smooth surfaces. Atomic force microscopy can profile the surface of a coating with atomic resolution. By comparing the power spectral density (PSD) derived from the surface profile with the PSD derived from angle resolved scatter measurements, some conclusions can be reached on this question. Data from analysis of dual wavelength high reflectors deposited by reactive DC magnetron sputtered Nb2O3/SiO2 and ZrO2/SiO2 structures will be presented, allowing analysis of results for these film materials.

Reicher, David W.; Sobczak, J.; Black, James P.; Petty, Roger D.; Arguello, L.

1997-05-01

21

Reactive oxygen species production and discontinuous gas exchange in insects  

PubMed Central

While biochemical mechanisms are typically used by animals to reduce oxidative damage, insects are suspected to employ a higher organizational level, discontinuous gas exchange mechanism to do so. Using a combination of real-time, flow-through respirometry and live-cell fluorescence microscopy, we show that spiracular control associated with the discontinuous gas exchange cycle (DGC) in Samia cynthia pupae is related to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hyperoxia fails to increase mean ROS production, although minima are elevated above normoxic levels. Furthermore, a negative relationship between mean and mean ROS production indicates that higher ROS production is generally associated with lower . Our results, therefore, suggest a possible signalling role for ROS in DGC, rather than supporting the idea that DGC acts to reduce oxidative damage by regulating ROS production. PMID:21865257

Boardman, Leigh; Terblanche, John S.; Hetz, Stefan K.; Marais, Elrike; Chown, Steven L.

2012-01-01

22

Reactive ion etching-assisted surface-enhanced Raman scattering measurements on the single nanoparticle level  

SciTech Connect

Single-nanoparticle surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) measurement is of essential importance for both fundamental research and practical applications. In this work, we develop a class of single-particle SERS approaches, i.e., reactive ion etching (RIE)-assisted SERS measurements correlated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) strategy (RIE/SERS/SEM), enabling precise and high-resolution identification of single gold nanoparticle (AuNP) in facile and reliable manners. By using AuNP-coated silicon wafer and quartz glass slide as models, we further employ the developed RIE/SERS/SEM method for interrogating the relationship between SERS substrates and enhancement factor (EF) on the single particle level. Together with theoretical calculation using an established finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) method, we demonstrate silicon wafer as superior SERS substrates, facilitating improvement of EF values.

Wang, Si-Yi; Jiang, Xiang-Xu; Wei, Xin-Pan; Lee, Shuit-Tong, E-mail: apannale@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: yaohe@suda.edu.cn; He, Yao, E-mail: apannale@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: yaohe@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials - FUNSOM, Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, and Devices Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Xu, Ting-Ting [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials - FUNSOM, Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, and Devices Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Center of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films (COSDAF), City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China and Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

2014-06-16

23

Measurement of hadron production in Deep Inelastic Scattering  

E-print Network

Measurement of hadron production in Deep Inelastic Scattering H. Jung (on behalf of the H1 as for the hadronization process. 1. Introduction In deep inelastic scattering (DIS) at the ep collider HERA small values of the spectrum while at small pT the contribution from hadronization be- comes significant. The measurement

Heller, Barbara

24

Sinc wavepackets : a new form of wave packet for time-dependent quantum mechanical reactive scattering calculations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new form of wave packet, the sinc wave packet, is defined. The wave packet has some advantages for use in time-dependent quantum mechanical reactive scattering calculations. These advantages consist of the fact that it possesses a reasonable constant amplitude over a range of momenta or energies. Quantum mechanical calculations undertaken using such a wave packet will therefore result in

Marlies Hankel; Gabriel G. Balint-Kurti; Stephen K. Gray

2003-01-01

25

A MATLAB-based finite-element visualization of quantum reactive scattering. I. Collinear atom-diatom reactions  

SciTech Connect

We restate the application of the finite element method to collinear triatomic reactive scattering dynamics with a novel treatment of the scattering boundary conditions. The method provides directly the reactive scattering wave function and, subsequently, the probability current density field. Visualizing these quantities provides additional insight into the quantum dynamics of simple chemical reactions beyond simplistic one-dimensional models. Application is made here to a symmetric reaction (H+H{sub 2}), a heavy-light-light reaction (F+H{sub 2}), and a heavy-light-heavy reaction (F+HCl). To accompany this article, we have written a MATLAB code which is fast, simple enough to be accessible to a wide audience, as well as generally applicable to any problem that can be mapped onto a collinear atom-diatom reaction. The code and user's manual are available for download from http://www2.chem.umd.edu/groups/alexander/FEM.

Warehime, Mick [Chemical Physics Program, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-2021 (United States); Alexander, Millard H., E-mail: mha@umd.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-2021 (United States)

2014-07-14

26

A MATLAB-based finite-element visualization of quantum reactive scattering. I. Collinear atom-diatom reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We restate the application of the finite element method to collinear triatomic reactive scattering dynamics with a novel treatment of the scattering boundary conditions. The method provides directly the reactive scattering wave function and, subsequently, the probability current density field. Visualizing these quantities provides additional insight into the quantum dynamics of simple chemical reactions beyond simplistic one-dimensional models. Application is made here to a symmetric reaction (H+H2), a heavy-light-light reaction (F+H2), and a heavy-light-heavy reaction (F+HCl). To accompany this article, we have written a MATLAB code which is fast, simple enough to be accessible to a wide audience, as well as generally applicable to any problem that can be mapped onto a collinear atom-diatom reaction. The code and user's manual are available for download from http://www2.chem.umd.edu/groups/alexander/FEM.

Warehime, Mick; Alexander, Millard H.

2014-07-01

27

Quantum State-Resolved Reactive and Inelastic Scattering at Gas-Liquid and Gas-Solid Interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum state-resolved reactive and inelastic scattering at gas-liquid and gas-solid interfaces has become a research field of considerable interest in recent years. The collision and reaction dynamics of internally cold gas beams from liquid or solid surfaces is governed by two main processes, impulsive scattering (IS), where the incident particles scatter in a few-collisions environment from the surface, and trapping-desorption (TD), where full equilibration to the surface temperature (T{TD}? T{s}) occurs prior to the particles' return to the gas phase. Impulsive scattering events, on the other hand, result in significant rotational, and to a lesser extent vibrational, excitation of the scattered molecules, which can be well-described by a Boltzmann-distribution at a temperature (T{IS}>>T{s}). The quantum-state resolved detection used here allows the disentanglement of the rotational, vibrational, and translational degrees of freedom of the scattered molecules. The two examples discussed are (i) reactive scattering of monoatomic fluorine from room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) and (ii) inelastic scattering of benzene from a heated (˜500 K) gold surface. In the former experiment, rovibrational states of the nascent HF beam are detected using direct infrared absorption spectroscopy, and in the latter, a resonace-enhanced multi-photon-ionization (REMPI) scheme is employed in combination with a velocity-map imaging (VMI) device, which allows the detection of different vibrational states of benzene excited during the scattering process. M. E. Saecker, S. T. Govoni, D. V. Kowalski, M. E. King and G. M. Nathanson Science 252, 1421, 1991. A. M. Zolot, W. W. Harper, B. G. Perkins, P. J. Dagdigian and D. J. Nesbitt J. Chem. Phys 125, 021101, 2006. J. R. Roscioli and D. J. Nesbitt Faraday Disc. 150, 471, 2011.

Grütter, Monika; Nelson, Daniel J.; Nesbitt, David J.

2012-06-01

28

Comparison of Alternative Control Structures for an Ideal Two-Product Reactive Distillation Column  

E-print Network

Comparison of Alternative Control Structures for an Ideal Two-Product Reactive Distillation Column distillation columns have been explored in many papers, very few papers have dealt with closed-loop control. Most of these control papers consider reactive distillation columns in which there is only one product

Al-Arfaj, Muhammad A.

29

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart E of... - Product-Weighted Reactivity Limits by Coating Category  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Aerosol Coatings Pt. 59, Subpt. E, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart E of Part 59—Product-Weighted Reactivity Limits by...

2010-07-01

30

In situ reactive oxygen species production for tertiary wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

The goal of this research was to develop a new approach for tertiary water treatment, particularly disinfection and removal of refractory organic compounds, without adding any chemical. Hydrogen peroxide can indeed be produced from dissolved oxygen owing to electrochemical processes. Using various current intensities (1.0 to 4.0 A), it was possible to in situ produce relatively high concentration of H2O2 with a specific production rate of 0.05?×?10(-5) M/min/A. Likewise, by using ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy method, it was shown that other reactive oxygen species (ROS) including HO(*) radical and O3 could be simultaneously formed during electrolysis. The ROS concentration passed from 0.45?×?10(-5) M after 20 min of electrolysis to a concentration of 2.87?×?10(-5) M after 100 min of electrolysis. The disinfection and the organic matter removal were relatively high during the tertiary treatment of municipal and domestic wastewaters. More than 90 % of organic compounds (chemical oxygen demand) can be removed, whereas 99 % of faecal coliform abatement can be reached. Likewise, the process was also effective in removing turbidity (more than 90 % of turbidity was removed) so that the effluent became more and more transparent. PMID:25483973

Guitaya, Léa; Drogui, Patrick; Blais, Jean François

2014-12-01

31

Multivariate analysis of light scattering spectra of liquid dairy products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visible light scattering spectra from the surface layer of samples of commercial liquid dairy products are recorded with a colorimeter. The principal component method is used to analyze these spectra. Vectors representing the samples of dairy products in a multidimensional space of spectral counts are projected onto a three-dimensional subspace of principal components. The magnitudes of these projections are found to depend on the type of dairy product.

Khodasevich, M. A.

2010-05-01

32

Molten salt extraction of transuranic and reactive fission products from used uranium oxide fuel  

DOEpatents

Used uranium oxide fuel is detoxified by extracting transuranic and reactive fission products into molten salt. By contacting declad and crushed used uranium oxide fuel with a molten halide salt containing a minor fraction of the respective uranium trihalide, transuranic and reactive fission products partition from the fuel to the molten salt phase, while uranium oxide and non-reactive, or noble metal, fission products remain in an insoluble solid phase. The salt is then separated from the fuel via draining and distillation. By this method, the bulk of the decay heat, fission poisoning capacity, and radiotoxicity are removed from the used fuel. The remaining radioactivity from the noble metal fission products in the detoxified fuel is primarily limited to soft beta emitters. The extracted transuranic and reactive fission products are amenable to existing technologies for group uranium/transuranic product recovery and fission product immobilization in engineered waste forms.

Herrmann, Steven Douglas

2014-05-27

33

Proactive and Reactive Product Line Strategies: Asymmetries Between Market Leaders and Followers  

Microsoft Academic Search

To what extent do firms engage in product line actions simultaneously with actions in other marketing variables? What are the determinants of product line actions? To what extent are product line actions proactive? To what degree are they reactive? How can a firm's product line action elasticity (percent change in product line length with respect to percent change in competitor's

Venkatesh Shankar

2006-01-01

34

Leading proton production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA  

E-print Network

Leading proton production in deep inelastic 1 scattering at HERA 2 ZEUS Collaboration 3 Draft, with a #28;nal-state proton carrying a large fraction of the incoming proton energy, x L > 0 photon virtualities Q 2 > 3 GeV 2 and mass of the photon-proton sys- tem 45

35

Evaluation of neutron inelastic scattering for radioisotope production  

SciTech Connect

A systematic study of the production of {sup 117m}Sn, {sup 119m}Sn and {sup 195m}Pt in the hydraulic tube facility (HT) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) has indicated that for all three cases the yields from neutron inelastic scattering were higher than those obtained from neutron capture reactions.

Mirzadeh, S.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Alexander, C.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1994-12-31

36

Heavy Quark Production in Neutrino Deep-Inelastic Scattering  

E-print Network

Heavy Quark Production in Neutrino Deep-Inelastic Scattering T. Adams 4 , A. Alton 4 , C. G. Arroyo. Smith 8 , P. Spentzouris 2 , E. G. Stern 2 , B. M. Tamminga 2 , M. Vakili 1 , A. Vaitaitis 2 , V. Wu 1 , U. K. Yang 7 , J. Yu 3 , G .P. Zeller 5 Presented by T. Adams 1 University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati

37

Increased hydrogen peroxide and thiobarbituric acid-reactive products in expired breath condensate of asthmatic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased hydrogen peroxide and thiobarbituric acid-reactive products in expired breath condensate of asthmatic patients. A. Antczak, D. Nowak, B. Shariati, M. Król, G. Piasecka, Z. Kurmanowska. ©ERS Journals Ltd 1997. ABSTRACT: Symptoms of bronchial asthma are a manifestation of airway in- flammation. Circulatory leucocytes (predominantly eosinophils, mast cells and neu- trophils), release inflammatory mediators, including reactive oxygen species, i.e. superoxide

A. Antczak; D. Nowak; B. Shariati; M. Król; G. Piasecka; Z. Kurmanowska

1997-01-01

38

Reactive oxygen species production by catechol stabilized copper nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable Cu nanoparticles (NPs) prepared using catechol containing dopamine-based linkers could generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can activate peroxidase enzymes and catalyze the degradation of fluorescent dye pollutants.Stable Cu nanoparticles (NPs) prepared using catechol containing dopamine-based linkers could generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can activate peroxidase enzymes and catalyze the degradation of fluorescent dye pollutants. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of the synthesis of dopamine linkers and Cu NPs, peroxidase activity tests, H2O2 calibration and degradation tests for resorufin, RB and MB. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03563h

Chen, Cheng; Ahmed, Ishtiaq; Fruk, Ljiljana

2013-11-01

39

Neutral strange particle production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents measurements ofK0 and ? production in neutral current, deep inelastic scattering of 26.7 GeV electrons and 820 GeV protons in the kinematic range 10Q22, 0.0003xy>0.04. Average multiplicities forK0 and ? production are determined for transverse momentapT>0.5 GeV and pseudorapidities |?|e+e- experiments. The production properties ofK0' s in events with and without a large rapidity gap with respect

M. Derick; D. Krakauer; S. Magill; D. Mikunas; B. Musgrave; J. Repond; R. Stanek; R. L. Talaga; H. Zhang; R. Ayad; G. Bari; M. Basile; L. Bellagamba; D. Boscherini; A. Bruni; G. Bruni; P. Bruni; G. Cara Romeo; G. Castellini; M. Chiarini; L. Cifarelli; F. Cindolo; A. Contin; M. Corradi; I. Gialas; P. Giusti; G. Iacobucci; G. Laurenti; G. Levi; A. Margotti; T. Massam; R. Nania; C. Nemoz; F. Palmonari; A. Polini; G. Sartorelli; R. Timellini; Y. Zamora Garcia; A. Zichichi; A. Bargende; J. Crittenden; K. Desch; B. Diekmann; T. Doeker; M. Eckert; L. Feld; A. Frey; M. Geerts; G. Geitz; M. Grothe; T. Haas; H. Hartmann; K. Heinloth; E. Hilger; H.-P. Jakob; U. F. Katz; S. M. Mari; A. Mass; S. Mengel; J. Mollen; E. Paul; Ch. Rembser; D. Schramm; J. Stamm; R. Wedemeyer; S. Campbell-Robson; A. Cassidy; N. Dyce; B. Foster; S. George; R. Gilmore; G. P. Heath; H. F. Heath; T. J. Llewellyn; C. J. S. Morgado; D. J. P. Norman; J. A. O'Mara; R. J. Tapper; S. S. Wilson; R. Yoshida; R. R. Rau; M. Arneodo; L. Iannotti; M. Schioppa; G. Susinno; A. Bernstein; A. Caldwell; N. Cartiglia; J. A. Parsons; S. Ritz; F. Sciulli; P. B. Straub; L. Wai; S. Yang; Q. Zhu; P. Borzemski; J. Chwastowski; A. Eskreys; K. Piotrzkowski; M. Zachara; L. Zawiejski; L. Adamezyk; B. Bednarek; K. Jelen; D. Kisielewska; T. Kowalski; E. Rulikowska-Zarebska; L. Suszycki; J. Zajac; A. Kotanski; M. Przybycien; L. A. T. Bauerdick; U. Behrens; H. Beier; J. K. Bienlein; C. Coldewey; O. Deppe; K. Desler; G. Drews; M. Flasinski; D. J. Gilkinson; C. Glasman; P. Göttlicher; J. Große-Knetter; B. Gutjahr; W. Hain; D. Hasell; H. Heßling; Y. Iga; P. Joos; M. Kasemann; R. Klanner; W. Koch; L. Köpke; U. Kötz; H. Kowalski; J. Labs; A. Ladage; B. Löhr; M. Löwe; D. Lüke; J. Mainusch; O. Manczak; T. Monteiro; J. S. T. Ng; S. Nickel; D. Notz; K. Ohrenberg; M. Roco; M. Rohde; J. Roldán; U. Schneekloth; W. Schulz; F. Selonke; E. Stiliaris; B. Surrow; T. Voß; D. Westphal; G. Wolf; C. Youngman; J. F. Zhou; H. J. Grabosch; A. Kharchilava; A. Leich; M. C. K. Mattingly; A. Meyer; S. Schlenstedt; N. Wulff; G. Barbagli; P. Pelfer; G. Anzivino; G. Maccarrone; S. De Pasquale; L. Votano; A. Bamberger; S. Eisenhardt; A. Freidhof; S. Söldner-Rembold; J. Schroeder; T. Trefzger; N. H. Brook; P. J. Bussey; A. T. Doyle; J. I. Fleck; D. H. Saxon; M. L. Utley; A. S. Wilson; A. Dannemann; U. Holm; D. Horstmann; T. Neumann; R. Sinkus; K. Wick; E. Badura; B. D. Burow; L. Hagge; E. Lohrmann; J. Milewski; M. Nakahata; N. Pavel; G. Poelz; W. Schott; F. Zetsche; T. C. Bacon; I. Butterworth; E. Gallo; V. L. Harris; B. Y. H. Hung; K. R. Long; D. B. Miller; P. P. O. Morawitz; A. Prinias; J. K. Sedgbeer; A. F. Whitfield; U. Mallik; E. McCliment; M. Z. Wang; S. M. Wang; J. T. Wu; Y. Zhang; P. Cloth; D. Filges; S. H. An; S. M. Hong; S. W. Nam; S. K. Park; M. H. Suh; S. H. Yon; R. Imlay; S. Kartik; H.-J. Kim; R. R. McNeil; W. Metcalf; V. K. Nadendla; F. Barreiro; G. Cases; J. P. Fernandez; R. Graciani; J. M. Hernández; L. Hervás; L. Labarga; M. Martinez; J. del Peso; J. Puga; J. Terron; J. F. de Trocóniz; G. R. Smith; F. Corriveau; D. S. Hanna; J. Hartmann; L. W. Hung; J. N. Lim; C. G. Matthews; P. M. Patel; L. E. Sinclair; D. G. Stairs; M. St. Laurent; R. Ullmann; G. Zacek; V. Bashkirov; B. A. Dolgoshein; A. Stifutkin; G. L. Bashindzhagyan; P. F. Ermolov; L. K. Gladilin; Y. A. Golubkov; V. D. Kobrin; V. A. Kuzmin; A. S. Proskuryakov; A. A. Savin; L. M. Shcheglova; A. N. Solomin; N. P. Zotov; M. Botje; F. Chlebana; A. Dake; J. Engelen; M. de Kamps; P. Kooijman; A. Kruse; H. Tiecke; W. Verkerke; M. Vreeswijk; L. Wiggers; E. de Wolf; R. van Woudenberg; D. Acosta; B. Bylsma; L. S. Durkin; K. Honscheid; C. Li; T. Y. Ling; K. W. McLean; W. N. Murray; I. H. Park; T. A. Romanowski; R. Seidlein; D. S. Bailey; A. Byrne; R. J. Cashmore; A. M. Cooper-Sarkar; R. C. E. Devenish; N. Harnew; M. Lancaster; L. Lindemann; J. D. McFall; C. Nath; V. A. Noyes; A. Quadt; J. R. Tickner; H. Uijterwaal; R. Walczak; D. S. Waters; F. F. Wilson; T. Yip; G. Abbrendi; A. Bertolin; R. Brugnera; R. Carlin; F. Dal Corso; M. De Giorgi; U. Dosselli; S. Limentani; M. Morandin; M. Posocco; L. Stanco; R. Stroili; C. Voci; J. Bulmahn; J. M. Butterworth; R. G. Feild; B. Y. Oh; J. J. Whitmore; G. D'Agostini; G. Marini; A. Nigro; E. Tassi; J. C. Hart; N. A. McCubbin; K. Prytz; T. P. Shah; T. L. Short; E. Barberis; T. Dubbs; C. Heusch; M. Van Hook; B. Hubbard; W. Lockman; J. T. Rahn; H. F.-W. Sadrozinski; A. Seiden; J. Biltzinger; R. J. Seifert; O. Schwarzer; A. H. Walenta; G. Zech; H. Abramowicz; G. Briskin; S. Dagan; A. Levy; T. Hasegawa; M. Hazumi; T. Ishii; M. Kuze; S. Mine; Y. Nagasawa; M. Nakao; I. Suzuki; K. Tokushuku; S. Yamada; Y. Yamazaki; M. Chiba; R. Hamatsu; T. Hirose; K. Homma; S. Kitamura; Y. Nakamitsu; K. Yamauchi; R. Cirio; M. Costa; M. I. Ferrero; L. Lamberti; S. Maselli; C. Peroni

1995-01-01

40

Reactive distillation for sustainable, high 2-phenyl LAB production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) comprising >80% 2-phenyl isomer content, have been prepared in sustainable high yields from detergent-range linear olefins via regioselective benzene alkylation using reactive distillation technology. Hydrofluoric acid (HF)-treated mordenites provide enhanced, shape-selective, alkylation performance when employed as heterogeneous catalysts in the subject syntheses. Both individual C10–C12 ?-olefins, as well as mixed, commercial plant-derived, C10–C14 paraffin dehydrogenate feedstocks containing

John F. Knifton; Prakasa Rao Anantaneni; P. Eugene Dai; Melvin E. Stockton

2003-01-01

41

Jet production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA  

SciTech Connect

A number of the most recent results from the wealth of precision HERA data on high transverse energy jet production in deep inelastic scattering are reviewed. These measurements are confronted with predictions from next-to-leading order (NLO) Quantum Chromodynamics and allow the extraction of the strong coupling constant, {alpha}s, and have been used in QCD fits of the parton distribution functions in the proton.

Sutton, M. R. [University College London, Dept of Physics and Astronomy, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

2006-04-11

42

Reactivity impact of {sup 16}O thermal elastic-scattering nuclear data for some numerical and critical benchmark systems  

SciTech Connect

The thermal neutron-elastic-scattering cross-section data for {sup 16}O used in various modern evaluated-nuclear-data libraries were reviewed and found to be generally too high compared with the best available experimental measurements. Some of the proposed revisions to the ENDF/B-VII.0 {sup 16}O data library and recent results from the TENDL system increase this discrepancy further. The reactivity impact of revising the {sup 16}O data downward to be consistent with the best measurements was tested using the JENDL-3.3 {sup 16}O cross-section values and was found to be very small in MCNP5 simulations of the UO{sub 2} and reactor-recycle MOX-fuel cases of the ANS Doppler-defect numerical benchmark. However, large reactivity differences of up to about 14 mk (1400 pcm) were observed using {sup 16}O data files from several evaluated-nuclear-data libraries in MCNP5 simulations of the Los Alamos National Laboratory HEU heavy-water solution thermal critical experiments, which were performed in the 1950's. The latter result suggests that new measurements using HEU in a heavy-water-moderated critical facility, such as the ZED-2 zero-power reactor at the Chalk River Laboratories, might help to resolve the discrepancy between the {sup 16}O thermal elastic-scattering cross-section values and thereby reduce or better define its uncertainty, although additional assessment work would be needed to confirm this. (authors)

Kozier, K. S.; Roubtsov, D. [AECL, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, ON (Canada); Plompen, A. J. M.; Kopecky, S. [EC-JRC, Inst. for Reference Materials and Measurements, Retieseweg 111, 2440 Geel (Belgium)

2012-07-01

43

Dijet production in diffractive deep inelastic scattering at HERA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The production of dijets in diffractive deep inelastic scattering has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 61 pb-1. The dijet cross section has been measured for virtualities of the exchanged virtual photon, 5 < Q2 < 100 GeV2, and ?*p centre-of-mass energies, 100 < W < 250 GeV. The jets, identified using the inclusive kT algorithm in the ?*p frame, were required to have a transverse energy E* T,jet > 4 GeV and the jet with the highest transverse energy was required to have E* T,jet > 5 GeV. All jets were required to be in the pseudorapidity range -3.5scattering data.

Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.; Musgrave, B.; Nicholass, D.; Repond, J.; Yoshida, R.; Mattingly, M. C. K.; Jechow, M.; Pavel, N.; Yagües Molina, A. G.; Antonelli, S.; Antonioli, P.; Bari, G.; Basile, M.; Bellagamba, L.; Bindi, M.; Boscherini, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; Corradi, M.; de Pasquale, S.; Iacobucci, G.; Margotti, A.; Nania, R.; Polini, A.; Sartorelli, G.; Zichichi, A.; Bartsch, D.; Brock, I.; Hartmann, H.; Hilger, E.; Jakob, H.-P.; Jüngst, M.; Kind, O. M.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A. E.; Paul, E.; Renner, R.; Samson, U.; Schönberg, V.; Shehzadi, R.; Wlasenko, M.; Brook, N. H.; Heath, G. P.; Morris, J. D.; Capua, M.; Fazio, S.; Mastroberardino, A.; Schioppa, M.; Susinno, G.; Tassi, E.; Kim, J. Y.; Ma, K. J.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Kamaluddin, B.; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Ning, Y.; Ren, Z.; Sciulli, F.; Chwastowski, J.; Eskreys, A.; Figiel, J.; Galas, A.; Gil, M.; Olkiewicz, K.; Stopa, P.; Zawiejski, L.; Adamczyk, L.; Bo?d, T.; Grabowska-Bo?d, I.; Kisielewska, D.; ?ukasik, J.; Przybycie?, M.; Suszycki, L.; Kota?ski, A.; S?omi?ski, W.; Adler, V.; Behrens, U.; Bloch, I.; Blohm, C.; Bonato, A.; Borras, K.; Ciesielski, R.; Coppola, N.; Dossanov, A.; Drugakov, V.; Fourletova, J.; Geiser, A.; Gladkov, D.; Göttlicher, P.; Grebenyuk, J.; Gregor, I.; Haas, T.; Hain, W.; Horn, C.; Hüttmann, A.; Kahle, B.; Katkov, I. I.; Klein, U.; Kötz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Lobodzinska, E.; Löhr, B.; Mankel, R.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Miglioranzi, S.; Montanari, A.; Namsoo, T.; Notz, D.; Rinaldi, L.; Roloff, P.; Rubinsky, I.; Santamarta, R.; Schneekloth, U.; Spiridonov, A.; Stadie, H.; Szuba, D.; Szuba, J.; Theedt, T.; Wolf, G.; Wrona, K.; Youngman, C.; Zeuner, W.; Lohmann, W.; Schlenstedt, S.; Barbagli, G.; Gallo, E.; Pelfer, P. G.; Bamberger, A.; Dobur, D.; Karstens, F.; Vlasov, N. N.; Bussey, P. J.; Doyle, A. T.; Dunne, W.; Forrest, M.; Saxon, D. H.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Gialas, I.; Papageorgiu, K.; Gosau, T.; Holm, U.; Klanner, R.; Lohrmann, E.; Salehi, H.; Schleper, P.; Schörner-Sadenius, T.; Sztuk, J.; Wichmann, K.; Wick, K.; Foudas, C.; Fry, C.; Long, K. R.; Tapper, A. D.; Kataoka, M.; Matsumoto, T.; Nagano, K.; Tokushuku, K.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Barakbaev, A. N.; Boos, E. G.; Pokrovskiy, N. S.; Zhautykov, B. O.; Aushev, V.; Borodin, M.; Kozulia, A.; Lisovyi, M.; Son, D.; de Favereau, J.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Barreiro, F.; Glasman, C.; Jimenez, M.; Labarga, L.; Del Peso, J.; Ron, E.; Soares, M.; Terrón, J.; Zambrana, M.; Corriveau, F.; Liu, C.; Walsh, R.; Zhou, C.; Tsurugai, T.; Antonov, A.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Stifutkin, A.; Suchkov, S.; Dementiev, R. K.; Ermolov, P. F.; Gladilin, L. K.; Khein, L. A.; Korzhavina, I. A.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Levchenko, B. B.; Lukina, O. Y.; Proskuryakov, A. S.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Zotkin, D. S.; Zotkin, S. A.; Abt, I.; Büttner, C.; Caldwell, A.; Kollar, D.; Schmidke, W. B.; Sutiak, J.; Grigorescu, G.; Keramidas, A.; Koffeman, E.; Kooijman, P.; Pellegrino, A.; Tiecke, H.; Vázquez, M.; Wiggers, L.; Brümmer, N.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Lee, A.; Ling, T. Y.; Allfrey, P. D.; Bell, M. A.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Ferrando, J.; Foster, B.; Korcsak-Gorzo, K.; Oliver, K.; Patel, S.; Roberfroid, V.; Robertson, A.; Straub, P. B.; Uribe-Estrada, C.; Walczak, R.; Bellan, P.; Bertolin, A.; Brugnera, R.; Carlin, R.; Dal Corso, F.; Dusini, S.; Garfagnini, A.; Limentani, S.; Longhin, A.; Stanco, L.; Turcato, M.; Oh, B. Y.; Raval, A.; Ukleja, J.; Whitmore, J. J.; Iga, Y.; D'Agostini, G.; Marini, G.; Nigro, A.; Cole, J. E.; Hart, J. C.; Abramowicz, H.; Gabareen, A.; Ingbir, R.; Kananov, S.; Levy, A.; Smith, O.; Stern, A.; Kuze, M.; Maeda, J.; Hori, R.; Kagawa, S.; Okazaki, N.; Shimizu, S.; Tawara, T.; Hamatsu, R.; Kaji, H.; Kitamura, S.; Ota, O.; Ri, Y. D.; Ferrero, M. I.; Monaco, V.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Arneodo, M.; Ruspa, M.; Fourletov, S.; Martin, J. F.; Boutle, S. K.; Butterworth, J. M.; Gwenlan, C.; Jones, T. W.; Loizides, J. H.; Sutton, M. R.; Wing, M.; Brzozowska, B.; Ciborowski, J.; Grzelak, G.; Kulinski, P.; ?u?niak, P.; Malka, J.; Nowak, R. J.; Pawlak, J. M.; Tymieniecka, T.; Ukleja, A.; ?arnecki, A. F.; Adamus, M.; Plucinski, P.; Eisenberg, Y.; Giller, I.; Hochman, D.; Karshon, U.; Rosin, M.; Brownson, E.; Danielson, T.; Everett, A.; Kçira, D.; Reeder, D. D.; Ryan, P.; Savin, A. A.; Smith, W. H.; Wolfe, H.; Bhadra, S.; Catterall, C. D.; Cui, Y.; Hartner, G.; Menary, S.; Noor, U.; Standage, J.; Whyte, J.

2007-12-01

44

Measurement of D*± production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The production of D *± mesons in deep inelastic ep scattering has been measured for exchanged photon virtualities 5 < Q 2 < 1000 GeV2, using an integrated luminosity of 363 pb-1 with the ZEUS detector at HERA. Differential cross sections have been measured and compared to next-to-leading-order QCD calculations. The cross-sections are used to extract the charm contribution to the proton structure functions, expressed in terms of the reduced charm cross section, ?_{red}^{{coverline{c}}} . Theoretical calculations based on fits to inclusive HERA data are compared to the results.

Abramowicz, H.; Abt, I.; Adamczyk, L.; Adamus, M.; Aggarwal, R.; Antonelli, S.; Antonioli, P.; Antonov, A.; Arneodo, M.; Arslan, O.; Aushev, V.; Aushev, Y.; Bachynska, O.; Bamberger, A.; Barakbaev, A. N.; Barbagli, G.; Bari, G.; Barreiro, F.; Bartosik, N.; Bartsch, D.; Basile, M.; Behnke, O.; Behr, J.; Behrens, U.; Bellagamba, L.; Bertolin, A.; Bhadra, S.; Bindi, M.; Blohm, C.; Bokhonov, V.; Bold, T.; Boos, E. G.; Borras, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bot, D.; Brock, I.; Brownson, E.; Brugnera, R.; Brümmer, N.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Brzozowska, B.; Bussey, P. J.; Bylsma, B.; Caldwell, A.; Capua, M.; Carlin, R.; Catterall, C. D.; Chekanov, S.; Chwastowski, J.; Ciborowski, J.; Ciesielski, R.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Coppola, N.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Costa, M.; D'Agostini, G.; Dal Corso, F.; del Peso, J.; Dementiev, R. K.; De Pasquale, S.; Derrick, M.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Dobur, D.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Dolinska, G.; Doyle, A. T.; Drugakov, V.; Durkin, L. S.; Dusini, S.; Eisenberg, Y.; Ermolov, P. F.; Eskreys, A.; Fang, S.; Fazio, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrero, M. I.; Figiel, J.; Foster, B.; Gach, G.; Galas, A.; Gallo, E.; Garfagnini, A.; Geiser, A.; Gialas, I.; Gizhko, A.; Gladilin, L. K.; Gladkov, D.; Glasman, C.; Gogota, O.; Golubkov, Yu. A.; Göttlicher, P.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Grebenyuk, J.; Gregor, I.; Grigorescu, G.; Grzelak, G.; Gueta, O.; Guzik, M.; Gwenlan, C.; Haas, T.; Hain, W.; Hamatsu, R.; Hart, J. C.; Hartmann, H.; Hartner, G.; Hilger, E.; Hochman, D.; Hori, R.; Hüttmann, A.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Iga, Y.; Ingbir, R.; Ishitsuka, M.; Iudin, A.; Jakob, H.-P.; Januschek, F.; Jones, T. W.; Jüngst, M.; Kadenko, I.; Kahle, B.; Kananov, S.; Kanno, T.; Karshon, U.; Karstens, F.; Katkov, I. I.; Kaur, M.; Kaur, P.; Keramidas, A.; Khein, L. A.; Kim, J. Y.; Kisielewska, D.; Kitamura, S.; Klanner, R.; Klein, U.; Koffeman, E.; Kondrashova, N.; Kononenko, O.; Kooijman, P.; Korol, Ie.; Korzhavina, I. A.; Kotanski, A.; Kötz, U.; Kovalchuk, N.; Kowalski, H.; Kuprash, O.; Kuze, M.; Lee, A.; Levchenko, B. B.; Levy, A.; Libov, V.; Limentani, S.; Ling, T. Y.; Lisovyi, M.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lohmann, W.; Löhr, B.; Lohrmann, E.; Long, K. R.; Longhin, A.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Lukina, O. Yu.; Maeda, J.; Magill, S.; Makarenko, I.; Malka, J.; Mankel, R.; Margotti, A.; Marini, G.; Martin, J. F.; Mastroberardino, A.; Mattingly, M. C. K.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Mergelmeyer, S.; Miglioranzi, S.; Mohamad Idris, F.; Monaco, V.; Montanari, A.; Morris, J. D.; Mujkic, K.; Musgrave, B.; Nagano, K.; Namsoo, T.; Nania, R.; Nigro, A.; Ning, Y.; Nobe, T.; Notz, D.; Nowak, R. J.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A. E.; Oh, B. Y.; Okazaki, N.; Olkiewicz, K.; Onishchuk, Yu.; Papageorgiu, K.; Parenti, A.; Paul, E.; Pawlak, J. M.; Pawlik, B.; Pelfer, P. G.; Pellegrino, A.; Perlanski, W.; Perrey, H.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Plucinski, P.; Pokrovskiy, N. S.; Polini, A.; Proskuryakov, A. S.; Przybycien, M.; Raval, A.; Reeder, D. D.; Reisert, B.; Ren, Z.; Repond, J.; Ri, Y. D.; Robertson, A.; Roloff, P.; Rubinsky, I.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Samson, U.; Sartorelli, G.; Savin, A. A.; Saxon, D. H.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schleper, P.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schneekloth, U.; Schönberg, V.; Schörner-Sadenius, T.; Schwartz, J.; Sciulli, F.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Shehzadi, R.; Shimizu, S.; Singh, I.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Slominski, W.; Smith, W. H.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Son, D.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Spiridonov, A.; Stadie, H.; Stanco, L.; Stefaniuk, N.; Stern, A.; Stewart, T. P.; Stifutkin, A.; Stopa, P.; Suchkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Suszycki, L.; Sztuk-Dambietz, J.; Szuba, D.; Szuba, J.; Tapper, A. D.; Tassi, E.; Terrón, J.; Theedt, T.; Tiecke, H.; Tokushuku, K.; Tomaszewska, J.; Trofymov, A.; Trusov, V.; Tsurugai, T.; Turcato, M.; Turkot, O.; Tymieniecka, T.; Vázquez, M.; Verbytskyi, A.; Viazlo, O.; Vlasov, N. N.; Walczak, R.; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Whitmore, J. J.; Wichmann, K.; Wiggers, L.; Wing, M.; Wlasenko, M.; Wolf, G.; Wolfe, H.; Wrona, K.; Yagües-Molina, A. G.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yoshida, R.; Youngman, C.; Zakharchuk, N.; ?arnecki, A. F.; Zawiejski, L.; Zenaiev, O.; Zeuner, W.; Zhautykov, B. O.; Zhmak, N.; Zichichi, A.; Zolkapli, Z.; Zotkin, D. S.

2013-05-01

45

Zero energy resonances in reactive scattering: anomalous temperature dependence of atom--molecule reaction rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that rate coefficients for inelastic processes---reactive, or nonreactive---in the (ultra)cold regime can be greatly affected by the presence of a resonance pole near E=0 in the entrance channel. This problem has been investigated previously [E. Bodo et al., J. Phys. B 37 (2004) 3641] but their analysis was restricted to the energy dependence of the reaction cross section

I. Simbotin; S. Ghosal; R. Côté

2010-01-01

46

Measurement of isolated photon production in deep inelastic ep scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isolated photon production in deep inelastic ep scattering has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 320 pb. Measurements were made in the isolated-photon transverse-energy and pseudorapidity ranges 45 GeV. Differential cross sections are presented for inclusive isolated photon production as functions of Q, x, ET? and ?. Leading-logarithm parton-shower Monte Carlo simulations and perturbative QCD predictions give a reasonable description of the data over most of the kinematic range.

Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.; Musgrave, B.; Nicholass, D.; Repond, J.; Yoshida, R.; Mattingly, M. C. K.; Antonioli, P.; Bari, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Boscherini, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Cindolo, F.; Corradi, M.; Iacobucci, G.; Margotti, A.; Nania, R.; Polini, A.; Antonelli, S.; Basile, M.; Bindi, M.; Cifarelli, L.; Contin, A.; De Pasquale, S.; Sartorelli, G.; Zichichi, A.; Bartsch, D.; Brock, I.; Hartmann, H.; Hilger, E.; Jakob, H.-P.; Jüngst, M.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A. E.; Paul, E.; Samson, U.; Schönberg, V.; Shehzadi, R.; Wlasenko, M.; Morris, J. D.; Kaur, M.; Kaur, P.; Singh, I.; Capua, M.; Fazio, S.; Mastroberardino, A.; Schioppa, M.; Susinno, G.; Tassi, E.; Kim, J. Y.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Idris, F. Mohamad; Kamaluddin, B.; Abdullah, W. A. T. Wan; Ning, Y.; Ren, Z.; Sciulli, F.; Chwastowski, J.; Eskreys, A.; Figiel, J.; Galas, A.; Olkiewicz, K.; Pawlik, B.; Stopa, P.; Zawiejski, L.; Adamczyk, L.; Bo?d, T.; Grabowska-Bo?d, I.; Kisielewska, D.; ?ukasik, J.; Przybycie?, M.; Suszycki, L.; Kota?ski, A.; S?omi?ski, W.; Bachynska, O.; Behnke, O.; Behr, J.; Behrens, U.; Blohm, C.; Borras, K.; Bot, D.; Ciesielski, R.; Coppola, N.; Fang, S.; Geiser, A.; Göttlicher, P.; Grebenyuk, J.; Gregor, I.; Haas, T.; Hain, W.; Hüttmann, A.; Januschek, F.; Kahle, B.; Katkov, I. I.; Klein, U.; Kötz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Libov, V.; Lisovyi, M.; Lobodzinska, E.; Löhr, B.; Mankel, R.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Miglioranzi, S.; Montanari, A.; Namsoo, T.; Notz, D.; Parenti, A.; Roloff, P.; Rubinsky, I.; Schneekloth, U.; Spiridonov, A.; Szuba, D.; Szuba, J.; Theedt, T.; Tomaszewska, J.; Wolf, G.; Wrona, K.; Yagües-Molina, A. G.; Youngman, C.; Zeuner, W.; Drugakov, V.; Lohmann, W.; Schlenstedt, S.; Barbagli, G.; Gallo, E.; Pelfer, P. G.; Bamberger, A.; Dobur, D.; Karstens, F.; Vlasov, N. N.; Bussey, P. J.; Doyle, A. T.; Forrest, M.; Saxon, D. H.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Gialas, I.; Papageorgiu, K.; Holm, U.; Klanner, R.; Lohrmann, E.; Perrey, H.; Schleper, P.; Schörner-Sadenius, T.; Sztuk, J.; Stadie, H.; Turcato, M.; Long, K. R.; Tapper, A. D.; Matsumoto, T.; Nagano, K.; Tokushuku, K.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Barakbaev, A. N.; Boos, E. G.; Pokrovskiy, N. S.; Zhautykov, B. O.; Aushev, V.; Borodin, M.; Kadenko, I.; Korol, Ie.; Kuprash, O.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Makarenko, I.; Onishchuk, Yu.; Salii, A.; Sorokin, Iu.; Verbytskyi, A.; Viazlo, V.; Volynets, O.; Zenaiev, O.; Zolko, M.; Son, D.; de Favereau, J.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Barreiro, F.; Glasman, C.; Jimenez, M.; del Peso, J.; Ron, E.; Terrón, J.; Uribe-Estrada, C.; Corriveau, F.; Schwartz, J.; Zhou, C.; Tsurugai, T.; Antonov, A.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Gladkov, D.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Stifutkin, A.; Suchkov, S.; Dementiev, R. K.; Ermolov, P. F.; Gladilin, L. K.; Golubkov, Yu. A.; Khein, L. A.; Korzhavina, I. A.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Levchenko, B. B.; Lukina, O. Yu.; Proskuryakov, A. S.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Zotkin, D. S.; Abt, I.; Caldwell, A.; Kollar, D.; Reisert, B.; Schmidke, W. B.; Grigorescu, G.; Keramidas, A.; Koffeman, E.; Kooijman, P.; Pellegrino, A.; Tiecke, H.; Vázquez, M.; Wiggers, L.; Brümmer, N.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Lee, A.; Ling, T. Y.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Ferrando, J.; Foster, B.; Gwenlan, C.; Horton, K.; Oliver, K.; Robertson, A.; Walczak, R.; Bertolin, A.; Dal Corso, F.; Dusini, S.; Longhin, A.; Stanco, L.; Brugnera, R.; Carlin, R.; Garfagnini, A.; Limentani, S.; Oh, B. Y.; Raval, A.; Whitmore, J. J.; Iga, Y.; D'Agostini, G.; Marini, G.; Nigro, A.; Hart, J. C.; Abramowicz, H.; Ingbir, R.; Kananov, S.; Levy, A.; Stern, A.; Ishitsuka, M.; Kanno, T.; Kuze, M.; Maeda, J.; Hori, R.; Okazaki, N.; Shimizu, S.; Hamatsu, R.; Kitamura, S.; Ota, O.; Ri, Y. D.; Costa, M.; Ferrero, M. I.; Monaco, V.; Sacchi, R.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Arneodo, M.; Ruspa, M.; Fourletov, S.; Martin, J. F.; Stewart, T. P.; Boutle, S. K.; Butterworth, J. M.; Jones, T. W.; Loizides, J. H.; Wing, M.; Brzozowska, B.; Ciborowski, J.; Grzelak, G.; Kulinski, P.; ?u?niak, P.; Malka, J.; Nowak, R. J.; Pawlak, J. M.; Perlanski, W.; ?arnecki, A. F.; Adamus, M.; Plucinski, P.; Tymieniecka, T.; Eisenberg, Y.; Hochman, D.; Karshon, U.; Brownson, E.; Reeder, D. D.; Savin, A. A.; Smith, W. H.; Wolfe, H.; Bhadra, S.; Catterall, C. D.; Hartner, G.; Noor, U.; Whyte, J.; ZEUS Collaboration

2010-04-01

47

Reactive Oxygen Production Induced by the Gut Microbiota: Pharmacotherapeutic Implications  

PubMed Central

The resident prokaryotic microbiota of the mammalian intestine influences diverse homeostatic functions, including regulation of cellular growth, maintenance of barrier function, and modulation of immune responses. However, it is unknown how commensal prokaryotic organisms mechanistically influence eukaryotic signaling networks. Recent data has demonstrated that gut epithelia contacted by enteric commensal bacteria rapidly generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). While the induced generation of ROS via stimulation of formyl peptide receptors is a cardinal feature of the cellular response of phagocytes to pathogenic or commensal bacteria, evidence is accumulating that ROS are also similarly elicited in other cell types, including intestinal epithelia, in response to microbial signals. Additionally, ROS have been shown to serve as critical second messengers in multiple signal transduction pathways stimulated by proinflammatory cytokines and growth factors. This physiologically-generated ROS is known to participate in cellular signaling via the rapid and transient oxidative inactivation of a defined class of sensor proteins bearing oxidant-sensitive thiol groups. These proteins include tyrosine phosphatases that serve as regulators of MAP kinase pathways, cytoskeletal dynamics, as well as components involved in control of ubiquitination-mediated NF-?B activation. Consistently, microbial-elicited ROS has been shown to mediate increased cellular proliferation and motility and to modulate innate immune signaling. These results demonstrate how enteric microbiota influence regulatory networks of the mammalian intestinal epithelia. We hypothesize that many of the known effects of the normal microbiota on intestinal physiology, and potential beneficial effects of candidate probiotic bacteria, may be at least partially mediated by this ROS-dependent mechanism. PMID:22360484

Jones, R.M.; Mercante, J.W.; Neish, A.S.

2014-01-01

48

Chemical Characterization and Reactivity of Fuel-Oxidizer Reaction Product  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fuel-oxidizer reaction product (FORP), the product of incomplete reaction of monomethylhydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide propellants prepared under laboratory conditions and from firings of Shuttle Reaction Control System thrusters, has been characterized by chemical and thermal analysis. The composition of FORP is variable but falls within a limited range of compositions that depend on three factors: the fuel-oxidizer ratio at the time of formation; whether the composition of the post-formation atmosphere is reducing or oxidizing; and the reaction or post-reaction temperature. A typical composition contains methylhydrazinium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, methylammonium nitrate, and trace amounts of hydrazinium nitrate and 1,1-dimethylhydrazinium nitrate. Thermal decomposition reactions of the FORP compositions used in this study were unremarkable. Neither the various compositions of FORP, the pure major components of FORP, nor mixtures of FORP with propellant system corrosion products showed any unusual thermal activity when decomposed under laboratory conditions. Off-limit thruster operations were simulated by rapid mixing of liquid monomethylhydrazine and liquid nitrogen tetroxide in a confined space. These tests demonstrated that monomethylhydrazine, methylhydrazinium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, or Inconel corrosion products can induce a mixture of monomethylhydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide to produce component-damaging energies. Damaging events required FORP or metal salts to be present at the initial mixing of monomethylhydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide.

David, Dennis D.; Dee, Louis A.; Beeson, Harold D.

1997-01-01

49

PRODUCTION OF STARCH GRAFT COPOLYMERS USING REACTIVE EXTRUSION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There is considerable interest in the use of starch graft copolymers for applications as hydrogels, controlled release, and superabsorbents which involve contact with water. Typical production methods use batch processess at relatively low solids content, which produce large amounts of ungrafted ho...

50

A combined small- and wide-angle x-ray scattering detector for measurements on reactive systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detector with high dynamic range designed for combined small- and wide-angle x-ray scattering experiments has been developed. It allows measurements on single events and reactive systems, such as particle formation in flames and evaporation of levitating drops. The detector consists of 26 channels covering a region from 0.5° to 60° and it provides continuous monitoring of the sampled signal without readout dead time. The time resolution for fast single events is about 40 ?s and for substances undergoing slower dynamics, the time resolution is set to 0.1 or 1 s with hours of continuous sampling. The detector has been used to measure soot particle formation in a flame, burning magnesium and evaporation of a toluene drop in a levitator. The results show that the detector can be used for many different applications with good outcomes and large potential.

Vallenhag, Linda; Canton, Sophie E.; Sondhauss, Peter; Haase, Dörthe; Ossler, Frederik

2011-08-01

51

Carvacrol has the priming effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in C6 glioma cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carvacrol (5-isopropyl-2-methylphenol) is the major component of Plectranthus amboinicus. Several studies have shown that carvacrol has antibacterial, antifungal and insecticidal effects, but the mechanisms that govern these processes are unclear. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a major role in host defence eradication of microorganisms. In this study, we provide evidence that carvacrol has priming effects on ROS production in C6

Tzou Chi Huang; Ya Ting Lin; Kuo Pin Chuang

2010-01-01

52

Pair Production of J/? as a Probe of Double Parton Scattering at LHCb  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We argue that the recent LHCb observation of J/?-pair production indicates a significant contribution from double parton scattering, in addition to the standard single parton scattering component. We propose a method to measure the double parton scattering at LHCb using leptonic final states from the decay of two prompt J/? mesons.

Kom, C. H.; Kulesza, A.; Stirling, W. J.

2011-08-01

53

Evidence of Phenotypic and Genetic Relationships between Sociality, Emotional Reactivity and Production Traits in Japanese Quail  

PubMed Central

The social behavior of animals, which is partially controlled by genetics, is one of the factors involved in their adaptation to large breeding groups. To understand better the relationships between different social behaviors, fear behaviors and production traits, we analyzed the phenotypic and genetic correlations of these traits in Japanese quail by a second generation crossing of two lines divergently selected for their social reinstatement behavior. Analyses of results for 900 individuals showed that the phenotypic correlations between behavioral traits were low with the exception of significant correlations between sexual behavior and aggressive pecks both at phenotypic (0.51) and genetic (0.90) levels. Significant positive genetic correlations were observed between emotional reactivity toward a novel object and sexual (0.89) or aggressive (0.63) behaviors. The other genetic correlations were observed mainly between behavioral and production traits. Thus, the level of emotional reactivity, estimated by the duration of tonic immobility, was positively correlated with weight at 17 and 65 days of age (0.76 and 0.79, respectively) and with delayed egg laying onset (0.74). In contrast, a higher level of social reinstatement behavior was associated with an earlier egg laying onset (-0.71). In addition, a strong sexual motivation was correlated with an earlier laying onset (-0.68) and a higher number of eggs laid (0.82). A low level of emotional reactivity toward a novel object and also a higher aggressive behavior were genetically correlated with a higher number of eggs laid (0.61 and 0.58, respectively). These results bring new insights into the complex determinism of social and emotional reactivity behaviors in birds and their relationships with production traits. Furthermore, they highlight the need to combine animal welfare and production traits in selection programs by taking into account traits of sociability and emotional reactivity. PMID:24324761

Recoquillay, Julien; Leterrier, Christine; Calandreau, Ludovic; Bertin, Aline; Pitel, Frédérique; Gourichon, David; Vignal, Alain; Beaumont, Catherine; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Arnould, Cécile

2013-01-01

54

EC-SPE-stripline-NMR analysis of reactive products: a feasibility study.  

PubMed

Flow-through electrochemical conversion (EC) of drug-like molecules was hyphenated to miniaturized nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) via on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE). After EC of the prominent p38? mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor BIRB796 into its reactive products, the SPE step provided preconcentration of the EC products and solvent exchange for NMR analysis. The acquisition of NMR spectra of the mass-limited samples was achieved in a stripline probe with a detection volume of 150 nL offering superior mass sensitivity. This hyphenated EC-SPE-stripline-NMR setup enabled the detection of the reactive products using only minute amounts of substrate. Furthermore, the integration of conversion and detection into one flow setup counteracts incorrect assessments caused by the degradation of reactive products. However, apparent interferences of the NMR magnetic field with the EC, leading to a low product yield, so far demanded relatively long signal averaging. A critical assessment of what is and what is not (yet) possible with this approach is presented, for example in terms of structure elucidation and the estimation of concentrations. Additionally, promising routes for further improvement of EC-SPE-stripline-NMR are discussed. PMID:23812883

Falck, David; Oosthoek-de Vries, Anna J; Kolkman, Ard; Lingeman, Henk; Honing, Maarten; Wijmenga, Sybren S; Kentgens, Arno P M; Niessen, Wilfried M A

2013-08-01

55

Energy evolution of the large-t elastic scattering and its correlation with multiparticle production  

SciTech Connect

It is emphasized that the collective dynamics associated with color confinement is dominating over a point-like mechanism related to a scattering of the proton constituents at the currently available values of the momentum transferred in proton elastic scattering at the LHC. Deep-elastic scattering and its role in the dissimilation of the absorptive and reflective asymptotic scattering mechanisms are discussed with emphasis on the experimental signatures associated with the multiparticle production processes.

Troshin, S. M. [Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino, Moscow Region, 142281 (Russian Federation)

2013-04-15

56

Complex generalized minimal residual algorithm for iterative solution of quantum-mechanical reactive scattering equations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Complex dense matrices corresponding to the D + H2 and O + HD reactions were solved using a complex generalized minimal residual (GMRes) algorithm described by Saad and Schultz (1986) and Saad (1990). To provide a test case with a different structure, the H + H2 system was also considered. It is shown that the computational effort for solutions with the GMRes algorithm depends on the dimension of the linear system, the total energy of the scattering problem, and the accuracy criterion. In several cases with dimensions in the range 1110-5632, the GMRes algorithm outperformed the LAPACK direct solver, with speedups for the linear equation solution as large as a factor of 23.

Chatfield, David C.; Reeves, Melissa S.; Truhlar, Donald G.; Duneczky, Csilla; Schwenke, David W.

1992-01-01

57

Quantum reactive scattering calculations for the H+D2?HD+D reaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of accurate 3D quantum scattering calculations in symmetrized hyperspherical coordinates are reported for the H+D2(v,j)?HD(v',j')+D reaction at 64 values of total energy in the range 0.5-1.9 eV. Integral and differential cross sections are computed using the Boothroyd-Keogh-Martin-Peterson potential energy surface for all values of total angular momentum J?31. Several transition state resonances survive the sum over J and are observed in many of the fully converged state-to-state integral and differential cross sections. In some cases a series of resonances is observed. The energy spacings between many of the resonances are consistent with the energy spacings between the even or odd bending modes of the quantized transition states of H3.

Kendrick, Brian K.

2001-05-01

58

Products of rectangular random matrices: Singular values and progressive scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the product of M rectangular random matrices with independent Gaussian entries, which have several applications, including wireless telecommunication and econophysics. For complex matrices an explicit expression for the joint probability density function is obtained using the Harish-Chandra-Itzykson-Zuber integration formula. Explicit expressions for all correlation functions and moments for finite matrix sizes are obtained using a two-matrix model and the method of biorthogonal polynomials. This generalizes the classical result for the so-called Wishart-Laguerre Gaussian unitary ensemble (or chiral unitary ensemble) at M=1, and previous results for the product of square matrices. The correlation functions are given by a determinantal point process, where the kernel can be expressed in terms of Meijer G-functions. We compare the results with numerical simulations and known results for the macroscopic level density in the limit of large matrices. The location of the end points of support for the latter are analyzed in detail for general M. Finally, we consider the so-called ergodic mutual information, which gives an upper bound for the spectral efficiency of a MIMO communication channel with multifold scattering.

Akemann, Gernot; Ipsen, Jesper R.; Kieburg, Mario

2013-11-01

59

Towards a specific reaction parameter density functional for reactive scattering of H{sub 2} from Pd(111)  

SciTech Connect

Recently, an implementation of the specific reaction parameter (SRP) approach to density functional theory (DFT) was used to study several reactive scattering experiments of H{sub 2} on Cu(111). It was possible to obtain chemical accuracy (1 kcal/mol ? 4.2 kJ/mol), and therefore, accurately model this paradigmatic example of activated H{sub 2} dissociation on a metal surface. In this work, the SRP-DFT methodology is applied to the dissociation of hydrogen on a Pd(111) surface, in order to test whether the SRP-DFT approach is also applicable to non-activated H{sub 2}-metal systems. In the calculations, the Born–Oppenheimer static surface approximations are used. A comparison to molecular beam sticking experiments, performed at incidence energies ?125 meV, on H{sub 2} + Pd(111) suggested the PBE-vdW [where the Perdew, Burke, and Ernzerhof (PBE) correlation is replaced by van der Waals correlation] functional as a candidate SRP density functional describing the reactive scattering of H{sub 2} on Pd(111). Unfortunately, quantum dynamics calculations are not able to reproduce the molecular beam sticking results for incidence energies <125 meV. From a comparison to initial state-resolved (degeneracy averaged) sticking probabilities it seems clear that for H{sub 2} + Pd(111) dynamic trapping and steering effects are important, and that these effects are not yet well modeled with the potential energy surfaces considered here. Applying the SRP-DFT method to systems where H{sub 2} dissociation is non-activated remains difficult. It is suggested that a density functional that yields a broader barrier distribution and has more non-activated pathways than PBE-vdW (i.e., non-activated dissociation at some sites but similarly high barriers at the high energy end of the spectrum) should allow a more accurate description of the available experiments. Finally, it is suggested that new and better characterized molecular beam sticking experiments be done on H{sub 2} + Pd(111), to facilitate the development of a more accurate theoretical description of this system.

Boereboom, J. M.; Wijzenbroek, M.; Somers, M. F.; Kroes, G. J. [Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Gorlaeus Laboratories, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)] [Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Gorlaeus Laboratories, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

2013-12-28

60

Nonadiabatic quantum reactive scattering calculations for the O(1D)+H2, D2, and HD reactions on the lowest three potential energy surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-independent three-dimensional quantum reactive scattering calculations including the effect of electronically nonadiabatic coupling have been carried out for the O(1D)+H2, D2, and HD reactions using the recent ab initio versions of the lowest three potential energy surfaces (1 1A', 2 1A', and 1 1A?) of Dobbyn and Knowles. The hyperspherical close-coupling technique has been used and the calculations have been carried out only for zero total angular momentum (J=0). We present total reaction probabilities, the effect of initial rotational excitation, and cumulative reaction probabilities. We found that electronically nonadiabatic transitions are very important for these reactions similar to previous nonadiabatic wave packet calculations using the same surfaces but found isotopic substitution does not largely affect the nonadiabatic reaction dynamics. We also calculated the OH/OD isotopic branching fraction for the O(1D)+HD reaction and found that the OD+H production channel is dominant over the OH+D channel in the energy range considered.

Takayanagi, Toshiyuki

2002-02-01

61

X-ray scattering for the determination of fat content in dairy products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scattering of X-rays from biological samples has been shown to produce characteristic profiles, which depend on their molecular structure. The highly ordered fat molecules in an adipose tissue result in a relatively sharp scattering peak at 1.1 nm -1 with a scattering profile, which is considerably different from the scattering profile of a water-rich tissue. The latter is characterized by a broad scattering peak at about 1.6 nm -1. A biological sample consisting of a mixture of both adipose and a water-rich tissue is expected to show a scattering profile, which is directly linked to the relative contribution of each component and would reflect the percentage by volume of each component in the mixture. In this work, X-ray scattering profiles of a number of dairy products and water are measured. The values of two selected X-ray scattering characterization parameters ( I1/ I2% and areas A1/ A2% of the scattering peaks at 1.1 and 1.6 nm -1, respectively) are plotted against the fat content of each of the measured dairy samples. Results show a strong linear dependence of each of the X-ray scattering parameters and the fat content of the investigated dairy products. These results suggest a possible use of such technique as a new, simple and straight forward method for determination of fat content of dairy products that would join and support the currently available techniques.

Elshemey, Wael M.

2011-07-01

62

A comparison of time-dependent and time-independent quantum reactive scattering--Li+HF --> LiF+H model calculations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactive scattering probabilities are computed over a wide range of collision energies for a model system based on the Li+HF?LiF+H reaction using both grid based time-dependent and time-independent quantum mechanical methods. The computations are carried out using a fixed Li–F–H angle which is chosen to be that at which the barrier to the chemical reaction is lowest. The calculated reaction

Gabriel G. Balint-Kurti; Fahrettin Gögtas; Steven P. Mort; Alison R. Offer; Antonio Laganà; Osvaldo Gervasi

1993-01-01

63

Catalytic reactive separation system for energy-efficient production of cumene  

SciTech Connect

The present invention relates to an atmospheric pressure, reactive separation column packed with a solid acid zeolite catalyst for producing cumene from the reaction of benzene with propylene. Use of this un-pressurized column, where simultaneous reaction and partial separation occur during cumene production, allow separation of un-reacted, excess benzene from other products as they form. This high-yielding, energy-efficient system allows for one-step processing of cumene, with reduced need for product purification. Reacting propylene and benzene in the presence of beta zeolite catalysts generated a selectivity greater than 85% for catalytic separation reactions at a reaction temperature of 115 degrees C and at ambient pressure. Simultaneously, up to 76% of un-reacted benzene was separated from the product; which could be recycled back to the reactor for re-use.

Buelna, Genoveva (Nuevo Laredo, MX); Nenoff, Tina M. (Albuquerque, NM)

2009-07-28

64

Reactivation of methionine synthase from Thermotoga maritima (TM0268) requires the downstream gene product TM0269.  

PubMed

The crystal structure of the Thermotoga maritima gene product TM0269, determined as part of genome-wide structural coverage of T. maritima by the Joint Center for Structural Genomics, revealed structural homology with the fourth module of the cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase (MetH) from Escherichia coli, despite the lack of significant sequence homology. The gene specifying TM0269 lies in close proximity to another gene, TM0268, which shows sequence homology with the first three modules of E. coli MetH. The fourth module of E. coli MetH is required for reductive remethylation of the cob(II)alamin form of the cofactor and binds the methyl donor for this reactivation, S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet). Measurements of the rates of methionine formation in the presence and absence of TM0269 and AdoMet demonstrate that both TM0269 and AdoMet are required for reactivation of the inactive cob(II)alamin form of TM0268. These activity measurements confirm the structure-based assignment of the function of the TM0269 gene product. In the presence of TM0269, AdoMet, and reductants, the measured activity of T. maritima MetH is maximal near 80 degrees C, where the specific activity of the purified protein is approximately 15% of that of E. coli methionine synthase (MetH) at 37 degrees C. Comparisons of the structures and sequences of TM0269 and the reactivation domain of E. coli MetH suggest that AdoMet may be bound somewhat differently by the homologous proteins. However, the conformation of a hairpin that is critical for cobalamin binding in E. coli MetH, which constitutes an essential structural element, is retained in the T. maritima reactivation protein despite striking divergence of the sequences. PMID:17656578

Huang, Sha; Romanchuk, Gail; Pattridge, Katherine; Lesley, Scott A; Wilson, Ian A; Matthews, Rowena G; Ludwig, Martha

2007-08-01

65

Reactivation of methionine synthase from Thermotoga maritima (TM0268) requires the downstream gene product TM0269  

PubMed Central

The crystal structure of the Thermotoga maritima gene product TM0269, determined as part of genome-wide structural coverage of T. maritima by the Joint Center for Structural Genomics, revealed structural homology with the fourth module of the cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase (MetH) from Escherichia coli, despite the lack of significant sequence homology. The gene specifying TM0269 lies in close proximity to another gene, TM0268, which shows sequence homology with the first three modules of E. coli MetH. The fourth module of E. coli MetH is required for reductive remethylation of the cob(II)alamin form of the cofactor and binds the methyl donor for this reactivation, S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet). Measurements of the rates of methionine formation in the presence and absence of TM0269 and AdoMet demonstrate that both TM0269 and AdoMet are required for reactivation of the inactive cob(II)alamin form of TM0268. These activity measurements confirm the structure-based assignment of the function of the TM0269 gene product. In the presence of TM0269, AdoMet, and reductants, the measured activity of T. maritima MetH is maximal near 80°C, where the specific activity of the purified protein is ?15% of that of E. coli methionine synthase (MetH) at 37°C. Comparisons of the structures and sequences of TM0269 and the reactivation domain of E. coli MetH suggest that AdoMet may be bound somewhat differently by the homologous proteins. However, the conformation of a hairpin that is critical for cobalamin binding in E. coli MetH, which constitutes an essential structural element, is retained in the T. maritima reactivation protein despite striking divergence of the sequences. PMID:17656578

Huang, Sha; Romanchuk, Gail; Pattridge, Katherine; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.; Matthews, Rowena G.; Ludwig, Martha

2007-01-01

66

Oleic acid increases mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and decreases endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity in cultured endothelial cells.  

PubMed

Elevated plasma levels of free fatty acids (FFA) are associated with increased cardiovascular risk. This may be related to FFA-induced elevation of oxidative stress in endothelial cells. We hypothesized that, in addition to mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-mediated reactive oxygen species production contributes to oleic acid (OA)-induced oxidative stress in endothelial cells, due to eNOS uncoupling. We measured reactive oxygen species production and eNOS activity in cultured endothelial cells (bEnd.3) in the presence of OA bound to bovine serum albumin, using the CM-H2DCFDA assay and the l-arginine/citrulline conversion assay, respectively. OA induced a concentration-dependent increase in reactive oxygen species production, which was inhibited by the mitochondrial complex II inhibitor thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA). OA had little effect on eNOS activity when stimulated by a calcium-ionophore, but decreased both basal and insulin-induced eNOS activity, which was restored by TTFA. Pretreatment of bEnd.3 cells with tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) prevented OA-induced reactive oxygen species production and restored inhibition of eNOS activity by OA. Elevation of OA levels leads to both impairment in receptor-mediated stimulation of eNOS and to production of mitochondrial-derived reactive oxygen species and hence endothelial dysfunction. PMID:25595727

Gremmels, Hendrik; Bevers, Lonneke M; Fledderus, Joost O; Braam, Branko; Jan van Zonneveld, Anton; Verhaar, Marianne C; Joles, Jaap A

2015-03-15

67

NEANSC international evaluation cooperation SG10 activities on inelastic scattering cross sections for weakly absorbing fission-product nuclides  

SciTech Connect

An evaluation method of inelastic scattering cross sections of FP nuclides is investigated. The origins of the discrepancy found in the calculated and measured sample reactivity worths are also discussed emphasizing the effect of ambiguity in inelastic scattering cross sections and neutron spectra.

Kawai, Masayoshi; Chiba, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Tsuneo; Nakajima, Yutaka; Zukeran, Atsushi [Japan Atomic Energy Res. Ins., Tokai-mura (Japan); Gruppelaar, H.; Hogenbirk, A. [ECN Nuclear Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Salvatores, M.; Dietze, K. [CE/Cadarache, St. Paul-lez-Durance (France)] [and others

1994-12-31

68

Observation of jet production in deep inelastic scattering with a large rapidity gap at HERA  

E-print Network

Observation of jet production in deep inelastic scattering with a large rapidity gap at HERA ZEUS Collaboration 11 April 1994 Abstract Events with a large rapidity gap in deep inelastic scattering with Q 2 â?? 10 interactions that give rise to large rapidity gap events. #12; 1 Introduction In a recent publication [1], we

69

Mechanisms that Regulate Production of Reactive Oxygen Species by Cytochrome P450  

SciTech Connect

Mammalian cytochromes P450 (P450) are a family of heme-thiolate enzymes involved in the oxidative metabolism of a variety of endogenous and exogenous lipophilic compounds. Poor coupling of the P450 catalytic cycle results in continuous production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which affect signaling pathways and other cellular functions. P450 generation of ROS is tightly controlled by regulation of gene transcription, as well as by modulation of interactions between protein constituents of the monooxygenase that affects its activity, coupling and stability. Malfunction of these mechanisms may result in a burst of ROS production, which can cause lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress. In turn, oxidative stress downregulates P450 levels by a variety of feedback mechanisms. This review provides an overview of recent advances in our understanding of these feedback mechanisms that serve to limit P450 production of ROS. Some of the more likely physiological and cellular effects of P450 generation of ROS are also discussed.

Zangar, Richard C.; Davydov, Dmitri R.; Verma, Seema

2004-09-15

70

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by amoebocytes of Asterias rubens (Echinodermata).  

