Science.gov

Sample records for readout electronics development

  1. Hyper Suprime-Cam: development of the CCD readout electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaya, Hidehiko; Uchida, Tomohisa; Miyatake, Hironao; Fujimori, Hiroki; Mineo, Sogo; Aihara, Hiroaki; Furusawa, Hisanori; Kamata, Yukiko; Karoji, Hiroshi; Kawanomoto, Satoshi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Morokuma, Tomoki; Obuchi, Yoshiyuki; Okura, Yuki; Tanaka, Manobu; Tanaka, Yoko; Uraguchi, Fumihiro; Utsumi, Yosuke

    2010-07-01

    Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) employs 116 of 2k×4k CCDs with 464 signal outputs in total. The image size exceeds 2 GBytes, and the data can be readout every 10 seconds which results in the data rate of 210 Mbytes / sec. The data is digitized to 16-bit. The readout noise of the electronics at the readout time of 20 seconds is ~0.9 ADU, and the one with CCD is ~1.5 ADU which corresponds to ~4.5 e. The linearity error fits within +/- 0.5 % up to 150,000 e. The CCD readout electronics for HSC was newly developed based on the electronics for Suprime-Cam. The frontend electronics (FEE) is placed in the vacuum dewar, and the backend electronics (BEE) is mounted on the outside of the dewar on the prime focus unit. The FEE boards were designed to minimize the outgas and to maximize the heat transfer efficiency to keep the vacuum of the dewar. The BEE boards were designed to be simple and small as long as to achieve the readout time within 10 seconds. The production of the system has been finished, and the full set of the boards are being tested with several CCDs installed in the HSC dewar. We will show the system design, performance, and the current status of the development.

  2. Development of TORCH readout electronics for customised MCPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, R.; Brook, N.; Castillo García, L.; Cussans, D.; Fohl, K.; Forty, R.; Frei, C.; Gys, T.; Harnew, N.; Piedigrossi, D.; Rademacker, J.; Ros García, A.; Van Dijk, M.

    2016-04-01

    The TORCH detector is being developed for low-momentum particle identification, combining time-of-flight and Cherenkov techniques to achieve charged particle pi/K/p separation up to 10 GeV/c over a flight distance of 10m. This requires a timing resolution of 70 ps for single photons. Based on an existing scalable design, production and testing of a TORCH readout system has been undertaken over the past year, and a novel customized Micro Channel Plate (MCP) photomultiplier device with 128-channels has been instrumented. This paper will report on the development of the readout system which is being used to measure time-of-flight in a test-beam, and its performance. We will also discuss the communication and data alignment between the TORCH system and the TimePix3 telescope in order to provide track reconstruction.

  3. Development of Readout Electronics for POLARBEAR-2 Cosmic Microwave Background Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, K.; Akiba, Y.; Arnold, K.; Barron, D.; Bender, A. N.; Cukierman, A.; de Haan, T.; Dobbs, M.; Elleflot, T.; Hasegawa, M.; Hazumi, M.; Holzapfel, W.; Hori, Y.; Keating, B.; Kusaka, A.; Lee, A.; Montgomery, J.; Rotermund, K.; Shirley, I.; Suzuki, A.; Whitehorn, N.

    2016-07-01

    The readout of transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers with a large multiplexing factor is key for the next generation cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiment, Polarbear-2 (Suzuki in J Low Temp Phys 176:719, 2014), having 7588 TES bolometers. To enable the large arrays, we have been developing a readout system with a multiplexing factor of 40 in the frequency domain. Extending that architecture to 40 bolometers requires an increase in the bandwidth of the SQUID electronics, above 4 MHz. This paper focuses on cryogenic readout and shows how it affects cross talk and the responsivity of the TES bolometers. A series resistance, such as equivalent series resistance of capacitors for LC filters, leads to non-linear response of the bolometers. A wiring inductance modulates a voltage across the bolometers and causes cross talk. They should be controlled well to reduce systematic errors in CMB observations. We have been developing a cryogenic readout with a low series impedance and have tuned bolometers in the middle of their transition at a high frequency (>3 MHz).

  4. Development of Readout Electronics for uc(POLARBEAR-2) Cosmic Microwave Background Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, K.; Akiba, Y.; Arnold, K.; Barron, D.; Bender, A. N.; Cukierman, A.; de Haan, T.; Dobbs, M.; Elleflot, T.; Hasegawa, M.; Hazumi, M.; Holzapfel, W.; Hori, Y.; Keating, B.; Kusaka, A.; Lee, A.; Montgomery, J.; Rotermund, K.; Shirley, I.; Suzuki, A.; Whitehorn, N.

    2016-01-01

    The readout of transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers with a large multiplexing factor is key for the next generation cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiment, uc(Polarbear)-2 (Suzuki in J Low Temp Phys 176:719, 2014), having 7588 TES bolometers. To enable the large arrays, we have been developing a readout system with a multiplexing factor of 40 in the frequency domain. Extending that architecture to 40 bolometers requires an increase in the bandwidth of the SQUID electronics, above 4 MHz. This paper focuses on cryogenic readout and shows how it affects cross talk and the responsivity of the TES bolometers. A series resistance, such as equivalent series resistance of capacitors for LC filters, leads to non-linear response of the bolometers. A wiring inductance modulates a voltage across the bolometers and causes cross talk. They should be controlled well to reduce systematic errors in CMB observations. We have been developing a cryogenic readout with a low series impedance and have tuned bolometers in the middle of their transition at a high frequency (> 3 MHz).

  5. SNO+ Readout Electronics Upgrades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonventre, Richard; Shokair, Timothy; Knapik, Robert

    2012-03-01

    The SNO+ experiment is designed to explore several topics in neutrino physics including neutrinoless double beta decay, reactor antineutrinos, and low energy solar neutrinos. SNO+ uses the existing Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) detector, with the heavy water target replaced with liquid scintillator. The new target requires an upgrade to the command and control electronics to handle the higher rates expected with scintillation light as compared to Cherenkov light. The readout electronics have been upgraded to autonomously push data to a central data acquisition computer over ethernet from each of the 19 front end crates. The autonomous readout is achieved with a field programmable gate array (FPGA) with an embedded processor. Inside the FPGA fabric a state machine is configured to pull data across the VME-like bus of each crate. A small C program, making use of the open source Light Weight IP (LWIP) libraries, is run directly on the hardware (with no operating system) to push the data via TCP/IP. The hybrid combination of `high-level' C code and a `low-level' VHDL state machine is a cost effective and flexible solution for reading out individual front end crates.

  6. High speed readout electronics development for frequency-multiplexed kinetic inductance detector design optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourrion, O.; Vescovi, C.; Catalano, A.; Calvo, M.; D'Addabbo, A.; Goupy, J.; Boudou, N.; Macias-Perez, J. F.; Monfardini, A.

    2013-12-01

    Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKID) are a promising solution for space-borne mm-wave astronomy. To optimize their design and make them insensitive to the ballistic phonons created by cosmic-ray interactions in the substrate, the phonon propagation in silicon must be studied. A dedicated fast readout electronics, using channelized Digital Down Conversion for monitoring up to 12 MKIDs over a 100 MHz bandwidth was developed. Thanks to the fast ADC sampling and steep digital filtering, In-phase and Quadrature samples, having a high dynamic range, are provided at ~ 2 Msps. This paper describes the technical solution chosen and the results obtained.

  7. Report of the sensor readout electronics panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R.; Carson, J.; Kleinhans, W.; Kosonocky, W.; Kozlowski, L.; Pecsalski, A.; Silver, A.; Spieler, H.; Woolaway, J.

    1991-01-01

    The findings of the Sensor Readout Electronics Panel are summarized in regard to technology assessment and recommended development plans. In addition to two specific readout issues, cryogenic readouts and sub-electron noise, the panel considered three advanced technology areas that impact the ability to achieve large format sensor arrays. These are mega-pixel focal plane packaging issues, focal plane to data processing module interfaces, and event driven readout architectures. Development in each of these five areas was judged to have significant impact in enabling the sensor performance desired for the Astrotech 21 mission set. Other readout issues, such as focal plane signal processing or other high volume data acquisition applications important for Eos-type mapping, were determined not to be relevant for astrophysics science goals.

  8. Development of Cryogenic Readout Electronics for Sensitive Far-Infrared Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watabe, Toyoki; Shibai, Hiroshi; Hirao, Takanori; Nagata, Hirohisa; Hibi, Yasunori; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Nakagawa, Takao; Noda, Manabu

    We have successfully developed low-noise, low-power cryogenic readout electronics (CRE) for sensitive far-infrared detectors operated at low temperatures. The CRE must be mounted besides of the detector, and thus, it must be operated at cryogenic temperatures. The reasons of that are to avoid electrical interferences to the high-impedance portion between the detector itself and the CRE, and to minimize the stray capacitance that may decrease the read-out gain. The goals of the CRE performance are the operation temperature can be down to 2K, the noise level is 2µV/√Hz at 1Hz, the power consumption is 10µW/channel, and the open-loop gain of differential amplifier is over 1000. We have so far manufactured the CRE four times, and evaluated the performances at 4.2K. The present performance achieved is nearly acceptable for the far-infrared sensor of the next Japanese infrared astronomical satellite, ASTRO-F.

  9. Hyper Suprime-Cam: CCD readout electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaya, Hidehiko; Uchida, Tomohisa; Miyatake, Hironao; Aihara, Hiroaki; Doi, Yoshiyuki; Furusawa, Hisanori; Karoji, Hiroshi; Kamata, Yukiko; Kawanomoto, Satoshi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Morokuma, Tomoki; Tanaka, Manobu; Tanaka, Yoko

    2008-07-01

    Hyper Suprime-Cam is planned to employ about 120 2k×4k fully-depleted CCDs with 4 signal outputs for each. The data size of an image becomes larger than 2Gbytes. All of the CCDs are designed to be readout parallel within 20 seconds, and the readout noise is expected to be 5e. The frontend electronics will be mounted in a vacuumed cryostat, and connected to the backend electronics mounted on the outside of the cryostat. The frontend electronics includes entire analog circuits for CCD including CCD drivers, preamplifiers and ADC. The backend electronics consists of newly developed gigabit Ethernet modules combined with 2Gbytes memory modules, and several supporting boards. We will present the current status of the CCD readout electronics developments for HSC.

  10. Development of large area, pico-second resolution photo-detectors and associated readout electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Grabas, H.; Oberla, E.; Attenkoffer, K.; Bogdan, M.; Frisch, H. J.; Genat, J. F.; May, E. N.; Varner, G. S.; Wetstein, M.

    2011-07-01

    The Large Area Pico-second Photo-detectors described in this contribution incorporate a photo-cathode and a borosilicate glass capillary Micro-Channel Plate (MCP) pair functionalized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) of separate resistive and electron secondary emitters materials. They may be used for biomedical imaging purposes, a remarkable opportunity to apply technologies developed in HEP having the potential to make major advances in the medical world, in particular for Positron Emission Tomography (PET). If daisy-chained and coupled to fast transmission lines read at both ends, they could be implemented in very large dimensions. Initial testing with matched pairs of small glass capillary test has demonstrated gains of the order of 105 to 106. Compared to other fast imaging devices, these photo-detectors are expected to provide timing resolutions in the 10-100 ps range, and two-dimension position in the sub-millimeter range. A 6-channel readout ASIC has been designed in 130 nm CMOS technology and tested. As a result, fast analog sampling up to 17 GS/s has been obtained, the intrinsic analog bandwidth being presently under evaluation. The digitization in parallel of several cells in two microseconds allows getting off-chip digital data read at a maximum rate of 40 MHz. Digital Signal Processing of the sampled waveforms is expected achieving the timing and space resolutions obtained with digital oscilloscopes. (authors)

  11. Cryogenic readout electronics for astronomical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dierickx, B.; Vermeiren, J.; Cos, S.; Faymonville, R.; Lemke, D.

    1992-12-01

    The development of the cold readout electronics for the ISOPHOT focal plane experiment on the ISO (Infrared Space Observatory) is reported. For this low background application, custom designed highly sensitive integrating charge amplifiers are used for the readout of the extrinsic IR detectors. The use of CMOS circuits allows the multiplexing and readout of a large number of detectors at the detector temperature, with a very low power dissipation. The CMOS readout amplifier/multiplexer for deep cryogenic operation is discussed. The device is able to interface directly with extrinsic photoconductive detectors cooled down to the 1.8 to 10K range. In order to observe faint objects under low light level conditions the integration capacitor is 80 fF, featuring a saturation at 1 million charge carriers for an output voltage swing of 2 V and a noise level of 0.5 mV root mean square in nondestructive readout mode. With this circuit coupled to detectors with a responsivity of around 5 to 10 A/W, it is possible to reach noise equivalent power values of 10 to the minus 17th power W/square root of Hz. The multiplexer can be operated with only 10 wires for the supplies, and the clocking of the circuits.

  12. Characterization of Silicon Detector Readout Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M.

    2015-07-22

    Configuration and calibration of the front-end electronics typical of many silicon detector configurations were investigated in a lab activity based on a pair of strip sensors interfaced with FSSR2 read-out chips and an FPGA. This simple hardware configuration, originally developed for a telescope at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility, was used to measure thresholds and noise on individual readout channels and to study the influence that different configurations of the front-end electronics had on the observed levels of noise in the system. An understanding of the calibration and operation of this small detector system provided an opportunity to explore the architecture of larger systems such as those currently in use at LHC experiments.

  13. Moire deflectometry with deferred electronic heterodyne readout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stricker, J.

    1985-01-01

    The electronic heterodyne technique is applied to the task of deferred readout of phase objects' moire fringes. In combination with the heterodyne readout technique, moire deflectometry constitutes a powerful tool for the study of phase objects, exhibiting high sensitivity, ease of automation and recording, low cost, use of incoherent illumination, and independence from fringe contrast variations.

  14. Low-noise low-power readout electronics circuit development in standard CMOS technology for 4 K applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merken, Patrick; Souverijns, Tim; Putzeys, Jan; Creten, Ybe; Van Hoof, Chris

    2006-06-01

    In the framework of the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) project IMEC designed the Cold Readout Electronics (CRE) for the Ge:Ga far-infrared detector array. Key specifications for this circuit were high linearity, low power consumption and low noise at an operating temperature of 4.2K. We have implemented this circuit in a standard CMOS technology which guarantees high yield and uniformity, and design portability. A drawback of this approach is the anomalous behavior of CMOS transistors at temperatures below 30-40K. These cryogenic phenomena disturb the normal functionality of commonly used circuits. We were able to overcome these problems and developed a library of digital and analog building blocks based on the modeling of cryogenic behavior, and on adapted design and layout techniques. We will present the design of the 18 channel CRE circuit, its interface with the Ge:Ga sensor, and its electrical performance. We will show how the library that was developed for PACS served as a baseline for the designs used in the Darwin-far-infrared detector array, where a cryogenic 180 channel, 30μm pitch, Readout Integrated Circuit (ROIC) for flip-chip integration was developed. Other designs and topologies for low noise and low power applications will be equally presented.

  15. A reconfigurable image tube using an external electronic image readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapington, J. S.; Howorth, J. R.; Milnes, J. S.

    2005-08-01

    We have designed and built a sealed tube microchannel plate (MCP) intensifier for optical/NUV photon counting applications suitable for 18, 25 and 40 mm diameter formats. The intensifier uses an electronic image readout to provide direct conversion of event position into electronic signals, without the drawbacks associated with phosphor screens and subsequent optical detection. The Image Charge technique is used to remove the readout from the intensifier vacuum enclosure, obviating the requirement for additional electrical vacuum feedthroughs and for the readout pattern to be UHV compatible. The charge signal from an MCP intensifier is capacitively coupled via a thin dielectric vacuum window to the electronic image readout, which is external to the sealed intensifier tube. The readout pattern is a separate item held in proximity to the dielectric window and can be easily detached, making the system easily reconfigurable. Since the readout pattern detects induced charge and is external to the tube, it can be constructed as a multilayer, eliminating the requirement for narrow insulator gaps and allowing it to be constructed using standard PCB manufacturing tolerances. We describe two readout patterns, the tetra wedge anode (TWA), an optimized 4 electrode device similar to the wedge and strip anode (WSA) but with a factor 2 improvement in resolution, and an 8 channel high speed 50 ohm device, both manufactured as multilayer PCBs. We present results of the detector imaging performance, image resolution, linearity and stability, and discuss the development of an integrated readout and electronics device based on these designs.

  16. D-Zero muon readout electronics design

    SciTech Connect

    Baldin, B.; Hansen, S.; Los, S.; Matveev, M.; Vaniev, V.

    1996-11-01

    The readout electronics designed for the D{null} Muon Upgrade are described. These electronics serve three detector subsystems and one trigger system. The front-ends and readout hardware are synchronized by means of timing signals broadcast from the D{null} Trigger Framework. The front-end electronics have continuously running digitizers and two levels of buffering resulting in nearly deadtimeless operation. The raw data is corrected and formatted by 16- bit fixed point DSP processors. These processors also perform control of the data buffering. The data transfer from the front-end electronics located on the detector platform is performed by serial links running at 160 Mbit/s. The design and test results of the subsystem readout electronics and system interface are discussed.

  17. Development of a cryogenic DC-low noise amplifier for SQuID-based readout electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macculi, C.; Torrioli, G.; Di Giorgio, A.; Spinoglio, L.; Piro, Luigi

    2014-07-01

    We present the preliminary results of the design and test activities for a DC cryogenic low noise amplifier for the SAFARI imaging spectrometer, planned to be onboard the SPICA mission, necessary not only to drive, as usual, the voltage signal produced by the SQuID but also to boost such signals over about 7 meter of path towards the warm feedback electronics. This development has been done in the framework of the mission preparation studies, within the European Consortium for the development of the SAFARI instrument. The actual configuration of the SAFARI focal plane assembly (FPA), indeed, foresees a long distance to the warm back end electronics. It is therefore mandatory to boost the faint electric signal coming from the SQuID device by keeping under control both power dissipation and noise: this is the main role of the designed Cryogenic Low Noise Amplifier (LNA). Working at 136K, it has a differential input gain-stage, and a differential balanced voltage buffer output stage, running at few mW target overall power. At present the design is based on the use of Heterojunction Si:Ge transistors, the required bandwidth is DC-4MHz and the required noise lower than 1 nV/rtHz.

  18. Electronic readout systems for microchannel plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timothy, J. G.

    1985-01-01

    The modes of operation of position-sensitive electronic readout systems which use high-gain microchannel plate (MCP) electron multipliers are described, and their performance characteristics, along with those of the MCP, are compared. Among the structures presented are the wedge-and-strip, Codacon, and multilayer coincidence-anode MAMA (Multimode Microchannel Array) arrays. Spatial resolution of 25 x 25 sq microns (coincidence anode arrays) is achieved with an array format of 256 x 1024 pixels. On the basis of the performance data it is concluded that the readout systems using only conducting electrodes offer the best performance characteristics.

  19. Readout electronics for the Dark Energy Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castilla, Javier; Ballester, Otger; Cardiel, Laia; Chappa, Steve; de Vicente, Juan; Holm, Scott; Huffman, David; Kozlovsky, Mark; Martinez, Gustavo; Olsen, Jamieson; Shaw, Theresa; Stuermer, Walter

    2010-07-01

    The goal of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) is to measure the dark energy equation of state parameter with four complementary techniques: galaxy cluster counts, weak lensing, angular power spectrum and type Ia supernovae. DES will survey a 5000 sq. degrees area of the sky in five filter bands using a new 3 deg2 mosaic camera (DECam) mounted at the prime focus of the Blanco 4-meter telescope at the Cerro-Tololo International Observatory (CTIO). DECam is a ~520 megapixel optical CCD camera that consists of 62 2k x 4k science sensors plus 4 2k x 2k sensors for guiding. The CCDs, developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and packaged and tested at Fermilab, have been selected to obtain images efficiently at long wavelengths. A front-end electronics system has been developed specifically to perform the CCD readout. The system is based in Monsoon, an open source image acquisition system designed by the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO). The electronics consists mainly of three types of modules: Control, Acquisition and Clock boards. The system provides a total of 132 video channels, 396 bias levels and around 1000 clock channels in order to readout the full mosaic at 250 kpixel/s speed with 10 e- noise performance. System configuration and data acquisition is done by means of six 0.8 Gbps optical links. The production of the whole system is currently underway. The contribution will focus on the testing, calibration and general performance of the full system in a realistic environment.

  20. Zero suppression logic of the ALICE muon forward tracker pixel chip prototype PIXAM and associated readout electronics development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flouzat, C.; Değerli, Y.; Guilloux, F.; Orsini, F.; Venault, P.

    2015-05-01

    In the framework of the ALICE experiment upgrade at HL-LHC, a new forward tracking detector, the Muon Forward Tracker (MFT), is foreseen to overcome the intrinsic limitations of the present Muon Spectrometer and will perform new measurements of general interest for the whole ALICE physics. To fulfill the new detector requirements, CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) provide an attractive trade-off between readout speed, spatial resolution, radiation hardness, granularity, power consumption and material budget. This technology has been chosen to equip the Muon Forward Tracker and also the vertex detector: the Inner Tracking System (ITS). Since few years, an intensive R&D program has been performed on the design of MAPS in the 0.18 μ m CMOS Image Sensor (CIS) process. In order to avoid pile up effects in the experiment, the classical rolling shutter readout system of MAPS has been improved to overcome the readout speed limitation. A zero suppression algorithm, based on a 3 by 3 cluster finding (position and data), has been chosen for the MFT. This algorithm allows adequate data compression for the sensor. This paper presents the large size prototype PIXAM, which represents 1/3 of the final chip, and will focus specially on the zero suppression block architecture. This chip is designed and under fabrication in the 0.18 μ m CIS process. Finally, the readout electronics principle to send out the compressed data flow is also presented taking into account the cluster occupancy per MFT plane for a single central Pb-Pb collision.

  1. A Review of Infrared Readout Electronics for Space Science Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata; Fossum, Eric R.

    1993-01-01

    A review of infrared readout electornics for space science sensors is presented. General requirements for scientific IR FPA readout are discussed. Specific approaches to the unit cell electronics are described with respect to operation, complexity, noise and other operating parameters. Recent achievements in IR FPA readout electronics are reviewed. Implementation technologies for realization of IR FPA readout electronics are discussed. Future directions for addressing NASA and other scientific users' needs are suggested.

  2. Readout Electronics for Hyper Suprime-Cam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyatake, Hironao; Aihara, Hiroaki; Fujimori, Hiroki; Mineo, Sogo; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Nakaya, Hidehiko; Uchida, Tomohisa

    Hyper Suprime-Cam(HSC)isa1GigapixelCCD camerafora wide-fieldgalaxy surveyatthe Subaru8-mTelescope. It will be mounted on the prime focus of the SubaruTelescope and is scheduled to receive its first light in 2012. The primary science is to conduct a weak lensing survey over ∼ 2,000 square degrees. The HSC has a 1.5-degree-diameter fieldofview, 7timeslarger than thatofits predecessor Suprime-Cam.It consistsofalarge corrector lens systemand afocalplane equippedwith116piecesof2kx4kfully depletedCCDs. Combinedwiththesuperbimagequalityand large aperture of the Subaru telescope, the surveyusing HSC can cover a cosmological volume and reach the limiting magnitude of at least one magnitudefainter than the other surveys conducted using 4-m class telescopes. The readout electronics of the HSC consist of two parts: one is the analog front-end electronics (FEE) and the other is the digital back-end electronics (BEE). The FEE is placed in a vacuum dewar together with the CCDs, and processes the analog CCD signal into 16-bit digital data. The BEE is small and light enough to be integrated into the camera unit, and employs three linksofGigabit Ethernetto readouta 2.3-GByte singleexposure within10 secondsatfast readout operation. The readout noise from the electronics is smaller than that from CCDs.

  3. Readout Electronics for the Forward Vertex Detector at PHENIX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Michael

    2010-11-01

    The PHENIX experiment at RHIC at Brookhaven National Laboratory has been providing high quality physics data for over 10 years. The current PHENIX physics program will be significantly enhanced by addition of the Forward Silicon Vertex upgrade detector (FVTX) in the acceptance of existing muon arm detectors. The proposed tracker is planned to be put into operation in 2012. Each arm of the FVTX detector consist of 4 discs of silicon strip sensors combined with FPHX readout chips, designed at FNAL. The full detector consists of over 1 million active mini-strip channels with instantaneous bandwidth topping 3.4 Tb/s. The FPHX chip utilizes data push architecture with 2 serial output streams at 200 MHz. The readout electronics design consists of Read-Out Cards (ROC) located in the vicinity of the detector and Front End Modules (FEM) located in the Counting House. ROC boards combine the data from several chips, synchronizes data streams and send them to FEM over a Fiber Optics Link. The data are buffered in the FEM and then sent to a standard PHENIX DAQ interface upon Level-1 trigger request. We will present the current status of the readout electronics development and testing, including tests with data from production wedges.

  4. Read-out electronics for DC squid magnetic measurements

    DOEpatents

    Ganther, Jr., Kenneth R.; Snapp, Lowell D.

    2002-01-01

    Read-out electronics for DC SQUID sensor systems, the read-out electronics incorporating low Johnson noise radio-frequency flux-locked loop circuitry and digital signal processing algorithms in order to improve upon the prior art by a factor of at least ten, thereby alleviating problems caused by magnetic interference when operating DC SQUID sensor systems in magnetically unshielded environments.

  5. Pixel readout electronics for LHC and biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanquart, L.; Bonzom, V.; Comes, G.; Delpierre, P.; Fischer, P.; Hausmann, J.; Keil, M.; Lindner, M.; Meuser, S.; Wermes, N.

    2000-01-01

    The demanding requirements for pixel readout electronics for high-energy physics experiments and biomedical applications are reviewed. Some examples of the measured analog performance of prototype chips are given. The readout architectures of the PIxel Readout for the ATlas Experiment (PIRATE) chip suited for LHC experiments and of the Multi Picture Element Counter (MPEC) counting chip targeted for biomedical applications are presented. First results with complete chip-sensor assemblies are also shown.

  6. An integrated wire harp and readout electronics inside vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Mou; Nabhiraj, P. Y.

    2015-03-01

    A wire harp is a well known instrument used in ion beam profile measurement and beam diagnostics. Till date, for beam instrumentation, the harp is placed inside the vacuum chamber or beam line in direct exposure to the beam profile to be measured, whereas the related readout electronics is placed outside somewhere at a convenient place. Here, a harp has been developed along with the readout electronics as an integrated part of it and both were placed inside the beam line vacuum (order of 10-7 Torr) to make the system much simpler, easy to operate, and measure small beam current more accurately. The entire signal conversion and processing is done inside the vacuum unlike other systems; hence, the electronics is kept inside. This results in a lesser number (only 4 pin) of electrical connections (feedthrough) including power which otherwise would have required 32 feedthrough pins only for signal readout for a 13 × 13 (X × Y) channel harp. This paper describes a completely new approach to the design of a conventional beam harp widely used for beam instrumentation.

  7. An integrated wire harp and readout electronics inside vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Mou; Nabhiraj, P. Y.

    2015-03-15

    A wire harp is a well known instrument used in ion beam profile measurement and beam diagnostics. Till date, for beam instrumentation, the harp is placed inside the vacuum chamber or beam line in direct exposure to the beam profile to be measured, whereas the related readout electronics is placed outside somewhere at a convenient place. Here, a harp has been developed along with the readout electronics as an integrated part of it and both were placed inside the beam line vacuum (order of 10{sup −7} Torr) to make the system much simpler, easy to operate, and measure small beam current more accurately. The entire signal conversion and processing is done inside the vacuum unlike other systems; hence, the electronics is kept inside. This results in a lesser number (only 4 pin) of electrical connections (feedthrough) including power which otherwise would have required 32 feedthrough pins only for signal readout for a 13 × 13 (X × Y) channel harp. This paper describes a completely new approach to the design of a conventional beam harp widely used for beam instrumentation.

  8. A new electronic read-out for the YAPPET scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damiani, C.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Malaguti, R.; Del Guerra, A.; Di Domenico, G.; Zavattini, G.

    2002-09-01

    A small animal PET-SPECT scanner (YAPPET) prototype was built at the Physics Department of the Ferrara University and is presently being used at the Nuclear Medicine Department for radiopharmaceutical studies on rats. The first YAPPET prototype shows very good performances, but needs some improvements before it can be fully used for intensive radiopharmaceutical research. The main problem of the actual prototype is its heavy electronics, based on NIM and CAMAC standard modules. For this reason a new, compact read-out electronics was developed and tested. The results of a first series of tests made on the first prototype will be presented in the paper.

  9. Development of Readout System for the CALET Scintillating Fiber Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, T.; Torii, S.; Yoshida, K.; Hibino, K.; Yamagami, T.; Murakami, H.; Kasahara, K.

    2001-08-01

    We have a plan to make observations of high energy electrons and gamma rays with the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) on the International Space Station (ISS). We are carrying out a R&D for the detector, CALET (CALorimetric Electron Telescope). It consists of an imaging calorimeter (IC) and a total absorption calorimeter (TASC). We will utilize a few hundred-thousands scintillating fibers (SCIFI) for the IC part to visualize cascade showers. We have two options for readout of such amount of SCIFI. First, we have developed a new image intensifier coupled to CCD camera (II-CCD), which is based on the technology utilized and established in the balloon observations with BETS (Balloonborne Electron Telescope with Scintillating fibers). Although the data acquisition rate will be limited to a few 10 Hz, a lot of SCIFI can be read relatively easily with the readout system of the II-CCD. Second, we are developing a readout system with multi-anode photo multipliers (MA-PMT) and front-end chips (VA32 hdr32; one of the Viking family). The readout system with the MA-PMT will enable us to make data acquisition at high frequency of over one thousand Hz.

  10. Development of the readout controller for KASINICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Seoung-hyun; Jin, Ho; Nam, Uk-Won; Lee, Sungho; Kong, Kyung-Nam; Yuk, In-Soo; Park, Youngsik; Pak, Soojong; Han, Wonyong; Kim, Sungsoo S.

    2006-06-01

    Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) is developing the KASI Near Infrared Camera System (KASINICS) which will be installed on the 61 cm telescope at the Sobaeksan Optical Astronomy Observatory (SOAO) in Korea. KASINICS is equipped with a ALADDIN III Quadrant (512×512 InSb array, manufactured by Raytheon). For this instrument, we make a new IR array control electronics system. The controller consists of DSP, Bias, Clock, and Video boards which are installed on a VME bus system. The DSP board includes TMS320C6713, FPGA, and 384MB SDRAM. Clock patterns are downloaded from a PC and stored on the FPGA. USB 2.0 is used for the communication with the PC and UART for the serial communication with peripherals. Each of two video boards has 4 video channels. The Bias board provides 16 voltage sources and the Clock board has 15 clock channels. Our goal of readout speed is 10 frames sec -1. We have successfully finished operational tests of the controller using a 256×256 ROIC (CRC744). We are now upgrading the system for the ALADDIN III array. We plan to operate KASINICS by the end of 2006.

  11. Readout electronics upgrade on ALICE/PHOS detector for Run 2 of LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Zhang, F.; Feng, W.; Huang, G.; Song, Z.; Yin, Z.; Zhou, D.

    2015-02-01

    The ALICE/PHOS detector is carrying out a major upgrade of its readout electronics for the RUN 2 of LHC (2015-2017). A new architecture based on the point to point link is developed. The event readout rate can achieve 30 kHz by replacing the old parallel GTL bus with DTC links. The communication stability of the interface between front-end electronic boards and readout concentrators is significantly improved. A new FPGA firmware is designed to be compatible with the upgraded ALICE trigger system and DATE software.

  12. Issues and directions in IR detector readout electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R.

    1990-01-01

    An introduction to the major issues encountered in the readout of imaging detector arrays in the infrared are presented. These include circuit issues such as multiplexing, buffering, and noise, as well as materials issues. Future directions in infrared readout electronics will also be discussed. These include on-chip signal processing and advanced hybridization schemes. Finally, recent work at Columbia on 2DEG-charge coupled devices for IR detector multiplexing are described.

