Sample records for reactively scattered products

  1. A Chebyshev method for state-to-state reactive scattering using reactant-product decoupling: OH + H2 ? H2O + H

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvitaš, Marko T.; Althorpe, Stuart C.

    2013-08-01

    We extend a recently developed wave packet method for computing the state-to-state quantum dynamics of AB + CD ? ABC + D reactions [M. T. Cvitaš and S. C. Althorpe, J. Phys. Chem. A 113, 4557 (2009)], 10.1021/jp8111974 to include the Chebyshev propagator. The method uses the further partitioned approach to reactant-product decoupling, which uses artificial decoupling potentials to partition the coordinate space of the reaction into separate reactant, product, and transition-state regions. Separate coordinates and basis sets can then be used that are best adapted to each region. We derive improved Chebyshev partitioning formulas which include Mandelshtam-and-Taylor-type decoupling potentials, and which are essential for the non-unitary discrete variable representations that must be used in 4-atom reactive scattering calculations. Numerical tests on the fully dimensional OH + H2 ? H2O + H reaction for J = 0 show that the new version of the method is as efficient as the previously developed split-operator version. The advantages of the Chebyshev propagator (most notably the ease of parallelization for J > 0) can now be fully exploited in state-to-state reactive scattering calculations on 4-atom reactions.

  2. State-to-state dynamics of high-n Rydberg H-atom scattering with H2: inelastic scattering and reactive scattering.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shengrui; Su, Shu; Dai, Dongxu; Yuan, Kaijun; Yang, Xueming

    2015-04-21

    The state-to-state dynamics of high-n Rydberg H-atom scattering with para-H2 at the collision energies of 0.45 and 1.07 eV have been studied using the H-atom Rydberg tagging time-of-flight technique. Both the inelastic scattering and reactive scattering are observed in the experimental time-of-flight spectra. The products H2(v', j' = odd) come only from reactive scattering and present clearly forward-backward asymmetric angular distributions, which differ from those of the corresponding ion-molecule reaction. The products H2(v', j' = even), however, come from both reactive scattering and inelastic scattering. Simulating the rotational distribution from reactive scattering, we found that most of the H2(v', j' = even) products come from inelastic scattering. The angular distributions of the product H2(v', j' = even) are consistent with what is predicted by the conventional textbook mechanism of inelastic scattering, and are a little different from those of the corresponding ion-molecule inelastic scattering. These results suggest that the effect of Rydberg electron could not be neglected in describing the differential cross sections of H* + para-H2 scattering. From the simulation, the branching ratios of the inelastic scattering channel were determined to be 66% and 79% at the collision energies of 0.45 and 1.07 eV, respectively. PMID:25162182

  3. State-to-state inelastic and reactive molecular beam scattering from surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Lykke, K.R. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Kay, B.D. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) laser spectroscopic and molecular beam-surface scattering techniques are coupled to study inelastic and reactive gas-surface scattering with state-to-state specificity. Rotational, vibrational, translational and angular distributions have been measured for the inelastic scattering of HCI and N {sub 2} from Au(111). In both cases the scattering is direct-inelastic in nature and exhibits interesting dynamical features such as rotational rainbow scattering. In an effort to elucidate the dynamics of chemical reactions occurring on surfaces we have extended our quantum-resolved scattering studies to include the reactive scattering of a beam of gas phase H-atoms from a chlorinated metal surface M-CI. The nascent rotational and vibrational distributions of the HCI product are determined using REMPI. The thermochemistry for this reaction on Au indicates that the product formation proceeding through chemisorbed H-atoms is slightly endothermic while direct reaction of a has phase H-atom with M-CI is highly exothermic (ca. 50 kcal/mole). Details of the experimental techniques, results and implications regarding the scattering dynamics are discussed. 55 ref., 8 fig.

  4. A quantum reactive scattering perspective on electronic nonadiabaticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yang; Ghiringhelli, Luca M.; Appel, Heiko

    2014-07-01

    Based on quantum reactive-scattering theory, we propose a method for studying the electronic nonadiabaticity in collision processes involving electron-ion rearrangements. We investigate the state-to-state transition probability for electron-ion rearrangements with two comparable approaches. In the first approach the information of the electron is only contained in the ground-state Born-Oppenheimer potential-energy surface, which is the starting point of common reactive-scattering calculations. In the second approach, the electron is explicitly taken into account and included in the calculations at the same level as the ions. Hence, the deviation in the results between the two approaches directly reflects the electronic nonadiabaticity during the collision process. To illustrate the method, we apply it to the well-known proton-transfer model of Shin and Metiu, generalized in order to allow for reactive scattering channels. We show that our explicit electron approach is able to capture electronic nonadiabaticity and the renormalization of the reaction barrier near the classical turning points of the potential in nuclear configuration space. In contrast, system properties near the equilibrium geometry of the asymptotic scattering channels are hardly affected by electronic nonadiabatic effects. We also present an analytical expression for the transition amplitude of the asymmetric proton-transfer model based on the direct evaluation of integrals over the involved Airy functions.

  5. Reactivity and petrography of cokes for ferrosilicon and silicon production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Therese Videm Buø; Ralph J Gray; Raymond M Patalsky

    2000-01-01

    The reactivity of reduction materials is critical in ferrosilicon and silicon production. The reactivity of different cokes has been measured with a method developed by Elkem ASA Research. The purpose of this work was to relate reactivity to petrographically determined parameters. It is easier and less costly to perform a petrographic analysis than to conduct the reactivity test. The relation

  6. Characterization of corrosion products in the permeable reactive barriers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Roh; S. Y. Lee; M. P. Elless

    2000-01-01

    The impact of geochemical processes and microbial activity has been a major concern for the long-term performance of reactive\\u000a iron barriers because corrosion products and precipitates during the water treatment with reactive materials will decrease\\u000a the reactivity and permeability of the iron bed. This study characterizes corrosion products in reactive iron barrier as well\\u000a as evaluates the effect of the

  7. Crossed-molecular-beams reactive scattering of oxygen atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Baseman, R.J.

    1982-11-01

    The reactions of O(/sup 3/P) with six prototypical unsaturated hydrocarbons, and the reaction of O(/sup 1/D) with HD, have been studied in high-resolution crossed-molecular-beams scattering experiments with mass-spectrometric detection. The observed laboratory-product angular and velocity distributions unambiguously identify parent-daughter ion pairs, distinguish different neutral sources of the same ion, and have been used to identify the primary products of the reactions. The derived center-of-mass product angular and translational energy distributions have been used to elucidate the detailed reaction dynamics. These results demonstrate that O(/sup 3/P)-unsaturated hydrocarbon chemistry is dominated by single bond cleavages, leading to radical products exclusively.

  8. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and elimination.

    PubMed

    Nickel, Alexander; Kohlhaas, Michael; Maack, Christoph

    2014-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in cardiovascular diseases, and one important source for ROS are mitochondria. Emission of ROS from mitochondria is the net result of ROS production at the electron transport chain (ETC) and their elimination by antioxidative enzymes. Both of these processes are highly dependent on the mitochondrial redox state, which is dynamically altered under different physiological and pathological conditions. The concept of "redox-optimized ROS balance" integrates these aspects and implies that oxidative stress occurs when the optimal equilibrium of an intermediate redox state is disturbed towards either strong oxidation or reduction. Furthermore, mitochondria integrate ROS signals from other cellular sources, presumably through a process termed "ROS-induced ROS release" that involves mitochondrial ion channels. Here, we attempt to integrate these recent advances in our understanding of the control of mitochondrial ROS emission and develop a concept of how in heart failure, defects in ion handling can lead to mitochondrial oxidative stress. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Redox Signalling in the Cardiovascular System". PMID:24657720

  9. Production and Consumption of Reactive Oxygen Species by Fullerenes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are one of the most important intermediates in chemical, photochemical, and biological processes. To understand the environmental exposure and toxicity of fullerenes better, the production and consumption of ROS (singlet oxygen, superoxide, hydrogen ...

  10. Mechanisms of Photochemistry and Reactive Oxygen Production by

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    Mechanisms of Photochemistry and Reactive Oxygen Production by Fullerene Suspensions in Water E R N by the commercialandnaturalmatricesinwhichtheyareimmersed. However, an evaluation of the surface and photochemistry of some relatively simple aqueous

  11. Digestible reactive lysine in selected milk-based products.

    PubMed

    Rutherfurd, S M; Moughan, P J

    2005-01-01

    Reactive lysine contents, true ileal reactive lysine digestibility, and true ileal digestible reactive lysine contents were determined in a wide range of processed milk products. A previously validated assay based on determining reactive lysine in both food and ileal digesta, after reaction of these materials with O-methylisourea, was applied. Semisynthetic diets containing milk products as the sole sources of protein and including chromic oxide as an indigestible marker were fed to growing rats. Digesta from the terminal ileum were collected posteuthanasia and, with samples of the diets, analyzed for reactive lysine (homoarginine) contents. True reactive lysine digestibility was determined after correcting for endogenous lysine loss at the terminal ileum of rats fed an enzyme hydrolyzed casein-based diet, followed by ultrafiltration (5000 Da) of the digesta. Digestible total lysine (determined using conventional methods) was also determined. The true ileal reactive lysine digestibility was high (>91%) in all the milk products tested, but was highest in the UHT milk (100%) and lowest in the infant formulas (91 to 93%). Total lysine digestibility (conventional measurement) significantly underestimated reactive lysine digestibility for all the products tested. The mean underestimation ranged from 1.3 to 7.1% units. The mean digestible total lysine content was significantly different from the available lysine content for most of the products examined. In some cases this difference was small (<3%), but for a number of the products (evaporated milk, whole milk protein, lactose hydrolyzed milk powder, and a sports formula) the difference was greater (6.5 to 14%). This would suggest firstly that total lysine and total lysine digestibility determined using conventional methods were inaccurate when applied to some milk-based foods, and secondly that some of the milk products have undergone lysine modification. In general, milk proteins are a highly digestible source of amino acids and lysine. PMID:15591365

  12. Tensor Product Structures, Entanglement, and Particle Scattering

    E-print Network

    N. L. Harshman; S. Wickramsekara

    2006-12-28

    Particle systems admit a variety of tensor product structures (TPSs) depending on the complete system of commuting observables chosen for the analysis. Different notions of entanglement are associated with these different TPSs. Global symmetry transformations and dynamical transformations factor into products of local unitary operators with respect to certain TPSs and not with respect to others. Symmetry-invariant and dynamical-invariant TPSs and corresponding measures of entanglement are defined for particle scattering systems.

  13. Reactive Phosphorus Removal from Aquaculture and Poultry Productions

    E-print Network

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    Reactive Phosphorus Removal from Aquaculture and Poultry Productions Systems Using Polymeric,HCl chains with epichlorohydrin (EPI). The phosphorus binding capacity of the gels was measured in standard were obtained. The regeneration ability of the gels was demonstrated by release of the bound phosphorus

  14. Production of reactive sintered nickel aluminide

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Effort over the past 3 months was directed at increasing manufacturing capacity (ball milling) and improving product quality. Orders for the powder have increased, mainly for plasma spray powders. NiAl is an excellent coat between a metal and a ceramic, and its use instead of cobalt should extending operating range for carbide tools. The feather phase in the sintered Ni[sub 3]Al was identified to be a Ni-rich phase nucleated on the grain boundaries with 10 wt % Al composition. The ductile to brittle temperature of powder extruded NiAl was found to be between 500 and 600 C, and shows a 50% elongation at 600 C.

  15. Quantum Reactive Scattering of Ultracold NH(X?-3) Radicals in a Magnetic Trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, Liesbeth M. C.; van der Avoird, Ad; Groenenboom, Gerrit C.

    2013-02-01

    We investigate the ultracold reaction dynamics of magnetically trapped NH(X?-3) radicals using rigorous quantum scattering calculations involving three coupled potential energy surfaces. We find that the reactive NH+NH cross section is driven by a short-ranged collisional mechanism, and its magnitude is only weakly dependent on magnetic field strength. Unlike most ultracold reactions observed so far, the NH+NH scattering dynamics is nonuniversal. Our results indicate that chemical reactions can cause more trap loss than spin-inelastic NH+NH collisions, making molecular evaporative cooling more difficult than previously anticipated.

  16. Quantum reactive scattering of ultracold NH(X (3)?(-)) radicals in a magnetic trap.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Liesbeth M C; van der Avoird, Ad; Groenenboom, Gerrit C

    2013-02-01

    We investigate the ultracold reaction dynamics of magnetically trapped NH(X (3)?(-)) radicals using rigorous quantum scattering calculations involving three coupled potential energy surfaces. We find that the reactive NH+NH cross section is driven by a short-ranged collisional mechanism, and its magnitude is only weakly dependent on magnetic field strength. Unlike most ultracold reactions observed so far, the NH+NH scattering dynamics is nonuniversal. Our results indicate that chemical reactions can cause more trap loss than spin-inelastic NH+NH collisions, making molecular evaporative cooling more difficult than previously anticipated. PMID:23432241

  17. Light scattering measurement of sodium polyacrylate products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lama, Nisha; Norwood, David; Boone, Steven; Massie-Boyer, Valerie

    2015-03-01

    In the presentation, we will describe the use of a multi-detector HPLC incorporating the DAWN EOS multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) detector to measure the properties such as molecular weight, RMS radius, contour and persistence length and polydispersity of sodium polyacrylate products. The samples of sodium polyacrylate are used in various industries as thickening agents, coating dispersants, artificial snow, laundry detergent and disposable diapers. Data and results obtained from the experiment will be presented.

  18. Time-dependent quantum reactive scattering in hyperspherical coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Jeffrey James

    We present a time-dependent hyperspherical, wave packet method for calculating three atom state-to-state S-matrix elements. The wave packet is propagated in time using adiabatically adjusting, principal axes hyperspherical (APH) coordinates that treat all arrangement channels equivalently, allowing the simultaneous analysis of the products in all three arrangement channels. We take advantage of the symmetry of the potential energy surface and decompose the initial wave packet into its component irreducible representations, propagating each component separately. Each packet is analyzed by projecting it onto the hyperspherical basis at a fixed, asymptotic hyperradius, and irreducible representation dependent S-matrix elements are obtained by matching the hyperspherical projections to symmetry-adapted Jacobi coordinate boundary conditions. We obtain arrangement channel-dependent S-matrix elements as linear combinations of the irreducible representation dependent elements. We derive and implement a new three-dimensional Sylvester-like algorithm that reduces the number of multiplications required to apply the Hamiltonian to the wave packet, dramatically increasing the computational efficiency. A convergence study is presented to show the behavior of the results as the initial parameters are varied and to determine the values of those parameters that give accurate results. State-to-state H + H2 and F + H2 results for zero total angular momentum are presented and show excellent agreement with time-independent benchmark results.

  19. CROSSED BEAM REACTIVE SCATTERING OF OXYGEN ATOMS AND SURFACE SCATTERING STUDIES OF GASEOUS CONDENSATION

    E-print Network

    Sibener, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    F. 0( D,) Production When dilute oxygen-helium gas mixturesoxygen-helium mixture for maximizing Of D ) production. D Ihelium mixtures (12S torr total pressure, 145 watts I The genera­ and have observed atomic hydrogen production.

  20. Reactive oxygen species production and discontinuous gas exchange in insects.

    PubMed

    Boardman, Leigh; Terblanche, John S; Hetz, Stefan K; Marais, Elrike; Chown, Steven L

    2012-03-01

    While biochemical mechanisms are typically used by animals to reduce oxidative damage, insects are suspected to employ a higher organizational level, discontinuous gas exchange mechanism to do so. Using a combination of real-time, flow-through respirometry and live-cell fluorescence microscopy, we show that spiracular control associated with the discontinuous gas exchange cycle (DGC) in Samia cynthia pupae is related to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hyperoxia fails to increase mean ROS production, although minima are elevated above normoxic levels. Furthermore, a negative relationship between mean and mean ROS production indicates that higher ROS production is generally associated with lower . Our results, therefore, suggest a possible signalling role for ROS in DGC, rather than supporting the idea that DGC acts to reduce oxidative damage by regulating ROS production. PMID:21865257

  1. Geochemical production of reactive oxygen species from biogeochemically reduced Fe.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Sarah A; Solomon, Benson M; Meng, Shengnan; Copeland, Justin M; Shaw, Timothy J; Ferry, John L

    2014-04-01

    The photochemical reduction of Fe(III) complexes to Fe(II) is a well-known initiation step for the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in sunlit waters. Here we show a geochemical mechanism for the same in dark environments based on the tidally driven, episodic movement of anoxic groundwaters through oxidized, Fe(III) rich sediments. Sediment samples were collected from the top 5 cm of sediment in a saline tidal creek in the estuary at Murrell's Inlet, South Carolina and characterized with respect to total Fe, acid volatile sulfides, and organic carbon content. These sediments were air-dried, resuspended in aerated solution, then exposed to aqueous sulfide at a range of concentrations chosen to replicate the conditions characteristic of a tidal cycle, beginning with low tide. No detectable ROS production occurred from this process in the dark until sulfide was added. Sulfide addition resulted in the rapid production of hydrogen peroxide, with maximum concentrations of 3.85 ?M. The mechanism of hydrogen peroxide production was tested using a simplified three factor representation of the system based on hydrogen sulfide, Fe(II) and Fe(III). The resulting predictive model for maximum hydrogen peroxide agreed with measured hydrogen peroxide in field-derived samples at the 95% level of confidence, although with a persistent negative bias suggesting a minor undiscovered peroxide source in sediments. PMID:24597860

  2. Reactive ion etching-assisted surface-enhanced Raman scattering measurements on the single nanoparticle level

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Si-Yi; Jiang, Xiang-Xu; Wei, Xin-Pan; Lee, Shuit-Tong, E-mail: apannale@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: yaohe@suda.edu.cn; He, Yao, E-mail: apannale@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: yaohe@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials - FUNSOM, Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, and Devices Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Xu, Ting-Ting [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials - FUNSOM, Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, and Devices Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Center of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films (COSDAF), City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China and Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

    2014-06-16

    Single-nanoparticle surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) measurement is of essential importance for both fundamental research and practical applications. In this work, we develop a class of single-particle SERS approaches, i.e., reactive ion etching (RIE)-assisted SERS measurements correlated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) strategy (RIE/SERS/SEM), enabling precise and high-resolution identification of single gold nanoparticle (AuNP) in facile and reliable manners. By using AuNP-coated silicon wafer and quartz glass slide as models, we further employ the developed RIE/SERS/SEM method for interrogating the relationship between SERS substrates and enhancement factor (EF) on the single particle level. Together with theoretical calculation using an established finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) method, we demonstrate silicon wafer as superior SERS substrates, facilitating improvement of EF values.

  3. Jet production in muon scattering at Fermilab E665

    SciTech Connect

    Salgado, C.W.; E665 Collaboration

    1993-11-01

    Measurements of multi-jet production rates from Muon-Nucleon and Muon-Nuclei scattering at Fermilab-E665 are presented. Jet rates are defined by the JADE clustering algorithm. Rates in Muon-Nucleon deep-inelastic scattering are compared to Monte Carlo model predictions. Preliminary results from jet production on heavy targets, in the shadowing region, show a higher suppression of two-forward jets as compared to one-forward jet production.

  4. Meson production in high-energy electron-nucleus scattering

    E-print Network

    Göran Fäldt

    2010-06-09

    Experimental studies of meson production through two-photon fusion in inelastic electron-nucleus scattering is now under way. A high-energy photon radiated by the incident electron is fused with a soft photon radiated by the nucleus. The process takes place in the small-angle-Coulomb region of nuclear scattering. We expound the theory for this production process as well as its interference with coherent-radiative-meson production. In particular, we investigate the distortion of the electron wave function due to multiple-Coulomb scattering.

  5. A MATLAB-based finite-element visualization of quantum reactive scattering. I. Collinear atom-diatom reactions.

    PubMed

    Warehime, Mick; Alexander, Millard H

    2014-07-14

    We restate the application of the finite element method to collinear triatomic reactive scattering dynamics with a novel treatment of the scattering boundary conditions. The method provides directly the reactive scattering wave function and, subsequently, the probability current density field. Visualizing these quantities provides additional insight into the quantum dynamics of simple chemical reactions beyond simplistic one-dimensional models. Application is made here to a symmetric reaction (H+H2), a heavy-light-light reaction (F+H2), and a heavy-light-heavy reaction (F+HCl). To accompany this article, we have written a MATLAB code which is fast, simple enough to be accessible to a wide audience, as well as generally applicable to any problem that can be mapped onto a collinear atom-diatom reaction. The code and user's manual are available for download from http://www2.chem.umd.edu/groups/alexander/FEM. PMID:25028010

  6. A MATLAB-based finite-element visualization of quantum reactive scattering. I. Collinear atom-diatom reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warehime, Mick; Alexander, Millard H.

    2014-07-01

    We restate the application of the finite element method to collinear triatomic reactive scattering dynamics with a novel treatment of the scattering boundary conditions. The method provides directly the reactive scattering wave function and, subsequently, the probability current density field. Visualizing these quantities provides additional insight into the quantum dynamics of simple chemical reactions beyond simplistic one-dimensional models. Application is made here to a symmetric reaction (H+H2), a heavy-light-light reaction (F+H2), and a heavy-light-heavy reaction (F+HCl). To accompany this article, we have written a MATLAB code which is fast, simple enough to be accessible to a wide audience, as well as generally applicable to any problem that can be mapped onto a collinear atom-diatom reaction. The code and user's manual are available for download from http://www2.chem.umd.edu/groups/alexander/FEM.

  7. Towards a specific reaction parameter density functional for reactive scattering of H2 from Pd(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boereboom, J. M.; Wijzenbroek, M.; Somers, M. F.; Kroes, G. J.

    2013-12-01

    Recently, an implementation of the specific reaction parameter (SRP) approach to density functional theory (DFT) was used to study several reactive scattering experiments of H2 on Cu(111). It was possible to obtain chemical accuracy (1 kcal/mol ? 4.2 kJ/mol), and therefore, accurately model this paradigmatic example of activated H2 dissociation on a metal surface. In this work, the SRP-DFT methodology is applied to the dissociation of hydrogen on a Pd(111) surface, in order to test whether the SRP-DFT approach is also applicable to non-activated H2-metal systems. In the calculations, the Born-Oppenheimer static surface approximations are used. A comparison to molecular beam sticking experiments, performed at incidence energies ?125 meV, on H2 + Pd(111) suggested the PBE-vdW [where the Perdew, Burke, and Ernzerhof (PBE) correlation is replaced by van der Waals correlation] functional as a candidate SRP density functional describing the reactive scattering of H2 on Pd(111). Unfortunately, quantum dynamics calculations are not able to reproduce the molecular beam sticking results for incidence energies <125 meV. From a comparison to initial state-resolved (degeneracy averaged) sticking probabilities it seems clear that for H2 + Pd(111) dynamic trapping and steering effects are important, and that these effects are not yet well modeled with the potential energy surfaces considered here. Applying the SRP-DFT method to systems where H2 dissociation is non-activated remains difficult. It is suggested that a density functional that yields a broader barrier distribution and has more non-activated pathways than PBE-vdW (i.e., non-activated dissociation at some sites but similarly high barriers at the high energy end of the spectrum) should allow a more accurate description of the available experiments. Finally, it is suggested that new and better characterized molecular beam sticking experiments be done on H2 + Pd(111), to facilitate the development of a more accurate theoretical description of this system.

  8. Molten salt extraction of transuranic and reactive fission products from used uranium oxide fuel

    DOEpatents

    Herrmann, Steven Douglas

    2014-05-27

    Used uranium oxide fuel is detoxified by extracting transuranic and reactive fission products into molten salt. By contacting declad and crushed used uranium oxide fuel with a molten halide salt containing a minor fraction of the respective uranium trihalide, transuranic and reactive fission products partition from the fuel to the molten salt phase, while uranium oxide and non-reactive, or noble metal, fission products remain in an insoluble solid phase. The salt is then separated from the fuel via draining and distillation. By this method, the bulk of the decay heat, fission poisoning capacity, and radiotoxicity are removed from the used fuel. The remaining radioactivity from the noble metal fission products in the detoxified fuel is primarily limited to soft beta emitters. The extracted transuranic and reactive fission products are amenable to existing technologies for group uranium/transuranic product recovery and fission product immobilization in engineered waste forms.

  9. Proactive and Reactive Product Line Strategies: Asymmetries Between Market Leaders and Followers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Venkatesh Shankar

    2006-01-01

    To what extent do firms engage in product line actions simultaneously with actions in other marketing variables? What are the determinants of product line actions? To what extent are product line actions proactive? To what degree are they reactive? How can a firm's product line action elasticity (percent change in product line length with respect to percent change in competitor's

  10. Oxidation of Reactive Nitrogen and Ozone Production in Tokyo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, M.; Kondo, Y.; Miyazaki, Y.; Morino, Y.; Takegawa, N.; Miyakawa, T.; Komazaki, Y.; Tanimoto, H.; Yokouchi, Y.; Kanaya, Y.; McKenzie, R.; Johnston, P.

    2005-12-01

    Ground based measurements of NOx (NO + NO2), nitric acid (HNO3), particulate nitrate (NO3-), peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs), and total reactive nitrogen (NOy) were conducted in Tokyo in winter (January-February 2004), summer (July-August 2003 and 2004), and fall (October 2003). Carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and actinic flux were also measured during these periods. Average mixing ratios of these species and the NOx/NOy, HNO3/NOy, NO3-/NOy, and PANs/NOy ratios showed distinct diurnal-seasonal variations. The NOx/NOy ratios were 0.63-0.95 on high J(O1D) days, and 0.77-0.94 on low J(O1D) days. In summer and winter, total nitrate (TN = HNO3 + NO3-) was the dominant form of the NOx oxidation products (NOz = NOy - NOx) during the daytime on high J(O1D) days, and PANs were minor component species. The partitioning of TN was controlled mainly by temperature and the shit of the partitioning to NO3- at low temperature suppressed removal of NOy by dry deposition of HNO3. Removal rate of NOy is estimated using CO as a tracer. The estimated loss of NOy (LNOy) was largest during the daytime in summer (35%), while smallest (0%) in winter. The corrected ozone production efficiency (OPEx), which is defined as the linear regression slope of the observed Ox (= O3 + NO2) versus NOz* (= NOz + LNOy), is estimated to be 2.5. The estimated OPEx is slightly lower than those obtained in the U.S. urban air, which is probably due to lower ratios of NMHCs to NOx in this study. Possible factors controlling the OPEx will be discussed in detail.

  11. Mitochondria: Much ado about nothing? How dangerous is reactive oxygen species production??

    PubMed Central

    Holzerová, Eliška; Prokisch, Holger

    2015-01-01

    For more than 50 years, reactive oxygen species have been considered as harmful agents, which can attack proteins, lipids or nucleic acids. In order to deal with reactive oxygen species, there is a sophisticated system developed in mitochondria to prevent possible damage. Indeed, increased reactive oxygen species levels contribute to pathomechanisms in several human diseases, either by its impaired defense system or increased production of reactive oxygen species. However, in the last two decades, the importance of reactive oxygen species in many cellular signaling pathways has been unraveled. Homeostatic levels were shown to be necessary for correct differentiation during embryonic expansion of stem cells. Although the mechanism is still not fully understood, we cannot only regard reactive oxygen species as a toxic by-product of mitochondrial respiration anymore. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Energy Metabolism Disorders and Therapies. PMID:25666559

  12. In situ analysis of size distribution of nano-particles in reactive plasmas using two dimensional laser light scattering method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Kamataki; Y Morita; M Shiratani; K Koga; G Uchida; N Itagaki

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a simple in-situ method for measuring the size distribution (the mean size (mean diameter) and size dispersion) of nano-particles generated in reactive plasmas using the 2 dimensional laser light scattering (2DLLS) method. The principle of the method is based on thermal coagulation of the nano-particles, which occurs after the discharge is turned off, and the size and

  13. Light hadron production in inclusive pp-scattering at LHC

    E-print Network

    A. K. Likhoded; A. V. Luchinsky; A. A. Novoselov

    2010-10-28

    The inclusive production of light mesons in pp-scattering is considered in the framework of reggeon phenomenology with supercritical Pomeron. Available low-energy data can be explained with three reggeon particles taken into account. With the obtained results rapidity and pseudorapidity distributions for light-meson production at LHC energies are predicted.

  14. D # correlations and D production in ep scattering at HERA

    E-print Network

    mesons (e.g. D # ) , e or µ Q � Q: D #+ D #- , l + l - for l = e, µ D #± l # for l = e, µ Jeannine WagnerD # µ correlations and D production in ep scattering at HERA Jeannine Wagner DESY Hamburg . Heavy Wagner, DESY DIS 2002, Cracow, May 1, 2002 1 #12; Heavy quark production LO: Boson gluon fusion (BGF

  15. Multivariate analysis of light scattering spectra of liquid dairy products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodasevich, M. A.

    2010-05-01

    Visible light scattering spectra from the surface layer of samples of commercial liquid dairy products are recorded with a colorimeter. The principal component method is used to analyze these spectra. Vectors representing the samples of dairy products in a multidimensional space of spectral counts are projected onto a three-dimensional subspace of principal components. The magnitudes of these projections are found to depend on the type of dairy product.

  16. Reactivity Impact of 2H and 16O Elastic Scattering Nuclear Data on Critical Systems with Heavy Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roubtsov, D.; Kozier, K. S.; Chow, J. C.; Plompen, A. J. M.; Kopecky, S.; Svenne, J. P.; Canton, L.

    2014-04-01

    The accuracy of deuterium nuclear data is important for reactor physics simulations of heavy water (D2O) reactors. The elastic neutron scattering cross section data at thermal energies, ?s,th, have been observed to have noticeable impact on the reactivity values in simulations of critical systems involving D2O. We discuss how the uncertainties in the thermal scattering cross sections of 2H(n,n)2H and 16O(n,n)16O propagate to the uncertainty of the calculated neutron multiplication factor, keff, in thermal critical assemblies with heavy water neutron moderator/reflector. The method of trial evaluated nuclear data files, in which specific cross sections are individually perturbed, is used to calculate the sensitivity coefficients of keff to the microscopic nuclear data, such as ?s(E) characterized by ?s,th. Large reactivity differences of up to ? 5-10 mk (500-1000 pcm) were observed using 2H and 16O data files with different elastic scattering data in MCNP5 simulations of the LANL HEU heavy-water solution thermal critical experiments included in the ICSBEP handbook.

  17. Production of Ozone and Reactive Oxygen Species After Welding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. H. Liu; Y. C. Wu; H. L. Chen

    2007-01-01

    Many toxic substances including heavy metals, ozone, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen oxides are generated during\\u000a welding. Ozone (O3) is a strong oxidant that generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) in tissue, and ambient ROS exposure associated with particles\\u000a has been determined to cause DNA damage. Ozone is produced within 30 seconds during welding. However, the length of time that

  18. Leading proton production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    E-print Network

    Leading proton production in deep inelastic 1 scattering at HERA 2 ZEUS Collaboration 3 Draft, with a #28;nal-state proton carrying a large fraction of the incoming proton energy, x L > 0 photon virtualities Q 2 > 3 GeV 2 and mass of the photon-proton sys- tem 45

  19. Aerosol light scattering effect on terrestrial plant productivity and energy fluxes over the eastern United States

    E-print Network

    Niyogi, Dev

    Aerosol light scattering effect on terrestrial plant productivity and energy fluxes over light scattering effect. Results show that the aerosol light scattering effect results in enhanced.5%) in 2001. These responses of plant productivity and photosynthesis to the aerosol light scattering effect

  20. Reactivity impact of {sup 16}O thermal elastic-scattering nuclear data for some numerical and critical benchmark systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kozier, K. S.; Roubtsov, D. [AECL, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, ON (Canada); Plompen, A. J. M.; Kopecky, S. [EC-JRC, Inst. for Reference Materials and Measurements, Retieseweg 111, 2440 Geel (Belgium)

    2012-07-01

    The thermal neutron-elastic-scattering cross-section data for {sup 16}O used in various modern evaluated-nuclear-data libraries were reviewed and found to be generally too high compared with the best available experimental measurements. Some of the proposed revisions to the ENDF/B-VII.0 {sup 16}O data library and recent results from the TENDL system increase this discrepancy further. The reactivity impact of revising the {sup 16}O data downward to be consistent with the best measurements was tested using the JENDL-3.3 {sup 16}O cross-section values and was found to be very small in MCNP5 simulations of the UO{sub 2} and reactor-recycle MOX-fuel cases of the ANS Doppler-defect numerical benchmark. However, large reactivity differences of up to about 14 mk (1400 pcm) were observed using {sup 16}O data files from several evaluated-nuclear-data libraries in MCNP5 simulations of the Los Alamos National Laboratory HEU heavy-water solution thermal critical experiments, which were performed in the 1950's. The latter result suggests that new measurements using HEU in a heavy-water-moderated critical facility, such as the ZED-2 zero-power reactor at the Chalk River Laboratories, might help to resolve the discrepancy between the {sup 16}O thermal elastic-scattering cross-section values and thereby reduce or better define its uncertainty, although additional assessment work would be needed to confirm this. (authors)

  1. Hadron production in diffractive deep-inelastic scattering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Adloff; S. Aid; M. Anderson; V. Andreev; B. Andrieu; V. Arkadov; C. Arndt; I. Ayyaz; A. Babaev; J. Bähr; P. Baranov; E. Barrelet; R. Barschke; W. Bartel; U. Bassler; P. Bate; M. Beck; A. Beglarian; H.-J. Behrend; C. Beier; A. Belousov; Ch. Berger; G. Bernardi; G. Bertrand-Coremans; R. Beyer; P. Biddulph; J. C. Bizot; K. Borras; V. Boudry; A. Braemer; W. Braunschweig; V. Brisson; D. P. Brown; W. Brückner; P. Bruel; D. Bruncko; C. Brune; J. Bürger; F. W. Büsser; A. Buniatian; S. Burke; G. Buschhorn; D. Calvet; A. J. Campbell; T. Carli; E. Chabert; M. Charlet; D. Clarke; B. Clerbaux; S. Cocks; J. G. Contreras; C. Cormack; J. A. Coughlan; M.-C. Cousinou; B. E. Cox; G. Cozzika; J. Cvach; J. B. Dainton; W. D. Dau; K. Daum; M. David; A. De Roeck; E. A. De Wolf; B. Delcourt; C. Diaconu; M. Dirkmann; P. Dixon; W. Dlugosz; K. T. Donovan; J. D. Dowell; A. Droutskoi; J. Ebert; G. Eckerlin; D. Eckstein; V. Efremenko; S. Egli; R. Eichler; F. Eisele; E. Eisenhandler; M. Enzenberger; A. B. Fahr; L. Favart; A. Fedotov; R. Felst; J. Feltesse; F. Ferrarotto; K. Flamm; M. Fleischer; G. Flügge; A. Fomenko; J. Formánek; G. Franke; E. Gabathuler; K. Gabathuler; F. Gaede; J. Garvey; M. Gebauer; R. Gerhards; A. Glazov; L. Goerlich; N. Gogitidze; M. Goldberg; I. Gorelov; C. Grab; H. Grässler; T. Greenshaw; R. K. Griffiths; G. Grindhammer; C. Gruber; T. Hadig; D. Haidt; L. Hajduk; T. Haller; M. Hampel; V. Haustein; W. J. Haynes; B. Heinemann; G. Heinzelmann; R. C. W. Henderson; S. Hengstmann; H. Henschel; R. Heremans; I. Herynek; K. Hewitt; K. H. Hiller; C. D. Hilton; J. Hladký; M. Höppner; D. Hoffmann; T. Holtom; R. Horisberger; V. L. Hudgson; M. Hütte; M. Ibbotson; Ç. ??sever; H. Itterbeck; M. Jacquet; J. Janoth; D. M. Jansen; L. Jönsson; D. P. Johnson; H. Jung; M. Kander; D. Kant; U. Kathage; J. Katzy; H. H. Kaufmann; O. Kaufmann; M. Kausch; S. Kazarian; I. R. Kenyon; S. Kermiche; C. Keuker; C. Kiesling; M. Klein; C. Kleinwort; G. Knies; J. H. Köhne; H. Kolanoski; S. D. Kolya; V. Korbel; P. Kostka; S. K. Kotelnikov; T. Krämerkämper; M. W. Krasny; H. Krehbiel; D. Krücker; A. Küpper; H. Küster; M. Kuhlen; T. Kur?a; B. Laforge; R. Lahmann; M. P. J. Landon; W. Lange; U. Langenegger; A. Lebedev; M. Lehmann; F. Lehner; V. Lemaitre; S. Levonian; M. Lindstroem; J. Lipinski; B. List; G. Lobo; V. Lubimov; D. Lüke; L. Lytkin; N. Magnussen; H. Mahlke-Krüger; E. Malinovski; R. Mara?ek; P. Marage; J. Marks; R. Marshall; G. Martin; R. Martin; H.-U. Martyn; J. Martyniak; S. J. Maxfield; S. J. McMahon; T. R. McMahon; A. Mehta; K. Meier; P. Merkel; F. Metlica; A. Meyer; H. Meyer; J. Meyer; P.-O. Meyer; A. Migliori; S. Mikocki; D. Milstead; J. Moeck; R. Mohr; S. Mohrdieck; F. Moreau; J. V. Morris; E. Mroczko; D. Müller; K. Müller; P. Mur??n; V. Nagovizin; R. Nahnhauer; B. Naroska; Th. Naumann; I. Négri; P. R. Newman; D. Newton; H. K. Nguyen; T. C. Nicholls; F. Niebergall; C. Niebuhr; Ch. Niedzballa; H. Niggli; O. Nix; G. Nowak; T. Nunnemann; H. Oberlack; J. E. Olsson; D. Ozerov; P. Palmen; E. Panaro; A. Panitch; C. Pascaud; S. Passaggio; G. D. Patel; H. Pawletta; E. Peppel; J. P. Phillips; A. Pieuchot; D. Pitzl; R. Pöschl; G. Pope; B. Povh; K. Rabbertz; P. Reimer; B. Reisert; H. Rick; S. Riess; E. Rizvi; P. Robmann; R. Roosen; K. Rosenbauer; A. Rostovtsev; F. Rouse; C. Royon; S. Rusakov; K. Rybicki; D. P. C. Sankey; P. Schacht; J. Scheins; S. Schiek; S. Schleif; P. Schleper; W. von Schlippe; D. Schmidt; G. Schmidt; L. Schoeffel; A. Schöning; V. Schröder; H.-C. Schultz-Coulon; B. Schwab; F. Sefkow; A. Semenov; V. Shekelyan; I. Sheviakov; L. N. Shtarkov; G. Siegmon; U. Siewert; Y. Sirois; I. O. Skillicorn; T. Sloan; P. Smirnov; M. Smith; V. Solochenko; Y. Soloviev; A. Specka; J. Spiekermann; H. Spitzer; F. Squinabol; P. Steffen; R. Steinberg; J. Steinhart; B. Stella; A. Stellberger; J. Stiewe; K. Stolze; U. Straumann; W. Struczinski; J. P. Sutton; M. Swart; S. Tapprogge; M. Taševský; V. Tchernyshov; S. Tchetchelnitski; J. Theissen; G. Thompson; P. D. Thompson; N. Tobien; R. Todenhagen; P. Truöl; G. Tsipolitis; J. Turnau; E. Tzamariudaki; S. Udluft; A. Usik; S. Valkár; A. Valkárová; C. Vallée; P. Van Esch; P. Van Mechelen; Y. Vazdik; G. Villet; K. Wacker; R. Wallny; T. Walter; B. Waugh; G. Weber; M. Weber; D. Wegener; A. Wegner; T. Wengler; M. Werner; L. R. West; S. Wiesand; T. Wilksen; S. Willard; M. Winde; G.-G. Winter; C. Wittek; E. Wittmann; M. Wobisch; H. Wollatz; E. Wünsch; J. Žá?ek; J. Zálešák; Z. Zhang; A. Zhokin; P. Zini; F. Zomer; J. Zsembery; M. Zurnedden

    1998-01-01

    Characteristics of hadron production in diffractive deep-inelastic positron-proton scattering are studied using data collected in 1994 by the H1 experiment at HERA. The following distributions are measured in the centre-of-mass frame of the photon dissociation system: the hadronic energy flow, the Feynman-x (xF) variable for charged particles, the squared transverse momentum of charged particles (pT?2), and the mean pT?2 as

  2. Proton resonant scattering for oxygen stoichiometry of reactively evaporated ZrO2-x films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Caridi; E. Cereda; S. Fazinic; M. Jaksic; G. M. Braga Marcazzan; M. Scagliotti; V. Valkovic

    1992-01-01

    Electron-beam evaporated zirconium oxide films are suitable materials for optical coatings operating at visible and infrared wavelengths. The optical properties of these films are related to the microstructure and the crystallographic phase composition, which depend on the oxygen partial pressure in the evaporation chamber and on the substrate temperature. These deposition process parameters are particularly critical in case of reactive

  3. The production and characterization of antibodies reactive with meperidine.

    PubMed

    Wainer, B H; Wung, W E; Hill, J H; Fitch, F W; Fried, J; Rothberg, R M

    1976-06-01

    Meperidinic acid was converted to O-meperidinyl-glycollic acid and covalently attached to bovine serum albumin. Rabbits injected with this conjugate produced antibodies reactive with meperidine which were measured by the ammonium sulfate method. The specificities of these antisera were studied by competitive inhibition of the binding of 100 pmol/ml of 3H-meperidine to antibody by the prior addition of increasing concentrations of various unlabeled compounds. The concentrations in nanomoles per milliliter of various unlabeled opiods required to inhibit 3H-meperidine binding by 50% (I50) were: meperidine, 0.08; O-meperidinyl-glycollic acid, 1.7; methadone, 580; heroin, 1750; codeine, 2600; and morphine, 4200. Several psychopharmacologically active compounds were found to have I50 values comparable to the nonmeperidine opioids: hydroxyzine-HC1, 460; propoxyphene, 4,500; diazepam, 6,500; and cocaine, 10,800. The metabolites of meperidine exhibited the following I50 values: normeperidine, 0.7; meperidinic acid and normeperidinic acid, 210. A radioimmunoassay for meperidine which employs this antiserum was shown to be approximately 100 times more sensitive than the spectrophotometric method of Burns et al. (J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 114:289-293, 1955). In this assay only normeperidine and some of the meperidine congeners might be expected to interfere with the measurement of meperidine. The degree of normeperidine interference was shown to be comparable to that present in the existing assay method. PMID:945349

  4. The production and characterization of antibodies reactive with meperidine.

    PubMed

    Wainer, B H; Wung, W E; Hill, J H; Fitch, F W; Fried, J; Rothberg, R M

    1976-04-01

    Meperidinic acid was converted to O-meperidinyl-glycollic acid and covalently attached to bovine serum albumin. Rabbits injected with this conjugate produced antibodies reactive with meperidine which were measured by the ammonium sulfate method. The specificities of these antisera were studied by competitive inhibition of the binding of 100 pmol/ml of 3H-meperidine to antibody by the prior addition of increasing concentrations of various unlabeled compounds. The concentrations in nanomoles per milliliter of various unlabeled opiods required to inhibit 3H-meperidine binding by 50% (I50) were: meperidine, 0.08; O-meperidinyl-glycollic acid, 1.7; methadone, 580; heroin, 1750; codeine, 2600; and morphine, 4200. Several psychopharmacologically active compounds were found to have I50 values comparable to the nonmeperidine opioids: hydroxyzine. HCl, 460; propoxyphene, 4,500; diazepam, 6,500; and cocaine, 10,800. The metabolites of meperidine exhibited the following I50 values: normeperidine, 0.7; meperidinic acid and normeperidinic acid, 210. A radioimmunoassay for meperidine which employs this antiserum was shown to be approximately 100 times more sensitive than the spectrophotometric method of Burns et al. (J. Pharmacol. Exp Ther. 114: 289-293, 1955). In this assay only normeperidine and some of the meperidine congeners might be expected to interfere with the measurement of meperidine. The degree of normeperidine interference was shown to be comparable to that present in the existing assay method. PMID:944261

  5. Chemical Characterization and Reactivity of Fuel-Oxidizer Reaction Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    David, Dennis D.; Dee, Louis A.; Beeson, Harold D.

    1997-01-01

    Fuel-oxidizer reaction product (FORP), the product of incomplete reaction of monomethylhydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide propellants prepared under laboratory conditions and from firings of Shuttle Reaction Control System thrusters, has been characterized by chemical and thermal analysis. The composition of FORP is variable but falls within a limited range of compositions that depend on three factors: the fuel-oxidizer ratio at the time of formation; whether the composition of the post-formation atmosphere is reducing or oxidizing; and the reaction or post-reaction temperature. A typical composition contains methylhydrazinium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, methylammonium nitrate, and trace amounts of hydrazinium nitrate and 1,1-dimethylhydrazinium nitrate. Thermal decomposition reactions of the FORP compositions used in this study were unremarkable. Neither the various compositions of FORP, the pure major components of FORP, nor mixtures of FORP with propellant system corrosion products showed any unusual thermal activity when decomposed under laboratory conditions. Off-limit thruster operations were simulated by rapid mixing of liquid monomethylhydrazine and liquid nitrogen tetroxide in a confined space. These tests demonstrated that monomethylhydrazine, methylhydrazinium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, or Inconel corrosion products can induce a mixture of monomethylhydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide to produce component-damaging energies. Damaging events required FORP or metal salts to be present at the initial mixing of monomethylhydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide.

  6. Transient Influx of Nickel in Root Mitochondria Modulates Organic Acid and Reactive Oxygen Species Production in

    E-print Network

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Transient Influx of Nickel in Root Mitochondria Modulates Organic Acid and Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Nickel Hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale*S Received for publication,August 1, 2012 that nickel is localized in the mitochondria of Alyssum murale root epidermal cells. Conclusion

  7. Helicobacter pylori stimulates antral mucosal reactive oxygen metabolite production in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. R. Davies; N. J. Simmonds; T. R. J. Stevens; M. T. Sheaff; N. Banatvala; I. F. Laurenson; D. R. Blake; D. S. Rampton

    1994-01-01

    To determine if reactive oxygen metabolites have a pathogenic role in Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) related gastroduodenal disease, this study measured their production in antral mucosal biopsy specimens. Two related chemiluminescence techniques were used comparing H pylori positive (n = 105) and negative patients (n = 64) with a similar spectrum of macroscopic disease. After chemiluminescence assays, biopsy specimens were

  8. Hadron production in diffractive deep-inelastic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H1 Collaboration; Adloff, C.; Aid, S.; Anderson, M.; Andreev, V.; Andrieu, B.; Arkadov, V.; Arndt, C.; Ayyaz, I.; Babaev, A.; Bähr, J.; Bán, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Barschke, R.; Bartel, W.; Bassler, U.; Bate, P.; Beck, M.; Beglarian, A.; Behrend, H.-J.; Beier, C.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Bernardi, G.; Bertrand-Coremans, G.; Beyer, R.; Biddulph, P.; Bizot, J. C.; Borras, K.; Boudry, V.; Braemer, A.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Brown, D. P.; Brückner, W.; Bruel, P.; Bruncko, D.; Brune, C.; Bürger, J.; Büsser, F. W.; Buniatian, A.; Burke, S.; Buschhorn, G.; Calvet, D.; Campbell, A. J.; Carli, T.; Chabert, E.; Charlet, M.; Clarke, D.; Clerbaux, B.; Cocks, S.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormack, C.; Coughlan, J. A.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Cox, B. E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Dau, W. D.; Daum, K.; David, M.; de Roeck, A.; de Wolf, E. A.; Delcourt, B.; Diaconu, C.; Dirkmann, M.; Dixon, P.; Dlugosz, W.; Donovan, K. T.; Dowell, J. D.; Droutskoi, A.; Ebert, J.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Elsen, E.; Enzenberger, M.; Erdmann, M.; Fahr, A. B.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Ferrarotto, F.; Flamm, K.; Fleischer, M.; Flügge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Formánek, J.; Foster, J. M.; Franke, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Gaede, F.; Garvey, J.; Gayler, J.; Gebauer, M.; Gerhards, R.; Glazov, A.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Gorelov, I.; Grab, C.; Grässler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Griffiths, R. K.; Grindhammer, G.; Gruber, C.; Hadig, T.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haller, T.; Hampel, M.; Haustein, V.; Haynes, W. J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Hengstmann, S.; Henschel, H.; Heremans, R.; Herynek, I.; Hewitt, K.; Hiller, K. H.; Hilton, C. D.; Hladký, J.; Höppner, M.; Hoffmann, D.; Holtom, T.; Horisberger, R.; Hudgson, V. L.; Hütte, M.; Ibbotson, M.; Isolar? Sever, Ç.; Itterbeck, H.; Jacquet, M.; Jaffre, M.; Janoth, J.; Jansen, D. M.; Jönsson, L.; Johnson, D. P.; Jung, H.; Kander, M.; Kant, D.; Kathage, U.; Katzy, J.; Kaufmann, H. H.; Kaufmann, O.; Kausch, M.; Kazarian, S.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kermiche, S.; Keuker, C.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Knies, G.; Köhne, J. H.; Kolanoski, H.; Kolya, S. D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S. K.; Krämerkämper, T.; Krasny, M. W.; Krehbiel, H.; Krücker, D.; Küpper, A.; Küster, H.; Kuhlen, M.; Kur?a, T.; Laforge, B.; Lahmann, R.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Langenegger, U.; Lebedev, A.; Lehmann, M.; Lehner, F.; Lemaitre, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindstroem, M.; Lipinski, J.; List, B.; Lobo, G.; Lubimov, V.; Lüke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Magnussen, N.; Mahlke-Krüger, H.; Malinovski, E.; Mara?ek, R.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martin, G.; Martin, R.; Martyn, H.-U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S. J.; McMahon, S. J.; McMahon, T. R.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Merkel, P.; Metlica, F.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, P.-O.; Migliori, A.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Moeck, J.; Mohr, R.; Mohrdieck, S.; Moreau, F.; Morris, J. V.; Mroczko, E.; Müller, D.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Négri, I.; Newman, P. R.; Newton, D.; Nguyen, H. K.; Nicholls, T. C.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Niedzballa, Ch.; Niggli, H.; Nix, O.; Nowak, G.; Nunnemann, T.; Oberlack, H.; Olsson, J. E.; Ozerov, D.; Palmen, P.; Panaro, E.; Panitch, A.; Pascaud, C.; Passaggio, S.; Patel, G. D.; Pawletta, H.; Peppel, E.; Perez, E.; Phillips, J. P.; Pieuchot, A.; Pitzl, D.; Pöschl, R.; Pope, G.; Povh, B.; Rabbertz, K.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Rick, H.; Riess, S.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rosenbauer, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rouse, F.; Royon, C.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Schacht, P.; Scheins, J.; Schiek, S.; Schleif, S.; Schleper, P.; von Schlippe, W.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, G.; Schoeffel, L.; Schöning, A.; Schröder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schwab, B.; Sefkow, F.; Semenov, A.; Shekelyan, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Siegmon, G.; Siewert, U.; Sirois, Y.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Smith, M.; Solochenko, V.; Soloviev, Y.; Specka, A.; Spiekermann, J.; Spitzer, H.; Squinabol, F.; Steffen, P.; Steinberg, R.; Steinhart, J.; Stella, B.; Stellberger, A.; Stiewe, J.; Stolze, K.; Straumann, U.; Struczinski, W.; Sutton, J. P.; Swart, M.; Tapprogge, S.; Taševský, M.; Tchernyshov, V.; Tchetchelnitski, S.; Theissen, J.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P. D.; Tobien, N.; Todenhagen, R.; Truöl, P.; Tsipolitis, G.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Udluft, S.; Usik, A.; Valkár, S.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; van Esch, P.; van Mechelen, P.; Vazdik, Y.; Villet, G.; Wacker, K.; Wallny, R.; Walter, T.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, M.; Wegener, D.; Wegner, A.; Wengler, T.; Werner, M.

    1998-05-01

    Characteristics of hadron production in diffractive deep-inelastic positron-proton scattering are studied using data collected in 1994 by the H1 experiment at HERA. The following distributions are measured in the centre-of-mass frame of the photon dissociation system: the hadronic energy flow, the Feynman-x (xF) variable for charged particles, the squared transverse momentum of charged particles (pT*2), and the mean pT*2 as a function of xF. These distributions are compared with results in the ?*p centre-of-mass frame from inclusive deep-inelastic scattering in the fixed-target experiment EMC, and also with the predictions of several Monte Carlo calculations. The data are consistent with a picture in which the partonic structure of the diffractive exchange is dominated at low Q2 by hard gluons.

  9. A new flavonoid regulates angiogenesis and reactive oxygen species production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mei; Liu, Chaomei; Zhang, Zhenhuan; Yang, Shanmin; Zhang, Bingrong; Yin, Liangjie; Swarts, Steven; Vidyasagar, Sadasivan; Zhang, Lurong; Okunieff, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The tumor vascular system, which is critical to the survival and growth of solid tumors, has been an attractive target for anticancer research. Building on studies that show that some flavonoids have anticancer vascular effects, we developed and analyzed the flavonoid derivative R24 [3, 6-bis (2-oxiranylmethoxy)-9H-xanthen-9-one]. A CAM assay revealed that R24 disrupted neovascular formation; fewer dendrites were detected and overall dendritic length was shorter in the R24-treated chicken embryos. The antiproliferative effect of R24 was measured by MTT assay in A549 (lung cancer), AsPC-1 (pancreatic cancer), HCT-116 (colorectal cancer), and PC-3 (prostate cancer) cell lines. R24 reduced proliferation with an IC50 of 3.44, 3.59, 1.22, and 11.83 ?M, respectively. Cell-cycle analysis and Annexin-V/propidium iodide staining showed that R24 induced apoptosis. In addition, R24 regulated intracellular ROS production in a dose-dependent manner. CM-H2DCFDA staining indicated that intracellular ROS production increased with the R24 dose. In summary, we found that R24 exhibits potent antiangiogenic and antiproliferative effects, induces apoptosis, and promotes ROS production. PMID:24729227

  10. Optical mapping of myocardial reactive oxygen species production throughout the reperfusion of global ischemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Long-sheng; Liu, Yen-Bin; Sun, Chia-Wei; Lin, Lung-Chun; Su, Ming-jia; Wu, Chau-Chung

    2006-03-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are short-lived, highly reactive chemical entities that play significant roles in all levels of biology. However, their measurement requires destructive preparation, thereby limiting the continuous measurement of ROS in a living tissue. We develop an optical mapping system to visualize ROS production in an isolated and perfused rat heart. By staining the heart with dihydroethidium (DHE), a 532-nm laser beam is directed to the epicardial surface, where we collect the red fluorescence (>600 nm) for semiquantitative analysis. With this system, ROS production as well as ventricular pressure and ECG in isolated perfused rat hearts are monitored throughout the reperfusion of global ischemia. Ischemia would decrease myocardial ROS production, while reperfusion would immediately result in sustained ROS overproduction. Optical mapping would provide information regarding the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of myocardial ROS production, which would enhance knowledge of the role of free radicals in cardiovascular biology.

  11. Quantum Reactive Scattering of Ultracold NHX 3 Radicals in a Magnetic Trap

    E-print Network

    for Molecules and Materials, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen, The Netherlands (Received 27 August 2012 theoretical studies-- based on nonreactive scattering calculations--have indi- cated that NH is a promising candidate for second-stage cooling experiments [12­17,19,27]. Within a magnetic trap, NH is polarized

  12. KETONES INHIBIT MITOCHONDRIAL PRODUCTION OF REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES PRODUCTION FOLLOWING GLUTAMATE EXCITOTOXICITY BY INCREASING NADH OXIDATION

    PubMed Central

    Maalouf, Marwan; Sullivan, Patrick G.; Davis, Laurie; Kim, Do Young; Rho, Jong M.

    2007-01-01

    Dietary protocols that increase serum levels of ketones, such as calorie restriction and the ketogenic diet, offer robust protection against a multitude of acute and chronic neurological diseases. The underlying mechanisms, however, remain unclear. Previous studies have suggested that the ketogenic diet may reduce free radical levels in the brain. Thus, one possibility is that ketones may mediate neuroprotection through antioxidant activity. In the present study, we examined the effects of the ketones ?-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate on acutely dissociated rat neocortical neurons subjected to glutamate excitotoxicity using cellular electrophysiological and single-cell fluorescence imaging techniques. Further, we explored the effects of ketones on acutely isolated mitochondria exposed to high levels of calcium. A combination of ?-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate (1 mM each) decreased neuronal death and prevented changes in neuronal membrane properties induced by 10 ?M glutamate. Ketones also significantly decreased mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species and the associated excitotoxic changes by increasing NADH oxidation in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, but did not affect levels of the endogenous antioxidant glutathione. In conclusion, we demonstrate that ketones reduce glutamate-induced free radical formation by increasing the NAD+/NADH ratio and enhancing mitochondrial respiration in neocortical neurons. This mechanism may, in part, contribute to the neuroprotective activity of ketones by restoring normal bioenergetic function in the face of oxidative stress. PMID:17240074

  13. Reactive oxygen species, cell growth, and taxol production of Taxus cuspidata cells immobilized on polyurethane foam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    De-Ming Yin; Jin-Chuan Wu; Ying-Jin Yuan

    2005-01-01

    Dynamic changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS) of Taxus cuspidata cells immobilized on polyurethane foam were investigated and the relation between ROS content and taxol production was discussed.\\u000a Immobilization shortened the lag period of cell growth and moderately increased H2O2 and O2\\u000a ?• contents inside the microenvironment within the first 15 d. After 20 d, excessive production of H2O2 and

  14. Two phases of intracellular reactive oxygen species production during victorin-induced cell death in oats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaru Sakamoto; Yasuomi Tada; Hitoshi Nakayashiki; Yukio Tosa; Shigeyuki Mayama

    2005-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are thought to be involved in various forms of programmed cell death (PCD) in animal and plant\\u000a cells. PCD, along with the production of ROS, occurs during plant–pathogen interactions. Here we show that victorin, a host-specific\\u000a toxin produced by Cochliobolus victoriae, which causes victoria blight of oats, induces two phases of intracellular ROS production in victorin-sensitive

  15. A combined small- and wide-angle x-ray scattering detector for measurements on reactive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallenhag, Linda; Canton, Sophie E.; Sondhauss, Peter; Haase, Dörthe; Ossler, Frederik

    2011-08-01

    A detector with high dynamic range designed for combined small- and wide-angle x-ray scattering experiments has been developed. It allows measurements on single events and reactive systems, such as particle formation in flames and evaporation of levitating drops. The detector consists of 26 channels covering a region from 0.5° to 60° and it provides continuous monitoring of the sampled signal without readout dead time. The time resolution for fast single events is about 40 ?s and for substances undergoing slower dynamics, the time resolution is set to 0.1 or 1 s with hours of continuous sampling. The detector has been used to measure soot particle formation in a flame, burning magnesium and evaporation of a toluene drop in a levitator. The results show that the detector can be used for many different applications with good outcomes and large potential.

  16. Emission of reactive compounds and secondary products from wood-based furniture coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salthammer, T.; Schwarz, A.; Fuhrmann, F.

    Emissions of organic fragmentation products, so-called "secondary emission products" and reactive species from wood-based furniture coatings have been studied in 1 m 3 test chambers. the climatic conditions were representative of indoor environments. Relevant compounds and compound groups were the wetting agent 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-dicyne-4,7-diol (T4MDD), the plasticiser di-2-ethyl-hexyl-phthalate (DEHP), aliphatic aldehydes, monoterpenes, photoinitiator fragments, acrylic monomers/reactive solvents and diisocyanate monomers. Such substances may affect human health in several ways. Aliphatic aldehydes and some photoinitiator fragments are of strong odour, while acrylates and diisocyanates cause irritation of skin, eyes and upper airways. Terpenes and reactive solvents like styrene undergo indoor chemistry in the presence of ozone, nitrogen oxides or hydroxy radicals. Secondary emission products and reactive species can achieve significant indoor concentrations. On the other hand, it has been reported that even small quantities can cause health effects. In the cases of indoor studies with special regard to emissions from furniture, chemical analysis should always include these compounds.

  17. Time resolved small angle x-ray scattering reactivity studies on coals, asphaltenes, and polymers.

    SciTech Connect

    Seifert, S.; Thiyagarajan, P.; Winans, R. E.

    1999-07-02

    The objective of this study is to examine changes in the structures of coals, asphaltenes, and polymers in situ with small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) during thermal treatments. We have built a SAXS instrument at the Basic Energy Sciences Synchrotrons Radiation Center at the Advanced Photon Source that allows us to obtain scattering data on very small samples and in the millisecond time domain. The Argonne Premium Coal samples, petroleum derived asphaltenes, and polymers with functionality to model fossil fuels were used in this study. The information that can be derived from these experiments includes: changes in fractal dimensionality, surface topology, and size and type of porosity. The information is correlated with other methods on the same samples.

  18. Evidence of Phenotypic and Genetic Relationships between Sociality, Emotional Reactivity and Production Traits in Japanese Quail

    PubMed Central

    Recoquillay, Julien; Leterrier, Christine; Calandreau, Ludovic; Bertin, Aline; Pitel, Frédérique; Gourichon, David; Vignal, Alain; Beaumont, Catherine; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Arnould, Cécile

    2013-01-01

    The social behavior of animals, which is partially controlled by genetics, is one of the factors involved in their adaptation to large breeding groups. To understand better the relationships between different social behaviors, fear behaviors and production traits, we analyzed the phenotypic and genetic correlations of these traits in Japanese quail by a second generation crossing of two lines divergently selected for their social reinstatement behavior. Analyses of results for 900 individuals showed that the phenotypic correlations between behavioral traits were low with the exception of significant correlations between sexual behavior and aggressive pecks both at phenotypic (0.51) and genetic (0.90) levels. Significant positive genetic correlations were observed between emotional reactivity toward a novel object and sexual (0.89) or aggressive (0.63) behaviors. The other genetic correlations were observed mainly between behavioral and production traits. Thus, the level of emotional reactivity, estimated by the duration of tonic immobility, was positively correlated with weight at 17 and 65 days of age (0.76 and 0.79, respectively) and with delayed egg laying onset (0.74). In contrast, a higher level of social reinstatement behavior was associated with an earlier egg laying onset (-0.71). In addition, a strong sexual motivation was correlated with an earlier laying onset (-0.68) and a higher number of eggs laid (0.82). A low level of emotional reactivity toward a novel object and also a higher aggressive behavior were genetically correlated with a higher number of eggs laid (0.61 and 0.58, respectively). These results bring new insights into the complex determinism of social and emotional reactivity behaviors in birds and their relationships with production traits. Furthermore, they highlight the need to combine animal welfare and production traits in selection programs by taking into account traits of sociability and emotional reactivity. PMID:24324761

  19. State-to-state dynamics of the H{sup *}(n) + HD ? D{sup *}(n{sup ?}) + H{sub 2} reactive scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Shengrui; Su, Shu; Dai, Dongxu; Yuan, Kaijun, E-mail: kjyuan@dicp.ac.cn, E-mail: xmyang@dicp.ac.cn; Yang, Xueming, E-mail: kjyuan@dicp.ac.cn, E-mail: xmyang@dicp.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2014-01-21

    The state-to-state dynamics of the H{sup *}(n) + HD ? D{sup *}(n{sup ?}) + H{sub 2} reactive scattering at the collision energy of 0.5 eV have been carried out for the first time by using H-atom Rydberg tagging time-of-flight technique. Experimental results show that the angular distribution of the total H{sub 2} products presents clearly forward-backward asymmetric, which considerably differs from that of the corresponding H{sup +} + HD ? D{sup +} + H{sub 2} reaction predicted by previously theoretical calculations. Such disagreement between these two processes suggests that the Fermi independent-collider model is also not valid in describing the dynamics of isotopic variants of the H{sup *} + H{sub 2} reaction. The rotational state distribution of the H{sub 2} products demonstrates a saw-toothed distribution with odd-j{sup ?} > even-j{sup ?}. This interesting observation is strongly influenced by nuclear spin statistics.

  20. Quantum and quasiclassical reactive scattering of O({sup 1}D)+HCl using an ab initio potential.

    SciTech Connect

    Christoffel, K. M.; Kim, Y.; Skokov, S.; Bowman, J. M.; Gray, S.; Chemistry; Emory Univ.

    1999-12-24

    We report quasiclassical trajectory and quantum wavepacket calculations for the reaction of O({sup 1}D)+HCl using a recent ab initio potential energy surface. The quantum calculations, done only for zero total angular momentum and HCl(v=j=0), agree well with corresponding trajectory results in terms of total reactivity and the ClO/OH branching ratio. Quasiclassical trajectory cross-sections to final vibrational states of the OH and ClO products, the ClO/OH branch.

  1. Secretion of MCP-1 and IL6 by cytokine stimulated production of reactive oxygen species in endothelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Volk; Mario Hensel; Horst Schuster; Wolfgang J. Kox

    2000-01-01

    Endothelial cells are known to produce reactive oxygen species by several mechanisms. Functional consequences of increased production of reactive oxygen species were investigated in vitro after stimulation with several proinflammatory cytokines. Time dependent increases in DCF-fluorescence as a measure of reactive oxygen load were quantified in single cells after incubation with TNF-a, IL-1 and IFN-?. The increased DCF-fluorescence was inhibited

  2. Reactivity and stability of glucosinolates and their breakdown products in foods.

    PubMed

    Hanschen, Franziska S; Lamy, Evelyn; Schreiner, Monika; Rohn, Sascha

    2014-10-20

    The chemistry of glucosinolates and their behavior during food processing is very complex. Their instability leads to the formation of a bunch of breakdown and reaction products that are very often reactive themselves. Although excessive consumption of cabbage varieties has been thought for long time to have adverse, especially goitrogenic effects, nowadays, epidemiologic studies provide data that there might be beneficial health effects as well. Especially Brassica vegetables, such as broccoli, radish, or cabbage, are rich in these interesting plant metabolites. However, information on the bioactivity of glucosinolates is only valuable when one knows which compounds are formed during processing and subsequent consumption. This review provides a comprehensive, in-depth overview on the chemical reactivity of different glucosinolates and breakdown products thereof during food preparation. PMID:25163974

  3. Towards a specific reaction parameter density functional for reactive scattering of H{sub 2} from Pd(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Boereboom, J. M.; Wijzenbroek, M.; Somers, M. F.; Kroes, G. J. [Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Gorlaeus Laboratories, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)] [Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Gorlaeus Laboratories, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2013-12-28

    Recently, an implementation of the specific reaction parameter (SRP) approach to density functional theory (DFT) was used to study several reactive scattering experiments of H{sub 2} on Cu(111). It was possible to obtain chemical accuracy (1 kcal/mol ? 4.2 kJ/mol), and therefore, accurately model this paradigmatic example of activated H{sub 2} dissociation on a metal surface. In this work, the SRP-DFT methodology is applied to the dissociation of hydrogen on a Pd(111) surface, in order to test whether the SRP-DFT approach is also applicable to non-activated H{sub 2}-metal systems. In the calculations, the Born–Oppenheimer static surface approximations are used. A comparison to molecular beam sticking experiments, performed at incidence energies ?125 meV, on H{sub 2} + Pd(111) suggested the PBE-vdW [where the Perdew, Burke, and Ernzerhof (PBE) correlation is replaced by van der Waals correlation] functional as a candidate SRP density functional describing the reactive scattering of H{sub 2} on Pd(111). Unfortunately, quantum dynamics calculations are not able to reproduce the molecular beam sticking results for incidence energies <125 meV. From a comparison to initial state-resolved (degeneracy averaged) sticking probabilities it seems clear that for H{sub 2} + Pd(111) dynamic trapping and steering effects are important, and that these effects are not yet well modeled with the potential energy surfaces considered here. Applying the SRP-DFT method to systems where H{sub 2} dissociation is non-activated remains difficult. It is suggested that a density functional that yields a broader barrier distribution and has more non-activated pathways than PBE-vdW (i.e., non-activated dissociation at some sites but similarly high barriers at the high energy end of the spectrum) should allow a more accurate description of the available experiments. Finally, it is suggested that new and better characterized molecular beam sticking experiments be done on H{sub 2} + Pd(111), to facilitate the development of a more accurate theoretical description of this system.

  4. Testing saturation with diffractive jet production in deep inelastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Golec-Biernat, K.; Marquet, C. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Institute of Physics, University of Rzeszow, Rzeszow (Poland); Service de Physique Theorique, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); URA 2306, unite de recherche associee au CNRS (France)

    2005-06-01

    We analyze the dissociation of a photon in diffractive deep inelastic scattering in the kinematic regime where the diffractive mass is much bigger than the photon virtuality. We consider the dominant qqg component keeping track of the transverse momentum of the gluon which can be measured as a final-state jet. We show that the diffractive gluon-jet production cross-section is strongly sensitive to unitarity constraints. In particular, in a model with parton saturation, this cross-section is sensitive to the scale at which unitarity effects become important, the saturation scale. We argue that the measurement of diffractive jets at HERA in the limit of high diffractive mass can provide useful information on the saturation regime of QCD.

  5. Nonadiabatic quantum reactive scattering calculations for the O(1D)+H2, D2, and HD reactions on the lowest three potential energy surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayanagi, Toshiyuki

    2002-02-01

    Time-independent three-dimensional quantum reactive scattering calculations including the effect of electronically nonadiabatic coupling have been carried out for the O(1D)+H2, D2, and HD reactions using the recent ab initio versions of the lowest three potential energy surfaces (1 1A', 2 1A', and 1 1A?) of Dobbyn and Knowles. The hyperspherical close-coupling technique has been used and the calculations have been carried out only for zero total angular momentum (J=0). We present total reaction probabilities, the effect of initial rotational excitation, and cumulative reaction probabilities. We found that electronically nonadiabatic transitions are very important for these reactions similar to previous nonadiabatic wave packet calculations using the same surfaces but found isotopic substitution does not largely affect the nonadiabatic reaction dynamics. We also calculated the OH/OD isotopic branching fraction for the O(1D)+HD reaction and found that the OD+H production channel is dominant over the OH+D channel in the energy range considered.

  6. Reactivation of methionine synthase from Thermotoga maritima (TM0268) requires the downstream gene product TM0269

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Sha; Romanchuk, Gail; Pattridge, Katherine; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.; Matthews, Rowena G.; Ludwig, Martha

    2007-01-01

    The crystal structure of the Thermotoga maritima gene product TM0269, determined as part of genome-wide structural coverage of T. maritima by the Joint Center for Structural Genomics, revealed structural homology with the fourth module of the cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase (MetH) from Escherichia coli, despite the lack of significant sequence homology. The gene specifying TM0269 lies in close proximity to another gene, TM0268, which shows sequence homology with the first three modules of E. coli MetH. The fourth module of E. coli MetH is required for reductive remethylation of the cob(II)alamin form of the cofactor and binds the methyl donor for this reactivation, S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet). Measurements of the rates of methionine formation in the presence and absence of TM0269 and AdoMet demonstrate that both TM0269 and AdoMet are required for reactivation of the inactive cob(II)alamin form of TM0268. These activity measurements confirm the structure-based assignment of the function of the TM0269 gene product. In the presence of TM0269, AdoMet, and reductants, the measured activity of T. maritima MetH is maximal near 80°C, where the specific activity of the purified protein is ?15% of that of E. coli methionine synthase (MetH) at 37°C. Comparisons of the structures and sequences of TM0269 and the reactivation domain of E. coli MetH suggest that AdoMet may be bound somewhat differently by the homologous proteins. However, the conformation of a hairpin that is critical for cobalamin binding in E. coli MetH, which constitutes an essential structural element, is retained in the T. maritima reactivation protein despite striking divergence of the sequences. PMID:17656578

  7. Reactivation of methionine synthase from Thermotoga maritima (TM0268) requires the downstream gene product TM0269.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sha; Romanchuk, Gail; Pattridge, Katherine; Lesley, Scott A; Wilson, Ian A; Matthews, Rowena G; Ludwig, Martha

    2007-08-01

    The crystal structure of the Thermotoga maritima gene product TM0269, determined as part of genome-wide structural coverage of T. maritima by the Joint Center for Structural Genomics, revealed structural homology with the fourth module of the cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase (MetH) from Escherichia coli, despite the lack of significant sequence homology. The gene specifying TM0269 lies in close proximity to another gene, TM0268, which shows sequence homology with the first three modules of E. coli MetH. The fourth module of E. coli MetH is required for reductive remethylation of the cob(II)alamin form of the cofactor and binds the methyl donor for this reactivation, S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet). Measurements of the rates of methionine formation in the presence and absence of TM0269 and AdoMet demonstrate that both TM0269 and AdoMet are required for reactivation of the inactive cob(II)alamin form of TM0268. These activity measurements confirm the structure-based assignment of the function of the TM0269 gene product. In the presence of TM0269, AdoMet, and reductants, the measured activity of T. maritima MetH is maximal near 80 degrees C, where the specific activity of the purified protein is approximately 15% of that of E. coli methionine synthase (MetH) at 37 degrees C. Comparisons of the structures and sequences of TM0269 and the reactivation domain of E. coli MetH suggest that AdoMet may be bound somewhat differently by the homologous proteins. However, the conformation of a hairpin that is critical for cobalamin binding in E. coli MetH, which constitutes an essential structural element, is retained in the T. maritima reactivation protein despite striking divergence of the sequences. PMID:17656578

  8. Products of rectangular random matrices: Singular values and progressive scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akemann, Gernot; Ipsen, Jesper R.; Kieburg, Mario

    2013-11-01

    We discuss the product of M rectangular random matrices with independent Gaussian entries, which have several applications, including wireless telecommunication and econophysics. For complex matrices an explicit expression for the joint probability density function is obtained using the Harish-Chandra-Itzykson-Zuber integration formula. Explicit expressions for all correlation functions and moments for finite matrix sizes are obtained using a two-matrix model and the method of biorthogonal polynomials. This generalizes the classical result for the so-called Wishart-Laguerre Gaussian unitary ensemble (or chiral unitary ensemble) at M=1, and previous results for the product of square matrices. The correlation functions are given by a determinantal point process, where the kernel can be expressed in terms of Meijer G-functions. We compare the results with numerical simulations and known results for the macroscopic level density in the limit of large matrices. The location of the end points of support for the latter are analyzed in detail for general M. Finally, we consider the so-called ergodic mutual information, which gives an upper bound for the spectral efficiency of a MIMO communication channel with multifold scattering.

  9. Oleic acid increases mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and decreases endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity in cultured endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gremmels, Hendrik; Bevers, Lonneke M; Fledderus, Joost O; Braam, Branko; van Zonneveld, Anton Jan; Verhaar, Marianne C; Joles, Jaap A

    2015-03-15

    Elevated plasma levels of free fatty acids (FFA) are associated with increased cardiovascular risk. This may be related to FFA-induced elevation of oxidative stress in endothelial cells. We hypothesized that, in addition to mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-mediated reactive oxygen species production contributes to oleic acid (OA)-induced oxidative stress in endothelial cells, due to eNOS uncoupling. We measured reactive oxygen species production and eNOS activity in cultured endothelial cells (bEnd.3) in the presence of OA bound to bovine serum albumin, using the CM-H2DCFDA assay and the L-arginine/citrulline conversion assay, respectively. OA induced a concentration-dependent increase in reactive oxygen species production, which was inhibited by the mitochondrial complex II inhibitor thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA). OA had little effect on eNOS activity when stimulated by a calcium-ionophore, but decreased both basal and insulin-induced eNOS activity, which was restored by TTFA. Pretreatment of bEnd.3 cells with tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) prevented OA-induced reactive oxygen species production and restored inhibition of eNOS activity by OA. Elevation of OA levels leads to both impairment in receptor-mediated stimulation of eNOS and to production of mitochondrial-derived reactive oxygen species and hence endothelial dysfunction. PMID:25595727

  10. Heterogeneous OH Oxidation of Two Structure Isomers of Dimethylsuccinic Acid Aerosol: Reactivity and Oxidation Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, M. N.; Cheng, C. T.; Wilson, K. R.

    2014-12-01

    Organic aerosol contribute a significant mass fraction of ambient aerosol carbon and can continuously undergo oxidation by colliding with gas phase OH radicals. Although heterogeneous oxidation plays a significant role in the chemical transformation of organic aerosol, the effect of molecular structure on the reactivity and oxidation products remains unclear. We investigate the effect of branched methyl groups on the reactivity of two dimethylsuccinic acids (2,2-dimethylsuccinic acid (2,2-DMSA) and 2,3-dimethylsuccinic acid (2,3-DMSA)) toward gas phase OH radicals in an atmospheric pressure aerosol flow tube reactor. The oxidation products formed upon oxidation is characterized in real time by the Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART), an ambient soft ionization source. The 2,2-DMSA and 2,3-DMSA are structural isomers with the same oxidation state (OSC = -0.33) and carbon number (NC = 6), but different branching characteristics (2,2-DMSA has one secondary carbon and 2,3-DMSA has two tertiary carbons). The difference in molecular distribution of oxidation products observed in these two structural isomers would allow one to assess the sensitivity of kinetics and chemistry to the position of branched methyl group in the DMSA upon oxidation. We observe that the reactivity of 2,3-DMSA toward OH radicals is about 2 times faster than that of 2,2-DMSA. This difference in OH reactivity may attribute to the stability of the carbon-centered radical generated after hydrogen abstraction because an alkyl radical formed from the hydrogen abstraction on a tertiary carbon in 2,3-DMSA is more stable than on a secondary carbon in 2,2-DMSA. For both 2,2-DMSA and 2,3-DMSA, the molecular distribution and evolution of oxidation products is characterized by a predominance of functionalization products at the early oxidation stages. When the oxidation further proceeds, the fragmentation becomes more favorable and the oxidation mainly leads to the reduction of the carbon chain length through the carbon-carbon bond cleavage. We provide molecular information to access how the position of the branched methyl groups plays a role in determining the kinetic and chemistry and to support the recent hypothesis that the relationship between average aerosol elemental composition (e.g., OSC) and oxidation pathways is not always unique.

  11. Metabolism of phenol and hydroquinone to reactive products by macrophage peroxidase or purified prostaglandin H synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Schlosser, M.J.; Shurina, R.D.; Kalf, G.F. (Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (USA))

    1989-07-01

    Macrophages, an important cell-type of the bone marrow stroma, are possible targets of benzene toxicity because they contain relatively large amounts of prostaglandin H synthase (PHS), which is capable of metabolizing phenolic compounds to reactive species. PHS also catalyzes the production of prostaglandins, negative regulators of myelopoiesis. Studies indicate that the phenolic metabolites of benzene are oxidized in bone marrow to reactive products via peroxidases. With respect to macrophages, PHS peroxidase is implicated, as in vivo benzene-induced myelotoxicity is prevented by low doses of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, drugs that inhibit PHS. Incubations of either 14C-phenol or 14C-hydroquinone with a lysate of macrophages collected from mouse peritoneum (greater than 95% macrophages), resulted in an irreversible binding to protein that was dependent upon H2O2, incubation time, and concentration of radiolabel. Production of protein-bound metabolites from phenol or hydroquinone was inhibited by the peroxidase inhibitor aminotriazole. Protein binding from 14C-phenol also was inhibited by 8 microM hydroquinone, whereas binding from 14C-hydroquinone was stimulated by 5 mM phenol. The nucleophile cysteine inhibited protein binding of both phenol and hydroquinone and increased the formation of radiolabeled water-soluble metabolites. Similar to the macrophage lysate, purified PHS also catalyzed the conversion of phenol to metabolites that bound to protein and DNA; this activation was both H2O2- and arachidonic acid-dependent. These results indicate a role for macrophage peroxidase, possibly PHS peroxidase, in the conversion of phenol and hydroquinone to reactive metabolites and suggest that the macrophage should be considered when assessing the hematopoietic toxicity of benzene.