PubMed

An adapted peroxidase, luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence method in an EDTA-free, Ca++-containing medium is described and used to characterise reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by starfish immunocytes using a standard microplate reader luminometer. ROS production was stimulated by direct interaction of immunocytes with bacteria or bacterial wall components, but not by the soluble stimulant PMA nor the lectin concanavalin A. Produced ROS detected by this method are apparently superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide and peroxynitrite. Comparison with other chemiluminescence methods indicates that the described method is the only one to detect the stimulation of starfish immunocytes by the Gram-positive bacteria, Micrococcus luteus, a fact that questions previous reports indicating a lack of stimulation by pathogens. The adapted method provides a rapid determination of the overall ROS production, which is suitable for both disease control and immunotoxicological studies in echinoderms. PMID:11931015

Coteur, Geoffroy; Warnau, Michel; Jangoux, Michel; Dubois, Philippe

2002-03-01

71

Production of Reactive Oxygen Species from Dissolved Organic Matter Photolysis in Ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissolved natural organic matter (DOM) is a ubiquitous component of natural waters and an important photosensitizer. A variety of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to be produced from DOM photolysis including singlet oxygen, hydroxyl radical, peroxyl radical, etc. Recently, it has been determined that organic material is one of the largest contributors to sunlight absorption in snowpack, however DOM photochemistry in snow/ice has received little attention in the literature. The production of ROS from DOM photolysis in snow/ice could play an important role in snowpack photochemical processes, degradation of pollutants in snowpack, and generation of volatile organic compounds emitted from snowpack. We have investigated ROS production from DOM in frozen aqueous solutions, using commercially available humic and fulvic acids. Here we will discuss the rates of ROS production in both liquid and frozen systems, differences in reactivity amongst the DOM sources studied (Suwannee River Humic Acid, Suwannee River Fulvic Acid, and Pony Lake Fulvic Acid), and the potential implications for snowpack photochemical processes.

Fede, A.; Grannas, A. M.

2012-12-01

72

Mitochondrial uncoupling does not decrease reactive oxygen species production after ischemia-reperfusion.  

PubMed

Cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (IR) leads to myocardial dysfunction by increasing production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Mitochondrial H(+) leak decreases ROS formation; it has been postulated that increasing H(+) leak may be a mechanism of decreasing ROS production after IR. Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) decreases ROS formation after IR, but the mechanism is unknown. We hypothesize that pharmacologically increasing mitochondrial H(+) leak would decrease ROS production after IR. We further hypothesize that IPC would be associated with an increase in the rate of H(+) leak. Isolated male Sprague-Dawley rat hearts were subjected to either control or IPC. Mitochondria were isolated at end equilibration, end ischemia, and end reperfusion. Mitochondrial membrane potential (m??) was measured using a tetraphenylphosphonium electrode. Mitochondrial uncoupling was achieved by adding increasing concentrations of FCCP. Mitochondrial ROS production was measured by fluorometry using Amplex-Red. Pyridine dinucleotide levels were measured using HPLC. Before IR, increasing H(+) leak decreased mitochondrial ROS production. After IR, ROS production was not affected by increasing H(+) leak. H(+) leak increased at end ischemia in control mitochondria. IPC mitochondria showed no change in the rate of H(+) leak throughout IR. NADPH levels decreased after IR in both IPC and control mitochondria while NADH increased. Pharmacologically, increasing H(+) leak is not a method of decreasing ROS production after IR. Replenishing the NADPH pool may be a means of scavenging the excess ROS thereby attenuating oxidative damage after IR. PMID:25085966

Quarrie, Ricardo; Lee, Daniel S; Reyes, Levy; Erdahl, Warren; Pfeiffer, Douglas R; Zweier, Jay L; Crestanello, Juan A

2014-10-01

73

Factorization in processes of graviton scattering off electron for Z and W productions  

E-print Network

The study of factorization in linearized gravity is extended to the graviton scattering processes with an electron for the massive vector boson productions such as g e \\rightarrow Z e and g e \\rightarrow W \

Shim, J S

1996-01-01

74

Effects of the reflective scattering in hadron production at high energies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A gradual transition to the reflecting scattering mode developing already at the LHC energies is affecting multiparticle production dynamics, in particular, relation of the centrality with the impact parameter values of pp-collisions. We discuss the issues in the framework of the geometrical picture for the multiparticle production processes proposed by Chou and Yang. We consider effects of reflective scattering mode presence for the inclusive cross-sections.

Troshin, S. M.; Tyurin, N. E.

2014-10-01

75

An index for quantifying the aerobic reactivity of municipal solid wastes and derived waste products.  

PubMed

The organic matter contained in municipal solid waste (MSW) and in the MSW fractions obtained by mechanical separation has strong environmental impact when the waste is used as landfill. This is partly due to the biological activity that occurs under anaerobic conditions. Negative effects on the environment include unpleasant odors, biogas, leachate and biomass self-heating. Measuring the biological reactivity of waste with the help of indicators is an important tool to prevent waste impact. The aim of this study was to develop an index capable of describing the aerobic reactivity of waste, using both biological and chemical indicators. To develop this index, 71 MSW and MSW-product samples, including biologically treated MSW and mechanically separated MSW fractions, were analyzed. Fifty of the 71 samples analyzed represented MSWs and their derived products collected from a number of Italian waste plants and sites. The remaining 21 were MSW samples collected at different times during 8 different full-scale aerobic biological processes in four treatment plants used to reduce the biological reactivity of wastes. Five of these processes used the entire (unsorted) MSW, while the remaining three used the organic fraction of the MSW obtained by mechanical pre-treatment (waste sieving). Respirometric activity (Dynamic Respiration Index, DRI) and eluates characterization (chemical oxygen demand--COD, and 5 days biological oxygen demand--BOD5) were used as indicators of waste strength, as they had previously been reported to be indirect measures of waste impact on landfill. Summarizing all studied indicators, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to develop the Putrescibility Index (Ip). The results revealed Ip index of 204+/-33 (mean+/-standard deviation) and 159+/-14 for the organic fraction of MSW and MSW untreated waste respectively, and of 106+/-16 and 101+/-22 for the corresponding biologically treated waste. PMID:18280541

Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

2008-05-01

76

Live Candida albicans Suppresses Production of Reactive Oxygen Species in Phagocytes? †  

PubMed Central

Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an important aspect of phagocyte-mediated host responses. Since phagocytes play a crucial role in the host response to Candida albicans, we examined the ability of Candida to modulate phagocyte ROS production. ROS production was measured in the murine macrophage cell line J774 and in primary phagocytes using luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence. J774 cells, murine polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), human monocytes, and human PMN treated with live C. albicans produced significantly less ROS than phagocytes treated with heat-killed C. albicans. Live C. albicans also suppressed ROS production in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages from C57BL/6 mice, but not from BALB/c mice. Live C. albicans also suppressed ROS in response to external stimuli. C. albicans and Candida glabrata suppressed ROS production by phagocytes, whereas Saccharomyces cerevisiae stimulated ROS production. The cell wall is the initial point of contact between Candida and phagocytes, but isolated cell walls from both heat-killed and live C. albicans stimulated ROS production. Heat-killed C. albicans has increased surface exposure of 1,3-?-glucan, a cell wall component that can stimulate phagocytes. To determine whether surface 1,3-?-glucan exposure accounted for the difference in ROS production, live C. albicans cells were treated with a sublethal dose of caspofungin to increase surface 1,3-?-glucan exposure. Caspofungin-treated C. albicans was fully able to suppress ROS production, indicating that suppression of ROS overrides stimulatory signals from 1,3-?-glucan. These studies indicate that live C. albicans actively suppresses ROS production in phagocytes in vitro, which may represent an important immune evasion mechanism. PMID:18981256

Wellington, Melanie; Dolan, Kristy; Krysan, Damian J.

2009-01-01

77

Annato extract and ?-carotene modulate the production of reactive oxygen species/nitric oxide in neutrophils from diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Annatto has been identified as carotenoids that have antioxidative effects. It is well known that one of the key elements in the development of diabetic complications is oxidative stress. The immune system is especially vulnerable to oxidative damage because many immune cells, such as neutrophils, produce reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species as part of the body’s defense mechanisms to destroy invading pathogens. Reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species are excessively produced by active peripheral neutrophils, and may damage essential cellular components, which in turn can cause vascular complications in diabetes. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible protective effects of annatto on the reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide (NO) inhibition in neutrophils from alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Adult female rats were divided into six groups based on receiving either a standard diet with or without supplementation of annatto extract or beta carotene. All animals were sacrificed 30 days after treatment and the neutrophils were isolated using two gradients of different densities. The reactive oxygen species and NO were quantified by a chemiluminescence and spectrophotometric assays, respectively. Our results show that neutrophils from diabetic animals produce significantly more reactive oxygen species and NO than their respective controls and that supplementation with beta carotene and annatto is able to modulate the production of these species. Annatto extract may have therapeutic potential for modulation of the balance reactive oxygen species/NO induced by diabetes. PMID:22573917

Rossoni-Júnior, Joamyr Victor; Araújo, Glaucy Rodrigues; Pádua, Bruno da Cruz; Chaves, Míriam Martins; Pedrosa, Maria Lúcia; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Costa, Daniela Caldeira

2012-01-01

78

Annato extract and ?-carotene modulate the production of reactive oxygen species/nitric oxide in neutrophils from diabetic rats.  

PubMed

Annatto has been identified as carotenoids that have antioxidative effects. It is well known that one of the key elements in the development of diabetic complications is oxidative stress. The immune system is especially vulnerable to oxidative damage because many immune cells, such as neutrophils, produce reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species as part of the body's defense mechanisms to destroy invading pathogens. Reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species are excessively produced by active peripheral neutrophils, and may damage essential cellular components, which in turn can cause vascular complications in diabetes. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible protective effects of annatto on the reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide (NO) inhibition in neutrophils from alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Adult female rats were divided into six groups based on receiving either a standard diet with or without supplementation of annatto extract or beta carotene. All animals were sacrificed 30 days after treatment and the neutrophils were isolated using two gradients of different densities. The reactive oxygen species and NO were quantified by a chemiluminescence and spectrophotometric assays, respectively. Our results show that neutrophils from diabetic animals produce significantly more reactive oxygen species and NO than their respective controls and that supplementation with beta carotene and annatto is able to modulate the production of these species. Annatto extract may have therapeutic potential for modulation of the balance reactive oxygen species/NO induced by diabetes. PMID:22573917

Rossoni-Júnior, Joamyr Victor; Araújo, Glaucy Rodrigues; Pádua, Bruno da Cruz; Chaves, Míriam Martins; Pedrosa, Maria Lúcia; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Costa, Daniela Caldeira

2012-05-01

79

Mitochondrial metabolic suppression in fasting and daily torpor: consequences for reactive oxygen species production.  

PubMed

Abstract Daily torpor results in an ?70% decrease in metabolic rate (MR) and a 20%-70% decrease in state 3 (phosphorylating) respiration rate of isolated liver mitochondria in both dwarf Siberian hamsters and mice even when measured at 37°C. This study investigated whether mitochondrial metabolic suppression also occurs in these species during euthermic fasting, when MR decreases significantly but torpor is not observed. State 3 respiration rate measured at 37°C was 20%-30% lower in euthermic fasted animals when glutamate but not succinate was used as a substrate. This suggests that electron transport chain complex I is inhibited during fasting. We also investigated whether mitochondrial metabolic suppression alters mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. In both torpor and euthermic fasting, ROS production (measured as H(2)O(2) release rate) was lower with glutamate in the presence (but not absence) of rotenone when measured at 37°C, likely reflecting inhibition at or upstream of the complex I ROS-producing site. ROS production with succinate (with rotenone) increased in torpor but not euthermic fasting, reflecting complex II inhibition during torpor only. Finally, mitochondrial ROS production was twofold more temperature sensitive than mitochondrial respiration (as reflected by Q(10) values). These data suggest that electron leak from the mitochondrial electron transport chain, which leads to ROS production, is avoided more efficiently at the lower body temperatures experienced during torpor. PMID:21897084

Brown, Jason C L; Staples, James F

2011-01-01

80

Spin Biochemistry Modulates Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Production by Radio Frequency Magnetic Fields  

PubMed Central

The effects of weak magnetic fields on the biological production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from intracellular superoxide (O2•?) and extracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were investigated in vitro with rat pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (rPASMC). A decrease in O2•? and an increase in H2O2 concentrations were observed in the presence of a 7 MHz radio frequency (RF) at 10 ?TRMS and static 45 ?T magnetic fields. We propose that O2•? and H2O2 production in some metabolic processes occur through singlet-triplet modulation of semiquinone flavin (FADH•) enzymes and O2•? spin-correlated radical pairs. Spin-radical pair products are modulated by the 7 MHz RF magnetic fields that presumably decouple flavin hyperfine interactions during spin coherence. RF flavin hyperfine decoupling results in an increase of H2O2 singlet state products, which creates cellular oxidative stress and acts as a secondary messenger that affects cellular proliferation. This study demonstrates the interplay between O2•? and H2O2 production when influenced by RF magnetic fields and underscores the subtle effects of low-frequency magnetic fields on oxidative metabolism, ROS signaling, and cellular growth. PMID:24681944

Usselman, Robert J.; Hill, Iain; Singel, David J.; Martino, Carlos F.

2014-01-01

81

Oxygen Pathway Modeling Estimates High Reactive Oxygen Species Production above the Highest Permanent Human Habitation  

PubMed Central

The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from the inner mitochondrial membrane is one of many fundamental processes governing the balance between health and disease. It is well known that ROS are necessary signaling molecules in gene expression, yet when expressed at high levels, ROS may cause oxidative stress and cell damage. Both hypoxia and hyperoxia may alter ROS production by changing mitochondrial Po2 (). Because depends on the balance between O2 transport and utilization, we formulated an integrative mathematical model of O2 transport and utilization in skeletal muscle to predict conditions to cause abnormally high ROS generation. Simulations using data from healthy subjects during maximal exercise at sea level reveal little mitochondrial ROS production. However, altitude triggers high mitochondrial ROS production in muscle regions with high metabolic capacity but limited O2 delivery. This altitude roughly coincides with the highest location of permanent human habitation. Above 25,000 ft., more than 90% of exercising muscle is predicted to produce abnormally high levels of ROS, corresponding to the “death zone” in mountaineering. PMID:25375931

Cano, Isaac; Selivanov, Vitaly; Gomez-Cabrero, David; Tegnér, Jesper; Roca, Josep; Wagner, Peter D.; Cascante, Marta

2014-01-01

82

Reactivation of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus by natural products from Kaposi’s sarcoma endemic regions  

PubMed Central

Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) and its causative agent, Kaposi’s sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV-8), a gamma2 herpesvirus, have distinctive geographical distributions that are largely unexplained. We propose the “oncoweed” hypothesis to explain these differences, namely that environmental cofactors present in KS endemic regions cause frequent reactivation of KSHV in infected subjects, leading to increased viral shedding and transmission leading to increased prevalence of KSHV infection as well as high viral load levels and antibody titers. Reactivation also plays a role in the pathogenesis of KSHV-associated malignancies. To test this hypothesis, we employed an in vitro KSHV reactivation assay that measured increases in KSHV viral load in KSHV infected primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) cells and screened aqueous natural product extracts from KS endemic regions. Of 4,842 extracts from 38 countries, 184 (5%) caused KSHV reactivation. Extracts that caused reactivation came from a wide variety of plant families, and extracts from Africa, where KSHV is highly prevalent, caused the greatest level of reactivation. Time course experiments were performed using 28 extracts that caused the highest levels of reactivation. The specificity of the effects on viral replication was examined using transcriptional profiling of all viral mRNAs. The array data indicated that the natural extracts caused an ordered cascade of lytic replication similar to that seen after induction with synthetic activators. These in vitro data provide support for the “oncoweed” hypothesis by demonstrating basic biological plausibility. PMID:17066452

Whitby, Denise; Marshall, Vickie A.; Bagni, Rachel K.; Miley, Wendell J.; McCloud, Thomas G.; Hines-Boykin, Rebecca; Goedert, James J.; Conde, Betty A.; Nagashima, Kunio; Mikovits, Judy; Dittmer, Dirk P.; Newman, David J.

2010-01-01

83

Multiple-scattering model for inclusive proton production in heavy ion collisions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A formalism is developed for evaluating the momentum distribution for proton production in nuclear abrasion during heavy ion collisions using the Glauber multiple-scattering series. Several models for the one-body density matrix of nuclei are considered for performing numerical calculations. Calculations for the momentum distribution of protons in abrasion are compared with experimental data for inclusive proton production.

Cucinotta, Francis A.

1994-01-01

84

Nuclear A dependence of exclusive vector meson production in muon scattering  

SciTech Connect

Results on exclusive vector meson production from Fermilab muon scattering experiment E665 are presented. The {Alpha} dependence of exclusive vector meson production is studied as a function of Q{sup 2}. The data show a significant change in the dependence on {Alpha} at higher values of Q{sup 2}. The observed behavior is consistent with the idea of color transparency.

Schellman, H. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; E665 Collaboration

1994-07-01

85

Dilepton production from resonance scattering in hot hadronic matter  

E-print Network

dileptons from the quark-gluon s from resonance scattering, such as l2, r1r!l11l2, p1a1!l11l2, etc., are t experimental data from CERN/SPS ex- m to be consistent with these observations s studies, some important features of hadron properties have.../or density, as achieved in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions @1#, the hadronic matter is expected to undergo a phase transition to the quark-gluon plasma in which quarks and gluons interact weakly and the spontaneously broken chiral symmetry...

Song, C.; Ko, Che Ming.

1996-01-01

86

Electron-beam stimulation of the reactivity of cellulose pulps for production of derivatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New alternative technologies for manufacture of cellulose fibers are currently under development. The effect of electron beam irradiation on various types of cellulose pulps have been studied in order to improve the reactivity of raw material for production of cellulose derivatives. Three different types of textile pulps, Alicell (Canada), Borregaard (Norwegian), Ketchikan (USA) and Kraft softwood as well as Kraft hardwood pulps, have been irradiated with 10 MeV electron beam from LAE 13/g linear accelerator with dose 10, 15, 20, 25 and 50 kGy. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (ESR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) were applied for determination of structural changes in irradiated pulps. Such parameters as viscosity, average degree of polymerization and ?-cellulose contents were determinated by means of analytical methods. Results of there investigations are presented and discussed.

Iller, Edward; Kukie?ka, Aleksandra; Stupi?ska, Halina; Miko?ajczyk, W?odzimierz

2002-03-01

87

Interactions of U.S. Agricultural Production with Climatic Stresses and Reactive Nitrogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agricultural production both contributes to and responds to climatic variations across spatial and temporal continuums. The agriculture sector is responsible for over 6% of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions, primarily as methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) gases emitted by agricultural activities. Agriculture activities specifically account for about 69% of U.S. N2O emissions, largely as a result of production practices including fertilizer management, cropping systems, and manure management. Fertilizers, together with manure and legume fixation, are the three main inputs of N to US agricultural soils. All three sources have been increasing over the past two decades, while the rate at which they are removed in the form of harvested crops has been increasing at a slightly slower rate. The outlook for continued large areas of cultivation in the U.S., specifically for corn production and supported by biofuel production goals, is a major factor in sustaining demand for N fertilizer. However, rising fertilizer prices and environmental pressures on producers are encouraging increased adoption of emerging technologies such as precision agriculture, cultivars with higher N use efficiency, and enhanced-efficiency N sources such as controlled-release forms or forms with urease or nitrification inhibitors. Crop productivity also responds to climatic changes, as crop growth is affected by variables including heat, drought, ozone (O3), and increased ambient carbon dioxide (CO2). We summarize sources and fates of N for cropping systems and intensive animal systems and assess how climate change will affect crop response to and recovery of N and subsequent cascading effects on Nr. The complex interactions between agricultural Nr and climate present opportunities for mitigation/adaption relative to N use. N fertilizer and manure management, tillage, technology, and decision support models provide significant opportunities for climate mitigation and adaption in U.S. agriculture. Here we summarize reactive nitrogen (Nr)-climate interactions as they relate to U.S. agricultural production.

Gehl, R. J.; Robertson, G. P.; Bruulsema, T. W.; Kanter, D.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Rotz, C. A.; Williams, C. O.

2011-12-01

88

Increased hydrogen peroxide and thiobarbituric acid-reactive products in expired breath condensate of asthmatic patients.  

PubMed

Symptoms of bronchial asthma are a manifestation of airway inflammation. Circulatory leucocytes (predominantly eosinophils, mast cells and neutrophils), release inflammatory mediators, including reactive oxygen species, i.e. superoxide anion which is dismutated to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Neutrophils from asthmatics generate greater amounts of these species than those of healthy subjects. Some of the H2O2 and thiobarbituric acid-reactive products (TBARs) can evaporate from alveolar lining fluid, and could be expired from the airways of asthmatics. In this study, therefore, we determined whether asthmatic patients exhale more H2O2 and TBARs than healthy subjects. We examined 10 healthy subjects as a control group and 21 asthmatic subjects. In asthmatic subjects, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), was 68+/-9% of predicted value, peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) was 65+/-8% pred, and bronchial reversibility was 34+/-5% of prebronchodilated FEV1. The mean H2O2 level measured spectrofluorimetrically in the expired breath condensate of asthmatic subjects was 26 fold higher than that in healthy controls (0.26+/-0.29 vs 0.01+/-0.03 nM; p<0.05). The concentration of TBARs in breath condensate was also higher in asthmatic patients compared with nonasthmatics (0.073+/-0.071 vs 0.004+/-0.009 nM; p<0.05). There was a significant correlation between H2O2 level and concentration of TBARs in asthmatic patients (r=0.74; p<0.01). There was also a strong inverse correlation between H2O2 content of all asthmatics and FEV1% pred (r=-0.63; p<0.005) and PEFR% pred (r=-0.52; p<0.05). We conclude that there are elevated levels of hydrogen peroxide and thiobarbituric acid-reactive products in expired breath condensate of asthmatic patients, and that measurement of these substances in the expired breath condensate could be a simple, noninvasive method that could be used as a biochemical marker of airway inflammation. PMID:9192922

Antczak, A; Nowak, D; Shariati, B; Król, M; Piasecka, G; Kurmanowska, Z

1997-06-01

89

Using 14C to investigate Methane Production and DOC Reactivity in Northern Peatlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We found a consistent distribution pattern for radiocarbon in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and methane replicated across spatial and temporal scales in northern peatlands from Minnesota to Alaska. The 14C content of DOC is relatively modern throughout the peat column, to depths of 3 meters. In sedge-dominated peatlands, the 14C content of the products of respiration, CH4 and DIC are essentially the same, and are similar to that of DOC. In Sphagnum-woody plant dominated peatlands with few sedges, however, the respiration products are similar but intermediate between the 14C content of the solid-phase peat and the DOC. Preliminary data indicates qualitative differences in the pore-water DOC depending on the extent of sedge cover, consistent with the hypothesis that the DOC in sedge-dominated peatlands is more reactive than DOC in peatlands where Sphagnum or other vascular plants dominate. These data are supported by molecular-level analysis of DOC by ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry which suggests dramatic changes with depth in the composition of DOC in the sedge-dominated peatland porewaters but not in porewaters where Sphagnum dominates. The higher reactivity of DOC from sedge- dominated peatlands may be a function of either different source materials or environmental factors that are related to the abundance of sedges in peatlands. To further investigate the reactivity of peat DOC in anaerobic methane producing environments, we are conducting size fractionation experiments for both the bog and fen samples. We will analyze resulting size fractions of DOC for radiocarbon. Previous research has shown that microorganisms tend to prefer HMW DOC to LMW DOC. Due to this, we believe that LMW DOC from both the bogs and the fens will result in radiocarbon values that are more depleted in 14C relative to HMW DOC. We hypothesize that the HMW DOC from the bogs will show depletion in 14C relative to HMW DOC in the fens. We further hypothesize that the HMW DOC from the fens should be the most enriched in 14C as the DOC is being utilized by the bacteria before the 14C in this DOC pool has the chance to decay.

Corbett, J.; Chanton, J.; Glaser, P.; Burdige, D.; Siegel, D.; Cooper, W.

2008-12-01

90

Nicorandil prevents sirolimus-induced production of reactive oxygen species, endothelial dysfunction, and thrombus formation.  

PubMed

Sirolimus (SRL) is widely used to prevent restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention. However, its beneficial effect is hampered by complications of thrombosis. Several studies imply that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a critical role in endothelial dysfunction and thrombus formation. The present study investigated the protective effect of nicorandil (NIC), an anti-angina agent, on SRL-associated thrombosis. In human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs), SRL stimulated ROS production, which was prevented by co-treatment with NIC. The preventive effect of NIC on ROS was abolished by 5-hydroxydecanoate but not by 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one. NIC also inhibited SRL-induced up-regulation of NADPH oxidase subunit p22(phox) mRNA. Co-treatment with NIC and SRL significantly up-regulated superoxide dismutase 2. NIC treatment significantly improved SRL-induced decrease in viability of HCAECs. The functional relevance of the preventive effects of NIC on SRL-induced ROS production and impairment of endothelial viability was investigated in a mouse model of thrombosis. Pretreatment with NIC inhibited the SRL-induced acceleration of FeCl3-initiated thrombus formation and ROS production in the testicular arteries of mice. In conclusion, NIC prevented SRL-induced thrombus formation, presumably due to the reduction of ROS and to endothelial protection. The therapeutic efficacy of NIC could represent an additional option in the prevention of SRL-related thrombosis. PMID:25837924

Aizawa, Ken; Takahari, Youko; Higashijima, Naoko; Serizawa, Kenichi; Yogo, Kenji; Ishizuka, Nobuhiko; Endo, Koichi; Fukuyama, Naoto; Hirano, Katsuya; Ishida, Hideyuki

2015-03-01

91

Role of Glycocalyx in Flow-Induced Production of Nitric Oxide and Reactive Oxygen Species  

PubMed Central

Although the glycocalyx has been implicated in wall shear stress (WSS) mechanotransduction, the role of glycocalyx components in nitric oxide (NO*) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production remains unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that glycocalyx is implicated in both endothelial NO* and O2- production. Specifically, we evaluated the role of hyaluronic acid (HA), heparan sulfate (HS), and sialic acid (SA) in NO* and O2- mechanotransduction. Twenty-seven ex-vivo porcine superficial femoral arteries were incubated with either heparinase III, hyaluronidase, or neuraminidase, to remove HS, HA, or SA, respectively, from the glycocalyx. The arteries were then subjected to steady state flow and the effluent solution was measured for nitrites and the vessel diameter was tracked to quantify the degree of vasodilation. Our results show that removal of HA decreased both nitrites and vasodilation, and tempol treatment had no reversing effect. Degradation of HS proteoglycans decreased NO* bioavailability through an increase in O2- production as indicated by fluorescent signals of dihydroethidium (DHE) and its area fraction (209±24% increase) and also removed extracellular O2- dismutase (ecSOD) (67±9% decrease). The removal of SA also increased O2- production as indicated by DHE fluorescent signals (86±17% increase) and the addition of tempol, a mimic O2- scavenger, restored both NO* availability and vasodilation in both heparinase and neuraminidase treated vessels. This implies that HS and SA are not directly involved in WSS mediated NO* production. This study implicates HA in WSS-mediated NO* mechanotransduction and underscores the role of HS and SA in ROS regulation in vessel wall in response to WSS stimulation. PMID:19500664

Kumagai, Robert; Lu, Xiao; Kassab, Ghassan S.

2009-01-01

92

Jet production in high Q 2 deep-inelastic ep scattering at HERA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-jet production in deep-inelastic electron-proton scattering has been studied for 160Q22, 0.01xy<0.95 with the ZEUS detector at HERA. The kinematic properties of the jets and the jet production rates are presented. The partonic scaling variables of the two-jet system and the rate of two-jet production are compared to perturbative next-to-leading order QCD calculations.

M. Derrick; D. Krakauer; S. Magill; D. Mikunas; B. Musgrave; J. Repond; R. Stanek; R. L. Talaga; H. Zhang; R. Avad; G. Bari; M. Basile; L. Bellagamba; D. Boscherini; A. Bruni; G. Bruni; P. Bruni; G. Cara Romeo; G. Castellini; M. Chiarini; L. Cifarelli; F. Cindolo; A. Contin; M. Corradi; I. Gialas; P. Giusti; G. Iacobucci; G. Laurenti; G. Levi; A. Margotti; T. Massam; R. Nania; C. Nemoz; E. Palmonari; A. Polini; G. Sartorelli; R. Timellini; Y. Zamora Garcia; A. Zichichi; A. Bargende; J. Crittenden; K. Desch; B. Diekmann; T. Doeker; M. Eckert; L. Feld; A. Frey; M. Geerts; G. Geitz; M. Grothe; T. Haas; H. Hartmann; D. Haun; K. Heinloth; E. Hilger; H.-P. Jakob; U. F. Katz; S. M. Mari; A. Mass; S. Mengel; J. Mollen; E. Paul; Ch. Rembser; R. Schattevoy; D. Schramm; J. Stamm; R. Wedemeyer; S. Campbell-Robson; A. Cassidy; N. Dyce; B. Foster; S. George; R. Gilmore; G. P. Heath; H. F. Heath; T. J. Llewellyn; C. J. S. Morgado; D. J. P. Norman; J. A. O'Mara; R. I. Tapper; S. S. Wilson; R. Yoshida; R. R. Rau; M. Arneodo; L. Iannotti; M. Schioppa; G. Susinno; A. Bernstein; A. Caldwell; J. A. Parsons; S. Ritz; F. Sciulli; P. B. Straub; L. Wai; S. Yang; Q. Zhu; P. Borzemski; J. Chwastowski; A. Eskreys; K. Piotrzkowski; M. Zachara; L. Zawiejski; L. Adamczyk; B. Bednarek; K. Eskreys; K. Jele?; D. Kisielewska; T. Kowalski; E. Rulikowska-Zar?bska; L. Suszycki; J. Zaj?c; A. Kota?ski; M. Przybycie?; I. A. T. Bauerdick; U. Behrens; H. Beier; J. K. Bienlein; C. Coldewey; O. Deppe; K. Desler; G. Drews; M. Flasi?ski; D. J. Gilkinson; C. Glasman; P. Göttlicher; J. Große-Knetter; B. Gutjahr; W. Hain; D. Hasell; H. Heßling; H. Hultschig; Y. Iga; P. Joos; M. Kasemann; R. Klanner; W. Koch; L. Köpke; U. Kötz; H. Kowalski; J. Labs; A. Ladage; B. Löhr; M. Löwe; D. Lüke; O. Ma?czak; J. S. T. Ng; S. Nickel; D. Notz; K. Ohrenberg; M. Roco; M. Rohde; J. Roldán; U. Schneekloth; W. Schulz; F. Selonke; E. Stiliaris; B. Surrow; T. Voß; D. Westphal; G. Wolf; C. Youngman; J. F. Zhou; H. J. Grabosch; A. Kharchilava; A. Leich; M. Mattingly; A. Meyer; S. Schlenstedt; N. Wulff; G. Barbagli; P. Pelfer; G. Anzivino; G. Maccarrone; S. De Pasquale; L. Votano; A. Bamberger; S. Eisenhardt; A. Freidhof; S. Söldner-Rembold; J. Schroeder; T. Trefzger; N. H. Brook; P. J. Bussey; A. T. Doyle; I. Fleck; D. H. Saxon; M. L. Utley; A. S. Wilson; A. Dannemann; U. Holm; D. Horstmann; T. Neumann; R. Sinkus; K. Wick; E. Badura; B. D. Burow; L. Hagge; E. Lohrmann; J. Mainusch; J. Milewski; M. Nakahata; N. Pavel; G. Poelz; W. Schott; F. Zetsche; T. C. Bacon; I. Butterworth; E. Gallo; V. L. Harris; B. Y. H. Hung; K. R. Long; D. B. Miller; P. P. O. Morawitz; A. Prinias; J. K. Sedgbeer; A. F. Whitfield; U. Mallik; E. McCliment; M. Z. Wang; S. M. Wang; J. T. Wu; Y. Zhang; P. Cloth; D. Filges; S. H. An; S. M. Hong; S. W. Nam; S. K. Park; M. H. Suh; S. H. Yon; R. Imlay; S. Kartik; H.-J. Kim; R. R. McNeil; W. Metcalf; V. K. Nadendla; F. Barreiro; G. Cases; R. Graciani; J. M. Hernández; L. Hervás; L. Labarga; J. del Peso; J. Puga; J. Terron; J. F. de Trocóniz; G. R. Smith; F. Corriveau; D. S. Hanna; J. Hartmann; L. W. Hung; J. N. Lim; C. G. Matthews; P. M. Patel; L. E. Sinclair; D. G. Stairs; M. St. Laurent; R. Ullmann; G. Zacek; V. Bashkirov; B. A. Dolgoshein; A. Stifutkin; G. L. Bashindzhagyan; P. F. Ermolov; L. K. Gladilin; Y. A. Golubkov; V. D. Kobrin; V. A. Kuzmin; A. S. Proskuryakov; A. A. Savin; L. M. Shcheglova; A. N. Solomin; N. P. Zotov; M. Botje; F. Chlebana; A. Dake; J. Engelen; M. de Kamps; P. Kooijman; A. Kruse; H. Tiecke; W. Verkerke; M. Vreeswijk; L. Wiggers; E. de Wolf; R. van Woudenberg; D. Acosta; B. Bylsma; L. S. Durkin; K. Honscheid; C. Li; T. Y. Ling; K. W. McLean; W. N. Murray; I. H. Park; T. A. Romanowski; R. Seidlein; D. S. Bailey; G. A. Blair; A. Byrne; R. J. Cashmore; A. M. Cooper-Sarkar; D. Daniels; R. C. E. Devenish; N. Harnew; M. Lancaster; P. E. Luffman; L. Lindemann; J. D. McFall; C. Nath; V. A. Noyes; A. Quadt; H. Uijterwaal; R. Walczak; F. F. Wilson; T. Yip; G. Abbiendi; A. Bertolin; R. Brugnera; R. Carlin; F. Dal Corso; M. De Giorgi; U. Dosselli; S. Limentani; M. Morandin; M. Posocco; L. Stanco; R. Stroili; C. Voci; J. Bulmahn; J. M. Butterworth; R. G. Feild; B. Y. Oh; J. J. Whitmore; G. D'Agostini; G. Marini; A. Nigro; E. Tassi; J. C. Hart; N. A. McCubbin; K. Prytz; T. P. Shah; T. L. Short; L. Barberis; N. Cartiglia; T. Dubbs; C. Heusch; M. Van Hook; B. Hubbard; W. Lockman; J. T. Rahn; H. F.-W. Sadrozinski; A. Seiden; J. Biltzinger; R. J. Seifert; A. H. Walenta; G. Zech; H. Abramowicz; G. Briskin; S. Dagan; A. Levy; T. Hasegawa; M. Hazumi; T. Ishii; M. Kuze; S. Mine; Y. Nagasawa; M. Nakao; I. Suzuki; K. Tokushuku; S. Yamada; Y. Yamazaki; M. Chiba; R. Hamatsu; T. Hirose; K. Homma; S. Kitamura; Y. Nakamitsu; K. Yamauchi; R. Cirio; M. Costa; M. I. Ferrero; L. Lamberti; S. Maselli; C. Peroni

1995-01-01

93

Conformational transition between native and reactive center cleaved forms of. alpha. sub 1 -antitrypsin by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and small-angle neutron scattering  

SciTech Connect

{alpha}{sub 1}-Antitrypsin ({alpha}{sub 1}-AT) is the best-characterized member of the serpin superfamily of plasma proteins. Protease inhibitor members of this family undergo a characteristic reactive-center cleavage during expression of their inhibitory activity. The physical basis of this transition in {alpha}{sub 1}-AT from the stressed native conformation to the more stable reactive center cleaved (split) form was studied by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and neutron scattering. The FT-IR spectra show that, while split {alpha}{sub 1}-AT has three intense well-resolved components associated with the presence of antiparallel {beta}-sheet and {alpha}-helix conformations, the amide I band of native {alpha}{sub 1}-AT has only one intense component, associated with the presence of {beta}-sheet structure. {sup 1}H-{sup 2}H exchange within the polypeptide backbone, studied by FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy, shows that the native form undergoes greater exchange than the split form. Under the same conditions, neutron scattering shows no differences in the radius of gyration R{sub G} of the native and the split forms. In contrast, in high concentrations of phosphate approaching those used for crystallization, the native form (unlike the split form) undergoes dimerization. These data indicate that the conformational transition largely involves localized secondary and tertiary structure rearrangements. The authors propose that the energetically stressed native {alpha}{sub 1}-AT structure is the consequence of a significantly reduced number of hydrogen bonds in secondary structure components and that reactive-site cleavage between Met358 and Ser359 is the key for the development of the fully hydrogen bonded more stable serpin structure.

Haris, P.I.; Chapman, D.; Smith K.F.; Perkins, S.J. (Royal Free Hospital School of Medicine, London (England)); Harrison, R.A. (MRC Centre, Cambridge (England))

1990-02-13

94

Reactive oxygen species and IRF1 stimulate IFN? production by proximal tubules during ischemic AKI  

PubMed Central

We previously reported that expression of the transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1) is an early, critical maladaptive signal expressed by renal tubules during murine ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI). We now show that IRF1 mediates signals from reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during ischemic AKI and that these signals ultimately result in production of ?-subtypes of type I interferons (IFN?s). We found that genetic knockout of the common type I IFN receptor (IFNARI?/?) improved kidney function and histology during AKI. There are major differences in the spatial-temporal production of the two major IFN subtypes, IFN? and IFN?s: IFN? expression peaks at 4 h, earlier than IFN?s, and continues at the same level at 24 h; expression of IFN?s also increases at 4 h but continues to increase through 24 h. The magnitude of the increase in IFN?s relative to baseline is much greater than that of IFN?. We show by immunohistology and study of isolated cells that IFN? is produced by renal leukocytes and IFN?s are produced by renal tubules. IRF1, IFN?s, and IFNARI were found on the same renal tubules during ischemic AKI. Furthermore, we found that ROS induced IFN? expression by renal tubules in vitro. This expression was inhibited by small interfering RNA knockdown of IRF1. Overexpression of IRF1 resulted in the production of IFN?s. Furthermore, we found that IFN? stimulated production of maladaptive proinflammatory CXCL2 by renal tubular cells. Altogether our data support the following autocrine pathway in renal tubular cells: ROS > IRF1 > IFN? > IFNARI > CXCL2. PMID:23657854

Winterberg, Pamela D.; Wang, Yanxia; Lin, Keng-Mean; Hartono, John R.; Nagami, Glenn T.; Zhou, Xin J.; Shelton, John M.; Richardson, James A.

2013-01-01

95

Urea degradation by electrochemically generated reactive chlorine species: products and reaction pathways.  

PubMed

This study investigated the transformation of urea by electrochemically generated reactive chlorine species (RCS). Solutions of urea with chloride ions were electrolyzed using a bismuth doped TiO2 (BiOx/TiO2) anode coupled with a stainless steel cathode at applied anodic potentials (Ea) of either +2.2 V or +3.0 V versus the normal hydrogen electrode. In NaCl solution, the current efficiency of RCS generation was near 30% at both potentials. In divided cell experiments, the pseudo-first-order rate of total nitrogen decay was an order of magnitude higher at Ea of +3.0 V than at +2.2 V, presumably because dichlorine radical (Cl2(-)·) ions facilitate the urea transformation primary driven by free chlorine. Quadrupole mass spectrometer analysis of the reactor headspace revealed that N2 and CO2 are the primary gaseous products of the oxidation of urea, whose urea-N was completely transformed into N2 (91%) and NO3(-) (9%). The higher reaction selectivity with respect to N2 production can be ascribed to a low operational ratio of free available chlorine to N. The mass-balance analysis recovered urea-C as CO2 at 77%, while CO generation most likely accounts for the residual carbon. In light of these results, we propose a reaction mechanism involving chloramines and chloramides as reaction intermediates, where the initial chlorination is the rate-determining step in the overall sequence of reactions. PMID:25219459

Cho, Kangwoo; Hoffmann, Michael R

2014-10-01

96

Reactive oxygen products in heterologous anti-glomerular basement membrane nephritis in rats.  

PubMed Central

The effect of 'scavengers' of reactive oxygen products (ROPs) was studied in the heterologous phase of anti-glomerular basement (anti-GBM) nephritis induced in rats. Glomerulonephritis was induced by the intravenous administration of sheep anti-GBM antibody (5 mg/100 g) to rats on day 0. The intraperitoneal administration of superoxide dismutase (SOD) 30 mg/kg/day or 150 mg/kg/day leads to a significant reduction in proteinuria on day 1 and also on day 3 in animals given SOD 30 mg/kg/day. Proteinuria was not significantly reduced by the intraperitoneal administration of inactivated SOD (150 mg/kg/day). In rats given polyethylene glycol coupled catalase (PEG-catalase) intraperitoneally at a dose of 10,000 iu/kg/day and 100,000 iu/kg/day proteinuria was lower than in rats with unmodified anti-GBM nephritis. These differences were significant on day 1 (P less than 0.05) in rats given PEG-catalase 100,000 iu/kg/day and on days 3 and 5 in rats treated with either dose of PEG-catalase (P less than 0.01). These data suggest a role for superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide, or a product of their interaction such as hydroxyl radical, in glomerular injury induced by anti-GBM antibody. PMID:2786425

Birtwistle, R. J.; Michael, J.; Howie, A. J.; Adu, D.

1989-01-01

97

Probing reactivity of dissolved organic matter for disinfection by-product formation using XAD-8 resin adsorption and ultrafiltration fractionation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disinfection by-product (DBP) reactivity (yield and speciation upon reaction with chlorine) of dissolved organic matter (DOM) isolated from two surface waters was investigated. The source waters, each having significantly different specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA254), molecular weight (MW) distribution and polarity, were fractionated using XAD-8 resin adsorption and ultrafiltration (UF), with good DOM mass balance closures (based on dissolved organic

Mehmet Kitis; Tanju Karanfil; Andrew Wigton; James E Kilduff

2002-01-01

98

Grid methods for solving the Schrödinger equation and time dependent quantum dynamics of molecular photofragmentation and reactive scattering processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review will concentrate on new theoretical methods for solving the quantum dynamics of molecular systems. The approach will be that of solving the time dependent Schrödinger equation, and extracting from it the measurable quantities of experimental interest. Applications to the modelling of molecular photodissociation processes and to the theory of reactive molecular collisions will be discussed.

Gabriel G. Balint-Kurti; Richard N. Dixon; C. Clay Marston

1992-01-01

99

Compton Scattering from the Deuteron below Pion-Production Threshold  

E-print Network

Differential cross sections for elastic scattering of photons from the deuteron have recently been measured at the Tagged-Photon Facility at the MAX IV Laboratory in Lund, Sweden. These first new measurements in more than a decade further constrain the isoscalar electromagnetic polarizabilities of the nucleon and provide the first-ever results above 100 MeV, where the sensitivity to the polarizabilities is increased. We add 23 points between 70 and 112 MeV, at angles 60deg, 120deg and 150deg. Analysis of these data using a Chiral Effective Field Theory indicates that the cross sections are both self-consistent and consistent with previous measurements. Extracted values of \\alpha_s = [12.1 +/- 0.8(stat) +/- 0.2(BSR) +/- 0.8(th)] X 10^{-4} fm^3 and \\beta_s = [2.4 +/- 0.8(stat) +/- 0.2(BSR) +/- 0.8(th)] X 10^{-4} fm^3 are obtained from a fit to these 23 new data points. This paper presents in detail the experimental conditions and the data analysis used to extract the cross sections.

Luke Myers; John Annand; Jason Brudvik; Gerald Feldman; Kevin Fissum; Harald Grießhammer; Kurt Hansen; Seth Henshaw; Lennart Isaksson; Ramsey Jebali; Michael Kovash; Magnus Lundin; Duncan Middleton; Alan Nathan; Bent Schröder; Sean Stave

2015-03-27

100

Compton Scattering from the Deuteron below Pion-Production Threshold  

E-print Network

Differential cross sections for elastic scattering of photons from the deuteron have recently been measured at the Tagged-Photon Facility at the MAX IV Laboratory in Lund, Sweden. These first new measurements in more than a decade further constrain the isoscalar electromagnetic polarizabilities of the nucleon and provide the first-ever results above 100 MeV, where the sensitivity to the polarizabilities is increased. We add 23 points between 70 and 112 MeV, at angles 60deg, 120deg and 150deg. Analysis of these data using a Chiral Effective Field Theory indicates that the cross sections are both self-consistent and consistent with previous measurements. Extracted values of \\alpha_s = [12.1 +/- 0.8(stat) +/- 0.2(BSR) +/- 0.8(th)] X 10^{-4} fm^3 and \\beta_s = [2.4 +/- 0.8(stat) +/- 0.2(BSR) +/- 0.8(th)] X 10^{-4} fm^3 are obtained from a fit to these 23 new data points. This paper presents in detail the experimental conditions and the data analysis used to extract the cross sections.

Myers, Luke; Brudvik, Jason; Feldman, Gerald; Fissum, Kevin; Grießhammer, Harald; Hansen, Kurt; Henshaw, Seth; Isaksson, Lennart; Jebali, Ramsey; Kovash, Michael; Lundin, Magnus; Middleton, Duncan; Nathan, Alan; Schröder, Bent; Stave, Sean

2015-01-01

101

Constraints on instantaneous ozone production rates and regimes during DOMINO derived using in-situ OH reactivity measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study air masses are characterized in terms of their total OH reactivity which is a robust measure of the "reactive air pollutant loading". The measurements were performed during the DOMINO campaign (Diel Oxidant Mechanisms In relation to Nitrogen Oxides) held from 21/11/2008 to 08/12/2008 at the Atmospheric Sounding Station - El Arenosillo (37.1° N-6.7° W, 40 m a.s.l.). The site was frequently impacted by marine air masses (arriving at the site from the southerly sector) and air masses from the cities of Huelva (located NW of the site), Seville and Madrid (located NNE of the site). OH reactivity values showed strong wind sector dependence. North eastern "continental" air masses were characterized by the highest OH reactivities (average: 31.4 ± 4.5 s-1; range of average diel values: 21.3-40.5 s-1), followed by north western "industrial" air masses (average: 13.8 ± 4.4 s-1; range of average diel values: 7-23.4 s-1) and marine air masses (average: 6.3 ± 6.6 s-1; range of average diel values: below detection limit -21.7 s-1), respectively. The average OH reactivity for the entire campaign period was ~18 s-1 and no pronounced variation was discernible in the diel profiles with the exception of relatively high values from 09:00 to 11:00 UTC on occasions when air masses arrived from the north western and southern wind sectors. The measured OH reactivity was used to constrain both diel instantaneous ozone production potential rates and regimes. Gross ozone production rates at the site were generally limited by the availability of NOx with peak values of around 20 ppbV O3 h-1. Using the OH reactivity based approach, derived ozone production rates indicate that if NOx would no longer be the limiting factor in air masses arriving from the continental north eastern sector, peak ozone production rates could double. We suggest that the new combined approach of in-situ fast measurements of OH reactivity, nitrogen oxides and peroxy radicals for constraining instantaneous ozone production rates, could significantly improve analyses of upwind point sources and their impact on regional ozone levels.

Sinha, V.; Williams, J.; Diesch, J. M.; Drewnick, F.; Martinez, M.; Harder, H.; Regelin, E.; Kubistin, D.; Bozem, H.; Hosaynali-Beygi, Z.; Fischer, H.; Andrés-Hernández, M. D.; Kartal, D.; Adame, J. A.; Lelieveld, J.

2012-08-01

102

Coherent pion production by neutrino scattering off nuclei  

SciTech Connect

The main part of coherent pion production by neutrinos on nuclei is essentially determined by partial conservation of the axial current (PCAC), provided that the leptonic momentum transferred square Q{sup 2} remains sufficiently small. We give the formulas for the charged and neutral current cross sections, including also the small non-PCAC transverse current contributions and taking into account the effect of the {mu}{sup -}-mass. Our results are compared with the experimental ones and other theoretical treatments.

Kartavtsev, A.; Paschos, E. A.; Gounaris, G. J. [Universitaet Dortmund, Institut fuer Physik, D-44221 Dortmund (Germany); Department of Theoretical Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Gr-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

2006-09-01

103

Increased effectiveness of carbon ions in the production of reactive oxygen species in normal human fibroblasts.  

PubMed

The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially superoxide anions (O2 (·-)), is enhanced in many normal and tumor cell types in response to ionizing radiation. The influence of ionizing radiation on the regulation of ROS production is considered as an important factor in the long-term effects of irradiation (such as genomic instability) that might contribute to the development of secondary cancers. In view of the increasing application of carbon ions in radiation therapy, we aimed to study the potential impact of ionizing density on the intracellular production of ROS, comparing photons (X-rays) with carbon ions. For this purpose, we used normal human cells as a model for irradiated tissue surrounding a tumor. By quantifying the oxidization of Dihydroethidium (DHE), a fluorescent probe sensitive to superoxide anions, we assessed the intracellular ROS status after radiation exposure in normal human fibroblasts, which do not show radiation-induced chromosomal instability. After 3-5 days post exposure to X-rays and carbon ions, the level of ROS increased to a maximum that was dose dependent. The maximum ROS level reached after irradiation was specific for the fibroblast type. However, carbon ions induced this maximum level at a lower dose compared with X-rays. Within ?1 week, ROS decreased to control levels. The time-course of decreasing ROS coincides with an increase in cell number and decreasing p21 protein levels, indicating a release from radiation-induced growth arrest. Interestingly, radiation did not act as a trigger for chronically enhanced levels of ROS months after radiation exposure. PMID:25304329

Dettmering, Till; Zahnreich, Sebastian; Colindres-Rojas, Miriam; Durante, Marco; Taucher-Scholz, Gisela; Fournier, Claudia

2015-01-01

104

Leading proton production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA  

E-print Network

The semi-inclusive reaction e+ p -> e+ X p was studied with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 12.8 pb-1. The final-state proton, which was detected with the ZEUS leading proton spectrometer, carried a large fraction of the incoming proton energy, xL>0.32, and its transverse momentum squared satisfied pT^2proton system was 45proton production cross section and rates are presented as a function of xL, pT^2, Q^2 and the Bjorken scaling variable, x.

ZEUS Collaboration

2008-12-12

105

Aerosol light scattering effect on terrestrial plant productivity and energy fluxes over the eastern United States  

E-print Network

in the photosynthesis process without exceeding the plant photosynthesis capacity. Direct solar radiation is absorbed.5%) in 2001. These responses of plant productivity and photosynthesis to the aerosol light scattering effect, but simultaneously increases the photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. Consequently, surface latent heat flux

Niyogi, Dev

106

Impact of atmospheric aerosol light scattering and absorption on terrestrial net primary productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scattering and absorption of sunlight by anthropogenic aerosols reduce the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) incident upon the Earth's surface, but increase the fraction of the PAR that is diffuse. These alterations to irradiance may elicit conflicting responses in terrestrial plants: photosynthesis and net primary productivity (NPP) are slowed by reductions in total PAR, but enhanced by increases in diffuse PAR.

Daniel S. Cohan; Jin Xu; Roby Greenwald; Michael H. Bergin; William L. Chameides

2002-01-01

107

A quantum reactive scattering study of the spin-forbidden CH(X 2?)+N2(X 1?g+)-->HCN(X 1?+)+N(4S) reaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of the spin-forbidden CH(X 2?)+N2(X 1?g+)?HCN(X 1?+)+N(4S) reaction has been studied theoretically using the reduced dimensionality quantum scattering method. Three degrees of freedom have been considered in the dynamics calculations by treating CH as a united atom. The problem is thus reduced to the usual atom-diatom scattering calculation. Three-dimensional potential energy surfaces for both the doublet and quartet states were constructed using ab initio electronic structure calculations while the spin-orbit coupling element was taken from previous work. Time-independent quantum reactive scattering calculations have been performed using the hyperspherical close-coupling method. The calculated cumulative reaction probabilities show that the reaction dynamics is exclusively resonance-dominated. The thermal rate constants calculated using the reduced dimensionality cumulative reaction probabilities with the energy shifting and J-shifting approximations were found to be much smaller than experimental measurements and previous reduced-dimensionality results of Seideman [J. Chem. Phys. 101, 3662 (1994)] by a factor of more than two orders of magnitude. In order to understand this serious disagreement, we have carried out the scattering calculations with the use of modified potential energy surfaces and spin-orbit couplings but found that the calculated rate constants were still much smaller than experimental data. The present computational study strongly suggests that further experimental studies including direct detection of N(4S) and/or any other mechanism for the "prompt-NO" formation will be necessary.

Wada, Akira; Takayanagi, Toshiyuki

2002-04-01

108

Production and immunological analysis of IgE reactive recombinant egg white allergens expressed in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

IgE-mediated allergy to chicken egg affects a large number of children and adults worldwide. The current management strategy for egg allergy is strict avoidance, however this is impractical due to the presence of eggs in a range of foods and pharmaceutical products including vaccines. Strict avoidance also poses nutritional disadvantages due to high nutritional value of eggs. Allergen specific immunotherapy is being pursued as a curative treatment, in which an allergic individual is gradually exposed to the allergen to induce tolerance. Use of recombinant proteins for immunotherapy has been beneficial due to the purity of the recombinant proteins compared to natural proteins. In this study, we produced IgE reactive recombinant egg white proteins that can be used for future immunotherapy. Using E. coli as an expression system, we successfully produced recombinant versions of Gal d 1, 2 and 3, that were IgE reactive when tested against a pool of egg allergic patients' sera. The IgE reactivity indicates that these recombinant proteins are capable of eliciting an immune response, thus being potential candidates for immunotherapy. We have, for the first time, attempted to produce recombinant versions of all 4 major egg white allergens in E. coli, and successfully produced 3, with only Gal d 4 showing loss of IgE reactivity in the recombinant version. The results suggest that egg allergy in Australian populations may mainly be due to IgE reactivity to Gal d 3 and 4, while Gal d 1 shows higher IgE reactivity. This is the first report of a collective and comparative immunological analysis of all 4 egg white allergens. The significance of this study is the potential use of the IgE reactive recombinant egg white proteins in immunotherapy to treat egg allergic patients. PMID:25656803

Dhanapala, Pathum; Doran, Tim; Tang, Mimi L K; Suphioglu, Cenk

2015-05-01

109

Effects of Pectic Polysaccharides Isolated from Leek on the Production of Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species by Phagocytes  

PubMed Central

Abstract The current survey investigates the effect of four polysaccharides isolated from fresh leek or alcohol insoluble substances (AIS) of leek on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) from phagocytes. The ability of the polysaccharides to activate serum complement was also investigated. Despite the lack of antioxidant activity, the pectic polysaccharides significantly decreased the production of ROS by human neutrophils. Polysaccharides isolated from AIS markedly activated RAW 264.7 macrophages for RNS production in a concentration-dependent manner. The Western blot analysis revealed that this effect was due to the stimulation of the inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression of macrophages. The polysaccharides extracted from AIS with water showed the ability to fix serum complement, especially through the alternative pathway. It was found that the polysaccharide that has the highest complement-fixing effect is characterized by the highest content of uronic acids and the highest molecular weight. PMID:23905651

Nikolova, Mariana; Ambrozova, Gabriela; Kratchanova, Maria; Denev, Petko; Kussovski, Veselin; Ciz, Milan

2013-01-01

110

Autophagy proteins control goblet cell function by potentiating reactive oxygen species production  

PubMed Central

Delivery of granule contents to epithelial surfaces by secretory cells is a critical physiologic process. In the intestine, goblet cells secrete mucus that is required for homeostasis. Autophagy proteins are required for secretion in some cases, though the mechanism and cell biological basis for this requirement remain unknown. We found that in colonic goblet cells, proteins involved in initiation and elongation of autophagosomes were required for efficient mucus secretion. The autophagy protein LC3 localized to intracellular multi-vesicular vacuoles that were consistent with a fusion of autophagosomes and endosomes. Using cultured intestinal epithelial cells, we found that NADPH oxidases localized to and enhanced the formation of these LC3-positive vacuoles. Both autophagy proteins and endosome formation were required for maximal production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from NADPH oxidases. Importantly, generation of ROS was critical to control mucin granule accumulation in colonic goblet cells. Thus, autophagy proteins can control secretory function through ROS, which is in part generated by LC3-positive vacuole-associated NADPH oxidases. These findings provide a novel mechanism by which autophagy proteins can control secretion. PMID:24185898

Patel, Khushbu K; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Beatty, Wandy L; Head, Richard D; Malvin, Nicole P; Cadwell, Ken; Guan, Jun-Lin; Saitoh, Tatsuya; Akira, Shizuo; Seglen, Per O; Dinauer, Mary C; Virgin, Herbert W; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S

2013-01-01

111

Mitochondrial Respiratory Supercomplex Association Limits Production of Reactive Oxygen Species from Complex I  

PubMed Central

Abstract Aims: The mitochondrial respiratory chain is recognized today to be arranged in supramolecular assemblies (supercomplexes). Besides conferring a kinetic advantage (substrate channeling) and being required for the assembly and stability of Complex I, indirect considerations support the view that supercomplexes may also prevent excessive formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from the respiratory chain. In the present study, we have directly addressed this issue by testing the ROS generation by Complex I in two experimental systems in which the supramolecular organization of the respiratory assemblies is impaired by: (i) treatment either of bovine heart mitochondria or liposome-reconstituted supercomplex I-III with dodecyl maltoside; (ii) reconstitution of Complexes I and III at high phospholipids to protein ratio. Results: The results of our investigation provide experimental evidence that the production of ROS is strongly increased in either model, supporting the view that disruption or prevention of the association between Complex I and Complex III by different means enhances the generation of superoxide from Complex I. Innovation: Dissociation of supercomplexes may link oxidative stress and energy failure in a vicious circle. Conclusion: Our findings support a central role of mitochondrial supramolecular structure in the development of the aging process and in the etiology and pathogenesis of most major chronic diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 1469–1480. PMID:23581604

Maranzana, Evelina; Barbero, Giovanna; Falasca, Anna Ida; Lenaz, Giorgio

2013-01-01

112

Production, characterization and reactivity of monoclonal antibodies to porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the preparation of six monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) raised against a British isolate of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), their characterization in terms of protein specificity and their reactivity with different PRRS viruses from Europe and the USA. Radioimmunoprecipi- tation and Western blotting studies of MAb reactivity with proteins from cell lysates of infected cells and

Trevor W. Drew; Janneke J. M. Meulenberg; Jennifer J. Sands; David J. Paton

1995-01-01

113

Non-thermal Plasma Induces Apoptosis in Melanoma Cells via Production of Intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species  

PubMed Central

Non-thermal atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma may provide a novel approach to treat malignancies via induction of apoptosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of DBD plasma to induce apoptosis in melanoma cells. Melanoma cells were exposed to plasma at doses that did not induce necrosis, and cell viability and apoptotic activity were evaluated by Trypan blue exclusion test, Annexin-V/PI staining, caspase-3 cleavage, and TUNEL® analysis. Trypan blue staining revealed that non-thermal plasma treatment significantly decreased the viability of cells in a dose-dependent manner 3 and 24 h after plasma treatment. Annexin-V/PI staining revealed a significant increase in apoptosis in plasma-treated cells at 24, 48, and 72 h post-treatment (p<0.001). Caspase-3 cleavage was observed 48 h post-plasma treatment at a dose of 15 J/cm2. TUNEL® analysis of plasma-treated cells demonstrated an increase in apoptosis at 48 and 72 h post-treatment (p<0.001) at a dose of 15 J/cm2. Pre-treatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), an intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, significantly decreased apoptosis in plasma-treated cells at 5 and 15 J/cm2. Plasma treatment induces apoptosis in melanoma cells through a pathway that appears to be dependent on production of intracellular ROS. DBD plasma production of intracellular ROS leads to dose-dependent DNA damage in melanoma cells, detected by ?-H2AX, which was completely abrogated by pre-treating cells with ROS scavenger, NAC. Plasma-induced DNA damage in turn may lead to the observed plasma-induced apoptosis. Since plasma is non-thermal, it may be used to selectively treat malignancies. PMID:21046465

Sensenig, Rachel; Kalghatgi, Sameer; Cerchar, Ekaterina; Fridman, Gregory; Shereshevsky, Alexey; Torabi, Behzad; Arjunan, Krishna Priya; Podolsky, Erica; Fridman, Alexander; Friedman, Gary; Azizkhan-Clifford, Jane; Brooks, Ari D.

2012-01-01

114

Scoparone attenuates RANKL-induced osteoclastic differentiation through controlling reactive oxygen species production and scavenging.  

PubMed

Scoparone, one of the bioactive components of Artemisia capillaris Thunb, has various biological properties including immunosuppressive, hepatoprotective, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects. This study aims at evaluating the anti-osteoporotic effect of scoparone and its underlying mechanism in vitro. Scoparone demonstrated potent cellular antioxidant capacity. It was also found that scoparone inhibited the receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation and suppressed cathepsin K and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) expression via c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/p38-mediated c-Fos-nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) signaling pathway. During osteoclast differentiation, the production of general reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide anions was dose-dependently attenuated by scoparone. In addition, scoparone diminished NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase 1 (Nox1) expression and activation via the tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6)-cSrc-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3k) signaling pathway and prevented the disruption of mitochondrial electron transport chain system. Furthermore, scoparone augmented the expression of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and catalase (CAT). The overall results indicate that the inhibitory effect of scoparone on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation is attributed to the suppressive effect on ROS and superoxide anion production by inhibiting Nox1 expression and activation and protecting the mitochondrial electron transport chain system and the scavenging effect of ROS resulting from elevated SOD1 and CAT expression. PMID:25576385

Lee, Sang-Hyun; Jang, Hae-Dong

2015-02-15

115

Quantum reactive scattering of O({sup 3}P)+H{sub 2} at collision energies up to 4.4 eV  

SciTech Connect

We report the results of quantum scattering calculations for the O({sup 3}P)+H{sub 2} reaction for a range of collision energies from 0.4 to 4.4 eV, important for astrophysical and atmospheric processes. The total and state-to-state reactive cross sections are calculated using a fully quantum time-independent coupled-channel approach on recent potential energy surfaces of {sup 3}A{sup ?} and {sup 3}A{sup ?} symmetry. A larger basis set than in the previous studies was used to ensure single-surface convergence at higher energies. Our results agree well with the published data at lower energies and indicate the breakdown of reduced dimensionality approach at collision energies higher than 1.5 eV. Differential cross sections and momentum transfer cross sections are also reported.

Gacesa, Marko, E-mail: gacesa@phys.uconn.edu [Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States); Kharchenko, Vasili, E-mail: kharchenko@phys.uconn.edu [Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States); ITAMP, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

2014-10-28

116

HIV antiretroviral drug combination induces endothelial mitochondrial dysfunction and reactive oxygen species production, but not apoptosis  

SciTech Connect

Numerous reports now indicate that HIV patients administered long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) are at a greater risk for developing cardiovascular diseases. Endothelial dysfunction is an initiating event in atherogenesis and may contribute to HIV-associated atherosclerosis. We previously reported that ART induces direct endothelial dysfunction in rodents. In vitro treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) with ART indicated endothelial mitochondrial dysfunction and a significant increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we determined whether ART-induced endothelial dysfunction is mediated via mitochondria-derived ROS and whether this mitochondrial injury culminates in endothelial cell apoptosis. Two major components of ART combination therapy, a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor and a protease inhibitor, were tested, using AZT and indinavir as representatives for each. Microscopy utilizing fluorescent indicators of ROS and mitochondria demonstrated the mitochondrial localization of ART-induced ROS. MnTBAP, a cell-permeable metalloporphyrin antioxidant, abolished ART-induced ROS production. As a final step in confirming the mitochondrial origin of the ART-induced ROS, HUVEC were transduced with a cytosolic- compared to a mitochondria-targeted catalase. Transduction with the mitochondria-targeted catalase was more effective than cytoplasmic catalase in inhibiting the ROS and 8-isoprostane (8-iso-PGF{sub 2{alpha}}) produced after treatment with either AZT or indinavir. However, both mitochondrial and cytoplasmic catalase attenuated ROS and 8-iso-PGF{sub 2{alpha}} production induced by the combination treatment, suggesting that in this case, the formation of cytoplasmic ROS may also occur, and thus, that the mechanism of toxicity in the combination treatment group may be different compared to treatment with AZT or indinavir alone. Finally, to determine whether ART-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS production culminate in apoptosis, we performed the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), annexin V and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, and caspase-3 activity assays. However, none of these assays showed appreciable levels of ART-induced apoptosis. Our studies thus suggest that in endothelial cells, ART induces mitochondrial dysfunction with a concomitant increase in mitochondria-derived ROS. This compromised mitochondrial function may be one important factor culminating in endothelial dysfunction, without inducing an increase in apoptosis.

Jiang Bo; Hebert, Valeria Y. [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 1501 Kings Highway, Shreveport, LA 71103 (United States); Li, Yuchi [Cardiopulmonary Research Institute, Winthrop University Hospital, State University of New York at Stony Brook School of Medicine, Mineola, NY 11501 (United States); Mathis, J. Michael [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 1501 Kings Highway, Shreveport, LA 71103 (United States); Alexander, J. Steven [Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 1501 Kings Highway, Shreveport, LA 71103 (United States); Dugas, Tammy R. [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 1501 Kings Highway, Shreveport, LA 71103 (United States)], E-mail: tdugas@lsuhsc.edu

2007-10-01

117

High-resolution infrared spectroscopy: Jet-cooled halogenated methyl radicals and reactive scattering dynamics in an atom + polyatom system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis describes a series of projects whose common theme comprises the structure and internal energy distribution of gas-phase radicals. In the first two projects, shot noise-limited direct absorption spectroscopy is combined with long path-length slit supersonic discharges to obtain first high-resolution infrared spectra for jet-cooled CH2F and CH2Cl in the symmetric and antisymmetric CH2 stretching modes. Drawing motivation from the question of the equilibrium structures of halogen-substituted methyl radicals, spectral assignment yields refined lower and upper state rotational constants, as well as fine-structure parameters from least-square fits to the sub-Doppler lineshapes for individual transitions. High-level CCSD(T) calculations extrapolated to the complete basis set (CBS) limit confirm the existence of a non-planar (theta=29°) CH2F equilibrium structure with a 132 cm-1 barrier to planarity and a vibrational bend frequency of 276 cm-1. Similar calculations for CH 2Cl predict a slightly nonplanar equilibrium structure (theta=11°) with a vibrationally adiabatic one-dimensional treatment of the bend coordinate yielding a fundamental anharmonic frequency (393 cm-1). Both sets of calculations are in excellent agreement with previous studies. More interesting, however, are the unexpected intensity ratios of the symmetric vs. antisymmetric bands for CH2F and the absence of an antisymmetric band for CH2Cl. While a simple bond-dipole picture predicts a ratio of 1:3 for the symmetric vs. antisymmetric intensities, the experimentally observed value for CH2F is ˜2:1. This ratio is confirmed by DFT [B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ] calculations in a novel albeit indirect probe of the effective non-planarity for CH2F. For CH2Cl, similar DFT calculations predict a 30-fold decrease between the intensity of the symmetric and antisymmetric CH2 stretches, leading to the postulation of a nearly perfect cancellation of antisymmetric stretch intensity transition moment with chlorination. These two projects are followed by an investigation utilizing a well-characterized radical source, F, in a reaction with ethane to form HF and ethyl radical. The non-radical HF product is detected directly through similar high-resolution infrared absorption methods as described above, and its analysis is used to make inferences about the internal energy redistribution of the other radical fragment, ethyl. State-to-state reaction dynamics under single collision conditions are interpreted in the context of a simple impulsive model based on conservation of linear/angular momentum yields predictions in good agreement with experiment. Deviations from the model indicate only minor excitation of the ethyl vibrations, in contrast with a picture of extensive intramolecular vibrational energy flow but consistent with Franck-Condon excitation of the methylene CH2 bending mode. The results suggest a relatively simple dynamical picture for exothermic atom + polyatomic scattering, i.e., that of early barrier dynamics in atom + diatom systems but modified by impulsive recoil coupling at the transition state between translational/rotational degrees of freedom.

Whitney, Erin Sue

118

Imaging the proton via hard exclusive production in diffractive pp scattering  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the prospects for probing Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) via exclusive production of a high-mass system (H = heavy quarkonium, di-photon, di-jet, Higgs boson) in diffractive pp scattering, pp -> p + H + p. In such processes the interplay of hard and soft interactions gives rise to a diffraction pattern in the final-state proton transverse momenta, which is sensitive to the transverse spatial distribution of partons in the colliding protons. We comment on the plans for diffractive pp measurements at RHIC and LHC. Such studies could complement future measurements of GPDs in hard exclusive ep scattering (JLab, COMPASS, EIC).