  13. Developments and tests of double-sided silicon strip detectors and read-out electronics for the Internal Tracking System of ALICE at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffin, J. P.; Alice Collaboration

    1999-12-01

    The internal-tracking-system (ITS) of the ALICE detector at LHC, consists of six concentrical barrels of silicon detectors. The outmost two layers are made of double-sided strip detectors (SSD). In the framework of a R&D, the characteristics and performances of these devices, manufactured by two different companies, associated with their designed read-out electronics, have been studied off- and in-beam at the SPS (CERN). The results are presented and discussed.

  14. PAUCam readout electronics assembly, integration and test (AIT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, Jorge; Illa, José M.; Cardiel-Sas, Laia; de Vicente, Juan; Castilla, Javier; Casas, Ricard

    2014-08-01

    The PAUCam is an optical camera with an array of 18 CCDs (Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.) and up to 45 narrow and broad band filters. The camera will be installed on the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) in the Canary Islands, Spain. In order to fulfill with the specifications for the camera readout system, it was necessary to test the different readout electronics subsystems individually before to integrate the final readout work package, which is composed of 4 MONSOON (NOAO) front-ends, 6 fan out boards (MIX), each one driving up to 5 CCDs signals and a pre-amplification stage (PREAMP) located inside the cryostat. To get the subsystems integration, it was built a small camera prototype using the same technology as used in the main camera: a carbon fiber cryostat refrigerated by a cryotiger cooling system but with capacity to allocate just 2 CCDs, which were readout and re-characterized to measure the electronics performance as conversion factor or gain, readout noise, stability, linearity, etc. while the cross-talk was measured by using a spot-light. The aim of this paper is to review the whole process of assembly, integration and test (AIT) of the readout electronics work package and present the main results to demonstrate the viability of the proposed systems to be use with the PAUCam camera.

  15. Development of a prototype PET scanner with depth-of-interaction measurement using solid-state photomultiplier arrays and parallel readout electronics

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yiping; Sun, Xishan; Lan, Kejian A.; Bircher, Chad; Lou, Kai; Deng, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we developed a prototype animal PET by applying several novel technologies to use the solid-state photomultiplier (SSPM) arrays for measuring the depth-of-interaction (DOI) and improving imaging performance. Each PET detector has an 8×8 array of about 1.9×1.9×30.0 mm3 lutetium-yttrium-oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) scintillators, with each end optically connected to a SSPM array (16-channel in a 4×4 matrix) through a light guide to enable continuous DOI measurement. Each SSPM has an active area of about 3×3 mm2, and its output is read by a custom-developed application-specific-integrated-circuit (ASIC) to directly convert analog signals to digital timing pulses that encode the interaction information. These pulses are transferred to and be decoded by a field-programmable-gate-array (FPGA) based time-to-digital convertor for coincident event selection and data acquisition. The independent readout of each SSPM and the parallel signal process can significantly improve the signal-to-noise ratio and enable using flexible algorithms for different data processes. The prototype PET consists of two rotating detector panels on a portable gantry with four detectors in each panel to provide 16 mm axial and variable transaxial field-of-view (FOV) sizes. List-mode ordered-subset-expectation-maximization image reconstruction was implemented. The measured mean energy, coincidence timing, and DOI resolution for a crystal were about 17.6%, 2.8 ns, and 5.6 mm, respectively. The measured transaxial resolutions at the center of the FOV were 2.0 mm and 2.3 mm for images reconstructed with and without DOI, respectively. In addition, the resolutions across the FOV with DOI were substantially better than those without DOI. The quality of PET images of both a hot-rod phantom and mouse acquired with DOI was much higher than that of images obtained without DOI. This study demonstrates that SSPM arrays and advanced readout/processing electronics can be used to develop a practical

  16. Development of a prototype PET scanner with depth-of-interaction measurement using solid-state photomultiplier arrays and parallel readout electronics.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yiping; Sun, Xishan; Lan, Kejian A; Bircher, Chad; Lou, Kai; Deng, Zhi

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we developed a prototype animal PET by applying several novel technologies to use solid-state photomultiplier (SSPM) arrays to measure the depth of interaction (DOI) and improve imaging performance. Each PET detector has an 8 × 8 array of about 1.9 × 1.9 × 30.0 mm(3) lutetium-yttrium-oxyorthosilicate scintillators, with each end optically connected to an SSPM array (16 channels in a 4 × 4 matrix) through a light guide to enable continuous DOI measurement. Each SSPM has an active area of about 3 × 3 mm(2), and its output is read by a custom-developed application-specific integrated circuit to directly convert analogue signals to digital timing pulses that encode the interaction information. These pulses are transferred to and are decoded by a field-programmable gate array-based time-to-digital convertor for coincident event selection and data acquisition. The independent readout of each SSPM and the parallel signal process can significantly improve the signal-to-noise ratio and enable the use of flexible algorithms for different data processes. The prototype PET consists of two rotating detector panels on a portable gantry with four detectors in each panel to provide 16 mm axial and variable transaxial field-of-view (FOV) sizes. List-mode ordered subset expectation maximization image reconstruction was implemented. The measured mean energy, coincidence timing and DOI resolution for a crystal were about 17.6%, 2.8 ns and 5.6 mm, respectively. The measured transaxial resolutions at the center of the FOV were 2.0 mm and 2.3 mm for images reconstructed with and without DOI, respectively. In addition, the resolutions across the FOV with DOI were substantially better than those without DOI. The quality of PET images of both a hot-rod phantom and mouse acquired with DOI was much higher than that of images obtained without DOI. This study demonstrates that SSPM arrays and advanced readout/processing electronics can be used to develop a practical DOI

  17. Development of a prototype PET scanner with depth-of-interaction measurement using solid-state photomultiplier arrays and parallel readout electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Yiping; Sun, Xishan; Lan, Kejian A.; Bircher, Chad; Lou, Kai; Deng, Zhi

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we developed a prototype animal PET by applying several novel technologies to use solid-state photomultiplier (SSPM) arrays to measure the depth of interaction (DOI) and improve imaging performance. Each PET detector has an 8 × 8 array of about 1.9 × 1.9 × 30.0 mm3 lutetium-yttrium-oxyorthosilicate scintillators, with each end optically connected to an SSPM array (16 channels in a 4 × 4 matrix) through a light guide to enable continuous DOI measurement. Each SSPM has an active area of about 3 × 3 mm2, and its output is read by a custom-developed application-specific integrated circuit to directly convert analogue signals to digital timing pulses that encode the interaction information. These pulses are transferred to and are decoded by a field-programmable gate array-based time-to-digital convertor for coincident event selection and data acquisition. The independent readout of each SSPM and the parallel signal process can significantly improve the signal-to-noise ratio and enable the use of flexible algorithms for different data processes. The prototype PET consists of two rotating detector panels on a portable gantry with four detectors in each panel to provide 16 mm axial and variable transaxial field-of-view (FOV) sizes. List-mode ordered subset expectation maximization image reconstruction was implemented. The measured mean energy, coincidence timing and DOI resolution for a crystal were about 17.6%, 2.8 ns and 5.6 mm, respectively. The measured transaxial resolutions at the center of the FOV were 2.0 mm and 2.3 mm for images reconstructed with and without DOI, respectively. In addition, the resolutions across the FOV with DOI were substantially better than those without DOI. The quality of PET images of both a hot-rod phantom and mouse acquired with DOI was much higher than that of images obtained without DOI. This study demonstrates that SSPM arrays and advanced readout/processing electronics can be used to develop a practical DOI

  18. The pad readout electronics of the SLD Warm Iron Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Burrows, P.N.; Busza, W.; Cartwright, S.L.; Friedman, J.I.; Fuess, S.; Gonzalez, S.; Hansl-Kozanecka, T.; Kendall, H.W.; Lath, A.; Lyons, T.; Osborne, L.S.; Rosenson, L.; Schneekloth, U.; Taylor, F.E.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Williams, D.C.; Yamartino, J.M. ); Byers, B.L.; Escalera, J.; Gioumousis, A.; Gray, R.; Horelick, D.; Kharakh, D.; Messner, R.L.; Moss, J.; Zdark

    1990-08-01

    The design of the pad readout electronics of the Warm Iron Calorimeter for the SLD detector at SLAC, consisting of about 9000 analog channels, is described. Results of various tests performed during the construction, installation and commissioning of the electronics mounted on the detector are presented. 10 refs., 12 figs.

  19. Characterisation of low power readout electronics for a UV microchannel plate detector with cross-strip readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeifer, M.; Barnstedt, J.; Diebold, S.; Hermanutz, S.; Kalkuhl, C.; Kappelmann, N.; Schanz, T.; Schütze, B.; Werner, K.

    2014-07-01

    Astronomical observations in the ultraviolet (UV) wavelength range between 91 and 300nm are fundamental for the progress in astrophysics. Scientific success of future UV observatories raises the need for technology development in the areas of detectors, optical components, and their coatings. We develop solar blind and photon counting microchannel plate (MCP) UV detectors as a contribution to the progress in UV observation technology. New combinations of materials for the photocathode (see paper No. 9144-111, this volume, for details) as well as a cross-strip (XS) anode, having 64 strips on each layer, are used. Pre-amplification of the charge deposited onto the anode is performed by the Beetle chip designed at the Max-Planck-Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg for LHCb at CERN. It features 128 pre-amplifiers on one die and provides the analogue output in a four-fold serial stream. This stream is digitised by only four ADCs and is processed in an FPGA. This concept results in a reduced power consumption well below 10W as well as a reduced volume, weight and complexity of the readout electronics compared to existing cross-strip readouts. We developed an electronics prototype assembly and a setup in a vacuum chamber that is similar to the configuration in the final detector. The setup in the chamber is used for the burn-in of the MCPs as well as for tests of the readout electronics prototype assembly incorporating realistic signals. In this paper, information on the XS anodes as well as on the hybrid PCB carrying the Beetle pre-amplifier chip is shown. Details on the readout electronics design as well as details of the setup in the vacuum chamber are presented. An outlook to the next steps in the development process is given.

  20. Cross strip anode readouts for large format, photon counting microchannel plate detectors: developing flight qualified prototypes of the detector and electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallerga, John; Raffanti, Rick; Cooney, Michael; Cumming, Harley; Varner, Gary; Seljak, Andrej

    2014-07-01

    Photon counting microchannel plate (MCP) imagers have been the detector of choice for most UV astronomical missions over the last two decades (e.g. EUVE, FUSE, COS on Hubble etc.). Over this duration, improvements in the MCP laboratory readout technology have resulted in better spatial resolution (x10), temporal resolution (x1000) and output event rate (x100), all the while operating at lower gain (x 10) resulting in lower high voltage requirements and longer MCP lifetimes. One such technology is the parallel cross strip (PXS) readout. Laboratory versions of PXS electronics have demonstrated < 20 μm FWHM spatial resolution, count rates on the order of 2 MHz, and temporal resolution of ~ 1ns. In 2012 our group at U.C. Berkeley, along with our partners at the U. Hawaii, received a Strategic Astrophysics Technology grant to raise the TRL of the PXS detector and electronics from 4 to 6 by replacing most of the high powered electronics with application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) which will lower the power, mass and volume requirements of the PXS detector. We were also tasked to design and fabricate a "standard" 50mm square active area MCP detector incorporating these electronics that can be environmentally qualified for flight (temperature, vacuum, vibration). The first ASICs designed for this program have been fabricated and are undergoing testing. We present the latest progress on these ASIC designs and performance and show imaging results from the new 50 x 50 mm XS detector.

  1. Superconducting THz Camera with GaAs-JFET Cryogenic Readout Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, Hiroshi; Hibi, Yasunori; Suzuki, Toyoaki; Naruse, Masato; Noguchi, Takashi; Sekimoto, Yutaro; Uzawa, Yoshinori; Nagata, Hirohisa; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Ariyoshi, Seiichiro; Otani, Chiko; Nitta, Tom; Qi-jun, Yao, Fujiwara, Mikio

    2009-12-01

    We describe the development of large format array of superconducting tunnel junction detectors that is readout by SONY GaAs-JFET cryogenic integrated circuits. High quality SIS photon detectors have high dynamic impedance that can be readout by low gate leakage GaAs-JFET circuits. Our imaging array design, with niobium SIS photon detectors and GaAs-JFET cryogenics electronics, uses integrating amplifiers, multiplexers and shift-registers to readout large number of pixels that is similar to CMOS digital cameras. We have designed and fabricated GaAs-JFET cryogenic integrated circuits, such as AC-coupled capacitive trans-impedance amplifier, multiplexers with sample-and-holds and shift-registers, for 32-channel readout module. The Advanced Technology Center of National Astronomical Observatory of Japan have started extensive development program for large format array of SIS photon detectors.

  2. EDELWEISS Read-out Electronics and Future Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Censier, B.; Benoit, A.; Bres, G.; Charlieu, F.; Gascon, J.; Gironnet, J.; Grollier, M.; Guichardaz, R.; Juillard, A.; Lauro, L.; Minet, J.; Paul, B.; Vagneron, L.

    2012-06-01

    The read-out electronics of the EDELWEISS-II experiment is presented. Its implementation has been guided by two important design choices. The first one is putting cold electronics far from the detectors in order to attenuate possible background sources from electronic components. It implies strong constraints on noise optimization, line stray capacitance and thermal load. The second one is acquisition of fully digitized signals to minimize the E.M. noises and to take full advantage of digital processing possibilities for filtering and triggering. The resulting amplification scheme is presented for both ionization and heat channel, as well as performances of the full read-out scheme. Future prospects about the coming EDELWEISS-III experiment electronics are also discussed. This updated design takes advantage of the experience gained in previous steps of the experiment while aiming at fulfilling specific constraints of a future ton-scale experiment.

  3. High- Tc dc SQUID readout electronics with low noise and high bandwidth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, D. F.; Itozaki, H.

    2006-10-01

    Using AD797 low noise op amps and 2SA1048 low noise transistors, we have developed a composite preamplifier for use in dc SQUID readout electronics. This preamplifier has a small dc drift and super low noise at high frequencies. The equivalent input voltage noise of the preamplifier is about 0.35 nV/√Hz from 100 kHz to 10 MHz. Using this preamplifier, we developed dc SQUID readout electronics having low noise and high bandwidth. Used with a 3 mm2 high-Tc dc SQUID, the white flux noise was about 18 μΦ0/√Hz above 100 kHz and the FLL bandwidth was about 2 MHz. This readout electronics can be used for the applications of SQUID-based NDE and SQUID-based NQR.

  4. Development of low noise CCD readout front-end

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    JamroŻy, M.; Kasprowicz, G.; Romaniuk, R.; Poźniak, K.

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes development of low noise readout subsystem for digital camera dedicated for astronomical observations. Main aim of the study is noise reduction in regard of sensor's output signal and noise added by the analogue electronics. Basic concept and simulation results of analogue front-end are presented. Various Digital Signal Processing schemes are considered in order to increase Signal to Noise ratio. Another step of development are design of the prototype PCB board and implementation of selected processing techniques in to the structure of a FPGA device.

  5. Performance of moire deflectometry with deferred electronic heterodyne readout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stricker, Josef

    1987-01-01

    The effects of diffraction and nonlinear photographic emulsion characteristics on the performance of deferred electronic heterodyne moire deflectometry are theoretically and experimentally investigated. The intensity transmission distribution of the transparency, the moire image, the heterodyne readout, and the spatial and angular resolution are analytically discussed. The deferred electronic heterodyne technique is evaluated by measuring small fringe shifts caused by a weak phase object. It is found that this technique can be applied for accurate and sensitive readout of moire fringes of unsteady phase objects. The theoretical study shows that the accuracy and sensitivity of the system are weakly affected by diffraction and nonlinear photographic emulsion characteristics. Nonlinear recording does not affect the spatial resolution of the system.

  6. High fidelity readout of a single electron spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keselman, Anna; Glickman, Yinnon; Akerman, Nitzan; Kotler, Shlomi; Dallal, Yehonatan; Ozeri, Roee

    2010-03-01

    We use the two spin states of the valence electron of a single trapped ^88Sr^+ ion as a physical qubit implementation. For qubit readout one of the qubit states is shelved to a metastable D level using a narrow linewidth 674nm diode laser followed by state-selective fluorescence detection. Careful analysis of the resulting photon detection statistics allows for a minimal detection error of 2 . 10-3, compatible with recent estimates of the fault-tolerance required error threshold.

  7. Commodity readout electronics for an underwater neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anassontzis, E. G.; Athanasopoulos, T.; Belias, A.; Fotiou, A.; Maniatis, E.; Resvanis, L. K.; Stavropoulos, G.

    2009-04-01

    Typically the front end electronics required for a neutrino telescope, incorporates electronics to perform waveform capture of photomultiplier tube signals, possibly applying a local triggering algorithm and transmission of the data to the shore. We show how a commodity based system which employs Component Off The Shelf (COTS) devices, with Flash Analog to Digital Converters (FADCs) and Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), can be used for synchronous signal digitization of multiple photomultiplier tubes. The transmission link to the shore has been realized using the standard communication protocol of Gbit Ethernet through fiber. We describe the readout system and our designs to interface with existing electronics for control and operation of a neutrino telescope.

  8. Fabrication of the GLAST Silicon Tracker Readout Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Baldini, Luca; Brez, Alessandro; Himel, Thomas; Johnson, R.P.; Latronico, Luca; Minuti, Massimo; Nelson, David; Sadrozinski, H.F.-W.; Sgro, Carmelo; Spandre, Gloria; Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Tajima, Hiro; Cohen Tanugi, Johann; Young, Charles; Ziegler, Marcus; /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /SLAC /UC, Santa Cruz

    2006-03-03

    A unique electronics system has been built and tested for reading signals from the silicon-strip detectors of the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope mission. The system amplifies and processes signals from 884,736 36-cm long silicon strips in a 4 x 4 array of tower modules. An aggressive mechanical design fits the readout electronics in narrow spaces between the tower modules, to minimize dead area. This design and the resulting departures from conventional electronics packaging led to several fabrication challenges and lessons learned. This paper describes the fabrication processes and how the problems peculiar to this design were overcome.

  9. High-performance DC SQUID read-out electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drung, Dietmar

    2002-03-01

    The dynamic behavior of superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) operated in a flux-locked loop (FLL) is discussed using a simple mathematical description. It is shown that the slew rate of any FLL is limited by the linear flux range of the SQUID Φlin and the effective loop delay td to approximately Φ˙f, max=Φ lin/(4t d) if a one-pole integrator is used. This allows one to estimate the dynamic limits of both analog SQUIDs with flux modulation or direct read-out and digital SQUIDs with on-chip read-out. In addition to theoretical limits, practically achievable performance is presented using our latest direct-coupled FLL electronics as an example of state-of-the-art SQUID read-out. This electronics is designed for both low-critical temperature (low- Tc) and high- Tc SQUIDs. It combines low noise with high bandwidth and slew rate. All functions are computer controlled using a LabVIEW ® program. An automatic bias voltage tuning circuit increases the system stability in case of large cryogenic temperature fluctuations. Furthermore, an ultra-low-noise current source is integrated into the FLL board which can be used to supply a coil system compensating the Earth's magnetic field of about 60 μT while producing only 17 fT/ Hz extra noise at 1 kHz and 41 fT/ Hz at 1 Hz, respectively.

  10. A SPICE model for Si microstrip detectors and read-out electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Bacchetta, N.; Candelori, A.; Bisello, D. |; Calgarotto, C.; Paccagnella, A. |

    1996-06-01

    The authors have developed a SPICE model of silicon microstrip detector and its read-out electronics. The SPICE model of an AC-coupled single-sided polysilicon-biased silicon microstrip detector has been implemented by using a RC network containing up to 19 strips. The main parameters of this model have been determined by direct comparison with DC and AC measurements. The simulated interstrip and coupling impedance and phase angle are in good agreement with experimental results, up to a frequency of 1 MHz. The authors have used the PreShape 32 as the read-out chip for both the simulation and the measurements. It consists of a charge sensitive preamplifier followed by a shaper and a buffer. The SPICE parameters have been adjusted to fit the experimental results obtained for the configuration where every strip is connected to the read-out electronics and kept the same for the different read-out configurations they have considered. By adding 2 further capacitances simulating the parasitic contributions between the read-out channels of the PS32 chip, a satisfactory matching between the experimental data and the simulated curves has been reached on both rising and trailing edges of the signal. Such agreement deteriorates only for strips far from the strip where the signal has been applied.

  11. ATLAS LAr calorimeters readout electronics upgrade R&D for sLHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hucheng; ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Group

    2011-04-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters consist of an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and two end-caps with electromagnetic, hadronic and forward calorimeters. A total of 182,468 signals are digitized and processed real-time on detector, to provide energy and time deposited in each detector element at every occurrence of the Level-1 trigger. A luminosity upgrade of the LHC will occur in the years ~2020. The current readout electronics will need to be upgraded to sustain the higher radiation levels. A completely innovative readout scheme is being developed. The front-end readout will send out data continuously at each bunch crossing through high speed radiation resistant optical links, the data will be processed real-time with the possibility of implementing trigger algorithms. This article is an overview of the R&D activities and architectural studies the ATLAS LAr Calorimeter Group is developing.

  12. The readout electronics for Plastic Scintillator Detector of DAMPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Jie; Yang, Haibo; Zhao, Hongyun; Su, Hong; Sun, Zhiyu; Yu, Yuhong; JingZhe, Zhang; Wang, XiaoHui; Liu, Jie; Xiao, Guoqing; Ma, Xinwen

    2016-07-01

    The Dark Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) satellite, which launched in December 2015, is designed to find the evidence of the existence of dark matter particles in the universe via the detection of the high-energy electrons and gamma-ray particles produced possibly by the annihilation of dark matter particles. Plastic Scintillator Detector (PSD) is one of major part of the satellite payload, which is comprised of a crossed pair of layers with 41 plastic scintillator-strips, each read out from both ends by the same Hamamatsu R4443MOD2 photo-multiplier tubes (PMTs). In order to extend linear dynamic range of detector, PMTs read out each plastic scintillator-strip separately with two dynode pickoffs. Therefore, the readout electronics system comprises of four Front-end boards to receive the pulses from 328 PMTs and implement charge measurement, which is based on the Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) chip VA160, 16 bits ADC and FPGA. The electronics of the detector has been designed following stringent requirements on mechanical and thermal stability, power consumption, radiation hardness and double redundancy. Various experiments are designed and implemented to check the performance of the electronics, some excellent results has been achieved.According to experimental results analysis, it is proved that the readout electronics works well.

  13. Low power readout electronics for a UV MCP detector with cross strip anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeifer, M.; Diebold, S.; Barnstedt, J.; Hermanutz, S.; Kalkuhl, C.; Kappelmann, N.; Schanz, T.; Werner, K.

    2014-03-01

    After the shutdown of the Hubble Space Telescope in a few years, new astronomical missions for the ultraviolet (UV) wavelength range between 91 and 300 nm with improved optics and detectors will be necessary. This fact drives our development of solar blind photon counting microchannel plate (MCP) UV detectors with high quantum efficiency, high spatial resolution, and low power readout electronics. We plan to use a cross-strip anode (XSA), which has a high spatial resolution and additionally allows a low gain operation of the MCPs which leads to an increased lifetime of the MCPs compared to detectors with other anode types. The main difficulty in implementing an XSA in a detector for space applications is the need for a (pre-) amplifier, a shaper, and an ADC for each of the strips, which means large power consumption and spatial requirements. The solution we are studying is the application of the so-called Beetle chip. This allows for an implementation of a readout electronics for an XSA with a power consumption of less then 10 W. For the tests of our readout electronics prototype, and for the burn-in of the MCPs, we recently finished a setup in a vacuum chamber that is similar to the configuration in the final detector. We present a brief overview of our detector design and details of the readout electronics setup as well as details of the setup in our vacuum chamber.

  14. CCD readout electronics for the Subaru Prime Focus Spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hope, Stephen C.; Gunn, James E.; Loomis, Craig P.; Fitzgerald, Roger E.; Peacock, Grant O.

    2014-07-01

    The following paper details the design for the CCD readout electronics for the Subaru Telescope Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS). PFS is designed to gather spectra from 2394 objects simultaneously, covering wavelengths that extend from 380 nm to 1260 nm. The spectrograph is comprised of four identical spectrograph modules, each collecting roughly 600 spectra. The spectrograph modules provide simultaneous wavelength coverage over the entire band through the use of three separate optical channels: blue, red, and near infrared (NIR). A camera in each channel images the multi-object spectra onto a 4k × 4k, 15 μm pixel, detector format. The two visible cameras use a pair of Hamamatsu 2k × 4k CCDs with readout provided by custom electronics, while the NIR camera uses a single Teledyne HgCdTe 4k × 4k detector and Teledyne's ASIC Sidecar to read the device. The CCD readout system is a custom design comprised of three electrical subsystems - the Back End Electronics (BEE), the Front End Electronics (FEE), and a Pre-amplifier. The BEE is an off-the-shelf PC104 computer, with an auxiliary Xilinx FPGA module. The computer serves as the main interface to the Subaru messaging hub and controls other peripheral devices associated with the camera, while the FPGA is used to generate the necessary clocks and transfer image data from the CCDs. The FEE board sets clock biases, substrate bias, and CDS offsets. It also monitors bias voltages, offset voltages, power rail voltage, substrate voltage and CCD temperature. The board translates LVDS clock signals to biased clocks and returns digitized analog data via LVDS. Monitoring and control messages are sent from the BEE to the FEE using a standard serial interface. The Pre-amplifier board resides behind the detectors and acts as an interface to the two Hamamatsu CCDs. The Pre-amplifier passes clocks and biases to the CCDs, and analog CCD data is buffered and amplified prior to being returned to the FEE. In this paper we describe the

  15. Unfulfilled needs in IR astronomy focal-plane readout electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    The NOAO's 8-m IR optimized telescope for Mauna Kea and NASA's SIRTF show that from 1 to 200 microns there are a number of unfulfilled needs in readout electronics. These include: extremely low readnoise, less than 10 electrons, stable operation at temperatures as low as 2 K, high well capacity, greater than 1 e 7 electrons, and integration times from 30 msec to over 100 sec. Sensors for adaptive optics systems are required with readnoise less than 10 electrons and response times of 30 msec. They should be highly efficient from 1 to 2.5 microns, but may have small formats. Ground-based imagers at these wavelengths need comparable readnoise but longer integration times, and the largest possible formats are essential. To achieve these goals improved cryogenic MOSFETS are essential and complete cryogenic CMOS circuits are highly desirable. Experimental cryoptimized MFETS promise to exceed the above noise requirements at 77 K and approach the needs at 2 K.

  16. The STAR Heavy Flavor Tracker PXL detector readout electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schambach, J.; Contin, G.; Greiner, L.; Stezelberger, T.; Sun, X.; Szelezniak, M.; Vu, C.

    2016-01-01

    The Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) is a recently installed micro-vertex detector upgrade to the STAR experiment at RHIC, consisting of three subsystems with various technologies of silicon sensors arranged in 4 concentric cylinders. The two innermost layers of the HFT close to the beam pipe, the Pixel ("PXL") subsystem, employ CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) technology that integrate the sensor, front-end electronics, and zero-suppression circuitry in one silicon die. This paper presents selected characteristics of the PXL detector part of the HFT and the hardware, firmware and software associated with the readout system for this detector.

  17. Electronic heterodyne readout of fringes in moire deflectometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stricker, J.

    1985-01-01

    An electronic heterodyne technique is described for the readout of fringes in moire deflectometry. The technique is based on phase measurements of signals generated by a photodetector observing the light transmitted through a traveling moire fringe pattern. The phase of the signal is proportional to the fringe deviation and thus to the deflection angle of the light ray. The phase is measured on line by a standard phase meter with an accuracy of 1 deg or 1:360 of a fringe. The technique, which is precise and sensitive, is demonstrated by detecting and measuring a fringe shift of 0.15 mm corresponding to 0.029 of a fringe.

  18. Analysis of electron multiplying charge coupled device and scientific CMOS readout noise models for Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basden, Alastair G.

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, detectors with subelectron readout noise have been used very effectively in astronomical adaptive optics systems. Here, we compare readout noise models for the two key faint flux level detector technologies that are commonly used: electron multiplying charge coupled device (EMCCD) and scientific CMOS (sCMOS) detectors. We find that in almost all situations, EMCCD technology is advantageous, and that the commonly used simplified model for EMCCD readout is appropriate. We also find that the commonly used simple models for sCMOS readout noise are optimistic, and we recommend that a proper treatment of the sCMOS root mean square readout noise probability distribution should be considered during instrument performance modeling and development.

  19. Low background signal readout electronics for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinn, I.; Abgrall, N.; Arnquist, I. J.; Avignone, F. T.; Baldenegro-Barrera, C. X.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Bradley, A. W.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Buuck, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y.-D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Efremenko, Yu.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gilliss, T.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Jasinski, B. R.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; MacMullin, J.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Orrell, J. L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Poon, A. W. P.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Shanks, B.; Shirchenko, M.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, A. M.; Tedeschi, D.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yu, C.-H.; Yumatov, V.; Zhitnikov, I.

    2015-08-01

    The MAJORANA Collaboration will seek neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in 76Ge using isotopically enriched p-type point contact (PPC) high purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors. A tonne-scale array of HPGe detectors would require background levels below 1 count/ROI-tonne-year in the 4 keV region of interest (ROI) around the 2039 keV Q-value of the decay. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of such an experiment, the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, a 40 kg HPGe detector array, is being constructed with a background goal of < 3 count/ROI-tonne-year, which is expected to scale down to < 1 count/ROI-tonne-year for a tonne-scale experiment. The signal readout electronics, which must be placed in close proximity to the detectors, present a challenge toward reaching this background goal. This talk will discuss the materials and design used to construct signal readout electronics with low enough backgrounds for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR.

  20. Low background signal readout electronics for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Guinn, I.; Buuck, M.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Gruszko, J.; Leon, J.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Abgrall, N.; Bradley, A. W.; Chan, Y-D.; Mertens, S.; Poon, A. W. P.; Arnquist, I. J.; Hoppe, E. W.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Orrell, J. L.; Avignone, F. T.; Baldenegro-Barrera, C. X.; Bertrand, F. E.; and others

    2015-08-17

    The MAJORANA Collaboration will seek neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in {sup 76}Ge using isotopically enriched p-type point contact (PPC) high purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors. A tonne-scale array of HPGe detectors would require background levels below 1 count/ROI-tonne-year in the 4 keV region of interest (ROI) around the 2039 keV Q-value of the decay. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of such an experiment, the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, a 40 kg HPGe detector array, is being constructed with a background goal of < 3 count/ROI-tonne-year, which is expected to scale down to < 1 count/ROI-tonne-year for a tonne-scale experiment. The signal readout electronics, which must be placed in close proximity to the detectors, present a challenge toward reaching this background goal. This talk will discuss the materials and design used to construct signal readout electronics with low enough backgrounds for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR.

  1. Low Background Signal Readout Electronics for the Majorana Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect

    Guinn, Ian; Rielage, Keith Robert; Elliott, Steven Ray; Xu, Wenqin; Goett, John Jerome III

    2015-06-11

    The MAJORANA Collaboration will seek neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in 76Ge using isotopically enriched p-type point contact (PPC) high purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors. A tonne-scale array of HPGe detectors would require background levels below 1 count/ROI-tonne-year in the 4 keV region of interest (ROI) around the 2039 keV Q-value of the decay. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of such an experiment, the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, a 40 kg HPGe detector array, is being constructed. The DEMONSTRATOR has a background goal of < 3 counts/ROI-tonne-year, which is expected to scale down to < 1 count/ROI-tonne-year for a one tonne experiment. The signal readout electronics, which must be placed in close proximity to the detectors, present a challenge toward reaching this background goal. This paper discusses the materials and design used to construct signal readout electronics with low enough backgrounds for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR.

  2. Design on the readout electronics for the mobile direct detection Doppler wind LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xin; Wen, Fei; Yao, Yuan; Sang, Zi-ru; Jin, Ge

    2013-12-01

    A readout electronics system is presented for the mobile direct detection Doppler Wind LIDAR (DWL). The structure of the readout electronics is compact to fit the mobile DWL which is fixed on a truck. According to the wind measurement principle of double-edge technique with triple-channel Fabry-Perot etalon, the readout electronics system is designed adjustable for wind speed detection due to the multi-channel technique and reconfiguration of the FPGA. The experimental results indicate that there is good consistency between the readout electronics and the current commercial devices. The detection range of the experiments can cover the troposphere and low stratosphere even in daylight.