  12. X-ray scattering for the determination of fat content in dairy products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elshemey, Wael M.

    2011-07-01

    The scattering of X-rays from biological samples has been shown to produce characteristic profiles, which depend on their molecular structure. The highly ordered fat molecules in an adipose tissue result in a relatively sharp scattering peak at 1.1 nm -1 with a scattering profile, which is considerably different from the scattering profile of a water-rich tissue. The latter is characterized by a broad scattering peak at about 1.6 nm -1. A biological sample consisting of a mixture of both adipose and a water-rich tissue is expected to show a scattering profile, which is directly linked to the relative contribution of each component and would reflect the percentage by volume of each component in the mixture. In this work, X-ray scattering profiles of a number of dairy products and water are measured. The values of two selected X-ray scattering characterization parameters ( I1/ I2% and areas A1/ A2% of the scattering peaks at 1.1 and 1.6 nm -1, respectively) are plotted against the fat content of each of the measured dairy samples. Results show a strong linear dependence of each of the X-ray scattering parameters and the fat content of the investigated dairy products. These results suggest a possible use of such technique as a new, simple and straight forward method for determination of fat content of dairy products that would join and support the currently available techniques.

  13. Annato extract and ?-carotene modulate the production of reactive oxygen species/nitric oxide in neutrophils from diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Rossoni-Júnior, Joamyr Victor; Araújo, Glaucy Rodrigues; Pádua, Bruno da Cruz; Chaves, Míriam Martins; Pedrosa, Maria Lúcia; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Costa, Daniela Caldeira

    2012-01-01

    Annatto has been identified as carotenoids that have antioxidative effects. It is well known that one of the key elements in the development of diabetic complications is oxidative stress. The immune system is especially vulnerable to oxidative damage because many immune cells, such as neutrophils, produce reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species as part of the body’s defense mechanisms to destroy invading pathogens. Reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species are excessively produced by active peripheral neutrophils, and may damage essential cellular components, which in turn can cause vascular complications in diabetes. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible protective effects of annatto on the reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide (NO) inhibition in neutrophils from alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Adult female rats were divided into six groups based on receiving either a standard diet with or without supplementation of annatto extract or beta carotene. All animals were sacrificed 30 days after treatment and the neutrophils were isolated using two gradients of different densities. The reactive oxygen species and NO were quantified by a chemiluminescence and spectrophotometric assays, respectively. Our results show that neutrophils from diabetic animals produce significantly more reactive oxygen species and NO than their respective controls and that supplementation with beta carotene and annatto is able to modulate the production of these species. Annatto extract may have therapeutic potential for modulation of the balance reactive oxygen species/NO induced by diabetes. PMID:22573917

  14. Ozone production and reactive nitrogen chemistry during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, L.; Wang, T.; Gao, J.; Wang, X.; Gao, X.; Nie, W.; Ding, A.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, W.

    2009-12-01

    Measurements of ozone, peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), and related pollutants (NOx, NOy, NMHCs, and carbonyls) were conducted at an urban/suburban site in Beijing before, during, and after the 2008 Beijing Olympics. The data are analyzed to examine their responses to the strict pollution control measures in Beijing and to gain insight into ozone-precursor photochemistry and reactive nitrogen speciation. Approximately 40% of the study days had ozone pollution with the maximum hourly ozone concentration exceeding 100 ppbv. The pollution levels were relatively low during the Games (Aug 8th - 24th), mainly due to weather conditions (rainfalls and northerly winds). Elevated levels of PAN were frequently observed with a peak concentration of up to 9.34 ppbv and a PAN/O3 ratio of 0.055 ppbv/ppbv. Ozone production efficiencies (OPE) derived from the correlation of O3/Ox versus NOz were in the range of 2-5 ppbv/ppbv. The results suggested a VOCs-limited regime for ozone production. PAN accounted for a relatively high fraction (20 - 40%) of NOz during photochemical episodes. The sources of reactive nitrogen are discussed in relation to wind flow and to other air pollutants.

  15. Temperature controls oxidative phosphorylation and reactive oxygen species production through uncoupling in rat skeletal muscle mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa; Woyda-Ploszczyca, Andrzej; Koziel, Agnieszka; Majerczak, Joanna; Zoladz, Jerzy A

    2015-06-01

    Mitochondrial respiratory and phosphorylation activities, mitochondrial uncoupling, and hydrogen peroxide formation were studied in isolated rat skeletal muscle mitochondria during experimentally induced hypothermia (25°C) and hyperthermia (42°C) compared to the physiological temperature of resting muscle (35°C). For nonphosphorylating mitochondria, increasing the temperature from 25 to 42°C led to a decrease in membrane potential, hydrogen peroxide production, and quinone reduction levels. For phosphorylating mitochondria, no temperature-dependent changes in these mitochondrial functions were observed. However, the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation decreased, whereas the oxidation and phosphorylation rates and oxidative capacities of the mitochondria increased, with increasing assay temperature. An increase in proton leak, including uncoupling protein-mediated proton leak, was observed with increasing assay temperature, which could explain the reduced oxidative phosphorylation efficiency and reactive oxygen species production. PMID:25701433

  16. [Stimulation of biodecolorization of direct yellow 11 by decolorization products of reactive black 5].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing-Zu; Cheng, Xiang; Zheng, Hui; Sun, De-Zhi

    2008-11-01

    This study focused on the effects of decolorization products of reactive black 5 (RB5) on anaerobic decolorization of direct yellow 11 (DY11) by Rhodopseudomonas palustris W1 and its reaction mechanisms. The results showed that the decolorization products of RB5 could obviously accelerate biological decolorization rate of DY11. For initial concentration of 200 mg/L of DY11, the addition of decolorization products of RB5 resulted in that the decolorization kinetic constant K was increased from 17 mg/(L x h) to 42.5 mg/(L x h), followed by an further increase to 48.8 mg/(L x h) after optimization of RB5 supplement. Cyclic voltammogram analysis demonstrated that the decolorization products of RB5 presented electrochemical activity due to the presence of redox electron transfer mediators, as indicated by an observation of two current peaks of reversible oxidation and reduction appeared at potential of ca. 83 mV and -200 mV, respectively. According to LC-MS and FT-IR analysis, the electrochemically activated species of the decolorization products were characterized to be 7-amino-8-hydroxy-1, 2-naphthaquinone-3, 6-disulphonate-1, 2-diimine (TAHNDSDP-1). TAHNDSDP-1 with quinine-like structure was able to transfer between its oxidative and reductive forms by transferring 2[H], which was supposed to be the redox mediator to shuttle electrons from electron donors to azo dyes, thus, improving the reduction of de materials. PMID:19186827

  17. Spin Biochemistry Modulates Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Production by Radio Frequency Magnetic Fields

    PubMed Central

    Usselman, Robert J.; Hill, Iain; Singel, David J.; Martino, Carlos F.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of weak magnetic fields on the biological production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from intracellular superoxide (O2•?) and extracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were investigated in vitro with rat pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (rPASMC). A decrease in O2•? and an increase in H2O2 concentrations were observed in the presence of a 7 MHz radio frequency (RF) at 10 ?TRMS and static 45 ?T magnetic fields. We propose that O2•? and H2O2 production in some metabolic processes occur through singlet-triplet modulation of semiquinone flavin (FADH•) enzymes and O2•? spin-correlated radical pairs. Spin-radical pair products are modulated by the 7 MHz RF magnetic fields that presumably decouple flavin hyperfine interactions during spin coherence. RF flavin hyperfine decoupling results in an increase of H2O2 singlet state products, which creates cellular oxidative stress and acts as a secondary messenger that affects cellular proliferation. This study demonstrates the interplay between O2•? and H2O2 production when influenced by RF magnetic fields and underscores the subtle effects of low-frequency magnetic fields on oxidative metabolism, ROS signaling, and cellular growth. PMID:24681944

  18. The essential oil of bergamot stimulates reactive oxygen species production in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Cosentino, Marco; Luini, Alessandra; Bombelli, Raffaella; Corasaniti, Maria T; Bagetta, Giacinto; Marino, Franca

    2014-08-01

    Bergamot (Citrus aurantium L. subsp. bergamia) essential oil (BEO) is used in folk medicine as an antiseptic and anthelminthic and to facilitate wound healing. Evidence indicates that BEO has substantial antimicrobial activity; however its effects on immunity have never been examined. We studied the effects of BEO on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and the role of Ca(2+) in the functional responses evoked by BEO in these cells. Results show that BEO increased intracellular ROS production in human PMN, an effect that required the contribution of extracellular (and, to a lesser extent, of intracellular) Ca(2+) . Bergamot essential oil also significantly increased ROS production induced by the chemotactic peptide N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe and reduced the response to the protein kinase C activator phorbol myristate acetate. In conclusion, this is the first report showing the ability of BEO to increase ROS production in human PMN. This effect could both contribute to the activity of BEO in infections and in tissue healing as well as underlie an intrinsic proinflammatory potential. The relevance of these findings for the clinical uses of BEO needs careful consideration. PMID:24458921

  19. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Invasion Induces Interleukin-1? Production Through Reactive Oxygen Species and Cathepsin B.

    PubMed

    Okinaga, Toshinori; Ariyoshi, Wataru; Nishihara, Tatsuji

    2015-06-01

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1) cytokines, IL-1?, IL-1?, and IL-18 play a crucial role in inflammatory responses in a variety of diseases including periodontitis. In this study, the periodontopathic bacterial pathogen, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, induced cell death and cytokine release in macrophages. Cell viability was reduced by A. actinomycetemcomitans invasion using (3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The production of IL-1? in A. actinomycetemcomitans-invaded macrophage cells was detected by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Treatment with a caspase-1 inhibitor and silencing of the caspase-1 gene had no effect on IL-1? secretion induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans invasion. Pattern recognition receptor, NLRP3 was upregulated in A. actinomycetemcomitans-invaded macrophages. However, NLRP3 knockdown had no effect on the secretion of IL-1? in A. actinomycetemcomitans-invaded RAW 264 cells. In addition, A. actinomycetemcomitans invasion induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the release of cathepsin B in RAW 264 cells. Interestingly, CA074-Me, a cathepsin B inhibitor, and N-Acetyl-l-cysteine, a ROS inhibitor, prevented the production of IL-1? induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans. Taken together, these results suggest A. actinomycetemcomitans induce IL-1? production in RAW 264 cells through the production of ROS and cathepsin B, but not through the NLRP3/caspase-1 pathway. PMID:25789553

  20. Factorization in processes of graviton scattering off electron for Z and W productions

    E-print Network

    J. S. Shim; H. S. Song

    1995-10-06

    The study of factorization in linearized gravity is extended to the graviton scattering processes with an electron for the massive vector boson productions such as $g e \\rightarrow Z e$ and $g e \\rightarrow W \

  1. Effects of the reflective scattering in hadron production at high energies

    E-print Network

    S. M. Troshin; N. E. Tyurin

    2014-08-12

    A gradual transition to the reflecting scattering mode developing already at the LHC energies is affecting multiparticle production dynamics, in particular, relation of the centrality with the impact parameter values of $pp$--collisions. We discuss the issues in the framework of the geometrical picture for the multiparticle production processes proposed by Chou and Yang. We consider effects of reflective scattering mode presence for the inclusive cross-sections.

  2. Effects of Hepatitis C core protein on mitochondrial electron transport and production of reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Roosevelt V.; Yang, Yuanzheng; Wang, Ting; Rachamallu, Aparna; Li, Yanchun; Watowich, Stanley J.; Weinman, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Viral infections frequently alter mitochondrial function with suppression or induction of apoptosis and enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species. The mechanisms of these effects are varied and mitochondria are affected by both direct interactions with viral proteins as well as by secondary effects of viral activated signaling cascades. This chapter describes methods used in our laboratory to assess the effects of the Hepatitis C virus core protein on mitochondrial ROS production, electron transport and Ca2+ uptake. These include measurements of the effects of in vitro incubation of liver mitochondria with purified core protein as well as assessment of the function of mitochondria in cells and tissues expressing core and other viral proteins. These methods are generally applicable to the study of viral-mitochondrial interactions. PMID:19348899

  3. The ozone productivity of n-propyl bromide: Part 2--An exception to the Maximum Incremental Reactivity Scale.

    PubMed

    Whitten, Gary Z; Yarwood, Greg

    2008-07-01

    In an earlier paper the ozone-forming potential of n-propyl bromide (NPB) was studied with a new methodology designed to address issues associated with a marginal smog-forming compound. However, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) subsequently revised its policy and now recommends using the Maximum Incremental Reactivity (MIR) scale to rank the ozone-forming potential of all volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including those of marginal ozone productivity. Nevertheless, EPA contemplated exceptions to the box-model-derived MIR scale by allowing use of photochemical grid-model simulations for case specific reactivity assessments. The California Air Resources Board (CARB) also uses the MIR scale and CARB has a Reactivity Scientific Advisory Committee that can consider exceptions to the MIR scale. In this study, grid-model simulations that were recommended by EPA are used to evaluate the incremental ozone impacts of NPB using an update to the chemical mechanism developed in an earlier paper. New methods of analysis of the grid-model output are further developed here to quantify the relative reactivities between NPB and ethane over a wide range of conditions. The new grid-model-based analyses show that NPB is significantly different and generally less in ozone-forming potential (i.e., reactivity) than predicted by the box-model-based MIR scale relative to ethane, EPA's "bright-line" test for non-VOC status. Although NPB has low reactivity compared to typical VOCs on any scale, the new grid-model analyses developed here show that NPB is far less reactive (and even has negative reactivity) compared to the reactivity predicted by the MIR scale. PMID:18672713

  4. Effects of C-reactive Protein and Homocysteine on Cytokine Production: Modulation by Pravastatin.

    PubMed

    Asanuma, Yu; Oeser, Annette; Stanley, Eran; Bailey, David G; Shintani, Ayumi; Stein, C Michael

    2008-07-01

    OBJECTIVE: C-reactive protein (CRP) and homocysteine are markers of cardiovascular risk that may have inflammatory effects. HMG coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) have anti-inflammatory effects in vitro, but it is not clear if such responses in vivo are secondary to lipid lowering. We examined the hypothesis that CRP and homocysteine would stimulate cytokine release in human whole blood and that short-term treatment with a statin would inhibit it. METHODS: The time course of IL-6 and MCP-1 production was determined in whole blood incubated with saline, 1 microg/mL lipopolysaccaride (LPS), 50 and 100 microM/L DL-homocysteine, and 5 microg/mL human recombinant CRP for 24 hours at 37 degrees C under 5% CO(2) atmosphere. Cytokine responses were determined in blood drawn from 15 healthy volunteers before and after administration of pravastatin 40 mg daily for 2 days. RESULTS: Both human recombinant CRP and LPS significantly increased the production of IL-6 and MCP-1 in whole blood samples more than 4-fold (P < 0.001) but homocysteine did not. Oral administration of pravastatin, 40mg daily for 2 days, decreased CRP-stimulated IL-6 production by approximately 20% (P = 0.02) 6 hours after incubation, but did not affect MCP-1 production (P = 0.69). Pravastatin treatment did not affect LPS-stimulated MCP-1 but increased IL-6 modestly. CONCLUSIONS: CRP stimulated the production of the proatherogenic mediators MCP-1 and IL-6 in human whole blood, but homocysteine did not. CRP-stimulated production of IL-6, but not MCP-1, was modestly attenuated by short-term treatment with pravastatin. PMID:20157364

  5. Reactive oxidation products promote secondary organic aerosol formation from green leaf volatiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, J. F.; Lewis, A. C.; Carey, T. J.; Wenger, J. C.; Garcia, E. Borrás. I.; Muñoz, A.

    2009-02-01

    Green leaf volatiles (GLVs) are an important group of chemicals released by vegetation which have emission fluxes that can be significantly increased when plants are damaged or stressed. A series of simulation chamber experiments has been conducted at the European Photoreactor in Valencia, Spain, to investigate secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from the atmospheric oxidation of the major GLVs cis-3-hexenylacetate and cis-3-hexen-1-ol. Liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry was used to identify chemical species present in the SOA. Cis-3-hexen-1-ol proved to be a more efficient SOA precursor due to the high reactivity of its first generation oxidation product, 3-hydroxypropanal, which can hydrate and undergo further reactions with other aldehydes resulting in SOA dominated by higher molecular weight oligomers. The lower SOA yields produced from cis-3-hexenylacetate are attributed to the acetate functionality, which inhibits oligomer formation in the particle phase. Based on observed SOA yields and best estimates of global emissions, these compounds may be calculated to be a substantial unidentified global source of SOA, contributing 1-5 TgC yr-1, equivalent to around a third of that predicted from isoprene. Molecular characterization of the SOA, combined with organic mechanistic information, has provided evidence that the formation of organic aerosols from GLVs is closely related to the reactivity of their first generation atmospheric oxidation products, and indicates that this may be a simple parameter that could be used in assessing the aerosol formation potential for other unstudied organic compounds in the atmosphere.

  6. Reactive oxidation products promote secondary organic aerosol formation from green leaf volatiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, J. F.; Lewis, A. C.; Carey, T. J.; Wenger, J. C.; Garcia, E. Borrás. I.; Muñoz, A.

    2009-06-01

    Green leaf volatiles (GLVs) are an important group of chemicals released by vegetation which have emission fluxes that can be significantly increased when plants are damaged or stressed. A series of simulation chamber experiments has been conducted at the European Photoreactor in Valencia, Spain, to investigate secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from the atmospheric oxidation of the major GLVs cis-3-hexenylacetate and cis-3-hexen-1-ol. Liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry was used to identify chemical species present in the SOA. Cis-3-hexen-1-ol proved to be a more efficient SOA precursor due to the high reactivity of its first generation oxidation product, 3-hydroxypropanal, which can hydrate and undergo further reactions with other aldehydes resulting in SOA dominated by higher molecular weight oligomers. The lower SOA yields produced from cis-3-hexenylacetate are attributed to the acetate functionality, which inhibits oligomer formation in the particle phase. Based on observed SOA yields and best estimates of global emissions, these compounds may be calculated to be a substantial unidentified global source of SOA, contributing 1-5 TgC yr-1, equivalent to around a third of that predicted from isoprene. Molecular characterization of the SOA, combined with organic mechanistic information, has provided evidence that the formation of organic aerosols from GLVs is closely related to the reactivity of their first generation atmospheric oxidation products, and indicates that this may be a simple parameter that could be used in assessing the aerosol formation potential for other unstudied organic compounds in the atmosphere.

  7. Macrophage cytotoxicity against schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni involves arginine-dependent production of reactive nitrogen intermediates.

    PubMed

    James, S L; Glaven, J

    1989-12-15

    Lymphokine (LK)-activated macrophages are cytotoxic for multicellular larvae of the helminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni. Macrophage-mediated larval killing was found to be arginine dependent, as indicated by inhibition in the presence of exogenous arginase or the competitive inhibitor NG-monomethyl-L-arginine. Culture supernatant fluids from the larvicidal LK-activated macrophages contained nitrite, a product of activated macrophages derived by oxidation of arginine and implicated in the antitumor and antimicrobial effector function of these cells. Nitrite was not detectable in supernatant fluids obtained from nonactivated macrophages or from macrophages stimulated with LK in the presence of arginase or NG-monomethyl-L-arginine. Addition of excess iron or the reductant sodium dithionite to LK-activated macrophage cultures also inhibited larval killing in vitro, under conditions that have been shown by others to stabilize the activity of iron-containing enzymes involved in respiration. Nitrite production was not decreased under these conditions. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that macrophage-mediated schistosomulum killing is caused, at least in part, by a mechanism proposed for tumor cytotoxicity, whereby production of reactive nitrogen intermediates triggers iron loss from critical target cell enzymes leading to lethal metabolic inhibition. In accordance, schistosomula were shown to be killed by inhibitors of mitochondrial respiration. PMID:2592772

  8. Nafamostat Mesilate Inhibits TNF-?-Induced Vascular Endothelial Cell Dysfunction by Inhibiting Reactive Oxygen Species Production

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min-Woong; Song, Hee-Jung; Kang, Shin Kwang; Kim, Yonghwan; Jung, Saet-byel; Jee, Sungju; Moon, Jae Young; Suh, Kwang-sun; Lee, Sang Do; Jeon, Byeong Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Nafamostat mesilate (NM) is a serine protease inhibitor with anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory effects. NM has been used in Asia for anticoagulation during extracorporeal circulation in patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy and extra corporeal membrane oxygenation. Oxidative stress is an independent risk factor for atherosclerotic vascular disease and is associated with vascular endothelial function. We investigated whether NM could inhibit endothelial dysfunction induced by tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?). Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with TNF-? for 24 h. The effects of NM on monocyte adhesion, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) protein expression, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation, and intracellular superoxide production were then examined. NM (0.01~100 µg/mL) did not affect HUVEC viability; however, it inhibited the increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and p66shc expression elicited by TNF-? (3 ng/mL), and it dose dependently prevented the TNF-?-induced upregulation of endothelial VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. In addition, it mitigated TNF-?-induced p38 MAPK phosphorylation and the adhesion of U937 monocytes. These data suggest that NM mitigates TNF-?-induced monocyte adhesion and the expression of endothelial cell adhesion molecules, and that the anti-adhesive effect of NM is mediated through the inhibition of p66shc, ROS production, and p38 MAPK activation. PMID:25954127

  9. Bax Affects Production of Reactive Oxygen by the Mitochondria of Non-apoptotic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Kirkland, Rebecca A.; Franklin, James L.

    2007-01-01

    Depriving sympathetic neurons in cell culture of nerve growth factor (NGF) causes their apoptotic death. Bax-induced release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and the subsequent activation of cytosolic caspases are central to this death. A Bax-dependent increase of mitochondrial-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) that is an important component of the apoptotic cascade in these cells begins soon after NGF withdrawal. Here we report that Bax can also influence mitochondrial production of ROS in non-apoptotic sympathetic neurons. We determined ROS levels by using confocal microscopy to monitor changes in the fluorescence intensity of a redox-sensitive dye loaded into single cells. ROS levels were similar in NGF-replete bax wild-type neurons and neurons from which bax had been deleted. To enhance any effects that Bax might have on ROS levels in NGF-replete cells we exposed cultures to the ATP synthase inhibitor, oligomycin. This treatment hyperpolarizes mitochondrial membrane potential (??m), an event that can favor increased ROS production. NGF-replete neurons from mice in which bax had been deleted had much higher levels of mitochondrial-derived ROS when treated with oligomycin than did bax wild-type cells. Oligomycin treatment also caused greater hyperpolarization of ??m in bax-deleted cells than in wild-type cells. These findings indicate that Bax can affect mitochondrial ROS production in non-apoptotic neurons and may do so by altering ??m. PMID:17097638

  10. Production of reactive oxygen species after photodynamic therapy by porphyrin sensitizers.

    PubMed

    Kolarova, H; Nevrelova, P; Tomankova, K; Kolar, P; Bajgar, R; Mosinger, J

    2008-06-01

    The objectives of this study was to investigate the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) after photodynamic therapy (PDT) in vitro. We examined second generation sensitizers, porphyrines (TPPS4, ZnTPPS4 and PdTPPS4) and compared their effectivity on ROS generation in G361 cell line. Used porphyrines are very efficient water-soluble aromatic dyes with potential to use in photomedicine and have a high propensity to accumulate in the membranes of intracellular organelles like lysosomes and mitochondria. Interaction between the triplet excited state of the sensitizer and molecular oxygen leads to produce singlet oxygen and other ROS to induce cell death. Production of ROS was verificated by molecular probe CM-H2DCFDA and viability of cells was determined by MTT assay. Our results demonstrated that ZnTPPS4 induces the highest ROS production in cell line compared to TPPS4 and PdTPPS4 at each used concentration and light dose. These results consist with a fact that photodynamic effect depends on sensitizer type, its concentration and light dose. PMID:18645224

  11. Role of Glycocalyx in Flow-Induced Production of Nitric Oxide and Reactive Oxygen Species

    PubMed Central

    Kumagai, Robert; Lu, Xiao; Kassab, Ghassan S.

    2009-01-01

    Although the glycocalyx has been implicated in wall shear stress (WSS) mechanotransduction, the role of glycocalyx components in nitric oxide (NO*) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production remains unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that glycocalyx is implicated in both endothelial NO* and O2- production. Specifically, we evaluated the role of hyaluronic acid (HA), heparan sulfate (HS), and sialic acid (SA) in NO* and O2- mechanotransduction. Twenty-seven ex-vivo porcine superficial femoral arteries were incubated with either heparinase III, hyaluronidase, or neuraminidase, to remove HS, HA, or SA, respectively, from the glycocalyx. The arteries were then subjected to steady state flow and the effluent solution was measured for nitrites and the vessel diameter was tracked to quantify the degree of vasodilation. Our results show that removal of HA decreased both nitrites and vasodilation, and tempol treatment had no reversing effect. Degradation of HS proteoglycans decreased NO* bioavailability through an increase in O2- production as indicated by fluorescent signals of dihydroethidium (DHE) and its area fraction (209±24% increase) and also removed extracellular O2- dismutase (ecSOD) (67±9% decrease). The removal of SA also increased O2- production as indicated by DHE fluorescent signals (86±17% increase) and the addition of tempol, a mimic O2- scavenger, restored both NO* availability and vasodilation in both heparinase and neuraminidase treated vessels. This implies that HS and SA are not directly involved in WSS mediated NO* production. This study implicates HA in WSS-mediated NO* mechanotransduction and underscores the role of HS and SA in ROS regulation in vessel wall in response to WSS stimulation. PMID:19500664

  12. Inhibition of human neutrophil reactive oxygen species production and p67 phox translocation by cigarette smoke extract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John S. Dunn; Brian M. Freed; Daniel L. Gustafson; Kathleen A. Stringer

    2005-01-01

    The association between cigarette smoking and atherogenesis is well established. Inflammatory cells may participate in atherogenesis via activation of the NADPH oxidase and the subsequent production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which exacerbates endothelial injury. However, little is known about the ability of cigarette smoke (CS) to modulate NADPH oxidase protein function. In this study, we investigated the ability of

  13. Protective effect of flavonoids against reactive oxygen species production in sickle cell anemia patients treated with hydroxyurea

    PubMed Central

    Henneberg, Railson; Otuki, Michel Fleith; Furman, Aline Emmer Ferreira; Hermann, Priscila; do Nascimento, Aguinaldo José; Leonart, Maria Suely Soares

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of quercetin, rutin, hesperidin and myricetin against reactive oxygen species production with the oxidizing action of tert-butylhydroperoxide in erythrocytes from normal subjects and sickle cell anemia carriers treated with hydroxyurea. Methods Detection of intracellular reactive oxygen species was carried out using a liposoluble probe, 2',7'-dichlorfluorescein-diacetate (DCFH-DA). A 10% erythrocyte suspension was incubated with flavonoids (quercetin, rutin, hesperidin or myricetin; 30, 50, and 100 µmol/L), and then incubated with tert-butylhydroperoxide (75 µmol/L). Untreated samples were used as controls. Results Red blood cell exposure to tert-butylhydroperoxide resulted in significant increases in the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species compared to basal levels. Reactive oxygen species production was significantly inhibited when red blood cells were pre-incubated with flavonoids, both in normal individuals and in patients with sickle cell anemia. Quercetin and rutin had the highest antioxidant activity, followed by myricetin and hesperidin. CONCLUSION: Flavonoids, in particular quercetin and rutin, showed better antioxidant effects against damage caused by excess reactive oxygen species characteristic of sickle cell anemia. Results obtained with patients under treatment with hydroxyurea suggest an additional protective effect when associated with the use of flavonoids. PMID:23580885

  14. Analysis of acidity production during enhanced reductive dechlorination using a simplified reactive transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brovelli, A.; Barry, D. A.; Robinson, C.; Gerhard, J. I.

    2012-07-01

    Build-up of fermentation products and hydrochloric acid at a contaminated site undergoing enhanced reductive dechlorination can result in groundwater acidification. Sub-optimal pH conditions can inhibit microbial activity and lead to reduced dechlorination rates. The extent of acidification likely to occur is site-specific and depends primarily on the extent of fermentation and dechlorination, the geochemical composition of soil and groundwater, and the pH-sensitivity of the active microbial populations. Here, the key chemical and physical mechanisms that control the extent of groundwater acidification in a contaminated site were examined, and the extent to which the remediation efficiency was affected by variations in groundwater pH was evaluated using a simplified process-based reactive-transport model. This model was applied successfully to a well-documented field site and was then employed in a sensitivity analysis to identify the processes likely to significantly influence acidity production and subsequent microbial inhibition. The accumulation of organic acids produced from the fermentation of the injected substrate was the main cause of the pH change. The concentration of dissolved sulphates controlled substrate utilisation efficiency because sulphate-reducing biomass competed with halo-respiring biomass for the fermentation products. It was shown further that increased groundwater velocity increases dilution and reduces the accumulation of acidic products. As a consequence, the flow rate corresponding to the highest remediation efficiency depends on the fermentation and dechlorination rates. The model enables investigation and forecasting of the extent and areal distribution of pH change, providing a means to optimise the application of reductive dechlorination for site remediation.

  15. Reactive oxygen species and IRF1 stimulate IFN? production by proximal tubules during ischemic AKI

    PubMed Central

    Winterberg, Pamela D.; Wang, Yanxia; Lin, Keng-Mean; Hartono, John R.; Nagami, Glenn T.; Zhou, Xin J.; Shelton, John M.; Richardson, James A.

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported that expression of the transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1) is an early, critical maladaptive signal expressed by renal tubules during murine ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI). We now show that IRF1 mediates signals from reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during ischemic AKI and that these signals ultimately result in production of ?-subtypes of type I interferons (IFN?s). We found that genetic knockout of the common type I IFN receptor (IFNARI?/?) improved kidney function and histology during AKI. There are major differences in the spatial-temporal production of the two major IFN subtypes, IFN? and IFN?s: IFN? expression peaks at 4 h, earlier than IFN?s, and continues at the same level at 24 h; expression of IFN?s also increases at 4 h but continues to increase through 24 h. The magnitude of the increase in IFN?s relative to baseline is much greater than that of IFN?. We show by immunohistology and study of isolated cells that IFN? is produced by renal leukocytes and IFN?s are produced by renal tubules. IRF1, IFN?s, and IFNARI were found on the same renal tubules during ischemic AKI. Furthermore, we found that ROS induced IFN? expression by renal tubules in vitro. This expression was inhibited by small interfering RNA knockdown of IRF1. Overexpression of IRF1 resulted in the production of IFN?s. Furthermore, we found that IFN? stimulated production of maladaptive proinflammatory CXCL2 by renal tubular cells. Altogether our data support the following autocrine pathway in renal tubular cells: ROS > IRF1 > IFN? > IFNARI > CXCL2. PMID:23657854

  16. Urea degradation by electrochemically generated reactive chlorine species: products and reaction pathways.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kangwoo; Hoffmann, Michael R

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the transformation of urea by electrochemically generated reactive chlorine species (RCS). Solutions of urea with chloride ions were electrolyzed using a bismuth doped TiO2 (BiOx/TiO2) anode coupled with a stainless steel cathode at applied anodic potentials (Ea) of either +2.2 V or +3.0 V versus the normal hydrogen electrode. In NaCl solution, the current efficiency of RCS generation was near 30% at both potentials. In divided cell experiments, the pseudo-first-order rate of total nitrogen decay was an order of magnitude higher at Ea of +3.0 V than at +2.2 V, presumably because dichlorine radical (Cl2(-)·) ions facilitate the urea transformation primary driven by free chlorine. Quadrupole mass spectrometer analysis of the reactor headspace revealed that N2 and CO2 are the primary gaseous products of the oxidation of urea, whose urea-N was completely transformed into N2 (91%) and NO3(-) (9%). The higher reaction selectivity with respect to N2 production can be ascribed to a low operational ratio of free available chlorine to N. The mass-balance analysis recovered urea-C as CO2 at 77%, while CO generation most likely accounts for the residual carbon. In light of these results, we propose a reaction mechanism involving chloramines and chloramides as reaction intermediates, where the initial chlorination is the rate-determining step in the overall sequence of reactions. PMID:25219459

  17. Reactive oxygen products in heterologous anti-glomerular basement membrane nephritis in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Birtwistle, R. J.; Michael, J.; Howie, A. J.; Adu, D.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of 'scavengers' of reactive oxygen products (ROPs) was studied in the heterologous phase of anti-glomerular basement (anti-GBM) nephritis induced in rats. Glomerulonephritis was induced by the intravenous administration of sheep anti-GBM antibody (5 mg/100 g) to rats on day 0. The intraperitoneal administration of superoxide dismutase (SOD) 30 mg/kg/day or 150 mg/kg/day leads to a significant reduction in proteinuria on day 1 and also on day 3 in animals given SOD 30 mg/kg/day. Proteinuria was not significantly reduced by the intraperitoneal administration of inactivated SOD (150 mg/kg/day). In rats given polyethylene glycol coupled catalase (PEG-catalase) intraperitoneally at a dose of 10,000 iu/kg/day and 100,000 iu/kg/day proteinuria was lower than in rats with unmodified anti-GBM nephritis. These differences were significant on day 1 (P less than 0.05) in rats given PEG-catalase 100,000 iu/kg/day and on days 3 and 5 in rats treated with either dose of PEG-catalase (P less than 0.01). These data suggest a role for superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide, or a product of their interaction such as hydroxyl radical, in glomerular injury induced by anti-GBM antibody. PMID:2786425

  18. Cobalt Protoporphyrin Induces HO-1 Expression Mediated Partially by FOXO1 and Reduces Mitochondria-Derived Reactive Oxygen Species Production

    PubMed Central

    Li, Meixia; Xu, Haifeng; Zuo, Jin; Fang, Fude; Chang, Yongsheng

    2013-01-01

    Background Reactive oxygen species arise in the mitochondria as byproducts of respiration and oxidase activity and have important roles in many physiological and pathophysiological conditions. The level of reactive oxygen species is regulated by a number of enzymes and physiological antioxidants, including HO-1, Sod2, catalase and COX-2, etc. And HO-1 against oxidative stress requires an increase in stress-responsive genes, such as Sod2 and catalase. Especially for the activity of HO-1, cobalt protoporphyrin is known to be a potent and effective inducer in many tissues. The transcription factor, FOXO1 is resistant to oxidative stress through downregulating reactive oxygen species production. Previous study showed that FOXO1 induces HO-1 expression by binding to HO-1 promoter. The question whether cobalt protoporphyrin induces HO-1 expression mediated by FOXO1 and subsequently lessens reactive oxygen species production remains to be elucidated. Results Cobalt protoporphyrin enhances the expression of FOXO1 and facilitates FOXO1 binding to HO-1 promoter and increasing its transcriptional activity without influencing the FOXO1 protein stability. CoPP induces HO-1 and other oxidative stress-responsive genes expression, such as catalase, cytochrome c, Sod2, and COX-2, and decreases mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species production, which are mediated partially by FOXO1. Conclusions Cobalt protoporphyrin induces HO-1 and other oxidative stress-responsive genes expression mediated partially by FOXO1, and has an important role in reducing cellular reactive oxygen species level. Cobalt protoporphyrin may be a more promising therapeutic agent to upregulate some antioxidantive genes. PMID:24255720

  19. Inclusive D 0 and D*± production in neutral current deep inelastic ep scattering at HERA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Adloff; S. Aid; M. Anderson; V. Andreev; B. Andrieu; R.-D. Appuhn; C. Arndt; A. Babaev; J. Bähr; J. Bán; Y. Ban; P. Baranov; E. Barrelet; R. Barschke; W. Bartel; M. Barth; U. Bassler; H. P. Beck; H.-J. Behrend; A. Belousov; Ch. Berger; G. Bernardi; G. Bertrand-Coremans; M. Besançon; R. Beyer; P. Biddulph; P. Bispham; J. C. Bizot; V. Blobel; K. Borras; F. Botterweck; V. Boudry; A. Braemer; W. Braunschweig; V. Brisson; P. Bruel; D. Bruncko; C. Brune; R. Buchholz; L. Büngener; J. Bürger; F. W. Büsser; A. Buniatian; S. Burke; M. J. Burton; D. Calvet; A. J. Campbell; T. Carli; M. Charlet; D. Clarke; A. B. Clegg; B. Clerbaux; S. Cocks; J. G. Contreras; C. Cormack; J. A. Coughlan; A. Courau; M.-C. Cousinou; G. Cozzika; L. Criegee; D. G. Cussans; J. Cvach; S. Dagoret; J. B. Dainton; W. D. Dau; K. Daum; M. David; C. L. Davis; B. Delcourt; A. de Roeck; E. A. de Wolf; M. Dirkmann; P. Dixon; P. di Nezza; W. Dlugosz; C. Dollfus; J. D. Dowell; H. B. Dreis; A. Droutskoi; O. Dünger; H. Duhm; J. Ebert; T. R. Ebert; G. Eckerlin; V. Efremenko; S. Egli; R. Eichler; F. Eisele; E. Eisenhandler; E. Elsen; M. Erdmann; W. Erdmann; E. Evrard; A. B. Fahr; L. Favart; A. Fedotov; D. Feeken; R. Felst; J. Feltesse; J. Ferencei; F. Ferrarotto; K. Flamm; M. Fleischer; M. Flieser; G. Flügge; A. Fomenko; B. Fominykh; J. Formánek; J. M. Foster; G. Franke; E. Fretwurst; E. Gabathuler; K. Gabathuler; F. Gaede; J. Garvey; J. Gayler; M. Gebauer; H. Genzel; R. Gerhards; A. Glazov; U. Goerlach; L. Goerlich; N. Gogitidze; M. Goldberg; D. Goldner; K. Golec-Biernat; B. Gonzalez-Pineiro; I. Gorelov; C. Grab; H. Grässler; T. Greenshaw; R. K. Griffiths; G. Grindhammer; A. Gruber; C. Gruber; J. Haack; T. Hadig; D. Haidt; L. Hajduk; M. Hampel; W. J. Haynes; G. Heinzelmann; R. C. W. Henderson; H. Henschel; I. Herynek; M. F. Hess; K. Hewitt; W. Hildesheim; K. H. Hiller; C. D. Hilton; J. Hladký; K. C. Hoeger; M. Höppner; D. Hoffmann; T. Holtom; R. Horisberger; V. L. Hudgson; M. Hütte; M. Ibbotson; H. Itterbeck; A. Jacholkowska; C. Jacobsson; M. Jaffre; J. Janoth; T. Jansen; L. Jönsson; D. P. Johnson; H. Jung; P. I. P. Kalmus; M. Kander; D. Kant; R. Kaschowitz; U. Kathage; J. Katzy; H. H. Kaufmann; O. Kaufmann; M. Kausch; S. Kazarian; I. R. Kenyon; S. Kermiche; C. Keuker; C. Kiesling; M. Klein; C. Kleinwort; G. Knies; T. Köhler; J. H. Köhne; H. Kolanoski; F. Kole; S. D. Kolya; V. Korbel; M. Korn; P. Kostka; S. K. Kotelnikov; T. Krämerkämper; M. W. Krasny; H. Krehbiel; D. Krücker; A. Küpper; H. Küster; M. Kuhlen; T. Kurca; J. Kurzhöfer; D. Lacour; B. Laforge; R. Lander; M. P. J. Landon; W. Lange; U. Langenegger; J.-F. Laporte; A. Lebedev; F. Lehner; S. Levonian; G. Lindström; M. Lindstroem; J. Link; F. Linsel; J. Lipinski; B. List; G. Lobo; P. Loch; J. W. Lomas; G. C. Lopez; V. Lubimov; D. Lüke; N. Magnussen; E. Malinovski; S. Mani; R. Maracek; P. Marage; J. Marks; R. Marshall; J. Martens; G. Martin; R. Martin; H.-U. Martyn; J. Martyniak; T. Mavroidis; S. J. Maxfield; S. J. McMahon; A. Mehta; K. Meier; A. Meyer; H. Meyer; J. Meyer; P.-O. Meyer; A. Migliori; S. Mikocki; D. Milstead; J. Moeck; F. Moreau; J. V. Morris; E. Mroczko; D. Müller; G. Müller; K. Müller; P. Murín; V. Nagovizin; R. Nahnhauer; B. Naroska; Th. Naumann; I. Négri; P. R. Newman; D. Newton; H. K. Nguyen; T. C. Nicholls; F. Niebergall; C. Niebuhr; Ch. Niedzballa; H. Niggli; R. Nisius; G. Nowak; G. W. Noyes; M. Nyberg-Werther; M. Oakden; H. Oberlack; J. E. Olsson; D. Ozerov; P. Palmen; E. Panaro; A. Panitch; C. Pascaud; G. D. Patel; H. Pawletta; E. Peppel; E. Perez; J. P. Phillips; A. Pieuchot; D. Pitzl; G. Pope; S. Prell; K. Rabbertz; G. Rädel; P. Reimer; S. Reinshagen; H. Rick; V. Riech; J. Riedlberger; F. Riepenhausen; S. Riess; E. Rizvi; S. M. Robertson; P. Robmann; H. E. Roloff; R. Roosen; K. Rosenbauer; A. Rostovtsev; F. Rouse; C. Royon; K. Rüter; S. Rusakov; K. Rybicki; D. P. C. Sankey; P. Schacht; S. Schiek; S. Schleif; P. Schleper; W. von Schlippe; D. Schmidt; G. Schmidt; A. Schöning; V. Schröder; E. Schuhmann; B. Schwab; F. Sefkow; M. Seidel; R. Sell; A. Semenov; V. Shekelyan; I. Sheviakov; L. N. Shtarkov; G. Siegmon; U. Siewert; Y. Sirois; I. O. Skillicorn; P. Smirnov; J. R. Smith; V. Solochenko; Y. Soloviev; A. Specka; J. Spiekermann; S. Spielman; H. Spitzer; F. Squinabol; M. Steenbock; P. Steffen; R. Steinberg; H. Steiner; J. Steinhart; B. Stella; A. Stellberger; J. Stier; J. Stiewe; U. Stößlein; K. Stolze; U. Straumann; W. Struczinski; J. P. Sutton; S. Tapprogge; M. Tasevský; V. Tchernyshov; S. Tchetchelnitski; Tchetchelnitski J. Theissen; C. Thiebaux; G. Thompson; P. Truöl; K. Tzamariudaki; G. Tsipolitis; J. Turnau; J. Tutas; P. Uelkes; A. Usik; S. Valkár; A. Valkárová; C. Vallée; D. Vandenplas; P. van Esch; P. van Mechelen; Y. Vazdik; P. Verrecchia; G. Villet; K. Wacker; A. Wagener; M. Wagener; A. Walther

    1996-01-01

    First results on inclusivemathop {D^0 }limits^{( - )} and D*± production in neutral current deep inelastic ep scattering are reported using data collected by the H1 experiment at HERA in 1994. Differential cross sections are presented for both channels and are found to agree well with QCD predictions based on the boson gluon fusion process. A charm production cross section

  20. Nuclear A dependence of exclusive vector meson production in muon scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Schellman, H. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; E665 Collaboration

    1994-07-01

    Results on exclusive vector meson production from Fermilab muon scattering experiment E665 are presented. The {Alpha} dependence of exclusive vector meson production is studied as a function of Q{sup 2}. The data show a significant change in the dependence on {Alpha} at higher values of Q{sup 2}. The observed behavior is consistent with the idea of color transparency.

  1. Multiple-scattering model for inclusive proton production in heavy ion collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1994-01-01

    A formalism is developed for evaluating the momentum distribution for proton production in nuclear abrasion during heavy ion collisions using the Glauber multiple-scattering series. Several models for the one-body density matrix of nuclei are considered for performing numerical calculations. Calculations for the momentum distribution of protons in abrasion are compared with experimental data for inclusive proton production.

  2. Increased effectiveness of carbon ions in the production of reactive oxygen species in normal human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Dettmering, Till; Zahnreich, Sebastian; Colindres-Rojas, Miriam; Durante, Marco; Taucher-Scholz, Gisela; Fournier, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially superoxide anions (O2 (·-)), is enhanced in many normal and tumor cell types in response to ionizing radiation. The influence of ionizing radiation on the regulation of ROS production is considered as an important factor in the long-term effects of irradiation (such as genomic instability) that might contribute to the development of secondary cancers. In view of the increasing application of carbon ions in radiation therapy, we aimed to study the potential impact of ionizing density on the intracellular production of ROS, comparing photons (X-rays) with carbon ions. For this purpose, we used normal human cells as a model for irradiated tissue surrounding a tumor. By quantifying the oxidization of Dihydroethidium (DHE), a fluorescent probe sensitive to superoxide anions, we assessed the intracellular ROS status after radiation exposure in normal human fibroblasts, which do not show radiation-induced chromosomal instability. After 3-5 days post exposure to X-rays and carbon ions, the level of ROS increased to a maximum that was dose dependent. The maximum ROS level reached after irradiation was specific for the fibroblast type. However, carbon ions induced this maximum level at a lower dose compared with X-rays. Within ?1 week, ROS decreased to control levels. The time-course of decreasing ROS coincides with an increase in cell number and decreasing p21 protein levels, indicating a release from radiation-induced growth arrest. Interestingly, radiation did not act as a trigger for chronically enhanced levels of ROS months after radiation exposure. PMID:25304329

  3. Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Excitable Cells: Modulators of Mitochondrial and Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Camara, Amadou K. S.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The mitochondrion is a major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Superoxide (O2•?) is generated under specific bioenergetic conditions at several sites within the electron-transport system; most is converted to H2O2 inside and outside the mitochondrial matrix by superoxide dismutases. H2O2 is a major chemical messenger that, in low amounts and with its products, physiologically modulates cell function. The redox state and ROS scavengers largely control the emission (generation scavenging) of O2•?. Cell ischemia, hypoxia, or toxins can result in excess O2•? production when the redox state is altered and the ROS scavenger systems are overwhelmed. Too much H2O2 can combine with Fe2+ complexes to form reactive ferryl species (e.g., Fe(IV)?=?O•). In the presence of nitric oxide (NO•), O2•? forms the reactant peroxynitrite (ONOO?), and ONOOH-induced nitrosylation of proteins, DNA, and lipids can modify their structure and function. An initial increase in ROS can cause an even greater increase in ROS and allow excess mitochondrial Ca2+ entry, both of which are factors that induce cell apoptosis and necrosis. Approaches to reduce excess O2•? emission include selectively boosting the antioxidant capacity, uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation to reduce generation of O2•? by inducing proton leak, and reversibly inhibiting electron transport. Mitochondrial cation channels and exchangers function to maintain matrix homeostasis and likely play a role in modulating mitochondrial function, in part by regulating O2•? generation. Cell-signaling pathways induced physiologically by ROS include effects on thiol groups and disulfide linkages to modify posttranslationally protein structure to activate/inactivate specific kinase/phosphatase pathways. Hypoxia-inducible factors that stimulate a cascade of gene transcription may be mediated physiologically by ROS. Our knowledge of the role played by ROS and their scavenging systems in modulation of cell function and cell death has grown exponentially over the past few years, but we are still limited in how to apply this knowledge to develop its full therapeutic potential. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 11, 1373–1414. PMID:19187004

  4. Production of reactive oxygen species by peritoneal macrophages and hepatic mitochondria and microsomes from endrin-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, M; Hassoun, E A; Bagchi, D; Stohs, S J

    1993-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that the administration of endrin to rodents induces lipid peroxidation in various tissues and decreases glutathione content. These results suggest that endrin produces reactive oxygen species and/or free radicals. We have therefore examined the effect of endrin (4.5 mg/kg) on the production of reactive oxygen species by peritoneal macrophages and hepatic mitochondria and microsomes in rats. The effects of endrin on hepatic mitochondrial and microsomal lipid peroxidation and membrane fluidity as well as the incidence of hepatic nuclear DNA damage were also examined. Twenty-four hours after endrin administration, significant increases in the production of chemiluminescence by the three tissue fractions were observed. Furthermore, peritoneal macrophages from endrin-treated animals resulted in 3.0- and 2.8-fold increases in cytochrome c and iodonitrotetrazolium (INT) reduction, indicating enhanced production of superoxide anion. Endrin administration also resulted in significant increases in lipid peroxidation of mitochondrial and microsomal membranes as well as decreases in the fluidity of these two membranous fractions. A significant increase in hepatic nuclear DNA single-strand breaks also occurred in response to endrin administration. The results indicate that macrophage, mitochondria, and microsomes produce reactive oxygen species following endrin administration, and these reactive oxygen species may contribute to the toxic manifestations of endrin. PMID:8381102

  5. Reactive scattering using pulsed crossed supersonic molecular beams. Example of the C+NO. -->. CN+O and C+N/sub 2/O. -->. CN+NO reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Dorthe, G.; Costes, M.; Naulin, C.; Joussot-Dubien, J.; Vaucamps, C.; Nouchi, G.

    1985-09-15

    The dynamics of the C+NO..-->..CN+O and C+N/sub 2/O..-->..CN+NO reactions are reinvestigated using a pulsed supersonic crossed molecular beam apparatus. Laser vaporization of graphite at the exit of a pulsed nozzle is used to produce the atomic carbon beam. Laser induced fluorescence spectra of the CN scattered product have been obtained for both reactions.

  6. Evaluating the double parton scattering contribution to Mueller-Navelet jets production at the LHC

    E-print Network

    Ducloué, B; Wallon, S

    2015-01-01

    We propose a model to study the importance of double parton scattering (DPS) in Mueller-Navelet jets production at the LHC which is consistent with the BFKL framework used to compute the single parton scattering contribution to this process. We study this model in kinematics corresponding to existing and possible future measurements at the LHC and estimate the importance of this DPS contribution on relevant observables for this process, namely the cross section and the azimuthal correlation of the jets.

  7. Feedback between p21 and reactive oxygen production is necessary for cell senescence

    PubMed Central

    Passos, João F; Nelson, Glyn; Wang, Chunfang; Richter, Torsten; Simillion, Cedric; Proctor, Carole J; Miwa, Satomi; Olijslagers, Sharon; Hallinan, Jennifer; Wipat, Anil; Saretzki, Gabriele; Rudolph, Karl Lenhard; Kirkwood, Tom B L; von Zglinicki, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Cellular senescence—the permanent arrest of cycling in normally proliferating cells such as fibroblasts—contributes both to age-related loss of mammalian tissue homeostasis and acts as a tumour suppressor mechanism. The pathways leading to establishment of senescence are proving to be more complex than was previously envisaged. Combining in-silico interactome analysis and functional target gene inhibition, stochastic modelling and live cell microscopy, we show here that there exists a dynamic feedback loop that is triggered by a DNA damage response (DDR) and, which after a delay of several days, locks the cell into an actively maintained state of ‘deep' cellular senescence. The essential feature of the loop is that long-term activation of the checkpoint gene CDKN1A (p21) induces mitochondrial dysfunction and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through serial signalling through GADD45-MAPK14(p38MAPK)-GRB2-TGFBR2-TGF?. These ROS in turn replenish short-lived DNA damage foci and maintain an ongoing DDR. We show that this loop is both necessary and sufficient for the stability of growth arrest during the establishment of the senescent phenotype. PMID:20160708

  8. Reactive Oxygen Species Production and Brugia pahangi Survivorship in Aedes polynesiensis with Artificial Wolbachia Infection Types

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Elizabeth S.; Crain, Philip R.; Fu, Yuqing; Howe, Daniel K.; Dobson, Stephen L.

    2012-01-01

    Heterologous transinfection with the endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia has been shown previously to induce pathogen interference phenotypes in mosquito hosts. Here we examine an artificially infected strain of Aedes polynesiensis, the primary vector of Wuchereria bancrofti, which is the causative agent of Lymphatic filariasis (LF) throughout much of the South Pacific. Embryonic microinjection was used to transfer the wAlbB infection from Aedes albopictus into an aposymbiotic strain of Ae. polynesiensis. The resulting strain (designated “MTB”) experiences a stable artificial infection with high maternal inheritance. Reciprocal crosses of MTB with naturally infected wild-type Ae. polynesiensis demonstrate strong bidirectional incompatibility. Levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the MTB strain differ significantly relative to that of the wild-type, indicating an impaired ability to regulate oxidative stress. Following a challenge with Brugia pahangi, the number of filarial worms achieving the infective stage is significantly reduced in MTB as compared to the naturally infected and aposymbiotic strains. Survivorship of MTB differed significantly from that of the wild-type, with an interactive effect between survivorship and blood feeding. The results demonstrate a direct correlation between decreased ROS levels and decreased survival of adult female Aedes polynesiensis. The results are discussed in relation to the interaction of Wolbachia with ROS production and antioxidant expression, iron homeostasis and the insect immune system. We discuss the potential applied use of the MTB strain for impacting Ae. polynesiensis populations and strategies for reducing LF incidence in the South Pacific. PMID:23236284

  9. Concurrent detection of secreted products from human lymphocytes by microengraving: cytokines and antigen-reactive antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw, Elizabeth M.; Kent, Sally C.; Tripuraneni, Vinay; Orban, Tihamer; Ploegh, Hidde L.; Hafler, David A.; Love, J. Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Cell surface determinants, cytokines and antibodies secreted by hematopoietic cells are used to classify their lineage and function. Currently available techniques are unable to elucidate multiple secreted proteins while also assigning phenotypic surface-displayed markers to the individual living cells. Here, a soft lithographic method, microengraving, was adapted for the multiplexed interrogation of populations of individual human peripheral blood mononuclear cells for secreted cytokines (IFN-? and IL-6), antigen-specific antibodies, and lineage-specific surface-expressed markers. Application of the method to a clinical sample from a recent onset Type 1 diabetic subject with a positive titer of anti-insulin antibodies showed that ~0.58% of circulating CD19+ B cells secreted proinsulin-reactive antibodies of the IgG isotype and 2–3% of circulating cells secreted IL-6. These data demonstrate the utility of microengraving for interrogating multiple phenotypes of single human cells concurrently and for detecting rare populations of cells by their secreted products. PMID:18675591

  10. Mitochondrial Respiratory Supercomplex Association Limits Production of Reactive Oxygen Species from Complex I

    PubMed Central

    Maranzana, Evelina; Barbero, Giovanna; Falasca, Anna Ida; Lenaz, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aims: The mitochondrial respiratory chain is recognized today to be arranged in supramolecular assemblies (supercomplexes). Besides conferring a kinetic advantage (substrate channeling) and being required for the assembly and stability of Complex I, indirect considerations support the view that supercomplexes may also prevent excessive formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from the respiratory chain. In the present study, we have directly addressed this issue by testing the ROS generation by Complex I in two experimental systems in which the supramolecular organization of the respiratory assemblies is impaired by: (i) treatment either of bovine heart mitochondria or liposome-reconstituted supercomplex I-III with dodecyl maltoside; (ii) reconstitution of Complexes I and III at high phospholipids to protein ratio. Results: The results of our investigation provide experimental evidence that the production of ROS is strongly increased in either model, supporting the view that disruption or prevention of the association between Complex I and Complex III by different means enhances the generation of superoxide from Complex I. Innovation: Dissociation of supercomplexes may link oxidative stress and energy failure in a vicious circle. Conclusion: Our findings support a central role of mitochondrial supramolecular structure in the development of the aging process and in the etiology and pathogenesis of most major chronic diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 1469–1480. PMID:23581604

  11. Ultraviolet irradiation induces autofluorescence enhancement via production of reactive oxygen species and photodecomposition in erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Xian [The Key Laboratory of Weak-Light Nonlinear Photonics, Ministry of Education, TEDA Applied Physics School and School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300457 (China)] [The Key Laboratory of Weak-Light Nonlinear Photonics, Ministry of Education, TEDA Applied Physics School and School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300457 (China); Pan, Leiting, E-mail: plt@nankai.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Weak-Light Nonlinear Photonics, Ministry of Education, TEDA Applied Physics School and School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300457 (China)] [The Key Laboratory of Weak-Light Nonlinear Photonics, Ministry of Education, TEDA Applied Physics School and School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300457 (China); Wang, Zhenhua; Liu, Xiaoli; Zhao, Dan; Zhang, Xinzheng; Rupp, Romano A. [The Key Laboratory of Weak-Light Nonlinear Photonics, Ministry of Education, TEDA Applied Physics School and School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300457 (China)] [The Key Laboratory of Weak-Light Nonlinear Photonics, Ministry of Education, TEDA Applied Physics School and School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300457 (China); Xu, Jingjun, E-mail: jjxu@nankai.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Weak-Light Nonlinear Photonics, Ministry of Education, TEDA Applied Physics School and School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300457 (China)] [The Key Laboratory of Weak-Light Nonlinear Photonics, Ministry of Education, TEDA Applied Physics School and School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300457 (China)

    2010-06-11

    Ultraviolet (UV) light has a significant influence on human health. In this study, human erythrocytes were exposed to UV light to investigate the effects of UV irradiation (UVI) on autofluorescence. Our results showed that high-dose continuous UVI enhanced erythrocyte autofluorescence, whereas low-dose pulsed UVI alone did not have this effect. Further, we found that H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, one type of reactive oxygen species (ROS), accelerated autofluorescence enhancement under both continuous and pulsed UVI. In contrast, continuous and pulsed visible light did not result in erythrocyte autofluorescence enhancement in the presence or absence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Moreover, NAD(P)H had little effect on UVI-induced autofluorescence enhancement. From these studies, we conclude that UVI-induced erythrocyte autofluorescence enhancement via both UVI-dependent ROS production and photodecomposition. Finally, we present a theoretical study of this autofluorescence enhancement using a rate equation model. Notably, the results of this theoretical simulation agree well with the experimental data further supporting our conclusion that UVI plays two roles in the autofluorescence enhancement process.

  12. Reactive oxygen species production in mitochondria of human gingival fibroblast induced by blue light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Ayaka; Yoshino, Fumihiko; Makita, Tetsuya; Maehata, Yojiro; Higashi, Kazuyoshi; Miyamoto, Chihiro; Wada-Takahashi, Satoko; Takahashi, Shun-suke; Takahashi, Osamu; Lee, Masaichi Chang-il

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, it has become well known that the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by blue-light irradiation causes adverse effects of photo-aging, such as age-related macular degeneration of the retina. Thus, orange-tinted glasses are used to protect the retina during dental treatment involving blue-light irradiation (e.g., dental resin restorations or tooth bleaching treatments). However, there are few studies examining the effects of blue-light irradiation on oral tissue. For the first time, we report that blue-light irradiation by quartz tungsten halogen lamp (QTH) or light-emitting diode (LED) decreased cell proliferation activity of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) in a time-dependent manner (<5 min). Additionally, in a morphological study, the cytotoxic effect was observed in the cell organelles, especially the mitochondria. Furthermore, ROS generation induced by the blue-light irradiation was detected in mitochondria of HGFs using fluorimetry. In all analyses, the cytotoxicity was significantly higher after LED irradiation compared with cytotoxicity after QTH irradiation. These results suggest that blue light irradiation, especially by LED light sources used in dental aesthetic treatment, might have adverse effects on human gingival tissue. Hence, this necessitates the development of new dental aesthetic treatment methods and/or techniques to protect HGFs from blue light irradiation during dental therapy. PMID:24141287

  13. Benchmark studies of the Bending Corrected Rotating Linear Model (BCRLM) reactive scattering code: Implications for accurate quantum calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, E.F.; Darakjian, Z. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX (USA). Dept. of Chemistry); Walker, R.B. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The Bending Corrected Rotating Linear Model (BCRLM), developed by Hayes and Walker, is a simple approximation to the true multidimensional scattering problem for reaction of the type: A + BC {yields} AB + C. While the BCRLM method is simpler than methods designed to obtain accurate three dimensional quantum scattering results, this turns out to be a major advantage in terms of our benchmarking studies. The computer code used to obtain BCRLM scattering results is written for the most part in standard FORTRAN and has been reported to several scalar, vector, and parallel architecture computers including the IBM 3090-600J, the Cray XMP and YMP, the Ardent Titan, IBM RISC System/6000, Convex C-1 and the MIPS 2000. Benchmark results will be reported for each of these machines with an emphasis on comparing the scalar, vector, and parallel performance for the standard code with minimum modifications. Detailed analysis of the mapping of the BCRLM approach onto both shared and distributed memory parallel architecture machines indicates the importance of introducing several key changes in the basic strategy and algorithums used to calculate scattering results. This analysis of the BCRLM approach provides some insights into optimal strategies for mapping three dimensional quantum scattering methods, such as the Parker-Pack method, onto shared or distributed memory parallel computers.

  14. Non-thermal Plasma Induces Apoptosis in Melanoma Cells via Production of Intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species

    PubMed Central

    Sensenig, Rachel; Kalghatgi, Sameer; Cerchar, Ekaterina; Fridman, Gregory; Shereshevsky, Alexey; Torabi, Behzad; Arjunan, Krishna Priya; Podolsky, Erica; Fridman, Alexander; Friedman, Gary; Azizkhan-Clifford, Jane; Brooks, Ari D.

    2012-01-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma may provide a novel approach to treat malignancies via induction of apoptosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of DBD plasma to induce apoptosis in melanoma cells. Melanoma cells were exposed to plasma at doses that did not induce necrosis, and cell viability and apoptotic activity were evaluated by Trypan blue exclusion test, Annexin-V/PI staining, caspase-3 cleavage, and TUNEL® analysis. Trypan blue staining revealed that non-thermal plasma treatment significantly decreased the viability of cells in a dose-dependent manner 3 and 24 h after plasma treatment. Annexin-V/PI staining revealed a significant increase in apoptosis in plasma-treated cells at 24, 48, and 72 h post-treatment (p<0.001). Caspase-3 cleavage was observed 48 h post-plasma treatment at a dose of 15 J/cm2. TUNEL® analysis of plasma-treated cells demonstrated an increase in apoptosis at 48 and 72 h post-treatment (p<0.001) at a dose of 15 J/cm2. Pre-treatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), an intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, significantly decreased apoptosis in plasma-treated cells at 5 and 15 J/cm2. Plasma treatment induces apoptosis in melanoma cells through a pathway that appears to be dependent on production of intracellular ROS. DBD plasma production of intracellular ROS leads to dose-dependent DNA damage in melanoma cells, detected by ?-H2AX, which was completely abrogated by pre-treating cells with ROS scavenger, NAC. Plasma-induced DNA damage in turn may lead to the observed plasma-induced apoptosis. Since plasma is non-thermal, it may be used to selectively treat malignancies. PMID:21046465

  15. Regulation of soybean seed germination through ethylene production in response to reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Ishibashi, Yushi; Koda, Yuka; Zheng, Shao-Hui; Yuasa, Takashi; Iwaya-Inoue, Mari

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite their toxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in plant cell signalling pathways, such as mediating responses to stress or infection and in programmed cell death, at lower levels. Although studies have indicated that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) promotes seed germination of several plants such as Arabidopsis, barley, wheat, rice and sunflower, the role of H2O2 in soybean seed germination is not well known. The aim of this study therefore was to investigate the relationships between ROS, plant hormones and soybean seed germination. Methods An examination was made of soybean seed germination, the expression of genes related to ethylene biosynthesis, endogenous ethylene contents, and the number and area of cells in the root tip, using N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant, to counteract the effect of ROS. Key Results H2O2 promoted germination, which N-acetylcysteine suppressed, suggesting that ROS are involved in the regulation of soybean germination. H2O2 was produced in the embryonic axis after imbibition. N-Acetylcysteine suppressed the expression of genes related to ethylene biosynthesis and the production of endogenous ethylene. Interestingly, ethephon, which is converted to ethylene, and H2O2 reversed the suppression of seed germination by N-acetylcysteine. Furthermore, morphological analysis revealed that N-acetylcysteine suppressed cell elongation at the root tip, and this suppression was also reversed by ethephon or H2O2 treatments, as was the case in germination. Conclusions In soybean seeds, ROS produced in the embryonic axis after imbibition induce the production of endogenous ethylene, which promotes cell elongation in the root tip. This appears to be how ROS regulate soybean seed germination. PMID:23131300

  16. The use of reactive ion sputtering to produce clean germanium surfaces in a carbon rich environment -- An ion scattering study

    SciTech Connect

    Smentkowski, V.S.; Krauss, A.R.; Gruen, D.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Materials Science and Chemistry Div.; Holecek, J.C.; Schultz, J.A. [Ionwerks, Houston, TX (United States)

    1997-10-07

    The authors have used the ion spectroscopic techniques of direct recoil spectroscopy (DRS) and mass spectroscopy of recoiled ions (MSRI) to demonstrate that low energy reactive ion sputtering of Ge is capable of removing surface impurities such as carbon. The experiments were performed in a vacuum chamber maintained at 3.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} Torr. At these pressures, physical sputtering using noble gas is not effective for cleaning Ge surfaces as carbon re-deposits onto the surface. In this paper, the authors demonstrate that reactive sputtering of Ge using 4.0 keV nitrogen at a Ge surface temperature of {approximately} 740 K and above removes surface carbon and deposits nitrogen on the Ge surface. Heating the nitrogen exposed Ge surface to above {approximately} 880 K results in the desorption of nitrogen and generates an atomically clean Ge surface, under poor vacuum conditions.

  17. HIV antiretroviral drug combination induces endothelial mitochondrial dysfunction and reactive oxygen species production, but not apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Bo; Hebert, Valeria Y. [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 1501 Kings Highway, Shreveport, LA 71103 (United States); Li, Yuchi [Cardiopulmonary Research Institute, Winthrop University Hospital, State University of New York at Stony Brook School of Medicine, Mineola, NY 11501 (United States); Mathis, J. Michael [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 1501 Kings Highway, Shreveport, LA 71103 (United States); Alexander, J. Steven [Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 1501 Kings Highway, Shreveport, LA 71103 (United States); Dugas, Tammy R. [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 1501 Kings Highway, Shreveport, LA 71103 (United States)], E-mail: tdugas@lsuhsc.edu

    2007-10-01

    Numerous reports now indicate that HIV patients administered long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) are at a greater risk for developing cardiovascular diseases. Endothelial dysfunction is an initiating event in atherogenesis and may contribute to HIV-associated atherosclerosis. We previously reported that ART induces direct endothelial dysfunction in rodents. In vitro treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) with ART indicated endothelial mitochondrial dysfunction and a significant increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we determined whether ART-induced endothelial dysfunction is mediated via mitochondria-derived ROS and whether this mitochondrial injury culminates in endothelial cell apoptosis. Two major components of ART combination therapy, a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor and a protease inhibitor, were tested, using AZT and indinavir as representatives for each. Microscopy utilizing fluorescent indicators of ROS and mitochondria demonstrated the mitochondrial localization of ART-induced ROS. MnTBAP, a cell-permeable metalloporphyrin antioxidant, abolished ART-induced ROS production. As a final step in confirming the mitochondrial origin of the ART-induced ROS, HUVEC were transduced with a cytosolic- compared to a mitochondria-targeted catalase. Transduction with the mitochondria-targeted catalase was more effective than cytoplasmic catalase in inhibiting the ROS and 8-isoprostane (8-iso-PGF{sub 2{alpha}}) produced after treatment with either AZT or indinavir. However, both mitochondrial and cytoplasmic catalase attenuated ROS and 8-iso-PGF{sub 2{alpha}} production induced by the combination treatment, suggesting that in this case, the formation of cytoplasmic ROS may also occur, and thus, that the mechanism of toxicity in the combination treatment group may be different compared to treatment with AZT or indinavir alone. Finally, to determine whether ART-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS production culminate in apoptosis, we performed the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), annexin V and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, and caspase-3 activity assays. However, none of these assays showed appreciable levels of ART-induced apoptosis. Our studies thus suggest that in endothelial cells, ART induces mitochondrial dysfunction with a concomitant increase in mitochondria-derived ROS. This compromised mitochondrial function may be one important factor culminating in endothelial dysfunction, without inducing an increase in apoptosis.

  18. Jet production in muon-proton and muon-nuclei scattering at Fermilab-E665

    SciTech Connect

    Salgado, C.W.; E665 Collaboration

    1993-08-01

    Measurements of multi-jet production rates from Muon-Proton Muon- Nuclei scattering at Fermilab-E665 are presented. Jet rates are defined by the JADE clustering algorithm. Rates in Muon-Proton deep-inelastic scattering are compared to perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics (PQCD) and Monte Carlo model predictions. We observe hadronic (2+1)-jet rates which are a factor of two higher than PQCD predictions at the partonic level. Preliminary results from jet production on heavy targets, in the shadowing region, show a suppression of the jet rates as compared to deuterium. The two- forward jet sample present higher suppression as compared to the one-forward jet sample.

  19. Quantum reactive scattering of O({sup 3}P)+H{sub 2} at collision energies up to 4.4 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Gacesa, Marko, E-mail: gacesa@phys.uconn.edu [Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States); Kharchenko, Vasili, E-mail: kharchenko@phys.uconn.edu [Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States); ITAMP, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2014-10-28

    We report the results of quantum scattering calculations for the O({sup 3}P)+H{sub 2} reaction for a range of collision energies from 0.4 to 4.4 eV, important for astrophysical and atmospheric processes. The total and state-to-state reactive cross sections are calculated using a fully quantum time-independent coupled-channel approach on recent potential energy surfaces of {sup 3}A{sup ?} and {sup 3}A{sup ?} symmetry. A larger basis set than in the previous studies was used to ensure single-surface convergence at higher energies. Our results agree well with the published data at lower energies and indicate the breakdown of reduced dimensionality approach at collision energies higher than 1.5 eV. Differential cross sections and momentum transfer cross sections are also reported.

  20. Pro-inflammatory Effects of Bacterial Recombinant Human C-Reactive Protein are Caused by Contamination with Bacterial Products not by C-Reactive Protein Itself

    PubMed Central

    Pepys, Mark B.; Hawkins, Philip N.; Kahan, Melvyn C.; Tennent, Glenys A.; Gallimore, J. Ruth; Graham, David; Sabin, Caroline A.; Zychlinsky, Arturo; de Diego, Juana

    2006-01-01

    Intravenous administration to human volunteers of a commercial preparation of recombinant human C-reactive protein (CRP) produced in E. coli was recently reported in this journal to induce an acute phase response of serum amyloid A protein (SAA) and of CRP itself, and to activate the coagulation system. The authors concluded that CRP is probably a mediator of atherothrombotic disease. Here we confirm that this recombinant CRP preparation was pro-inflammatory both for mouse macrophages in vitro and for mice in vivo, but show that pure natural human CRP had no such activity. Furthermore mice transgenic for human CRP, and expressing it throughout their lives, maintained normal concentrations of their most sensitive endogenous acute phase reactants, SAA and serum amyloid P component (SAP). The patterns of in vitro cytokine induction and of in vivo acute phase stimulation by the recombinant CRP preparation were consistent with contamination by bacterial products, and there was 46.6 EU of apparent endotoxin activity per mg of CRP in the bacterial product, compared to 0.9 EU per mg of our isolated natural human CRP preparation. The absence of any pro-inflammatory activity in natural CRP for macrophages or healthy mice strongly suggests that the in vivo effects of the recombinant preparation observed in humans were due to pro-inflammatory bacterial products and not human CRP. PMID:16254214

  1. Compton Scattering from the Deuteron below Pion-Production Threshold

    E-print Network

    Luke Myers; John Annand; Jason Brudvik; Gerald Feldman; Kevin Fissum; Harald Grießhammer; Kurt Hansen; Seth Henshaw; Lennart Isaksson; Ramsey Jebali; Michael Kovash; Magnus Lundin; Duncan Middleton; Alan Nathan; Bent Schröder; Sean Stave

    2015-03-27

    Differential cross sections for elastic scattering of photons from the deuteron have recently been measured at the Tagged-Photon Facility at the MAX IV Laboratory in Lund, Sweden. These first new measurements in more than a decade further constrain the isoscalar electromagnetic polarizabilities of the nucleon and provide the first-ever results above 100 MeV, where the sensitivity to the polarizabilities is increased. We add 23 points between 70 and 112 MeV, at angles 60deg, 120deg and 150deg. Analysis of these data using a Chiral Effective Field Theory indicates that the cross sections are both self-consistent and consistent with previous measurements. Extracted values of \\alpha_s = [12.1 +/- 0.8(stat) +/- 0.2(BSR) +/- 0.8(th)] X 10^{-4} fm^3 and \\beta_s = [2.4 +/- 0.8(stat) +/- 0.2(BSR) +/- 0.8(th)] X 10^{-4} fm^3 are obtained from a fit to these 23 new data points. This paper presents in detail the experimental conditions and the data analysis used to extract the cross sections.

  2. Rat colonic reactive oxygen species production and DNA damage are mediated by diet and age 

    E-print Network

    Henderson, Cara Aletha Everett

    2001-01-01

    Colon cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer in the United States. Studies suggest that oxidative damage to DNA caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a critical initiating event in carcinogenesis. Rates of colon cancer...

  3. Rat colonic reactive oxygen species production and DNA damage are mediated by diet and age

    E-print Network

    Henderson, Cara Aletha Everett

    2001-01-01

    with increased apoptosis but also elevated ROS levels and DNA fragmentation [7, 11, 30]. Various pro-apoptotic agents, including reactive oxygen species in the correct amounts, could serve as useful anticancer compounds by increasing apoptosis and thus...

  4. Patterns of accumulation of miRNAs encoded by herpes simplex virus during productive infection, latency, and on reactivation

    PubMed Central

    Du, Te; Han, Zhiyuan; Zhou, Grace; Roizman, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    The key events in herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are (i) replication at a portal of entry into the body modeled by infection of cultured cells; (ii) establishment of a latent state characterized by a sole latency-associated transcript and microRNAs (miRNAs) modeled in murine peripheral ganglia 30 d after inoculation; and (iii) reactivation from the latent state modeled by excision and incubation of ganglia in medium containing anti-NGF antibody for a timespan of a single viral replicative cycle. In this report, we examine the pattern of synthesis and accumulation of 18 HSV-1 miRNAs in the three models. We report the following: (i) H2-3P, H3-3P, H4-3P, H5-3P, H6-3P, and H7-5P accumulated in ganglia harboring latent virus. All but H4-3P were readily detected in productively infected cells, and most likely they originate from three transcriptional units. (ii) H8-5P, H15, H17, H18, H26, and H27 accumulated during reactivation. Of this group, only H26 and H27 could be detected in productively infected cells. (iii) Of the 18 we have examined, only 10 miRNAs were found to accumulate above background levels in productively infected cells. The disparity in the accumulation of miRNAs in cell culture and during reactivation may reflect differences in the patterns of regulation of viral gene expression during productive infection and during reactivation from the latent state. PMID:25535379

  5. Potassium-catalyzed steam gasification of petroleum coke for H 2 production: Reactivity, selectivity and gas release

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Youqing Wu; Jianjian Wang; Shiyong Wu; Sheng Huang; Jinsheng Gao

    2011-01-01

    Potassium-catalyzed steam gasification of petroleum coke for H2 production was performed using a laboratory fixed-bed reaction system with an on-line quadruple mass spectrometer. The gasification reactivity, gasification selectivity and gas release for the catalytic gasification were investigated, compared with the non-catalytic gasification. The catalytic gasification could not only effectively promote these reactions (the water–carbon reaction, the water–gas shift reaction and

  6. GABA shunt mediates thermotolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by reducing reactive oxygen production.

    PubMed

    Cao, Juxiang; Barbosa, Jose M; Singh, Narendra K; Locy, Robert D

    2013-04-01

    The GABA shunt pathway involves three enzymes, glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), GABA aminotransferase (GAT) and succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH). These enzymes act in concert to convert glutamate (?-ketoglutarate) to succinate. Deletion mutations in each of these genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in growth defects at 45°C. Double and triple mutation constructs were compared for thermotolerance with the wild-type and single mutant strains. Although wild-type and all mutant strains were highly susceptible to brief heat stress at 50°C, a non-lethal 30 min at 40°C temperature pretreatment induced tolerance of the wild-type and all of the mutants to 50°C. The mutant strains collectively exhibited similar susceptibility at 45°C to the induced 50°C treatments. Intracellular reactive oxygen intermediate (ROI) accumulation was measured in wild-type and each of the mutant strains. ROI accumulation in each of the mutants and in various stress conditions was correlated to heat susceptibility of the mutant strains. The addition of ROI scavenger N-tert-butyl-?-phenylnitrone (PBN) enhanced survival of the mutants and strongly inhibited the accumulation of ROI, but did not have significant effect on the wild-type. Measurement of intracellular GABA, glutamate and ?-ketoglutarate during lethal heat exposure at 45°C showed higher levels of accumulation of GABA and ?-ketoglutarate in the uga1 and uga2 mutants, while glutamate accumulated at higher level in the gad1 mutant. These results suggest that the GABA shunt pathway plays a crucial role in protecting yeast cells from heat damage by restricting ROI production involving the flux of carbon from ?-ketoglutarate to succinate during heat stress. PMID:23447388

  7. NADPH Oxidases: A Perspective on Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Tumor Biology

    PubMed Central

    Meitzler, Jennifer L.; Antony, Smitha; Wu, Yongzhong; Juhasz, Agnes; Liu, Han; Jiang, Guojian; Lu, Jiamo; Roy, Krishnendu

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) promote genomic instability, altered signal transduction, and an environment that can sustain tumor formation and growth. The NOX family of NADPH oxidases, membrane-bound epithelial superoxide and hydrogen peroxide producers, plays a critical role in the maintenance of immune function, cell growth, and apoptosis. The impact of NOX enzymes in carcinogenesis is currently being defined and may directly link chronic inflammation and NOX ROS-mediated tumor formation. Recent Advances: Increased interest in the function of NOX enzymes in tumor biology has spurred a surge of investigative effort to understand the variability of NOX expression levels in tumors and the effect of NOX activity on tumor cell proliferation. These initial efforts have demonstrated a wide variance in NOX distribution and expression levels across numerous cancers as well as in common tumor cell lines, suggesting that much remains to be discovered about the unique role of NOX-related ROS production within each system. Progression from in vitro cell line studies toward in vivo tumor tissue screening and xenograft models has begun to provide evidence supporting the importance of NOX expression in carcinogenesis. Critical Issues: A lack of universally available, isoform-specific antibodies and animal tumor models of inducible knockout or over-expression of NOX isoforms has hindered progress toward the completion of in vivo studies. Future Directions: In vivo validation experiments and the use of large, existing gene expression data sets should help define the best model systems for studying the NOX homologues in the context of cancer. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2873–2889. PMID:24156355

  8. Effects of moderate electrical stimulation on reactive species production by primary rat skeletal muscle cells: cross talk between superoxide and nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Lambertucci, Rafael Herling; Silveira, Leonardo Dos Reis; Hirabara, Sandro Massao; Curi, Rui; Sweeney, Gary; Pithon-Curi, Tania Cristina

    2012-06-01

    The effects of a moderate electrical stimulation on superoxide and nitric oxide production by primary cultured skeletal muscle cells were evaluated. The involvement of the main sites of these reactive species production and the relationship between superoxide and nitric oxide production were also examined. Production of superoxide was evaluated by cytochrome c reduction and dihydroethidium oxidation assays. Electrical stimulation increased superoxide production after 1?h incubation. A xanthine oxidase inhibitor caused a partial decrease of superoxide generation and a significant amount of mitochondria-derived superoxide was also observed. Nitric oxide production was assessed by nitrite measurement and by using 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-2-DA) assay. Using both methods an increased production of nitric oxide was obtained after electrical stimulation, which was also able to induce an increase of iNOS content and NF-?B activation. The participation of superoxide in nitric oxide production was investigated by incubating cells with DAF-2-DA in the presence or absence of electrical stimulation, a superoxide generator system (xanthine-xanthine oxidase), a mixture of NOS inhibitors and SOD-PEG. Our data show that the induction of muscle contraction by a moderate electrical stimulation protocol led to an increased nitric oxide production that can be controlled by superoxide generation. The cross talk between these reactive species likely plays a role in exercise-induced maintenance and adaptation by regulating muscular glucose metabolism, force of contraction, fatigue, and antioxidant systems activities. PMID:21898396

  9. Effects of oxysterols on cell viability, inflammatory cytokines, VEGF and reactive oxygen species production on human retinal cells: cytoprotective effects and prevention of VEGF

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Effects of oxysterols on cell viability, inflammatory cytokines, VEGF and reactive oxygen species production on human retinal cells: cytoprotective effects and prevention of VEGF secretion by resveratrol B cytokines; oxysterols; phospholipidosis; resveratrol; reactive oxygen species; VEGF. hal-00514897,version1

  10. Chemical Characterization and Reactivity Testing of Fuel-Oxidizer Reaction Product (Test Report)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The product of incomplete reaction of monomethylhydrazine (MMH) and nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) propellants, or fuel-oxidizer reaction product (FORP), has been hypothesized as a contributory cause of an anomaly which occurred in the chamber pressure (PC) transducer tube on the Reaction Control Subsystem (RCS) aft thruster 467 on flight STS-51. A small hole was found in the titanium-alloy PC tube at the first bend below the pressure transducer. It was surmised that the hole may have been caused by heat and pressure resulting from ignition of FORP. The NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) was requested to define the chemical characteristics of FORP, characterize its reactivity, and simulate the events in a controlled environment which may have lead to the Pc-tube failure. Samples of FORP were obtained from the gas-phase reaction of MMH with NTO under laboratory conditions, the pulsed firings of RCS thrusters with modified PC tubes using varied oxidizer or fuel lead times, and the nominal RCS thruster firings at WSTF and Kaiser-Marquardt. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC), ion chromatography (IC), inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometry, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) coupled to FTIR (TGA/FTIR), and mechanical impact testing were used to qualitatively and quantitatively characterize the chemical, thermal, and ignition properties of FORP. These studies showed that the composition of FORP is variable but falls within a limited range of compositions that depends on the fuel loxidizer ratio at the time of formation, composition of the post-formation atmosphere (reducing or oxidizing), and reaction or postreaction temperature. A typical composition contains methylhydrazinium nitrate (MMHN), ammonium nitrate (AN), methylammonium nitrate (MAN), and trace amounts of hydrazinium nitrate and 1,1-dimethylhydrazinium nitrate. The thermal decomposition reactions of FORP compositions used in this study were unremarkable, Neither the various compositions of FORP, the pure major components of FORP, nor mixtures of FORP with propellant-system corrosion products showed any unusual thermal activity when decomposed under laboratory conditions. Off-limit thruster operations were simulated by rapid mixing of liquid MMH and liquid NTO in a confined space. The test hardware was constructed with pressure- and temperature-measurement devices to determine if the expected fuel oxidizer reaction would result in increased energy release when FORP, FORP constituents, or propellant-system corrosion products were present. These tests demonstrated that FORP, MMHN, AN, or Inconel corrosion products can induce a mixture of MMH and NTO to produce component-damaging energies. The simulation-test program was not extensive enough to provide statistical probabilities for these events but did show that such events can occur. Damaging events required FORP or metal salts to be present at the initial mixing of MMH and NTO. Based on the results of these studies, it is suggested that removal or mitigation of a buildup of these materials may decrease the incidence of these high-energy, potentially damaging events.