Charles Hyde; Leonid Frankfurt; Mark Strikman; Christian Weiss

2007-05-21

119

Multiple scattering effects on heavy meson production in p+A collisions at backward rapidity  

E-print Network

We study the incoherent multiple scattering effects on heavy meson production in the backward rapidity region of p+A collisions within the generalized high-twist factorization formalism. We calculate explicitly the double scattering contributions to the heavy meson differential cross sections by taking into account both initial-state and final-state interactions, and find that these corrections are positive. We further evaluate the nuclear modification factor for muons that come form the semi-leptonic decays of heavy flavor mesons. Phenomenological applications in d+Au collisions at a center-of-mass energy $\\sqrt{s}=200$ GeV at RHIC and in p+Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=5.02$ TeV at the LHC are presented. We find that incoherent multiple scattering can describe rather well the observed nuclear enhancement in the intermediate $p_T$ region for such reactions.

Zhong-Bo Kang; Ivan Vitev; Enke Wang; Hongxi Xing; Cheng Zhang

2014-12-01

120

Multiple scattering effects on heavy meson production in p+A collisions at backward rapidity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the incoherent multiple scattering effects on heavy meson production in the backward rapidity region of p+A collisions within the generalized high-twist factorization formalism. We calculate explicitly the double scattering contributions to the heavy meson differential cross sections by taking into account both initial-state and final-state interactions, and find that these corrections are positive. We further evaluate the nuclear modification factor for muons that come form the semi-leptonic decays of heavy flavor mesons. Phenomenological applications in d+Au collisions at a center-of-mass energy ?{ s} = 200 GeV at RHIC and in p+Pb collisions at ?{ s} = 5.02 TeV at the LHC are presented. We find that incoherent multiple scattering can describe rather well the observed nuclear enhancement in the intermediate pT region for such reactions.

Kang, Zhong-Bo; Vitev, Ivan; Wang, Enke; Xing, Hongxi; Zhang, Cheng

2015-01-01

121

Jet production in high Q 2 deep-inelastic ep scattering at HERA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-jet production in deep-inelastic electron-proton scattering has been studied for 160< Q 2<1280 GeV2, 0.01< x<0.1 and 0.04< y<0.95 with the ZEUS detector at HERA. The kinematic properties of the jets and the jet production rates are presented. The partonic scaling variables of the two-jet system and the rate of two-jet production are compared to perturbative next-to-leading order QCD calculations.

M. Derrick; D. Krakauer; S. Magill; D. Mikunas; B. Musgrave; J. Repond; R. Stanek; R. L. Talaga; H. Zhang; R. Avad; G. Bari; M. Basile; L. Bellagamba; D. Boscherini; A. Bruni; G. Bruni; P. Bruni; G. Cara Romeo; G. Castellini; M. Chiarini; L. Cifarelli; F. Cindolo; A. Contin; M. Corradi; I. Gialas; P. Giusti; G. Iacobucci; G. Laurenti; G. Levi; A. Margotti; T. Massam; R. Nania; C. Nemoz; E. Palmonari; A. Polini; G. Sartorelli; R. Timellini; Y. Zamora Garcia; A. Zichichi; A. Bargende; J. Crittenden; K. Desch; B. Diekmann; T. Doeker; M. Eckert; L. Feld; A. Frey; M. Geerts; G. Geitz; M. Grothe; T. Haas; H. Hartmann; D. Haun; K. Heinloth; E. Hilger; H.-P. Jakob; U. F. Katz; S. M. Mari; A. Mass; S. Mengel; J. Mollen; E. Paul; Ch. Rembser; R. Schattevoy; D. Schramm; J. Stamm; R. Wedemeyer; S. Campbell-Robson; A. Cassidy; N. Dyce; B. Foster; S. George; R. Gilmore; G. P. Heath; H. F. Heath; T. J. Llewellyn; C. J. S. Morgado; D. J. P. Norman; J. A. O'Mara; R. I. Tapper; S. S. Wilson; R. Yoshida; R. R. Rau; M. Arneodo; L. Iannotti; M. Schioppa; G. Susinno; A. Bernstein; A. Caldwell; J. A. Parsons; S. Ritz; F. Sciulli; P. B. Straub; L. Wai; S. Yang; Q. Zhu; P. Borzemski; J. Chwastowski; A. Eskreys; K. Piotrzkowski; M. Zachara; L. Zawiejski; L. Adamczyk; B. Bednarek; K. Eskreys; K. Jelen; D. Kisielewska; T. Kowalski; E. Rulikowska-Zarebska; L. Suszycki; J. Zajac; A. Kotanski; M. Przybycien; I. A. T. Bauerdick; U. Behrens; H. Beier; J. K. Bienlein; C. Coldewey; O. Deppe; K. Desler; G. Drews; M. Flasinski; D. J. Gilkinson; C. Glasman; P. Göttlicher; J. Große-Knetter; B. Gutjahr; W. Hain; D. Hasell; H. Heßling; H. Hultschig; Y. Iga; P. Joos; M. Kasemann; R. Klanner; W. Koch; L. Köpke; U. Kötz; H. Kowalski; J. Labs; A. Ladage; B. Löhr; M. Löwe; D. Lüke; O. Manczak; J. S. T. Ng; S. Nickel; D. Notz; K. Ohrenberg; M. Roco; M. Rohde; J. Roldán; U. Schneekloth; W. Schulz; F. Selonke; E. Stiliaris; B. Surrow; T. Voß; D. Westphal; G. Wolf; C. Youngman; J. F. Zhou; H. J. Grabosch; A. Kharchilava; A. Leich; M. Mattingly; A. Meyer; S. Schlenstedt; N. Wulff; G. Barbagli; P. Pelfer; G. Anzivino; G. Maccarrone; S. de Pasquale; L. Votano; A. Bamberger; S. Eisenhardt; A. Freidhof; S. Söldner-Rembold; J. Schroeder; T. Trefzger; N. H. Brook; P. J. Bussey; A. T. Doyle; I. Fleck; D. H. Saxon; M. L. Utley; A. S. Wilson; A. Dannemann; U. Holm; D. Horstmann; T. Neumann; R. Sinkus; K. Wick; E. Badura; B. D. Burow; L. Hagge; E. Lohrmann; J. Mainusch; J. Milewski; M. Nakahata; N. Pavel; G. Poelz; W. Schott; F. Zetsche; T. C. Bacon; I. Butterworth; E. Gallo; V. L. Harris; B. Y. H. Hung; K. R. Long; D. B. Miller; P. P. O. Morawitz; A. Prinias; J. K. Sedgbeer; A. F. Whitfield; U. Mallik; E. McCliment; M. Z. Wang; S. M. Wang; J. T. Wu; Y. Zhang; P. Cloth; D. Filges; S. H. An; S. M. Hong; S. W. Nam; S. K. Park; M. H. Suh; S. H. Yon; R. Imlay; S. Kartik; H.-J. Kim; R. R. McNeil; W. Metcalf; V. K. Nadendla; F. Barreiro; G. Cases; R. Graciani; J. M. Hernández; L. Hervás; L. Labarga; J. Del Peso; J. Puga; J. Terron; J. F. de Trocóniz; G. R. Smith; F. Corriveau; D. S. Hanna; J. Hartmann; L. W. Hung; J. N. Lim; C. G. Matthews; P. M. Patel; L. E. Sinclair; D. G. Stairs; M. St. Laurent; R. Ullmann; G. Zacek; V. Bashkirov; B. A. Dolgoshein; A. Stifutkin; G. L. Bashindzhagyan; P. F. Ermolov; L. K. Gladilin; Y. A. Golubkov; V. D. Kobrin; V. A. Kuzmin; A. S. Proskuryakov; A. A. Savin; L. M. Shcheglova; A. N. Solomin; N. P. Zotov; M. Botje; F. Chlebana; A. Dake; J. Engelen; M. de Kamps; P. Kooijman; A. Kruse; H. Tiecke; W. Verkerke; M. Vreeswijk; L. Wiggers; E. de Wolf; R. van Woudenberg; D. Acosta; B. Bylsma; L. S. Durkin; K. Honscheid; C. Li; T. Y. Ling; K. W. McLean; W. N. Murray; I. H. Park; T. A. Romanowski; R. Seidlein; D. S. Bailey; G. A. Blair; A. Byrne; R. J. Cashmore; A. M. Cooper-Sarkar; D. Daniels; R. C. E. Devenish; N. Harnew; M. Lancaster; P. E. Luffman; L. Lindemann; J. D. McFall; C. Nath; V. A. Noyes; A. Quadt; H. Uijterwaal; R. Walczak; F. F. Wilson; T. Yip; G. Abbiendi; A. Bertolin; R. Brugnera; R. Carlin; F. Dal Corso; M. de Giorgi; U. Dosselli; S. Limentani; M. Morandin; M. Posocco; L. Stanco; R. Stroili; C. Voci; J. Bulmahn; J. M. Butterworth; R. G. Feild; B. Y. Oh; J. J. Whitmore; G. D'Agostini; G. Marini; A. Nigro; E. Tassi; J. C. Hart; N. A. McCubbin; K. Prytz; T. P. Shah; T. L. Short; L. Barberis; N. Cartiglia; T. Dubbs; C. Heusch; M. van Hook; B. Hubbard; W. Lockman; J. T. Rahn; H. F.-W. Sadrozinski; A. Seiden; J. Biltzinger; R. J. Seifert; A. H. Walenta; G. Zech; H. Abramowicz; G. Briskin; S. Dagan; A. Levy; T. Hasegawa; M. Hazumi; T. Ishii; M. Kuze; S. Mine; Y. Nagasawa; M. Nakao; I. Suzuki; K. Tokushuku; S. Yamada; Y. Yamazaki; M. Chiba; R. Hamatsu; T. Hirose; K. Homma; S. Kitamura; Y. Nakamitsu; K. Yamauchi; R. Cirio; M. Costa; M. I. Ferrero; L. Lamberti; S. Maselli; C. Peroni; R. Sacchi

1995-01-01

122

Reactive scattering dynamics of rotational wavepackets: A case study using the model H+H2 and F+H2 reactions with aligned and anti-aligned H2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a method to steer the outcome of reactive atom-diatom scattering, using rotational wavepackets excited by strong non-resonant laser pulses. Full close-coupled quantum mechanical scattering calculations of the D+H2 and F+H2 reactions are presented, where the H2 molecule exists as a coherent superposition of rotational states. The nuclear spin selective control over the molecular bond axis alignment afforded by the creation of rotational wavepackets is applied to reactive scattering systems, enabling a nuclear spin selective influence to be exerted over the reactive dynamics. The extension of the conventional eigenstate-to-eigenstate scattering problem to the case in which the initial state is composed of a coherent superposition of rotational states is detailed, and a selection of example calculations are discussed, along with their mechanistic implications. The feasibility of the corresponding experiments is considered, and a suitable simple two pulse laser scheme is shown to strongly differentiate the reactivities of o-H2 and p-H2.

Eyles, C. J.; Leibscher, M.

2013-09-01

123

Rat colonic reactive oxygen species production and DNA damage are mediated by diet and age  

E-print Network

Colon cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer in the United States. Studies suggest that oxidative damage to DNA caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a critical initiating event in carcinogenesis. Rates of colon cancer...

Henderson, Cara Aletha Everett

2001-01-01

124

VARICOCELE IS ASSOCIATED WITH ELEVATED SPERMATOZOAL REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES PRODUCTION AND DIMINISHED SEMINAL PLASMA ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeBecause varicocele is seen often in infertile men and oxidative stress has been implicated in sperm dysfunction, we assessed spermatozoal reactive oxygen species and seminal total antioxidant capacity in men with and without varicocele.

BENJAMIN N. HENDIN; PETER N. KOLETTIS; RAKESH K. SHARMA; ANTHONY J. THOMAS; ASHOK AGARWAL

1999-01-01

125

Coherent Neutron Scattering in Polycrystalline Deuterium and its Implications for Ultracold Neutron Production  

E-print Network

This paper presents a calculation of the neutron cross-sections in solid materials (used in practical neutron sources) with a large coherent scattering contribution. In particular, the dynamic structure function S(Q, $\\omega$) of polycrystalline ortho-D$_2$ is evaluated using a Monte-Carlo calculation that performs an average over scattering angles relative to crystal axes in random orientations. This method uses an analytical dispersion function with force constants derived from neutron scattering data of single crystal D$_2$ in the framework of an axially symmetric force tensor. The resulting two dimensional map of S(Q, $\\omega$) captures details of the phonon branches as well as the molecular rotations, that can be compared directly to data from inelastic neutron scattering on polycrystalline D$_2$. This high resolution information is used to calculate the absolute cross-sections of production and upscattering loss of ultracold neutron (UCN). The resulting scattering cross-sections are significantly different, especially for UCN upscattering, from the previous predictions using the approach centered on the incoherent approximation.

C. -Y. Liu; A. R. Young; C. M. Lavelle; D. Salvat

2010-05-06

126

Nitric oxide affects the production of reactive oxygen species in hepatoma cells: implications for the process of oxygen sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of human hepatoma cells (HepG2) with NO-donors for 24 h inhibited hypoxia-induced erythropoietin (EPO) gene activation. NO was found to increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the putative signaling molecules between a cellular O2-sensor and hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). HIF-1 is the prime regulator of O2-dependent genes such as EPO. NO-treatment for more than 20 h

Just Genius; Joachim Fandrey

2000-01-01

127

GM1 ganglioside attenuates convulsions and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances production induced by the intrastriatal injection of methylmalonic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the administration of monosialoganglioside (GM1) on methylmalonic acid (MMA)-induced convulsions, production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and on the striatal content of ascorbic acid and total non-protein thiol (SH) groups were evaluated in adult male rats. Animals received two intraperitoneal injections of GM1 (50mg\\/kg) or saline (0.85% NaCl) spaced 24h apart. Thirty minutes after the second

Michele Rechia Fighera; Juliana Sartori Bonini; Telma Grendene de Oliveira; Roberto Frussa-Filho; João Batista Teixeira Rocha; Carlos Severo Dutra-Filho; Maribel Antonello Rubin; Carlos Fernando Mello

2003-01-01

128

Patterns of accumulation of miRNAs encoded by herpes simplex virus during productive infection, latency, and on reactivation.  

PubMed

The key events in herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are (i) replication at a portal of entry into the body modeled by infection of cultured cells; (ii) establishment of a latent state characterized by a sole latency-associated transcript and microRNAs (miRNAs) modeled in murine peripheral ganglia 30 d after inoculation; and (iii) reactivation from the latent state modeled by excision and incubation of ganglia in medium containing anti-NGF antibody for a timespan of a single viral replicative cycle. In this report, we examine the pattern of synthesis and accumulation of 18 HSV-1 miRNAs in the three models. We report the following: (i) H2-3P, H3-3P, H4-3P, H5-3P, H6-3P, and H7-5P accumulated in ganglia harboring latent virus. All but H4-3P were readily detected in productively infected cells, and most likely they originate from three transcriptional units. (ii) H8-5P, H15, H17, H18, H26, and H27 accumulated during reactivation. Of this group, only H26 and H27 could be detected in productively infected cells. (iii) Of the 18 we have examined, only 10 miRNAs were found to accumulate above background levels in productively infected cells. The disparity in the accumulation of miRNAs in cell culture and during reactivation may reflect differences in the patterns of regulation of viral gene expression during productive infection and during reactivation from the latent state. PMID:25535379

Du, Te; Han, Zhiyuan; Zhou, Grace; Roizman, Bernard

2015-01-01

129

Homocysteine-Induced Endothelin1 Release Is Dependent on Hyperglycaemia and Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Bovine Aortic Endothelial Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Elevated plasma homocysteine (Hcy) is a risk factor for coronary disease. The objective of this study was to investigate whether Hcy either alone or in high glucose conditions induces endothelin-1 (ET-1) synthesis via the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Methods: Bovine aortic endothelial cells were grown in high (25 mmol\\/l) and low (5 mmol\\/l) glucose medium. Results: In

Amarjit S. Sethi; Delphine M. Lees; Julie A. Douthwaite; Anne B. Dawnay; Roger Corder

2006-01-01

130

Chemical Characterization and Reactivity Testing of Fuel-Oxidizer Reaction Product (Test Report)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The product of incomplete reaction of monomethylhydrazine (MMH) and nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) propellants, or fuel-oxidizer reaction product (FORP), has been hypothesized as a contributory cause of an anomaly which occurred in the chamber pressure (PC) transducer tube on the Reaction Control Subsystem (RCS) aft thruster 467 on flight STS-51. A small hole was found in the titanium-alloy PC tube at the first bend below the pressure transducer. It was surmised that the hole may have been caused by heat and pressure resulting from ignition of FORP. The NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) was requested to define the chemical characteristics of FORP, characterize its reactivity, and simulate the events in a controlled environment which may have lead to the Pc-tube failure. Samples of FORP were obtained from the gas-phase reaction of MMH with NTO under laboratory conditions, the pulsed firings of RCS thrusters with modified PC tubes using varied oxidizer or fuel lead times, and the nominal RCS thruster firings at WSTF and Kaiser-Marquardt. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC), ion chromatography (IC), inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometry, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) coupled to FTIR (TGA/FTIR), and mechanical impact testing were used to qualitatively and quantitatively characterize the chemical, thermal, and ignition properties of FORP. These studies showed that the composition of FORP is variable but falls within a limited range of compositions that depends on the fuel loxidizer ratio at the time of formation, composition of the post-formation atmosphere (reducing or oxidizing), and reaction or postreaction temperature. A typical composition contains methylhydrazinium nitrate (MMHN), ammonium nitrate (AN), methylammonium nitrate (MAN), and trace amounts of hydrazinium nitrate and 1,1-dimethylhydrazinium nitrate. The thermal decomposition reactions of FORP compositions used in this study were unremarkable, Neither the various compositions of FORP, the pure major components of FORP, nor mixtures of FORP with propellant-system corrosion products showed any unusual thermal activity when decomposed under laboratory conditions. Off-limit thruster operations were simulated by rapid mixing of liquid MMH and liquid NTO in a confined space. The test hardware was constructed with pressure- and temperature-measurement devices to determine if the expected fuel oxidizer reaction would result in increased energy release when FORP, FORP constituents, or propellant-system corrosion products were present. These tests demonstrated that FORP, MMHN, AN, or Inconel corrosion products can induce a mixture of MMH and NTO to produce component-damaging energies. The simulation-test program was not extensive enough to provide statistical probabilities for these events but did show that such events can occur. Damaging events required FORP or metal salts to be present at the initial mixing of MMH and NTO. Based on the results of these studies, it is suggested that removal or mitigation of a buildup of these materials may decrease the incidence of these high-energy, potentially damaging events.

1996-01-01

131

On the Temperature Dependence of Organic Reactivity, Ozone Production, and the Impact of Emissions Controls in San Joaquin Valley California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The San Joaquin Valley (SJV) experiences some of the worst ozone air quality in the U.S., frequently exceeding the California 8-h standard of 70.4 ppb. To improve our understanding of trends in the number of ozone violations in the SJV, we investigate observed relationships between organic reactivity, nitrogen oxides (NOx), and daily maximum temperature in the southern SJV using measurements made as part of California at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change in 2010 (CalNex-SJV). We find the daytime speciated organic reactivity with respect OH during CalNex-SJV has a temperature-independent portion with molecules typically associated with motor vehicles being the major component. At high temperatures, characteristic of days with high ozone, the majority of the organic reactivity increases exponentially with temperature and is dominated by small oxygenated organics and molecules that are unidentified. We use this simple temperature classification to consider changes in organic emissions over the last and next decade. With the CalNex-SJV observations as constraints, we examine the sensitivity of ozone production (PO3) to future NOx and organic reactivity controls, finding that PO3 is NOx-limited at all temperatures on weekends and on weekdays when daily maximum temperatures are greater than 28oC. As a consequence, we show NOx reductions are the most effective control option for reducing the frequency of ozone violations in the southern SJV.

Pusede, S. E.; Gentner, D. R.; Wooldridge, P. J.; Browne, E. C.; Min, K.; Rollins, D. W.; Russell, A.; Thomas, J.; Zhang, L.; Brune, W. H.; Henry, S. B.; DiGangi, J. P.; Keutsch, F. N.; Harrold, S.; Thornton, J. A.; Beaver, M. R.; St Clair, J. M.; Wennberg, P. O.; Ren, X.; Sanders, J.; VandenBoer, T. C.; Markovic, M. Z.; Guha, A.; Weber, R.; Goldstein, A. H.; Cohen, R. C.

2013-12-01

132

Observation of jet production in deep inelastic scattering with a large rapidity gap at HERA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Events with a large rapidity gap in deep inelastic scattering with Q2 >= 10 GeV2 have been studied in the ZEUS detector. The properties of these events with W > 140 GeV are consistent with a leading twist diffractive production mechanism. In the laboratory frame, with ETjet >= 4 GeV, 15% of the events are of the 1-jet type with

M. Derrick; D. Krakauer; S. Magill; B. Musgrave; J. Repond; J. Schlereth; R. Stanek; R. L. Talaga; J. Thron; F. Arzarello; R. Ayad; G. Bari; M. Basile; L. Bellagamba; D. Boscherini; A. Bruni; G. Bruni; P. Bruni; G. Cara Romeo; G. Castellini; M. Chiarini; L. Cifarelli; F. Cindolo; F. Ciralli; A. Contin; S. D'Auria; C. del Papa; F. Frasconi; P. Giusti; G. Iacobucci; G. Laurenti; G. Levi; G. Maccarrone; A. Margotti; T. Massam; R. Nania; C. Nemoz; F. Palmonari; G. Sartorelli; R. Timellini; Y. Zamora Garcia; A. Zichichi; A. Bargende; J. Crittenden; K. Desch; B. Diekmann; T. Doeker; L. Feld; A. Frey; M. Geerts; G. Geitz; H. Hartmann; D. Haun; K. Heinloth; E. Hilger; H.-P. Jakob; U. F. Katz; S. Kramarczyk; A. Mass; S. Mengel; J. Mollen; E. Paul; Ch. Rembser; R. Schattevoy; J.-L. Schneider; D. Schramm; J. Stamm; R. Wedemeyer; S. Campbell-Robson; A. Cassidy; N. Dyce; B. Foster; S. George; R. Gilmore; G. P. Heath; H. F. Heath; T. J. Llewellyn; C. J. S. Morgado; D. J. P. Norman; J. A. O'Mara; R. J. Tapper; S. S. Wilson; R. Yoshida; R. R. Rau; M. Arneodo; M. Schioppa; G. Susinno; A. Bernstein; A. Caldwell; I. Gialas; J. A. Parsons; S. Ritz; F. Sciulli; P. B. Straub; L. Wai; S. Yang; P. Borzemski; J. Chwastowski; A. Eskreys; K. Piotrzkowski; M. Zachara; L. Zawiejski; L. Adamczyk; B. Bednarek; K. Eskreys; K. Jelen; D. Kisielewska; T. Kowalski; E. Rulikowska-Zarebska; L. Suszycki; J. Zajc; T. Kedzierski; A. Kotanski; M. Przybycien; L. A. T. Bauerdick; U. Behrens; J. K. Bienlein; S. Böttcher; C. Coldewey; G. Drews; M. Flasinski; I. Fleck; D. J. Gilkinson; P. Göttlicher; B. Gutjahr; T. Haas; L. Hagge; W. Hain; D. Hassell; H. Heßling; H. Hultschig; P. Joos; M. Kasemann; R. Klanner; W. Koch; L. Köpke; U. Kötz; H. Kowalski; W. Kröger; J. Krüger; J. Labs; A. Ladage; B. Löhr; M. Löwe; D. Lüke; J. Mainusch; O. Manczak; J. S. T. Ng; S. Nickel; D. Notz; K. Ohrenberg; M. Rohde; J. Roldán; U. Schneekloth; J. Schroeder; W. Schulz; F. Selonke; E. Stiliaris; T. Tsurugai; W. Vogel; D. Westphal; G. Wolf; C. Youngman; H. J. Grabosch; J. Leich; A. Meyer; C. Rethfeldt; S. Schlenstedt; G. Barbagli; M. Nuti; P. Pelfer; G. Anzivino; S. de Pasquale; S. Qian; L. Votano; A. Bamberger; A. Freidhof; T. Poser; S. Söldner-Rembold; G. Theisen; T. Trefzger; N. H. Brook; P. J. Bussey; A. T. Doyle; J. R. Forbes; V. A. Jamieson; C. Raine; D. H. Saxon; M. Stavrianakou; A. S. Wilson; A. Dannemann; U. Holm; D. Horstmann; H. Kammerlocher; B. Krebs; T. Neumann; R. Sinkus; K. Wick; E. Badura; B. D. Burow; A. Fürtjes; E. Lohrmann; J. Milewski; M. Nakahata; N. Pavel; G. Poelz; W. Schott; J. Terron; F. Zetsche; T. C. Bacon; R. Beuselinck; I. Butterworth; E. Gallo; V. L. Harris; K. R. Long; D. B. Miller; P. Morawitz; A. Prinias; J. K. Sedgbeer; A. Vorvolakos; A. Whitfield; T. Bienz; H. Kreutzmann; U. Mallik; E. McCliment; M. Roco; M. Z. Wang; P. Cloth; D. Filges; S. H. An; S. M. Hong; C. O. Kim; T. Y. Kim; S. W. Nam; S. K. Park; M. H. Suh; S. H. Yon; R. Imlay; S. Kartik; H.-J. Kim; R. R. McNeil; W. Metcalf; V. K. Nadendla; F. Barreiro; G. Cases; R. Graciani; J. M. Hernández; L. Hervás; L. Labarga; J. del Peso; J. Puga; J. F. de Trocóniz; F. Ikraiam; J. K. Mayer; G. R. Smith; F. Corriveau; D. S. Hanna; J. Hartmann; L. W. Hung; J. N. Lim; C. G. Matthews; J. W. Mitchell; P. M. Patel; L. E. Sinclair; D. G. Stairs; M. St. Laurent; R. Ullmann; V. Bashkirov; B. A. Dolgoshein; A. Stifutkin; G. L. Bashindzhagyan; P. F. Ermolov; L. K. Gladilin; Y. A. Golubkov; V. D. Kobrin; V. A. Kuzmin; E. N. Kuznetsov; A. A. Savin; A. N. Solomin; A. G. Voronin; N. P. Zotov; S. Bentvelsen; M. Botje; F. Chlebana; A. Dake; J. Engelen; P. de Jong; M. de Kamps; P. Kooijman; A. Kruse; V. O'dell; A. Tenner; H. Tiecke; W. Verkerke; M. Vreeswijk; L. Wiggers; E. de Wolf; R. van Woudenberg; D. Acosta; B. Bylsma; L. S. Durkin; K. Honscheid; C. Li; T. Y. Ling; K. W. McLean; W. N. Murray; I. H. Park; T. A. Romanowski; R. Seidlein; D. S. Bailey; G. A. Blair; A. Byrne; R. J. Cashmore; A. M. Cooper-Sarkar; D. Daniels; R. C. E. Devenish; N. Harnew; M. Lancaster; P. E. Luffman; J. McFall; C. Nath; A. Quadt; H. Uijterwaal; R. Walczak; F. F. Wilson; T. Yip; G. Abbiendi; A. Bertolin; R. Brugnera; R. Carlin; F. dal Corso; M. de Giorgi; U. Dosselli; F. Gasparini; S. Limentani; M. Morandin; M. Posocco; L. Stanco; R. Stroili; C. Voci; J. Bulmahn; J. M. Butterworth; R. G. Feild; B. Y. Oh; J. J. Whitmore; G. D'Agostini; M. Guida; M. Iori; S. M. Mari; G. Marini; M. Mattioli; A. Nigro; J. C. Hart; N. A. McCubbin; K. Prytz; T. P. Shah; T. L. Short; E. Barberis; N. Cartiglia; C. Heusch; M. van Hook; B. Hubbard; W. Lockman; H. F.-W. Sadrozinski; A. Seiden; D. Zer-Zion; J. Biltzinger; R. J. Seifert; A. H. Walenta; G. Zech; H. Abramowicz; S. Dagan; A. Levy; T. Hasegawa; M. Hazumi; T. Ishii; M. Kuze; S. Mine; Y. Nagasawa; T. Nagira; M. Nakao; I. Suzuki; K. Tokushuku

1994-01-01

133

D* production in deep-inelastic Scattering at low Q2  

E-print Network

Inclusive production of D* mesons in deep-inelastic scattering at HERA is studied in the range 5 D* meson is p_T (D*) > 1.25 GeV and |\\eta(D*)| < 1.8. The data were taken with the H1 detector in the years 2004 to 2007 and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 347 pb^{-1}. Single and double differential cross sections are measured. The results are compared to QCD predictions.

Andreas W. Jung

2011-10-10

134

Transverse spin effects in hadron-pair production from semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering  

Microsoft Academic Search

First measurements of azimuthal asymmetries in hadron-pair production in deep-inelastic scattering of muons on transversely polarised ^6LiD (deuteron) and NH_3 (proton) targets are presented. The data were taken in the years 2002-2004 and 2007 with the COMPASS spectrometer using a muon beam of 160 GeV\\/c at the CERN SPS. The asymmetries provide access to the transversity distribution functions, without involving

C Adolph; M G Alekseev; V Yu Alexakhin; Yu Alexandrov; G D Alexeev; A Amoroso; A A Antonov; A Austregesilo; B Badelek; F Balestra; J Barth; G Baum; Y Bedfer; J Bernhard; R Bertini; M Bettinelli; K Bicker; J Bieling; R Birsa; J Bisplinghoff; P Bordalo; F Bradamante; C Braun; A Bravar; A Bressan; E Burtin; D Chaberny; M Chiosso; S U Chung; A Cicuttin; M L Crespo; S Dalla Torre; S Das; S S Dasgupta; O Yu Denisov; L Dhara; S V Donskov; N Doshita; V Duic; W Duennweber; M Dziewiecki; A Efremov; C Elia; P D Eversheim; W Eyrich; M Faessler; A Ferrero; A Filin; M Finger; H Fischer; C Franco; N du Fresne von Hohenesche; J M Friedrich; R Garfagnini; F Gautheron; O P Gavrichtchouk; R Gazda; S Gerassimov; R Geyer; M Giorgi; I Gnesi; B Gobbo; S Goertz; S Grabmueller; A Grasso; B Grube; R Gushterski; A Guskov; T Guthoerl; F Haas; D von Harrach; F H Heinsius; F Herrmann; C Hess; F Hinterberger; N Horikawa; Ch Hoeppner; N d'Hose; S Huber; S Ishimoto; O Ivanov; Yu Ivanshin; T Iwata; R Jahn; P Jasinski; R Joosten; E Kabuss; D Kang; B Ketzer; G V Khaustov; Yu A Khokhlov; Yu Kisselev; F Klein; K Klimaszewski; S Koblitz; J H Koivuniemi; V N Kolosov; K Kondo; K Koenigsmann; I Konorov; V F Konstantinov; A Korzenev; A M Kotzinian; O Kouznetsov; M Kraemer; Z V Kroumchtein; F Kunne; K Kurek; L Lauser; A A Lednev; A Lehmann; S Levorato; J Lichtenstadt; A Maggiora; A Magnon; N Makke; G K Mallot; A Mann; C Marchand; A Martin; J Marzec; F Massmann; T Matsuda; W Meyer; T Michigami; A Mielech; Yu V Mikhailov; M A Moinester; A Morreale; A Mutter; A Nagaytsev; T Nagel; F Nerling; S Neubert; D Neyret; V I Nikolaenko; W D Nowak; A S Nunes; A G Olshevsky; M Ostrick; A Padee; R Panknin; D Panzieri; B Parsamyan; S Paul; E Perevalova; G Pesaro; D V Peshekhonov; G Piragino; S Platchkov; J Pochodzalla; J Polak; V A Polyakov; G Pontecorvo; J Pretz; M Quaresma; C Quintans; J-F Rajotte; S Ramos; V Rapatsky; G Reicherz; A Richter; E Rocco; E Rondio; N S Rossiyskaya; D I Ryabchikov; V D Samoylenko; A Sandacz; M G Sapozhnikov; S Sarkar; I A Savin; G Sbrizzai; P Schiavon; C Schill; T Schlueter; K Schmidt; L Schmitt; K Schoenning; S Schopferer; M Schott; O Yu Shevchenko; L Silva; L Sinha; A N Sissakian; M Slunecka; G I Smirnov; S Sosio; F Sozzi; A Srnka; M Stolarski; M Sulc; R Sulej; P Sznajder; S Takekawa; J Ter Wolbeek; S Tessaro; F Tessarotto; L G Tkatchev; S Uhl; I Uman; M Vandenbroucke; M Virius; N V Vlassov; A Vossen; L Wang; R Windmolders; W Wislicki; H Wollny; K Zaremba; M Zavertyaev; E Zemlyanichkina; M Ziembicki; N Zhuravlev; A Zvyagin

2012-01-01

135

Relation between scattering and production amplitude--Case of intermediate {sigma}-particle in {pi}{pi}-system--  

SciTech Connect

The relation between scattering and production amplitudes are investigated, using a simple field theoretical model, from the general viewpoint of unitarity and the applicability of final state interaction (FSI-) theorem. The IA-method and VMW-method, which are applied to our phenomenological analyses [2,3] suggesting the {sigma}-existence, are obtained as the physical state representations of scattering and production amplitudes, respectively. Moreover, the VMW-method is shown to be an effective method to obtain the resonance properties from general production processes, while the conventional analyses based on the 'universality' of {pi}{pi}-scattering amplitude are powerless for this purpose.

Ishida, Muneyuki [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113 (Japan); Ishida, Shin [Atomic Energy Research Institute, College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, Tokyo 101 (Japan); Ishida, Taku [KEK, Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 (Japan)

1998-05-29

136

Jet production in highQ 2 deep-inelastic ep scattering at HERA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-jet production in deep-inelastic electron-proton scattering has been\\u000astudied for $160production are compared to perturbative\\u000anext-to-leading order QCD calculations.

M. Derrick; D. Krakauer; S. Magill; D. Mikunas; B. Musgrave; J. Repond; R. Stanek; R. L. Talaga; H. Zhang; R. Avad; G. Bari; M. Basile; L. Bellagamba; D. Boscherini; A. Bruni; G. Bruni; P. Bruni; G. Cara Romeo; G. Castellini; M. Chiarini; L. Cifarelli; F. Cindolo; A. Contin; M. Corradi; I. Gialas; P. Giusti; G. Iacobucci; G. Laurenti; G. Levi; A. Margotti; T. Massam; R. Nania; C. Nemoz; E. Palmonari; A. Polini; G. Sartorelli; R. Timellini; Y. Zamora Garcia; A. Zichichi; A. Bargende; J. Crittenden; K. Desch; B. Diekmann; T. Doeker; M. Eckert; L. Feld; A. Frey; M. Geerts; G. Geitz; M. Grothe; T. Haas; H. Hartmann; D. Haun; K. Heinloth; E. Hilger; H.-P. Jakob; U. F. Katz; S. M. Mari; A. Mass; S. Mengel; J. Mollen; E. Paul; Ch. Rembser; R. Schattevoy; D. Schramm; J. Stamm; R. Wedemeyer; S. Campbell-Robson; A. Cassidy; N. Dyce; B. Foster; S. George; R. Gilmore; G. P. Heath; H. F. Heath; T. J. Llewellyn; C. J. S. Morgado; D. J. P. Norman; J. A. O'Mara; R. I. Tapper; S. S. Wilson; R. Yoshida; R. R. Rau; M. Arneodo; L. Iannotti; M. Schioppa; G. Susinno; A. Bernstein; A. Caldwell; J. A. Parsons; S. Ritz; F. Sciulli; P. B. Straub; L. Wai; S. Yang; Q. Zhu; P. Borzemski; J. Chwastowski; A. Eskreys; K. Piotrzkowski; M. Zachara; L. Zawiejski; L. Adamczyk; B. Bednarek; K. Eskreys; K. Jele?; D. Kisielewska; T. Kowalski; E. Rulikowska-Zar?bska; L. Suszycki; J. Zaj?c; A. Kota?ski; M. Przybycie?; I. A. T. Bauerdick; U. Behrens; H. Beier; J. K. Bienlein; C. Coldewey; O. Deppe; K. Desler; G. Drews; M. Flasi?ski; D. J. Gilkinson; C. Glasman; P. Göttlicher; J. Große-Knetter; B. Gutjahr; W. Hain; D. Hasell; H. Heßling; H. Hultschig; Y. Iga; P. Joos; M. Kasemann; R. Klanner; W. Koch; L. Köpke; U. Kötz; H. Kowalski; J. Labs; A. Ladage; B. Löhr; M. Löwe; D. Lüke; O. Ma?czak; J. S. T. Ng; S. Nickel; D. Notz; K. Ohrenberg; M. Roco; M. Rohde; J. Roldán; U. Schneekloth; W. Schulz; F. Selonke; E. Stiliaris; B. Surrow; T. Voß; D. Westphal; G. Wolf; C. Youngman; J. F. Zhou; H. J. Grabosch; A. Kharchilava; A. Leich; M. Mattingly; A. Meyer; S. Schlenstedt; N. Wulff; G. Barbagli; P. Pelfer; G. Anzivino; G. Maccarrone; S. Pasquale; L. Votano; A. Bamberger; S. Eisenhardt; A. Freidhof; S. Söldner-Rembold; J. Schroeder; T. Trefzger; N. H. Brook; P. J. Bussey; A. T. Doyle; I. Fleck; D. H. Saxon; M. L. Utley; A. S. Wilson; A. Dannemann; U. Holm; D. Horstmann; T. Neumann; R. Sinkus; K. Wick; E. Badura; B. D. Burow; L. Hagge; E. Lohrmann; J. Mainusch; J. Milewski; M. Nakahata; N. Pavel; G. Poelz; W. Schott; F. Zetsche; T. C. Bacon; I. Butterworth; E. Gallo; V. L. Harris; B. Y. H. Hung; K. R. Long; D. B. Miller; P. P. O. Morawitz; A. Prinias; J. K. Sedgbeer; A. F. Whitfield; U. Mallik; E. McCliment; M. Z. Wang; S. M. Wang; J. T. Wu; Y. Zhang; P. Cloth; D. Filges; S. H. An; S. M. Hong; S. W. Nam; S. K. Park; M. H. Suh; S. H. Yon; R. Imlay; S. Kartik; H.-J. Kim; R. R. McNeil; W. Metcalf; V. K. Nadendla; F. Barreiro; G. Cases; R. Graciani; J. M. Hernández; L. Hervás; L. Labarga; J. Peso; J. Puga; J. Terron; J. F. Trocóniz; G. R. Smith; F. Corriveau; D. S. Hanna; J. Hartmann; L. W. Hung; J. N. Lim; C. G. Matthews; P. M. Patel; L. E. Sinclair; D. G. Stairs; M. St. Laurent; R. Ullmann; G. Zacek; V. Bashkirov; B. A. Dolgoshein; A. Stifutkin; G. L. Bashindzhagyan; P. F. Ermolov; L. K. Gladilin; Y. A. Golubkov; V. D. Kobrin; V. A. Kuzmin; A. S. Proskuryakov; A. A. Savin; L. M. Shcheglova; A. N. Solomin; N. P. Zotov; M. Botje; F. Chlebana; A. Dake; J. Engelen; M. Kamps; P. Kooijman; A. Kruse; H. Tiecke; W. Verkerke; M. Vreeswijk; L. Wiggers; E. Wolf; R. Woudenberg; D. Acosta; B. Bylsma; L. S. Durkin; K. Honscheid; C. Li; T. Y. Ling; K. W. McLean; W. N. Murray; I. H. Park; T. A. Romanowski; R. Seidlein; D. S. Bailey; G. A. Blair; A. Byrne; R. J. Cashmore; A. M. Cooper-Sarkar; D. Daniels; R. C. E. Devenish; N. Harnew; M. Lancaster; P. E. Luffman; L. Lindemann; J. D. McFall; C. Nath; V. A. Noyes; A. Quadt; H. Uijterwaal; R. Walczak; F. F. Wilson; T. Yip; G. Abbiendi; A. Bertolin; R. Brugnera; R. Carlin; F. Corso; M. Giorgi; U. Dosselli; S. Limentani; M. Morandin; M. Posocco; L. Stanco; R. Stroili; C. Voci; J. Bulmahn; J. M. Butterworth; R. G. Feild; B. Y. Oh; J. J. Whitmore; G. D'Agostini; G. Marini; A. Nigro; E. Tassi; J. C. Hart; N. A. McCubbin; K. Prytz; T. P. Shah; T. L. Short; L. Barberis; N. Cartiglia; T. Dubbs; C. Heusch; M. Hook; B. Hubbard; W. Lockman; J. T. Rahn; H. F.-W. Sadrozinski; A. Seiden; J. Biltzinger; R. J. Seifert; A. H. Walenta; G. Zech; H. Abramowicz; G. Briskin; S. Dagan; A. Levy; T. Hasegawa; M. Hazumi; T. Ishii; M. Kuze; S. Mine; Y. Nagasawa; M. Nakao; I. Suzuki; K. Tokushuku; S. Yamada; Y. Yamazaki; M. Chiba; R. Hamatsu; T. Hirose; K. Homma; S. Kitamura; Y. Nakamitsu; K. Yamauchi; R. Cirio; M. Costa; M. I. Ferrero; L. Lamberti; S. Maselli; C. Peroni; R. Sacchi; A. Solano; A. Staiano; M. Dardo

1995-01-01

137

PROBING REACTIVITY OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER FOR DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCT FORMATION USING XAD-8 RESIN ADSORPTION AND ULTRAFILTRATION FRACTIONATION. (R828045)  

EPA Science Inventory

The disinfection by-product (DBP) reactivity (yield and speciation upon reaction with chlorine) of dissolved organic matter (DOM) isolated from two surface waters was investigated. The source waters, each having significantly different specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA...

138

REACTIONS OF PEROXYNITRITE WITH URIC ACID: FORMATION OF REACTIVE INTERMEDIATES, ALKYLATED PRODUCTS AND TRIURET, AND IN VIVO PRODUCTION OF TRIURET UNDER CONDITIONS OF OXIDATIVE STRESS  

PubMed Central

Hyperuricemia is associated with hypertension, metabolic syndrome, preeclampsia, cardiovascular disease and renal disease, all conditions associated with oxidative stress. We hypothesized that uric acid, a known antioxidant, might become prooxidative following its reaction with oxidants; and, thereby contribute to the pathogenesis of these diseases. Uric acid and 1,3-15N2-uric acid were reacted with peroxynitrite in different buffers and in the presence of alcohols, antioxidants and in human plasma. The reaction products were identified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analyses. The reactions generate reactive intermediates that yielded triuret as their final product. We also found that the antioxidant, ascorbate, could partially prevent this reaction. Whereas triuret was preferentially generated by the reactions in aqueous buffers, when uric acid or 1,3-15N2-uric acid was reacted with peroxynitrite in the presence of alcohols, it yielded alkylated alcohols as the final product. By extension, this reaction can alkylate other biomolecules containing OH groups and others containing labile hydrogens. Triuret was also found to be elevated in the urine of subjects with preeclampsia, a pregnancy-specific hypertensive syndrome that is associated with oxidative stress, whereas very little triuret is produced in normal healthy volunteers. We conclude that under conditions of oxidative stress, uric acid can form reactive intermediates, including potential alkylating species, by reacting with peroxynitrite. These reactive intermediates could possibly explain how uric acid contributes to the pathogenesis of diseases such as the metabolic syndrome and hypertension. PMID:19219741

Gersch, Christine; Palii, Sergiu P.; Imaram, Witcha; Kim, Kyung Mee; Karumanchi, S. Ananth; Angerhofer, Alexander; Johnson, Richard J.; Henderson, George N.

2009-01-01

139

Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and respiratory complex activity in rats with pressure overload-induced heart failure.  

PubMed

We investigated the impact of cardiac reactive oxygen species (ROS) during the development of pressure overload-induced heart failure. We used our previously described rat model where transverse aortic constriction (TAC) induces compensated hypertrophy after 2 weeks, heart failure with preserved ejection fraction at 6 and 10 weeks, and heart failure with systolic dysfunction after 20 weeks. We measured mitochondrial ROS production rates, ROS damage and assessed the therapeutic potential of in vivo antioxidant therapies. In compensated hypertrophy (2 weeks of TAC) ROS production rates were normal at both mitochondrial ROS production sites (complexes I and III). Complex I ROS production rates increased with the appearance of diastolic dysfunction (6 weeks of TAC) and remained high thereafter. Surprisingly, maximal ROS production at complex III peaked at 6 weeks of pressure overload. Mitochondrial respiratory capacity (state 3 respiration) was elevated 2 and 6 weeks after TAC, decreased after this point and was significantly impaired at 20 weeks, when contractile function was also impaired and ROS damage was found with increased hydroxynonenal. Treatment with the ROS scavenger ?-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone or the uncoupling agent dinitrophenol significantly reduced ROS production rates at 6 weeks. Despite the decline in ROS production capacity, no differences in contractile function between treated and untreated animals were observed. Increased ROS production occurs early in the development of heart failure with a peak at the onset of diastolic dysfunction. However, ROS production may not be related to the onset of contractile dysfunction. PMID:24951621

Schwarzer, Michael; Osterholt, Moritz; Lunkenbein, Anne; Schrepper, Andrea; Amorim, Paulo; Doenst, Torsten

2014-09-01

140

Effect of resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic compound, on reactive oxygen species and prostaglandin production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resveratrol is a natural molecule with antioxidant action. Moreover, resveratrol is also considered to be a molecule with anti-inflammatory action, an effect attributed to suppression of prostaglandin (PG) biosynthesis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol, a polyphenol present in most red wines, on reactive oxygen species formation as well as on arachidonic acid

Javier Martinez; Juan J Moreno

2000-01-01

141

Reactivity of the one-electron reduction product from nifedipine with relevant biological targets.  

PubMed

The reactivity of the electrochemically generated nitro radical anion from nifedipine, a nitro aryl 1,4-dihydropyridine derivative, with relevant endobiotics and thiol-containing xenobiotics, was quantitatively assessed by cyclic voltammetry. The method was based on the decrease in the return-to-forward peak current ratio after the addition of compounds. A quantitative procedure to calculate the respective interaction constants between the radicals and the xeno/endobiotics is also provided. In the optimal selected conditions, i.e. mixed media (0.015 M aqueous citrate/DMF: 40/60, 0.3 M KCl, 0.1 TBAI) at pH 9.0 the following order of reactivity was obtained: glutathione > uracil > adenine and cysteamine > N-acetylcysteine > captopril > penicillamine. In all cases, the interaction rate constants for these derivatives were greater than the natural decay constant of the radical. Studies on the reactivity at pH 7.4 were also conducted. Results from these experiments indicate a significant reactivity between the radical and the endo/xenobiotics. The increase in the stability of the radical anion by increasing the pH of the mixed media resulted in a decreased reaction with the endo/xenobiotics tested. Computerized simulation with DIGISIM 2.0 of the proposed mechanisms fitted very well with the experimental results for both the natural decay of the radical and its reaction with the tested compounds. PMID:8760391

Núñez-Vergara, L J; Navarrete-Encina, P A; Ortiz, M E; Bollo, S; Squella, J A

1996-08-14

142

A study of scattering, production, and stimulated emission of sound by vortex flows. [Bernouli enthalpy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic theory of aeroacoustics of homentropic fluid media is applied to the problems of sound scattering, production, and stimulated emission. A general theory of scattering from low speed three-dimensional vortex flows is presented. Specific results are given for the horseshoe vortex and vortex ring. The noise of an elementary corotating vortex pair in various flows is calculated. It is shown that a potential flow and shear flow can substantially increase the basic pair noise. Small reverse shears can annihilate vortex pairs and eliminate the pair noise mechanism. The pair results are used to explain qualitatively the operation of noise suppression devices. The stimulated emission of a single vortex pair and four and six vortex arrays is demonstrated. The results for six vortices illustrate how external pure tones can amplify the broadband noise of a jet in agreement with recent experimental evidence.

Yates, J. E.

1979-01-01

143

Measurement of D meson production in ep scattering at low Q  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The production of D(2010) mesons in ep scattering in the range of exchanged photon virtuality 0.05scattered electron. Differential D cross sections as functions of Q, inelasticity, y, transverse momentum of the D meson, p(D), and pseudorapidity of the D meson, ?(D), have been measured in the kinematic region 0.02

Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.; Miglioranzi, S.; Musgrave, B.; Nicholass, D.; Repond, J.; Yoshida, R.; Mattingly, M. C. K.; Jechow, M.; Pavel, N.; Yagües Molina, A. G.; Antonelli, S.; Antonioli, P.; Bari, G.; Basile, M.; Bellagamba, L.; Bindi, M.; Boscherini, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; Corradi, M.; De Pasquale, S.; Iacobucci, G.; Margotti, A.; Nania, R.; Polini, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Sartorelli, G.; Zichichi, A.; Bartsch, D.; Brock, I.; Goers, S.; Hartmann, H.; Hilger, E.; Irrgang, P.; Jakob, H.-P.; Jüngst, M.; Kind, O. M.; Paul, E.; Renner, R.; Samson, U.; Schönberg, V.; Shehzadi, R.; Wlasenko, M.; Brook, N. H.; Heath, G. P.; Morris, J. D.; Namsoo, T.; Capua, M.; Fazio, S.; Mastroberardino, A.; Schioppa, M.; Susinno, G.; Tassi, E.; Kim, J. Y.; Ma, K. J.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Kamaluddin, B.; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Ning, Y.; Ren, Z.; Sciulli, F.; Chwastowski, J.; Eskreys, A.; Figiel, J.; Galas, A.; Gil, M.; Olkiewicz, K.; Stopa, P.; Zawiejski, L.; Adamczyk, L.; Bo?d, T.; Grabowska-Bo?d, I.; Kisielewska, D.; ?ukasik, J.; Przybycie?, M.; Suszycki, L.; Kota?ski, A.; S?omi?ski, W.; Adler, V.; Behrens, U.; Bloch, I.; Blohm, C.; Bonato, A.; Borras, K.; Coppola, N.; Dossanov, A.; Fourletova, J.; Geiser, A.; Gladkov, D.; Göttlicher, P.; Gregor, I.; Haas, T.; Hain, W.; Horn, C.; Kahle, B.; Klein, U.; Kötz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Lobodzinska, E.; Löhr, B.; Mankel, R.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Montanari, A.; Notz, D.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A. E.; Rubinsky, I.; Santamarta, R.; Schneekloth, U.; Spiridonov, A.; Stadie, H.; Szuba, D.; Szuba, J.; Theedt, T.; Wolf, G.; Wrona, K.; Youngman, C.; Zeuner, W.; Lohmann, W.; Schlenstedt, S.; Barbagli, G.; Gallo, E.; Pelfer, P. G.; Bamberger, A.; Dobur, D.; Karstens, F.; Vlasov, N. N.; Bussey, P. J.; Doyle, A. T.; Dunne, W.; Ferrando, J.; Saxon, D. H.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Gialas, I.; Gosau, T.; Holm, U.; Klanner, R.; Lohrmann, E.; Salehi, H.; Schleper, P.; Schörner-Sadenius, T.; Sztuk, J.; Wichmann, K.; Wick, K.; Foudas, C.; Fry, C.; Long, K. R.; Tapper, A. D.; Kataoka, M.; Matsumoto, T.; Nagano, K.; Tokushuku, K.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Barakbaev, A. N.; Boos, E. G.; Pokrovskiy, N. S.; Zhautykov, B. O.; Son, D.; de Favereau, J.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Barreiro, F.; Glasman, C.; Jimenez, M.; Labarga, L.; del Peso, J.; Ron, E.; Soares, M.; Terrón, J.; Zambrana, M.; Corriveau, F.; Liu, C.; Walsh, R.; Zhou, C.; Tsurugai, T.; Antonov, A.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Stifutkin, A.; Suchkov, S.; Dementiev, R. K.; Ermolov, P. F.; Gladilin, L. K.; Katkov, I. I.; Khein, L. A.; Korzhavina, I. A.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Levchenko, B. B.; Lukina, O. Yu.; Proskuryakov, A. S.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Zotkin, D. S.; Zotkin, S. A.; Abt, I.; Büttner, C.; Caldwell, A.; Kollar, D.; Schmidke, W. B.; Sutiak, J.; Grigorescu, G.; Keramidas, A.; Koffeman, E.; Kooijman, P.; Pellegrino, A.; Tiecke, H.; Vázquez, M.; Wiggers, L.; Brümmer, N.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Lee, A.; Ling, T. Y.; Allfrey, P. D.; Bell, M. A.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cottrell, A.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Foster, B.; Korcsak-Gorzo, K.; Patel, S.; Roberfroid, V.; Robertson, A.; Straub, P. B.; Uribe-Estrada, C.; Walczak, R.; Bellan, P.; Bertolin, A.; Brugnera, R.; Carlin, R.; Ciesielski, R.; Dal Corso, F.; Dusini, S.; Garfagnini, A.; Limentani, S.; Longhin, A.; Stanco, L.; Turcato, M.; Oh, B. Y.; Raval, A.; Ukleja, J.; Whitmore, J. J.; Iga, Y.; D'Agostini, G.; Marini, G.; Nigro, A.; Cole, J. E.; Hart, J. C.; Abramowicz, H.; Gabareen, A.; Ingbir, R.; Kananov, S.; Levy, A.; Kuze, M.; Hori, R.; Kagawa, S.; Okazaki, N.; Shimizu, S.; Tawara, T.; Hamatsu, R.; Kaji, H.; Kitamura, S.; Ota, O.; Ri, Y. D.; Ferrero, M. I.; Monaco, V.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Arneodo, M.; Ruspa, M.; Fourletov, S.; Martin, J. F.; Boutle, S. K.; Butterworth, J. M.; Gwenlan, C.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Jones, T. W.; Loizides, J. H.; Sutton, M. R.; Targett-Adams, C.; Wing, M.; Brzozowska, B.; Ciborowski, J.; Grzelak, G.; Kulinski, P.; ?u?niak, P.; Malka, J.; Nowak, R. J.; Pawlak, J. M.; Tymieniecka, T.; Ukleja, A.; ?arnecki, A. F.; Adamus, M.; Plucinski, P.; Eisenberg, Y.; Giller, I.; Hochman, D.; Karshon, U.; Rosin, M.; Brownson, E.; Danielson, T.; Everett, A.; Kçira, D.; Reeder, D. D.; Ryan, P.; Savin, A. A.; Smith, W. H.; Wolfe, H.; Bhadra, S.; Catterall, C. D.; Cui, Y.; Hartner, G.; Menary, S.; Noor, U.; Standage, J.; Whyte, J.; ZEUS Collaboration

2007-05-01

144

D^* production in deep-inelastic scattering at low Q^2  

SciTech Connect

Inclusive production of D* mesons in deep-inelastic scattering at HERA is studied in the range 5 < Q{sup 2} < 100 GeV{sup 2} of the photon virtuality and 0.02 < y < 0.70 of the inelasticity of the scattering process. The visible range for the D* meson is p{sub T} (D*) > 1.25 GeV and |{eta}(D*)| < 1.8. The data were taken with the H1 detector in the years 2004 to 2007 and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 347 pb{sup -1}. Single and double differential cross sections are measured. The results are compared to QCD predictions.

Jung, Andreas W.; /Fermilab

2011-07-01

145

Increased resistin may suppress reactive oxygen species production and inflammasome activation in type 2 diabetic patients with pulmonary tuberculosis infection.  

PubMed

Although it has been known for decades that patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) are more susceptible to severe tuberculosis (TB) infection, the underlying immunological mechanisms remain unclear. Resistin, a protein produced by immune cells in humans, causes insulin resistance and has been implicated in inhibiting reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in leukocytes. Recent studies suggested that IL-1? production in patients with Mycobacteria tuberculosis infection correlates with inflammasome activation which may be regulated by ROS production in the immune cells. By investigating the level of resistin in different patient groups, we found that serum resistin levels were significantly higher in severe TB and DM-only groups when compared with mild TB cases and healthy controls. Moreover, elevation of serum resistin correlated with impairment of ROS production of neutrophils in patients with both DM and TB. In human macrophages, exogenous resistin inhibits the production of ROS which are important in the mycobacterium-induced inflammasome activation. Moreover, macrophages with defective ROS production had poor IL-1? production and ineffective control of mycobacteria growth. Our results suggest that increased resistin in severe TB and DM patients may suppress the mycobacterium-induced inflammasome activation through inhibiting ROS production by leukocytes. PMID:25528597

Chao, Wen-Cheng; Yen, Chia-Liang; Wu, Ying-Hsun; Chen, Shin-Yi; Hsieh, Cheng-Yuan; Chang, Tsung-Chain; Ou, Horng-Yih; Shieh, Chi-Chang

2015-03-01

146

Regulation of IgE production and airway reactivity by CD4(-)CD8(-) regulatory T cells.  

PubMed

The mechanisms of tolerance induction occurring in the course of allergen-specific immunotherapy have not been elucidated in full detail. Our study aimed to characterize high zone tolerance in mouse models of type I allergy and of allergic airway inflammation induced by subcutaneous sensitization of mice with high doses of the model allergen ovalbumin (OVA) without the use of adjuvant. Mice were immunized by subcutaneous injection of high doses (HD) of OVA or, for comparison, low doses (LD) of OVA in saline. HD-mice showed lower specific IgE, but augmented IgG in sera than LD-mice. Pre-treatment of mice with HD-OVA antigen-specifically inhibited IgE production subsequently induced by LD-OVA. OVA-restimulated splenocytes from HD-mice revealed hypoproliferation and impaired production of Th2-associated cytokines. HD-mice exhibited lower airway reactivity, goblet cell hyperplasia and mucus production, as well as IL-5 and IL-13 production in the lungs than LD-mice following local provocation. Recruitment of inflammatory cells into the airways was comparable, while the number of eosinophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage was substantially higher in HD-mice. Adoptive transfer of dnTC from HD-mice into naïve mice, which were subsequently sensitized with LD-OVA, suppressed IgE production in the recipients. The number of dnTC was higher in the spleens of HD-mice than LD-mice. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that subcutaneous sensitization of mice with high doses of allergen in the absence of adjuvant results in attenuated airway reactivity as compared with LD-sensitization and induces CD4(-)CD8(-) dnTC with regulatory function on IgE production. PMID:25468560

Raker, Verena; Stein, Judith; Montermann, Evelyn; Maxeiner, Joachim; Taube, Christian; Reske-Kunz, Angelika B; Sudowe, Stephan

2015-04-01

147

Interactive effects of avoidant coping and parental hypertension on Rate Pressure Product reactivity in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Previous research suggests that personality, situational context variables, and genes might interact to potentiate cardiovascular\\u000a stress responses.Purpose: Our purpose is to examine interactive effects of dispositional avoidant coping and parental hypertension on cardiovascular\\u000a reactivity to three different laboratory stressors.Method: Participants were 63 healthy female students. Stressors were an evaluated videotaped speech, the cold pressor, and viewing\\u000a of the speech

Andreas Schwerdtfeger; Stefan C. Schmukle; Boris Egloff

2005-01-01

148

Reactivity of the one-electron reduction product from nifedipine with relevant biological targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reactivity of the electrochemically generated nitro radical anion from nifedipine, a nitro aryl 1,4-dihydropyridine derivative, with relevant endobiotics and thiol-containing xenobiotics, was quantitatively assessed by cyclic voltammetry. The method was based on the decrease in the return-to-forward peak current ratio after the addition of compounds. A quantitative procedure to calculate the respective interaction constants between the radicals and the

Luis J. Núñez-Vergara; P. A. Navarrete-Encina; M. E. Ortiz; S. Bollo; J. A. Squella

1996-01-01

149

Production of $c \\bar c$ pairs at LHC: $k_t$-factorization and double-parton scattering  

E-print Network

We discuss charm production at LHC. The production of single $c \\bar c$ pairs is calculated in the $k_t$-factorization approach. We use several unintegrated gluon distributions from the literature. Differential distributions for several charmed mesons are presented and compared to recent results of the ALICE and LHCb collaborations. Some missing strength can be observed. Furthermore we discuss production of two $c \\bar c$ pairs within a simple formalism of double-parton scattering (DPS). Surprisingly large cross sections, comparable to single-parton scattering (SPS) contribution to $c \\bar c$ production, are predicted for LHC energies.

Antoni Szczurek

2012-06-01

150

Jet production in deep-inelastic muon scattering at 490 GeV  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of jet rates in deep-inelastic muon scattering are presented. The JADE algorithm is used to define jets in the kinematic region 9 < W < 33 GeV. Data taken on a proton target are analyzed within the QCD framework, with the goal of extracting [alpha][sub s]. Results on the Q[sup 2] dependence of the average transverse momentum of jets are used to demonstrate the running of the strong coupling constant [alpha][sub s]. In addition, first measurements of the production of jets from heavy nuclei in the region x[sub B[sub j

Melanson, H.L.

1993-06-01

151

A phenomenological study of photon production in low energy neutrino nucleon scattering  

SciTech Connect

Low energy photon production is an important background to many current and future precision neutrino experiments. We present a phenomenological study of t-channel radiative corrections to neutral current neutrino nucleus scattering. After introducing the relevant processes and phenomenological coupling constants, we will explore the derived energy and angular distributions as well as total cross-section predictions along with their estimated uncertainties. This is supplemented throughout with comments on possible experimental signatures and implications. We conclude with a general discussion of the analysis in the context of complimentary methodologies. This is based on a talk presented at the DPF 2009 meeting in Detroit MI.

Jenkins, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goldman, Terry J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

152

A dependence of exclusive vector meson production in muon-nucleus scattering  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary results on the cross section ratios of exclusive {rho}{sup 0} and {phi} meson production off carbon, calcium, and lead to that off deuterium in deep-inelastic muon-nucleon scattering are reported. The data were taken with the E665 spectrometer using the Fermilab Tevatron muon beam. The mean beam energy was 470 GeV. Significant increase in the cross section ratios is seen as the four-momentum squared of the virtual photon increases. The results support the idea of color transparency.

Fang, Guang Yin [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics; E665 Collaboration

1993-10-01

153

[Roles of reactive oxygen species in Streptomyces pactum Act12-induced tanshinone production in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy roots].  

PubMed

Our previous research indicated that the Streptomyces pactum Act12 (Act12) had a certain promotional effect on tanshinone accumulation and up-regulated the expression of genes 3-hydroxy-3-methyglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) and 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR) in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy roots. This study focuses on the roles of reactive oxygen species in S. pactum Act12-induced tanshinone production in S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots. The 4% Act12, 4% Act12 + CAT and 4% Act12 + SOD were added to S. miltiorrhiza hairy root and subcultured for 21 days, the dry weight, contents of reactive oxygen species, contents of tanshinones and expression of HMGR and DXR were determined at different harvest-time. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots was triggered by 4% Act12 treatment. The relative expressions of genes HMGR and DXR in 4% Act12 treatment were 32.4 and 4.8-fold higher than those in the control. And the total tanshinone in the hairy roots was 10.2 times higher than that of the control. The CAT and SOD could significantly inhibit the ROS accumulation and relative expressions of genes HMGR and DXR in 4% Act12 treatment, which induced the total tanshinone content was decreased by 74.6% comparing with the 4% Act12 treatment. ROS mediated Act12-induced tanshinone production. The Act12 may be via the ROS signal channel to activate the tanshinone biosynthesis pathways. Thereby the tanshinon content in hairy roots was increased. PMID:25272827

Yan, Yan; Zhao, Xin; Zhang, Shun-Cang; Liu, Yan; Liang, Zong-Suo

2014-06-01

154

Photocatalytic reactive oxygen species production and phototoxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles are dependent on the solar ultraviolet radiation spectrum.  

PubMed

Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO(2)) and its consequent phototoxicity to Daphnia magna were measured under different solar ultraviolet (UV) spectra by applying a series of optical filters in a solar simulator. Removing UV-B (280-320 nm) from solar radiation had no significant impact on photocatalytic ROS production of nano-TiO(2), whereas removal of UV-A (320-400 nm) decreased ROS production remarkably. Removal of wavelengths below 400 nm resulted in negligible ROS production. A linear correlation between ROS production and D. magna immobilization suggests that photocatalytic ROS production may be a predictor of phototoxicity for nano-TiO(2). Intracellular ROS production within D. magna was consistent with the immobilization of the organism under different solar UV spectra, indicating that oxidative stress was involved in phototoxicity. The dependence of nano-TiO(2) phototoxicity on environmentally realistic variations in solar radiation suggests that risk assessment of these nanomaterials requires careful evaluation of exposure conditions in the environment. PMID:22707245

Ma, Hongbo; Brennan, Amanda; Diamond, Stephen A

2012-09-01

155

The impact of dehydration rate on the production and cellular location of reactive oxygen species in an aquatic moss  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The aquatic moss Fontinalis antipyretica requires a slow rate of dehydration to survive a desiccation event. The present work examined whether differences in the dehydration rate resulted in corresponding differences in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and therefore in the amount of cell damage. Methods Intracellular ROS production by the aquatic moss was assessed with confocal laser microscopy and the ROS-specific chemical probe 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. The production of hydrogen peroxide was also quantified and its cellular location was assessed. Key Results The rehydration of slowly dried cells was associated with lower ROS production, thereby reducing the amount of cellular damage and increasing cell survival. A high oxygen consumption burst accompanied the initial stages of rehydration, perhaps due to the burst of ROS production. Conclusions A slow dehydration rate may induce cell protection mechanisms that serve to limit ROS production and reduce the oxidative burst, decreasing the number of damaged and dead cells due upon rehydration. PMID:22875812

Cruz de Carvalho, Ricardo; Catalá, Myriam; Marques da Silva, Jorge; Branquinho, Cristina; Barreno, Eva

2012-01-01

156

Atomic mass dependence of hadron production in semi-inclusive deep inelastic lepton-nucleus scattering  

E-print Network

Hadron production in lepton-nucleus deep inelastic scattering is studied in a quark energy loss model. The leading-order computations for hadron multiplicity ratios are presented and compared with the selected HERMES pions production data with the quark hadronization occurring outside the nucleus by means of the hadron formation time. It is found that the obtained energy loss per unit length is $0.440 \\pm 0.013$ GeV/fm for an outgoing quark by the global fit. It is confirmed that the atomic mass number dependence of hadron attenuation is theoretically and experimentally in good agreement with the $A^{2/3}$ power law for quark hadronization occurring outside the nucleus.

Li-Hua Song; Na Liu; Chun-Gui Duan

2013-10-20

157

Measurement of D + and ? c + production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charm production in deep inelastic scattering has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 120 pb-1. The hadronic decay channels D + ? K S 0 ? +, ? c + ? pK S 0 and ? c + ? ? ? +, and their charge conjugates, were reconstructed. The presence of a neutral strange hadron in the final state reduces the combinatorial background and extends the measured sensitivity into the low transverse momentum region. The kinematic range is 0 < p T ( D +, ? c +) < 10 GeV, | ?( D +, ? c +)| < 1 .6, 1.5 < Q 2 < 1000 GeV2 and 0 .02 < y < 0.7. Inclusive and differential cross sections for the production of D + mesons are compared to next-to-leading-order QCD predictions. The fraction of c quarks hadronising into ? c + baryons is extracted.