  3. Handheld readout electronics to fully exploit the particle discrimination capabilities of elpasolite scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Budden, B. S.; Stonehill, L. C.; Warniment, A.; Michel, J.; Storms, S.; Dallmann, N.; Coupland, D. D. S.; Stein, P.; Weller, S.; Borges, L.; Proicou, M.; Duran, G.; Kamto, J.

    2015-06-10

    In this study, a new class of elpasolite scintillators has garnered recent attention due to the ability to perform as simultaneous gamma spectrometers and thermal neutron detectors. Such a dual-mode capability is made possible by pulse-shape discrimination (PSD), whereby the emission waveform profiles of gamma and neutron events are fundamentally unique. To take full advantage of these materials, we have developed the Compact Advanced Readout Electronics for Elpasolites (CAREE). This handheld instrument employs a multi-channel PSD-capable ASIC, custom micro-processor board, front-end electronics, power supplies, and a 2 in. photomultiplier tube for readout of the scintillator. The unit is highly configurable to allow for performance optimization amongst a wide sample of elpasolites which provide PSD in fundamentally different ways. We herein provide an introduction to elpasolites, then describe the motivation for the work, mechanical and electronic design, and preliminary performance results.

  4. Handheld readout electronics to fully exploit the particle discrimination capabilities of elpasolite scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budden, B. S.; Stonehill, L. C.; Warniment, A.; Michel, J.; Storms, S.; Dallmann, N.; Coupland, D. D. S.; Stein, P.; Weller, S.; Borges, L.; Proicou, M.; Duran, G.; Kamto, J.

    2015-09-01

    A new class of elpasolite scintillators has garnered recent attention due to the ability to perform as simultaneous gamma spectrometers and thermal neutron detectors. Such a dual-mode capability is made possible by pulse-shape discrimination (PSD), whereby the emission waveform profiles of gamma and neutron events are fundamentally unique. To take full advantage of these materials, we have developed the Compact Advanced Readout Electronics for Elpasolites (CAREE). This handheld instrument employs a multi-channel PSD-capable ASIC, custom micro-processor board, front-end electronics, power supplies, and a 2 in. photomultiplier tube for readout of the scintillator. The unit is highly configurable to allow for performance optimization amongst a wide sample of elpasolites which provide PSD in fundamentally different ways. We herein provide an introduction to elpasolites, then describe the motivation for the work, mechanical and electronic design, and preliminary performance results.

  5. Handheld readout electronics to fully exploit the particle discrimination capabilities of elpasolite scintillators

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Budden, B. S.; Stonehill, L. C.; Warniment, A.; Michel, J.; Storms, S.; Dallmann, N.; Coupland, D. D. S.; Stein, P.; Weller, S.; Borges, L.; et al

    2015-06-10

    In this study, a new class of elpasolite scintillators has garnered recent attention due to the ability to perform as simultaneous gamma spectrometers and thermal neutron detectors. Such a dual-mode capability is made possible by pulse-shape discrimination (PSD), whereby the emission waveform profiles of gamma and neutron events are fundamentally unique. To take full advantage of these materials, we have developed the Compact Advanced Readout Electronics for Elpasolites (CAREE). This handheld instrument employs a multi-channel PSD-capable ASIC, custom micro-processor board, front-end electronics, power supplies, and a 2 in. photomultiplier tube for readout of the scintillator. The unit is highly configurablemore » to allow for performance optimization amongst a wide sample of elpasolites which provide PSD in fundamentally different ways. We herein provide an introduction to elpasolites, then describe the motivation for the work, mechanical and electronic design, and preliminary performance results.« less

  6. Recent Developments of HEP Pixel Detector Readout Chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caminada, Lea

    This article reviews the development of readout integrated circuits for hybrid pixel particle physics detectors. The 250-nm feature size chips in the presently operating ATLAS and CMS experiments are compared with the current state of the art in 130-nm feature size represented by the FE-I4 chip that will be used to add a new beam pipe layer for the ATLAS experiment in 2013 and the upgrade options of the CMS pixel readout chip. This includes a discussion of the array and pixel size, analog performance, readout architecture, power consumption, power distribution options and radiation hardness. Finally, recent work in 65-nm feature size as a means to continue the evolution of readout chip technology towards smaller feature size, higher rate, and lower power is presented.

  7. Breakup of loosely bound nuclei at intermediate energies for nuclear astrophysics and the development of a position sensitive microstrip detector system and its readout electronics using ASICs technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Tribble, Robert E.; Sobotka, Lee G.; Blackmon, Jeff C.; Bertulani, Carlos A.

    2015-12-29

    The work performed under this grant has led to the development of a detection system that will be used to measure reaction rates for proton or neutron capture reactions at stellar energies on radioactive ions far from stability. The reaction rates are needed to better understand the physics of nucleosynthesis in explosive stellar processes such as supernovae and x-ray burst events. The radioactive ions will be produced at the Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (RIBF) at RIKEN near Tokyo, Japan. During the course of this work, the group involved in this project has expanded by several institutions in Europe and Japan and now involves collaborators from the U.S., Japan, Hungary, Romania, Germany, Spain, Italy, China, and South Korea. As part of the project, a novel design based on large-area silicon detectors has been built and tested and the performance characterized in a series of tests using particle beams with a variety of atomic numbers at the Cyclotron Institute of Texas A&M University and the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba facility (HIMAC) in Chiba, Japan. The work has involved mechanical construction of a special purpose vacuum chamber, with a precision mounting system for the silicon detectors, development of a new ASICs readout system that has applications with a wide variety of silicon detector systems, and the development of a data acquisition system that is integrated into the computer system being used at RIBF. The parts noted above that are needed to carry out the research program are completed and ready for installation. Several approved experiments that will use this system will be carried out in the near future. The experimental work has been delayed due to a large increase in the cost and availability of electrical power for RIBF that occurred following the massive earthquake and tsunami that hit Japan in the spring of 2011. Another component of the research carried out with this grant involved developing the theoretical tools that are required

  8. Electron spin manipulation and readout through an optical fiber.

    PubMed

    Fedotov, I V; Doronina-Amitonova, L V; Voronin, A A; Levchenko, A O; Zibrov, S A; Sidorov-Biryukov, D A; Fedotov, A B; Velichansky, V L; Zheltikov, A M

    2014-01-01

    The electron spin of nitrogen--vacancy (NV) centers in diamond offers a solid-state quantum bit and enables high-precision magnetic-field sensing on the nanoscale. Implementation of these approaches in a fiber format would offer unique opportunities for a broad range of technologies ranging from quantum information to neuroscience and bioimaging. Here, we demonstrate an ultracompact fiber-optic probe where a diamond microcrystal with a well-defined orientation of spin quantization NV axes is attached to the fiber tip, allowing the electron spins of NV centers to be manipulated, polarized, and read out through a fiber-optic waveguide integrated with a two-wire microwave transmission line. The microwave field transmitted through this line is used to manipulate the orientation of electron spins in NV centers through the electron-spin resonance tuned by an external magnetic field. The electron spin is then optically initialized and read out, with the initializing laser radiation and the photoluminescence spin-readout return from NV centers delivered by the same optical fiber. PMID:25028257

  9. Electron spin manipulation and readout through an optical fiber

    PubMed Central

    Fedotov, I. V.; Doronina-Amitonova, L. V.; Voronin, A. A.; Levchenko, A. O.; Zibrov, S. A.; Sidorov-Biryukov, D. A.; Fedotov, A. B.; Velichansky, V. L.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    The electron spin of nitrogen--vacancy (NV) centers in diamond offers a solid-state quantum bit and enables high-precision magnetic-field sensing on the nanoscale. Implementation of these approaches in a fiber format would offer unique opportunities for a broad range of technologies ranging from quantum information to neuroscience and bioimaging. Here, we demonstrate an ultracompact fiber-optic probe where a diamond microcrystal with a well-defined orientation of spin quantization NV axes is attached to the fiber tip, allowing the electron spins of NV centers to be manipulated, polarized, and read out through a fiber-optic waveguide integrated with a two-wire microwave transmission line. The microwave field transmitted through this line is used to manipulate the orientation of electron spins in NV centers through the electron-spin resonance tuned by an external magnetic field. The electron spin is then optically initialized and read out, with the initializing laser radiation and the photoluminescence spin-readout return from NV centers delivered by the same optical fiber. PMID:25028257

  10. Infrared readout electronics; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 21, 22, 1992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossum, Eric R.

    The present volume on IR readout electronics discusses cryogenic readout using silicon devices, cryogenic readout using III-V and LTS devices, multiplexers for higher temperatures, and focal-plane signal processing electronics. Attention is given to the optimization of cryogenic CMOS processes for sub-10-K applications, cryogenic measurements of aerojet GaAs n-JFETs, inP-based heterostructure device technology for ultracold readout applications, and a three-terminal semiconductor-superconductor transimpedance amplifier. Topics addressed include unfulfilled needs in IR astronomy focal-plane readout electronics, IR readout integrated circuit technology for tactical missile systems, and radiation-hardened 10-bit A/D for FPA signal processing. Also discussed are the implementation of a noise reduction circuit for spaceflight IR spectrometers, a real-time processor for staring receivers, and a fiber-optic link design for INMOS transputers.

  11. Infrared readout electronics; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 21, 22, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The present volume on IR readout electronics discusses cryogenic readout using silicon devices, cryogenic readout using III-V and LTS devices, multiplexers for higher temperatures, and focal-plane signal processing electronics. Attention is given to the optimization of cryogenic CMOS processes for sub-10-K applications, cryogenic measurements of aerojet GaAs n-JFETs, inP-based heterostructure device technology for ultracold readout applications, and a three-terminal semiconductor-superconductor transimpedance amplifier. Topics addressed include unfulfilled needs in IR astronomy focal-plane readout electronics, IR readout integrated circuit technology for tactical missile systems, and radiation-hardened 10-bit A/D for FPA signal processing. Also discussed are the implementation of a noise reduction circuit for spaceflight IR spectrometers, a real-time processor for staring receivers, and a fiber-optic link design for INMOS transputers.

  12. Development of the quality control system of the readout electronics for the large size telescope of the Cherenkov Telescope Array observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konno, Y.; Kubo, H.; Masuda, S.; Paoletti, R.; Poulios, S.; Rugliancich, A.; Saito, T.

    2016-07-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the next generation VHE γ-ray observatory which will improve the currently available sensitivity by a factor of 10 in the range 100 GeV to 10 TeV. The array consists of different types of telescopes, called large size telescope (LST), medium size telescope (MST) and small size telescope (SST). A LST prototype is currently being built and will be installed at the Observatorio Roque de los Muchachos, island of La Palma, Canary islands, Spain. The readout system for the LST prototype has been designed and around 300 readout boards will be produced in the coming months. In this note we describe an automated quality control system able to measure basic performance parameters and quickly identify faulty boards.

  13. Electronic heterodyne readout of fringes in moiré deflectometry.

    PubMed

    Stricker, J

    1985-06-01

    An electronic heterodyne technique is described for the readout of fringes in moiré deflectometry. The technique is based on phase measurements of signals generated by a photodetector observing the light transmitted through a traveling moiré fringe pattern. The phase of the signal is proportional to the fringe deviation and thus to the deflection angle of the light ray. The phase is measured on line by a standard phase meter with an accuracy of 1 degrees or 1:360 of a fringe. The technique, which is precise and sensitive, is demonstrated by detecting and measuring a fringe shift of 0.15 mm corresponding to 0.029 of a fringe. PMID:19724409

  14. GaAs cryogenic readout electronics for high impedance detector arrays for far-infrared and submillimeter wavelength region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, H.; Matsuo, H.; Hibi, Y.; Kobayashi, J.; Nakahashi, M.; Ikeda, H.; Fujiwara, M.

    2009-11-01

    We have been developing cryogenic readout integrate circuits (ROICs) for high impedance submillimeter and far-infrared detectors: Our ROICs are constructed from SONY GaAs-JFETs, which have excellent performance even at less than 1 K. We designed ROICs consisting of analog readouts and digital circuits for 32-element SIS photon detectors fabricated in RIKEN. The analog readout is ac-coupled capacitive transimpedance amplifier (CTIA), which is composed of the two-stage amplifier. Some initial test results of the ac-coupled CTIA gave us the following performance; open loop gain of >740, power consumption ≈1.4 μW. The input referred noise is ≈4 μV/ √{Hz} at 1 Hz. These results suggest that low power and high sensitive cryogenic readout electronics are successfully developed for high impedance detectors.

  15. Proposed STAR Time of Flight Readout Electronics and DAQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schambach, Joachim

    2006-04-01

    A novel Time-of-Flight (TOF) subsystem is under design for the STAR detector at RHIC. A total of 3840 Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPC) of 6 pads each are distributed over 120 trays. The total number of channels is 23040. Each TOF tray consists of 192 detector channels and three different types of electronic circuit cards, called "TINO", "TDIG", and "TCPU", listed in order of the data flow. Every 30 trays send their data to a "THUB" card that interfaces to the STAR trigger and transmits the data over a fiber to a fiber receiver which is part of STAR DAQ. The TINO contains the analog front end electronics based on a custom IC called NINO. The output of TINO is passed to the TDIG, where the data are digitized (using the CERN HPTDC ASIC). The TCPU formats and buffers the digital detector information. This formatted data is passed to THUB, which transmits it over an optical fiber to a data receiver in the STAR DAQ room. The architecture of this readout chain and DAQ will be described, and first results from prototypes of the component boards will be discussed.

  16. Development of the Readout Controller for Infrared Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Seounghyun; Jin, Ho; Nam, Uk-Won; Cha, Sang-Mok; Lee, Sungho; Yuk, In-Soo; Park, Youngsik; Pak, Soojong; Han, Wonyong; Kim, Sungsoo

    2006-12-01

    We have developed a control electronics system for an infrared detector array of KASINICS (KASI Near Infrared Camera System), which is a new ground-based instrument of the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI). Equipped with a 512×512 InSb array (ALADDIN III Quadrant, manufactured by Raytheon) sensitive from 1 to 5 μm, KASINICS will be used at J, H, Ks, and L-bands. The controller consists of DSP (Digital Signal Processor), Bias, Clock, and Video boards which are installed on a single VME-bus backplane. TMS320C6713DSP, FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array), and 384-MB SDRAM (Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory) are included in the DSP board. DSP board manages entire electronics system, generates digital clock patterns and communicates with a PC using USB 2.0 interface. The clock patterns are downloaded from a PC and stored on the FPGA. UART is used for the communication with peripherals. Video board has 4 channel ADC which converts video signal into 16-bit digital numbers. Two video boards are installed on the controller for ALADDIN array. The Bias board provides 16 dc bias voltages and the Clock board has 15 clock channels. We have also coded a DSP firmware and a test version of control software in C-language. The controller is flexible enough to operate a wide range of IR array and CCD. Operational tests of the controller have been successfully finished using a test ROIC (Read-Out Integrated Circuit).

  17. Development of arrays of Silicon Drift Detectors and readout ASIC for the SIDDHARTA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quaglia, R.; Schembari, F.; Bellotti, G.; Butt, A. D.; Fiorini, C.; Bombelli, L.; Giacomini, G.; Ficorella, F.; Piemonte, C.; Zorzi, N.

    2016-07-01

    This work deals with the development of new Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs) and readout electronics for the upgrade of the SIDDHARTA experiment. The detector is based on a SDDs array organized in a 4×2 format with each SDD square shaped with 64 mm2 (8×8) active area. The total active area of the array is therefore 32×16 mm2 while the total area of the detector (including 1 mm border dead area) is 34 × 18mm2. The SIDDHARTA apparatus requires 48 of these modules that are designed and manufactured by Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK). The readout electronics is composed by CMOS preamplifiers (CUBEs) and by the new SFERA (SDDs Front-End Readout ASIC) circuit. SFERA is a 16-channels readout ASIC designed in a 0.35 μm CMOS technology, which features in each single readout channel a high order shaping amplifier (9th order Semi-Gaussian complex-conjugate poles) and a high efficiency pile-up rejection logic. The outputs of the channels are connected to an analog multiplexer for the external analog to digital conversion. An on-chip 12-bit SAR ADC is also included. Preliminary measurements of the detectors in the single SDD format are reported. Also measurements of low X-ray energies are reported in order to prove the possible extension to the soft X-ray range.

  18. Development of Frequency-Division Multiplexing Readout System for Large-Format TES X-ray Microcalorimeter Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, K.; Yamamoto, R.; Takei, Y.; Mitsuda, K.; Yamasaki, N. Y.; Hidaka, M.; Nagasawa, S.; Kohjiro, S.; Miyazaki, T.

    2016-03-01

    We are developing the frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) readout system aimed to realize the 400-pixel transition edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter array for the DIOS mission as well as large-format arrays with more than a thousand of TES for future space missions such as the ATHENA mission. The developed system consists of the low-power superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), the digital FDM electronics, and the analog front-end to bridge the SQUID and the digital electronics. Using the developed readout system, we performed a TES readout experiment and succeeded to multiplex four TES signals with the single-staged cryogenic setup. We have experienced two issues during the experiment: an excess noise and crosstalk. The brief overview of the developed system and the details, results, and issues of the TES multiplexing readout experiment is discussed.

  19. Development of Frequency-Division Multiplexing Readout System for Large-Format TES X-ray Microcalorimeter Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, K.; Yamamoto, R.; Takei, Y.; Mitsuda, K.; Yamasaki, N. Y.; Hidaka, M.; Nagasawa, S.; Kohjiro, S.; Miyazaki, T.

    2016-07-01

    We are developing the frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) readout system aimed to realize the 400-pixel transition edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter array for the DIOS mission as well as large-format arrays with more than a thousand of TES for future space missions such as the ATHENA mission. The developed system consists of the low-power superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), the digital FDM electronics, and the analog front-end to bridge the SQUID and the digital electronics. Using the developed readout system, we performed a TES readout experiment and succeeded to multiplex four TES signals with the single-staged cryogenic setup. We have experienced two issues during the experiment: an excess noise and crosstalk. The brief overview of the developed system and the details, results, and issues of the TES multiplexing readout experiment is discussed.

  20. R&D studies of the ATLAS LAr calorimeter readout electronics for super-LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.

    2010-11-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters are high precision, high sensitivity and high granularity detectors. A total of 182,468 signals are digitized and processed real-time on detector, to provide energy and time deposited in each detector element at every occurrence of the L1-trigger. The current readout electronics will need to be upgraded to sustain the higher radiation levels expected with the increase of a factor 10 in luminosity at the LHC in the years {approx}2017. A completely innovative readout scheme is being developed. The front-end readout will send out data continuously at each bunch crossing through high speed radiation resistant optical links, the data will be processed real-time with the possibility of implementing trigger algorithms. This article is an overview of the R&D activities and architectural studies the ATLAS LAr Calorimeter Group is developing: front-end analog and mixed-signal ASIC design, radiation resistance optical-links in SOS, high-speed back-end processing units based on FPGA architectures and power supply distribution schemes.

  1. Front End Readout Electronics of the MicroBooNE Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; De Geronimo, G.; Lanni, F.; Lissauer, D.; Makowiecki, D.; Radeka, V.; Rescia, S.; Thorn, C.; Yu, B.

    MicroBooNE experiment is to build a ˜170 tons Liquid Argon (LAr) Time Projection Chamber (TPC) detector that will observe interactions of neutrinos from the on-axis Booster Neutrino Beam and off-axis NuMI Beam at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The experiment will address the low energy excess observed by the MiniBooNE experiment, measure low energy neutrino cross sections, and serve as the necessary next step in a phased program towards massive Liquid Argon TPC detectors. MicroBooNE TPC will have 3 readout wire planes with 8,256 wires/signal channels. All the signals will be pre-amplified, shaped, digitized and pre-processed online before recording for offline analysis of a wide variety of physics programs. To optimize the detector performance and signal-to-noise ratio, analog front end ASIC designed in 180 nm CMOS technology will be deployed and operated in LAr. Pre-amplified and shaped detector signals will be differentially driven to ADC boards operated in detector hall where signals are digitized and prepared for online data pre-processing in FPGAs. This article is an overview of the front end readout architecture of the MicroBooNE experiment, which describes the development of the front end readout electronics and preliminary test results.

  2. The readout electronic of EUSO-Balloon experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, S.; Barrillon, P.; Blaksley, C.; Blin-Bondil, S.; Ebersoldt, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; de la Taille, C.; Dulucq, F.; Gorodetzky, P.; Miyamoto, H.; Moretto, C.; Prévôt, G.; Reina, J. A. R.

    2014-03-01

    The EUSO-Balloon experiment is a pathfinder for the satellite mission JEM-EUSO whose goal will be to observe Extensive Air Showers produced in the atmosphere by the passage can detect fluorescent UV photons released by the EAS thanks to Multi-anode photomultipliers (MAPMT) arranged in 6 × 6 matrices inside Photo Detector Modules (PDM). A set of lenses is used to focus the photons on the PDM which can be compared to a UV camera taking pictures every 2.5 μs period (GTU: Gate Time Unit). The experiment consists in launching a balloon, at an altitude of 40 km, equipped with complete PDM and Data Processing systems. This project, supported by CNES and constructed by the JEM-EUSO collaboration, is meant to prove that the technology of such an instrument is possible and that the performance is satisfying, raising the Technical Readiness Level (TRL) of JEM-EUSO. Moreover, complex trigger algorithms will be assessed and the main back ground (night glow plus star light) will be studied. A complex readout electronic chain has been designed for the EUSO-Balloon project. It contains two elements: the 9 EC units and the 6 EC-ASIC boards. The EC unit includes four 64-channel Multi-Anode Photomultipliers and a set of pcbs used to supply the 14 different high voltages needed by the MAPMTs and to read out the analog anode signals. These signals are transmitted to the EC-ASIC boards which contain 6 SPACIROC ASICs each. During the year 2012, prototypes of each board were produced and tested successfully, leading to the production of the flight model PCBs in 2013.

  3. Sensor Development and Readout Prototyping for the STAR Pixel Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Greiner, L.; Anderssen, E.; Matis, H.S.; Ritter, H.G.; Stezelberger, T.; Szelezniak, M.; Sun, X.; Vu, C.; Wieman, H.

    2009-01-14

    The STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is designing a new vertex detector. The purpose of this upgrade detector is to provide high resolution pointing to allow for the direct topological reconstruction of heavy flavor decays such as the D{sup 0} by finding vertices displaced from the collision vertex by greater than 60 microns. We are using Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) as the sensor technology and have a coupled sensor development and readout system plan that leads to a final detector with a <200 {micro}s integration time, 400 M pixels and a coverage of -1 < {eta} < 1. We present our coupled sensor and readout development plan and the status of the prototyping work that has been accomplished.

  4. World's Cheapest Readout Electronics for Kinetic Inductance Detector by Using RedPitaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, N.; Jeong, H.; Choi, J.; Ishitsuka, H.; Mima, S.; Nagasaki, T.; Oguri, S.; Tajima, O.

    2016-01-01

    The kinetic inductance detector (KID) is a cutting-edge superconducting detector. The number of KID developers is growing. Most of them have switched from their previous study to superconducting technologies. Therefore, infrastructures for the fabrication of KIDs and cooling systems for their tests have already been established. However, readout electronics have to be newly prepared. Neither a commercial system nor low-cost standard electronics are available despite various attempts to create a standard one. We suggest the use of RedPitaya as readout electronics for the initial step of KID development, which is low cost (≈ 400 USD) and easy to set up. The RedPitaya consists of an all-programmable FPGA-CPU module and a dual-channel 14 bit DAC (ADC) to generate (measure) fast analog signals with 125 MSpS. Each port can be synchronized in-phase or quadrature-phase, and functions for generating and sampling analog signal are prepared. It is straightforward to construct vector network analyzer-like logic by using a combination of these default functions. Up-conversion and down-conversion of its frequency range are also possible by using commercial equipment, i.e., mixers, couplers, and a local oscillator. We implemented direct down-conversion logic on the RedPitaya, and successfully demonstrated KID signal measurements.

  5. World's Cheapest Readout Electronics for Kinetic Inductance Detector by Using RedPitaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, N.; Jeong, H.; Choi, J.; Ishitsuka, H.; Mima, S.; Nagasaki, T.; Oguri, S.; Tajima, O.

    2016-07-01

    The kinetic inductance detector (KID) is a cutting-edge superconducting detector. The number of KID developers is growing. Most of them have switched from their previous study to superconducting technologies. Therefore, infrastructures for the fabrication of KIDs and cooling systems for their tests have already been established. However, readout electronics have to be newly prepared. Neither a commercial system nor low-cost standard electronics are available despite various attempts to create a standard one. We suggest the use of RedPitaya as readout electronics for the initial step of KID development, which is low cost (≈ 400 USD) and easy to set up. The RedPitaya consists of an all-programmable FPGA-CPU module and a dual-channel 14 bit DAC (ADC) to generate (measure) fast analog signals with 125 MSpS. Each port can be synchronized in-phase or quadrature-phase, and functions for generating and sampling analog signal are prepared. It is straightforward to construct vector network analyzer-like logic by using a combination of these default functions. Up-conversion and down-conversion of its frequency range are also possible by using commercial equipment, i.e., mixers, couplers, and a local oscillator. We implemented direct down-conversion logic on the RedPitaya, and successfully demonstrated KID signal measurements.

  6. A simple SQUID system with one operational amplifier as readout electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Kai; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Yongliang; Zeng, Jia; Xu, Xiaofeng; Qiu, Yang; Krause, Hans-Joachim; Xie, Xiaoming; Offenhäusser, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    We describe a dc Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) readout electronics in Flux Locked Loop (FLL) mode without integrator and with only one operational amplifier, which is called Single Chip Readout Electronics (SCRE). A weakly damped niobium-SQUID magnetometer with a large flux-to-voltage transfer coefficient of about ∂V/∂Φ ≈ 380 μV/Φ0 and SCRE results in a very simple SQUID system. We characterize the system and demonstrate its applicability to Magnetocardiography (MCG) and measurements using the Transient ElectroMagnetic (TEM) method. SCRE not only simplifies the readout scheme, but also improves the system stability, the bandwidth and the slew rate. The difference between SCRE and a conventional readout scheme (preamplifier + amplifier + integrator) is also discussed.

  7. RF Single Electron Transistor Readout Amplifiers for Superconducting Astronomical Detectors for X-Ray to Sub-mm Wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, Thomas; Aassime, Abdelhanin; Delsing, Per; Frunzio, Luigi; Li, Li-Qun; Prober, Daniel; Schoelkopf, Robert; Segall, Ken; Wilson, Chris; Stahle, Carl

    2000-01-01

    We report progress on using a new type of amplifier, the Radio-Frequency Single-Electron Transistor (RF-SET), to develop multi-channel sensor readout systems for fast and sensitive readout of high impedance cryogenic photodetectors such as Superconducting Tunnel Junctions and Single Quasiparticle Photon Counters. Although cryogenic, these detectors are desirable because of capabilities not other-wise attainable. However, high impedances and low output levels make low-noise, high-speed readouts challenging, and large format arrays would be facilitated by compact, low-power, on-chip integrated amplifiers. Well-suited for this application are RF-SETs, very high performance electrometers which use an rf readout technique to provide 100 MHz bandwidth. Small size, low power, and cryogenic operation allow direct integration with detectors, and using multiple rf carrier frequencies permits simultaneous readout of 20-50 amplifiers with a common electrical connection. We describe both the first 2-channel demonstration of this wavelength division multiplexing technique for RF-SETs, and Charge-Locked-Loop operation with 100 kHz of closed-loop bandwidth.

  8. Prototype design of DAMPE Calorimeter readout electronics and performance in CERN beam test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Changqing; Hu, Yiming; Gao, Shanshan; Zhang, Deliang; Zhang, Yunlong; Liu, Shubin; An, Qi

    A high energy cosmic ray detector to be in space, called DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE), is now being developed in China. The major scientific objectives of the DAMPE mission are primary cosmic ray, gamma ray astronomy and dark matter particles, by observing high energy primary cosmic rays, especially positrons/electrons and gamma rays with an energy range from 5 GeV to 10 TeV. The DAMPE detector is intended to operate in a 500 km satellite orbit, and a calorimeter, which is composed of 308 BGO (Bismuth Germanate) crystal logs with a size of 2.5cm*2.5cm*60cm for each log, is a critical sub-detector for measuring the energy of cosmic particles, distinguishing positrons/electrons and gamma rays from hadron background, and providing trigger information. Each BGO crystal log is viewed by two Hamamatsu R5610A PMTs (photomultiplier tubes), from both sides respectively. In order to achieve a large dynamic range, each PMT base incorporates a three dynode (2, 5, 8) pick off, which results in 616 PMTs and 1848 signal channels. According to the design specification, a dynamic range of 10(5) is need for each BGO detector units. The large amount of detector components and signal channels, as well as large dynamic range, greatly challenge the design of readout electronics, because the physical space of PCB (Printed Circuit Board) and cable layout, crosstalk between signal channels and power budget, are strictly constrained. In year 2012, a prototype of DAMPE was accomplished, including a scaled-down BGO calorimeter with 132 short BGO bars. Each short BGO bar, with a size of 2.5cm*2.5cm*30cm, is coupled with a R5610A PMT on one end, while the other end is wrapped by heat-shrinkable black sleeves. A prototype of the readout electronics, using VA32 ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) and Actel Flash-based FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array), are developed and assembled with the detector. After 1 month ground-based cosmic ray tests in China, an accelerator

  9. Front-end module readout and control electronics for the PHENIX Multiplicity Vertex Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Ericson, M.N.; Allen, M.D.; Boissevain, J.

    1997-11-01

    Front-end module (FEM) readout and control are implemented as modular, high-density, reprogrammable functions in the PHENIX Multiplicity Vertex Detector. FEM control is performed by the heap manager, an FPGA-based circuit in the FEM unit. Each FEM has 256 channels of front-end electronics, readout, and control, all located on an MCM. Data readout, formatting, and control are performed by the heap manager along with 4 interface units that reside outside the MVD detector cylinder. This paper discusses the application of a generic heap manager and the addition of 4 interface module types to meet the specific control and data readout needs of the MVD. Unit functioning, interfaces, timing, data format, and communication rates will be discussed in detail. In addition, subsystem issues regarding mode control, serial architecture and functions, error handling, and FPGA implementation and programming will be presented.

  10. High-Fidelity Rapid Initialization and Read-Out of an Electron Spin via the Single Donor D- Charge State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, T. F.; Weber, B.; House, M. G.; Büch, H.; Simmons, M. Y.

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate high-fidelity electron spin read-out of a precision placed single donor in silicon via spin selective tunneling to either the D+ or D- charge state of the donor. By performing read-out at the stable two electron D0↔D- charge transition we can increase the tunnel rates to a nearby single electron transistor charge sensor by nearly 2 orders of magnitude, allowing faster qubit read-out (1 ms) with minimum loss in read-out fidelity (98.4%) compared to read-out at the D+↔D0 transition (99.6%). Furthermore, we show that read-out via the D- charge state can be used to rapidly initialize the electron spin qubit in its ground state with a fidelity of FI=99.8 %.

  11. Common Bias Readout for TES Array on Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, R.; Sakai, K.; Maehisa, K.; Nagayoshi, K.; Hayashi, T.; Muramatsu, H.; Nakashima, Y.; Mitsuda, K.; Yamasaki, N. Y.; Takei, Y.; Hidaka, M.; Nagasawa, S.; Maehata, K.; Hara, T.

    2016-03-01

    A transition edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter array as an X-ray sensor for a scanning transmission electron microscope system is being developed. The technical challenge of this system is a high count rate of ˜ 5000 counts/second/array. We adopted a 64 pixel array with a parallel readout. Common SQUID bias, and common TES bias are planned to reduce the number of wires and the resources of a room temperature circuit. The reduction rate of wires is 44 % when a 64 pixel array is read out by a common bias of 8 channels. The possible degradation of the energy resolution has been investigated by simulations and experiments. The bias fluctuation effects of a series connection are less than those of a parallel connection. Simple calculations expect that the fluctuations of the common SQUID bias and common TES bias in a series connection are 10^{-7} and 10^{-3} , respectively. We constructed 8 SQUIDs which are connected to 8 TES outputs and a room temperature circuit for common bias readout and evaluated experimentally. Our simulation of crosstalk indicates that at an X-ray event rate of 500 cps/pixel, crosstalk will broaden a monochromatic line by about 0.01 %, or about 1.5 eV at 15 keV. Thus, our design goal of 10 eV energy resolution across the 0.5-15 keV band should be achievable.