  11. Muon production in low-energy electron-nucleon and electron-nucleus scattering

    E-print Network

    Prashanth Jaikumar; Daniel R. Phillips; Lucas Platter; Madappa Prakash

    2007-11-30

    Recently, muon production in electron-proton scattering has been suggested as a possible candidate reaction for the identification of lepton-flavor violation due to physics beyond the Standard Model. Here we point out that the Standard-Model processes $e^- p \\to \\mu^- p \\bar{\

  12. Impact of atmospheric aerosol light scattering and absorption on terrestrial net primary productivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel S. Cohan; Jin Xu; Roby Greenwald; Michael H. Bergin; William L. Chameides

    2002-01-01

    Scattering and absorption of sunlight by anthropogenic aerosols reduce the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) incident upon the Earth's surface, but increase the fraction of the PAR that is diffuse. These alterations to irradiance may elicit conflicting responses in terrestrial plants: photosynthesis and net primary productivity (NPP) are slowed by reductions in total PAR, but enhanced by increases in diffuse PAR.

  13. Measurement of diffractive production of D ?±(2010) mesons in deep-inelastic scattering at HERA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Bhadra; C. D. Catterall; S. Fourletov; S. Magill; M. Soares; J. Standage; R. Yoshida; M. C. K. Mattingly; P. Antonioli; G. Bari; M. Basile; L. Bellagamba; D. Boscherini; A. Bruni; G. Bruni; G. Cara Romeo; L. Cifarelli; F. Cindolo; A. Contin; M. Corradi; S. de Pasquale; P. Giusti; G. Iacobucci; A. Margotti; R. Nania; F. Palmonari; A. Pesci; G. Sartorelli; A. Zichichi; G. Aghuzumtsyan; D. Bartsch; I. Brock; J. Crittenden; S. Goers; H. Hartmann; E. Hilger; P. Irrgang; H.-P. Jakob; A. Kappes; U. F. Katz; R. Kerger; O. Kind; E. Paul; J. Rautenberg; R. Renner; H. Schnurbusch; A. Stifutkin; J. Tandler; K. C. Voss; A. Weber; D. S. Bailey; N. H. Brook; J. E. Cole; B. Foster; G. P. Heath; H. F. Heath; S. Robins; E. Rodrigues; J. Scott; R. J. Tapper; M. Wing; M. Capua; A. Mastroberardino; M. Schioppa; G. Susinno; J. Y. Kim; Y. K. Kim; J. H. Lee; I. T. Lim; M. Y. Pac; A. Caldwell; M. Helbich; X. Liu; B. Mellado; S. Paganis; W. B. Schmidke; F. Sciulli; J. Chwastowski; A. Eskreys; J. Figiel; K. Olkiewicz; K. Piotrzkowski; M. Przybycien; P. Stopa; L. Zawiejski; L. Adamczyk; B. Bednarek; I. Grabowska-Bold; K. Jelen; D. Kisielewska; A. M. Kowal; M. Kowal; T. Kowalski; B. Mindur; E. Rulikowska-Zarebska; L. Suszycki; D. Szuba; J. Szuba; A. Kotanski; W. Slominski; L. A. T. Bauerdick; U. Behrens; K. Borras; V. Chiochia; D. Dannheim; M. Derrick; G. Drews; J. Fourletova; A. Fox-Murphy; U. Fricke; A. Geiser; F. Goebel; P. Göttlicher; O. Gutsche; T. Haas; W. Hain; G. F. Hartner; S. Hillert; U. Kötz; H. Kowalski; H. Labes; D. Lelas; B. Löhr; R. Mankel; M. Martínez; M. Moritz; D. Notz; I.-A. Pellmann; M. C. Petrucci; A. Polini; A. Raval; U. Schneekloth; F. Selonke; B. Surrow; H. Wessoleck; R. Wichmann; G. Wolf; C. Youngman; W. Zeuner; A. Lopez-Duran Viani; A. Meyer; S. Schlenstedt; G. Barbagli; E. Gallo; C. Genta; P. G. Pelfer; A. Bamberger; A. Benen; N. Coppola; H. Raach; M. Bell; P. J. Bussey; A. T. Doyle; C. Glasman; S. Hanlon; S. W. Lee; A. Lupi; G. J. McCance; D. H. Saxon; I. O. Skillicorn; I. Gialas; B. Bodmann; T. Carli; U. Holm; K. Klimek; N. Krumnack; E. Lohrmann; M. Milite; H. Salehi; S. Stonjek; K. Wick; A. Ziegler; C. Collins-Tooth; C. Foudas; R. Gonçalo; K. R. Long; F. Metlica; D. B. Miller; A. D. Tapper; R. Walker; P. Cloth; D. Filges; M. Kuze; K. Nagano; K. Tokushuku; S. Yamada; Y. Yamazaki; A. N. Barakbaev; E. G. Boos; N. S. Pokrovskiy; B. O. Zhautykov; H. Lim; D. Son; F. Barreiro; O. González; L. Labarga; J. del Peso; I. Redondo; J. Terrón; M. Vázquez; M. Barbi; A. Bertolin; F. Corriveau; A. Ochs; S. Padhi; D. G. Stairs; M. St-Laurent; T. Tsurugai; A. Antonov; V. Bashkirov; P. Danilov; B. A. Dolgoshein; D. Gladkov; V. Sosnovtsev; S. Suchkov; R. K. Dementiev; P. F. Ermolov; Yu. A. Golubkov; I. I. Katkov; L. A. Khein; I. A. Korzhavina; V. A. Kuzmin; B. B. Levchenko; O. Yu. Lukina; A. S. Proskuryakov; L. M. Shcheglova; N. N. Vlasov; S. A. Zotkin; C. Bokel; J. Engelen; S. Grijpink; E. Koffeman; P. Kooijman; E. Maddox; A. Pellegrino; S. Schagen; E. Tassi; H. Tiecke; N. Tuning; J. J. Velthuis; L. Wiggers; E. de Wolf; N. Brümmer; B. Bylsma; L. S. Durkin; J. Gilmore; C. M. Ginsburg; C. L. Kim; T. Y. Ling; S. Boogert; A. M. Cooper-Sarkar; R. C. E. Devenish; J. Ferrando; G. Grzelak; T. Matsushita; M. Rigby; O. Ruske; M. R. Sutton; R. Walczak; R. Brugnera; R. Carlin; F. dal Corso; S. Dusini; A. Garfagnini; S. Limentani; A. Longhin; A. Parenti; M. Posocco; L. Stanco; M. Turcato; E. A. Heaphy; B. Y. Oh; P. R. B. Saull; J. J. Whitmore; Y. Iga; G. D'Agostini; G. Marini; A. Nigro; C. Cormack; J. C. Hart; N. A. McCubbin; C. Heusch; I. H. Park; N. Pavel; H. Abramowicz; S. Dagan; A. Gabareen; S. Kananov; A. Kreisel; A. Levy; T. Abe; T. Fusayasu; T. Kohno; K. Umemori; T. Yamashita; R. Hamatsu; T. Hirose; M. Inuzuka; S. Kitamura; K. Matsuzawa; T. Nishimura; M. Arneodo; N. Cartiglia; R. Cirio; M. Costa; M. I. Ferrero; S. Maselli; V. Monaco; C. Peroni; M. Ruspa; R. Sacchi; A. Solano; A. Staiano; R. Galea; T. Koop; G. M. Levman; J. F. Martin; A. Mirea; A. Sabetfakhri; J. M. Butterworth; C. Gwenlan; R. Hall-Wilton; T. W. Jones; M. S. Lightwood; J. H. Loizides; B. J. West; J. Ciborowski; R. Ciesielski; R. J. Nowak; J. M. Pawlak; B. Smalska; J. Sztuk; T. Tymieniecka; A. Ukleja; J. Ukleja; J. A. Zakrzewski; A. F. Zarnecki; M. Adamus; P. Plucinski; Y. Eisenberg; L. K. Gladilin; D. Hochman; U. Karshon; D. Kçira; S. Lammers; L. Li; D. D. Reeder; A. A. Savin; W. H. Smith; A. Deshpande; S. Dhawan; V. W. Hughes; P. B. Straub; S. Menary

    2002-01-01

    Diffractive production of D?±(2010) mesons in deep inelastic scattering has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 44.3pb?1. Diffractive charm production is identified by the presence of a large rapidity gap in the final state of events in which a D?±(2010) meson is reconstructed in the decay channel D?+?(D0?K??+)?+s (+ charge conjugate). Differential cross sections

  14. Inclusive D 0 and D * ± production in neutral current deep inelastic ep scattering at HERA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Adloff; S. Aid; M. Anderson; V. Andreev; B. Andrieu; R.-D. Appuhn; C. Arndt; A. Babaev; J. Bähr; J. Bán; Y. Ban; P. Baranov; E. Barrelet; R. Barschke; W. Bartel; M. Barth; U. Bassler; H. P. Beck; H.-J. Behrend; A. Belousov; Ch. Berger; G. Bernardi; G. Bertrand-Coremans; M. Besançon; R. Beyer; P. Biddulph; P. Bispham; J. C. Bizot; V. Blobel; K. Borras; F. Botterweck; V. Boudry; A. Braemer; W. Braunschweig; V. Brisson; P. Bruel; D. Bruncko; C. Brune; R. Buchholz; L. Büngener; J. Bürger; F. W. Büsser; A. Buniatian; S. Burke; M. J. Burton; D. Calvet; A. J. Campbell; T. Carli; M. Charlet; D. Clarke; A. B. Clegg; B. Clerbaux; S. Cocks; J. G. Contreras; C. Cormack; J. A. Coughlan; A. Courau; M.-C. Cousinou; G. Cozzika; L. Criegee; D. G. Cussans; J. Cvach; S. Dagoret; J. B. Dainton; W. D. Dau; K. Daum; M. David; C. L. Davis; B. Delcourt; A. De Roeck; E. A. De Wolf; M. Dirkmann; P. Dixon; P. Di Nezza; W. Dlugosz; C. Dollfus; J. D. Dowell; H. B. Dreis; A. Droutskoi; O. Dünger; H. Duhm; J. Ebert; T. R. Ebert; G. Eckerlin; V. Efremenko; S. Egli; R. Eichler; F. Eisele; E. Eisenhandler; E. Elsen; M. Erdmann; W. Erdmann; E. Evrard; A. B. Fahr; L. Favart; A. Fedotov; D. Feeken; R. Felst; J. Feltesse; J. Ferencei; F. Ferrarotto; K. Flamm; M. Fleischer; M. Flieser; G. Flügge; A. Fomenko; B. Fominykh; J. Formánek; J. M. Foster; G. Franke; E. Fretwurst; E. Gabathuler; K. Gabathuler; F. Gaede; J. Garvey; J. Gayler; M. Gebauer; H. Genzel; R. Gerhards; A. Glazov; U. Goerlach; L. Goerlich; N. Gogitidze; M. Goldberg; D. Goldner; K. Golec-Biernat; B. Gonzalez-Pineiro; I. Gorelov; C. Grab; H. Grässler; T. Greenshaw; R. K. Griffiths; G. Grindhammer; A. Gruber; C. Gruber; J. Haack; T. Hadig; D. Haidt; L. Hajduk; M. Hampel; W. J. Haynes; G. Heinzelmann; R. C. W. Henderson; H. Henschel; I. Herynek; M. F. Hess; K. Hewitt; W. Hildesheim; K. H. Hiller; C. D. Hilton; J. Hladký; K. C. Hoeger; M. Höppner; D. Hoffmann; T. Holtom; R. Horisberger; V. L. Hudgson; M. Hütte; M. Ibbotson; H. Itterbeck; A. Jacholkowska; C. Jacobsson; M. Jaffre; J. Janoth; T. Jansen; L. Jönsson; D. P. Johnson; H. Jung; P. I. P. Kalmus; M. Kander; D. Kant; R. Kaschowitz; U. Kathage; J. Katzy; H. H. Kaufmann; O. Kaufmann; M. Kausch; S. Kazarian; I. R. Kenyon; S. Kermiche; C. Keuker; C. Kiesling; M. Klein; C. Kleinwort; G. Knies; T. Köhler; J. H. Köhne; H. Kolanoski; F. Kole; S. D. Kolya; V. Korbel; M. Korn; P. Kostka; S. K. Kotelnikov; T. Krämerkämper; M. W. Krasny; H. Krehbiel; D. Krücker; A. Küpper; H. Küster; M. Kuhlen; T. Kur?a; J. Kurzhöfer; D. Lacour; B. Laforge; R. Lander; M. P. J. Landon; W. Lange; U. Langenegger; J.-F. Laporte; A. Lebedev; F. Lehner; S. Levonian; G. Lindström; M. Lindstroem; J. Link; F. Linsel; J. Lipinski; B. List; G. Lobo; P. Loch; J. W. Lomas; G. C. Lopez; V. Lubimov; D. Lüke; N. Magnussen; E. Malinovski; S. Mani; R. Mara?ek; P. Marage; J. Marks; R. Marshall; J. Martens; G. Martin; R. Martin; H.-U. Martyn; J. Martyniak; T. Mavroidis; S. J. Maxfield; S. J. McMahon; A. Mehta; K. Meier; A. Meyer; H. Meyer; J. Meyer; P.-O. Meyer; A. Migliori; S. Mikocki; D. Milstead; J. Moeck; F. Moreau; J. V. Morris; E. Mroczko; D. Müller; G. Müller; K. Müller; P. Murín; V. Nagovizin; R. Nahnhauer; B. Naroska; Th. Naumann; I. Négri; P. R. Newman; D. Newton; H. K. Nguyen; T. C. Nicholls; F. Niebergall; C. Niebuhr; Ch. Niedzballa; H. Niggli; R. Nisius; G. Nowak; G. W. Noyes; M. Nyberg-Werther; M. Oakden; H. Oberlack; J. E. Olsson; D. Ozerov; P. Palmen; E. Panaro; A. Panitch; C. Pascaud; G. D. Patel; H. Pawletta; E. Peppel; E. Perez; J. P. Phillips; A. Pieuchot; D. Pitzl; G. Pope; S. Prell; K. Rabbertz; G. Rädel; P. Reimer; S. Reinshagen; H. Rick; V. Riech; J. Riedlberger; F. Riepenhausen; S. Riess; E. Rizvi; S. M. Robertson; P. Robmann; H. E. Roloff; R. Roosen; K. Rosenbauer; A. Rostovtsev; F. Rouse; C. Royon; K. Rüter; S. Rusakov; K. Rybicki; D. P. C. Sankey; P. Schacht; S. Schiek; S. Schleif; P. Schleper; W. von Schlippe; D. Schmidt; G. Schmidt; A. Schöning; V. Schröder; E. Schuhmann; B. Schwab; F. Sefkow; M. Seidel; R. Sell; A. Semenov; V. Shekelyan; I. Sheviakov; L. N. Shtarkov; G. Siegmon; U. Siewert; Y. Sirois; I. O. Skillicorn; P. Smirnov; J. R. Smith; V. Solochenko; Y. Soloviev; A. Specka; J. Spiekermann; S. Spielman; H. Spitzer; F. Squinabol; M. Steenbock; P. Steffen; R. Steinberg; H. Steiner; J. Steinhart; B. Stella; A. Stellberger; J. Stier; J. Stiewe; U. Stößlein; K. Stolze; U. Straumann; W. Struczinski; J. P. Sutton; S. Tapprogge; M. Taševský; V. Tchernyshov; S. Tchetchelnitski; Tchetchelnitski J. Theissen; C. Thiebaux; G. Thompson; P. Truöl; K. Tzamariudaki; G. Tsipolitis; J. Turnau; J. Tutas; P. Uelkes; A. Usik; S. Valkár; A. Valkárová; C. Vallée; D. Vandenplas; P. Van Esch; P. Van Mechelen; Y. Vazdik; P. Verrecchia; G. Villet; K. Wacker; A. Wagener; M. Wagener

    1996-01-01

    First results on inclusive$$\\\\mathop {D^0 }\\\\limits^{( - )} $$ andD*± production in neutral current deep inelasticep scattering are reported using data collected by the H1 experiment at HERA in 1994. Differential cross sections are presented\\u000a for both channels and are found to agree well with QCD predictions based on the boson gluon fusion process. A charm production\\u000a cross section for

  15. Strangeness production in deep-inelastic positron-proton scattering at HERA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Aid; M. Anderson; V. Andreev; B. Andrieu; R.-D. Appuhn; A. Babaev; J. Bähr; J. Bán; Y. Ban; P. Baranov; E. Barrelet; R. Barschke; W. Bartel; M. Barth; U. Bassler; H.-J. Behrend; A. Belousov; Ch. Berger; G. Bernardi; G. Bertrand-Coremans; M. Besançon; R. Beyer; P. Biddulph; P. Bispham; J. C. Bizot; V. Blobel; K. Borras; F. Botterweck; V. Boudry; A. Braemer; W. Braunschweig; V. Brisson; P. Bruel; D. Bruncko; C. Brune; R. Buchholz; L. Büngener; J. Bürger; F. W. Büsser; A. Buniatian; S. Burke; M. J. Burton; D. Calvet; A. J. Campbell; T. Carli; M. Charlet; D. Clarke; A. B. Clegg; B. Clerbaux; S. Cocks; J. G. Contreras; C. Cormack; J. A. Coughlan; A. Courau; M.-C. Cousinou; G. Cozzika; L. Criegee; D. G. Cussans; J. Cvach; S. Dagoret; J. B. Dainton; W. D. Dau; K. Daum; M. David; C. L. Davis; A. De Roeck; E. A. De Wolf; B. Delcourt; P. Di Nezza; M. Dirkmann; P. Dixon; W. Dlugosz; C. Dollfus; J. D. Dowell; H. B. Dreis; A. Droutskoi; O. Dünger; H. Duhm; J. Ebert; T. R. Ebert; G. Eckerlin; V. Efremenko; S. Egli; R. Eichler; F. Eisele; E. Eisenhandler; E. Elsen; M. Erdmann; W. Erdmann; E. Evrard; A. B. Fahr; L. Favart; A. Fedotov; D. Feeken; R. Felst; J. Feltesse; J. Ferencei; F. Ferrarotto; K. Flamm; M. Fleischer; M. Flieseer; G. Flügge; A. Fomenko; B. Fominykh; J. Formánek; J. M. Foster; G. Franke; E. Fretwurst; E. Gabathuler; K. Gabathuler; F. Gaede; J. Garvey; J. Gayler; M. Gebauer; H. Genzel; R. Gerhards; A. Glazov; U. Goerlach; L. Goerlich; N. Gogitidze; M. Goldberg; D. Goldner; K. Golec-Biernat; B. Gonzalez-Pineiro; I. Gorelov; C. Grab; H. Grässler; T. Greenshaw; R. K. Griffiths; G. Grindhammer; A. Gruber; C. Gruber; J. Haack; T. Hadig; D. Haidt; L. Hajduk; M. Hampel; W. J. Haynes; G. Heinzelmann; R. C. M. Henderson; H. Henschel; I. Herynek; M. F. Hess; K. Hewitt; W. Hildesheim; K. H. Hiller; C. D. Hilton; J. Hladký; K. C. Hoeger; M. Höppner; D. Hoffmann; T. Holtom; R. Horisberger; V. L. Hudgson; M. Hütte; M. Ibbotson; H. Itterbeck; A. Jacholkowska; C. Jacobsson; M. Jaffre; J. Janoth; T. Jansen; L. Jönsson; D. P. Johnson; H. Jung; P. I. P. Kalmus; M. Kander; D. Kant; R. Kaschowitz; U. Kathage; J. Katzy; H. H. Kaufmann; O. Kaufmann; S. Kazarian; I. R. Kenyon; S. Kermiche; C. Keuker; C. Kiesling; M. Klein; C. Kleinwort; G. Knies; T. Köhler; J. H. Köhne; F. Kole; S. D. Kolya; V. Korbel; M. Korn; P. Kostka; S. K. Kotelnikov; T. Krämerkämper; M. W. Krasny; H. Krehbiel; D. Krücker; H. Küster; M. Kuhlen; T. Kurca; J. Kurzhöfer; D. Lacour; B. Laforge; R. Lander; M. P. J. Landon; W. Lange; U. Langenegger; J.-F. Laporte; A. Lebedev; F. Lehner; S. Levonian; G. Lindström; M. Lindstroem; J. Link; F. Linsel; J. Lipinski; B. List; G. Lobo; J. W. Lomas; G. C. Lopez; V. Lubimov; D. Lüke; N. Magnussen; E. Malinovski; S. Mani; R. Maracek; P. Marage; J. Marks; R. Marshall; J. Martens; G. Martin; R. Martin; H.-U. Martyn; J. Martyniak; T. Mavroidis; S. J. Maxfield; S. J. McMahon; A. Mehta; K. Meier; A. Meyer; H. Meyer; J. Meyer; P.-O. Meyer; A. Migliori; S. Mikocki; D. Milstead; J. Moeck; F. Moreau; J. V. Morris; E. Mroczko; D. Müller; G. Müller; M. Müller; P. Murín; V. Nagovizin; R. Nahnhauer; B. Naroska; Th. Naumann; I. Négri; P. R. Newman; D. Newton; H. K. Nguyen; T. C. Nicholls; F. Niebergall; C. Niebuhr; Ch. Niedzballa; H. Niggli; R. Nisius; G. Nowak; G. W. Noyes; M. Nyberg-Werther; M. Oakden; H. Oberlack; J. E. Olsson; D. Ozerov; P. Palmen; E. Panaro; A. Panitch; C. Pascaud; G. D. Patel; H. Pawletta; E. Peppel; E. Perez; J. P. Phillips; A. Pieuchot; D. Pitzl; G. Pope; S. Prell; K. Rabbertz; G. Rädel; P. Reimer; S. Reinshagen; H. Rick; V. Riech; J. Riedlberger; F. Riepenhausen; S. Riess; E. Rizvi; S. M. Robertson; P. Robmann; H. E. Roloff; R. Roosen; K. Rosenbauer; A. Rostovtsev; F. Rouse; C. Royon; K. Rüter; S. Rusakov; K. Rybicki; D. P. C. Sankey; P. Schacht; S. Schiek; S. Schleif; P. Schleper; W. von Schlippe; D. Schmidt; G. Schmidt; A. Schöning; V. Schröder; E. Schuhmann; B. Schwab; F. Sefkow; M. Seidel; R. Sell; A. Semenov; V. Shekelyan; I. Sheviakov; L. N. Shtarkov; G. Siegmon; U. Siewert; Y. Sirois; I. O. Skillicorn; P. Smirnov; J. R. Smith; V. Solochenko; Y. Soloviev; A. Specka; J. Spiekermann; S. Spielman; H. Spitzer; F. Squinabol; M. Steenbock; P. Steffen; R. Steinberg; H. Steiner; J. Steinhart; B. Stella; A. Stellberger; J. Stier; J. Stiewe; U. Stößlein; K. Stolze; U. Straumann; W. Struczinski; J. P. Sutton; S. Tapporogge; M. Tasevský; V. Tchernyshov; S. Tchetchelnitski; J. Theissen; C. Thiebaux; G. Thompson; P. Truöl; G. Tsipolitis; J. Turnau; J. Tutas; P. Uelkes; A. Usik; S. Valkár; A. Valkárová; C. Vallée; P. Van Esch; P. Van Mechelen; D. Vandenplas; Y. Vazdik; P. Verrecchia; G. Villet; K. Wacker; A. Wagener; M. Wagener; A. Walther; B. Waugh; G. Weber; M. Weber; D. Wegener; A. Wegner; T. Wengler; M. Werner; L. R. West; T. Wilksen; S. Willard

    1996-01-01

    Measurements of K0 meson and ? baryon production in deep-inelastic positron-proton scattering (DIS) are presented in the kinematic range 10 < Q2 < 70 GeV2 and 10?4 < x < 10?2. The measurements, obtained using the H1 detector at the HEPA collider, are discussed in the light of possible mechanisms for increased strangeness production at low Bjorken-x. Comparisons of the

  16. Evidence for diffractive charm production in ??Fe and ?¯?Fe scattering at the Fermilab Tevatron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, T.; Alton, A.; Bolton, T.; Goldman, J.; Goncharov, M.; Naples, D.; Johnson, R. A.; Vakili, M.; Wu, V.; Conrad, J.; Fleming, B. T.; Formaggio, J.; Koutsoliotas, S.; Kim, J. H.; McNulty, C.; Romosan, A.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Spentzouris, P.; Stern, E. G.; Vaitaitis, A.; Zimmerman, E. D.; Bernstein, R. H.; Bugel, L.; Lamm, M. J.; Marsh, W.; Nienaber, P.; Yu, J.; de Barbaro, L.; Buchholz, D.; Schellman, H.; Zeller, G. P.; Brau, J.; Drucker, R. B.; Frey, R.; Mason, D.; Avvakumov, S.; de Barbaro, P.; Bodek, A.; Budd, H.; Harris, D. A.; McFarland, K. S.; Sakumoto, W. K.; Yang, U. K.

    2000-05-01

    We present evidence for the diffractive processes ??Fe-->?-D+S(D*S)Fe and ?¯?Fe-->?+D-S(D*S)Fe using the Fermilab SSQT neutrino beam and the Lab E neutrino detector. The data are consistent with standard model production of the neutrino trident reactions ??Fe-->???-?+Fe and ?¯?Fe-->?¯??+?-Fe. We see no evidence for neutral-current production of J/? via either diffractive or deep inelastic scattering mechanisms.

  17. Imaging the proton via hard exclusive production in diffractive pp scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Hyde; Leonid Frankfurt; Mark Strikman; Christian Weiss

    2007-05-21

    We discuss the prospects for probing Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) via exclusive production of a high-mass system (H = heavy quarkonium, di-photon, di-jet, Higgs boson) in diffractive pp scattering, pp -> p + H + p. In such processes the interplay of hard and soft interactions gives rise to a diffraction pattern in the final-state proton transverse momenta, which is sensitive to the transverse spatial distribution of partons in the colliding protons. We comment on the plans for diffractive pp measurements at RHIC and LHC. Such studies could complement future measurements of GPDs in hard exclusive ep scattering (JLab, COMPASS, EIC).

  18. Glucosinolate degradation products, isothiocyanates, nitriles, and thiocyanates, induce stomatal closure accompanied by peroxidase-mediated reactive oxygen species production in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mohammad Shakhawat; Ye, Wenxiu; Hossain, Mohammad Anowar; Okuma, Eiji; Uraji, Misugi; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Mori, Izumi C; Murata, Yoshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    Isothiocyanates, nitriles, and thiocyanates are degradation products of glucosinolates in crucifer plants. In this study, we investigated the stomatal response to allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), 3-butenenitrile (3BN), and ethyl thiocyanate (ESCN) in Arabidopsis. AITC, 3BN, and ESCN induced stomatal closure in the wild type and the atrbohD atrbohF mutant. Stomatal closure was inhibited by catalase and salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM). The degradation products induced extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the rosette leaves, and intracellular ROS accumulation, NO production, and cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]cyt) oscillations in guard cells, which were inhibited by SHAM. These results suggest that glucosinolate degradation products induce stomatal closure accompanied by extracellular ROS production mediated by SHAM-sensitive peroxidases, intracellular ROS accumulation, and [Ca(2+)]cyt oscillation in Arabidopsis. PMID:23649257

  19. Continuous production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil in a reactive distillation column catalyzed by solid heteropolyacid: Optimization using response surface methodology (RSM)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Noshadi; N. A. S. Amin; Richard S. Parnas

    This study aims to develop an optimal continuous process to produce fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel) from waste cooking oil in a reactive distillation column catalyzed by a heteropolyacid, H3PW12O40·6H2O. The conventional production of biodiesel in the batch reactor has some disadvantage such as excessive alcohol demand, short catalyst life and high production cost. Reactive distillation combines reaction and separation

  20. Multiple scattering effects on heavy meson production in p+A collisions at backward rapidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Zhong-Bo; Vitev, Ivan; Wang, Enke; Xing, Hongxi; Zhang, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    We study the incoherent multiple scattering effects on heavy meson production in the backward rapidity region of p+A collisions within the generalized high-twist factorization formalism. We calculate explicitly the double scattering contributions to the heavy meson differential cross sections by taking into account both initial-state and final-state interactions, and find that these corrections are positive. We further evaluate the nuclear modification factor for muons that come form the semi-leptonic decays of heavy flavor mesons. Phenomenological applications in d+Au collisions at a center-of-mass energy ?{ s} = 200 GeV at RHIC and in p+Pb collisions at ?{ s} = 5.02 TeV at the LHC are presented. We find that incoherent multiple scattering can describe rather well the observed nuclear enhancement in the intermediate pT region for such reactions.

  1. Oxidants, Antioxidants, and the Beneficial Roles of Exercise-Induced Production of Reactive Species

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Elisa Couto; Silva, Albená Nunes; de Oliveira, Marta Rubino

    2012-01-01

    This review offers an overview of the influence of reactive species produced during exercise and their effect on exercise adaptation. Reactive species and free radicals are unstable molecules that oxidize other molecules in order to become stable. Although they play important roles in our body, they can also lead to oxidative stress impairing diverse cellular functions. During exercise, reactive species can be produced mainly, but not exclusively, by the following mechanisms: electron leak at the mitochondrial electron transport chain, ischemia/reperfusion and activation of endothelial xanthine oxidase, inflammatory response, and autooxidation of catecholamines. Chronic exercise also leads to the upregulation of the body's antioxidant defence mechanism, which helps minimize the oxidative stress that may occur after an acute bout of exercise. Recent studies show a beneficial role of the reactive species, produced during a bout of exercise, that lead to important training adaptations: angiogenesis, mitochondria biogenesis, and muscle hypertrophy. The adaptations occur depending on the mechanic, and consequently biochemical, stimulus within the muscle. This is a new area of study that promises important findings in the sphere of molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the relationship between oxidative stress and exercise. PMID:22701757

  2. Production of reactive oxygen species by hemocytes of Biomphalaria glabrata: carbohydrate-specific stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrike K Hahn; Randall C Bender; Christopher J Bayne

    2000-01-01

    Recognition of specific carbohydrate structures, which occur commonly on the surfaces of invading pathogens, is thought to elicit internal defense mechanisms in invertebrates. To investigate the nature of carbohydrates that evoke a defensive response in hemocytes of the gastropod Biomphalaria glabrata, we tested eight different carbohydrates, conjugated to bovine serum albumin (BSA), for generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Six

  3. Coherent Neutron Scattering in Polycrystalline Deuterium and its Implications for Ultracold Neutron Production

    E-print Network

    C. -Y. Liu; A. R. Young; C. M. Lavelle; D. Salvat

    2010-05-06

    This paper presents a calculation of the neutron cross-sections in solid materials (used in practical neutron sources) with a large coherent scattering contribution. In particular, the dynamic structure function S(Q, $\\omega$) of polycrystalline ortho-D$_2$ is evaluated using a Monte-Carlo calculation that performs an average over scattering angles relative to crystal axes in random orientations. This method uses an analytical dispersion function with force constants derived from neutron scattering data of single crystal D$_2$ in the framework of an axially symmetric force tensor. The resulting two dimensional map of S(Q, $\\omega$) captures details of the phonon branches as well as the molecular rotations, that can be compared directly to data from inelastic neutron scattering on polycrystalline D$_2$. This high resolution information is used to calculate the absolute cross-sections of production and upscattering loss of ultracold neutron (UCN). The resulting scattering cross-sections are significantly different, especially for UCN upscattering, from the previous predictions using the approach centered on the incoherent approximation.

  4. Studying re-scattering effect in heavy-ion collision through K* production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singha, Subhash; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Lin, Zi-Wei

    2015-05-01

    We have studied the K* production within a multi-phase transport model (AMPT) for Au+Au collisions at ? {sNN} = 200 GeV to understand the hadronic re-scattering effect on the measured yields of the resonance. The hadronic re-scattering of the K* decay daughter particles (? and K) will alter their momentum distribution thereby making it difficult to reconstruct the K* signal through the invariant mass method. An increased hadronic re-scattering effect thus leads to a decrease in the reconstructed yield of K* in the heavy-ion collisions. Through this simulation study, we argue that a decrease in K*/K ratio with the increase in collision centrality necessarily reflects the hadronic re-scattering effect. Since the re-scattering occurs in the hadronic phase and K* has a lifetime of 4 fm/c, we present a toy model-based discussion on using measured K*/K to put a lower limit on the hadronic phase lifetime in high energy nuclear collisions.

  5. Glutathione prevents preterm parturition and fetal death by targeting macrophage-induced reactive oxygen species production in the myometrium.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Tarik; Bardou, Marc; Mace, Guillaume; Sicard, Pierre; Wendremaire, Maeva; Barrichon, Marina; Richaud, Sarah; Demidov, Oleg; Sagot, Paul; Garrido, Carmen; Lirussi, Frédéric

    2015-06-01

    Preterm birth is an inflammatory process resulting from the massive infiltration of innate immune cells and the production of proinflammatory cytokines in the myometrium. However, proinflammatory cytokines, which induce labor in vivo, fail to induce labor-associated features in human myometrial cells (MCs). We thus aimed to investigate if reactive oxygen species (ROS) production could be the missing step between immune cell activation and MC response. Indeed, we found that ROS production is increased in the human preterm laboring myometrium (27% ROS producing cells, respectively, versus 2% in nonlaboring controls), with 90% ROS production in macrophages. Using LPS-stimulated myometrial samples and cell coculture experiments, we demonstrated that ROS production is required for labor onset. Furthermore, we showed that ROS are required first in the NADPH oxidase (NADPHox)-2/NF-?B-dependent macrophage response to inflammatory stimuli but, more importantly, to trigger macrophage-induced MCs transactivation. Remarkably, in a murine model of LPS-induced preterm labor (inducing delivery within 17 hours, with no pup survival), cotreatment with glutathione delayed labor onset up to 94 hours and prevented in utero fetal distress, allowing 46% pups to survive. These results suggest that targeting ROS production with the macrophage-permeable antioxidant glutathione could constitute a promising strategy to prevent preterm birth.- Hadi, T., Bardou, M., Mace, G., Sicard, P., Wendremaire, M., Barrichon, M., Richaud, S., Demidov, O., Sagot, P., Garrido, C., Lirussi, F. Glutathione prevents preterm parturition and fetal death by targeting macrophage-induced reactive oxygen species production in the myometrium. PMID:25757563

  6. Pivotal Role of Reactive Oxygen Species in Differential Regulation of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Prostaglandins Production in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guiqing; Yu, Rui; Deng, Jing; Zhao, Qiong; Li, Yongchao; Joo, Myungsoo; van Breemen, Richard B.; Christman, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) triggers the production of inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and prostaglandins (PGs) by pulmonary macrophages. Here, we investigated if ROS influenced PGs production in response to LPS treatment in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM). We observed that pretreatment of BMDM with two structurally unrelated ROS scavengers, MnTMPyP and EUK-134, not only prevented LPS-induced ROS accumulation, but also attenuated the LPS-induced PGD2, but not PGE2, production. Conversely LPS-induced PGD2, but not PGE2, production, was potentiated with the cotreatment of BMDM with H2O2. These data suggest that ROS differentially regulate PGD2 and PGE2 production in BMDM. In addition, selective inhibition of the ROS generator NADPH oxidase (NOX) using either pharmacologic inhibitors or its p47phox subunit deficient mouse BMDM also attenuated LPS-induced PGD2, but not PGE2 production, suggesting the critical role of NOX-generated ROS in LPS-induced PGD2 production in BMDM. We further found that both hematopoietic PGD synthase (H-PGDS) siRNA and its inhibitor HQL-79, but not lipocalin PGDS (L-PGDS) siRNA and its inhibitor AT-56, significantly attenuated LPS-induced PGD2 production, suggesting that H-PGDS, but not L-PGDS, mediates LPS-induced PGD2 production in BMDM. Furthermore, data from our in vitro cell-free enzymatic studies showed that coincubation of the recombinant H-PGDS with either MnTMPyP, EUK-134, or catalase significantly decreased PGD2 production, whereas coincubation with H2O2 significantly increased PGD2 production. Taken together, our results show that LPS-induced NOX-generated ROS production differentially and specifically regulates the H-PGDS-mediated production of PGD2, but not PGE2, in mouse BMDM. PMID:23071105

  7. Pivotal role of reactive oxygen species in differential regulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced prostaglandins production in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guiqing; Yu, Rui; Deng, Jing; Zhao, Qiong; Li, Yongchao; Joo, Myungsoo; van Breemen, Richard B; Christman, John W; Xiao, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) triggers the production of inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and prostaglandins (PGs) by pulmonary macrophages. Here, we investigated if ROS influenced PGs production in response to LPS treatment in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM). We observed that pretreatment of BMDM with two structurally unrelated ROS scavengers, MnTMPyP and EUK-134, not only prevented LPS-induced ROS accumulation, but also attenuated the LPS-induced PGD(2), but not PGE(2), production. Conversely LPS-induced PGD(2), but not PGE(2), production, was potentiated with the cotreatment of BMDM with H(2)O(2). These data suggest that ROS differentially regulate PGD(2) and PGE(2) production in BMDM. In addition, selective inhibition of the ROS generator NADPH oxidase (NOX) using either pharmacologic inhibitors or its p47(phox) subunit deficient mouse BMDM also attenuated LPS-induced PGD(2), but not PGE(2) production, suggesting the critical role of NOX-generated ROS in LPS-induced PGD(2) production in BMDM. We further found that both hematopoietic PGD synthase (H-PGDS) siRNA and its inhibitor HQL-79, but not lipocalin PGDS (L-PGDS) siRNA and its inhibitor AT-56, significantly attenuated LPS-induced PGD(2) production, suggesting that H-PGDS, but not L-PGDS, mediates LPS-induced PGD(2) production in BMDM. Furthermore, data from our in vitro cell-free enzymatic studies showed that coincubation of the recombinant H-PGDS with either MnTMPyP, EUK-134, or catalase significantly decreased PGD(2) production, whereas coincubation with H(2)O(2) significantly increased PGD(2) production. Taken together, our results show that LPS-induced NOX-generated ROS production differentially and specifically regulates the H-PGDS-mediated production of PGD(2), but not PGE(2), in mouse BMDM. PMID:23071105

  8. Same-sign W pair production as a probe of double parton scattering at the LHC

    E-print Network

    Jonathan R. Gaunt; Chun-Hay Kom; Anna Kulesza; W. James Stirling

    2010-06-04

    We study the production of same-sign W boson pairs at the LHC in double parton interactions. Compared with simple factorised double parton distributions (dPDFs), we show that the recently developed dPDFs, GS09, lead to non-trivial kinematic correlations between the W bosons. A numerical study of the prospects for observing this process using same-sign dilepton signatures, including same-sign WWjj, di-boson and heavy flavour backgrounds, at 14 TeV centre-of-mass energy is then performed. It is shown that a small excess of same-sign dilepton events from double parton scattering over a background dominated by single scattering WZ(gamma*) production could be observed at the LHC.

  9. ?-ray production cross sections of inelastic neutron scattering on natural molybdenum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyman, M.; Plompen, A. J. M.; Rouki, C.

    2015-05-01

    ?-ray production cross sections of inelastic neutron scattering have been measured for molybdenum using the (n,n'?)-technique. The experiment was performed at the GELINA facility at the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) with the Gamma Array for Inelastic Neutron Scattering (GAINS) setup. GAINS consisted of eight high purity germanium detectors at the time of this experiment. The sample was made of natural molybdenum, which includes seven isotopes (A = 92, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 100). The presence of so many isotopes in the sample leads to overlapping peaks in the spectra, which limits the amount of data that can be extracted from the analysis. Nevertheless, a total of 31 ? rays from the seven isotopes were analysed and ?-ray production cross sections were determined. Comparisons to other experimental results were made when such data was available. Also comparisons with model calculations were made with the Talys 1.6 code.

  10. Multi-jet production rates in deep-inelastic muon-proton scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Salgado, C.W. (Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States))

    1992-02-01

    Measurements of forward multi-jet production rates in deep-inelastic muon-proton scattering are presented. Data were taken with a 490 GeV muon beam incident on a hydrogen target. Jets were defined using the JADE jet finding algorithm. The measured rates are presented as function of W, the hadronic center-of-mass energy and the jet resolution parameter, [ital y][sub [ital cut

  11. Measurement of internal jet structure in dijet production in deep-inelastic scattering at HERA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Adloff; V. Andreev; B. Andrieu; V. Arkadov; A. Astvatsatourov; I. Ayyaz; A. Babaev; J. Bähr; P. Baranov; E. Barrelet; W. Bartel; U. Bassler; P. Bate; A. Beglarian; O. Behnke; H.-J. Behrend; C. Beier; A. Belousov; Ch. Berger; G. Bernardi; T. Berndt; G. Bertrand-Coremans; P. Biddulph; J. C. Bizot; V. Boudry; W. Braunschweig; V. Brisson; D. P. Brown; W. Brückner; P. Bruel; D. Bruncko; J. Bürger; F. W. Büsser; A. Buniatian; S. Burke; G. Buschhorn; D. Calvet; A. J. Campbell; T. Carli; E. Chabert; M. Charlet; D. Clarke; B. Clerbaux; S. Cocks; J. G. Contreras; C. Cormack; J. A. Coughlan; M.-C. Cousinou; B. E. Cox; G. Cozzika; J. Cvach; J. B. Dainton; W. D. Dau; K. Daum; M. David; M. Davidsson; A. De Roeck; E. A. De Wolf; B. Delcourt; R. Demirchyan; C. Diaconu; M. Dirkmann; P. Dixon; W. Dlugosz; K. T. Donovan; J. D. Dowell; A. Droutskoi; J. Ebert; G. Eckerlin; D. Eckstein; V. Efremenko; S. Egli; R. Eichler; F. Eisele; E. Eisenhandler; M. Enzenberger; A. B. Farh; L. Favart; A. Fedotov; R. Felst; J. Feltesse; F. Ferrarotto; M. Fleischer; G. Flügge; A. Fomenko; J. Formánek; G. Franke; E. Gabathuler; K. Gabathuler; F. Gaede; J. Garvey; J. Gassner; R. Gerhards; S. Ghazaryan; A. Glazov; L. Goerlich; N. Gogitidze; M. Goldberg; I. Gorelov; C. Grab; H. Grässler; T. Greenshaw; R. K. Griffiths; G. Grindhammer; T. Hadig; D. Haidt; L. Hajduk; M. Hampel; V. Haustein; W. J. Haynes; B. Heinemann; G. Heinzelmann; R. C. W. Henderson; S. Hengstmann; H. Henschel; R. Heremans; I. Herynek; K. Hewitt; K. H. Hiller; C. D. Hilton; J. Hladký; D. Hoffmann; T. Holtom; R. Horisberger; S. Hurling; M. Ibbotson; Ç. ??sever; M. Jacquet; D. M. Jansen; L. Jönsson; D. P. Johnson; H. Jung; H. K. Kästli; M. Kander; D. Kant; M. Kapichine; O. Karschnik; J. Katzy; O. Kaufmann; M. Kausch; N. Keller; I. R. Kenyon; S. Kermiche; C. Keuker; C. Kiesling; M. Klein; C. Kleinwort; G. Knies; J. H. Köhne; H. Kolanoski; S. D. Kolya; V. Korbel; P. Kostka; S. K. Kotelnikov; T. Krämerkämper; M. W. Krasny; H. Krehbiel; D. Krücker; K. Krüger; A. Küpper; H. Küster; M. Kuhlen; T. Kur?a; W. Lachnit; R. Lahmann; D. Lamb; M. P. J. Landon; W. Lange; U. Langenegger; A. Lebedev; F. Lehner; V. Lemaitre; R. Lemrani; V. Lendermann; S. Levonian; M. Lindstroem; G. Lobo; E. Lobodzinska; V. Lubimov; S. Lüders; D. Lüke; L. Lytkin; N. Magnussen; H. Mahlke-Krüger; N. Malden; E. Malinovsky; I. Malinovski; R. Mara?ek; P. Marage; J. Marks; R. Marshall; H.-U. Martyn; J. Martyniak; S. J. Maxfield; S. J. McMahon; T. R. McMahon; A. Mehta; K. Meier; P. Merkel; F. Metlica; A. Meyer; H. Meyer; J. Meyer; P.-O. Meyer; S. Mikocki; D. Milstead; R. Mohr; S. Mohrdieck; M. Mondragon; F. Moreau; A. Morozov; J. V. Morris; D. Müller; K. Müller; P. Murín; V. Nagovizin; B. Naroska; J. Naumann; Th. Naumann; I. Négri; P. R. Newman; H. K. Nguyen; T. C. Nicholls; F. Niebergall; C. Niebuhr; Ch. Niedzballa; H. Niggli; O. Nix; G. Nowak; T. Nunnemann; H. Oberlack; J. E. Olsson; D. Ozerov; P. Palmen; V. Panassik; C. Pascaud; S. Passaggio; G. D. Patel; H. Pawletta; E. Perez; J. P. Phillips; A. Pieuchot; D. Pitzl; R. Pöschl; G. Pope; B. Povh; K. Rabbertz; J. Rauschenberger; P. Reimer; B. Reisert; D. Reyna; H. Rick; S. Riess; E. Rizvi; P. Robmann; R. Roosen; K. Rosenbauer; A. Rostovtsev; F. Rouse; C. Royon; S. Rusakov; K. Rybicki; D. P. C. Sankey; P. Schacht; J. Scheins; F.-P. Schilling; S. Schleif; P. Schleper; D. Schmidt; L. Schoeffel; V. Schröder; H.-C. Schultz-Coulon; F. Sefkow; A. Semenov; V. Shekelyan; I. Sheviakov; L. N. Shtarkov; G. Siegmon; Y. Sirois; T. Sloan; P. Smirnov; M. Smith; V. Solochenko; Y. Soloviev; L. Sonnenschein; V. Spaskov; A. Specka; H. Spitzer; F. Squinabol; R. Stamen; P. Steffen; R. Steinberg; J. Steinhart; B. Stella; A. Stellberger; J. Stiewe; U. Straumann; W. Struczinski; J. P. Sutton; M. Swart; S. Tapprogge; M. Taševský; V. Tchernyshov; S. Tchetchelnitski; J. Theissen; G. Thompson; P. D. Thompson; N. Tobien; R. Todenhagen; D. Traynor; P. Truöl; G. Tsipolitis; J. Turnau; E. Tzamariudaki; S. Udluft; A. Usik; S. Valkár; A. Valkárová; C. Vallée; P. Van Esch; A. Van Haecke; P. Van Mechelen; Y. Vazdik; G. Villet; K. Wacker; R. Wallny; T. Walter; B. Waugh; G. Weber; M. Weber; D. Wegener; A. Wegner; T. Wengler; M. Werner; L. R. West; S. Wiesand; T. Wilksen; S. Willard; M. Winde; G.-G. Winter; Ch. Wissing; C. Wittek; E. Wittmann; M. Wobisch; H. Wollatz; E. Wünsch; J. Žá?ek; J. Zálešák; Z. Zhang; A. Zhokin; P. Zini; F. Zomer; J. Zsembery; M. zur Nedden

    1999-01-01

    Internal jet structure in dijet production in deep-inelastic scattering is measured with the H1 detector at HERA. Jets with transverse energies ET,Breit > 5 GeV are selected in the Breit frame employing k? and cone jet algorithms. In the kinematic region of ssquared momentum transfers 10 < Q2 ?s 120 GeV2 and Bjorken?x values 2 < 10?4 ? xBj ?

  12. First measurement of Z\\/? ? production in Compton scattering of quasi-real photons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Abbiendi; K. Ackerstaff; Gideon Alexander; J. Allison; N. Altekamp; K. J. Anderson; S. Anderson; S. Arcelli; S. F. Ashby; D A Axen; Georges Azuelos; A. H. Ball; E. Barberio; R. J. Barlow; R. Bartoldus; J Richard Batley; S. Baumann; J. Bechtluft; T. Behnke; K. W. Bell; G. Bella; A. Bellerive; Stanislaus Cornelius Maria Bentvelsen; S. Bethke; O. Biebel; A. Biguzzi; S. D. Bird; Volker Blobel; Ian J Bloodworth; M. Bobinski; P. Bock; J. Böhme; D. Bonacorsi; M. Boutemeur; S. Braibant; P G Bright-Thomas; L. Brigliadori; R. M. Brown; Helfried J Burckhart; C. Burgard; R. Bürgin; P. Capiluppi; R. K. Carnegie; A. A. Carter; J. R. Carter; C. Y. Chang; D. G. Charlton; D. Chrisman; C. Ciocca; P. E. L. Clarke; E. Clay; I. Cohen; J. E. Conboy; O. C. Cooke; C. Couyoumtzelis; R. L. Coxe; M. Cuffiani; S. Dado; G. M. Dallavalle; R. Davis; S. De Jong; L. A. del Pozo; A. de Roeck; Klaus Desch; B. Dienes; M. S. Dixit; J. Dubbert; E. Duchovni; G. Duckeck; I. P. Duerdoth; D. Eatough; P. G. Estabrooks; E. Etzion; H. G. Evans; Franco Luigi Fabbri; M. Fanti; A. A. Faust; F. Fiedler; M. Fierro; I. Fleck; R. Folman; A. Fürtjes; D. I. Futyan; P. Gagnon; J. W. Gary; J. Gascon; S. M. Gascon-Shotkin; G. Gaycken; C. Geich-Gimbel; G. Giacomelli; P. Giacomelli; V. Gibson; W. R. Gibson; D. M. Gingrich; D A Glenzinski; J. Goldberg; W. Gorn; C. Grandi; E. Gross; Jacob Grunhaus; M. Gruwé; G. G. Hanson; M. Hansroul; K. Harder; C. K. Hargrove; C. Hartmann; M. Hauschild; C. M. Hawkes; R. Hawkings; Richard J Hemingway; M. Herndon; G. Herten; R. D. Heuer; M. D. Hildreth; J. C. Hill; S. J. Hillier; P. R. Hobson; A. Hocker; R James Homer; A. K. Honma; D. Horváth; K. R. Hossain; P. Hüntemeyer; P. Igo-Kemenes; D. C. Imrie; K. Ishii; F. R. Jacob; A. Jawahery; H. Jeremie; Martin Paul Jimack; C. R. Jones; P. Jovanovic; T. R. Junk; D A Karlen; V G Kartvelishvili; K. Kawagoe; T. Kawamoto; P. I. Kayal; Richard K Keeler; R. G. Kellogg; B. W. Kennedy; A. Klier; S. Kluth; T. Kobayashi; M. Kobel; D. S. Koetke; T. P. Kokott; M. Kolrep; S. Komamiya; R. V. Kowalewski; T. Kress; P. Krieger; J. von Krogh; T. Kuhl; P. Kyberd; G. D. Lafferty; G. D. Lafferty; J. Lauber; S. R. Lautenschlager; I. Lawson; J. G. Layter; D. Lazic; A. M. Lee; Daniel Lellouch; J. Letts; L. Levinson; R. Liebisch; B. List; C. Littlewood; A. W. Lloyd; S. L. Lloyd; F. K. Loebinger; G. D. Long; Michael J Losty; D. Liu; A. Macchiolo; A L MacPherson; W F Mader; M. Mannelli; S. Marcellini; C. Markopoulos; A. J. Martin; G. Martinez; T. Mashimo; P. Mättig; W. J. McDonald; E. A. Mckigney; T. J. McMahon; R. A. McPherson; F. Meijers; S. Menke; F. S. Merritt; H. Mes; J. Meyer; Aldo Michelini; S. Mihara; G. Mikenberg; D. J. Miller; R. Mir; W. Mohr; A. Montanari; T. Mori; K. Nagai; I. Nakamura; H. A. Neal; B. Nellen; R. Nisius; S. W. O'Neale; F. G. Oakham; F. Odorici; H. O. Ogren; M. J. Oreglia; S. Orito; J. Pálinkás; G. Pásztor; J. R. Pater; G. N. Patrick; J. Patt; R. Perez-Ochoa; S. Petzold; P. Pfeifenschneider; J. E. Pilcher; James L Pinfold; D. E. Plane; P R Poffenberger; J. Polok; M B Przybycien; C. Rembser; Hartmut Rick; S. Robertson; S. Robertson; N L Rodning; J. M. Roney; K. Roscoe; A. M. Rossi; Y. Rozen; K. Runge; O. Runolfsson; D. R. Rust; K. Sachs; T. Saeki; O. Sahr; W. M. Sang; E Sarkisyan-Grinbaum; C. Sbarra; A. D. Schaile; O. Schaile; F. Scharf; P. Scharff-Hansen; J. Schieck; B. Schmitt; S. Schmitt; A. Schöning; M. Schröder; M. Schumacher; C. Schwick; W. G. Scott; T. Seiler; R. Seuster; T. G. Shears; B. C. Shen; C. H. Shepherd-Themistocleous; P. Sherwood; G. P. Siroli; A. Sittler; A. Sittler; A. M. Smith; G. A. Snow; Randall J Sobie; S. Söldner-Rembold; M. Sproston; A. Stahl; K. Stephens; J. Steuerer; K. Stoll; D. Strom; R. Ströhmer; B. Surrow; S. D. Talbot; S. Tanaka; P. Taras; S. Tarem; R. Teuscher; M. Thiergen; E. von Törne; E. Torrence; S. Towers; I. Trigger; Z L Trócsányi; E. Tsur; A. S. Turcot; M. F. Turner-Watson; R. Van Kooten; P. Vannerem; M. Verzocchi; H. Voss; F. Wäckerle; A. Wagner; C. P. Ward; D. R. Ward; P. M. Watkins; A. T. Watson; N. K. Watson; P. S. Wells; N. Wermes; J. S. White; G. W. Wilson; J. A. Wilson; T. R. Wyatt; S. Yamashita; G. Yekutieli; V. Zacek; D. Zer-Zion

    1998-01-01

    We report the first observation of Z\\/?? production in Compton scattering of quasi-real photons. This is a subprocess of the reaction e+e??e+e?Z\\/??, where one of the final state electrons is undetected. Approximately 55pb?1 of data collected in the year 1997 at an e+e? centre-of-mass energy of 183 GeV with the OPAL detector at LEP have been analysed. The Z\\/?? from

  13. Interactive effects of avoidant coping and parental hypertension on Rate Pressure Product reactivity in women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Schwerdtfeger; Stefan C. Schmukle; Boris Egloff

    2005-01-01

    Background: Previous research suggests that personality, situational context variables, and genes might interact to potentiate cardiovascular\\u000a stress responses.Purpose: Our purpose is to examine interactive effects of dispositional avoidant coping and parental hypertension on cardiovascular\\u000a reactivity to three different laboratory stressors.Method: Participants were 63 healthy female students. Stressors were an evaluated videotaped speech, the cold pressor, and viewing\\u000a of the speech

  14. Pion-nucleon scattering and pion production in nucleon-nucleon and nucleus-nucleus collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Dover, C.B.

    1982-01-01

    Lecture notes are presented on the following: (1) basic aspects of ..pi..N interactions (properties of pions and nucleons, SU(3) and SU(6) classification phenomenology of ..pi..N scattering ((3.3) resonance; phase shift analysis, and bag model approach to ..pi..N); (2) pion production and absorption in the two nucleon system (NN ..-->.. NN..pi.. (isobar model) and ..pi..d reversible NN (existence of dibaryon resonances)); (3) pion absorption in complex nuclei (multiparticle aspects and cascade calculations); and (4) pion production with nuclear targets including (a) nucleon-nucleus, (b) nucleus-nucleus (Fermi-averaged 2-body vs thermodynamic models), and (c) ..pi pi.. interoferometry.

  15. Thrombospondin-1 Activation of Signal-Regulatory Protein-? Stimulates Reactive Oxygen Species Production and Promotes Renal Ischemia Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Mingyi; Rogers, Natasha M.; Csányi, Gábor; Rodriguez, Andres I.; Ross, Mark A.; St. Croix, Claudette; Knupp, Heather; Novelli, Enrico M.; Thomson, Angus W.; Pagano, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    Ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) causes tissue and organ injury, in part, through alterations in tissue blood flow and the production of reactive oxygen species. The cell surface receptor signal-regulatory protein-? (SIRP-?) is expressed on inflammatory cells and suppresses phagocytosis, but the function of SIRP-? in IRI has not been determined. We reported previously that the matricellular protein thrombospondin-1 is upregulated in IRI. Here, we report a novel interaction between thrombospondin-1 and SIRP-? on nonphagocytic cells. In cell-free experiments, thrombospondin-1 bound SIRP-?. In vascular smooth muscle cells and renal tubular epithelial cells, treatment with thrombospondin-1 led to phosphorylation of SIRP-? and downstream activation of Src homology domain 2–containing phosphatase-1. Thrombospondin-1 also stimulated phosphorylation of p47phox (an organizer subunit for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase 1/2) and increased production of superoxide, both of which were abrogated by knockdown or antibody blockade of SIRP-?. In rodent aortic rings, treatment with thrombospondin-1 increased the production of superoxide and inhibited nitric oxide–mediated vasodilation in a SIRP-?–dependent manner. Renal IRI upregulated the thrombospondin-1–SIRP-? signaling axis and was associated with increased superoxide production and cell death. A SIRP-? antibody that blocks thrombospondin-1 activation of SIRP-? mitigated the effects of renal IRI, increasing blood flow, suppressing production of reactive oxygen species, and preserving cellular architecture. A role for CD47 in SIRP-? activation in these pathways is also described. Overall, these results suggest that thrombospondin-1 binding to SIRP-? on nonphagocytic cells activates NADPH oxidase, limits vasodilation, and promotes renal IRI. PMID:24511121

  16. First measurement of Z/?* production in compton scattering of quasi-real photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    OPAL Collaboration; Abbiendi, G.; Ackerstaff, K.; Alexander, G.; Allison, J.; Altekamp, N.; Anderson, K. J.; Anderson, S.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Ashby, S. F.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Ball, A. H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, R. J.; Bartoldus, R.; Batley, J. R.; Baumann, S.; Bechtluft, J.; Behnke, T.; Bell, K. W.; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Betts, S.; Biebel, O.; Biguzzi, A.; Bird, S. D.; Blobel, V.; Bloodworth, I. J.; Bobinski, M.; Bock, P.; Böhme, J.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, R. M.; Burckhart, H. J.; Burgard, C.; Bürgin, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R. K.; Carter, A. A.; Carter, J. R.; Chang, C. Y.; Charlton, D. G.; Chrisman, D.; Ciocca, C.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clay, E.; Cohen, I.; Conboy, J. E.; Cooke, O. C.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Coxe, R. L.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Davis, R.; de Jong, S.; del Pozo, L. A.; de Roeck, A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M. S.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I. P.; Eatough, D.; Estabrooks, P. G.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H. G.; Fabbri, F.; Fanti, M.; Faust, A. A.; Fiedler, F.; Fierro, M.; Fleck, I.; Folman, R.; Fürtjes, A.; Futyan, D. I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J. W.; Gascon, J.; Gascon-Shotkin, S. M.; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Gibson, V.; Gibson, W. R.; Gingrich, D. M.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Gorn, W.; Grandi, C.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwé, M.; Hanson, G. G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Harder, K.; Hargrove, C. K.; Hartmann, C.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C. M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R. J.; Herndon, M.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R. D.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hill, J. C.; Hillier, S. J.; Hobson, P. R.; Hocker, A.; Homer, R. J.; Honma, A. K.; Horváth, D.; Hossain, K. R.; Howard, R.; Hüntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Imrie, D. C.; Ishii, K.; Jacob, F. R.; Jawahery, A.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Jones, C. R.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T. R.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kayal, P. I.; Keeler, R. K.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kennedy, B. W.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Koetke, D. S.; Kokott, T. P.; Kolrep, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kowalewski, R. V.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kuhl, T.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G. D.; Lanske, D.; Lauber, J.; Lautenschlager, S. R.; Lawson, I.; Layter, J. G.; Lazic, D.; Lee, A. M.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Liebisch, R.; List, B.; Littlewood, C.; Lloyd, A. W.; Lloyd, S. L.; Loebinger, F. K.; Long, G. D.; Losty, M. J.; Ludwig, J.; Liu, D.; Macchiolo, A.; MacPherson, A.; Mader, W.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Markopoulos, C.; Martin, A. J.; Martin, J. P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mättig, P.; McDonald, W. J.; McKenna, J.; McKigney, E. A.; McMahon, T. J.; McPherson, R. A.; Meijers, F.; Menke, S.; Merritt, F. S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, J.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D. J.; Mir, R.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H. A.; Nellen, B.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S. W.; Oakham, F. G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H. O.; Oreglia, M. J.; Orito, S.; Pálinkás, J.; Pásztor, G.; Pater, J. R.; Patrick, G. N.; Patt, J.; Perez-Ochoa, R.; Petzold, S.; Pfeifenschneider, P.; Pilcher, J. E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, D. E.; Poffenberger, P.; Polok, J.; Przybycie? , M.; Rembser, C.; Rick, H.; Robertson, S.; Robins, S. A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J. M.; Roscoe, K.; Rossi, A. M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rust, D. R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sang, W. M.; Sarkisyan, E. K. G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A. D.; Schaile, O.; Scharf, F.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitt, S.; Schöning, A.; Schröder, M.; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W. G.; Seiler, T.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T. G.; Shen, B. C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G. P.; Sittler, A.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A. M.; Snow, G. A.; Sobie, R.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Sproston, M.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Steuerer, J.; Stoll, K.; Strom, D.; Ströhmer, R.; Surrow, B.; Talbot, S. D.; Tanaka, S.; Taras, P.; Tarem, S.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomson, M. A.; von Törne, E.; Torrence, E.; Towers, S.; Trigger, I.; Trócsányi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turcot, A. S.; Turner-Watson, M. F.; van Kooten, R.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Wäckerle, F.; Wagner, A.; Ward, C. P.; Ward, D. R.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, N. K.; Wells, P. S.; Wermes, N.; White, J. S.; Wilson, G. W.; Wilson, J. A.; Wyatt, T. R.; Yamashita, S.; Yekutieli, G.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.

    1998-10-01

    We report the first observation of Z/?* production in Compton scattering of quasi-real photons. This is a subprocess of the reaction e+e--->e+e- Z/?*, where one of the final state electrons is undetected. Approximately 55 pb-1 of data collected in the year 1997 at an e+e- centre-of-mass energy of 183 GeV with the OPAL detector at LEP have been analysed. The Z/?* from Compton scattering has been detected in the hadronic decay channel. Within well defined kinematic bounds, we measure the product of cross-section and Z/?* branching ratio to hadrons to be (0.9+/-0.3+/-0.1) pb for events with a hadronic mass larger than 60 GeV, dominated by (e)eZ production. In the hadronic mass region between 5 GeV and 60 GeV, dominated by (e)e?* production, this product is found to be (4.1+/-1.6+/-0.6) pb. Our results agree with the predictions of two Monte Carlo event generators, grc4f and PYTHIA.

  17. The expression of NADPH oxidases and production of reactive oxygen species by human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line A549.

    PubMed

    Kolá?ová, H; Binó, L; Pejchalová, K; Kubala, L

    2010-01-01

    Controlled production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NADPH oxidases in non-phagocytic cells has recently been suggested to participate in the regulation of cellular functions. Due to the role of ROS in control of cellular functions, precise and accurate detection of ROS is of essential importance. However, various methodological approaches currently used for ROS determination vary in sensitivity, specificity, as well as in requirements for specialized equipment. In this study, human lung epithelial cell line A549 was screened for expression of NADPH oxidases NOX1, NOX2, NOX4, NOX5, DUOX1 and DUOX2 by quantitative RT-PCR. Fluorometric, colorimetric, and chemiluminometric methods were applied to determine ROS production. A549 cells were found to significantly express NOX1, NOX2, DUOX1 and DUOX2. ROS production by A549 cells was detected with fluorometric probes 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein- diacetate, dihydroethidium, and amplex red or colorimetric probe nitrobluetetrazolium. The production of ROS detected by these probes was partially reduced by NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium. The inhibitory effect of diphenyleneiodonium was the most significant regarding amplex red detection of phorbol myristate acetateactivated ROS production. In contrast to other probes, neither cytochrome c colorimetric determination nor luminol- and L-012-amplified chemiluminescence, regardless of the addition of horseradish peroxidase, exerted sufficient sensitivity to detect ROS production by A549. The results revealed differences among methods used for ROS formation measurement by human lung epithelial cell line A549 and highlighted the sensitivity of fluorometric determination for this purpose. PMID:21138653

  18. Sivers asymmetries for inclusive pion and kaon production in deep-inelastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, John [Theory Division, Physics Department, CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Hwang, Dae Sung [Department of Physics, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Kotzinian, Aram [CEA DAPNIA/SPhN Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Yerevan Physics Institute, 375036 Yerevan (Armenia)

    2009-10-01

    We calculate the Sivers distribution functions induced by the final-state interaction due to one-gluon exchange in diquark models of a nucleon structure, treating the cases of scalar and axial-vector diquarks with both dipole and Gaussian form factors. We use these distribution functions to calculate the Sivers single-spin asymmetries for inclusive pion and kaon production in deep-inelastic scattering. We compare our calculations with the results of HERMES and COMPASS, finding good agreement for {pi}{sup +} production at HERMES, and qualitative agreement for {pi}{sup 0} and K{sup +} production. Our predictions for pion and kaon production at COMPASS could be probed with increased statistics. The successful comparison of our calculations with the HERMES data constitutes prima facie evidence that the quarks in the nucleon have some orbital angular momentum in the infinite-momentum frame.

  19. Strangeness production at low Q 2 in deep-inelastic ep scattering at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaron, F. D.; Alexa, C.; Andreev, V.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Bacchetta, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Beckingham, M.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J. C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A. J.; Cantun Avila, K. B.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J. G.; Coughlan, J. A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Daum, K.; Deák, M.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; Delvax, J.; de Roeck, A.; de Wolf, E. A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Essenov, S.; Falkiewicz, A.; Faulkner, P. J. W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B. R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hansson, M.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Hennekemper, E.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K. H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, M. E.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jönsson, L.; Jung, A. W.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Kogler, R.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Krüger, K.; Kutak, K.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Laštovi?ka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A. B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J. V.; Mozer, M. U.; Mudrinic, M.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P. R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J. E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Pejchal, O.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Pla?akyt?, R.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Preda, T.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A. J.; Raicevic, N.; Raspiareza, A.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Ruiz Tabasco, J. E.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schöning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R. N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Shushkevich, S.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, I.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P. D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T. H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T. N.; Truöl, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Wegener, D.; Wessels, M.; Wissing, Ch.; Wünsch, E.; Yeganov, V.; Žá?ek, J.; Zálešák, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2009-05-01

    The production of neutral strange hadrons is investigated using deep-inelastic scattering events measured with the H1 detector at HERA. The measurements are made in the phase space defined by the negative four-momentum transfer squared of the photon 2< Q 2<100 GeV2 and the inelasticity 0.1< y<0.6. The K {/s 0} and \\varLambda(bar{\\varLambda}) production cross sections and their ratios are determined. K {/s 0} production is compared to the production of charged particles in the same region of phase space. The ?- bar{\\varLambda} asymmetry is also measured and found to be consistent with zero. Predictions of leading order Monte Carlo programs are compared to the data.

  20. Aluminum toxicity is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and the production of reactive oxygen species in plant cells.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yoko; Kobayashi, Yukiko; Devi, S Rama; Rikiishi, Sanae; Matsumoto, Hideaki

    2002-01-01

    Potential mechanisms of Al toxicity measured as Al-induced inhibition of growth in cultured tobacco cells (Nicotiana tabacum, nonchlorophyllic cell line SL) and pea (Pisum sativum) roots were investigated. Compared with the control treatment without Al, the accumulation of Al in tobacco cells caused instantaneously the repression of mitochondrial activities [monitored by the reduction of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide and the uptake of Rhodamine 123] and, after a lag of about 12 h, triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, respiration inhibition, ATP depletion, and the loss of growth capability almost simultaneously. The presence of an antioxidant, butylated hydroxyanisol, during Al treatment of SL cells prevented not only ROS production but also ATP depletion and the loss of growth capability, suggesting that the Al-triggered ROS production seems to be a cause of ATP depletion and the loss of growth capability. Furthermore, these three late events were similarly repressed in an Al-tolerant cell line (ALT301) isolated from SL cells, suggesting that the acquisition of antioxidant functions mimicking butylated hydroxyanisol can be a mechanism of Al tolerance. In the pea root, Al also triggered ROS production, respiration inhibition, and ATP depletion, which were all correlated with inhibition of root elongation. Taken together, we conclude that Al affects mitochondrial functions, which leads to ROS production, probably the key critical event in Al inhibition of cell growth. PMID:11788753

  1. Amyloid ? oligomers induce interleukin-1? production in primary microglia in a cathepsin B- and reactive oxygen species-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Taneo, Jun; Adachi, Takumi; Yoshida, Aiko; Takayasu, Kunio; Takahara, Kazuhiko; Inaba, Kayo

    2015-03-13

    Amyloid ? (A?) peptide, a causative agent of Alzheimer's disease, forms two types of aggregates: oligomers and fibrils. These aggregates induce inflammatory responses, such as interleukin-1? (IL-1?) production by microglia, which are macrophage-like cells located in the brain. In this study, we examined the effect of the two forms of A? aggregates on IL-1? production in mouse primary microglia. We prepared A? oligomer and fibril from A? (1-42) peptide in vitro. We analyzed the characteristics of these oligomers and fibrils by electrophoresis and atomic force microscopy. Interestingly, A? oligomers but not A? monomers or fibrils induced robust IL-1? production in the presence of lipopolysaccharide. Moreover, A? oligomers induced endo/phagolysosome rupture, which released cathepsin B into the cytoplasm. A? oligomer-induced IL-1? production was inhibited not only by the cathepsin B inhibitor CA-074-Me but also by the reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitor N-acetylcysteine. Random chemical crosslinking abolished the ability of the oligomers to induce IL-1?. Thus, multimerization and fibrillization causes A? oligomers to lose the ability to induce IL-1?. These results indicate that A? oligomers, but not fibrils, induce IL-1? production in primary microglia in a cathepsin B- and ROS-dependent manner. PMID:25680460

  2. D^* production in deep-inelastic scattering at low Q^2

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Andreas W.; /Fermilab

    2011-07-01

    Inclusive production of D* mesons in deep-inelastic scattering at HERA is studied in the range 5 < Q{sup 2} < 100 GeV{sup 2} of the photon virtuality and 0.02 < y < 0.70 of the inelasticity of the scattering process. The visible range for the D* meson is p{sub T} (D*) > 1.25 GeV and |{eta}(D*)| < 1.8. The data were taken with the H1 detector in the years 2004 to 2007 and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 347 pb{sup -1}. Single and double differential cross sections are measured. The results are compared to QCD predictions.

  3. Hadron production from $?-Deuteron$ scattering at $\\sqrt{s}=17 GeV$ at COMPASS

    E-print Network

    Astrid Morreale

    2011-08-29

    Hadrons proceeding from quasi-real photo-production are one of the many probes accesible at the Common Muon Proton Apparatus for Structure and Spectroscopy (COMPASS) at CERN. These hadrons provide information on the scattering between photon and partons through \\gamma-gluon(g) direct channels as well as q-g resolved processes. Comparisons of unpolarized differential cross section measurements to next-to-leading order (NLO) pQCD calculations are essential to develop our understanding of proton-proton and lepton-nucleon scattering at varying center of mass energies. These measurements are important to asses the applicability of NLO pQCD in interpreting polarized processes. In this talk we will present the unidentified charged separated hadron cross-sections measured by the COMPASS experiment at center of mass energy of \\sqrt{s}=17GeV, low Q^{2} (Q^{2}1.0 GeV/c.)

  4. Study of e^+ Production from ?^0 Decay in Electron Scattering Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinton, Wendy

    2003-10-01

    Inclusive scattering experiment studies of parton-hadron duality, F_2^N structure functions, measurements of R=?_T/?L in nucleaon resonance region and measurment of the nuclear depedence of R have been performed in Hall C experimental end station at Jefferson Lab. The background reactions for the (e,e') experiments are e^- events from the e^+e^- pair production of ?^0 decay. The experimental setup for inclusive scattering in Hall C allows for a second spectrometer, either the High Momentum Spectrometer (HMS) or the Short Orbit Spectrometer (SOS), to be used for e^+ detection. Currently, there exists a large database of e^+ data ranging in four-momentum tranfer squared from .5 GeV to 4 GeV. e^+/e^- ratios for several experiments will be presented and compared with existing e^+ models.

  5. Unifying "soft" and "hard" diffractive exclusive vector meson production and deeply virtual Compton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazio, S.; Fiore, R.; Jenkovszky, L.; Salii, A.

    2014-07-01

    A Pomeron model applicable to both "soft" and "hard" processes is suggested and tested against the high-energy data from virtual photon-induced reactions. The Pomeron is universal, containing two terms, a soft and a hard one, whose relative weight varies with Q2˜=Q2+MV2, where Q2 is the virtuality of the incoming photon and MV is the mass of the produced vector particle. With a small number of adjustable parameters, the model fits all available data on vector meson production and deeply virtual Compton scattering from HERA. Furthermore, we attempt to apply the model to hadron-induced reactions, by using high-energy data on proton-proton scattering.