Abramowicz, H.; Abt, I.; Adamczyk, L.; Adamus, M.; Aggarwal, R.; Antonelli, S.; Antonioli, P.; Antonov, A.; Arneodo, M.; Aushev, V.; Aushev, Y.; Bachynska, O.; Bamberger, A.; Barakbaev, A. N.; Barbagli, G.; Bari, G.; Barreiro, F.; Bartsch, D.; Basile, M.; Behnke, O.; Behr, J.; Behrens, U.; Bellagamba, L.; Bertolin, A.; Bhadra, S.; Bindi, M.; Blohm, C.; Bold, T.; Boos, E. G.; Borodin, M.; Borras, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bot, D.; Boutle, S. K.; Brock, I.; Brownson, E.; Brugnera, R.; Brümmer, N.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Brzozowska, B.; Bussey, P. J.; Butterworth, J. M.; Bylsma, B.; Caldwell, A.; Capua, M.; Carlin, R.; Catterall, C. D.; Chekanov, S.; Chwastowski, J.; Ciborowski, J.; Ciesielski, R.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Coppola, N.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Costa, M.; D'Agostini, G.; Dal Corso, F.; de Favereau, J.; Del Peso, J.; Dementiev, R. K.; de Pasquale, S.; Derrick, M.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Dobur, D.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Doyle, A. T.; Drugakov, V.; Durkin, L. S.; Dusini, S.; Eisenberg, Y.; Ermolov, P. F.; Eskreys, A.; Fang, S.; Fazio, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrero, M. I.; Figiel, J.; Forrest, M.; Foster, B.; Fourletov, S.; Gach, G.; Galas, A.; Gallo, E.; Garfagnini, A.; Geiser, A.; Gialas, I.; Gladilin, L. K.; Gladkov, D.; Glasman, C.; Gogota, O.; Golubkov, Yu. A.; Göttlicher, P.; Grabowska-Bo?d, I.; Grebenyuk, J.; Gregor, I.; Grigorescu, G.; Grzelak, G.; Gwenlan, C.; Haas, T.; Hain, W.; Hamatsu, R.; Hart, J. C.; Hartmann, H.; Hartner, G.; Hilger, E.; Hochman, D.; Holm, U.; Hori, R.; Horton, K.; Hüttmann, A.; Iacobucci, G.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Iga, Y.; Ingbir, R.; Ishitsuka, M.; Jakob, H.-P.; Januschek, F.; Jimenez, M.; Jones, T. W.; Jüngst, M.; Kadenko, I.; Kahle, B.; Kamaluddin, B.; Kananov, S.; Kanno, T.; Karshon, U.; Karstens, F.; Katkov, I. I.; Kaur, M.; Kaur, P.; Keramidas, A.; Khein, L. A.; Kim, J. Y.; Kisielewska, D.; Kitamura, S.; Klanner, R.; Klein, U.; Koffeman, E.; Kollar, D.; Kooijman, P.; Korol, Ie.; Korzhavina, I. A.; Kota?ski, A.; Kötz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Kulinski, P.; Kuprash, O.; Kuze, M.; Lee, A.; Levchenko, B. B.; Levy, A.; Libov, V.; Limentani, S.; Ling, T. Y.; Lisovyi, M.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lohmann, W.; Löhr, B.; Lohrmann, E.; Loizides, J. H.; Long, K. R.; Longhin, A.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Lukina, O. Yu.; ?u?niak, P.; Maeda, J.; Magill, S.; Makarenko, I.; Malka, J.; Mankel, R.; Margotti, A.; Marini, G.; Martin, J. F.; Mastroberardino, A.; Matsumoto, T.; Mattingly, M. C. K.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Miglioranzi, S.; Mohamad Idris, F.; Monaco, V.; Montanari, A.; Morris, J. D.; Musgrave, B.; Nagano, K.; Namsoo, T.; Nania, R.; Nicholass, D.; Nigro, A.; Ning, Y.; Noor, U.; Notz, D.; Nowak, R. J.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A. E.; Oh, B. Y.; Okazaki, N.; Oliver, K.; Olkiewicz, K.; Onishchuk, Yu.; Ota, O.; Papageorgiu, K.; Parenti, A.; Paul, E.; Pawlak, J. M.; Pawlik, B.; Pelfer, P. G.; Pellegrino, A.; Perlanski, W.; Perrey, H.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Plucinski, P.; Pokrovskiy, N. S.; Polini, A.; P Roskuryakov, A. S.; Przybycie?, M.; Raval, A.; Reeder, D. D.; Reisert, B.; Ren, Z.; Repond, J.; Ri, Y. D.; Robertson, A.; Roloff, P.; Ron, E.; Rubinsky, I.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Salii, A.; Samson, U.; Sartorelli, G.; Savin, A. A.; Saxon, D. H.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schleper, P.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schneekloth, U.; Schönberg, V.; Schörner-Sadenius, T.; Schwartz, J.; Sciulli, F.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Shehzadi, R.; Shimizu, S.; Singh, I.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Slomi?ski, W.; Smith, W. H.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Son, D.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Spiridonov, A.; Stadie, H.; Stanco, L.; Stern, A.; Stewart, T. P.; Stifutkin, A.; Stopa, P.; Suchkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Suszycki, L.; Sztuk, J.; Szuba, D.; Szuba, J.; Tapper, A. D.; Tassi, E.; Terrón, J.; Theedt, T.; Tiecke, H.; Tokushuku, K.; Tomalak, O.; Tomaszewska, J.; Tsurugai, T.; Turcato, M.; Tymieniecka, T.; Uribe-Estrada, C.; Vázquez, M.; Verbytskyi, A.; Viazlo, O.; Vlasov, N. N.; Volynets, O.; Walczak, R.; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Whitmore, J. J.; Whyte, J.; Wiggers, L.; Wing, M.; Wlasenko, M.; Wolf, G.; Wolfe, H.; Wrona, K.; Yagües-Molina, A. A.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yoshida, R.; Youngman, C.; ?arnecki, A. A.; Zawiejski, L.; Zenaiev, O.; Zeuner, W.; Zhautykov, B. O.; Zhmak, N.; Zhou, C.; Zichichi, A.; Zolko, M.; Zotkin, D. S.; Zulkapli, Z.

2010-11-01

158

Optimizing Pulse Waveforms in Plasma Jets for Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are desired in numerous applications from the destruction of harmful proteins and bacteria for sterilization in the medical field to taking advantage of the metastable characteristics of O2(^1?) to transfer energy to other species. Advances in atmospheric pressure plasma jets in recent years show the possibility of using this application as a source of reactive oxygen species. In this paper, we report on results from a computational investigation of atmospheric pressure plasma jets in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) configuration. The computer model used in this study, nonPDPSIM, solves transport equations for charged and neutral species, Poisson's equation for the electric potential, the electron energy conservation equation for the electron temperature, and Navier-Stokes equations for the neutral gas flow. A Monte Carlo simulation is used to track sheath accelerated secondary electrons emitted from surfaces and the energy of ions incident onto surfaces. Rate coefficients and transport coefficients for the bulk plasma are obtained from local solutions of Boltzmann's equation for the electron energy distribution. Radiation transport is addressed using a Green's function approach. Various waveforms for the voltage source were examined in analogy to spiker-sustainer systems used at lower gas pressures.

Norberg, Seth; Babaeva, Natalia Yu.; Kushner, Mark J.

2012-10-01

159

Increased reactive oxygen species production and p47phox phosphorylation in neutrophils from myeloproliferative disorders patients with JAK2 (V617F) mutation  

PubMed Central

Myeloproliferative disorders are associated with increased risk of thrombosis and vascular complications. The pathogenesis of these complications is not completely known. Reactive oxygen species produced by the neutrophil NADPH oxidase could have a role in this process. The aim of this study was to evaluate reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils of myeloproliferative disorder patients. Patients with or without the JAK2 V617F mutation were characterized. Reactive oxygen species production was assessed by chemiluminescence, and phosphorylation of the NADPH oxidase subunit p47phox was analyzed by Western blots. In a comparison of controls and myeloproliferative disorder patients without the JAK2 V617F mutation, reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils from patients with the JAK2 V617F mutation was dramatically increased in non-stimulated and in stimulated conditions. This increase was associated with increased phosphorylation of the p47phox on Ser345 and of the uspstream kinase ERK1/2. In neutrophils from healthy donors, JAK2 can be activated by GM-CSF. GM-CSF-induced p47phox phosphorylation and priming of reactive oxygen species production are inhibited by the selective JAK2 inhibitors AG490 and lestaurtinib (CEP-701), supporting a role for JAK2 in the upregulation of NADPH oxidase activation. These findings show an increase in reactive oxygen species production and p47phox phosphorylation in neutrophils from myeloproliferative disorder patients with the JAK2 V617F mutation, and demonstrate that JAK2 is involved in GM-CSF-induced NADPH oxidase hyperactivation. As neutrophil hyperactivation could be implicated in the thrombophilic status of patients with myeloproliferative disorders, aberrant activation of JAK2 V617F, leading to excessive neutrophil reactive oxygen species production might play a role in this setting. PMID:23975181

Hurtado-Nedelec, Margarita; Csillag-Grange, Marie-José; Boussetta, Tarek; Belambri, Sahra Amel; Fay, Michèle; Cassinat, Bruno; Gougerot-Pocidalo, Marie-Anne; Dang, Pham My-Chan; El-Benna, Jamel

2013-01-01

160

Amyloid ? oligomers induce interleukin-1? production in primary microglia in a cathepsin B- and reactive oxygen species-dependent manner.  

PubMed

Amyloid ? (A?) peptide, a causative agent of Alzheimer's disease, forms two types of aggregates: oligomers and fibrils. These aggregates induce inflammatory responses, such as interleukin-1? (IL-1?) production by microglia, which are macrophage-like cells located in the brain. In this study, we examined the effect of the two forms of A? aggregates on IL-1? production in mouse primary microglia. We prepared A? oligomer and fibril from A? (1-42) peptide in vitro. We analyzed the characteristics of these oligomers and fibrils by electrophoresis and atomic force microscopy. Interestingly, A? oligomers but not A? monomers or fibrils induced robust IL-1? production in the presence of lipopolysaccharide. Moreover, A? oligomers induced endo/phagolysosome rupture, which released cathepsin B into the cytoplasm. A? oligomer-induced IL-1? production was inhibited not only by the cathepsin B inhibitor CA-074-Me but also by the reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitor N-acetylcysteine. Random chemical crosslinking abolished the ability of the oligomers to induce IL-1?. Thus, multimerization and fibrillization causes A? oligomers to lose the ability to induce IL-1?. These results indicate that A? oligomers, but not fibrils, induce IL-1? production in primary microglia in a cathepsin B- and ROS-dependent manner. PMID:25680460

Taneo, Jun; Adachi, Takumi; Yoshida, Aiko; Takayasu, Kunio; Takahara, Kazuhiko; Inaba, Kayo

2015-03-13

161

Chemical pneumonitis and subsequent reactive airways dysfunction syndrome after a single exposure to a household product: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Household products are usually safe to use. Adverse events arising from their use are mostly reported in patients with pre-existing atopy or pulmonary problems and usually only after a prolonged exposure to such products. We report the case of a patient with no prior problems who developed significant side effects from a single exposure to a domestic product. Case presentation A 43-year-old Caucasian American man, previously in good health, used a domestic aerosol product called 'Stand N' Seal "Spray-On" Grout Sealer' in an enclosed room in his house. The product contained n-butyl acetate (<5%), propane (10%), isobutane (<5%), C8-C9 petroleum hydrocarbon solvent (80%), a fluoropolymer resin and a solvent. Within a few hours of exposure to the sealant, he developed rapidly progressive shortness of breath and a severe non-productive cough. By the time he reached the emergency room he was severely hypoxic. A diagnosis of chemical pneumonitis was made based on the clinical scenario and the diffuse infiltrates on the computer tomography scan. With supportive therapy, his condition improved and he was discharged from the hospital. However, he continued to have symptoms of intermittent cough and shortness of breath in response to strong odours, fumes, cold air and exertion even after his chest radiograph had normalized. Three months later, bronchial hyper-responsiveness was documented by a methacholine inhalation test and a diagnosis of reactive airways dysfunction syndrome was made. The patient was started on high-dose inhaled steroids and his symptoms improved. The mechanism of toxicity and determination of the exact agent responsible is still under investigation. Conclusion A household product may still prove unsafe to use even after it has gone through vigorous testing and approval processes. Even healthy individuals are susceptible to adverse outcomes after a brief exposure. Extra precautions should be taken when using any chemical product at home. PMID:19946590

2009-01-01

162

NADPH Oxidase-Dependent Production of Reactive Oxygen Species Induces Endoplasmatic Reticulum Stress in Neutrophil-Like HL60 Cells  

PubMed Central

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) primarily produced via NADPH oxidase play an important role for killing microorganisms in neutrophils. In this study we examined if ROS production in Human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL60) differentiated into neutrophil-like cells (dHL60) induces ER stress and activates the unfolded protein response (UPR). To cause ROS production cells were treated with PMA or by chronic hyperglycemia. Chronic hyperglycemia failed to induce ROS production and did not cause activation of the UPR in dHL60 cells. PMA, a pharmacologic NADPH oxidase activator, induced ER stress in dHL60 cells as monitored by IRE-1 and PERK pathway activation, and this was independent of calcium signaling. The NADPH oxidase inhibitor, DPI, abolished both ROS production and UPR activation. These results show that ROS produced by NADPH oxidase induces ER stress and suggests a close association between the redox state of the cell and the activation of the UPR in neutrophil-like HL60 cells. PMID:25668518

Kuwabara, Wilson Mitsuo Tatagiba; Zhang, Liling; Schuiki, Irmgard; Curi, Rui; Volchuk, Allen; Alba-Loureiro, Tatiana Carolina

2015-01-01

163

Arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation in airway epithelial cells induces MUC5AC via reactive oxygen species (ROS) production.  

PubMed

The dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in cigarette smoke regulate various immunological responses via the arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR). These environmental toxicants are known to cause bronchitis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and lung cancer. Recent studies have demonstrated that AhR activation upregulates the expression of mucin 5AC, oligomeric mucus/gel-forming (MUC5AC) in the airway epithelial cell line. However, the mechanism for the production of mucin has not been clarified. In this study, we investigated the role and pathway of AhR in airway epithelial cells by using selective agonists and antagonists. After stimulation with or without benzopyrene (B[a]P), an AhR agonist, MUC5AC expression was measured by real-time RT-PCR. The mechanism of AhR-induced MUC5AC expression in airway epithelial cells was studied in terms of the production of cytokine and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Treatment with B[a]P increased ROS generation in NCI-H??? cells. Furthermore, B[a]P-induced MUC5AC upregulation and mucin production were inhibited by AhR siRNA or the use of an antioxidative agent. These results suggest that the AhR-induced increase of mucin production is partially mediated by ROS generation. An antioxidant therapy approach may help to cure AhR-induced mucus hypersecretory diseases. PMID:20709182

Chiba, Takahito; Uchi, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Gaku; Gondo, Hisaki; Moroi, Yoichi; Furue, Masutaka

2011-02-01

164

Reactive processing of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in aqueous aerosol mimics: surface tension depression and secondary organic products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reactive uptake of carbonyl-containing volatile organic compounds (cVOCs) by aqueous atmospheric aerosols is a likely source of particulate organic material. The aqueous-phase secondary organic products of some cVOCs are surface-active. Therefore, cVOC uptake can lead to organic film formation at the gas-aerosol interface and changes in aerosol surface tension. We examined the chemical reactions of two abundant cVOCs, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, in water and aqueous ammonium sulfate (AS) solutions mimicking tropospheric aerosols. Secondary organic products were identified using Aerosol Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (Aerosol-CIMS), and changes in surface tension were monitored using pendant drop tensiometry. Hemiacetal oligomers and aldol condensation products were identified using Aerosol-CIMS. A hemiacetal sulfate ester was tentatively identified in the formaldehyde-AS system. Acetaldehyde depresses surface tension to 65(±2) dyn cm-1 in pure water and 62(±1) dyn cm-1 in AS solutions. Surface tension depression by formaldehyde in pure water is negligible; in AS solutions, a 9 % reduction in surface tension is observed. Mixtures of these species were also studied in combination with methylglyoxal in order to evaluate the influence of cross-reactions on surface tension depression and product formation in these systems. We find that surface tension depression in the solutions containing mixed cVOCs exceeds that predicted by an additive model based on the single-species isotherms.

Li, Z.; Schwier, A. N.; Sareen, N.; McNeill, V. F.

2011-07-01

165

Reactive processing of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in aqueous aerosol mimics: surface tension depression and secondary organic products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reactive uptake of carbonyl-containing volatile organic compounds (cVOCs) by aqueous atmospheric aerosols is a likely source of particulate organic material. The aqueous-phase secondary organic products of some cVOCs are surface-active. Therefore, cVOC uptake can lead to organic film formation at the gas-aerosol interface and changes in aerosol surface tension. We examined the chemical reactions of two abundant cVOCs, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, in water and aqueous ammonium sulfate (AS) solutions mimicking tropospheric aerosols. Secondary organic products were identified using Aerosol Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (Aerosol-CIMS), and changes in surface tension were monitored using pendant drop tensiometry. Hemiacetal oligomers and aldol condensation products were identified using Aerosol-CIMS. Acetaldehyde depresses surface tension to 65(±2) dyn cm-1 in pure water (a 10% surface tension reduction from that of pure water) and 62(±1) dyn cm-1 in AS solutions (a 20.6% reduction from that of a 3.1 M AS solution). Surface tension depression by formaldehyde in pure water is negligible; in AS solutions, a 9% reduction in surface tension is observed. Mixtures of these species were also studied in combination with methylglyoxal in order to evaluate the influence of cross-reactions on surface tension depression and product formation in these systems. We find that surface tension depression in the solutions containing mixed cVOCs exceeds that predicted by an additive model based on the single-species isotherms.

Li, Z.; Schwier, A. N.; Sareen, N.; McNeill, V. F.

2011-11-01

166

Association of Ca×PO4 product with levels of serum C-reactive protein in regular hemodialysis patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Numerous studies have attempted to identify risk factors for mortality and morbidity in maintenance hemodialysis patients. In this study we sought to examine the association of the levels of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) with value of Ca×PO4 product, in stable hemodialysis patients. Patients and Methods: Based on the severity of secondary hyperparathyroidism, patients being treated with oral active vitamin D3, calcium carbonate/Renagel tablets at various doses. Fasting serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D and intact serum parathormone and also serum blood urea nitrogen, CRP, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase was measured. Results: A total of 41 patients, enrolled to the study. The mean patients’ age were 46(17.6) years. The value of serum CRP of patients was 8.6 (6.6) mg/l (median 6 mg/l). The value of Ca×PO4 product was 50.5(15.5) mg2/dl2 (median: 50 mg2/dl2). In this study, a significant inverse association between Ca×PO4 product and the age of the patients was seen. A significant positive correlation of logarithm of serum CRP with Ca×PO4 product was found. Conclusion: The result of this study, revealed the need to further attention to hyperphosphatemia in hemodialysis patients. PMID:25340109

Nasri, Hamid

2012-01-01

167

Heat shock induces production of reactive oxygen species and increases inner mitochondrial membrane potential in winter wheat cells.  

PubMed

Heat shock leads to oxidative stress. Excessive ROS (reactive oxygen species) accumulation could be responsible for expression of genes of heat-shock proteins or for cell death. It is known that in isolated mammalian mitochondria high protonic potential on the inner membrane actuates the production of ROS. Changes in viability, ROS content, and mitochondrial membrane potential value have been studied in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultured cells under heat treatment. Elevation of temperature to 37-50°C was found to induce elevated ROS generation and increased mitochondrial membrane potential, but it did not affect viability immediately after treatment. More severe heat exposure (55-60°C) was not accompanied by mitochondrial potential elevation and increased ROS production, but it led to instant cell death. A positive correlation between mitochondrial potential and ROS production was observed. Depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane by the protonophore CCCP inhibited ROS generation under the heating conditions. These data suggest that temperature elevation leads to mitochondrial membrane hyperpolarization in winter wheat cultured cells, which in turn causes the increased ROS production. PMID:25540005

Fedyaeva, A V; Stepanov, A V; Lyubushkina, I V; Pobezhimova, T P; Rikhvanov, E G

2014-11-01

168

Chemical Ozone Fluxes: Sensitivity to Very Reactive Biogenic VOC Emissions and Implications for In-Canopy Radical Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deposition of ozone to forests induces ecosystem stress, modulates biosphere-climate feedbacks and alters the evolution of atmospheric composition at the urban-rural interface. The mechanisms driving forest-atmosphere exchange of ozone, however, remain poorly understood. Measured above-canopy ozone fluxes consistently exceed the stomatal uptake rate by 40 - 70%. Non-stomatal ozone fluxes are often attributed to deposition or heterogeneous reactions on canopy surfaces; however, several lines of evidence also point toward the influence of rapid in-canopy reactions between ozone and highly-reactive biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC). To test the hypothesis of chemical ozone fluxes, we have performed a series of targeted sensitivity studies utilizing the Chemistry of Atmosphere-Forest Exchange (CAFE) model in conjunction with observations from the 2007 Biosphere Effects on Aerosols and Photochemistry Experiment (BEARPEX). Model results confirm that in-canopy chemical losses can affect ozone fluxes but also suggest that the magnitude of ozone reactivity required to elicit a significant chemical flux is much higher than that of all quantified monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes in this region. Under conditions where ozone-BVOC reactions drive 50% of the above-canopy flux, secondary chemistry involving ozonolysis products markedly alters radical cycling and partitioning within the canopy airspace, challenging our understanding of photochemistry in the canopy environment.

Wolfe, G. M.; Thornton, J. A.

2010-12-01

169

In situ reactive extraction of cottonseeds with methyl acetate for biodiesel production using magnetic solid acid catalysts.  

PubMed

A magnetic solid acid catalyst S2O8(2)(-)/ZrO2-TiO2-Fe3O4 was prepared by coprecipitation and impregnation methods and its catalytic activity was investigated for the reactive extraction of cottonseeds with methyl acetate to produce biodiesel. The physicochemical properties of the catalyst were characterized in detail. The influences of Zr/Ti molar ratio and calcination temperature on the catalytic performance were investigated. Moreover, optimization of the reactive extraction process was performed using response surface methodology coupled with central composite design. The catalyst with a Zr/Ti molar ratio of 3/1 calcined at 550°C showed the best activity. An optimum biodiesel yield of 98.5% was obtained under the reaction temperature of 50°C, catalyst amount of 21.3wt.%, methyl acetate/seed ratio of 13.8ml/g and 10.8h of reaction time. Reuse of this catalyst indicated that it had steady catalytic activity and high recovery rate which could be a promising catalyst for biodiesel production from oilseeds. PMID:25463798

Wu, Haitang; Liu, Yanping; Zhang, Junhua; Li, Guanglu

2014-12-01

170

Frequency effects on the production of reactive oxygen species in atmospheric radio frequency helium-oxygen discharges  

SciTech Connect

Several experimental and computational studies have shown that increasing frequency can effectively enhance the discharge stability in atmospheric radio-frequency (rf) discharges, but the frequency effects on the reactivity of rf discharges, represented by the densities of reactive oxygen species (ROS), are still far from fully understood. In this paper, a one-dimensional fluid model with 17 species and 65 reactions taken into account is used to explore the influences of the driving frequency on the production and destruction of ROS in atmospheric rf helium-oxygen discharges. From the computational results, with an increase in the frequency the densities of ROS decrease always at a constant power density, however, in the relatively higher frequency discharges the densities of ROS can be effectively improved by increasing the input power density with an expanded oxygen admixture range, while the discharges operate in the {alpha} mode, and the numerical data also show the optimal oxygen admixture for ground state atomic oxygen, at which the peak atomic oxygen density can be obtained, increases with the driving frequency.

Zhang, Yuantao T.; He Jin [Shandong Provincial Key Lab of UHV Technology and Gas Discharge Physics, School of Electrical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250061 (China)

2013-01-15

171

Investigation of the Photochemical Reactivity of Soot Particles Derived from Biofuels Toward NO2. A Kinetic and Product Study.  

PubMed

In the current study, the heterogeneous reaction of NO2 with soot and biosoot surfaces was investigated in the dark and under illumination relevant to atmospheric conditions (JNO2 = 0.012 s(-1)). A flat-flame burner was used for preparation and collection of soot samples from premixed flames of liquid fuels. The biofuels were prepared by mixing 20% v/v of (i) 1-butanol (CH3(CH2)3OH), (ii) methyl octanoate (CH3(CH2)6COOCH3), (iii) anhydrous diethyl carbonate (C2H5O)2CO and (iv) 2,5 dimethyl furan (CH3)2C4H2O additive compounds in conventional kerosene fuel (JetA-1). Experiments were performed at 293 K using a low-pressure flow tube reactor (P = 9 Torr) coupled to a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The initial and steady-state uptake coefficients, ?0 and ?ss, respectively, as well as the surface coverage, Ns, were measured under dry and humid conditions. Furthermore, the branching ratios of the gas-phase products NO (?80-100%) and HONO (<20%) were determined. Soot from JetA-1/2,5-dimethyl furan was the most reactive [?0 = (29.1 ± 5.8) × 10(-6), ?ss(dry) = (9.09 ± 1.82) × 10(-7) and ?ss(5.5%RH) = (14.0 ± 2.8)(-7)] while soot from JetA-1/1-butanol [?0 = (2.72 ± 0.544) × 10(-6), ?ss(dry) = (4.57 ± 0.914) × 10(-7), and ?ss(5.5%RH) = (3.64 ± 0.728) × 10(-7)] and JetA-1/diethyl carbonate [?0 = (2.99 ± 0.598) × 10(-6), ?ss(dry) = (3.99 ± 0.798) × 10(-7), and ?ss(5.5%RH) = (4.80 ± 0.960) × 10(-7)] were less reactive. To correlate the chemical reactivity with the physicochemical properties of the soot samples, their chemical composition was analyzed employing Raman spectroscopy, NMR, and high-performance liquid chromatography. In addition, the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller adsorption isotherms and the particle size distributions were determined employing a Quantachrome Nova 2200e gas sorption analyzer. The analysis of the results showed that factors such as (i) soot mass collection rate, (ii) porosity of the particles formed, (iii) aromatic fraction, and (iv) pre-existence of nitro-containing species in soot samples (formed during the combustion process) can be used as indicators of soot reactivity with NO2. PMID:25686032

Romanías, Manolis N; Dagaut, Philippe; Bedjanian, Yuri; Andrade-Eiroa, Auréa; Shahla, Roya; Emmanouil, Karafas S; Papadimitriou, Vassileios C; Spyros, Apostolos

2015-03-12

172

Transverse Target Moments of Dihadron Production in Semi-inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering at HERMES  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pseudo-scalar meson production in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) at HERMES has provided essential information towards the understanding of the transverse momentum dependent structure of the proton. SIDIS dihadron (hadron pair) production also provides access to the structure of the proton and is complimentary to that provided by pseudo-scalars production, as the same parton distribution functions are involved. For example, while pion and kaon final states allow access to flavor combinations of the Sivers distribution function, SIDIS meson production (included in the K +K- dihadron sample) allows direct access to the Sivers function for the strange quarks. The Sivers function for strange quarks is also related to the orbital angular momentum of the gluons. In the SIDIS cross section, the distribution functions are integrated with fragmentation functions for the respective final states. These fragmentation functions yield information regarding the quark hadronization process. Of particular interest, the Lund/Artru model of fragmentation makes specific predictions regarding the relation between results for dihadron and pseudo-scalar meson production for certain transverse momentum dependent moments. This dissertation presents the first transverse momentum dependent (non-collinear) analysis of the transverse target moments in SIDIS dihadron production, extracting results from the 2002--2005 HERMES data set for pi +pi0, pi+pi-, pi -pi0 and K+ K- dihadrons. A new transverse momentum dependent Monte Carlo generator, TMDGen, is also introduced. Additionally, several theoretical developments have been completed, including a new partial wave analysis of the fragmentation functions, computation of the next-to-leading twist dihadron cross section, and the first model calculation for transverse momentum dependent dihadron fragmentation functions.

Gliske, Stephen V.

173

Comparison of the chemical reactivity of synthetic peroxynitrite with that of the autoxidation products of nitroxyl or its anion.  

PubMed

Donors of nitroxyl (HNO) exhibit pharmacological properties that are potentially favorable for treatment of a variety of diseases. To fully evaluate the pharmacological utility of HNO, it is therefore important to understand its chemistry, particularly involvement in deleterious biological reactions. Of particular note is the cytotoxic species formed from HNO autoxidation that is capable of inducing double strand DNA breaks. The identity of this species remains elusive, but a conceivable product is peroxynitrous acid. However, chemical comparison studies have demonstrated that HNO autoxidation leads to a unique reactive nitrogen oxide species to that of synthetic peroxynitrite. Here, we extend the analysis to include a new preparation of peroxynitrite formed via autoxidation of nitroxyl anion (NO(-)). Both peroxynitrite preparations exhibited similar chemical profiles, although autoxidation of NO(-) provided a more reliable sample of peroxynitrite. Furthermore, the observed dissimilarities to the HNO donor Angeli's salt substantiate that HNO autoxidation produces a unique intermediate from peroxynitrite. PMID:25460322

Jorolan, Joel H; Buttitta, Lisa Ann; Cheah, Cheryl; Miranda, Katrina M

2015-01-30

174

Effects of endogenous neurotoxin quinolinic acid on reactive oxygen species production by Fenton reaction catalyzed by iron or copper  

PubMed Central

The tryptophan metabolite, quinolinic (2,3-pyridinedicarboxylic) acid, is known as an endogenous neurotoxin. Quinolinic acid can form coordination complexes with iron or copper. The effects of quinolinic acid on reactive oxygen species production in the presence of iron or copper were explored by a combination of chemical assays, classical site-specific and ascorbic acid-free variants of the deoxyribose degradation assay, and mass spectrometry (ESI–MS). Quinolinic acid showed evident antioxidant activity in chemical assays, but the effect was more pronounced in the presence of copper as transition metal catalyst than in presence of iron. Nano-ESI–MS confirmed the ability of quinolinic acid to form coordination complexes with iron(II) or copper(II) and quinolinic acid stability against oxidative attack by hydroxyl radicals. The results illustrate a highly milieu-dependent quinolinic acid chemistry when it enters reactions as competitive ligand.

Kubicova, Lenka; Hadacek, Franz; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Chobot, Vladimir

2015-01-01

175

Control of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production through histidine kinases in Aspergillus nidulans under different growth conditions.  

PubMed

Sensor histidine kinases (HKs) are important factors that control cellular growth in response to environmental conditions. The expression of 15 HKs from Aspergillus nidulans was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR under vegetative, asexual, and sexual growth conditions. Most HKs were highly expressed during asexual growth. All HK gene-disrupted strains produced reactive oxygen species (ROS). Three HKs are involved in the control of ROS: HysA was the most abundant under the restricted oxygen condition, NikA is involved in fungicide sensing, and FphA inhibits sexual development in response to red light. Phosphotransfer signal transduction via HysA is essential for ROS production control. PMID:24490133

Hayashi, Saki; Yoshioka, Megumi; Matsui, Tetsuji; Kojima, Kensuke; Kato, Masashi; Kanamaru, Kyoko; Kobayashi, Tetsuo

2014-01-01

176

Control of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production through histidine kinases in Aspergillus nidulans under different growth conditions?  

PubMed Central

Sensor histidine kinases (HKs) are important factors that control cellular growth in response to environmental conditions. The expression of 15 HKs from Aspergillus nidulans was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR under vegetative, asexual, and sexual growth conditions. Most HKs were highly expressed during asexual growth. All HK gene-disrupted strains produced reactive oxygen species (ROS). Three HKs are involved in the control of ROS: HysA was the most abundant under the restricted oxygen condition, NikA is involved in fungicide sensing, and FphA inhibits sexual development in response to red light. Phosphotransfer signal transduction via HysA is essential for ROS production control. PMID:24490133

Hayashi, Saki; Yoshioka, Megumi; Matsui, Tetsuji; Kojima, Kensuke; Kato, Masashi; Kanamaru, Kyoko; Kobayashi, Tetsuo

2014-01-01

177

Mitochondrial metabolic suppression and reactive oxygen species production in liver and skeletal muscle of hibernating thirteen-lined ground squirrels.  

PubMed

During hibernation, animals cycle between periods of torpor, during which body temperature (T(b)) and metabolic rate (MR) are suppressed for days, and interbout euthermia (IBE), during which T(b) and MR return to resting levels for several hours. In this study, we measured respiration rates, membrane potentials, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production of liver and skeletal muscle mitochondria isolated from ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) during torpor and IBE to determine how mitochondrial metabolism is suppressed during torpor and how this suppression affects oxidative stress. In liver and skeletal muscle, state 3 respiration measured at 37°C with succinate was 70% and 30% lower, respectively, during torpor. In liver, this suppression was achieved largely via inhibition of substrate oxidation, likely at succinate dehydrogenase. In both tissues, respiration by torpid mitochondria further declined up to 88% when mitochondria were cooled to 10°C, close to torpid T(b). In liver, this passive thermal effect on respiration rate reflected reduced activity of all components of oxidative phosphorylation (substrate oxidation, phosphorylation, and proton leak). With glutamate + malate and succinate, mitochondrial free radical leak (FRL; proportion of electrons leading to ROS production) was higher in torpor than IBE, but only in liver. With succinate, higher FRL likely resulted from increased reduction state of complex III during torpor. With glutamate + malate, higher FRL resulted from active suppression of complex I ROS production during IBE, which may limit ROS production during arousal. In both tissues, ROS production and FRL declined with temperature, suggesting ROS production is also reduced during torpor by passive thermal effects. PMID:21993528

Brown, Jason C L; Chung, Dillon J; Belgrave, Kathleen R; Staples, James F

2012-01-01

178

Hypoxia dysregulates the production of adiponectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 independent of reactive oxygen species in adipocytes  

SciTech Connect

Low plasma levels of adiponectin (hypoadiponectinemia) and elevated circulating concentrations of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 are causally associated with obesity-related insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. However, the mechanism that mediates the aberrant production of these two adipokines in obesity remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of hypoxia and reactive oxygen species (ROS) on production of adiponectin and PAI-1 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Quantitative PCR and immunoassays showed that ambient hypoxia markedly suppressed adiponectin mRNA expression and its protein secretion, and increased PAI-1 production in mature adipocytes. Dimethyloxallyl glycine, a stabilizer of hypoxia-inducible factor 1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}), mimicked the hypoxia-mediated modulations of these two adipokines. Hypoxia caused a modest elevation of ROS in adipocytes. However, ablation of intracellular ROS by antioxidants failed to alleviate hypoxia-induced aberrant production of adiponectin and PAI-1. On the other hand, the antioxidants could reverse hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2})-induced dysregulation of adiponectin and PAI-1 production. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment decreased the expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP{alpha}), but had no effect on HIF-1{alpha}, whereas hypoxia stabilized HIF-1{alpha} and decreased expression of C/EBP{alpha}, but not PPAR{gamma}. Taken together, these data suggest that hypoxia and ROS decrease adiponectin production and augment PAI-1 expression in adipocytes via distinct signaling pathways. These effects may contribute to hypoadiponectinemia and elevated PAI-1 levels in obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases.

Chen Baoying [Department of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Department of Radiology, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University (China); Lam, Karen S.L. [Department of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Wang Yu [Genome Research Center, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Wu Donghai [Guangzhou Institute of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Lam, Michael C. [Department of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Shen Jiangang [School of Chinese Medicine, University of Hong Kong (China); Wong Laiching [Department of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Hoo, Ruby L.C. [Department of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Zhang Jialiang [Department of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Xu Aimin [Department of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China) and Genome Research Center, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: amxu@hkucc.hku.hk

2006-03-10

179

Continuous Production of Biodiesel Via an Intensified Reactive/Extractive Process  

SciTech Connect

Biodiesel is considered as a means to diversify our supply of transportation fuel, addressing the goal of reducing our dependence on oil. For a number of reasons ranging from production issues to end use, biodiesel represents only a small fraction of the transportation fuel used worldwide. This work addresses the aspect of biodiesel production that limits it to a slow batch process. Conventional production methods are batch in nature, based on the assumption that the rates of the key chemical reactions are slow. The hypothesis motivating this work is that the reaction kinetics for the transesterification of the reagent triglyceride is sufficiently fast, particularly in an excess of catalyst, and that interfacial mass transfer and phase separation control the process. If this is the case, an intensified two-phase reactor adapted from solvent extraction equipment may be utilized to greatly increase biodiesel production rates by increasing interphase transport and phase separation. To prove this idea, we are investigating two aspects: (1) determining the rate-limiting step in biodiesel production by evaluating the reaction kinetics, and (2) enhancing biodiesel production rates by using an intensified reactor. A centrifugal contactor combining interphase mass transfer, chemical reaction, and phase separation is employed for process intensification.

Tsouris, Costas [ORNL] [ORNL; McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL] [ORNL; Birdwell Jr, Joseph F [ORNL] [ORNL; Jennings, Hal L [ORNL] [ORNL

2008-01-01

180

Atomic Mass Dependence of Hadron Production in Deep Inelastic Scattering on Nuclei  

E-print Network

Hadron production in lepton-nucleus deep inelastic scattering is studied in an absorption model. In the proposed model, the early stage of hadronization in the nuclear medium is dominated by prehadron formation and absorption, controlled by flavor-dependent formation lengths and absorption cross sections. Computations for hadron multiplicity ratios are presented and compared with the HERMES experimental data for pions, kaons, protons and antiprotons. The mass-number dependence of hadron attenuation is shown to be sensitive to the underlying hadronization dynamics. Contrary to common expectations for absorption models, a leading term proportional to A^{2/3} is found. Deviations from the leading behavior arise at large mass-numbers and large hadron fractional momenta.

A. Accardi; D. Grunewald; V. Muccifora; H. J. Pirner

2005-10-27

181

Measurement of D ± production in deep inelastic ep scattering with the ZEUS detector at HERA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charm production in deep inelastic ep scattering was measured with the ZEUS detector using an integrated luminosity of 354 pb-1. Charm quarks were identified by reconstructing D ± mesons in the D ± ? K ??±?± decay channel. Lifetime information was used to reduce combinatorial background substantially. Differential cross sections were measured in the kinematic region 5 < Q 2 < 1000 GeV2, 0 .02 < y < 0 .7, 1 .5 < p T ( D ±) < 15 GeV and | ?( D ±)| < 1 .6, where Q 2 is the photon virtuality, y is the inelasticity, and p T ( D ±) and ?( D ±) are the transverse momentum and the pseudorapidity of the D ± meson, respectively. Next-to-leading-order QCD predictions are compared to the data. The charm contribution, F_2^{{coverline{c}}} , to the proton structure-function F 2 was extracted.

Abramowicz, H.; Abt, I.; Adamczyk, L.; Adamus, M.; Aggarwal, R.; Antonelli, S.; Antonioli, P.; Antonov, A.; Arneodo, M.; Arslan, O.; Aushev, V.; Aushev, Y.; Bachynska, O.; Bamberger, A.; Barakbaev, A. N.; Barbagli, G.; Bari, G.; Barreiro, F.; Bartosik, N.; Bartsch, D.; Basile, M.; Behnke, O.; Behr, J.; Behrens, U.; Bellagamba, L.; Bertolin, A.; Bhadra, S.; Bindi, M.; Blohm, C.; Bokhonov, V.; Bold, T.; Boos, E. G.; Borras, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bot, D.; Brock, I.; Brownson, E.; Brugnera, R.; Brümmer, N.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Brzozowska, B.; Bussey, P. J.; Bylsma, B.; Caldwell, A.; Capua, M.; Carlin, R.; Catterall, C. D.; Chekanov, S.; Chwastowski, J.; Ciborowski, J.; Ciesielski, R.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Coppola, N.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Costa, M.; D'Agostini, G.; Corso, F. Dal; del Peso, J.; Dementiev, R. K.; De Pasquale, S.; Derrick, M.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Dobur, D.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Dolinska, G.; Doyle, A. T.; Drugakov, V.; Durkin, L. S.; Dusini, S.; Eisenberg, Y.; Ermolov, P. F.; Eskreys, A.; Fang, S.; Fazio, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrero, M. I.; Figiel, J.; Foster, B.; Gach, G.; Galas, A.; Gallo, E.; Garfagnini, A.; Geiser, A.; Gialas, I.; Gizhko, A.; Gladilin, L. K.; Gladkov, D.; Glasman, C.; Gogota, O.; Golubkov, Yu. A.; Göttlicher, P.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Grebenyuk, J.; Gregor, I.; Grigorescu, G.; Grzelak, G.; Gueta, O.; Guzik, M.; Gwenlan, C.; Haas, T.; Hain, W.; Hamatsu, R.; Hart, J. C.; Hartmann, H.; Hartner, G.; Hilger, E.; Hochman, D.; Hori, R.; Hüttmann, A.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Iga, Y.; Ingbir, R.; Ishitsuka, M.; Iudin, A.; Jakob, H.-P.; Januschek, F.; Jones, T. W.; Jüngst, M.; Kadenko, I.; Kahle, B.; Kananov, S.; Kanno, T.; Karshon, U.; Karstens, F.; Katkov, I. I.; Kaur, M.; Kaur, P.; Keramidas, A.; Khein, L. A.; Kim, J. Y.; Kisielewska, D.; Kitamura, S.; Klanner, R.; Klein, U.; Koffeman, E.; Kondrashova, N.; Kononenko, O.; Kooijman, P.; Korol, Ie.; Korzhavina, I. A.; Kotanski, A.; Kötz, U.; Kovalchuk, N.; Kowalski, H.; Kuprash, O.; Kuze, M.; Lee, A.; Levchenko, B. B.; Levy, A.; Libov, V.; Limentani, S.; Ling, T. Y.; Lisovyi, M.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lohmann, W.; Löhr, B.; Lohrmann, E.; Long, K. R.; Longhin, A.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Lukina, O. Yu.; Maeda, J.; Magill, S.; Makarenko, I.; Malka, J.; Mankel, R.; Margotti, A.; Marini, G.; Martin, J. F.; Mastroberardino, A.; Mattingly, M. C. K.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Mergelmeyer, S.; Miglioranzi, S.; Idris, F. Mohamad; Monaco, V.; Montanari, A.; Morris, J. D.; Mujkic, K.; Musgrave, B.; Nagano, K.; Namsoo, T.; Nania, R.; Nigro, A.; Ning, Y.; Nobe, T.; Notz, D.; Nowak, R. J.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A. E.; Oh, B. Y.; Okazaki, N.; Olkiewicz, K.; Onishchuk, Yu.; Papageorgiu, K.; Parenti, A.; Paul, E.; Pawlak, J. M.; Pawlik, B.; Pelfer, P. G.; Pellegrino, A.; Perlanski, W.; Perrey, H.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Plucinski, P.; Pokrovskiy, N. S.; Polini, A.; Proskuryakov, A. S.; Przybycien, M.; Raval, A.; Reeder, D. D.; Reisert, B.; Ren, Z.; Repond, J.; Ri, Y. D.; Robertson, A.; Roloff, P.; Rubinsky, I.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Samson, U.; Sartorelli, G.; Savin, A. A.; Saxon, D. H.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schleper, P.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schneekloth, U.; Schönberg, V.; Schörner-Sadenius, T.; Schwartz, J.; Sciulli, F.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Shehzadi, R.; Shimizu, S.; Singh, I.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Slominski, W.; Smith, W. H.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Son, D.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Spiridonov, A.; Stadie, H.; Stanco, L.; Stefaniuk, N.; Stern, A.; Stewart, T. P.; Stifutkin, A.; Stopa, P.; Suchkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Suszycki, L.; Sztuk-Dambietz, J.; Szuba, D.; Szuba, J.; Tapper, A. D.; Tassi, E.; Terrón, J.; Theedt, T.; Tiecke, H.; Tokushuku, K.; Tomaszewska, J.; Trofymov, A.; Trusov, V.; Tsurugai, T.; Turcato, M.; Turkot, O.; Tymieniecka, T.; Vázquez, M.; Verbytskyi, A.; Viazlo, O.; Vlasov, N. N.; Walczak, R.; Abdullah, W. A. T. Wan; Whitmore, J. J.; Wichmann, K.; Wiggers, L.; Wing, M.; Wlasenko, M.; Wolf, G.; Wolfe, H.; Wrona, K.; Yagües-Molina, A. G.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yoshida, R.; Youngman, C.; Zakharchuk, N.; ?arnecki, A. F.; Zawiejski, L.; Zenaiev, O.; Zeuner, W.; Zhautykov, B. O.; Zhmak, N.; Zichichi, A.; Zolkapli, Z.; Zotkin, D. S.

2013-05-01

182

Diffractive D*{+-} Meson Production in Deep-Inelastic Scattering at HERA  

SciTech Connect

A new measurement is presented of D*{+-} meson production in deep-inelastic scattering at HERA. Cross sections are measured for the process ep {yields} eXY, where the system X contains at least one D*{+-} meson and is separated by a large rapidity gap from a low mass proton remnant system Y. The cross sections are measured in the kinematic region 2 < Q2 < 100 GeV2, 0.05 < y < 0.7, xIP < 0.04, MY < 1.6 GeV and |t| < 1 GeV2. The D*{+-} mesons are restricted to the range pT(D*) > 2 GeV and |{eta}(D*)| < 1.5. The data are compared with NLO QCD calculations using recent H1 diffractive PDFs as well as with a model of two gluon exchange.

Beckingham, Matthew [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

2005-10-06

183

Multijet production at low x in deep inelastic scattering at HERA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inclusive dijet and trijet production in deep inelastic ep scattering has been measured for 10

Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.; Musgrave, B.; Nicholass, D.; Repond, J.; Yoshida, R.; Mattingly, M. C. K.; Jechow, M.; Pavel, N.; Yagües Molina, A. G.; Antonelli, S.; Antonioli, P.; Bari, G.; Basile, M.; Bellagamba, L.; Bindi, M.; Boscherini, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; Corradi, M.; De Pasquale, S.; Iacobucci, G.; Margotti, A.; Nania, R.; Polini, A.; Sartorelli, G.; Zichichi, A.; Bartsch, D.; Brock, I.; Goers, S.; Hartmann, H.; Hilger, E.; Jakob, H.-P.; Jüngst, M.; Kind, O. M.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A. E.; Paul, E.; Renner, R.; Samson, U.; Schönberg, V.; Shehzadi, R.; Wlasenko, M.; Brook, N. H.; Heath, G. P.; Morris, J. D.; Namsoo, T.; Capua, M.; Fazio, S.; Mastroberardino, A.; Schioppa, M.; Susinno, G.; Tassi, E.; Kim, J. Y.; Ma, K. J.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Kamaluddin, B.; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Ning, Y.; Ren, Z.; Sciulli, F.; Chwastowski, J.; Eskreys, A.; Figiel, J.; Galas, A.; Gil, M.; Olkiewicz, K.; Stopa, P.; Zawiejski, L.; Adamczyk, L.; Bo?d, T.; Grabowska-Bo?d, I.; Kisielewska, D.; ?ukasik, J.; Przybycie?, M.; Suszycki, L.; Kota?ski, A.; S?omi?ski, W.; Adler, V.; Behrens, U.; Bloch, I.; Blohm, C.; Bonato, A.; Borras, K.; Ciesielski, R.; Coppola, N.; Dossanov, A.; Drugakov, V.; Fourletova, J.; Geiser, A.; Gladkov, D.; Göttlicher, P.; Grebenyuk, J.; Gregor, I.; Haas, T.; Hain, W.; Horn, C.; Hüttmann, A.; Kahle, B.; Katkov, I. I.; Klein, U.; Kötz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Lobodzinska, E.; Löhr, B.; Mankel, R.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Miglioranzi, S.; Montanari, A.; Notz, D.; Rinaldi, L.; Roloff, P.; Rubinsky, I.; Santamarta, R.; Schneekloth, U.; Spiridonov, A.; Stadie, H.; Szuba, D.; Szuba, J.; Theedt, T.; Wolf, G.; Wrona, K.; Youngman, C.; Zeuner, W.; Lohmann, W.; Schlenstedt, S.; Barbagli, G.; Gallo, E.; Pelfer, P. G.; Bamberger, A.; Dobur, D.; Karstens, F.; Vlasov, N. N.; Bussey, P. J.; Doyle, A. T.; Dunne, W.; Ferrando, J.; Forrest, M.; Saxon, D. H.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Gialas, I.; Papageorgiu, K.; Gosau, T.; Holm, U.; Klanner, R.; Lohrmann, E.; Salehi, H.; Schleper, P.; Schörner-Sadenius, T.; Sztuk, J.; Wichmann, K.; Wick, K.; Foudas, C.; Fry, C.; Long, K. R.; Tapper, A. D.; Kataoka, M.; Matsumoto, T.; Nagano, K.; Tokushuku, K.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Barakbaev, A. N.; Boos, E. G.; Pokrovskiy, N. S.; Zhautykov, B. O.; Aushev, V.; Son, D.; de Favereau, J.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Barreiro, F.; Glasman, C.; Jimenez, M.; Labarga, L.; del Peso, J.; Ron, E.; Soares, M.; Terrón, J.; Zambrana, M.; Corriveau, F.; Liu, C.; Walsh, R.; Zhou, C.; Tsurugai, T.; Antonov, A.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Stifutkin, A.; Suchkov, S.; Dementiev, R. K.; Ermolov, P. F.; Gladilin, L. K.; Khein, L. A.; Korzhavina, I. A.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Levchenko, B. B.; Lukina, O. Yu.; Proskuryakov, A. S.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Zotkin, D. S.; Zotkin, S. A.; Abt, I.; Büttner, C.; Caldwell, A.; Kollar, D.; Schmidke, W. B.; Sutiak, J.; Grigorescu, G.; Keramidas, A.; Koffeman, E.; Kooijman, P.; Pellegrino, A.; Tiecke, H.; Vázquez, M.; Wiggers, L.; Brümmer, N.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Lee, A.; Ling, T. Y.; Allfrey, P. D.; Bell, M. A.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cottrell, A.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Foster, B.; Korcsak-Gorzo, K.; Patel, S.; Roberfroid, V.; Robertson, A.; Straub, P. B.; Uribe-Estrada, C.; Walczak, R.; Bellan, P.; Bertolin, A.; Brugnera, R.; Carlin, R.; Dal Corso, F.; Dusini, S.; Garfagnini, A.; Limentani, S.; Longhin, A.; Stanco, L.; Turcato, M.; Oh, B. Y.; Raval, A.; Ukleja, J.; Whitmore, J. J.; Iga, Y.; D'Agostini, G.; Marini, G.; Nigro, A.; Cole, J. E.; Hart, J. C.; Abramowicz, H.; Gabareen, A.; Ingbir, R.; Kananov, S.; Levy, A.; Kuze, M.; Maeda, J.; Hori, R.; Kagawa, S.; Okazaki, N.; Shimizu, S.; Tawara, T.; Hamatsu, R.; Kaji, H.; Kitamura, S.; Ota, O.; Ri, Y. D.; Ferrero, M. I.; Monaco, V.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Arneodo, M.; Ruspa, M.; Fourletov, S.; Martin, J. F.; Boutle, S. K.; Butterworth, J. M.; Gwenlan, C.; Jones, T. W.; Loizides, J. H.; Sutton, M. R.; Wing, M.; Brzozowska, B.; Ciborowski, J.; Grzelak, G.; Kulinski, P.; ?u?niak, P.; Malka, J.; Nowak, R. J.; Pawlak, J. M.; Tymieniecka, T.; Ukleja, A.; ?arnecki, A. F.; Adamus, M.; Plucinski, P.; Eisenberg, Y.; Giller, I.; Hochman, D.; Karshon, U.; Rosin, M.; Brownson, E.; Danielson, T.; Everett, A.; Kçira, D.; Reeder, D. D.; Ryan, P.; Savin, A. A.; Smith, W. H.; Wolfe, H.; Bhadra, S.; Catterall, C. D.; Cui, Y.; Hartner, G.; Menary, S.; Noor, U.; Standage, J.; Whyte, J.; ZEUS Collaboration

2007-12-01

184

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in human peripheral blood neutrophils exposed in vitro to static magnetic field.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of gradient static magnetic field (SMF) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in human neutrophils in peripheral blood in vitro. Blood samples collected from healthy individuals were incubated in an inhomogeneous SMF (in a south or north pole of the field) for 15, 30 or 45 minutes. The maximum value of induction (B max) amounted to ? 60 mT. To determine the strength of the ROS production, dihydrorhodamine (123DHR) as fluorophore and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) as respiratory burst stimulator were used. 123DHR oxidation by ROS was measured by flow cytometry. The exposure of blood samples to SMF induced statistically significant changes in ROS production in unstimulated and PMA-stimulated neutrophils. The observed effects were highly correlated with the exposure time and depended on the orientation of the field. Although intracellular mechanisms underlying such interactions are not thoroughly understood, it could be presumed that SMF affects ROS metabolic oscillations and their formation and inactivation. This study emphasizes the importance of proper adjustment of exposure time to SMF for any potential therapeutic applications. PMID:23631724

Poniedzia?ek, Barbara; Rzymski, Piotr; Karczewski, Jacek; Jaroszyk, Feliks; Wiktorowicz, Krzysztof

2013-12-01

185

Effect of stationary magnetic field strengths of 150 and 200 mT on reactive oxygen species production in soybean.  

PubMed

Our previous investigation reported the beneficial effect of pre-sowing magnetic treatment for improving germination parameters and biomass accumulation in soybean. In this study, soybean seeds treated with static magnetic fields of 150 and 200 mT for 1 h were evaluated for reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activity of antioxidant enzymes. Superoxide and hydroxyl radicals were measured in embryos and hypocotyls of germinating seeds by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and kinetics of superoxide production; hydrogen peroxide and antioxidant activities were estimated spectrophotometrically. Magnetic field treatment resulted in enhanced production of ROS mediated by cell wall peroxidase while ascorbic acid content, superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase activity decreased in the hypocotyl of germinating seeds. An increase in the cytosolic peroxidase activity indicated that this antioxidant enzyme had a vital role in scavenging the increased H(2)O(2) produced in seedlings from the magnetically treated seeds. Hence, these studies contribute to our first report on the biochemical basis of enhanced germination and seedling growth in magnetically treated seeds of soybean in relation to increased production of ROS. PMID:22253132

Shine, M B; Guruprasad, K N; Anand, Anjali

2012-07-01

186

Antioxidant properties of rare sugar D-allose: Effects on mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production in Neuro2A cells.  

PubMed

The anti-oxidative activity of the rare sugar D-allose has recently been reported, but the mechanism is largely unclear. In this study, we evaluated the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activities of D-allose and then examined the effects of D-allose on ROS production in mitochondria to clarify the antioxidant properties of D-allose. While D-allose did not scavenge hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anions, it eliminated hydroxyl radicals to the same extent as D-glucose. Rotenone, an uncoupler of mitochondrial respiratory complex I, induces ROS production in mouse neuroblastoma Neuro2A cells in the presence of D-glucose. However, in the presence of D-allose, there was no change in the ROS levels in Neuro2A cells following rotenone treatment. Furthermore, treatment with D-allose attenuated the D-glucose-dependent ROS generation induced by rotenone. Whereas treatment with D-glucose enhanced ATP synthesis in Neuro2A cells, D-allose was less effective in producing intracellular ATP than D-glucose. Treatment with D-allose inhibited the ATP synthesis stimulated by D-glucose. These results suggest that D-allose suppresses ROS production in the mitochondria due to competition with D-glucose at the cellular level. PMID:21889400

Ishihara, Yasuhiro; Katayama, Kohhei; Sakabe, Manami; Kitamura, Mana; Aizawa, Mami; Takara, Minami; Itoh, Kouichi

2011-12-01

187

Asian Dust Particles Induce Macrophage Inflammatory Responses via Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Activation and Reactive Oxygen Species Production  

PubMed Central

Asian dust is a springtime meteorological phenomenon that originates in the deserts of China and Mongolia. The dust is carried by prevailing winds across East Asia where it causes serious health problems. Most of the information available on the impact of Asian dust on human health is based on epidemiological investigations, so from a biological standpoint little is known of its effects. To clarify the effects of Asian dust on human health, it is essential to assess inflammatory responses to the dust and to evaluate the involvement of these responses in the pathogenesis or aggravation of disease. Here, we investigated the induction of inflammatory responses by Asian dust particles in macrophages. Treatment with Asian dust particles induced greater production of inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) compared with treatment with soil dust. Furthermore, a soil dust sample containing only particles ?10??m in diameter provoked a greater inflammatory response than soil dust samples containing particles >10??m. In addition, Asian dust particles-induced TNF-? production was dependent on endocytosis, the production of reactive oxygen species, and the activation of nuclear factor-?B and mitogen-activated protein kinases. Together, these results suggest that Asian dust particles induce inflammatory disease through the activation of macrophages. PMID:24987712

Higashisaka, Kazuma; Fujimura, Maho; Taira, Mayu; Yoshida, Tokuyuki; Tsunoda, Shin-ichi; Baba, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu; Nabeshi, Hiromi; Yoshikawa, Tomoaki; Nasu, Masao; Tsutsumi, Yasuo

2014-01-01

188

A Quantitative Method to Monitor Reactive Oxygen Species Production by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance in Physiological and Pathological Conditions  

PubMed Central

The growing interest in the role of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and in the assessment of oxidative stress in health and disease clashes with the lack of consensus on reliable quantitative noninvasive methods applicable. The study aimed at demonstrating that a recently developed Electron Paramagnetic Resonance microinvasive method provides direct evidence of the “instantaneous” presence of ROS returning absolute concentration levels that correlate with “a posteriori” assays of ROS-induced damage by means of biomarkers. The reliability of the choice to measure ROS production rate in human capillary blood rather than in plasma was tested (step I). A significant (P < 0.01) linear relationship between EPR data collected on capillary blood versus venous blood (R2 = 0.95), plasma (R2 = 0.82), and erythrocytes (R2 = 0.73) was found. Then (step II) ROS production changes of various subjects' categories, young versus old and healthy versus pathological at rest condition, were found significantly different (range 0.0001–0.05 P level). The comparison of the results with antioxidant capacity and oxidative damage biomarkers concentrations showed that all changes indicating increased oxidative stress are directly related to ROS production increase. Therefore, the adopted method may be an automated technique for a lot of routine in clinical trials. PMID:25374651

Mrakic-Sposta, Simona; Gussoni, Maristella; Montorsi, Michela; Porcelli, Simone; Vezzoli, Alessandra

2014-01-01

189

Loss of TRPML1 promotes production of reactive oxygen species: is oxidative damage a factor in mucolipidosis type IV?  

PubMed

TRPML1 (transient receptor potential mucolipin 1) is a lysosomal ion channel permeable to cations, including Fe2+. Mutations in MCOLN1, the gene coding for TRPML1, cause the LSD (lysosomal storage disease) MLIV (mucolipidosis type IV). The role of TRPML1 in the cell is disputed and the mechanisms of cell deterioration in MLIV are unclear. The demonstration of Fe2+ buildup in MLIV cells raised the possibility that TRPML1 dissipates lysosomal Fe2+ and prevents its accumulation. Since Fe2+ catalyses the production of ROS (reactive oxygen species), we set out to test whether or not the loss of TRPML1 promotes ROS production by Fe2+ trapped in lysosomes. Our data show that RPE1 (retinal pigmented epithelial 1) cells develop a punctate mitochondrial phenotype within 48 h of siRNA-induced TRPML1-KD (knockdown). This mitochondrial fragmentation was aggravated by Fe2+ exposure, but was reversed by incubation with the ROS chelator ?-Toc (?-tocopherol). The exposure of TRPML1-KD cells to Fe2+ led to loss of ??m (mitochondrial membrane potential), ROS buildup, lipid peroxidation and increased transcription of genes responsive to cytotoxic oxidative stress in TRPML1-KD cells. These data suggest that TRPML1 redistributes Fe2+ between the lysosomes and the cytoplasm. Fe2+ buildup caused by TRPML1 loss potentiates ROS production and leads to mitochondrial deterioration. Beyond suggesting a new model for MLIV pathogenesis, these data show that TRPML1's role in the cell extends outside lysosomes. PMID:24192042

Coblentz, Jessica; St Croix, Claudette; Kiselyov, Kirill

2014-01-15

190

Entropy and chemical change. 1: Characterization of product (and reactant) energy distributions in reactive molecular collisions: Information and enthropy deficiency  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optimal means of characterizing the distribution of product energy states resulting from reactive collisions of molecules with restricted distributions of initial states are considered, along with those for characterizing the particular reactant state distribution which yields a given set of product states at a specified total energy. It is suggested to represent the energy-dependence of global-type results in the form of square-faced bar plots, and of data for specific-type experiments as triangular-faced prismatic plots. The essential parameters defining the internal state distribution are isolated, and the information content of such a distribution is put on a quantitative basis. The relationship between the information content, the surprisal, and the entropy of the continuous distribution is established. The concept of an entropy deficiency, which characterizes the specificity of product state formation, is suggested as a useful measure of the deviance from statistical behavior. The degradation of information by experimental averaging is considered, leading to bounds on the entropy deficiency.

Bernstein, R. B.; Levine, R. D.

1972-01-01

191

Effects of shear stresses and antioxidant concentrations on the production of reactive oxygen species in lung cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to be a key factor in the development of cancer, and many exogenous sources are supposed to be related to the formation of ROS. In this paper, a microfluidic chip was developed for studying the production of ROS in lung cancer cells under different chemical and physical stimuli. This chip has two unique features: (1) five relative concentrations of 0, 1/8, 1/2, 7/8, and 1 are achieved in the culture regions; (2) a shear stress gradient is produced inside each of the five culture areas. Lung cancer cells were seeded inside this biocompatible chip for investigating their response to different concentrations of H2O2, a chemical stimulus known to increase the production of ROS. Then the effect of shear stress, a physical stimulus, on lung cancer cells was examined, showing that the production of ROS was increased in response to a larger shear stress. Finally, two antioxidants, ?-tocopherol and ferulic acid, were used to study their effects on reducing ROS. It was found that high-dose ?-tocopherol was not able to effectively eliminate the ROS produced inside cells. This counter effect was not observed in cells cultured in a traditional chamber slide, where no shear stress was present. This result suggests that the current microfluidic chip provides an in vitro platform best mimicking the physiological condition where cells are under circulating conditions. PMID:24396542

Lo, Kai-Yin; Zhu, Yun; Tsai, Hsieh-Fu; Sun, Yung-Shin

2013-01-01

192

Subclass-specific labeling of protein-reactive natural products with customized nucleophilic probes.  

PubMed

Natural products represent a rich source of bioactive compounds that constitute a large fraction of approved drugs. Among those are molecules with electrophilic scaffolds, such as Michael acceptors, ?-lactams, and epoxides that irreversibly inhibit essential enzymes based on their catalytic mechanism. In the search for novel bioactive molecules, current methods are challenged by the frequent rediscovery of known chemical entities. Herein small nucleophilic probes that attack electrophilic natural products and enhance their detection by HPLC-UV and HPLC-MS are introduced. A screen of diverse probe designs revealed one compound with a desired selectivity for epoxide- and maleimide-based antibiotics. Correspondingly, the natural products showdomycin and phosphomycin could be selectively targeted in extracts of their natural producing organism, in which the probe-modified molecules exhibited superior retention and MS detection relative to their unmodified counterparts. This method may thus help to discover small, electrophilic molecules that might otherwise easily elude detection in complex samples. PMID:25605563

Rudolf, Georg C; Koch, Maximilian F; Mandl, Franziska A M; Sieber, Stephan A

2015-02-23

193

Land, irrigation water, greenhouse gas, and reactive nitrogen burdens of meat, eggs, and dairy production in the United States  

PubMed Central

Livestock production impacts air and water quality, ocean health, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on regional to global scales and it is the largest use of land globally. Quantifying the environmental impacts of the various livestock categories, mostly arising from feed production, is thus a grand challenge of sustainability science. Here, we quantify land, irrigation water, and reactive nitrogen (Nr) impacts due to feed production, and recast published full life cycle GHG emission estimates, for each of the major animal-based categories in the US diet. Our calculations reveal that the environmental costs per consumed calorie of dairy, poultry, pork, and eggs are mutually comparable (to within a factor of 2), but strikingly lower than the impacts of beef. Beef production requires 28, 11, 5, and 6 times more land, irrigation water, GHG, and Nr, respectively, than the average of the other livestock categories. Preliminary analysis of three staple plant foods shows two- to sixfold lower land, GHG, and Nr requirements than those of the nonbeef animal-derived calories, whereas irrigation requirements are comparable. Our analysis is based on the best data currently available, but follow-up studies are necessary to improve parameter estimates and fill remaining knowledge gaps. Data imperfections notwithstanding, the key conclusion—that beef production demands about 1 order of magnitude more resources than alternative livestock categories—is robust under existing uncertainties. The study thus elucidates the multiple environmental benefits of potential, easy-to-implement dietary changes, and highlights the uniquely high resource demands of beef. PMID:25049416

Eshel, Gidon; Shepon, Alon; Makov, Tamar; Milo, Ron

2014-01-01

194

Reactive Oxygen Species-Dependent Nitric Oxide Production Contributes to Hydrogen-Promoted Stomatal Closure in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

The signaling role of hydrogen gas (H2) has attracted increasing attention from animals to plants. However, the physiological significance and molecular mechanism of H2 in drought tolerance are still largely unexplored. In this article, we report that abscisic acid (ABA) induced stomatal closure in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) by triggering intracellular signaling events involving H2, reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), and the guard cell outward-rectifying K(+) channel (GORK). ABA elicited a rapid and sustained H2 release and production in Arabidopsis. Exogenous hydrogen-rich water (HRW) effectively led to an increase of intracellular H2 production, a reduction in the stomatal aperture, and enhanced drought tolerance. Subsequent results revealed that HRW stimulated significant inductions of NO and ROS synthesis associated with stomatal closure in the wild type, which were individually abolished in the nitric reductase mutant nitrate reductase1/2 (nia1/2) or the NADPH oxidase-deficient mutant rbohF (for respiratory burst oxidase homolog). Furthermore, we demonstrate that the HRW-promoted NO generation is dependent on ROS production. The rbohF mutant had impaired NO synthesis and stomatal closure in response to HRW, while these changes were rescued by exogenous application of NO. In addition, both HRW and hydrogen peroxide failed to induce NO production or stomatal closure in the nia1/2 mutant, while HRW-promoted ROS accumulation was not impaired. In the GORK-null mutant, stomatal closure induced by ABA, HRW, NO, or hydrogen peroxide was partially suppressed. Together, these results define a main branch of H2-regulated stomatal movement involved in the ABA signaling cascade in which RbohF-dependent ROS and nitric reductase-associated NO production, and subsequent GORK activation, were causally involved. PMID:24733882

Xie, Yanjie; Mao, Yu; Zhang, Wei; Lai, Diwen; Wang, Qingya; Shen, Wenbiao

2014-04-14

195

Patterns of cytokine production by mycobacterium-reactive human T-cell clones.  

PubMed Central

To gain insight into the functional capacity of human T cells in the immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we evaluated the spectrum of cytokines produced by mycobacterium-reactive human T-cell clones. Nine of 11 T-cell clones bearing alpha beta or gamma delta T-cell receptors produced both Th1 and Th2 cytokines, a pattern resembling that of murine Th0 clones. The most frequent pattern was secretion of gamma interferon, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF), and interleukin-10 (IL-10), in combination with IL-2, IL-5, or both. Two clones produced only Th1 cytokines, and none produced exclusively Th2 cytokines. Although IL-4 was not detected in cell culture supernatants, IL-4 mRNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction amplification in two of six clones. There were no differences between the cytokine profiles of alpha beta and gamma delta T cells. A striking finding was the markedly elevated concentrations of TNF in clone supernatants, independent of the other cytokines produced. Supernatants from mycobacterium-stimulated T-cell clones, in combination with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, induced aggregation of bone-marrow-derived macrophages, and this effect was abrogated by antibodies to TNF. The addition of recombinant TNF to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor markedly enhanced macrophage aggregation, indicating that TNF produced by T cells may be an important costimulus for the granulomatous host response to mycobacteria. The cytokines produced by T cells may exert immunoregulatory and immunopathologic effects and thus mediate some of the clinical manifestations of tuberculosis. PMID:8418042

Barnes, P F; Abrams, J S; Lu, S; Sieling, P A; Rea, T H; Modlin, R L

1993-01-01

196

Mechanotransduction Drives Post Ischemic Revascularization Through KATP Channel Closure and Production of Reactive Oxygen Species  

PubMed Central

Abstract Aims: We reported earlier that ischemia results in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via the closure of a KATP channel which causes membrane depolarization and NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) activation. This study was undertaken to understand the role of ischemia-mediated ROS in signaling. Results: Angiogenic potential of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVEC) was studied in vitro and in the hind limb in vivo. Flow adapted PMVEC injected into a Matrigel matrix showed significantly higher tube formation than cells grown under static conditions or cells from mice with knockout of KATP channels or the NOX2. Blocking of hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1?) accumulation completely abrogated the tube formation in wild-type (WT) PMVEC. With ischemia in vivo (femoral artery ligation), revascularization was high in WT mice and was significantly decreased in mice with knockout of KATP channel and in mice orally fed with a KATP channel agonist. In transgenic mice with endothelial-specific NOX2 expression, the revascularization observed was intermediate between that of WT and knockout of KATP channel or NOX2. Increased HIF-1? activation and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression was observed in ischemic tissue of WT mice but not in KATP channel and NOX2 null mice. Revascularization could be partially rescued in KATP channel null mice by delivering VEGF into the hind limb. Innovation: This is the first report of a mechanosensitive ion channel (KATP channel) initiating endothelial signaling that drives revascularization. Conclusion: The KATP channel responds to the stop of flow and activates signals for revascularization to restore the impeded blood flow. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 872–886. PMID:23758611

Browning, Elizabeth; Wang, Hui; Hong, Nankang; Yu, Kevin; Buerk, Donald G.; DeBolt, Kristine; Gonder, Daniel; Sorokina, Elena M.; Patel, Puja; De Leon, Diva D.; Feinstein, Sheldon I.; Fisher, Aron B.

2014-01-01

197

Spatial Coordination of Aluminum Uptake, Production of Reactive Oxygen Species, Callose Production and Wall Rigidification in Maize Roots  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aluminum toxicity associated with acid soils represents one of the biggest limitations to crop production worldwide. Although Al specifically inhibits the elongation of root cells, the exact mechanism by which this growth reduction occurs remains controversial. The aim of this study was to investiga...