  12. Common Bias Readout for TES Array on Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, R.; Sakai, K.; Maehisa, K.; Nagayoshi, K.; Hayashi, T.; Muramatsu, H.; Nakashima, Y.; Mitsuda, K.; Yamasaki, N. Y.; Takei, Y.; Hidaka, M.; Nagasawa, S.; Maehata, K.; Hara, T.

    2016-07-01

    A transition edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter array as an X-ray sensor for a scanning transmission electron microscope system is being developed. The technical challenge of this system is a high count rate of ˜ 5000 counts/second/array. We adopted a 64 pixel array with a parallel readout. Common SQUID bias, and common TES bias are planned to reduce the number of wires and the resources of a room temperature circuit. The reduction rate of wires is 44 % when a 64 pixel array is read out by a common bias of 8 channels. The possible degradation of the energy resolution has been investigated by simulations and experiments. The bias fluctuation effects of a series connection are less than those of a parallel connection. Simple calculations expect that the fluctuations of the common SQUID bias and common TES bias in a series connection are 10^{-7} and 10^{-3}, respectively. We constructed 8 SQUIDs which are connected to 8 TES outputs and a room temperature circuit for common bias readout and evaluated experimentally. Our simulation of crosstalk indicates that at an X-ray event rate of 500 cps/pixel, crosstalk will broaden a monochromatic line by about 0.01 %, or about 1.5 eV at 15 keV. Thus, our design goal of 10 eV energy resolution across the 0.5-15 keV band should be achievable.

  13. A front-end readout Detector Board for the OpenPET electronics system

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Choong, W. -S.; Abu-Nimeh, F.; Moses, W. W.; Peng, Q.; Vu, C. Q.; Wu, J. -Y.

    2015-08-12

    Here, we present a 16-channel front-end readout board for the OpenPET electronics system. A major task in developing a nuclear medical imaging system, such as a positron emission computed tomograph (PET) or a single-photon emission computed tomograph (SPECT), is the electronics system. While there are a wide variety of detector and camera design concepts, the relatively simple nature of the acquired data allows for a common set of electronics requirements that can be met by a flexible, scalable, and high-performance OpenPET electronics system. The analog signals from the different types of detectors used in medical imaging share similar characteristics, whichmore » allows for a common analog signal processing. The OpenPET electronics processes the analog signals with Detector Boards. Here we report on the development of a 16-channel Detector Board. Each signal is digitized by a continuously sampled analog-to-digital converter (ADC), which is processed by a field programmable gate array (FPGA) to extract pulse height information. A leading edge discriminator creates a timing edge that is "time stamped" by a time-to-digital converter (TDC) implemented inside the FPGA. In conclusion, this digital information from each channel is sent to an FPGA that services 16 analog channels, and then information from multiple channels is processed by this FPGA to perform logic for crystal lookup, DOI calculation, calibration, etc.« less

  14. A front-end readout Detector Board for the OpenPET electronics system

    PubMed Central

    Choong, W.-S.; Abu-Nimeh, F.; Moses, W.W.; Peng, Q.; Vu, C.Q.; Wu, J.-Y.

    2016-01-01

    We present a 16-channel front-end readout board for the OpenPET electronics system. A major task in developing a nuclear medical imaging system, such as a positron emission computed tomograph (PET) or a single-photon emission computed tomograph (SPECT), is the electronics system. While there are a wide variety of detector and camera design concepts, the relatively simple nature of the acquired data allows for a common set of electronics requirements that can be met by a flexible, scalable, and high-performance OpenPET electronics system. The analog signals from the different types of detectors used in medical imaging share similar characteristics, which allows for a common analog signal processing. The OpenPET electronics processes the analog signals with Detector Boards. Here we report on the development of a 16-channel Detector Board. Each signal is digitized by a continuously sampled analog-to-digital converter (ADC), which is processed by a field programmable gate array (FPGA) to extract pulse height information. A leading edge discriminator creates a timing edge that is “time stamped” by a time-to-digital converter (TDC) implemented inside the FPGA. This digital information from each channel is sent to an FPGA that services 16 analog channels, and then information from multiple channels is processed by this FPGA to perform logic for crystal lookup, DOI calculation, calibration, etc. PMID:27134641

  15. A front-end readout Detector Board for the OpenPET electronics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choong, W.-S.; Abu-Nimeh, F.; Moses, W. W.; Peng, Q.; Vu, C. Q.; Wu, J.-Y.

    2015-08-01

    We present a 16-channel front-end readout board for the OpenPET electronics system. A major task in developing a nuclear medical imaging system, such as a positron emission computed tomograph (PET) or a single-photon emission computed tomograph (SPECT), is the electronics system. While there are a wide variety of detector and camera design concepts, the relatively simple nature of the acquired data allows for a common set of electronics requirements that can be met by a flexible, scalable, and high-performance OpenPET electronics system. The analog signals from the different types of detectors used in medical imaging share similar characteristics, which allows for a common analog signal processing. The OpenPET electronics processes the analog signals with Detector Boards. Here we report on the development of a 16-channel Detector Board. Each signal is digitized by a continuously sampled analog-to-digital converter (ADC), which is processed by a field programmable gate array (FPGA) to extract pulse height information. A leading edge discriminator creates a timing edge that is ``time stamped'' by a time-to-digital converter (TDC) implemented inside the FPGA . This digital information from each channel is sent to an FPGA that services 16 analog channels, and then information from multiple channels is processed by this FPGA to perform logic for crystal lookup, DOI calculation, calibration, etc.

  16. A front-end readout Detector Board for the OpenPET electronics system

    SciTech Connect

    Choong, W. -S.; Abu-Nimeh, F.; Moses, W. W.; Peng, Q.; Vu, C. Q.; Wu, J. -Y.

    2015-08-12

    Here, we present a 16-channel front-end readout board for the OpenPET electronics system. A major task in developing a nuclear medical imaging system, such as a positron emission computed tomograph (PET) or a single-photon emission computed tomograph (SPECT), is the electronics system. While there are a wide variety of detector and camera design concepts, the relatively simple nature of the acquired data allows for a common set of electronics requirements that can be met by a flexible, scalable, and high-performance OpenPET electronics system. The analog signals from the different types of detectors used in medical imaging share similar characteristics, which allows for a common analog signal processing. The OpenPET electronics processes the analog signals with Detector Boards. Here we report on the development of a 16-channel Detector Board. Each signal is digitized by a continuously sampled analog-to-digital converter (ADC), which is processed by a field programmable gate array (FPGA) to extract pulse height information. A leading edge discriminator creates a timing edge that is "time stamped" by a time-to-digital converter (TDC) implemented inside the FPGA. In conclusion, this digital information from each channel is sent to an FPGA that services 16 analog channels, and then information from multiple channels is processed by this FPGA to perform logic for crystal lookup, DOI calculation, calibration, etc.

  17. Image readout device with electronically variable spatial resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benz, H. A. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An invention relating to the use of a standing acoustic wave charge storage device as an image readout device is described. A frequency f sub 1 was applied to the storage transfer device to create a traveling electric field in the device in one direction along a straight line. A second frequency f sub 2 was applied to the charge transfer device to create a traveling electric field opposite to the first traveling electric field. A standing wave was created. When an image was focused on the charge transfer device, light was stored in the wells of the standing wave. When the frequency f sub 2 is removed from the device, the standing wave tends to break up and the charges stored move to an electrode connected to an output terminal and to a utilization device where the received charges represent the image on the surface of the charge transfer device along a projection of said straight line.

  18. Cool Timepix - Electronic noise of the Timepix readout chip down to -125 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schön, R.; Alfonsi, M.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; Koffeman, E.

    2015-01-01

    The Timepix readout chip with its 65k pixels on a sensitive area of 14 mm×14 mm provides a fine spatial resolution for particle tracking or medical imaging. We explore the operation of Timepix in a dual-phase xenon environment (around -110 °C). Used in dual-phase xenon time projection chambers, e.g. for dark matter search experiments, the readout must have a sufficiently low detection limit for small energy deposits. We measured the electronic pixel noise of three bare Timepix chips. For the first time Timepix readout chips were cooled to temperatures as low as -125 °C. In this work, we present the results of analysing noise transition curves recorded while applying a well-defined charge to the pixel's input. The electronic noise reduces to an average of 99e-, a reduction of 23% compared to operation at room temperature.

  19. A multi-channel readout electronics system for GEM and MICROMEGAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Z.; Li, Y. L.; Gong, G. H.; Gong, H.; Luo, J.; Liu, Y. N.

    2009-11-01

    A multi-channel readout electronics system for GEM and MICROMEGAS has been developed. It consists of a front-end ASIC, a multi-channel ADC and a FPGA to sample the signal waveforms in real time. The gain of the front-end ASIC can be programmable from 1 mV/fC to 19 mV/fC and the output pulse width can be adjusted from 200 ns to 800 ns. The ENC is measured to be below 2000 e for Cin < 20 pF and below 5000 e for Cin < 60 pF. Detailed circuit performance and test results with detectors will be described in this paper.

  20. Development of a PMT Readout System with Viking Chips for the SciFi Detector of CALET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, T.; Torii, S.; Hibino, K.; Yoshida, K.; Okuno, S.; Anraku, K.; Yamashita, T.; Uchihori, Y.; Kitamura, H.; Katayose, Y.; Inoue, T.; Kasahara, K.; Hubo, S.; Battiston, R.; Menichelli, M.

    2003-07-01

    The CALET (CALorimetric Electron telescope) experiment on the International Space Station (ISS) is designed to observe cosmic-ray electrons, γ -rays, and heavy nuclei. The CALET detector will comprise an imaging calorimeter (IMC) and a total absorption calorimeter (TASC). The IMC part will be assembled with several ten thousand scintillating fibers (SciFi). In order to read the SciFi's, we have been developing a readout system for multi-ano de PMT (MAPMT). We assembled a test detector using 512 SciFi's and a MA-PMT readout unit composed of "Viking" chips (VA32HDR2). We report the performance of the readout unit as proved by beam tests.

  1. A fast readout and processing electronics for photon counting intensified charge-coupled device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergamini, P.; Bonelli, G.; Tanzi, E. G.; Uslenghi, M.; Poletto, L.; Tondello, G.

    2000-04-01

    The design features and the performances of a prototype photon counting imaging detector, being developed for the international ultraviolet (UV) space mission Spectrum UV, are presented. The photon counter is an intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) in which photon events, generating an electron cascade through a high gain microchannel plate (MCP) stack, are transduced, via a phosphor screen and a fiber optics reducer, into a 3×3 pixel2, quasi-Gaussian charge distributions on a 15×15 μm2,512×512 pixel2 format CCD matrix. The CCD is read out in the frame-transfer mode at a pixel rate of 19.75 MHz, and its output data flow is acquired serially as to generate a 3×3 pixel2 event sash that sweeps dynamically the CCD matrix at the 50.6 ns rate of the readout clock. Each and every event sash is searched for the presence of events whose charge content lie within proper limits and satisfy a given set of morphological rules, i.e., a single peak charge profile. The centroid coordinates of identified events are determined with subpixel accuracy (up to a 210 bin/pixel) and subsequently stored as photon list coordinate pairs. The data acquisition and processing system is based on field programmable gate array technology and is capable of satisfying the requirements of real-time operation. The modular construction of the data acquisition and processing electronics provides a great deal of flexibility for supporting advancements in CCD readout techniques (multiple output and higher clocking speed) and of MCPs (larger formats, smaller pore, and higher dynamic range). The results of the performance verification of the data acquisition and processing system integrated with a laboratory ICCD prototype are presented and discussed.

  2. A rack-mounted precision waveguide-below-cutoff attenuator with an absolute electronic readout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, C. C.

    1974-01-01

    A coaxial precision waveguide-below-cutoff attenuator is described which uses an absolute (unambiguous) electronic digital readout of displacement in inches in addition to the usual gear driven mechanical counter-dial readout in decibels. The attenuator is rack-mountable and has the input and output RF connectors in a fixed position. The attenuation rate for 55, 50, and 30 MHz operation is given along with a discussion of sources of errors. In addition, information is included to aid the user in making adjustments on the attenuator should it be damaged or disassembled for any reason.

  3. Orthogonal sequencing multiplexer for superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors with RSFQ electronics readout circuit.

    PubMed

    Hofherr, Matthias; Wetzstein, Olaf; Engert, Sonja; Ortlepp, Thomas; Berg, Benjamin; Ilin, Konstantin; Henrich, Dagmar; Stolz, Ronny; Toepfer, Hannes; Meyer, Hans-Georg; Siegel, Michael

    2012-12-17

    We propose an efficient multiplexing technique for superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors based on an orthogonal detector bias switching method enabling the extraction of the average count rate of a set of detectors by one readout line. We implemented a system prototype where the SNSPDs are connected to an integrated cryogenic readout and a pulse merger system based on rapid single flux quantum (RSFQ) electronics. We discuss the general scalability of this concept, analyze the environmental requirements which define the resolvability and the accuracy and demonstrate the feasibility of this approach with experimental results for a SNSPD array with four pixels. PMID:23263106

  4. Dispersive Readout of a Few-Electron Double Quantum Dot with Fast rf Gate Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colless, J. I.; Mahoney, A. C.; Hornibrook, J. M.; Doherty, A. C.; Lu, H.; Gossard, A. C.; Reilly, D. J.

    2013-01-01

    We report the dispersive charge-state readout of a double quantum dot in the few-electron regime using the in situ gate electrodes as sensitive detectors. We benchmark this gate sensing technique against the well established quantum point contact charge detector and find comparable performance with a bandwidth of ˜10MHz and an equivalent charge sensitivity of ˜6.3×10-3e/Hz. Dispersive gate sensing alleviates the burden of separate charge detectors for quantum dot systems and promises to enable readout of qubits in scaled-up arrays.

  5. Medipix2 parallel readout system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanti, V.; Marzeddu, R.; Randaccio, P.

    2003-08-01

    A fast parallel readout system based on a PCI board has been developed in the framework of the Medipix collaboration. The readout electronics consists of two boards: the motherboard directly interfacing the Medipix2 chip, and the PCI board with digital I/O ports 32 bits wide. The device driver and readout software have been developed at low level in Assembler to allow fast data transfer and image reconstruction. The parallel readout permits a transfer rate up to 64 Mbytes/s. http://medipix.web.cern ch/MEDIPIX/

  6. An 8×8 Row-Column Summing Readout Electronics for Preclinical Positron Emission Tomography Scanners.

    PubMed

    Shih, Y C; Sun, F W; Macdonald, L R; Otis, B P; Miyaoka, R S; McDougald, W; Lewellen, T K

    2009-10-24

    This work presents a row/column summing readout electronics for an 8×8 silicon photomultiplier array. The summation circuit greatly reduces the number of electronic channels, which is desirable for pursuing higher resolution positron emission tomography scanners. By using a degenerated common source topology in the summation circuit, more fan-in is possible and therefore a greater reduction in the number of electronic channels can be achieved. The timing signal is retrieved from a common anode, which allows the use of a single fast-sampling analog to digital converter (ADC) for the timing channel and slower, lower power ADCs for the 64 spatial channels. Preliminary results of one row summation of the 8×8 readout electronics exhibited FWHM energy resolution of 17.8% and 18.3% with and without multiplexing, respectively. The measured timing resolution is 2.9ns FWHM. PMID:20729983

  7. Digitally controlled high-performance dc SQUID readout electronics for a 304-channel vector magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechstein, S.; Petsche, F.; Scheiner, M.; Drung, D.; Thiel, F.; Schnabel, A.; Schurig, Th

    2006-06-01

    Recently, we have developed a family of dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) readout electronics for several applications. These electronics comprise a low-noise preamplifier followed by an integrator, and an analog SQUID bias circuit. A highly-compact low-power version with a flux-locked loop bandwidth of 0.3 MHz and a white noise level of 1 nV/√Hz was specially designed for a 304-channel low-Tc dc SQUID vector magnetometer, intended to operate in the new Berlin Magnetically Shielded Room (BMSR-2). In order to minimize the space needed to mount the electronics on top of the dewar and to minimize the power consumption, we have integrated four electronics channels on one 3 cm × 10 cm sized board. Furthermore we embedded the analog components of these four channels into a digitally controlled system including an in-system programmable microcontroller. Four of these integrated boards were combined to one module with a size of 4 cm × 4 cm × 16 cm. 19 of these modules were implemented, resulting in a total power consumption of about 61 W. To initialize the 304 channels and to service the system we have developed software tools running on a laptop computer. By means of these software tools the microcontrollers are fed with all required data such as the working points, the characteristic parameters of the sensors (noise, voltage swing), or the sensor position inside of the vector magnetometer system. In this paper, the developed electronics including the software tools are described, and first results are presented.

  8. Hyper Suprime-Cam: back-end electronics for CCD readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Tomohisa; Miyatake, Hironao; Nakaya, Hidehiko; Aihara, Hiroaki; Miyazaki, Satoshi

    2008-07-01

    The development status of a prototype readout module for Hyper Suprime-Cam, a next-generation prime-focus camera for the 8.2 m Subaru Telescope, is presented. The camera has a field of view 1.5° in diameter, and produces 2.1 Gbyte of data per exposure. The module transfers the data to computers of a data acquisition system using TCP/IP and Gigabit Ethernet. We have measured the performance of data processing and data transfer of the developed module. The results indicated sufficient performance to read data from all CCDs within the required readout time.

  9. Readout electronics validation and target detector assessment for the Neutrinos Angra experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarenga, T. A.; Anjos, J. C.; Azzi, G.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Chimenti, P.; Costa, J. A.; Dornelas, T. I.; Farias, P. C. M. A.; Guedes, G. P.; Gonzalez, L. F. G.; Kemp, E.; Lima, H. P.; Machado, R.; Nóbrega, R. A.; Pepe, I. M.; Ribeiro, D. B. S.; Simas Filho, E. F.; Valdiviesso, G. A.; Wagner, S.

    2016-09-01

    A compact surface detector designed to identify the inverse beta decay interaction produced by anti-neutrinos coming from near operating nuclear reactors is being developed by the Neutrinos Angra Collaboration. In this document we describe and test the detector and its readout system by means of cosmic rays acquisition. In this measurement campaign, the target detector has been equipped with 16 8-in PMTs and two scintillator paddles have been used to trigger cosmic ray events. The achieved results disclosed the main operational characteristics of the Neutrinos Angra system and have been used to assess the detector and to validate its readout system.

  10. Development of a 3-DOF Micro Accelerometer with Wireless Readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Bui Thanh; Dao, Dzung Viet; Amarasinghe, Ranjith; Wada, Naoki; Tokunaga, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Susumu

    This paper describes the design, simulation and fabrication of a 3-DOF (degree of freedom) micro accelerometer with wireless readout system. The fabricated accelerometer has dimensions of 1000μm×1000μm×500μm (Length×Width×Thickness) and can detect three components of linear acceleration simultaneously. The sensitivities to X-axis, Y-axis and Z-axis are 30μV/g, 30μV/g and 23μV/g, respectively. A three input-channels wireless transceiver system has been developed and integrated with the sensing element to form a sensor node. The antenna has been designed to transmit the signal from sensor node to a server at a communication frequency of 2.4GHz over a distance of 20m. Three output signals, i.e. X-axis, Y-axis and Z-axis, from the accelerometer are transmitted to the server by time division multiplexing protocol. This allows our wireless sensor system to detect three components of acceleration independently.

  11. Study on FPGA SEU Mitigation for the Readout Electronics of DAMPE BGO Calorimeter in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Zhongtao; Feng, Changqing; Gao, Shanshan; Zhang, Deliang; Jiang, Di; Liu, Shubin; An, Qi

    2015-06-01

    The BGO calorimeter, which provides a wide measurement range of the primary cosmic ray spectrum, is a key sub-detector of Dark Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE). The readout electronics of calorimeter consists of 16 pieces of Actel ProASIC Plus FLASH-based FPGA, of which the design-level flip-flops and embedded block RAMs are single event upset (SEU) sensitive in the harsh space environment. Therefore to comply with radiation hardness assurance (RHA), SEU mitigation methods, including partial triple modular redundancy (TMR), CRC checksum, and multi-domain reset are analyzed and tested by the heavy-ion beam test. Composed of multi-level redundancy, a FPGA design with the characteristics of SEU tolerance and low resource consumption is implemented for the readout electronics.

  12. Readout electronics for the Wide Field of view Cherenkov/Fluorescence Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, Y.; Zhou, R.; Bai, L.; Zhang, J.; Huang, J.; Yang, C.; Cao, Z.

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO), supported by IHEP of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, is a multipurpose project with a complex detectors array for high energy gamma ray and cosmic ray detection. The Wide Field of view Cherenkov Telescope Array (WFCTA), as one of the components of the LHAASO project, aim to tag each primary particle that causes an air shower. The WFCTA is a portable telescope array used to detect cosmic ray spectra. The design of the readout electronics of the WFCTA is described in this paper Sixteen photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), together with their readout electronics are integrated into a single sub-cluster. To maintain good resolution and linearity over a wide dynamic range, a dual-gain amplification configuration on an analog board is used The digital board contains two 16channel 14-bit, 50 Msps analog-to-digital converters (ADC) and its power consumption, noise level, and relative deviation are all tested.

  13. Coherent operation of detector systems and their readout electronics in a complex experiment control environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koestner, Stefan

    2009-09-01

    With the increasing size and degree of complexity of today's experiments in high energy physics the required amount of work and complexity to integrate a complete subdetector into an experiment control system is often underestimated. We report here on the layered software structure and protocols used by the LHCb experiment to control its detectors and readout boards. The experiment control system of LHCb is based on the commercial SCADA system PVSS II. Readout boards which are outside the radiation area are accessed via embedded credit card sized PCs which are connected to a large local area network. The SPECS protocol is used for control of the front end electronics. Finite state machines are introduced to facilitate the control of a large number of electronic devices and to model the whole experiment at the level of an expert system.

  14. The telescope readout electronics for the Gravity Probe B satellite.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demroff, H. P.; Babu, S.; Bye, M. R.; Coleman, K. L.; Das, N.; Debra, D. B.; Ehrensberger, P. D., Jr.; Farley, R. P.; Gill, D. K.; Goebel, J. H.; Jhabvala, M.; Kashani, A.; Romero, E.; Sullivan, M. T.

    1998-06-01

    The pointing and stability requirements for the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) Relativity Mission pose a number of challenges for the star-tracking electronics. Because the telescope-gyroscope assembly operates at 2.8K, the detector circuit's Si JFETs at the telescope focal plane must be thermally isolated and heated to at least 50K through self-heating or with the aid of heating resistors. The authors have designed a low noise, thermally stable photodetector circuit that meets the GP-B requirements as well as fabricated an isolator to give the required thermal isolation and mechanical stability. Test results of the detector-isolator assembly are presented.

  15. Low Background Signal Readout Electronics for the Majorana Demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinn, I.; Abgrall, N.; Avignone, F. T., III; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Buuck, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y.-D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Efremenko, Yu; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Jasinski, B. R.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; MacMullin, J.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Orrell, J. L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, N. R.; Poon, A. W. P.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Shanks, B.; Shirchenko, M.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, A. M.; Tedeschi, D.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yu, C.-H.; Yumatov, V.; Majorana Collaboration

    2015-05-01

    The Majorana Demonstrator is a planned 40 kg array of Germanium detectors intended to demonstrate the feasibility of constructing a tonne-scale experiment that will seek neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in 76Ge. Such an experiment would require backgrounds of less than 1 count/tonne-year in the 4 keV region of interest around the 2039 keV Q-value of the ββ decay. Designing low-noise electronics, which must be placed in close proximity to the detectors, presents a challenge to reaching this background target. This paper will discuss the Majorana collaboration's solutions to some of these challenges.

  16. On Certain New Methodology for Reducing Sensor and Readout Electronics Circuitry Noise in Digital Domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kizhner, Semion; Miko, Joseph; Bradley, Damon; Heinzen, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    NASA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and upcoming cosmology science missions carry instruments with multiple focal planes populated with many large sensor detector arrays. These sensors are passively cooled to low temperatures for low-level light (L3) and near-infrared (NIR) signal detection, and the sensor readout electronics circuitry must perform at extremely low noise levels to enable new required science measurements. Because we are at the technological edge of enhanced performance for sensors and readout electronics circuitry, as determined by thermal noise level at given temperature in analog domain, we must find new ways of further compensating for the noise in the signal digital domain. To facilitate this new approach, state-of-the-art sensors are augmented at their array hardware boundaries by non-illuminated reference pixels, which can be used to reduce noise attributed to sensors. There are a few proposed methodologies of processing in the digital domain the information carried by reference pixels, as employed by the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope Projects. These methods involve using spatial and temporal statistical parameters derived from boundary reference pixel information to enhance the active (non-reference) pixel signals. To make a step beyond this heritage methodology, we apply the NASA-developed technology known as the Hilbert- Huang Transform Data Processing System (HHT-DPS) for reference pixel information processing and its utilization in reconfigurable hardware on-board a spaceflight instrument or post-processing on the ground. The methodology examines signal processing for a 2-D domain, in which high-variance components of the thermal noise are carried by both active and reference pixels, similar to that in processing of low-voltage differential signals and subtraction of a single analog reference pixel from all active pixels on the sensor. Heritage methods using the aforementioned statistical parameters in the

  17. Single Electron Detection in Quadruple-GEM Detector with Pad Readout

    SciTech Connect

    Va'vra, Jaroslav

    2001-03-07

    Using a system of four GEMs operating in tandem and coupled to pad readout, we have demonstrated the detection of single electrons in ethane at 1 bar. The paper presents measurements of single electron pulse height distributions, total gas gain measurement and calculation, pad-to-pad cross-talk, quenching capability, high rate capability, charging effects, etc. We describe the overall operational experience, including addition of a gaseous photocathode, TMAE, and compare it to the SLD CRID single-electron detector [1], which has been operational during the past decade.

  18. The detection of single electrons using a Micromegas gas amplification and a MediPix2 CMOS pixel readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornaini, A.; Campbell, M.; Chefdeville, M.; Colas, P.; Colijn, A. P.; van der Graaf, H.; Giomataris, Y.; Heijne, E. H. M.; Kluit, P.; Llopart, X.; Schmitz, J.; Timmermans, J.; Visschers, J. L.

    2005-07-01

    By placing a Micromegas gas gain grid on top of a CMOS pixel readout circuit (MediPix2), we developed a device which acts as a pixel-segmented direct anode in gas-filled detectors. With a He/Isobutane 80/20 mixture (capable of achieving gas gain factors up to 20×103) and employing a drift length of 15 mm, signals from radioactive sources and cosmic radiation were measured. Single primary electrons originating from the passage of cosmic muons through the gas volume were detected with an efficiency higher than 90%.

  19. Development of a hadron blind detector using a finely segmented pad readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanno, Koki; Aoki, Kazuya; Aramaki, Yoki; En`yo, Hideto; Kawama, Daisuke; Komatsu, Yusuke; Masumoto, Shinichi; Nakai, Wataru; Obara, Yuki; Ozawa, Kyoichiro; Sekimoto, Michiko; Shibukawa, Takuya; Takahashi, Tomonori; Watanabe, Yosuke; Yokkaichi, Satoshi

    2016-05-01

    We constructed a hadron blind detector (HBD) using a finely segmented pad readout. The finely segmented pad readout enabled us to adopt an advanced particle identification method which applies a threshold to the number of pad hits in addition to the total amount of collected charge. The responses of the detector to electrons and pions were evaluated using a negatively charged secondary beam at 1.0 GeV/c containing 20% electrons at the J-PARC K1.1BR beam line. We observed 7.3 photoelectrons per incident electron. Using the advanced particle identification method, an electron detection efficiency of 83% was achieved with a pion rejection factor of 120. The method improved the pion rejection by approximately a factor of five, compared to the one which just applies a threshold to the amount of collected charge. The newly introduced finely segmented pad readout was found to be effective in rejecting pions.

  20. System Architecture of the Dark Energy Survey Camera Readout Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, Theresa; Ballester, Otger; Cardiel-Sas, Laia; Castilla, Javier; Chappa, Steve; de Vicente, Juan; Holm, Scott; Huffman, Dave; Kozlovsky, Mark; Martinez, Gustavo; Moore, Todd; /Madrid, CIEMAT /Fermilab /Illinois U., Urbana /Fermilab

    2010-05-27

    The Dark Energy Survey makes use of a new camera, the Dark Energy Camera (DECam). DECam will be installed in the Blanco 4M telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). DECam is presently under construction and is expected to be ready for observations in the fall of 2011. The focal plane will make use of 62 2Kx4K and 12 2kx2k fully depleted Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs) for guiding, alignment and focus. This paper will describe design considerations of the system; including, the entire signal path used to read out the CCDs, the development of a custom crate and backplane, the overall grounding scheme and early results of system tests.

  1. Front-end readout electronics considerations for Silicon Tracking System and Muon Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasinski, K.; Kleczek, R.; Szczygiel, R.

    2016-02-01

    Silicon Tracking System (STS) and Muon Chamber (MUCH) are components of the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR, Germany. STS will be built from 8 detector stations located in the aperture of the magnet. Each station will be built from double-sided silicon strip detectors and connected via kapton microcables to the readout electronics at the perimeter of each station. The challenging physics program of the CBM experiment requires from the detector systems very high performance. Design of the readout ASIC requires finding an optimal solution for interaction time and input charge measurements in the presence of: tight area (channel pitch: 58 μ m), noise (< 1000 e- rms), power (< 10 mW/channel), radiation hardness and speed requirements (average hit rate: 250 khit/s/channel). This paper presents the front-end electronics' analysis towards prototype STS and MUCH readout ASIC implementation in the UMC 180 nm CMOS process and in-system performance with the emphasis on preferable detector and kapton microcable parameters and input amplifiers' architecture and design.

  2. Gafchromic EBT3 film dosimetry in electron beams - energy dependence and improved film read-out.

    PubMed

    Sipilä, Petri; Ojala, Jarkko; Kaijaluoto, Sampsa; Jokelainen, Ilkka; Kosunen, Antti

    2016-01-01

    For megavoltage photon radiation, the fundamental dosimetry characteristics of Gafchromic EBT3 film were determined in 60Co gamma ray beam with addition of experimental and Monte Carlo (MC)-simulated energy dependence of the film for 6 MV photon beam and 6 MeV, 9 MeV, 12 MeV, and 16 MeV electron beams in water phantom. For the film read-out, two phase correction of scanner sensitivity was applied: a matrix correction for scanning area and dose-dependent correction by iterative procedure. With these corrections, the uniformity of response can be improved to be within ± 50 pixel values (PVs). To improve the read-out accuracy, a procedure with flipped film orientations was established. With the method, scanner uniformity can be improved further and dust particles, scratches and/or dirt on scan-ner glass can be detected and eliminated. Responses from red and green channels were averaged for read-out, which decreased the effect of noise present in values from separate channels. Since the signal level with the blue channel is considerably lower than with other channels, the signal variation due to different perturbation effects increases the noise level so that the blue channel is not recommended to be used for dose determination. However, the blue channel can be used for the detection of emulsion thickness variations for film quality evaluations with unexposed films. With electron beams ranging from 6 MeV to 16 MeV and at reference measurement conditions in water, the energy dependence of the EBT3 film is uniform within 0.5%, with uncertainties close to 1.6% (k = 2). Including 6 MV photon beam and the electron beams mentioned, the energy dependence is within 1.1%. No notable differences were found between the experimental and MC-simulated responses, indicating negligible change in intrinsic energy dependence of the EBT3 film for 6 MV photon beam and 6 MeV-16 MeV electron beams. Based on the dosimetric characteristics of the EBT3 film, the read-out procedure established

  3. Digital frequency domain multiplexing readout electronics for the next generation of millimeter telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Amy N.; Cliche, Jean-François; de Haan, Tijmen; Dobbs, Matt A.; Gilbert, Adam J.; Montgomery, Joshua; Rowlands, Neil; Smecher, Graeme M.; Smith, Ken; Wilson, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    Frequency domain multiplexing (fMux) is an established technique for the readout of transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers in millimeter-wavelength astrophysical instrumentation. In fMux, the signals from multiple detectors are read out on a single pair of wires reducing the total cryogenic thermal loading as well as the cold component complexity and cost of a system. The current digital fMux system, in use by POLARBEAR, EBEX, and the South Pole Telescope, is limited to a multiplexing factor of 16 by the dynamic range of the Superconducting Quantum Interference Device pre-amplifier and the total system bandwidth. Increased multiplexing is key for the next generation of large format TES cameras, such as SPT-3G and POLARBEAR2, which plan to have on the of order 15,000 detectors. Here, we present the next generation fMux readout, focusing on the warm electronics. In this system, the multiplexing factor increases to 64 channels per module (2 wires) while maintaining low noise levels and detector stability. This is achieved by increasing the system bandwidth, reducing the dynamic range requirements though active feedback, and digital synthesis of voltage biases with a novel polyphase filter algorithm. In addition, a version of the new fMux readout includes features such as low power consumption and radiation-hard components making it viable for future space-based millimeter telescopes such as the LiteBIRD satellite.