  6. Measurement of D meson production in ep scattering at low Q

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.; Miglioranzi, S.; Musgrave, B.; Nicholass, D.; Repond, J.; Yoshida, R.; Mattingly, M. C. K.; Jechow, M.; Pavel, N.; Yagües Molina, A. G.; Antonelli, S.; Antonioli, P.; Bari, G.; Basile, M.; Bellagamba, L.; Bindi, M.; Boscherini, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; Corradi, M.; De Pasquale, S.; Iacobucci, G.; Margotti, A.; Nania, R.; Polini, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Sartorelli, G.; Zichichi, A.; Bartsch, D.; Brock, I.; Goers, S.; Hartmann, H.; Hilger, E.; Irrgang, P.; Jakob, H.-P.; Jüngst, M.; Kind, O. M.; Paul, E.; Renner, R.; Samson, U.; Schönberg, V.; Shehzadi, R.; Wlasenko, M.; Brook, N. H.; Heath, G. P.; Morris, J. D.; Namsoo, T.; Capua, M.; Fazio, S.; Mastroberardino, A.; Schioppa, M.; Susinno, G.; Tassi, E.; Kim, J. Y.; Ma, K. J.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Kamaluddin, B.; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Ning, Y.; Ren, Z.; Sciulli, F.; Chwastowski, J.; Eskreys, A.; Figiel, J.; Galas, A.; Gil, M.; Olkiewicz, K.; Stopa, P.; Zawiejski, L.; Adamczyk, L.; Bo?d, T.; Grabowska-Bo?d, I.; Kisielewska, D.; ?ukasik, J.; Przybycie?, M.; Suszycki, L.; Kota?ski, A.; S?omi?ski, W.; Adler, V.; Behrens, U.; Bloch, I.; Blohm, C.; Bonato, A.; Borras, K.; Coppola, N.; Dossanov, A.; Fourletova, J.; Geiser, A.; Gladkov, D.; Göttlicher, P.; Gregor, I.; Haas, T.; Hain, W.; Horn, C.; Kahle, B.; Klein, U.; Kötz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Lobodzinska, E.; Löhr, B.; Mankel, R.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Montanari, A.; Notz, D.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A. E.; Rubinsky, I.; Santamarta, R.; Schneekloth, U.; Spiridonov, A.; Stadie, H.; Szuba, D.; Szuba, J.; Theedt, T.; Wolf, G.; Wrona, K.; Youngman, C.; Zeuner, W.; Lohmann, W.; Schlenstedt, S.; Barbagli, G.; Gallo, E.; Pelfer, P. G.; Bamberger, A.; Dobur, D.; Karstens, F.; Vlasov, N. N.; Bussey, P. J.; Doyle, A. T.; Dunne, W.; Ferrando, J.; Saxon, D. H.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Gialas, I.; Gosau, T.; Holm, U.; Klanner, R.; Lohrmann, E.; Salehi, H.; Schleper, P.; Schörner-Sadenius, T.; Sztuk, J.; Wichmann, K.; Wick, K.; Foudas, C.; Fry, C.; Long, K. R.; Tapper, A. D.; Kataoka, M.; Matsumoto, T.; Nagano, K.; Tokushuku, K.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Barakbaev, A. N.; Boos, E. G.; Pokrovskiy, N. S.; Zhautykov, B. O.; Son, D.; de Favereau, J.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Barreiro, F.; Glasman, C.; Jimenez, M.; Labarga, L.; del Peso, J.; Ron, E.; Soares, M.; Terrón, J.; Zambrana, M.; Corriveau, F.; Liu, C.; Walsh, R.; Zhou, C.; Tsurugai, T.; Antonov, A.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Stifutkin, A.; Suchkov, S.; Dementiev, R. K.; Ermolov, P. F.; Gladilin, L. K.; Katkov, I. I.; Khein, L. A.; Korzhavina, I. A.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Levchenko, B. B.; Lukina, O. Yu.; Proskuryakov, A. S.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Zotkin, D. S.; Zotkin, S. A.; Abt, I.; Büttner, C.; Caldwell, A.; Kollar, D.; Schmidke, W. B.; Sutiak, J.; Grigorescu, G.; Keramidas, A.; Koffeman, E.; Kooijman, P.; Pellegrino, A.; Tiecke, H.; Vázquez, M.; Wiggers, L.; Brümmer, N.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Lee, A.; Ling, T. Y.; Allfrey, P. D.; Bell, M. A.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cottrell, A.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Foster, B.; Korcsak-Gorzo, K.; Patel, S.; Roberfroid, V.; Robertson, A.; Straub, P. B.; Uribe-Estrada, C.; Walczak, R.; Bellan, P.; Bertolin, A.; Brugnera, R.; Carlin, R.; Ciesielski, R.; Dal Corso, F.; Dusini, S.; Garfagnini, A.; Limentani, S.; Longhin, A.; Stanco, L.; Turcato, M.; Oh, B. Y.; Raval, A.; Ukleja, J.; Whitmore, J. J.; Iga, Y.; D'Agostini, G.; Marini, G.; Nigro, A.; Cole, J. E.; Hart, J. C.; Abramowicz, H.; Gabareen, A.; Ingbir, R.; Kananov, S.; Levy, A.; Kuze, M.; Hori, R.; Kagawa, S.; Okazaki, N.; Shimizu, S.; Tawara, T.; Hamatsu, R.; Kaji, H.; Kitamura, S.; Ota, O.; Ri, Y. D.; Ferrero, M. I.; Monaco, V.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Arneodo, M.; Ruspa, M.; Fourletov, S.; Martin, J. F.; Boutle, S. K.; Butterworth, J. M.; Gwenlan, C.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Jones, T. W.; Loizides, J. H.; Sutton, M. R.; Targett-Adams, C.; Wing, M.; Brzozowska, B.; Ciborowski, J.; Grzelak, G.; Kulinski, P.; ?u?niak, P.; Malka, J.; Nowak, R. J.; Pawlak, J. M.; Tymieniecka, T.; Ukleja, A.; ?arnecki, A. F.; Adamus, M.; Plucinski, P.; Eisenberg, Y.; Giller, I.; Hochman, D.; Karshon, U.; Rosin, M.; Brownson, E.; Danielson, T.; Everett, A.; Kçira, D.; Reeder, D. D.; Ryan, P.; Savin, A. A.; Smith, W. H.; Wolfe, H.; Bhadra, S.; Catterall, C. D.; Cui, Y.; Hartner, G.; Menary, S.; Noor, U.; Standage, J.; Whyte, J.; ZEUS Collaboration

    2007-05-01

    The production of D(2010) mesons in ep scattering in the range of exchanged photon virtuality 0.05scattered electron. Differential D cross sections as functions of Q, inelasticity, y, transverse momentum of the D meson, p(D), and pseudorapidity of the D meson, ?(D), have been measured in the kinematic region 0.02

  7. Chemical pneumonitis and subsequent reactive airways dysfunction syndrome after a single exposure to a household product: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Household products are usually safe to use. Adverse events arising from their use are mostly reported in patients with pre-existing atopy or pulmonary problems and usually only after a prolonged exposure to such products. We report the case of a patient with no prior problems who developed significant side effects from a single exposure to a domestic product. Case presentation A 43-year-old Caucasian American man, previously in good health, used a domestic aerosol product called 'Stand N' Seal "Spray-On" Grout Sealer' in an enclosed room in his house. The product contained n-butyl acetate (<5%), propane (10%), isobutane (<5%), C8-C9 petroleum hydrocarbon solvent (80%), a fluoropolymer resin and a solvent. Within a few hours of exposure to the sealant, he developed rapidly progressive shortness of breath and a severe non-productive cough. By the time he reached the emergency room he was severely hypoxic. A diagnosis of chemical pneumonitis was made based on the clinical scenario and the diffuse infiltrates on the computer tomography scan. With supportive therapy, his condition improved and he was discharged from the hospital. However, he continued to have symptoms of intermittent cough and shortness of breath in response to strong odours, fumes, cold air and exertion even after his chest radiograph had normalized. Three months later, bronchial hyper-responsiveness was documented by a methacholine inhalation test and a diagnosis of reactive airways dysfunction syndrome was made. The patient was started on high-dose inhaled steroids and his symptoms improved. The mechanism of toxicity and determination of the exact agent responsible is still under investigation. Conclusion A household product may still prove unsafe to use even after it has gone through vigorous testing and approval processes. Even healthy individuals are susceptible to adverse outcomes after a brief exposure. Extra precautions should be taken when using any chemical product at home. PMID:19946590

  8. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering and Meson Production at Jlab/CLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Hyon-Suk Jo

    2012-04-01

    This report reviews the recent experimental results from the CLAS collaboration (Hall B of Jefferson Lab, or JLab) on Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) and Deeply Virtual Meson Production (DVMP) and discusses their interpretation in the framework of Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs). The impact of the experimental data on the applicability of the GPD mechanism to these exclusive reactions is discussed. Initial results obtained from JLab 6 GeV data indicate that DVCS might already be interpretable in this framework while GPD models fail to describe the exclusive meson production (DVMP) data with the GPD parameterizations presently used. An exception is the {phi} meson production for which the GPD mechanism appears to apply. The recent global analyses aiming to extract GPDs from fitting DVCS CLAS and world data are discussed. The GPD experimental program at CLAS12, planned with the upcoming 12 GeV upgrade of JLab, is briefly presented.

  9. Polyphenols prevent ageing-related impairment in skeletal muscle mitochondrial function through decreased reactive oxygen species production.

    PubMed

    Charles, Anne-Laure; Meyer, Alain; Dal-Ros, Stéphanie; Auger, Cyril; Keller, Nathalie; Ramamoorthy, Thanuja Gali; Zoll, Joffrey; Metzger, Daniel; Schini-Kerth, Valérie; Geny, Bernard

    2013-02-01

    Ageing is associated with skeletal muscle impairment. Changes in mitochondrial homeostasis are thought to play a key role in this process. This study examined whether chronic intake of polyphenols (PPs), which are known to be modulators of oxidative stress, might prevent the age-related decline of mitochondrial functions in skeletal muscle. Three groups of 10 Wistar rats were investigated. Rats aged 16 weeks were compared with rats aged 40 weeks that were given 75 mg kg(-1) day(-1) PPs or solvent in the drinking water starting at week 16. Mitochondrial respiratory chain complex activities were measured in saponin-skinned fibres of soleus muscles using glutamate-malate (V(max)), succinate (V(succ)) and N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride-ascorbate (V(TMPD)). Production of reactive oxygen species was assessed using dihydroethidium staining. Transcript levels of genes involved in antioxidant defence were determined using RT-PCR. Ageing reduced muscle V(max) (from 8.8 ± 0.45 to 6.17 ± 0.51 ?mol O(2) min(-1) g(-1), -30.5%, P < 0.01), V(TMPD) (from 20.67 ± 1.24 to 16.55 ± 1.16 ?mol O(2) min(-1) g(-1), -19.9%, P < 0.05), increased production of reactive oxygen species (from 100 ± 9.9 to 351.1 ± 31.7%) and decreased transcripts of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase 2 (-59.3%, P < 0.01), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator-1? (PGC-1?; -61.5%, P < 0.05) and sirtuin 1 (-54.2%, P < 0.05). Chronic PP intake normalized V(max) (8.63 ± 0.63 ?mol O(2) min(-1) g(-1)), decreased production of reactive oxygen species (141.7 ± 16.7%, P < 0.001) and enhanced antioxidant defence (superoxide dismutase 2 expression, +151.3%, P < 0.05) and PGC-1? expression (+185.7%, P < 0.05) in comparison to age-matched untreated rats. The present data indicate that regular intake of PPs starting at a young age prevents age-related mitochondrial respiratory impairment in skeletal muscle, probably through decreased oxidative stress and enhancement of PGC-1? expression. PMID:22903980

  10. Frequency effects on the production of reactive oxygen species in atmospheric radio frequency helium-oxygen discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yuantao T.; He Jin [Shandong Provincial Key Lab of UHV Technology and Gas Discharge Physics, School of Electrical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250061 (China)

    2013-01-15

    Several experimental and computational studies have shown that increasing frequency can effectively enhance the discharge stability in atmospheric radio-frequency (rf) discharges, but the frequency effects on the reactivity of rf discharges, represented by the densities of reactive oxygen species (ROS), are still far from fully understood. In this paper, a one-dimensional fluid model with 17 species and 65 reactions taken into account is used to explore the influences of the driving frequency on the production and destruction of ROS in atmospheric rf helium-oxygen discharges. From the computational results, with an increase in the frequency the densities of ROS decrease always at a constant power density, however, in the relatively higher frequency discharges the densities of ROS can be effectively improved by increasing the input power density with an expanded oxygen admixture range, while the discharges operate in the {alpha} mode, and the numerical data also show the optimal oxygen admixture for ground state atomic oxygen, at which the peak atomic oxygen density can be obtained, increases with the driving frequency.

  11. NADPH Oxidase-Dependent Production of Reactive Oxygen Species Induces Endoplasmatic Reticulum Stress in Neutrophil-Like HL60 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kuwabara, Wilson Mitsuo Tatagiba; Zhang, Liling; Schuiki, Irmgard; Curi, Rui; Volchuk, Allen; Alba-Loureiro, Tatiana Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) primarily produced via NADPH oxidase play an important role for killing microorganisms in neutrophils. In this study we examined if ROS production in Human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL60) differentiated into neutrophil-like cells (dHL60) induces ER stress and activates the unfolded protein response (UPR). To cause ROS production cells were treated with PMA or by chronic hyperglycemia. Chronic hyperglycemia failed to induce ROS production and did not cause activation of the UPR in dHL60 cells. PMA, a pharmacologic NADPH oxidase activator, induced ER stress in dHL60 cells as monitored by IRE-1 and PERK pathway activation, and this was independent of calcium signaling. The NADPH oxidase inhibitor, DPI, abolished both ROS production and UPR activation. These results show that ROS produced by NADPH oxidase induces ER stress and suggests a close association between the redox state of the cell and the activation of the UPR in neutrophil-like HL60 cells. PMID:25668518

  12. Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase is required for N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide-induced reactive oxygen species production and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Hail, Numsen; Chen, Ping; Kepa, Jadwiga J.; Bushman, Lane R.; Shearn, Colin

    2010-01-01

    The synthetic retinoid N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (4HPR) exhibits anticancer activity in vivo and triggers apoptosis in transformed cells in vitro. Thus, apoptosis induction is acknowledged as a mechanistic underpinning for 4HPR's cancer preventive and therapeutic effects. Apoptosis induction by 4HPR is routinely preceded by and dependent on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in transformed cells. Very little evidence exists outside the possible involvement of the mitochondrial electron transport chain or the plasma membrane NADPH oxidase complex, which would pinpoint the predominant site of 4HPR-induced ROS production in transformed cells. Here, we investigated the role of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH, an enzyme associated with the mitochondrial electron transport chain and required for de novo pyrimidine synthesis) in 4HPR-induced ROS production and attendant apoptosis in transformed skin and prostate epithelial cells. In premalignant prostate epithelial cells and malignant cutaneous keratinocytes the suppression of DHODH activity by the chemical inhibitor teriflunomide or the reduction in DHODH protein expression by RNA interference markedly reduced 4HPR-induced ROS generation and apoptosis. Conversely, colon carcinoma cells that lacked DHODH expression were markedly resistant to the prooxidant and cytotoxic effects of 4HPR. Together, these results strongly implicate DHODH in 4HPR-induced ROS production and apoptosis. PMID:20399851

  13. Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase is required for N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide-induced reactive oxygen species production and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Hail, Numsen; Chen, Ping; Kepa, Jadwiga J; Bushman, Lane R; Shearn, Colin

    2010-07-01

    The synthetic retinoid N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (4HPR) exhibits anticancer activity in vivo and triggers apoptosis in transformed cells in vitro. Thus, apoptosis induction is acknowledged as a mechanistic underpinning for 4HPR's cancer preventive and therapeutic effects. Apoptosis induction by 4HPR is routinely preceded by and dependent on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in transformed cells. Very little evidence exists, outside the possible involvement of the mitochondrial electron transport chain or the plasma membrane NADPH oxidase complex, that would pinpoint the predominant site of 4HPR-induced ROS production in transformed cells. Here, we investigated the role of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH; an enzyme associated with the mitochondrial electron transport chain and required for de novo pyrimidine synthesis) in 4HPR-induced ROS production and attendant apoptosis in transformed skin and prostate epithelial cells. In premalignant prostate epithelial cells and malignant cutaneous keratinocytes the suppression of DHODH activity by the chemical inhibitor teriflunomide or the reduction in DHODH protein expression by RNA interference markedly reduced 4HPR-induced ROS generation and apoptosis. Conversely, colon carcinoma cells that lacked DHODH expression were markedly resistant to the pro-oxidant and cytotoxic effects of 4HPR. Together, these results strongly implicate DHODH in 4HPR-induced ROS production and apoptosis. PMID:20399851

  14. Prolonged production of reactive oxygen species in response to BCR stimulation promotes B cell activation and proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Matthew L.; DeFranco, Anthony L.

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the intracellular sources and physiological function of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in primary B cells in response to B cell antigen receptor (BCR) stimulation. BCR stimulation of primary resting murine B cells induced the rapid production of ROS that occurred within minutes, and was maintained for at least 24 h following receptor stimulation. While the early production of ROS (0-2 h) was dependent on the Nox2 isoform of NADPH oxidase, at later stages of B cell activation (6-24 h) ROS were generated by a second pathway, which appeared to be dependent on mitochondrial respiration. B cells from mice deficient in the Nox2 NADPH oxidase complex lacked detectible early production of extracellular and intracellular ROS following BCR stimulation, but had normal proximal BCR signaling and BCR-induced activation and proliferation in vitro, and mounted normal or somewhat elevated antibody responses in vivo. In contrast, neutralizing both pathways of BCR-derived ROS with the scavenger N-acetylcysteine resulted in impaired in vitro BCR-induced activation and proliferation, and attenuated BCR signaling through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway at later times. These results indicate that the production of ROS downstream of the BCR is derived from at least two distinct cellular sources and plays a critical role at the later stages of B cell activation by promoting sustained BCR signaling via the PI3K pathway, which is needed for effective B cell responses to antigen. PMID:23024271

  15. Heat shock induces production of reactive oxygen species and increases inner mitochondrial membrane potential in winter wheat cells.

    PubMed

    Fedyaeva, A V; Stepanov, A V; Lyubushkina, I V; Pobezhimova, T P; Rikhvanov, E G

    2014-11-01

    Heat shock leads to oxidative stress. Excessive ROS (reactive oxygen species) accumulation could be responsible for expression of genes of heat-shock proteins or for cell death. It is known that in isolated mammalian mitochondria high protonic potential on the inner membrane actuates the production of ROS. Changes in viability, ROS content, and mitochondrial membrane potential value have been studied in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultured cells under heat treatment. Elevation of temperature to 37-50°C was found to induce elevated ROS generation and increased mitochondrial membrane potential, but it did not affect viability immediately after treatment. More severe heat exposure (55-60°C) was not accompanied by mitochondrial potential elevation and increased ROS production, but it led to instant cell death. A positive correlation between mitochondrial potential and ROS production was observed. Depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane by the protonophore CCCP inhibited ROS generation under the heating conditions. These data suggest that temperature elevation leads to mitochondrial membrane hyperpolarization in winter wheat cultured cells, which in turn causes the increased ROS production. PMID:25540005

  16. Investigation of the photochemical reactivity of soot particles derived from biofuels toward NO2. A kinetic and product study.

    PubMed

    Romanías, Manolis N; Dagaut, Philippe; Bedjanian, Yuri; Andrade-Eiroa, Auréa; Shahla, Roya; Emmanouil, Karafas S; Papadimitriou, Vassileios C; Spyros, Apostolos

    2015-03-12

    In the current study, the heterogeneous reaction of NO2 with soot and biosoot surfaces was investigated in the dark and under illumination relevant to atmospheric conditions (J(NO2) = 0.012 s(-1)). A flat-flame burner was used for preparation and collection of soot samples from premixed flames of liquid fuels. The biofuels were prepared by mixing 20% v/v of (i) 1-butanol (CH3(CH2)3OH), (ii) methyl octanoate (CH3(CH2)6COOCH3), (iii) anhydrous diethyl carbonate (C2H5O)2CO and (iv) 2,5 dimethyl furan (CH3)2C4H2O additive compounds in conventional kerosene fuel (JetA-1). Experiments were performed at 293 K using a low-pressure flow tube reactor (P = 9 Torr) coupled to a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The initial and steady-state uptake coefficients, ?0 and ?(ss), respectively, as well as the surface coverage, N(s), were measured under dry and humid conditions. Furthermore, the branching ratios of the gas-phase products NO (?80-100%) and HONO (<20%) were determined. Soot from JetA-1/2,5-dimethyl furan was the most reactive [?0 = (29.1 ± 5.8) × 10(-6), ?(ss)(dry) = (9.09 ± 1.82) × 10(-7) and ?(ss)(5.5%RH) = (14.0 ± 2.8)(-7)] while soot from JetA-1/1-butanol [?0 = (2.72 ± 0.544) × 10(-6), ?(ss)(dry) = (4.57 ± 0.914) × 10(-7), and ?(ss)(5.5%RH) = (3.64 ± 0.728) × 10(-7)] and JetA-1/diethyl carbonate [?0 = (2.99 ± 0.598) × 10(-6), ?(ss)(dry) = (3.99 ± 0.798) × 10(-7), and ?(ss)(5.5%RH) = (4.80 ± 0.960) × 10(-7)] were less reactive. To correlate the chemical reactivity with the physicochemical properties of the soot samples, their chemical composition was analyzed employing Raman spectroscopy, NMR, and high-performance liquid chromatography. In addition, the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller adsorption isotherms and the particle size distributions were determined employing a Quantachrome Nova 2200e gas sorption analyzer. The analysis of the results showed that factors such as (i) soot mass collection rate, (ii) porosity of the particles formed, (iii) aromatic fraction, and (iv) pre-existence of nitro-containing species in soot samples (formed during the combustion process) can be used as indicators of soot reactivity with NO2. PMID:25686032

  17. A phenomenological study of photon production in low energy neutrino nucleon scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goldman, Terry J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Low energy photon production is an important background to many current and future precision neutrino experiments. We present a phenomenological study of t-channel radiative corrections to neutral current neutrino nucleus scattering. After introducing the relevant processes and phenomenological coupling constants, we will explore the derived energy and angular distributions as well as total cross-section predictions along with their estimated uncertainties. This is supplemented throughout with comments on possible experimental signatures and implications. We conclude with a general discussion of the analysis in the context of complimentary methodologies. This is based on a talk presented at the DPF 2009 meeting in Detroit MI.

  18. QCD CORRECTIONS TO DILEPTON PRODUCTION NEAR PARTONIC THRESHOLD IN PP SCATTERING.

    SciTech Connect

    SHIMIZU, H.; STERMAN, G.; VOGELSANG, W.; YOKOYA, H.

    2005-10-02

    We present a recent study of the QCD corrections to dilepton production near partonic threshold in transversely polarized {bar p}p scattering, We analyze the role of the higher-order perturbative QCD corrections in terms of the available fixed-order contributions as well as of all-order soft-gluon resummations for the kinematical regime of proposed experiments at GSI-FAIR. We find that perturbative corrections are large for both unpolarized and polarized cross sections, but that the spin asymmetries are stable. The role of the far infrared region of the momentum integral in the resummed exponent and the effect of the NNLL resummation are briefly discussed.

  19. Study of ?(1385) and ?(1321) hyperon and antihyperon production in deep inelastic muon scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adolph, C.; Alekseev, M. G.; Alexakhin, V. Y.; Alexandrov, Y.; Alexeev, G. D.; Amoroso, A.; Austregesilo, A.; Bade?ek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Bedfer, Y.; Berlin, A.; Bernhard, J.; Bertini, R.; Bicker, K.; Bieling, J.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Büchele, M.; Burtin, E.; Capozza, L.; Chiosso, M.; Chung, S. U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M. L.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S. S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O. Y.; Donskov, S. V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dünnweber, W.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Elia, C.; Eversheim, P. D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Filin, A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N.; Friedrich, J. M.; Frolov, V.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O. P.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gnesi, I.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Grabmüller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Gushterski, R.; Guskov, A.; Guthörl, T.; Haas, F.; von Harrach, D.; Heinsius, F. H.; Herrmann, F.; Heß, C.; Hinterberger, F.; Höppner, C.; Horikawa, N.; d'Hose, N.; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanshin, Y.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Jasinski, P.; Joosten, R.; Kabuß, E.; Kang, D.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G. V.; Khokhlov, Y. A.; Kisselev, Y.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koivuniemi, J. H.; Kolosov, V. N.; Kondo, K.; Königsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V. F.; Kotzinian, A. M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krämer, M.; Kroumchtein, Z. V.; Kuchinski, N.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R. P.; Lednev, A. A.; Lehmann, A.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G. K.; Mann, A.; Marchand, C.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Y. V.; Miyachi, Y.; Morreale, A.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V. I.; Novy, J.; Nowak, W.-D.; Nunes, A. S.; Olshevsky, A. G.; Ostrick, M.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V. A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Reicherz, G.; Rocco, E.; Rodionov, V.; Rondio, E.; Rossiyskaya, N. S.; Ryabchikov, D. I.; Samoylenko, V. D.; Sandacz, A.; Sapozhnikov, M. G.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I. A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schlüter, T.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, K.; Schmitt, L.; Schmïden, H.; Schönning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Schott, M.; Shevchenko, O. Y.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Steiger, L.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Suzuki, H.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Ter Wolbeek, J.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thibaud, F.; Uhl, S.; Uman, I.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Virius, M.; Wang, L.; Weisrock, T.; Wilfert, M.; Windmolders, R.; Wi?licki, W.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Zhuravlev, N.; Ziembicki, M.

    2013-10-01

    Large samples of ?, ?(1385) and ?(1321) hyperons produced in the deep-inelastic muon scattering off a 6LiD target were collected with the COMPASS experimental setup at CERN. The relative yields of ?(1385)+, ?(1385)-, , , ?(1321)-, and hyperons decaying into were measured. The ratios of heavy-hyperon to ? and heavy-antihyperon to were found to be in the range 3.8 % to 5.6 % with a relative uncertainty of about 10 %. They were used to tune the parameters relevant for strange particle production of the LEPTO Monte Carlo generator.

  20. Photon production from the scattering of axions out of a solenoidal magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Guendelman, Eduardo I.; Shilon, Idan [Physics Department, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Cantatore, Giovanni [Università and INFN Trieste, via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Zioutas, Konstantin, E-mail: guendel@bgu.ac.il, E-mail: silon@bgu.ac.il, E-mail: cantatore@trieste.infn.it, E-mail: Konstantin.Zioutas@cern.ch [Physics Department, University of Patras, Rio, 26504 Patras (Greece)

    2010-06-01

    We calculate the total cross section for the production of photons from the scattering of axions by a strong inhomogeneous magnetic field in the form of a 2D ?-function, a cylindrical step function and a 2D Gaussian distribution, which can be approximately produced by a solenoidal current. The theoretical result is used to estimate the axion-photon conversion probability which could be expected in a reasonable experimental situation. Comparison between the 2D conversion probabilities for QCD inspired axions and those derived by applying the celebrated 1D calculation of the (inverse) coherent Primakoff effect is made using an averaging prescription procedure of the 1D case. We also consider scattering at a resonance E{sub axion} ? m{sub axion}, which corresponds to the scattering from a ?-function and gives the most enhanced results. Finally, we analyze the results of this work in the astrophysical extension to suggest a way in which they may be directed to a solution to some basic solar physics problems and, in particular, the coronal heating problem.

  1. Measurement of photon production in the very forward direction in deep-inelastic scattering at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaron, F. D.; Alexa, C.; Andreev, V.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baghdasaryan, S.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Begzsuren, K.; Belousov, A.; Belov, P.; Bizot, J. C.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, D.; Bruncko, D.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A. J.; Cantun Avila, K. B.; Ceccopieri, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Contreras, J. G.; Coughlan, J. A.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Daum, K.; Delcourt, B.; Delvax, J.; De Wolf, E. A.; Diaconu, C.; Dobre, M.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Egli, S.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Fischer, D.-J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Grebenyuk, A.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B. R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Hennekemper, E.; Henschel, H.; Herbst, M.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K. H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hreus, T.; Huber, F.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, X.; Jönsson, L.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Kogler, R.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Kretzschmar, J.; Krüger, K.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Laštovi?ka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; List, J.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meyer, A. B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J. V.; Mudrinic, M.; Müller, K.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P. R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Olsson, J. E.; Ozerov, D.; Pahl, P.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pirumov, H.; Pitzl, D.; Pla?akyt?, R.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Radescu, V.; Raicevic, N.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Ruiz Tabasco, J. E.; Rusakov, S.; Šálek, D.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmitt, S.; Schoeffel, L.; Schöning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Shushkevich, S.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, I.; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stoicea, G.; Straumann, U.; Sykora, T.; Thompson, P. D.; Tran, T. H.; Traynor, D.; Truöl, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Turnau, J.; Urban, K.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vazdik, Y.; Wegener, D.; Wünsch, E.; Žá?ek, J.; Zálešák, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2011-10-01

    The production of photons at very small angles with respect to the proton beam direction is studied in deep-inelastic positron-proton scattering at HERA. The data are taken with the H1 detector in the years 2006 and 2007 and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 126 pb-1. The analysis covers the range of negative four momentum transfer squared at the positron vertex 6< Q 2<100 GeV2 and inelasticity 0.05< y<0.6. Cross sections are measured for the most energetic photon with pseudorapidity ?>7.9 as a function of its transverse momentum pT^{lead} and longitudinal momentum fraction of the incoming proton xL^{lead}. In addition, the cross sections are studied as a function of the sum of the longitudinal momentum fraction xL^{sum} of all photons in the pseudorapidity range ?>7.9. The cross sections are normalised to the inclusive deep-inelastic scattering cross section and compared to the predictions of models of deep-inelastic scattering and models of the hadronic interactions of high energy cosmic rays.

  2. Control of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production through histidine kinases in Aspergillus nidulans under different growth conditions?

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Saki; Yoshioka, Megumi; Matsui, Tetsuji; Kojima, Kensuke; Kato, Masashi; Kanamaru, Kyoko; Kobayashi, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Sensor histidine kinases (HKs) are important factors that control cellular growth in response to environmental conditions. The expression of 15 HKs from Aspergillus nidulans was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR under vegetative, asexual, and sexual growth conditions. Most HKs were highly expressed during asexual growth. All HK gene-disrupted strains produced reactive oxygen species (ROS). Three HKs are involved in the control of ROS: HysA was the most abundant under the restricted oxygen condition, NikA is involved in fungicide sensing, and FphA inhibits sexual development in response to red light. Phosphotransfer signal transduction via HysA is essential for ROS production control. PMID:24490133

  3. Comparison of the chemical reactivity of synthetic peroxynitrite with that of the autoxidation products of nitroxyl or its anion.

    PubMed

    Jorolan, Joel H; Buttitta, Lisa Ann; Cheah, Cheryl; Miranda, Katrina M

    2015-01-30

    Donors of nitroxyl (HNO) exhibit pharmacological properties that are potentially favorable for treatment of a variety of diseases. To fully evaluate the pharmacological utility of HNO, it is therefore important to understand its chemistry, particularly involvement in deleterious biological reactions. Of particular note is the cytotoxic species formed from HNO autoxidation that is capable of inducing double strand DNA breaks. The identity of this species remains elusive, but a conceivable product is peroxynitrous acid. However, chemical comparison studies have demonstrated that HNO autoxidation leads to a unique reactive nitrogen oxide species to that of synthetic peroxynitrite. Here, we extend the analysis to include a new preparation of peroxynitrite formed via autoxidation of nitroxyl anion (NO(-)). Both peroxynitrite preparations exhibited similar chemical profiles, although autoxidation of NO(-) provided a more reliable sample of peroxynitrite. Furthermore, the observed dissimilarities to the HNO donor Angeli's salt substantiate that HNO autoxidation produces a unique intermediate from peroxynitrite. PMID:25460322

  4. Defining the mechanisms by which the reactive oxygen species by-product, 4-hydroxynonenal, affects human sperm cell function.

    PubMed

    Baker, Mark A; Weinberg, Anita; Hetherington, Louise; Villaverde, Ana-Izabel; Velkov, Tony; Baell, Jonathan; Gordon, Christopher P

    2015-04-01

    Lipid peroxidation products such as the naturally occurring aldehyde 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) are known to be cytotoxic toward different cell types, including spermatozoa. In order to understand this at the molecular level, we have employed a proteomic approach to characterize direct 4-HNE adducts on human spermatozoa. Several proteins were identified to be of particular interest, including aldehyde labeling of histone methyltransferase and dynein heavy chain. In addition, we found that 4-HNE bound to part of the activation segment, cysteine residue 199, of protein kinase A (PKA). Interestingly, at low levels, addition of 4-HNE had a stimulatory effect on PKA. However, this did not correlate to increased phosphotyrosine levels during capacitation. This data explains the link between reactive oxygen species and sperm toxicity. Given that epigenetic regulation is likely affected in oxidative-stressed spermatozoa, this data show that spermatozoa appear to shut down under these conditions before reaching the egg. PMID:25673561

  5. Mobile Phone Radiation Induces Reactive Oxygen Species Production and DNA Damage in Human Spermatozoa In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    De Iuliis, Geoffry N.; Newey, Rhiannon J.; King, Bruce V.; Aitken, R. John

    2009-01-01

    Background In recent times there has been some controversy over the impact of electromagnetic radiation on human health. The significance of mobile phone radiation on male reproduction is a key element of this debate since several studies have suggested a relationship between mobile phone use and semen quality. The potential mechanisms involved have not been established, however, human spermatozoa are known to be particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress by virtue of the abundant availability of substrates for free radical attack and the lack of cytoplasmic space to accommodate antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, the induction of oxidative stress in these cells not only perturbs their capacity for fertilization but also contributes to sperm DNA damage. The latter has, in turn, been linked with poor fertility, an increased incidence of miscarriage and morbidity in the offspring, including childhood cancer. In light of these associations, we have analyzed the influence of RF-EMR on the cell biology of human spermatozoa in vitro. Principal Findings Purified human spermatozoa were exposed to radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) tuned to 1.8 GHz and covering a range of specific absorption rates (SAR) from 0.4 W/kg to 27.5 W/kg. In step with increasing SAR, motility and vitality were significantly reduced after RF-EMR exposure, while the mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species and DNA fragmentation were significantly elevated (P<0.001). Furthermore, we also observed highly significant relationships between SAR, the oxidative DNA damage bio-marker, 8-OH-dG, and DNA fragmentation after RF-EMR exposure. Conclusions RF-EMR in both the power density and frequency range of mobile phones enhances mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation by human spermatozoa, decreasing the motility and vitality of these cells while stimulating DNA base adduct formation and, ultimately DNA fragmentation. These findings have clear implications for the safety of extensive mobile phone use by males of reproductive age, potentially affecting both their fertility and the health and wellbeing of their offspring. PMID:19649291

  6. Area production in supercritical, transitional mixing layers for reactive flow applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, J.; Okong'o, N.

    2002-01-01

    An investigation of surface area production is conducted for supercritical mixing layers; the results are relevant to flame area evolution and fluid disintegration. In this study, the surface is chosen perpendicular to the mass fraction gradient.

  7. Krebs Cycle Intermediates Modulate Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Species (TBARS) Production in Rat Brain In Vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robson L. Puntel; Cristina W. Nogueira; João B. T. Rocha

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Krebs cycle intermediates on basal and quinolinic acid (QA)- or iron-induced TBARS production in brain membranes. Oxaloacetate, citrate, succinate and malate reduced significantly the basal and QA-induced TBARS production. The potency for basal TBARS inhibition was in the order (IC50 is given in parenthesis as mM) citrate (0.37) > oxaloacetate (1.33) = succinate

  8. Effect of stationary magnetic field strengths of 150 and 200 mT on reactive oxygen species production in soybean.

    PubMed

    Shine, M B; Guruprasad, K N; Anand, Anjali

    2012-07-01

    Our previous investigation reported the beneficial effect of pre-sowing magnetic treatment for improving germination parameters and biomass accumulation in soybean. In this study, soybean seeds treated with static magnetic fields of 150 and 200 mT for 1 h were evaluated for reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activity of antioxidant enzymes. Superoxide and hydroxyl radicals were measured in embryos and hypocotyls of germinating seeds by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and kinetics of superoxide production; hydrogen peroxide and antioxidant activities were estimated spectrophotometrically. Magnetic field treatment resulted in enhanced production of ROS mediated by cell wall peroxidase while ascorbic acid content, superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase activity decreased in the hypocotyl of germinating seeds. An increase in the cytosolic peroxidase activity indicated that this antioxidant enzyme had a vital role in scavenging the increased H(2)O(2) produced in seedlings from the magnetically treated seeds. Hence, these studies contribute to our first report on the biochemical basis of enhanced germination and seedling growth in magnetically treated seeds of soybean in relation to increased production of ROS. PMID:22253132

  9. Optimization of supercritical methanol reactive extraction by response surface methodology and product characterization from Jatropha curcas L. seeds.

    PubMed

    Lim, Steven; Lee, Keat Teong

    2013-08-01

    In this study, optimization of supercritical reactive extraction directly from Jatropha seeds in a high pressure batch reactor using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) coupled with Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) was performed. Four primary variables (methanol to solid ratio (SSR), reaction temperature, time and CO2 initial pressure) were investigated under the proposed constraints. It was found that all variables had significant effects towards fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) yield. Moreover, three interaction effects between the variables also played a major role in influencing the final FAME yield. Optimum FAME yield at 92.0 wt.% was achieved under the following conditions: 5.9 SSR, 300°C, 12.3 min and 20 bar CO2. Final FAME product was discovered to fulfil existing international standard. Preliminary characterization analysis proved that the solid residue can be burnt as solid fuel in the form of biochar while the liquid product can be separated as specialty chemicals or burned as bio-oil for energy production. PMID:23735793

  10. Sanguinarine-induced apoptosis in lung adenocarcinoma cells is dependent on reactive oxygen species production and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Gu, Shuang; Yang, Xiao-Chun; Xiang, Xi-Yan; Wu, Yao; Zhang, Yu; Yan, Xiao-Yu; Xue, Ya-Nan; Sun, Lian-Kun; Shao, Guo-Guang

    2015-08-01

    Sanguinarine (SAN), an alkaloid isolated from plants of the Papaveraceae family, is a compound with multiple biological activities. In the present study, we explored the anticancer properties of SAN in lung cancer using the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line SPC-A1. Our results revealed that SAN inhibited SPC-A1 cell growth and induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. We found that SAN triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, while elimination of ROS by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) reversed the growth inhibition and apoptosis induced by SAN. SAN-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress resulted in the upregulation of many genes and proteins involved in the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway, including glucose?regulated protein 78 (GRP78), p-protein kinase R (PKR)-like ER kinase (PERK), p-eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2? (eIF2?), activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP). Blocking ER stress with tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) markedly reduced SAN-induced inhibition of growth and apoptosis. Furthermore, TUDCA decreased SAN-induced ROS production, and NAC attenuated SAN-induced GRP78 and CHOP expression. Overall, our data indicate that the anticancer effects of SAN in lung cancer cells depend on ROS production and ER stress and that SAN may be a potential agent against lung cancer. PMID:26081590

  11. Entropy and chemical change. 1: Characterization of product (and reactant) energy distributions in reactive molecular collisions: Information and enthropy deficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, R. B.; Levine, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    Optimal means of characterizing the distribution of product energy states resulting from reactive collisions of molecules with restricted distributions of initial states are considered, along with those for characterizing the particular reactant state distribution which yields a given set of product states at a specified total energy. It is suggested to represent the energy-dependence of global-type results in the form of square-faced bar plots, and of data for specific-type experiments as triangular-faced prismatic plots. The essential parameters defining the internal state distribution are isolated, and the information content of such a distribution is put on a quantitative basis. The relationship between the information content, the surprisal, and the entropy of the continuous distribution is established. The concept of an entropy deficiency, which characterizes the specificity of product state formation, is suggested as a useful measure of the deviance from statistical behavior. The degradation of information by experimental averaging is considered, leading to bounds on the entropy deficiency.

  12. Reactive processing of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in aqueous aerosol mimics: Surface tension depression and secondary organic products

    E-print Network

    Li, Zhi; Sareen, Neha; McNeill, V Faye

    2011-01-01

    The reactive uptake of carbonyl-containing volatile organic compounds (cVOCs) by aqueous atmospheric aerosols is a likely source of particulate organic material. The aqueous-phase secondary organic products of some cVOCs are surface-active. Therefore, cVOC uptake can lead to organic film formation at the gas-aerosol interface and changes in aerosol surface tension. We examined the chemical reactions of two abundant cVOCs, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, in water and aqueous ammonium sulfate (AS) solutions mimicking tropospheric aerosols. Secondary organic products were identified using Aerosol Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (Aerosol-CIMS), and changes in surface tension were monitored using pendant drop tensiometry. Hemiacetal oligomers and aldol condensation products were identified using Aerosol-CIMS. A hemiacetal sulfate ester was tentatively identified in the formaldehyde-AS system. Acetaldehyde depresses surface tension to 65(\\pm2) dyn/cm in pure water and 62(\\pm1) dyn/cm in AS solutions. Surface t...

  13. A quantitative method to monitor reactive oxygen species production by electron paramagnetic resonance in physiological and pathological conditions.

    PubMed

    Mrakic-Sposta, Simona; Gussoni, Maristella; Montorsi, Michela; Porcelli, Simone; Vezzoli, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    The growing interest in the role of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and in the assessment of oxidative stress in health and disease clashes with the lack of consensus on reliable quantitative noninvasive methods applicable. The study aimed at demonstrating that a recently developed Electron Paramagnetic Resonance microinvasive method provides direct evidence of the "instantaneous" presence of ROS returning absolute concentration levels that correlate with "a posteriori" assays of ROS-induced damage by means of biomarkers. The reliability of the choice to measure ROS production rate in human capillary blood rather than in plasma was tested (step I). A significant (P < 0.01) linear relationship between EPR data collected on capillary blood versus venous blood (R (2) = 0.95), plasma (R (2) = 0.82), and erythrocytes (R (2) = 0.73) was found. Then (step II) ROS production changes of various subjects' categories, young versus old and healthy versus pathological at rest condition, were found significantly different (range 0.0001-0.05 P level). The comparison of the results with antioxidant capacity and oxidative damage biomarkers concentrations showed that all changes indicating increased oxidative stress are directly related to ROS production increase. Therefore, the adopted method may be an automated technique for a lot of routine in clinical trials. PMID:25374651

  14. Multi-jet production rates in deep-inelastic muon-proton scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Salgado, C.W.

    1992-10-01

    Measurements of forward multi-jet production rates in deep-inelastic muonproton scattering are presented. Data were taken with a 490 GeV muon beam incident on a hydrogen target. Jets were defined using the JADE jet finding algorithm. The measured rates are presented as function of W, the hadronic center-of-mass energy and the jet resolution parameter, y[sub cut], in energies up to W=33 GeV. Good agreement is found in comparisons with predictions of the QCD-inspired Lund Monte Carlo models. Non-perturbative QCD production mechanisms, inside the Lund Model, can not reproduce the results for energies greater than W [approx equal] 20 GeV. Sensitivities of the jet rate measurements to the low x (x [approx equal] 0.02) gluon content of the nucleon and the evolution of [alpha][sub s], are studied.

  15. Multi-jet production rates in deep-inelastic muon-proton scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Salgado, C.W.; E665 Collaboration

    1992-10-01

    Measurements of forward multi-jet production rates in deep-inelastic muonproton scattering are presented. Data were taken with a 490 GeV muon beam incident on a hydrogen target. Jets were defined using the JADE jet finding algorithm. The measured rates are presented as function of W, the hadronic center-of-mass energy and the jet resolution parameter, y{sub cut}, in energies up to W=33 GeV. Good agreement is found in comparisons with predictions of the QCD-inspired Lund Monte Carlo models. Non-perturbative QCD production mechanisms, inside the Lund Model, can not reproduce the results for energies greater than W {approx_equal} 20 GeV. Sensitivities of the jet rate measurements to the low x (x {approx_equal} 0.02) gluon content of the nucleon and the evolution of {alpha}{sub s}, are studied.

  16. Measurement of Isolated Photon Production in Deep-Inelastic Scattering at HERA

    E-print Network

    H1 Collaboration

    2007-11-28

    The production of isolated photons in deep-inelastic scattering $ep\\to e \\gamma X$ is measured with the H1 detector at HERA. The measurement is performed in the kinematic range of negative four-momentum transfer squared $450$ GeV. The analysis is based on a total integrated luminosity of 227~pb$^{-1}$. The production cross section of isolatedphotons with a transverse energy in the range $3 measured as a function of $E_T^\\gamma$, $\\eta^\\gamma$ and $Q^2$. Isolated photon cross sections are also measured for events with no jets or at least one hadronic jet. The measurements are compared with predictions from Monte Carlo generators modelling the photon radiation from the quark and the electron lines, as well as with calculations at leading and next to leading order in the strong coupling. The predictions significantly underestimate the measured cross sections.

  17. Exclusive meson pair production in {gamma}*{gamma} scattering at small momentum transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Lansberg, J.P. [CPHT, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Physique Theorique Fondamentale, Universite de Liege, 17 Allee du 6 Aout, Bat. B5, B-4000 Liege-1 (Belgium); Pire, B. [CPHT, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Szymanowski, L. [Physique Theorique Fondamentale, Universite de Liege, 17 Allee du 6 Aout, Bat. B5, B-4000 Liege-1 (Belgium); Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw (Poland); LPT, Universite Paris-Sud, 91405, Orsay (France)

    2006-04-01

    We study the exclusive production of {pi}{pi} and {rho}{pi} in hard {gamma}*{gamma} scattering in the forward kinematical region where the virtuality of one photon provides us with a hard scale in the process. The newly introduced concept of Transition Distribution Amplitudes (TDA) is used to perform a QCD calculation of these reactions thanks to two simple models for TDAs. Cross sections for {rho}{pi} and {pi}{pi} production are evaluated and compared to the possible background from the Bremsstrahlung process. This picture may be tested at intense electron-positron colliders such as CLEO and B factories. The cross section e{gamma}{yields}e{sup '}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} is finally shown to provide a possible determination of the {pi}{sup 0} axial form factor, F{sub A}{sup {pi}{sup 0}}, at small t, which seems not to be measurable elsewhere.

  18. Measurement of D + and ? c + production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Abt, I.; Adamczyk, L.; Adamus, M.; Aggarwal, R.; Antonelli, S.; Antonioli, P.; Antonov, A.; Arneodo, M.; Aushev, V.; Aushev, Y.; Bachynska, O.; Bamberger, A.; Barakbaev, A. N.; Barbagli, G.; Bari, G.; Barreiro, F.; Bartsch, D.; Basile, M.; Behnke, O.; Behr, J.; Behrens, U.; Bellagamba, L.; Bertolin, A.; Bhadra, S.; Bindi, M.; Blohm, C.; Bold, T.; Boos, E. G.; Borodin, M.; Borras, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bot, D.; Boutle, S. K.; Brock, I.; Brownson, E.; Brugnera, R.; Brümmer, N.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Brzozowska, B.; Bussey, P. J.; Butterworth, J. M.; Bylsma, B.; Caldwell, A.; Capua, M.; Carlin, R.; Catterall, C. D.; Chekanov, S.; Chwastowski, J.; Ciborowski, J.; Ciesielski, R.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Coppola, N.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Costa, M.; D'Agostini, G.; Dal Corso, F.; de Favereau, J.; Del Peso, J.; Dementiev, R. K.; de Pasquale, S.; Derrick, M.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Dobur, D.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Doyle, A. T.; Drugakov, V.; Durkin, L. S.; Dusini, S.; Eisenberg, Y.; Ermolov, P. F.; Eskreys, A.; Fang, S.; Fazio, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrero, M. I.; Figiel, J.; Forrest, M.; Foster, B.; Fourletov, S.; Gach, G.; Galas, A.; Gallo, E.; Garfagnini, A.; Geiser, A.; Gialas, I.; Gladilin, L. K.; Gladkov, D.; Glasman, C.; Gogota, O.; Golubkov, Yu. A.; Göttlicher, P.; Grabowska-Bo?d, I.; Grebenyuk, J.; Gregor, I.; Grigorescu, G.; Grzelak, G.; Gwenlan, C.; Haas, T.; Hain, W.; Hamatsu, R.; Hart, J. C.; Hartmann, H.; Hartner, G.; Hilger, E.; Hochman, D.; Holm, U.; Hori, R.; Horton, K.; Hüttmann, A.; Iacobucci, G.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Iga, Y.; Ingbir, R.; Ishitsuka, M.; Jakob, H.-P.; Januschek, F.; Jimenez, M.; Jones, T. W.; Jüngst, M.; Kadenko, I.; Kahle, B.; Kamaluddin, B.; Kananov, S.; Kanno, T.; Karshon, U.; Karstens, F.; Katkov, I. I.; Kaur, M.; Kaur, P.; Keramidas, A.; Khein, L. A.; Kim, J. Y.; Kisielewska, D.; Kitamura, S.; Klanner, R.; Klein, U.; Koffeman, E.; Kollar, D.; Kooijman, P.; Korol, Ie.; Korzhavina, I. A.; Kota?ski, A.; Kötz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Kulinski, P.; Kuprash, O.; Kuze, M.; Lee, A.; Levchenko, B. B.; Levy, A.; Libov, V.; Limentani, S.; Ling, T. Y.; Lisovyi, M.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lohmann, W.; Löhr, B.; Lohrmann, E.; Loizides, J. H.; Long, K. R.; Longhin, A.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Lukina, O. Yu.; ?u?niak, P.; Maeda, J.; Magill, S.; Makarenko, I.; Malka, J.; Mankel, R.; Margotti, A.; Marini, G.; Martin, J. F.; Mastroberardino, A.; Matsumoto, T.; Mattingly, M. C. K.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Miglioranzi, S.; Mohamad Idris, F.; Monaco, V.; Montanari, A.; Morris, J. D.; Musgrave, B.; Nagano, K.; Namsoo, T.; Nania, R.; Nicholass, D.; Nigro, A.; Ning, Y.; Noor, U.; Notz, D.; Nowak, R. J.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A. E.; Oh, B. Y.; Okazaki, N.; Oliver, K.; Olkiewicz, K.; Onishchuk, Yu.; Ota, O.; Papageorgiu, K.; Parenti, A.; Paul, E.; Pawlak, J. M.; Pawlik, B.; Pelfer, P. G.; Pellegrino, A.; Perlanski, W.; Perrey, H.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Plucinski, P.; Pokrovskiy, N. S.; Polini, A.; P Roskuryakov, A. S.; Przybycie?, M.; Raval, A.; Reeder, D. D.; Reisert, B.; Ren, Z.; Repond, J.; Ri, Y. D.; Robertson, A.; Roloff, P.; Ron, E.; Rubinsky, I.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Salii, A.; Samson, U.; Sartorelli, G.; Savin, A. A.; Saxon, D. H.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schleper, P.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schneekloth, U.; Schönberg, V.; Schörner-Sadenius, T.; Schwartz, J.; Sciulli, F.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Shehzadi, R.; Shimizu, S.; Singh, I.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Slomi?ski, W.; Smith, W. H.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Son, D.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Spiridonov, A.; Stadie, H.; Stanco, L.; Stern, A.; Stewart, T. P.; Stifutkin, A.; Stopa, P.; Suchkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Suszycki, L.; Sztuk, J.; Szuba, D.; Szuba, J.; Tapper, A. D.; Tassi, E.; Terrón, J.; Theedt, T.; Tiecke, H.; Tokushuku, K.; Tomalak, O.; Tomaszewska, J.; Tsurugai, T.; Turcato, M.; Tymieniecka, T.; Uribe-Estrada, C.; Vázquez, M.; Verbytskyi, A.; Viazlo, O.; Vlasov, N. N.; Volynets, O.; Walczak, R.; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Whitmore, J. J.; Whyte, J.; Wiggers, L.; Wing, M.; Wlasenko, M.; Wolf, G.; Wolfe, H.; Wrona, K.; Yagües-Molina, A. A.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yoshida, R.; Youngman, C.; ?arnecki, A. A.; Zawiejski, L.; Zenaiev, O.; Zeuner, W.; Zhautykov, B. O.; Zhmak, N.; Zhou, C.; Zichichi, A.; Zolko, M.; Zotkin, D. S.; Zulkapli, Z.

    2010-11-01

    Charm production in deep inelastic scattering has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 120 pb-1. The hadronic decay channels D + ? K S 0 ? +, ? c + ? pK S 0 and ? c + ? ? ? +, and their charge conjugates, were reconstructed. The presence of a neutral strange hadron in the final state reduces the combinatorial background and extends the measured sensitivity into the low transverse momentum region. The kinematic range is 0 < p T ( D +, ? c +) < 10 GeV, | ?( D +, ? c +)| < 1 .6, 1.5 < Q 2 < 1000 GeV2 and 0 .02 < y < 0.7. Inclusive and differential cross sections for the production of D + mesons are compared to next-to-leading-order QCD predictions. The fraction of c quarks hadronising into ? c + baryons is extracted.

  19. Inclusive D*± meson and associated dijet production in deep-inelastic scattering at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aktas, A.; Andreev, V.; Anthonis, T.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Beckingham, M.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J. C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Büsser, F. W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A. J.; Cantun Avila, K. B.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J. G.; Coughlan, J. A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Daum, K.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; de Roeck, A.; de Wolf, E. A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Essenov, S.; Falkewicz, A.; Faulkner, P. J. W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Flucke, G.; Fomenko, A.; Franke, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Garutti, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Ginzburgskaya, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregori, M.; Grell, B. R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K. H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Hussain, S.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jönsson, L.; Johnson, D. P.; Jung, A. W.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Knutsson, A.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Krüger, K.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Laštovi?ka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lueders, H.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, L.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A. B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Mladenov, D.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J. V.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, T.; Newman, P. R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J. E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, T.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Pla?akyt?, R.; Povh, B.; Prideaux, P.; Rahmat, A. J.; Raicevic, N.; Reimer, P.; Rimmer, A.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schöning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R. N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, I.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Stoilov, A.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P. D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T. N.; Truöl, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Usik, A.; Utkin, D.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Wacker, K.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Wessels, M.; Wissing, C.; Wolf, R.; Wünsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yan, W.; Yeganov, V.; Žá?ek, J.; Zálešák, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zimmermann, J.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2007-07-01

    Inclusive D*± production is measured in deep-inelastic ep scattering at HERA with the H1 detector. In addition, the production of dijets in events with a D*± meson is investigated. The analysis covers values of photon virtuality 2 ? Q2 ? 100 GeV2 and of inelasticity 0.05?y?0.7. Differential cross sections are measured as a function of Q2 and x and of various D*± meson and jet observables. Within the experimental and theoretical uncertainties all measured cross sections are found to be adequately described by next-to-leading order (NLO) QCD calculations, based on the photon-gluon fusion process and DGLAP evolution, without the need for an additional resolved component of the photon beyond what is included at NLO. A reasonable description of the data is also achieved by a prediction based on the CCFM evolution of partons involving the kT-unintegrated gluon distribution of the proton.

  20. Transverse spin effects in hadron-pair production from semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adolph, C.; Alekseev, M. G.; Alexakhin, V. Yu.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Alexeev, G. D.; Amoroso, A.; Antonov, A. A.; Austregesilo, A.; Bade?ek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bertini, R.; Bettinelli, M.; Bicker, K.; Bieling, J.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Burtin, E.; Chaberny, D.; Chiosso, M.; Chung, S. U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M. L.; Dalla Torre, S.; Das, S.; Dasgupta, S. S.; Denisov, O. Yu.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S. V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dünnweber, W.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Elia, C.; Eversheim, P. D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Filin, A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N.; Friedrich, J. M.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O. P.; Gazda, R.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gnesi, I.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Grabmüller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Gushterski, R.; Guskov, A.; Guthörl, T.; Haas, F.; von Harrach, D.; Heinsius, F. H.; Herrmann, F.; Heß, C.; Hinterberger, F.; Horikawa, N.; Höppner, Ch.; d'Hose, N.; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, O.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jasinski, P.; Joosten, R.; Kabuß, E.; Kang, D.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G. V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koblitz, S.; Koivuniemi, J. H.; Kolosov, V. N.; Kondo, K.; Königsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V. F.; Korzenev, A.; Kotzinian, A. M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krämer, M.; Kroumchtein, Z. V.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Lauser, L.; Lednev, A. A.; Lehmann, A.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G. K.; Mann, A.; Marchand, C.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Massmann, F.; Matsuda, T.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mielech, A.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Moinester, M. A.; Morreale, A.; Mutter, A.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Negrini, T.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V. I.; Nowak, W. D.; Nunes, A. S.; Olshevsky, A. G.; Ostrick, M.; Padee, A.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Perevalova, E.; Pesaro, G.; Peshekhonov, D. V.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V. A.; Pontecorvo, G.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Rajotte, J.-F.; Ramos, S.; Rapatsky, V.; Reicherz, G.; Richter, A.; Rocco, E.; Rondio, E.; Rossiyskaya, N. S.; Ryabchikov, D. I.; Samoylenko, V. D.; Sandacz, A.; Sapozhnikov, M. G.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I. A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schlüter, T.; Schmidt, K.; Schmitt, L.; Schönning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Schott, M.; Shevchenko, O. Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sissakian, A. N.; Slunecka, M.; Smirnov, G. I.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Ter Wolbeek, J.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Tkatchev, L. G.; Uhl, S.; Uman, I.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Virius, M.; Vlassov, N. V.; Vossen, A.; Wang, L.; Windmolders, R.; Wi?licki, W.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zhuravlev, N.; Zvyagin, A.

    2012-06-01

    First measurements of azimuthal asymmetries in hadron-pair production in deep-inelastic scattering of muons on transversely polarised LiD6 (deuteron) and NH3 (proton) targets are presented. The data were taken in the years 2002-2004 and 2007 with the COMPASS spectrometer using a muon beam of 160 GeV/c at the CERN SPS. The asymmetries provide access to the transversity distribution functions, without involving the Collins effect as in single hadron production. The sizeable asymmetries measured on the NH3 target indicate non-vanishing u-quark transversity and two-hadron interference fragmentation functions. The small asymmetries measured on the LiD6 target can be interpreted as indication for a cancellation of u- and d-quark transversities.

  1. Phenylethynyl reactive diluents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G. (inventor.); Jensen, Brian J. (inventor.); Hergenrother, Paul M. (inventor.)

    1995-01-01

    A composition of matter having a specified general structure is employed to terminate a nucleophilic reagent, resulting in the exclusive production of phenylethynyl terminated reactive oligomers which display unique thermal characteristics. A reactive diluent having a specified general structure is employed to decrease the melt viscosity of a phenylethynyl terminated reactive oligomer and to subsequently react with to provide a thermosetting material of enhanced density. These materials have features which make them attractive candidates for use as composite matrices and adhesives.

  2. Measurement of leading neutron production in deep-inelastic scattering at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaron, F. D.; Alexa, C.; Andreev, V.; Antunovic, B.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Begzsuren, K.; Belousov, A.; Bizot, J. C.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A. J.; Cantun Avila, K. B.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J. G.; Coughlan, J. A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Daum, K.; Deák, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delvax, J.; de Wolf, E. A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Falkiewicz, A.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Fischer, D.-J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B. R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Hennekemper, E.; Henschel, H.; Herbst, M.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K. H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, X.; Jönsson, L.; Jung, A. W.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Kogler, R.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Krüger, K.; Kutak, K.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Laštovi?ka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, L.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meyer, A. B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J. V.; Mozer, M. U.; Mudrinic, M.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P. R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Olsson, J. E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Pahl, P.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Pejchal, O.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Pla?akyt?, R.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A. J.; Raicevic, N.; Raspiareza, A.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Ruiz Tabasco, J. E.; Rusakov, S.; Šálek, D.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmitt, S.; Schoeffel, L.; Schöning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R. N.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Shushkevich, S.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, I.; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stoicea, G.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P. D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T. H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T. N.; Truöl, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Turnau, J.; Urban, K.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; von den Driesch, M.; Wegener, D.; Wissing, C.; Wünsch, E.; Žá?ek, J.; Zálešák, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.; H1 Collaboration

    2010-08-01

    The production of leading neutrons, where the neutron carries a large fraction x L of the incoming proton’s longitudinal momentum, is studied in deep-inelastic positron-proton scattering at HERA. The data were taken with the H1 detector in the years 2006 and 2007 and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 122 pb-1. The semi-inclusive cross section is measured in the phase space defined by the photon virtuality 6< Q 2<100 GeV2, Bjorken scaling variable 1.5?10-4< x<3?10-2, longitudinal momentum fraction 0.32< x L <0.95 and neutron transverse momentum p T <0.2 GeV. The leading neutron structure function, F2^{LN(3)}(Q2,x,xL), and the fraction of deep-inelastic scattering events containing a leading neutron are studied as a function of Q 2, x and x L . Assuming that the pion exchange mechanism dominates leading neutron production, the data provide constraints on the shape of the pion structure function.

  3. Land, irrigation water, greenhouse gas, and reactive nitrogen burdens of meat, eggs, and dairy production in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Eshel, Gidon; Shepon, Alon; Makov, Tamar; Milo, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Livestock production impacts air and water quality, ocean health, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on regional to global scales and it is the largest use of land globally. Quantifying the environmental impacts of the various livestock categories, mostly arising from feed production, is thus a grand challenge of sustainability science. Here, we quantify land, irrigation water, and reactive nitrogen (Nr) impacts due to feed production, and recast published full life cycle GHG emission estimates, for each of the major animal-based categories in the US diet. Our calculations reveal that the environmental costs per consumed calorie of dairy, poultry, pork, and eggs are mutually comparable (to within a factor of 2), but strikingly lower than the impacts of beef. Beef production requires 28, 11, 5, and 6 times more land, irrigation water, GHG, and Nr, respectively, than the average of the other livestock categories. Preliminary analysis of three staple plant foods shows two- to sixfold lower land, GHG, and Nr requirements than those of the nonbeef animal-derived calories, whereas irrigation requirements are comparable. Our analysis is based on the best data currently available, but follow-up studies are necessary to improve parameter estimates and fill remaining knowledge gaps. Data imperfections notwithstanding, the key conclusion—that beef production demands about 1 order of magnitude more resources than alternative livestock categories—is robust under existing uncertainties. The study thus elucidates the multiple environmental benefits of potential, easy-to-implement dietary changes, and highlights the uniquely high resource demands of beef. PMID:25049416

  4. Reactive Oxygen Species-Dependent Nitric Oxide Production Contributes to Hydrogen-Promoted Stomatal Closure in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yanjie; Mao, Yu; Zhang, Wei; Lai, Diwen; Wang, Qingya; Shen, Wenbiao

    2014-04-14

    The signaling role of hydrogen gas (H2) has attracted increasing attention from animals to plants. However, the physiological significance and molecular mechanism of H2 in drought tolerance are still largely unexplored. In this article, we report that abscisic acid (ABA) induced stomatal closure in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) by triggering intracellular signaling events involving H2, reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), and the guard cell outward-rectifying K(+) channel (GORK). ABA elicited a rapid and sustained H2 release and production in Arabidopsis. Exogenous hydrogen-rich water (HRW) effectively led to an increase of intracellular H2 production, a reduction in the stomatal aperture, and enhanced drought tolerance. Subsequent results revealed that HRW stimulated significant inductions of NO and ROS synthesis associated with stomatal closure in the wild type, which were individually abolished in the nitric reductase mutant nitrate reductase1/2 (nia1/2) or the NADPH oxidase-deficient mutant rbohF (for respiratory burst oxidase homolog). Furthermore, we demonstrate that the HRW-promoted NO generation is dependent on ROS production. The rbohF mutant had impaired NO synthesis and stomatal closure in response to HRW, while these changes were rescued by exogenous application of NO. In addition, both HRW and hydrogen peroxide failed to induce NO production or stomatal closure in the nia1/2 mutant, while HRW-promoted ROS accumulation was not impaired. In the GORK-null mutant, stomatal closure induced by ABA, HRW, NO, or hydrogen peroxide was partially suppressed. Together, these results define a main branch of H2-regulated stomatal movement involved in the ABA signaling cascade in which RbohF-dependent ROS and nitric reductase-associated NO production, and subsequent GORK activation, were causally involved. PMID:24733882

  5. Reactive Oxygen Species-Dependent Nitric Oxide Production Contributes to Hydrogen-Promoted Stomatal Closure in Arabidopsis1[W

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yanjie; Mao, Yu; Zhang, Wei; Lai, Diwen; Wang, Qingya; Shen, Wenbiao

    2014-01-01

    The signaling role of hydrogen gas (H2) has attracted increasing attention from animals to plants. However, the physiological significance and molecular mechanism of H2 in drought tolerance are still largely unexplored. In this article, we report that abscisic acid (ABA) induced stomatal closure in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) by triggering intracellular signaling events involving H2, reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), and the guard cell outward-rectifying K+ channel (GORK). ABA elicited a rapid and sustained H2 release and production in Arabidopsis. Exogenous hydrogen-rich water (HRW) effectively led to an increase of intracellular H2 production, a reduction in the stomatal aperture, and enhanced drought tolerance. Subsequent results revealed that HRW stimulated significant inductions of NO and ROS synthesis associated with stomatal closure in the wild type, which were individually abolished in the nitric reductase mutant nitrate reductase1/2 (nia1/2) or the NADPH oxidase-deficient mutant rbohF (for respiratory burst oxidase homolog). Furthermore, we demonstrate that the HRW-promoted NO generation is dependent on ROS production. The rbohF mutant had impaired NO synthesis and stomatal closure in response to HRW, while these changes were rescued by exogenous application of NO. In addition, both HRW and hydrogen peroxide failed to induce NO production or stomatal closure in the nia1/2 mutant, while HRW-promoted ROS accumulation was not impaired. In the GORK-null mutant, stomatal closure induced by ABA, HRW, NO, or hydrogen peroxide was partially suppressed. Together, these results define a main branch of H2-regulated stomatal movement involved in the ABA signaling cascade in which RbohF-dependent ROS and nitric reductase-associated NO production, and subsequent GORK activation, were causally involved. PMID:24733882

  6. Recent advances and open questions in neutrino-induced quasi-elastic scattering and single photon production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvey, G. T.; Harris, D. A.; Tanaka, H. A.; Tayloe, R.; Zeller, G. P.

    2015-06-01

    The study of neutrino-nucleus interactions has recently seen rapid development with a new generation of accelerator-based neutrino experiments employing medium and heavy nuclear targets for the study of neutrino oscillations. A few unexpected results in the study of quasi-elastic scattering and single photon production have spurred a revisiting of the underlying nuclear physics and connections to electron-nucleus scattering. A thorough understanding and resolution of these issues is essential for future progress in the study of neutrino oscillations. A recent workshop hosted by the Institute of Nuclear Theory at the University of Washington (INT-13-54W) examined experimental and theoretical developments in neutrino-nucleus interactions and related measurements from electron and pion scattering. We summarize the discussions at the workshop pertaining to the aforementioned issues in quasi-elastic scattering and single photon production, particularly where there was consensus on the highest priority issues to be resolved and the path towards resolving them.

  7. Measurement of reactive oxygen intermediate production in haemocytes of the penaeid shrimp, Penaeus vannamei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcelo Muñoz; Ricardo Cedeño; Jenny Rodr??guez; Wil P. W van der Knaap; Eric Mialhe; Evelyne Bachère

    2000-01-01

    A spectrophotometric nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction assay was used to demonstrate the production of superoxide anions (O2?) by haemocytes of the white shrimp Penaeus vannamei. It was found that haemocytes, without receiving an experimental stimulant, showed a rather high background activity. Therefore, optimal parameters (number of haemocytes, type of incubation medium, type and concentration of stimulants) were first established, in

  8. ORGANIC MATTER REACTIVITY SURROGATE FOR THE ESTIMATION OF DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS FORMATION POTENTIAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water must have a total organic carbon (TOC) method that can meet the monitoring requirements as originally proposed in the Stage 1, Disinfection By-Products (D/DBP) Rule, as stated in the Federal Register. Research under this task, th...

  9. Photosensitized Production of Atmospherically Reactive Organic Compounds at the Air/Aqueous Interface

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report on experiments that probe photosensitized chemistry at the air/water interface, a region that does not just connect the two phases but displays its own specific chemistry. Here, we follow reactions of octanol, a proxy for environmentally relevant soluble surfactants, initiated by an attack by triplet-state carbonyl compounds, which are themselves concentrated at the interface by the presence of this surfactant. Gas-phase products are determined using PTR-ToF-MS, and those remaining in the organic layer are determined by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and HPLC-HRMS. We observe the photosensitized production of carboxylic acids as well as unsaturated and branched-chain oxygenated products, compounds that act as organic aerosol precursors and had been thought to be produced solely by biological activity. A mechanism that is consistent with the observations is detailed here, and the energetics of several key reactions are calculated using quantum chemical methods. The results suggest that the concentrating nature of the interface leads to its being a favorable venue for radical reactions yielding complex and functionalized products that themselves could initiate further secondary chemistry and new particle formation in the atmospheric environment. PMID:26068588

  10. Spatial Coordination of Aluminum Uptake, Production of Reactive Oxygen Species, Callose Production and Wall Rigidification in Maize Roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aluminum toxicity associated with acid soils represents one of the biggest limitations to crop production worldwide. Although Al specifically inhibits the elongation of root cells, the exact mechanism by which this growth reduction occurs remains controversial. The aim of this study was to investiga...

  11. Coal char reactivity as a fuel selection criterion for coal-based hydrogen-rich gas production in the process of steam gasification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam Smoli?ski

    2011-01-01

    The fuel’s reactivity can be defined as a parameter determining its processability in thermochemical processes applied to convert them into energy and\\/or energy carriers. It depends on many factors, like chemical composition and physical properties of a fuel as well as process parameters. As such it may provide important information on the process results in terms of product output and

  12. Eicosanoids up-regulate production of reactive oxygen species by NADPH-dependent oxidase in Spodoptera exigua phagocytic hemocytes.

    PubMed

    Park, Youngjin; Stanley, David W; Kim, Yonggyun

    2015-08-01

    Eicosanoids mediate cellular immune responses in insects, including phagocytosis of invading microbes. Phagocytosis entails two major steps, the internalization of microbes and the subsequent killing of them via formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we posed the hypothesis that eicosanoids mediate ROS production by activating NADPH-dependent oxidase (NOX) and tested the idea in the model insect, Spodoptera exigua. A NOX gene (we named SeNOX4) was identified and cloned, yielding a full open reading frame encoding 547 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 63,410Da and an isoelectric point at 9.28. A transmembrane domain and a large intracellular domain containing NADPH and FAD-binding sites were predicted. Phylogenetic analysis indicated SeNOX4 clusters with other NOX4 genes. SeNOX4 was expressed in all life stages except eggs, and exclusively in hemocytes. Bacterial challenge and, separately, arachidonic acid (AA, a precursor of eicosanoid biosynthesis) injection increased its expression. The internalization step was assessed by counting hemocytes engulfing fluorescence-labeled bacteria. The phagocytic behavior was inhibited by dsRNA suppression of SeNOX4 expression and, separately by dexamethasone (DEX, a specific inhibitor of eicosanoid biosynthesis) treatments. However, injecting AA to dsSeNOX4-treated larvae did not rescue the phagocytic activity. Hemocytic ROS production increased following bacterial challenge, which was sharply reduced in dsSeNOX4-treated, and separately, in DEX-treated larvae. AA partially reversed the suppressed ROS production in dsSeNOX4-treated larvae. Treating larvae with either the ROS-suppressing dsSeNOX4 construct or DEX rendered experimental larvae unable to inhibit bacterial proliferation in their hemocoels. We infer that eicosanoids mediate ROS production during phagocytosis by inducing expression of SeNOX4. PMID:26071791

  13. Different characteristics of reactive oxygen species production by human keratinocyte cell line cells in response to allergens and irritants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Byamba, Dashlkhumbe; Wu, Wen H; Kim, Tae-Gyun; Lee, Min-Geol

    2012-02-01

    Keratinocytes mount immune responses through the secretion of a variety of inflammatory cytokines, soluble proteins and reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the role of ROS in keratinocytes in response to allergens and irritants has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the (i) ROS production; (ii) potential sites of ROS production; (iii) expression of cell surface molecules; (iv) secretion of cytokines; and (v) ROS-dependent protein carbonylation in chemical-treated human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) cells. Treatment of HaCaT cells with 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and benzalkonium chloride (BKC) increased ROS levels in a time- and dose-dependent manner, as determined with dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (CM-H(2) DCFDA), without reducing cell viability. Potential sources of ROS production were evaluated with pretreatment of diphenylene iodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase; rotenone, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial electron transport chain complex or allopurinol, a xanthine oxidase inhibitor. The DNCB-induced ROS was related to both NADPH oxidase and mitochondrial electron transport chain complex. Conversely, BKC-induced ROS was related to NADPH oxidase only. Western blotting using an anti-DNP antibody revealed ROS-dependent protein carbonylation in response to DNCB but not BKC. Both DNCB and BKC increased the secretion of IL-1? from HaCaT cells; however, ROS production as well as other changes, except DNCB-induced secretion of IL-1?, was not inhibited by antioxidants. Although the role of ROS in keratinocytes in response to chemicals was inconclusive, our results suggest that the characteristics of ROS produced by keratinocytes in response to chemicals might differ. PMID:22141451

  14. Key side products due to reactivity of dimethylmaleoyl moiety as amine protective group

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mijoon Lee; Dusan Hesek; Bruce C. Noll; Shahriar Mobashery

    2009-01-01

    Dimethylmaleoyl (DMM) moiety has become an important amine protective group in sugar chemistry. We disclose herein that DMM-containing\\u000a D-glucosamine analogues, because of their electrophilic nature, are prone to reactions with strong nucleophiles, such as hydrazine,\\u000a resulting in a set of undesired side products that are difficult to detect, yet proved to be problematic for organic synthesis.

  15. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in human microvascular endothelial cells: role in endothelial permeability

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Yong; Ducatman, Alan; Ward, Rebecca; Leonard, Steve; Bukowski, Valerie; Guo, Nancy Lan; Shi, Xianglin; Vallyathan, Val; Castranova, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a member of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) containing an 8-carbon backbone. PFOS is a man-made chemical with carbon-fluorine bonds that are one of the strongest in organic chemistry and widely used in industry. Human occupational and environmental exposure to PFOS occurs globally. PFOS is non-biodegradable and persistent in the human body and environment. In this study, data demonstrated that exposure of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC) to PFOS induced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) at both high and low concentrations. Morphologically, it was found that exposure to PFOS induced actin filament remodeling and endothelial permeability changes in HMVEC. Furthermore, data demonstrated the production of ROS plays a regulatory role in PFOS-induced actin filament remodeling and the increase in endothelial permeability. Our results indicate that the generation of ROS may play a role in PFOS-induced aberrations of the endothelial permeability barrier. The results generated from this study may provide a new insight into the potential adverse effects of PFOS exposure on humans at the cellular level. PMID:20391123

  16. A common mechanism links differently acting complex II inhibitors to cardioprotection: modulation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production.

    PubMed

    Dröse, Stefan; Bleier, Lea; Brandt, Ulrich

    2011-05-01

    In this study, we have analyzed the effect of different cardioprotective complex II inhibitors on the mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) because ROS seem to be essential for signaling during preconditioning to prevent ischemia/reperfusion injury. Despite different binding sites and concentrations required for half-maximal inhibition-ranging from nanomolar for the Q site inhibitor atpenin A5 to millimolar for the succinate analog malonate-all inhibitors modulated ROS production in the same ambivalent fashion: they promoted the generation of superoxide at the Q(o) site of complex III under conditions of "oxidant-induced reduction" but attenuated ROS generated at complex I due to reverse electron transfer. All inhibitors showed these ambivalent effects independent of the presence of K(+). These findings suggest a direct modulation of mitochondrial ROS generation during cardioprotection via complex II inhibition and question the recently proposed role of complex II as a regulatory component of the putative mitochondrial K(ATP) channel. PMID:21278232

  17. Oxygen therapy does not increase production and damage induced by reactive oxygen species in focal cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li; Wolferts, Guido; Veltkamp, Roland

    2014-08-01

    Oxygen therapy with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) or normobaric hyperoxia (NBO) improves outcome in experimental cerebral ischemia. However, an increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may be an undesirable side effect of oxygen therapy. We investigated the effect of both oxygen therapies on ROS production and adverse effects in murine focal ischemia. 25 min after 90 min filament-induced middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), mice breathed either air, 100% O2 (NBO), or 100% O2 at 3 ata (HBO) for 60 min. ROS were depicted on tissue sections after preischemic injection of hydroethidine, a marker of in vivo superoxide production. Moreover, infarct sizes were quantified in experiments using peroxybutinitrite (PBN) in mice treated with HBO. Effects of oxygen therapy were also tested in superoxide 2 knock-out mice. Both NBO and HBO significantly reduced superoxide radicals compared to air. Application of PBN had no additional protective effect when combined with HBO. Infarct volumes did not differ among SOD2 knock-out mice receiving air (34.0 ± 19.6mm(3)), NBO (35.4 ± 14.3mm(3)) or HBO (33.4 ± 12.2mm(3)). In conclusion, brief episodes of oxygen therapy do not appear to promote damage inflicted by ROS in experimental stroke. PMID:24909618

  18. Production of laccase from Pleurotus florida using agro-wastes and efficient decolorization of Reactive blue 198.

    PubMed

    Sathishkumar, P; Murugesan, K; Palvannan, T

    2010-08-01

    Pleurotus florida NCIM 1243 produced laccase as the dominant lignolytic enzyme during the dye decolorization. Banana peel was the best substrate for extracellular laccase production under solid state fermentation when compared to mandarin peel and cantaloupe peel. The maximum activity of laccase (5.4 U/g) was detected on the 10 day. The ratio of banana peel: mandarin peel: cantaloupe peel (5:2:3) showed increased production of laccase (6.8 U/g). P. florida produced two extracellular laccase isoenzymes (L1 and L2). The half life of laccase at 60 degrees C was 2 h and at 4 h it retained 25% residual activity. P. florida laccase showed high thermostability and an interesting difference was noticed in the behavior of laccase isoenzymes at different temperature. The L1 isoenzyme of laccase showed remarked thermostability at 60 degrees C in the native PAGE when compared to L2 isoenzyme. The optimum pH, temperature and enzyme concentration for maximum decolorization was found to be 4.5, 60 degrees C and 1.2 U/ml, respectively. Partially purified laccase enzyme showed excellent decolorization activity to Reactive blue 198. The maximum decolorization (96%) was observed at lower dye concentrations (50-100 ppm) which decreased markedly when the dye concentration was increased beyond 150 ppm. The thermostable laccase of P. florida could be effectively used to decolorize the synthetic dyes in the textile effluent and other biotechnological applications. PMID:20586068

  19. Individual differences in trait motivational reactivity influence children and adolescents' responses to pictures of taboo products.

    PubMed

    Lang, Annie; Lee, Sungkyoung

    2014-09-01

    This study examined how children and adolescents respond to pictures of products whose use, for them, is socially or legally restricted (e.g., beer, liquor, cigarettes). It was theorized and found that these pictures, referred to as taboo, elicit an automatic motivational activation whose direction and intensity are influenced by age and individual differences in defensive system activation. Results show that 11-12-year-old children demonstrate primarily aversive responses to taboo products, 13-15-year-old children have less aversive responses, and 16-17-year-old children have mixed appetitive and aversive motivational responses. Further, those with high defensive system activation show larger aversive and smaller appetitive responses across the age groups. These results suggest that placing pictures of these products in prevention messages may work for the prevention goal of reduced experimentation and risk in younger children but against the prevention goal for the older children who may be more likely to be exposed to opportunities for experimentation and use. PMID:24730592

  20. Gelidium elegans, an edible red seaweed, and hesperidin inhibit lipid accumulation and production of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species in 3T3-L1 and RAW264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hui-Jeon; Seo, Min-Jung; Choi, Hyeon-Son; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2014-11-01

    Gelidium elegans is an edible red alga native to the intertidal area of northeastern Asia. We investigated the effect of G.?elegans extract and its main flavonoids, rutin and hesperidin, on lipid accumulation and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in 3T3-L1 and RAW264.7 cells. Our data show that G.?elegans extract decreased lipid accumulation and ROS/RNS production in a dose-dependent manner. The extract also inhibited the mRNA expression of adipogenic transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha, while enhancing the protein expression of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutases 1 and 2, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase compared with controls. In addition, lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production was significantly reduced in G.?elegans extract-treated RAW264.7 cells. In analysis of the effects of G.?elegans flavonoids on lipid accumulation and ROS/RNS production, only hesperidin showed an inhibitory effect on lipid accumulation and ROS production; rutin did not affect adipogenesis and ROS status. The antiadipogenic effect of hesperidin was evidenced by the downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha, and fatty acid binding protein 4 gene expression. Collectively, our data suggest that G.?elegans is a potential food source containing antiobesity and antioxidant constituents. PMID:24930594

  1. Properties of inclusive hadron production in deep inelastic scattering on heavy nuclei at low x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuchin, Kirill; Wu, Dajing

    2012-06-01

    We present a comprehensive study of inclusive hadron production in deep inelastic scattering (DIS) at low x. Properties of the hadron spectrum are different in different kinematic regions formed by three relevant momentum scales: photon virtuality Q2, hadron transverse momentum kT and the saturation momentum Qs(x). We investigate each kinematic region and derive the corresponding asymptotic formulas for the cross section at the leading logarithmic order. We also analyze the next-to-leading-order corrections to the Balitski?-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov kernel that are responsible for the momentum conservation. In particular, we establish the asymptotic behavior of the forward elastic dipole-nucleus scattering amplitude at high energies deeply in the saturation regime and a modification of the pomeron intercept. We study the nuclear effect on the inclusive cross section using the nuclear modification factor and its logarithmic derivative. We argue that the later is proportional to the difference between the anomalous dimension of the gluon distribution in nucleus and in proton and thus is a direct measure of the coherence effects. To augment our arguments and present quantitative results we performed numerical calculations in the kinematic region that may be accessible by the future DIS experiments.