198

Synthesis and aqueous chemistry of alpha-acetoxy-N-nitrosomorpholine: reactive intermediates and products.  

PubMed

[reaction: see text] Alpha-acetoxy-N-nitrosomorpholine (7) has been synthesized starting by the anodic oxidation of N-acetylmorpholine in methanol. The 55% yield of N-nitrosomorpholinic acid, after cyanide-for-methoxy group exchange and hydrolysis, is an improvement of approximately 10-fold over our original 10-step method, and this is readily converted to 7. A study of the kinetics of decomposition of 7 in aqueous media at 25 degrees C and 1 M ionic strength was conducted over the pH range from 1 to 12. The reaction exhibited good first-order kinetics at all values of pH, and a plot of the log of k0, the buffer-independent rate constant for decomposition, against pH indicated that a pH-independent reaction dominates in the neutral pH region whereas acid- and base-catalyzed reactions dominate in the low and high pH regions, respectively. Reaction at neutral pH in the presence of increasing concentrations of acetate ion results in a decrease in the value of k(obsd), to an apparent limiting value consistent with a common-ion inhibition by the capture, and competing base-catalyzed hydration of, an N-nitrosiminium ion intermediate. The 100-fold smaller reactivity of 7 at neutral pH compared with its carbon analogue, alpha-acetoxy-N-nitrosopiperidine, is also consistent with the electronic effects expected for such a reaction. The dinitrophenylhydrazones derived from pH-independent and acid-catalyzed reactions are identical in kind and quantity, within experimental error, to those observed in the decay of alpha-hydroxy-N-nitrosomorpholine. Decay of 7 in the presence of benzimidazole buffer results in the formation of 2-(2-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-1-yl)ethoxy)acetaldehyde (12) and 2-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-1-yl)ethanol (13). Independent synthesis and study of 12 indicates that it is stable at 80 degrees C in 0.1 M DCl, but it slowly decomposes to 13 in neutral and basic media in a reaction that is stimulated by primary and secondary amines, but not by tertiary amines and carbonate buffer. The benzimidazole trapping studies and those of the stability of 12 indicate the possibility that metabolic activation of N-nitrosomorpholine by hydroxylation alpha to the nitroso nitrogen can result in the deposition of a metastable ethoxyacetaldehyde adduct on the heteroatoms of DNA. PMID:16388636

Zink, Charles N; Kim, Hyun-Joong; Fishbein, James C

2006-01-01

199

Momentum space saturation model for deep inelastic scattering and single inclusive hadron production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show how the Santana Amaral-Gay Ducati-Betemps-Soyez (AGBS) model, originally developed for deep inelastic scattering applied to HERA data on the proton structure function, can also describe the RHIC data on single inclusive hadron yield for d+Au and p+p collisions through a new simultaneous fit. The single inclusive hadron production is modeled through the color glass condensate, which uses the quark (and gluon) condensate amplitudes in momentum space. The AGBS model is also a momentum space model based on the asymptotic solutions of the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation, although a different definition of the Fourier transform is used. This aspect is overcome, and a description entirely in transverse momentum of both processes arises for the first time. The small difference between the simultaneous fit and the one for HERA data alone suggests that the AGBS model describes very well both kinds of processes and thus emerges as a good tool to investigate the inclusive hadron production data. We use this model for predictions at LHC energies, which agrees very well with available experimental data.

Basso, E. A. F.; Gay Ducati, M. B.; de Oliveira, E. G.

2011-08-01

200

Oxygen therapy does not increase production and damage induced by reactive oxygen species in focal cerebral ischemia.  

PubMed

Oxygen therapy with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) or normobaric hyperoxia (NBO) improves outcome in experimental cerebral ischemia. However, an increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may be an undesirable side effect of oxygen therapy. We investigated the effect of both oxygen therapies on ROS production and adverse effects in murine focal ischemia. 25 min after 90 min filament-induced middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), mice breathed either air, 100% O2 (NBO), or 100% O2 at 3 ata (HBO) for 60 min. ROS were depicted on tissue sections after preischemic injection of hydroethidine, a marker of in vivo superoxide production. Moreover, infarct sizes were quantified in experiments using peroxybutinitrite (PBN) in mice treated with HBO. Effects of oxygen therapy were also tested in superoxide 2 knock-out mice. Both NBO and HBO significantly reduced superoxide radicals compared to air. Application of PBN had no additional protective effect when combined with HBO. Infarct volumes did not differ among SOD2 knock-out mice receiving air (34.0 ± 19.6mm(3)), NBO (35.4 ± 14.3mm(3)) or HBO (33.4 ± 12.2mm(3)). In conclusion, brief episodes of oxygen therapy do not appear to promote damage inflicted by ROS in experimental stroke. PMID:24909618

Sun, Li; Wolferts, Guido; Veltkamp, Roland

2014-08-01

201

Effects of oxysterols on cell viability, inflammatory cytokines, VEGF and reactive oxygen species production on human retinal cells: cytoprotective effects and prevention of VEGF  

E-print Network

production on human retinal cells: cytoprotective effects and prevention of VEGF secretion by resveratrol B cytokines; oxysterols; phospholipidosis; resveratrol; reactive oxygen species; VEGF. hal-00514897,version1 the protective effects of resveratrol (Rsv: 1 µM), a polyphenol from red wine. Methods: ARPE-19 cells were

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

202

Catalase Activity and Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) Production in a Rat Model of Diffuse Axonal Injury. Effect of Gadolinium and Amiloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the effect of mechanogated membrane ion channel blockers on brain catalase (CAT) activity and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) production after traumatic brain injury (TBI). A weight drop trauma model was used. Controls were sham-operated and received no weight drop. Gadolinium (GAD) or amiloride (AMI) were administered to control and experimental rats (30 min after TBI). Brain CAT

Alejandro Santos; Nuno Borges; António Cerejo; António Sarmento; Isabel Azevedo

2005-01-01

203

Inclusive Single Hadron Production in Neutral Current Deep-Inelastic Scattering at Next-to-Leading Order  

E-print Network

A study of inclusive production of single hadrons with finite transverse momentum in neutral current deep-inelastic scattering has been carried out. Cross sections have been calculated using perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics at next-to-leading order and compared to HERA data. Predictions for light charged hadron production data were also calculated for large values of Q^2 to show the possible effects of the Z-boson exchange.

Carlos Sandoval

2009-08-06

204

Effect of phenolic acids of microbial origin on production of reactive oxygen species in mitochondria and neutrophils  

PubMed Central

Background Several low-molecular-weight phenolic acids are present in the blood of septic patients at high levels. The microbial origin of the most of phenolic acids in the human body was shown previously, but pathophysiological role of the phenolic acids is not clear. Sepsis is associated with the excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in both the circulation and the affected organs. In this work the influence of phenolic acids on ROS production in mitochondria and neutrophils was investigated. Methods ROS production in mitochondria and neutrophils was determined by MCLA- and luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. The rate of oxygen consumption by mitochondria was determined polarographically. The difference of electric potentials on the inner mitochondrial membrane was registered using a TPP+-selective electrode. The formation of phenolic metabolites in monocultures by the members of the main groups of the anaerobic human microflora and aerobic pathogenic bacteria was investigated by the method of gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results All phenolic acids had impact on mitochondria and neutrophils, the main producers of ROS in tissues and circulation. Phenolic acids (benzoic and cinnamic acids) producing the pro-oxidant effect on mitochondria inhibited ROS formation in neutrophils. Their effect on mitochondria was abolished by dithiothreitol (DTT). Phenyllactate and p-hydroxyphenyllactate decreased ROS production in both mitochondria and neutrophils. Bifidobacteria and lactobacilli produced in vitro considerable amounts of phenyllactic and p-hydroxyphenyllactic acids, Clostridia s. produced great quantities of phenylpropionic and p-hydroxyphenylpropionic acids, p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid was produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumanii; and benzoic acid, by Serratia marcescens. Conclusions The most potent activators of ROS production in mitochondria are phenolic acids whose effect is mediated via the interaction with thiol groups. Among these are benzoic and cinnamic acids. Some phenolic acids, in particular phenyllactate and p-hydroxyphenyllactate, which decrease ROS production in mitochondria and neutrophils, can play a role of natural antioxidants. The results indicate that low-molecular weight phenolic acids of microbial origin participate in the regulation of the ROS production in both the circulation and tissues, thereby affecting the level of oxidative stress in sepsis. PMID:23061754

2012-01-01

205

Production of Reactive Oxygen Metabolites by Opsonized Fungi and Bacteria Isolated from Indoor Air, and Their Interactions with Soluble Stimuli, fMLP or PMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the levels of free intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) and the production of reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) induced by opsonized indoor air fungi and bacteria in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) were measured, Moreover, modification of a chemotactic peptide (fMLP)- and a tumor promoter (PMA)-induced production of ROM by opsonized fungi and bacteria were studied. The cells were exposed to graded

M. Ruotsalainen; A. Hyvarinen; A. Nevalainen; K. M. Savolainen

1995-01-01

206

Characterization and re-use potential of by-products generated from the Ohio State Carbonation and Ash Reactivation (OSCAR) process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two novel sorbents (i.e. “regenerated sorbent” and “supersorbent”) for dry flue gas desulfurization were tested, and by-products characterized, using a pilot-scale version of the Ohio State Carbonation and Ash Reactivation (OSCAR) process. The main elements of the process consisted of sorbent production, a riser reactor, cyclone and baghouse. Trace elements, including As, Se and Hg, were found at higher levels

Panuwat Taerakul; Ping Sun; Danold W. Golightly; Harold W. Walker; Linda K. Weavers; Behrad Zand; Tarunjit Butalia; Theodore J. Thomas; Himanshu Gupta; Liang-Shih Fan

2007-01-01

207

FcRI- and Fc Receptor-Mediated Production of Reactive Oxygen Species by Mast Cells Is Lipoxygenase and Cyclooxygenase-Dependent and NADPH Oxidase-Independent1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the enzymes responsible for FcRI-dependent production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the influence of ROS on mast cell secretory responses. 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO) was the primary enzyme involved in ROS production by human mast cells (huMC) and mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (mBMMC) following FcRI aggregation because incubation with 5-LO inhibitors (AA861, nordihydroguaiaretic acid, zileuton) but not a

Emily J. Swindle; John W. Coleman; Frank R. DeLeo; Dean D. Metcalfe

2007-01-01

208

A Structural Determinant of Chemical Reactivity and Potential Health Effects of Quinones from Natural Products  

PubMed Central

Although many phenols and catechols found as polyphenol natural products are antioxidants and have putative disease-preventive properties, others have deleterious health effects. One possible route to toxicity is the bioactivation of the phenolic function to quinones that are electrophilic, redox-agents capable of modifying DNA and proteins. The structure-property relationships of biologically important quinones and their precursors may help understand the balance between their health benefits and risks. We describe a mass-spectrometry-based study of four quinones produced by oxidizing flavanones and flavones. Those with a C2-C3 double bond on ring C of the flavonoid stabilize by delocalization an incipient positive charge from protonation and render the protonated quinone particularly susceptible to nucleophilic attack. We hypothesize that the absence of this double bond is one specific structural determinant that is responsible for the ability of quinones to modify biological macromolecules. Those quinones containing a C2-C3 single bond have relative higher aqueous stability and longer half-lives than those with a double bond at the same position; the latter have short half-lives at or below ~ 1 s. Quinones with a C2-C3 double bond show little ability to depurinate DNA because they are rapidly hydrated to unreactive species. Molecular-orbital calculations support that quinone hydration by a highly structure-dependent mechanism accounts for their chemical properties. The evidence taken together support a hypothesis that those flavonoids and related natural products that undergo oxidation to quinones and are then rapidly hydrated are unlikely to damage important biological macromolecules. PMID:21721570

Tu, Tingting; Giblin, Daryl; Gross, Michael L.

2011-01-01

209

Two patterns of thrombopoietin signaling suggest no coupling between platelet production and thrombopoietin reactivity in thrombocytopenia-absent radii syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Thrombocytopenia with absent radii syndrome is defined by bilateral radius aplasia and thrombocytopenia. Due to impaired thrombopoietin signaling there are only few bone marrow megakaryocytes and these are immature; the resulting platelet production defect improves somewhat over time. A microdeletion on chromosome 1q21 is present in all patients but is not sufficient to form thrombocytopenia with absent radii syndrome. We aimed to refine the signaling defect in this syndrome. Design and Methods We report an extended study of 23 pediatric and adult patients suffering from thrombocytopenia with absent radii syndrome in order to scrutinize thrombopoietin signal transduction by immunoblotting and gel electrophoretic shift assays. In addition, platelet immunotyping and reactivity were analyzed by flow cytometry. Results were correlated with clinical data including age and platelet counts. Results Two distinct signaling patterns were identified. Juvenile patients showed abrogated thrombopoietin signaling (pattern #1), which is restored in adults (pattern #2). Phosphorylated Jak2 was indicative of activation of STAT1, 3 and 5, Tyk2, ERK, and Akt, showing its pivotal role in distinct thrombopoietin-dependent pathways. Jak2 cDNA was not mutated and the thrombopoietin receptor was present on platelets. All platelets of patients expressed normal levels of CD41/61, CD49b, and CD49f receptors, while CD42a/b and CD29 were slightly reduced and the fibronectin receptor CD49e markedly reduced. Lysosomal granule release in response to thrombin receptor activating peptide was diminished. Conclusions We show a combined defect of platelet production and function in thrombocytopenia with absent radii syndrome. The rise in platelets that most patients have during the first years of life preceded the restored thrombopoietin signaling detected at a much later age, implying that these events are uncoupled and that an unknown factor mediates the improvement of platelet production. PMID:21933853

Fiedler, Janine; Strauß, Gabriele; Wannack, Martin; Schwiebert, Silke; Seidel, Kerstin; Henning, Katja; Klopocki, Eva; Schmugge, Markus; Gaedicke, Gerhard; Schulze, Harald

2012-01-01

210

Chronic Aldosterone Administration Causes NOX2-Mediated Increases In Reactive Oxygen Species Production and Endothelial Dysfunction in the Cerebral Circulation  

PubMed Central

Objective An elevated plasma aldosterone level is an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Although excess aldosterone promotes cardiovascular disease, no studies have examined the effect of increased plasma aldosterone on the cerebral circulation. A major source of vascular reactive oxygen species (ROS) during cardiovascular disease is the NADPH oxidases. Because NOX2-containing NADPH oxidase (NOX2 oxidase) is highly expressed in cerebral endothelium, we postulated that it might contribute to ROS generation and vascular dysfunction in response to aldosterone. Here we examined the effect of aldosterone and NOX2 oxidase on ROS production and endothelial dysfunction in the cerebral circulation, and whether the effects of aldosterone are exacerbated in aged mice. Methods and Results In adult (average age ~24–25 wk) wild-type (WT) and Nox2-deficient (Nox2?/y) mice, neither vehicle nor aldosterone (0.28 mg/kg/day for 14 days) affected blood pressure (measured using tail-cuff). By contrast, aldosterone treatment reduced dilation of the basilar artery (measured using myography) to the endothelium-dependent agonist acetylcholine in WT mice (P<0.05), but had no such effect in NOX2?/y mice (P>0.05). Aldosterone increased basal and phorbol-dibutyrate stimulated superoxide production (measured using L-012-enhanced chemiluminesence) in cerebral arteries from WT but not Nox2?/y mice. In aged WT mice (average age ~70 wk), aldosterone treatment increased blood pressure, but had a similar effect on cerebral artery superoxide levels as in adult WT mice. Conclusions These data indicate that NOX2 oxidase mediates aldosterone-induced increases in ROS production and endothelial dysfunction in cerebral arteries from adult mice independently of blood pressure changes. Aldosterone-induced hypertension is augmented during aging. PMID:24991871

CHRISSOBOLIS, Sophocles; DRUMMOND, Grant R.; FARACI, Frank M.; SOBEY, Christopher G.

2014-01-01

211

Extending Cassava Root Shelf Life via Reduction of Reactive Oxygen Species Production1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

One of the major constraints facing the large-scale production of cassava (Manihot esculenta) roots is the rapid postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD) that occurs within 72 h following harvest. One of the earliest recognized biochemical events during the initiation of PPD is a rapid burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. We have investigated the source of this oxidative burst to identify possible strategies to limit its extent and to extend cassava root shelf life. We provide evidence for a causal link between cyanogenesis and the onset of the oxidative burst that triggers PPD. By measuring ROS accumulation in transgenic low-cyanogen plants with and without cyanide complementation, we show that PPD is cyanide dependent, presumably resulting from a cyanide-dependent inhibition of respiration. To reduce cyanide-dependent ROS production in cassava root mitochondria, we generated transgenic plants expressing a codon-optimized Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mitochondrial alternative oxidase gene (AOX1A). Unlike cytochrome c oxidase, AOX is cyanide insensitive. Transgenic plants overexpressing AOX exhibited over a 10-fold reduction in ROS accumulation compared with wild-type plants. The reduction in ROS accumulation was associated with a delayed onset of PPD by 14 to 21 d after harvest of greenhouse-grown plants. The delay in PPD in transgenic plants was also observed under field conditions, but with a root biomass yield loss in the highest AOX-expressing lines. These data reveal a mechanism for PPD in cassava based on cyanide-induced oxidative stress as well as PPD control strategies involving inhibition of ROS production or its sequestration. PMID:22711743

Zidenga, Tawanda; Leyva-Guerrero, Elisa; Moon, Hangsik; Siritunga, Dimuth; Sayre, Richard

2012-01-01

212

Molecular engineering of cycloisomaltooligosaccharide glucanotransferase from Bacillus circulans T-3040: structural determinants for the reaction product size and reactivity.  

PubMed

Cycloisomaltooligosaccharide glucanotransferase (CITase) is a member of glycoside hydrolase family 66 and it produces cycloisomaltooligosaccharides (CIs). Small CIs (CI-7-9) and large CIs (CI-?10) are designated as oligosaccharide-type CIs (oligo-CIs) and megalosaccharide-type CIs (megalo-CIs) respectively. CITase from Bacillus circulans T-3040 (BcCITase) produces mainly CI-8 with little megalo-CIs. It has two family 35 carbohydrate-binding modules (BcCBM35-1 and BcCBM35-2). BcCBM35-1 is inserted in a catalytic domain of BcCITase and BcCBM35-2 is located at the C-terminal region. Our previous studies suggested that BcCBM35-1 has two substrate-binding sites (B-1 and B-2) [Suzuki et al. (2014) J. Biol. Chem. 289, 12040-12051]. We implemented site-directed mutagenesis of BcCITase to explore the preference for product size on the basis of the 3D structure of BcCITase. Mutational studies provided evidence that B-1 and B-2 contribute to recruiting substrate and maintaining product size respectively. A mutant (mutant-R) with four mutations (F268V, D469Y, A513V and Y515S) produced three times as much megalo-CIs (CI-10-12) and 1.5 times as much total CIs (CI-7-12) as compared with the wild-type (WT) BcCITase. The 3D structure of the substrate-enzyme complex of mutant-R suggested that the modified product size specificity was attributable to the construction of novel substrate-binding sites in the B-2 site of BcCBM35-1 and reactivity was improved by mutation on subsite -3 on the catalytic domain. PMID:25649478

Suzuki, Ryuichiro; Suzuki, Nobuhiro; Fujimoto, Zui; Momma, Mitsuru; Kimura, Keitarou; Kitamura, Shinichi; Kimura, Atsuo; Funane, Kazumi

2015-04-15

213

Atg5 but not Atg7 in dendritic cells enhances IL-2 and IFN-? production by Toxoplasma gondii-reactive CD4(+) T cells.  

PubMed

The autophagy proteins (Atg) modulate not only innate but also adaptive immunity against pathogens. We examined the role of dendritic cell Atg5 and Atg7 in the production of IL-2 and IFN-? by Toxoplasma gondii-reactive CD4(+) T cells. T. gondii-reactive mouse CD4(+) T cells exhibited unimpaired production of IL-2 and IFN-? when stimulated with Atg7-deficient mouse dendritic cells that were infected with T. gondii or pulsed with T. gondii lysate antigens. In marked contrast, dendritic cells deficient in Atg5 induced diminished CD4(+) T cell production of IL-2 and IFN-?. This defect was not accompanied by changes in costimulatory ligand expression on dendritic cells or impaired production of IL-12 p70, IL-1? or TNF-?. Knockdown of Irg6a in dendritic cells did not affect CD4(+) T cell cytokine production. These results indicate that Atg5 and Atg7 in dendritic cells play differential roles in the modulation of IL-2 and IFN-? production by T. gondii-reactive CD4(+) T cells. PMID:25578385

Liu, Elizabeth; Van Grol, Jennifer; Subauste, Carlos S

2015-04-01

214

Three-dimensional Monte-Carlo simulation of gamma-ray scattering and production in the atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

Monte Carlo codes have been developed to simulate gamma-ray scattering and production in the atmosphere. The scattering code simulates interactions of low-energy gamma rays (20 to several hundred keV) from an astronomical point source in the atmosphere; a modified code also simulates scattering in a spacecraft. Four incident spectra, typical of gamma-ray bursts, solar flares, and the Crab pulsar, and 511 keV line radiation have been studied. These simulations are consistent with observations of solar flare radiation scattered from the atmosphere. The production code simulates the interactions of cosmic rays which produce high-energy (above 10 MeV) photons and electrons. It has been used to calculate gamma-ray and electron albedo intensities at Palestine, Texas and at the equator; the results agree with observations in most respects. With minor modifications this code can be used to calculate intensities of other high-energy particles. Both codes are fully three-dimensional, incorporating a curved atmosphere; the production code also incorporates the variation with both zenith and azimuth of the incident cosmic-ray intensity due to geomagnetic effects. These effects are clearly reflected in the calculated albedo by intensity contrasts between the horizon and nadir, and between the east and west horizons.

Morris, D.J. (Space Science Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, N.H. 03824 (US))

1989-05-15

215

The reactivity of NO2 with biomass burning products in aqueous solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomass burning results in a large variety of partially oxidized semivolatile hydrocarbons turning up in the biomass burning aerosol or secondary organic aerosol. A significant fraction of these, e.g. OH-substituted aromatics, can undergo reactions in the condensed phase with NO2 to form nitrite and organic products. These reactions might have an impact on the nitrogen oxide budget in biomass burning plumes but also determine their life-time in the condensed phase, together with other atmospheric oxidants. In this study we present results on the aqueous phase kinetics of NO2 with members of the guaiacol and catechol families as representatives of biomass burning aerosol. We use the wetted wall flow tube technique to measure uptake coefficients of NO2 on buffered aqueous solutions of these species as a function of pH. The loss of NO2 above these solutions is measured using a chemiluminescence detector, and nitrite in the aqueous phase is measured by ion-chromatography.

Ammann, M.; Rössler, E.

2003-04-01

216

Antioxidant-photosensitizer dual-loaded polymeric micelles with controllable production of reactive oxygen species.  

PubMed

Poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(caprolactone) (PEG-b-PCL) micelles dually loaded with both pheophorbide a (PhA) as a photosensitizer and ?-carotene (CAR) as a singlet oxygen ((1)O2) scavenger were designed to control photodynamic therapy (PDT) activity in cancer treatment. The CAR in the PhA/CAR micelles significantly diminished PhA-generated (1)O2 through direct (1)O2 scavenging, whereas the CAR molecules lost their (1)O2 scavenging activity when the PhA and CAR were spatially isolated by the disintegration of the PEG-b-PCL micelles. In cell-culture systems, light irradiation at a post-treatment time that corresponded to the presence of the micelles in the blood environment induced negligible phototoxicity, whereas light irradiation at a post-treatment time that corresponded to the presence of the micelles in the intracellular environment induced remarkable phototoxicity. In addition, a longer post-treatment time induced greater internalization of PhA/CAR micelles, which resulted in higher phototoxicity, suggesting an increase in photo killing activity against the tumor cells of interest. Thus, the co-loading of a (1)O2 generator and a (1)O2 scavenger into a single micelle is a potential strategy that may be useful in facilitating more accurate and reliable PDT with site-specific controllable production of singlet oxygen species for cancer treatment. PMID:24939615

Li, Li; Cho, Hana; Yoon, Kwon Hyeok; Kang, Han Chang; Huh, Kang Moo

2014-08-25

217

The Use of HRP in Decolorization of Reactive Dyes and Toxicological Evaluation of Their Products  

PubMed Central

This work studied the potential use of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the decolorization of the following textile dyes: Drimarene Blue X-3LR (DMBLR), Drimarene Blue X-BLN (DMBBLN), Drimarene Rubinol X-3LR (DMR), and Drimarene Blue CL-R (RBBR). Dyes were individually tested in the reaction media containing 120?mg·L?1, considering the following parameters: temperature (20–45°C), H2O2 concentration (0–4.44?mmol·L?1), and reaction time (5 minutes, 1 and 24?h). The following conditions: 35°C, 0.55?mmol·L?1, and 1h, provided the best set of results of color removal for DMBLR (99%), DMBBLN (77%), DMR (94%), and RBBR (97%). It should be mentioned that only 5 minutes of reaction was enough to obtain 96% of decolorization for DMBLR and RBBR. After the decolorization reactions of DMBLR, DMR, and RBBR, it was possible to observe the reduction of Artemia salina mortality and the no significant increase in toxicity for the products generated from DMBBLN. PMID:21318147

da Silva, Michelle Reis; de Sá, Lívian Ribeiro Vasconcelos; Russo, Carlos; Scio, Elita; Ferreira-Leitão, Viridiana Santana

2010-01-01

218

X-ray mapping and scatter diagram analysis of the discoloring products resulting from the interaction of artist's pigments.  

PubMed

The discoloring interaction between the artist's pigments cadmium yellow and the copper-containing malachite, an interaction that is conjectured to cause black spotting in oil paintings of the 19th and early 20th centuries, was examined using X-ray mapping and scatter diagram analysis. The application of these coupled techniques confirmed that copper sulfide phases were produced during discoloration reaction. Scatter diagram analysis indicated that two copper sulfide stoichiometries (CuS and Cu3S2) were present as reaction products where previously only crystalline CuS (covellite) had been identified by X-ray diffraction. The results demonstrate the potential of X-ray mapping coupled with scatter diagram analysis for the identification of both crystalline and X-ray amorphous phases produced by such complex heterogeneous interactions and their applicability to the investigation of interactions of artists' pigments. PMID:20804641

White, Rachel; Thomas, Paul; Phillips, Matthew R; Moran, Ken; Wuhrer, Richard

2010-10-01

219

Anethole induces apoptotic cell death accompanied by reactive oxygen species production and DNA fragmentation in Aspergillus fumigatus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

trans-Anethole (anethole), a major component of anise oil, has a broad antimicrobial spectrum, and antimicrobial activity that is weaker than that of other antibiotics on the market. When combined with polygodial, nagilactone E, and n-dodecanol, anethole has been shown to possess significant synergistic antifungal activity against a budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and a human opportunistic pathogenic yeast, Candida albicans. However, the antifungal mechanism of anethole has not been completely determined. We found that anethole stimulated cell death of a human opportunistic pathogenic fungus, Aspergillus fumigatus, in addition to S. cerevisiae. The anethole-induced cell death was accompanied by reactive oxygen species production, metacaspase activation, and DNA fragmentation. Several mutants of S. cerevisiae, in which genes related to the apoptosis-initiating execution signals from mitochondria were deleted, were resistant to anethole. These results suggest that anethole-induced cell death could be explained by oxidative stress-dependent apoptosis via typical mitochondrial death cascades in fungi, including A. fumigatus and S. cerevisiae. PMID:24393541

Fujita, Ken-Ichi; Tatsumi, Miki; Ogita, Akira; Kubo, Isao; Tanaka, Toshio

2014-02-01

220

Aluminum induces neurodegeneration and its toxicity arises from increased iron accumulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production.  

PubMed

The neurotoxicity of aluminum (Al) - the most abundant metal element on earth - has been known for years. However, the mechanism of Al-induced neurodegeneration and its relationship to Alzheimer's disease are still controversial. In particular, in vivo functional data are lacking. In a Drosophila model with chronic dietary Al overloading, general neurodegeneration and several behavioral changes were observed. Al-induced neurodegeneration is independent of ?-amyloid or tau-associated toxicity, suggesting they act in different molecular pathways. Interestingly, Drosophila frataxin (dfh), which causes Friedreich's ataxia if mutated in humans, displayed an interacting effect with Al, suggesting Friedreich's ataxia patients might be more susceptible to Al toxicity. Al-treated flies accumulated large amount of iron and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and exhibited elevated SOD2 activity. Genetic and pharmacological efforts to reduce ROS or chelate excess Fe significantly mitigated Al toxicity. Our results indicate that Al toxicity is mediated through ROS production and iron accumulation and suggest a remedial route to reduce toxicity due to Al exposure. PMID:20674094

Wu, Zhihao; Du, Yumei; Xue, Hua; Wu, Yongsheng; Zhou, Bing

2012-01-01

221

Lanthanum ions intervened in enzymatic production and elimination of reactive oxygen species in leaves of rice seedlings under cadmium stress.  

PubMed

Rare earth elements at proper concentrations were observed to alleviate heavy metal stress. However, the potential mechanisms of alleviation are not clear. Thus, the present study focused on the mechanisms of lanthanum (La) ions on the generation and elimination of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in leaves of rice seedlings hydroponically cultivated in 30?µM cadmium chloride (CdCl2) for 2 d. Results showed that the decline of superoxide (O2 ·?(-)) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was attributed not only to the decreased expressions of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases-related gene, protein synthesis, and isozymes, but also to the decrease of xanthine oxidase, diamine oxidase, and guaiacol peroxidases isozymes and activities. Genes and isozymes related to superoxide dismutase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase were also differentially upregulated to control ROS accumulation when proper concentrations of La were combined with 30?µM Cd. Based on the results, one may conclude that La at proper concentrations not only limited the generation of O2 ?·?(-) and H2O2 from the enzymatic sources but also promoted the elimination of O2 ?·?(-) and H2O2 via the upregulating expressions of antioxidant enzyme-related genes and activities in the rice seedling's leaves under Cd stress. PMID:24753051

Wang, Cheng-Run; Wang, Qin-Ying; Tian, Yuan; Zhang, Ji-Feng; Li, Zhi-Xiao; Cao, Peng; Zhu, Mei; Li, Ting-Ting

2014-07-01

222

Docosahexaenoic acid prevents paraquat-induced reactive oxygen species production in dopaminergic neurons via enhancement of glutathione homeostasis.  

PubMed

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels are reduced in the substantia nigra area in Parkinson's disease patients and animal models, implicating docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as a potential treatment for preventing Parkinson's disease and suggesting the need for investigations into how DHA might protect against neurotoxin-induced dopaminergic neuron loss. The herbicide paraquat (PQ) induces dopaminergic neuron loss through the excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We found that treatment of dopaminergic SN4741 cells with PQ reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, but pretreatment with DHA ameliorated the toxic effect of PQ. To determine the toxic mechanism of PQ, we measured intracellular ROS content in different organelles with specific dyes. As expected, all types of ROS were increased by PQ treatment, but DHA pretreatment selectively decreased cytosolic hydrogen peroxide content. Furthermore, DHA treatment-induced increases in glutathione reductase and glutamate cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLm) mRNA expression were positively correlated with glutathione (GSH) content. Consistent with this increase in GCLm mRNA levels, Western blot analysis revealed that DHA pretreatment increased nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein levels. These findings indicate that DHA prevents PQ-induced neuronal cell loss by enhancing Nrf2-regulated GSH homeostasis. PMID:25545062

Lee, Hyoung Jun; Han, Jeongsu; Jang, Yunseon; Kim, Soo Jeong; Park, Ji Hoon; Seo, Kang Sik; Jeong, Soyeon; Shin, Soyeon; Lim, Kyu; Heo, Jun Young; Kweon, Gi Ryang

2015-01-30

223

Production of hybrid diesel fuel precursors from carbohydrates and petrochemicals using formic acid as a reactive solvent.  

PubMed

We report the one-pot alkylation of mesitylene with carbohydrate-derived 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF) as a step toward diesel-range liquids. Using FeCl(3) as a catalyst, HMF is shown to alkylate toluene, xylene, and mesitylene in high yields in CH(2)Cl(2) and MeNO(2) solvents. Efforts to extend this reaction to greener or safer solvents showed that most ether-based solvents are unsatisfactory. Acid catalysts (e.g, p-TsOH) also proved to be ineffective. Using formic acid as a reactive solvent, mesitylene could be alkylated to give mesitylmethylfurfural (MMF) starting from fructose with yields up to approximately 70 %. The reaction of fructose with formic acid in the absence of mesitylene gave rise to low yields of the formate ester of HMF, which indicates the stabilizing effect of replacing the hydroxyl substituent with mesityl. The arene also serves as a second phase into which the product is extracted. Even by using formic acid, the mesitylation of less expensive precursors such as glucose and cellulose proceeded only in modest yields (ca. 20 %). These simpler substrates were found to undergo mesitylation by using hydrogen chloride/formic acid via the intermediate chloromethylfurfural. PMID:23281330

Zhou, Xiaoyuan; Rauchfuss, Thomas B

2013-02-01

224

p47phox and reactive oxygen species production modulate expression of microRNA-451 in macrophages  

PubMed Central

The production of microRNAs (miRNA) is influenced by various stimuli, including environmental stresses. We hypothesized that reactive oxygen species (ROS)-associated stress could regulate macrophage miRNA synthesis. miRNAs undergo unique steps of maturation processing through either one of two pathways of cytoplasmic processing. Unlike the canonical pathway, the regulation of alternative cytoplasmic processing of miRNA has not been fully elucidated yet. We cultured bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) from wild type (WT) and p47phox?/? mice and profiled miRNA expression using microarrays. We analyzed 375 miRNAs including four endogenous controls to normalize the data. At resting state, p47phox?/? BMDM has the markedly reduced expression of miR-451 compared to WT BMDM, without other significant differences. Unlike majority of miRNAs, miR-451 goes through the unique alternative processing pathway, in which Ago2 plays a key role. In spite of significant reduction of mature miR-451, however, its precursor form, pre-mir-451, was similar in both BMDMs, suggesting that the processing of pre-mir-451 is impaired in p47phox?/? BMDM. Moreover, p47phox?/? BMDM expressed significantly reduced level of Ago2. In contrast, Ago2 mRNA levels were similar in WT and p47phox?/? BMDM, suggesting a post-transcriptional defect of Ago2 production in p47phox?/? macrophages, which resulted in impaired processing of pre-miR-451. In order to examine the functional significance of miR-451 in macrophages, we cultured BMDMs from miR-451 knock-out mice. Of interest, miR-451-deficient BMDM exhibited reduced ROS generation upon zymosan stimulation, compared to WT BMDM. Our studies suggest functional crosstalk between ROS and miR-451 in the regulation of macrophage oxidant stress. PMID:25287330

Ranjan, R.; Lee, Y. G.; Karpurapu, M.; Syed, M. A.; Chung, S.; Deng, J.; Jeong, J. J.; Zhao, G.; Xiao, L.; Sadikot, R. T.; Weiss, M. J.; Christman, J. W.; Park, G. Y.

2015-01-01

225

Regulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha production in the isolated rat heart stimulated by bacterial lipopolysaccharide or reactive oxygen.  

PubMed

Reperfusion after cardiopulmonary bypass causes induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), elevated plasma levels of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) by the heart. Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) regulates the expression of TNF. Because NF-kappaB is activated by both LPS and ROS, we hypothesized that an inhibitor of NF-kappaB, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), would block release of TNF from the heart stimulated by these two agents. With Institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC) approval, rat hearts were perfused Langendorf style. LPS was infused and ROS were generated with a hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase system. PDTC was added to the perfusion buffer. Other hearts were treated with forskolin in order to elevate cyclic AMP. Timed collections of coronary effluent were made for the determination of coronary flow and measurement of TNF. LPS stimulated TNF release to a maximum of 2247 +/- 133 pg/min at 150 minutes. PDTC inhibited LPS-stimulated TNF release. For instance, at 150 minutes, LPS-stimulated TNF release was 449 +/- 49 pg/min with 100 microM PDTC and was 70 +/- 65 pg/mL with 250 microM PDTC (P < 0.05 vs LPS alone). ROS stimulated TNF release was 1494 +/- 130 pg/min at 150 minutes and was not affected by PDTC. Forskolin almost completely blocked TNF release stimulated by LPS or ROS. These data are consistent with the notion that inhibitors of NF-kappaB block cytokine production stimulated by some agents but not others. PMID:15481297

Jennings, G Russell; Castresana, Manuel R; Newman, Walter H

2004-09-01

226

A process for enhancing the accessibility and reactivity of hardwood kraft-based dissolving pulp for viscose rayon production by cellulase treatment.  

PubMed

The commercial pre-hydrolysis kraft-based dissolving pulp production process can be a typical example for the demonstration/implementation of the integrated forest biorefinery concept. In this study, the concept of cellulase treatment of this dissolving pulp for enhancement of accessibility/reactivity in terms of viscose rayon production was demonstrated. The cellulase treatment resulted in the formation of additional openings/surface areas in the fiber structure via the possible action of "etching". As a result, the pore volume of pulp fibers increased, which led to the increase in the accessibility to xanthation, and thus Fock reactivity. Results showed that the cellulase treatment was effective in increasing the Fock reactivity, at a cellulase dosage of 2u/g (based on the dry weight of pulp), the Fock reactivity increased from 47.67% to 79.9%. The adoption of cellulase treatment to hardwood kraft-based dissolving pulp can provide an efficient approach for enhancing its performance in the commercial viscose-rayon process. PMID:24384317

Miao, Qingxian; Chen, Lihui; Huang, Liulian; Tian, Chao; Zheng, Linqiang; Ni, Yonghao

2014-02-01

227

Hecogenin acetate inhibits reactive oxygen species production and induces cell cycle arrest and senescence in the a549 human lung cancer cell line.  

PubMed

Cellular and molecular mechanisms related to lung cancer have been extensively studied in recent years, but the availability of effective treatments is still scarce. Hecogenin acetate, a natural saponin presenting a wide spectrum of reported pharmacological activities, has been previously evaluated for its anticancer/antiproliferative activity in some in vivo and in vitro models. Here, we investigated the effects of hecogenin acetate in a human lung cancer cell line. A549 non-small lung cancer cells were exposed to different concentrations of hecogenin acetate and reactive species production, ERK1/2 activation, matrix metalloproteinase expression, cell cycle arrest and cell senescence parameters were evaluated. Hecogenin acetate significantly inhibited increase in intracellular reactive species production induced by H2O2. In addition, hecogenin acetate blocked ERK1/2 phosphorylation and inhibited the increase in MMP-2 caused by H2O2. Treatment with hecogenin acetate induced G0/G1-phase arrest at two concentrations (75 and 100 µM, 74% and 84.3% respectively), and increased the staining of senescence-associated ? -galactosidase positive cells. These data indicate that hecogenin acetate is able to exert anti-cancer effects by modulating reactive species production, inducing cell cycle arrest and senescence and also modulating ERK1/2 phosphorylation and MMP-2 production. PMID:25115457

Gasparotto, Juciano; Somensi, Nauana; Kunzler, Alice; Girardi, Carolina Saibro; de Bittencourt Pasquali, Matheus Augusto; Ramos, Vitor Miranda; Simoes-Pires, Andre; Quintans-Junior, Lucindo Jose; Branco, Alexsandro; Moreira, Jose Claudio Fonseca; Gelain, Daniel Pens

2014-01-01

228

Same-sign W pair production as a probe of double-parton scattering at the LHC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the production of same-sign W boson pairs at the LHC in double parton interactions. Compared with simple factorised double parton distributions (dPDFs), we show that the recently developed dPDFs, GS09, lead to non-trivial kinematic correlations between the W bosons. A numerical study of the prospects for observing this process using same-sign dilepton signatures, including W ± W ± jj, diboson and heavy flavour backgrounds, at 14 TeV centre-of-mass energy is then performed. It is shown that a small excess of same-sign dilepton events from double parton scattering over a background dominated by single scattering W ± Z( ? *) production could be observed at the LHC.

Gaunt, Jonathan R.; Kom, Chun-Hay; Kulesza, Anna; Stirling, W. James

2010-09-01

229

Production of two cc¯ pairs in gluon-gluon scattering in high energy proton-proton collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We calculate cross sections for gg?QQ¯QQ¯ in the high-energy approximation in the mixed (longitudinal momentum fraction, impact parameter) and momentum space representations. Besides the total cross section as a function of subsystem energy also differential distributions (in quark rapidity, transverse momentum, QQ, QQ¯ invariant mass) are presented. The elementary cross section is used to calculate production of (cc¯)(cc¯) in single-parton scattering (SPS) in proton-proton collisions. We present integrated cross section as a function of proton-proton center-of-mass energy as well as differential distribution in M(cc¯)(cc¯). The results are compared with corresponding results for double-parton scattering (DPS) discussed recently in the literature. We find that the considered SPS contribution to (cc¯)(cc¯) production is at high energy (s>5TeV) much smaller than that for DPS contribution.

Schäfer, W.; Szczurek, A.

2012-05-01

230

Pair production of quarkonia and electroweak bosons from double-parton scatterings in nuclear collisions at the LHC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cross sections for the concurrent production of pairs of quarkonia (J / ? , ?) and/or W, Z gauge bosons from double-parton scatterings (DPS) in high-energy proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at the LHC are calculated. The estimates are based on next-to-leading-order perturbative QCD predictions, including nuclear modifications of the parton densities, for the corresponding single-scattering cross sections. Expected event rates for J / ? + J / ?, J / ? + ?, J / ? + W, J / ? + Z, ? + ?, ? + W, ? + Z, and same-sign W+W production in their (di)leptonic decay modes, after typical acceptance and efficiency losses, are given for p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions.

d'Enterria, David; Snigirev, Alexander M.

2014-11-01

231

P11 Resonances with Dubna-Mainz-Taipei dynamical model for ?N scattering and pion electromagnetic production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results on P11 resonances obtained with Dubna-Mainz-Taipei (DMT) dynamical model for pion-nucleon scattering and pion electromagnetic production. The extracted values agree well, in general, with PDG values. One pole is found corresponding to the Roper resonance and two more resonances are definitely needed in DMT model. We further find indication for a narrow P11 resonance at around 1700 MeV with a width ~ 50 MeV in both ?N and ?? reactions.

Yang, Shin Nan; Kamalov, S. S.; Tiator, L.

2012-04-01

232

Gamma ray production cross-sections associated with multiple inelastic scattering of 14 MeV neutrons in lead  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gamma ray angular distributions and differential production cross-sections have been measured for the inelastic scattering of 14 MeV neutrons in lead, using a gamma ray spectrometer based on an associated particle time-of-flight gating technique. The variation of cross-section with sample thickness was measured and the results compared with the predictions of the Monte Carlo computer code MORSE.

Warner, P. C.; Cox, A. J.

1985-11-01

233

Degradation products of Tenax TA formed during sampling and thermal desorption analysis: Indicators of reactive species indoors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analyses of indoor air samples of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) from five offices in two office buildings, a school classroom, and a room in a day-care center were generally strongly influenced by artifact formation. In the laboratory, the major artifacts could be produced by sampling mixtures of O 3, NO 2, and limonene in air on the sorbent, Tenax TA. Several SVOCs from O 3 degradation of Tenax TA were detected, but only few were identified. The NO 2 degradation of Tenax TA analyzed by thermal desorption and gas chromatography (TD-GC) almost exclusively formed 2,6-diphenyl- p-benzoquinone (DPQ) and 2,6-diphenyl- p-hydroquinone (DPHQ). The NO 2/Tenax TA reaction could be calibrated, thus the NO 2 concentration could be determined simultaneously with a SVOC measurement. However, the results indicated that DPQ may be reduced to DPHQ during TD-GC analysis by oxidation of other compounds adsorbed to Tenax TA. Sampling an air mixture of O 3 in excess of limonene on Tenax TA followed by TD-GC analysis exclusively produced DPHQ. O 3 alone produced neither DPQ nor DPHQ. It was found that reactive species (possibly Criegee biradicals and/or other organic radicals) from the O 3/limonene :reaction were responsible for the production of DPHQ from Tenax TA. The results indicated that Tenax TA can be used as a trapping agent for some radicals by analysis of the DPQ/DPHQ formation. The present data were not sufficient to obtain evidence for degradation of Tenax TA by other radicals than NO and NO 2 in indoor SVOC samples. However, the DPQ/DPHQ ratio indicated that DPHQ has been formed from DPQ by oxidation of other adsorbed compounds in some of the samples.

Axel Clausen, Per; Wolkoff, Peder

234

Cancer-derived immunoglobulin G promotes tumor cell growth and proliferation through inducing production of reactive oxygen species  

PubMed Central

Cancer cells have been found to express immunoglobulin G (IgG), but the exact functions and underlying mechanisms of cancer-derived IgG remain elusive. In this study, we first confirmed that downregulation of IgG restrained the growth and proliferation of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. To elucidate its mechanism, we carried out a co-immunoprecipitation assay in HeLa cells and identified 27 potential IgG-interacting proteins. Among them, receptor of activated protein kinase C 1 (RACK1), ras-related nuclear protein (RAN) and peroxiredoxin 1 (PRDX1) are closely related to cell growth and oxidative stress, which prompted us to investigate the mechanism of action of IgG in the above phenomena. Upon confirmation of the interactions between IgG and the three proteins, further experiments revealed that downregulation of cancer-derived IgG lowered levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) by enhancing cellular total antioxidant capacity. In addition, a few ROS scavengers, including catalase (CAT), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), n-acetylcysteine (NAC) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), further inhibited the growth of IgG-deficient cancer cells through suppressing mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) signaling pathway induced by a low level of intracellular ROS, whereas exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at low concentration promoted their survival via increasing intracellular ROS levels. Similar results were obtained in an animal model and human tissues. Taken together, our results demonstrate that cancer-derived IgG can enhance the growth and proliferation of cancer cells via inducing the production of ROS at low level. These findings provide new clues for understanding tumor proliferation and designing cancer therapy. PMID:24309932

Wang, J; Lin, D; Peng, H; Huang, Y; Huang, J; Gu, J

2013-01-01

235

Inhibition of biphasic ethylene production enhances tolerance to abiotic stress by reducing the accumulation of reactive oxygen species in Nicotiana tabacum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as H2O2, are important plant cell signaling molecules involved in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses and in developmental and\\u000a physiological processes. Despite the well-known physiological functions of ethylene production and stress signaling via ROS\\u000a during stresses, whether ethylene acts alone or in conjunction with ROS has not yet been fully elucidated. Therefore, we investigated

Soo Jin Wi; Su Jin Jang; Ky Young Park

2010-01-01

236

TCDD decreases ATP levels and increases reactive oxygen production through changes in mitochondrial F 0F 1ATP synthase and ubiquinone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondria generate ATP and participate in signal transduction and cellular pathology and\\/or cell death. TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) decreases hepatic ATP levels and generates mitochondrial oxidative DNA damage, which is exacerbated by increasing mitochondrial glutathione redox state and by inner membrane hyperpolarization. This study identifies mitochondrial targets of TCDD that initiate and sustain reactive oxygen production and decreased ATP levels. One week

Howard G.. Shertzer; Mary Beth Genter; Dongxiao Shen; Daniel W. Nebert; Ying Chen; Timothy P. Dalton

2006-01-01

237

On the temperature dependence of organic reactivity, nitrogen oxides, ozone production, and the impact of emission controls in San Joaquin Valley California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The San Joaquin Valley (SJV) experiences some of the worst ozone air quality in the US, frequently exceeding the California 8 h standard of 70.4 ppb. To improve our understanding of trends in the number of ozone violations in the SJV, we analyze observed relationships between organic reactivity, nitrogen oxides (NOx), and daily maximum temperature in the southern SJV using measurements made as part of California at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change in 2010 (CalNex-SJV). We find the daytime speciated organic reactivity with respect to OH during CalNex-SJV has a temperature-independent portion with molecules typically associated with motor vehicles being the major component. At high temperatures, characteristic of days with high ozone, the largest portion of the total organic reactivity increases exponentially with temperature and is dominated by small, oxygenated organics and molecules that are unidentified. We use this simple temperature classification to consider changes in organic emissions over the last and next decade. With the CalNex-SJV observations as constraints, we examine the sensitivity of ozone production (PO3) to future NOx and organic reactivity controls. We find that PO3 is NOx-limited at all temperatures on weekends and on weekdays when daily maximum temperatures are greater than 29 °C. As a~consequence, NOx reductions are the most effective control option for reducing the frequency of future ozone violations in the southern SJV.

Pusede, S. E.; Gentner, D. R.; Wooldridge, P. J.; Browne, E. C.; Rollins, A. W.; Min, K.-E.; Russell, A. R.; Thomas, J.; Zhang, L.; Brune, W. H.; Henry, S. B.; DiGangi, J. P.; Keutsch, F. N.; Harrold, S. A.; Thornton, J. A.; Beaver, M. R.; St. Clair, J. M.; Wennberg, P. O.; Sanders, J.; Ren, X.; VandenBoer, T. C.; Markovic, M. Z.; Guha, A.; Weber, R.; Goldstein, A. H.; Cohen, R. C.

2013-11-01

238

On the temperature dependence of organic reactivity, nitrogen oxides, ozone production, and the impact of emission controls in San Joaquin Valley, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The San Joaquin Valley (SJV) experiences some of the worst ozone air quality in the US, frequently exceeding the California 8 h standard of 70.4 ppb. To improve our understanding of trends in the number of ozone violations in the SJV, we analyze observed relationships between organic reactivity, nitrogen oxides (NOx), and daily maximum temperature in the southern SJV using measurements made as part of California at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change in 2010 (CalNex-SJV). We find the daytime speciated organic reactivity with respect to OH during CalNex-SJV has a temperature-independent portion with molecules typically associated with motor vehicles being the major component. At high temperatures, characteristic of days with high ozone, the largest portion of the total organic reactivity increases exponentially with temperature and is dominated by small, oxygenated organics and molecules that are unidentified. We use this simple temperature classification to consider changes in organic emissions over the last and next decade. With the CalNex-SJV observations as constraints, we examine the sensitivity of ozone production (PO3) to future NOx and organic reactivity controls. We find that PO3 is NOx-limited at all temperatures on weekends and on weekdays when daily maximum temperatures are greater than 29 °C. As a consequence, NOx reductions are the most effective control option for reducing the frequency of future ozone violations in the southern SJV.

Pusede, S. E.; Gentner, D. R.; Wooldridge, P. J.; Browne, E. C.; Rollins, A. W.; Min, K.-E.; Russell, A. R.; Thomas, J.; Zhang, L.; Brune, W. H.; Henry, S. B.; DiGangi, J. P.; Keutsch, F. N.; Harrold, S. A.; Thornton, J. A.; Beaver, M. R.; St. Clair, J. M.; Wennberg, P. O.; Sanders, J.; Ren, X.; VandenBoer, T. C.; Markovic, M. Z.; Guha, A.; Weber, R.; Goldstein, A. H.; Cohen, R. C.

2014-04-01

239

Spacecraft self-contamination due to back-scattering of outgas products  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The back-scattering of outgas contamination near an orbiting spacecraft due to intermolecular collisions was analyzed. Analytical tools were developed for making reasonably accurate quantitative estimates of the outgas contamination return flux, given a knowledge of the pertinent spacecraft and orbit conditions. Two basic collision mechanisms were considered: (1) collisions involving only outgas molecules (self-scattering) and (2) collisions between outgas molecules and molecules in the ambient atmosphere (ambient-scattering). For simplicity, the geometry was idealized to a uniformly outgassing sphere and to a disk oriented normal to the freestream. The method of solution involved an integration of an approximation of the Boltzmann kinetic equation known as the BGK (or Krook) model equation. Results were obtained in the form of simple equations relating outgas return flux to spacecraft and orbit parameters. Results were compared with previous analyses based on more simplistic models of the collision processes.

Robertson, S. J.

1976-01-01

240

Gamma ray production in inelastic scattering of neutrons produced by cosmic muons in $^{56}$Fe  

E-print Network

We report on the study of the intensities of several gamma lines emitted after the inelastic scattering of neutrons in $^{56}$Fe. Neutrons were produced by cosmic muons passing the 20t massive iron cube placed at the Earth's surface and used as a passive shield for the HPGe detector. Relative intensities of detected gamma lines are compared with the results collected in the same iron shield by the use of $^{252}$Cf neutrons. Assessment against the published data from neutron scattering experiments at energies up to 14 MeV is also provided.

Krmar, M; Nikoli?, D

2010-01-01

241

Gamma ray production in inelastic scattering of neutrons produced by cosmic muons in $^{56}$Fe  

E-print Network

We report on the study of the intensities of several gamma lines emitted after the inelastic scattering of neutrons in $^{56}$Fe. Neutrons were produced by cosmic muons passing the 20t massive iron cube placed at the Earth's surface and used as a passive shield for the HPGe detector. Relative intensities of detected gamma lines are compared with the results collected in the same iron shield by the use of $^{252}$Cf neutrons. Assessment against the published data from neutron scattering experiments at energies up to 14 MeV is also provided.

M. Krmar; N. Jovan?evi?; D. Nikoli?

2010-03-19

242

Aging Enhances the Production of Reactive Oxygen Species and Bactericidal Activity in Peritoneal Macrophages by Upregulating Classical Activation Pathways  

SciTech Connect

Maintenance of macrophages in their basal state and their rapid activation in response to pathogen detection are central to the innate immune system, acting to limit nonspecific oxidative damage and promote pathogen killing following infection. To identify possible age-related alterations in macrophage function, we have assayed the function of peritoneal macrophages from young (3?4 months) and aged (14?15 months) Balb/c mice. In agreement with prior suggestions, we observe age-dependent increases in the extent of recruitment of macrophages into the peritoneum, as well as ex vivo functional changes involving enhanced nitric oxide production under resting conditions that contribute to a reduction in the time needed for full activation of senescent macrophages following exposure to lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Further, we observe enhanced bactericidal activity following Salmonella uptake by macrophages isolated from aged Balb/c mice in comparison with those isolated from young animals. Pathways responsible for observed phenotypic changes were interrogated using tandem mass spectrometry, which identified age-dependent increases in levels of proteins linked to immune cell pathways under basal conditions and following LPS activation. Immune pathways upregulated in macrophages isolated from aged mice include proteins critical to the formation of the immunoproteasome. Detection of these latter proteins is dramatically enhanced following LPS exposure for macrophages isolated from aged animals; in comparison, the identification of immunoproteasome subunits is insensitive to LPS exposure for macrophages isolated from young animals. Consistent with observed global changes in the proteome, quantitative proteomic measurements indicate that there are age-dependent abundance changes involving specific proteins linked to immune cell function under basal conditions. LPS exposure selectively increases the levels of many proteins involved in immune cell function in aged Balb/c mice. Collectively, these results indicate that macrophages isolated from old mice are in a preactivated state that enhances their sensitivities to LPS exposure. The hyper-responsive activation of macrophages in aged animals may act to minimize infection by general bacterial threats that arise due to age-dependent declines in adaptive immunity. However, this hypersensitivity and the associated increase in the level of formation of reactive oxygen species are likely to contribute to observed age-dependent increases in the level of oxidative damage that underlie many diseases of the elderly.

Smallwood, Heather S.; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Squier, Thomas C.

2011-10-07

243

Troubleshooting the dichlorofluorescein assay to avoid artifacts in measurement of toxicant-stimulated cellular production of reactive oxidant species  

PubMed Central

Introduction The dichlorofluorescein (DCF) assay is a popular method for measuring cellular reactive oxidant species (ROS). Although caveats have been reported with the DCF assay and other compounds, the potential for artifactual results due to cell-free interactions between the DCF compound and toxicants has hardly been explored. We evaluated the utility of the DCF assay for measuring ROS generation by the toxicants mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). Methods DCF fluorescence was measured spectrofluorometrically after a 1-h incubation of toxicants with 6-carboxy-2?,7?-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (carboxy-H2DCFDA). MEHP was incubated with carboxy-H2DCFDA in cell-free solutions of Hank’s buffered salt solution (HBSS), or in Royal Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) medium with or without fetal bovine serum. TBBPA was incubated with carboxy-H2DCFDA in cell-free HBSS and with human trophoblast cells (HTR8/SVneo cells). Results MEHP did not increase fluorescence in solutions of carboxy-H2DCFDA in HBSS or RPMI medium without serum. However, MEHP (90 and 180 ?M) increased DCF fluorescence in cell-free RPMI medium containing serum. Furthermore, serum-free and cell-free HBSS solutions containing 25 ?M TBBPA exhibited concentration-dependent increased fluorescence with 5–100 ?M carboxy-H2DCFDA (p<0.05), but not 1 ?M carboxy-H2DCFDA. In addition, we observed increased fluorescence in HTR8/SVneo cell cultures exposed to TBBPA (0.5–25 ?M) (p<0.05), as we had observed in cell-free buffer. Discussion MEHP demonstrated an interaction with serum in cell-free generation of DCF fluorescence, whereas TBBPA facilitated conversion of carboxy-H2DCFDA to the fluorescent DCF moiety in the absence of serum. Because TBBPA increased fluorescence in the absence of cells, the increased DCF fluorescence observed with TBBPA in the presence of cells cannot be attributed to cellular ROS and may, instead, be the result of chemical activation of carboxy-H2DCFDA to the fluorescent DCF moiety. These data illustrate the importance of including cell-free controls when using the DCF assay to study toxicant-stimulated cellular production of ROS. PMID:23380227

Tetz, Lauren M.; Kamau, Patricia W.; Cheng, Adrienne A.; Meeker, John D.; Loch-Caruso, Rita

2013-01-01

244

Activation of CaMKII as a key regulator of reactive oxygen species production in diabetic rat heart.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for heart failure. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been proposed as a possible mechanism of cardiac dysfunction in diabetic patients. However, the mechanisms of ROS increase are still elusive. We hypothesized that activation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) induced by impaired intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)) metabolism may stimulate ROS production in the diabetic heart. Cultured cardiomyocytes from neonatal rats were exposed to high glucose concentrations (25 mmol/L) and ROS levels were analyzed in 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, acetyl ester (CM-H(2)DCFDA)-loaded cells by flow cytometry analysis. Exposure to high glucose concentrations for 24h significantly increased CM-H(2)DCFDA fluorescence, which was significantly inhibited by 1,2-bis (o-aminophenoxy) ethane- N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetraacetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA-AM), a [Ca(2+)](i) chelator, and KB-R7943, an inhibitor of the Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) in the reverse mode. These results indicate that [Ca(2+)](i) increase by NCX activation may induce ROS increase following exposure to high glucose concentrations. We confirmed that exposure to high glucose concentrations significantly increased [Ca(2+)](i), which was inhibited by KB-R7943. Na(+)-H(+) exchanger (NHE) is a key factor in [Ca(2+)](i) metabolism, and is known to activate NCX by increasing the intracellular Na(+) ([Na(+)](i)) level. We showed that the expression of NHE isoform 1 and NHE activity increased following exposure to high glucose concentrations by evaluating protein expressions and intracellular pH recovery from acid loading. Exposure to high glucose concentrations up-regulated phosphorylated CaMKII expression in cardiomyocytes that was inhibited by KB-R7943. Further, autocamtide 2-related inhibitory peptide (AIP), a CaMKII inhibitor, significantly attenuated the ROS increase following exposure to high glucose concentrations. We confirmed these results obtained in in vitro experiments in an animal model of diabetes. ROS level and components of NADPH oxidase, p47phox and p67phox were up-regulated in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat heart, which were attenuated by KN-93, a CaMKII inhibitor. Consistently, expression of phosphorylated CaMKII was increased in the diabetic heart. Activation of CaMKII by impaired [Ca(2+)](i) metabolism may be a mechanism of ROS increase in the heart with diabetes mellitus. PMID:22394624

Nishio, Satoru; Teshima, Yasushi; Takahashi, Naohiko; Thuc, Luong Cong; Saito, Shotaro; Fukui, Akira; Kume, Osamu; Fukunaga, Naoya; Hara, Masahide; Nakagawa, Mikiko; Saikawa, Tetsunori

2012-05-01

245

Effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids on the reactive oxygen and nitrogen species production by raw 264.7 macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) can affect various functions of the immune system including inflammatory responses. An\\u000a oxidative burst of phagocytes accompanied by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) formation is\\u000a one of the phagocyte functions that could be modulated by PUFAs.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aim of the study  To investigate the effects of ?-3 (?-linolenic, docosahexaenoic, eicosapentaenoic) and ?-6 (arachidonic, linoleic)

Gabriela Ambrozova; Michaela Pekarova; Antonin Lojek

2010-01-01

246

Black tattoo inks induce reactive oxygen species production correlating with aggregation of pigment nanoparticles and product brand but not with the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content.  

PubMed

Black tattoo inks are composed of carbon nanoparticles, additives and water and may contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We aimed to clarify whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by black inks in vitro is related to pigment chemistry, physico-chemical properties of the ink particles and the content of chemical additives and contaminants including PAHs. The study included nine brands of tattoo inks of six colours each (black, red, yellow, blue, green and white) and two additional black inks of different brands (n = 56). The ROS formation potential was determined by the dichlorofluorescein (DCFH) assay. A semiquantitative method was developed for screening extractable organic compounds in tattoo ink based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Two black inks produced high amounts of ROS. Peroxyl radicals accounted for up to 72% of the free radicals generated, whereas hydroxyl radicals and H?O? accounted for <14% and 16%, respectively. The same two inks aggregated strongly in water in contrast to the other black inks. They did not exhibit any shared pattern in PAHs and other organic substances. Aggregation was exclusively shared by all ink colours belonging to the same two brands. Ten of 11 black inks had PAH concentrations exceeding the European Council's recommended level, and all 11 exceeded the recommended level for benzo(a)pyrene. It is a new finding that aggregation of tattoo pigment particles correlates with ROS production and brand, independently of chemical composition including PAHs. ROS is hypothesized to be implicated in minor clinical symptoms. PMID:23800057

Høgsberg, Trine; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Clausen, Per Axel; Serup, Jørgen

2013-07-01

247

Reactive Maillard intermediates leading to coloured products-5-hydroxymethyl- and 5-(1,2-dihydroxyethyl)-3(2H)-furanone.  

PubMed

In the course of the Maillard reaction, labile sugar degradation products are formed that are susceptible to secondary reactions and therefore have a decisive influence on the product spectrum. Such reactive intermediates may be transformed into stable derivatives with trapping reagents, and thus be protected from further reactions. Secondary processes may also be forestalled if the primary products are removed from the reaction mixture by high-vacuum distillation. By this procedure, 5-hydroxymethyl- and 5-(1,2-dihydroxyethyl)-3(2H)-furanone have been identified directly from Maillard reaction mixtures for the first time. The activated methylene group of these 3(2H)-furanones can easily enter into condensation reactions. The coloured condensation products in turn react with primary amines to pyrrolinone derivatives, which may also contribute to the colouring observed in non-enzymatic browning. PMID:8273421

Lederer, M; Glomb, M; Fischer, P; Ledl, F

1993-11-01

248

Spectroscopy of reactive potential energy surfaces Daniel M. Neumark  

E-print Network

Spectroscopy of reactive potential energy surfaces Daniel M. Neumark Department of Chemistry spectroscopy rather than scattering is used to probe reactive potential energy surfaces. The application of negative ion photodetachment to the transition state spectroscopy of benchmark reactions is described

Neumark, Daniel M.

249

Surface-enhanced Raman scattering in insulating materials by artificial plasmon production: Application to uranium compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is reviewed. The currently held position within the spectroscopic community is that the enormous SERS enhancement effect, sometimes as much as fourteen orders of magnitude, can be partially related to surface roughness but mostly to surface plasmons (polaritons). The plasmon states are absent in electrical insulators, thus precluding the applicability of the powerful

M. S. Piltch; P. C. Gray; J. C. Cooley; M. Manley

2009-01-01

250

Calcium Homeostasis and Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Cells Transformed by Mitochondria from Individuals with Sporadic Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with defects in mito- chondrial function. Mitochondrial-based disturbances in cal- cium homeostasis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and amyloid metabolism have been implicated in the patho- physiology of sporadic AD. The cellular consequences of mito- chondrial dysfunction, however, are not known. To examine these consequences, mitochondrially transformed cells (cy- brids) were created from AD patients

Jason P. Sheehan; Russel H. Swerdlow; Scott W. Miller; Robert E. Davis; Jan K. Parks; W. Davis

1997-01-01

251

Combination and QCD analysis of charm production cross section measurements in deep-inelastic ep scattering at HERA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of open charm production cross sections in deep-inelastic ep scattering at HERA from the H1 and ZEUS Collaborations are combined. Reduced cross sections ?_red^{cbar{c}} for charm production are obtained in the kinematic range of photon virtuality 2.5? Q 2?2000 GeV2 and Bjorken scaling variable 3?10-5? x?5?10-2. The combination method accounts for the correlations of the systematic uncertainties among the different data sets. The combined charm data together with the combined inclusive deep-inelastic scattering cross sections from HERA are used as input for a detailed NLO QCD analysis to study the influence of different heavy flavour schemes on the parton distribution functions. The optimal values of the charm mass as a parameter in these different schemes are obtained. The implications on the NLO predictions for W ± and Z production cross sections at the LHC are investigated. Using the fixed flavour number scheme, the running mass of the charm quark is determined.

Abramowicz, H.; Abt, I.; Adamczyk, L.; Adamus, M.; Aggarwal, R.; Alexa, C.; Andreev, V.; Antonelli, S.; Antonioli, P.; Antonov, A.; Arneodo, M.; Arslan, O.; Aushev, V.; Aushev, Y.; Bachynska, O.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baghdasaryan, S.; Bamberger, A.; Barakbaev, A. N.; Barbagli, G.; Bari, G.; Barreiro, F.; Bartel, W.; Bartosik, N.; Bartsch, D.; Basile, M.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Behr, J.; Behrens, U.; Bellagamba, L.; Belousov, A.; Belov, P.; Bertolin, A.; Bhadra, S.; Bindi, M.; Blohm, C.; Bokhonov, V.; Bondarenko, K.; Boos, E. G.; Borras, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bot, D.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bo?d, T.; Brümmer, N.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, D.; Brock, I.; Brownson, E.; Brugnera, R.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Brzozowska, B.; Bunyatyan, A.; Bussey, P. J.; Bylinkin, A.; Bylsma, B.; Bystritskaya, L.; Caldwell, A.; Campbell, A. J.; Cantun Avila, K. B.; Capua, M.; Carlin, R.; Catterall, C. D.; Ceccopieri, F.; Cerny, K.; Chekanov, S.; Chekelian, V.; Chwastowski, J.; Ciborowski, J.; Ciesielski, R.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; Contreras, J. G.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Coppola, N.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Costa, M.; Cvach, J.; D'Agostini, G.; Dainton, J. B.; Dal Corso, F.; Daum, K.; Delvax, J.; Dementiev, R. K.; Derrick, M.; Devenish, R. C. E.; De Pasquale, S.; De Wolf, E. A.; del Peso, J.; Diaconu, C.; Dobre, M.; Dobur, D.; Dodonov, V.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Dolinska, G.; Dossanov, A.; Doyle, A. T.; Drugakov, V.; Durkin, L. S.; Dusini, S.; Eckerlin, G.; Egli, S.; Eisenberg, Y.; Elsen, E.; Ermolov, P. F.; Eskreys, A.; Fang, S.; Favart, L.; Fazio, S.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrero, M. I.; Figiel, J.; Fischer, D.-J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Foster, B.; Gabathuler, E.; Gach, G.; Galas, A.; Gallo, E.; Garfagnini, A.; Gayler, J.; Geiser, A.; Ghazaryan, S.; Gialas, I.; Gizhko, A.; Gladilin, L. K.; Gladkov, D.; Glasman, C.; Glazov, A.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gogota, O.; Golubkov, Y. A.; Göttlicher, P.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Grabowska-Bo?d, I.; Grebenyuk, A.; Grebenyuk, J.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregor, I.; Grigorescu, G.; Grindhammer, G.; Grzelak, G.; Gueta, O.; Guzik, M.; Gwenlan, C.; Hüttmann, A.; Haas, T.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hain, W.; Hamatsu, R.; Hart, J. C.; Hartmann, H.; Hartner, G.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Hennekemper, E.; Henschel, H.; Herbst, M.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hilger, E.; Hiller, K. H.; Hladký, J.; Hochman, D.; Hoffmann, D.; Hori, R.; Horisberger, R.; Hreus, T.; Huber, F.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Iga, Y.; Ingbir, R.; Ishitsuka, M.; Jacquet, M.; Jakob, H.-P.; Janssen, X.; Januschek, F.; Jones, T. W.; Jönsson, L.; Jüngst, M.; Jung, A. W.; Jung, H.; Kadenko, I.; Kahle, B.; Kananov, S.; Kanno, T.; Kapichine, M.; Karshon, U.; Karstens, F.; Katkov, I. I.; Kaur, P.; Kaur, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Keramidas, A.; Khein, L. A.; Kiesling, C.; Kim, J. Y.; Kisielewska, D.; Kitamura, S.; Klanner, R.; Klein, M.; Klein, U.; Kleinwort, C.; Kötz, U.; Koffeman, E.; Kogler, R.; Kondrashova, N.; Kononenko, O.; Kooijman, P.; Korol, I.; Korzhavina, I. A.; Kostka, P.; Kota?ski, A.; Kowalski, H.; Krämer, M.; Kretzschmar, J.; Krüger, K.; Kuprash, O.; Kuze, M.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Laštovi?ka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, A.; Lendermann, V.; Levchenko, B. B.; Levonian, S.; Levy, A.; Libov, V.; Limentani, S.; Ling, T. Y.; Lipka, K.; Lisovyi, M.; List, B.; List, J.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lobodzinski, B.; Löhr, B.; Lohmann, W.; Lohrmann, E.; Long, K. R.; Longhin, A.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lukina, O. Y.; Maeda, J.; Magill, S.; Makarenko, I.; Malinovski, E.; Malka, J.; Mankel, R.; Margotti, A.; Marini, G.; Martin, J. F.; Martyn, H.-U.; Mastroberardino, A.; Mattingly, M. C. K.; Maxfield, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Mergelmeyer, S.; Meyer, A. B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Miglioranzi, S.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Mohamad Idris, F.; Monaco, V.; Montanari, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J. V.; Morris, J. D.; Mujkic, K.; Müller, K.; Musgrave, B.; Nagano, K.; Namsoo, T.; Nania, R.; Naumann, T.; Newman, P. R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nigro, A.; Nikitin, D.; Ning, Y.; Nobe, T.; Notz, D.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nowak, R. J.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A. E.; Oh, B. Y.; Okazaki, N.; Olkiewicz, K.; Olsson, J. E.; Onishchuk, Y.; Ozerov, D.; Pahl, P.; Palichik, V.; Pandurovic, M.; Papageorgiu, K.; Parenti, A.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Paul, E.; Pawlak, J. M.; Pawlik, B.; Pelfer, P. G.; Pellegrino, A.; Perez, E.; Perla?ski, W.; Perrey, H.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Pirumov, H.; Pitzl, D.; Pla?akyt?, R.; Pluci?ski, P.; Pokorny, B.; Pokrovskiy, N. S.; Polifka, R.; Polini, A.; Povh, B.; Proskuryakov, A. S.; Przybycie?, M.; Radescu, V.; Raicevic, N.; Raval, A.