  4. Electric readout and storage concepts for electron and nuclear spin states in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehme, Christoph

    2011-10-01

    A variety of concepts utilizing spins in semiconductors for information storage and processing have been proposed in recent years. One of these concepts [1] uses the phosphorous nucleus in crystalline silicon as a quantum bit, an approach which combines longest known spin coherence times and, therefore, spin storage times, with already existing, well developed and highly reliable, crystalline silicon nano-technology. Our research is focused on implementations of electric readout devices for electron- and nuclear-spins in silicon. I will review different experiments which show how donor electrons [2-4] and nuclear [5] spins of phosphorous atoms in crystalline silicon can be used as a electrically readable spin memories with long storage times for classical and quantum information and how nuclear spin qubits can be initialized [6].[4pt] [1] B. E. Kane, Nature 393, 133 (1998).[0pt] [2] A. R. Stegner, C. Boehme, H. Huebl, M. Stutzmann, K. Lips, M. S. Brandt, Nature Physics 2, 835 (2006). [0pt] [3] S.-Y. Paik, S.-Y. Lee, W. J. Baker, D. R. McCamey, and C. Boehme, Phys. Rev. B 81, 075214 (2010).[0pt] [4] G. W. Morley, D. R. McCamey, H. A. Seipel, L.-C. Brunel, J. van Tol, C. Boehme, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 207602 (2008).[0pt] [5] D. R. McCamey, J. van Tol, G. W. Morley, C. Boehme, Science 330, 1652 (2010).[0pt] [6] D. R. McCamey, J. van Tol, G. W. Morley, C. Boehme, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 027601 (2009).

  5. Readout Electronics for BGO Calorimeter of DAMPE: Status during the First Half-year after Launching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Siyuan; Feng, Changqing; Zhang, Deliang; Wang, Qi

    2016-07-01

    The DAMPE (DArk Matter Particle Explorer) is a scientic satellite which was successfully launched into a 500 Km sun-synchronous orbit, on December 17th, 2015, from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center of China. The major scientific objective of DAMPE mission is indirect searching for dark matter by observing high energy primary cosmic rays, especially positrons/electrons and gamma rays with an energy range from 5 GeV to 10 TeV. The BGO (Bismuth Germanate Oxide) calorimeter, which is a critical sub-detector of DAMPE payload, was developed for measuring the energy of cosmic particles, distinguishing positrons/electrons and gamma rays from hadron background, and providing trigger information. It is composed of 308 BGO crystal logs, with the size of 2.5cm*2.5cm*60cm for each log to form a total absorption electromagnetic calorimeter. All the BGO logs are stacked in 14 layers, with each layer consisting of 22 BGO crystal logs and each log is viewed by two Hamamatsu R5610A PMTs (photomultiplier tubes), from both sides respectively. Each PMT incorporates a three dynode pick off to achieve a large dynamic range, which results in 616 PMTs and 1848 signal channels. The main function of readout electronics system, which consists of 16 FEE(Front End Electronics) modules, is to precisely measure the charge of PMT signals and providing "hit" signals. The hit signals are sent to the trigger module of PDPU (Payload Data Process Unit) to generate triggers for the payload. The calibration of the BGO calorimeter is composed of pedestal testing and electronic linear scale, which are executed frequently in the space after launching. The data of the testing is transmitted to ground station in the form of scientific data. The monitor status consists of temperature, current and status words of the FEE, which are measured and recorded every 16 seconds and packed in the engineering data, then transmitted to ground station. The status of the BGO calorimeter can be evaluated by the calibration

  6. The Silicon Tracker Readout Electronics of the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Baldini, Luca; Brez, Alessandro; Himel, Thomas; Hirayama, Masaharu; Johnson, R.P.; Kroeger, Wilko; Latronico, Luca; Minuti, Massimo; Nelson, David; Rando, Riccardo; Sadrozinski, H.F.-W.; Sgro, Carmelo; Spandre, Gloria; Spencer, E.N.; Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Tajima, Hiro; Cohen-Tanugi, Johann; Ziegler, Marcus; /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /SLAC /Maryland U. /UC, Santa Cruz /Padua U. /INFN, Padua

    2006-02-27

    A unique electronics system has been built and tested for reading signals from the silicon-strip detectors of the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope mission. The system amplifies and processes signals from 884,736 36-cm strips using only 160 W of power, and it achieves close to 100% detection efficiency with noise occupancy sufficiently low to allow it to self trigger. The design of the readout system is described, and results are presented from ground-based testing of the completed detector system.

  7. The SPICA-SAFARI TES Bolometer Readout: Developments Towards a Flight System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Kuur, J.; Beyer, J.; Bruijn, M.; Gao, J. R.; den Hartog, R.; Heijmering, R.; Hoevers, H.; Jackson, B.; van Leeuwen, B. J.; Lindeman, M.; Kiviranta, M.; de Korte, P.; Mauskopf, P.; de Korte, P.; van Weers, H.; Withington, S.

    2012-06-01

    SAFARI is an imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer for 35-200 μm under development for flight on the Japanese IR-satellite SPICA (2018). The 3.25 m diameter actively cooled telescope (<6K) will provide a sky background limited signal, which implies that detectors will need to have an NEP of 3.5 \\cdot10^{-19} {W/}sqrt{Hz} in order not to be limiting the sensitivity. The instrument will utilize three TES-based detector arrays, covering the 2×2 arcmin field-of-view in three octaves of wave length. This contribution will present an overview of the detector sub-system, i.e.: the detector arrays and radiation coupling, the focal plane assembly, the amplification chain and the frequency-domain- multiplexed electronics. The focus will be on the implications on the system design of the readout under the stringent power dissipation, heat load, and weight limitations.

  8. SiPM arrays and miniaturized readout electronics for compact gamma camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinu, N.; Imando, T. Ait; Nagai, A.; Pinot, L.; Puill, V.; Callier, S.; Janvier, B.; Esnault, C.; Verdier, M.-A.; Raux, L.; Vandenbussche, V.; Charon, Y.; Menard, L.

    2015-07-01

    This article reports on the design and features of a very compact and light gamma camera based on SiPM arrays and miniaturized readout electronics dedicated to tumor localization during radio-guided cancer surgery. This gamma camera, called MAGICS, is composed of four (2×2) photo-detection elementary modules coupled to an inorganic scintillator. The 256 channels photo-detection system covers a sensitive area of 54×53 m2. Each elementary module is based on four (2×2) SiPM monolithic arrays, each array consisting of 16 SiPM photo-sensors (4×4) with 3×3 mm2 sensitive area, coupled to a miniaturized readout electronics and a dedicated ASIC. The overall dimensions of the electronics fit the size of the detector, enabling to assemble side-by-side several elementary modules in a close-packed arrangement. The preliminary performances of the system are very encouraging, showing an energy resolution of 9.8% and a spatial resolution of less than 1 mm at 122 keV.

  9. Ultra-low noise high electron mobility transistors for high-impedance and low-frequency deep cryogenic readout electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Q.; Liang, Y. X.; Ferry, D.; Cavanna, A.; Gennser, U.; Couraud, L.; Jin, Y.

    2014-07-07

    We report on the results obtained from specially designed high electron mobility transistors at 4.2 K: the gate leakage current can be limited lower than 1 aA, and the equivalent input noise-voltage and noise-current at 1 Hz can reach 6.3 nV/Hz{sup 1∕2} and 20 aA/Hz{sup 1∕2}, respectively. These results open the way to realize high performance low-frequency readout electronics under very low-temperature conditions.

  10. Ultra-low noise high electron mobility transistors for high-impedance and low-frequency deep cryogenic readout electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Q.; Liang, Y. X.; Ferry, D.; Cavanna, A.; Gennser, U.; Couraud, L.; Jin, Y.

    2014-07-01

    We report on the results obtained from specially designed high electron mobility transistors at 4.2 K: the gate leakage current can be limited lower than 1 aA, and the equivalent input noise-voltage and noise-current at 1 Hz can reach 6.3 nV/Hz1/2 and 20 aA/Hz1/2, respectively. These results open the way to realize high performance low-frequency readout electronics under very low-temperature conditions.

  11. The prototype readout electronics system for the External Target Experiment in CSR of HIRFL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, L.; Kang, L.; Li, M.; Liu, S.; Zhou, J.; An, Q.

    2014-07-01

    A prototype readout electronics system was designed for the External Target Experiment in the Cooling Storage Ring (CSR) of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). The kernel parts include the 128-channel 100 ps high-resolution time digitization module, the 16-channel 25 ps high-resolution time and charge measurement module, and the trigger electronics, as well as the clock generation circuits, which are all integrated within the PXI-6U crate. The laboratory test results indicate that a good resolution is achieved, better than the requirement. We also have conducted initial commissioning tests with the detectors to confirm the functions of the system. Through the research of this prototype electronics, preparation for the future extended system is made.

  12. CMOS Integrated Single Electron Transistor Electrometry (CMOS-SET) circuit design for nanosecond quantum-bit read-out.

    SciTech Connect

    Gurrieri, Thomas M.; Lilly, Michael Patrick; Carroll, Malcolm S.; Levy, James E.

    2008-08-01

    Novel single electron transistor (SET) read-out circuit designs are described. The circuits use a silicon SET interfaced to a CMOS voltage mode or current mode comparator to obtain a digital read-out of the state of the qubit. The design assumes standard submicron (0.35 um) CMOS SOI technology using room temperature SPICE models. Implications and uncertainties related to the temperature scaling of these models to 100mK operation are discussed. Using this technology, the simulations predict a read-out operation speed of approximately Ins and a power dissipation per cell as low as 2nW for single-shot read-out, which is a significant advantage over currently used radio frequency SET (RF-SET) approaches.

  13. BLASTbus electronics: general-purpose readout and control for balloon-borne experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benton, S. J.; Ade, P. A.; Amiri, M.; Angilè, F. E.; Bock, J. J.; Bond, J. R.; Bryan, S. A.; Chiang, H. C.; Contaldi, C. R.; Crill, B. P.; Devlin, M. J.; Dober, B.; Doré, O. P.; Farhang, M.; Filippini, J. P.; Fissel, L. M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Fukui, Y.; Galitzki, N.; Gambrel, A. E.; Gandilo, N. N.; Golwala, S. R.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Halpern, M.; Hasselfield, M.; Hilton, G. C.; Holmes, W. A.; Hristov, V. V.; Irwin, K. D.; Jones, W. C.; Kermish, Z. D.; Klein, J.; Korotkov, A. L.; Kuo, C. L.; MacTavish, C. J.; Mason, P. V.; Matthews, T. G.; Megerian, K. G.; Moncelsi, L.; Morford, T. A.; Mroczkowski, T. K.; Nagy, J. M.; Netterfield, C. B.; Novak, G.; Nutter, D.; O'Brient, R.; Ogburn, R. W.; Pascale, E.; Poidevin, F.; Rahlin, A. S.; Reintsema, C. D.; Ruhl, J. E.; Runyan, M. C.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Shariff, J. A.; Soler, J. D.; Thomas, N. E.; Trangsrud, A.; Truch, M. D.; Tucker, C. E.; Tucker, G. S.; Tucker, R. S.; Turner, A. D.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Weber, A. C.; Wiebe, D. V.; Young, E. Y.

    2014-07-01

    We present the second generation BLASTbus electronics. The primary purposes of this system are detector readout, attitude control, and cryogenic housekeeping, for balloon-borne telescopes. Readout of neutron transmutation doped germanium (NTD-Ge) bolometers requires low noise and parallel acquisition of hundreds of analog signals. Controlling a telescope's attitude requires the capability to interface to a wide variety of sensors and motors, and to use them together in a fast, closed loop. To achieve these different goals, the BLASTbus system employs a flexible motherboard-daughterboard architecture. The programmable motherboard features a digital signal processor (DSP) and field-programmable gate array (FPGA), as well as slots for three daughterboards. The daughterboards provide the interface to the outside world, with versions for analog to digital conversion, and optoisolated digital input/output. With the versatility afforded by this design, the BLASTbus also finds uses in cryogenic, thermometry, and power systems. For accurate timing control to tie everything together, the system operates in a fully synchronous manner. BLASTbus electronics have been successfully deployed to the South Pole, and own on stratospheric balloons.

  14. Development of a new readout system for the near-infrared detector of HONIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ui, Takahiro; Sako, Shigeyuki; Yamashita, Takuya; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Kawabata, Koji S.; Nakaya, Hidehiko; Moritani, Yuki; Itoh, Ryosuke; Takaki, Katsutoshi; Urano, Takeshi; Ueno, Issei; Ohsugi, Takashi; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Nakao, Hikaru; Hashiba, Yasuhito

    2014-08-01

    We developed a new readout system for the near-infrared detector VIRGO-2K (2kx2k HgCdTe array) installed in the optical-infrared simultaneous camera, HONIR, for the 1.5 m Kanata telescope at Higashi-Hiroshima observatory. The main goal of this development is to read out one frame within ~ 1 second through 16 output readout mode of the detector, in order to reduce the overhead time per exposure. The system is based on a CCD controller, Kiso Array Controller (KAC). We redesigned the analog part of KAC to fit VIRGO-2K. We employed a fully differential input circuit and a third order Bessel low-pass filter for noise reduction and a constant current system to improve the linearity of the detector. We set the cutoff frequency of the Bessel low-pass filter at the readout clock rate (120 kHz). We also set the constant current at 200 μA according to the data sheet of VIRGO-2K. We tested the new readout system at room temperature and confirmed that the low-pass filter works well as designed. The fluctuation of the current level of the constant current system is less than 2% for the typical output voltage range of VIRGO-2K (3.2-4.4 V). We measured the readout noise caused by the new readout system (connected to cooled multiplexer) and found that it is 30-40 μV rms, being comparable to or slightly higher than the typical readout noise of VIRGO-2K, ˜ 37 μV rms.

  15. Prototype of readout electronics for the LHAASO KM2A electromagnetic particle detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiang; Chang, Jing-Fan; Wang, Zheng; Fan, Lei

    2016-07-01

    The KM2A (one kilometer square extensive air shower array) is the largest detector array in the LHAASO (Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory) project. The KM2A consists of 5242 EDs (Electromagnetic particle Detectors) and 1221 MDs (Muon Detectors). The EDs are distributed and exposed in the wild. Two channels, anode and dynode, are employed for the PMT (photomultiplier tube) signal readout. The readout electronics designed in this paper aims at accurate charge and arrival time measurement of the PMT signals, which cover a large amplitude range from 20 P.E. (photoelectrons) to 2 × 105 P.E. By using a “trigger-less” architecture, we digitize signals close to the PMTs. All digitized data is transmitted to DAQ (Data Acquisition) via a simplified White Rabbit protocol. Compared with traditional high energy experiments, high precision of time measurement over such a large area and suppression of temperature effects in the wild become the key techniques. Experiments show that the design has fulfilled the requirements in this project. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375210) and the Knowledge Innovation Fund of IHEP, Beijing

  16. Development of an ASIC for the readout and control of near-infrared large array detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Dirk; Berge, Hans Kristian Otnes; Hasanbegovic, Amir; Altan, Mehmet A.; Najafiuchevler, Bahram; Azman, Suleyman; Talebi, Jahanzad; Olsen, Alf; Øya, Petter; Paahlsson, Philip; Gheorghe, Codin; Maehlum, Gunnar

    2014-07-01

    The article describes the near infrared readout and controller ASIC (NIRCA) developed by Integrated Detector Electronics AS (IDEAS). The project aims at future astronomical science and Earth observation missions, where the ASIC will be used with image sensors based on mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe, or MCT). NIRCA is designed to operate from cryogenic temperatures (77 K) to higher than room temperature (328 K) and in a high radiation environment (LET > 60 MeVcm2/mg). The ASIC connects to the readout integrated circuit (ROIC) and delivers fully digitized data via serial digital output. The ASIC contains an analogue front-end (AFE) with 4 analogue-to-digital converters (ADCs) and programmable gain amplifiers with offset adjustment. The ADCs have a differential input swing of +/-2 V, 12-bit resolution, and a maximum sample rate of 3 MSps. The ASIC contains a programmable sequencer (microcontroller) to generate up to 40 digital signals for the ROIC and to control the analogue front-end and DACs on the chip. The ASIC has two power supply voltage regulators that provide the ROIC with 1.8 V and 3.3 V, and programmable 10-bit DACs to generate 16 independent reference and bias voltages from 0.3 V to 3 V. In addition NIRCA allows one to read 8 external digital signals, and monitor external and internal analogue signals including onchip temperature. NIRCA can be programmed and controlled via SPI interface for all internal functions and allows data forwarding from and to the ROIC SPI interface.

  17. Development of superconducting contacts for the CRESST II 66-channel superconducting quantum interference device readout system.

    PubMed

    Majorovits, B; Henry, S; Kraus, H

    2007-07-01

    The CRESST experiment is designed to search for weakly interacting massive particle dark matter with cryogenic detectors. CRESST II will use up to 33 CaWO(4) crystals with a total mass of approximately 10 kg. These many detectors require a readout system based on 66-channel superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). In this article we report on the development of a modular superconducting connector for the 66-channel SQUID readout circuit. We show that the technique developed reliably produces superconducting contacts. PMID:17672757

  18. Development of superconducting contacts for the CRESST II 66-channel superconducting quantum interference device readout system

    SciTech Connect

    Majorovits, B.; Henry, S.; Kraus, H.

    2007-07-15

    The CRESST experiment is designed to search for weakly interacting massive particle dark matter with cryogenic detectors. CRESST II will use up to 33 CaWO{sub 4} crystals with a total mass of {approx}10 kg. These many detectors require a readout system based on 66-channel superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). In this article we report on the development of a modular superconducting connector for the 66-channel SQUID readout circuit. We show that the technique developed reliably produces superconducting contacts.

  19. Fabrication of Tunnel Junctions For Direct Detector Arrays With Single-Electron Transistor Readout Using Electron-Beam Lithography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, T. R.; Hsieh, W.-T.; Li, M. J.; Stahle, C. M.; Rhee, K. W.; Teufel, J.; Schoelkopf, R. J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper will describe the fabrication of small aluminum tunnel junctions for applications in astronomy. Antenna-coupled superconducting tunnel junctions with integrated single-electron transistor readout have the potential for photon-counting sensitivity at sub-millimeter wavelengths. The junctions for the detector and single-electron transistor can be made with electron-beam lithography and a standard self-aligned double-angle deposition process. However, high yield and uniformity of the junctions is required for large-format detector arrays. This paper will describe how measurement and modification of the sensitivity ratio in the resist bilayer was used to greatly improve the reliability of forming devices with uniform, sub-micron size, low-leakage junctions.

  20. Low-noise ultra-high-speed dc SQUID readout electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drung, Dietmar; Hinnrichs, Colmar; Barthelmess, Henry-Jobes

    2006-05-01

    User-friendly ultra-high-speed readout electronics for dc superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) are presented. To maximize the system bandwidth, the SQUID is directly read out without flux modulation. A composite preamplifier is used consisting of a slow dc amplifier in parallel with a fast ac amplifier. In this way, excellent dc precision and a high amplifier bandwidth of 50 MHz are achieved, simultaneously. A virtual 50 Ω amplifier input resistance with negligible excess noise is realized by active shunting, i.e., by applying feedback from preamplifier output to input via a high resistance. The white voltage and current noise levels are 0.33 nV Hz-1 and 2.6 pA Hz-1/2, respectively. The electronics is fully computer controlled via a microcontroller integrated into the flux-locked loop (FLL) board. Easy-to-use software makes the various electronic settings accessible. A wide bias voltage range of 1.3 mV enables the readout of series SQUID arrays. Furthermore, additional current sources allow the operation of two-stage SQUIDs or transition edge sensors. The electronics was tested using various SQUIDs with input inductances between 30 nH and 1.5 µH. Typically, the maximum FLL bandwidth was 20 MHz, which is close to the theoretical limit given by transmission line delay within the FLL. Slew rates of up to 4.6 Φ0 µs-1 were achieved with series SQUID arrays. Current noise levels as low as 0.47 pA Hz-1/2 and coupled energy sensitivities between 90 h and 500 h were measured at 4.2 K, where h is the Planck constant. The noise did not degrade when the system bandwidth was increased to the maximum value of about 20 MHz. With a two-stage set-up, intrinsic white energy sensitivities of 30 h and 2.3 h were measured at 4.2 and 0.3 K, respectively.

  1. Development of readout system for FE-I4 pixel module using SiTCP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teoh, J. J.; Hanagaki, K.; Ikegami, Y.; Takubo, Y.; Terada, S.; Unno, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The ATLAS pixel detector will be replaced in the future High Luminosity-Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) upgrade to preserve or improve the detector performance at high luminosity environment. To meet the tight requirements of the upgrade, a new pixel Front-End (FE) Integrated Circuit (IC) called FE-I4 has been developed. We have then devised a readout system for the new FE IC. Our system incorporates Silicon Transmission Control Protocol (SiTCP) technology (Uchida, 2008 [1]) which utilizes the standard TCP/IP and UDP communication protocols. This technology allows direct data access and transfer between a readout hardware chain and PC via a high speed Ethernet. In addition, the communication protocols are small enough to be implemented in a single Field-Programable Gate Array (FPGA). Relying on this technology, we have been able to construct a very compact, versatile and fast readout system. We have developed a firmware and software together with the readout hardware chain. We also have established basic functionalities for reading out FE-I4.

  2. Ultra-low-drift and very fast dc SQUID readout electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oukhanski, N.; Stolz, R.; Meyer, H.-G.

    2006-06-01

    High-slew rate and thermo-stable readout electronics for dc superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) is presented. This electronics represents an optimum combination of the most important parameters for the SQUID-system user. In the new flux-locked loop (FLL) - unit design we have decreased a voltage white noise level down to the 0.32 nV/Hz{1/2}, with a flicker noise corner frequency of 0.1 Hz. By making use of electro-thermal feedback in the first stage amplifier, and multi-loop conventional feedback throughout the whole amplifier we have achieved a very low thermal drift <10 nV/K for T = 20 - 65 °C. FLL gain stability is improved down to 1% for the temperature range 10 - 60 °C and for 5 V (peak-peak) ± 30% of the power supplier voltage range. The maximum gain bandwidth product of the FLL-unit was increased 10 times up to 5 GHz. In turn, we could reach more than 10 Mphi0/s slew rate while using a conventional LTS SQUID (connected to the FLL by a 1.2 meterlength twisted pair), with a maximum voltage of the field-to-flux transfer function of >=60 µV (peak-peak). At the same time, we reduced by 40% the number of chips used in the FLL unit.

  3. Investigation of high sensitivity radio-frequency readout circuit based on AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Tan, Ren-Bing; Sun, Jian-Dong; Li, Xin-Xing; Zhou, Yu; Lü, Li; Qin, Hua

    2015-10-01

    An AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) device is prepared by using a semiconductor nanofabrication process. A reflective radio-frequency (RF) readout circuit is designed and the HEMT device is assembled in an RF circuit through a coplanar waveguide transmission line. A gate capacitor of the HEMT and a surface-mounted inductor on the transmission line are formed to generate LC resonance. By tuning the gate voltage Vg, the variations of gate capacitance and conductance of the HEMT are reflected sensitively from the resonance frequency and the magnitude of the RF reflection signal. The aim of the designed RF readout setup is to develop a highly sensitive HEMT-based detector. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61107093), the Suzhou Science and Technology Project, China (Grant No. ZXG2012024), and the Youth Innovation Promotion Association, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. 2012243).

  4. Electronic component design and testing for multielement IR arrays with CCD readout devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darchuk, Sergey D.; Derkach, Yurii P.; Kononenko, Yu. G.; Reva, Vladimir P.; Sizov, Fiodor F.; Tetyorkin, Vladimir V.

    1997-08-01

    P-channel silicon direct injection read-out devices with p- type buried channel CD multiplexers which consist of input circuits, shift register and output circuits were designed, fabricated and tested. Read-out devices were designed for using with IR p-n-photodiode linear arrays. The dynamical range of p-type read-out devices was estimated to be of the order of 60 dB at T equals 80 K. The two-phase p-channel CCD shift register was designed with 5 MHz clock frequency operation. Transfer efficiency without fat zero was 0.99985 at 1.0 MHz.

  5. Testing the GP-B telescope readout electronics on a flight quality telescope.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Gwo, D.-H.; Bower, K. A.; Huff, L. W.; Kirschman, R. K.; Lipa, J. A.; Jhabvala, M.; Babu, S.; Das, N.

    1998-06-01

    Integrated photodiodes and silicon JFET preamps are used for the optical readout of the Gravity Probe B cryogenic star tracking telescope. The heated circuit assembly is mounted on a thermal isolator so that it can be heated to around 80K while the telescope remains at its operating temperature of 2.8K. The authors present test results of the readout with a flight quality telescope.

  6. Developing scintillation light readout simulation for the SBND experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Gamez, D.

    2016-01-01

    Detection of scintillation light can play several important roles in LArTPCs. Increased collection efficiency could result in the improvement of time, energy, and position resolution. The SBND collaboration is developing detailed MC simulations to study the performance of different types of light systems in the LArSoft framework. Due to the vast number of photons typically produced in neutrino physics events, a full optical simulation becomes extremely hard to run on reasonable time scales. I will describe how the SBND simulation tackles these problems and its current status for two of the light detection systems considered by SBND: (i) a traditional TPB-coated PMT based system and (ii) a system based on TPB-coated reflector foils to increase collection efficiency without increasing the number of photodetectors.

  7. Detection of single electrons by means of a Micromegas-covered MediPix2 pixel CMOS readout circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, M.; Chefdeville, M.; Colas, P.; Colijn, A. P.; Fornaini, A.; Giomataris, Y.; van der Graaf, H.; Heijne, E. H. M.; Kluit, P.; Llopart, X.; Schmitz, J.; Timmermans, J.; Visschers, J. L.

    2005-03-01

    A small drift chamber was read out by means of a MediPix2 readout chip as a direct anode. A Micromegas foil was placed 50 μm above the chip, and electron multiplication occurred in the gap. With a He/isobutane 80/20 mixture, gas multiplication factors up to tens of thousands were achieved, resulting in an efficiency for detecting single electrons of better than 90%. We recorded many frames containing 2D images with tracks from cosmic muons. Along these tracks, electron clusters were observed, as well as δ-rays.

  8. Development of a cylindrical tracking detector with multichannel scintillation fibers and pixelated photon detector readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akazawa, Y.; Miwa, K.; Honda, R.; Shiozaki, T.; Chiga, N.

    2015-07-01

    We are developing a cylindrical tracking detector for a Σp scattering experiment in J-PARC with scintillation fibers and the Pixelated Photon Detector (PPD) readout, which is called as cylindrical fiber tracker (CFT), in order to reconstruct trajectories of charged particles emitted inside CFT. CFT works not only as a tracking detector but also a particle identification detector from energy deposits. A prototype CFT consisting of two straight layers and one spiral layer was constructed. About 1100 scintillation fibers with a diameter of 0.75 mm (Kuraray SCSF-78 M) were used. Each fiber signal was read by Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC, HPK S10362-11-050P, 1×1 mm2, 400 pixels) fiber by fiber. MPPCs were handled with Extended Analogue Silicon Photomultipliers Integrated ReadOut Chip (EASIROC) boards, which were developed for the readout of a large number of MPPCs. The energy resolution of one layer was 28% for a 70 MeV proton where the energy deposit in fibers was 0.7 MeV.

  9. A 4 V, ns-range pulse generator for the test of Cherenkov Telescopes readout electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoranz, P.; Vegas, I.; Miranda, J. M.

    2010-08-01

    We present in this paper the design, fabrication and verification of a ns-range pulse generator based on a Step Recovery Diode (SRD). This device needs only a 5 V DC power supply, delivers 1 ns pulses with peak amplitudes in excess of 4 V and features state of the art jitter figures. In addition, the pulser contains a trigger channel. The long standing problem of the SRD simulation via circuital analysis is addressed. It is shown that the dynamic properties of the Step Recovery Diode can accurately be reproduced via a small signal circuital simulation for the rise times needed in a ns-range pulser. It is also demonstrated that strong inaccuracies in the pulse shape prediction are obtained if the wave propagation through the lines typically used in this type of circuits is simulated by a simple Transverse Electromagnetic Mode (TEM) line model. Instead, it is necessary to account for non-TEM effects. By means of broadband resistive power splitters and high dynamic range amplifiers, a prototype of 4 channels was also fabricated. This prototype is particularly useful for testing the readout electronics of Cherenkov Telescopes, but additional applications to other large-scale experiments are expected, any of those where calibration or verification with compact ns-range pulsers featuring low jitter, large dynamic ranges and multichannel operation is needed. In addition, the fabrication cost of this pulser is almost negligible as compared with bulky, commercially available waveform generators, which rarely deliver ns pulses in excess of 3 V. Furthermore, the small size of the pulser presented here and its low power consumption allow an easy integration into more complex systems.

  10. Precision muon tracking detectors and read-out electronics for operation at very high background rates at future colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortner, O.; Kroha, H.; Nowak, S.; Richter, R.; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, K.; Schwegler, Ph.

    2016-07-01

    The experience of the ATLAS MDT muon spectrometer shows that drift-tube chambers provide highly reliable precision muon tracking over large areas. The ATLAS muon chambers are exposed to unprecedentedly high background of photons and neutrons induced by the proton collisions. Still higher background rates are expected at future high-energy and high-luminosity colliders beyond HL-LHC. Therefore, drift-tube detectors with 15 mm tube diameter (30 mm in ATLAS), optimised for high rate operation, have been developed for such conditions. Several such full-scale sMDT chambers have been constructed with unprecedentedly high sense wire positioning accuracy of better than 10 μm. The chamber design and assembly methods have been optimised for large-scale production, reducing considerably cost and construction time while maintaining the high mechanical accuracy and reliability. Tests at the Gamma Irradiation Facility at CERN showed that the rate capability of sMDT chambers is improved by more than an order of magnitude compared to the MDT chambers. By using read-out electronics optimised for high counting rates, the rate capability can be further increased.

  11. FERA readout system for APEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazes, S. B.; Perera, P. A. A.; Wolfs, F. L. H.

    1993-12-01

    A data acquisition system is described for processing energy and timing signals from large arrays of solid-state detectors and photomultiplier tubes. Signals are digitized using Fast Encoding and Readout ADCs (FERAs), and then downloaded to Data Stacks for subsequent readout via CAMAC. The acquisition electronics uses additional ECL modules to make logical decisions about data compression and synchronization. Three modes of readout are available, providing varying degrees of event compression. The system is characterized by a very short readout period, as well as the ease with which readout mode can be reconfigured. This FERA readout system is currently being used in the ATLAS Positron EXperiment (APEX) at Argonne National Laboratory.

  12. Front-end electronics development for the SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Levi, M.

    1990-12-01

    This is a status report on electronics development undertaken by the Front-End Electronics Collaboration. The overall goal of the collaboration remains the development by 1992 of complete, architecturally compatible, front end electronic systems for calorimeter, wire drift chamber, and silicon strip readout. We report here a few highlights to give a brief overview of the work underway. Performance requirements and capabilities, selected architectures, circuit designs and test results are presented. 13 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Development of Readout Interconnections for the Si-W Calorimeter of SiD

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, M.; Fields, R.G.; Holbrook, B.; Lander, R.L.; Moskaleva, A.; Neher, C.; Pasner, J.; Tripathi, M.; Brau, J.E.; Frey, R.E.; Strom, D.; Breidenbach, M.; Freytag, D.; Haller, G.; Herbst, R.; Nelson, T.; Schier, S.; Schumm, B.; /UC, Santa Cruz

    2012-09-14

    The SiD collaboration is developing a Si-W sampling electromagnetic calorimeter, with anticipated application for the International Linear Collider. Assembling the modules for such a detector will involve special bonding technologies for the interconnections, especially for attaching a silicon detector wafer to a flex cable readout bus. We review the interconnect technologies involved, including oxidation removal processes, pad surface preparation, solder ball selection and placement, and bond quality assurance. Our results show that solder ball bonding is a promising technique for the Si-W ECAL, and unresolved issues are being addressed.