  2. Single-Inclusive Production of Hadrons and Jets in Lepton-Nucleon Scattering at NLO

    E-print Network

    Patriz Hinderer; Marc Schlegel; Werner Vogelsang

    2015-05-29

    We present next-to-leading order (NLO) perturbative-QCD calculations of the cross sections for $\\ell N\\to h X$ and $\\ell N\\to \\mathrm{jet}\\, X$. The main feature of these processes is that the scattered lepton is not observed, so that the hard scale that makes them perturbative is set by the transverse momentum of the hadron or jet. Kinematically, the two processes thus become direct analogs of single-inclusive production in hadronic collisions which, as has been pointed out in the literature, makes them promising tools for exploring transverse spin phenomena in QCD when the incident nucleon is transversely polarized. We find that the NLO corrections are sizable for the spin-averaged cross section. We also investigate in how far the scattering is dominated by the exchange of almost real (Weizs\\"{a}cker-Williams) photons. We present numerical estimates of the cross sections for present-day fixed target experiments and for a possible future electron ion collider.

  3. Single-Inclusive Production of Hadrons and Jets in Lepton-Nucleon Scattering at NLO

    E-print Network

    Hinderer, Patriz; Vogelsang, Werner

    2015-01-01

    We present next-to-leading order (NLO) perturbative-QCD calculations of the cross sections for $\\ell N\\to h X$ and $\\ell N\\to \\mathrm{jet}\\, X$. The main feature of these processes is that the scattered lepton is not observed, so that the hard scale that makes them perturbative is set by the transverse momentum of the hadron or jet. Kinematically, the two processes thus become direct analogs of single-inclusive production in hadronic collisions which, as has been pointed out in the literature, makes them promising tools for exploring transverse spin phenomena in QCD when the incident nucleon is transversely polarized. We find that the NLO corrections are sizable for the spin-averaged cross section. We also investigate in how far the scattering is dominated by the exchange of almost real (Weizs\\"{a}cker-Williams) photons. We present numerical estimates of the cross sections for present-day fixed target experiments and for a possible future electron ion collider.

  4. Molecular engineering of cycloisomaltooligosaccharide glucanotransferase from Bacillus circulans T-3040: structural determinants for the reaction product size and reactivity.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Ryuichiro; Suzuki, Nobuhiro; Fujimoto, Zui; Momma, Mitsuru; Kimura, Keitarou; Kitamura, Shinichi; Kimura, Atsuo; Funane, Kazumi

    2015-04-15

    Cycloisomaltooligosaccharide glucanotransferase (CITase) is a member of glycoside hydrolase family 66 and it produces cycloisomaltooligosaccharides (CIs). Small CIs (CI-7-9) and large CIs (CI-?10) are designated as oligosaccharide-type CIs (oligo-CIs) and megalosaccharide-type CIs (megalo-CIs) respectively. CITase from Bacillus circulans T-3040 (BcCITase) produces mainly CI-8 with little megalo-CIs. It has two family 35 carbohydrate-binding modules (BcCBM35-1 and BcCBM35-2). BcCBM35-1 is inserted in a catalytic domain of BcCITase and BcCBM35-2 is located at the C-terminal region. Our previous studies suggested that BcCBM35-1 has two substrate-binding sites (B-1 and B-2) [Suzuki et al. (2014) J. Biol. Chem. 289, 12040-12051]. We implemented site-directed mutagenesis of BcCITase to explore the preference for product size on the basis of the 3D structure of BcCITase. Mutational studies provided evidence that B-1 and B-2 contribute to recruiting substrate and maintaining product size respectively. A mutant (mutant-R) with four mutations (F268V, D469Y, A513V and Y515S) produced three times as much megalo-CIs (CI-10-12) and 1.5 times as much total CIs (CI-7-12) as compared with the wild-type (WT) BcCITase. The 3D structure of the substrate-enzyme complex of mutant-R suggested that the modified product size specificity was attributable to the construction of novel substrate-binding sites in the B-2 site of BcCBM35-1 and reactivity was improved by mutation on subsite -3 on the catalytic domain. PMID:25649478

  5. Extending Cassava Root Shelf Life via Reduction of Reactive Oxygen Species Production1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Zidenga, Tawanda; Leyva-Guerrero, Elisa; Moon, Hangsik; Siritunga, Dimuth; Sayre, Richard

    2012-01-01

    One of the major constraints facing the large-scale production of cassava (Manihot esculenta) roots is the rapid postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD) that occurs within 72 h following harvest. One of the earliest recognized biochemical events during the initiation of PPD is a rapid burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. We have investigated the source of this oxidative burst to identify possible strategies to limit its extent and to extend cassava root shelf life. We provide evidence for a causal link between cyanogenesis and the onset of the oxidative burst that triggers PPD. By measuring ROS accumulation in transgenic low-cyanogen plants with and without cyanide complementation, we show that PPD is cyanide dependent, presumably resulting from a cyanide-dependent inhibition of respiration. To reduce cyanide-dependent ROS production in cassava root mitochondria, we generated transgenic plants expressing a codon-optimized Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mitochondrial alternative oxidase gene (AOX1A). Unlike cytochrome c oxidase, AOX is cyanide insensitive. Transgenic plants overexpressing AOX exhibited over a 10-fold reduction in ROS accumulation compared with wild-type plants. The reduction in ROS accumulation was associated with a delayed onset of PPD by 14 to 21 d after harvest of greenhouse-grown plants. The delay in PPD in transgenic plants was also observed under field conditions, but with a root biomass yield loss in the highest AOX-expressing lines. These data reveal a mechanism for PPD in cassava based on cyanide-induced oxidative stress as well as PPD control strategies involving inhibition of ROS production or its sequestration. PMID:22711743

  6. Salvianolate inhibits reactive oxygen species production in H2O2-treated mouse cardiomyocytes in vitro via the TGF? pathway

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Ai-hua; Cao, Qing; Chen, Shu-yan; Wang, Hai-rong; Wang, Fei-long; Pan, Shu-ming; Lin, Zhao-fen

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of salvianolate, a water-soluble active compound from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in mouse cardiomyocytes in vitro. Methods: Primary ventricular cardiomyocytes were prepared from neonatal mouse. The cell viability was determined using MTT assay. Culture medium for each treatment was collected for measuring the levels of NO, iNOS, total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) and transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF?1). TGF?1 and Smad2/3 expression in the cells was detected with Western blotting. Results: H2O2 (1.25 mmol/L) did not significantly affect the cell viability, whereas the high concentration of salvianolate (5 g/L) alone dramatically suppressed the cell viability. Treatment of the cells with H2O2 (1.25 mmol/L) markedly increased ROS and iNOS production, and decreased the levels of NO, TAOC and TGF?1 in the culture medium. Furthermore, the H2O2 treatment significantly increased TGF?1 and Smad2/3 expression in the cells. Addition of salvianolate (0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 g/L) concentration-dependently reversed the H2O2-induced alterations in the culture medium; addition of salvianolate (0.05 g/L) reversed the H2O2-induced increases of TGF?1 and Smad2/3 expression in the cells. Blockage of TGF?1 with its antibody (1 mg/L) abolished the above mentioned effects of salvianolate. Conclusion: Salvianolate inhibits ROS and iNOS production and increases TAOC and NO levels in H2O2-treated cardiomyocytes in vitro via downregulation of Smad2/3 and TGF?1 expression. High concentration of salvianolate causes cytotoxicity in mouse cardiomyocytes. PMID:23524570

  7. Three-jet production in deep-inelastic scattering at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H1 Collaboration; Adloff, C.; Andreev, V.; Andrieu, B.; Anthonis, T.; Arkadov, V.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Ayyaz, I.; Babaev, A.; Bähr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bate, P.; Beglarian, A.; Behnke, O.; Beier, C.; Belousov, A.; Benisch, T.; Berger, C.; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J. C.; Boudry, V.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Bröker, H.-B.; Brown, D. P.; Brückner, W.; Bruel, P.; Bruncko, D.; Bürger, J.; Büsser, F. W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Burkhardt, H.; Burrage, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Campbell, A. J.; Cao, J.; Carli, T.; Caron, S.; Clarke, D.; Clerbaux, B.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J. G.; Coppens, Y. R.; Coughlan, J. A.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Cox, B. E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Dau, W. D.; Daum, K.; Davidsson, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delerue, N.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E. A.; Diaconu, C.; Dingfelder, J.; Dixon, P.; Dodonov, V.; Dowell, J. D.; Droutskoi, A.; Dubak, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P. J. W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Ferron, S.; Fleischer, M.; Fleming, Y. H.; Flügge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formánek, J.; Foster, J. M.; Franke, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, J.; Gerhards, R.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, S.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Goodwin, C.; Grab, C.; Grässler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, G.; Hadig, T.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haynes, W. J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Heister, A.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Hengstmann, S.; Henschel, H.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hilgers, M.; Hiller, K. H.; Hladký, J.; Höting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hurling, S.; Ibbotson, M.; ??sever, Ç.; Jacquet, M.; Jaffre, M.; Janauschek, L.; Jansen, D. M.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jönsson, L.; Johnson, D. P.; Jones, M. A. S.; Jung, H.; Kästli, H. K.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Karschnick, O.; Keil, F.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kermiche, S.; Kiesling, C.; Kjellberg, P.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Knies, G.; Koblitz, B.; Kolya, S. D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S. K.; Koutouev, R.; Koutov, A.; Krasny, M. W.; Krehbiel, H.; Kroseberg, J.; Krüger, K.; Küpper, A.; Kuhr, T.; Kur?a, T.; Lahmann, R.; Lamb, D.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Laštovi?ka, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebailly, E.; Lebedev, A.; Leißner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindstroem, M.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lobodzinski, B.; Loginov, A.; Loktionova, N.; Lubimov, V.; Lüders, S.; Lüke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Magnussen, N.; Mahlke-Krüger, H.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Malinovski, I.; Mara?ek, R.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martyn, H.-U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S. J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Merkel, P.; Meyer, A. B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, P.-O.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Mkrtchyan, T.; Mohr, R.; Mohrdieck, S.; Mondragon, M. N.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J. V.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, T.; Nellen, G.; Newman, P. R.; Nicholls, T. C.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nix, O.; Nowak, G.; Nunnemann, T.; Olsson, J. E.; Ozerov, D.; Panassik, V.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Phillips, J. P.; Pitzl, D.; Pöschl, R.; Potachnikova, I.; Povh, B.; Rabbertz, K.; Rädel, G.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Reyna, D.; Riess, S.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Royon, C.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.-P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, D.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, M.; Schoeffel, L.; Schöning, A.; Schörner, T.; Schröder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlák, K.; Sefkow, F.; Shekelyan, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Solochenko, V.; Soloviev, Y.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Steinhart, J.; Stella, B.; Stellberger, A.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Struczinski, W.; Swart, M.; Taševský, M.; Tchernyshov, V.; Tchetchelnitski, S.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P. D.; Tobien, N.; Traynor, D.; Truöl, P.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Turney, J. E.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Udluft, S.; Usik, A.; Valkár, S.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vassiliev, S.; Vazdik, Y.; Vichnevski, A.; Wacker, K.; Wallny, R.; Walter, T.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, M.; Wegener, D.; Werner, M.; Werner, N.; White, G.; Wiesand, S.; Wilksen, T.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.-G.; Wissing, C.; Wobisch, M.; Wollatz, H.; Wünsch, E.; Wyatt, A. C.; Žá?ek, J.; Zálešák, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zomer, F.; Zsembery, J.; zur Nedden, M.

    2001-08-01

    Three-jet production is studied for the first time in deep-inelastic positron-proton scattering. The measurement carried out with the H1 detector at HERA covers a large range of four-momentum transfer squared 5

  8. Jet production in deep-inelastic muon scattering at 490 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Melanson, H.L.; E665 Collaboration

    1993-06-01

    Measurements of jet rates in deep-inelastic muon scattering are presented. The JADE algorithm is used to define jets in the kinematic region 9 < W < 33 GeV. Data taken on a proton target are analyzed within the QCD framework, with the goal of extracting {alpha}{sub s}. Results on the Q{sup 2} dependence of the average transverse momentum of jets are used to demonstrate the running of the strong coupling constant {alpha}{sub s}. In addition, first measurements of the production of jets from heavy nuclei in the region x{sub B{sub j}} > 0.001 are discussed. Initial results indicate a suppression in the rate of two forward jets in carbon, calcium and lead as compared to deuterium. All results presented are preliminary.

  9. Rehydration of the Lichen Ramalina lacera Results in Production of Reactive Oxygen Species and Nitric Oxide and a Decrease in Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Weissman, Lior; Garty, Jacob; Hochman, Ayala

    2005-01-01

    Lichens are slow-growing associations of fungi and unicellular green algae or cyanobacteria. They are poikilohydric organisms whose lifestyle in many cases consists of alternating periods of desiccation, with low metabolic activity, and hydration, which induces increase in their metabolism. Lichens have apparently adapted to such extreme transitions between desiccation and rehydration, but the mechanisms that govern these adaptations are still poorly understood. In this study, the effect of rehydration on the production of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide as well as low-molecular-weight antioxidants was investigated with the lichen Ramalina lacera. Rehydration of R. lacera resulted in the initiation of and a rapid increase in photosynthetic activity. Recovery of photosynthesis was accompanied by bursts of intracellular production of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide. Laser-scanning confocal microscopy using dichlorofluorescein fluorescence revealed that formation of reactive oxygen species following rehydration was associated with both symbiotic partners of the lichen. The rate and extent of reactive oxygen species production were similar in the light and in the dark, suggesting a minor contribution of photosynthesis. Diaminofluorescein fluorescence, indicating nitric oxide formation, was detected only in fungal hyphae. Activities associated with rehydration did not have a deleterious effect on membrane integrity as assessed by measurement of electrolyte leakage, but water-soluble low-molecular-weight antioxidants decreased significantly. PMID:15812046

  10. Advanced glycation end products delay corneal epithelial wound healing through reactive oxygen species generation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Long; Chen, Hongmei; Yu, Xiaoming; Wu, Xinyi

    2013-11-01

    Delayed healing of corneal epithelial wounds is a serious complication in diabetes. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are intimately associated with the diabetic complications and are deleterious to the wound healing process. However, the effect of AGEs on corneal epithelial wound healing has not yet been evaluated. In the present study, we investigated the effect of AGE-modified bovine serum albumin (BSA) on corneal epithelial wound healing and its underlying mechanisms. Our data showed that AGE-BSA significantly increased the generation of intracellular ROS in telomerase-immortalized human corneal epithelial cells. However, the generation of intracellular ROS was completely inhibited by antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC), anti-receptor of AGEs (RAGE) antibodies, or the inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. Moreover, AGE-BSA increased NADPH oxidase activity and protein expression of NADPH oxidase subunits, p22phox and Nox4, but anti-RAGE antibodies eliminated these effects. Furthermore, prevention of intracellular ROS generation using NAC or anti-RAGE antibodies rescued AGE-BSA-delayed epithelial wound healing in porcine corneal organ culture. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that AGE-BSA impaired corneal epithelial wound healing ex vivo. AGE-BSA increased intracellular ROS generation through NADPH oxidase activation, which accounted for the delayed corneal epithelial wound healing. These results may provide better insights for understanding the mechanism of delayed healing of corneal epithelial wounds in diabetes. PMID:23955437

  11. Docosahexaenoic acid prevents paraquat-induced reactive oxygen species production in dopaminergic neurons via enhancement of glutathione homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyoung Jun; Han, Jeongsu; Jang, Yunseon; Kim, Soo Jeong; Park, Ji Hoon; Seo, Kang Sik; Jeong, Soyeon; Shin, Soyeon; Lim, Kyu; Heo, Jun Young; Kweon, Gi Ryang

    2015-01-30

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels are reduced in the substantia nigra area in Parkinson's disease patients and animal models, implicating docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as a potential treatment for preventing Parkinson's disease and suggesting the need for investigations into how DHA might protect against neurotoxin-induced dopaminergic neuron loss. The herbicide paraquat (PQ) induces dopaminergic neuron loss through the excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We found that treatment of dopaminergic SN4741 cells with PQ reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, but pretreatment with DHA ameliorated the toxic effect of PQ. To determine the toxic mechanism of PQ, we measured intracellular ROS content in different organelles with specific dyes. As expected, all types of ROS were increased by PQ treatment, but DHA pretreatment selectively decreased cytosolic hydrogen peroxide content. Furthermore, DHA treatment-induced increases in glutathione reductase and glutamate cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLm) mRNA expression were positively correlated with glutathione (GSH) content. Consistent with this increase in GCLm mRNA levels, Western blot analysis revealed that DHA pretreatment increased nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein levels. These findings indicate that DHA prevents PQ-induced neuronal cell loss by enhancing Nrf2-regulated GSH homeostasis. PMID:25545062

  12. Dual Oxidase Maturation factor 1 (DUOXA1) overexpression increases reactive oxygen species production and inhibits murine muscle satellite cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dual oxidase maturation factor 1 (DUOXA1) has been associated with the maturation of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) producing enzyme, dual oxidase 1 (DUOX1) in the adult thyroid. However, ROS have also been implicated in the development of several tissues. We found that activated muscle satellite cells and primary myoblasts isolated from mice express robust levels of DUOXA1 and that its levels are altered as cells differentiate. Results To determine whether DUOXA1 levels affect muscle differentiation, we used an adenoviral construct (pCMV5-DUOXA1-GFP) to drive constitutive overexpression of this protein in primary myoblasts. High levels of DUOXA1 throughout myogenesis resulted in enhanced H2O2 production, fusion defects, reduced expression of early (myogenin) and late (myosin heavy chain) markers of differentiation, and elevated levels of apoptosis compared to control cells infected with an empty adenoviral vector (pCMV5-GFP). DUOXA1 knockdown (using a DUOXA1 shRNA construct) resulted in enhanced differentiation compared to cells subjected to a control shRNA, and subjecting DUOXA1 overexpressing cells to siRNAs targeting DUOX1 or apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) rescued the phenotype. Conclusions This study represents the first to demonstrate the importance of DUOXA1 in skeletal muscle myoblasts and that DUOXA1 overexpression in muscle stem cells induces apoptosis and inhibits differentiation through DUOX1 and ASK1. PMID:24410844

  13. Production of hybrid diesel fuel precursors from carbohydrates and petrochemicals using formic acid as a reactive solvent.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoyuan; Rauchfuss, Thomas B

    2013-02-01

    We report the one-pot alkylation of mesitylene with carbohydrate-derived 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF) as a step toward diesel-range liquids. Using FeCl(3) as a catalyst, HMF is shown to alkylate toluene, xylene, and mesitylene in high yields in CH(2)Cl(2) and MeNO(2) solvents. Efforts to extend this reaction to greener or safer solvents showed that most ether-based solvents are unsatisfactory. Acid catalysts (e.g, p-TsOH) also proved to be ineffective. Using formic acid as a reactive solvent, mesitylene could be alkylated to give mesitylmethylfurfural (MMF) starting from fructose with yields up to approximately 70 %. The reaction of fructose with formic acid in the absence of mesitylene gave rise to low yields of the formate ester of HMF, which indicates the stabilizing effect of replacing the hydroxyl substituent with mesityl. The arene also serves as a second phase into which the product is extracted. Even by using formic acid, the mesitylation of less expensive precursors such as glucose and cellulose proceeded only in modest yields (ca. 20 %). These simpler substrates were found to undergo mesitylation by using hydrogen chloride/formic acid via the intermediate chloromethylfurfural. PMID:23281330

  14. Angiotensin II-Induced Production of Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species: Potential Mechanisms and Relevance for Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nazarewicz, Rafal R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in angiotensin II (AngII) induced endothelial dysfunction, cardiovascular and renal remodeling, inflammation, and fibrosis has been well documented. The molecular mechanisms of AngII pathophysiological activity involve the stimulation of NADPH oxidases, which produce superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. AngII also increases the production of mitochondrial ROS, while the inhibition of AngII improves mitochondrial function; however, the specific molecular mechanisms of the stimulation of mitochondrial ROS is not clear. Recent Advances: Interestingly, the overexpression of mitochondrial thioredoxin 2 or mitochondrial superoxide dismutase attenuates AngII-induced hypertension, which demonstrates the importance of mitochondrial ROS in AngII-mediated cardiovascular diseases. Critical Issues: Although mitochondrial ROS plays an important role in normal physiological cell signaling, AngII, high glucose, high fat, or hypoxia may cause the overproduction of mitochondrial ROS, leading to the feed-forward redox stimulation of NADPH oxidases. This vicious cycle may contribute to the development of pathological conditions and facilitate organ damage in hypertension, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. Future Directions: The development of antioxidant strategies specifically targeting mitochondria could be therapeutically beneficial in these disease conditions. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 1085–1094. PMID:22443458

  15. Reactivity of ?-blockers/agonists with aqueous permanganate. Kinetics and transformation products of salbutamol.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Álvarez, Tania; Rodil, Rosario; Quintana, José Benito; Cela, Rafael

    2015-08-01

    The possible oxidation of two ?-blockers, atenolol and propranolol, and one ?-agonist, salbutamol, with aqueous potassium permanganate (KMnO4) was investigated by liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS). Under strong oxidation conditions (2 mg L(-1) KMnO4, 24 h), only salbutamol did significantly react. In this way, the oxidation kinetics of salbutamol was further investigated at different concentrations of KMnO4, chloride, phosphate and sample pH by means of a full factorial experimental design. Depending on these factors, half-lives were in the range 1-144 min for drug and it was observed that KMnO4 concentration was the most significant factor, resulting in increased reaction rate as it is increased. Moreover, the reaction of salbutamol is also enhanced at basic pH and to a minor extent by the presence of phosphates, being both factors more relevant at low KMnO4 concentrations. The use of an accurate-mass LC-QTOF-MS system permitted the identification of a total of seven transformation products (TPs). The transformation path of the drug begins by the attack of KMnO4 on two double bonds of the aromatic ring of salbutamol via 3 + 2 and 2 + 2 addition reactions, which resulted in the ring opening and that continues with oxidative reactions to finally produce smaller size TPs, ending with tert-butyl-formamide, as the smallest TP identified. Reaction in real samples showed a slower and partial oxidation of the pharmaceutical, due to other competing water organic constituents, but still exceeding 60%. Moreover, the software predicted toxicity of TPs indicates that they are expected not to be more toxic than salbutamol, in contrast to the results obtained for the predicted toxicity of chlorination TPs, excepting predicted developmental toxicity. PMID:25965887

  16. Chlamydia muridarum Infection of Macrophages Elicits Bactericidal Nitric Oxide Production via Reactive Oxygen Species and Cathepsin B.

    PubMed

    Rajaram, Krithika; Nelson, David E

    2015-08-01

    The ability of certain species of Chlamydia to inhibit the biogenesis of phagolysosomes permits their survival and replication within macrophages. The survival of macrophage-adapted chlamydiae correlates with the multiplicity of infection (MOI), and optimal chlamydial growth occurs in macrophages infected at an MOI of ?1. In this study, we examined the replicative capacity of Chlamydia muridarum in the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line at different MOIs. C. muridarum productively infected these macrophages at low MOIs but yielded few viable elementary bodies (EBs) when macrophages were infected at a moderate (10) or high (100) MOI. While high MOIs caused cytotoxicity and irreversible host cell death, macrophages infected at a moderate MOI did not show signs of cytotoxicity until late in the infectious cycle. Inhibition of host protein synthesis rescued C. muridarum in macrophages infected at a moderate MOI, implying that chlamydial growth was blocked by activated defense mechanisms. Conditioned medium from these macrophages was antichlamydial and contained elevated levels of interleukin 1? (IL-1?), IL-6, IL-10, and beta interferon (IFN-?). Macrophage activation depended on Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) signaling, and cytokine production required live, transcriptionally active chlamydiae. A hydroxyl radical scavenger and inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cathepsin B also reversed chlamydial killing. High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) led to an increase in cathepsin B activity, and pharmacological inhibition of ROS and cathepsin B reduced iNOS expression. Our data demonstrate that MOI-dependent TLR2 activation of macrophages results in iNOS induction via a novel ROS- and cathepsin-dependent mechanism to facilitate C. muridarum clearance. PMID:26015483

  17. MuRF1 activity is present in cardiac mitochondria and regulates reactive oxygen species production in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Mattox, Taylor A.; Young, Martin E.; Rubel, Carrie E.; Spaniel, Carolyn; Rodríguez, Jessica E.; Grevengoed, Trisha J.; Gautel, Mathias; Xu, Zhelong; Anderson, Ethan J.; Willis, Monte S.

    2014-01-01

    MuRF1 is a previously reported ubiquitin-ligase found in striated muscle that targets troponin I and myosin heavy chain for degradation. While MuRF1 has been reported to interact with mitochondrial substrates in yeast two-hybrid studies, no studies have identified MuRF1’s role in regulating mitochondrial function to date. In the present study, we measured cardiac mitochondrial function from isolated permeabilized muscle fibers in previously phenotyped MuRF1 transgenic and MuRF1?/? mouse models to determine the role of MuRF1 in intermediate energy metabolism and ROS production. We identified a significant decrease in reactive oxygen species production in cardiac muscle fibers from MuRF1 transgenic mice with increased alpha-MHC driven MuRF1 expression. Increased MuRF1 expression in ex vivo and in vitro experiments revealed no alterations in the respiratory chain complex I and II function. Working perfusion experiments on MuRF1 transgenic hearts demonstrated significant changes in glucose or oleate oxidation; however, total oxygen consumption was decreased. This data provides evidence for MuRF1 as a novel regulator of cardiac ROS, offering another mechanism by which increased MuRF1 expression may be cardioprotective in ischemia reperfusion injury, in addition to its inhibition of apoptosis via proteasome-mediate degradation of c-Jun. The lack of mitochondrial function phenotype identified in MuRF1?/? hearts may be due to the overlapping interactions of MuRF1 and MuRF2 with energy regulating proteins found by yeast two-hybrid studies reported here, implying a duplicity in MuRF1 and MuRF2’s regulation of mitochondrial function. PMID:24733503

  18. A Novel Nontoxic Inhibitor of the Activation of NADPH Oxidase Reduces Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Mouse LungS?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Intae; Dodia, Chandra; Chatterjee, Shampa; Zagorski, John; Mesaros, Clementina; Blair, Ian A.; Feinstein, Sheldon I.; Jain, Mahendra

    2013-01-01

    1-Hexadecyl-3-trifluoroethylglycero-sn-2-phosphomethanol (MJ33) is a fluorinated phospholipid analog that inhibits the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity of peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6). Prdx6 PLA2 activity is required for activation of NADPH oxidase 2 and subsequent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In vitro, MJ33 inhibited agonist-stimulated production of ROS by the isolated perfused mouse lung, lung microvascular endothelial cells, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes. MJ33 (0.02–0.5 µmol MJ33/kg body weight) in mixed unilamellar liposomes was administered to C57BL/6 mice by either intratracheal (i.t.) or i.v. routes. Lung MJ33 content, measured by liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy, showed uptake of 67–87% of the injected dose for i.t. and 23–42% for i.v. administration at 4 hours postinjection. PLA2 activity of lung homogenates was markedly inhibited (>85%) at 4 hours postadministration. Both MJ33 content and PLA2 activity gradually returned to near control levels over the subsequent 24–72 hours. Mice treated with MJ33 at 12.5–25 µmol/kg did not show changes (compared with control) in clinical symptomatology, body weight, hematocrit, and histology of lung, liver, and kidney during a 30- to 50-day observation period. Thus, the toxic dose of MJ33 was >25 µmol/kg, whereas the PLA2 inhibitory dose was approximately 0.02 µmol/kg, indicating a high margin of safety. MJ33 administered to mice prior to lung isolation markedly reduced ROS production and tissue lipid and protein oxidation during ischemia followed by reperfusion. Thus, MJ33 could be useful as a therapeutic agent to prevent ROS-mediated tissue injury associated with lung inflammation or in harvested lungs prior to transplantation. PMID:23475902

  19. Reactive transport model of growth and methane production by high-temperature methanogens in hydrothermal regions of the subseafloor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, L. C.; Algar, C. K.; Topçuo?lu, B. D.; Fortunato, C. S.; Larson, B. I.; Proskurowski, G. K.; Butterfield, D. A.; Vallino, J. J.; Huber, J. A.; Holden, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrogenotrophic methanogens are keystone high-temperature autotrophs in deep-sea hydrothermal vents and tracers of habitability and biogeochemical activity in the hydrothermally active subseafloor. At Axial Seamount, nearly all thermophilic methanogens are Methanothermococcus and Methanocaldococcus species, making this site amenable to modeling through pure culture laboratory experiments coupled with field studies. Based on field microcosm incubations with 1.2 mM, 20 ?M, or no hydrogen, the growth of methanogens at 55°C and 80°C is limited primarily by temperature and hydrogen availability, with ammonium amendment showing no consistent effect on total methane output. The Arrhenius constants for methane production by Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (optimum 82°C) and Methanothermococcus thermolithotrophicus (optimum 65°C) were determined in pure culture bottle experiments. The Monod constants for hydrogen concentration were measured by growing both organisms in a 2-liter chemostat at two dilution rates; 55°C, 65°C and 82°C; and variable hydrogen concentrations. M. jannaschii showed higher ks and Vmax constants than M. thermolithotrophicus. In the field, hydrogen and methane concentrations in hydrothermal end-member and low-temperature diffuse fluids were measured, and the concentrations of methanogens that grow at 55°C and 80°C in diffuse fluids were determined using most-probable-number estimates. Methane concentration anomalies in diffuse fluids relative to end-member hydrothermal concentrations and methanogen cell concentrations are being used to constrain a 1-D reactive transport model using the laboratory-determined Arrhenius and Monod constants for methane production by these organisms. By varying flow path length and subseafloor cell concentrations in the model, our goal is to determine solutions for the potential depth of the subseafloor biosphere coupled with the amount of methanogenic biomass it contains.

  20. ?-Chlorofatty acid accumulates in activated monocytes and causes apoptosis through reactive oxygen species production and endoplasmic reticulum stress

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen-yi; Albert, Carolyn J.; Ford, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Myeloperoxidase-enriched monocytes play important roles in inflammatory disease such as atherosclerosis. We previously demonstrated ?-chlorofatty aldehydes (?-ClFALD) are produced as a result of plasmalogen targeting by myeloperoxidase-derived hypochlorous acid (HOCl) in activated monocytes. Here we show ?-chlorofatty acid (?-ClFA), a stable metabolite of ?-ClFALD, accumulates in activated monocytes and delineate the molecular effects of ?-ClFA on monocytes/macrophages. Approach and Results Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that ?-ClFA is elevated 5-fold in PMA-stimulated human monocytes rising to ~ 20 ?M, compared to unstimulated cells. Using human THP-1 monocytes and RAW 264.7 cells as in vitro models, we tested the hypothesis that ?-ClFA is a cell death mediator, which could potentially participate in pathophysiological roles of monocytes in diseases such as atherosclerosis. Indeed, 2-ClHA, the 16 carbon molecular species of ?-ClFA, caused significant apoptosis of primary monocytes. Similarly, 2-ClHA also caused apoptosis in THP-1 human monocytes and RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages as determined by annexin V-PI staining and TUNEL staining, respectively. 2-ClHA treatment also increased caspase-3 activity and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage in THP-1 cells. 2-ClHA likely elicits apoptosis by increasing both reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress since antioxidants and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) block such induced cell apoptosis. Conclusion The stable chlorinated lipid, ?-ClFA accumulates in activated primary human monocytes, and elicits monocyte apoptosis through increased ROS production and endoplasmic reticulum stress, providing a new insight of chlorinated lipids and monocytes in inflammatory disease. PMID:24371082

  1. Measurement of “pretzelosity” asymmetry of charged pion production in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering on a polarized ³He target

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhang, Y.; Qian, X.; Allada, K.; Dutta, C.

    2014-11-01

    An experiment to measure single-spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive production of charged pions in deep-inelastic scattering on a transversely polarized ³He target was performed at Jefferson Lab in the kinematic region of 0.16 ± on He3 and on neutron pretzelosity asymmetries are consistent with zero within experimental uncertainties.

  2. Cross sections for the production of ?-rays as a result of inelastic scattering of neutrons of a fission spectrum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. T. Bakov; V. G. Dvukhsherstnov; Yu. A. Kazanskii

    1970-01-01

    In the design of shields and especially in the calculation of the energy liberation in both shields and in constructional materials placed near the core of a reactor it is important to know the cross sections for the production of the y-rays resulting from the inelastic scattering of neutrons in these materials. Data has been published on these cross sections

  3. Diffractive open charm production in deep-inelastic scattering and photoproduction at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aktas, A.; Andreev, V.; Anthonis, T.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Beckingham, M.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J. C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Büsser, F. W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A. J.; Cantun Avila, K. B.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Contreras, J. G.; Coughlan, J. A.; Cox, B. E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Daum, K.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; de Roeck, A.; de Wolf, E. A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Essenov, S.; Falkewicz, A.; Faulkner, P. J. W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Flucke, G.; Fomenko, A.; Franke, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Garutti, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Ginzburgskaya, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregori, M.; Grell, B. R.; Grindhammer, G.; Gwilliam, C.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K. H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Hussain, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jönsson, L.; Johnson, D. P.; Jung, A. W.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Knutsson, A.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Krüger, K.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Laštovi?ka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lueders, H.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marshall, R.; Marti, L.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A. B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Mladenov, D.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J. V.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, T.; Newman, P. R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J. E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, T.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Pla?akyt?, R.; Povh, B.; Prideaux, P.; Rahmat, A. J.; Raicevic, N.; Reimer, P.; Rimmer, A.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schöning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R. N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, I.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Stoilov, A.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P. D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T. N.; Truöl, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Urban, M.; Usik, A.; Utkin, D.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Wacker, K.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Wessels, M.; Wissing, C.; Wolf, R.; Wünsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yan, W.; Yeganov, V.; Žá?ek, J.; Zálešák, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zimmermann, J.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2007-03-01

    Measurements are presented of diffractive open charm production at HERA. The event topology is given by ep?eXY where the system X contains at least one charmed hadron and is well separated by a large rapidity gap from a leading low-mass proton remnant system Y. Two analysis techniques are used for the cross section measurements. In the first, the charm quark is tagged by the reconstruction of a D*±(2010) meson. This technique is used in deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) and photoproduction (?p). In the second, a method based on the displacement of tracks from the primary vertex is used to measure the open charm contribution to the inclusive diffractive cross section in DIS. The measurements are compared with next-to-leading order QCD predictions based on diffractive parton density functions previously obtained from a QCD analysis of the inclusive diffractive cross section at H1. A good agreement is observed in the full kinematic regime, which supports the validity of QCD factorization for open charm production in diffractive DIS and ?p.

  4. Measurement of isolated photon production in deep-inelastic scattering at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaron, F. D.; Aktas, A.; Alexa, C.; Andreev, V.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Beckingham, M.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J. C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Büsser, F. W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A. J.; Cantun Avila, K. B.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J. G.; Coughlan, J. A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Daum, K.; Deak, M.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; Delvax, J.; de Roeck, A.; de Wolf, E. A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Essenov, S.; Falkiewicz, A.; Faulkner, P. J. W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Franke, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Ginzburgskaya, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B. R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K. H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, M. E.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jönsson, L.; Johnson, D. P.; Jung, A. W.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Krüger, K.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Laštovi?ka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, L.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A. B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J. V.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, T.; Newman, P. R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J. E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, T.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Pla?akyt?, R.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Preda, T.; Prideaux, P.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A. J.; Raicevic, N.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schöning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R. N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, I.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P. D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T. H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T. N.; Truöl, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Utkin, D.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Wessels, M.; Wissing, C.; Wolf, R.; Wünsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yeganov, V.; Žá?ek, J.; Zálešák, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2008-04-01

    The production of isolated photons in deep-inelastic scattering ep?e?X is measured with the H1 detector at HERA. The measurement is performed in the kinematic range of negative four-momentum transfer squared 450 GeV. The analysis is based on a total integrated luminosity of 227 pb-1. The production cross section of isolated photons with a transverse energy in the range 3

  5. Reactive scattering calculations for 87 Rb + 87 RbHe ? Rb 2 ( 3 ?u + , v ) + He from ultralow to intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Cantano, Rocío; González-Lezana, Tomás; Prosmiti, Rita; Delgado-Barrio, Gerardo; Villarreal, Pablo; Jellinek, Julius

    2015-04-01

    We investigate atom-diatom reactive collisions, as a preliminary step, in order to assess the possibility of forming Rb2 molecules in their lowest triplet electronic state by cold collisions of rubidium atoms on the surface of helium nanodroplets. A simple model related to the well-known Rosen treatment of linear triatomic molecules [N. Rosen, J. Chem. Phys. 1, 319 (1933)] in relative coordinates is used, allowing to estimate reactive probabilities for different values of the total angular momentum. The best available full dimensional potential energy surface [Guillon et al., J. Chem. Phys. 136, 174307 (2012)] is employed through the calculations. Noticeable values of the probabilities in the ultracold regime, which numerically fulfill the Wigner threshold law, support the feasibility of the process. The rubidium dimer is mainly produced at high vibrational states, and the reactivity is more efficient for a bosonic helium partner than when the fermion species is considered.

  6. Reactive scattering calculations for (87)Rb+(87)RbHe?Rb2((3)?u (+),v)+He from ultralow to intermediate energies.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Cantano, Rocío; González-Lezana, Tomás; Prosmiti, Rita; Delgado-Barrio, Gerardo; Villarreal, Pablo; Jellinek, Julius

    2015-04-28

    We investigate atom-diatom reactive collisions, as a preliminary step, in order to assess the possibility of forming Rb2 molecules in their lowest triplet electronic state by cold collisions of rubidium atoms on the surface of helium nanodroplets. A simple model related to the well-known Rosen treatment of linear triatomic molecules [N. Rosen, J. Chem. Phys. 1, 319 (1933)] in relative coordinates is used, allowing to estimate reactive probabilities for different values of the total angular momentum. The best available full dimensional potential energy surface [Guillon et al., J. Chem. Phys. 136, 174307 (2012)] is employed through the calculations. Noticeable values of the probabilities in the ultracold regime, which numerically fulfill the Wigner threshold law, support the feasibility of the process. The rubidium dimer is mainly produced at high vibrational states, and the reactivity is more efficient for a bosonic helium partner than when the fermion species is considered. PMID:25933761

  7. Ursodeoxycholic acid may inhibit deoxycholic acid-induced apoptosis by modulating mitochondrial transmembrane potential and reactive oxygen species production.

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, C. M.; Fan, G.; Wong, P. Y.; Kren, B. T.; Steer, C. J.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The hydrophilic bile salt ursodeoxycholate (UDCA) inhibits injury by hydrophobic bile acids and is used to treat cholestatic liver diseases. Interestingly, hepatocyte cell death from bile acid-induced toxicity occurs more frequently from apoptosis than from necrosis. However, both processes appear to involve the mitochondrial membrane permeability transition (MPT). In this study, we determined the inhibitory effect of UDCA on deoxycholic acid (DCA)-induced MPT in isolated mitochondria by measuring changes in transmembrane potential (delta psi m) and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, we examined the expression of apoptosis-associated proteins in mitochondria isolated from livers of bile acid-fed animals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult male rats were maintained on standard diet supplemented with DCA and/or UDCA for 10 days. Mitochondria were isolated from livers by sucrose/percoll gradient centrifugation and MPT was measured using spectrophotometric and fluorimetric assays. delta psi m and ROS generation were determined by FACScan analysis. Cytoplasmic and mitochondrial protein abundance were determined by Western blot analysis. RESULTS: DCA increased mitochondrial swelling 25-fold over controls (p < 0.001); UDCA reduced the swelling by > 40% (p < 0.001). Similarly, UDCA inhibited DCA-mediated release of calcein-loaded mitochondria by 50% (p < 0.001). delta psi m was significantly decreased in mitochondria incubated with DCA but not with UDCA. delta psi m disruption was followed closely by increased superoxide anion and peroxides production (p < 0.01). Coincubation of mitochondria with UDCA significantly inhibited the changes associated with DCA (p < 0.05). In vivo, DCA feeding was associated with a 4.5-fold increase in mitochondria-associated Bax protein levels (p < 0.001); combination feeding with UDCA almost totally inhibited this increase (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: UDCA significantly reduces DCA-induced disruption of delta psi m, ROS production, and Bax protein abundance in mitochondria, suggesting both short- and long-term mechanisms in preventing MPT. The results suggest a possible role for UDCA as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of both hepatic and nonhepatic diseases associated with high levels of apoptosis. Images FIG. 2 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 PMID:9562975

  8. Chronic risperidone normalizes elevated pro-inflammatory cytokine and C-reactive protein production in omega-3 fatty acid deficient rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert K. McNamara; Ronald Jandacek; Therese Rider; Patrick Tso

    2011-01-01

    Prior clinical and preclinical studies suggest that omega-3 fatty acids negatively regulate pro-inflammatory signaling cascades, and that the atypical antipsychotic risperidone up-regulates omega-3 fatty acid biosynthesis. In the present study, we investigated the effects of chronic (40days) risperidone treatment (3mg\\/kg\\/day) on basal pro-inflammatory cytokine (interleukin-6, IL-6; tumor necrosis factor-alpha, TNF?) and C-reactive protein (CRP) production in control and n-3 fatty

  9. Three-dimensional Monte-Carlo simulation of gamma-ray scattering and production in the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, D.J. (Space Science Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, N.H. 03824 (US))

    1989-05-15

    Monte Carlo codes have been developed to simulate gamma-ray scattering and production in the atmosphere. The scattering code simulates interactions of low-energy gamma rays (20 to several hundred keV) from an astronomical point source in the atmosphere; a modified code also simulates scattering in a spacecraft. Four incident spectra, typical of gamma-ray bursts, solar flares, and the Crab pulsar, and 511 keV line radiation have been studied. These simulations are consistent with observations of solar flare radiation scattered from the atmosphere. The production code simulates the interactions of cosmic rays which produce high-energy (above 10 MeV) photons and electrons. It has been used to calculate gamma-ray and electron albedo intensities at Palestine, Texas and at the equator; the results agree with observations in most respects. With minor modifications this code can be used to calculate intensities of other high-energy particles. Both codes are fully three-dimensional, incorporating a curved atmosphere; the production code also incorporates the variation with both zenith and azimuth of the incident cosmic-ray intensity due to geomagnetic effects. These effects are clearly reflected in the calculated albedo by intensity contrasts between the horizon and nadir, and between the east and west horizons.

  10. Quantum time evolution in time-dependent fields and time-independent reactive-scattering calculations via an efficient Fourier grid preconditioner

    E-print Network

    Miller, William H.

    Quantum time evolution in time-dependent fields and time-independent reactive is suggested for accurate large-scale quantum dynamics simulations. The time-dependent Schro¨dinger equation with finite time-dependent interaction terms is replaced by an inhomogeneous equation with imaginary boundary

  11. Early developmental exposure to benzodiazepine ligands alters brain levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive products in young adult rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajesh C. Miranda; Joseph P. Wagner; Carol K. Kellogg

    1989-01-01

    Levels of thiobarbituric acid (TBA)-reactive material were measured in brain regions of 3–4 monthold rats following prenatal exposure to several benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptor ligands over gestational days 14–20. Prenatal exposure to diazepam (DZ) at 1.0 mg\\/kg\\/day markedly elevated levels of brain TBA-reactive material while exposure to a higher dose (2.5 mg\\/kg) induced a significant increase only in the hippocampus. Early

  12. The calcium sensor GhCaM7 promotes cotton fiber elongation by modulating reactive oxygen species (ROS) production.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wenxin; Tu, Lili; Yang, Xiyan; Tan, Jiafu; Deng, Fenglin; Hao, Juan; Guo, Kai; Lindsey, Keith; Zhang, Xianlong

    2014-04-01

    Fiber elongation is the key determinant of fiber quality and output in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Although expression profiling and functional genomics provide some data, the mechanism of fiber development is still not well understood. Here, a gene encoding a calcium sensor, GhCaM7, was isolated based on its high expression level relative to other GhCaMs in fiber cells at the fast elongation stage. The level of expression of GhCaM7 in the wild-type and the fuzzless/lintless mutant correspond to the presence and absence, respectively, of fiber initials. Overexpressing GhCaM7 promotes early fiber elongation, whereas GhCaM7 suppression by RNAi delays fiber initiation and inhibits fiber elongation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in early fiber development. ROS induced by exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) and Ca(2+) starvation promotes early fiber elongation. GhCaM7 overexpression fiber cells show increased ROS concentrations compared with the wild-type, while GhCaM7 RNAi fiber cells have reduced concentrations. Furthermore, we show that H2 O2 enhances Ca(2+) influx into the fiber and feedback-regulates the expression of GhCaM7. We conclude that GhCaM7, Ca(2+) and ROS are three important regulators involved in early fiber elongation. GhCaM7 might modulate ROS production and act as a molecular link between Ca(2+) and ROS signal pathways in early fiber development. PMID:24443839

  13. Cancer-derived immunoglobulin G promotes tumor cell growth and proliferation through inducing production of reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Wang, J; Lin, D; Peng, H; Huang, Y; Huang, J; Gu, J

    2013-01-01

    Cancer cells have been found to express immunoglobulin G (IgG), but the exact functions and underlying mechanisms of cancer-derived IgG remain elusive. In this study, we first confirmed that downregulation of IgG restrained the growth and proliferation of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. To elucidate its mechanism, we carried out a co-immunoprecipitation assay in HeLa cells and identified 27 potential IgG-interacting proteins. Among them, receptor of activated protein kinase C 1 (RACK1), ras-related nuclear protein (RAN) and peroxiredoxin 1 (PRDX1) are closely related to cell growth and oxidative stress, which prompted us to investigate the mechanism of action of IgG in the above phenomena. Upon confirmation of the interactions between IgG and the three proteins, further experiments revealed that downregulation of cancer-derived IgG lowered levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) by enhancing cellular total antioxidant capacity. In addition, a few ROS scavengers, including catalase (CAT), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), n-acetylcysteine (NAC) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), further inhibited the growth of IgG-deficient cancer cells through suppressing mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) signaling pathway induced by a low level of intracellular ROS, whereas exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at low concentration promoted their survival via increasing intracellular ROS levels. Similar results were obtained in an animal model and human tissues. Taken together, our results demonstrate that cancer-derived IgG can enhance the growth and proliferation of cancer cells via inducing the production of ROS at low level. These findings provide new clues for understanding tumor proliferation and designing cancer therapy. PMID:24309932

  14. Production of reactive oxygen species, gene expression, and enzymatic activity in quail subjected to acute heat stress.

    PubMed

    Del Vesco, A P; Gasparino, E

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of acute heat stress on the production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), the gene expression of the avian uncoupling protein (avUCP) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX 7), and the activity of the enzyme GPX in the liver of meat quail. Two groups of 15 meat quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) that were 23 d of age were initially housed individually in metallic cages. A period of 7 d was provided for the 2 bird groups to adapt to the cages and to a thermoneutral environment at 25°C with 60% relative humidity. At 30 d of age, 15 quail were exposed to a heat stress (HS) treatment of 34°C for 24 h, humidity 60%, whereas control quail (n = 15) were kept at 25°C. To analyze the production of ROS, 4 quail from each treatment group were slaughtered, and their livers were collected for mitochondrial isolation and to measure the subsequent production of ROS by the mitochondria. Additionally, the livers of 6 animals from each treatment group were collected for total RNA extraction. The cDNA was amplified using primers specific for the target genes, and expression was analyzed using the real-time PCR reaction (qRT-PCR). Five animals from each treatment group were slaughtered to analyze glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, which was determined by using of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and based on measuring the amount nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidized. A greater amount of mitochondrial ROS was found in HS animals (0.34 vs. 0.22 nm of ROS produced min(-1) · mg(-1) of protein, P < 0.05) for the reactions that contained only rotenone and in the reactions that were performed with rotenone and antimycin (0.31 vs. 0.23 nm of ROS produced min(-1) · mg(-1) of protein, P < 0.05). Concomitantly, the birds that were subjected to acute heat stress and had a greater amount of ROS production expressed less avUCP mRNA [0.75 arbitrary units (AU) vs. 0.87 AU, P < 0.05] and more GPX 7 mRNA (2.37 AU vs. 1.17 AU, P < 0.01). The HS quail displayed significantly greater GPx activity in their hepatocytes (47.8 vs. 39.6 nmol of NADPH oxidized per mg of protein per minute, P < 0.05). Thus, acute heat stress at 34°C for 24 h affects the production of mitochondrial ROS, the expression of avUCP and GPX 7 mRNA, and the activity of the GPx enzyme in the liver of meat quail. PMID:23148249

  15. Rapid bioassay to measure early reactive oxygen species production in Arabidopsis leave tissue in response to living Pseudomonas syringae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Arabidopsis thaliana and Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato (Pto) provide an excellent plant-bacteria model system to study innate immunity. During pattern-triggered immunity (PTI), cognate host receptors perceive pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) as non-self molecules. Pto harbors many PAMPs; thus for experimental ease, many studies utilize single synthesized PAMPs such as flg22, a short protein peptide derived from Pseudomonas flagellin. Flg22 recognition by Arabidopsis Flagellin Sensing 2 (FLS2) initiates a plethora of signaling responses including rapid production of apoplastic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Assessing flg22-ROS has been instrumental in identifying novel PAMP-signaling components; but comparably little is known whether in Arabidopsis, ROS is produced in response to intact live Pto and whether this response can be used to dissect genetic requirements of the plant host and live bacterial pathogens in planta. Results Here, we report of a fast and robust bioassay to quantitatively assess early ROS in Arabidopsis leaves, a tissue commonly used for pathogen infection assays, in response to living bacterial Pto strains. We establish that live Pto elicits a transient and dose-dependent ROS that differed in timing of initiation, amplitude and duration compared to flg22-induced ROS. Our control experiments confirmed that the detected ROS was dependent on the presence of the bacterial cells. Utilizing Arabidopsis mutants previously shown to be defective in flg22-induced ROS, we demonstrate that ROS elicited by live Pto was fully or in part dependent on RbohD and BAK1, respectively. Because fls2 mutants did not produce any ROS, flagellin perception by FLS2 is the predominant recognition event in live Pto-elicited ROS in Arabidopsis leaves. Furthermore using different Pto strains, our in planta results indicate that early ROS production appeared to be independent of the Type III Secretion System. Conclusions We provide evidence and necessary control experiments demonstrating that in planta, this ROS bioassay can be utilized to rapidly screen different Arabidopsis mutant lines and ecotypes in combination with different bacterial strains to investigate the genetic requirements of a plant host and its pathogen. For future experiments, this robust bioassay can be easily extended beyond Arabidopsis-Pto to diverse plant-pathosystems including crop species and their respective microbial pathogens. PMID:24571722

  16. Measurement of internal jet structure in dijet production in deep-inelastic scattering at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adloff, C.; Andreev, V.; Andrieu, B.; Arkadov, V.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Ayyaz, I.; Babaev, A.; Bähr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bassler, U.; Bate, P.; Beglarian, A.; Behnke, O.; Behrend, H.-J.; Beier, C.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Bernardi, G.; Berndt, T.; Bertrand-Coremans, G.; Biddulph, P.; Bizot, J. C.; Boudry, V.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Brown, D. P.; Brückner, W.; Bruel, P.; Bruncko, D.; Bürger, J.; Büsser, F. W.; Buniatian, A.; Burke, S.; Buschhorn, G.; Calvet, D.; Campbell, A. J.; Carli, T.; Chabert, E.; Charlet, M.; Clarke, D.; Clerbaux, B.; Cocks, S.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormack, C.; Coughlan, J. A.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Cox, B. E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Dau, W. D.; Daum, K.; David, M.; Davidsson, M.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E. A.; Delcourt, B.; Demirchyan, R.; Diaconu, C.; Dirkmann, M.; Dixon, P.; Dlugosz, W.; Donovan, K. T.; Dowell, J. D.; Droutskoi, A.; Ebert, J.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Elsen, E.; Enzenberger, M.; Erdmann, M.; Farh, A. B.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Ferrarotto, F.; Fleischer, M.; Flügge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Formánek, J.; Foster, J. M.; Franke, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Gaede, F.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, J.; Gerhards, R.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Gorelov, I.; Grab, C.; Grässler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Griffiths, R. K.; Grindhammer, G.; Hadig, T.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Hampel, M.; Haustein, V.; Haynes, W. J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Hengstmann, S.; Henschel, H.; Heremans, R.; Herynek, I.; Hewitt, K.; Hiller, K. H.; Hilton, C. D.; Hladký, J.; Hoffmann, D.; Holtom, T.; Horisberger, R.; Hurling, S.; Ibbotson, M.; ??sever, Ç.; Jacquet, M.; Jaffre, M.; Jansen, D. M.; Jönsson, L.; Johnson, D. P.; Jung, H.; Kästli, H. K.; Kander, M.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Karschnik, O.; Katzy, J.; Kaufmann, O.; Kausch, M.; Keller, N.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kermiche, S.; Keuker, C.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Knies, G.; Köhne, J. H.; Kolanoski, H.; Kolya, S. D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S. K.; Krämerkämper, T.; Krasny, M. W.; Krehbiel, H.; Krücker, D.; Krüger, K.; Küpper, A.; Küster, H.; Kuhlen, M.; Kur?a, T.; Lachnit, W.; Lahmann, R.; Lamb, D.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Langenegger, U.; Lebedev, A.; Lehner, F.; Lemaitre, V.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindstroem, M.; Lobo, G.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lubimov, V.; Lüders, S.; Lüke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Magnussen, N.; Mahlke-Krüger, H.; Malden, N.; Malinovsky, E.; Malinovski, I.; Mara?ek, R.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martyn, H.-U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S. J.; McMahon, S. J.; McMahon, T. R.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Merkel, P.; Metlica, F.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, P.-O.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Mohr, R.; Mohrdieck, S.; Mondragon, M.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J. V.; Müller, D.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, Th.; Négri, I.; Newman, P. R.; Nguyen, H. K.; Nicholls, T. C.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Niedzballa, Ch.; Niggli, H.; Nix, O.; Nowak, G.; Nunnemann, T.; Oberlack, H.; Olsson, J. E.; Ozerov, D.; Palmen, P.; Panassik, V.; Pascaud, C.; Passaggio, S.; Patel, G. D.; Pawletta, H.; Perez, E.; Phillips, J. P.; Pieuchot, A.; Pitzl, D.; Pöschl, R.; Pope, G.; Povh, B.; Rabbertz, K.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Reyna, D.; Rick, H.; Riess, S.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rosenbauer, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rouse, F.; Royon, C.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Schacht, P.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.-P.; Schleif, S.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, D.; Schoeffel, L.; Schröder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Semenov, A.; Shekelyan, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Siegmon, G.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Smith, M.; Solochenko, V.; Soloviev, Y.; Sonnenschein, L.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Spitzer, H.; Squinabol, F.; Stamen, R.; Steffen, P.; Steinberg, R.; Steinhart, J.; Stella, B.; Stellberger, A.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Struczinski, W.; Sutton, J. P.; Swart, M.; Tapprogge, S.; Taševský, M.; Tchernyshov, V.; Tchetchelnitski, S.; Theissen, J.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P. D.; Tobien, N.; Todenhagen, R.; Traynor, D.; Truöl, P.; Tsipolitis, G.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Udluft, S.; Usik, A.; Valkár, S.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; Van Esch, P.; Van Haecke, A.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vazdik, Y.; Villet, G.; Wacker, K.; Wallny, R.; Walter, T.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, M.; Wegener, D.; Wegner, A.; Wengler, T.; Werner, M.; West, L. R.; Wiesand, S.; Wilksen, T.; Willard, S.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.-G.; Wissing, Ch.

    1999-04-01

    Internal jet structure in dijet production in deep-inelastic scattering is measured with the H1 detector at HERA. Jets with transverse energies ET,Breit > 5 GeV are selected in the Breit frame employing k? and cone jet algorithms. In the kinematic region of ssquared momentum transfers 10 < Q2 ? s 120 GeV 2 and Bjorken- x values 2 < 10 -4 ? xBj ? 8 × 10 -3, jet shapes and subjet multiplicities are measured as a function of a resolution parameter. Distributions of both observables are corrected for detector effects and presented as functions of the transverse jet energy and jet pseudo-rapidity. Dependences of the jet shape and the average number of subjets on the transverse energy and the pseudo-rapidity of the jet are observed. With increasing transverse jet energies and decreasing pseudo-rapidities, i.e. towards the photon hemisphere, the jets are more collimated. QCD models give a fair description of the data.

  17. Dynamical Coupled-Channels Model Analysis of ?-N Scattering and Electromagnetic Pion Production Reactions

    E-print Network

    B. Julia-Diaz

    2007-12-01

    The ability of the coupled-channels model (MSL) developed in recently in Ref. \\cite{msl} to account simultaneously for the $\\pi N$ scattering data and the $\\pi$ photoproduction reactions on the nucleon is presented. An accurate description of $\\pi N$ scattering has been obtained. A preliminary description of $\\pi$ photoproduction is also discussed.

  18. Characterization of warm-reactive IgG anti-lymphocyte antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus. Relative specificity for mitogen-activated T cells and their soluble products.

    PubMed

    Litvin, D A; Cohen, P L; Winfield, J B

    1983-01-01

    In addition to previously described cold-reactive IgM anti-lymphocyte antibodies maximally cytotoxic for resting cells at 15 degrees C, sera from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) were found to contain a new type of antibody preferentially reactive at physiologic temperatures with mitogen-activated lymphocytes. This antibody lacked specificity for unstimulated lymphocytes, and was shown to be of the IgG class both by indirect immunofluorescence and in immunochemical experiments. Certain SLE sera also contained IgG antibodies with the capacity to develop plaques with mitogen-activated T lymphocyte preparations used in a reverse hemolytic plaque assay, indicating reactivity with products released by activated cells. The elimination of the ability of SLE sera to develop plaques after absorption with viable mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes, but not with resting cells, suggested that these antibodies were directed toward activation "neoantigen(s)" shed from the cell surface membrane. Surface membrane phenotype analyses performed by using a variety of monoclonal antibody reagents indicated that the plaque-forming cells (PFC) detected with SLE sera were activated T lymphocytes not restricted to single OKT4+, OKT8+, or Ia antigen+ subpopulations. Essentially all PFC expressed transferrin receptors. The present data raise the possibility that certain of the interesting effects of anti-lymphocyte antibodies on immunologic function in SLE may be mediated by interactions of these new type(s) of antibodies with activated lymphocytes or their products, rather than through blocking or depletion effects on resting precursor cells. PMID:6600174

  19. Troubleshooting the dichlorofluorescein assay to avoid artifacts in measurement of toxicant-stimulated cellular production of reactive oxidant species

    PubMed Central

    Tetz, Lauren M.; Kamau, Patricia W.; Cheng, Adrienne A.; Meeker, John D.; Loch-Caruso, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The dichlorofluorescein (DCF) assay is a popular method for measuring cellular reactive oxidant species (ROS). Although caveats have been reported with the DCF assay and other compounds, the potential for artifactual results due to cell-free interactions between the DCF compound and toxicants has hardly been explored. We evaluated the utility of the DCF assay for measuring ROS generation by the toxicants mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). Methods DCF fluorescence was measured spectrofluorometrically after a 1-h incubation of toxicants with 6-carboxy-2?,7?-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (carboxy-H2DCFDA). MEHP was incubated with carboxy-H2DCFDA in cell-free solutions of Hank’s buffered salt solution (HBSS), or in Royal Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) medium with or without fetal bovine serum. TBBPA was incubated with carboxy-H2DCFDA in cell-free HBSS and with human trophoblast cells (HTR8/SVneo cells). Results MEHP did not increase fluorescence in solutions of carboxy-H2DCFDA in HBSS or RPMI medium without serum. However, MEHP (90 and 180 ?M) increased DCF fluorescence in cell-free RPMI medium containing serum. Furthermore, serum-free and cell-free HBSS solutions containing 25 ?M TBBPA exhibited concentration-dependent increased fluorescence with 5–100 ?M carboxy-H2DCFDA (p<0.05), but not 1 ?M carboxy-H2DCFDA. In addition, we observed increased fluorescence in HTR8/SVneo cell cultures exposed to TBBPA (0.5–25 ?M) (p<0.05), as we had observed in cell-free buffer. Discussion MEHP demonstrated an interaction with serum in cell-free generation of DCF fluorescence, whereas TBBPA facilitated conversion of carboxy-H2DCFDA to the fluorescent DCF moiety in the absence of serum. Because TBBPA increased fluorescence in the absence of cells, the increased DCF fluorescence observed with TBBPA in the presence of cells cannot be attributed to cellular ROS and may, instead, be the result of chemical activation of carboxy-H2DCFDA to the fluorescent DCF moiety. These data illustrate the importance of including cell-free controls when using the DCF assay to study toxicant-stimulated cellular production of ROS. PMID:23380227

  20. Aging Enhances the Production of Reactive Oxygen Species and Bactericidal Activity in Peritoneal Macrophages by Upregulating Classical Activation Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Smallwood, Heather S.; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Squier, Thomas C.

    2011-10-07

    Maintenance of macrophages in their basal state and their rapid activation in response to pathogen detection are central to the innate immune system, acting to limit nonspecific oxidative damage and promote pathogen killing following infection. To identify possible age-related alterations in macrophage function, we have assayed the function of peritoneal macrophages from young (3?4 months) and aged (14?15 months) Balb/c mice. In agreement with prior suggestions, we observe age-dependent increases in the extent of recruitment of macrophages into the peritoneum, as well as ex vivo functional changes involving enhanced nitric oxide production under resting conditions that contribute to a reduction in the time needed for full activation of senescent macrophages following exposure to lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Further, we observe enhanced bactericidal activity following Salmonella uptake by macrophages isolated from aged Balb/c mice in comparison with those isolated from young animals. Pathways responsible for observed phenotypic changes were interrogated using tandem mass spectrometry, which identified age-dependent increases in levels of proteins linked to immune cell pathways under basal conditions and following LPS activation. Immune pathways upregulated in macrophages isolated from aged mice include proteins critical to the formation of the immunoproteasome. Detection of these latter proteins is dramatically enhanced following LPS exposure for macrophages isolated from aged animals; in comparison, the identification of immunoproteasome subunits is insensitive to LPS exposure for macrophages isolated from young animals. Consistent with observed global changes in the proteome, quantitative proteomic measurements indicate that there are age-dependent abundance changes involving specific proteins linked to immune cell function under basal conditions. LPS exposure selectively increases the levels of many proteins involved in immune cell function in aged Balb/c mice. Collectively, these results indicate that macrophages isolated from old mice are in a preactivated state that enhances their sensitivities to LPS exposure. The hyper-responsive activation of macrophages in aged animals may act to minimize infection by general bacterial threats that arise due to age-dependent declines in adaptive immunity. However, this hypersensitivity and the associated increase in the level of formation of reactive oxygen species are likely to contribute to observed age-dependent increases in the level of oxidative damage that underlie many diseases of the elderly.

  1. P11 Resonances with Dubna-Mainz-Taipei dynamical model for ?N scattering and pion electromagnetic production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shin Nan; Kamalov, S. S.; Tiator, L.

    2012-04-01

    We present the results on P11 resonances obtained with Dubna-Mainz-Taipei (DMT) dynamical model for pion-nucleon scattering and pion electromagnetic production. The extracted values agree well, in general, with PDG values. One pole is found corresponding to the Roper resonance and two more resonances are definitely needed in DMT model. We further find indication for a narrow P11 resonance at around 1700 MeV with a width ~ 50 MeV in both ?N and ?? reactions.

  2. Resonances and exchange in the scattering of electrons by helium atoms I. Product wave function for the helium atom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Herzenberg; H. S. M. Lau

    1968-01-01

    The elastic scattering of electrons is calculated with a Hylleraas product wave function for the target atom and with neglect of polarization. A narrow resonance is found at an incident kinetic energy of 4.2 eV, provided that the exchange operator is changed slightly, from the value corresponding to the no-polarization approximation, by multiplying by a constant factor differing from unity

  3. Gamma ray production cross-sections associated with multiple inelastic scattering of 14 MeV neutrons in lead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, P. C.; Cox, A. J.

    1985-11-01

    The gamma ray angular distributions and differential production cross-sections have been measured for the inelastic scattering of 14 MeV neutrons in lead, using a gamma ray spectrometer based on an associated particle time-of-flight gating technique. The variation of cross-section with sample thickness was measured and the results compared with the predictions of the Monte Carlo computer code MORSE.

  4. Lepton-hadron relation and the inclusive production of low- p T charged secondaries at ISR energies in pp scattering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Bandyopadhyay; R. K. Roy Choudhury; S. Bhattacharyya; D. P. Bhattacharyya

    1979-01-01

    Summary  Some of the most important characteristics of the inclusive production of charged secondaries at small transverse momenta\\u000a and high energies in pp scattering have been explained in the light of a new model of hadrons. The model suggests that Feynman\\u000a scaling is not exact, but may be taken to be approximately valid in the ISR energy range. The inclusive distributions

  5. EFFECTS OF CALCIUM ANTAGONIST DILTIAZEM ON LEUKOCYTE ELASTASE AND ON REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES PRODUCTION IN HUMAN NEUTROPHILS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. KHALFI; B. GRESSIER; C. BRUNET; T. DINE; M. LUYCKX; M. CAZIN; J. C. CAZIN

    1996-01-01

    During inflammatory disorders, some proteases and very reactive oxygen metabolites are produced by activated phagocytic cells. These proteases and oxidants are involved in many diseases like tissue injury or atherosclerosis. It was shownin vitrothat diltiazem, a calcium channel blocker, had antielastase and antioxidant properties. This drug inhibited the release of elastase by neutrophils in a dose dependent manner when these

  6. Mycobacterium tuberculosis epitope-specific interferon-g production in healthy Brazilians reactive and non-reactive to tuberculin skin test

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Bosco Christiano Maciel; Grassi, Maria Fernanda Rios; Coutinho, Raimundo; Mascarenhas, Rita Elizabeth Moreira; Olavarria, Viviana Nilla; Coutinho-Borgo, Adriana; Kalil, Jorge; Cunha, Edecio; Fonseca, Simone Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    The interferon (IFN)-? response to peptides can be a useful diagnostic marker of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) latent infection. We identified promiscuous and potentially protective CD4+ T-cell epitopes from the most conserved regions of MTB antigenic proteins by scanning the MTB antigenic proteins GroEL2, phosphate-binding protein 1 precursor and 19 kDa antigen with the TEPITOPE algorithm. Seven peptide sequences predicted to bind to multiple human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR molecules were synthesised and tested with IFN-? enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assays using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 16 Mantoux tuberculin skin test (TST)-positive and 16 TST-negative healthy donors. Eighty-eight percent of TST-positive donors responded to at least one of the peptides, compared to 25% of TST-negative donors. Each individual peptide induced IFN-? production by PBMCs from at least 31% of the TST-positive donors. The magnitude of the response against all peptides was 182 ± 230 x 106 IFN-? spot forming cells (SFC) among TST-positive donors and 36 ± 62 x 106 SFC among TST-negative donors (p = 0.007). The response to GroEL2 (463-477) was only observed in the TST-positive group. This combination of novel MTB CD4 T-cell epitopes should be tested in a larger cohort of individuals with latent tuberculosis (TB) to evaluate its potential to diagnose latent TB and it may be included in ELISPOT-based IFN-? assays to identify individuals with this condition. PMID:25494469

  7. Mycobacterium tuberculosis epitope-specific interferon-g production in healthy Brazilians reactive and non-reactive to tuberculin skin test.

    PubMed

    Silva, Bosco Christiano Maciel da; Grassi, Maria Fernanda Rios; Coutinho, Raimundo; Mascarenhas, Rita Elizabeth Moreira; Olavarria, Viviana Nilla; Coutinho-Borgo, Adriana; Kalil, Jorge; Cunha Neto, Edecio; Fonseca, Simone Gonçalves

    2014-12-01

    The interferon (IFN)-? response to peptides can be a useful diagnostic marker of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) latent infection. We identified promiscuous and potentially protective CD4+ T-cell epitopes from the most conserved regions of MTB antigenic proteins by scanning the MTB antigenic proteins GroEL2, phosphate-binding protein 1 precursor and 19 kDa antigen with the TEPITOPE algorithm. Seven peptide sequences predicted to bind to multiple human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR molecules were synthesised and tested with IFN-? enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assays using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 16 Mantoux tuberculin skin test (TST)-positive and 16 TST-negative healthy donors. Eighty-eight percent of TST-positive donors responded to at least one of the peptides, compared to 25% of TST-negative donors. Each individual peptide induced IFN-? production by PBMCs from at least 31% of the TST-positive donors. The magnitude of the response against all peptides was 182 ± 230 x 106 IFN-? spot forming cells (SFC) among TST-positive donors and 36 ± 62 x 106 SFC among TST-negative donors (p = 0.007). The response to GroEL2 (463-477) was only observed in the TST-positive group. This combination of novel MTB CD4 T-cell epitopes should be tested in a larger cohort of individuals with latent tuberculosis (TB) to evaluate its potential to diagnose latent TB and it may be included in ELISPOT-based IFN-? assays to identify individuals with this condition. PMID:25494469

  8. Cellular Transcription Factors Induced in Trigeminal Ganglia during Dexamethasone-Induced Reactivation from Latency Stimulate Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Productive Infection and Certain Viral Promoters

    PubMed Central

    Workman, Aspen; Eudy, James; Smith, Lynette; Frizzo da Silva, Leticia; Sinani, Devis; Bricker, Halie; Cook, Emily; Doster, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), an alphaherpesvirinae subfamily member, establishes latency in sensory neurons. Elevated corticosteroid levels, due to stress, reproducibly triggers reactivation from latency in the field. A single intravenous injection of the synthetic corticosteroid dexamethasone (DEX) to latently infected calves consistently induces reactivation from latency. Lytic cycle viral gene expression is detected in sensory neurons within 6 h after DEX treatment of latently infected calves. These observations suggested that DEX stimulated expression of cellular genes leads to lytic cycle viral gene expression and productive infection. In this study, a commercially available assay—Bovine Gene Chip—was used to compare cellular gene expression in the trigeminal ganglia (TG) of calves latently infected with BHV-1 versus DEX-treated animals. Relative to TG prepared from latently infected calves, 11 cellular genes were induced more than 10-fold 3 h after DEX treatment. Pentraxin three, a regulator of innate immunity and neurodegeneration, was stimulated 35- to 63-fold after 3 or 6 h of DEX treatment. Two transcription factors, promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) and Slug were induced more than 15-fold 3 h after DEX treatment. PLZF or Slug stimulated productive infection 20- or 5-fold, respectively, and Slug stimulated the late glycoprotein C promoter more than 10-fold. Additional DEX-induced transcription factors also stimulated productive infection and certain viral promoters. These studies suggest that DEX-inducible cellular transcription factors and/or signaling pathways stimulate lytic cycle viral gene expression, which subsequently leads to successful reactivation from latency in a small subset of latently infected neurons. PMID:22190728

  9. Enhancement by Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha of Dengue Virus-Induced Endothelial Cell Production of Reactive Nitrogen and Oxygen Species Is Key to Hemorrhage Development?

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Yu-Ting; Chen, Hseun-Chin; Lin, Yang-Ding; Shieh, Chi-Chang; Wu-Hsieh, Betty A.

    2008-01-01

    Hemorrhage is a severe manifestation of dengue disease. Virus strain and host immune response have been implicated as the risk factors for hemorrhage development. To delineate the complex interplay between the virus and the host, we established a dengue hemorrhage model in immune-competent mice. Mice inoculated intradermally with dengue virus develop hemorrhage within 3 days. In the present study, we showed by the presence of NS1 antigen and viral nuclei acid that dengue virus actively infects the endothelium at 12 h and 24 h after inoculation. Temporal studies showed that beginning at day 2, there was macrophage infiltration into the vicinity of the endothelium, increased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) production, and endothelial cell apoptosis in the tissues. In the meantime, endothelial cells in the hemorrhage tissues expressed inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitrotyrosine. In vitro studies showed that primary mouse and human endothelial cells were productively infected by dengue virus. Infection by dengue virus induced endothelial cell production of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species and apoptotic cell death, which was greatly enhanced by TNF-?. NG-Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester and N-acetyl cysteine reversed the effects of dengue virus and TNF-? on endothelial cells. Importantly, hemorrhage development and the severity of hemorrhage were greatly reduced in mice lacking iNOS or p47phox or treatment with oxidase inhibitor, pointing to the critical roles of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species in dengue hemorrhage. PMID:18842737

  10. Spacecraft self-contamination due to back-scattering of outgas products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    The back-scattering of outgas contamination near an orbiting spacecraft due to intermolecular collisions was analyzed. Analytical tools were developed for making reasonably accurate quantitative estimates of the outgas contamination return flux, given a knowledge of the pertinent spacecraft and orbit conditions. Two basic collision mechanisms were considered: (1) collisions involving only outgas molecules (self-scattering) and (2) collisions between outgas molecules and molecules in the ambient atmosphere (ambient-scattering). For simplicity, the geometry was idealized to a uniformly outgassing sphere and to a disk oriented normal to the freestream. The method of solution involved an integration of an approximation of the Boltzmann kinetic equation known as the BGK (or Krook) model equation. Results were obtained in the form of simple equations relating outgas return flux to spacecraft and orbit parameters. Results were compared with previous analyses based on more simplistic models of the collision processes.

  11. Production and characterization of thermoplastic cassava starch, functionalized poly(lactic acid), and their reactive compatibilized blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detyothin, Sukeewan

    Cassava starch was blended with glycerol using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder (TSE). Thermoplastic cassava starch (TPCS) at a ratio of 70/30 by weight of cassava/glycerol was selected and further blended with other polymers. TPCS sheets made from compression molding had low tensile strength (0.45 +/- 0.05 MPa) and Young's modulus (1.24 +/- 0.58 MPa), but moderate elongation at break (83.0 +/- 0.18.6%), medium level of oxygen permeability, and high water vapor permeability with a very high rate of water absorption. TPCS was blended with poly(lactic acid) (PLA) at various ratios by using a TSE. The blend resins exhibited good properties such as increased thermal stability (Tmax) and crystallinity of PLA, and improved water sensitivity and processability of TPCS. PLA and TPCS exhibited a high interfacial tension between the two phases of 7.9 mJ·m -2, indicating the formation of an incompatible, immiscible blend. SEM micrographs showed a non-homogeneous distribution of TPCS droplets in the PLA continuous phase. TEM micrographs of the blend films made by cast-film extrusion showed coalescence of the TPCS droplets in the PLA continuous phase of the blend, indicating that the compatibility between the polymer pair needs to be improved. A response surface methodology (RSM) design was used to analyze the effects of maleic anhydride (MA) and 2,5-bis(tert-butylperoxy)-2,5-dimethylhexane (Luperox or L101) contents, and TSE screw speed on the degree of grafted MA and number average molecular weight (Mn) of functionalized PLA (PLA-g-MA), a reactive compatibilizer. PLA-g- MA made by reactive extrusion had an array of colors depending on the content of L101 and MA used. New FTIR peaks suggested that MA was grafted onto the PLA backbone and oligomeric MA may occur. Increasing L101 increased the degree of grafting and decreased Mn, but the Mn of the PLA-g-MA's produced with a high amount of L101 was stable during storage. MA exhibited an optimum concentration for maximizing the degree of grafted MA, and increasing MA content retarded the reduction of Mn during processing. However, the Mn of PLA-g-MA during storage decreased more rapidly with a high content of MA. TSE screw speed had an impact on the Mn with the maximum value predicted at 20 rpm. PLA-g-MA compounds differing in Mn and/or grafted MA content were used as reactive polymers with TPCS (to produce binary blends) and as reactive compatibilizers (to produce ternary blends of PLA/TPCS/PLA-g-MA) with TPCS content of 30 wt% using a TSE. As a result of maleation, PLA-g-MA had a higher grafted MA content with a lower Mn, and higher PI. The interaction of anhydride groups from PLA-g-MA and hydroxyl groups from TPCS was found by FTIR. The reactive binary blends exhibited a change in thermal stability, decrease of Tcc, the presence of double melting peaks, and an increase of the Tgs of glycerol and starch. The higher the grafted MA content and/or the higher Mn of the PLA- g-MA used, the better were the distribution and smaller the TPCS domains obtained in the blends. The highest elongation at break was achieved when 30 wt% TPCS was blended with 70 wt% of PLA having 0.1 wt% of grafted MA and Mn of PLA-g-MA with a 45 kDa. Finally, the optimum PLA-g-MA was determined by using the results from PLA-g-MA RSM design and the reactive blending.

  12. Observation by flow sup 1 H NMR and dimerization kinetics and products of reactive ortho-quinodimethanes and benzocyclobutadiene

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, D.

    1990-09-21

    The reactive o-quinodimethanes, 1,2-dimethylene-1,2-dihydronaphthalene (9) and o-xylylene (1) were observed by flow {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy at room temperature. The {sup 1}H NMR spectrum of 9 was obtained in the absence of precursor and dimers. However, the {sup 1}H NMR spectrum of the more reactive 1, generated in a similar manner from (o-((trimethylsilyl)methyl)benzyl)trimethylammonium iodide (5.) could be obtained only in the presence of its stable (4 + 2) and (4 + 4) dimers. The dimerization kinetics of 3-methyl- (5{prime}), 3,6-dimethyl- (11), 3-isopropyl- (12), and 3,6-diisoproply-1,2-xylylene (13) in acetonitrile (CH{sub 3}CN) were studied by stopped-flow UV-visible spectroscopy. Fluoride ion induced 1,2-elimination from 2-elimination from 2-trimethylsilylbenzocyclobutenyl-1 mesylate (26) was used to generate the reactive molecule benzocyclobutadiene (1{prime}) in CD{sub 3}CN, which was observed by flow {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy at room temperature. The {sup 1}H NMR spectrum (in CD{sub 3}CN) of 1,2-dimethylene-1,2-dihydrothiophene (1{double prime}), obtained by fluoride ion induced 1,4-elimination from 3-(trimethylammoniummethyl)-2-(trimethylsilylmethyl)thiophene iodine was observed by flow {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy at room temperature. The dimerization rate of 1{double prime} in CH{sub 3}CN, generated in the same manner, was measured by UV-visible spectroscopy. 166 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Single transverse-spin asymmetry for D-meson production in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Kang Zhongbo; Qiu Jianwei [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)

    2008-08-01

    We study the single transverse-spin asymmetry for open charm production in the semi-inclusive lepton-hadron deep inelastic scattering. We calculate the asymmetry in terms of the QCD collinear factorization approach for D mesons at high enough P{sub hperpendicular} and find that the asymmetry is proportional to the twist-three trigluon correlation function in the proton. With a simple model for the trigluon correlation function, we estimate the asymmetry for both COMPASS and eRHIC kinematics and discuss the possibilities of extracting the trigluon correlation function in these experiments.