2013-02-01

252

Mycobacterium tuberculosis epitope-specific interferon-g production in healthy Brazilians reactive and non-reactive to tuberculin skin test  

PubMed Central

The interferon (IFN)-? response to peptides can be a useful diagnostic marker of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) latent infection. We identified promiscuous and potentially protective CD4+ T-cell epitopes from the most conserved regions of MTB antigenic proteins by scanning the MTB antigenic proteins GroEL2, phosphate-binding protein 1 precursor and 19 kDa antigen with the TEPITOPE algorithm. Seven peptide sequences predicted to bind to multiple human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR molecules were synthesised and tested with IFN-? enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assays using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 16 Mantoux tuberculin skin test (TST)-positive and 16 TST-negative healthy donors. Eighty-eight percent of TST-positive donors responded to at least one of the peptides, compared to 25% of TST-negative donors. Each individual peptide induced IFN-? production by PBMCs from at least 31% of the TST-positive donors. The magnitude of the response against all peptides was 182 ± 230 x 106 IFN-? spot forming cells (SFC) among TST-positive donors and 36 ± 62 x 106 SFC among TST-negative donors (p = 0.007). The response to GroEL2 (463-477) was only observed in the TST-positive group. This combination of novel MTB CD4 T-cell epitopes should be tested in a larger cohort of individuals with latent tuberculosis (TB) to evaluate its potential to diagnose latent TB and it may be included in ELISPOT-based IFN-? assays to identify individuals with this condition. PMID:25494469

da Silva, Bosco Christiano Maciel; Grassi, Maria Fernanda Rios; Coutinho, Raimundo; Mascarenhas, Rita Elizabeth Moreira; Olavarria, Viviana Nilla; Coutinho-Borgo, Adriana; Kalil, Jorge; Cunha, Edecio; Fonseca, Simone Gonçalves

2014-01-01

253

Cellular Transcription Factors Induced in Trigeminal Ganglia during Dexamethasone-Induced Reactivation from Latency Stimulate Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Productive Infection and Certain Viral Promoters  

PubMed Central

Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), an alphaherpesvirinae subfamily member, establishes latency in sensory neurons. Elevated corticosteroid levels, due to stress, reproducibly triggers reactivation from latency in the field. A single intravenous injection of the synthetic corticosteroid dexamethasone (DEX) to latently infected calves consistently induces reactivation from latency. Lytic cycle viral gene expression is detected in sensory neurons within 6 h after DEX treatment of latently infected calves. These observations suggested that DEX stimulated expression of cellular genes leads to lytic cycle viral gene expression and productive infection. In this study, a commercially available assay—Bovine Gene Chip—was used to compare cellular gene expression in the trigeminal ganglia (TG) of calves latently infected with BHV-1 versus DEX-treated animals. Relative to TG prepared from latently infected calves, 11 cellular genes were induced more than 10-fold 3 h after DEX treatment. Pentraxin three, a regulator of innate immunity and neurodegeneration, was stimulated 35- to 63-fold after 3 or 6 h of DEX treatment. Two transcription factors, promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) and Slug were induced more than 15-fold 3 h after DEX treatment. PLZF or Slug stimulated productive infection 20- or 5-fold, respectively, and Slug stimulated the late glycoprotein C promoter more than 10-fold. Additional DEX-induced transcription factors also stimulated productive infection and certain viral promoters. These studies suggest that DEX-inducible cellular transcription factors and/or signaling pathways stimulate lytic cycle viral gene expression, which subsequently leads to successful reactivation from latency in a small subset of latently infected neurons. PMID:22190728

Workman, Aspen; Eudy, James; Smith, Lynette; Frizzo da Silva, Leticia; Sinani, Devis; Bricker, Halie; Cook, Emily; Doster, Alan

2012-01-01

254

On the interpretation of differential scattering in rare gas excitation transfer systems: He* (2 /sup 1/S)+Ne and Ar* (4s /sup 3/P/sub 2//sub ,//sub 0/)+Kr, Xe  

SciTech Connect

Crossed beam time-of-flight measurements on scattered excited species in the title systems are used to identify some of the unusual structure at wide scattering angles as being due to reactively scattered excited products, and to correct two previous misinterpretations. Unexplained structure remains in the elastic scattering, while the reaction products are scattered sharply forward in every case, giving rise to resolved wide-angle peaks corresponding to each state or group of states of the excited atom product. The time-of-flight diagnostic thus enables ''reactive scattering spectroscopy'' for these and other systems, in which absolute state-to-state reaction cross sections, branching ratios, and reaction thresholds may be obtained from analysis of the angular distribution. (AIP)

Martin, D.W.; Fukuyama, T.; Gregor, R.W.; Jordan, R.M.; Siska, P.E.

1976-11-01

255

Reactive Immunization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For almost 200 years inert antigens have been used for initiating the process of immunization. A procedure is now described in which the antigen used is so highly reactive that a chemical reaction occurs in the antibody combining site during immunization. An organophosphorus diester hapten was used to illustrate this concept coined "reactive immunization." The organophosphonate recruited chemical potential from the immune response that resembled the way these compounds recruit the catalytic power of the serine hydrolases. During this recruitment, a large proportion of the isolated antibodies catalyzed the formation and cleavage of phosphonylated intermediates and subsequent ester hydrolysis. Reactive immunization can augment traditional immunization and enhance the scope of catalytic antibody chemistry. Among the compounds anticipated to be effective are those that contain appropriate reactive functionalities or those that are latently reactive, as in the mechanism-based inhibitors of enzymes.

Wirsching, Peter; Ashley, Jon A.; Lo, Chih-Hung L.; Janda, Kim D.; Lerner, Richard A.

1995-12-01

256

Vapour reactive distillation process for hydrogen production by HI decomposition from HI–I 2–H 2O solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this contribution, a sequential and hierarchical approach for the feasibility analysis and the preliminary design of reactive distillation columns is extended to systems involving vapour phase chemical reaction and is successfully applied to the HI vapour phase decomposition to produce H2.The complex phase and physicochemical behaviour of the quaternary HI–H2–I2–H2O system is represented by the Neumann's thermodynamic model and

B. Belaissaoui; R. Thery; X. M. Meyer; M. Meyer; V. Gerbaud; X. Joulia

2008-01-01

257

Production and characterization of activated carbon prepared from safflower seed cake biochar and its ability to absorb reactive dyestuff  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of activated carbon obtained from biochar for the removal of reactive dyestuff from aqueous solutions at various contact times, pHs and temperatures was investigated. The biochar was chemically modified with potassium hydroxide. The surface area and micropore volume of activated carbon was 1277 m2/g and 0.4952 cm3/g, respectively. The surface characterization of both biochar and activated carbon was undertaken using by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The experimental data indicated that the adsorption isotherms are well described by the Dubinin-Radushkevich (DR) isotherm equation. The adsorption kinetics of reactive dyestuff obeys the pseudo second-order kinetic model. The thermodynamic parameters such as ?G?, ?H? and ?S? were calculated to estimate the nature of adsorption. The activation energy of the system was calculated as 1.12 kJ/mol. According to these results, prepared activated carbon could be used as a low-cost adsorbent to compare with the commercial activated carbon for the removal reactive dyestuff from wastewater.

Ang?n, Dilek; Köse, T. Ennil; Selengil, U?ur

2013-09-01

258

Production of two $c \\bar c$ pairs in gluon-gluon scattering in high energy proton-proton collisions  

E-print Network

We calculate cross sections for $g g \\to Q \\bar Q Q \\bar Q$ in the high-energy approximation in the mixed (longitudinal momentum fraction, impact parameter) and momentum space representations. Besides the total cross section as a function of subsystem energy also differential distributions (in quark rapidity, transverse momentum, $Q Q$, $Q \\bar Q$ invariant mass) are presented. The elementary cross section is used to calculate production of $(c \\bar c) (c \\bar c)$ in single-parton scattering (SPS) in proton-proton collisions. We present integrated cross section as a function of proton-proton center of mass energy as well as differential distribution in $M_{(c \\bar c)(c \\bar c)}$. The results are compared with corresponding results for double-parton scattering (DPS) discussed recently in the literature. We find that the considered SPS contribution to $(c \\bar c)(c \\bar c)$ production is at high energy ($\\sqrt{s} >$ 5 TeV) much smaller than that for DPS contribution.

Wolfgang Schäfer; Antoni Szczurek

2012-03-19

259

Reactive crossed beam scattering of a Ti plasma and a N{sub 2} pulse in a novel laser ablation method  

SciTech Connect

The interaction and energy transfer of a laser ablation plasma of Ti with a pulsed N{sub 2} supersonic expansion are investigated using time-of-flight quadrupole mass spectroscopy and Langmuir probe techniques. The Ti ablation target and the exit nozzle of the pulsed gas source are positioned so that the plasma plume and gas pulse interact near to their respective origins, where the number density is still high, which hence results in strong coupling of the nascent plasma with the gas pulse. The timing between the gas pulse and ablation plume is shown to be critical in determining the scattering processes and the chemical nature of the films grown by this method, an example of which is presented. The degree of ionization of the plasma when crossed with the gas pulse compared to that for expansion into vacuum increases from less than 10{sup {minus}3} to 0.28{plus_minus}0.11, which is attributed to collision-induced ionization of Ti atoms. Further increasing the N{sub 2} number density quenches the ion signal. The effective bimolecular cross section for scattering of Ti with the high density N{sub 2} pulse is about 4 times larger than that with a static background of low pressure N{sub 2}, while the fractional depletion of the N{sub 2} pulse by the Ti plume depends on the N{sub 2} number density in the pulse, indicating that at these high local pressures, collective effects prevail. We propose a simple model for the resulting evolution of the plasma based on electrostatic considerations. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Willmott, P.R.; Timm, R.; Huber, J.R. [Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut der Universitaet Zuerich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland)] [Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut der Universitaet Zuerich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland)

1997-09-01

260

Evolutional reactive scheduling for agile manufacturing systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A predetermined production schedule is often disturbed in agile manufacturing systems, due to unscheduled disruptions, such as delays of manufacturing operations and addition of new jobs. The objective of the research is to propose a new reactive scheduling method based on the Genetic Algorithm (GA), which generates improved production schedules reactively against the disturbances. A basic reactive scheduling method was

Y. Tanimizu; T. Sakaguchi; K. Iwamura; N. Sugimura

2006-01-01

261

Charge-odd correlation of lepton and pion pair production in electron-proton scattering  

E-print Network

Charge-odd correlation of the charged pair components produced at electron-proton scattering can measure three current correlation averaged by proton state. In general these type correlation can be described by 14 structure functions. We restrict here by consideration of inclusive distributions of a pair components, which is the light-cone projection of the relevant hadronic tensor. Besides we consider the point-like approximation for proton and pion. Numerical estimations show that charge-odd effects can be measured in exclusive ep -> 2 pi X experiments.

A. I. Ahmadov; Yu. M. Bystritskiy; E. A. Kuraev; A. N. Ilyichev

2010-01-28

262

Forward-jet production in deep inelastic ep scattering at HERA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forward jet cross sections have been measured in neutral current deep inelastic scattering at low Bjorken-x with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 81.8 pb-1. Measurements are presented for inclusive forward jets as well as for forward jets accompanied by a dijet system. The explored phase space, with jet pseudorapidity up to 4.3 is expected to be particularly sensitive to the dynamics of QCD parton evolution at low x. The measurements are compared to fixed-order QCD calculations and to leading-order parton-shower Monte Carlo models.

Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.; Musgrave, B.; Nicholass, D.; Repond, J.; Yoshida, R.; Mattingly, M. C. K.; Jechow, M.; Pavel, N.; Yagües Molina, A. G.; Antonelli, S.; Antonioli, P.; Bari, G.; Basile, M.; Bellagamba, L.; Bindi, M.; Boscherini, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; Corradi, M.; de Pasquale, S.; Iacobucci, G.; Margotti, A.; Nania, R.; Polini, A.; Sartorelli, G.; Zichichi, A.; Bartsch, D.; Brock, I.; Hartmann, H.; Hilger, E.; Jakob, H.-P.; Jüngst, M.; Kind, O. M.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A. E.; Paul, E.; Renner, R.; Samson, U.; Schönberg, V.; Shehzadi, R.; Wlasenko, M.; Brook, N. H.; Heath, G. P.; Morris, J. D.; Capua, M.; Fazio, S.; Mastroberardino, A.; Schioppa, M.; Susinno, G.; Tassi, E.; Kim, J. Y.; Ma, K. J.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Kamaluddin, B.; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Ning, Y.; Ren, Z.; Sciulli, F.; Chwastowski, J.; Eskreys, A.; Figiel, J.; Galas, A.; Gil, M.; Olkiewicz, K.; Stopa, P.; Zawiejski, L.; Adamczyk, L.; Bo?d, T.; Grabowska-Bo?d, I.; Kisielewska, D.; ?ukasik, J.; Przybycie?, M.; Suszycki, L.; Kota?ski, A.; S?omi?ski, W.; Adler, V.; Behrens, U.; Bloch, I.; Blohm, C.; Bonato, A.; Borras, K.; Ciesielski, R.; Coppola, N.; Dossanov, A.; Drugakov, V.; Fourletova, J.; Geiser, A.; Gladkov, D.; Göttlicher, P.; Grebenyuk, J.; Gregor, I.; Haas, T.; Hain, W.; Horn, C.; Hüttmann, A.; Kahle, B.; Katkov, I. I.; Klein, U.; Kötz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Lobodzinska, E.; Löhr, B.; Mankel, R.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Miglioranzi, S.; Montanari, A.; Namsoo, T.; Notz, D.; Rinaldi, L.; Roloff, P.; Rubinsky, I.; Santamarta, R.; Schneekloth, U.; Spiridonov, A.; Stadie, H.; Szuba, D.; Szuba, J.; Theedt, T.; Wolf, G.; Wrona, K.; Youngman, C.; Zeuner, W.; Lohmann, W.; Schlenstedt, S.; Barbagli, G.; Gallo, E.; Pelfer, P. G.; Bamberger, A.; Dobur, D.; Karstens, F.; Vlasov, N. N.; Bussey, P. J.; Doyle, A. T.; Dunne, W.; Forrest, M.; Saxon, D. H.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Gialas, I.; Papageorgiu, K.; Gosau, T.; Holm, U.; Klanner, R.; Lohrmann, E.; Salehi, H.; Schleper, P.; Schörner-Sadenius, T.; Sztuk, J.; Wichmann, K.; Wick, K.; Foudas, C.; Fry, C.; Long, K. R.; Tapper, A. D.; Kataoka, M.; Matsumoto, T.; Nagano, K.; Tokushuku, K.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Barakbaev, A. N.; Boos, E. G.; Pokrovskiy, N. S.; Zhautykov, B. O.; Aushev, V.; Borodin, M.; Kozulia, A.; Lisovyi, M.; Son, D.; de Favereau, J.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Barreiro, F.; Glasman, C.; Jimenez, M.; Labarga, L.; Del Peso, J.; Ron, E.; Soares, M.; Terrón, J.; Zambrana, M.; Corriveau, F.; Liu, C.; Walsh, R.; Zhou, C.; Tsurugai, T.; Antonov, A.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Stifutkin, A.; Suchkov, S.; Dementiev, R. K.; Ermolov, P. F.; Gladilin, L. K.; Khein, L. A.; Korzhavina, I. A.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Levchenko, B. B.; Lukina, O. Yu.; Proskuryakov, A. S.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Zotkin, D. S.; Zotkin, S. A.; Abt, I.; Büttner, C.; Caldwell, A.; Kollar, D.; Schmidke, W. B.; Sutiak, J.; Grigorescu, G.; Keramidas, A.; Koffeman, E.; Kooijman, P.; Pellegrino, A.; Tiecke, H.; Vázquez, M.; Wiggers, L.; Brümmer, N.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Lee, A.; Ling, T. Y.; Allfrey, P. D.; Bell, M. A.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Ferrando, J.; Foster, B.; Korcsak-Gorzo, K.; Oliver, K.; Patel, S.; Roberfroid, V.; Robertson, A.; Straub, P. B.; Uribe-Estrada, C.; Walczak, R.; Bellan, P.; Bertolin, A.; Brugnera, R.; Carlin, R.; Dal Corso, F.; Dusini, S.; Garfagnini, A.; Limentani, S.; Longhin, A.; Stanco, L.; Turcato, M.; Oh, B. Y.; Raval, A.; Ukleja, J.; Whitmore, J. J.; Iga, Y.; D'Agostini, G.; Marini, G.; Nigro, A.; Cole, J. E.; Hart, J. C.; Abramowicz, H.; Gabareen, A.; Ingbir, R.; Kananov, S.; Levy, A.; Kuze, M.; Maeda, J.; Hori, R.; Kagawa, S.; Okazaki, N.; Shimizu, S.; Tawara, T.; Hamatsu, R.; Kaji, H.; Kitamura, S.; Ota, O.; Ri, Y. D.; Ferrero, M. I.; Monaco, V.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Arneodo, M.; Ruspa, M.; Fourletov, S.; Martin, J. F.; Boutle, S. K.; Butterworth, J. M.; Gwenlan, C.; Jones, T. W.; Loizides, J. H.; Sutton, M. R.; Wing, M.; Brzozowska, B.; Ciborowski, J.; Grzelak, G.; Kulinski, P.; ?u?niak, P.; Malka, J.; Nowak, R. J.; Pawlak, J. M.; Tymieniecka, T.; Ukleja, A.; ?arnecki, A. F.; Adamus, M.; Plucinski, P.; Eisenberg, Y.; Giller, I.; Hochman, D.; Karshon, U.; Rosin, M.; Brownson, E.; Danielson, T.; Everett, A.; Kçira, D.; Reeder, D. D.; Ryan, P.; Savin, A. A.; Smith, W. H.; Wolfe, H.; Bhadra, S.; Catterall, C. D.; Cui, Y.; Hartner, G.; Menary, S.; Noor, U.; Standage, J.; Whyte, J.

2007-11-01

263

Multiple parton interactions and forward double pion production in pp and dA scattering  

SciTech Connect

We estimate the contributions by double-parton interactions to the cross sections for pp{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}X and dA{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}X at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). We find that such contributions become important at large forward rapidities of the produced pions. This is, in particular, the case for dA scattering, where they strongly enhance the azimuthal-angular independent pedestal component of the cross section, providing a natural explanation of this feature of the RHIC dA data. We argue that the discussed processes open a window to studies of double quark distributions in nucleons. We also briefly address the roles of shadowing and energy loss in dA scattering, which we show to affect the double-inclusive pion cross section much more strongly than the single-inclusive one. We discuss the implications of our results for the interpretation of pion azimuthal correlations.

Strikman, M. [Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania (United States); Vogelsang, W. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Universitaet Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany)

2011-02-01

264

Elastic scattering and ? production in the Be9+Y89 system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elastic scattering measurement for the Be9+Y89 system has been carried out at near-barrier energies with the aim of investigating the effect of breakup on the elastic channel. The energy dependence of the optical model potential for the system gives an indication of the breakup threshold anomaly (BTA) for the system. An overall repulsive real part of the dynamic polarization potential (DPP) generated due to continuum couplings using the ? +He5 cluster structure for Be9 is consistent with the BTA behavior observed for the system. In contrast, an attractive real part of the DPP, at all energies, is observed for similar calculations carried out using the Be8+n cluster structure. Coupling of the 1n transfer channel in addition to continuum couplings does not have a significant effect on the elastic scattering angular distributions. The experimental 1n transfer cross sections show better agreement with the corresponding values obtained using the Be8+n cluster structure calculations. Inclusive breakup-? cross sections are observed to form a large fraction of the reaction cross sections, especially at below-barrier energies, suggesting the dominance of the breakup channel at these energies. This also supports the BTA behavior observed for the system, reflected as the presence of a reaction channel and thus the persistence of the imaginary potential at below-barrier energies.

Palshetkar, C. S.; Santra, S.; Shrivastava, A.; Chatterjee, A.; Pandit, S. K.; Ramachandran, K.; Parkar, V. V.; Nanal, V.; Jha, V.; Roy, B. J.; Kalias, S.

2014-06-01

265

Production and characterization of thermoplastic cassava starch, functionalized poly(lactic acid), and their reactive compatibilized blends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cassava starch was blended with glycerol using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder (TSE). Thermoplastic cassava starch (TPCS) at a ratio of 70/30 by weight of cassava/glycerol was selected and further blended with other polymers. TPCS sheets made from compression molding had low tensile strength (0.45 +/- 0.05 MPa) and Young's modulus (1.24 +/- 0.58 MPa), but moderate elongation at break (83.0 +/- 0.18.6%), medium level of oxygen permeability, and high water vapor permeability with a very high rate of water absorption. TPCS was blended with poly(lactic acid) (PLA) at various ratios by using a TSE. The blend resins exhibited good properties such as increased thermal stability (Tmax) and crystallinity of PLA, and improved water sensitivity and processability of TPCS. PLA and TPCS exhibited a high interfacial tension between the two phases of 7.9 mJ·m -2, indicating the formation of an incompatible, immiscible blend. SEM micrographs showed a non-homogeneous distribution of TPCS droplets in the PLA continuous phase. TEM micrographs of the blend films made by cast-film extrusion showed coalescence of the TPCS droplets in the PLA continuous phase of the blend, indicating that the compatibility between the polymer pair needs to be improved. A response surface methodology (RSM) design was used to analyze the effects of maleic anhydride (MA) and 2,5-bis(tert-butylperoxy)-2,5-dimethylhexane (Luperox or L101) contents, and TSE screw speed on the degree of grafted MA and number average molecular weight (Mn) of functionalized PLA (PLA-g-MA), a reactive compatibilizer. PLA-g- MA made by reactive extrusion had an array of colors depending on the content of L101 and MA used. New FTIR peaks suggested that MA was grafted onto the PLA backbone and oligomeric MA may occur. Increasing L101 increased the degree of grafting and decreased Mn, but the Mn of the PLA-g-MA's produced with a high amount of L101 was stable during storage. MA exhibited an optimum concentration for maximizing the degree of grafted MA, and increasing MA content retarded the reduction of Mn during processing. However, the Mn of PLA-g-MA during storage decreased more rapidly with a high content of MA. TSE screw speed had an impact on the Mn with the maximum value predicted at 20 rpm. PLA-g-MA compounds differing in Mn and/or grafted MA content were used as reactive polymers with TPCS (to produce binary blends) and as reactive compatibilizers (to produce ternary blends of PLA/TPCS/PLA-g-MA) with TPCS content of 30 wt% using a TSE. As a result of maleation, PLA-g-MA had a higher grafted MA content with a lower Mn, and higher PI. The interaction of anhydride groups from PLA-g-MA and hydroxyl groups from TPCS was found by FTIR. The reactive binary blends exhibited a change in thermal stability, decrease of Tcc, the presence of double melting peaks, and an increase of the Tgs of glycerol and starch. The higher the grafted MA content and/or the higher Mn of the PLA- g-MA used, the better were the distribution and smaller the TPCS domains obtained in the blends. The highest elongation at break was achieved when 30 wt% TPCS was blended with 70 wt% of PLA having 0.1 wt% of grafted MA and Mn of PLA-g-MA with a 45 kDa. Finally, the optimum PLA-g-MA was determined by using the results from PLA-g-MA RSM design and the reactive blending.

Detyothin, Sukeewan

266

Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and cancer  

E-print Network

Mitochondria produce reactive oxygen species (mROS) as a natural by-product of electron transport chain activity. While initial studies focused on the damaging effects of reactive oxygen species, a recent paradigm shift ...

Chandel, Navdeep S

267

Observation by flow sup 1 H NMR and dimerization kinetics and products of reactive ortho-quinodimethanes and benzocyclobutadiene  

SciTech Connect

The reactive o-quinodimethanes, 1,2-dimethylene-1,2-dihydronaphthalene (9) and o-xylylene (1) were observed by flow {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy at room temperature. The {sup 1}H NMR spectrum of 9 was obtained in the absence of precursor and dimers. However, the {sup 1}H NMR spectrum of the more reactive 1, generated in a similar manner from (o-((trimethylsilyl)methyl)benzyl)trimethylammonium iodide (5.) could be obtained only in the presence of its stable (4 + 2) and (4 + 4) dimers. The dimerization kinetics of 3-methyl- (5{prime}), 3,6-dimethyl- (11), 3-isopropyl- (12), and 3,6-diisoproply-1,2-xylylene (13) in acetonitrile (CH{sub 3}CN) were studied by stopped-flow UV-visible spectroscopy. Fluoride ion induced 1,2-elimination from 2-elimination from 2-trimethylsilylbenzocyclobutenyl-1 mesylate (26) was used to generate the reactive molecule benzocyclobutadiene (1{prime}) in CD{sub 3}CN, which was observed by flow {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy at room temperature. The {sup 1}H NMR spectrum (in CD{sub 3}CN) of 1,2-dimethylene-1,2-dihydrothiophene (1{double prime}), obtained by fluoride ion induced 1,4-elimination from 3-(trimethylammoniummethyl)-2-(trimethylsilylmethyl)thiophene iodine was observed by flow {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy at room temperature. The dimerization rate of 1{double prime} in CH{sub 3}CN, generated in the same manner, was measured by UV-visible spectroscopy. 166 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.

Fischer, D.

1990-09-21

268

Effect of olive mill wastewater phenol compounds on reactive carbonyl species and Maillard reaction end-products in ultrahigh-temperature-treated milk.  

PubMed

Thermal processing and Maillard reaction (MR) affect the nutritional and sensorial qualities of milk. In this paper an olive mill wastewater phenolic powder (OMW) was tested as a functional ingredient for inhibiting MR development in ultrahigh-temperature (UHT)-treated milk. OMW was added to milk at 0.1 and 0.05% w/v before UHT treatment, and the concentration of MR products was monitored to verify the effect of OMW phenols in controlling the MR. Results revealed that OMW is able to trap the reactive carbonyl species such as hydroxycarbonyls and dicarbonyls, which in turn led to the increase of Maillard-derived off-flavor development. The effect of OMW on the formation of Amadori products and N-?-(carboxymethyl)-lysine (CML) showed that oxidative cleavage, C2-C6 cyclization, and the consequent reactive carbonyl species formation were also inhibited by OMW. Data indicated that OMW is a functional ingredient able to control the MR and to improve the nutritional and sensorial attributes of milk. PMID:25280240

Troise, Antonio Dario; Fiore, Alberto; Colantuono, Antonio; Kokkinidou, Smaro; Peterson, Devin G; Fogliano, Vincenzo

2014-10-15

269

Plastid Genome Instability Leads to Reactive Oxygen Species Production and Plastid-to-Nucleus Retrograde Signaling in Arabidopsis1[C][W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

The plastid genome is highly conserved among plant species, suggesting that alterations of its structure would have dramatic impacts on plant fitness. Nevertheless, little is known about the direct consequences of plastid genome instability. Recently, it was reported that the plastid Whirly proteins WHY1 and WHY3 and a specialized type-I polymerase, POLIB, act as safeguards against plastid genome instability in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). In this study, we use ciprofloxacin, an organelle double-strand break-inducing agent, and the why1why3polIb-1 variegated mutant to evaluate the impact of generalized plastid DNA instability. First, we show that in why1why3polIb-1 and ciprofloxacin-treated plants, plastid genome instability is associated with increased reactive oxygen species production. Then, using different light regimens, we show that the elevated reactive oxygen species production correlates with the appearance of a yellow-variegated phenotype in the why1why3polIb-1 population. This redox imbalance also correlates to modifications of nuclear gene expression patterns, which in turn leads to acclimation to high light. Taken together, these results indicate that plastid genome instability induces an oxidative burst that favors, through nuclear genetic reprogramming, adaptation to subsequent oxidative stresses. PMID:23969600

Lepage, Étienne; Zampini, Éric; Brisson, Normand

2013-01-01

270

TCDD decreases ATP levels and increases reactive oxygen production through changes in mitochondrial F F{sub 1}-ATP synthase and ubiquinone  

SciTech Connect

Mitochondria generate ATP and participate in signal transduction and cellular pathology and/or cell death. TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) decreases hepatic ATP levels and generates mitochondrial oxidative DNA damage, which is exacerbated by increasing mitochondrial glutathione redox state and by inner membrane hyperpolarization. This study identifies mitochondrial targets of TCDD that initiate and sustain reactive oxygen production and decreased ATP levels. One week after treating mice with TCDD, liver ubiquinone (Q) levels were significantly decreased, while rates of succinoxidase and Q-cytochrome c oxidoreductase activities were increased. However, the expected increase in Q reduction state following TCDD treatment did not occur; instead, Q was more oxidized. These results could be explained by an ATP synthase defect, a premise supported by the unusual finding that TCDD lowers ATP/O ratios without concomitant changes in respiratory control ratios. Such results suggest either a futile cycle in ATP synthesis, or hydrolysis of newly synthesized ATP prior to release. The TCDD-mediated decrease in Q, concomitant with an increase in respiration, increases complex 3 redox cycling. This acts in concert with glutathione to increase membrane potential and reactive oxygen production. The proposed defect in ATP synthase explains both the greater respiratory rates and the lower tissue ATP levels.

Shertzer, Howard G. [Department of Environmental Health and Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056 Cincinnati, OH 45267-0056 (United States)]. E-mail: shertzhg@ucmail.uc.edu; Genter, Mary Beth [Department of Environmental Health and Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056 Cincinnati, OH 45267-0056 (United States); Shen, Dongxiao [Department of Environmental Health and Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056 Cincinnati, OH 45267-0056 (United States); Nebert, Daniel W. [Department of Environmental Health and Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056 Cincinnati, OH 45267-0056 (United States); Chen, Ying [Department of Environmental Health and Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056 Cincinnati, OH 45267-0056 (United States); Dalton, Timothy P. [Department of Environmental Health and Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056 Cincinnati, OH 45267-0056 (United States)

2006-12-15

271

Reactive oxygen species facilitate the insulin-dependent inhibition of glucagon-induced glucose production in the isolated perfused rat liver.  

PubMed

Recent studies indicate that intracellular insulin signalling involves the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NADPH oxidases (NOX). ROS inhibit intracellular protein tyrosin phosphatases whereby phosphoprotein signalling is enhanced and prolonged. We used the isolated perfused rat liver and detected ROS formation by measuring the surface fluorescence at wavelengths specific for the intracellular ROS sensor carboxydihydrodichlorofluorescein. Insulin (2, 5, 20 nM) induced low level ROS formation that was abolished by the NOX inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium chloride (4 microM). Studying insulin-dependent inhibition of glucagon-activated glucose production showed that melatonin (50 microM), used as ROS scavenger, inhibited ROS formation and blunted the effect of insulin on glucose production. The data support the general notion that hormone-dependent ROS formation modifies intracellular signal transduction. PMID:18998075

Messner, Jürgen; Graf, Jürg

2008-01-01

272

Ionizing radiation accelerates Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fission, which involves delayed mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production in normal human fibroblast-like cells.  

PubMed

Ionizing radiation is known to increase intracellular level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through mitochondrial dysfunction. Although it has been as a basis of radiation-induced genetic instability, the mechanism involving mitochondrial dysfunction remains unclear. Here we studied the dynamics of mitochondrial structure in normal human fibroblast like cells exposed to ionizing radiation. Delayed mitochondrial O(2)(-) production was peaked 3 days after irradiation, which was coupled with accelerated mitochondrial fission. We found that radiation exposure accumulated dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) to mitochondria. Knocking down of Drp1 expression prevented radiation induced acceleration of mitochondrial fission. Furthermore, knockdown of Drp1 significantly suppressed delayed production of mitochondrial O(2)(-). Since the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, which was induced by radiation was prevented in cells knocking down of Drp1 expression, indicating that the excessive mitochondrial fission was involved in delayed mitochondrial dysfunction after irradiation. PMID:22005465

Kobashigawa, Shinko; Suzuki, Keiji; Yamashita, Shunichi

2011-11-01

273

Reactive Arthritis  

MedlinePLUS

... meats that are not stored at the proper temperature. Doctors do not know exactly why some people ... several different types of doctors because reactive arthritis affects different parts of the body. However, it may ...

274

Reactive psychoses.  

PubMed

Scandinavian psychiatrists have been pre-eminent in elucidating the concept of reactive psychoses. This diagnosis has never found much acceptance except in Scandinavia, and the new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd Edition category of brief reactive psychosis is quite different from reactive psychosis as described by most Scandinavian clinicians and researchers. The concept of psychogenic psychoses is, however, not new. Indeed, many psychiatrists of the early 20th century stressed the psychogenic factors in psychotic mental disturbances. Reactive psychoses have generally been considered illnesses distinct not only from schizophrenia but also from manic-depressive psychosis with a distinctive genetic component. Of 283 hospitalized patients at Johns Hopkins for whom long-term follow-ups were available and of whom all were first admissions, Astrup retrospectively diagnosed 91 as reactive psychoses. A contrasting group of 78 "systematic schizophrenics" by Leonhardt's criteria were identified. Stephens found that these two groups differed significantly in that the reactive patients had a) a more acute onset, b) more precipitating stress, c) more affective symptoms, d) more confusion, e) less affective blunting, f) a better premorbid adjustment, g) less premorbid schizoid traits, h) fewer schizophrenic relatives, and i) a much more favorable long term outcome. PMID:7119765

Stephens, J H; Shaffer, J W; Carpenter, W T

1982-11-01

275

Low energy electron total scattering cross section for the production of CO within condensed methanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a method based on high-resolution electron-energy-loss spectroscopy to measure in situ the neutral fragmentation products arising from the impact of low energy electrons on thin solid films at low temperature. We show more particularly that the detection of electronic states from a dissociation product is a good alternative when the corresponding vibrational levels are obscured by those of

M. Lepage; M. Michaud; L. Sanche

1997-01-01

276

Nonadiabatic reactive scattering in atom+triatom systems: Nascent rovibronic distributions in F+H{sub 2}O{yields}HF+OH  

SciTech Connect

Crossed supersonic jet studies of F+H{sub 2}O{yields}HF+OH({sup 2}{Pi}{sub 3/2},{sup 2}{Pi}{sub 1/2}) have been performed under low density, single collision conditions at E{sub com}=6(2) kcal/mol, yielding rotational, vibrational, and spin-orbit state distributions in the nascent OH product by laser induced fluorescence methods. The lowest reaction barriers on the ground and first excited electronic surfaces are {Delta}E{approx_equal}4 kcal/mol and {Delta}E{approx_equal}25 kcal/mol, correlating with OH({sup 2}{Pi}{sub 3/2}) and OH({sup 2}{Pi}{sub 1/2}), respectively. Although only reactions on the ground state potential are Born-Oppenheimer allowed at the experimental collision energies, both ground and excited spin-orbit OH products are observed in a {sup 2}{Pi}{sub 3/2}:{sup 2}{Pi}{sub 1/2}=69(1)%:31(1)% branching ratio. This indicates the presence of strong nonadiabatic surface hopping interactions, in agreement with previous results for the F+D{sub 2}O{yields}DF+OD reaction. Despite clear differences in the rotational distributions between F+H{sub 2}O and F+D{sub 2}O isotopic reactions, the overall electronic branching into spin-orbit manifolds is nearly identical for both OH and OD products. Furthermore, when plotted versus total electronic+rotational energy, the nascent OH and OD populations each lie on single curves, with pronounced kinks in the Boltzmann plots suggestive of microscopic branching in the reaction dynamics. Such an equivalence of electronic and rotational energy release in the OH/OD products is consistent with predominantly nonadiabatic processes taking place in the immediate post-transition state region rather than asymptotically in the exit channel.

Ziemkiewicz, Michael; Nesbitt, David J. [JILA, National Institute of Standards and Technology, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0440 (United States) and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0440 (United States)

2009-08-07

277

Enhancement of chemically induced reactive oxygen species production and DNA damage in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells by 872 MHz radiofrequency radiation.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to investigate effects of 872 MHz radiofrequency (RF) radiation on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and DNA damage at a relatively high SAR value (5 W/kg). The experiments also involved combined exposure to RF radiation and menadione, a chemical inducing intracellular ROS production and DNA damage. The production of ROS was measured using the fluorescent probe dichlorofluorescein and DNA damage was evaluated by the Comet assay. Human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were exposed to RF radiation for 1 h with or without menadione. Control cultures were sham exposed. Both continuous waves (CW) and a pulsed signal similar to that used in global system for mobile communications (GSM) mobile phones were used. Exposure to the CW RF radiation increased DNA breakage (p<0.01) in comparison to the cells exposed only to menadione. Comparison of the same groups also showed that ROS level was higher in cells exposed to CW RF radiation at 30 and 60 min after the end of exposure (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). No effects of the GSM signal were seen on either ROS production or DNA damage. The results of the present study suggest that 872 MHz CW RF radiation at 5 W/kg might enhance chemically induced ROS production and thus cause secondary DNA damage. However, there is no known mechanism that would explain such effects from CW RF radiation but not from GSM modulated RF radiation at identical SAR. PMID:19135463

Luukkonen, Jukka; Hakulinen, Pasi; Mäki-Paakkanen, Jorma; Juutilainen, Jukka; Naarala, Jonne

2009-03-01

278

Impulsive model for reactive collisions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple classical mechanical model of the reactive scattering of a structureless atom A and a quasi-diatomic BC is developed which takes full advantage of energy, linear and angular momentum conservation relations but introduces a minimum of further assumptions. These are as follows: (1) the vibrational degree of freedom of the reactant (BC) and product (AB) molecules is suppressed, so the change in vibrational energy is simply a parameter; (2) straight-line trajectories are assumed outside of a reaction shell; (3) within this zone, momentum transfer occurs impulsively (essentially instantaneously) following mass transfer; (4) the impulse, which may be either positive or negative, is directed along the BC axis, which may, however, assume all orientations with respect to the incident relative velocity. The model yields differential and total cross sections and product rotational energy distributions for a given collision exoergicity Q, or for any known distribution over Q. Numerical results are presented for several prototype reactions whose dynamics have been well-studied.

Marron, M. T.; Bernstein, R. B.

1972-01-01

279

Working Memory and Reactivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study explores the relationship between working memory capacity (WMC) and think-alouds, focusing on the issue of reactivity. Two WM span tasks (listening span and operation span) were administered to 42 English-speaking learners of Spanish. Learner performance on reading comprehension and written production was measured under two…

Goo, Jaemyung

2010-01-01

280

Neutron production from beam-modifying devices in a modern double scattering proton therapy beam delivery system  

PubMed Central

In this work the neutron production in a passive beam delivery system was investigated. Secondary particles including neutrons are created as the proton beam interacts with beam shaping devices in the treatment head. Stray neutron exposure to the whole body may increase the risk that the patient develops a radiogenic cancer years or decades after radiotherapy. We simulated a passive proton beam delivery system with double scattering technology to determine the neutron production and energy distribution at 200 MeV proton energy. Specifically, we studied the neutron absorbed dose per therapeutic absorbed dose, the neutron absorbed dose per source particle and the neutron energy spectrum at various locations around the nozzle. We also investigated the neutron production along the nozzle's central axis. The absorbed doses and neutron spectra were simulated with the MCNPX Monte Carlo code. The simulations revealed that the range modulation wheel (RMW) is the most intense neutron source of any of the beam spreading devices within the nozzle. This finding suggests that it may be helpful to refine the design of the RMW assembly, e.g., by adding local shielding, to suppress neutron-induced damage to components in the nozzle and to reduce the shielding thickness of the treatment vault. The simulations also revealed that the neutron dose to the patient is predominated by neutrons produced in the field defining collimator assembly, located just upstream of the patient. PMID:19147903

Pérez-Andújar, Angélica; Newhauser, Wayne D; DeLuca, Paul M

2014-01-01

281

Physical vapour deposition reactive magnetron sputtering for the production and application of dichroics in photovoltaic system with solar spectral splitting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper aims at designing, producing and characterizing a series of dichroic filters that are made up of a stack of layers with variable nanometer thickness. Such filters are created by PVD reactive magnetron sputtering, obtaining SiO2 and TiO2 through an active oxidation during the deposition. The single layers have then been analyzed using different techniques including RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry) to determine the stoichiometry, AFM (Atomic Force Microscope) to assess the deposition rate, and UV-vis-NIR spectrophotometric analysis to evaluate the optical response. The application of the dichroic in concentration photovoltaic systems, separates the solar radiation in two optical spectral bands [7], that allows to couple them with a different solar cells which have dedicated external quantum efficiency. The optical separation using dichroic filters allows to combine different photovoltaic cells with an appropriate energy gap, thus optimizing the photovoltaic conversion.

Raniero, W.; Campostrini, M.; Maggioni, G.; Della Mea, G.; Quaranta, A.

2014-07-01

282

Enhancement of the Acrolein-Induced Production of Reactive Oxygen Species and Lung Injury by GADD34  

PubMed Central

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by lung destruction and inflammation. As a major compound of cigarette smoke, acrolein plays a critical role in the induction of respiratory diseases. GADD34 is known as a growth arrest and DNA damage-related gene, which can be overexpressed in adverse environmental conditions. Here we investigated the effects of GADD34 on acrolein-induced lung injury. The intranasal exposure of acrolein induced the expression of GADD34, developing the pulmonary damage with inflammation and increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Conversely, the integrality of pulmonary structure was preserved and the generation of ROS was reduced in GADD34-knockout mice. Acrolein-induced phosphorylation of eIF2? in GADD34-knockout epithelial cells by shRNA protected cell death by reducing misfolded protein-caused oxidative stress. These data indicate that GADD34 participates in the development of acrolein-induced lung injury.

Sun, Yang; Ito, Sachiko; Nishio, Naomi; Tanaka, Yuriko; Chen, Nana; Isobe, Ken-ichi

2015-01-01

283

Parthenolide induces significant apoptosis and production of reactive oxygen species in high-risk pre-B leukemia cells.  

PubMed

We investigated whether parthenolide, the principal bioactive component of the herb feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) induced apoptosis in pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) lines, including cells carrying the t(4;11)(q21;q23) chromosomal translocation. Parthenolide induced rapid apoptotic cell death distinguished by loss of nuclear DNA, externalization of cell membrane phosphatidylserine, and depolarization of mitochondrial membranes at concentrations ranging from 5 to 100 microM. Using reactive oxygen species (ROS)-specific dyes, an increase in nitric oxide and superoxide anion was detected in the cells by 4 h after exposure to parthenolide. Parthenolide-induced elevation of hypochlorite anion was observed only in the two t(4;11) lines. These data suggest parthenolide may have potential as a potent and novel therapeutic agent against pre-B ALLs. PMID:17470383

Zunino, Susan J; Ducore, Jonathan M; Storms, David H

2007-08-28

284

Lipolytic inhibitor G0/G1 switch gene 2 inhibits reactive oxygen species production and apoptosis in endothelial cells.  

PubMed

G0/G1 switch gene 2 (G0S2), a novel target gene of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, is highly expressed in fat tissues. G0S2 acts as proapoptotic factor toward human cancer cells. Endothelial cell (EC) apoptosis may be an initiating event in the development of atherosclerosis. However, the expression and function of G0S2 in vascular ECs remain unknown. Here, we reported for the first time that G0S2 is expressed in arterial ECs. Ectopic expression of G0S2 increased neutral lipid accumulation in cultured ECs. However, G0S2 prevented ECs from serum-free starvation stress- and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced apoptosis. G0S2 blocked the H2O2-induced dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential. G0S2 decreased the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol, followed by activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. The anti-apoptotic effect of G0S2 was Bcl-2 and adipose triglyceride lipase independent. In contrast, gene silence of G0S2 increased serum-free starvation stress-induced EC apoptosis and decreased the formation of capillary-like structures. We further found that G0S2 couples with the F0F1-ATP synthase in ECs. Levels of ATP were elevated, whereas reactive oxygen species levels were reduced in G0S2-expressing ECs. G0S2 can inhibit endothelial denudation secondary to H2O2-induced injury to ECs in vivo. These results indicate that G0S2 acts as a prosurvival molecule in ECs. Taken together, our results indicate that G0S2 has a protective function in ECs and may be a potential target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases associated with reactive oxygen species-induced EC injury, such as atherosclerosis and restenosis. PMID:25588877

Wang, Yinfang; Zhang, Yahui; Zhu, Yichun; Zhang, Peng

2015-03-15

285

4-Hydroperoxy-2-nonenal Is Not Just an Intermediate but a Reactive Molecule That Covalently Modifies Proteins to Generate Unique Intramolecular Oxidation Products*  

PubMed Central

?,?-Unsaturated aldehydes generated during lipid peroxidation, such as 4-oxoalkenals and 4-hydroxyalkenals, can give rise to protein degeneration in a variety of pathological states. Although the covalent modification of proteins by these end products has been well studied, the reactivity of unstable intermediates possessing a hydroperoxy group, such as 4-hydroperoxy-2-nonenal (HPNE), with protein has received little attention. We have now established a unique protein modification in which the 4-hydroperoxy group of HPNE is involved in the formation of structurally unusual lysine adducts. In addition, we showed that one of the HPNE-specific lysine adducts constitutes the epitope of a monoclonal antibody raised against the HPNE-modified protein. Upon incubation with bovine serum albumin, HPNE preferentially reacted with the lysine residues. By employing N?-benzoylglycyl-lysine, we detected two major products containing one HPNE molecule per peptide. Based on the chemical and spectroscopic evidence, the products were identified to be the N?-benzoylglycyl derivatives of N?-4-hydroxynonanoic acid-lysine and N?-4-hydroxy-(2Z)-nonenoyllysine, both of which are suggested to be formed through mechanisms in which the initial HPNE-lysine adducts undergo Baeyer-Villiger-like reactions proceeding through an intramolecular oxidation catalyzed by the hydroperoxy group. On the other hand, using an HPNE-modified protein as the immunogen, we raised a monoclonal antibody against the HPNE-modified protein and identified one of the HPNE-specific lysine adducts, N?-4-hydroxynonanoic acid-lysine, as an intrinsic epitope of the monoclonal antibody. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the HPNE-specific epitopes were produced not only in the oxidized low density lipoprotein in vitro but also in the atherosclerotic lesions. These results indicated that HPNE is not just an intermediate but also a reactive molecule that could covalently modify proteins in biological systems. PMID:21690609

Shimozu, Yuuki; Hirano, Keita; Shibata, Takahiro; Shibata, Noriyuki; Uchida, Koji

2011-01-01

286

Forward jet production in deep inelastic ep scattering and low- x parton dynamics at HERA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Differential inclusive jet cross sections in neutral current deep inelastic ep scattering have been measured with the ZEUS detector using an integrated luminosity of 38.7 pb-1. The jets have been identified using the kT cluster algorithm in the longitudinally invariant inclusive mode in the laboratory frame; they have been selected with jet transverse energy, ETjet above 6 GeV and jet pseudorapidity, ?jet, between -1 and 3. Measurements of cross sections as functions of ETjet, Björken x and the photon virtuality, Q2, are presented. Three phase-space regions have been selected in order to study parton dynamics from the most global to the most restrictive region of forward-going (close to the proton-beam direction) jets at low x, where the effects of BFKL evolution might be present. The measurements have been compared to the predictions of leading-logarithm parton-shower Monte Carlo models and fixed-order perturbative QCD calculations. In the forward region, O (?s1) QCD calculations underestimate the data up to an order of magnitude at low x. An improved description of the data in this region is obtained by including O (?s2) QCD corrections, which account for the lowest-order tˆ-channel gluon-exchange diagrams, highlighting the importance of such terms in the parton dynamics at low x.

Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.; Miglioranzi, S.; Musgrave, B.; Repond, J.; Yoshida, R.; Mattingly, M. C. K.; Pavel, N.; Yagües Molina, A. G.; Antonioli, P.; Bari, G.; Basile, M.; Bellagamba, L.; Boscherini, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Cara Romeo, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; Corradi, M.; De Pasquale, S.; Giusti, P.; Iacobucci, G.; Margotti, A.; Montanari, A.; Nania, R.; Palmonari, F.; Pesci, A.; Polini, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Sartorelli, G.; Zichichi, A.; Aghuzumtsyan, G.; Bartsch, D.; Brock, I.; Goers, S.; Hartmann, H.; Hilger, E.; Irrgang, P.; Jakob, H.-P.; Kind, O.; Meyer, U.; Paul, E.; Rautenberg, J.; Renner, R.; Voss, K. C.; Wang, M.; Wlasenko, M.; Bailey, D. S.; Brook, N. H.; Cole, J. E.; Heath, G. P.; Namsoo, T.; Robins, S.; Capua, M.; Mastroberardino, A.; Schioppa, M.; Susinno, G.; Tassi, E.; Kim, J. Y.; Ma, K. J.; Helbich, M.; Ning, Y.; Ren, Z.; Schmidke, W. B.; Sciulli, F.; Chwastowski, J.; Eskreys, A.; Figiel, J.; Galas, A.; Olkiewicz, K.; Stopa, P.; Szuba, D.; Zawiejski, L.; Adamczyk, L.; Bo?d, T.; Grabowska-Bo?d, I.; Kisielewska, D.; Kowal, A. M.; ?ukasik, J.; Przybycie?, M.; Suszycki, L.; Szuba, J.; Kota?ski, A.; S?omi?ski, W.; Adler, V.; Behrens, U.; Bloch, I.; Borras, K.; Drews, G.; Fourletova, J.; Geiser, A.; Gladkov, D.; Göttlicher, P.; Gutsche, O.; Haas, T.; Hain, W.; Horn, C.; Kahle, B.; Kötz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Kramberger, G.; Lelas, D.; Lim, H.; Löhr, B.; Mankel, R.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Nguyen, C. N.; Notz, D.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A. E.; Raval, A.; Santamarta, R.; Schneekloth, U.; Stösslein, U.; Wolf, G.; Youngman, C.; Zeuner, W.; Schlenstedt, S.; Barbagli, G.; Gallo, E.; Genta, C.; Pelfer, P. G.; Bamberger, A.; Benen, A.; Karstens, F.; Dobur, D.; Vlasov, N. N.; Bussey, P. J.; Doyle, A. T.; Ferrando, J.; Hamilton, J.; Hanlon, S.; Saxon, D. H.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Gialas, I.; Carli, T.; Gosau, T.; Holm, U.; Krumnack, N.; Lohrmann, E.; Milite, M.; Salehi, H.; Schleper, P.; Schörner-Sadenius, T.; Stonjek, S.; Wichmann, K.; Wick, K.; Ziegler, A.; Ziegler, Ar.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Foudas, C.; Fry, C.; Gonçalo, R.; Long, K. R.; Tapper, A. D.; Kataoka, M.; Nagano, K.; Tokushuku, K.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Barakbaev, A. N.; Boos, E. G.; Pokrovskiy, N. S.; Zhautykov, B. O.; Son, D.; de Favereau, J.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Barreiro, F.; Glasman, C.; González, O.; Jimenez, M.; Labarga, L.; del Peso, J.; Terrón, J.; Zambrana, M.; Barbi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Liu, C.; Padhi, S.; Plamondon, M.; Stairs, D. G.; Walsh, R.; Zhou, C.; Tsurugai, T.; Antonov, A.; Danilov, P.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Stifutkin, A.; Suchkov, S.; Dementiev, R. K.; Ermolov, P. F.; Gladilin, L. K.; Katkov, I. I.; Khein, L. A.; Korzhavina, I. A.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Levchenko, B. B.; Lukina, O. Yu.; Proskuryakov, A. S.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Zotkin, D. S.; Zotkin, S. A.; Abt, I.; Büttner, C.; Caldwell, A.; Liu, X.; Sutiak, J.; Coppola, N.; Grigorescu, G.; Grijpink, S.; Keramidas, A.; Koffeman, E.; Kooijman, P.; Maddox, E.; Pellegrino, A.; Schagen, S.; Tiecke, H.; Vázquez, M.; Wiggers, L.; de Wolf, E.; Brümmer, N.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Ling, T. Y.; Allfrey, P. D.; Bell, M. A.; Cooper, A. M.; Cottrell, A.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Foster, B.; Grzelak, G.; Gwenlan, C.; Kohno, T.; Patel, S.; Straub, P. B.; Walczak, R.; Bellan, P.; Bertolin, A.; Brugnera, R.; Carlin, R.; Ciesielski, R.; Dal Corso, F.; Dusini, S.; Garfagnini, A.; Limentani, S.; Longhin, A.; Stanco, L.; Turcato, M.; Heaphy, E. A.; Metlica, F.; Oh, B. Y.; Whitmore, J. J.; Iga, Y.; D'Agostini, G.; Marini, G.; Nigro, A.; Hart, J. C.; Abramowicz, H.; Gabareen, A.; Kananov, S.; Kreisel, A.; Levy, A.; Kuze, M.; Kagawa, S.; Tawara, T.; Hamatsu, R.; Kaji, H.; Kitamura, S.; Matsuzawa, K.; Ota, O.; Ri, Y. D.; Costa, M.; Ferrero, M. I.; Monaco, V.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Arneodo, M.; Ruspa, M.; Fourletov, S.; Koop, T.; Martin, J. F.; Mirea, A.; Butterworth, J. M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Jones, T. W.; Loizides, J. H.; Sutton, M. R.; Targett-Adams, C.; Wing, M.; Ciborowski, J.; Kulinski, P.; ?u?niak, P.; Malka, J.; Nowak, R. J.; Pawlak, J. M.; Sztuk, J.; Tymieniecka, T.; Tyszkiewicz, A.; Ukleja, A.; Ukleja, J.; ?arnecki, A. F.; Adamus, M.; Plucinski, P.; Eisenberg, Y.; Hochman, D.; Karshon, U.; Lightwood, M. S.; Everett, A.; Kçira, D.; Lammers, S.; Li, L.; Reeder, D. D.; Rosin, M.; Ryan, P.; Savin, A. A.; Smith, W. H.; Dhawan, S.; Bhadra, S.; Catterall, C. D.; Cui, Y.; Hartner, G.; Menary, S.; Noor, U.; Soares, M.; Standage, J.; Whyte, J.; ZEUS Collaboration

2006-01-01

287

Forward jet production in deep inelastic ep scattering and low-x parton dynamics at HERA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Differential inclusive jet cross sections in neutral current deep inelastic ep scattering have been measured with the ZEUS detector using an integrated luminosity of 38.7 pb-1. The jets have been identified using the k cluster algorithm in the longitudinally invariant inclusive mode in the laboratory frame; they have been selected with jet transverse energy, ETjet above 6 GeV and jet pseudorapidity, ?, between -1 and 3. Measurements of cross sections as functions of ETjet, Björken x and the photon virtuality, Q, are presented. Three phase-space regions have been selected in order to study parton dynamics from the most global to the most restrictive region of forward-going (close to the proton-beam direction) jets at low x, where the effects of BFKL evolution might be present. The measurements have been compared to the predictions of leading-logarithm parton-shower Monte Carlo models and fixed-order perturbative QCD calculations. In the forward region, O(?s1) QCD calculations underestimate the data up to an order of magnitude at low x. An improved description of the data in this region is obtained by including O(?s2) QCD corrections, which account for the lowest-order tˆ-channel gluon-exchange diagrams, highlighting the importance of such terms in the parton dynamics at low x.

ZEUS Collaboration; Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.; Miglioranzi, S.; Musgrave, B.; Repond, J.; Yoshida, R.; Mattingly, M. C. K.; Pavel, N.; Yagües Molina, A. G.; Antonioli, P.; Bari, G.; Basile, M.; Bellagamba, L.; Boscherini, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Cara Romeo, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; Corradi, M.; de Pasquale, S.; Giusti, P.; Iacobucci, G.; Margotti, A.; Montanari, A.; Nania, R.; Palmonari, F.; Pesci, A.; Polini, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Sartorelli, G.; Zichichi, A.; Aghuzumtsyan, G.; Bartsch, D.; Brock, I.; Goers, S.; Hartmann, H.; Hilger, E.; Irrgang, P.; Jakob, H.-P.; Kind, O.; Meyer, U.; Paul, E.; Rautenberg, J.; Renner, R.; Voss, K. C.; Wang, M.; Wlasenko, M.; Bailey, D. S.; Brook, N. H.; Cole, J. E.; Heath, G. P.; Namsoo, T.; Robins, S.; Capua, M.; Mastroberardino, A.; Schioppa, M.; Susinno, G.; Tassi, E.; Kim, J. Y.; Ma, K. J.; Helbich, M.; Ning, Y.; Ren, Z.; Schmidke, W. B.; Sciulli, F.; Chwastowski, J.; Eskreys, A.; Figiel, J.; Galas, A.; Olkiewicz, K.; Stopa, P.; Szuba, D.; Zawiejski, L.; Adamczyk, L.; Bo?d, T.; Grabowska-Bo?d, I.; Kisielewska, D.; Kowal, A. M.; ?ukasik, J.; Przybycie?, M.; Suszycki, L.; Szuba, J.; Kota?ski, A.; S?omi?ski, W.; Adler, V.; Behrens, U.; Bloch, I.; Borras, K.; Drews, G.; Fourletova, J.; Geiser, A.; Gladkov, D.; Göttlicher, P.; Gutsche, O.; Haas, T.; Hain, W.; Horn, C.; Kahle, B.; Kötz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Kramberger, G.; Lelas, D.; Lim, H.; Löhr, B.; Mankel, R.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Nguyen, C. N.; Notz, D.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A. E.; Raval, A.; Santamarta, R.; Schneekloth, U.; Stösslein, U.; Wolf, G.; Youngman, C.; Zeuner, W.; Schlenstedt, S.; Barbagli, G.; Gallo, E.; Genta, C.; Pelfer, P. G.; Bamberger, A.; Benen, A.; Karstens, F.; Dobur, D.; Vlasov, N. N.; Bussey, P. J.; Doyle, A. T.; Ferrando, J.; Hamilton, J.; Hanlon, S.; Saxon, D. H.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Gialas, I.; Carli, T.; Gosau, T.; Holm, U.; Krumnack, N.; Lohrmann, E.; Milite, M.; Salehi, H.; Schleper, P.; Schörner-Sadenius, T.; Stonjek, S.; Wichmann, K.; Wick, K.; Ziegler, A.; Ziegler, Ar.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Foudas, C.; Fry, C.; Gonçalo, R.; Long, K. R.; Tapper, A. D.; Kataoka, M.; Nagano, K.; Tokushuku, K.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Barakbaev, A. N.; Boos, E. G.; Pokrovskiy, N. S.; Zhautykov, B. O.; Son, D.; de Favereau, J.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Barreiro, F.; Glasman, C.; González, O.; Jimenez, M.; Labarga, L.; del Peso, J.; Terrón, J.; Zambrana, M.; Barbi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Liu, C.; Padhi, S.; Plamondon, M.; Stairs, D. G.; Walsh, R.; Zhou, C.; Tsurugai, T.; Antonov, A.; Danilov, P.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Stifutkin, A.; Suchkov, S.; Dementiev, R. K.; Ermolov, P. F.; Gladilin, L. K.; Katkov, I. I.; Khein, L. A.; Korzhavina, I. A.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Levchenko, B. B.; Lukina, O. Yu.; Proskuryakov, A. S.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Zotkin, D. S.; Zotkin, S. A.; Abt, I.; Büttner, C.; Caldwell, A.; Liu, X.; Sutiak, J.; Coppola, N.; Grigorescu, G.; Grijpink, S.; Keramidas, A.; Koffeman, E.; Kooijman, P.; Maddox, E.; Pellegrino, A.; Schagen, S.; Tiecke, H.; Vázquez, M.; Wiggers, L.; de Wolf, E.; Brümmer, N.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Ling, T. Y.; Allfrey, P. D.; Bell, M. A.; Cooper, A. M.; Cottrell, A.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Foster, B.; Grzelak, G.; Gwenlan, C.; Kohno, T.; Patel, S.; Straub, P. B.; Walczak, R.; Bellan, P.; Bertolin, A.; Brugnera, R.; Carlin, R.; Ciesielski, R.; dal Corso, F.; Dusini, S.; Garfagnini, A.; Limentani, S.; Longhin, A.; Stanco, L.; Turcato, M.; Heaphy, E. A.; Metlica, F.; Oh, B. Y.; Whitmore, J. J.; Iga, Y.; D'Agostini, G.; Marini, G.; Nigro, A.; Hart, J. C.; Abramowicz, H.; Gabareen, A.; Kananov, S.; Kreisel, A.; Levy, A.; Kuze, M.; Kagawa, S.; Tawara, T.; Hamatsu, R.; Kaji, H.; Kitamura, S.; Matsuzawa, K.; Ota, O.; Ri, Y. D.; Costa, M.; Ferrero, M. I.; Monaco, V.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Arneodo, M.; Ruspa, M.; Fourletov, S.; Koop, T.; Martin, J. F.; Mirea, A.; Butterworth, J. M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Jones, T. W.; Loizides, J. H.; Sutton, M. R.; Targett-Adams, C.; Wing, M.; Ciborowski, J.; Kulinski, P.; ?u?niak, P.; Malka, J.; Nowak, R. J.; Pawlak, J. M.; Sztuk, J.; Tymieniecka, T.; Tyszkiewicz, A.; Ukleja, A.; Ukleja, J.; ?arnecki, A. F.; Adamus, M.; Plucinski, P.; Eisenberg, Y.; Hochman, D.; Karshon, U.; Lightwood, M. S.; Everett, A.; Kçira, D.; Lammers, S.; Li, L.; Reeder, D. D.; Rosin, M.; Ryan, P.; Savin, A. A.; Smith, W. H.; Dhawan, S.; Bhadra, S.; Catterall, C. D.; Cui, Y.; Hartner, G.; Menary, S.; Noor, U.; Soares, M.; Standage, J.; Whyte, J.

2006-01-01

288

Sestrin2 decreases renal oxidative stress, lowers blood pressure, and mediates dopamine D2 receptor-induced inhibition of reactive oxygen species production.  