  14. Single shot spin readout with a cryogenic high-electron-mobility transistor amplifier at sub-Kelvin temperatures

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tracy, Lisa A.; Luhman, Dwight R.; Carr, Stephen M.; Bishop, Nathaniel C.; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.; Pluym, Tammy; Wendt, Joel R.; Lilly, Michael P.; Carroll, Malcolm S.

    2016-02-08

    We use a cryogenic high-electron-mobility transistor circuit to amplify the current from a single electron transistor, allowing for demonstration of single shot readout of an electron spin on a single P donor in Si with 100 kHz bandwidth and a signal to noise ratio of ~9. In order to reduce the impact of cable capacitance, the amplifier is located adjacent to the Si sample, at the mixing chamber stage of a dilution refrigerator. For a current gain of ~2.7 x 103 the power dissipation of the amplifier is 13 μW, the bandwidth is ~1.3 MHz, and for frequencies above 300more » kHz the current noise referred to input is ≤ 70 fA/√Hz. Furthermore, with this amplification scheme, we are able to observe coherent oscillations of a P donor electron spin in isotopically enriched 28Si with 96% visibility.« less

  15. Single shot spin readout using a cryogenic high-electron-mobility transistor amplifier at sub-Kelvin temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tracy, L. A.; Luhman, D. R.; Carr, S. M.; Bishop, N. C.; Ten Eyck, G. A.; Pluym, T.; Wendt, J. R.; Lilly, M. P.; Carroll, M. S.

    2016-02-01

    We use a cryogenic high-electron-mobility transistor circuit to amplify the current from a single electron transistor, allowing for demonstration of single shot readout of an electron spin on a single P donor in Si with 100 kHz bandwidth and a signal to noise ratio of ˜9. In order to reduce the impact of cable capacitance, the amplifier is located adjacent to the Si sample, at the mixing chamber stage of a dilution refrigerator. For a current gain of ˜ 2.7 × 10 3 , the power dissipation of the amplifier is 13 μW, the bandwidth is ˜ 1.3 MHz, and for frequencies above 300 kHz the current noise referred to input is ≤ 70 fA/ √{ Hz } . With this amplification scheme, we are able to observe coherent oscillations of a P donor electron spin in isotopically enriched 28Si with 96% visibility.

  16. Development and simulation results of a sparsification and readout circuit for wide pixel matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrielli, A.; Giorgi, F.; Morsani, F.; Villa, M.

    2011-06-01

    In future collider experiments, the increasing luminosity and centre of mass energy are rising challenging problems in the design of new inner tracking systems. In this context we develop high-efficiency readout architectures for large binary pixel matrices that are meant to cope with the high-stressing conditions foreseen in the innermost layers of a tracker [The SuperB Conceptual Design Report, INFN/AE-07/02, SLAC-R-856, LAL 07-15, Available online at: http://www.pi.infn.it/SuperB]. We model and design digital readout circuits to be integrated on VLSI ASICs. These architectures can be realized with different technology processes and sensors: they can be implemented on the same silicon sensor substrate of a CMOS MAPS devices (Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor), on the CMOS tier of a hybrid pixel sensor or in a 3D chip where the digital layer is stacked on the sensor and the analog layers [V. Re et al., Nuc. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. A, doi:10.1016/j.nima.2010.05.039]. In the presented work, we consider a data-push architecture designed for a sensor matrix of an area of about 1.3 cm 2 with a pitch of 50 microns. The readout circuit tries to take great advantage of the high density of in-pixel digital logic allowed by vertical integration. We aim at sustaining a rate density of 100 Mtrack ṡ s -1 ṡ cm -2 with a temporal resolution below 1 μs. We show how this architecture can cope with these stressing conditions presenting the results of Monte Carlo simulations.

  17. High-speed, multi-channel detector readout electronics for fast radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Hennig, Wolfgang

    2012-06-22

    In this project, we are developing a high speed digital spectrometer that a) captures detector waveforms at rates up to 500 MSPS b) has upgraded event data acquisition with additional data buffers for zero dead time operation c) moves energy calculations to the FPGA to increase spectrometer throughput in fast scintillator applications d) uses a streamlined architecture and high speed data interface for even faster readout to the host PC These features are in addition to the standard functions in our existing spectrometers such as digitization, programmable trigger and energy filters, pileup inspection, data acquisition with energy and time stamps, MCA histograms, and run statistics. In Phase I, we upgraded one of our existing spectrometer designs to demonstrate the key principle of fast waveform capture using a 500 MSPS, 12 bit ADC and a Xilinx Virtex-4 FPGA. This upgraded spectrometer, named P500, performed well in initial tests of energy resolution, pulse shape analysis, and timing measurements, thus achieving item (a) above. In Phase II, we are revising the P500 to build a commercial prototype with the improvements listed in items (b)-(d). As described in the previous report, two devices were built to pursue this goal, named the Pixie-500 and the Pixie-500 Express. The Pixie-500 has only minor improvements from the Phase I prototype and is intended as an early commercial product (its production and part of its development were funded outside the SBIR). It also allows testing of the ADC performance in real applications.The Pixie-500 Express (or Pixie-500e) includes all of the improvements (b)-(d). At the end of Phase II of the project, we have tested and debugged the hardware, firmware and software of the Pixie-500 Express prototype boards delivered 12/3/2010. This proved substantially more complex than anticipated. At the time of writing, all hardware bugs have been fixed, the PCI Express interface is working, the SDRAM has been successfully tested and the SHARC

  18. Front-End Electronics for the Array Readout of a Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detector Towards Observation of Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishitsuka, H.; Ikeno, M.; Oguri, S.; Tajima, O.; Tomita, N.; Uchida, T.

    2016-01-01

    Precise measurements of polarization patterns in cosmic microwave background (CMB) provide deep knowledge about the begin of the Universe. The GroundBIRD experiment aims to measure the CMB polarization by using microwave kinetic inductance detector (MKID) arrays. The MKID is suited to multiplexing. One of our requirements is a MUX factor (the number of readout channels for a single wire pair) of at least 100. If we make frequency combs of the MKIDs with 2-MHz spacing, a bandwidth of 200 MHz satisfies 100 MUX. The analog electronics must consist of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), digital-to-analog converter (DAC), and local oscillator. We developed our own analog electronics board "RHEA." Two outputs/inputs of DAC/ADC with a 200-MHz clock provide an effective bandwidth of 200 MHz. The RHEA allows us to measure both the amplitude and phase responses of each MKID simultaneously. These data are continuously sampled at a high rate (e.g., 1 kSPS) and with no dead time. We achieved 12 and 14 bits resolution for ADC and DAC, respectively. This corresponds to achieve that our electronics achieved low noise: 1/1000 compared with the detector noise. We also achieved low power consumption compared with that of other electronics development for other experiments. Another important feature is that the board is completely separated from the digital part. Each user can choose their preferred field-programmable array. With the combination of the Kintex-7 evaluation kit from Xilinx, we demonstrated readout of MKID response.

  19. Front-End Electronics for the Array Readout of a Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detector Towards Observation of Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishitsuka, H.; Ikeno, M.; Oguri, S.; Tajima, O.; Tomita, N.; Uchida, T.

    2016-07-01

    Precise measurements of polarization patterns in cosmic microwave background (CMB) provide deep knowledge about the begin of the Universe. The GroundBIRD experiment aims to measure the CMB polarization by using microwave kinetic inductance detector (MKID) arrays. The MKID is suited to multiplexing. One of our requirements is a MUX factor (the number of readout channels for a single wire pair) of at least 100. If we make frequency combs of the MKIDs with 2-MHz spacing, a bandwidth of 200 MHz satisfies 100 MUX. The analog electronics must consist of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), digital-to-analog converter (DAC), and local oscillator. We developed our own analog electronics board " RHEA." Two outputs/inputs of DAC/ADC with a 200-MHz clock provide an effective bandwidth of 200 MHz. The RHEA allows us to measure both the amplitude and phase responses of each MKID simultaneously. These data are continuously sampled at a high rate (e.g., 1 kSPS) and with no dead time. We achieved 12 and 14 bits resolution for ADC and DAC, respectively. This corresponds to achieve that our electronics achieved low noise: 1/1000 compared with the detector noise. We also achieved low power consumption compared with that of other electronics development for other experiments. Another important feature is that the board is completely separated from the digital part. Each user can choose their preferred field-programmable array. With the combination of the Kintex-7 evaluation kit from Xilinx, we demonstrated readout of MKID response.

  20. An open-source readout for MKIDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Ran; McHugh, Sean; Serfass, Bruno; Mazin, Benjamin A.; Merrill, A.; Golwala, Sunil R.; Downes, Thomas P.; Czakon, Nicole G.; Day, Peter K.; Gao, Jiansong; Glenn, Jason; Hollister, Matthew I.; Leduc, Henry G.; Maloney, Philip R.; Noroozian, Omid; Nguyen, Hien T.; Sayers, Jack; Schlaerth, James A.; Siegel, Seth; Vaillancourt, John E.; Vayonakis, Anastasios; Wilson, Philip R.; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2010-07-01

    This paper will present the design, implementation, performance analysis of an open source readout system for arrays of microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKID) for mm/submm astronomy. The readout system will perform frequency domain multiplexed real-time complex microwave transmission measurements in order to monitor the instantaneous resonance frequency and dissipation of superconducting microresonators. Each readout unit will be able to cover up to 550 MHz bandwidth and readout 256 complex frequency channels simultaneously. The digital electronics include the customized DAC, ADC, IF system and the FPGA based signal processing hardware developed by CASPER group.1-7 The entire system is open sourced, and can be customized to meet challenging requirement in many applications: e.g. MKID, MSQUID etc.

  1. Cross strip anode readouts for microchannel plate detectors: developing flight qualified prototypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallerga, John; Cooney, M.; Raffanti, R.; Varner, G.; Siegmund, O.; McPhate, J. B.; Tremsin, A.

    2014-01-01

    Photon counting microchannel plate (MCP) imagers have been the detector of choice for most UV astronomical missions over the last two decades (eg. EUVE, FUSE, COS on Hubble etc.). Over this duration, improvements in the MCP laboratory readout technology have resulted in better spatial resolution (x10), temporal resolution (x 1000) and output event rate (x100), all the while operating at lower gain (x 10) resulting in lower high voltage requirements and longer MCP lifetimes. One such technology is the parallel cross strip (PXS) readout. The PXS anode is a set of orthogonal conducting strips (80 x 80), typically spaced at a 635 micron pitch onto which charge clouds from MCP amplified events land. Each strip has its own charge sensitive amplifier that is sampled continuously by a dedicated analog to digital (ADC) converter at 50MHz. All of the 160 ADC digital output lines are fed into a field programmable gate array (FGPA) which can detect charge events landing on the strips, measure the peak amplitudes of those charge events and calculate their spatial centroid along with their time of arrival (X,Y,T). Laboratory versions of these electronics have demonstrated < 20 microns FWHM spatial resolution, count rates on the order of 2 MHz, and temporal resolution of ~ 1ns. In 2012 the our group at U.C. Berkeley, along with our partners at the U. Hawaii, received a Strategic Astrophysics Technology grant to raise the TRL of the PXS detector from 4 to 6 by replacing most of the 19" rack mounted, high powered electronics with application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) which will lower the power, mass and volume requirements of the PXS detector. We were also tasked to design and fabricate a "standard" 50mm square active area MCP detector incorporating these electronics that can be environmentally qualified for flight (temperature, vacuum, vibration). This detector design could then be modified for individual flight opportunities with a higher level of confidence than

  2. Radiation tolerance tests of SRAM-based FPGAs for the potential usage in the readout electronics for the LHCb experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Färber, C.; Uwer, U.; Wiedner, D.; Leverington, B.; Ekelhof, R.

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes radiation studies of a SRAM-based FPGA as a central component for a upgrade of the LHCb Outer Tracker front-end electronics to a readout frequency of 40 MHz. Two Arria GX FPGAs were irradiated with 20 MeV protons to radiation doses of up to 7 Mrad. During and between the irradiation periods the different FPGA currents, the package temperature, the firmware error rate, the PLL stability, and the stability of a 32 channel TDC implemented on the FPGA were monitored. Results on the radiation tolerance of the FPGA and the measured firmware error rates will be presented. The Arria GX FPGA fulfills the radiation tolerance required for the LHCb upgrade (30 krad) and an expected firmware error rate of roughly 10-6 Hz makes the chip a possible component for the upgraded front-end electronics.

  3. Development of low mass optical readout for high data bandwidth systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, D.; DeLurgio, P.; Drake, G.; Fernando, W.; Lopez, D.; Salvachua-Ferrando, B.; Stanek, R.

    2010-10-01

    At Argonne National Laboratory the High Energy Physics and Center for Nanoscale Materials Divisions are working on a project to develop a new generation of detector readout using high speed data transfer optical devices that can be implemented in particle physics or for long distances. Free-space communications devices offer the potential for reductions in mass, power, and cost of data paths for on-board trigger and readout of tracking detectors. The project involves three areas of study: light modulation, the design and construction of MEMS optical devices, and the control systems for maintaining precise laser light positioning. We demonstrate an optical link in air over one meter and with low error rate at 1 Gb/s. We demonstrate steering of an optical beam over a meter with a precision of 5 micrometers utilizing a MEMS mirror and reflected light in the feedback loop. For early testing, light modulation tests with a fiber link using Li-Niobate modulators and a data generation and error checking chip are done at 1 Gb/s. Many companies and universities are developing modulators which will be incorporated into CMOS chips. We are doing radiation hardness studies for one of the materials involved. Laser light will need to be steered on to and kept centered on the detector in the presence of thermal or mechanical motion, etc. This steering will be controlled by MEMS mirrors. Polycrystalline and crystalline silicon based mirror designs are being studied. We review the current status of the project and outline plans for the future development of the system.

  4. Development of noncryogenic cooled carbon nanotube-based infrared focal plane array with integrated readout circuitry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Ning; Lai, King Wai Chiu; Chen, Hongzhi; Chen, Liangliang; Fung, Carmen Kar Man

    2011-06-01

    Infrared (IR) detectors are enormously important for various applications including medical diagnosis, night vision etc. The current bottleneck of high-sensitive IR detectors is the requirement of cryogenic cooling to reduce the noise. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) exhibit low dark current which allows CNTs to work without cooling. This paper presents the development of noncryogenic cooled IR focal plane array (FPA) using CNTs. The FPA consists of an array of CNTbased IR detectors which are sensitive to IR signal at room temperature. The CNT-based detectors can be made by our nanomanufacturing process. And the sensitivity of the detectors at a special wavelength can be achieved by selecting and controlling the bandgap of CNTs during the process. Besides, a readout circuitry has been integrated with the FPA to retrieve signals from the detectors for high throughput applications.

  5. Single-event upset tests on the readout electronics for the pixel detectors of the PANDA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazza, G.; Balossino, I.; Calvo, D.; De Mori, F.; De Remigis, P.; Filippi, A.; Marcello, S.; Mignone, M.; Wheadon, R.; Zotti, L.; Candelori, A.; Mattiazzo, S.; Silvestrin, L.

    2014-01-01

    The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) of the future PANDA experiment is the closest one to the interaction point and therefore the sensor and its electronics are the most exposed to radiation. The Total Ionizing Dose (TID) issue has been addressed by the use of a deep-submicron technology (CMOS 0.13 μm) for the readout ASICs. While this technology is very effective in reducing radiation induced oxide damage, it is also more sensitive to Single Event Upset (SEU) effects due to their extremely reduced dimensions. This problem has to be addressed at the circuit level and generally leads to an area penalty. Several techniques have been proposed in literature with different trade-off between level of protection and cell size. A subset of these techniques has been implemented in the PANDA SPD ToPiX readout ASIC prototypes, ranging from DICE cells to triple redundancy. Two prototypes have been tested with different ion beams at the INFN-LNL facility in order to measure the SEU cross section. Comparative results of the SEU test will be shown, together with an analysis of the SEU tolerance of the various protection schemes and future plans for the SEU protection strategy which will be implemented in the next ToPiX prototype.

  6. Amorphous silicon pixel radiation detectors and associated thin film transistor electronics readout

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Mendez, V.; Drewery, J.; Hong, W.S.; Jing, T.; Kaplan, S.N.; Lee, H.; Mireshghi, A.

    1994-10-01

    We describe the characteristics of thin (1 {mu}m) and thick (>30 {mu}m) hydrogenated amorphous silicon p-i-n diodes which are optimized for detecting and recording the spatial distribution of charged particles, x-rays and {gamma} rays. For x-ray, {gamma} ray, and charged particle detection we can use thin p-i-n photosensitive diode arrays coupled to evaporated layers of suitable scintillators. For direct detection of charged particles with high resistance to radiation damage, we use the thick p-i-n diode arrays. Deposition techniques using helium dilution, which produce samples with low stress are described. Pixel arrays for flux exposures can be readout by transistor, single diode or two diode switches. Polysilicon charge sensitive pixel amplifiers for single event detection are described. Various applications in nuclear, particle physics, x-ray medical imaging, neutron crystallography, and radionuclide chromatography are discussed.

  7. The data acquisition system for a fixed target experiment at NICA complex at JINR and its connection to the ATLAS TileCal readout electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomiwa, K. G.; Slepnev, I.; Bazylev, S.

    2015-10-01

    Today's large-scale science projects have always encountered challenges in processing large data flow from the experiments, the ATLAS detector records proton-proton collisions provided by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN every 50 ns which results in a total data flow of 10 Pb/s. These data must be reduced to the science data product for further analysis, thus a very fast decisions need to be executed, to modify this large amounts of data at high rates. The capabilities required to support this scale of data movement is development and improvement of high-throughput electronics. The upgraded LHC will provide collisions at rates that will be at least 10 times higher than those of today due to it's luminosity by 2022. This will require a complete redesign of the read-out electronics and Processing Units (PU) in the Tile-calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment. A general purpose, high-throughput PU has been developed for the TileCal at CERN, by using several ARM-processors in cluster configuration. The PU is capable of handling large data throughput and apply advanced operations at high rates. This system has been proposed for the fixed target experiment at NICA complex to handle the first level processes and event building. The aim of this work is to have a look at the architecture of the data acquisition system (DAQ) of the fixed target experiment at the NICA complex at JINR, by compiling the data-flow requirements of all the subcomponents. Furthermore, the VME DAQ modules characteristics to control, triggering and data acquisition will be described in order to define the DAQ with maximum readout efficiency, no dead time and data selection and compression.

  8. Ultrafast soft x-ray two-dimensional plasma imaging system based on gas electron multiplier detector with pixel readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacella, D.; Pizzicaroli, G.; Gabellieri, L.; Leigheb, M.; Bellazzini, R.; Brez, A.; Gariano, G.; Latronico, L.; Lumb, N.; Spandre, G.; Massai, M. M.; Reale, S.

    2001-02-01

    In the present article a new diagnostic device in the soft x-ray range, for magnetic fusion plasmas, is proposed based on a gas electron multiplier detector with 2.5×2.5 cm active area, equipped with a true two-dimensional readout system. The readout printed circuit board, designed for these experiments, has 128 pads. Each pad is 2 mm square and covers a roughly circular area. The operational conditions of the detector are settled to work in the x-ray range 3-15 keV at very high counting rates, with a linear response up to 2 MHz/pixel. This limitation is due to the electronic dead time. Images of a wrench and two pinholes were done at rates of 2.5 MHz/pixel with a powerful x-ray laboratory source showing an excellent imaging capability. Finally preliminary measurements of x-ray emission from a magnetic fusion plasma were performed on the Frascati tokamak upgrade experiment. The system was able to image the plasma with a wide dynamic range (more than a factor of 100), with a sampling frequency of 20 kHz and with counting rates up to 4 MHz/pixel, following the changes of the x-ray plasma emissivity due to additional radio frequency heating. The spatial resolution and imaging properties of this detector have been studied in this work for conditions of high counting rates and high gain, with the detector fully illuminated by very intense x-ray sources (laboratory tube and tokamak plasma).

  9. Developing electronic textbooks

    SciTech Connect

    Zadoks, R.I.; Ratner, J.A.

    1996-03-01

    This paper discusses a new approach to the development of engineering education materials. The ``Electronic Textbook`` represents the logical progression of the printed textbook in the Electronic Age. The concept behind this approach is simple; to place all of the information contained in a textbook in electronic form. Currently, paper texts exist on the market with electronic supplements, however, this Electronic Textbook would include supplements fully integrated in the whole text. The computer hardware and software needed to make this advance possible have existed for nearly ten years, and they have been readily available to engineering educators and students for over three years. Computer based ``tools`` in engineering textbooks as are prevalent today range from computer styled algorithms and code snippets, to fully developed software applications with graphical user interfaces on floppy disks attached to the back covers of books. The next logical step in publishing is to dispense with the paper book entirely, by distributing textbooks via electronic media such as CD-ROM. Electronic Textbooks use the full range of multi-media technologies in the learning and teaching process including video clips, computer animations and fully functional numerical engines as integral parts of the textbook material. This is very appealing since interactive media provide teaching tools that appeal to divergent learning styles. The advantages of Electronic Textbooks lead to several challenges. Special attention must be paid to the development of user interfaces; navigation is of particular importance when non- linear exploration is encouraged. These issues are being addressed at the Sandia National Laboratories by an electronic documentation development team. This team includes experts in engineering, in human factors, and in computer hardware and software development. Guidelines for the development of electronic textbooks based on the experiences of this team are provided.

  10. Cryogenic readout electronics with silicon P-MOSFETS for the infrared astronomical satellite, ASTRO-F

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirao, T.; Hibi, Y.; Kawada, M.; Nagata, H.; Shibai, H.; Watabe, T.; Noda, M.; Nakagawa, T.

    We have successfully developed a low-power, low-noise silicon p-channel MOSFET working at 1.8 K. This MOSFET was produced by a standard 0.5μm BiCMOS process. From the typical current-voltage characteristics of this p-channel MOSFET at 1.8K, we obtained that the drain resistance r d is ˜2Mω, the transconductance g m is ˜35μS, and the input referred noise voltage is as low as ˜2μV/√Hz at 1Hz under low-drain current condition (˜1μA). No "kink"-like behavior was observed within the nominal operation range (-1.5Velectronics. The purpose of the present work is to develop the capacitive transimpedance amplifiers (CTIA) for the Far-infrared Surveyor (FIS) on board the Japanese infrared astronomical satellite, ASTRO-F. The cryogenic amplifier that is essential for CTIAs was successfully made by employing this p-channel MOSFET. The open-loop gain was ˜1000, and the power consumption was less than 10μW at 4.2K. We have finally demonstrated that the CTIA consisting of this cryogenic amplifier worked well at 4.2 K.

  11. Demountable readout technologies for optical image intensifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapington, J. S.; Howorth, J. R.; Milnes, J. S.

    2007-04-01

    We describe a generic microchannel plate intensifier design for use with a variety of demountable readout devices manufactured using standard multi-layer PCB techniques. We present results obtained using a 50 Ω multi-element design optimized for high speed operation and a four electrode multi-layer device developed from the wedge and strip anode with enhanced image resolution. The benefits of this intensifier design are discussed and a project to develop a detector system for bio-medical applications using a demountable readout device with integrated multi-channel ASIC-based electronics is announced.

  12. Highly sensitive hBN/graphene hot electron bolometers with a Johnson noise readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efetov, Dmitri; Gao, Yuanda; Walsh, Evan; Shiue, Ren-Jye; Grosso, Gabriele; Peng, Cheng; Hone, James; Fong, Kin Chun; Englund, Dirk

    Graphene has remarkable opto-electronic and thermo-electric properties that make it an exciting functional material for various photo-detection applications. In particular, owed to graphenes unique combination of an exceedingly low electronic heat capacity and a strongly suppressed electron-phonon thermal conductivity Gth, the electronic and phononic temperatures are highly decoupled allowing an operation principle as a hot electron bolometer (HEB). Here we demonstrate highly sensitive HEBs made of high quality hBN/graphene/hBN stacks and employ a direct electronic temperature read out scheme via Johnson noise thermometry (JNT). We perform combined pump-probe and JNT measurements to demonstrate strongly damped Ce and Gth in the ultra-low impurity σi = 109 cm-2 hBN/G/hBN stacks, which result in unprecedented photo-detection sensitivity and noise equivalent power for graphene HEBs.

  13. Ultrafast electronic readout of diamond nitrogen-vacancy centres coupled to graphene.

    PubMed

    Brenneis, Andreas; Gaudreau, Louis; Seifert, Max; Karl, Helmut; Brandt, Martin S; Huebl, Hans; Garrido, Jose A; Koppens, Frank H L; Holleitner, Alexander W

    2015-02-01

    Non-radiative transfer processes are often regarded as loss channels for an optical emitter because they are inherently difficult to access experimentally. Recently, it has been shown that emitters, such as fluorophores and nitrogen-vacancy centres in diamond, can exhibit a strong non-radiative energy transfer to graphene. So far, the energy of the transferred electronic excitations has been considered to be lost within the electron bath of the graphene. Here we demonstrate that the transferred excitations can be read out by detecting corresponding currents with a picosecond time resolution. We detect electronically the spin of nitrogen-vacancy centres in diamond and control the non-radiative transfer to graphene by electron spin resonance. Our results open the avenue for incorporating nitrogen-vacancy centres into ultrafast electronic circuits and for harvesting non-radiative transfer processes electronically. PMID:25437746

  14. Quantum logic readout and cooling of a single dark electron spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Fazhan; Zhang, Qi; Naydenov, Boris; Jelezko, Fedor; Du, Jiangfeng; Reinhard, Friedemann; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2013-05-01

    We study a single dark N2 electron spin defect in diamond, which is magnetically coupled to a nearby nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center. We perform pulsed electron spin resonance on this single spin by mapping its state to the NV center spin and optically reading out the latter. Moreover, we show that the NV center's spin polarization can be transferred to the electron spin by combined two decoupling control-NOT gates. These two results allow us to extend the NV center's two key properties—optical spin polarization and detection—to any electron spin in its vicinity. This enables dark electron spins to be used as local quantum registers and engineerable memories.

  15. A high performance Front End Electronics for drift chamber readout in MEG experiment upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiarello, G.; Chiri, C.; Corvaglia, A.; Grancagnolo, F.; Panareo, M.; Pepino, A.; Pinto, C.; Tassielli, G.

    2016-07-01

    Front End (FE) Electronics plays an essential role in Drift Chambers (DC) for time resolution and, therefore, spatial resolution. The use of cluster timing techniques, by measuring the timing of all the individual ionization clusters after the first one, may enable to reach resolutions even below 100 μm in the measurement of the impact parameter. To this purpose, a Front End Electronics with a wide bandwidth and low noise is mandatory in order to acquire and amplify the drift chamber signals.

  16. Inexpensive read-out for coincident electron spectroscopy with a transmission electron microscope at nanometer scale using micro channel plates and multistrip anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollander, R. W.; Bom, V. R.; van Eijk, C. W. E.; Faber, J. S.; Hoevers, H.; Kruit, P.

    1994-09-01

    The elemental composition of a sample at nanometer scale is determined by measurement of the characteristic energy of Auger electrons, emitted in coincidence with incoming primary electrons from a microbeam in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). Single electrons are detected with position sensitive detectors, consisting of MicroChannel Plates (MCP) and MultiStrip Anodes (MSA), one for the energy of the Auger electrons (Auger-detector) and one for the energy loss of primary electrons (EELS-detector). The MSAs are sensed with LeCroy 2735DC preamplifiers. The fast readout is based on LeCroy's PCOS III system. On the detection of a coincidence (Event) energy data of Auger and EELS are combined with timing data to an Event word. Event words are stored in list mode in a VME memory module. Blocks of Event words are scanned by transputers in VME and two-dimensional energy histograms are filled using the timing information to obtain a maximal true/accidental ratio. The resulting histograms are stored on disk of a PC-386, which also controls data taking. The system is designed to handle 10 5 Events per second, 90% of which are accidental. In the histograms the "true" to "accidental" ratio will be 5. The dead time is 15%.

  17. Development of a dedicated readout ASIC for TPC based X-ray polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongyan; Deng, Zhi; Li, Hong; Liu, Yinong; Feng, Hua

    2016-07-01

    X-ray polarimetry with time projection chambers was firstly proposed by JK Black in 2007 and has been greatly developed since then. It measured two dimensional photoelectron tracks with one dimensional strip and the other dimension was estimated by the drift time from the signal waveforms. A readout ASIC, APV25, originally developed for CMS silicon trackers was used and has shown some limitations such as waveform sampling depth. A dedicated ASIC was developed for TPC based X-ray polarimeters in this paper. It integrated 32 channel circuits and each channel consisted of an analog front-end and a waveform sampler based on switched capacitor array. The analog front-end has a charge sensitive preamplifier with a gain of 25 mV/fC, a CR-RC shaper with a peaking time of 25 ns, a baseline holder and a discriminator for self-triggering. The SCA has a buffer latency of 3.2 μs with 64 cells operating at 20 MSPS. The ASIC was fabricated in a 0.18 μm CMOS process. The equivalent noise charge (ENC) of the analog front-end was measured to be 274.8 e+34.6 e/pF. The effective resolution of the SCA was 8.8 bits at sampling rate up to 50 MSPS. The total power consumption was 2.8 mW per channel. The ASIC was also tested with real TPC detectors and two dimensional photoelectron tracks have been successfully acquired. More tests and analysis on the sensitivity to the polarimetry are undergoing and will be presented in this paper.

  18. Frequency division multiplexed readout of TES detectors with baseband feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    den Hartog, R.; Audley, M. D.; Beyer, J.; Bruijn, M. P.; de Korte, P.; Gottardi, L.; Hijmering, R.; Jackson, B.; Nieuwenhuizen, A.; van der Kuur, J.; van Leeuwen, B.-J.; Van Loon, D.

    2012-09-01

    SRON is developing an electronic system for the multiplexed read-out of an array of transition edge sensors (TES) by combining the techniques of frequency domain multiplexing (FDM) with base-band feedback (BBFB). The astronomical applications are the read-out of soft X-ray microcalorimeters and the far-infrared bolometers for the SAFARI instrument on the Japanese mission SPICA. In this paper we derive the requirements for the read-out system regarding noise and dynamic range in the context of the SAFARI instrument, and demonstrate that the current experimental prototype is capable of simultaneously locking 57 channels and complies with these requirements.

  19. 3-D readout-electronics packaging for high-bandwidth massively paralleled imager

    DOEpatents

    Kwiatkowski, Kris; Lyke, James

    2007-12-18

    Dense, massively parallel signal processing electronics are co-packaged behind associated sensor pixels. Microchips containing a linear or bilinear arrangement of photo-sensors, together with associated complex electronics, are integrated into a simple 3-D structure (a "mirror cube"). An array of photo-sensitive cells are disposed on a stacked CMOS chip's surface at a 45.degree. angle from light reflecting mirror surfaces formed on a neighboring CMOS chip surface. Image processing electronics are held within the stacked CMOS chip layers. Electrical connections couple each of said stacked CMOS chip layers and a distribution grid, the connections for distributing power and signals to components associated with each stacked CSMO chip layer.

  20. Development of a fast read-out system of a single photon counting detector for mammography with synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, F. C.; Rigon, L.; Longo, R.; Arfelli, F.; Bergamaschi, A.; Chen, R. C.; Dreossi, D.; Schmitt, B.; Vallazza, E.; Castelli, E.

    2011-12-01

    A single-photon counting detector read-out system for mammography with synchrotron radiation has been developed with the aim to meet the needs of the mammographic imaging station of the SYRMEP beamline at ELETTRA. The system called PICASSO (Phase Imaging for Clinical Application with Silicon detector and Synchrotron radiatiOn) is a modular detector that implements a read-out system with MYTHEN II ASICs, an embedded Linux-based controller board and a Scientific Linux acquisition workstation. The system architecture and characteristics are herein presented. The system was tested at the SYRMEP beamline and achieved a frame rate of 33 Hz for 8448 channels at 24-bit dynamic range, and it is capable of continuously acquiring up to 2000 frames. Standard mammographic phantoms were imaged and good quality images were obtained at doses comparable with what is delivered in conventional full field mammographic systems.