  14. Measurement of dijet production in diffractive deep-inelastic scattering with a leading proton at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaron, F. D.; Alexa, C.; Andreev, V.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baghdasaryan, S.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Begzsuren, K.; Belousov, A.; Belov, P.; Bizot, J. C.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, D.; Bruncko, D.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A. J.; Cantun Avila, K. B.; Ceccopieri, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Contreras, J. G.; Coughlan, J. A.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Daum, K.; Delcourt, B.; Delvax, J.; De Wolf, E. A.; Diaconu, C.; Dobre, M.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Egli, S.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Fischer, D.-J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Grebenyuk, A.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B. R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Hennekemper, E.; Henschel, H.; Herbst, M.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K. H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hreus, T.; Huber, F.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, X.; Jönsson, L.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Kogler, R.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Kretzschmar, J.; Krüger, K.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Laštovi?ka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; List, J.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meyer, A. B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J. V.; Mudrinic, M.; Müller, K.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P. R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Olsson, J. E.; Ozerov, D.; Pahl, P.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pirumov, H.; Pitzl, D.; Pla?akyt?, R.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Radescu, V.; Raicevic, N.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Ruiz Tabasco, J. E.; Rusakov, S.; Šálek, D.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmitt, S.; Schoeffel, L.; Schöning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Shushkevich, S.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, I.; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stoicea, G.; Straumann, U.; Sykora, T.; Thompson, P. D.; Tran, T. H.; Traynor, D.; Truöl, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Turnau, J.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vazdik, Y.; Wegener, D.; Wünsch, E.; Žá?ek, J.; Zálešák, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2012-04-01

    The cross section of diffractive deep-inelastic scattering ep? eXp is measured, where the system X contains at least two jets and the leading final state proton is detected in the H1 Forward Proton Spectrometer. The measurement is performed for fractional proton longitudinal momentum loss x ?<0.1 and covers the range 0.1<| t|<0.7 GeV2 in squared four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex and 4< Q 2<110 GeV2 in photon virtuality. The differential cross sections extrapolated to | t|<1 GeV2 are in agreement with next-to-leading order QCD predictions based on diffractive parton distribution functions extracted from measurements of inclusive and dijet cross sections in diffractive deep-inelastic scattering. The data are also compared with leading order Monte Carlo models.

  15. Higher order corrections to heavy flavour production in deep inelastic scattering

    E-print Network

    I. Bierenbaum; J. Blümlein; S. Klein

    2008-06-03

    In the asymptotic limit $Q^2 \\gg m^2$, the non-power corrections to the heavy flavour Wilson coefficients in deep--inelastic scattering are given in terms of massless Wilson coeffcients and massive operator matrix elements. We start extending the existing NLO calculation for these operator matrix elements by calculating the O($\\epsilon$) terms of the two--loop expressions and having first investigations into the three--loop diagrams needed to O($\\alpha_s^3$).

  16. Mountain cedar pollen induces IgE-independent mast cell degranulation, IL-4 production, and intracellular reactive oxygen species generation

    PubMed Central

    Endo, Shuichiro; Hochman, Daniel J.; Midoro-Horiuti, Terumi; Goldblum, Randall M.; Brooks, Edward G.

    2011-01-01

    Cedar pollens cause severe allergic disease throughout the world. We have previously characterized allergenic pollen glycoproteins from mountain cedar (Juniperus ashei) that bind to allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE). In the present report, we investigated an alternative pathway of mast cell activation by mountain cedar pollen extract through IgE-independent mechanisms. We show that mountain cedar pollen directly induces mast cell serotonin and IL-4 release and enhances release induced by IgE cross-linking. Concomitant with mediator release, high levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were generated, and both ROS and serotonin release were inhibited by anti-oxidants. These findings suggest that alternative mechanisms exist whereby pollen exposure enhances allergic inflammatory mediator release through mechanisms that involve ROS. These mechanisms have the potential for enhancing the allergenic potency of pollens. PMID:21944563

  17. Photosensitization of CdSe/ZnS QDs and reliability of assays for reactive oxygen species production.

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, D. R.; Dimitrijevic, N. M.; Nadeau, J. L.; McGill Univ.

    2010-01-01

    CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) conjugated to biomolecules that can act as electron donors are said to be 'photosensitized': that is, they are able to oxidize or reduce molecules whose redox potential lies inside their band edges, in particular molecular oxygen and water. This leads to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and phototoxicity. In this work, we quantify the generation of different forms of ROS from as-synthesized QDs in toluene; water-solubilized, unconjugated QDs; QDs conjugated to the neurotransmitter dopamine; and dopamine alone. Results of indirect fluorescent ROS assays, both in solution and inside cells, are compared with those of spin-trap electron paramagentic resonance spectroscopy (EPR). The effect of these particles on the metabolism of mammalian cells is shown to be dependent upon light exposure and proportional to the amount of ROS generated.

  18. Enhancement of the acrolein-induced production of reactive oxygen species and lung injury by GADD34.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yang; Ito, Sachiko; Nishio, Naomi; Tanaka, Yuriko; Chen, Nana; Liu, Lintao; Isobe, Ken-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by lung destruction and inflammation. As a major compound of cigarette smoke, acrolein plays a critical role in the induction of respiratory diseases. GADD34 is known as a growth arrest and DNA damage-related gene, which can be overexpressed in adverse environmental conditions. Here we investigated the effects of GADD34 on acrolein-induced lung injury. The intranasal exposure of acrolein induced the expression of GADD34, developing the pulmonary damage with inflammation and increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Conversely, the integrality of pulmonary structure was preserved and the generation of ROS was reduced in GADD34-knockout mice. Acrolein-induced phosphorylation of eIF2? in GADD34-knockout epithelial cells by shRNA protected cell death by reducing misfolded protein-caused oxidative stress. These data indicate that GADD34 participates in the development of acrolein-induced lung injury. PMID:25821552

  19. Enhancement of the Acrolein-Induced Production of Reactive Oxygen Species and Lung Injury by GADD34

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yang; Ito, Sachiko; Nishio, Naomi; Tanaka, Yuriko; Chen, Nana; Isobe, Ken-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by lung destruction and inflammation. As a major compound of cigarette smoke, acrolein plays a critical role in the induction of respiratory diseases. GADD34 is known as a growth arrest and DNA damage-related gene, which can be overexpressed in adverse environmental conditions. Here we investigated the effects of GADD34 on acrolein-induced lung injury. The intranasal exposure of acrolein induced the expression of GADD34, developing the pulmonary damage with inflammation and increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Conversely, the integrality of pulmonary structure was preserved and the generation of ROS was reduced in GADD34-knockout mice. Acrolein-induced phosphorylation of eIF2? in GADD34-knockout epithelial cells by shRNA protected cell death by reducing misfolded protein-caused oxidative stress. These data indicate that GADD34 participates in the development of acrolein-induced lung injury. PMID:25821552

  20. Phenylethynyl terminated reactive oligomer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor); Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A composition of matter having the general structure: ##STR1## (wherein X is F, Cl, or NO.sub.2, and Y is CO, SO.sub.2 or C(CF.sub.3).sub.2) is employed to terminate a nucleophilic reagent, resulting in the exclusive production of phenylethynyl terminated reactive oligomers which display unique thermal characteristics. A reactive diluent having the general structure: ##STR2## (wherein R is any aliphatic or aromatic moiety) is employed to decrease the melt viscosity of a phenylethynyl terminated reactive oligomer and to subsequently react therewith to provide a thermosetting material of enhanced density. These materials have features which make them attractive candidates for use as composite matrices and adhesives.

  1. Structural Insights into 2,2?-Azino-Bis(3-Ethylbenzothiazoline-6-Sulfonic Acid) (ABTS)-Mediated Degradation of Reactive Blue 21 by Engineered Cyathus bulleri Laccase and Characterization of Degradation Products

    PubMed Central

    Kenzom, T.; Srivastava, P.

    2014-01-01

    Advanced oxidation processes are currently used for the treatment of different reactive dyes which involve use of toxic catalysts. Peroxidases are reported to be effective on such dyes and require hydrogen peroxide and/or metal ions. Cyathus bulleri laccase, expressed in Pichia pastoris, catalyzes efficient degradation (78 to 85%) of reactive azo dyes (reactive black 5, reactive orange 16, and reactive red 198) in the presence of synthetic mediator ABTS [2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)]. This laccase was engineered to degrade effectively reactive blue 21 (RB21), a phthalocyanine dye reported to be decolorized only by peroxidases. The 816-bp segment (toward the C terminus) of the lcc gene was subjected to random mutagenesis and enzyme variants (Lcc35, Lcc61, and Lcc62) were selected based on increased ABTS oxidizing ability. Around 78 to 95% decolorization of RB21 was observed with the ABTS-supplemented Lcc variants in 30 min. Analysis of the degradation products by mass spectrometry indicated the formation of several low-molecular-weight compounds. Mapping the mutations on the modeled structure implicated residues both near and far from the T1 Cu site that affected the catalytic efficiency of the mutant enzymes on ABTS and, in turn, the rate of oxidation of RB21. Several inactive clones were also mapped. The importance of geometry as well as electronic changes on the reactivity of laccases was indicated. PMID:25261507

  2. Understanding composite explosive energetics: 4. Reactive flow modeling of aluminum reaction kinetics in PETN and TNT using normalized product equation of state

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, W.C.; Tarver, C.M.; Kury, J.W.; Lee, C.G.; Ornellas, D.L.

    1993-07-01

    Using Fabry-Perot interferometry techniques, we have determined the early time rate of energy release from detonating PETN and TNT explosives filled with 5 to 20 wt % of either 5 {mu}m or 18 {mu}m spherical aluminum with the detonation products, and calculate the extent of reaction at 1--3 {mu}s after the detonation. All of the metal in PETN formulations filled with 5 wt % and 10 wt % of either 5 {mu}m or 18 {mu}m aluminum reacted within 1.5 {mu}s, resulting in an increase of 18--22% in energy compared to pure PETN. For TNT formulations, between 5 to 10 wt % aluminum reacts completely with the same timeframe. A reactive flow hydrodynamic code model based on the Zeldovich-von Neumann-Doring (ZND) description of the reaction zone and subsequent reaction product expansion (Taylor wave) is used to address the reaction rate of the aluminum particles with detonation product gases. The detonation product JWL equation of state is derived from that of pure PETN using a parametric normalization methodology.

  3. Kaempferol blocks oxidative stress in cerebellar granule cells and reveals a key role for reactive oxygen species production at the plasma membrane in the commitment to apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Samhan-Arias, Alejandro Khalil; Martín-Romero, Francisco Javier; Gutiérrez-Merino, Carlos

    2004-07-01

    Micromolar concentrations of the flavonoid kaempferol were found to efficiently block cerebellar granule cell (CGC) death through low K+-induced apoptosis, as demonstrated by prevention of the activation of caspase-3, internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, and chromatin condensation, without a significant rise in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration. Half of the maximum protection against CGC apoptosis was attained with 8 +/- 2 microM kaempferol. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were monitored with 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. Quantitative analysis of intracellularly and extracellularly oriented ROS production up to 3 h from the onset of low K+-induced CGC apoptosis was carried out with acquired digital fluorescence microscopy images of CGC in culture plates using a CCD camera, and also with fluorescence measurements of resuspended CGCs. In both cases, nearly 90% of ROS production by CGCs during the early stages (up to 3 h) after induction of low-K+ apoptosis occurs at the plasma membrane. Kaempferol, at concentrations that blocked CGC apoptosis, has been found to be a particularly potent blocker of extracellularly oriented ROS production by CGCs, and to inhibit the ascorbate-dependent NADH oxidase and superoxide anion production activities of the neuronal plasma membrane redox chain. PMID:15183194

  4. Soft X-ray production by photon scattering in pulsating binary neutron star sources

    SciTech Connect

    Bussard, R.W.; Meszaros, P.; Alexander, S.

    1985-10-01

    A new mechanism is proposed as a source of soft (less than 1 keV) radiation in binary pulsating X-ray sources, in the form of photon scattering which leaves the electron in an excited Landau level. In a plasma with parameters typical of such sources, the low-energy X-ray emissivity of this mechanism far exceeds that of bremsstrahlung. This copious source of soft photons is quite adequate to provide the seed photons needed to explain the power-law hard X-ray spectrum by inverse Comptonization on the hot electrons at the base of the accretion column. 13 references.

  5. Soft x-ray production by photon scattering in pulsating binary neutron star sources

    SciTech Connect

    Bussard, R.W.; Meszaros, P.; Alexander, S.

    1985-10-15

    A new mechanism is proposed as a source of soft (E/sub s/<1 keV) radiation in binary pulsating X-ray sources, in the form of photon scattering which leaves the electron in an excited Landau level. In a plasma with parameters typical of such sources, the low-energy X-ray emissivity of this mechanism far exceeds that of bremsstrahlung. This copious source of soft photons is quite adequate to provide the seed photons needed to explain the power-law hard X-ray spectrum by inverse Comptonization on the hot electrons at the base of the accretion column.

  6. Soft X-ray production by photon scattering in pulsating binary neutron star sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bussard, R. W.; Meszaros, P.; Alexander, S.

    1985-01-01

    A new mechanism is proposed as a source of soft (less than 1 keV) radiation in binary pulsating X-ray sources, in the form of photon scattering which leaves the electron in an excited Landau level. In a plasma with parameters typical of such sources, the low-energy X-ray emissivity of this mechanism far exceeds that of bremsstrahlung. This copious source of soft photons is quite adequate to provide the seed photons needed to explain the power-law hard X-ray spectrum by inverse Comptonization on the hot electrons at the base of the accretion column.

  7. Electron scattering on the Hoyle state and carbon production in stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernykh, M.; Blok, H. P.; Feldmeier, H.; Neff, T.; von Neumann-Cosel, P.; Richter, A.

    2009-01-01

    High-resolution inelastic electron scattering experiments were performed at the S-DALINAC for a precise determination of the partial pair width ?? of the second J? = 0+ state, the so-called Hoyle state, in 12C. Results for the monopole matrix element (directly related to ??) from a nearly model-independent analysis based on an extrapolation of low-q data to zero momentum transfer are presented. Additionally, a Fourier-Bessel analysis of the transition form factor is discussed. The combined result of both methods leads to a pair width ??62.2(10) ?eV.

  8. Forward-jet production in deep inelastic ep scattering at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.; Musgrave, B.; Nicholass, D.; Repond, J.; Yoshida, R.; Mattingly, M. C. K.; Jechow, M.; Pavel, N.; Yagües Molina, A. G.; Antonelli, S.; Antonioli, P.; Bari, G.; Basile, M.; Bellagamba, L.; Bindi, M.; Boscherini, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; Corradi, M.; de Pasquale, S.; Iacobucci, G.; Margotti, A.; Nania, R.; Polini, A.; Sartorelli, G.; Zichichi, A.; Bartsch, D.; Brock, I.; Hartmann, H.; Hilger, E.; Jakob, H.-P.; Jüngst, M.; Kind, O. M.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A. E.; Paul, E.; Renner, R.; Samson, U.; Schönberg, V.; Shehzadi, R.; Wlasenko, M.; Brook, N. H.; Heath, G. P.; Morris, J. D.; Capua, M.; Fazio, S.; Mastroberardino, A.; Schioppa, M.; Susinno, G.; Tassi, E.; Kim, J. Y.; Ma, K. J.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Kamaluddin, B.; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Ning, Y.; Ren, Z.; Sciulli, F.; Chwastowski, J.; Eskreys, A.; Figiel, J.; Galas, A.; Gil, M.; Olkiewicz, K.; Stopa, P.; Zawiejski, L.; Adamczyk, L.; Bo?d, T.; Grabowska-Bo?d, I.; Kisielewska, D.; ?ukasik, J.; Przybycie?, M.; Suszycki, L.; Kota?ski, A.; S?omi?ski, W.; Adler, V.; Behrens, U.; Bloch, I.; Blohm, C.; Bonato, A.; Borras, K.; Ciesielski, R.; Coppola, N.; Dossanov, A.; Drugakov, V.; Fourletova, J.; Geiser, A.; Gladkov, D.; Göttlicher, P.; Grebenyuk, J.; Gregor, I.; Haas, T.; Hain, W.; Horn, C.; Hüttmann, A.; Kahle, B.; Katkov, I. I.; Klein, U.; Kötz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Lobodzinska, E.; Löhr, B.; Mankel, R.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Miglioranzi, S.; Montanari, A.; Namsoo, T.; Notz, D.; Rinaldi, L.; Roloff, P.; Rubinsky, I.; Santamarta, R.; Schneekloth, U.; Spiridonov, A.; Stadie, H.; Szuba, D.; Szuba, J.; Theedt, T.; Wolf, G.; Wrona, K.; Youngman, C.; Zeuner, W.; Lohmann, W.; Schlenstedt, S.; Barbagli, G.; Gallo, E.; Pelfer, P. G.; Bamberger, A.; Dobur, D.; Karstens, F.; Vlasov, N. N.; Bussey, P. J.; Doyle, A. T.; Dunne, W.; Forrest, M.; Saxon, D. H.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Gialas, I.; Papageorgiu, K.; Gosau, T.; Holm, U.; Klanner, R.; Lohrmann, E.; Salehi, H.; Schleper, P.; Schörner-Sadenius, T.; Sztuk, J.; Wichmann, K.; Wick, K.; Foudas, C.; Fry, C.; Long, K. R.; Tapper, A. D.; Kataoka, M.; Matsumoto, T.; Nagano, K.; Tokushuku, K.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Barakbaev, A. N.; Boos, E. G.; Pokrovskiy, N. S.; Zhautykov, B. O.; Aushev, V.; Borodin, M.; Kozulia, A.; Lisovyi, M.; Son, D.; de Favereau, J.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Barreiro, F.; Glasman, C.; Jimenez, M.; Labarga, L.; Del Peso, J.; Ron, E.; Soares, M.; Terrón, J.; Zambrana, M.; Corriveau, F.; Liu, C.; Walsh, R.; Zhou, C.; Tsurugai, T.; Antonov, A.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Stifutkin, A.; Suchkov, S.; Dementiev, R. K.; Ermolov, P. F.; Gladilin, L. K.; Khein, L. A.; Korzhavina, I. A.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Levchenko, B. B.; Lukina, O. Yu.; Proskuryakov, A. S.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Zotkin, D. S.; Zotkin, S. A.; Abt, I.; Büttner, C.; Caldwell, A.; Kollar, D.; Schmidke, W. B.; Sutiak, J.; Grigorescu, G.; Keramidas, A.; Koffeman, E.; Kooijman, P.; Pellegrino, A.; Tiecke, H.; Vázquez, M.; Wiggers, L.; Brümmer, N.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Lee, A.; Ling, T. Y.; Allfrey, P. D.; Bell, M. A.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Ferrando, J.; Foster, B.; Korcsak-Gorzo, K.; Oliver, K.; Patel, S.; Roberfroid, V.; Robertson, A.; Straub, P. B.; Uribe-Estrada, C.; Walczak, R.; Bellan, P.; Bertolin, A.; Brugnera, R.; Carlin, R.; Dal Corso, F.; Dusini, S.; Garfagnini, A.; Limentani, S.; Longhin, A.; Stanco, L.; Turcato, M.; Oh, B. Y.; Raval, A.; Ukleja, J.; Whitmore, J. J.; Iga, Y.; D'Agostini, G.; Marini, G.; Nigro, A.; Cole, J. E.; Hart, J. C.; Abramowicz, H.; Gabareen, A.; Ingbir, R.; Kananov, S.; Levy, A.; Kuze, M.; Maeda, J.; Hori, R.; Kagawa, S.; Okazaki, N.; Shimizu, S.; Tawara, T.; Hamatsu, R.; Kaji, H.; Kitamura, S.; Ota, O.; Ri, Y. D.; Ferrero, M. I.; Monaco, V.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Arneodo, M.; Ruspa, M.; Fourletov, S.; Martin, J. F.; Boutle, S. K.; Butterworth, J. M.; Gwenlan, C.; Jones, T. W.; Loizides, J. H.; Sutton, M. R.; Wing, M.; Brzozowska, B.; Ciborowski, J.; Grzelak, G.; Kulinski, P.; ?u?niak, P.; Malka, J.; Nowak, R. J.; Pawlak, J. M.; Tymieniecka, T.; Ukleja, A.; ?arnecki, A. F.; Adamus, M.; Plucinski, P.; Eisenberg, Y.; Giller, I.; Hochman, D.; Karshon, U.; Rosin, M.; Brownson, E.; Danielson, T.; Everett, A.; Kçira, D.; Reeder, D. D.; Ryan, P.; Savin, A. A.; Smith, W. H.; Wolfe, H.; Bhadra, S.; Catterall, C. D.; Cui, Y.; Hartner, G.; Menary, S.; Noor, U.; Standage, J.; Whyte, J.

    2007-11-01

    Forward jet cross sections have been measured in neutral current deep inelastic scattering at low Bjorken-x with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 81.8 pb-1. Measurements are presented for inclusive forward jets as well as for forward jets accompanied by a dijet system. The explored phase space, with jet pseudorapidity up to 4.3 is expected to be particularly sensitive to the dynamics of QCD parton evolution at low x. The measurements are compared to fixed-order QCD calculations and to leading-order parton-shower Monte Carlo models.

  9. Forward-jet production in deep inelastic ep scattering at HERA

    E-print Network

    Chekanov, S; Magill, S; Musgrave, B; Nicholass, D; Repond, J; Yoshida, R; Mattingly, M C K; Jechow, USAM; Pavel, N; Yagues-Molina, A G; Antonelli, S; Antonioli, P; Bari, G; Basile, M; Bellagamba, L; Bindi, M; Boscherini, D; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Contin, A; Corradi, M; De Pasquale, S; Iacobucci, G; Margotti, A; Nania, R; Polini, A; Sartorelli, G; Zichichi, A; Bartsch, D; Brock, I; Hartmann, H; Hilger, E; Jakob, H P; Jüngst, M; Kind, O M; Nuncio-Quiroz, A E; Paul, E; Renner, R; Samson, U; Schonberg, V; Shehzadi, R; Wlasenko, M; Brook, N H; Heath, G P; Morris, J D; Capua, M; Fazio, S; Mastroberardino, A; Schioppa, M; Susinno, G; Tassi, E; Kim, J Y; Ma, K J; Ibrahim, Z A; Kamaluddin, B; Wan-Abdullah, W A T; Ning, Y; Ren, Z; Sciulli, F; Chwastowski, J; Eskreys, A; Figiel, J; Galas, A; Gil, M; Olkiewicz, K; Stopa, P; Zawiejski, L; Adamczyk, L; Bold, T; Grabowska-Bold, I; Kisielewska, D; Lukasik, J; Przybycien, M; Suszycki, L; Kotanski, A; Slominski, W; Adler, V; Behrens, U; Bloch, I; Blohm, C; Bonato, A; Borras, K; Ciesielski, R; Coppola, N; Dossanov, A; Drugakov, V; Fourletova, J; Geiser, A; Gladkov, D; Göttlicher, P; Grebenyuk, J; Gregor, I; Haas, T; Hain, W; Horn, C; Huttmann, A; Kahle, B; Katkov, I I; Klein, U; Kötz, U; Kowalski, H; Lobodzinska, E; Löhr, B; Mankel, R; Melzer--, I A; Pellmann; Miglioranzi, S; Montanari, A; Namsoo, T; Notz, D; Rinaldi, L; Roloff, P; Rubinsky, I; Santamarta, R; Schneekloth, U; Spiridonov, A; Stadie, H; Szuba, D; Szuba, J; Theedt, T; Wolf, G; Wrona, K; Youngman, C; Zeuner, W; Lohmann, W; Schlenstedt, S; Barbagli, G; Gallo, E; Pelfer, P G; Bamberger, A; Dobur, D; Karstens, F; Vlasov, N N; Bussey, P J; Doyle, A T; Dunne, W; Forrest, M; Saxon, D H; Skillicorn, I O; Gialas, I; Papageorgiu, K; Gosau, T; Holm, U; Klanner, R; Lohrmann, E; Salehi, H; Schleper, P; Schörner-Sadenius, T; Sztuk, J; Wichmann, K; Wick, K; Foudas, C; Fry, C; Long, K R; Tapper, A D; Kataoka, M; Matsumoto, T; Nagano, K; Tokushuku, K; Yamada, S; Yamazaki, Y; Barakbaev, A N; Boos, E G; Pokrovskiy, N S; Zhautykov, B O; Aushev, V; Borodin, M; Kozulia, A; Lisovyi, M; Son, D; De Favereau, J; Piotrzkowski, K; Barreiro, F; Glasman, C; Jiménez, M; Labarga, L; Del Peso, J; Ron, E; Soares, M; Terron, J; Zambrana, M; Corriveau, F; Liu, C; Walsh, R; Zhou, C; Tsurugai, T; Antonov, A; Dolgoshein, B A; Sosnovtsev, V; Stifutkin, A; Suchkov, S; Dementiev, R K; Ermolov, P F; Gladilin, L K; Khein, L A; Korzhavina, I A; Kuzmin, V A; Levchenko, B B; Lukina, O Yu; Proskuryakov, A S; Shcheglova, L M; Zotkin, D S; Zotkin, S A; Abt, I; Büttner, C; Caldwell, A; Kollar, D; Schmidke, W B; Sutiak, J; Grigorescu, G; Keramidas, A; Koffeman, E; Kooijman, P; Pellegrino, A; Tiecke, H; Vázquez, M; Wiggers, L; Brümmer, N; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Lee, A; Ling, T Y; Allfrey, P D; Bell, M A; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Devenish, R C E; Ferrando, J; Fos-ter, B; Korcsak-Gorzo, K; Oliver, K; Patel, S; Roberfroid, V; Robertson, A; Straub, P B; Uribe-Estrada, C; Walczak, R; Bellan, P; Bertolin, A; Brugnera, R; Carlin, R; Dal Corso, F; Dusini, S; Garfagnini, A; Limentani, S; Longhin, A; Stanco, L; Turcato, M; Oh, B Y; Raval, A; Ukleja, J; Whitmore, J J; Iga, Y; D'Agostini, G; Marini, G; Nigro, A; Cole, J E; Hart, J C; Abramowicz, H; Gabareen, A; Ingbir, R; Kananov, S; Levy, A; Kuze, M; Maeda, J; Hori, R; Kagawa, S; Okazaki, N; Shimizu, S; Tawara, T; Hamatsu, R; Kaji, H; Kitamura, S; Ota, O; Ri, Y D; Ferrero, M I; Monaco, V; Sacchi, R; Solano, A; Arneodo, M; Ruspa, M; Fourletov, S; Martin, J F; Boutle, S K; Butterworth, J M; Gwenlan, C; Jones, T W; Loizides, J H; Sutton, M R; Wing, M; Brzozowska, B; Ciborowski, J; Grzelak, G; Kulinski, P; Luzniak, P; Malka, J; Nowak, R J; Pawlak, J M; Tymieniecka, T; Ukleja, A; Zarnecki, A F; Adamus, M; Plucinsky, P P; Eisenberg, Y; Giller, I; Hochman, D; Karshon, U; Rosin, M; Brownson, E; Danielson, T; Everett, A; Kcira, D; Reeder, D D; Ryan, P; Savin, A A; Smith, W H; Wolfe, H; Bhadra, S; Catterall, C D; Cui, Y; Hartner, G; Menary, S; Noor, U; Standage, J; Whyte, J

    2007-01-01

    Forward jet cross sections have been measured in neutral current deep inelastic scattering at low Bjorken-x with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of ${81.8 \\rm pb}^{-1}$. Measurements are presented for inclusive forward jets as well as for forward jets accompanied by a dijet system. The explored phase space, with jet pseudorapidity up to 4.3 is expected to be particularly sensitive to the dynamics of QCD parton evolution at low x. The measurements are compared to fixed-order QCD calculations and to leading-order parton-shower Monte Carlo models.

  10. Inelastic production of J/ ? mesons in photoproduction and deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaron, F. D.; Alexa, C.; Andreev, V.; Antunovic, B.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Begzsuren, K.; Belousov, A.; Bizot, J. C.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A. J.; Cantun Avila, K. B.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J. G.; Coughlan, J. A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Daum, K.; Deák, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delvax, J.; de Wolf, E. A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Falkiewicz, A.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Fischer, D.-J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Grebenyuk, A.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B. R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Hennekemper, E.; Henschel, H.; Herbst, M.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K. H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, X.; Jönsson, L.; Jung, A. W.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Kogler, R.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Krüger, K.; Kutak, K.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Laštovi?ka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meyer, A. B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J. V.; Mozer, M. U.; Mudrinic, M.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P. R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Olsson, J. E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Pahl, P.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Pla?akyt?, R.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Radescu, V.; Raicevic, N.; Raspiareza, A.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Ruiz Tabasco, J. E.; Rusakov, S.; Šálek, D.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmitt, S.; Schoeffel, L.; Schöning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R. N.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Shushkevich, S.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, I.; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stoicea, G.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P. D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T. H.; Traynor, D.; Truöl, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Turnau, J.; Urban, K.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Volchinski, V.; von den Driesch, M.; Wegener, D.; Wissing, Ch.; Wünsch, E.; Žá?ek, J.; Zálešák, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2010-08-01

    A measurement is presented of inelastic photo- and electroproduction of J/ ? mesons in ep scattering at HERA. The data were recorded with the H1 detector in the period from 2004 to 2007. Single and double differential cross sections are determined and the helicity distributions of the J/ ? mesons are analysed. The results are compared to theoretical predictions in the colour singlet model and in the framework of non-relativistic QCD. Calculations in the colour singlet model using a k T factorisation ansatz are able to give a good description of the data, while colour singlet model calculations to next-to-leading order in collinear factorisation underestimate the data.

  11. Charged particle production in high Q2 deep-inelastic scattering at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaron, F. D.; Aktas, A.; Alexa, C.; Andreev, V.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Beckingham, M.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J. C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Büsser, F. W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A. J.; Avila, K. B. Cantun; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J. G.; Coughlan, J. A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Daum, K.; Deak, M.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; Delvax, J.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E. A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Essenov, S.; Falkiewicz, A.; Faulkner, P. J. W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Franke, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Ginzburgskaya, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregori, M.; Grell, B. R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K. H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, M. E.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jönsson, L.; Johnson, D. P.; Jung, A. W.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Krüger, K.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Laštovi?ka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A. B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J. V.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P. R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J. E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Pla?akyt?, R.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Preda, T.; Prideaux, P.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A. J.; Raicevic, N.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schöning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R. N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, I.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P. D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T. H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T. N.; Truöl, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Utkin, D.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Trevino, A. Vargas; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Wessels, M.; Wissing, Ch.; Wolf, R.; Wünsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yeganov, V.; Žá?ek, J.; Zálešák, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.; H1 Collaboration

    2007-10-01

    The average charged track multiplicity and the normalised distribution of the scaled momentum, xp, of charged final state hadrons are measured in deep-inelastic ep scattering at high Q2 in the Breit frame of reference. The analysis covers the range of photon virtuality 100

  12. Charged particle production in high Q deep-inelastic scattering at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H1 Collaboration; Aaron, F. D.; Aktas, A.; Alexa, C.; Andreev, V.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Beckingham, M.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J. C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Büsser, F. W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A. J.; Avila, K. B. Cantun; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J. G.; Coughlan, J. A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Daum, K.; Deak, M.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; Delvax, J.; de Roeck, A.; de Wolf, E. A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Essenov, S.; Falkiewicz, A.; Faulkner, P. J. W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Franke, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Ginzburgskaya, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregori, M.; Grell, B. R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K. H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, M. E.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jönsson, L.; Johnson, D. P.; Jung, A. W.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Krüger, K.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Laštovi?ka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A. B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J. V.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P. R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J. E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Pla?akyt?, R.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Preda, T.; Prideaux, P.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A. J.; Raicevic, N.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schöning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R. N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, I.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P. D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T. H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T. N.; Truöl, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Utkin, D.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; van Mechelen, P.; Trevino, A. Vargas; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Wessels, M.; Wissing, Ch.; Wolf, R.; Wünsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yeganov, V.; Žá?ek, J.; Zálešák, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2007-10-01

    The average charged track multiplicity and the normalised distribution of the scaled momentum, x, of charged final state hadrons are measured in deep-inelastic ep scattering at high Q in the Breit frame of reference. The analysis covers the range of photon virtuality 100

  13. Production of intracellular reactive oxygen species and change of cell viability induced by atmospheric pressure plasma in normal and cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ja Kim, Sun; Min Joh, Hea; Chung, T. H.

    2013-10-01

    The effects of atmospheric pressure plasma jet on cancer cells (human lung carcinoma cells) and normal cells (embryonic kidney cells and bronchial epithelial cells) were investigated. Using a detection dye, the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was found to be increased in plasma-treated cells compared to non-treated and gas flow-treated cells. A significant overproduction of ROS and a reduction in cell viability were induced by plasma exposure on cancer cells. Normal cells were observed to be less affected by the plasma-mediated ROS, and cell viability was less changed. The selective effect on cancer and normal cells provides a promising prospect of cold plasma as a cancer therapy.

  14. Fungal Endophyte Production of Reactive Oxygen Species is Critical for Maintaining the Mutualistic Symbiotic Interaction Between Epichloë festucae and Perennial Ryegrass

    PubMed Central

    Takemoto, Daigo; Tanaka, Aiko

    2007-01-01

    Key requirements for microbes to initiate and establish mutualistic symbiotic interactions with plants are evasion of potential host defense responses and strict control of microbial growth. We have recently shown that reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by a specific fungal NADPH oxidase isoform NoxA, have a critical role in regulating hyphal growth in the mutualistic interaction between Epichloë festucae and perennial ryegrass. Regulation of ROS production in the symbiosis requires two additional components, NoxR and RacA, homologues of the mammalian p67phox and Rac2. Perennial ryegrass host plants containing noxA or noxR mutants lose apical dominance, become severely stunted, and undergo precocious senescence. Our working model proposes that hyphal tip growth and branching is controlled by localized bursts of ROS catalysed by NoxA, following recruitment of NoxR and RacA from the cytosol to the membrane in response to signaling from the grass host. PMID:19704747

  15. Atmospheric photochemical reactivity and ozone production at two sites in Hong Kong: Application of a Master Chemical Mechanism-photochemical box model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Z. H.; Guo, H.; Lam, S. H. M.; Saunders, S. M.; Wang, T.

    2014-09-01

    A photochemical box model incorporating the Master Chemical Mechanism (v3.2), constrained with a full suite of measurements, was developed to investigate the photochemical reactivity of volatile organic compounds at a semirural site (Mount Tai Mo Shan (TMS)) and an urban site (Tsuen Wan (TW)) in Hong Kong. The levels of ozone (O3) and its precursors, and the magnitudes of the reactivity of O3 precursors, revealed significant differences in the photochemistry at the two sites. Simulated peak hydroperoxyl radical (HO2) mixing ratios were similar at TW and TMS (p = 0.05), while the simulated hydroxyl radical (OH) mixing ratios were much higher at TW (p < 0.05), suggesting different cycling processes between OH and HO2 at the two sites. The higher OH at TW was due to high-NO mixing ratios, which shifted the HOx (OH + HO2) balance toward OH by the propagation of HO2 and alkyl peroxy radicals (RO2) with NO. HOx production was dominated by O3 photolysis at TMS, but at TW, both HCHO and O3 photolyses were found to be major contributors. By contrast, radical-radical reactions governed HOx radical losses at TMS, while at TW, the OH + NO2 reaction was found to dominate in the morning and the radical-radical reactions at noon. Overall, the conversion of NO to NO2 by HO2 dictated the O3 production at the two sites, while O3 destruction was dominated by the OH + NO2 reaction at TW, and at TMS, O3 photolysis and the O3 + HO2 reaction were the major mechanisms. The longer OH chain length at TMS indicated that more O3 was produced for each radical that was generated at this site.

  16. Comparative study between atmospheric microwave and low-frequency plasmas: Production efficiency of reactive species and their effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Im Hee; Kim, Myoung Soo; Kim, Ho Young; Shin, Hyun Kook; Kwon, Hyoung Cheol; Sim, Jae Yoon; Lee, Jae Koo

    2014-01-01

    The characteristics of low-frequency (LF) and microwave-powered plasmas were investigated. The optical emission of these two plasmas indicated that more chemicals were generated by microwave plasma than by LF plasma with the intensities being higher by factors of about 9, 3, 5, and 1.6 for OH (309 nm), O (777 nm), NO (247 nm), and Ca2+ (290 nm), respectively. Application experiments were also conducted. A steel plate became hydrophilic after 45 s of microwave plasma treatment. This is more than ten times faster than in the case of LF plasma treatment, an action related to the generation of reactive species (e.g., OH, O, and NO) as measured by optical emission spectroscopy (OES). Ca2+ generation was verified by blood coagulation experiment. Microwave-plasma-induced coagulation was twice faster than LF-plasma-induced coagulation. Simulation results that explain the chemical generation in microwave plasma were also included. High-energy electrons were considered a major factor for microwave plasma characteristics.

  17. Azoxystrobin-induced excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and inhibition of photosynthesis in the unicellular green algae Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Zhu, Bin; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the short-term toxicity of azoxystrobin (AZ), one of strobilurins used as an effective fungicidal agent to control the Asian soybean rust, on aquatic unicellular algae Chlorella vulgaris. The median percentile inhibition concentration (IC50) of AZ for C. vulgaris was found to be 510 ?g L(-1). We showed that the algal cells were obviously depressed or shrunk in 300 and 600 ?g L(-1) AZ treatments by using the electron microscopy. Furthermore, 19, 75, and 300 ?g L(-1) AZ treatments decreased the soluble protein content and chlorophyll concentrations in C. vulgaris and altered the energy-photosynthesis-related mRNA expression levels in 48- and 96-h exposure periods. Simultaneously, our results showed that AZ could increase the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) level and compromise superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione S transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, and glutathione (GSH) content. These situations might render C. vulgaris more vulnerable to oxidative damage. Overall, the present study indicated that AZ might be toxic to the growth of C. vulgaris, affect energy-photosynthesis-related mRNA expressions, and induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction in C. vulgaris. PMID:25672875

  18. Transient Influx of Nickel in Root Mitochondria Modulates Organic Acid and Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Nickel Hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale*

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Bhavana; Czymmek, Kirk J.; Sparks, Donald L.; Bais, Harsh P.

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria are important targets of metal toxicity and are also vital for maintaining metal homeostasis. Here, we examined the potential role of mitochondria in homeostasis of nickel in the roots of nickel hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum murale. We evaluated the biochemical basis of nickel tolerance by comparing the role of mitochondria in closely related nickel hyperaccumulator A. murale and non-accumulator Alyssum montanum. Evidence is presented for the rapid and transient influx of nickel in root mitochondria of nickel hyperaccumulator A. murale. In an early response to nickel treatment, substantial nickel influx was observed in mitochondria prior to sequestration in vacuoles in the roots of hyperaccumulator A. murale compared with non-accumulator A. montanum. In addition, the mitochondrial Krebs cycle was modulated to increase synthesis of malic acid and citric acid involvement in nickel hyperaccumulation. Furthermore, malic acid, which is reported to form a complex with nickel in hyperaccumulators, was also found to reduce the reactive oxygen species generation induced by nickel. We propose that the interaction of nickel with mitochondria is imperative in the early steps of nickel uptake in nickel hyperaccumulator plants. Initial uptake of nickel in roots results in biochemical responses in the root mitochondria indicating its vital role in homeostasis of nickel ions in hyperaccumulation. PMID:23322782

  19. Formation of ferrihydrite and associated iron corrosion products in permeable reactive barriers of zero-valent iron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furukawa, Yoko; Kim, Jin-Wook; Watkins, Janet; Wilkin, Richard T.

    2002-01-01

    Ferrihydrite, which is known to form in the presence of oxygen and to be stabilized by the adsorption of Si, PO4 and SO4, is ubiquitous in the fine-grained fractions of permeable reactive barrier (PRB) samples from the U.S. Coast Guard Support Center (Elizabeth City, NC) and the Denver Federal Center (Lakewood, CO) studied by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction. The concurrent energy-dispersive X-ray data indicate a strong association between ferrihydrite and metals such as Si, Ca, and Cr. Magnetite, green rust 1, aragonite, calcite, mackinawite, greigite and lepidocrocite were also present, indicative of a geochemical environment that is temporally and spatially heterogeneous. Whereas magnetite, which is known to form due to anaerobic Fe0 corrosion, passivates the Fe0 surface, ferrihydrite precipitation occurs away from the immediate Fe0 surface, forming small (<0.1 microm) discrete clusters. Consequently, Fe0-PRBs may remain effective for a longer period of time in slightly oxidized groundwater systems where ferrihydrite formation occurs compared to oxygen-depleted systems where magnetite passivation occurs. The ubiquitous presence of ferrihydrite suggests that the use of Fe0-PRBs may be extended to applications that require contaminant adsorption rather than, or in addition to, redox-promoted contaminant degradation.

  20. Spatiotemporal Production of Reactive Oxygen Species by NADPH Oxidase Is Critical for Tapetal Programmed Cell Death and Pollen Development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hong-Tao; Wan, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Sha; Zhang, Yan

    2014-05-01

    Male sterility in angiosperms has wide applications in agriculture, particularly in hybrid crop breeding and gene flow control. Microspores develop adjacent to the tapetum, a layer of cells that provides nutrients for pollen development and materials for pollen wall formation. Proper pollen development requires programmed cell death (PCD) of the tapetum, which requires transcriptional cascades and proteolytic enzymes. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) also affect tapetal PCD, and failures in ROS scavenging cause male sterility. However, many aspects of tapetal PCD remain unclear, including what sources generate ROS, whether ROS production has a temporal pattern, and how the ROS-producing system interacts with the tapetal transcriptional network. We report here that stage-specific expression of NADPH oxidases in the Arabidopsis thaliana tapetum contributes to a temporal peak of ROS production. Genetic interference with the temporal ROS pattern, by manipulating RESPIRATORY-BURST OXIDASE HOMOLOG (RBOH) genes, affected the timing of tapetal PCD and resulted in aborted male gametophytes. We further show that the tapetal transcriptional network regulates RBOH expression, indicating that the temporal pattern of ROS production intimately connects to other signaling pathways regulated by the tapetal transcriptional network to ensure the proper timing of tapetal PCD. PMID:24808050

  1. Protection of hypoglycemia-induced neuronal death by ?-hydroxybutyrate involves the preservation of energy levels and decreased production of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Julio-Amilpas, Alberto; Montiel, Teresa; Soto-Tinoco, Eva; Gerónimo-Olvera, Cristian; Massieu, Lourdes

    2015-05-01

    Glucose is the main energy substrate in brain but in certain circumstances such as prolonged fasting and the suckling period alternative substrates can be used such as the ketone bodies (KB), beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and acetoacetate. It has been shown that KB prevent neuronal death induced during energy limiting conditions and excitotoxicity. The protective effect of KB has been mainly attributed to the improvement of mitochondrial function. In the present study, we have investigated the protective effect of D-BHB against neuronal death induced by severe noncoma hypoglycemia in the rat in vivo and by glucose deprivation (GD) in cortical cultures. Results show that systemic administration of D-BHB reduces reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in distinct cortical areas and subregions of the hippocampus and efficiently prevents neuronal death in the cortex of hypoglycemic animals. In vitro results show that D-BHB stimulates ATP production and reduces ROS levels, while the nonphysiologic isomer of BHB, L-BHB, has no effect on energy production but reduces ROS levels. Data suggest that protection by BHB, not only results from its metabolic action but is also related to its capability to reduce ROS, rendering this KB as a suitable candidate for the treatment of ischemic and traumatic injury. PMID:25649993

  2. Production of reactive oxygen species and wound-induced resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana against Botrytis cinerea are preceded and depend on a burst of calcium

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Wounded leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) within minutes after wounding and become resistant to the pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea at a local level. This fast response of the plants to the wound is called wound-induced resistance (WIR). However the molecular mechanisms of this response and the signal cascade between the wound and ROS production are still largely unknown. Calcium is a conserved signal and it is involved in many abiotic stress responses in plants, furthermore, calcium pathways act very fast. Results The results of this study show that leaves treated with calcium channels inhibitors (verapamil) or calcium chelators (oxalate and EGTA) are impaired in ROS production. Moreover, leaves treated with verapamil, EGTA or oxalate were more susceptible to B. cinerea after wounding. The intracellular measurements of calcium changes indicated quick but transient calcium dynamics taking place few seconds after wounding in cells neighbouring the wound site. This change in the cytosolic calcium was followed in the same region by a more stable ROS burst. Conclusions These data further extend our knowledge on the connection between wounding, calcium influx and ROS production. Moreover they provide for the first time the evidence that, following wounding, calcium changes precede a burst in ROS in the same location. PMID:24134148

  3. Catalpol suppresses advanced glycation end-products-induced inflammatory responses through inhibition of reactive oxygen species in human monocytic THP-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hee-Jung; Jang, Hye-Jin; Chung, Tae-Wook; Jeong, Seung-Il; Cha, Jaeho; Choi, Jun-Young; Han, Chang Woo; Jang, Yong-Suk; Joo, Myungsoo; Jeong, Han-Sol; Ha, Ki-Tae

    2013-04-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) play a pivotal role in the development of diabetic complications by inducing inflammation. We previously reported that the fresh roots of Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch., which have been used for the treatment of diabetes in traditional Korean medicine, also have the potential to suppress AGE-mediated inflammatory response in THP-1 cells. In the present study, we isolated catalpol from R. glutinosa, and examined whether it has anti-inflammatory effects on AGE-stimulated THP-1 cells. Catalpol reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory mediates, such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and receptor for AGE (RAGE). Promoter and electromobility shift assays showed that transcriptional activation of NF-?B was significantly reduced by catalpol treatment, while AP-1 was not. Catalpol also suppressed AGE-induced phosphorylation of mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinases, degradation of I?B? and the nuclear localization of NF-?B. Moreover, the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) elicited by AGE was also suppressed by catalpol treatment, through dual action of reducing ROS itself and inhibiting NADPH oxidase activity. Our findings indicate that catalpol suppresses AGE-mediated inflammation by inhibiting ROS production and NF-?B activity. We suggest that catalpol, a major constituent of the fresh roots of R. glutinosa, contributes to the prevention of AGE-mediated diabetic complications. PMID:23376161

  4. The effect of aliphatic, naphthenic, and aromatic hydrocarbons on production of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species in rat brain synaptosome fraction: the involvement of calcium, nitric oxide synthase, mitochondria, and phospholipase A.

    PubMed

    Myhre, O; Fonnum, F

    2001-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of C7 and C9 aliphatic (n-heptane, n-nonane), naphthenic (methylcyclohexane, 1,2,4-trimethylcyclohexane (TMCH)) and aromatic (toluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene (TMB)) hydrocarbons on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in rat brain synaptosome fraction. Methyl mercury (MeHg) was included as a positive control. Exposure of the synaptosomes to the hydrocarbons produced a concentration-dependent linear increase in the formation of the fluorescence of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCF) as a measure of the production of ROS and RNS. Formation of RNS was demonstrated by preincubation of the synaptosome fraction with the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inhibitor Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), which reduced the MeHg and TMCH-stimulated fluorescence by 51% and 65%, respectively. The naphthenic hydrocarbon TMCH showed the strongest potential for ROS and RNS formation in rat brain synaptosomes, followed by TMB, toluene, n-nonane, n-heptane, and methylcyclohexane, respectively. TMCH was selected for mechanistic studies of the formation of ROS. Both MeHg and TMCH induced an increase in intracellular calcium concentration [Ca(2+)]i as measured with Fura-2. Blockade of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels with lanthanum prior to stimulation with MeHg and TMCH led to a reduction in the ROS/RNS formation of 72% and 70%, respectively. Furthermore, addition of cyclosporin A (CSA), a blocker of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MTP), lowered both the MeHg and TMCH-elevated DCF fluorescence by 72% and 59%. Preincubation of the synaptosome fraction with the protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein lowered the MeHg and TMCH-stimulated fluorescence by 85% and 91%, respectively. Addition of the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (MEK)-1 and -2 inhibitor U0126 reduced the fluorescence stimulated by MeHg and TMCH by 62% and 63%. Furthermore, the protein kinase C inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide reduced the fluorescence stimulated by MeHg and TMCH by 52% and 56%. The compound 1-(6-[17beta-3-methoxyestra- 1,3,5(10)-trien- 17-yl]-aminohexyl)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione (U73122), which inhibits phospholipase C, was shown to decrease the ROS and RNS formation induced by MeHg and TMCH by 49% and 64%, respectively. The phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibitor 7,7-dimethyl eicosadienoic acid (DEDA) reduced fluorescence in response to MeHg and TMCH by 49% and 54%. Simultaneous addition of L-NAME, CSA, and DEDA to the synaptosome fraction totally abolished the DCF fluorescence. In conclusion, C7 and C9 aliphatic, naphthenic, and aromatic hydrocarbons stimulated formation of ROS and RNS in rat brain synaptosomes. The naphthenic hydrocarbon TMCH stimulated formation of ROS and RNS in the synaptosomes through Ca(2+)-dependent activation of PLA2 and nNOS, and through increased transition permeability of the MTP. Exposure of humans to the naphthenic hydrocarbon TMCH may stimulate formation of free radicals in the brain, which may be a key factor leading to neurotoxicity. PMID:11377403

  5. Reactive collisions of sulfur dioxide with molten carbonates

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, Thomas; Nathanson, Gilbert M.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular beam scattering experiments are used to investigate reactions of SO2 at the surface of a molten alkali carbonate eutectic at 683 K. We find that two-thirds of the SO2 molecules that thermalize at the surface of the melt are converted to gaseous CO2 via the reaction . The CO2 product is formed from SO2 in less than 10-6 s, implying that the reaction takes place in a shallow liquid region less than 100 ? deep. The reaction probability does not vary between 683 and 883 K, further implying a compensation between decreasing SO2 residence time in the near-interfacial region and increasing reactivity at higher temperatures. These results demonstrate the remarkable efficiency of SO2 ? CO2 conversion by molten carbonates, which appear to be much more reactive than dry calcium carbonate or wet slurries commonly used for flue gas desulfurization in coal-burning power plants. PMID:20133648

  6. Inelastic Production of J/psi Mesons in Photoproduction and Deep Inelastic Scattering at HERA

    E-print Network

    Aaron, F D; Andreev, V; Antunovic, B; Backovic, S; Baghdasaryan, A; Barrelet, E; Bartel, W; Begzsuren, K; Belousov, A; Bizot, J C; Boudry, V; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I; Bracinik, J; Brandt, G; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Bruncko, D; Bunyatyan, A; Buschhorn, G; Bystritskaya, L; Campbell, A J; Cantun Avila, K B; Cerny, K; Cerny, V; Chekelian, V; Cholewa, A; Contreras, J G; Coughlan, J A; Cozzika, G; Cvach, J; Dainton, J B; Daum, K; Deak, M; Delcourt, B; Delvax, J; De Wolf, E A; Diaconu, C; Dodonov, V; Dossanov, A; Dubak, A; Eckerlin, G; Efremenko, V; Egli, S; Eliseev, A; Elsen, E; Falkiewicz, A; Favart, L; Fedotov, A; Felst, R; Feltesse, J; Ferencei, J; Fischer, D J; Fleischer, M; Fomenko, A; Gabathuler, E; Gayler, J; Ghazaryan, S; Glazov, A; Goerlich, L; Gogitidze, N; Gouzevitch, M; Grab, C; Grebenyuk, A; Greenshaw, T; Grell, B R; Grindhammer, G; Habib, S; Haidt, D; Helebrant, C; Henderson, R C.W; Hennekemper, E; Henschel, H; Herbst, M; Herrera, G; Hildebrandt, M; Hiller, K H; Hoffmann, D; Horisberger, R; Hreus, T; Jacquet, M; Janssen, X; Jonsson, L; Jung, A W; Jung, H; Kapichine, M; Katzy, J; Kenyon, I R; Kiesling, C; Klein, M; Kleinwort, C; Kluge, T; Knutsson, A; Kogler, R; Kostka, P; Kraemer, M; Krastev, K; Kretzschmar, J; Kropivnitskaya, A; Kruger, K; Kutak, K; Landon, M P.J; Lange, W; Lastovicka-Medin, G; Laycock, P; Lebedev, A; Lendermann, V; Levonian, S; Li, G; Lipka, K; Liptaj, A; List, B; List, J; Loktionova, N; Lopez-Fernandez, R; Lubimov, V; Makankine, A; Malinovski, E; Marage, P; Marti, Ll; Martyn, H U; Maxfield, S J; Mehta, A; Meyer, A B; Meyer, H; Meyer, J; Mikocki, S; Milcewicz-Mika, I; Moreau, F; Morozov, A; Morris, J V; Mozer, M U; Mudrinic, M; Muller, K; Murin, P; Naumann, Th; Newman, P R; Niebuhr, C; Nikiforov, A; Nikitin, D; Nowak, G; Nowak, K; Olsson, J E; Osman, S; Ozerov, D; Pahl, P; Palichik, V; Panagoulias, I; Pandurovic, M; Papadopoulou, Th; Pascaud, C; Patel, G D; Perez, E; Petrukhin, A; Picuric, I; Piec, S; Pitzl, D; Placakyte, R; Pokorny, B; Polifka, R; Povh, B; Radescu, V; Raicevic, N; Raspiareza, A; Ravdandorj, T; Reimer, P; Rizvi, E; Robmann, P; Roosen, R; Rostovtsev, A; Rotaru, M; Ruiz Tabasco, J E; Rusakov, S; Salek, D; Sankey, D P.C; Sauter, M; Sauvan, E; Schmitt, S; Schoeffel, L; Schoning, A; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Sefkow, F; Shaw-West, R N; Shtarkov, L N; Shushkevich, S; Sloan, T; Smiljanic, I; Soloviev, Y; Sopicki, P; South, D; Spaskov, V; Specka, A; Staykova, Z; Steder, M; Stella, B; Stoicea, G; Straumann, U; Sunar, D; Sykora, T; Thompson, G; Thompson, P D; Toll, T; Tomasz, F; Tran, T H; Traynor, D; Truol, P; Tsakov, I; Tseepeldorj, B; Turnau, J; Urban, K; Valkarova, A; Vallee, C; Van Mechelen, P; Vargas Trevino, A; Vazdik, Y; Volchinski, V; von den Driesch, M; Wegener, D; Wissing, Ch; Wunsch, E; Zacek, J; Zalesak, J; Zhang, Z; Zhokin, A; Zimmermann, T; Zohrabyan, H; Zomer, F

    2010-01-01

    A measurement is presented of inelastic photo- and electroproduction of J/psi mesons in ep scattering at HERA. The data were recorded with the H1 detector in the period from 2004 to 2007. Single and double differential cross sections are determined and the helicity distributions of the J/psi mesons are analysed. The results are compared to theoretical predictions in the colour singlet model and in the framework of non-relativistic QCD. Calculations in the colour singlet model using a k_T factorisation ansatz are able to give a good description of the data, while colour singlet model calculations to next-to-leading order in collinear factorisation underestimate the data.

  7. Tests of QCD factorisation in the diffractive production of dijets in deep-inelastic scattering and photoproduction at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aktas, A.; Andreev, V.; Anthonis, T.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Beckingham, M.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J. C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Büsser, F. W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A. J.; Cantun Avila, K. B.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J. G.; Coughlan, J. A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Daum, K.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; de Roeck, A.; de Wolf, E. A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Essenov, S.; Falkewicz, A.; Faulkner, P. J. W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Flucke, G.; Fomenko, A.; Franke, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Garutti, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Ginzburgskaya, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregori, M.; Grell, B. R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K. H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Hussain, S.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jönsson, L.; Johnson, D. P.; Jung, A. W.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Knutsson, A.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Krüger, K.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Laštovi?ka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lueders, H.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, L.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A. B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Mladenov, D.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J. V.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, T.; Newman, P. R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J. E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, T.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Pla?akyt?, R.; Povh, B.; Prideaux, P.; Rahmat, A. J.; Raicevic, N.; Reimer, P.; Rimmer, A.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schätzel, S.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schöning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R. N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, I.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Stoilov, A.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P. D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T. N.; Truöl, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Usik, A.; Utkin, D.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Wacker, K.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Wessels, M.; Wissing, C.; Wolf, R.; Wünsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yan, W.; Yeganov, V.; Žá?ek, J.; Zálešák, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zimmermann, J.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2007-08-01

    Measurements are presented of differential dijet cross sections in diffractive photoproduction (Q2<0.01 GeV2) and deep-inelastic scattering processes (DIS, 4scattering factorisation breaking at HERA. The measurements are also compared to the two soft colour neutralisation models SCI and GAL. The SCI model describes diffractive dijet production in DIS but not in photoproduction. The GAL model fails in both kinematic regions.

  8. The role of local renin-angiotensin system on high glucose-induced cell toxicity, apoptosis and reactive oxygen species production in PC12 cells

    PubMed Central

    Shahveisi, Kaveh; Mousavi, Seyed Hadi; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Rad, Abolfazl Khajavi; Jalali, Seyed Amir; Rajaei, Ziba; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza; Hadjzadeh, Mousa-Al-Reza

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and apoptosis have key roles in pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. There are local renin-angiotensin systems (RASs) in different tissues such as neural tissue. Local RASs are involved in physiological and pathophysiological processes such as inflammation, proliferation and apoptosis. This study aimed to investigate the role of local renin-angiotensin system on high glucose-induced cell toxicity, apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in PC12 cells, as a cell model of diabetic neuropathy. Materials and Methods: PC12 cells were exposed to a high glucose concentration (27 mg/ml), captopril (ACE inhibitor), telmisartan and losartan (AT1 antagonists), and also PD123319 (AT2 antagonist) were administered before and after induction of high glucose toxicity. Then cell viability was assessed by MTT assay and apoptotic cells and intracellular ROS production were detected by annexin V-propidium iodide and DCFDA, respectively, using flow cytometry. Results: High glucose concentration decreased cell viability, and increased apoptotic cells. Intracellular ROS production was also increased. In PC12 cells pretreatment and treatment by the drugs showed a significant improvement in cell viability and reduced apoptosis in captopril, telmisartan and PD123319 but only captopril and telmisartan were able to reduce ROS production. Losrtan significantly lowered ROS but didn't show any improvements in cell viability and apoptotic cells. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that RAS inhibitors reduced cell toxicity and apoptosis and ROS production was induced by high glucose. It may be suggested that local RAS has a role in high glucose toxicity. PMID:25422756

  9. Two-pion production in ?p scattering at 1 GeV/nucleon in the energy region of the Roper resonance excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkhazov, G. D.; Augustyniak, W.; Boivin, M.; Boyard, J.-L.; Farhi, L.; Hennino, T.; Jourdain, J.-C.; Kravtsov, A. V.; Kunne, R.; Malinina, L. V.; Morsch, H. P.; Mylnikov, V. A.; Orischin, E. M.; Prokofiev, A. N.; Ramstein, B.; Razmyslovich, B. V.; Roy-Stephan, M.; Smirnov, I. B.; Strokovsky, E. A.; Tkach, I. I.; Volkov, S. S.; Zhdanov, A. A.; Zupranski, P.

    2008-08-01

    Semiexclusive measurements of the two-pion-production p(?,?')p?? reaction have been carried out at an energy of E?=4.2 GeV at the Saturne-II (Saclay) accelerator with the SPES4-? installation. This reaction was investigated by simultaneous registration of the scattered ? particle and the secondary proton. The obtained results show that the two-pion production in inelastic ?-particle scattering on the proton at the energy of the experiment proceeds mainly through excitation in the target proton of the Roper resonance and its decay with emission of two pions in the isospin I=0,S-wave state.

  10. Measurement of inclusive jet production in deep-inelastic scattering at high Q and determination of the strong coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aktas, A.; Alexa, C.; Andreev, V.; Anthonis, T.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Beckingham, M.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J. C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Büsser, F. W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A. J.; Cantun Avila, K. B.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J. G.; Coughlan, J. A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Daum, K.; Deak, M.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; Delvax, J.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E. A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Essenov, S.; Falkiewicz, A.; Faulkner, P. J. W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Franke, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Ginzburgskaya, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B. R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K. H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, M. E.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jönsson, L.; Johnson, D. P.; Jung, A. W.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Krüger, K.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Laštovi?ka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A. B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J. V.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P. R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J. E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Pla?akyt?, R.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Preda, T.; Prideaux, P.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A. J.; Raicevic, N.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schöning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R. N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, I.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P. D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T. H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T. N.; Truöl, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Utkin, D.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Wessels, M.; Wissing, Ch.; Wolf, R.; Wünsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yan, W.; Yeganov, V.; Žá?ek, J.; Zálešák, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.; H1 Collaboration

    2007-09-01

    Inclusive jet production is studied in neutral current deep-inelastic positron-proton scattering at large four momentum transfer squared Q>150 GeV with the H1 detector at HERA. Single and double differential inclusive jet cross sections are measured as a function of Q and of the transverse energy E of the jets in the Breit frame. The measurements are found to be well described by calculations at next-to-leading order in perturbative QCD. The running of the strong coupling is demonstrated and the value of ?(M) is determined. The ratio of the inclusive jet cross section to the inclusive neutral current cross section is also measured and used to extract a precise value for ?(M)=0.1193±0.0014(exp.)-0.0030+0.0047(th.)±0.0016(pdf).

  11. Measurement of inclusive jet production in deep-inelastic scattering at high Q and determination of the strong coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H1 Collaboration; Aktas, A.; Alexa, C.; Andreev, V.; Anthonis, T.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Beckingham, M.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J. C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Büsser, F. W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A. J.; Cantun Avila, K. B.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J. G.; Coughlan, J. A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Daum, K.; Deak, M.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; Delvax, J.; de Roeck, A.; de Wolf, E. A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Essenov, S.; Falkiewicz, A.; Faulkner, P. J. W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Franke, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Ginzburgskaya, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B. R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K. H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, M. E.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jönsson, L.; Johnson, D. P.; Jung, A. W.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Krüger, K.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Laštovi?ka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A. B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J. V.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P. R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J. E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Pla?akyt?, R.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Preda, T.; Prideaux, P.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A. J.; Raicevic, N.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schöning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R. N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, I.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P. D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T. H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T. N.; Truöl, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Utkin, D.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Wessels, M.; Wissing, Ch.; Wolf, R.; Wünsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yan, W.; Yeganov, V.; Žá?ek, J.; Zálešák, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2007-09-01

    Inclusive jet production is studied in neutral current deep-inelastic positron proton scattering at large four momentum transfer squared Q>150GeV with the H1 detector at HERA. Single and double differential inclusive jet cross sections are measured as a function of Q and of the transverse energy E of the jets in the Breit frame. The measurements are found to be well described by calculations at next-to-leading order in perturbative QCD. The running of the strong coupling is demonstrated and the value of ?(M) is determined. The ratio of the inclusive jet cross section to the inclusive neutral current cross section is also measured and used to extract a precise value for ?(M)=0.1193±0.0014(exp.)-0.0030+0.0047(th.)±0.0016(pdf).

  12. Production of reactive oxygen species by freezing stress and the protective roles of antioxidant enzymes in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As one of the most severe environmental stresses, freezing stress can determine the distribution range of native flora in nature and severely reduce crop production. Many mechanisms have been proposed to explain the damage induced by freezing-thawing cycle, and oxidative stress caused by uncontrolla...

  13. Ozone production rate and hydrocarbon reactivity in 5 urban areas: A cause of high ozone concentration in Houston

    E-print Network

    Composition and Structure: Pollution--urban and regional (0305); 0365 Atmospheric Composition and Structure Council, 1991]. Control of O3 is accomplished by identifying the sources of NOx and VOCs, quantifying their contribution to O3 production, and then reducing emissions of either NOx or VOCs or both. Ozone precursors

  14. Reactivity of pyrrole pigments, part 13: Identification of the reaction product generated from bile pigments by the superoxide anion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carme Anglada; Josep Claret; Joaquim Crusats; Joan-Anton Farrera; Josep M. Ribó; Francesc R. Trull

    1990-01-01

    The UV\\/Vis spectra of the conjugated bases (NH deprotonation) of biliverdin IX ? (BV), mesobiliverdin IX ? (MBV), biliverdin IX ? dimethyl ester (BV -DME) and mesobiliverdin IX ? dimethyl ester (MBV - DME) are shown. They resemble those obtained for the reaction products of these biliverdins with superoxide anion (\\u000a

  15. Teaching the fundamentals of electron transfer reactions in mitochondria and the production and detection of reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Mailloux, Ryan J.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria fulfill a number of biological functions which inherently depend on ATP and O2?•/H2O2 production. Both ATP and O2?•/H2O2 are generated by electron transfer reactions. ATP is the product of oxidative phosphorylation whereas O2?• is generated by singlet electron reduction of di-oxygen (O2). O2?• is then rapidly dismutated by superoxide dismutase (SOD) producing H2O2. O2?•/H2O2 were once viewed as unfortunately by-products of aerobic respiration. This characterization is fitting considering over production of O2?•/H2O2 by mitochondria is associated with range of pathological conditions and aging. However, O2?•/H2O2 are only dangerous in large quantities. If produced in a controlled fashion and maintained at a low concentration, cells can benefit greatly from the redox properties of O2?•/H2O2. Indeed, low rates of O2?•/H2O2 production are required for intrinsic mitochondrial signaling (e.g. modulation of mitochondrial processes) and communication with the rest of the cell. O2?•/H2O2 levels are kept in check by anti-oxidant defense systems that sequester O2?•/H2O2 with extreme efficiency. Given the importance of O2?•/H2O2 in cellular function, it is imperative to consider how mitochondria produce O2?•/H2O2 and how O2?•/H2O2 genesis is regulated in conjunction with fluctuations in nutritional and redox states. Here, I discuss the fundamentals of electron transfer reactions in mitochondria and emerging knowledge on the 11 potential sources of mitochondrial O2?•/H2O2 in tandem with their significance in contributing to overall O2?•/H2O2 emission in health and disease. The potential for classifying these different sites in isopotential groups, which is essentially defined by the redox properties of electron donator involved in O2?•/H2O2 production, as originally suggested by Brand and colleagues is also surveyed in detail. In addition, redox signaling mechanisms that control O2?•/H2O2 genesis from these sites are discussed. Finally, the current methodologies utilized for measuring O2?•/H2O2 in isolated mitochondria, cell culture and in vivo are reviewed. PMID:25744690

  16. Kinetic Modeling of the Mitochondrial Energy Metabolism of Neuronal Cells: The Impact of Reduced ?-Ketoglutarate Dehydrogenase Activities on ATP Production and Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species

    PubMed Central

    Berndt, Nikolaus; Bulik, Sascha; Holzhütter, Hermann-Georg

    2012-01-01

    Reduced activity of brain ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) occurs in a number of neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. In order to quantify the relation between diminished KGDHC activity and the mitochondrial ATP generation, redox state, transmembrane potential, and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the respiratory chain (RC), we developed a detailed kinetic model. Model simulations revealed a threshold-like decline of the ATP production rate at about 60% inhibition of KGDHC accompanied by a significant increase of the mitochondrial membrane potential. By contrast, progressive inhibition of the enzyme aconitase had only little impact on these mitochondrial parameters. As KGDHC is susceptible to ROS-dependent inactivation, we also investigated the reduction state of those sites of the RC proposed to be involved in ROS production. The reduction state of all sites except one decreased with increasing degree of KGDHC inhibition suggesting an ROS-reducing effect of KGDHC inhibition. Our model underpins the important role of reduced KGDHC activity in the energetic breakdown of neuronal cells during development of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:22719765

  17. ?-Glucan Induces Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Human Neutrophils to Improve the Killing of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata Isolates from Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Bonfim-Mendonça, Patricia de Souza; Ratti, Bianca Altrão; Godoy, Janine da Silva Ribeiro; Negri, Melyssa; de Lima, Nayara Cristina Alves; Fiorini, Adriana; Hatanaka, Elaine; Consolaro, Marcia Edilaine Lopes; de Oliveira Silva, Sueli; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivalet

    2014-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is among the most prevalent vaginal diseases. Candida albicans is still the most prevalent species associated with this pathology, however, the prevalence of other Candida species, such as C. glabrata, is increasing. The pathogenesis of these infections has been intensely studied, nevertheless, no consensus has been reached on the pathogenicity of VVC. In addition, inappropriate treatment or the presence of resistant strains can lead to RVVC (vulvovaginal candidiasis recurrent). Immunomodulation therapy studies have become increasingly promising, including with the ?-glucans. Thus, in the present study, we evaluated microbicidal activity, phagocytosis, intracellular oxidant species production, oxygen consumption, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and the release of tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?), interleukin-8 (IL-8), IL-1?, and IL-1Ra in neutrophils previously treated or not with ?-glucan. In all of the assays, human neutrophils were challenged with C. albicans and C. glabrata isolated from vulvovaginal candidiasis. ?-glucan significantly increased oxidant species production, suggesting that ?-glucan may be an efficient immunomodulator that triggers an increase in the microbicidal response of neutrophils for both of the species isolated from vulvovaginal candidiasis. The effects of ?-glucan appeared to be mainly related to the activation of reactive oxygen species and modulation of cytokine release. PMID:25229476

  18. A Polymer-Rich Re-deposition Technique for Non-volatile Etching By-products in Reactive Ion Etching Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limcharoen, A.; Pakpum, C.; Limsuwan, P.

    2013-07-01

    Re-deposition is a non-volatile etching by-product in reactive ion etching systems that is well known to cause dirt on etching work. In this study, we propose a novel etching method called the polymer-rich re-deposition technique, used particularly for improving the etched sidewall where the re-deposition is able to accumulate. This technique works by allowing the accumulated re-deposition on the etched sidewall to have a higher polymer species than the new compounds in the non-volatile etching by-product. The polymer-rich re-deposition is easy to remove along with the photo-resist mask residual at the photo-resist strip step using an isopropyl alcohol-based solution. The traditional, additional cleaning process step used to remove the re-deposition material is not required anymore, so this reduces the overall processing time. The technique is demonstrated on an Al2O3-TiC substrate by C4F8 plasma, and the EDX spectrum confirms that the polymer re-deposition has C and F atoms as the dominant atoms, suggesting that it is a C—F polymer re-deposition.

  19. Ionizing radiation accelerates Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fission, which involves delayed mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production in normal human fibroblast-like cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kobashigawa, Shinko, E-mail: kobashin@nagasaki-u.ac.jp [Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Course of Life Sciences and Radiation Research, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan)] [Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Course of Life Sciences and Radiation Research, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Suzuki, Keiji; Yamashita, Shunichi [Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Course of Life Sciences and Radiation Research, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan)] [Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Course of Life Sciences and Radiation Research, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan)

    2011-11-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report first time that ionizing radiation induces mitochondrial dynamic changes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radiation-induced mitochondrial fission was caused by Drp1 localization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found that radiation causes delayed ROS from mitochondria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Down regulation of Drp1 rescued mitochondrial dysfunction after radiation exposure. -- Abstract: Ionizing radiation is known to increase intracellular level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through mitochondrial dysfunction. Although it has been as a basis of radiation-induced genetic instability, the mechanism involving mitochondrial dysfunction remains unclear. Here we studied the dynamics of mitochondrial structure in normal human fibroblast like cells exposed to ionizing radiation. Delayed mitochondrial O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}-} production was peaked 3 days after irradiation, which was coupled with accelerated mitochondrial fission. We found that radiation exposure accumulated dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) to mitochondria. Knocking down of Drp1 expression prevented radiation induced acceleration of mitochondrial fission. Furthermore, knockdown of Drp1 significantly suppressed delayed production of mitochondrial O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}-}. Since the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, which was induced by radiation was prevented in cells knocking down of Drp1 expression, indicating that the excessive mitochondrial fission was involved in delayed mitochondrial dysfunction after irradiation.

  20. ?-glucan induces reactive oxygen species production in human neutrophils to improve the killing of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata isolates from vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Bonfim-Mendonça, Patricia de Souza; Ratti, Bianca Altrão; Godoy, Janine da Silva Ribeiro; Negri, Melyssa; Lima, Nayara Cristina Alves de; Fiorini, Adriana; Hatanaka, Elaine; Consolaro, Marcia Edilaine Lopes; de Oliveira Silva, Sueli; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivalet

    2014-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is among the most prevalent vaginal diseases. Candida albicans is still the most prevalent species associated with this pathology, however, the prevalence of other Candida species, such as C. glabrata, is increasing. The pathogenesis of these infections has been intensely studied, nevertheless, no consensus has been reached on the pathogenicity of VVC. In addition, inappropriate treatment or the presence of resistant strains can lead to RVVC (vulvovaginal candidiasis recurrent). Immunomodulation therapy studies have become increasingly promising, including with the ?-glucans. Thus, in the present study, we evaluated microbicidal activity, phagocytosis, intracellular oxidant species production, oxygen consumption, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and the release of tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?), interleukin-8 (IL-8), IL-1?, and IL-1Ra in neutrophils previously treated or not with ?-glucan. In all of the assays, human neutrophils were challenged with C. albicans and C. glabrata isolated from vulvovaginal candidiasis. ?-glucan significantly increased oxidant species production, suggesting that ?-glucan may be an efficient immunomodulator that triggers an increase in the microbicidal response of neutrophils for both of the species isolated from vulvovaginal candidiasis. The effects of ?-glucan appeared to be mainly related to the activation of reactive oxygen species and modulation of cytokine release. PMID:25229476

  1. Chimerical anti-TNF-alpha, infliximab, inhibits neutrophil chemotaxis and production of reactive oxygen species by blocking the priming effect of mononuclear cells on neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Pay, S; Musabak, U; Erdem, H; Simsek, I; Pekel, A; Sengul, A; Dinc, A

    2005-01-01

    Clinical experience with anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNF-alpha) agents implies that these agents can cause a rapid onset amelioration of the symptoms and laboratory parameters in some inflammatory diseases. Precise explanation of this fast antiinflammatory action is not known. The aim of our study is to investigate the direct and indirect effects of anti-TNF agents on the chemotaxis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production of neutrophils. For this purpose, isolated neutrophil cultures (INCs) and mixed leukocyte cultures were prepared from the venous blood of healthy subjects. Those cultures were separated to different groups according to the presence of anti-TNF or the stimulation of phytohemagglutinin (PHA). In this study, anti-TNF treatment did not change the migration ability of neutrophils in INCs. However, we established that chimerical anti-TNF-alpha, infliximab, inhibits neutrophil chemotaxis and production of ROS by blocking the priming effect of PHA-stimulated circulating mononuclear cells. These results may explain, at least partly, the rapid onset antiinflammatory actions of these agents observed in clinical practice. PMID:16114504

  2. Quarkonium Production through Hard Comover Rescattering in Polarized and Unpolarized pp Scattering.

    E-print Network

    Lunds Universitet,

    =/ and / 0 meson [3] and, furthermore, it predicts a Ø c1 =Ø c2 production ratio which is far too low [4 happens through rescattering with a gluon cloud of hard comovers [5, 6]: The two colliding hadrons form? ­factorization approach within the CSM have not led to satisfying results [16, 17]. Therefore one is looking

  3. Measurement of beauty production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA using decays into electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Abt, I.; Adamczyk, L.; Adamus, M.; Aggarwal, R.; Antonelli, S.; Antonioli, P.; Antonov, A.; Arneodo, M.; Aushev, V.; Aushev, Y.; Bachynska, O.; Bamberger, A.; Barakbaev, A. N.; Barbagli, G.; Bari, G.; Barreiro, F.; Bartosik, N.; Bartsch, D.; Basile, M.; Behnke, O.; Behr, J.; Behrens, U.; Bellagamba, L.; Bertolin, A.; Bhadra, S.; Bindi, M.; Blohm, C.; Bokhonov, V.; Bo?d, T.; Bolilyi, O.; Boos, E. G.; Borras, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bot, D.; Boutle, S. K.; Brock, I.; Brownson, E.; Brugnera, R.; Brümmer, N.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Brzozowska, B.; Bussey, P. J.; Butterworth, J. M.; Bylsma, B.; Caldwell, A.; Capua, M.; Carlin, R.; Catterall, C. D.; Chekanov, S.; Chwastowski, J.; Ciborowski, J.; Ciesielski, R.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Coppola, N.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Costa, M.; D'Agostini, G.; Dal Corso, F.; del Peso, J.; Dementiev, R. K.; De Pasquale, S.; Derrick, M.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Dobur, D.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Dolinska, G.; Doyle, A. T.; Drugakov, V.; Durkin, L. S.; Dusini, S.; Eisenberg, Y.; Ermolov, P. F.; Eskreys, A.; Fang, S.; Fazio, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrero, M. I.; Figiel, J.; Forrest, M.; Foster, B.; Fourletov, S.; Gach, G.; Galas, A.; Gallo, E.; Garfagnini, A.; Geiser, A.; Gialas, I.; Gladilin, L. K.; Gladkov, D.; Glasman, C.; Gogota, O.; Golubkov, Y. A.; Göttlicher, P.; Grabowska-Bo?d, I.; Grebenyuk, J.; Gregor, I.; Grigorescu, G.; Grzelak, G.; Gueta, O.; Gwenlan, C.; Haas, T.; Hain, W.; Hamatsu, R.; Hart, J. C.; Hartmann, H.; Hartner, G.; Hilger, E.; Hochman, D.; Hori, R.; Horton, K.; Hüttmann, A.; Iacobucci, G.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Iga, Y.; Ingbir, R.; Ishitsuka, M.; Jakob, H.-P.; Januschek, F.; Jimenez, M.; Jones, T. W.; Jüngst, M.; Kadenko, I.; Kahle, B.; Kamaluddin, B.; Kananov, S.; Kanno, T.; Karshon, U.; Karstens, F.; Katkov, I. I.; Kaur, M.; Kaur, P.; Keramidas, A.; Khein, L. A.; Kim, J. Y.; Kisielewska, D.; Kitamura, S.; Klanner, R.; Klein, U.; Koffeman, E.; Kooijman, P.; Korol, I.; Korzhavina, I. A.; Kota?ski, A.; Kötz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Kulinski, P.; Kuprash, O.; Kuze, M.; Lee, A.; Levchenko, B. B.; Levy, A.; Libov, V.; Limentani, S.; Ling, T. Y.; Lisovyi, M.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lohmann, W.; Löhr, B.; Lohrmann, E.; Loizides, J. H.; Long, K. R.; Longhin, A.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Lukina, O. Y.; ?u?niak, P.; Maeda, J.; Magill, S.; Makarenko, I.; Malka, J.; Mankel, R.; Margotti, A.; Marini, G.; Martin, J. F.; Mastroberardino, A.; Mattingly, M. C. K.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Mergelmeyer, S.; Miglioranzi, S.; Mohamad Idris, F.; Monaco, V.; Montanari, A.; Morris, J. D.; Mujkic, K.; Musgrave, B.; Nagano, K.; Namsoo, T.; Nania, R.; Nicholass, D.; Nigro, A.; Ning, Y.; Noor, U.; Notz, D.; Nowak, R. J.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A. E.; Oh, B. Y.; Okazaki, N.; Oliver, K.; Olkiewicz, K.; Onishchuk, Y.; Papageorgiu, K.; Parenti, A.; Paul, E.; Pawlak, J. M.; Pawlik, B.; Pelfer, P. G.; Pellegrino, A.; Perlanski, W.; Perrey, H.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Plucinski, P.; Pokrovskiy, N. S.; Polini, A.; Proskuryakov, A. S.; Przybycie?, M.; Raval, A.; Reeder, D. D.; Reisert, B.; Ren, Z.; Repond, J.; Ri, Y. D.; Robertson, A.; Roloff, P.; Ron, E.; Rubinsky, I.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Salii, A.; Samson, U.; Sartorelli, G.; Savin, A. A.; Saxon, D. H.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schleper, P.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schneekloth, U.; Schönberg, V.; Schörner-Sadenius, T.; Schwartz, J.; Sciulli, F.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Shehzadi, R.; Shimizu, S.; Singh, I.; Skillicorn, I. O.; S?omi?ski, W.; Smith, W. H.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Son, D.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Spiridonov, A.; Stadie, H.; Stanco, L.; Stern, A.; Stewart, T. P.; Stifutkin, A.; Stopa, P.; Suchkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Suszycki, L.; Sztuk-Dambietz, J.; Szuba, D.; Szuba, J.; Tapper, A. D.; Tassi, E.; Terrón, J.; Theedt, T.; Tiecke, H.; Tokushuku, K.; Tomalak, O.; Tomaszewska, J.; Tsurugai, T.; Turcato, M.; Tymieniecka, T.; Uribe-Estrada, C.; Vázquez, M.; Verbytskyi, A.; Viazlo, O.; Vlasov, N. N.; Volynets, O.; Walczak, R.; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Whitmore, J. J.; Whyte, J.; Wiggers, L.; Wing, M.; Wlasenko, M.; Wolf, G.; Wolfe, H.; Wrona, K.; Yagües-Molina, A. G.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yoshida, R.; Youngman, C.; ?arnecki, A. F.; Zawiejski, L.; Zenaiev, O.; Zeuner, W.; Zhautykov, B. O.; Zhmak, N.; Zhou, C.; Zichichi, A.; Zolko, M.; Zotkin, D. S.; Zulkapli, Z.