PubMed

The dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) decreases renal reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and regulates blood pressure, in part, via positive regulation of paraoxonase 2. Sestrin2, a highly conserved antioxidant protein, regulates intracellular ROS level by regenerating hyperoxidized peroxiredoxins. We hypothesized that sestrin2 may be involved in preventing excessive renal ROS production and thus contribute to the maintenance of normal blood pressure. Moreover, the D2R may decrease ROS production, in part, through the regulation of sestrin2. Renal sestrin2 expression was lower (-62±13%) in D2R(-/-) than in D2R(+/+) mice. Silencing D2R in human renal proximal tubule cells decreased sestrin2 expression (-53±3%) and increased hyperoxidized peroxiredoxins (2.9-fold). Stimulation of D2R in renal proximal tubule cells increased sestrin2 expression (1.6-fold), decreased hyperoxidized peroxiredoxins (-61±3%), and reduced ROS production (-31±4%). Silencing sestrin2 in renal proximal tubule cells increased hyperoxidized peroxiredoxins (2.1-fold) and ROS production (1.3-fold). Silencing sestrin2 also abolished D2R-induced decrease in peroxiredoxin hyperoxidation and partially prevented the inhibitory effect of D2R stimulation on ROS production. Silencing paraoxonase 2 increased sestrin2 ubiquitinylation (2.8-fold), decreased sestrin2 expression (-30±3%), and increased ROS production (1.3-fold), peroxiredoxin hyperoxidation (2.9-fold), and lipid peroxidation (2.3-fold), and blocked the increase in sestrin2 that occurs with D2R stimulation. In vivo renal selective silencing of sestrin2 by the renal subcapsular infusion of sestrin2 small interfering RNA (3 ?g/day; 7 days) in mice increased renal oxidative stress (1.3-fold) and blood pressure. These results suggest that the D2R, via paraoxonase 2 and sestrin2, keeps normal renal redox balance, which contributes to the maintenance of normal blood pressure. PMID:25024286

Yang, Yu; Cuevas, Santiago; Yang, Sufei; Villar, Van Anthony; Escano, Crisanto; Asico, Laureano; Yu, Peiying; Jiang, Xiaoliang; Weinman, Edward J; Armando, Ines; Jose, Pedro A

2014-10-01

289

Observation of two-jet production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of events with two distinct jets, in addition to the proton remnant, has been identified in deep inelastic, neutral current ep interactions recorded at HERA by the ZEUS experiment. For these events, the mass of the hadronic system ranges from 40 to 260 GeV. The salient features of the observed jet production agree with the predictions of higher

M. Derrick; D. Krakauer; S. Magill; B. Musgrave; J. Repond; S. Repond; R. Stanek; R. L. Talaga; J. Thron; F. Arzarello; R. Ayad; G. Bari; M. Basile; L. Bellagamba; D. Boscherini; A. Bruni; G. Bruni; P. Bruni; G. Cara Romeo; G. Castellini; M. Chiarini; L. Cifarelli; F. Cindolo; F. Ciralli; A. Contin; S. D'Auria; C. del Papa; F. Frasconi; P. Giusti; G. Iacobucci; G. Laurenti; G. Levi; Q. Lin; B. Lisowski; G. Maccarrone; A. Margotti; T. Massam; R. Nania; C. Nemoz; F. Palmonari; G. Sartorelli; R. Timellini; Y. Zamora Garcia; A. Zichichi; A. Bargende; J. Crittenden; H. Dabbous; K. Desch; B. Diekmann; T. Doeker; M. Geerts; G. Geitz; B. Gutjahr; H. Hartmann; D. Haun; K. Heinloth; E. Hilger; H.-P. Jakob; S. Kramarczyk; M. Kückes; A. Mass; S. Mengel; J. Mollen; D. Monaldi; H. Müsch; E. Paul; R. Schattevoy; J.-L. Schneider; R. Wedemeyer; A. Cassidy; D. G. Cussans; N. Dyce; H. F. Fawcett; B. Foster; R. Gilmore; G. P. Heath; M. Lancaster; T. J. Llewellyn; J. Malos; C. J. S. Morgado; R. J. Tapper; S. S. Wilson; R. R. Rau; M. Arneodo; T. Barillari; M. Schioppa; G. Susinno; A. Bernstein; A. Caldwell; I. Gialas; J. A. Parsons; S. Ritz; F. Sciulli; P. B. Straub; L. Wai; S. Yang; J. Chwastowski; A. Dwurazny; A. Eskreys; Z. Jakubowski; B. Niziom; K. Piotrzkowski; M. Zachara; L. Zawiejski; B. Bednarek; P. Borzemski; K. Eskreys; K. Jelen; D. Kisielewska; T. Kowalski; E. Rulikowska-Zarebska; L. Suszycki; J. Zajc; T. Kedzierski; A. Kotanski; M. Przybycien; L. A. T. Bauerdick; U. Behrens; J. K. Bienlein; C. Coldewey; A. Dannemann; G. Drews; P. Erhard; M. Flasinski; I. Fleck; R. Gläser; P. Göttlicher; T. Haas; L. Hagge; W. Hain; D. Hasell; H. Hultschig; G. Jahnen; P. Joos; M. Kasemann; R. Klanner; W. Koch; U. Kötz; H. Kowalski; J. Krüger; J. Labs; A. Ladage; B. Löhr; M. Löwe; D. Lüke; J. Mainusch; O. Manczak; M. Momayezi; J. S. T. Ng; S. Nickel; D. Notz; I. H. Park; K.-U. Pösnecker; M. Rohde; J. Roldán; E. Ros; U. Schneekloth; J. Schroeder; W. Schulz; F. Selonke; E. Stiliaris; E. Tscheslog; T. Tsurugai; F. Turkot; W. Vogel; G. Wolf; C. Youngman; H. J. Grabosch; A. Leich; A. Meyer; C. Rethfeldt; S. Schlenstedt; G. Barbagli; A. Francescato; M. Nuti; P. Pelfer; G. Anzivino; R. Casaccia; S. de Pasquale; S. Qian; L. Votano; A. Bamberger; A. Freidhof; T. Poser; S. Söldner-Rembold; G. Theisen; T. Trefzger; N. H. Brook; P. J. Bussey; A. T. Doyle; J. R. Forbes; V. A. Jamieson; C. Raine; D. H. Saxon; H. Brückmann; G. Gloth; U. Holm; H. Kammerlocher; B. Krebs; T. Neumann; K. Wick; A. Fürtjes; W. Kröger; E. Lohrmann; J. Milewski; M. Nakahata; N. Pavel; G. Poelz; A. Seidman; W. Schott; J. Terron; B. H. Wiik; F. Zetsche; T. C. Bacon; I. Butterworth; C. Markou; D. McQuillan; D. B. Miller; M. M. Mobayyen; A. Prinias; A. Vorvolakos; T. Bienz; H. Kreutzmann; U. Mallik; E. McCliment; M. Roco; M. Z. Wang; P. Cloth; D. Filges; L. Chen; R. Imlay; S. Kartik; H.-J. Kim; R. R. McNeil; W. Metcalf; F. Barreiro; G. Cases; L. Hervás; L. Labarga; J. del Peso; J. F. de Trocóniz; F. Ikraiam; J. K. Mayer; G. R. Smith; F. Corriveau; D. J. Gilkinson; D. S. Hanna; J. Hartmann; L. W. Hung; J. N. Lim; R. Meijer Drees; J. W. Mitchell; P. M. Patel; L. E. Sinclair; D. G. Stairs; R. Ullmann; G. L. Bashindzhagyan; P. F. Ermolov; L. K. Gladilin; Y. A. Golubkov; V. A. Kuzmin; E. N. Kuznetsov; A. A. Savin; A. G. Voronin; N. P. Zotov; S. Bentvelsen; M. Botje; A. Dake; J. Engelen; P. de Jong; M. de Kamps; P. Kooijman; A. Kruse; H. van der Lugt; V. O'dell; A. Tenner; H. Tiecke; H. Uijterwaal; M. Vreeswijk; L. Wiggers; E. de Wolf; R. van Woudenberg; R. Yoshida; B. Bylsma; L. S. Durkin; K. Honscheid; C. Li; T. Y. Ling; K. W. McLean; W. N. Murray; S. K. Park; T. A. Romanowski; R. Seidlein; G. A. Blair; A. Byrne; R. J. Cashmore; A. M. Cooper-Sarkar; R. C. E. Devenish; D. M. Gingrich; P. M. Hallam-Baker; N. Harnew; T. Khatri; K. R. Long; P. Luffman; I. McArthur; P. Morawitz; J. Nash; S. J. P. Smith; N. C. Roocroft; F. F. Wilson; G. Abbiendi; R. Brugnera; R. Carlin; F. dal Corso; M. de Giorgi; U. Dosselli; F. Gasparini; S. Limentani; M. Morandin; M. Posocco; L. Stanco; R. Stroili; C. Voci; J. M. Butterworth; J. Bulmahn; G. Field; B. Y. Oh; J. Whitmore; U. Contino; G. D'Agostini; M. Guida; M. Iori; S. M. Mari; G. Marini; M. Mattioli; A. Nigro; J. C. Hart; N. A. McCubbin; K. Prytz; T. P. Shah; T. L. Short; E. Barberis; N. Cartiglia; C. Heusch; B. Hubbard; J. Leslie; W. Lockman; K. O'Shaughnessy; H. F. Sadrozinski; A. Seiden; E. Badura; J. Biltzinger; H. Chaves; M. Rost; R. J. Seifert; A. H. Walenta; W. Weihs; G. Zech; S. Dagan; A. Levy; D. Zer-Zion; T. Hasegawa; M. Hazumi; T. Ishii; S. Kasai; M. Kuze; Y. Nagasawa; M. Nakao; H. Okuno; K. Tokushuku; T. Watanabe; S. Yamada; M. Chiba; R. Hamatsu; T. Hirose; S. Kitamura; S. Nagayama; Y. Nakamitsu; R. Cirio; M. Costa; M. I. Ferrero; L. Lamberti; S. Maselli; C. Peroni; A. Solano; A. Staiano

1993-01-01

290

Winery by-products: Extraction optimization, phenolic composition and cytotoxic evaluation to act as a new source of scavenging of reactive oxygen species.  

PubMed

Nearly 20 million tons of winery by-products, with many biological activities, are discarded each year in the world. The extraction of bioactive compounds from Chenin Blanc, Petit Verdot, and Syrah grape by-products, produced in the semi-arid region in Brazil, was optimized by a Central Composite Rotatable Design. The phenolic compounds profile, antioxidant capacity against synthetic free radicals (DPPH and ABTS), reactive oxygen species (ROS; peroxyl radical, superoxide radical, hypochlorous acid), cytotoxicity assay (MTT) and quantification of TNF-? production in RAW 264.7 cells were conducted. Gallic acid, syringic acid, procyanidins B1 and B2, catechin, epicatechin, epicatechin gallate, quercetin 3-?-d-glucoside, delfinidin 3-glucoside, peonidin 3-O-glucoside, and malvidin 3-glucoside were the main phenolic compounds identified. In general, rachis showed higher antioxidant capacity than pomace extract, especially for Chenin Blanc. All extracts showed low cytotoxicity against RAW 264.7 cells and Petit Verdot pomace suppressed TNF-? liberation in vitro. Therefore, these winery by-products can be considered good sources of bioactive compounds, with great potential for application in the food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:25794735

Melo, Priscilla Siqueira; Massarioli, Adna Prado; Denny, Carina; Dos Santos, Luciana Ferracini; Franchin, Marcelo; Pereira, Giuliano Elias; Vieira, Thais Maria Ferreira de Souza; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz; Alencar, Severino Matias de

2015-08-15

291

Up-regulation of avian uncoupling protein in cold-acclimated and hyperthyroid ducklings prevents reactive oxygen species production by skeletal muscle mitochondria  

PubMed Central

Background Although identified in several bird species, the biological role of the avian homolog of mammalian uncoupling proteins (avUCP) remains extensively debated. In the present study, the functional properties of isolated mitochondria were examined in physiological or pharmacological situations that induce large changes in avUCP expression in duckling skeletal muscle. Results The abundance of avUCP mRNA, as detected by RT-PCR in gastrocnemius muscle but not in the liver, was markedly increased by cold acclimation (CA) or pharmacological hyperthyroidism but was down-regulated by hypothyroidism. Activators of UCPs, such as superoxide with low doses of fatty acids, stimulated a GDP-sensitive proton conductance across the inner membrane of muscle mitochondria from CA or hyperthyroid ducklings. The stimulation was much weaker in controls and not observed in hypothyroid ducklings or in any liver mitochondrial preparations. The production of endogenous mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) was much lower in muscle mitochondria from CA and hyperthyroid ducklings than in the control or hypothyroid groups. The addition of GDP markedly increased the mitochondrial ROS production of CA or hyperthyroid birds up to, or above, the level of control or hypothyroid ducklings. Differences in ROS production among groups could not be attributed to changes in antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase or glutathione peroxidase). Conclusion This work provides the first functional in vitro evidence that avian UCP regulates mitochondrial ROS production in situations of enhanced metabolic activity. PMID:20426850

2010-01-01

292

Understanding composite explosive energetics: 4. Reactive flow modeling of aluminum reaction kinetics in PETN and TNT using normalized product equation of state  

SciTech Connect

Using Fabry-Perot interferometry techniques, we have determined the early time rate of energy release from detonating PETN and TNT explosives filled with 5 to 20 wt % of either 5 {mu}m or 18 {mu}m spherical aluminum with the detonation products, and calculate the extent of reaction at 1--3 {mu}s after the detonation. All of the metal in PETN formulations filled with 5 wt % and 10 wt % of either 5 {mu}m or 18 {mu}m aluminum reacted within 1.5 {mu}s, resulting in an increase of 18--22% in energy compared to pure PETN. For TNT formulations, between 5 to 10 wt % aluminum reacts completely with the same timeframe. A reactive flow hydrodynamic code model based on the Zeldovich-von Neumann-Doring (ZND) description of the reaction zone and subsequent reaction product expansion (Taylor wave) is used to address the reaction rate of the aluminum particles with detonation product gases. The detonation product JWL equation of state is derived from that of pure PETN using a parametric normalization methodology.

Tao, W.C.; Tarver, C.M.; Kury, J.W.; Lee, C.G.; Ornellas, D.L.

1993-07-01

293

Long-chain bases and their phosphorylated derivatives differentially regulate cryptogein-induced production of reactive oxygen species in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) BY-2 cells.  

PubMed

The proteinaceous elicitor cryptogein triggers defence reactions in Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) through a signalling cascade, including the early production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the plasma membrane (PM)-located tobacco respiratory burst oxidase homologue D (NtRbohD). Sphingolipid long-chain bases (LCBs) are emerging as potent positive regulators of plant defence-related mechanisms. This led us to question whether both LCBs and their phosphorylated derivatives (LCB-Ps) are involved in the early signalling process triggered by cryptogein in tobacco BY-2 cells. Here, we showed that cryptogein-induced ROS production was inhibited by LCB kinase (LCBK) inhibitors. Additionally, Arabidopsis thaliana sphingosine kinase 1 and exogenously supplied LCB-Ps increased cryptogein-induced ROS production, whereas exogenously supplied LCBs had a strong opposite effect, which was not driven by a reduction in cellular viability. Immunogold-electron microscopy assay also revealed that LCB-Ps are present in the PM, which fits well with the presence of a high LCBK activity associated with this fraction. Our data demonstrate that LCBs and LCB-Ps differentially regulate cryptogein-induced ROS production in tobacco BY-2 cells, and support a model in which a cooperative synergism between LCBK/LCB-Ps and NtRbohD/ROS in the cryptogein signalling pathway is likely at the PM in tobacco BY-2 cells. PMID:25303640

Coursol, Sylvie; Fromentin, Jérôme; Noirot, Elodie; Brière, Christian; Robert, Franck; Morel, Johanne; Liang, Yun-Kuan; Lherminier, Jeannine; Simon-Plas, Françoise

2015-02-01

294

Combined effects of 872 MHz radiofrequency radiation and ferrous chloride on reactive oxygen species production and DNA damage in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate possible cooperative effects of radiofrequency (RF) radiation and ferrous chloride (FeCl(2)) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and DNA damage. In order to test intracellular ROS production as a possible underlying mechanism of DNA damage, we applied the fluorescent probe DCFH-DA. Integrity of DNA was quantified by alkaline comet assay. The exposures to 872 MHz RF radiation were conducted at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 5 W/kg using continuous waves (CW) or a modulated signal similar to that used in Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) phones. Four groups were included: (1) Sham exposure (control), (2) RF radiation, (3) Chemical treatment, (4) Chemical treatment, and RF radiation. In the ROS production experiments, human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells were exposed to RF radiation and 10 microg/ml FeCl(2) for 1 h. In the comet assay experiments, the exposure time was 3 h and an additional chemical (0.015% diethyl maleate) was used to make DNA damage level observable. The chemical treatments resulted in statistically significant responses, but no effects from either CW or modulated RF radiation were observed on ROS production, DNA damage or cell viability. PMID:20564172

Luukkonen, Jukka; Juutilainen, Jukka; Naarala, Jonne

2010-09-01

295

Climate and topographic controls on pasture production in a semiarid Mediterranean watershed with scattered tree cover  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural grasses in semiarid rangelands constitute an effective protection against soil erosion and degradation, are a source of natural food for livestock and play a critical role in the hydrologic cycle by contributing to the uptake and transpiration of water. However, natural pastures are threatened by land abandonment and the consequent encroachment of shrubs and trees as well as by changing climatic conditions. In spite of their ecological and economic importance, the spatio-temporal variations of pasture production at the decadal to century scales over whole watersheds are poorly known. We used a physics-based, spatially-distributed ecohydrologic model applied to a 99.5 ha semiarid watershed in western Spain to investigate the sensitivity of pasture production to climate variability. The ecohydrologic model was run using a 300 yr long synthetic daily climate dataset generated using a stochastic weather generator. The data set reproduced the range of climatic variations observed under current climate. Results indicated that variation of pasture production largely depended on factors that also determined the availability of soil moisture such as the temporal distribution of precipitation, topography, and tree canopy cover. The latter is negatively related with production, reflecting the importance of rainfall and light interception, as well as water consumption by trees. Valley bottoms and flat areas in the lower parts of the catchment are characterized by higher pasture production. A quantitative assessment of the quality of the simulations showed that ecohydrologic models are a valuable tool to investigate long term (century scale) water and energy fluxes, as well as vegetation dynamics, in semiarid rangelands.

Lozano-Parra, J.; Maneta, M. P.; Schnabel, S.

2013-12-01

296

Structural insights into 2,2'-azino-Bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS)-mediated degradation of reactive blue 21 by engineered Cyathus bulleri Laccase and characterization of degradation products.  

PubMed

Advanced oxidation processes are currently used for the treatment of different reactive dyes which involve use of toxic catalysts. Peroxidases are reported to be effective on such dyes and require hydrogen peroxide and/or metal ions. Cyathus bulleri laccase, expressed in Pichia pastoris, catalyzes efficient degradation (78 to 85%) of reactive azo dyes (reactive black 5, reactive orange 16, and reactive red 198) in the presence of synthetic mediator ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)]. This laccase was engineered to degrade effectively reactive blue 21 (RB21), a phthalocyanine dye reported to be decolorized only by peroxidases. The 816-bp segment (toward the C terminus) of the lcc gene was subjected to random mutagenesis and enzyme variants (Lcc35, Lcc61, and Lcc62) were selected based on increased ABTS oxidizing ability. Around 78 to 95% decolorization of RB21 was observed with the ABTS-supplemented Lcc variants in 30 min. Analysis of the degradation products by mass spectrometry indicated the formation of several low-molecular-weight compounds. Mapping the mutations on the modeled structure implicated residues both near and far from the T1 Cu site that affected the catalytic efficiency of the mutant enzymes on ABTS and, in turn, the rate of oxidation of RB21. Several inactive clones were also mapped. The importance of geometry as well as electronic changes on the reactivity of laccases was indicated. PMID:25261507

Kenzom, T; Srivastava, P; Mishra, S

2014-12-01

297

Measurement of beauty production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA using decays into electrons  

E-print Network

The production of beauty quarks in ep interactions has been studied with the ZEUS detector at HERA for exchanged four-momentum squared Q^2 > 10 GeV^2, using an integrated luminosity of 363 pb^{-1}. The beauty events were identified using electrons from semileptonic b decays with a transverse momentum 0.9 < p_T^e < 8 GeV and pseudorapidity |eta^e| < 1.5. Cross sections for beauty production were measured and compared with next-to-leading-order QCD calculations. The beauty contribution to the proton structure function F_2 was extracted from the double-differential cross section as a function of Bjorken-x and Q^2.

ZEUS collaboration; H. Abramowicz; I. Abt; L. Adamczyk; M. Adamus; R. Aggarwal; S. Antonelli; P. Antonioli; A. Antonov; M. Arneodo; V. Aushev; Y. Aushev; O. Bachynska; A. Bamberger; A. N. Barakbaev; G. Barbagli; G. Bari; F. Barreiro; N. Bartosik; D. Bartsch; M. Basile; O. Behnke; J. Behr; U. Behrens; L. Bellagamba; A. Bertolin; S. Bhadra; M. Bindi; C. Blohm; V. Bokhonov; T. Bo?d; O. Bolilyi; E. G. Boos; K. Borras; D. Boscherini; D. Bot; S. K. Boutle; I. Brock; E. Brownson; R. Brugnera; N. Brümmer; A. Bruni; G. Bruni; B. Brzozowska; P. J. Bussey; J. M. Butterworth; B. Bylsma; A. Caldwell; M. Capua; R. Carlin; C. D. Catterall; S. Chekanov; J. Chwastowski; J. Ciborowski; R. Ciesielski; L. Cifarelli; F. Cindolo; A. Contin; A. M. Cooper-Sarkar; N. Coppola; M. Corradi; F. Corriveau; M. Costa; G. D'Agostini; F. Dal Corso; J. del Peso; R. K. Dementiev; S. De Pasquale; M. Derrick; R. C. E. Devenish; D. Dobur; B. A. Dolgoshein; G. Dolinska; A. T. Doyle; V. Drugakov; L. S. Durkin; S. Dusini; Y. Eisenberg; P. F. Ermolov; A. Eskreys; S. Fang; S. Fazio; J. Ferrando; M. I. Ferrero; J. Figiel; M. Forrest; B. Foster; S. Fourletov; G. Gach; A. Galas; E. Gallo; A. Garfagnini; A. Geiser; I. Gialas; L. K. Gladilin; D. Gladkov; C. Glasman; O. Gogota; Yu. A. Golubkov; P. Göttlicher; I. Grabowska-Bo?d; J. Grebenyuk; I. Gregor; G. Grigorescu; G. Grzelak; O. Gueta; C. Gwenlan; T. Haas; W. Hain; R. Hamatsu; J. C. Hart; H. Hartmann; G. Hartner; E. Hilger; D. Hochman; R. Hori; K. Horton; A. Hüttmann; G. Iacobucci; Z. A. Ibrahim; Y. Iga; R. Ingbir; M. Ishitsuka; H. -P. Jakob; F. Januschek; M. Jimenez; T. W. Jones; M. Jüngst; I. Kadenko; B. Kahle; B. Kamaluddin; S. Kananov; T. Kanno; U. Karshon; F. Karstens; I. I. Katkov; M. Kaur; P. Kaur; A. Keramidas; L. A. Khein; J. Y. Kim; D. Kisielewska; S. Kitamura; R. Klanner; U. Klein; E. Koffeman; P. Kooijman; Ie. Korol; I. A. Korzhavina; A. Kota?ski; U. Kötz; H. Kowalski; P. Kulinski; O. Kuprash; M. Kuze; A. Lee; B. B. Levchenko; A. Levy; V. Libov; S. Limentani; T. Y. Ling; M. Lisovyi; E. Lobodzinska; W. Lohmann; B. Löhr; E. Lohrmann; J. H. Loizides; K. R. Long; A. Longhin; D. Lontkovskyi; O. Yu. Lukina; P. ?u?niak; J. Maeda; S. Magill; I. Makarenko; J. Malka; R. Mankel; A. Margotti; G. Marini; J. F. Martin; A. Mastroberardino; M. C. K. Mattingly; I. -A. Melzer-Pellmann; S. Mergelmeyer; S. Miglioranzi; F. Mohamad Idris; V. Monaco; A. Montanari; J. D. Morris; K. Mujkic; B. Musgrave; K. Nagano; T. Namsoo; R. Nania; D. Nicholass; A. Nigro; Y. Ning; U. Noor; D. Notz; R. J. Nowak; A. E. Nuncio-Quiroz; B. Y. Oh; N. Okazaki; K. Oliver; K. Olkiewicz; Yu. Onishchuk; K. Papageorgiu; A. Parenti; E. Paul; J. M. Pawlak; B. Pawlik; P. G. Pelfer; A. Pellegrino; W. Perlanski; H. Perrey; K. Piotrzkowski; P. Plucinski; N. S. Pokrovskiy; A. Polini; A. S. Proskuryakov; M. Przybycie?; A. Raval; D. D. Reeder; B. Reisert; Z. Ren; J. Repond; Y. D. Ri; A. Robertson; P. Roloff; E. Ron; I. Rubinsky; M. Ruspa; R. Sacchi; A. Salii; U. Samson; G. Sartorelli; A. A. Savin; D. H. Saxon; M. Schioppa; S. Schlenstedt; P. Schleper; W. B. Schmidke; U. Schneekloth; V. Schönberg; T. Schörner-Sadenius; J. Schwartz; F. Sciulli; L. M. Shcheglova; R. Shehzadi; S. Shimizu; I. Singh; I. O. Skillicorn; W. S?omi?ski; W. H. Smith; V. Sola; A. Solano; D. Son; V. Sosnovtsev; A. Spiridonov; H. Stadie; L. Stanco; A. Stern; T. P. Stewart; A. Stifutkin; P. Stopa; S. Suchkov; G. Susinno; L. Suszycki; J. Sztuk-Dambietz; D. Szuba; J. Szuba; A. D. Tapper; E. Tassi; J. Terrón; T. Theedt; H. Tiecke; K. Tokushuku; O. Tomalak; J. Tomaszewska; T. Tsurugai; M. Turcato; T. Tymieniecka; C. Uribe-Estrada; M. Vázquez; A. Verbytskyi; O. Viazlo; N. N. Vlasov; O. Volynets; R. Walczak; W. A. T. Wan Abdullah; J. J. Whitmore; J. Whyte; L. Wiggers; M. Wing; M. Wlasenko; G. Wolf; H. Wolfe; K. Wrona; A. G. Yagües-Molina; S. Yamada; Y. Yamazaki; R. Yoshida; C. Youngman; A. F. ?arnecki; L. Zawiejski; O. Zenaiev; W. Zeuner; B. O. Zhautykov; N. Zhmak; C. Zhou; A. Zichichi; M. Zolko; D. S. Zotkin; Z. Zulkapli

2011-03-10

298

Measurement of beauty production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA using decays into electrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The production of beauty quarks in ep interactions has been studied with the ZEUS detector at HERA for exchanged four-momentum squared Q 2>10 GeV2, using an integrated luminosity of 363 pb-1. The beauty events were identified using electrons from semileptonic b decays with a transverse momentum 0.9 < pTe < 8 GeV and pseudorapidity | ? e |<1.5. Cross sections for beauty production were measured and compared with next-to-leading-order QCD calculations. The beauty contribution to the proton structure function F 2 was extracted from the double-differential cross section as a function of Bjorken- x and Q 2.

Abramowicz, H.; Abt, I.; Adamczyk, L.; Adamus, M.; Aggarwal, R.; Antonelli, S.; Antonioli, P.; Antonov, A.; Arneodo, M.; Aushev, V.; Aushev, Y.; Bachynska, O.; Bamberger, A.; Barakbaev, A. N.; Barbagli, G.; Bari, G.; Barreiro, F.; Bartosik, N.; Bartsch, D.; Basile, M.; Behnke, O.; Behr, J.; Behrens, U.; Bellagamba, L.; Bertolin, A.; Bhadra, S.; Bindi, M.; Blohm, C.; Bokhonov, V.; Bo?d, T.; Bolilyi, O.; Boos, E. G.; Borras, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bot, D.; Boutle, S. K.; Brock, I.; Brownson, E.; Brugnera, R.; Brümmer, N.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Brzozowska, B.; Bussey, P. J.; Butterworth, J. M.; Bylsma, B.; Caldwell, A.; Capua, M.; Carlin, R.; Catterall, C. D.; Chekanov, S.; Chwastowski, J.; Ciborowski, J.; Ciesielski, R.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Coppola, N.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Costa, M.; D'Agostini, G.; Dal Corso, F.; del Peso, J.; Dementiev, R. K.; De Pasquale, S.; Derrick, M.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Dobur, D.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Dolinska, G.; Doyle, A. T.; Drugakov, V.; Durkin, L. S.; Dusini, S.; Eisenberg, Y.; Ermolov, P. F.; Eskreys, A.; Fang, S.; Fazio, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrero, M. I.; Figiel, J.; Forrest, M.; Foster, B.; Fourletov, S.; Gach, G.; Galas, A.; Gallo, E.; Garfagnini, A.; Geiser, A.; Gialas, I.; Gladilin, L. K.; Gladkov, D.; Glasman, C.; Gogota, O.; Golubkov, Y. A.; Göttlicher, P.; Grabowska-Bo?d, I.; Grebenyuk, J.; Gregor, I.; Grigorescu, G.; Grzelak, G.; Gueta, O.; Gwenlan, C.; Haas, T.; Hain, W.; Hamatsu, R.; Hart, J. C.; Hartmann, H.; Hartner, G.; Hilger, E.; Hochman, D.; Hori, R.; Horton, K.; Hüttmann, A.; Iacobucci, G.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Iga, Y.; Ingbir, R.; Ishitsuka, M.; Jakob, H.-P.; Januschek, F.; Jimenez, M.; Jones, T. W.; Jüngst, M.; Kadenko, I.; Kahle, B.; Kamaluddin, B.; Kananov, S.; Kanno, T.; Karshon, U.; Karstens, F.; Katkov, I. I.; Kaur, M.; Kaur, P.; Keramidas, A.; Khein, L. A.; Kim, J. Y.; Kisielewska, D.; Kitamura, S.; Klanner, R.; Klein, U.; Koffeman, E.; Kooijman, P.; Korol, I.; Korzhavina, I. A.; Kota?ski, A.; Kötz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Kulinski, P.; Kuprash, O.; Kuze, M.; Lee, A.; Levchenko, B. B.; Levy, A.; Libov, V.; Limentani, S.; Ling, T. Y.; Lisovyi, M.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lohmann, W.; Löhr, B.; Lohrmann, E.; Loizides, J. H.; Long, K. R.; Longhin, A.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Lukina, O. Y.; ?u?niak, P.; Maeda, J.; Magill, S.; Makarenko, I.; Malka, J.; Mankel, R.; Margotti, A.; Marini, G.; Martin, J. F.; Mastroberardino, A.; Mattingly, M. C. K.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Mergelmeyer, S.; Miglioranzi, S.; Mohamad Idris, F.; Monaco, V.; Montanari, A.; Morris, J. D.; Mujkic, K.; Musgrave, B.; Nagano, K.; Namsoo, T.; Nania, R.; Nicholass, D.; Nigro, A.; Ning, Y.; Noor, U.; Notz, D.; Nowak, R. J.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A. E.; Oh, B. Y.; Okazaki, N.; Oliver, K.; Olkiewicz, K.; Onishchuk, Y.; Papageorgiu, K.; Parenti, A.; Paul, E.; Pawlak, J. M.; Pawlik, B.; Pelfer, P. G.; Pellegrino, A.; Perlanski, W.; Perrey, H.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Plucinski, P.; Pokrovskiy, N. S.; Polini, A.; Proskuryakov, A. S.; Przybycie?, M.; Raval, A.; Reeder, D. D.; Reisert, B.; Ren, Z.; Repond, J.; Ri, Y. D.; Robertson, A.; Roloff, P.; Ron, E.; Rubinsky, I.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Salii, A.; Samson, U.; Sartorelli, G.; Savin, A. A.; Saxon, D. H.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schleper, P.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schneekloth, U.; Schönberg, V.; Schörner-Sadenius, T.; Schwartz, J.; Sciulli, F.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Shehzadi, R.; Shimizu, S.; Singh, I.; Skillicorn, I. O.; S?omi?ski, W.; Smith, W. H.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Son, D.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Spiridonov, A.; Stadie, H.; Stanco, L.; Stern, A.; Stewart, T. P.; Stifutkin, A.; Stopa, P.; Suchkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Suszycki, L.; Sztuk-Dambietz, J.; Szuba, D.; Szuba, J.; Tapper, A. D.; Tassi, E.; Terrón, J.; Theedt, T.; Tiecke, H.; Tokushuku, K.; Tomalak, O.; Tomaszewska, J.; Tsurugai, T.; Turcato, M.; Tymieniecka, T.; Uribe-Estrada, C.; Vázquez, M.; Verbytskyi, A.; Viazlo, O.; Vlasov, N. N.; Volynets, O.; Walczak, R.; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Whitmore, J. J.; Whyte, J.; Wiggers, L.; Wing, M.; Wlasenko, M.; Wolf, G.; Wolfe, H.; Wrona, K.; Yagües-Molina, A. G.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yoshida, R.; Youngman, C.; ?arnecki, A. F.; Zawiejski, L.; Zenaiev, O.; Zeuner, W.; Zhautykov, B. O.; Zhmak, N.; Zhou, C.; Zichichi, A.; Zolko, M.; Zotkin, D. S.; Zulkapli, Z.

2011-02-01

299

Reactive quenching of OH A 2?+ by O2 and CO: Experimental and nonadiabatic theoretical studies of H- and O-atom product channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The outcomes following collisional quenching of electronically excited OH A 2?+ by O2 and CO are examined in a combined experimental and theoretical study. The atomic products from reactive quenching are probed using two-photon laser-induced fluorescence to obtain H-atom Doppler profiles, O (3PJ) atom fine structure distributions, and the relative yields of these products with H2, O2, and CO collision partners. The corresponding H-atom translational energy distributions are extracted for the H + O3 and H + CO2 product channels, in the latter case revealing that most of the available energy is funneled into internal excitation of CO2. The experimental product branching ratios show that the O-atom producing pathways are the dominant outcomes of quenching: the OH A 2?+ + O2 ? O + HO2 channel accounts for 48(3)% of products and the OH A 2?+ + CO ? O + HCO channel yields 76(5)% of products. In addition, quenching of OH A 2?+ by O2 generates H + O3 products [12(3)%] and returns OH to its ground X 2? electronic state [40(1)%; L. P. Dempsey, T. D. Sechler, C. Murray, and M. I. Lester, J. Phys. Chem. A 113, 6851 (2009), 10.1021/jp902935c]. Quenching of OH A 2?+ by CO also yields H + CO2 reaction products [26(5)%]; however, OH X 2? (v? = 0,1) products from nonreactive quenching are not observed. Theoretical studies characterize the properties of energy minimized conical intersections in four regions of strong nonadiabatic coupling accessible from the OH A 2?+ + CO asymptote. Three of these regions have the O-side of OH pointing toward CO, which lead to atomic H and vibrationally excited CO2 products and/or nonreactive quenching. In the fourth region, energy minimized points are located on a seam of conical intersection from the OH A 2?+ + CO asymptote to an energy minimized crossing with an extended OH bond length and the H-side of OH pointing toward CO in a bent configuration. This region, exoergic with respect to the reaction asymptote, is likely to be the origin of the dominant O + HCO product channel.

Lehman, Julia H.; Lester, Marsha I.; Yarkony, David R.

2012-09-01

300

A common pathway for intracellular reactive oxygen species production by glycoxidative and nitroxidative stress in vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells.  

PubMed

A large body of evidence suggests that carbonyl compounds induce intracellular signaling by increasing oxidative stress in the cell; however, the mechanisms involved have not been fully described. The focus of our research is on the pathway in which antioxidative enzymes are modified and inactivated by carbonyl compounds, resulting in the accumulation of active oxygen species in the cell. A common pathway appears to exist for cellular signaling evoked by nitroxidative stress. It could be concluded that some glycoxidative stress and nitroxidative stress cause intracellular signaling via similar mechanisms. The elucidation of the pathway for extracellular stress-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production would be important for our understanding of the role of ROS as signaling molecules. PMID:16037274

Taniguchi, Naoyuki; Takahashi, Motoko; Sakiyama, Haruhiko; Park, Yong Seek; Asahi, Michio; Misonou, Yoshiko; Miyamoto, Yasuhide

2005-06-01

301

Production of intracellular reactive oxygen species and change of cell viability induced by atmospheric pressure plasma in normal and cancer cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of atmospheric pressure plasma jet on cancer cells (human lung carcinoma cells) and normal cells (embryonic kidney cells and bronchial epithelial cells) were investigated. Using a detection dye, the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was found to be increased in plasma-treated cells compared to non-treated and gas flow-treated cells. A significant overproduction of ROS and a reduction in cell viability were induced by plasma exposure on cancer cells. Normal cells were observed to be less affected by the plasma-mediated ROS, and cell viability was less changed. The selective effect on cancer and normal cells provides a promising prospect of cold plasma as a cancer therapy.

Ja Kim, Sun; Min Joh, Hea; Chung, T. H.

2013-10-01

302

Insights on the antitumor effects of kahweol on human breast cancer: decreased survival and increased production of reactive oxygen species and cytotoxicity.  

PubMed

The present study aims to identify the modulatory effects of kahweol, an antioxidant diterpene present in coffee beans, on a panel of human tumor cell lines. Kahweol inhibits tumor cell proliferation and clonogenicity and induces apoptosis in several kinds of human tumor cells. In the estrogen receptor-negative MDA-MB231 human breast cancer, the mentioned effects are accompanied by caspases 3/7 and 9 activation and cytochrome c release. On the other hand, kahweol increases the production of reactive oxygen species and their cytotoxicity in human breast cancer cells but not in normal cells. Taken together, our data suggest that kahweol is an antitumor compound with inhibitory effects on tumor cell growth and survival, especially against MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells. PMID:24732357

Cárdenas, Casimiro; Quesada, Ana R; Medina, Miguel Ángel

2014-05-01

303

The chlorinated AHR ligand 3,3???,4,4???,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) promotes reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during embryonic development in the killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Exposure to dioxin-like chemicals that activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) can result in increased cellular and tissue production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Little is known of these effects during early fish development. We used the fish model, Fundulus heteroclitus, to determine if the AHR ligand and pro-oxidant 3,3???,4,4???,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) can increase ROS production during killifish development, and to test a novel method for measuring ROS non-invasively in a living organism. The superoxide-sensitive fluorescent dye, dihydroethidium (DHE), was used to detect in ovo ROS production microscopically in developing killifish exposed to PCB126 or vehicle. Both in ovo CYP1A activity (ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase, EROD) and in ovo ROS were induced by PCB126. In ovo CYP1A activity was inducible by PCB126 concentrations as low as 0.003 nM, with maximal induction occurring at 0.3 nM PCB126. These PCB126 concentrations also significantly increased in ovo ROS production in embryonic liver, ROS being detectable as early as 5 days post-fertilization. These data demonstrate that the pro-oxidant and CYP1A inducer, PCB126, increases both CYP1A activity and ROS production in developing killifish embryos. The superoxide detection assay (SoDA) described in this paper provides a semi-quantitative, easily measured, early indicator of altered ROS production that can be used in conjunction with simultaneous in ovo measurements of CYP1A activity and embryo development to explore functional relationships among biochemical, physiological and developmental responses to AHR ligands. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Arzuaga, X.; Wassenberg, D.; Giulio, R.D.; Elskus, A.

2006-01-01

304

Atmospheric photochemical reactivity and ozone production at two sites in Hong Kong: Application of a Master Chemical Mechanism-photochemical box model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A photochemical box model incorporating the Master Chemical Mechanism (v3.2), constrained with a full suite of measurements, was developed to investigate the photochemical reactivity of volatile organic compounds at a semirural site (Mount Tai Mo Shan (TMS)) and an urban site (Tsuen Wan (TW)) in Hong Kong. The levels of ozone (O3) and its precursors, and the magnitudes of the reactivity of O3 precursors, revealed significant differences in the photochemistry at the two sites. Simulated peak hydroperoxyl radical (HO2) mixing ratios were similar at TW and TMS (p = 0.05), while the simulated hydroxyl radical (OH) mixing ratios were much higher at TW (p < 0.05), suggesting different cycling processes between OH and HO2 at the two sites. The higher OH at TW was due to high-NO mixing ratios, which shifted the HOx (OH + HO2) balance toward OH by the propagation of HO2 and alkyl peroxy radicals (RO2) with NO. HOx production was dominated by O3 photolysis at TMS, but at TW, both HCHO and O3 photolyses were found to be major contributors. By contrast, radical-radical reactions governed HOx radical losses at TMS, while at TW, the OH + NO2 reaction was found to dominate in the morning and the radical-radical reactions at noon. Overall, the conversion of NO to NO2 by HO2 dictated the O3 production at the two sites, while O3 destruction was dominated by the OH + NO2 reaction at TW, and at TMS, O3 photolysis and the O3 + HO2 reaction were the major mechanisms. The longer OH chain length at TMS indicated that more O3 was produced for each radical that was generated at this site.

Ling, Z. H.; Guo, H.; Lam, S. H. M.; Saunders, S. M.; Wang, T.

2014-09-01

305

Formation of ferrihydrite and associated iron corrosion products in permeable reactive barriers of zero-valent iron.  

PubMed

Ferrihydrite, which is known to form in the presence of oxygen and to be stabilized by the adsorption of Si, PO4 and SO4, is ubiquitous in the fine-grained fractions of permeable reactive barrier (PRB) samples from the U.S. Coast Guard Support Center (Elizabeth City, NC) and the Denver Federal Center (Lakewood, CO) studied by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction. The concurrent energy-dispersive X-ray data indicate a strong association between ferrihydrite and metals such as Si, Ca, and Cr. Magnetite, green rust 1, aragonite, calcite, mackinawite, greigite and lepidocrocite were also present, indicative of a geochemical environment that is temporally and spatially heterogeneous. Whereas magnetite, which is known to form due to anaerobic Fe0 corrosion, passivates the Fe0 surface, ferrihydrite precipitation occurs away from the immediate Fe0 surface, forming small (<0.1 microm) discrete clusters. Consequently, Fe0-PRBs may remain effective for a longer period of time in slightly oxidized groundwater systems where ferrihydrite formation occurs compared to oxygen-depleted systems where magnetite passivation occurs. The ubiquitous presence of ferrihydrite suggests that the use of Fe0-PRBs may be extended to applications that require contaminant adsorption rather than, or in addition to, redox-promoted contaminant degradation. PMID:12521177

Furukawa, Yoko; Kim, Jin-Wook; Watkins, Janet; Wilkin, Richard T

2002-12-15

306

Comparative study between atmospheric microwave and low-frequency plasmas: Production efficiency of reactive species and their effectiveness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characteristics of low-frequency (LF) and microwave-powered plasmas were investigated. The optical emission of these two plasmas indicated that more chemicals were generated by microwave plasma than by LF plasma with the intensities being higher by factors of about 9, 3, 5, and 1.6 for OH (309 nm), O (777 nm), NO (247 nm), and Ca2+ (290 nm), respectively. Application experiments were also conducted. A steel plate became hydrophilic after 45 s of microwave plasma treatment. This is more than ten times faster than in the case of LF plasma treatment, an action related to the generation of reactive species (e.g., OH, O, and NO) as measured by optical emission spectroscopy (OES). Ca2+ generation was verified by blood coagulation experiment. Microwave-plasma-induced coagulation was twice faster than LF-plasma-induced coagulation. Simulation results that explain the chemical generation in microwave plasma were also included. High-energy electrons were considered a major factor for microwave plasma characteristics.

Won, Im Hee; Kim, Myoung Soo; Kim, Ho Young; Shin, Hyun Kook; Kwon, Hyoung Cheol; Sim, Jae Yoon; Lee, Jae Koo

2014-01-01

307

Formation of ferrihydrite and associated iron corrosion products in permeable reactive barriers of zero-valent iron  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ferrihydrite, which is known to form in the presence of oxygen and to be stabilized by the adsorption of Si, PO4 and SO4, is ubiquitous in the fine-grained fractions of permeable reactive barrier (PRB) samples from the U.S. Coast Guard Support Center (Elizabeth City, NC) and the Denver Federal Center (Lakewood, CO) studied by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction. The concurrent energy-dispersive X-ray data indicate a strong association between ferrihydrite and metals such as Si, Ca, and Cr. Magnetite, green rust 1, aragonite, calcite, mackinawite, greigite and lepidocrocite were also present, indicative of a geochemical environment that is temporally and spatially heterogeneous. Whereas magnetite, which is known to form due to anaerobic Fe0 corrosion, passivates the Fe0 surface, ferrihydrite precipitation occurs away from the immediate Fe0 surface, forming small (<0.1 microm) discrete clusters. Consequently, Fe0-PRBs may remain effective for a longer period of time in slightly oxidized groundwater systems where ferrihydrite formation occurs compared to oxygen-depleted systems where magnetite passivation occurs. The ubiquitous presence of ferrihydrite suggests that the use of Fe0-PRBs may be extended to applications that require contaminant adsorption rather than, or in addition to, redox-promoted contaminant degradation.

Furukawa, Yoko; Kim, Jin-Wook; Watkins, Janet; Wilkin, Richard T.

2002-01-01

308

Measurement of pretzelosity asymmetry of charged pion production in Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering on a polarized 3He target  

DOE PAGESBeta

An experiment to measure single-spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive production of charged pions in deep-inelastic scattering on a transversely polarized 3He target was performed at Jefferson Lab in the kinematic region of 0.16

Zhang, Y; Qian, X; Allada, K; Dutta, C; Huang, J; Katich, J; Wang, Y; Aniol, K; Annand, J R.; Averett, T; Benmokhtar, F; Bertozzi, W; Bradshaw, P C.; Bosted, P; Camsonne, A; Canan, M; Cates, G D.; Chen, C; Chen, J -P; Chen, W; Chirapatpimol, K; Chudakov, E; Cisbani, E; Cornejo, J C.; Cusanno, F; Dalton, M M.; Deconinck, W; de Jager, C W.; De Leo, R; Deng, X; Deur, A; Ding, H; Dolph, P A.; Dutta, D; El Fassi, L; Frullani, S; Gao, H; Garibaldi, F; Gaskell, D; Gilad, S; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, O; Golge, S; Guo, L; Hamilton, D; Hansen, O; Higinbotham, D W.; Holmstrom, T; Huang, M; Ibrahim, H F.; Iodice, M; Jiang, X; Jin, G; Jones, M K.; Kelleher, A; Kim, W; Kolarkar, A; Korsch, W; LeRose, J J.; Li, X; Li, Y; Lindgren, R; Liyanage, N; Long, E; Lu, H -J.; Margaziotis, D J.; Markowitz, P; Marrone, S; McNulty, D; Meziani, Z -E.; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Mu??oz Camacho, C; Nanda, S; Narayan, A; Nelyubin, V; Norum, B; Oh, Y; Osipenko, M; Parno, D; Peng, J C.; Phillips, S K.; Posik, M; Puckett, A J.; Qiang, Y; Rakhman, A; Ransome, R D.; Riordan, S; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Schulte, E; Shahinyan, A; Shabestari, M H.; ??irca, S; Stepanyan, S; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V; Tang, L -G.; Tobias, W A.; Urciuoli, G M.; Vilardi, I; Wang, K; Wojtsekhowski, B; Yan, X; Yao, H; Ye, Y; Ye, Z; Yuan, L; Zhan, X; Zhang, Y -W.; Zhao, B; Zheng, X; Zhu, L; Zhu, X; Zong, X

2014-11-01

309

Integration of pharmacokinetic and NRF2 system biology models to describe reactive oxygen species production and subsequent glutathione depletion in liver microfluidic biochips after flutamide exposure.  

PubMed

We present a systems biology analysis of rat primary hepatocytes response after exposure to 10 ?M and 100 ?M flutamide in liver microfluidic biochips. We coupled an in vitro pharmacokinetic (PK) model of flutamide to a system biology model of its reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and scavenging by the Nrf2 regulated glutathione production. The PK model was calibrated using data on flutamide kinetics, hydroxyflutamide and glutathione conjugates formation in microfluidic conditions. The parameters of Nrf2-related gene activities and the subsequent glutathione depletion were calibrated using microarray data from our microfluidic experiments and literature information. Following a 10 ?M flutamide exposure, the model predicted a recovery time to baseline levels of glutathione (GSH) and ROS in agreement with our experimental observations. At 100 ?M, the model predicted that metabolism saturation led to an important accumulation of flutamide in cells, a high ROS production and complete GSH depletion. The high levels of ROS predicted were consistent with the necrotic switch observed by transcriptomics, and the high cell mortality we had experimentally observed. The model predicted a transition between recoverable GSH depletion and deep GSH depletion at about 12.5 ?M of flutamide (single perfusion exposure). Our work shows that in vitro biochip experiments can provide supporting information for complex in silico modeling including data from extra cellular and intra cellular levels. We believe that this approach can be an efficient strategy for a global integrated methodology in predictive toxicology. PMID:24929096

Leclerc, Eric; Hamon, Jeremy; Legendre, Audrey; Bois, Frederic Y

2014-10-01

310

Production of reactive oxygen species and wound-induced resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana against Botrytis cinerea are preceded and depend on a burst of calcium  

PubMed Central

Background Wounded leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) within minutes after wounding and become resistant to the pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea at a local level. This fast response of the plants to the wound is called wound-induced resistance (WIR). However the molecular mechanisms of this response and the signal cascade between the wound and ROS production are still largely unknown. Calcium is a conserved signal and it is involved in many abiotic stress responses in plants, furthermore, calcium pathways act very fast. Results The results of this study show that leaves treated with calcium channels inhibitors (verapamil) or calcium chelators (oxalate and EGTA) are impaired in ROS production. Moreover, leaves treated with verapamil, EGTA or oxalate were more susceptible to B. cinerea after wounding. The intracellular measurements of calcium changes indicated quick but transient calcium dynamics taking place few seconds after wounding in cells neighbouring the wound site. This change in the cytosolic calcium was followed in the same region by a more stable ROS burst. Conclusions These data further extend our knowledge on the connection between wounding, calcium influx and ROS production. Moreover they provide for the first time the evidence that, following wounding, calcium changes precede a burst in ROS in the same location. PMID:24134148

2013-01-01

311

Suppression of reactive oxygen species production enhances neuronal survival in vitro and in vivo in the anoxia-tolerant turtle Trachemys scripta.  

PubMed

Hypoxia-ischemia with reperfusion is known to cause reactive oxygen species-related damage in mammalian systems, yet, the anoxia tolerant freshwater turtle is able to survive repeated bouts of anoxia/reoxygenation without apparent damage. Although the physiology of anoxia tolerance has been much studied, the adaptations that permit survival of reoxygenation stress have been largely ignored. In this study, we examine ROS production in the turtle striatum and in primary neuronal cultures, and examine the effects of adenosine (AD) on cell survival and ROS. Hydroxyl radical formation was measured by the conversion of salicylate to 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,3-DHBA) using microdialysis; reoxygenation after 1 or 4 h anoxia did not result in increased ROS production compared with basal normoxic levels, nor did H(2)O(2) increase after anoxia/reoxygenation in neuronally enriched cell cultures. Blockade of AD receptors increased both ROS production and cell death in vitro, while AD agonists decreased cell death and ROS. As turtle neurons proved surprisingly susceptible to externally imposed ROS stress (H(2)O(2)), we propose that the suppression of ROS formation, coupled to high antioxidant levels, is necessary for reoxygenation survival. As an evolutionarily selected adaptation, the ability to suppress ROS formation could prove an interesting path to investigate new therapeutic targets in mammals. PMID:17326763

Milton, Sarah L; Nayak, Gauri; Kesaraju, Shailaja; Kara, Laurie; Prentice, Howard M

2007-05-01

312

Antiplatelet Effect of Catechol Is Related to Inhibition of Cyclooxygenase, Reactive Oxygen Species, ERK/p38 Signaling and Thromboxane A2 Production  

PubMed Central

Catechol (benzenediol) is present in plant-derived products, such as vegetables, fruits, coffee, tea, wine, areca nut and cigarette smoke. Because platelet dysfunction is a risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, including stroke, atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the anti-platelet and anti-inflammatory effect of catechol and its mechanisms. The effects of catechol on cyclooxygenase (COX) activity, arachidonic acid (AA)-induced aggregation, thromboxane B2 (TXB2) production, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/p38 phosphorylation were determined in rabbit platelets. In addition, its effect on IL-1?-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production by fibroblasts was determined. The ex vivo effect of catechol on platelet aggregation was also measured. Catechol (5-25 µM) suppressed AA-induced platelet aggregation and inhibited TXB2 production at concentrations of 0.5–5 µM; however, it showed little cytotoxicity and did not alter U46619-induced platelet aggregation. Catechol (10–50 µM) suppressed COX-1 activity by 29–44% and COX-2 activity by 29–50%. It also inhibited IL-1?-induced PGE2 production, but not COX-2 expression of fibroblasts. Moreover, catechol (1–10 µM) attenuated AA-induced ROS production in platelets and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-induced ROS production in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Exposure of platelets to catechol decreased AA-induced ERK and p38 phosphorylation. Finally, intravenous administration of catechol (2.5–5 µmole/mouse) attenuated ex vivo AA-induced platelet aggregation. These results suggest that catechol exhibited anti-platelet and anti-inflammatory effects, which were mediated by inhibition of COX, ROS and TXA2 production as well as ERK/p38 phosphorylation. The anti-platelet effect of catechol was confirmed by ex vivo analysis. Exposure to catechol may affect platelet function and thus cardiovascular health. PMID:25122505

Wang, Tong-Mei; Lin, Bor-Ru; Yeung, Sin-Yuet; Yeh, Chien-Yang; Cheng, Ru-Hsiu; Jeng, Jiiang-Huei

2014-01-01

313

Production of reactive oxygen species by freezing stress and the protective roles of antioxidant enzymes in plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As one of the most severe environmental stresses, freezing stress can determine the distribution range of native flora in nature and severely reduce crop production. Many mechanisms have been proposed to explain the damage induced by freezing-thawing cycle, and oxidative stress caused by uncontrolla...

314

Optimization of reactive simulated moving bed systems with modulation of feed concentration for production of glycol ether ester.  

PubMed

In this article, we extend the simulated moving bed reactor (SMBR) mode of operation to the production of propylene glycol methyl ether acetate (DOWANOL™ PMA glycol ether) through the esterification of 1-methoxy-2-propanol (DOWANOL™ PM glycol ether) and acetic acid using AMBERLYST™ 15 as a catalyst and adsorbent. In addition, for the first time, we integrate the concept of modulation of the feed concentration (ModiCon) to SMBR operation. The performance of the conventional (constant feed) and ModiCon operation modes of SMBR are analyzed and compared. The SMBR processes are designed using a model based on a multi-objective optimization approach, where a transport dispersive model with a linear driving force for the adsorption rate has been used for modeling the SMBR system. The adsorption equilibrium and kinetics parameters are estimated from the batch and single column injection experiments by the inverse method. The multiple objectives are to maximize the production rate of DOWANOL™ PMA glycol ether, maximize the conversion of the esterification reaction and minimize the consumption of DOWANOL™ PM glycol ether which also acts as the desorbent in the chromatographic separation. It is shown that ModiCon achieves a higher productivity by 12-36% over the conventional operation with higher product purity and recovery. PMID:25127692

Agrawal, Gaurav; Oh, Jungmin; Sreedhar, Balamurali; Tie, Shan; Donaldson, Megan E; Frank, Timothy C; Schultz, Alfred K; Bommarius, Andreas S; Kawajiri, Yoshiaki

2014-09-19

315

Teaching the fundamentals of electron transfer reactions in mitochondria and the production and detection of reactive oxygen species  

PubMed Central

Mitochondria fulfill a number of biological functions which inherently depend on ATP and O2?•/H2O2 production. Both ATP and O2?•/H2O2 are generated by electron transfer reactions. ATP is the product of oxidative phosphorylation whereas O2?• is generated by singlet electron reduction of di-oxygen (O2). O2?• is then rapidly dismutated by superoxide dismutase (SOD) producing H2O2. O2?•/H2O2 were once viewed as unfortunately by-products of aerobic respiration. This characterization is fitting considering over production of O2?•/H2O2 by mitochondria is associated with range of pathological conditions and aging. However, O2?•/H2O2 are only dangerous in large quantities. If produced in a controlled fashion and maintained at a low concentration, cells can benefit greatly from the redox properties of O2?•/H2O2. Indeed, low rates of O2?•/H2O2 production are required for intrinsic mitochondrial signaling (e.g. modulation of mitochondrial processes) and communication with the rest of the cell. O2?•/H2O2 levels are kept in check by anti-oxidant defense systems that sequester O2?•/H2O2 with extreme efficiency. Given the importance of O2?•/H2O2 in cellular function, it is imperative to consider how mitochondria produce O2?•/H2O2 and how O2?•/H2O2 genesis is regulated in conjunction with fluctuations in nutritional and redox states. Here, I discuss the fundamentals of electron transfer reactions in mitochondria and emerging knowledge on the 11 potential sources of mitochondrial O2?•/H2O2 in tandem with their significance in contributing to overall O2?•/H2O2 emission in health and disease. The potential for classifying these different sites in isopotential groups, which is essentially defined by the redox properties of electron donator involved in O2?•/H2O2 production, as originally suggested by Brand and colleagues is also surveyed in detail. In addition, redox signaling mechanisms that control O2?•/H2O2 genesis from these sites are discussed. Finally, the current methodologies utilized for measuring O2?•/H2O2 in isolated mitochondria, cell culture and in vivo are reviewed. PMID:25744690

Mailloux, Ryan J.

2015-01-01

316

7,3',4'-Trihydroxyisoflavone modulates multidrug resistance transporters and induces apoptosis via production of reactive oxygen species.  

PubMed

The development of multidrug resistance (MDR) to conventional chemoradiation therapy usually leads to failure in treating cervical cancer. This study aims to explore the effects and mechanisms of 7,3',4'-trihydroxyisoflavone (7,3',4'-THIF), one of the major metabolites of daidzein, on potentiating cytotoxicity of epirubicin (Epi), an anticancer drug in human cervical cancer HeLa cells. The cytotoxicity of Epi remarkably increased when it was combined with 7,3',4'-THIF. The cotreatment increased the reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, including hydrogen peroxide and superoxide free radicals. 7,3',4'-THIF was shown to down-regulate the MDR1 promoter region composed of the elements of AP1, GC-box, and Y-box, as demonstrated by a luciferase assay. A negative regulation of hMDR1 gene with multiple transcription factors by this isoflavone may provide a novel molecular mechanism for MDR modulation. The mRNA expressions of MDR1, MDR-associated protein (MRP) 1, and MRP2 for the combined treatment were significantly lower than those of the Epi treatment. This result implies that MDR transporter-mediated Epi resistance is inhibited at various degrees by the addition of 7,3',4'-THIF. This isoflavone significantly enhanced intracellular Epi accumulation in HeLa cells. 7,3',4'-THIF and/or Epi triggered apoptosis through the upregulation of p53, Bax, and caspase-9. Apoptosis induction was also confirmed by the reduced mitochondrial membrane potential, increased sub-G1 and G2/M phases, nuclear DNA fragmentation, and chromatin condensation. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that 7,3',4'-THIF causes cell death in human cervical cancer cells through the ROS-dependent suppression of MDR transporters and p53-mediated activation of the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Thus, 7,3',4'-THIF has the potential to enhance the activity of a broad range of cancer chemotherapeutics in the MDR spectrum with the advantage of reducing adverse effects. PMID:22914566

Lo, Yu-Li; Wang, Wanjen; Ho, Cheng-Ta

2012-12-16

317

Measurement of parton distributions of strange quarks in the nucleon from charged-kaon production in deep-inelastic scattering on the deuteron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The momentum and helicity density distributions of the strange quark sea in the nucleon are obtained in leading order from charged-kaon production in deep-inelastic scattering on the deuteron. The distributions are extracted from spin-averaged K multiplicities, and from K and inclusive double-spin asymmetries for scattering of polarized positrons by a polarized deuterium target. The shape of the momentum distribution is softer than that of the average of the u¯ and d¯ quarks. In the region of measurement 0.021.0 GeV, the helicity distribution is zero within experimental uncertainties.

HERMES Collaboration; Airapetian, A.; Akopov, N.; Akopov, Z.; Andrus, A.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Augustyniak, W.; Avakian, R.; Avetissian, A.; Avetissian, E.; Belostotski, S.; Bianchi, N.; Blok, H. P.; Böttcher, H.; Bonomo, C.; Borissov, A.; Brüll, A.; Bryzgalov, V.; Burns, J.; Capiluppi, M.; Capitani, G. P.; Cisbani, E.; Ciullo, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; Dalpiaz, P. F.; Deconinck, W.; de Leo, R.; Demey, M.; de Nardo, L.; de Sanctis, E.; Diefenthaler, M.; di Nezza, P.; Dreschler, J.; Düren, M.; Ehrenfried, M.; Elalaoui-Moulay, A.; Elbakian, G.; Ellinghaus, F.; Elschenbroich, U.; Fabbri, R.; Fantoni, A.; Felawka, L.; Frullani, S.; Funel, A.; Gabbert, D.; Gapienko, G.; Gapienko, V.; Garibaldi, F.; Gavrilov, G.; Gharibyan, V.; Giordano, F.; Gliske, S.; Gregor, I. M.; Guler, H.; Hadjidakis, C.; Hasch, D.; Hasegawa, T.; Hesselink, W. H. A.; Hill, G.; Hillenbrand, A.; Hoek, M.; Holler, Y.; Hommez, B.; Hristova, I.; Iarygin, G.; Imazu, Y.; Ivanilov, A.; Izotov, A.; Jackson, H. E.; Jgoun, A.; Joosten, S.; Kaiser, R.; Keri, T.; Kinney, E.; Kisselev, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Kopytin, M.; Korotkov, V.; Kozlov, V.; Kravchenko, P.; Krivokhijine, V. G.; Lagamba, L.; Lamb, R.; Lapikás, L.; Lehmann, I.; Lenisa, P.; Liebing, P.; Linden-Levy, L. A.; Lopez Ruiz, A.; Lorenzon, W.; Lu, S.; Lu, X.-R.; Ma, B.-Q.; Mahon, D.; Maiheu, B.; Makins, N. C. R.; Manfré, L.; Mao, Y.; Marianski, B.; Marukyan, H.; Mexner, V.; Miller, C. A.; Miyachi, Y.; Muccifora, V.; Murray, M.; Mussgiller, A.; Nagaitsev, A.; Nappi, E.; Naryshkin, Y.; Nass, A.; Negodaev, M.; Nowak, W.-D.; Osborne, A.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Perez-Benito, R.; Pickert, N.; Raithel, M.; Reggiani, D.; Reimer, P. E.; Reischl, A.; Reolon, A. R.; Riedl, C.; Rith, K.; Rock, S. E.; Rosner, G.; Rostomyan, A.; Rubacek, L.; Rubin, J.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salomatin, Y.; Sanjiev, I.; Schäfer, A.; Schnell, G.; Schüler, K. P.; Seitz, B.; Shearer, C.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shutov, V.; Stancari, M.; Statera, M.; Steffens, E.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, J.; Stinzing, F.; Streit, J.; Tait, P.; Taroian, S.; Tchuiko, B.; Terkulov, A.; Trzcinski, A.; Tytgat, M.; Vandenbroucke, A.; van der Nat, P. B.; van der Steenhoven, G.; van Haarlem, Y.; van Hulse, C.; Varanda, M.; Veretennikov, D.; Vikhrov, V.; Vilardi, I.; Vogel, C.; Wang, S.; Yaschenko, S.; Ye, H.; Ye, Y.; Ye, Z.; Yen, S.; Yu, W.; Zeiler, D.; Zihlmann, B.; Zupranski, P.

2008-09-01

318

Measurement of parton distributions of strange quarks in the nucleon from charged-kaon production in deep-inelastic scattering on the deuteron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The momentum and helicity density distributions of the strange quark sea in the nucleon are obtained in leading order from charged-kaon production in deep-inelastic scattering on the deuteron. The distributions are extracted from spin-averaged K± multiplicities, and from K± and inclusive double-spin asymmetries for scattering of polarized positrons by a polarized deuterium target. The shape of the momentum distribution is softer than that of the average of the ubar and dbar quarks. In the region of measurement 0.02 < x < 0.6 and Q2 > 1.0 GeV2, the helicity distribution is zero within experimental uncertainties.

Airapetian, A.; Akopov, N.; Akopov, Z.; Andrus, A.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Augustyniak, W.; Avakian, R.; Avetissian, A.; Avetissian, E.; Belostotski, S.; Bianchi, N.; Blok, H. P.; Böttcher, H.; Bonomo, C.; Borissov, A.; Brüll, A.; Bryzgalov, V.; Burns, J.; Capiluppi, M.; Capitani, G. P.; Cisbani, E.; Ciullo, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; Dalpiaz, P. F.; Deconinck, W.; de Leo, R.; Demey, M.; de Nardo, L.; de Sanctis, E.; Diefenthaler, M.; di Nezza, P.; Dreschler, J.; Düren, M.; Ehrenfried, M.; Elalaoui-Moulay, A.; Elbakian, G.; Ellinghaus, F.; Elschenbroich, U.; Fabbri, R.; Fantoni, A.; Felawka, L.; Frullani, S.; Funel, A.; Gabbert, D.; Gapienko, G.; Gapienko, V.; Garibaldi, F.; Gavrilov, G.; Gharibyan, V.; Giordano, F.; Gliske, S.; Gregor, I. M.; Guler, H.; Hadjidakis, C.; Hasch, D.; Hasegawa, T.; Hesselink, W. H. A.; Hill, G.; Hillenbrand, A.; Hoek, M.; Holler, Y.; Hommez, B.; Hristova, I.; Iarygin, G.; Imazu, Y.; Ivanilov, A.; Izotov, A.; Jackson, H. E.; Jgoun, A.; Joosten, S.; Kaiser, R.; Keri, T.; Kinney, E.; Kisselev, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Kopytin, M.; Korotkov, V.; Kozlov, V.; Kravchenko, P.; Krivokhijine, V. G.; Lagamba, L.; Lamb, R.; Lapikás, L.; Lehmann, I.; Lenisa, P.; Liebing, P.; Linden-Levy, L. A.; Lopez Ruiz, A.; Lorenzon, W.; Lu, S.; Lu, X.-R.; Ma, B.-Q.; Mahon, D.; Maiheu, B.; Makins, N. C. R.; Manfré, L.; Mao, Y.; Marianski, B.; Marukyan, H.; Mexner, V.; Miller, C. A.; Miyachi, Y.; Muccifora, V.; Murray, M.; Mussgiller, A.; Nagaitsev, A.; Nappi, E.; Naryshkin, Y.; Nass, A.; Negodaev, M.; Nowak, W.-D.; Osborne, A.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Perez-Benito, R.; Pickert, N.; Raithel, M.; Reggiani, D.; Reimer, P. E.; Reischl, A.; Reolon, A. R.; Riedl, C.; Rith, K.; Rock, S. E.; Rosner, G.; Rostomyan, A.; Rubacek, L.; Rubin, J.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salomatin, Y.; Sanjiev, I.; Schäfer, A.; Schnell, G.; Schüler, K. P.; Seitz, B.; Shearer, C.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shutov, V.; Stancari, M.; Statera, M.; Steffens, E.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, J.; Stinzing, F.; Streit, J.; Tait, P.; Taroian, S.; Tchuiko, B.; Terkulov, A.; Trzcinski, A.; Tytgat, M.; Vandenbroucke, A.; van der Nat, P. B.; van der Steenhoven, G.; van Haarlem, Y.; van Hulse, C.; Varanda, M.; Veretennikov, D.; Vikhrov, V.; Vilardi, I.; Vogel, C.; Wang, S.; Yaschenko, S.; Ye, H.; Ye, Y.; Ye, Z.; Yen, S.; Yu, W.; Zeiler, D.; Zihlmann, B.; Zupranski, P.; Hermes Collaboration

2008-09-01

319

In vitro reactive oxygen species production by mitochondria from the rabbitfish Siganus fuscessens livers and the effects of Irgarol-1051.  

PubMed

In this study, the mitochondria from the livers of Siganus fuscessens were exposed to the Irgarol-1051with or without respiratory chain inhibitors using succinate or malate as the substrate, and the effects on mitochondrial ROS production were tested. The mitochondrial ROS production was significantly enhanced by antimycin A with an increase of more than three folds but not by rotenone and NaN3, and this may suggest complex III is the major ROS-producing site. Irgarol-1051 treatments gave a somewhat contradictory result: this chemical can inhibit the mitochondrial ROS production but the inhibition decreased with the increase of doses. These contradictory data about Irgarol-1051 may be explained by the balance between the effects of inhibition through the opening of small-size pores and stimulation through blocking electron transfer, but the mechanism laid behind needs more evidence to support. As Irgarol-1051 was continuously used in antifouling and its bio-concentration factor is up to 160 in fish, the toxic effect of Irgarol-1051 on aquatic animals should be paid more attention to. PMID:23328116

Liang, Bo; Wang, Li; He, Tangtian; Liu, Wenhua; Li, Qi; Li, Mingfeng

2013-03-01

320

Atmospheric reactivity of hydroxyl radicals with guaiacol (2-methoxyphenol), a biomass burning emitted compound: Secondary organic aerosol formation and gas-phase oxidation products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methoxyphenols are low molecular weight semi-volatile polar aromatic compounds produced from the pyrolysis of wood lignin. The reaction of guaiacol (2-methoxyphenol) with hydroxyl radicals has been studied in the LPCA simulation chamber at (294 ± 2) K, atmospheric pressure, low relative humidity (RH < 1%) and under high-NOx conditions using CH3ONO as OH source. The aerosol production was monitored using a SMPS (Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer); the SOA yields were in the range from 0.003 to 0.87 and the organic aerosol formation can be expressed by a one-product gas/particle partitioning absorption model. Transmission (TEM) and Scanning (SEM) Electron Microscopy observations were performed to characterize the physical state of SOA produced from the OH reaction with guaiacol; they display both liquid and solid particles (in an amorphous state). GC-FID (Gas Chromatography - Flame Ionization Detection) and GC-MS (Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry) analysis show the formation of nitroguaiacol isomers as main oxidation products in the gas- and aerosol-phases. In the gas-phase, the formation yields were (10 ± 2) % for 4-nitroguaiacol (1-hydroxy-2-methoxy-4-nitrobenzene; 4-NG) and (6 ± 2) % for 3- or 6-nitroguaiacol (1-hydroxy-2-methoxy-3-nitrobenzene or 1-hydroxy-2-methoxy-6-nitrobenzene; 3/6-NG; the standards are not commercially available so both isomers cannot be distinguished) whereas in SOA their yield were much lower (?0.1%). To our knowledge, this work represents the first identification of nitroguaiacols as gaseous oxidation products of the OH reaction with guaiacol. As the reactivity of nitroguaiacols with atmospheric oxidants is probably low, we suggest using them as biomass burning emission gas tracers. The atmospheric implications of the guaiacol + OH reaction are also discussed.

Lauraguais, Amélie; Coeur-Tourneur, Cécile; Cassez, Andy; Deboudt, Karine; Fourmentin, Marc; Choël, Marie

2014-04-01

321

Proteomic Phenotyping of Novosphingobium nitrogenifigens Reveals a Robust Capacity for Simultaneous Nitrogen Fixation, Polyhydroxyalkanoate Production, and Resistance to Reactive Oxygen Species  

PubMed Central

Novosphingobium nitrogenifigens Y88T (Y88) is a free-living, diazotrophic Alphaproteobacterium, capable of producing 80% of its biomass as the biopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). We explored the potential utility of this species as a polyhydroxybutyrate production strain, correlating the effects of glucose, nitrogen availability, dissolved oxygen concentration, and extracellular pH with polyhydroxybutyrate production and changes in the Y88 proteomic profile. Using two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry, we identified 217 unique proteins from six growth conditions. We observed reproducible, characteristic proteomic signatures for each of the physiological states we examined. We identified proteins that changed in abundance in correlation with either nitrogen fixation, dissolved oxygen concentration, or acidification of the growth medium. The proteins that correlated with nitrogen fixation were identified either as known nitrogen fixation proteins or as novel proteins that we predict play roles in aspects of nitrogen fixation based on their proteomic profiles. In contrast, the proteins involved in central carbon and polyhydroxybutyrate metabolism were constitutively abundant, consistent with the constitutive polyhydroxybutyrate production that we observed in this species. Three proteins with roles in detoxification of reactive oxygen species were identified in this obligate aerobe. The most abundant protein in all experiments was a polyhydroxyalkanoate granule-associated protein, phasin. The full-length isoform of this protein has a long, intrinsically disordered Ala/Pro/Lys-rich N-terminal segment, a feature that appears to be unique to sphingomonad phasins. The data suggest that Y88 has potential as a PHB production strain due to its aerobic tolerance and metabolic orientation toward polyhydroxybutyrate accumulation, even in low-nitrogen growth medium. PMID:22582058

Strabala, Timothy J.; Peng, Lifeng; Rawson, Pisana; Lloyd-Jones, Gareth; Jordan, T. William

2012-01-01

322

Spatial and temporal nature of reactive oxygen species production and programmed cell death in elm (Ulmus pumila L.) seeds during controlled deterioration.  