  1. A fast and flexible multichannel electron detector with parallel readout for photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, P. P.; Clague, N. J.; Kirkman, I. W.; Quinn, F. M.; Hicks, P. J.

    1997-02-01

    To satisfy end user requirements for higher throughput and reliability in photoelectron spectroscopy, a new multichannel electron detector with discrete electronics has been designed and commissioned at Daresbury Laboratory. Count rate performance has been enhanced by the use of low resistance microchannel plates which amplify the electron pulses incident on the anode array. The low resistance microchannel plates are linear to 2.5 × 10 4 s -1 mm -2 for a bias voltage of 900 V per plate, providing more than an order of magnitude improvement in count rate performance over high resistance microchannel plates, microchannel plate outgassing in the ultra-high vacuum environment limits the scale of this improvement. A novel anode design maximizes the collection efficiency, while minimising crosstalk between channels (< 0.6% after discrimination) and provides up to 40 parallel channels on a 1 mm pitch. The collection efficiency is increased from 50% to 70% (for the present geometry) by applying a 50 V bias between the guard rail and electrodes on the anode. Each data collection channel comprises a fast current amplifier and discriminator, capable of a throughput of 2.5 × 10 7 s -1, and a 24 bit scaler. The integral non-linearity for flat-field illumination is better than 10% with no correction. The fast multichannel detection system gives a throughput enhancement of 10-20 on single-channel detection systems. It has also proved to be significantly better than previous multichannel detection systems with discrete electronics due to its high throughput, modular design and flexible structure.

  2. Frequency-domain multiplex with eight-input SQUID and readout electronics over 1 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masui, K.; Takei, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Kimura, S.; Mitsuda, K.; Yamasaki, N. Y.

    2006-04-01

    In a magnetic summation method, TES and SQUID driving circuits are isolated and thus small crosstalk and stray impedance are expected. Since a FLL circuit with a large bandwidth and a small noise level is required for a SQUID, we designed and produced an electronics to meet our design of multiplexing with an 8-input SQUID. The FLL circuit achieved an open loop-gain bandwidth product of 8 MHz with 1 m wire length, which is enough for a TES to be operated with a bias current of 70 μA, and a noise level of 30 pA/√{Hz}.

  3. Development of a beam test telescope based on the Alibava readout system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco-Hernández, R.

    2011-01-01

    A telescope for a beam test have been developed as a result of a collaboration among the University of Liverpool, Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica (CNM) of Barcelona and Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC) of Valencia. This system is intended to carry out both analogue charge collection and spatial resolution measurements with different types of microstrip or pixel silicon detectors in a beam test environment. The telescope has four XY measurement as well as trigger planes (XYT board) and it can accommodate up to twelve devices under test (DUT board). The DUT board uses two Beetle ASICs for the readout of chilled silicon detectors. The board could operate in a self-triggering mode. The board features a temperature sensor and it can be mounted on a rotary stage. A peltier element is used for cooling the DUT. Each XYT board measures the track space points using two silicon strip detectors connected to two Beetle ASICs. It can also trigger on the particle tracks in the beam test. The board includes a CPLD which allows for the synchronization of the trigger signal to a common clock frequency, delaying and implementing coincidence with other XYT boards. An Alibava mother board is used to read out and to control each XYT/DUT board from a common trigger signal and a common clock signal. The Alibava board has a TDC on board to have a time stamp of each trigger. The data collected by each Alibava board is sent to a master card by means of a local data/address bus following a custom digital protocol. The master board distributes the trigger, clock and reset signals. It also merges the data streams from up to sixteen Alibava boards. The board has also a test channel for testing in a standard mode a XYT or DUT board. This board is implemented with a Xilinx development board and a custom patch board. The master board is connected with the DAQ software via 100M Ethernet. Track based alignment software has also been developed for the data obtained with the DAQ software.

  4. Study and optimization of the spatial resolution for detectors with binary readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonamine, R.; Maerschalk, T.; Lentdecker, G. De

    2016-09-01

    Using simulations and analytical approaches, we have studied single hit resolutions obtained with a binary readout, which is often proposed for high granularity detectors to reduce the generated data volume. Our simulations considering several parameters (e.g. strip pitch) show that the detector geometry and an electronics parameter of the binary readout chips could be optimized for binary readout to offer an equivalent spatial resolution to the one with an analog readout. To understand the behavior as a function of simulation parameters, we developed analytical models that reproduce simulation results with a few parameters. The models can be used to optimize detector designs and operation conditions with regard to the spatial resolution.

  5. Microwave multiplex readout for superconducting sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferri, E.; Becker, D.; Bennett, D.; Faverzani, M.; Fowler, J.; Gard, J.; Giachero, A.; Hays-Wehle, J.; Hilton, G.; Maino, M.; Mates, J.; Puiu, A.; Nucciotti, A.; Reintsema, C.; Schmidt, D.; Swetz, D.; Ullom, J.; Vale, L.

    2016-07-01

    The absolute neutrino mass scale is still an outstanding challenge in both particle physics and cosmology. The calorimetric measurement of the energy released in a nuclear beta decay is a powerful tool to determine the effective electron-neutrino mass. In the last years, the progress on low temperature detector technologies has allowed to design large scale experiments aiming at pushing down the sensitivity on the neutrino mass below 1 eV. Even with outstanding performances in both energy (~ eV on keV) and time resolution (~ 1 μs) on the single channel, a large number of detectors working in parallel is required to reach a sub-eV sensitivity. Microwave frequency domain readout is the best available technique to readout large array of low temperature detectors, such as Transition Edge Sensors (TESs) or Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs). In this way a multiplex factor of the order of thousands can be reached, limited only by the bandwidth of the available commercial fast digitizers. This microwave multiplexing system will be used to readout the HOLMES detectors, an array of 1000 microcalorimeters based on TES sensors in which the 163Ho will be implanted. HOLMES is a new experiment for measuring the electron neutrino mass by means of the electron capture (EC) decay of 163Ho. We present here the microwave frequency multiplex which will be used in the HOLMES experiment and the microwave frequency multiplex used to readout the MKID detectors developed in Milan as well.

  6. A low-noise low-power readout electronics circuit at 4 K in standard CMOS technology for PACS/Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merken, Patrick; Creten, Ybe; Putzeys, Jan; Souverijns, Tim; Van Hoof, Chris

    2004-10-01

    IMEC has designed, in the framework of the PACS project (for the European Herschel Space Observatory) the Cold Readout Electronics (CRE) for the Ge:Ga far-infrared detector array. Key specifications for the CRE were high linearity (3 %), low power consumption (80 μW for an 18 channel array), and very low noise (200 e-) at an operating temperature of 4.2 K (LHT - Liquid Helium Temperature). IMEC has implemented this circuit in a standard CMOS technology (AMIS 0.7 μm), which guarantees high production yield and uniformity, relatively easy availability of the technology and portability of the design. However, the drawback of this approach is the anomalous behavior of CMOS transistors at temperatures below 30-40K, known as kink and hysteresis effects and under certain conditions the presence of excess noise. These cryogenic phenomena disturb the normal functionality of commonly used circuits or building blocks like buffer amplifiers and opamps. We were able to overcome these problems and developed a library of digital and analog building blocks based on the modeling of cryogenic behavior, and on adapted design and layout techniques. These techniques have been validated in an automated cryogenic test set-ups developed at IMEC. We will present here in detail the full design of the 18 channel CRE circuit, its interface with the Ge:Ga sensor, and its electrical performance and demonstrate that all major specifications at 4.2 K were met. Future designs and implementations will be equally presented.

  7. Characterisation of an electron collecting CdTe strip sensor using the MYTHEN readout chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbracht-Leong, S.; Bergamaschi, A.; Greiffenberg, D.; Peake, D.; Rassool, R.; Schmitt, B.; Toyokawa, H.; Sobbott, B.

    2015-01-01

    MYTHEN is a single photon counting hybrid strip X-ray detector that has found application in x-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) experiments at synchrotrons worldwide. Originally designed to operate with hole collecting silicon sensors, MYTHEN is suited for detecting X-rays above 5 keV, however many PD beamlines have been designed for energies above 50 keV where silicon sensors have an efficiency of only few percent. In order to adapt MYTHEN to meet these energies the absorption efficiency of the sensor must be substantially increased. Cadmium-Telluride (CdTe) has an absorption efficiency approximately 30 times that of silicon at 50 keV, and is therefore a very promising replacement candidate for silicon. Furthermore, the large dynamic range of the pre-amplifier of MYTHEN and its double polarity capability has enabled the characterisation of an electron collecting Schottky type CdTe sensor. A CdTe MYTHEN system has undergone a series of characterisation experiments including stress test of bias and radiation induced polarizations. The performance of this system will be presented and discussed.

  8. Advances in Discrete GaAs JFETs and Simple Amplifiers for Deep Cryogenic Readouts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, T. J.; Fitzsimmons, M.

    1998-01-01

    The progress of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in developing gallium arsenide junction field-effect transistors (GaAs JFETs) for application in infrared readout electronics operating below 10 Kelvin is discussed.

  9. Measurement of MKID Performance with High-Speed and Wide-Band Readout System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karatsu, Kenichi; Naruse, M.; Nitta, T.; Sekine, M.; Sekiguchi, S.; Sekimoto, Y.; Noguchi, T.; Uzawa, Y.; Matsuo, H.; Kiuchi, H.

    2014-08-01

    Microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) are being developed at the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan to enable precise measurements of the cosmic microwave background. One of the features of MKIDs is scalability using a frequency-division multiplexing (FDMUX) readout scheme. A digital fast fourier transform spectrometer (FFTS) is a good way to read out a number of resonance frequencies simultaneously and fully utilize the advantage of FDMUX of MKIDs. We have developed FFTS readout electronics using an ADC/DAC with 1 Gsps (sample per second) sampling rate and 270 MHz bandwidth. We measured the noise characteristics of a single MKID in the frequency range of 60 Hz-30 kHz with this readout system, and found the noise was almost equivalent to the noise measured by ordinary analog IQ down-converter readout. This indicates our FFTS electronics do not add any additional noise to the MKID readout system over the frequency range.

  10. Development and experimental study of the readout ASIC for muon chambers of the CBM experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkin, E.; Ivanov, V.; Ivanov, P.; Khanzadeev, A.; Malankin, E.; Normanov, D.; Roshchin, E.; Samsonov, V.; Shumikhin, V.; Voronin, A.

    2016-01-01

    The measurement results of the front-end ASIC for the GEM detector read-out are presented. The MUCH ASIC v2 was designed and prototyped via Europractice by means of the 0.18 um CMOS MMRF process of UMC (Taiwan). The parameters of the analog channels, including the CSA, fast and slow shapers, discriminators, were measured. The channels provide a sufficient dynamic range of 100 fC, low power consumption of 10 mW per channel and ENC of 1550 el at a 50 pF detector capacitance.

  11. Development of the read-out ASIC for muon chambers of the CBM experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkin, E.; Ivanov, V.; Ivanov, P.; Malankin, E.; Normanov, D.; Osipov, D.; Samsonov, V.; Shumikhin, V.; Voronin, A.

    2015-04-01

    A front-end ASIC for GEM detectors readout in the CBM experiment is presented. The design has the following features: dynamic range of 100 fC, channel hit rate of 2 MHz, ENC of 1000 e- at 50 pF, power comsumption of 10 mW per channel, 6 bit SAR ADC. The chip includes 8 analog processing chains, each consisting of preamplifier, two shapers (fast and slow), differential comparator and an area efficient 6 bit SAR ADC with 1.2 mW power consunption at 50 Msps. The chip also includes the threshold DAC and the digital part.

  12. Development of a Broadband NbTiN Traveling Wave Parametric Amplifier for MKID Readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bockstiegel, C.; Gao, J.; Vissers, M. R.; Sandberg, M.; Chaudhuri, S.; Sanders, A.; Vale, L. R.; Irwin, K. D.; Pappas, D. P.

    2014-08-01

    The sensitivity of microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) using dissipation readout is limited by the noise temperature of the cryogenic amplifier, usually a HEMT with 5 K. A lower noise amplifier is required to improve NEP and reach the photon noise limit at millimeter wavelengths. Eom et al. have proposed a kinetic inductance traveling wave (KIT) parametric amplifier (also called the dispersion-engineered travelling wave kinetic inductance parametric amplifier) that utilizes the nonlinearity with very low dissipation of NbTiN. This amplifier has the promise to achieve quantum limited noise, broad bandwidth, and high dynamic range, all of which are required for ideal MKID dissipation readout. We have designed a KIT amplifier which consists of a 2.2 m long coplanar waveguide transmission line fabricated in a double spiral format, with periodic loadings and impedance transformers at the input/output ports on a 2 by 2 cm Si chip. The design was fabricated with 20 nm NbTiN films. The device has shown over 10 dB of gain from 4 to 11 GHz. We have found the maximum gain is limited by abrupt breakdown at defects in the transmission line in the devices. By cascading two devices, more than 20 dB of gain was achieved from 4.5 to 12.5 GHz, with a peak of 27 dB.

  13. The GBT-based readout concept for the silicon tracking system of the CBM experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, Jörg; Müller, Walter F. J.; Schmidt, Christian J.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the readout concept for the Silicon Tracking System (STS) of the CBM experiment at FAIR, which is designed to handle interaction rates up to 10 MHz with hundreds of tracks in fixed target heavy ion collisions of up to 35 AGeV. For data readout from the frontend electronics located close to the silicon strip sensors, the radiation tolerant Gigabit Transceiver ASICs (GBTx) and Versatile Link optical modules developed at CERN are used. The usage of these devices in the STS readout and the readout concept from the frontend electronics to the GBT based STS readout board (ROB) are detailed. Special emphasis is put on the implementation of the interface between the frontend boards (FEBs) and the ROB layer.

  14. Development of an Optical Read-Out System for the LISA/NGO Gravitational Reference Sensor: A Status Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Fiore, L.; De Rosa, R.; Garufi, F.; Grado, A.; Milano, L.; Spagnuolo, V.; Russano, G.

    2013-01-01

    The LISA group in Napoli is working on the development of an Optical Read-Out (ORO) system, based on optical levers and position sensitive detectors, for the LISA gravitational reference sensor. ORO is not meant as an alternative, but as an addition, to capacitive readout, that is the reference solution for LISA/NGO and will be tested on flight by LISA-Pathfinder. The main goal is the introduction of some redundancy with consequent mission risk mitigation. Furthermore, the ORO system is more sensitive than the capacitive one and its usage would allow a significant relaxation of the specifications on cross-couplings in the drag free control loops. The reliability of the proposed ORO device and the fulfilment of the sensitivity requirements have been already demonstrated in bench-top measurements and tests with the four mass torsion pendulum developed in Trento as a ground testing facility for LISA-Pathfinder and LISA hardware. In this paper we report on the present status of this activity presenting the last results and perspectives on some relevant aspects. 1) System design, measured sensitivity and noise characterization. 2) Possible layouts for integration in LISA/NGO and bench-top tests on real scale prototypes. 3) Search for space compatible components and preliminary tests. We will also discuss next steps in view of a possible application in LISA/NGO.

  15. Readout of the upgraded ALICE-ITS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczepankiewicz, A.

    2016-07-01

    The ALICE experiment will undergo a major upgrade during the second long shutdown of the CERN LHC. As part of this program, the present Inner Tracking System (ITS), which employs different layers of hybrid pixels, silicon drift and strip detectors, will be replaced by a completely new tracker composed of seven layers of monolithic active pixel sensors. The upgraded ITS will have more than twelve billion pixels in total, producing 300 Gbit/s of data when tracking 50 kHz Pb-Pb events. Two families of pixel chips realized with the TowerJazz CMOS imaging process have been developed as candidate sensors: the ALPIDE, which uses a proprietary readout and sparsification mechanism and the MISTRAL-O, based on a proven rolling shutter architecture. Both chips can operate in continuous mode, with the ALPIDE also supporting triggered operations. As the communication IP blocks are shared among the two chip families, it has been possible to develop a common Readout Electronics. All the sensor components (analog stages, state machines, buffers, FIFOs, etc.) have been modelled in a system level simulation, which has been extensively used to optimize both the sensor and the whole readout chain design in an iterative process. This contribution covers the progress of the R&D efforts and the overall expected performance of the ALICE-ITS readout system.

  16. A readout for large arrays of microwave kinetic inductance detectors.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Sean; Mazin, Benjamin A; Serfass, Bruno; Meeker, Seth; O'Brien, Kieran; Duan, Ran; Raffanti, Rick; Werthimer, Dan

    2012-04-01

    Microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) are superconducting detectors capable of counting single photons and measuring their energy in the UV, optical, and near-IR. MKIDs feature intrinsic frequency domain multiplexing (FDM) at microwave frequencies, allowing the construction and readout of large arrays. Due to the microwave FDM, MKIDs do not require the complex cryogenic multiplexing electronics used for similar detectors, such as transition edge sensors, but instead transfer this complexity to room temperature electronics where they present a formidable signal processing challenge. In this paper, we describe the first successful effort to build a readout for a photon counting optical/near-IR astronomical instrument, the ARray Camera for Optical to Near-infrared Spectrophotometry. This readout is based on open source hardware developed by the Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research. Designed principally for radio telescope backends, it is flexible enough to be used for a variety of signal processing applications. PMID:22559560

  17. Development and tests of an anode readout TPC with high track separability for large solid angle relativistic ion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Lindenbaum, S.J.; Foley, K.J.; Eiseman, S.E.; Etkin, A.; Hackenburg, R.W.; Longacre, R.S.; Love, W.A.; Morris, T.W.; Platner, E.D.; Saulys, A.C.; Chan, C.; Kramer, M.A.; Hallman, T.J.; Madansky, L.; Bonner, B.E.; Buchanan, J.A.; Clement, J.M.; Corcoran, M.D.; Kruk, J.W.; Miettinen, H.E.; Mutchler, G.S.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Nessi, M.; Phillips, G.C.; Roberts, J.B.

    1988-07-18

    We have developed, constructed and tested an anode readout TPC with high track separability which is suitable for large solid angle relativistic ion experiments. The readout via rows of short anode wires parallel to the beam has been found in tests to allow two-track separability of approx.2-3 mm. The efficiency of track reconstruction for events from a target, detected inside the MPS 5 KG magnet, is estimated to be >90% for events made by incident protons and pions. 15 GeV/c x A Si ion beams at a rate of approx.25 K per AGS pulse were permitted to course through the chamber and did not lead to any problems. When the gain was reduced to simulate the total output of a minimum ionizing particle, many Si ion tracks were also detected simultaneously with high efficiency. The resolution along the drift direction (parallel to the MPS magnetic field and perpendicular to the beam direction) was <1 mm and the resolution along the other direction /perpendicular/ to the beam direction was <1 mm also. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  18. The electronics readout and data acquisition system of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope node

    SciTech Connect

    Real, Diego [IFIC, Instituto de Física Corpuscular, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, C Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The KM3NeT neutrino telescope will be composed by tens of thousands of glass spheres, called Digital Optical Module (DOM), each of them containing 31 PMTs of small photocathode area (3'). The readout and data acquisition system of KM3NeT have to collect, treat and send to shore, in an economic way, the enormous amount of data produced by the photomultipliers and at the same time to provide time synchronization between each DOM at the level of 1 ns. It is described in the present article the Central Logic Board, that integrates the Time to Digital Converters and the White Rabbit protocol used for the DOM synchronization in a transparent way, the Power Board used in the DOM, the PMT base to readout the photomultipliers and the respective collecting boards, the so called Octopus Board.

  19. PANDA straw tube detectors and readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strzempek, P.

    2016-07-01

    PANDA is a detector under construction dedicated to studies of production and interaction of particles in the charmonium mass range using antiproton beams in the momentum range of 1.5 - 15 GeV/c at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt. PANDA consists of two spectrometers: a Target Spectrometer with a superconducting solenoid and a Forward Spectrometer using a large dipole magnet and covering the most forward angles (Θ < 10 °). In both spectrometers, the particle's trajectories in the magnetic field are measured using self-supporting straw tube detectors. The expected high count rates, reaching up to 1 MHz/straw, are one of the main challenges for the detectors and associated readout electronics. The paper presents the readout chain of the tracking system and the results of tests performed with realistic prototype setups. The readout chain consists of a newly developed ASIC chip (PASTTREC < PANDASTTReadoutChip >) with amplification, signal shaping, tail cancellation, discriminator stages and Time Readout Boards as digitizer boards.

  20. Developing a Quantum Electron Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohstall, Christoph; Klopfer, Brannon; Francis, Josh; Skulason, Gunnar; Juffmann, Thomas; Kasevich, Mark; QEM Team

    2014-03-01

    We develop a new electron microscope based on the interaction-free measurement principle. Such a Quantum Electron Microscope (QEM) may enable imaging of biological samples with radiation doses so small that they are non-lethal. The realization of the QEM will require precise control over the quantum motion of free electrons. On this poster, we discuss our approach to build a QEM including the realization of an electron resonator and an electron amplitude beam-splitter. On top of the QEM application, these developments will advance the electron analogue to photon quantum optics. Funded by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation.

  1. Functional Description of Read-out Electronics for Time-Domain Multiplexed Bolometers for Millimeter and Sub-millimeter Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battistelli, E. S.; Amiri, M.; Burger, B.; Halpern, M.; Knotek, S.; Ellis, M.; Gao, X.; Kelly, D.; Macintosh, M.; Irwin, K.; Reintsema, C.

    2008-05-01

    We have developed multi-channel electronics (MCE) which work in concert with time-domain multiplexors developed at NIST, to control and read signals from large format bolometer arrays of superconducting transition edge sensors (TESs). These electronics were developed as part of the Submillimeter Common-User Bolometer Array-2 (SCUBA2 ) camera, but are now used in several other instruments. The main advantages of these electronics compared to earlier versions is that they are multi-channel, fully programmable, suited for remote operations and provide a clean geometry, with no electrical cabling outside of the Faraday cage formed by the cryostat and the electronics chassis. The MCE is used to determine the optimal operating points for the TES and the superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) amplifiers autonomously. During observation, the MCE execute a running PID-servo and apply to each first stage SQUID a feedback signal necessary to keep the system in a linear regime at optimal gain. The feedback and error signals from a ˜1000-pixel array can be written to hard drive at up to 2 kHz.

  2. Development of a cryogenic GaAs AC-coupled CTIA readout for far-infrared and submillimeter detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Hirohisa; Kobayashi, Jun; Matsuo, Hiroshi; Hibi, Yasunori; Nakahashi, Misato; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Fujiwara, Mikio

    2008-07-01

    We have been developing cryogenic readout integrated circuits (ROICs) for sensitive detectors at far-infrared and submillimeter wavelengths: The ROICs are constructed from SONY GaAs-JFETs, which have excellent performance even at less than 1 K. In addition, it is suitable device for ultra low background applications because of the extremely low gate leakage current. In the spring of 2008, we have designed and fabricated 4-ch AC-coupled capacitive transimpedance amplifiers and several basic digital circuits giving multiplex function for 32-element SIS photon detector array. The expected performance of the amplifier is as follows; open loop gain of >2000, power consumption <1.5 μW, and input referred noise ~ 1 μV/√Hz@1Hz. A summary of this 2008's experimental production and initial test results are presented in this paper.

  3. Development of two-dimensional multiwire-type neutron detector system with individual line readout and optical signal transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toh, K.; Nakamura, T.; Sakasai, K.; Soyama, K.; Hino, M.; Kitaguchi, M.; Yamagishi, H.

    2013-10-01

    A multiwire-type two-dimensional neutron detector system with a sensitive area of 128×128 mm2 is developed for use in the Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex. The system can achieve a short response time and high spatial resolution using the individual line readout method. Optical devices have been incorporated in the system for long-distance signal transmission and insulation between a detector head in the neutron shielding and signal processing circuits in the data acquisition room. The detector system exhibits a pulse-pair resolution of 1 μs, an average spatial resolution of less than 2 mm full width at half-maximum in the sensitive region, and a two-dimensional homogeneity of 8.3% in all pixels.

  4. Development of the analog ASIC for multi-channel readout X-ray CCD camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Hiroshi; Matsuura, Daisuke; Idehara, Toshihiro; Anabuki, Naohisa; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Doty, John P.; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Katayama, Haruyoshi; Kitamura, Hisashi; Uchihori, Yukio

    2011-03-01

    We report on the performance of an analog application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) developed aiming for the front-end electronics of the X-ray CCD camera system onboard the next X-ray astronomical satellite, ASTRO-H. It has four identical channels that simultaneously process the CCD signals. Distinctive capability of analog-to-digital conversion enables us to construct a CCD camera body that outputs only digital signals. As the result of the front-end electronics test, it works properly with low input noise of ≤30μV at the pixel rate below 100 kHz. The power consumption is sufficiently low of ˜150mW/chip. The input signal range of ±20 mV covers the effective energy range of the typical X-ray photon counting CCD (up to 20 keV). The integrated non-linearity is 0.2% that is similar as those of the conventional CCDs in orbit. We also performed a radiation tolerance test against the total ionizing dose (TID) effect and the single event effect. The irradiation test using 60Co and proton beam showed that the ASIC has the sufficient tolerance against TID up to 200 krad, which absolutely exceeds the expected amount of dose during the period of operating in a low-inclination low-earth orbit. The irradiation of Fe ions with the fluence of 5.2×108 Ion/cm2 resulted in no single event latchup (SEL), although there were some possible single event upsets. The threshold against SEL is higher than 1.68 MeV cm2/mg, which is sufficiently high enough that the SEL event should not be one of major causes of instrument downtime in orbit.

  5. Enabling more capability within smaller pixels: advanced wafer-level process technologies for integration of focal plane arrays with readout electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temple, Dorota S.; Vick, Erik P.; Lueck, Matthew R.; Malta, Dean; Skokan, Mark R.; Masterjohn, Christopher M.; Muzilla, Mark S.

    2014-05-01

    Over the past decade, the development of infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs) has seen two trends: decreasing of the pixel size and increasing of signal-processing capability at the device level. Enabling more capability within smaller pixels can be achieved through the use of advanced wafer-level processes for the integration of FPAs with silicon (Si) readout integrated circuits (ROICs). In this paper, we review the development of these wafer-level integration technologies, highlighting approaches in which the infrared sensor is integrated with three-dimensional ROIC stacks composed of multiple layers of Si circuitry interconnected using metal-filled through-silicon vias.

  6. Vertically integrated pixel readout chip for high energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Khalid, Farah; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom; /Fermilab

    2011-01-01

    We report on the development of the vertex detector pixel readout chips based on multi-tier vertically integrated electronics for the International Linear Collider. Some testing results of the VIP2a prototype are presented. The chip is the second iteration of the silicon implementation of the prototype, data-pushed concept of the readout developed at Fermilab. The device was fabricated in the 3D MIT-LL 0.15 {micro}m fully depleted SOI process. The prototype is a three-tier design, featuring 30 x 30 {micro}m{sup 2} pixels, laid out in an array of 48 x 48 pixels.

  7. Development of a front-end analog circuit for multi-channel SiPM readout and performance verification for various PET detector designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Guen Bae; Yoon, Hyun Suk; Kwon, Sun Il; Lee, Chan Mi; Ito, Mikiko; Hong, Seong Jong; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Jae Sung

    2013-03-01

    Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are outstanding photosensors for the development of compact imaging devices and hybrid imaging systems such as positron emission tomography (PET)/ magnetic resonance (MR) scanners because of their small size and MR compatibility. The wide use of this sensor for various types of scintillation detector modules is being accelerated by recent developments in tileable multichannel SiPM arrays. In this work, we present the development of a front-end readout module for multi-channel SiPMs. This readout module is easily extendable to yield a wider detection area by the use of a resistive charge division network (RCN). We applied this readout module to various PET detectors designed for use in small animal PET/MR, optical fiber PET/MR, and double layer depth of interaction (DOI) PET. The basic characteristics of these detector modules were also investigated. The results demonstrate that the PET block detectors developed using the readout module and tileable multi-channel SiPMs had reasonable performance.

  8. LYSO crystal calorimeter readout with silicon photomultipliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berra, A.; Bonvicini, V.; Cecchi, C.; Germani, S.; Guffanti, D.; Lietti, D.; Lubrano, P.; Manoni, E.; Prest, M.; Rossi, A.; Vallazza, E.

    2014-11-01

    Large area Silicon PhotoMultipliers (SiPMs) are the new frontier of the development of readout systems for scintillating detectors. A SiPM consists of a matrix of parallel-connected silicon micropixels operating in limited Geiger-Muller avalanche mode, and thus working as independent photon counters with a very high gain (~106). This contribution presents the performance in terms of linearity and energy resolution of an electromagnetic homogeneous calorimeter composed of 9 ~ 18X0 LYSO crystals. The crystals were readout by 36 4×4 mm2 SiPMs (4 for each crystal) produced by FBK-irst. This calorimeter was tested at the Beam Test Facility at the INFN laboratories in Frascati with a single- and multi-particle electron beam in the 100-500 MeV energy range.

  9. VCSELs for interferometric readout of MEMS sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serkland, Darwin K.; Geib, Kent M.; Peake, Gregory M.; Keeler, Gordon A.; Shaw, Michael J.; Baker, Michael S.; Okandan, Murat

    2016-03-01

    We report on the development of single-frequency VCSELs (vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers) for sensing the position of a moving MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical system) object with resolution much less than 1nm. Position measurement is the basis of many different types of MEMS sensors, including accelerometers, gyroscopes, and pressure sensors. Typically, by switching from a traditional capacitive electronic readout to an interferometric optical readout, the resolution can be improved by an order of magnitude with a corresponding improvement in MEMS sensor performance. Because the VCSEL wavelength determines the scale of the position measurement, laser wavelength (frequency) stability is desirable. This paper discusses the impact of VCSEL amplitude and frequency noise on the position measurement.

  10. New methods for trigger electronics development

    SciTech Connect

    Cleland, W.E.; Stern, E.G.

    1991-12-31

    The large and complex nature of RHIC experiments and the tight time schedule for their construction requires that new techniques for designing the electronics should be employed. This is particularly true of the trigger and data acquisition electronics which has to be ready for turn-on of the experiment. We describe the use of the Workview package from VIEWlogic Inc. for design, simulation, and verification of a flash ADC readout system. We also show how field-programmable gate arrays such as the Xilinx 4000 might be employed to construct or prototype circuits with a large number of gates while preserving flexibility.

  11. Formation flying metrology for the ESA-PROBA3 mission: the Shadow Position Sensors (SPS) silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) readout electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Focardi, M.; Bemporad, A.; Buckley, S.; O'Neill, K.; Fineschi, S.; Noce, V.; Pancrazzi, M.; Landini, F.; Baccani, C.; Capobianco, G.; Romoli, M.; Loreggia, D.; Nicolini, G.; Massone, G.; Thizy, C.; Servaye, J. S.; Renotte, E.

    2015-09-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) is planning to launch in 2018 the PROBA3 Mission, designed to demonstrate the inorbit formation flying (FF) attitude capability of its two satellites and to observe the inner part of the visible solar corona as the main scientific objective. The solar corona will be observed thanks to the presence on the first satellite, facing the Sun, of an external occulter producing an artificial eclipse of the Sun disk. The second satellite will carry on the coronagraph telescope and the digital camera system in order to perform imaging of the inner part of the corona in visible polarized light, from 1.08 R⦿ up to about 3 R⦿. One of the main metrological subsystems used to control and to maintain the relative (i.e. between the two satellites) and absolute (i.e. with respect to the Sun) FF attitude is the Shadow Position Sensor (SPS) assembly. It is composed of eight micro arrays of silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) able to measure with the required sensitivity and dynamic range the penumbral light intensity on the Coronagraph entrance pupil. In the following of the present paper we describe the overall SPS subsystem and its readout electronics with respect to the capability to satisfy the mission requirements, from the light conversion process on board the silicon-based SPS devices up to the digital signal readout and sampling.