    2011-02-01

    The production of beauty quarks in ep interactions has been studied with the ZEUS detector at HERA for exchanged four-momentum squared Q 2>10 GeV2, using an integrated luminosity of 363 pb-1. The beauty events were identified using electrons from semileptonic b decays with a transverse momentum 0.9 < pTe < 8 GeV and pseudorapidity | ? e |<1.5. Cross sections for beauty production were measured and compared with next-to-leading-order QCD calculations. The beauty contribution to the proton structure function F 2 was extracted from the double-differential cross section as a function of Bjorken- x and Q 2.

  4. Production of reactive sintered nickel aluminide. Fifth quarterly technical progress report, February 22, 1993--May 22, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, R.M.

    1993-06-01

    Effort over the past 3 months was directed at increasing manufacturing capacity (ball milling) and improving product quality. Orders for the powder have increased, mainly for plasma spray powders. NiAl is an excellent coat between a metal and a ceramic, and its use instead of cobalt should extending operating range for carbide tools. The feather phase in the sintered Ni{sub 3}Al was identified to be a Ni-rich phase nucleated on the grain boundaries with 10 wt % Al composition. The ductile to brittle temperature of powder extruded NiAl was found to be between 500 and 600 C, and shows a 50% elongation at 600 C.

  5. Effects of Selected Dietary Secondary Metabolites on Reactive Oxygen Species Production Caused by Iron(II) Autoxidation

    PubMed Central

    Chobot, Vladimir; Hadacek, Franz; Kubicova, Lenka

    2015-01-01

    Iron is an essential co-factor for many enzymes that catalyze electron transfer reactions. It is well known that so-called “poorly liganded” iron can increase ROS concentrations and trigger oxidative stress that is capable of initiating apoptosis. Conversely, controlled ROS production has been recognized as an integral part of cellular signaling. Elevated ROS concentrations are associated with aging, inflammatory and degenerative diseases. Anti-aging properties have been attributed especially to antioxidant phenolic plant metabolites that represent food additives in our diet. Consequently, this study explores the effects of flavonoids (quercetin and rutin), several phenolic acids (caffeic, chlorogenic, and protocatechuic acid), and the alkaloid caffeine on iron(II) autoxidation and ROS production in comparison to the standard antioxidants ascorbic acid and Trolox. The iron(II) autoxidation assay was carried out in pH 6.0 (plant apoplast and inflamed human tissue) and 7.4 (cell cytoplasm and human blood plasma). The obtained results accentuate phenolic acids as the more specific antioxidants compared to ascorbic acid and Trolox. Flavonoid redox chemistry depends more on the chemical milieu, specifically on pH. In vivo, the presence of iron cannot be ruled out and “wrongly” or “poorly” complexed iron has been pointed out as causative agent of various age-related diseases. PMID:25470272

  6. Effect of gold nanoparticles on production of reactive oxygen species by human peripheral blood leukocytes stimulated with opsonized zymosan.

    PubMed

    Piryazev, A P; Azizova, O A; Aseichev, A V; Dudnik, L B; Sergienko, V I

    2013-11-01

    We studied the effect of gold nanoparticles on ROS production by leukocytes. ROS production was detected by luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (LDCL) of human peripheral blood leukocytes stimulated with opsonized zymosan. Nanoparticle size was 5, 10 and 30 nm. Simultaneous addition of nanoparticles and opsonized zymosan showed that 5-nm nanoparticles inhibited LDCL intensity in comparison with the control, when LDCL recording was conducted in the presence of opsonized zymosan. Increasing nanoparticle size from 5 up to 30 nm enhanced LDCL intensity. Preincubation of gold nanoparticles with autologous blood plasma increased LDCL intensity. In the control (without gold nanoparticles), blood plasma produced no activating effect on LDCL. We found that the effect of gold nanoparticles on leukocyte LDCL depended on nanoparticle size: 10- and 30-nm nanoparticles inhibited LDCL intensity in comparison with the control (incubation in the absence of nanoparticles) irrespective of the duration of incubation, while 5-nm gold nanoparticles had no effect on LDCL intensity. Incubation of gold nanoparticles with autologous plasma increased LDCL intensity if nanoparticle size was 30 and 10 nm. PMID:24319701

  7. Measurement of pretzelosity asymmetry of charged pion production in Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering on a polarized 3He target

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhang, Y; Qian, X; Allada, K; Dutta, C; Huang, J; Katich, J; Wang, Y; Aniol, K; Annand, J R.; Averett, T; Benmokhtar, F; Bertozzi, W; Bradshaw, P C.; Bosted, P; Camsonne, A; Canan, M; Cates, G D.; Chen, C; Chen, J -P; Chen, W; Chirapatpimol, K; Chudakov, E; Cisbani, E; Cornejo, J C.; Cusanno, F; Dalton, M M.; Deconinck, W; de Jager, C W.; De Leo, R; Deng, X; Deur, A; Ding, H; Dolph, P A.; Dutta, D; El Fassi, L; Frullani, S; Gao, H; Garibaldi, F; Gaskell, D; Gilad, S; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, O; Golge, S; Guo, L; Hamilton, D; Hansen, O; Higinbotham, D W.; Holmstrom, T; Huang, M; Ibrahim, H F.; Iodice, M; Jiang, X; Jin, G; Jones, M K.; Kelleher, A; Kim, W; Kolarkar, A; Korsch, W; LeRose, J J.; Li, X; Li, Y; Lindgren, R; Liyanage, N; Long, E; Lu, H -J.; Margaziotis, D J.; Markowitz, P; Marrone, S; McNulty, D; Meziani, Z -E.; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Mu??oz Camacho, C; Nanda, S; Narayan, A; Nelyubin, V; Norum, B; Oh, Y; Osipenko, M; Parno, D; Peng, J C.; Phillips, S K.; Posik, M; Puckett, A J.; Qiang, Y; Rakhman, A; Ransome, R D.; Riordan, S; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Schulte, E; Shahinyan, A; Shabestari, M H.; ??irca, S; Stepanyan, S; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V; Tang, L -G.; Tobias, W A.; Urciuoli, G M.; Vilardi, I; Wang, K; Wojtsekhowski, B; Yan, X; Yao, H; Ye, Y; Ye, Z; Yuan, L; Zhan, X; Zhang, Y -W.; Zhao, B; Zheng, X; Zhu, L; Zhu, X; Zong, X

    2014-11-01

    An experiment to measure single-spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive production of charged pions in deep-inelastic scattering on a transversely polarized 3He target was performed at Jefferson Lab in the kinematic region of 0.16

  8. Promotion of p53 expression and reactive oxidative stress production is involved in zerumbone-induced cisplatin sensitization of non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhenhong; Zeng, Qunli; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Haichao; Wang, Wei

    2014-12-01

    p53 signaling plays an important role in cell death. Zerumbone, a natural cyclic sesquiterpene, has shown cytotoxic activity against many cancers. This study was done to investigate the anticancer effects of zerumbone on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and explored the involvement of p53 signaling. Cell viability was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium assay. Apoptosis was confirmed by annexin-V/propidium iodide staining and caspase activity assay. Mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were measured by flow cytometry. Depletion of p53 was achieved by transfection of specific small interfering RNA. Gene expression changes were determined by Western blot analysis. Zerumbone treatment caused a dose-dependent inhibition of A549 and H460 NSCLC cell viability. Zerumbone-induced mitochondrial apoptosis of NSCLC cells, evidenced loss of ??m, release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, and activation of caspase-9 and -3. There was increased p53 and Bax expression and ROS production in zerumbone-treated cells. Downregulation of p53 or scavenging ROS interfered with the pro-apoptotic action of zerumbone. Combinational treatment with zerumbone and cisplatin significantly accelerated apoptosis and promoted p53 expression and ROS production in NSCLC cells, compared with each alone. These findings demonstrate that zerumbone induces mitochondrial apoptosis and enhances the susceptibility to cisplatin in NSCLC cells, which are, at least partially, mediated through activation of p53 signaling and promotion of ROS generation. This study may provide a rationale for the potential clinical application of zerumbone as a chemotherapeutic agent against NSCLC. PMID:25220870

  9. DEXH box RNA helicase-mediated mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production in Arabidopsis mediates crosstalk between abscisic acid and auxin signaling.

    PubMed

    He, Junna; Duan, Ying; Hua, Deping; Fan, Guangjiang; Wang, Li; Liu, Yue; Chen, Zhizhong; Han, Lihua; Qu, Li-Jia; Gong, Zhizhong

    2012-05-01

    It is well known that abscisic acid (ABA) promotes reactive oxygen species (ROS) production through plasma membrane-associated NADPH oxidases during ABA signaling. However, whether ROS from organelles can act as second messengers in ABA signaling is largely unknown. Here, we identified an ABA overly sensitive mutant, abo6, in a genetic screen for ABA-mediated inhibition of primary root growth. ABO6 encodes a DEXH box RNA helicase that is involved in regulating the splicing of several genes of complex I in mitochondria. The abo6 mutant accumulated more ROS in mitochondria, as established using a mitochondrial superoxide indicator, circularly permuted yellow fluorescent protein. Two dominant-negative mutations in ABA insensitive1 (abi1-1) and abi2-1 greatly reduced ROS production in mitochondria. The ABA sensitivity of abo6 can also be compromised by the atrbohF mutation. ABA-mediated inhibition of seed germination and primary root growth in abo6 was released by the addition of reduced GSH and exogenous auxin to the medium. Expression of auxin-responsive markers ProDR5:GUS (for synthetic auxin response element D1-4 with site-directed mutants in the 5'-end from soybean):?-glucuronidase) and Indole-3-acetic acid inducible2:GUS was greatly reduced by the abo6 mutation. Hence, our results provide molecular evidence for the interplay between ABA and auxin through the production of ROS from mitochondria. This interplay regulates primary root growth and seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:22652060

  10. NADPH oxidase-derived production of reactive oxygen species is involved in learning and memory impairments in 16-month-old female rats.

    PubMed

    Kan, Hongwei; Hu, Wen; Wang, Yuchan; Wu, Wangyang; Yin, Yanyan; Liang, Yan; Wang, Chunyan; Huang, Dake; Li, Weizu

    2015-09-01

    Women undergoing the natural menopause can experience progressive cognitive dysfunction, particularly in the form of memory impairment. However, the mechanisms underlying memory impairments in the menopause remain to be elucidated. There is increasing evidence that oxidative damage caused by excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production may correlate with age?associated cognitive impairment. The nicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX) family is important in the generation of ROS in the brain. It has been hypothesized that the accumulation of ROS, derived from NOX, may be involved in menopause?associated learning and memory impairments. The present study investigated whether NOX?derived ROS generation affected the learning and memory ability in 3?month and 16?month?old female rats. The results of a morris water maze assessment revealed that there were significant learning and memory impairments in the 16?month?old female rats. Furthermore, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), level of malondialdehyde (MDA), production of ROS and expression levels of NOX2, p47phox, Ras?related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (RAC1) and protein kinase C ? (PKC?) were investigated in the cortex and hippocampus of 3?month and 16?month old female rats. The results demonstrated that the activity of SOD was significantly decreased, whereas the levels of MDA, production of ROS and expression levels of NOX2, p47phox, RAC1 and PKC? were significantly increased in the 16?month old female rats. These results suggested that NOX?mediated oxidative stress may be important in menopause?associated learning and memory impairments. PMID:26058943

  11. Induction of necrosis and apoptosis to KB cancer cells by sanguinarine is associated with reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial membrane depolarization

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, M.-C. [Biomedical Science Team, Chang Gung Institute of Technology, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chan, C.-P. [Department of Dentistry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wang, Y.-J. [Department of Environmental Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lee, P.-H. [Biomedical Science Team, Chang Gung Institute of Technology, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chen, L.-I [Laboratory of Dental Pharmacology and Toxicology, Department of Dentistry, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University Medical College, No 1, Chang-Te Street, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Y.-L. [Laboratory of Dental Pharmacology and Toxicology, Department of Dentistry, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University Medical College, No 1, Chang-Te Street, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, B.-R. [Department of Integrated Diagnostics and Therapeutics, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taiwan (China); Wang, Y.-L. [Department of Environmental Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Jeng, J.-H. [Laboratory of Dental Pharmacology and Toxicology, Department of Dentistry, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University Medical College, No 1, Chang-Te Street, Taipei, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: huei@ha.mc.ntu.edu.tw

    2007-01-15

    Sanguinarine is a benzopheanthridine alkaloid present in the root of Sanguinaria canadensis L. and Chellidonium majus L. In this study, sanguinarine (2 and 3 {mu}M) exhibited cytotoxicity to KB cancer cells by decreasing MTT reduction to 83% and 52% of control after 24-h of exposure. Sanguinarine also inhibited the colony forming capacity (> 52-58%) and growth of KB cancer cells at concentrations higher than 0.5-1 {mu}M. Short-term exposure to sanguinarine (> 0.5 {mu}M) effectively suppressed the adhesion of KB cells to collagen and fibronectin (FN). Sanguinarine (2 and 3 {mu}M) induced evident apoptosis as indicated by an increase in sub-G0/G1 populations, which was detected after 6-h of exposure. Only a slight increase in cells arresting in S-phase and G2/M was noted. Induction of KB cell apoptosis and necrosis by sanguinarine (2 and 3 {mu}M) was further confirmed by Annexin V-PI dual staining flow cytometry and the presence of DNA fragmentation. The cytotoxicity by sanguinarine was accompanied by an increase in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential as indicated by single cell flow cytometric analysis of DCF and rhodamine fluorescence. NAC (1 and 3 mM) and catalase (2000 U/ml) prevented the sanguinarine-induced ROS production and cytotoxicity, whereas dimethylthiourea (DMT) showed no marked preventive effect. These results suggest that sanguinarine has anticarcinogenic properties with induction of ROS production and mitochondrial membrane depolarization, which mediate cancer cell death.

  12. Paclitaxel therapy potentiates cold hyperalgesia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats through enhanced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and TRPA1 sensitization.

    PubMed

    Barrière, David André; Rieusset, Jennifer; Chanteranne, Didier; Busserolles, Jérôme; Chauvin, Marie-Agnès; Chapuis, Laëtitia; Salles, Jérôme; Dubray, Claude; Morio, Béatrice

    2012-03-01

    Diabetes comorbidities include disabling peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and an increased risk of developing cancer. Antimitotic drugs, such as paclitaxel, are well known to facilitate the occurrence of peripheral neuropathy. Practitioners frequently observe the development or co-occurrence of enhanced DPN, especially cold sensitivity, in diabetic patients during chemotherapy. Preclinical studies showed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cold activate transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1) cation channels, which are involved in cold-evoked pain transduction signaling in DPN. Additionally, paclitaxel treatment has been associated with an accumulation of atypical mitochondria in the sensory nerves of rats. We hypothesized that paclitaxel might potentiate cold hyperalgesia by increasing mitochondrial injuries and TRPA1 activation. Thus, the kinetics of paclitaxel-induced cold hyperalgesia, mitochondrial ROS production, and TRPA1 expression were evaluated in dorsal root ganglia of normoglycemic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In diabetic rats, paclitaxel significantly enhanced cold hyperalgesia in comparison to normoglycemic paclitaxel-treated control rats. These effects were prevented by N-acetyl-cysteine, a reducing agent, and by HC030031, an antagonist of TRPA1. In diabetic and control rats, paclitaxel treatment was associated with an accumulation of atypical mitochondria and a 2-fold increase in mitochondrial ROS production. Moreover, mRNA levels of glutathione peroxidase 4 and glutathione-S-reductase were significantly lower in diabetic groups treated with paclitaxel. Finally, TRPA1 gene expression was enhanced by 45% in diabetic rats. Paclitaxel potentiation of cold hyperalgesia in diabetes may result from the combination of increased mitochondrial ROS production and poor radical detoxification induced by paclitaxel treatment and diabetes-related overexpression of TRPA1. PMID:22177224

  13. Preventive Effect of Daiokanzoto (TJ-84) on 5-Fluorouracil-Induced Human Gingival Cell Death through the Inhibition of Reactive Oxygen Species Production

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Kaya; Yoshioka, Masami; Okamura, Hirohiko; Moriyama, Satomi; Kawazoe, Kazuyoshi; Grenier, Daniel; Hinode, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    Daiokanzoto (TJ-84) is a traditional Japanese herbal medicine (Kampo formulation). While many Kampo formulations have been reported to regulate inflammation and immune responses in oral mucosa, there is no evidence to show that TJ-84 has beneficial effects on oral mucositis, a disease resulting from increased cell death induced by chemotherapeutic agents such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). In order to develop effective new therapeutic strategies for treating oral mucositis, we investigated (i) the mechanisms by which 5-FU induces the death of human gingival cells and (ii) the effects of TJ-84 on biological events induced by 5-FU. 5-FU-induced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and pore formation in gingival cells (Sa3 cell line) resulted in cell death. Incubating the cells with 5-FU increased the expression of nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat containing PYD-3 (NLRP3) and caspase-1. The cleavage of caspase-1 was observed in 5-FU-treated cells, which was followed by an increased secretion of interleukin (IL)-1?. The inhibition of the NLRP3 pathway slightly decreased the effects of 5-FU on cell viability and LDH release, suggesting that NLRP3 may be in part involved in 5-FU-induced cell death. TJ-84 decreased 5-FU-induced LDH release and cell death and also significantly inhibited the depolarization of mitochondria and the up-regulation of 5-FU-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) production. The transcriptional factor, nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) was not involved in the 5-FU-induced cell death in Sa3 cells. In conclusion, we provide evidence suggesting that the increase of ROS production in mitochondria, rather than NLRP3 activation, was considered to be associated with the cell death induced by 5-FU. The results also suggested that TJ-84 may attenuate 5-FU-induced cell death through the inhibition of mitochondrial ROS production. PMID:25389767

  14. Central role of endogenous Toll-like receptor-2 activation in regulating inflammation, reactive oxygen species production, and subsequent neointimal formation after vascular injury

    SciTech Connect

    Shishido, Tetsuro [From Department of Cardiology, Pulmonology, and Nephrology, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata (Japan) and Center for Cardiovascular Research, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY (United States)]. E-mail: Tetsuro_Shishido@URMC.Rochester.edu; Nozaki, Naoki [From Department of Cardiology, Pulmonology, and Nephrology, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata (Japan); Takahashi, Hiroki [From Department of Cardiology, Pulmonology, and Nephrology, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata (Japan); Arimoto, Takanori [From Department of Cardiology, Pulmonology, and Nephrology, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata (Japan); Niizeki, Takeshi [From Department of Cardiology, Pulmonology, and Nephrology, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata (Japan); Koyama, Yo [From Department of Cardiology, Pulmonology, and Nephrology, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata (Japan); Abe, Jun-ichi [Center for Cardiovascular Research, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY (United States); Takeishi, Yasuchika [From Department of Cardiology, Pulmonology, and Nephrology, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata (Japan); Kubota, Isao [From Department of Cardiology, Pulmonology, and Nephrology, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata (Japan)

    2006-07-14

    Background: It is now evident that inflammation after vascular injury has significant impact on the restenosis after revascularization procedures such as angioplasty, stenting, and bypass grafting. However, the mechanisms that regulate inflammation and repair after vascular injury are incompletely understood. Here, we report that vascular injury-mediated cytokine expression, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, as well as subsequent neointimal formation requires Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR-2) mediated signaling pathway in vivo. Methods and results: Vascular injury was induced by cuff-placement around the femoral artery in non-transgenic littermates (NLC) and TLR-2 knockout (TLR-2KO) mice. After cuff-placement in NLC mice, expression of TLR-2 was significantly increased in both smooth muscle medial layer and adventitia. Interestingly, we found that inflammatory genes expression such as tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}, interleukin-1{beta} (IL-1{beta}), IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 were markedly decreased in TLR-2KO mice compared with NLC mice. In addition, ROS production after vascular injury was attenuated in TLR-2KO mice compared with NLC mice. Since we observed the significant role of endogenous TLR-2 activation in regulating inflammatory responses and ROS production after vascular injury, we determined whether inhibition of endogenous TLR-2 activation can inhibit neointimal proliferation after vascular injury. Neointimal hyperplasia was markedly suppressed in TLR-2KO mice compared with WT mice at both 2 and 4 weeks after vascular injury. Conclusions: These findings suggested that endogenous TLR-2 activation might play a central role in the regulation of vascular inflammation as well as subsequent neointimal formation in injured vessels.

  15. DEXH Box RNA Helicase–Mediated Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Arabidopsis Mediates Crosstalk between Abscisic Acid and Auxin Signaling[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    He, Junna; Duan, Ying; Hua, Deping; Fan, Guangjiang; Wang, Li; Liu, Yue; Chen, Zhizhong; Han, Lihua; Qu, Li-Jia; Gong, Zhizhong

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that abscisic acid (ABA) promotes reactive oxygen species (ROS) production through plasma membrane–associated NADPH oxidases during ABA signaling. However, whether ROS from organelles can act as second messengers in ABA signaling is largely unknown. Here, we identified an ABA overly sensitive mutant, abo6, in a genetic screen for ABA-mediated inhibition of primary root growth. ABO6 encodes a DEXH box RNA helicase that is involved in regulating the splicing of several genes of complex I in mitochondria. The abo6 mutant accumulated more ROS in mitochondria, as established using a mitochondrial superoxide indicator, circularly permuted yellow fluorescent protein. Two dominant-negative mutations in ABA insensitive1 (abi1-1) and abi2-1 greatly reduced ROS production in mitochondria. The ABA sensitivity of abo6 can also be compromised by the atrbohF mutation. ABA-mediated inhibition of seed germination and primary root growth in abo6 was released by the addition of reduced GSH and exogenous auxin to the medium. Expression of auxin-responsive markers ProDR5:GUS (for synthetic auxin response element D1-4 with site-directed mutants in the 5?-end from soybean):?-glucuronidase) and Indole-3-acetic acid inducible2:GUS was greatly reduced by the abo6 mutation. Hence, our results provide molecular evidence for the interplay between ABA and auxin through the production of ROS from mitochondria. This interplay regulates primary root growth and seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:22652060

  16. Immunologic cross-reactivity between respiratory chemical sensitizers: Reactive dyes and cyanuric chloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meinir Jones; Cynthia Graham; Anthony Newman Taylor; Katherine Sarlo; Viviene Hoyle; Meryl H. Karol

    1998-01-01

    Background: CyCl is a low molecular weight reactive chemical used as an intermediate in the production of plastics, herbicides, pharmaceuticals, and fiber-reactive dyes. It is a potent inducer of specific IgE antibody. The CyCl functionality is a structural component of monochlorotriazine and dichlorotriazine dyes. Objective: We have investigated the immunologic cross-reactivity between cyanuric chloride (CyCl) and reactive dyes and it

  17. Intravenous Immunoglobulin Prevents Murine Antibody-Mediated Acute Lung Injury at the Level of Neutrophil Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Production

    PubMed Central

    Semple, John W.; Kim, Michael; Hou, Jing; McVey, Mark; Lee, Young Jin; Tabuchi, Arata; Kuebler, Wolfgang M.; Chai, Zhong-Wei; Lazarus, Alan H.

    2012-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a leading cause of transfusion-associated mortality that can occur with any type of transfusion and is thought to be primarily due to donor antibodies activating pulmonary neutrophils in recipients. Recently, a large prospective case controlled clinical study of cardiac surgery patients demonstrated that despite implementation of male donors, a high incidence of TRALI still occurred and suggested a need for additional interventions in susceptible patient populations. To examine if intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) may be effective, a murine model of antibody-mediated acute lung injury that approximates human TRALI was examined. When BALB/c mice were injected with the anti-major histocompatibility complex class I antibody 34-1-2s, mild shock (reduced rectal temperature) and respiratory distress (dyspnea) were observed and pre-treatment of the mice with 2 g/kg IVIg completely prevented these symptoms. To determine IVIg's usefulness to affect severe lung damage, SCID mice, previously shown to be hypersensitive to 34-1-2s were used. SCID mice treated with 34-1-2s underwent severe shock, lung damage (increased wet/dry ratios) and 40% mortality within 2 hours. Treatment with 2 g/kg IVIg 18 hours before 34-1-2s administration completely protected the mice from all adverse events. Treatment with IVIg after symptoms began also reduced lung damage and mortality. While the prophylactic IVIg administration did not affect 34-1-2s-induced pulmonary neutrophil accumulation, bone marrow-derived neutrophils from the IVIg-treated mice displayed no spontaneous ROS production nor could they be stimulated in vitro with fMLP or 34-1-2s. These results suggest that IVIg prevents murine antibody-mediated acute lung injury at the level of neutrophil ROS production and thus, alleviating tissue damage. PMID:22363629

  18. Biofilm-grown Burkholderia cepacia complex cells survive antibiotic treatment by avoiding production of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Van Acker, Heleen; Sass, Andrea; Bazzini, Silvia; De Roy, Karen; Udine, Claudia; Messiaen, Thomas; Riccardi, Giovanna; Boon, Nico; Nelis, Hans J; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar; Coenye, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The presence of persister cells has been proposed as a factor in biofilm resilience. In the present study we investigated whether persister cells are present in Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) biofilms, what the molecular basis of antimicrobial tolerance in Bcc persisters is, and how persisters can be eradicated from Bcc biofilms. After treatment of Bcc biofilms with high concentrations of various antibiotics often a small subpopulation survived. To investigate the molecular mechanism of tolerance in this subpopulation, Burkholderia cenocepacia biofilms were treated with 1024 µg/ml of tobramycin. Using ROS-specific staining and flow cytometry, we showed that tobramycin increased ROS production in treated sessile cells. However, approximately 0.1% of all sessile cells survived the treatment. A transcriptome analysis showed that several genes from the tricarboxylic acid cycle and genes involved in the electron transport chain were downregulated. In contrast, genes from the glyoxylate shunt were upregulated. These data indicate that protection against ROS is important for the survival of persisters. To confirm this, we determined the number of persisters in biofilms formed by catalase mutants. The persister fraction in ?katA and ?katB biofilms was significantly reduced, confirming the role of ROS detoxification in persister survival. Pretreatment of B. cenocepacia biofilms with itaconate, an inhibitor of isocitrate lyase (ICL), the first enzyme in the glyoxylate shunt, reduced the persister fraction approx. 10-fold when the biofilms were subsequently treated with tobramycin. In conclusion, most Bcc biofilms contain a significant fraction of persisters that survive treatment with high doses of tobramycin. The surviving persister cells downregulate the TCA cycle to avoid production of ROS and at the same time activate an alternative pathway, the glyoxylate shunt. This pathway may present a novel target for combination therapy. PMID:23516582

  19. Jaridonin, a Novel Ent-Kaurene Diterpenoid from Isodon rubescens, Inducing Apoptosis via Production of Reactive Oxygen Species in Esophageal Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yong-Cheng; Ke, Yu; Zi, Xiaolin; Zhao, Wen; Shi, Xiao-Jing; Liu, Hong-Min

    2013-01-01

    Isodon rubescens, a Chinese herb, has been used as a folk, botanical medicine in China for inflammatory diseases and cancer treatment for many years. Recently, we isolated a new ent-kaurene diterpenoid, named Jaridonin, from Isodon rubescens. The chemical structure of Jaridonin was verified by Infrared (IR), Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and Mass spectrum (MS) data as well as X-ray spectra. Jaridonin potently reduced viabilities of several esophageal cancer cell lines, including EC109, EC9706 and EC1. Jaridonin treatment resulted in typical apoptotic morphological characteristics, increased the number of annexin V-positive staining cells, as well as caused a G2/M arrest in cell cycle progression. Furthermore, Jaridonin resulted in a significant loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c into the cytosol, and then activation of Caspase-9 and -3, leading to activation of the mitochondria mediated apoptosis. Furthermore, these effects of Jaridonin were accompanied by marked reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and increased expression of p53, p21waf1/Cip1 and Bax, whereas two ROS scavengers, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (L-NAC) and Vitamin C, significantly attenuated the effects of Jaridonin on the mitochondrial membrane potential, DNA damage, expression of p53 and p21waf1/Cip1 and reduction of cell viabilities. Taken together, our results suggest that a natural ent-kaurenoid diterpenoid, Jaridonin, is a novel apoptosis inducer and deserves further investigation as a new chemotherapeutic strategy for patients with esophageal cancer. PMID:23597192

  20. Jaridonin, a novel ent-kaurene diterpenoid from Isodon rubescens, inducing apoptosis via production of reactive oxygen species in esophageal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yong-Cheng; Ke, Yu; Zi, Xiaolin; Zhao, Wen; Shi, Xiao-Jing; Liu, Hong-Min

    2013-07-01

    Isodon rubescens, a Chinese herb, has been used as a folk, botanical medicine in China for inflammatory diseases and cancer treatment for many years. Recently, we isolated a new ent-kaurene diterpenoid, named Jaridonin, from Isodon rubescens. The chemical structure of Jaridonin was verified by infrared (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and mass spectrum (MS) data as well as X-ray spectra. Jaridonin potently reduced viabilities of several esophageal cancer cell lines, including EC109, EC9706 and EC1. Jaridonin treatment resulted in typical apoptotic morphological characteristics, increased the number of annexin V-positive staining cells, as well as caused a G2/M arrest in cell cycle progression. Furthermore, Jaridonin resulted in a significant loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c into the cytosol, and then activation of Caspase-9 and -3, leading to activation of the mitochondria mediated apoptosis. Furthermore, these effects of Jaridonin were accompanied by marked reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and increased expression of p53, p21(waf1/Cip1) and Bax, whereas two ROS scavengers, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (LNAC) and Vitamin C, significantly attenuated the effects of Jaridonin on the mitochondrial membrane potential, DNA damage, expression of p53 and p21(waf1/Cip1) and reduction of cell viabilities. Taken together, our results suggest that a natural ent-kaurenoid diterpenoid, Jaridonin, is a novel apoptosis inducer and deserves further investigation as a new chemotherapeutic strategy for patients with esophageal cancer. PMID:23597192

  1. NADPH oxidase-mediated reactive oxygen species production activates hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) via the ERK pathway after hyperthermia treatment

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Eui Jung; Sonveaux, Pierre; Porporato, Paolo E.; Danhier, Pierre; Gallez, Bernard; Batinic-Haberle, Ines; Nien, Yu-Chih; Schroeder, Thies; Dewhirst, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    Hyperthermia (HT) is a strong adjuvant treatment with radiotherapy and chemotherapy because it causes tumor reoxygenation. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms of how HT enhances tumor oxygenation have not been elucidated. Here we report that 1 h of HT activates hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) in tumors and its downstream targets, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1). Consistent with HIF-1 activation and up-regulation of its downstream genes, HT also enhances tumor perfusion/vascularization and decreases oxygen consumption. As a result, tumor hypoxia is reduced after HT, suggesting that these physiological changes contribute to HT-induced tumor reoxygenation. Because HIF-1 is a potent regulator of tumor vascularization and metabolism, our findings suggest that HIF-1 plays a role in HT-induced tumor reoxygenation by transactivating its downstream targets. We demonstrate that NADPH oxidase-mediated reactive oxygen species production, as a mechanism, up-regulates HIF-1 after HT. Furthermore, we determine that this pathway is initiated by increased transcription of NADPH oxidase-1 through the ERK pathway. In conclusion, this study determines that, although HIF-1 is a good therapeutic target, the timing of its inhibition needs to be optimized to achieve the most beneficial outcome when it is combined with other treatments of HT, radiation, and chemotherapy. PMID:21059928

  2. Induction of copper/zinc-superoxide dismutase by CCL5/CCR5 activation causes tumour necrosis factor-alpha and reactive oxygen species production in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lei; Ding, Li; Huang, Jin; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Junping; Guo, Baoyu

    2009-09-01

    Using two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, we found that copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD, SOD-1) was induced in constructed CCR5 stably transfected HEK 293 cells, but not in mock cells, treated with CCL5. CCL5-induced SOD-1 expression was also confirmed in HEK 293-CCR5 cells and CCR5-positive granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-induced human macrophages and murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells. CCL5 and CCR5 interaction induced SOD-1 expression mainly via MEK-ERK activation. In addition, we provided evidence that upregulation of SOD-1 by CCL5/CCR5 activation occurred in parallel with the increased release of tumour necrosis factor-alpha and nitric oxide and production of intracellular reactive oxygen species as well as enhanced nuclear factor-kappaB transcriptional activity in CCR5-positive RAW264.7 cells. Conversely, the MEK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 significantly inhibited SOD-1 expression with the decrease of these biological responses. More importantly, inhibition of SOD-1 activity by disulfiram also strongly inhibited the CCL5-induced biological effects. These data suggest that SOD-1 mediates CCR5 activation by CCL5 and that pharmacological modulation of SOD-1 may be beneficial to CCR5-associated diseases. PMID:19016906

  3. Helenalin-induced apoptosis is dependent on production of reactive oxygen species and independent of induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ji Hoon; Iqbal, Taha; Min, Kyoung-Jin; Kim, Shin; Park, Jong-Wook; Son, Eun-Ik; Lee, Tae-Jin; Kwon, Taeg Kyu

    2013-03-01

    Helenalin, a sesquiterpene lactone, exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activities. Here, we investigated whether helenalin could induce apoptosis in human renal carcinoma Caki cells. Helenalin increased apoptosis in dose dependent manner in Caki cells, and also induced apoptosis in other carcinoma cells, such as human renal carcinoma ACHN cells, human colon carcinoma HT29 and HCT116 cells. We found that helenalin markedly induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related genes, such as regulated in development and DNA damage responses (REDD) 1, activating transcription factor-4 (ATF4) and/or the CCAAT enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein (CHOP). However, down-regulation of ATF4 and/or CHOP expression by siRNA had no effect on helenalin-induced apoptosis in Caki and HCT116 cells. Helenalin increased production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, ROS scavengers, N-acetylcystine (NAC), and glutathione ethyl ester (GEE), reduced helenalin-induced apoptosis. Taken together, helenalin induced apoptosis via ROS generation in human renal carcinoma Caki cells. PMID:23123298

  4. Measurement of parton distributions of strange quarks in the nucleon from charged-kaon production in deep-inelastic scattering on the deuteron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HERMES Collaboration; Airapetian, A.; Akopov, N.; Akopov, Z.; Andrus, A.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Augustyniak, W.; Avakian, R.; Avetissian, A.; Avetissian, E.; Belostotski, S.; Bianchi, N.; Blok, H. P.; Böttcher, H.; Bonomo, C.; Borissov, A.; Brüll, A.; Bryzgalov, V.; Burns, J.; Capiluppi, M.; Capitani, G. P.; Cisbani, E.; Ciullo, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; Dalpiaz, P. F.; Deconinck, W.; de Leo, R.; Demey, M.; de Nardo, L.; de Sanctis, E.; Diefenthaler, M.; di Nezza, P.; Dreschler, J.; Düren, M.; Ehrenfried, M.; Elalaoui-Moulay, A.; Elbakian, G.; Ellinghaus, F.; Elschenbroich, U.; Fabbri, R.; Fantoni, A.; Felawka, L.; Frullani, S.; Funel, A.; Gabbert, D.; Gapienko, G.; Gapienko, V.; Garibaldi, F.; Gavrilov, G.; Gharibyan, V.; Giordano, F.; Gliske, S.; Gregor, I. M.; Guler, H.; Hadjidakis, C.; Hasch, D.; Hasegawa, T.; Hesselink, W. H. A.; Hill, G.; Hillenbrand, A.; Hoek, M.; Holler, Y.; Hommez, B.; Hristova, I.; Iarygin, G.; Imazu, Y.; Ivanilov, A.; Izotov, A.; Jackson, H. E.; Jgoun, A.; Joosten, S.; Kaiser, R.; Keri, T.; Kinney, E.; Kisselev, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Kopytin, M.; Korotkov, V.; Kozlov, V.; Kravchenko, P.; Krivokhijine, V. G.; Lagamba, L.; Lamb, R.; Lapikás, L.; Lehmann, I.; Lenisa, P.; Liebing, P.; Linden-Levy, L. A.; Lopez Ruiz, A.; Lorenzon, W.; Lu, S.; Lu, X.-R.; Ma, B.-Q.; Mahon, D.; Maiheu, B.; Makins, N. C. R.; Manfré, L.; Mao, Y.; Marianski, B.; Marukyan, H.; Mexner, V.; Miller, C. A.; Miyachi, Y.; Muccifora, V.; Murray, M.; Mussgiller, A.; Nagaitsev, A.; Nappi, E.; Naryshkin, Y.; Nass, A.; Negodaev, M.; Nowak, W.-D.; Osborne, A.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Perez-Benito, R.; Pickert, N.; Raithel, M.; Reggiani, D.; Reimer, P. E.; Reischl, A.; Reolon, A. R.; Riedl, C.; Rith, K.; Rock, S. E.; Rosner, G.; Rostomyan, A.; Rubacek, L.; Rubin, J.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salomatin, Y.; Sanjiev, I.; Schäfer, A.; Schnell, G.; Schüler, K. P.; Seitz, B.; Shearer, C.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shutov, V.; Stancari, M.; Statera, M.; Steffens, E.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, J.; Stinzing, F.; Streit, J.; Tait, P.; Taroian, S.; Tchuiko, B.; Terkulov, A.; Trzcinski, A.; Tytgat, M.; Vandenbroucke, A.; van der Nat, P. B.; van der Steenhoven, G.; van Haarlem, Y.; van Hulse, C.; Varanda, M.; Veretennikov, D.; Vikhrov, V.; Vilardi, I.; Vogel, C.; Wang, S.; Yaschenko, S.; Ye, H.; Ye, Y.; Ye, Z.; Yen, S.; Yu, W.; Zeiler, D.; Zihlmann, B.; Zupranski, P.

    2008-09-01

    The momentum and helicity density distributions of the strange quark sea in the nucleon are obtained in leading order from charged-kaon production in deep-inelastic scattering on the deuteron. The distributions are extracted from spin-averaged K multiplicities, and from K and inclusive double-spin asymmetries for scattering of polarized positrons by a polarized deuterium target. The shape of the momentum distribution is softer than that of the average of the u¯ and d¯ quarks. In the region of measurement 0.021.0 GeV, the helicity distribution is zero within experimental uncertainties.

  5. Measurement of parton distributions of strange quarks in the nucleon from charged-kaon production in deep-inelastic scattering on the deuteron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Airapetian, A.; Akopov, N.; Akopov, Z.; Andrus, A.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Augustyniak, W.; Avakian, R.; Avetissian, A.; Avetissian, E.; Belostotski, S.; Bianchi, N.; Blok, H. P.; Böttcher, H.; Bonomo, C.; Borissov, A.; Brüll, A.; Bryzgalov, V.; Burns, J.; Capiluppi, M.; Capitani, G. P.; Cisbani, E.; Ciullo, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; Dalpiaz, P. F.; Deconinck, W.; de Leo, R.; Demey, M.; de Nardo, L.; de Sanctis, E.; Diefenthaler, M.; di Nezza, P.; Dreschler, J.; Düren, M.; Ehrenfried, M.; Elalaoui-Moulay, A.; Elbakian, G.; Ellinghaus, F.; Elschenbroich, U.; Fabbri, R.; Fantoni, A.; Felawka, L.; Frullani, S.; Funel, A.; Gabbert, D.; Gapienko, G.; Gapienko, V.; Garibaldi, F.; Gavrilov, G.; Gharibyan, V.; Giordano, F.; Gliske, S.; Gregor, I. M.; Guler, H.; Hadjidakis, C.; Hasch, D.; Hasegawa, T.; Hesselink, W. H. A.; Hill, G.; Hillenbrand, A.; Hoek, M.; Holler, Y.; Hommez, B.; Hristova, I.; Iarygin, G.; Imazu, Y.; Ivanilov, A.; Izotov, A.; Jackson, H. E.; Jgoun, A.; Joosten, S.; Kaiser, R.; Keri, T.; Kinney, E.; Kisselev, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Kopytin, M.; Korotkov, V.; Kozlov, V.; Kravchenko, P.; Krivokhijine, V. G.; Lagamba, L.; Lamb, R.; Lapikás, L.; Lehmann, I.; Lenisa, P.; Liebing, P.; Linden-Levy, L. A.; Lopez Ruiz, A.; Lorenzon, W.; Lu, S.; Lu, X.-R.; Ma, B.-Q.; Mahon, D.; Maiheu, B.; Makins, N. C. R.; Manfré, L.; Mao, Y.; Marianski, B.; Marukyan, H.; Mexner, V.; Miller, C. A.; Miyachi, Y.; Muccifora, V.; Murray, M.; Mussgiller, A.; Nagaitsev, A.; Nappi, E.; Naryshkin, Y.; Nass, A.; Negodaev, M.; Nowak, W.-D.; Osborne, A.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Perez-Benito, R.; Pickert, N.; Raithel, M.; Reggiani, D.; Reimer, P. E.; Reischl, A.; Reolon, A. R.; Riedl, C.; Rith, K.; Rock, S. E.; Rosner, G.; Rostomyan, A.; Rubacek, L.; Rubin, J.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salomatin, Y.; Sanjiev, I.; Schäfer, A.; Schnell, G.; Schüler, K. P.; Seitz, B.; Shearer, C.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shutov, V.; Stancari, M.; Statera, M.; Steffens, E.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, J.; Stinzing, F.; Streit, J.; Tait, P.; Taroian, S.; Tchuiko, B.; Terkulov, A.; Trzcinski, A.; Tytgat, M.; Vandenbroucke, A.; van der Nat, P. B.; van der Steenhoven, G.; van Haarlem, Y.; van Hulse, C.; Varanda, M.; Veretennikov, D.; Vikhrov, V.; Vilardi, I.; Vogel, C.; Wang, S.; Yaschenko, S.; Ye, H.; Ye, Y.; Ye, Z.; Yen, S.; Yu, W.; Zeiler, D.; Zihlmann, B.; Zupranski, P.; Hermes Collaboration

    2008-09-01

    The momentum and helicity density distributions of the strange quark sea in the nucleon are obtained in leading order from charged-kaon production in deep-inelastic scattering on the deuteron. The distributions are extracted from spin-averaged K± multiplicities, and from K± and inclusive double-spin asymmetries for scattering of polarized positrons by a polarized deuterium target. The shape of the momentum distribution is softer than that of the average of the ubar and dbar quarks. In the region of measurement 0.02 < x < 0.6 and Q2 > 1.0 GeV2, the helicity distribution is zero within experimental uncertainties.

  6. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Upregulation by Angiotensin II Contributes to Hypertension and Vascular Dysfunction through Reactive Oxygen Species Production

    PubMed Central

    De Batista, Priscila R.; Palacios, Roberto; Martín, Angela; Hernanz, Raquel; Médici, Cindy T.; Silva, Marito A. S. C.; Rossi, Emilly M.; Aguado, Andrea; Vassallo, Dalton V.; Salaices, Mercedes; Alonso, María J.

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension is considered as a low-grade inflammatory disease, with adaptive immunity being an important mediator of this pathology. TLR4 may have a role in the development of several cardiovascular diseases; however, little is known about its participation in hypertension. We aimed to investigate whether TLR4 activation due to increased activity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) contributes to hypertension and its associated endothelial dysfunction. For this, we used aortic segments from Wistar rats treated with a non-specific IgG (1 µg/day) and SHRs treated with losartan (15 mg/kg·day), the non-specific IgG or the neutralizing antibody anti-TLR4 (1 µg/day), as well as cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from Wistar and SHRs. TLR4 mRNA levels were greater in the VSMC and aortas from SHRs compared with Wistar rats; losartan treatment reduced those levels in the SHRs. Treatment of the SHRs with the anti-TLR4 antibody: 1) reduced the increased blood pressure, heart rate and phenylephrine-induced contraction while it improved the impaired acetylcholine-induced relaxation; 2) increased the potentiation of phenylephrine contraction after endothelium removal; and 3) abolished the inhibitory effects of tiron, apocynin and catalase on the phenylephrine-induced response as well as its enhancing effect of acetylcholine-induced relaxation. In SHR VSMCs, angiotensin II increased TLR4 mRNA levels, and losartan reduced that increase. CLI-095, a TLR4 inhibitor, mitigated the increases in NAD(P)H oxidase activity, superoxide anion production, migration and proliferation that were induced by angiotensin II. In conclusion, TLR4 pathway activation due to increased RAS activity is involved in hypertension, and by inducing oxidative stress, this pathway contributes to the endothelial dysfunction associated with this pathology. These results suggest that TLR4 and innate immunity may play a role in hypertension and its associated end-organ damage. PMID:25093580

  7. p-Cresol Affects Reactive Oxygen Species Generation, Cell Cycle Arrest, Cytotoxicity and Inflammation/Atherosclerosis-Related Modulators Production in Endothelial Cells and Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Chiu-Po; Yeung, Sin-Yuet; Hsien, Hsiang-Chi; Lin, Bor-Ru; Yeh, Chien-Yang; Tseng, Wan-Yu; Tseng, Shui-Kuan; Jeng, Jiiang-Huei

    2014-01-01

    Aims Cresols are present in antiseptics, coal tar, some resins, pesticides, and industrial solvents. Cresol intoxication leads to hepatic injury due to coagulopathy as well as disturbance of hepatic circulation in fatal cases. Patients with uremia suffer from cardiovascular complications, such as atherosclerosis, thrombosis, hemolysis, and bleeding, which may be partly due to p-cresol toxicity and its effects on vascular endothelial and mononuclear cells. Given the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammation in vascular thrombosis, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of p-cresol on endothelial and mononuclear cells. Methods EA.hy926 (EAHY) endothelial cells and U937 cells were exposed to different concentrations of p-cresol. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 -diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and trypan blue dye exclusion technique, respectively. Cell cycle distribution was analyzed by propidium iodide flow cytometry. Endothelial cell migration was studied by wound closure assay. ROS level was measured by 2?,7?-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF) fluorescence flow cytometry. Prostaglandin F2? (PGF2?), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), and uPA production were determined by Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). Results Exposure to 100–500 µM p-cresol decreased EAHY cell number by 30–61%. P-cresol also decreased the viability of U937 mononuclear cells. The inhibition of EAHY and U937 cell growth by p-cresol was related to induction of S-phase cell cycle arrest. Closure of endothelial wounds was inhibited by p-cresol (>100 µM). P-cresol (>50 µM) also stimulated ROS production in U937 cells and EAHY cells but to a lesser extent. Moreover, p-cresol markedly stimulated PAI-1 and suPAR, but not PGF2?, and uPA production in EAHY cells. Conclusions p-Cresol may contribute to atherosclerosis and thrombosis in patients with uremia and cresol intoxication possibly due to induction of ROS, endothelial/mononuclear cell damage and production of inflammation/atherosclerosis-related molecules. PMID:25517907

  8. 3,3',4,4'-Tetrachlorobiphenyl oxidation in fish, bird and reptile species: relationship to cytochrome P450 1A inactivation and reactive oxygen production.

    PubMed

    Schlezinger, J J; Keller, J; Verbrugge, L A; Stegeman, J J

    2000-03-01

    Previously we showed that the polychlorinated biphenyl 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCB) caused a release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) of the fish scup (Stenotomus chrysops), and from rat and human CYP1A1. This was linked to a TCB- and NADPH-dependent oxidative inactivation of the enzyme, which in scup and rat was inversely related to the rates of TCB oxidation. We examined the relationship between rates of TCB oxidation, CYP1A inactivation and ROS production in liver microsomes from additional vertebrate species, including skate (Raja erinacea), eel (Anguilla rostrata), killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus), winter flounder (Pleuronectes americanus), chicken (Gallus domesticus), cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus), gull (Larus argentatus), and turtle (Chrysemys picta picta). TCB oxidation rates were induced in all fish and birds treated with aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists. Induced rates of TCB oxidation were <1 pmol/min/mg microsomal protein in all fish, and 6-14 pmol/min/mg in the birds. In all species but one, TCB oxidation rates correlated positively with EROD rates, indicating likely involvement of CYP1A in TCB oxidation. Incubation of liver microsomes of most species with TCB+NADPH resulted in an immediate (TCB-dependent) inhibition of EROD, and a progressive loss of EROD capacity, indicating an oxidative inactivation of CYP1A like that in scup. NADPH stimulated production of ROS (H(2)O(2) and/or O(2)(-*)) by liver microsomes, slightly in some species (eel) and greatly in others (chicken, turtle). Among the birds and the fish, NADPH-stimulated ROS production correlated positively with EROD activity. TCB caused a significant stimulation of ROS production by liver microsomes of flounder, killifish, cormorant and gull, as well as scup. The stimulation of CYP1A inactivation and ROS generation indicates an uncoupling of CYP1A by TCB in many species, and when compared between species, the rates of CYP1A inactivation correlated inversely with rates of TCB oxidation. Some feature(s) of binding/active site topology may hinder TCB oxidation, enhancing the likelihood for attack of an oxidizing species in the active site. PMID:11790349

  9. Same-sign WW production in proton-nucleus collisions at the LHC as a signal for double parton scattering

    E-print Network

    David d'Enterria; Alexander M. Snigirev

    2012-12-22

    The production of same-sign W-boson pairs from double parton scatterings (DPS) in proton-lead (p-Pb) collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider is studied. The signal and background cross sections are estimated with next-to-leading-order perturbative QCD calculations using nuclear parton distribution functions for the Pb ion. At sqrt(sNN) = 8.8 TeV the cross section for the DPS process is about 150 pb, i.e. 600 times larger than that in proton-proton collisions at the same centre-of-mass energy and 1.5 times higher than the pPb --> WW+2-jets single-parton background. The measurement of such a process, where 10 events with fully leptonic W's decays are expected after cuts in 2 pb^{-1}, would constitute an unambiguous DPS signal and would help determine the effective sigma_eff parameter characterising the transverse distribution of partons in the proton.

  10. Phenylethynyl endcapping reagents and reactive diluents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J. (inventor); Bryant, Robert G. (inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A phenylethynyl composition which can be used to endcap nucleophilic species is employed in the production of phenylethynyl terminated reactive oligomers exclusively. These phenylethynyl terminated reactive oligomers display unique thermal characteristics, as exemplified by the model compound, 4-phenoxy 4'-phenylethynylbenzophenone, which is relatively stable at 200 C, but reacts at 350 C. In addition, a reactive diluent was prepared which decreases the melt viscosity of the phenylethynyl terminated oligomers and subsequently reacts therewith to increase density of the resulting thermoset. The novelty of this invention resides in the phenylethynyl composition used to terminate a nucleophilic reagent, resulting in the exclusive production of phenylethynyl terminated reactive oligomers which display unique thermal characteristics. A reactive diluent was also employed to decrease the melt viscosity of a phenylethynyl terminated reactive oligomer and to subsequently react therewith to increase the crosslink density of the resulting thermoset. These materials have features which make them attractive candidates for use as composite matrices and adhesives.

  11. Suppressive subtractive hybridization approach revealed differential expression of hypersensitive response and reactive oxygen species production genes in tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) leaves during Pestalotiopsis thea infection.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, Palanisamy; Thirugnanasambantham, Krishnaraj; Mandal, Abul Kalam Azad

    2012-12-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) is an economically important plant cultivated for its leaves. Infection of Pestalotiopsis theae in leaves causes gray blight disease and enormous loss to the tea industry. We used suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) technique to unravel the differential gene expression pattern during gray blight disease development in tea. Complementary DNA from P. theae-infected and uninfected leaves of disease tolerant cultivar UPASI-10 was used as tester and driver populations respectively. Subtraction efficiency was confirmed by comparing abundance of ?-actin gene. A total of 377 and 720 clones with insert size >250 bp from forward and reverse library respectively were sequenced and analyzed. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool analysis revealed 17 sequences in forward SSH library have high degree of similarity with disease and hypersensitive response related genes and 20 sequences with hypothetical proteins while in reverse SSH library, 23 sequences have high degree of similarity with disease and stress response-related genes and 15 sequences with hypothetical proteins. Functional analysis indicated unknown (61 and 59 %) or hypothetical functions (23 and 18 %) for most of the differentially regulated genes in forward and reverse SSH library, respectively, while others have important role in different cellular activities. Majority of the upregulated genes are related to hypersensitive response and reactive oxygen species production. Based on these expressed sequence tag data, putative role of differentially expressed genes were discussed in relation to disease. We also demonstrated the efficiency of SSH as a tool in enriching gray blight disease related up- and downregulated genes in tea. The present study revealed that many genes related to disease resistance were suppressed during P. theae infection and enhancing these genes by the application of inducers may impart better disease tolerance to the plants. PMID:23065401

  12. Reactive Oxygen Species Production and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in White Blood Cells Are Not Valid Biomarkers of Ageing in the Very Old

    PubMed Central

    Wiley, Laura; Ashok, Deepthi; Martin-Ruiz, Carmen; Talbot, Duncan C. S.; Collerton, Joanna; Kingston, Andrew; Davies, Karen; Chinnery, Patrick F.; Catt, Michael; Jagger, Carol; Kirkwood, Thomas B. L.; von Zglinicki, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Reliable and valid biomarkers of ageing (BoA) are needed to understand mechanisms, test interventions and predict the timing of adverse health events associated with ageing. Since increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial dysfunction are consequences of cellular senescence and may contribute causally to the ageing of organisms, we focused on these parameters as candidate BoA. Superoxide levels, mitochondrial mass and mitochondrial membrane potential in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and subpopulations (lymphocytes and monocytes) were measured in participants from the Newcastle 85+ study, a population-based study of the very old (aged 85 years and older). The intra- and inter-assay precision expressed as coefficient of variation (CV) for all parameters was acceptable (3% to 12% and 5 to 22% respectively). All parameters were stable in the short-term (1 week interval) in a sample of control individuals in the PBMCs and lymphocyte subpopulation, however they were unstable in the monocyte subpopulation; this rendered monocytes unreliable for further analysis. There was a significant association between superoxide levels and mitochondrial mass (positive in lymphocytes, p?=?0.01) and between superoxide levels and mitochondrial membrane potential (negative in PBMCs, p?=?0.01; positive in lymphocytes, p?=?0.05). There were also significant associations between superoxide levels and mitochondrial parameters with other markers of oxidative stress-induced cellular senescence (p?0.04), however some were in the opposite direction to expected. No associations were found between the measured parameters and age-related outcomes, including cognitive impairment, disability, co-morbidity and survival - questioning the validity of these parameters as candidate BoA in the very old. PMID:24614678

  13. ?-tocotrienol prevents 5-FU-induced reactive oxygen species production in human oral keratinocytes through the stabilization of 5-FU-induced activation of Nrf2

    PubMed Central

    TAKANO, HIDEYUKI; MOMOTA, YUKIHIRO; KANI, KOUICHI; AOTA, KEIKO; YAMAMURA, YOSHIKO; YAMANOI, TOMOKO; AZUMA, MASAYUKI

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis is a common adverse event in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma, and is initiated through a variety of mechanisms, including the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we examined the preventive effect of ?-tocotrienol on the 5-FU-induced ROS production in human oral keratinocytes (RT7). We treated RT7 cells with 5-FU and ?-tocotrienol at concentrations of 10 ?g/ml and 10 nM, respectively. When cells were treated with 5-FU alone, significant growth inhibition was observed as compared to untreated cells. This inhibition was, in part, due to the ROS generated by 5-FU treatment, because N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a ROS scavenger, significantly ameliorated the growth of RT7 cells. ?-tocotrienol showed no cytotoxic effect on the growth of RT7 cells. Simultaneous treatment of cells with these agents resulted in the significant recovery of cell growth, owing to the suppression of ROS generation by ?-tocotrienol. Whereas 5-FU stimulated the expression of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein in the nucleus up to 12 h after treatment of RT7 cells, ?-tocotrienol had no obvious effect on the expression of nuclear Nrf2 protein. Of note, the combined treatment with both agents stabilized the 5-FU-induced nuclear Nrf2 protein expression until 24 h after treatment. In addition, expression of Nrf2-dependent antioxidant genes, such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO-1), was significantly augmented by treatment of cells with both agents. These findings suggest that ?-tocotrienol could prevent 5-FU-induced ROS generation by stabilizing Nrf2 activation, thereby leading to ROS detoxification and cell survival in human oral keratinocytes. PMID:25625649

  14. Activation of NOX2 by the stimulation of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors contributes to glutamate neurotoxicity in vivo through the production of reactive oxygen species and calpain activation.

    PubMed

    Guemez-Gamboa, Alicia; Estrada-Sánchez, Ana María; Montiel, Teresa; Páramo, Blanca; Massieu, Lourdes; Morán, Julio

    2011-11-01

    Prolonged activation of glutamate receptors leads to excitotoxicity. Several processes such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and activation of the calcium-dependent protease, calpain, contribute to glutamate-induced damage. It has been suggested that the ROS-producing enzyme, NADPH oxidase (NOX), plays a role in excitotoxicity. Studies have reported NOX activation after NMDA receptor stimulation during excitotoxic damage, but the role of non-NMDA and metabotropic receptors is unknown. We evaluated the roles of different glutamate receptor subtypes on NOX activation and neuronal death induced by the intrastriatal administration of glutamate in mice. In wild-type mice, NOX2 immunoreactivity in neurons and microglia was stimulated by glutamate administration, and it progressively increased as microglia became activated; calpain activity was also induced. By contrast, mice lacking NOX2 were less vulnerable to excitotoxicity, and there was reduced ROS production and protein nitrosylation, microglial reactivity, and calpain activation. These results suggest that NOX2 is stimulated by glutamate in neurons and reactive microglia through the activation of ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. Neuronal damage involves ROS production by NOX2, which, in turn, contributes to calpain activation. PMID:22002428

  15. Method For Reactivating Solid Catalysts Used For Alklation Reactions

    DOEpatents

    Ginosar, Daniel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Thompson, David N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Coates, Kyle (Shelley, ID); Zalewski, David J. (Proctorville, OH); Fox, Robert V. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2005-05-03

    A method for reactivating a solid alkylation catalyst is provided which can be performed within a reactor that contains the alkylation catalyst or outside the reactor. Effective catalyst reactivation is achieved whether the catalyst is completely deactivated or partially deactivated. A fluid reactivating agent is employed to dissolve catalyst fouling agents and also to react with such agents and carry away the reaction products. The deactivated catalyst is contacted with the fluid reactivating agent under pressure and temperature conditions such that the fluid reactivating agent is dense enough to effectively dissolve the fouling agents and any reaction products of the fouling agents and the reactivating agent. Useful pressures and temperatures for reactivation include near-critical, critical, and supercritical pressures and temperatures for the reactivating agent. The fluid reactivating agent can include, for example, a branched paraffin containing at least one tertiary carbon atom, or a compound that can be isomerized to a molecule containing at least one tertiary carbon atom.

  16. Method for reactivating solid catalysts used in alkylation reactions

    DOEpatents

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Thompson, David N.; Coates, Kyle; Zalewski, David J.; Fox, Robert V.

    2003-06-17

    A method for reactivating a solid alkylation catalyst is provided which can be performed within a reactor that contains the alkylation catalyst or outside the reactor. Effective catalyst reactivation is achieved whether the catalyst is completely deactivated or partially deactivated. A fluid reactivating agent is employed to dissolve catalyst fouling agents and also to react with such agents and carry away the reaction products. The deactivated catalyst is contacted with the fluid reactivating agent under pressure and temperature conditions such that the fluid reactivating agent is dense enough to effectively dissolve the fouling agents and any reaction products of the fouling agents and the reactivating agent. Useful pressures and temperatures for reactivation include near-critical, critical, and supercritical pressures and temperatures for the reactivating agent. The fluid reactivating agent can include, for example, a branched paraffin containing at least one tertiary carbon atom, or a compound that can be isomerized to a molecule containing at least one tertiary carbon atom.

  17. 7, 1307713119, 2007 VOC reactivity in

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    anthropogenic emissions and secondary products from primary VOC oxidation. To evaluate the model treatmentACPD 7, 13077­13119, 2007 VOC reactivity in central California A. L. Steiner et al. Title Page Chemistry and Physics Discussions VOC reactivity in central California: comparing an air quality model

  18. Reactive collisions in confined geometries

    E-print Network

    Zbigniew Idziaszek; Krzysztof Jachymski; Paul S. Julienne

    2015-02-06

    We consider low energy threshold reactive collisions of particles interacting via a van der Waals potential at long range in the presence of external confinement and give analytic formulas for the confinement modified scattering in such circumstances. The reaction process is described in terms of the short range reaction probability. Quantum defect theory is used to express elastic and inelastic or reaction collision rates analytically in terms of two dimensionless parameters representing phase and reactivity. We discuss the modifications to Wigner threshold laws for quasi-one-dimensional and quasi-two-dimensional geometries. Confinement-induced resonances are suppressed due to reactions and are completely absent in the universal limit where the short-range loss probability approaches unity.

  19. Double spin asymmetry AL?T? in charged pion production from deep inelastic scattering on a transversely polarized ³He target

    E-print Network

    Huang, Jin, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis I discuss the first measurement of the beam-target double-spin asymmetry ALT for charged pion electroproduction in deep inelastic electron scattering on a transversely polarized 3He target. These data were ...

  20. Secretoglobin 1A1 and 1A1A Differentially Regulate Neutrophil Reactive Oxygen Species Production, Phagocytosis and Extracellular Trap Formation

    PubMed Central

    Côté, Olivier; Clark, Mary Ellen; Viel, Laurent; Labbé, Geneviève; Seah, Stephen Y. K.; Khan, Meraj A.; Douda, David N.; Palaniyar, Nades; Bienzle, Dorothee

    2014-01-01

    Secretoglobin family 1A member 1 (SCGB 1A1) is a small protein mainly secreted by mucosal epithelial cells of the lungs and uterus. SCGB 1A1, also known as club (Clara) cell secretory protein, represents a major constituent of airway surface fluid. The protein has anti-inflammatory properties, and its concentration is reduced in equine recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) and human asthma. RAO is characterized by reversible airway obstruction, bronchoconstriction and neutrophilic inflammation. Direct effects of SCGB 1A1 on neutrophil functions are unknown. We have recently identified that the SCGB1A1 gene is triplicated in equids and gives rise to two distinct proteins. In this study we produced the endogenously expressed forms of SCGBs (SCGB 1A1 and 1A1A) as recombinant proteins, and analyzed their effects on reactive oxygen species production, phagocytosis, chemotaxis and neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation ex vivo. We further evaluated whether NETs are present in vivo in control and inflamed lungs. Our data show that SCGB 1A1A but not SCGB 1A1 increase neutrophil oxidative burst and phagocytosis; and that both proteins markedly reduce neutrophil chemotaxis. SCGB 1A1A reduced chemotaxis significantly more than SCGB 1A1. NET formation was significantly reduced in a time- and concentration-dependent manner by SCGB 1A1 and 1A1A. SCGB mRNA in bronchial biopsies, and protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, was lower in horses with RAO. NETs were present in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from horses with exacerbated RAO, but not in fluid from horses with RAO in remission or in challenged healthy horses. These findings indicate that SCGB 1A1 and 1A1A have overlapping and diverging functions. Considering disparities in the relative abundance of SCGB 1A1 and 1A1A in airway secretions of animals with RAO suggests that these functional differences may contribute to the pathogenesis of RAO and other neutrophilic inflammatory lung diseases. PMID:24777050

  1. Stress Signaling III: Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mikael Brosché; Kirk Overmyer; Michael Wrzaczek; Jaakko Kangasjärvi; Saijaliisa Kangasjärvi

    \\u000a Previously regarded merely as damaging agents, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are now understood as important signal molecules\\u000a vital to normal plant growth. This tutorial review covers the emerging view of ROS signaling networks from ROS production\\u000a to specific outputs. The chemical nature of individual reactive oxygen species, their site of the production, control of ROS\\u000a accumulation via scavenging and detoxification,

  2. Measurement of parton distributions of strange quarks in the nucleon from charged-kaon production in deep-inelastic scattering on the dueteron.

    SciTech Connect

    Airapetian, A.; Akopov, N.; Akopov, Z.; Andrus, A.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Jackson, H. E.; Reimer, P. E.; HERMES Collaboration; Physics; Univ. of Michigan; Yerevan Physics Inst.; Univ. of Illinois; DESY Lab.

    2008-01-01

    The momentum and helicity density distributions of the strange quark sea in the nucleon are obtained in leading order from charged-kaon production in deep-inelastic scattering on the deuteron. The distributions are extracted from spin-averaged K{sup {+-}} multiplicities, and from K{sup {+-}} and inclusive double-spin asymmetries for scattering of polarized positrons by a polarized deuterium target. The shape of the momentum distribution is softer than that of the average of the {bar u} and {bar d} quarks. In the region of measurement 0.02 < x < 0.6 and Q{sup 2} > 1.0 GeV{sup 2}, the helicity distribution is zero within experimental uncertainties.

  3. Measurement of D ?± meson production and determination of F2^{cbar{c}} at low Q 2 in deep-inelastic scattering at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaron, F. D.; Alexa, C.; Andreev, V.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baghdasaryan, S.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Begzsuren, K.; Belousov, A.; Belov, P.; Bizot, J. C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, D.; Bruncko, D.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A. J.; Cantun Avila, K. B.; Ceccopieri, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Contreras, J. G.; Coughlan, J. A.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Daum, K.; Delcourt, B.; Delvax, J.; De Wolf, E. A.; Diaconu, C.; Dobre, M.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Egli, S.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Fischer, D.-J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Grebenyuk, A.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B. R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Hennekemper, E.; Henschel, H.; Herbst, M.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K. H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hreus, T.; Huber, F.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, X.; Jönsson, L.; Jung, A. W.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Kogler, R.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Kretzschmar, J.; Krüger, K.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Laštovi?ka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; List, J.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meyer, A. B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J. V.; Mudrinic, M.; Müller, K.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P. R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Olsson, J. E.; Ozerov, D.; Pahl, P.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pirumov, H.; Pitzl, D.; Pla?akyt?, R.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Radescu, V.; Raicevic, N.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Ruiz Tabasco, J. E.; Rusakov, S.; Šálek, D.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmitt, S.; Schoeffel, L.; Schöning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Shushkevich, S.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, I.; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stoicea, G.; Straumann, U.; Sykora, T.; Thompson, P. D.; Toll, T.; Tran, T. H.; Traynor, D.; Truöl, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Turnau, J.; Urban, K.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vazdik, Y.; Wegener, D.; Wünsch, E.; Žá?ek, J.; Zálešák, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2011-10-01

    Inclusive production of D ? mesons in deep-inelastic ep scattering at HERA is studied in the range 5< Q 2<100 GeV2 of the photon virtuality and 0.02< y<0.7 of the inelasticity of the scattering process. The observed phase space for the D ? meson is p T ( D ?)>1.25 GeV and | ?( D ?)|<1.8. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 348 pb-1 collected with the H1 detector. Single and double differential cross sections are measured and the charm contribution {F2^{cbar{c}}} to the proton structure function F 2 is determined. The results are compared to perturbative QCD predictions at next-to-leading order implementing different schemes for the charm mass treatment and with Monte Carlo models based on leading order matrix elements with parton showers.

  4. TGA characterization of char reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Shadle, L.J. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Wang, Yau-Hsin C. [EG and G Washington Analytical Services Center, Inc., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1992-12-01

    This is a report of the status and progress of studies to characterize the reactivities of coal char. The current experimental program was initiated to develop an empirical relationship that could describe the dependence of coal devolatilization rates and yields on coal particle sizes between 100 to 1,000 micron as part of the mild gasification program, in order to aid the conceptual design of a benchscale reactor. The conceptual design comprised a fast fluidized-bed pyrolyzer in which the product char was to be burned in a fluidized-bed surge tank combustor prior to the solids recycle. The combustion reactivity of chars was measured following the devolatilization measurements. As a result, the combustion reactivity of various chars were determined as a function of particle size. In this report the findings of the combustion reactivity measurements of coal chars are described. The direct dependencies of particle size, coal type, and char preparation/generation heating rate and temperature are presented for combustion reactivities of chars.

  5. TGA characterization of char reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Shadle, L.J. (USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States)); Wang, Yau-Hsin C. (EG and G Washington Analytical Services Center, Inc., Morgantown, WV (United States))

    1992-01-01

    This is a report of the status and progress of studies to characterize the reactivities of coal char. The current experimental program was initiated to develop an empirical relationship that could describe the dependence of coal devolatilization rates and yields on coal particle sizes between 100 to 1,000 micron as part of the mild gasification program, in order to aid the conceptual design of a benchscale reactor. The conceptual design comprised a fast fluidized-bed pyrolyzer in which the product char was to be burned in a fluidized-bed surge tank combustor prior to the solids recycle. The combustion reactivity of chars was measured following the devolatilization measurements. As a result, the combustion reactivity of various chars were determined as a function of particle size. In this report the findings of the combustion reactivity measurements of coal chars are described. The direct dependencies of particle size, coal type, and char preparation/generation heating rate and temperature are presented for combustion reactivities of chars.

  6. The Plant Cell, Vol. 14, 23692381, October 2002, www.plantcell.org 2002 American Society of Plant Biologists Spatiotemporal Patterning of Reactive Oxygen Production and

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Alison

    in the Fucus embryo. INTRODUCTION Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced by plant and animal cells'Neill, 2000; Desikan et al., 2000; Shackelford et al., 2000). In plants and animals, the activity of a plasma at the external surface of the cells is followed by a rapid dismutation to H2O2, which readily crosses membranes

  7. Reactive Arthritis Diagnosis

    MedlinePLUS

    Reactive Arthritis (ReA): Quick Links Overview >>> Symptoms >>> Diagnosis >>> Treatment >>> Medication >>> Doctor Q&A From Spondylitis Plus >>> REACTIVE ARTHRITIS Overview Because there is no specific laboratory test ...

  8. Reactive Arthritis Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    Reactive Arthritis (ReA): Quick Links Overview >>> Symptoms >>> Diagnosis >>> Treatment >>> Medication >>> Doctor Q&A From Spondylitis Plus >>> REACTIVE ARTHRITIS Overview Seeing a rheumatologist is essential to beginning ...

  9. Reactivating personal memory 1 RUNNING HEAD: Reactivating personal memory

    E-print Network

    Schacter, Daniel

    Reactivating personal memory 1 RUNNING HEAD: Reactivating personal memory Modifying memory: Selectively enhancing and updating personal memories for a museum; Reactivating personal memory 2 Abstract Memory can be modified when reactivated

  10. Reactive local navigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Castro; Urbano Nunes; António Ruano

    2002-01-01

    In this paper a reactive local navigation system is presented, for an autonomous nonholonomic mobile robot navigating in dynamic environments. The reactive navigation system integrates an obstacle detection method and a new reactive collision avoidance method. The sensory perception is based in a laser range finder (LRF) system. Simulation results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed local

  11. Beam-Target Double Spin Asymmetry ALT in Charged Pion Production from Deep Inelastic Scattering on a Transversely Polarized 3He Target at 1.422

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Meziani, Z -E; Michaels, R; Munoz Camacho, C; Nanda, S; Narayan, A; Nelyubin, V; Norum, B; Oh, Y; Osipenko, M; Parno, D; Peng, J C; Phillips, S K; Posik, M; Puckett, A.J. R; Qiang, Y; Rakhman, A; Ransome, R D; Riordan, S; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Schulte, E; Shahinyan, A; Shabestari, M H; Sirca, S; Stepanyan, S; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V; Tang, L -G; Tobias, A; Urciuoli, G M; Vilardi, I; Wang, K; Wojtsekhowski, B; Yan, X; Yao, H; Ye, Y; Ye, Z; Yuan, L; Zhan, X; Zhang, Y -W; Zhao, B; Zheng, X; Zhu, L; Zhu, X

    2012-01-30

    We report the first measurement of the double-spin asymmetry ALT for charged pion electroproduction in semi-inclusive deep inelastic electron scattering on a transversely polarized 3He target. The kinematics focused on the valence quark region, 0.16 2 2. The corresponding neutron ALT asymmetries were extracted from the measured 3He asymmetries and proton/3He cross section ratios using the effective polarization approximation. These new data probe the transverse momentum dependent parton distribution function gq and therefore provide access to quark spin-orbit correlations. Our results indicate a positive azimuthal asymmetry for ?- production on 3He and the neutron, while our ?+ asymmetries are consistent with zero.

  12. Tantalum [ 18O]Water Target for the Production of [ 18F]Fluoride with High Reactivity for the Preparation of 2-Deoxy-2-[ 18F]Fluoro-D-Glucose

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N Satyamurthy; Bernard Amarasekera; C. William Alvord; Jorge R Barrio; Michael E Phelps

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a new tantalum [18O]water target for the routine production of reactive, no-carrier-added [18F]fluoride ion in Curie amounts for the synthesis of radiopharmaceuticals.Procedures: The tantalum target body was filled with 0.86 mL of 95% enriched [18O]water and irradiated with 10.2 MeV protons on target with beam currents of 26–40 ?A for 60–90 min. [18F]Fluoride ion produced is trapped

  13. Multiple scattering in single scatterers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Liang-Wu

    2004-03-01

    Scattering by a multilayered scatterer is analyzed via a novel multiple-scattering approach. Based on the recognition that multiple scattering occurs within single scatterers having internal interfaces, the solution procedure follows the physical process, and yields analytically exact solutions. A simple two-layered scatterer subjected to SH incident waves is used to illustrate the detailed solution procedure. The solution is then verified by a two-layered circular cylindrical scatterer, whose exact analytical solution has previously been obtained by the author [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (2004)]. The proposed approach opens new ways for analyzing scatterers of more complicated geometrical and physical compositions.

  14. Enhanced Oxidative Reactivity for Anthracite Coal via a Reactive Ball Milling Pretreatment Step

    SciTech Connect

    Angela D. Lueking; Apurba Sakti; Dania Alvarez-Fonseca; Nichole Wonderling [Pennsylvania State University, PA (United States). Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering

    2009-09-15

    Reactive ball milling in a cyclohexene solvent significantly increases the oxidative reactivity of an anthracite coal, due to the combined effects of particle size reduction, metal introduction, introduction of volatile matter, and changes in carbon structure. Metals introduced during milling can be easily removed via a subsequent demineralization process, and the increased reactivity is retained. Solvent addition alters the morphological changes that occur during pyrolysis and leads to a char with significantly increased reactivity. When the solvent is omitted, similar effects are seen for the milled product, but a significant fraction of the char is resistant to oxidation. 33 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Expression of glutathione S-transferase and peptide methionine sulphoxide reductase in Ochrobactrum anthropi is correlated to the production of reactive oxygen species caused by aromatic substrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Tamburro; Iole Robuffo; Hermann J. Heipieper; Nerino Allocati; Domenico Rotilio; Carmine Di Ilio; Bartolo Favaloro

    2004-01-01

    Peptide methionine sulphoxide reductase (MsrA) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are considered as detoxification enzymes. In the xenobiotics-degrading bacterium Ochrobactrum anthropi the two enzymes are co-induced by toxic concentrations of aromatic substrates such as phenol and 4-chlorophenol. In aerobic organisms, degradation of aromatic substrates by mono- and dioxygenases leads to a generation of oxidative stress that causes the occurrence of reactive

  16. 3,3?,4,4?-Tetrachlorobiphenyl oxidation in fish, bird and reptile species: relationship to cytochrome P450 1A inactivation and reactive oxygen production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer J Schlezinger; Jennifer Keller; Lori A Verbrugge; John J Stegeman

    2000-01-01

    Previously we showed that the polychlorinated biphenyl 3,3?,4,4?-tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCB) caused a release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) of the fish scup (Stenotomus chrysops), and from rat and human CYP1A1. This was linked to a TCB- and NADPH-dependent oxidative inactivation of the enzyme, which in scup and rat was inversely related to the rates of TCB

  17. Tests of QCD factorisation in the diffractive production of dijets in deep-inelastic scattering and photoproduction at HERA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Aktas; V. Andreev; T. Anthonis; B. Antunovic; S. Aplin; A. Astvatsatourov; A. Baghdasaryan; S. Backovic; P. Baranov; E. Barrelet; W. Bartel; S. Baudrand; M. Beckingham; K. Begzsuren; O. Behnke; O. Behrendt; A. Belousov; N. Berger; J. C. Bizot; M.-O. Boenig; V. Boudry; I. Bozovic-Jelisavcic; J. Bracinik; G. Brandt; M. Brinkmann; V. Brisson; D. Bruncko; F. W. Büsser; A. Bunyatyan; G. Buschhorn; L. Bystritskaya; A. J. Campbell; K. B. Cantun Avila; F. Cassol-Brunner; K. Cerny; V. Cerny; V. Chekelian; A. Cholewa; J. G. Contreras; J. A. Coughlan; G. Cozzika; J. Cvach; J. B. Dainton; K. Daum; Y. de Boer; B. Delcourt; M. Del Degan; A. De Roeck; E. A. De Wolf; C. Diaconu; V. Dodonov; A. Dubak; G. Eckerlin; V. Efremenko; S. Egli; R. Eichler; F. Eisele; A. Eliseev; E. Elsen; S. Essenov; A. Falkewicz; P. J. W. Faulkner; L. Favart; A. Fedotov; R. Felst; J. Feltesse; J. Ferencei; L. Finke; M. Fleischer; G. Flucke; A. Fomenko; G. Franke; T. Frisson; E. Gabathuler; E. Garutti; J. Gayler; S. Ghazaryan; S. Ginzburgskaya; A. Glazov; I. Glushkov; L. Goerlich; M. Goettlich; N. Gogitidze; S. Gorbounov; M. Gouzevitch; C. Grab; T. Greenshaw; M. Gregori; B. R. Grell; G. Grindhammer; S. Habib; D. Haidt; M. Hansson; G. Heinzelmann; C. Helebrant; R. C. W. Henderson; H. Henschel; G. Herrera; M. Hildebrandt; K. H. Hiller; D. Hoffmann; R. Horisberger; A. Hovhannisyan; T. Hreus; S. Hussain; M. Jacquet; X. Janssen; V. Jemanov; L. Jönsson; D. P. Johnson; A. W. Jung; H. Jung; M. Kapichine; J. Katzy; I. R. Kenyon; C. Kiesling; M. Klein; C. Kleinwort; T. Klimkovich; T. Kluge; G. Knies; A. Knutsson; V. Korbel; P. Kostka; M. Kraemer; K. Krastev; J. Kretzschmar; A. Kropivnitskaya; K. Krüger; M. P. J. Landon; W. Lange; G. Lastovicka-Medin; P. Laycock; A. Lebedev; G. Leibenguth; V. Lendermann; S. Levonian; L. Lindfeld; K. Lipka; A. Liptaj; B. List; J. List; N. Loktionova; R. Lopez-Fernandez; V. Lubimov; A.-I. Lucaci-Timoce; H. Lueders; L. Lytkin; A. Makankine; E. Malinovski; P. Marage; L. Marti; M. Martisikova; H.-U. Martyn; S. J. Maxfield; A. Mehta; K. Meier; A. B. Meyer; H. Meyer; J. Meyer; V. Michels; S. Mikocki; I. Milcewicz-Mika; D. Mladenov; A. Mohamed; F. Moreau; A. Morozov; J. V. Morris; M. U. Mozer; K. Müller; P. Murín; K. Nankov; B. Naroska; T. Naumann; P. R. Newman; C. Niebuhr; A. Nikiforov; G. Nowak; K. Nowak; M. Nozicka; R. Oganezov; B. Olivier; J. E. Olsson; S. Osman; D. Ozerov; V. Palichik; I. Panagoulias; M. Pandurovic; T. Papadopoulou; C. Pascaud; G. D. Patel; H. Peng; E. Perez; D. Perez-Astudillo; A. Perieanu; A. Petrukhin; I. Picuric; S. Piec; D. Pitzl; R. Placakyte; B. Povh; P. Prideaux; A. J. Rahmat; N. Raicevic; P. Reimer; A. Rimmer; C. Risler; E. Rizvi; P. Robmann; B. Roland; R. Roosen; A. Rostovtsev; Z. Rurikova; S. Rusakov; F. Salvaire; D. P. C. Sankey; M. Sauter; E. Sauvan; S. Schätzel; S. Schmidt; S. Schmitt; C. Schmitz; L. Schoeffel; A. Schöning; H.-C. Schultz-Coulon; F. Sefkow; R. N. Shaw-West; I. Sheviakov; L. N. Shtarkov; T. Sloan; I. Smiljanic; P. Smirnov; Y. Soloviev; D. South; V. Spaskov; A. Specka; M. Steder; B. Stella; J. Stiewe; A. Stoilov; U. Straumann; D. Sunar; T. Sykora; V. Tchoulakov; G. Thompson; P. D. Thompson; T. Toll; F. Tomasz; D. Traynor; T. N. Trinh; P. Truöl; I. Tsakov; G. Tsipolitis; I. Tsurin; J. Turnau; E. Tzamariudaki; K. Urban; A. Usik; D. Utkin; A. Valkárová; C. Vallée; P. Van Mechelen; A. Vargas Trevino; Y. Vazdik; S. Vinokurova; V. Volchinski; K. Wacker; G. Weber; R. Weber; D. Wegener; C. Werner; M. Wessels; C. Wissing; R. Wolf; E. Wünsch; S. Xella; W. Yan; V. Yeganov; J. Žá?ek; J. Zálesák; Z. Zhang; A. Zhelezov; A. Zhokin; Y. C. Zhu; J. Zimmermann; T. Zimmermann; H. Zohrabyan; F. Zomer

    2007-01-01

    Measurements are presented of differential dijet cross sections in diffractive photoproduction (Q22) and deep-inelastic scattering processes (DIS, 422). The event topology is given by ep?eXY, in which the system X, containing at least two jets, is separated from a leading\\u000a low-mass baryonic system Y by a large rapidity gap. The dijet cross sections are compared with NLO QCD predictions based

  18. Heavy Flavour Production in Deep--Inelastic Scattering - Two--Loop Massive Operator Matrix Elements and Beyond

    E-print Network

    I. Bierenbaum; J. Blümlein; S. Klein

    2007-10-18

    We calculate the O($\\eps$)--term of the two--loop massive operator matrix elements for twist 2--operators, which contribute to the heavy flavour Wilson coefficients in unpolarized deep--inelastic scattering in the asymptotic limit $Q^2 \\gg m^2.$ Our calculation was performed in Mellin space using Mellin--Barnes integrals and generalized hypergeometric functions. The O($\\eps$)--term contributes in the renormalization at 3--loop order.