PubMed

Seed deterioration is poorly understood and remains an active area for research. Seeds of elm (Ulmus pumila L.) were aged at 37 °C above water [controlled deterioration treatment (CDT)] for various lengths of time to assess programmed cell death (PCD) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) product in embryonic tissues during a 5?d period. The hallmarks of PCD were identified in the elm seeds during CDT including TUNEL experiments, DNA laddering, cytochrome c (cyt c) leakage and enzymatic activities. These analyses indicated that PCD occurred systematically and progressively in deteriorated elm seeds. Cyt c release and increase in caspase-3-like/DEVDase activity occurred during CDT, which could be suppressed by ascorbic acid (AsA) and caspase-3 inhibitor Ac-DEVD-CHO, respectively. In situ localization of ROS production indicated that the distinct spatial-temporal signature of ROS during CDT coincided with the changes in PCD hallmark features. Multiple antioxidant elements were activated during the first few days of CDT, but were subsequently depleted as PCD progressed. Taken together, our findings identify PCD as a key mechanism that occurs asymmetrically during elm seeds CDT and suggest an important role for PCD in seeds deterioration. PMID:22582978

Hu, Die; Ma, Gang; Wang, Qiong; Yao, Jinghan; Wang, Yu; Pritchard, Hugh W; Wang, Xiaofeng

2012-11-01

323

Picroside ? inhibits hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis by ameliorating mitochondrial function through a mechanism involving a decrease in reactive oxygen species production.  

PubMed

Reactive oxygen species (ROS)?induced mitochondrial dysfunction plays an important role in cardiomyocyte apoptosis during myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Picroside ?, isolated from Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora Pennell (Scrophulariaceae), has been reported to protect cardiomyocytes from hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)?induced apoptosis, but the exact mechanism is not fully clear. The aim of the present study was to explore the protective effects of picroside ? on H/R?induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and the underlying mechanism. In the H9c2 rat cardiomyocyte cell line, picroside ? (100 µg/ml) was added for 48 h prior to H/R. The results showed that picroside ? markedly inhibited H/R?induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. In addition, picroside ? was also able to decrease the opening degree of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), increase the mitochondrial membrane potential, inhibit cytochrome c release from mitochondria to cytosol and downregulate caspase?3 expression and activity concomitantly with the decreased ROS production. These results suggested that picroside ? inhibited H/R?induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis by ameliorating mitochondrial function through a mechanism involving a decrease in ROS production. PMID:25421707

Li, Jian-Zhe; Yu, Shu-Yi; Mo, Dan; Tang, Xiu-Neng; Shao, Qing-Rui

2015-02-01

324

Ionizing radiation accelerates Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fission, which involves delayed mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production in normal human fibroblast-like cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report first time that ionizing radiation induces mitochondrial dynamic changes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radiation-induced mitochondrial fission was caused by Drp1 localization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found that radiation causes delayed ROS from mitochondria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Down regulation of Drp1 rescued mitochondrial dysfunction after radiation exposure. -- Abstract: Ionizing radiation is known to increase intracellular level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through mitochondrial dysfunction. Although it has been as a basis of radiation-induced genetic instability, the mechanism involving mitochondrial dysfunction remains unclear. Here we studied the dynamics of mitochondrial structure in normal human fibroblast like cells exposed to ionizing radiation. Delayed mitochondrial O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}-} production was peaked 3 days after irradiation, which was coupled with accelerated mitochondrial fission. We found that radiation exposure accumulated dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) to mitochondria. Knocking down of Drp1 expression prevented radiation induced acceleration of mitochondrial fission. Furthermore, knockdown of Drp1 significantly suppressed delayed production of mitochondrial O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}-}. Since the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, which was induced by radiation was prevented in cells knocking down of Drp1 expression, indicating that the excessive mitochondrial fission was involved in delayed mitochondrial dysfunction after irradiation.

Kobashigawa, Shinko, E-mail: kobashin@nagasaki-u.ac.jp [Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Course of Life Sciences and Radiation Research, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan)] [Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Course of Life Sciences and Radiation Research, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Suzuki, Keiji; Yamashita, Shunichi [Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Course of Life Sciences and Radiation Research, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan)] [Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Course of Life Sciences and Radiation Research, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan)

2011-11-04

325

Production of reactive sintered nickel aluminide. Fifth quarterly technical progress report, February 22, 1993--May 22, 1993  

SciTech Connect

Effort over the past 3 months was directed at increasing manufacturing capacity (ball milling) and improving product quality. Orders for the powder have increased, mainly for plasma spray powders. NiAl is an excellent coat between a metal and a ceramic, and its use instead of cobalt should extending operating range for carbide tools. The feather phase in the sintered Ni{sub 3}Al was identified to be a Ni-rich phase nucleated on the grain boundaries with 10 wt % Al composition. The ductile to brittle temperature of powder extruded NiAl was found to be between 500 and 600 C, and shows a 50% elongation at 600 C.

Cooper, R.M.

1993-06-01

326

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced cytokine production and cytotoxicity of PAMAM dendrimers in J774A.1 cells  

SciTech Connect

The immunotoxicity of three generations of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers (G-4, G-5 and G-6) was evaluated in mouse macrophage cells in vitro. Using the Alamar blue and MTT assays, a generation dependent cytotoxicity of the PAMAM dendrimers was found whereby G-6 > G-5 > G-4. The toxic response of the PAMAM dendrimers correlated well with the number of surface primary amino groups, with increasing number resulting in an increase in toxic response. An assessment of intracellular ROS generation by the PAMAM dendrimers was performed by measuring the increased fluorescence as a result of intracellular oxidation of Carboxy H{sub 2}DCFDA to DCF both quantitatively using plate reader and qualitatively by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The inflammatory mediators macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), tumour necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and interleukin-6, (IL-6) were measured by the enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) following exposure of mouse macrophage cells to PAMAM dendrimers. A generation dependent ROS and cytokine production was found, which correlated well with the cytotoxicological response and therefore number of surface amino groups. A clear time sequence of increased ROS generation (maximum at {approx} 4 h), TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 secretion (maximum at {approx} 24 h), MIP-2 levels and cell death ({approx} 72 h) was observed. The intracellular ROS generation and cytokine production induced cytotoxicity point towards the mechanistic pathway of cell death upon exposure to PAMAM dendrimers.

Naha, Pratap C., E-mail: pratap.naha@dit.i [Radiation and Environmental Science Centre, Focas Research Institute, Dublin Institute of Technology, Kevin Street, Dublin 8 (Ireland); NanoLab, Focas Research Institute, Dublin Institute of Technology, Kevin Street, Dublin 8 (Ireland); Davoren, Maria; Lyng, Fiona M. [Radiation and Environmental Science Centre, Focas Research Institute, Dublin Institute of Technology, Kevin Street, Dublin 8 (Ireland); Byrne, Hugh J. [NanoLab, Focas Research Institute, Dublin Institute of Technology, Kevin Street, Dublin 8 (Ireland)

2010-07-15

327

Effects of Selected Dietary Secondary Metabolites on Reactive Oxygen Species Production Caused by Iron(II) Autoxidation  

PubMed Central

Iron is an essential co-factor for many enzymes that catalyze electron transfer reactions. It is well known that so-called “poorly liganded” iron can increase ROS concentrations and trigger oxidative stress that is capable of initiating apoptosis. Conversely, controlled ROS production has been recognized as an integral part of cellular signaling. Elevated ROS concentrations are associated with aging, inflammatory and degenerative diseases. Anti-aging properties have been attributed especially to antioxidant phenolic plant metabolites that represent food additives in our diet. Consequently, this study explores the effects of flavonoids (quercetin and rutin), several phenolic acids (caffeic, chlorogenic, and protocatechuic acid), and the alkaloid caffeine on iron(II) autoxidation and ROS production in comparison to the standard antioxidants ascorbic acid and Trolox. The iron(II) autoxidation assay was carried out in pH 6.0 (plant apoplast and inflamed human tissue) and 7.4 (cell cytoplasm and human blood plasma). The obtained results accentuate phenolic acids as the more specific antioxidants compared to ascorbic acid and Trolox. Flavonoid redox chemistry depends more on the chemical milieu, specifically on pH. In vivo, the presence of iron cannot be ruled out and “wrongly” or “poorly” complexed iron has been pointed out as causative agent of various age-related diseases. PMID:25470272

Chobot, Vladimir; Hadacek, Franz; Kubicova, Lenka

2015-01-01

328

Effect of gold nanoparticles on production of reactive oxygen species by human peripheral blood leukocytes stimulated with opsonized zymosan.  

PubMed

We studied the effect of gold nanoparticles on ROS production by leukocytes. ROS production was detected by luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (LDCL) of human peripheral blood leukocytes stimulated with opsonized zymosan. Nanoparticle size was 5, 10 and 30 nm. Simultaneous addition of nanoparticles and opsonized zymosan showed that 5-nm nanoparticles inhibited LDCL intensity in comparison with the control, when LDCL recording was conducted in the presence of opsonized zymosan. Increasing nanoparticle size from 5 up to 30 nm enhanced LDCL intensity. Preincubation of gold nanoparticles with autologous blood plasma increased LDCL intensity. In the control (without gold nanoparticles), blood plasma produced no activating effect on LDCL. We found that the effect of gold nanoparticles on leukocyte LDCL depended on nanoparticle size: 10- and 30-nm nanoparticles inhibited LDCL intensity in comparison with the control (incubation in the absence of nanoparticles) irrespective of the duration of incubation, while 5-nm gold nanoparticles had no effect on LDCL intensity. Incubation of gold nanoparticles with autologous plasma increased LDCL intensity if nanoparticle size was 30 and 10 nm. PMID:24319701

Piryazev, A P; Azizova, O A; Aseichev, A V; Dudnik, L B; Sergienko, V I

2013-11-01

329

ESEEM of industrial silica-bearing powders: reactivity of defects during wet processing in the ceramics production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study is undertaken to ascertain whether changes in the speciation of inorganic radicals are occurring during the ceramic industrial production that involves abundant silica powders as raw material. Industrial dusts were sampled in two ceramic firms, immediately after the wet mixing stage, performed with the aid of a relevant pressure. The dusts were then characterised by means of X-ray diffraction, analysis of the trace elements through chemical methods, granulometry, continuous-wave electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and pulsed electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopies. The results of the characterisation point to a relevant change in the speciation of the two samples; namely, a prevailing contribution due to an inorganic radical different from that pertaining to pure quartz is pointed out. The combined interpretation of EPR and ESEEM data suggests the attribution of the main paramagnetic contribution to the A-centre in kaolinite, a constituent that is added to pure quartz at the initial stage of the ceramic production. In one of the two samples, a second weak EPR signal is attributed to the quartz's hAl species. By taking into account the relative quantities of quartz and kaolinite mixed in the two samples, and the relative abundances of the two radical species, we propose that the partial or complete suppression of the hAl species in favour of the A-centre of kaolinite has occurred. Although this change is apparently fostered by the mixture between quartz and another radical-bearing raw material, kaolinite, the suppression of the hAl centre of quartz is ascribed to the role played by the pressure and the wet environment during the industrial mixing procedure. This suppression provides a net change of radical speciation associated with quartz, when this phase is in contact with workers' respiratory system.

Romanelli, Maurizio; Di Benedetto, Francesco; Fornaciai, Gabriele; Innocenti, Massimo; Montegrossi, Giordano; Pardi, Luca A.; Zoleo, Alfonso; Capacci, Fabio

2014-12-01

330

Genome-wide analysis of the regulation of pimaricin production in Streptomyces natalensis by reactive oxygen species.  

PubMed

To investigate the molecular mechanisms that interplay between oxygen metabolism and secondary metabolism in Streptomyces natalensis, we compared the transcriptomes of the strains CAM.02 (?sodF), pimaricin under-producer phenotype, and CAM.04 (?ahpCD), pimaricin over-producer phenotype, with that of the wild type at late exponential and stationary growth phases. Microarray data interpretation was supported by characterization of the mutant strains regarding enzymatic activities, phosphate uptake, oxygen consumption and pimaricin production.Both mutant strains presented a delay in the transcription activation of the PhoRP system and pimaricin biosynthetic gene cluster that correlated with the delayed inorganic phosphate (Pi) depletion in the medium and late onset of pimaricin production, respectively. The carbon flux of both mutants was also altered: a re-direction from glycolysis to the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) in early exponential phase followed by a transcriptional activation of both pathways in subsequent growth phases was observed. Mutant behavior diverged at the respiratory chain/tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) and the branched chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism. CAM.02 (?sodF) presented an impaired TCA cycle and an inhibition of the BCAA biosynthesis and degradation pathways. Conversely, CAM.04 (?ahpCD) presented a global activation of BCAA metabolism.The results highlight the cellular NADPH/NADH ratio and the availability of biosynthetic precursors via the BCAA metabolism as the main pimaricin biosynthetic bottlenecks under oxidative stress conditions. Furthermore, new evidences are provided regarding a crosstalk between phosphate metabolism and oxidative stress in Streptomyces. PMID:24413916

Beites, Tiago; Rodríguez-García, Antonio; Santos-Beneit, Fernando; Moradas-Ferreira, Pedro; Aparicio, Jesús F; Mendes, Marta V

2014-03-01

331

DEXH Box RNA Helicase–Mediated Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Arabidopsis Mediates Crosstalk between Abscisic Acid and Auxin Signaling[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

It is well known that abscisic acid (ABA) promotes reactive oxygen species (ROS) production through plasma membrane–associated NADPH oxidases during ABA signaling. However, whether ROS from organelles can act as second messengers in ABA signaling is largely unknown. Here, we identified an ABA overly sensitive mutant, abo6, in a genetic screen for ABA-mediated inhibition of primary root growth. ABO6 encodes a DEXH box RNA helicase that is involved in regulating the splicing of several genes of complex I in mitochondria. The abo6 mutant accumulated more ROS in mitochondria, as established using a mitochondrial superoxide indicator, circularly permuted yellow fluorescent protein. Two dominant-negative mutations in ABA insensitive1 (abi1-1) and abi2-1 greatly reduced ROS production in mitochondria. The ABA sensitivity of abo6 can also be compromised by the atrbohF mutation. ABA-mediated inhibition of seed germination and primary root growth in abo6 was released by the addition of reduced GSH and exogenous auxin to the medium. Expression of auxin-responsive markers ProDR5:GUS (for synthetic auxin response element D1-4 with site-directed mutants in the 5?-end from soybean):?-glucuronidase) and Indole-3-acetic acid inducible2:GUS was greatly reduced by the abo6 mutation. Hence, our results provide molecular evidence for the interplay between ABA and auxin through the production of ROS from mitochondria. This interplay regulates primary root growth and seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:22652060

He, Junna; Duan, Ying; Hua, Deping; Fan, Guangjiang; Wang, Li; Liu, Yue; Chen, Zhizhong; Han, Lihua; Qu, Li-Jia; Gong, Zhizhong

2012-01-01

332

Activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor prevents the production of reactive oxygen species in fibrillar ? amyloid peptide (1-42)-stimulated microglia  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have reported that the "cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway" regulates peripheral inflammatory responses via ? 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (? 7 nAChRs) and that acetylcholine and nicotine regulate the expression of proinflammatory mediators such as TNF-? and prostaglandin E2 in microglial cultures. In a previous study we showed that ATP released by ?-amyloid-stimulated microglia induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, in a process involving the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R), in an autocrine fashion. These observations led us to investigate whether stimulation by nicotine could regulate fibrillar ? amyloid peptide (1-42) (fA?1-42)-induced ROS production by modulating ATP efflux-mediated Ca2+ influx through P2X7R. Nicotine inhibited ROS generation in fA?1-42-stimulated microglial cells, and this inhibition was blocked by mecamylamine, a non-selective nAChR antagonist, and ?-bungarotoxin, a selective ?7 nAChR antagonist. Nicotine inhibited NADPH oxidase activation and completely blocked Ca2+ influx in fA?1-42-stimulated microglia. Moreover, ATP release from fA?1-42-stimulated microglia was significantly suppressed by nicotine treatment. In contrast, nicotine did not inhibit 2',3'-O-(4-benzoyl)-benzoyl ATP (BzATP)-induced Ca2+ influx, but inhibited ROS generation in BzATP-stimulated microglia, indicating an inhibitory effect of nicotine on a signaling process downstream of P2X7R. Taken together, these results suggest that the inhibitory effect of nicotine on ROS production in fA?1-42-stimulated microglia is mediated by indirect blockage of ATP release and by directly altering the signaling process downstream from P2X7R. PMID:18305393

Moon, Ju Hyun; Kim, Soo Yoon; Lee, Hwan Goo; Kim, Seung U.

2008-01-01

333

Polyenylpyrrole Derivatives Inhibit NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation and Inflammatory Mediator Expression by Reducing Reactive Oxygen Species Production and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Activation  

PubMed Central

Two polyenylpyrroles from a soil ascomycete Gymnoascus reessii were previously identified as hit compounds in screening for cytotoxicity against lung cancer cells. These compounds and various analogs, which have been previously synthesized and tested for anti-lung cancer cell activity, were tested for anti-inflammatory activity. After preliminary screening for cytotoxicity for RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells, the non-toxic compounds were tested for anti-inflammatory activity using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 cells. Compounds 1h, 1i, and 1n reduced LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production, with respective ED50 values of 15 ± 2, 16 ± 2, and 17 ± 2 µM. They also reduced expression of inducible NO synthase and interleukin-6 (IL-6) without affecting cyclooxygenase-2 expression. Compound 1h also reduced secretion of IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-? by LPS-activated J774A.1 murine macrophage cells, primary mice peritoneal macrophages, and JAWSII murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and reduced NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated interleukin-1? (IL-1?) secretion by LPS + adenosine triphosphate-activated J774A.1 and JAWSII cells. The underlying mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory activity of compound 1h were found to be a decrease in LPS-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, and NF-?B activation and a decrease in ATP-induced ROS production and PKC-? phosphorylation. These results provide promising insights into the anti-inflammatory activity of these conjugated polyenes and a molecular rationale for future therapeutic intervention in inflammation-related diseases. They also show how compound 1h regulates inflammation and suggest it may be a new source for the development of anti-inflammatory agents to ameliorate inflammation- and NLRP3 inflammasome-related diseases. PMID:24116148

Hua, Kuo-Feng; Chou, Ju-Ching; Lam, Yulin; Tasi, Yu-Ling; Chen, Ann; Ka, Shuk-Man; Fang, Zhanxiong; Liu, May-Lan; Yang, Feng-Ling; Yang, Yu-Liang; Chiu, Yi-Chich; Wu, Shih-Hsiung

2013-01-01

334

Central role of endogenous Toll-like receptor-2 activation in regulating inflammation, reactive oxygen species production, and subsequent neointimal formation after vascular injury  

SciTech Connect

Background: It is now evident that inflammation after vascular injury has significant impact on the restenosis after revascularization procedures such as angioplasty, stenting, and bypass grafting. However, the mechanisms that regulate inflammation and repair after vascular injury are incompletely understood. Here, we report that vascular injury-mediated cytokine expression, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, as well as subsequent neointimal formation requires Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR-2) mediated signaling pathway in vivo. Methods and results: Vascular injury was induced by cuff-placement around the femoral artery in non-transgenic littermates (NLC) and TLR-2 knockout (TLR-2KO) mice. After cuff-placement in NLC mice, expression of TLR-2 was significantly increased in both smooth muscle medial layer and adventitia. Interestingly, we found that inflammatory genes expression such as tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}, interleukin-1{beta} (IL-1{beta}), IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 were markedly decreased in TLR-2KO mice compared with NLC mice. In addition, ROS production after vascular injury was attenuated in TLR-2KO mice compared with NLC mice. Since we observed the significant role of endogenous TLR-2 activation in regulating inflammatory responses and ROS production after vascular injury, we determined whether inhibition of endogenous TLR-2 activation can inhibit neointimal proliferation after vascular injury. Neointimal hyperplasia was markedly suppressed in TLR-2KO mice compared with WT mice at both 2 and 4 weeks after vascular injury. Conclusions: These findings suggested that endogenous TLR-2 activation might play a central role in the regulation of vascular inflammation as well as subsequent neointimal formation in injured vessels.

Shishido, Tetsuro [From Department of Cardiology, Pulmonology, and Nephrology, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata (Japan) and Center for Cardiovascular Research, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY (United States)]. E-mail: Tetsuro_Shishido@URMC.Rochester.edu; Nozaki, Naoki [From Department of Cardiology, Pulmonology, and Nephrology, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata (Japan); Takahashi, Hiroki [From Department of Cardiology, Pulmonology, and Nephrology, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata (Japan); Arimoto, Takanori [From Department of Cardiology, Pulmonology, and Nephrology, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata (Japan); Niizeki, Takeshi [From Department of Cardiology, Pulmonology, and Nephrology, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata (Japan); Koyama, Yo [From Department of Cardiology, Pulmonology, and Nephrology, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata (Japan); Abe, Jun-ichi [Center for Cardiovascular Research, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY (United States); Takeishi, Yasuchika [From Department of Cardiology, Pulmonology, and Nephrology, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata (Japan); Kubota, Isao [From Department of Cardiology, Pulmonology, and Nephrology, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata (Japan)

2006-07-14

335

Induction of necrosis and apoptosis to KB cancer cells by sanguinarine is associated with reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial membrane depolarization  

SciTech Connect

Sanguinarine is a benzopheanthridine alkaloid present in the root of Sanguinaria canadensis L. and Chellidonium majus L. In this study, sanguinarine (2 and 3 {mu}M) exhibited cytotoxicity to KB cancer cells by decreasing MTT reduction to 83% and 52% of control after 24-h of exposure. Sanguinarine also inhibited the colony forming capacity (> 52-58%) and growth of KB cancer cells at concentrations higher than 0.5-1 {mu}M. Short-term exposure to sanguinarine (> 0.5 {mu}M) effectively suppressed the adhesion of KB cells to collagen and fibronectin (FN). Sanguinarine (2 and 3 {mu}M) induced evident apoptosis as indicated by an increase in sub-G0/G1 populations, which was detected after 6-h of exposure. Only a slight increase in cells arresting in S-phase and G2/M was noted. Induction of KB cell apoptosis and necrosis by sanguinarine (2 and 3 {mu}M) was further confirmed by Annexin V-PI dual staining flow cytometry and the presence of DNA fragmentation. The cytotoxicity by sanguinarine was accompanied by an increase in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential as indicated by single cell flow cytometric analysis of DCF and rhodamine fluorescence. NAC (1 and 3 mM) and catalase (2000 U/ml) prevented the sanguinarine-induced ROS production and cytotoxicity, whereas dimethylthiourea (DMT) showed no marked preventive effect. These results suggest that sanguinarine has anticarcinogenic properties with induction of ROS production and mitochondrial membrane depolarization, which mediate cancer cell death.

Chang, M.-C. [Biomedical Science Team, Chang Gung Institute of Technology, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chan, C.-P. [Department of Dentistry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wang, Y.-J. [Department of Environmental Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lee, P.-H. [Biomedical Science Team, Chang Gung Institute of Technology, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chen, L.-I [Laboratory of Dental Pharmacology and Toxicology, Department of Dentistry, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University Medical College, No 1, Chang-Te Street, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Y.-L. [Laboratory of Dental Pharmacology and Toxicology, Department of Dentistry, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University Medical College, No 1, Chang-Te Street, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, B.-R. [Department of Integrated Diagnostics and Therapeutics, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taiwan (China); Wang, Y.-L. [Department of Environmental Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Jeng, J.-H. [Laboratory of Dental Pharmacology and Toxicology, Department of Dentistry, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University Medical College, No 1, Chang-Te Street, Taipei, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: huei@ha.mc.ntu.edu.tw

2007-01-15

336

Lipoxin A4 Inhibits Porphyromonas gingivalis-Induced Aggregation and Reactive Oxygen Species Production by Modulating Neutrophil-Platelet Interaction and CD11b Expression ? †‡  

PubMed Central

Porphyromonas gingivalis is an etiological agent that is strongly associated with periodontal disease, and it correlates with numerous inflammatory disorders, such as cardiovascular disease. Circulating bacteria may contribute to atherogenesis by promoting CD11b/CD18-mediated interactions between neutrophils and platelets, causing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and aggregation. Lipoxin A4 (LXA4) is an endogenous anti-inflammatory and proresolving mediator that is protective of inflammatory disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of LXA4 on the P. gingivalis-induced activation of neutrophils and platelets and the possible involvement of Rho GTPases and CD11b/CD18 integrins. Platelet/leukocyte aggregation and ROS production was examined by lumiaggregometry and fluorescence microscopy. Integrin activity was studied by flow cytometry, detecting the surface expression of CD11b/CD18 as well as the exposure of the high-affinity integrin epitope, whereas the activation of Rac2/Cdc42 was examined using a glutathione S-transferase pulldown assay. The study shows that P. gingivalis activates Rac2 and Cdc42 and upregulates CD11b/CD18 and its high-affinity epitope on neutrophils, and that these effects are diminished by LXA4. Furthermore, we found that LXA4 significantly inhibits P. gingivalis-induced aggregation and ROS generation in whole blood. However, in platelet-depleted blood and in isolated neutrophils and platelets, LXA4 was unable to inhibit either aggregation or ROS production, respectively. In conclusion, this study suggests that LXA4 antagonizes P. gingivalis-induced cell activation in a manner that is dependent on leukocyte-platelet interaction, likely via the inhibition of Rho GTPase signaling and the downregulation of CD11b/CD18. These findings may contribute to new strategies in the prevention and treatment of periodontitis-induced inflammatory disorders, such as atherosclerosis. PMID:21263017

Börgeson, Emma; Lönn, Johanna; Bergström, Ida; Brodin, Veronika Patcha; Ramström, Sofia; Nayeri, Fariba; Särndahl, Eva; Bengtsson, Torbjörn

2011-01-01

337

Reactive nitrogen, ozone and ozone production in the Arctic troposphere and the impact of stratosphere-troposphere exchange  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use aircraft observations obtained during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) mission to examine the distributions and source attributions of O3 and NOy in the Arctic and sub-Arctic region. Using a number of marker tracers, we distinguish various air masses from the background troposphere and examine their contributions to NOx, O3, and O3 production in the Arctic troposphere. The background Arctic troposphere has a mean O3 of ~60 ppbv and NOx of ~25 pptv throughout spring and summer with CO decreasing from ~145 ppbv in spring to ~100 ppbv in summer. These observed mixing ratios are not notably different from the values measured during the 1988 ABLE-3A and the 2002 TOPSE field campaigns despite the significant changes in emissions and stratospheric ozone layer in the past two decades that influence Arctic tropospheric composition. Air masses associated with stratosphere-troposphere exchange are present throughout the mid and upper troposphere during spring and summer. These air masses, with mean O3 concentrations of 140-160 ppbv, are significant direct sources of O3 in the Arctic troposphere. In addition, air of stratospheric origin displays net O3 formation in the Arctic due to its sustainable, high NOx (75 pptv in spring and 110 pptv in summer) and NOy (~800 pptv in spring and ~1100 pptv in summer). The air masses influenced by the stratosphere sampled during ARCTAS-B also show conversion of HNO3 to PAN. This active production of PAN is the result of increased degradation of ethane in the stratosphere-troposphere mixed air mass to form CH3CHO, followed by subsequent formation of PAN under high NOx conditions. These findings imply that an adequate representation of stratospheric NOy input, in addition to stratospheric O3 influx, is essential to accurately simulate tropospheric Arctic O3, NOx and PAN in chemistry transport models. Plumes influenced by recent anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions observed during ARCTAS show highly elevated levels of hydrocarbons and NOy (mostly in the form of NOx and PAN), but do not contain O3 higher than that in the Arctic tropospheric background except some aged biomass burning plumes sampled during spring. Convection and/or lightning influences are negligible sources of O3 in the Arctic troposphere but can have significant impacts in the upper troposphere in the continental sub-Arctic during summer.

Liang, Q.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Douglass, A. R.; Crawford, J. H.; Olson, J. R.; Apel, E.; Bian, H.; Blake, D. R.; Brune, W.; Chin, M.; Colarco, P. R.; da Silva, A.; Diskin, G. S.; Duncan, B. N.; Huey, L. G.; Knapp, D. J.; Montzka, D. D.; Nielsen, J. E.; Pawson, S.; Riemer, D. D.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Wisthaler, A.

2011-12-01

338

Structure- and concentration-specific assessment of the physiological reactivity of ?-dicarbonyl glucose degradation products in peritoneal dialysis fluids.  

PubMed

In peritoneal dialysis (PD), glucose degradation products (GDPs), which are formed during heat sterilization of dialysis fluids, lead to structural and functional changes in the peritoneal membrane, which eventually result in the loss of its ultrafiltration capacity. To determine the molecular mechanisms behind these processes, the present study tested the influence of the six major ?-dicarbonyl GDPs in PD fluids, namely, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG), 3-deoxygalactosone (3-DGal), 3,4-dideoxyglucosone-3-ene (3,4-DGE), and glucosone with respect to their potential to impair the enzymatic activity of RNase A as well as their effects on cell viability. For comprehensive risk assessment, the ?-dicarbonyl GDPs were applied separately and in concentrations as present in conventional PD fluids. Thus, it was shown that after 5 days, glucosone impaired RNase A activity most distinctly (58% remaining activity, p < 0.001 compared to that of the control), followed by 3,4-DGE (62%, p < 0.001), 3-DGal (66%, p < 0.001), and 3-DG (76%, p < 0.01). Methylglyoxal and glyoxal caused weaker inactivation with significant effects only after 10 days of incubation (79%, 81%, p < 0.001). Profiling of the advanced glycation end products formed during the incubation of RNase A with methylglyoxal revealed predominant formation of the arginine modifications imidazolinone, CEA/dihydroxyimidazoline, and tetrahydropyrimidine at Arg10, Arg33, Arg39, and Arg85. Particularly, modification at Arg39 may severely affect the active site of the enzyme. Additionally, structure- and concentration-specific assessment of the cytotoxicity of the ?-dicarbonyl GDPs was performed. Although present at very low concentration, the cytotoxic effect of PD fluids after 2 days of incubation was exclusively caused by 3,4-DGE (14% cell viability, p < 0.001). After 4 days of incubation, 3-DGal (13% cell viability, p < 0.001), 3-DG (24%, p < 0.001), and, to a lower extent, glyoxal and methylglyoxal (both 57%, p < 0.01) also reduced cell viability significantly. In conclusion, 3,4-DGE, 3-DGal, and glucosone appear to be the most relevant parameters for the biocompatibility of PD fluids. PMID:25033248

Distler, Leonie; Georgieva, Angelina; Kenkel, Isabell; Huppert, Jochen; Pischetsrieder, Monika

2014-08-18

339

Optimum Control of Reactive Power Flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general problem of minimizing the operating cost of a power system by proper selection of the active and reactive productions is formulated as a nonlinear programming problem in accordance with previous work by Carpentier of Electricitéde France. This general problem is particularized to the minimization of transmission line losses by suitable selection of the reactive productions and transformer tap

John Peschon; D. S. Piercy; William Tinney; Odd Tveit; Michael Cuenod

1968-01-01

340

Toll-like receptor 4 upregulation by angiotensin II contributes to hypertension and vascular dysfunction through reactive oxygen species production.  

PubMed

Hypertension is considered as a low-grade inflammatory disease, with adaptive immunity being an important mediator of this pathology. TLR4 may have a role in the development of several cardiovascular diseases; however, little is known about its participation in hypertension. We aimed to investigate whether TLR4 activation due to increased activity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) contributes to hypertension and its associated endothelial dysfunction. For this, we used aortic segments from Wistar rats treated with a non-specific IgG (1 µg/day) and SHRs treated with losartan (15 mg/kg·day), the non-specific IgG or the neutralizing antibody anti-TLR4 (1 µg/day), as well as cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from Wistar and SHRs. TLR4 mRNA levels were greater in the VSMC and aortas from SHRs compared with Wistar rats; losartan treatment reduced those levels in the SHRs. Treatment of the SHRs with the anti-TLR4 antibody: 1) reduced the increased blood pressure, heart rate and phenylephrine-induced contraction while it improved the impaired acetylcholine-induced relaxation; 2) increased the potentiation of phenylephrine contraction after endothelium removal; and 3) abolished the inhibitory effects of tiron, apocynin and catalase on the phenylephrine-induced response as well as its enhancing effect of acetylcholine-induced relaxation. In SHR VSMCs, angiotensin II increased TLR4 mRNA levels, and losartan reduced that increase. CLI-095, a TLR4 inhibitor, mitigated the increases in NAD(P)H oxidase activity, superoxide anion production, migration and proliferation that were induced by angiotensin II. In conclusion, TLR4 pathway activation due to increased RAS activity is involved in hypertension, and by inducing oxidative stress, this pathway contributes to the endothelial dysfunction associated with this pathology. These results suggest that TLR4 and innate immunity may play a role in hypertension and its associated end-organ damage. PMID:25093580

De Batista, Priscila R; Palacios, Roberto; Martín, Angela; Hernanz, Raquel; Médici, Cindy T; Silva, Marito A S C; Rossi, Emilly M; Aguado, Andrea; Vassallo, Dalton V; Salaices, Mercedes; Alonso, María J

2014-01-01

341

A Tariff for Reactive Power  

SciTech Connect

Two kinds of power are required to operate an electric power system: real power, measured in watts, and reactive power, measured in volt-amperes reactive or VARs. Reactive power supply is one of a class of power system reliability services collectively known as ancillary services, and is essential for the reliable operation of the bulk power system. Reactive power flows when current leads or lags behind voltage. Typically, the current in a distribution system lags behind voltage because of inductive loads such as motors. Reactive power flow wastes energy and capacity and causes voltage droop. To correct lagging power flow, leading reactive power (current leading voltage) is supplied to bring the current into phase with voltage. When the current is in phase with voltage, there is a reduction in system losses, an increase in system capacity, and a rise in voltage. Reactive power can be supplied from either static or dynamic VAR sources. Static sources are typically transmission and distribution equipment, such as capacitors at substations, and their cost has historically been included in the revenue requirement of the transmission operator (TO), and recovered through cost-of-service rates. By contrast, dynamic sources are typically generators capable of producing variable levels of reactive power by automatically controlling the generator to regulate voltage. Transmission system devices such as synchronous condensers can also provide dynamic reactive power. A class of solid state devices (called flexible AC transmission system devices or FACTs) can provide dynamic reactive power. One specific device has the unfortunate name of static VAR compensator (SVC), where 'static' refers to the solid state nature of the device (it does not include rotating equipment) and not to the production of static reactive power. Dynamic sources at the distribution level, while more costly would be very useful in helping to regulate local voltage. Local voltage regulation would reduce system losses, increase circuit capacity, increase reliability, and improve efficiency. Reactive power is theoretically available from any inverter-based equipment such as photovoltaic (PV) systems, fuel cells, microturbines, and adjustable-speed drives. However, the installation is usually only economical if reactive power supply is considered during the design and construction phase. In this report, we find that if the inverters of PV systems or the generators of combined heat and power (CHP) systems were designed with capability to supply dynamic reactive power, they could do this quite economically. In fact, on an annualized basis, these inverters and generators may be able to supply dynamic reactive power for about $5 or $6 per kVAR. The savings from the local supply of dynamic reactive power would be in reduced losses, increased capacity, and decreased transmission congestion. The net savings are estimated to be about $7 per kVAR on an annualized basis for a hypothetical circuit. Thus the distribution company could economically purchase a dynamic reactive power service from customers for perhaps $6/kVAR. This practice would provide for better voltage regulation in the distribution system and would provide an alternate revenue source to help amortize the cost of PV and CHP installations. As distribution and transmission systems are operated under rising levels of stress, the value of local dynamic reactive supply is expected to grow. Also, large power inverters, in the range of 500 kW to 1 MW, are expected to decrease in cost as they become mass produced. This report provides one data point which shows that the local supply of dynamic reactive power is marginally profitable at present for a hypothetical circuit. We expect that the trends of growing power flow on the existing system and mass production of inverters for distributed energy devices will make the dynamic supply of reactive power from customers an integral component of economical and reliable system operation in the future.

Kueck, John D [ORNL; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL; Li, Fangxing [ORNL; Tufon, Christopher [Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Isemonger, Alan [California Independent System Operator

2008-07-01

342

Reactive oxygen production induced by near-infrared radiation in three strains of the Chl d-containing cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina  

PubMed Central

Cyanobacteria in the genus Acaryochloris have largely exchanged Chl a with Chl d, enabling them to harvest near-infrared-radiation (NIR) for oxygenic photosynthesis, a biochemical pathway prone to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, ROS production under different light conditions was quantified in three Acaryochloris strains (MBIC11017, HICR111A and the novel strain CRS) using a real-time ethylene detector in conjunction with addition of 2-keto-4-thiomethylbutyric acid, a substrate that is converted to ethylene when reacting with certain types of ROS. In all strains, NIR was found to generate less ROS than visible light (VIS). More ROS was generated if strains MBIC11017 and HICR111A were adapted to NIR and then exposed to VIS, while strain CRS demonstrated the opposite behavior. This is the very first study of ROS generation and suggests that Acaryochloris can avoid a considerable amount of light-induced stress by using NIR instead of VIS for its photosynthesis, adding further evolutionary arguments to their widespread appearance. PMID:24555034

Kühl, Michael

2013-01-01

343

Uncoupling protein-2 attenuates palmitoleate protection against the cytotoxic production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in INS-1E insulinoma cells.  

PubMed

High glucose and fatty acid levels impair pancreatic beta cell function. We have recently shown that palmitate-induced loss of INS-1E insulinoma cells is related to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production as both toxic effects are prevented by palmitoleate. Here we show that palmitate-induced ROS are mostly mitochondrial: oxidation of MitoSOX, a mitochondria-targeted superoxide probe, is increased by palmitate, whilst oxidation of the equivalent non-targeted probe is unaffected. Moreover, mitochondrial respiratory inhibition with antimycin A stimulates palmitate-induced MitoSOX oxidation. We also show that palmitate does not change the level of mitochondrial uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) and that UCP2 knockdown does not affect palmitate-induced MitoSOX oxidation. Palmitoleate does not influence MitoSOX oxidation in INS-1E cells ±UCP2 and largely prevents the palmitate-induced effects. Importantly, UCP2 knockdown amplifies the preventive effect of palmitoleate on palmitate-induced ROS. Consistently, viability effects of palmitate and palmitoleate are similar between cells ±UCP2, but UCP2 knockdown significantly augments the palmitoleate protection against palmitate-induced cell loss at high glucose. We conclude that UCP2 neither mediates palmitate-induced mitochondrial ROS generation and the associated cell loss, nor protects against these deleterious effects. Instead, UCP2 dampens palmitoleate protection against palmitate toxicity. PMID:25482405

Barlow, Jonathan; Hirschberg Jensen, Verena; Affourtit, Charles

2015-01-01

344

Measurement of the Cross Section for High$p_T$ Hadron Production in Scattering of 160 GeV\\/c Muons off Nucleons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cross section for production of charged hadrons with high transverse momenta in scattering of 160 GeV\\/c muons off nucleons at low photon virtualities has been measured at the COMPASS experiment at CERN. The results, which cover transverse momenta from 1.1 to 3.6 GeV\\/c, are compared to a next-to-leading order perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics (NLO pQCD) calculation in order to evaluate

C Adolph; M G Alekseev; V Yu Alexakhin; Yu Alexandrov; G D Alexeev; A Amoroso; A A Antonov; A Austregesilo; B Badelek; F Balestra; J Barth; G Baum; Y Bedfer; J Bernhard; R Bertini; M Bettinelli; K Bicker; J Bieling; R Birsa; J Bisplinghoff; P Bordalo; F Bradamante; C Braun; A Bravar; A Bressan; E Burtin; M Chiosso; S U Chung; A Cicuttin; M L Crespo; S Dalla Torre; S Das; S S Dasgupta; O Yu Denisov; L Dhara; S V Donskov; N Doshita; V Duic; W Dünnweber; M Dziewiecki; A Efremov; C Elia; P D Eversheim; W Eyrich; M Faessler; A Ferrero; A Filin; M Finger; H Fischer; C Franco; N du Fresne von Hoheneschedu; J M Friedrich; V Frolov; R Garfagnini; F Gautheron; O P Gavrichtchouk; S Gerassimov; R Geyer; M Giorgi; I Gnesi; B Gobbo; S Goertz; S Grabmüller; A Grasso; B Grube; R Gushterski; A Guskov; T Guthörl; F Haas; D von Harrach; F H Heinsius; F Herrmann; C Hess; F Hinterberger; N Horikawa; Ch Höppner; N d'Hose; S Ishimoto; O Ivanov; Yu Ivanshin; T Iwata; R Jahn; V Jary; P Jasinski; R Joosten; E Kabuss; D Kang; B Ketzer; G V Khaustov; Yu A Khokhlov; Yu Kisselev; F Klein; K Klimaszewski; S Koblitz; J H Koivuniemi; V N Kolosov; K Kondo; K Königsmann; I Konorov; V F Konstantinov; A Korzenev; A M Kotzinian; O Kouznetsov; M Krämer; Z V Kroumchtein; R Kuhn; F Kunne; K Kurek; L Lauser; A A Lednev; A Lehmann; S Levorato; J Lichtenstadt; T Liska; A Maggiora; A Magnon; N Makke; G K Mallot; A Mann; C Marchand; A Martin; J Marzec; T Matsuda; G Meshcheryakov; W Meyer; T Michigami; Yu V Mikhailov; M A Moinester; A Morreale; A Mutter; A Nagaytsev; T Nagel; T Negrini; F Nerling; S Neubert; D Neyret; V I Nikolaenko; W-D Nowak; A S Nunes; A G Olshevsky; M Ostrick; A Padee; R Panknin; D Panzieri; B Parsamyan; S Paul; E Perevalova; G Pesaro; D V Peshekhonov; G Piragino; S Platchkov; J Pochodzalla; J Polak; V A Polyakov; J Pretz; M Quaresma; C Quintans; J-F Rajotte; S Ramos; V Rapatsky; G Reicherz; A Richter; E Rocco; E Rondio; N S Rossiyskaya; D I Ryabchikov; V D Samoylenko; A Sandacz; M G Sapozhnikov; S Sarkar; I A Savin; G Sbrizzai; P Schiavon; C Schill; T Schlüter; K Schmidt; L Schmitt; K Schönning; S Schopferer; M Schott; W Schröder; O Yu Shevchenko; L Silva; L Sinha; A N Sissakian; M Slunecka; G I Smirnov; S Sosio; F Sozzi; A Srnka; L Steiger; M Stolarski; M Sulc; R Sulej; P Sznajder; S Takekawa; J Ter Wolbeek; S Tessaro; F Tessarotto; L G Tkatchev; S Uhl; I Uman; M Vandenbroucke; M Virius; N V Vlassov; L Wang; R Windmolders; W Wislicki; H Wollny; K Zaremba; M Zavertyaev; E Zemlyanichkina; M Ziembicki; N Zhuravlev; A Zvyagin

2012-01-01

345

Reactive Nitrogen, Ozone and Ozone production in the Arctic Troposphere and the Impact of Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the aircraft observations obtained during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellite (ARCTAS) mission to examine O3 and NOy in the Arctic and sub-Arctic region and their source attribution. Using a number of marker tracers, we distinguish various air masses from the background troposphere and examine their contribution to NOx, O3, and O3 production in the Arctic troposphere. The background Arctic troposphere has mean O3 of ~ 60 ppbv and NOx of ~ 25 pptv throughout spring and summer with CO decreasing from ~ 145 ppbv in spring to ~ 100 ppbv in summer. These observed CO, NOx and O3 mixing ratios are not notably different from the values measured during the 1988 ABLE-3A and the 2002 TOPSE field campaigns despite the significant changes in the past two decades in processes that could have changed the Arctic tropospheric composition. Air masses associated with stratosphere-troposphere exchange are present throughout the mid and upper troposphere during spring and summer. These air masses with mean O3 concentration of 140-160 ppbv are the most important direct sources of O3 in the Arctic troposphere. In addition, air of stratospheric origin is the only notable driver of net O3 formation in the Arctic due to its sustainable high NOx (75 pptv in spring and 110 pptv in summer) and NOy (~800 pptv in spring and ~1100 pptv in summer) levels. Several STE plumes sampled during ARCTAS-B also show elevated levels of CH3CHO and active conversion of HNO3/NOx to PAN. The most likely source of CH3CHO in the STE air is ethane, which has a relatively long lifetime and higher molar yields of CH3CHO under high NOx conditions. This photochemical process contributes an average of ~ 100 pptv net formation of PAN in the STE air masses. These findings imply that an adequate representation of stratospheric O3 and NOy input are essential to accurately simulate O3, NOx and PAN in tropospheric chemistry transport models of the Arctic. Anthropogenic and biomass burning pollution plumes observed during ARCTAS show highly elevated hydrocarbons and NOy (mostly in the form of NOx and PAN), but do not contribute significantly to O3 in the Arctic troposphere except in some aged biomass burning plumes sampled during spring. Convection and/or lightning influences are negligible sources of O3 in the Arctic troposphere but can have significant impacts in the upper troposphere in the continental sub-Arctic during summer.

Liang, Q.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Douglass, A. R.; Crawford, J. H.; Apel, E. C.; Bian, H.; Blake, D. R.; Brune, W. H.; Chin, M.; Colarco, P. R.; da Silva, A.; Diskin, G. S.; Duncan, B. N.; Huey, L. G.; Knapp, D. J.; Montzka, D.; Nielsen, J. E.; Olson, J.; Pawson, S.; Riemer, D. D.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Wisthaler, A.

2011-12-01

346

Reactive nitrogen, ozone and ozone production in the Arctic troposphere and the impact of stratosphere-troposphere exchange  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the aircraft observations obtained during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellite (ARCTAS) mission together with the GEOS-5 CO simulation to examine O3 and NOy in the Arctic and sub-Arctic region and their source attribution. Using a number of marker tracers and their probability density distributions, we distinguish various air masses from the background troposphere and examine their contribution to NOx, O3, and O3 production in the Arctic troposphere. The background Arctic troposphere has mean O3 of ~60 ppbv and NOx of ~25 pptv throughout spring and summer with CO decreases from ~145 ppbv in spring to ~100 ppbv in summer. These observed CO, NOx and O3 mixing ratios are not notably different from the values measured during the 1988 ABLE-3A and the 2002 TOPSE field campaigns despite the significant changes in the past two decades in processes that could have changed the Arctic tropospheric composition. Air masses associated with stratosphere-troposphere exchange are present throughout the mid and upper troposphere during spring and summer. These air masses with mean O3 concentration of 140-160 ppbv are the most important direct sources of O3 in the Arctic troposphere. In addition, air of stratospheric origin is the only notable driver of net O3 formation in the Arctic due to its sustainable high NOx (75 pptv in spring and 110 pptv in summer) and NOy (~800 pptv in spring and ~1100 pptv in summer) levels. The ARCTAS measurements present observational evidence suggesting significant conversion of nitrogen from HNO3 to NOx and then to PAN (a net formation of ~120 pptv PAN) in summer when air of stratospheric origin is mixed with tropospheric background during stratosphere-to-troposphere transport. These findings imply that an adequate representation of stratospheric O3 and NOy input are essential in accurately simulating O3 and NOx photochemistry as well as the atmospheric budget of PAN in tropospheric chemistry transport models of the Arctic. Anthropogenic and biomass burning pollution plumes observed during ARCTAS show highly elevated hydrocarbons and NOy (mostly in the form of NOx and PAN), but do not contribute significantly to O3 in the Arctic troposphere except in some of the aged biomass burning plumes sampled during spring. Convection and/or lightning influences are negligible sources of O3 in the Arctic troposphere but can have significant impacts in the upper troposphere in the continental sub-Arctic during summer.

Liang, Q.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Douglass, A. R.; Crawford, J. H.; Apel, E.; Bian, H.; Blake, D. R.; Brune, W.; Chin, M.; Colarco, P. R.; da Silva, A.; Diskin, G. S.; Duncan, B. N.; Huey, L. G.; Knapp, D. J.; Montzka, D. D.; Nielsen, J. E.; Olson, J. R.; Pawson, S.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Reimer, D. D.

2011-04-01

347

Reactive Nitrogen, Ozone and Ozone Production in the Arctic Troposphere and the Impact of Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We analyze the aircraft observations obtained during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellite (ARCTAS) mission together with the GEOS-5 CO simulation to examine O3 and NOy in the Arctic and sub-Arctic region and their source attribution. Using a number of marker tracers and their probability density distributions, we distinguish various air masses from the background troposphere and examine their contribution to NOx, O3, and O3 production in the Arctic troposphere. The background Arctic troposphere has mean O3 of approximately 60 ppbv and NOx of approximately 25 pptv throughout spring and summer with CO decreases from approximately 145 ppbv in spring to approximately 100 ppbv in summer. These observed CO, NOx and O3 mixing ratios are not notably different from the values measured during the 1988 ABLE-3A and the 2002 TOPSE field campaigns despite the significant changes in the past two decades in processes that could have changed the Arctic tropospheric composition. Air masses associated with stratosphere-troposphere exchange are present throughout the mid and upper troposphere during spring and summer. These air masses with mean O3 concentration of 140-160 ppbv are the most important direct sources of O3 in the Arctic troposphere. In addition, air of stratospheric origin is the only notable driver of net O3 formation in the Arctic due to its sustainable high NOx (75 pptv in spring and 110 pptv in summer) and NOy (approximately 800 pptv in spring and approximately 1100 pptv in summer) levels. The ARCTAS measurements present observational evidence suggesting significant conversion of nitrogen from HNO3 to NOx and then to PAN (a net formation of approximately 120 pptv PAN) in summer when air of stratospheric origin is mixed with tropospheric background during stratosphere-to-troposphere transport. These findings imply that an adequate representation of stratospheric O3 and NOy input are essential in accurately simulating O3 and NOx photochemistry as well as the atmospheric budget of PAN in tropospheric chemistry transport models of the Arctic. Anthropogenic and biomass burning pollution plumes observed during ARCTAS show highly elevated hydrocarbons and NOy (mostly in the form of NOx and PAN), but do not contribute significantly to O3 in the Arctic troposphere except in some of the aged biomass burning plumes sampled during spring. Convection and/or lightning influences are negligible sources of O3 in the Arctic troposphere but can have significant impacts in the upper troposphere in the continental sub-Arctic during summer.

Liang, Q.; Rodriquez, J. M.; Douglass, A. R.; Crawford, J. H.; Apel, E.; Bian, H.; Blake, D. R.; Brune, W.; Chin, M.; Colarco, P. R.; daSilva, A.; Diskin, G. S.; Duncan, B. N.; Huey, L. C.; Knapp, D. J.; Montzka, D. D.; Nielsen, J. E.; Olson, J. R.; Pawson, S.; Weinheimer, A. J.

2011-01-01

348

Extent of Mitochondrial Hexokinase II Dissociation During Ischemia Correlates With Mitochondrial Cytochrome c Release, Reactive Oxygen Species Production, and Infarct Size on Reperfusion  

PubMed Central

Background The mechanisms by which ischemic preconditioning (IP) inhibits mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening and, hence, ischemia–reperfusion injury remain unclear. Here we investigate whether and how mitochondria?bound hexokinase 2 (mtHK2) may exert part of the cardioprotective effects of IP. Methods and Results Control and IP Langendorff?perfused rat hearts were subject to ischemia and reperfusion with measurement of hemodynamic function and infarct size. Outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) permeabilization after ischemia was determined by measuring rates of respiration and H2O2 production in the presence and absence of added cytochrome c in isolated mitochondria and permeabilized fibers. IP prevented OMM permeabilization during ischemia and reduced the loss of mtHK2, but not Bcl?xL, observed in control ischemic hearts. By contrast, treatment of permeabilized fibers with glucose?6?phosphate at pH 6.3 induced mtHK2 loss without OMM permeabilization. However, metabolic pretreatments of the perfused heart chosen to modulate glucose?6?phosphate and intracellular pHi revealed a strong inverse correlation between end?ischemic mtHK2 content and infarct size after reperfusion. Loss of mtHK2 was also associated with reduced rates of creatine phosphate generation during the early phase of reperfusion. This could be mimicked in permeabilized fibers after mtHK2 dissociation. Conclusions We propose that loss of mtHK2 during ischemia destabilizes mitochondrial contact sites, which, when accompanied by degradation of Bcl?xL, induces OMM permeabilization and cytochrome c loss. This stimulates reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening on reperfusion, leading to infarction. Consequently, inhibition of mtHK2 loss during ischemia could be an important mechanism responsible for the cardioprotection mediated by IP and other pretreatments. PMID:23525412

Pasdois, Philippe; Parker, Joanne Elizabeth; Halestrap, Andrew Philip

2013-01-01

349

Cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum upregulates angiotensin II type 1 receptors through reactive oxygen species generation and enhances VEGF production in bladder cancer.  

PubMed

We previously reported that angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) antagonists enhanced the cytotoxity of cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum (CDDP) in a bladder cancer xenograft model. To elucidate the synergistic mechanism, we investigated whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation induced by CDDP may affect the regulation of AT1R expression. Five invasive human bladder cancer cell lines, T24, UMUC-3, 5637, KU-1, and KU-19-19, were used in the in vitro study. For the in vivo study, T24 cells were used. We also examined AT1R and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in human bladder cancer specimens that had been treated with CDDP-based chemotherapy. The in vitro study showed that AT1R expression was significantly upregulated by CDDP in T24, KU-1, and KU-19-19 cells. On the other hand, AT1R expression was not changed in UMUC-3 and 5637 cells. ROS generation was also significantly upregulated by CDDP in T24, KU-1, and KU-19-19 cells. The upregulation of AT1R expression induced by CDDP was significantly suppressed by scavenging free radicals. Angiotensin II induced VEGF production in CDDP-treated cells; however, the AT1R antagonist significantly inhibited the increase in VEGF. The in vivo study results also showed that CDDP treatment upregulated AT1R expression, resulting in increased VEGF. Clinical specimens from patients who underwent cystectomy after neoadjuvant CDDP-based chemotherapy showed significantly higher AT1R and VEGF expression than corresponding transurethral resection specimens. Our findings indicate that CDDP upregulates AT1R expression though ROS generation and enhances VEGF production. Therefore, AT1R blockade may be an effective strategy for bladder cancer in combination with CDDP-based chemotherapy. PMID:20978160

Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Miyajima, Akira; Kosaka, Takeo; Shirotake, Suguru; Hasegawa, Masanori; Kikuchi, Eiji; Oya, Mototsugu

2010-11-01

350

The production of reactive oxygen species is a universal action mechanism of Amphotericin B against pathogenic yeasts and contributes to the fungicidal effect of this drug.  

PubMed

Amphotericin B (AMB) is an antifungal drug that binds to ergosterol and forms pores at the cell membrane, causing the loss of ions. In addition, AMB induces the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and although these molecules have multiple deleterious effects on fungal cells, their specific role in the action mechanism of AMB remains unknown. In this work, we studied the role of ROS in the action mechanism of AMB. We determined the intracellular induction of ROS in 44 isolates of different pathogenic yeast species (Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Cryptococcus gattii). We also characterized the production of ROS in AMB-resistant isolates. We found that AMB induces the formation of ROS in all the species tested. The inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain by rotenone blocked the induction of ROS by AMB and provided protection from the killing action of the antifungal. Moreover, this phenomenon was absent in strains that displayed resistance to AMB. These strains showed an alteration in the respiration rate and mitochondrial membrane potential and also had higher catalase activity than that of the AMB-susceptible strains. Consistently, AMB failed to induce protein carbonylation in the resistant strains. Our data demonstrate that the production of ROS by AMB is a universal and important action mechanism that is correlated with the fungicidal effect and might explain the low rate of resistance to the molecule. Finally, these data provide an opportunity to design new strategies to improve the efficacy of this antifungal. PMID:25155595

Mesa-Arango, Ana Cecilia; Trevijano-Contador, Nuria; Román, Elvira; Sánchez-Fresneda, Ruth; Casas, Celia; Herrero, Enrique; Argüelles, Juan Carlos; Pla, Jesús; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Zaragoza, Oscar

2014-11-01

351

Deep inelastic scattering of leptons*  

PubMed Central

The description of deep inelastic scattering as an extrapolation between resonance production and diffractive scattering is extended to give successful quantitative representations for the structure functions of unpolarized electron scattering on protons and neutrons, and of neutrino, antineutrino scattering on nucleons. The same ideas also supply a prediction for the polarization asymmetry in deep inelastic electron-proton scattering (paper no. 2, to be published). PMID:16592352

Schwinger, Julian

1976-01-01

352

p-Cresol Affects Reactive Oxygen Species Generation, Cell Cycle Arrest, Cytotoxicity and Inflammation/Atherosclerosis-Related Modulators Production in Endothelial Cells and Mononuclear Cells  

PubMed Central

Aims Cresols are present in antiseptics, coal tar, some resins, pesticides, and industrial solvents. Cresol intoxication leads to hepatic injury due to coagulopathy as well as disturbance of hepatic circulation in fatal cases. Patients with uremia suffer from cardiovascular complications, such as atherosclerosis, thrombosis, hemolysis, and bleeding, which may be partly due to p-cresol toxicity and its effects on vascular endothelial and mononuclear cells. Given the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammation in vascular thrombosis, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of p-cresol on endothelial and mononuclear cells. Methods EA.hy926 (EAHY) endothelial cells and U937 cells were exposed to different concentrations of p-cresol. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 -diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and trypan blue dye exclusion technique, respectively. Cell cycle distribution was analyzed by propidium iodide flow cytometry. Endothelial cell migration was studied by wound closure assay. ROS level was measured by 2?,7?-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF) fluorescence flow cytometry. Prostaglandin F2? (PGF2?), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), and uPA production were determined by Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). Results Exposure to 100–500 µM p-cresol decreased EAHY cell number by 30–61%. P-cresol also decreased the viability of U937 mononuclear cells. The inhibition of EAHY and U937 cell growth by p-cresol was related to induction of S-phase cell cycle arrest. Closure of endothelial wounds was inhibited by p-cresol (>100 µM). P-cresol (>50 µM) also stimulated ROS production in U937 cells and EAHY cells but to a lesser extent. Moreover, p-cresol markedly stimulated PAI-1 and suPAR, but not PGF2?, and uPA production in EAHY cells. Conclusions p-Cresol may contribute to atherosclerosis and thrombosis in patients with uremia and cresol intoxication possibly due to induction of ROS, endothelial/mononuclear cell damage and production of inflammation/atherosclerosis-related molecules. PMID:25517907

Chan, Chiu-Po; Yeung, Sin-Yuet; Hsien, Hsiang-Chi; Lin, Bor-Ru; Yeh, Chien-Yang; Tseng, Wan-Yu; Tseng, Shui-Kuan; Jeng, Jiiang-Huei

2014-01-01

353

Double spin asymmetry AL?T? in charged pion production from deep inelastic scattering on a transversely polarized ³He target  

E-print Network

In this thesis I discuss the first measurement of the beam-target double-spin asymmetry ALT for charged pion electroproduction in deep inelastic electron scattering on a transversely polarized 3He target. These data were ...

Huang, Jin, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01

354

Fully quantum state-resolved inelastic scattering of NO(X) + Kr: differential cross sections and product rotational alignment.  

PubMed

Fully quantum state selected and resolved inelastic scattering of NO(X) by krypton has been investigated. Initial ?-doublet state selection is achieved using an inhomogeneous hexapole electric field. Differential cross sections and even-moment polarization dependent differential cross sections have been obtained at a collision energy of 514 cm(-1) for both spin-orbit and parity conserving and changing collisions. Experimental results are compared with those obtained from quantum scattering calculations and are shown to be in very good agreement. Hard shell quantum scattering calculations are also performed to determine the effects of the different parts of the potential on the scattering dynamics. Comparisons are also made with the NO(X) + Ar system. PMID:25362298

Brouard, M; Chadwick, H; Gordon, S D S; Hornung, B; Nichols, B; K?os, J; Aoiz, F J; Stolte, S

2014-10-28

355

Fully quantum state-resolved inelastic scattering of NO(X) + Kr: Differential cross sections and product rotational alignment  

SciTech Connect

Fully quantum state selected and resolved inelastic scattering of NO(X) by krypton has been investigated. Initial ?-doublet state selection is achieved using an inhomogeneous hexapole electric field. Differential cross sections and even-moment polarization dependent differential cross sections have been obtained at a collision energy of 514 cm{sup ?1} for both spin-orbit and parity conserving and changing collisions. Experimental results are compared with those obtained from quantum scattering calculations and are shown to be in very good agreement. Hard shell quantum scattering calculations are also performed to determine the effects of the different parts of the potential on the scattering dynamics. Comparisons are also made with the NO(X) + Ar system.

Brouard, M., E-mail: mark.brouard@chem.ox.ac.uk; Chadwick, H.; Gordon, S. D. S.; Hornung, B.; Nichols, B. [The Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, The Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QZ (United Kingdom); K?os, J., E-mail: jklos@umd.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Aoiz, F. J., E-mail: aoiz@quim.ucm.es [Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de Química, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Stolte, S., E-mail: stolte@chem.vu.nl [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

2014-10-28

356

?-tocotrienol prevents 5-FU-induced reactive oxygen species production in human oral keratinocytes through the stabilization of 5-FU-induced activation of Nrf2  

PubMed Central

Chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis is a common adverse event in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma, and is initiated through a variety of mechanisms, including the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we examined the preventive effect of ?-tocotrienol on the 5-FU-induced ROS production in human oral keratinocytes (RT7). We treated RT7 cells with 5-FU and ?-tocotrienol at concentrations of 10 ?g/ml and 10 nM, respectively. When cells were treated with 5-FU alone, significant growth inhibition was observed as compared to untreated cells. This inhibition was, in part, due to the ROS generated by 5-FU treatment, because N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a ROS scavenger, significantly ameliorated the growth of RT7 cells. ?-tocotrienol showed no cytotoxic effect on the growth of RT7 cells. Simultaneous treatment of cells with these agents resulted in the significant recovery of cell growth, owing to the suppression of ROS generation by ?-tocotrienol. Whereas 5-FU stimulated the expression of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein in the nucleus up to 12 h after treatment of RT7 cells, ?-tocotrienol had no obvious effect on the expression of nuclear Nrf2 protein. Of note, the combined treatment with both agents stabilized the 5-FU-induced nuclear Nrf2 protein expression until 24 h after treatment. In addition, expression of Nrf2-dependent antioxidant genes, such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO-1), was significantly augmented by treatment of cells with both agents. These findings suggest that ?-tocotrienol could prevent 5-FU-induced ROS generation by stabilizing Nrf2 activation, thereby leading to ROS detoxification and cell survival in human oral keratinocytes. PMID:25625649

TAKANO, HIDEYUKI; MOMOTA, YUKIHIRO; KANI, KOUICHI; AOTA, KEIKO; YAMAMURA, YOSHIKO; YAMANOI, TOMOKO; AZUMA, MASAYUKI

2015-01-01

357

Baicalein protects HT22 murine hippocampal neuronal cells against endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis through inhibition of reactive oxygen species production and CHOP induction.  

PubMed

Baicalein is one of the major flavonoids in Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi and possesses various effects, including cytoprotection and anti-inflammation. Because endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and cerebral ischemia, we investigated the effects of baicalein on apoptotic death of HT22 mouse hippocampal neuronal cells induced by thapsigargin (TG) and brefeldin A (BFA), two representative ER stress inducers. Apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were measured by flow cytometry. Expression level and phosphorylation status of ER stress-associated proteins and activation and cleavage of apoptosis-associated proteins were analyzed by Western blot. Baicalein reduced TG- and BFA-induced apoptosis of HT22 cells and activation and cleavage of apoptosis-associated proteins, such as caspase-12 and -3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Baicalein also reduced the TG- and BFA-induced expression of ER stress-associated proteins, including C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and glucose-regulated protein 78, the cleavage of X-box binding protein-1 and activating transcription factor 6?, and the phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor-2? and mitogen-activated protein kinases, such as p38, JNK, and ERK. Knock-down of CHOP expression by siRNA transfection and specific inhibitors of p38 (SB203580), JNK (SP600125), and ERK (PD98059) as well as anti-oxidant (N-acetylcysteine) reduced TG- or BFA-induced cell death. Baicalein also reduced TG- and BFA-induced ROS accumulation and MMP reduction. Taken together, these results suggest that baicalein could protect HT22 neuronal cells against ER stress-induced apoptosis by reducing CHOP induction as well as ROS accumulation and mitochondrial damage. PMID:20959717

Choi, Ji Hyun; Choi, A Young; Yoon, Hana; Choe, Wonchae; Yoon, Kyung-Sik; Ha, Joohun; Yeo, Eui-Ju; Kang, Insug

2010-12-31

358

Reactive arthritis.  

PubMed

Reactive arthritis (ReA) is an immune-mediated seronegative arthritis that belongs to the group of spondyloarthropathies and develops after a gastrointestinal or genitourinary system infection. The condition is considered to be characterized by a triad of symptoms (conjunctivitis, arthritis and urethritis) although a constellation of other manifestations may also be present. ReA is characterized by psoriasiform dermatological manifestations that may resemble those of pustular psoriasis and, similar to guttate psoriasis, is a post-infectious entity. Also, the articular manifestations of the disorder are similar to those of psoriatic arthritis and both conditions show a correlation with HLA-B27. These facts have led several authors to suggest that there is a connection between ReA and psoriasis, listing ReA among the disorders related to psoriasis. However, the pathogenetic mechanism behind the condition is complex and poorly understood. Bacterial antigenicity, the type of host response (i.e. Th1/Th2 imbalance) and various genetic factors (i.e. HLA-B27 etc.) play an important role in the development of the disorder. It is unknown whether all the aforementioned factors are part of a mechanism that could be similar to, or share basic aspects with known psoriasis pathogenesis mechanisms. PMID:25199646

Stavropoulos, P G; Soura, E; Kanelleas, A; Katsambas, A; Antoniou, C

2015-03-01

359

Effect of lanthanum(III) on the production of ethylene and reactive oxygen species in soybean seedlings exposed to the enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation.  

PubMed

The enhanced ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation caused by ozone depletion may exert deleterious effects on plants. Therefore, studies on the effect of UV-B radiation on plants, as well as studies on the methods for alleviating the deleterious effects by chemical control, are of great significance. In this study, after soybean (Glycine max) seedlings were exposed to UV-B radiation (10.2 and 13.8kJ m(-2)day(-1)) for 5 days and the followed 6 days of restoration, respectively, the effects of 20mg L(-1) lanthanum (III) [La(III)] on leaf phenotype, photosynthetic rate, and production of ethylene and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were investigated. The results indicated that the exposure to 10.2 and 13.8kJ m(-2)day(-1) UV-B radiation could cause injury to the leaf phenotype, and lead to the decrease in the content of chlorophyll and the net photosynthetic rate, and the increase in the contents of ROS, ethylene and 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid, and 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid synthase activity in soybean seedlings. Following the withdrawal of the enhanced UV-B radiation, the above mentioned parameters gradually recovered, and the recovery of soybean seedlings exposed to 10.2kJ m(-2)day(-1) UV-B radiation was faster than those in soybean seedlings exposed to 13.8kJ m(-2)day(-1) UV-B radiation. The leaf injury and the changes in the above indices that were induced by the enhanced UV-B radiation, especially at 10.2kJ m(-2)day(-1), were alleviated after the pretreatment of soybean seedlings with 20mg L(-1) La(III). The results of the correlation analysis demonstrated that the injury to the leaf phenotype and the decrease in the photosynthetic rate of soybean seedlings were correlated with the increase in the ROS content that was induced by ethylene in soybean seedlings. The pretreatment with 20mg L(-1) La(III) alleviated the injury caused by the enhanced UV-B radiation through the regulation of the ROS production. PMID:24675444

Yang, Qing; Li, Yueli; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

2014-06-01

360

Blood Radicals: Reactive Nitrogen Species, Reactive Oxygen Species, Transition Metal Ions, and the Vascular System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Free radicals, such as superoxide, hydroxyl and nitric oxide, and other “reactive species”, such as hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorous acid and peroxynitrite, are formed in vivo. Some of these molecules, e.g. superoxide and nitric oxide, can be physiologically useful, but they can also cause damage under certain circumstances. Excess production of reactive oxygen or nitrogen species (ROS, RNS), their production in

Victor Darley-Usmar; Barry Halliwell

1996-01-01