  19. Evidence for diffractive charm production in {nu}{sub {mu}}Fe and {nu}(bar sign){sub {mu}}Fe scattering at the Fermilab Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, T. [Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States)] [Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States); Alton, A. [Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States)] [Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States); Bolton, T. [Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States)] [Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States); Goldman, J. [Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States)] [Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States); Goncharov, M. [Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States)] [Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States); Naples, D. [Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States)] [Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States); Johnson, R. A. [University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221 (United States)] [University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221 (United States); Vakili, M. [University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221 (United States)] [University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221 (United States); Wu, V. [University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221 (United States)] [University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221 (United States); Conrad, J. [Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)] (and others) [Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2000-05-01

    We present evidence for the diffractive processes {nu}{sub {mu}}Fe{yields}{mu}{sup -}D{sub S}{sup +}(D{sub S}{sup *})Fe and {nu}(bar sign){sub {mu}}Fe{yields}{mu}{sup +}D{sub S}{sup -}(D{sub S}{sup *})Fe using the Fermilab SSQT neutrino beam and the Lab E neutrino detector. The data are consistent with standard model production of the neutrino trident reactions {nu}{sub {mu}}Fe{yields}{nu}{sub {mu}}{mu}{sup -}{mu}{sup +}Fe and {nu}(bar sign){sub {mu}}Fe{yields}{nu}(bar sign){sub {mu}}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}Fe. We see no evidence for neutral-current production of J/{psi} via either diffractive or deep inelastic scattering mechanisms. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  20. Measurement of the D? meson production cross section and F2cc¯ at high Q2 in ep scattering at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaron, F. D.; Alexa, C.; Alimujiang, K.; Andreev, V.; Antunovic, B.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Begzsuren, K.; Belousov, A.; Bizot, J. C.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A. J.; Avila, K. B. Cantun; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J. G.; Coughlan, J. A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Daum, K.; Deák, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delvax, J.; De Wolf, E. A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Falkiewicz, A.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Fischer, D.-J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B. R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Hennekemper, E.; Henschel, H.; Herbst, M.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K. H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, X.; Jönsson, L.; Jung, A. W.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Kogler, R.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Krüger, K.; Kutak, K.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Laštovi?ka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meyer, A. B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J. V.; Mozer, M. U.; Mudrinic, M.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P. R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Olsson, J. E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Pahl, P.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Pejchal, O.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Pla?akyt?, R.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A. J.; Raicevic, N.; Raspiareza, A.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Tabasco, J. E. Ruiz; Rusakov, S.; Šálek, D.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmitt, S.; Schoeffel, L.; Schöning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R. N.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Shushkevich, S.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, I.; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stoicea, G.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P. D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T. H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T. N.; Truöl, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Turnau, J.; Urban, K.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; von den Driesch, M.; Wegener, D.; Wissing, Ch.; Wünsch, E.; Žá?ek, J.; Zálešák, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.; H1 Collaboration

    2010-03-01

    The inclusive production of D(2010) mesons in deep-inelastic ep scattering is measured in the kinematic region of photon virtuality 100production are measured in the visible range defined by |?(D)|<1.5 and pT(D)>1.5 GeV. The data were collected by the H1 experiment during the period from 2004 to 2007 and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 351 pb. The charm contribution, F2ccbar, to the proton structure function F2 is determined. The measurements are compared with QCD predictions.

  1. A high-statistics measurement of transverse spin effects in dihadron production from muon-proton semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adolph, C.; Akhunzyanov, R.; Alekseev, M. G.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Alexeev, G. D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anosov, V.; Austregesilo, A.; Bade?ek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Berlin, A.; Bernhard, J.; Bertini, R.; Bicker, K.; Bieling, J.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bodlak, M.; Boer, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Büchele, M.; Burtin, E.; Capozza, L.; Chiosso, M.; Chung, S. U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M. L.; Curiel, Q.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S. S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O. Yu.; Donskov, S. V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dünnweber, W.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Elia, C.; Eversheim, P. D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Filin, A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N.; Friedrich, J. M.; Frolov, V.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O. P.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gnesi, I.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Gorzellik, M.; Grabmüller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Guskov, A.; Guthörl, T.; Haas, F.; von Harrach, D.; Hahne, D.; Hashimoto, R.; Heinsius, F. H.; Herrmann, F.; Hinterberger, F.; Höppner, Ch.; Horikawa, N.; d'Hose, N.; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Jasinski, P.; Joerg, P.; Joosten, R.; Kabuß, E.; Kang, D.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G. V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koivuniemi, J. H.; Kolosov, V. N.; Kondo, K.; Königsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V. F.; Kotzinian, A. M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kral, Z.; Krämer, M.; Kroumchtein, Z. V.; Kuchinski, N.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R. P.; Lednev, A. A.; Lehmann, A.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G. K.; Marchand, C.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matousek, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Miyachi, Y.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V. I.; Novy, J.; Nowak, W.-D.; Nunes, A. S.; Orlov, I.; Olshevsky, A. G.; Ostrick, M.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Pesek, M.; Peshekhonov, D.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V. A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Reicherz, G.; Rocco, E.; Rodionov, V.; Rondio, E.; Rychter, A.; Rossiyskaya, N. S.; Ryabchikov, D. I.; Samoylenko, V. D.; Sandacz, A.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I. A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schlüter, T.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, K.; Schmieden, H.; Schönning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Schott, M.; Shevchenko, O. Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Steiger, L.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Suzuki, H.; Szabelski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; ter Wolbeek, J.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thibaud, F.; Uhl, S.; Uman, I.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Virius, M.; Vondra, J.; Wang, L.; Weisrock, T.; Wilfert, M.; Windmolders, R.; Wi?licki, W.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.

    2014-09-01

    A measurement of the azimuthal asymmetry in dihadron production in deep-inelastic scattering of muons on transversely polarised proton (NH3) targets is presented. They provide independent access to the transversity distribution functions through the measurement of the Collins asymmetry in single hadron production. The data were taken in the year 2010 with the COMPASS spectrometer using a 160 GeV/c muon beam of the CERN SPS, increasing by a factor of about four the overall statistics with respect to the previously published data taken in the year 2007. The measured sizeable asymmetry is in good agreement with the published data. An approximate equality of the Collins asymmetry and the dihadron asymmetry is observed, suggesting a common physical mechanism in the underlying fragmentation.

  2. Reactivity of silver clusters anions with ethanethiol.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhixun; Gamboa, Gabriel U; Jia, Meiye; Reber, Arthur C; Khanna, Shiv N; Castleman, A W

    2014-09-18

    We have investigated the gas-phase reactivity of silver clusters with ethanethiol in a fast-flow tube reactor. The primary cluster products observed in this reaction are AgnSH(-) and AgnSH2(-), indicating C-S bond activation, together with interesting byproducts H3S(-) and (H3S)2(-). Agn(-) clusters with an odd number of valence electrons (n = even) were observed to be more reactive than those with an even number of electrons-a feature previously only observed in the reactivity of Agn(-) with triplet oxygen, indicating that radical active sites play a role in their reactivity. Furthermore, the reactivity dramatically increases with large flow rate of ethanethiol being introduced in the flow tube. Theoretical investigations on the reactivity of Ag13(-) and Ag8(-) with ethanethiol indicate that both Ag13(-) and Ag8(-) face significant barriers to reactivity with a single ethanethiol molecule. However, Ag8(-) reacts readily in a cooperative reaction with two ethanethiol molecules, consistent with the dramatic increase in reactivity with a large flow rate. Further hydrogen-transfer reactions may then release an ethylene molecule or an ethyl radical resulting in the observed AgnSH(-) species. PMID:24869921

  3. Cleavage fragments of the third complement component (C3) enhance stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1)-mediated platelet production during reactive postbleeding thrombocytosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Wysoczynski; M Kucia; J Ratajczak; M Z Ratajczak

    2007-01-01

    We hypothesized that the third complement component (C3) cleavage fragments (C3a and des-ArgC3a) are involved in stress\\/inflammation-related thrombocytosis, and investigated their potential role in reactive thrombocytosis induced by bleeding. We found that platelet counts are lower in C3-deficient mice in response to excessive bleeding as compared to normal littermates and that C3a and des-ArgC3a enhance stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)-dependent megakaryocyte (Megs)

  4. Spirafolide from bay leaf ( Laurus nobilis ) prevents dopamine-induced apoptosis by decreasing reactive oxygen species production in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahrom Ham; Bora Kim; Uk Koo; Kung-Woo Nam; Sung-Jin Lee; Kyeong Ho Kim; Jongheon Shin; Woongchon Mar

    2010-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important mediators in many neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease and\\u000a Parkinson’s disease. This study tested the neuroprotective effects of spirafolide, a compound purified from the leaves of\\u000a Laurus nobilis L. (Lauraceae), against dopamine (DA)-induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Following a 24-h exposure of\\u000a cells to DA (final conc., 0.6 mM), we observed a

  5. On the stochastic thermodynamics of reactive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Decker, Yannick

    2015-06-01

    We develop a theoretical framework for the stochastic thermodynamics of reactive systems. We show that the transition probabilities per unit time of reactive events must satisfy specific constraints, in order for stochastic approaches to lead to physically meaningful results in the macroscopic limit. We discuss how these constraints affect the properties of stochastic fluxes and forces, and entropy production. We also see how they can be used to derive various expressions of fluctuation theorems.

  6. Chlorine Trifluoride Exposure and Reactivity Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis W. Croll; Robert L. Martrich; Eugene Y. Ngai

    Chlorine Trifluoride (ClF3) was first synthesized in the 1930's and is recognized as one of the most reactive halogen fluorides. In fact, with the possible exception of elemental fluorine, ClF3 may represent one of the most reactive products known. Active research and commercial use of ClF3 began in the late 1940's. ClF3 has been utilized in such diverse applications as

  7. Parton distributions extracted from data on deep-inelastic lepton scattering, prompt photon production, and the Drell-Yan process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. N. Harriman; A. D. Martin; W. J. Stirling; R. G. Roberts

    1990-01-01

    We present a next-to-leading-order QCD structure-function analysis of deep-inelastic muon and neutrino scattering data. In particular, we incorporate new {ital F}â{sup μ{ital n}}\\/{ital F}â{sup μ{ital p}} data and take account of a recent reanalysis of SLAC data. The fit is performed simultaneously with next-to-leading-order fits to recent prompt photon and Drell-Yan data. As a result we are able to place

  8. Production of a rabbit anti-cockatiel immunoglobulin G and characterization of its cross-reactivities with immunoglobulin G of other psittacine species.

    PubMed

    Baghian, A; Reyes, C V; Mendoza, A; Tully, T N; Kousoulas, K G

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to produce rabbit anti-cockatiel immunoglobulin G (IgG) and compare its cross-reactivity with sera from eight other psittacine birds: Quaker parakeet, budgerigar, green-wing macaw, blue-fronted Amazon parrot, eclectus parrot, African grey parrot, Patagonian conure, Moluccan cockatoo. Cockatiel IgG did not bind to protein A or G; therefore, these proteins could not be used in column chromatography to isolate the IgG. A combination of serum IgG precipitation by ammonium sulfate and yolk IgG extraction from egg was loaded in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel upon which the IgG was resolved by electrophoresis. The resolved IgG in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel was stained with Coomassie blue, cut, crushed in phosphate-buffered saline, and injected into rabbits. The rabbit anti-cockatiel IgG produced in this way reacted with a single protein in gel immunodiffusion assay with all nine psittacine bird sera but not with those of chicken and ostrich. Immunoelectrophoresis confirmed the cross-reactivity of different psittacine sera with the anti-cockatiel IgG serum but not with ostrich and chicken sera. This antiserum detected antibody responses in sera from cockatiels vaccinated against chlamydial major outer membrane protein in an immunoblot assay. PMID:10216759

  9. Negative ion production in small angle scattering of highly charged ions from the (0001) surface of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Reaves, M.; Kessel, Q.C.; Pollack, E.; Smith, W.W. [Department of Physics and The Institute of Materials Science, The University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States); Briere, M.A.; Schneider, D.H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Highly charged N, O, F, and S ions, chosen for their electron affinities, were extracted from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory{close_quote}s EBIT II. After collimation, these ions struck a target of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) at an incident angle of 1.0 degree. Those ions scattered by 2.35 degrees (1.35 degree with respect to the surface) were charge state analyzed and the predominant charge state fractions were determined. As might be expected, there is a tendency for the fraction of negative ions to increase with increasing electron affinity; however, the negative ion yield is also strongly dependent on the ion velocity. For example, for sulfur the negative ion yields measured range from 0.13 to 0.23 of the scattered ions while for fluorine the range was 0.35 to 0.40. A pronounced velocity dependence found for the S{sup {minus}} ions is described well by a Saha-Langmuir-type equation. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Spirafolide from bay leaf (Laurus nobilis) prevents dopamine-induced apoptosis by decreasing reactive oxygen species production in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Ham, Ahrom; Kim, Bora; Koo, Uk; Nam, Kung-Woo; Lee, Sung-Jin; Kim, Kyeong Ho; Shin, Jongheon; Mar, Woongchon

    2010-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important mediators in many neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. This study tested the neuroprotective effects of spirafolide, a compound purified from the leaves of Laurus nobilis L. (Lauraceae), against dopamine (DA)-induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Following a 24-h exposure of cells to DA (final conc., 0.6 mM), we observed a marked increase in apoptosis, increased generation of ROS and decreased cell viability. Pretreatment of the cells for 24 h with spirafolide (0.4, 2, and 10 ?M) before exposure to DA notably increased cell survival (p < 0.01) and lowered intracellular ROS levels (p < 0.01). These results indicate that spirafolide has neuroprotective effects against DA toxicity. These effects may contribute to the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:21191760

  11. Implementation of scattering pinhole diagnostic for detection of fusion products on CR-39 at high particle fluence

    E-print Network

    Orozco, David, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01

    Many Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments use solid-state nuclear track detector CR-39 as a means to detect different types of nuclear products. Until recently, it was difficult to use CR-39 in experiments with ...

  12. 4-Hydroxy-2-Nonenal, a Reactive Product of Lipid Peroxidation, and Neurodegenerative Diseases: A Toxic Combination Illuminated by Redox Proteomics Studies

    PubMed Central

    Coccia, Raffaella; Butterfield, D. Allan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Among different forms of oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation comprises the interaction of free radicals with polyunsaturated fatty acids, which in turn leads to the formation of highly reactive electrophilic aldehydes. Among these, the most abundant aldehydes are 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) and malondialdehyde, while acrolein is the most reactive. HNE is considered a robust marker of oxidative stress and a toxic compound for several cell types. Proteins are particularly susceptible to modification caused by HNE, and adduct formation plays a critical role in multiple cellular processes. Recent Advances: With the outstanding progress of proteomics, the identification of putative biomarkers for neurodegenerative disorders has been the main focus of several studies and will continue to be a difficult task. Critical Issues: The present review focuses on the role of lipid peroxidation, particularly of HNE-induced protein modification, in neurodegenerative diseases. By comparing results obtained in different neurodegenerative diseases, it may be possible to identify both similarities and specific differences in addition to better characterize selective neurodegenerative phenomena associated with protein dysfunction. Results obtained in our laboratory and others support the common deregulation of energy metabolism and mitochondrial function in neurodegeneration. Future Directions: Research towards a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in neurodegeneration together with identification of specific targets of oxidative damage is urgently required. Redox proteomics will contribute to broaden the knowledge in regard to potential biomarkers for disease diagnosis and may also provide insight into damaged metabolic networks and potential targets for modulation of disease progression. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 1590–1609. PMID:22114878

  13. bFGF Promotes the Migration of Human Dermal Fibroblasts under Diabetic Conditions through Reactive Oxygen Species Production via the PI3K/Akt-Rac1- JNK Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Hongxue; Cheng, Yi; Ye, Jingjing; Cai, Pingtao; Zhang, Jinjing; Li, Rui; Yang, Ying; Wang, Zhouguang; Zhang, Hongyu; Lin, Cai; Lu, Xianghong; Jiang, Liping; Hu, Aiping; Zhu, Xinbo; Zeng, Qiqiang; Fu, Xiaobing; Li, Xiaokun; Xiao, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Fibroblasts play a pivotal role in the process of cutaneous wound repair, whereas their migratory ability under diabetic conditions is markedly reduced. In this study, we investigated the effect of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on human dermal fibroblast migration in a high-glucose environment. bFGF significantly increased dermal fibroblast migration by increasing the percentage of fibroblasts with a high polarity index and reorganizing F-actin. A significant increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was observed in dermal fibroblasts under diabetic conditions following bFGF treatment. The blockage of bFGF-induced ROS production by either the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) or the NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI) almost completely neutralized the increased migration rate of dermal fibroblasts promoted by bFGF. Akt, Rac1 and JNK were rapidly activated by bFGF in dermal fibroblasts, and bFGF-induced ROS production and promoted dermal fibroblast migration were significantly attenuated when suppressed respectively. In addition, bFGF-induced increase in ROS production was indispensable for the activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and paxillin. Therefore, our data suggested that bFGF promotes the migration of human dermal fibroblasts under diabetic conditions through increased ROS production via the PI3K/Akt-Rac1-JNK pathways. PMID:26078726

  14. Beam-Target Double Spin Asymmetry ALT in Charged Pion Production from Deep Inelastic Scattering on a Transversely Polarized 3He Target at 1.422

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Meziani, Z -E; Michaels, R; Munoz Camacho, C; Nanda, S; Narayan, A; Nelyubin, V; Norum, B; Oh, Y; Osipenko, M; Parno, D; et al

    2012-01-30

    We report the first measurement of the double-spin asymmetry ALT for charged pion electroproduction in semi-inclusive deep inelastic electron scattering on a transversely polarized 3He target. The kinematics focused on the valence quark region, 0.16 2 2. The corresponding neutron ALT asymmetries were extracted from the measured 3He asymmetries and proton/3He cross section ratios using the effective polarization approximation. These new data probe the transverse momentum dependent parton distribution function gq and therefore provide access to quark spin-orbit correlations. Our results indicate a positive azimuthal asymmetry for ?- production onmore »3He and the neutron, while our ?+ asymmetries are consistent with zero.« less

  15. Determination of the charm-quark mass in the MS¯ scheme using charm production data from deep-inelastic scattering at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekhin, S.; Daum, K.; Lipka, K.; Moch, S.

    2012-12-01

    We determine the charm-quark mass mc(mc) in the MSbar scheme using measurements of charm production in deep-inelastic ep scattering at HERA in the kinematic range of photon virtuality 5 GeV

  16. Reactive Nitrogen Species Reactivities with Nitrones: Theoretical and Experimental Studies

    PubMed Central

    Nash, Kevin M.; Rockenbauer, Antal; Villamena, Frederick A.

    2012-01-01

    Reactive nitrogen species (RNS) such as nitrogen dioxide (•NO2), peroxynitrite (ONOO–), and nitrosoperoxycarbonate (ONOOCO2–) are among the most damaging species present in biological systems due to their ability to cause modification of key biomolecular systems through oxidation, nitrosylation and nitration. Nitrone spin traps are known to react with free radicals and non-radicals via electrophilic and nucleophilic addition reactions, and have been employed as reagents to detect radicals using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, and as pharmacological agents against oxidative stress-mediated injury. This study examines the reactivity of cyclic nitrones such as 5,5-dimethylpyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) with, •NO2, ONOO–, ONOOCO2–, SNAP and SIN-1 using EPR. The thermochemistries of nitrone reactivity with RNS, and isotropic hfsc's of the addition products were also calculated at the PCM(water)/B3LYP/6-31+G**//B3LYP/6-31G* level of theory with and without explicit water molecules in order to rationalize the nature of the observed EPR spectra. Spin trapping of other RNS such as azide (•N3), nitrogen trioxide (•NO3), amino (•NH2) radicals, and nitroxyl (HNO) were also theoretically and experimentally investigated by EPR spin trapping and mass spectrometry. This study also shows other spin traps such as AMPO, EMPO and DEPMPO can react with radical and non-radical RNS, thus, making spin traps suitable probes as well as antioxidants against RNS mediated oxidative damage. PMID:22775566

  17. Quantum mechanical calculations of vibrational population inversion in chemical reactions - Numerically exact L-squared-amplitude-density study of the H2Br reactive system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Y. C.; Zhang, J. Z. H.; Kouri, D. J.; Haug, K.; Schwenke, D. W.

    1988-01-01

    Numerically exact, fully three-dimensional quantum mechanicl reactive scattering calculations are reported for the H2Br system. Both the exchange (H + H-prime Br to H-prime + HBr) and abstraction (H + HBR to H2 + Br) reaction channels are included in the calculations. The present results are the first completely converged three-dimensional quantum calculations for a system involving a highly exoergic reaction channel (the abstraction process). It is found that the production of vibrationally hot H2 in the abstraction reaction, and hence the extent of population inversion in the products, is a sensitive function of initial HBr rotational state and collision energy.

  18. Effects of Iodonium-Class Flavin Dehydrogenase Inhibitors on Growth, Reactive Oxygen Production, Cell Cycle Progression, NADPH Oxidase 1 Levels, and Gene Expression in Human Colon Cancer Cells and Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Doroshow, James H.; Gaur, Shikha; Markel, Susan; Lu, Jiamo; van Balgooy, Josephus; Synold, Timothy W.; Xi, Bixin; Wu, Xiwei; Juhasz, Agnes

    2013-01-01

    Iodonium-class flavoprotein dehydrogenase inhibitors have been demonstrated to possess antiproliferative potential and to inhibit reactive oxygen production in human tumor cells, although the mechanism(s) that explain the relationship between altered cell growth and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) remain an area of active investigation. Because of the ability of these compounds to inhibit the activity of flavoprotein-containing epithelial NADPH oxidases, we chose to examine the effects of several iodonium-class flavoprotein inhibitors on human colon cancer cell lines that express high, functional levels of a single such oxidase (NADPH oxidase 1 [Nox1]). We found that diphenylene iodonium (DPI), di-2-thienyliodonium (DTI), and iodoniumdiphenyl inhibited the growth of Caco2, HT-29, and LS-174T colon cancer cells at concentrations (10–250 nM for DPI, 0.5–2.5 ?M for DTI, and 155 nM to 10 ?M for iodoniumdiphenyl) substantially lower than for DU145 human prostate cancer cells that do not possess functional NADPH oxidase activity. Drug treatment was associated with decreased H2O2 production and diminished intracellular ROS levels, lasting up to 24 hr, following short-term (1-hr) exposure to the iodonium analogs. Decreased tumor cell proliferation was caused, in part, by a profound block in cell cycle progression at the G1/S interface in both LS-174T and HT-29 cells exposed to either DPI or DTI; and the G1 block was produced, for LS-174T cells, by upregulation of p27 and a drug concentration-related decrease in the expression of cyclins D1, A, and E that was partially prevented by exogenous H2O2. Not only did DPI and DTI decrease intracellular ROS, they both also significantly decreased the mRNA expression levels of Nox1, potentially contributing to the prolonged reduction in tumor cell reactive oxygen levels. We also found that DPI and DTI significantly decreased the growth of both HT-29 and LS-174T human tumor xenografts, at dose levels that produced peak plasma concentrations similar to those utilized for our in vitro experiments. These findings suggest that iodonium analogs have therapeutic potential for NADPH oxidase-containing human colon cancers in vivo, and that at least part of their antineoplastic mechanism of action may be related to targeting Nox1. PMID:23314043

  19. Effects of iodonium-class flavin dehydrogenase inhibitors on growth, reactive oxygen production, cell cycle progression, NADPH oxidase 1 levels, and gene expression in human colon cancer cells and xenografts.

    PubMed

    Doroshow, James H; Gaur, Shikha; Markel, Susan; Lu, Jiamo; van Balgooy, Josephus; Synold, Timothy W; Xi, Bixin; Wu, Xiwei; Juhasz, Agnes

    2013-04-01

    Iodonium-class flavoprotein dehydrogenase inhibitors have been demonstrated to possess antiproliferative potential and to inhibit reactive oxygen production in human tumor cells, although the mechanism(s) that explains the relationship between altered cell growth and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) remains an area of active investigation. Because of the ability of these compounds to inhibit the activity of flavoprotein-containing epithelial NADPH oxidases, we chose to examine the effects of several iodonium-class flavoprotein inhibitors on human colon cancer cell lines that express high, functional levels of a single such oxidase (NADPH oxidase 1, or Nox1). We found that diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), di-2-thienyliodonium (DTI), and iodonium diphenyl inhibited the growth of Caco2, HT-29, and LS-174T colon cancer cells at concentrations (10-250nM for DPI, 0.5-2.5?M for DTI, and 155nM to 10?M for iodonium diphenyl) substantially lower than needed for DU145 human prostate cancer cells, which do not possess functional NADPH oxidase activity. Drug treatment was associated with decreased H2O2 production and diminished intracellular ROS levels, lasting up to 24h, after short-term (1-h) exposure to the iodonium analogs. Decreased tumor cell proliferation was caused, in part, by a profound block in cell cycle progression at the G1/S interface in both LS-174T and HT-29 cells exposed to either DPI or DTI; and the G1 block was produced, for LS-174T cells, by upregulation of p27 and a drug concentration-related decrease in the expression of cyclins D1, A, and E that was partially prevented by exogenous H2O2. Not only did DPI and DTI decrease intracellular ROS, they both also significantly decreased the mRNA expression levels of Nox1, potentially contributing to the prolonged reduction in tumor cell reactive oxygen levels. We also found that DPI and DTI significantly decreased the growth of both HT-29 and LS-174T human tumor xenografts, at dose levels that produced peak plasma concentrations similar to those utilized for our in vitro experiments. These findings suggest that iodonium analogs have therapeutic potential for NADPH oxidase-containing human colon cancers in vivo and that at least part of their antineoplastic mechanism of action may be related to targeting Nox1. PMID:23314043

  20. Climate and topographic controls on simulated pasture production in a semiarid Mediterranean watershed with scattered tree cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano-Parra, J.; Maneta, M. P.; Schnabel, S.

    2014-04-01

    Natural grasses in semiarid rangelands constitute an effective protection against soil erosion and degradation, are a source of natural food for livestock and play a critical role in the hydrologic cycle by contributing to the uptake and transpiration of water. However, natural pastures are threatened by land abandonment and the consequent encroachment of shrubs and trees as well as by changing climatic conditions. In spite of their ecological and economic importance, the spatiotemporal variations of pasture production at the decadal-century scales over whole watersheds are poorly known. We used a physically based, spatially distributed ecohydrologic model applied to a 99.5 ha semiarid watershed in western Spain to investigate the sensitivity of pasture production to climate variability. The ecohydrologic model was run using a 300-year-long synthetic daily climate data set generated using a stochastic weather generator. The data set reproduced the range of climatic variations observed under the current climate. Results indicated that variation of pasture production largely depended on factors that also determined the availability of soil moisture such as the temporal distribution of precipitation, topography, and tree canopy cover. The latter is negatively related with production, reflecting the importance of rainfall and light interception, as well as water consumption by trees. Valley bottoms and flat areas in the lower parts of the catchment are characterized by higher pasture production but more interannual variability. A quantitative assessment of the quality of the simulations showed that ecohydrologic models are a valuable tool to investigate long-term (century scale) water and energy fluxes, as well as vegetation dynamics, in semiarid rangelands.

  1. Berberine inhibits the production of lysophosphatidylcholine-induced reactive oxygen species and the ERK1/2 pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Cho, Bong-Jun; Im, Eun Kyoung; Kwon, Jun Hye; Lee, Kyung-Hye; Shin, Hye-Jin; Oh, Jaewon; Kang, Seok-Min; Chung, Ji Hyung; Jang, Yangsoo

    2005-12-31

    Lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC) induces vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration, which has been proposed to initiate the intimal thickening in coronary atherosclerotic lesions. Berberine is an alkaloid in Berberis aquifolium and many other plants. Recently, it has been shown to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system, such as anti-hyperglycemic and cholesterol-lowering activity. In this study, we investigated its effects on lysoPC-induced VSMC proliferation and migration. Berberine inhibited lysoPC-induced DNA synthesis and cell proliferation in VSMCs, as well as migration of the lysoPC-stimulated VSMCs. It also inhibited the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) and reduced transcription factor AP-1 activity and the lysoPC-induced increases in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). These results indicate that the inhibitory effects of berberine on lysoPC-stimulated VSMC proliferation and migration are attributable to inhibition of ROS generation and hence of activation of the ERK1/2 pathway. This suggests that berberine has potential in the prevention of atherosclerosis and restenosis. PMID:16404160

  2. Inhibition of NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase by the model sulfur mustard vesicant 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide is associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Joshua P. [Department of Science, United States Coast Guard Academy, New London, CT (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Mishin, Vladimir [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Heck, Diane E. [Department of Environmental Health Science, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D., E-mail: jlaskin@eohsi.rutgers.ed [Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Inhalation of vesicants including sulfur mustard can cause significant damage to the upper airways. This is the result of vesicant-induced modifications of proteins important in maintaining the integrity of the lung. Cytochrome P450s are the major enzymes in the lung mediating detoxification of sulfur mustard and its metabolites. NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase is a flavin-containing electron donor for cytochrome P450. The present studies demonstrate that the sulfur mustard analog, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), is a potent inhibitor of human recombinant cytochrome P450 reductase, as well as native cytochrome P450 reductase from liver microsomes of saline and {beta}-naphthoflavone-treated rats, and cytochrome P450 reductase from type II lung epithelial cells. Using rat liver microsomes from {beta}-naphthoflavone-treated rats, CEES was found to inhibit CYP 1A1 activity. This inhibition was overcome by microsomal cytochrome P450 reductase from saline-treated rats, which lack CYP 1A1 activity, demonstrating that the CEES inhibitory activity was selective for cytochrome P450 reductase. Cytochrome P450 reductase also generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) via oxidation of NADPH. In contrast to its inhibitory effects on the reduction of cytochrome c and CYP1A1 activity, CEES was found to stimulate ROS formation. Taken together, these data demonstrate that sulfur mustard vesicants target cytochrome P450 reductase and that this effect may be an important mechanism mediating oxidative stress and lung injury.

  3. Electrophilic Addition to Alkenes: The Relation between Reactivity and Enthalpy of Hydrogenation: Regioselectivity is Determined by the Stability of the Two Conceivable Products.

    PubMed

    Schnatter, Wayne F K; Rogers, Donald W; Zavitsas, Andreas A

    2015-07-13

    Although electrophilic addition to alkenes has been well studied, some secrets still remain. Halogenations, hydrohalogenations, halohydrin formations, hydrations, epoxidations, other oxidations, carbene additions, and ozonolyses are investigated to elucidate the relation of alkene reactivities with their enthalpies of hydrogenation (?Hhyd ). For addition of electrophiles to unconjugated hydrocarbon alkenes, ln(k) is a linear function of ?Hhyd , where k is the rate constant. Linear correlation coefficients are about 0.98 or greater. None of the many previously proposed correlations of ln(k) with the properties of alkenes or with linear free-energy relationships match the generality and accuracy of the simple linear relationship found herein. A notable exception is acid-catalyzed hydration in water or in solvents stabilizing relatively stable carbocation intermediates (e.g., tertiary, benzylic, or allylic). (13) C?NMR chemical shifts of the two alkene carbons also predict regioselectivity. These effects have not been noted previously and are operative in general, including addition to heteroatom-substituted alkenes. PMID:25959409

  4. Inhibition of NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase by the model sulfur mustard vesicant 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide is associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Gray, Joshua P; Mishin, Vladimir; Heck, Diane E; Laskin, Debra L; Laskin, Jeffrey D

    2010-09-01

    Inhalation of vesicants including sulfur mustard can cause significant damage to the upper airways. This is the result of vesicant-induced modifications of proteins important in maintaining the integrity of the lung. Cytochrome P450s are the major enzymes in the lung mediating detoxification of sulfur mustard and its metabolites. NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase is a flavin-containing electron donor for cytochrome P450. The present studies demonstrate that the sulfur mustard analog, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), is a potent inhibitor of human recombinant cytochrome P450 reductase, as well as native cytochrome P450 reductase from liver microsomes of saline and beta-naphthoflavone-treated rats, and cytochrome P450 reductase from type II lung epithelial cells. Using rat liver microsomes from beta-naphthoflavone-treated rats, CEES was found to inhibit CYP 1A1 activity. This inhibition was overcome by microsomal cytochrome P450 reductase from saline-treated rats, which lack CYP 1A1 activity, demonstrating that the CEES inhibitory activity was selective for cytochrome P450 reductase. Cytochrome P450 reductase also generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) via oxidation of NADPH. In contrast to its inhibitory effects on the reduction of cytochrome c and CYP1A1 activity, CEES was found to stimulate ROS formation. Taken together, these data demonstrate that sulfur mustard vesicants target cytochrome P450 reductase and that this effect may be an important mechanism mediating oxidative stress and lung injury. PMID:20561902

  5. Polyethylene glycol-coated graphene oxide attenuates antigen-specific IgE production and enhanced antigen-induced T-cell reactivity in ovalbumin-sensitized BALB/c mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hsin-Ying; Lin, Kun-Ju; Wang, Ping-Yen; Lin, Chi-Wen; Yang, Hong-Wei; Ma, Chen-Chi M; Lu, Yu-Jen; Jan, Tong-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Background Graphene oxide (GO) is a promising nanomaterial for potential application in the versatile field of biomedicine. Graphene-based nanomaterials have been reported to modulate the functionality of immune cells in culture and to induce pulmonary inflammation in mice. Evidence pertaining to the interaction between graphene-based nanomaterials and the immune system in vivo remains scarce. The present study investigated the effect of polyethylene glycol-coated GO (PEG-GO) on antigen-specific immunity in vivo. Methods BALB/c mice were intravenously administered with a single dose of PEG-GO (0.5 or 1 mg/kg) 1 hour before ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization, and antigen-specific antibody production and splenocyte reactivity were measured 7 days later. Results Exposure to PEG-GO significantly attenuated the serum level of OVA-specific immunoglobulin E. The production of interferon-? and interleukin-4 by splenocytes restimulated with OVA in culture was enhanced by treatment with PEG-GO. In addition, PEG-GO augmented the metabolic activity of splenocytes restimulated with OVA but not with the T-cell mitogen concanavalin A. Conclusion Collectively, these results demonstrate that systemic exposure to PEG-GO modulates several aspects of antigen-specific immune responses, including the serum production of immunoglobulin E and T-cell functionality. PMID:25228804

  6. Antiplatelet effect of phloroglucinol is related to inhibition of cyclooxygenase, reactive oxygen species, ERK/p38 signaling and thromboxane A{sub 2} production

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Mei-Chi [Biomedical Science Team, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)] [Biomedical Science Team, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chang, Hsiao-Hua [Laboratory of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Dentistry and Department of Dentistry, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University Medical College, Taipei, Taiwan (China)] [Laboratory of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Dentistry and Department of Dentistry, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University Medical College, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chan, Chiu-Po [Department of Dentistry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Dentistry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chou, Han-Yi; Chang, Bei-En [Graduate Institute of Oral Biology, National Taiwan University Medical College, Taipei, Taiwan (China)] [Graduate Institute of Oral Biology, National Taiwan University Medical College, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yeung, Sin-Yuet [Department of Dentistry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Dentistry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wang, Tong-Mei [Laboratory of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Dentistry and Department of Dentistry, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University Medical College, Taipei, Taiwan (China)] [Laboratory of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Dentistry and Department of Dentistry, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University Medical College, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Jeng, Jiiang-Huei, E-mail: jhjeng@ntu.edu.tw [Laboratory of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Dentistry and Department of Dentistry, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University Medical College, Taipei, Taiwan (China)] [Laboratory of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Dentistry and Department of Dentistry, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University Medical College, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2012-09-15

    Platelet dysfunction is a major risk factor of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, stroke and myocardial infarction. Many antiplatelet agents are used for prevention and treatment of these diseases. In this study, phloroglucinol (2.5–25 ?M) suppressed AA-induced platelet aggregation and thromboxane B{sub 2} (TXB{sub 2}) production, but not U46619-induced platelet aggregation. Phloroglucinol (100–250 ?M) showed little cytotoxicity to platelets. Phloroglucinol inhibited the COX-1 and COX-2 activities by 45–74% and 49–72% respectively at concentrations of 10–50 ?M. At concentrations of 1 and 5 ?M, phloroglucinol attenuated the AA-induced ROS production in platelets by 30% and 53%, with an IC{sub 50} of 13.8 ?M. Phloroglucinol also inhibited the PMA-stimulated ROS production in PMN. Preincubation of platelets by phloroglucinol (10–25 ?M) markedly attenuated the AA-induced ERK and p38 phosphorylation. Intravenous administration of phloroglucinol (2.5 and 5 ?mol/mouse) suppressed the ex vivo AA-induced platelet aggregation by 57–71%. Phloroglucinol administration also elevated the mice tail bleeding time. Moreover, phloroglucinol inhibited the IL-1?-induced PGE{sub 2} production in pulp fibroblasts. These results indicate that antiplatelet and anti-inflammatory effects of phloroglucinol are related to inhibition of COX, ROS and TXA2 production as well as ERK/p38 phosphorylation in platelets. Phloroglucinol further suppress PMA-induced ROS production in PMN. The antiplatelet effect of phloroglucinol was confirmed by ex vivo study. Clinically, the consumption of phloroglucinol-containing food/natural products as nutritional supplement may be helpful to cardiovascular health. Phloroglucinol has potential pharmacological use. -- Highlights: ? Phloroglucinol suppressed AA-induced platelet aggregation and thromboxane production. ? Phloroglucinol inhibited COX activity and IL-1b-induced PGE2 production in fibroblast. ? Phloroglucinol declined platelet and PMN ROS production and ERK/p38 phosphorylation. ? Phloroglucinol suppressed ex vivo AA-induced platelet aggregation. ? Phloroglucinol may prevent and for treatment of atherosclerosis/ vascular diseases.

  7. Overview of progress in neutrino scattering measurements

    E-print Network

    M. Sorel

    2007-10-22

    Recent progress in neutrino scattering experiments with few GeV neutrino beams is reviewed, focusing on new experimental input since the beginning of the NuInt workshop series in 2001. Progress in neutrino quasi-elastic scattering, resonance production, coherent pion production, scattering in the transition region between the resonance and deep inelastic regimes, and nuclear effects in neutrino-nucleus scattering, is discussed.

  8. Search for the single production of doubly-charged Higgs bosons and constraints on their couplings from Bhabha scattering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Abbiendi; C. Ainsley; P. F Åkesson; G. Alexander; J. Allison; P. Amaral; G. Anagnostou; K. J Anderson; S. Arcelli; D A Axen; Georges Azuelos; I. Bailey; E. Barberio; R. J Barlow; R. J Batley; P. Bechtle; T. Behnke; K. W Bell; P. J Bell; G. Bella; A. Bellerive; G. Benelli; Siegfried Bethke; O. Biebel; O. Boeriu; P. Bock; M. Boutemeur; S. Braibant; L. Brigliadori; R. M Brown; K. Buesser; H. J Burckhart; S. Campana; R. K Carnegie; B. Caron; A. A. Carter; J. R Carter; C. Y Chang; D. G Charlton; Akos Csilling; M. Cuffiani; S. Dado; Klaus Desch; B. Dienes; M. Donkers; J. Dubbert; E. Duchovni; G. Duckeck; I. P Duerdoth; E. Etzion; Franco Luigi Fabbri; L. Feld; P. Ferrari; F. Fiedler; I. Fleck; M. Ford; A. Frey; A. Fürtjes; P. Gagnon; J. W Gary; G. Gaycken; C. Geich-Gimbel; G. Giacomelli; P. Giacomelli; M. Giunta; J. Goldberg; M. Groll; E. Gross; Jacob Grunhaus; M. Gruwé; P. O Günther; A. Gupta; C. Hajdu; M. Hamann; G. G. Hanson; K. Harder; A. Harel; M. Harin-Dirac; M. Hauschild; C. M Hawkes; R. Hawkings; Richard J Hemingway; C. Hensel; G. Herten; R. D Heuer; J. C Hill; K. Hoffman; D. Horváth; P. Igo-Kemenes; K. Ishii; H. Jeremie; P. Jovanovic; T. R Junk; N. Kanaya; J. Kanzaki; G V Karapetian; Dean A Karlen; K. Kawagoe; T. Kawamoto; Richard K Keeler; R. G Kellogg; B. W Kennedy; D. H Kim; K. Klein; A. Klier; S. Kluth; T. Kobayashi; M. Kobel; S. Komamiya; L L Kormos; T. Krämer; P. Krieger; K. Kruger; T. Kuhl; M. Kupper; G. D Lafferty; Hagar Yaël Landsman; D. Lanske; J. G Layter; A. Leins; D. Lellouch; J. Letts; L. Levinson; J. Lillich; S. L Lloyd; F. K Loebinger; J. Lu; J. Ludwig; A. MacPherson; W. Mader; S. Marcellini; A. J Martin; G. Masetti; T. Mashimo; P. Mättig; W. J McDonald; J A McKenna; T. J McMahon; R. A McPherson; F. Meijers; W. Menges; F. S Merritt; H. Mes; Aldo Michelini; S. Mihara; G. Mikenberg; D. J Miller; S. Moed; W. Mohr; T. Mori; A. Mutter; K. Nagai; I. Nakamura; H. Nanjo; H. A Neal; R. Nisius; S. W O'Neale; A. Oh; A N Okpara; M. J Oreglia; S. Orito; C. Pahl; G. Pásztor; J. R Pater; G. N Patrick; J. E Pilcher; J L Pinfold; D. E Plane; B. Poli; J. Polok; O. Pooth; M B Przybycien; A. Quadt; K. Rabbertz; C. Rembser; P. Renkel; J. M Roney; S. Rosati; Y. Rozen; K. Runge; K. Sachs; T. Saeki; E Sarkisyan-Grinbaum; A. D Schaile; O. Schaile; P. Scharff-Hansen; J. Schieck; T. Schörner-Sadenius; M. Schröder; M. Schumacher; C. Schwick; W. G Scott; R. Seuster; T. G Shears; B. C Shen; P. Sherwood; G P Siroli; A. Skuja; A. M Smith; R J Sobie; S. Söldner-Rembold; F. Spano; A. Stahl; K. Stephens; D. Strom; R. Ströhmer; S. Tarem; M. Tasevsky; R. J Taylor; R. Teuscher; M. A Thomson; E. Torrence; D. Toya; P. Tran; I. Trigger; Z L Trócsányi; E. Tsur; M. F Turner-Watson; I. Ueda; B. Ujvári; C. F Vollmer; P. Vannerem; R. Vértesi; M. Verzocchi; H. Voss; Joost Herman Vossebeld; D. Waller; C. P Ward; D. R Ward; P. M Watkins; A. T Watson; N. K Watson; P. S Wells; T. Wengler; N. Wermes; D. Wetterling; G. W Wilson; J. A Wilson; G. Wolf; T. R Wyatt; S. Yamashita; D. Zer-Zion; L. Zivkovic

    2003-01-01

    A search for the single production of doubly-charged Higgs bosons is performed using e+e? collision data collected by the OPAL experiment at centre-of-mass energies between 189 GeV and 209 GeV. No evidence for the existence of H±± is observed. Upper limits are derived on hee, the Yukawa coupling of the H±± to like-signed electron pairs. A 95% confidence level upper limit of

  9. Activation of equine neutrophils by phorbol myristate acetate or N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine induces a different response in reactive oxygen species production and release of active myeloperoxidase.

    PubMed

    Franck, T; Kohnen, S; de la Rebière, G; Deby-Dupont, G; Deby, C; Niesten, A; Serteyn, D

    2009-08-15

    Neutrophil (PMN) contribution to the acute inflammatory processes may lead to an excessive generation of reactive oxygen metabolites species (ROS) and secretion of granule enzymes. We compared the effects of either phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) or N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) in combination with a pre-treatment by cytochalasin B (CB) on the production of ROS and the release of total and active myeloperoxidase (MPO) by isolated equine PMNs. The ROS production was assessed by lucigenin dependent chemiluminescence (CL) and ethylene release by alpha-keto-gamma-methylthiobutyric acid (KMB) oxidation. In the supernatant of activated PMNs, total equine MPO was measured by ELISA and active MPO by the SIEFED (Specific Immunologic Extraction Followed by Enzymatic Detection) technique that allows for the study of the interaction of a compound directly with the enzyme. The stimulation of PMNs with CB-fMLP only modestly increased the release of MPO, but more than 70% of released MPO was active. PMA stimulation markedly increased the production of ROS and release of MPO, but more than 95% of released MPO was inactive. When PMNs were pre-incubated with superoxide dismutase (SOD) prior to PMA activation, the lucigenin enhanced CL, which is linked to the superoxide anion (O2-) production, was much more decreased than KMB oxidation, linked to the hydroxyl-like radical production. The addition of SOD prior to the activation of PMNs by PMA also limited the loss of the activity of released MPO. These results confirm the key role of O2- generation in the ROS cascade in PMN and reveal its critical role on MPO inactivation. PMID:19328559

  10. Deficient Production of Reactive Oxygen Species Leads to Severe Chronic DSS-Induced Colitis in Ncf1/p47phox-Mutant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues-Sousa, Tiago; Ladeirinha, Ana Filipa; Santiago, Ana Raquel; Carvalheiro, Helena; Raposo, Bruno; Alarcão, Ana; Cabrita, António; Holmdahl, Rikard; Carvalho, Lina; Souto-Carneiro, M. Margarida

    2014-01-01

    Background Colitis is a common clinical complication in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), a primary immunodeficiency caused by impaired oxidative burst. Existing experimental data from NADPH-oxidase knockout mice propose contradictory roles for the involvement of reactive oxygen species in colitis chronicity and severity. Since genetically controlled mice with a point-mutation in the Ncf1 gene are susceptible to chronic inflammation and autoimmunity, we tested whether they presented increased predisposition to develop chronic colitis. Methods Colitis was induced in Ncf1-mutant and wild-type mice by a 1st 7-days cycle of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), intercalated by a 7-days resting period followed by a 2nd 7-days DSS-cycle. Cytokines were quantified locally in the colon inflammatory infiltrates and in the serum. Leukocyte infiltration and morphological alterations of the colon mucosa were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results Clinical scores demonstrated a more severe colitis in Ncf1-mutant mice than controls, with no recovery during the resting period and a severe chronic colitis after the 2nd cycle, confirmed by histopathology and presence of infiltrating neutrophils, macrophages, plasmocytes and lymphocytes in the colon. Severe colitis was mediated by increased local expression of cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, TNF-?, IFN-? and IL-17A) and phosphorylation of Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2). Serological cytokine titers of those inflammatory cytokines were more elevated in Ncf1-mutant than control mice, and were accompanied by systemic changes in functional subsets of monocytes, CD4+T and B cells. Conclusion This suggests that an ineffective oxidative burst leads to severe chronic colitis through local accumulation of peroxynitrites, pro-inflammatory cytokines and lymphocytes and systemic immune deregulation similar to CGD. PMID:24873968

  11. Reduction of Hydrophilic Ubiquinones by the Flavin in Mitochondrial NADH:Ubiquinone Oxidoreductase (Complex I) and Production of Reactive Oxygen Species†

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) from bovine heart mitochondria is a complicated, energy-transducing, membrane-bound enzyme that contains 45 different subunits, a non-covalently bound flavin mononucleotide, and eight iron?sulfur clusters. The mechanisms of NADH oxidation and intramolecular electron transfer by complex I are gradually being defined, but the mechanism linking ubiquinone reduction to proton translocation remains unknown. Studies of ubiquinone reduction by isolated complex I are problematic because the extremely hydrophobic natural substrate, ubiquinone-10, must be substituted with a relatively hydrophilic analogue (such as ubiquinone-1). Hydrophilic ubiquinones are reduced by an additional, non-energy-transducing pathway (which is insensitive to inhibitors such as rotenone and piericidin A). Here, we show that inhibitor-insensitive ubiquinone reduction occurs by a ping-pong type mechanism, catalyzed by the flavin mononucleotide cofactor in the active site for NADH oxidation. Moreover, semiquinones produced at the flavin site initiate redox cycling reactions with molecular oxygen, producing superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide. The ubiquinone reactant is regenerated, so the NADH:Q reaction becomes superstoichiometric. Idebenone, an artificial ubiquinone showing promise in the treatment of Friedreich’s Ataxia, reacts at the flavin site. The factors which determine the balance of reactivity between the two sites of ubiquinone reduction (the energy-transducing site and the flavin site) and the implications for mechanistic studies of ubiquinone reduction by complex I are discussed. Finally, the possibility that the flavin site in complex I catalyzes redox cycling reactions with a wide range of compounds, some of which are important in pharmacology and toxicology, is discussed. PMID:19220002

  12. The production of cross-reactive autoantibodies that bind to bovine serum albumin in mice administered reducing sugars by subcutaneous injection

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji-Hun

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In a previous study, we identified the formation of cross-reactive autoantibodies that bound to bovine serum albumin (BSA) in a D-galactose-induced aging mouse model. Aim of the study In this study, we investigated the effect of other reducing sugars (namely, glucose and fructose) on the formation of autoantibodies. The effects of concentration and route of administration on the formation of autoantibodies were examined in detail. Material and methods Three concentrations (100, 500, and 1,000 mg/kg) of reducing sugars were tested. The effects of different routes of administration (subcutaneous, oral, and intraperitoneal) on the formation of autoantibodies were also analysed. The immunoreactivities of serum samples from mice treated with reducing sugars were analysed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using BSA or mouse serum albumin antigens (MSA). Results Repeated subcutaneous administration of all reducing sugars lead to autoantibody formation in a concentration-dependent manner. However, these autoantibodies did not cross-react with MSA, and simultaneous treatment of aminoguanidine with reducing sugars did not show any inhibitory effects on the formation of autoantibodies. No autoantibodies were detected after oral or intraperitoneal administration of reducing sugars. Immunohistochemistry data showed that the target antigen(s) of the autoantibodies were present only in the skin tissue of mice treated with reducing sugars. Conclusions Our results show that administration of reducing sugars by subcutaneous injection leads to the formation of autoantibodies that cross-react with BSA; the formation and target antigen(s) of the autoantibodies may originate from within the skin tissue treated with the reducing sugars. PMID:26155180

  13. A synthetic analog of prostaglandin E(1) prevents the production of reactive oxygen species in the intestinal mucosa of methotrexate-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Horie, Toshiharu

    2002-07-19

    Administration of methotrexate to rats results in severe enterocolitis and death. Previous our studies showed that a synthetic analog of prostaglandin E(1), OP-1206 [17S, 20-dimethyl-trans-Delta(2)-prostaglandin E(1)] ameliorated the anticancer agent-induced enterocolitis of rats. In the current study, we have focused on the biochemical effect of OP-1206 on the methotrexate-induced intestinal inflammation implicating reactive oxygen species (ROS). Methotrexate (15 mg/kg body weight) was orally administered to rats once daily for 5 days. OP-1206 (0.5 microg/kg body weight) was orally administered to rats twice a day for 5 days. On the 6th day, the chemiluminescence from the jejunum was measured to evaluate the generation of ROS. Spontaneous chemiluminescence from the jejunum of the methotrexate-treated rats increased significantly, compared with the control. Luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence from inflamed mucosal scrapings from the jejunum of the methotrexate-treated rats indicated more remarkable enhancement than the control rats. The treatment of OP-1206 with methotrexate showed significantly lower chemiluminescence of both the jejunum and mucosal scrapings than those of the methotrexate-treated rats. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, as a marker of small intestinal differentiation, in the intestinal mucosa of the methotrexate-treated rats decreased remarkably, but that of the methotrexate and OP-1206-treated rats was significantly higher than that of the methotrexate-treated rats. Thus, OP-1206 may possibly help the anticancer chemotherapy by protecting the small intestine from the methotrexate-induced damage. PMID:12088768

  14. The "Two-Faced" Effects of Reactive Oxygen Species and the Lipid Peroxidation Product 4-Hydroxynonenal in the Hallmarks of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pizzimenti, Stefania; Toaldo, Cristina; Pettazzoni, Piergiorgio; Dianzani, Mario U.; Barrera, Giuseppina

    2010-01-01

    Reacytive Oxygen Species (ROS) have long been considered to be involved in the initiation, progression and metastasis of cancer. However, accumulating evidence points to the benefical role of ROS. Moreover, ROS production, leading to apoptosis, is the mechanism by which many chemotherapeutic agents can act. Beside direct actions, ROS elicit lipid peroxidation, leading to the production of 4-hydroxynoneal (HNE). Interestingly, HNE also seems to have a dual behaviour with respect to cancer. In this review we present recent literature data which outline the "two-faced" character of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in carcinogenesis and in the hallmarks of cancer. PMID:24281073

  15. Measurements of Product-Specific VOC Reactivities during the PROPHET 2008 field intensive using proton transfer reaction linear ion trap (PTR-LIT) mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. H. Mielke; J. H. Slade; M. Alaghmand; S. B. Bertman; M. Carroll; S. M. Griffith; R. F. Hansen; S. Dusanter; P. S. Stevens; A. Hansel; P. B. Shepson

    2009-01-01

    A major aim of the PROPHET 2008 field intensive conducted at the University of Michigan Biological Station was to more completely understand the local formation of secondary organic aerosol from oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). This oxidation was monitored at every step including gas phase reactant VOCs, oxidants, reaction products, and aerosol number and size distribution. A proton

  16. Reactivation of hepatitis B virus without core antibody.

    PubMed

    Silva-Pinto, André; Andrade, Joaquim; Araújo, Fernando; Santos, Lurdes; Sarmento, António

    2015-04-01

    We present the case of a male patient not vaccinated against hepatitis B virus (HBV) and with reactivity to a surface antibody who, after immunosuppression for a multiple myeloma, had HBV reactivation. Pharmacological HBV suppression was tried, but viremia could not be suppressed. Production-detection core mutations or immunity issues can explain this clinical phenomenon. PMID:25631798

  17. Semiclassical vibrationally adiabatic model for resonances in reactive collisions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce C. Garrett; Donald G. Truhlar

    1982-01-01

    A vibrationally adiabatic model is used to predict the positions of resonances in reactive scattering for collinear H + Hâ, H + FH, and Cl + Hâ and isotopic analogues of these reactions and for three-dimensional H + Hâ. Good agreement was obtained with accurate quantum mechanical results for both shape and Feshbach resonances. In some cases the agreement is

  18. Reactive Oxygen Species Production Mediated by Humic-like Substances in Atmospheric Aerosols: Enhancement Effects by Pyridine, Imidazole, and Their Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Dou, Jing; Lin, Peng; Kuang, Bin-Yu; Yu, Jian Zhen

    2015-06-01

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) can cause adverse health effects via their ability to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). Humic-like substances (HULIS), a complex mixture of amphiphilic organic compounds, have been demonstrated to contain the majority of redox activity in the water-extractable organic fraction of PM. Reduced organic nitrogen compounds, such as alkaloids resulting from biomass burning emissions, are among HULIS constituents. In this study, we examined the redox activities of pyridine, imidazole and their alkyl derivatives using a cell-free dithiothreitol (DTT) assay under simulated physiological conditions (37 °C, pH = 7.40). These compounds were found to have little redox activity on their own as measured by the DTT assay, but they enhanced ROS generation catalyzed by 1,4-naphthoquinone (as a model quinone compound) and HULIS isolated from multiple aerosol samples. The enhancement effect by the individual nitrogen-containing bases was determined to be proportional to their amount in the assay solutions. It is postulated that the underlying mechanism involves the unprotonated N atom acting as a H-bonding acceptor to facilitate hydrogen-atom transfer in the ROS generation cycle. The enhancement capability was found to increase with their basicity (i.e., pKa of their conjugated acids, BH(+)), consistent with the proposed mechanism for enhancement. Among the imidazole homologues, a linear relationship was observed between the enhancement factors (in log scale) of the unprotonated form of the imidazole compounds (B) and the pKa of their conjugated acids (BH(+)). This relationship predicts that the range of alkylimidazole homologues (C6-C13) observed in atmospheric HULIS would be 1.5-4.4 times more effective than imidazole in facilitating HULIS-mediated ROS generation. Our work reveals that the ability of atmospheric PM organics to catalyze generation of ROS in cells could be affected by coexisting redox inactive organic constituents and suggests further work deploying multiple assays be conducted to quantify redox capabilities and enhancement effects of the HULIS components. PMID:25961507

  19. Reactive Depression in Youths Experiencing Emancipation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, James L.; Simonitch, Brian

    1981-01-01

    Briefly evaluates the Independent Living Subsidy Program (ILSP) designed to enable adolescents to make an effective transition from foster care, institutional living, or other forms of substitute care to full and productive self-sufficiency. Focuses specifically on the four stages of reactive depression (anxiety, fear and loneliness, elation, and…

  20. Total VOC reactivity in the planetary boundary layer 2. A new indicator for determining the sensitivity of the ozone production to VOC and NOx

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Kirchner; Francois Jeanneret; Alain Clappier; Bernd Krüger; Hubert van den Bergh; Bertrand Calpini

    2001-01-01

    A new indicator is proposed for determining if tropospheric ozone production in a specific area is limited by VOC or NOx. The indicator Theta=tauOHVOC\\/tauOHNOx describes the ratio of the lifetimes of OH against the losses by reacting with VOC and NOx. Whereas tauOHNOx can be obtained by conventional measurements, the new pump and probe OH approach which is described in

  1. Reactive modification of polyesters and their blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Chen

    2004-12-01

    As part of a broader research effort to investigate the chemical modification of polyesters by reactive processing a low molecular weight (MW) unsaturated polyester (UP) and a higher MW saturated polyester, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), alone or blended with polypropylene (PP) were melt processed in a batch mixer and continuous twin screw extruders. Modification was monitored by on-line rheology and the products were characterized primarily by off-line rheology, morphology and thermal analysis. Efforts were made to establish processing/property relationships and provide an insight of the accompanying structural changes. The overall response of the reactively modified systems was found to be strongly dependent on the component characteristics, blend composition, type and concentrations of reactive additives and processing conditions. The work concluded that UP can be effectively modified through reactive melt processing. Its melt viscosity and MW can be increased through chemical reactions between organic peroxides (POX) and chain unsaturation or between MgO and carboxyl/hydroxyl end groups. Reactive blending of PP/UP blends through peroxide modification gave finer and more uniform morphology than unreacted blends and at a given PP/UP weight ratio more thermoplastic elastomers-like rheological behavior. This is due to the continuously decreasing viscosity ratio of PP/UP towards unity by the competing reactions between POX and the blend components and formation of PP-UP copolymers which serve as in-situ compatibilizers to promote better interfacial adhesion. Kinetics of the competing reactions were analyzed through a developed model. In addition to POX concentration and mixing efficiency, rheology and morphology of UP/PP bends were significantly affected by the addition of inorganic and organic coagents. Addition of coagents such as a difunctional maleimide, MgO and/or an anhydride functionalized PP during reactive blending offers effective means for tailoring the desired rheological and structural characteristics of the final products for potential applications such as low density extrusion foaming or compatibilization of immiscible polymer blends. Important modification conditions through coagents are identified and reaction mechanisms are proposed. A high MW saturated polyester, PET, can also be rheologically modified in extruders through low MW multifunctional anhydride and epoxy compounds by chain extension/branching. Several such modifiers were successfully screened in terms of their reactivity towards PET under controlled reactive extrusion conditions. A dianhydride with medium reactivity was then successfully used in a one-step reactive modification/extrusion foaming process to produce low density foams. A similar process was successfully used to produce small cell size foams from a four component system containing PET, PP and lesser amounts of a low molecular weight multifunctional epoxy compound and an acid functionalized polyolefin, the latter acting as compatibilizers.

  2. Chemical Imaging and Dynamical Studies of Reactivity and Emergent Behavior in Complex Interfacial Systems. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sibener, Steven J. [University of Chicago, IL (United States)] [University of Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-03-11

    This research program explored the efficacy of using molecular-level manipulation, imaging and scanning tunneling spectroscopy in conjunction with supersonic molecular beam gas-surface scattering to significantly enhance our understanding of chemical processes occurring on well-characterized interfaces. One program focus was on the spatially-resolved emergent behavior of complex reaction systems as a function of the local geometry and density of adsorbate-substrate systems under reaction conditions. Another focus was on elucidating the emergent electronic and related reactivity characteristics of intentionally constructed single and multicomponent atom- and nanoparticle-based materials. We also examined emergent chirality and self-organization in adsorbed molecular systems where collective interactions between adsorbates and the supporting interface lead to spatial symmetry breaking. In many of these studies we combined the advantages of scanning tunneling (STM) and atomic force (AFM) imaging, scanning tunneling local electronic spectroscopy (STS), and reactive supersonic molecular beams to elucidate precise details of interfacial reactivity that had not been observed by more traditional surface science methods. Using these methods, it was possible to examine, for example, the differential reactivity of molecules adsorbed at different bonding sites in conjunction with how reactivity is modified by the local configuration of nearby adsorbates. At the core of this effort was the goal of significantly extending our understanding of interfacial atomic-scale interactions to create, with intent, molecular assemblies and materials with advanced chemical and physical properties. This ambitious program addressed several key topics in DOE Grand Challenge Science, including emergent chemical and physical properties in condensed phase systems, novel uses of chemical imaging, and the development of advanced reactivity concepts in combustion and catalysis including carbon management. These activities directly benefitted national science objectives in the areas of chemical energy production and advanced materials development.

  3. Reactive power compensator

    DOEpatents

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A. (Renton, WA); Venkata, Subrahmanyam S. (Woodinville, WA); Chen, Mingliang (Kirkland, WA); Andexler, George (Everett, WA); Huang, Tony (Seattle, WA)

    1992-01-01

    A system and method for determining and providing reactive power compensation for an inductive load. A reactive power compensator (50,50') monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b, 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. Using signals indicative of the current on each of these lines when the voltage waveform on the line crosses zero, the reactive power compensator determines a reactive power compensator capacitance that must be connected to the lines to maintain a desired VAR level, power factor, or line voltage. Alternatively, an operator can manually select a specific capacitance for connection to each line, or the capacitance can be selected based on a time schedule. The reactive power compensator produces control signals, which are coupled through optical fibers (102/106) to a switch driver (110, 110') to select specific compensation capacitors (112) for connections to each line. The switch driver develops triggering signals that are supplied to a plurality of series-connected solid state switches (350), which control charge current in one direction in respect to ground for each compensation capacitor. During each cycle, current flows from ground to charge the capacitors as the voltage on the line begins to go negative from its positive peak value. The triggering signals are applied to gate the solid state switches into a conducting state when the potential on the lines and on the capacitors reaches a negative peak value, thereby minimizing both the potential difference and across the charge current through the switches when they begin to conduct. Any harmonic distortion on the potential and current carried by the lines is filtered out from the current and potential signals used by the reactive power compensator so that it does not affect the determination of the required reactive compensation.

  4. Reactive Power Compensator.

    DOEpatents

    El-Sharkawi, M.A.; Venkata, S.S.; Chen, M.; Andexler, G.; Huang, T.

    1992-07-28

    A system and method for determining and providing reactive power compensation for an inductive load. A reactive power compensator (50,50') monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b, 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. Using signals indicative of the current on each of these lines when the voltage waveform on the line crosses zero, the reactive power compensator determines a reactive power compensator capacitance that must be connected to the lines to maintain a desired VAR level, power factor, or line voltage. Alternatively, an operator can manually select a specific capacitance for connection to each line, or the capacitance can be selected based on a time schedule. The reactive power compensator produces control signals, which are coupled through optical fibers (102/106) to a switch driver (110, 110') to select specific compensation capacitors (112) for connections to each line. The switch driver develops triggering signals that are supplied to a plurality of series-connected solid state switches (350), which control charge current in one direction in respect to ground for each compensation capacitor. During each cycle, current flows from ground to charge the capacitors as the voltage on the line begins to go negative from its positive peak value. The triggering signals are applied to gate the solid state switches into a conducting state when the potential on the lines and on the capacitors reaches a negative peak value, thereby minimizing both the potential difference and across the charge current through the switches when they begin to conduct. Any harmonic distortion on the potential and current carried by the lines is filtered out from the current and potential signals used by the reactive power compensator so that it does not affect the determination of the required reactive compensation. 26 figs.

  5. The Maillard reaction of a shrimp by-product protein hydrolysate: chemical changes and inhibiting effects of reactive oxygen species in human HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Zha, Fengchao; Wei, Binbin; Chen, Shengjun; Dong, Shiyuan; Zeng, Mingyong; Liu, Zunying

    2015-06-10

    Recently, much attention has been given to improving the antioxidant activity of protein hydrolysates via the Maillard reaction, but little is known about the cellular antioxidant activity of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) from protein hydrolysates. We first investigated chemical characterization and the cellular antioxidant activity of MRPs in a shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) by-product protein hydrolysate (SBH)-glucose system at 110 °C for up to 10 h of heating. Solutions of SBH and glucose were also heated alone as controls. The Maillard reaction greatly resulted in the increase of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and browning intensity, high molecular weight fraction, and reduction of the total amino acid in SBH with the heating time, which correlated well with the free radical scavenging activity of MRPs. MRPs had stronger inhibiting effects on oxidative stress of human HepG2 cells than the original SBH, and its cellular antioxidant activity strongly correlated with free radical scavenging activity, but less affected by the browning intensity and HMF level. The caramelization of glucose partially affected the HMF level and free radical scavenging activity of MRPs, but it was not related to the cellular antioxidant activity. The cellular antioxidant activity of MRPs for 5 h of heating time appeared to reach a maximum level, which was mainly due to carbonyl ammonia condensation reaction. In conclusion, the Maillard reaction is a potential method to increase the cellular antioxidant activity of a shrimp by-product protein hydrolysate, but the higher HMF levels and the lower amino acid content in MRPs should also be considered. PMID:25965854

  6. S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine and nitroprusside induce apoptosis in a neuronal cell line by the production of different reactive molecules.

    PubMed

    Terwel, D; Nieland, L J; Schutte, B; Reutelingsperger, C P; Ramaekers, F C; Steinbusch, H W

    2000-07-14

    CHP212 neuroblastoma cells were exposed to two different nitric oxide (NO) donors, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine and sodium nitroprusside. Apoptosis and necrosis were determined with flow cytometric analysis of annexin V binding and propodium iodide uptake. Both S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine and sodium nitroprusside induced apoptosis, but with a different time dependency. Oxyhemoglobin (NO scavenger) attenuated the toxicity of S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine, but had no effect on the toxicity of sodium nitroprusside. By contrast, deferoxamine (iron chelator) attenuated the toxicity of sodium nitroprusside, but had no effect on the toxicity of S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine. Urate (ONOO(-) scavenger) did not influence the toxicity of either S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine or sodium nitroprusside, but protected from SIN-1 (3-morpholinosydnonimine, ONOO(-) donor). It was shown that both dithiothreitol and ascorbic acid affected the toxicity of S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine and sodium nitroprusside in opposite ways. In the presence of dithiothreitol, superoxide dismutase and catalase decreased the toxicity of sodium nitroprusside. In the presence of cells, but not in their absence, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine decomposed with a half-life of about 4 h as assessed by the production of nitrite and absorbance reduction at 335 nm. Sodium nitroprusside decomposed very slowly in the presence of cells as assessed by the production of ferrocyanide. It can be concluded that (1) slow and sustained release of NO from S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine at the cell surface causes apoptosis in CHP212 cells, probably without the involvement of ONOO(-), (2) sodium nitroprusside causes apoptosis by the production of H(2)O(2) and/or iron, rather than NO, and probably has to be taken up by the cell for decomposition. PMID:10913581

  7. Astrocyte-targeted production of IL-10 induces changes in microglial reactivity and reduces motor neuron death after facial nerve axotomy.

    PubMed

    Villacampa, Nàdia; Almolda, Beatriz; Vilella, Antonietta; Campbell, Iain L; González, Berta; Castellano, Bernardo

    2015-07-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a cytokine that plays a crucial role in regulating the inflammatory response and immune reactions. In the central nervous system (CNS), IL-10 is mainly produced by astrocytes and microglia and it is upregulated after various insults, such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, middle cerebral artery occlusion, excitotoxicity and traumatic brain injury. To better understand the effects of IL-10 in the normal and injured CNS, we generated transgenic mice (termed GFAP-IL-10Tg) that expressed the murine IL-10 gene under the transcriptional control of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter. Previous studies demonstrated marked changes in the microglial phenotype in these mice under basal conditions. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of local astrocyte-targeted IL-10 production on glial activation, neuronal degeneration and leukocyte recruitment after axotomy. GFAP-IL-10Tg mice had marked changes in the phenotype of activated microglial cells, as well as in the number of microglial clusters and in microglial cell density. These microglial changes are accompanied by a twofold increase in lymphocyte infiltration in GFAP-IL-10Tg mice and around twofold decrease in neuronal cell death at 21 dpi. Altogether, our findings suggested that astrocyte-targeted production of IL-10 impacted the microglial response and lymphocyte recruitment and culminated in a beneficial effect on neuronal survival. GLIA 2015;63:1166-1184. PMID:25691003

  8. Vibrational mode-selected differential scattering of NH3+ methanol (d1, d3, d4): Control of product branching by hydrogen-bonded complex formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Hungshin; Qian, Jun; Green, Richard J.; Anderson, Scott L.

    1998-02-01

    We report a study of vibrational mode effects and differential scattering in reaction of NH3+ with CD3OD, CD3OH, and CH3OD over the collision energy range from 0.1 to 5 eV. At low collision energies, abstraction of both methyl and hydroxyl D atoms is observed with roughly equal probability, even though methyl D-abstraction should be favored on both energetic and statistical grounds. Branching between the two abstraction reactions is controlled by two different hydrogen-bonded complexes. Formation of these complexes is enhanced by NH3+ umbrella bending, unaffected by the NH3+ symmetric stretch, and inhibited by collision energy. Endoergic proton transfer is mediated at low energies by a third hydrogen-bonded complex, formation of which is enhanced by both umbrella bending and the symmetric stretch. Charge transfer (CT) has a significant cross section only when the NH3+ umbrella bend excitation exceeds the endoergicity. Collision energy and symmetric stretching appear to have no effect on CT. At high collision energies all reactions become direct, with near spectator stripping dynamics. In this energy range product branching appears to be controlled by collision geometry and there are no significant vibrational effects.

  9. Measurement of the cross section for high-pT hadron production in the scattering of 160-GeV/c muons off nucleons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adolph, C.; Alekseev, M. G.; Alexakhin, V. Yu.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Alexeev, G. D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Austregesilo, A.; Bade?ek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Bedfer, Y.; Berlin, A.; Bernhard, J.; Bertini, R.; Bicker, K.; Bieling, J.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Boer, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Büchele, M.; Burtin, E.; Capozza, L.; Chiosso, M.; Chung, S. U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M. L.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S. S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O. Yu.; Donskov, S. V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dünnweber, W.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Elia, C.; Eversheim, P. D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Filin, A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N.; Friedrich, J. M.; Frolov, V.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O. P.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gnesi, I.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Grabmüller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Gushterski, R.; Guskov, A.; Guthörl, T.; Haas, F.; von Harrach, D.; Heinsius, F. H.; Herrmann, F.; Heß, C.; Hinterberger, F.; Höppner, Ch.; Horikawa, N.; d'Hose, N.; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Jasinski, P.; Joosten, R.; Kabuß, E.; Kang, D.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G. V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koivuniemi, J. H.; Kolosov, V. N.; Kondo, K.; Königsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V. F.; Kotzinian, A. M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krämer, M.; Kroumchtein, Z. V.; Kuchinski, N.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R. P.; Lednev, A. A.; Lehmann, A.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G. K.; Mann, A.; Marchand, C.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Miyachi, Y.; Morreale, A.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V. I.; Novakova, C.; Novy, J.; Nowak, W.-D.; Nunes, A. S.; Olshevsky, A. G.; Ostrick, M.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Pesek, M.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V. A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Reicherz, G.; Rocco, E.; Rodionov, V.; Rondio, E.; Rossiyskaya, N. S.; Ryabchikov, D. I.; Samoylenko, V. D.; Sandacz, A.; Sapozhnikov, M. G.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I. A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schlüter, T.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, K.; Schmïden, H.; Schmitt, L.; Schönning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Schott, M.; Shevchenko, O. Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Steiger, L.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Suzuki, H.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Ter Wolbeek, J.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thibaud, F.; Uhl, S.; Uman, I.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Virius, M.; Vondra, J.; Wang, L.; Weisrock, T.; Wilfert, M.; Windmolders, R.; Wi?licki, W.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Zhuravlev, N.; Ziembicki, M.

    2013-11-01

    The differential cross section for the production of charged hadrons with high transverse momenta in the scattering of 160GeV/c muons off nucleons at low photon virtualities has been measured at the COMPASS experiment at CERN. The results, which cover transverse momenta from 1.1GeV/c to 3.6GeV/c, are compared to a perturbative quantum chromodynamics (pQCD) calculation, in order to evaluate the applicability of pQCD to this process in the kinematic domain of the experiment. The shape of the calculated differential cross section as a function of transverse momentum is found to be in good agreement with the experimental data, but the absolute scale is underestimated by next-to-leading order pQCD. The inclusion of all-order resummation of large logarithmic threshold corrections reduces the discrepancy from a factor of 3 to 4 to a factor of 2. The dependence of the cross section on the pseudorapidity and on the virtual photon energy fraction is investigated. Finally the dependence on the charge of the hadrons is discussed.

  10. 8, 1185311877, 2008 MART Limb Scatter

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ) on the Solar Mesospheric Explorer (SME) (Rusch et al., 1984). The demonstra-20 tion flight instruments Shuttle scattered sunlight at ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared wavelengths.15 The limb scatter data set allows combinations of the radiances. The first routinely retrieved limb-scatter ozone25 product was made with data

  11. Initiator Effects in Reactive Extrusion of Starch Graft Copolymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Graft copolymers of starch with water-soluble polymers such as polyacrylamide have potential applications including hydrogels, superabsorbents, and thickening agents. Reactive extrusion is a rapid, continuous method for production of starch graft copolymers with high reaction and grafting efficienc...

  12. Surface N balances and reactive N loss to the environment from global intensive agricultural production systems for the period 1970-2030.

    PubMed

    Bouwman, A F; Van Drecht, G; van der Hoek, K W

    2005-09-01

    Data for the historical years 1970 and 1995 and the FAO-Agriculture Towards 2030 projection are used to calculate N inputs (N fertilizer, animal manure, biological N fixation and atmospheric deposition) and the N export from the field in harvested crops and grass and grass consumption by grazing animals. In most industrialized countries we see a gradual increase of the overall N recovery of the intensive agricultural production systems over the whole 1970-2030 period. In contrast, low N input systems in many developing countries sustained low crop yields for many years but at the cost of soil fertility by depleting soil nutrient pools. In most developing countries the N recovery will increase in the coming decades by increasing efficiencies of N use in both crop and livestock production systems. The surface balance surplus of N is lost from the agricultural system via different pathways, including NH3 volatilization, denitrification, N(2)O and NO emissions, and nitrate leaching from the root zone. Global NH(3)-N emissions from fertilizer and animal manure application and stored manure increased from 18 to 34 Tg x yr(-1) between 1970 and 1995, and will further increase to 44 Tg x yr(-1) in 2030. Similar developments are seen for N(2)O-N (2.0 Tg x yr(-1) in 1970, 2.7 Tg x yr(-1) in 1995 and 3.5 Tg x yr(-1) in 2030) and NO-N emissions (1.1 Tg x yr(-1) in 1970,1.5 Tg x yr(-1) in 1995 and 2.0 Tg x yr(-1) in 2030). PMID:20549433