  12. Cold Electronics Development for the LBNE LAr TPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorn, C.; De Geronimo, Gianluigi; D'Andragora, Alessio; Li, Shaorui; Nambiar, Neena; Rescia, Sergio; Vernon, Emerson; Chen, Hucheng; Lanni, Francesco; Makowiecki, Don; Radeka, Veljko; Yu, Bo

    The LBNE Project is developing a design for multiple 20 kiloton liquid argon (LAr) time projection chambers to be used as the far detector for the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment. An essential component of this design is a complete electronic readout system designed to operate in LAr (at 90K). This system is being implemented as a CMOS ASIC, in 180 nm commercial technology, that will provide low-noise readout of the signals induced on the TPC wires, digitization of those signals at 2 MS/s, zero-suppression, buffering and output multiplexing to a small number of cryostat feed-throughs. A resolution better than 1000 rms electrons at 200 pF input capacitance for an input range of 300 fC is required, along with low power (<15mW/channel) and operation in LAr with a lifetime greater than 15 years. An analog-only frontend has been successfully completed and fully evaluated, and will be used in the MicroBooNE LAr TPC. A prototype of the digital section has been fabricated and is being evaluated. The results demonstrate that CMOS transistors have lower noise and much improved dc characteristics at LAr temperature. We will describe the progress to date and plans for the remaining development.

  13. An array of cold-electron bolometers with SIN tunnel junctions and JFET readout for cosmology instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmin, L.

    2008-02-01

    A novel concept of the parallel/series array of Cold-Electron Bolometers (CEB) with Superconductor-Insulator-Normal (SIN) Tunnel Junctions has been proposed. The concept was developed specially for matching the CEB with JFET amplifier at conditions of high optical power load. The CEB is a planar antenna-coupled superconducting detector with high sensitivity. For combination of effective HF operation and low noise properties the current-biased CEBs are connected in series for DC and in parallel for HF signal. A signal is concentrated from an antenna to the absorber through the capacitance of the tunnel junctions and through additional capacitance for coupling of superconducting islands. Using array of CEBs the applications can be considerably extended to higher power load by distributing the power between N CEBs and decreasing the electron temperature. Due to increased responsivity the noise matching is so effective that photon NEP could be easily achieved at 300 mK with a room temperature JFET for wide range of optical power loads. The concept of the CEB array has been developed for the BOOMERanG balloon telescope and other Cosmology instruments.

  14. The NA62 liquid Krypton calorimeter's new readout system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceccucci, A.; Fantechi, R.; Farthouat, P.; Lamanna, G.; Rouet, J.; Ryjov, V.; Venditti, S.

    2014-01-01

    The NA62 experiment [1] at CERN SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) accelerator aims at studying Kaon decays with high precision. The high resolution Liquid Krypton (LKr) calorimeter, built for the NA48 [2] experiment, is a crucial part of the experiment photon-veto system; to cope with the new requirements, the back-end electronics of the LKr had to be completely renewed. Due to the huge number of the calorimeter readout channels ( ~ 14 K) and the maintenance requirement over 10 years of the experiment lifetime, the decision to sub-contract the development and production to industry was taken in 2011. This paper presents the primary test results of the Calorimeter REAdout Module (CREAM) [3] prototype delivered by the manufacturer in March 2013. All essential features, analog performance, data processing and readout, are covered.

  15. Upgrade of the D0 luminosity monitor readout system

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, John; Bridges, Lloyd; Casey, Brendan; Enari, Yuji; Green, Johnny; Johnson, Marvin; Kwarciany, Rick; Miao, Chyi-Chiang; Partridge, Richard; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Wang, Jigang; /Brown U. /Fermilab

    2006-12-01

    We describe upgrades to the readout system for the D0 Luminosity Monitor. The D0 Luminosity Monitor consists of plastic scintillation detectors with fine-mesh photomultiplier readout that cover the pseudorapidity range 2.7 < |{eta}| < 4.4. The detector is designed to provide a precise measurement of the rate for non-diffractive inelastic collisions that is used to calculate the TeVatron luminosity at D0. The new readout system is based on custom VME electronics that make precise time-of-flight and charge measurements for each luminosity counter. These measurements are used to identify beam crossings with non-diffractive interactions by requiring in-time hits in both the forward and backward luminosity counters. We have also significantly increased signal/noise for the photomultiplier signals by developing a new front-end preamplifier and improving the grounding scheme.

  16. Looking at Earth from space: Direct readout from environmental satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Direct readout is the capability to acquire information directly from meteorological satellites. Data can be acquired from NASA-developed, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-operated satellites, as well as from other nations' meteorological satellites. By setting up a personal computer-based ground (Earth) station to receive satellite signals, direct readout may be obtained. The electronic satellite signals are displayed as images on the computer screen. The images can display gradients of the Earth's topography and temperature, cloud formations, the flow and direction of winds and water currents, the formation of hurricanes, the occurrence of an eclipse, and a view of Earth's geography. Both visible and infrared images can be obtained. This booklet introduces the satellite systems, ground station configuration, and computer requirements involved in direct readout. Also included are lists of associated resources and vendors.

  17. Investigation and optimization of low-frequency noise performance in readout electronics of dc superconducting quantum interference device

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Yi; Krause, Hans-Joachim; Lee, Yong-Ho

    2014-05-15

    We investigated and optimized the low-frequency noise characteristics of a preamplifier used for readout of direct current superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). When the SQUID output was detected directly using a room-temperature low-voltage-noise preamplifier, the low-frequency noise of a SQUID system was found to be dominated by the input current noise of the preamplifiers in case of a large dynamic resistance of the SQUID. To reduce the current noise of the preamplifier in the low-frequency range, we investigated the dependence of total preamplifier noise on the collector current and source resistance. When the collector current was decreased from 8.4 mA to 3 mA in the preamplifier made of 3 parallel SSM2220 transistor pairs, the low-frequency total voltage noise of the preamplifier (at 0.1 Hz) decreased by about 3 times for a source resistance of 30 Ω whereas the white noise level remained nearly unchanged. Since the relative contribution of preamplifier's input voltage and current noise is different depending on the dynamic resistance or flux-to-voltage transfer of the SQUID, the results showed that the total noise of a SQUID system at low-frequency range can be improved significantly by optimizing the preamplifier circuit parameters, mainly the collector current in case of low-noise bipolar transistor pairs.

  18. Investigation and optimization of low-frequency noise performance in readout electronics of dc superconducting quantum interference device.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Yi; Lee, Yong-Ho; Krause, Hans-Joachim

    2014-05-01

    We investigated and optimized the low-frequency noise characteristics of a preamplifier used for readout of direct current superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). When the SQUID output was detected directly using a room-temperature low-voltage-noise preamplifier, the low-frequency noise of a SQUID system was found to be dominated by the input current noise of the preamplifiers in case of a large dynamic resistance of the SQUID. To reduce the current noise of the preamplifier in the low-frequency range, we investigated the dependence of total preamplifier noise on the collector current and source resistance. When the collector current was decreased from 8.4 mA to 3 mA in the preamplifier made of 3 parallel SSM2220 transistor pairs, the low-frequency total voltage noise of the preamplifier (at 0.1 Hz) decreased by about 3 times for a source resistance of 30 Ω whereas the white noise level remained nearly unchanged. Since the relative contribution of preamplifier's input voltage and current noise is different depending on the dynamic resistance or flux-to-voltage transfer of the SQUID, the results showed that the total noise of a SQUID system at low-frequency range can be improved significantly by optimizing the preamplifier circuit parameters, mainly the collector current in case of low-noise bipolar transistor pairs. PMID:24880395

  19. Fabrication techniques for superconducting readout loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payne, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Procedures for the fabrication of superconducting readout loops out of niobium on glass substrates were developed. A computer program for an existing fabrication system was developed. Both positive and negative resist procedures for the production of the readout loops were investigated. Methods used to produce satisfactory loops are described and the various parameters affecting the performance of the loops are analyzed.

  20. Development of a readout technique for the high data rate BTeV pixel detector at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley K Hall et al.

    2001-11-05

    The pixel detector for the BTeV experiment at Fermilab provides digitized data from approximately 22 million silicon pixel channels. Portions of the detector are six millimeters from the beam providing a substantial hit rate and high radiation dose. The pixel detector data will be employed by the lowest level trigger system for track reconstruction every beam crossing. These requirements impose a considerable constraint on the readout scheme. This paper presents a readout technique that provides the bandwidth that is adequate for high hit rates, minimizes the number of radiation hard components, and satisfies all other design constraints.

  1. Development of electronic cinema projectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, William E.

    2001-03-01

    All of the components for the electronic cinema are now commercially available. Sony has a high definition progressively scanned 24 frame per second electronic cinema camera. This can be recorded digitally on tape or film on hard drives in RAID recorders. Much of the post production processing is now done digitally by scanning film, processing it digitally, and recording it on film for release. Fiber links and satellites can transmit cinema program material to theaters in real time. RAID or tape recorders can play programs for viewing at a much lower cost than storage on film. Two companies now have electronic cinema projectors on the market. Of all of the components, the electronic cinema projector is the most challenging. Achieving the resolution, light, output, contrast ratio, and color rendition all at the same time without visible artifacts is a difficult task. Film itself is, of course, a form of light-valve. However, electronically modulated light uses other techniques rather than changes in density to control the light. The optical techniques that have been the basis for many electronic light-valves have been under development for over 100 years. Many of these techniques are based on optical diffraction to modulate the light. This paper will trace the history of these techniques and show how they may be extended to produce electronic cinema projectors in the future.

  2. Development of prototype PET scanner using dual-sided readout DOI-PET modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, T.; Kataoka, J.; Kishimoto, A.; Kurei, Y.; Nishiyama, T.; Ohshima, T.; Taya, T.

    2014-12-01

    In our previous work, we proposed a novel design for a gamma-ray detector module capable of measuring the depth of interaction (DOI). In this paper, we further developed DOI-PET detector modules and a data acquisition system, and evaluated its performance. Each detector module was composed of a 3-D scintillator array and two large-area monolithic Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC) arrays coupled to both ends of the 3-D scintillator array, leading to only 8-ch signal outputs from a module. The 3-D scintillator array was composed of 9 × 9 × 7 matrices of 1.0 × 1.0 × 3.0 mm3 Ce:GAGG crystals. The detector module showed good energy resolution of 10.6% as measured at 511 keV and a high average peak to valley ratio higher than 8 for each pixel crystal identified in the X-Y-Z directions. Moreover, we evaluated the spatial resolution of a virtual 18-ch PET gantry simulated by using two detector modules that were flexibly controlled using both the X-stage and θ-stage in 20-degree steps. By measuring a 22Na point source (0.25 mm in diameter), we showed that spatial resolution substantially degrades from 1.0 mm to 7.8 mm (FWHM; as measured at 0 mm and 28 mm off-center) with a non-DOI configuration, whereas the corresponding values for the DOI configuration were 0.9 mm and 1.5 mm, respectively (FWHM; as measured at 0 mm and 28 mm off-center). This preliminary study confirms that our DOI-PET module is useful for future high spatial resolution and compact small-animal PET scanners without radial image distortions at the peripheral regions of the field of view (FOV).

  3. Compensated digital readout family

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, David E.; Skow, Michael

    1991-01-01

    ISC has completed test on an IC which has 32 channels of amplifiers, low pass anti-aliasing filters, 13-bit analog-to-digital (A/D) converters with non-uniformity correction per channel and a digital multiplexer. The single slope class of A/D conversion is described, as are the unique variations required for incorporation of this technique for use with on-focal plane detector readout electronics. This paper describes the architecture used to implement the digital on-focal plane signal processing functions. Results from measured data on a test IC are presented for a circuit containing these functions operating at a sensor frame rate of 1000 hertz.

  4. Development of a compact radiation-hardened low-noise front-end readout ASIC for CZT-based hard X-ray imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, W.; Gan, B.; Li, X.; Wei, T.; Gao, D.; Hu, Y.

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we present the development and performances of a radiation-hardened front-end readout application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) dedicated to CZT detectors for a hard X-ray imager in space applications. The readout channel consists of a charge sensitive amplifier (CSA), a CR-RC shaper, a fast shaper, a discriminator and a driving buffer. With the additional digital filtering, the readout channel can achieve very low noise performances and low power dissipation. An eight-channel prototype ASIC is designed and fabricated in 0.35 μm CMOS process. The energy range of the detected X-rays is evaluated as 1.45 keV to 281 keV. The gain is larger than 100 mV/fC. The equivalent noise charge (ENC) of the ASIC is 53 e- at zero farad plus 10 e- per picofarad. The power dissipation is less than 4.4 mW/channel. Through the measurement with a CZT detector, the energy resolution is less than 3.45 keV (FWHM) under the irradiation of the radioactive source 241Am. The radiation effect experiments indicate that the proposed ASIC can resist the total ionization dose (TID) irradiation of higher than 200 krad (Si).

  5. Advanced data readout technique for Multianode Position Sensitive Photomultiplier Tube applicable in radiation imaging detectors

    SciTech Connect

    V. Popov

    2011-01-01

    Most of the best performing PSPMT tubes from Hamamatsu and Burle are designed with a pad-matrix anode layout. However, for obtaining a high resolution, a small-sized anode photomultiplier tubes are preferable; these tubes may have 64, 256 or 1024 anodes per tube. If the tubes are used in array to get a larger area detector, the number of analog channels may range from hundreds to thousands. Multichannel analog readout requires special electronics ICs, ASICs etc., which are attached to multichannel DAQ system. As a result, the data file and data processing time will be increased. Therefore, this readout could not be performed in a small project. Usually, most of radiation imaging applications allow the use of analog data processing in front-end electronics, significantly reducing the number of the detector's output lines to data acquisition without reducing the image quality. The idea of pad-matrix decoupling circuit with gain correction was invented and intensively tested in JLab. Several versions of PSPMT readout electronics were produced and studied. All developments were done and optimized specifically for radiation imaging projects. They covered high resolution SPECT, high speed PET, fast neutron imaging, and single tube and multi tube array systems. This paper presents and discusses the summary of the observed results in readout electronics evaluation with different PSPMTs and radiation imaging systems, as well as the advantages and limitations of the developed approach to radiation imaging detectors readout.

  6. Readout control for high luminosity accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belusevic, R.; Nixon, G.

    1991-09-01

    In this article we discuss some aspects of data acquisition at high luminosities and offer a set of design principles concerning readout control electronics and related software. As an example we include a brief description of a data transfer and processing system for future hadron colliders, featuring a transputer-based crate controller and a set of readout cards. This is a simplified and more efficient version of our design recently published in Nuclear Instruments and Methods. [A295 (1991) 391].

  7. Development of a radiation-hardened SRAM with EDAC algorithm for fast readout CMOS pixel sensors for charged particle tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, X.; Li, B.; Chen, N.; Wang, J.; Zheng, R.; Gao, W.; Wei, T.; Gao, D.; Hu, Y.

    2014-08-01

    CMOS pixel sensors (CPS) are attractive for use in the innermost particle detectors for charged particle tracking due to their good trade-off between spatial resolution, material budget, radiation hardness, and readout speed. With the requirements of high readout speed and high radiation hardness to total ionizing dose (TID) for particle tracking, fast readout CPS are composed by integrating a data compression block and two SRAM IP cores. However, the radiation hardness of the SRAM IP cores is not as high as that of the other parts in CPS, and thus the radiation hardness of the whole CPS chip is lowered. Especially, when CPS are migrated into 0.18-μm processes, the single event upset (SEU) effects should be also considered besides TID and single event latchup (SEL) effects. This paper presents a radiation-hardened SRAM with enhanced radiation hardness to SEU. An error detection and correction (EDAC) algorithm and a bit-interleaving storage strategy are adopted in the design. The prototype design has been fabricated in a 0.18-μm process. The area of the new SRAM is increased 1.6 times as compared with a non-radiation-hardened SRAM due to the integration of EDAC algorithm and the adoption of radiation hardened layout. The access time is increased from 5 ns to 8 ns due to the integration of EDAC algorithm. The test results indicate that the design satisfy requirements of CPS for charged particle tracking.

  8. An ac bridge readout for bolometric detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieke, F. M.; Lange, A. E.; Beeman, J. W.; Haller, E. E.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have developed a bolometer readout circuit which greatly improves the low-frequency stability of bolometric detectors. The circuit uses an ac bias voltage and two matched bolometers and allows stable dc bolometer operation for integration times greater than 10 s. In astronomical applications the readout allows for qualitatively different observation modes (e.g. staring or slow-drift scanning) which are particularly well suited for space observations and for the use of arrays. In many applications the readout can increase sensitivity. The authors present noise spectra for 4He temperature bolometers with no excess noise at frequencies greater than 0.1 Hz. The measured optical responsivity of a bolometer operated with the present readout is the same as that of a bolometer operated with a conventional readout.

  9. Development of a GEM Electronic Board (GEB) for triple-GEM detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aspell, P.; Dabrowski, M.; Conde Garcia, A.; De Lentdecker, G.; Marinov, A.; De Oliveira, R.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Yang, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Developed for use with triple GEM detectors, the GEM Electronic Board (GEB) forms a crucial part of the electronics readout system being developed as part of the CMS muon upgrade program. The objective of the GEB is threefold; to provide stable powering and ground for the VFAT3 front ends, to enable high-speed communication between 24 VFAT3 front ends and an optohybrid, and to shield the GEM detector from electromagnetic interference. The paper describes the concept and design of a large-size GEB in detail, highlighting the challenges in terms of design and feasibility of this deceptively difficult system component.

  10. Antenna-Coupled Superconducting Tunnel Junctions with Single-Electron Transistor Readout for Detection of Sub-mm Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, T. R.; Hsieh, W.-T.; Li, M. J.; Stahle, C. M.; Wollack, E. J.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Teufel, J.; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Antenna-coupled superconducting tunnel junction detectors have the potential for photon-counting sensitivity at sub-mm wavelengths. The device consists of an antenna structure to couple radiation into a small superconducting volume and cause quasiparticle excitations, and a single-electron transistor to measure currents through tunnel junction contacts to the absorber volume. We will describe optimization of device parameters, and recent results on fabrication techniques for producing devices with high yield for detector arrays. We will also present modeling of expected saturation power levels, antenna coupling, and rf multiplexing schemes.

  11. Implementation of the Timepix ASIC in the Scalable Readout System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupberger, M.; Desch, K.; Kaminski, J.

    2016-09-01

    We report on the development of electronics hardware, FPGA firmware and software to provide a flexible multi-chip readout of the Timepix ASIC within the framework of the Scalable Readout System (SRS). The system features FPGA-based zero-suppression and the possibility to read out up to 4×8 chips with a single Front End Concentrator (FEC). By operating several FECs in parallel, in principle an arbitrary number of chips can be read out, exploiting the scaling features of SRS. Specifically, we tested the system with a setup consisting of 160 Timepix ASICs, operated as GridPix devices in a large TPC field cage in a 1 T magnetic field at a DESY test beam facility providing an electron beam of up to 6 GeV. We discuss the design choices, the dedicated hardware components, the FPGA firmware as well as the performance of the system in the test beam.

  12. An Analog Low-Power Frequency Readout ASIC for a SAW Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Shih-Wen; Li, Chen-Han; Tang, Kea-Tiong

    2011-11-01

    A polymer coated surface acoustic wave (SAW) array has potential as a gas sensing material for electronic nose (eNose) applications. But the bulky and costly SAW frequency readout instruments such as spectrum analyzers and frequency counters have made SAW based eNose applications unpopular for portable use. In previous research, SAW interface electronics comprising discrete components have been developed to implement a portable eNose. However, the system consumes considerable dynamic power due to SAW device operating at high center frequencies. This work proposes a low-power analog CMOS frequency readout application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for potential portable applications.

  13. TDC-based readout electronics for real-time acquisition of high resolution PET bio-images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, N.; Saponara, S.; Ambrosi, G.; Baronti, F.; Bisogni, M. G.; Cerello, P.,; Ciciriello, F.; Corsi, F.; Fanucci, L.; Ionica, M.; Licciulli, F.; Marzocca, C.; Morrocchi, M.; Pennazio, F.; Roncella, R.; Santoni, C.; Wheadon, R.; Del Guerra, A.

    2013-02-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a clinical and research tool for in vivo metabolic imaging. The demand for better image quality entails continuous research to improve PET instrumentation. In clinical applications, PET image quality benefits from the time of flight (TOF) feature. Indeed, by measuring the photons arrival time on the detectors with a resolution less than 100 ps, the annihilation point can be estimated with centimeter resolution. This leads to better noise level, contrast and clarity of detail in the images either using analytical or iterative reconstruction algorithms. This work discusses a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM)-based magnetic-field compatible TOF-PET module with depth of interaction (DOI) correction. The detector features a 3D architecture with two tiles of SiPMs coupled to a single LYSO scintillator on both its faces. The real-time front-end electronics is based on a current-mode ASIC where a low input impedance, fast current buffer allows achieving the required time resolution. A pipelined time to digital converter (TDC) measures and digitizes the arrival time and the energy of the events with a timestamp of 100 ps and 400 ps, respectively. An FPGA clusters the data and evaluates the DOI, with a simulated z resolution of the PET image of 1.4 mm FWHM.

  14. A generic readout environment for prototype pixel detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turqueti, Marcos; Rivera, Ryan; Prosser, Alan; Kwan, Simon

    2010-11-01

    Pixel detectors for experimental particle physics research have been implemented with a variety of readout formats and potentially generate massive amounts of data. Examples include the PSI46 device for the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment which implements an analog readout, the Fermilab FPIX2.1 device with a digital readout, and the Fermilab Vertically Integrated Pixel device. The Electronic Systems Engineering Department of the Computing Division at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory has developed a data acquisition system flexible and powerful enough to meet the various needs of these devices to support laboratory test bench as well as test beam applications. The system is called CAPTAN (Compact And Programmable daTa Acquisition Node) and is characterized by its flexibility, versatility and scalability by virtue of several key architectural features. These include a vertical bus that permits the user to stack multiple boards, a gigabit Ethernet link that permits high speed communications to the system and a core group of boards that provide specific processing and readout capabilities for the system. System software based on distributed computing techniques supports an expandable network of CAPTANs. In this paper, we describe the system architecture and give an overview of its capabilities.

  15. SU-8 Cantilevers for Bio/chemical Sensing; Fabrication, Characterisation and Development of Novel Read-out Methods

    PubMed Central

    Nordström, Maria; Keller, Stephan; Lillemose, Michael; Johansson, Alicia; Dohn, Søren; Haefliger, Daniel; Blagoi, Gabriela; Havsteen-Jakobsen, Mogens; Boisen, Anja

    2008-01-01

    Here, we present the activities within our research group over the last five years with cantilevers fabricated in the polymer SU-8. We believe that SU-8 is an interesting polymer for fabrication of cantilevers for bio/chemical sensing due to its simple processing and low Young's modulus. We show examples of different integrated read-out methods and their characterisation. We also show that SU-8 cantilevers have a reduced sensitivity to changes in the environmental temperature and pH of the buffer solution. Moreover, we show that the SU-8 cantilever surface can be functionalised directly with receptor molecules for analyte detection, thereby avoiding gold-thiol chemistry.

  16. Design and evaluation of a 2D array PIN photodiode bump bonded to readout IC for the low energy x-ray detector.

    PubMed

    Yuk, Sunwoo; Park, Shin-Woong; Yi, Yun

    2006-01-01

    A 2D array radiation sensor, consisting of an array of PIN photodiodes bump bonded to readout integrated circuit (IC), has been developed for operation with low energy X-rays. The PIN photodiode array and readout IC for this system have been fabricated. The main performance measurements are the following: a few pA-scale leakage current, 350 pF junction capacitance, 30 microm-depth depletion layer and a 250 microm intrinsic layer at zero bias. This PIN photodiode array and readout IC were fabricated using a PIN photodiode process and standard 0.35 microm CMOS technology, respectively. The readout circuit is operated from a 3.3 V single power supply. Finally, a 2D array radiation sensor has been developed using bump bonding between the PIN photodiode and the readout electronics. PMID:17946079

  17. Single-Shot Charge Readout Using a Cryogenic Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor Preamplifier Inline with a Silicon Single Electron Transistor at Millikelvin Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, Matthew; England, Troy; Wendt, Joel; Pluym, Tammy; Lilly, Michael; Carr, Stephen; Carroll, Malcolm

    Single-shot readout is a requirement for many implementations of quantum information processing. The single-shot readout fidelity is dependent on the signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) and bandwidth of the readout detection technique. Several different approaches are being pursued to enhance read-out including RF-reflectometry, RF-transmission, parametric amplification, and transistor-based cryogenic preamplification. The transistor-based cryogenic preamplifier is attractive in part because of the reduced experimental complexity compared with the RF techniques. Here we present single-shot charge readout using a cryogenic Heterojunction-Bipolar-Transistor (HBT) inline with a silicon SET charge-sensor at millikelvin temperatures. For the relevant range of HBT DC-biasing, the current gain is 100 to 2000 and the power dissipation is 50 nW to 5 μW, with the microfabricated SET and discrete HBT in an integrated package mounted to the mixing chamber stage of a dilution refrigerator. We experimentally demonstrate a SNR of up to 10 with a bandwidth of 1 MHz, corresponding to a single-shot time-domain charge-sensitivity of approximately 10-4 e / √Hz. This measured charge-sensitivity is comparable to the values reported using the RF techniques. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  18. Development of a multi-channel readout ASIC for a fast neutron spectrometer based on GEM-TPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Li; Deng, Zhi; Liu, Yi-Nong; Li, Yu-Lan

    2014-10-01

    A multi-channel front-end ASIC has been developed for a fast neutron spectrometer based on Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM)-Time Projection Chamber (TPC). Charge Amplifier and Shaping Amplifier for GEM (CASAGEM) integrates 16+1 channels: 16 channels for anodes and 1 channel for cathode. The gain and the shaping time are adjustable from 2 to 40 mV/fC and from 20 to 80 ns, respectively. The prototype ASIC is fabricated in 0.35 μm CMOS process. An evaluation Print Circuit Board (PCB) was also developed for chip tests. In total 20 chips have been tested. The integrated nonlinearity is less than 1%. The equivalent noise electrons is less than 2000e when the input capacitor is 50 pF. The time jitter is less than 1 ns. The design and the test results are presented in the paper.

  19. A new readout control system for the LHCb upgrade at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessio, F.; Jacobsson, R.

    2012-11-01

    The LHCb experiment has proposed an upgrade towards a full 40 MHz readout system in order to run between five and ten times its initial design luminosity. The entire readout architecture will be upgraded in order to cope with higher sub-detector occupancies, higher rate and higher network load. In this paper, we describe the architecture, functionalities and a first hardware implementation of a new fast Readout Control system for the LHCb upgrade, which will be entirely based on FPGAs and bi-directional links. We also outline the real-time implementations of the new Readout Control system, together with solutions on how to handle the synchronous distribution of timing and synchronous information to the complex upgraded LHCb readout architecture. One section will also be dedicated to the control and usage of the newly developed CERN GBT chipset to transmit fast and slow control commands to the upgraded LHCb Front-End electronics. At the end, we outline the plans for the deployment of the system in the global LHCb upgrade readout architecture.

  20. Characterization results of the JUNGFRAU full scale readout ASIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozzanica, A.; Bergamaschi, A.; Brueckner, M.; Cartier, S.; Dinapoli, R.; Greiffenberg, D.; Jungmann-Smith, J.; Maliakal, D.; Mezza, D.; Ramilli, M.; Ruder, C.; Schaedler, L.; Schmitt, B.; Shi, X.; Tinti, G.

    2016-02-01

    The two-dimensional pixel detector JUNGFRAU is designed for high performance photon science applications at free electron lasers and synchrotron light sources. It is developed for the SwissFEL currently under construction at the Paul Scherrer Institut, Switzerland. The detector is a hybrid pixel detector with a charge integration readout ASIC characterized by single photon sensitivity and a low noise performance over a dynamic range of 104 12 keV photons. Geometrically, a JUNGFRAU readout chip consists of 256×256 pixels of 75×75 μm2. The chips are bump bonded to 320 μm thick silicon sensors. Arrays of 2×4 chips are tiled to form modules of 4×8 cm2 area. Several multi-module systems with up to 16 Mpixels per system will be delivered to the two end stations at SwissFEL. The JUNGFRAU full scale readout ASIC and module design are presented along with characterization results of the first systems. Experiments from fluorescence X-ray, visible light illumination, and synchrotron irradiation are shown. The results include an electronic noise of ~50 electrons r.m.s., which enables single photon detection energies below 2 keV and a noise well below the Poisson statistical limit over the entire dynamic range. First imaging experiments are also shown.

  1. Performance of the Demonstrator System for the Phase-I Upgrade of the Trigger Readout Electronics of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumont Dayot, N.

    2016-01-01

    For the Phase-I luminosity upgrade of the LHC a higher granularity trigger readout of the ATLAS LAr Calorimeters is foreseen to enhance the trigger feature extraction and background rejection. The new readout system digitizes the detector signals, which are grouped into 34000 so-called Super Cells, with 12 bit precision at 40 MHz and transfers the data on optical links to the digital processing system, which extracts the Super Cell energies. A demonstrator version of the complete system has now been installed and operated on the ATLAS detector. Results from the commissioning and performance measurements are reported.

  2. Evaluation of charge-integrating amplifier with silicon MOSFETs for cryogenic readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, Manabu; Shibai, Hiroshi; Watabe, Toyoki; Hirao, Takanori; Yoda, Hiroyuki; Nagata, Hirohisa; Nakagawa, Takao; Kawada, Mitsunobu

    1998-08-01

    Low-noise and low-power cryogenic readout electronics are developed for a focal plane instrument of the IR Imaging Surveyor. We measured the static characteristics and the noise spectra of several types of silicon MOSFETs at the cryogenic temperature where silicon JFETs do not work well due to the carrier freeze-out. The 'kink' behavior of n- channel MOSFETs was observed below the carrier freeze-out temperature, but it was not obvious for the p-channel MOSFET. It was demonstrated the p-channel MOSFETs can be used for the cryogenic readout electronics of the IRIS's far-IR array with an acceptable performance. The amplifier integrated with these MOSFETs showed low-noise at 2K under a low power consumption of 1 (mu) W per MOSFET. We now design and evaluate several circuits that are fabricated by the CMOS process for cryogenic readout.

  3. THERMOCOUPLE READOUT INSTRUMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    An electronic circuit has been developed which acts as an electronic ice bath for chromel-constantan thermocouples. The electronic ice bath is accurate to within plus or minus 0.2C from -25C to +50C. Simultaneously, the thermocouple output is scaled and linearized such that the t...

  4. Readout system of TPC/MPD NICA project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averyanov, A. V.; Bajajin, A. G.; Chepurnov, V. F.; Cheremukhina, G. A.; Fateev, O. V.; Korotkova, A. M.; Levchanovskiy, F. V.; Lukstins, J.; Movchan, S. A.; Razin, S. V.; Rybakov, A. A.; Vereschagin, S. V.; Zanevsky, Yu. V.; Zaporozhets, S. A.; Zruyev, V. N.

    2015-12-01

    The time-projection chamber (TPC) is the main tracking detector in the MPD/NICA. The information on charge-particle tracks in the TPC is registered by the MWPG with cathode pad readout. The frontend electronics (FEE) are developed with use of modern technologies such as application specific integrated circuits (ASIC), field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA), and data transfer to a concentrator via a fast optical interface. The main parameters of the FEE are as follows: total number of channels, ~95 000; data stream from the whole TPC, 5 GB/s; low power consumption, less than 100 mW/ch; signal to noise ratio (S/N), 30; equivalent noise charge (ENC), <1000e- ( C in = 10-20 pF); and zero suppression (pad signal rejection ~90%). The article presents the status of the readout chamber construction and the data acquisition system. The results of testing FEE prototypes are presented.

  5. Research and development for a free-running readout system for the ATLAS LAr Calorimeters at the high luminosity LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hils, Maximilian

    2016-07-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters were designed and built to measure electromagnetic and hadronic energy in proton-proton collisions produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to 1034 cm-2 s-1. The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) programme is now developed for up to 5-7 times the design luminosity, with the goal of accumulating an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1. In the HL-LHC phase, the increased radiation levels and an improved ATLAS trigger system require a replacement of the Front-end (FE) and Back-end (BE) electronics of the LAr Calorimeters. Results from research and development of individual components and their radiation qualification as well as the overall system design will be presented.

  6. Design and performance of a modular low-radioactivity readout system for cryogenic detectors in the CDMS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akerib, D. S.; Barnes, P. D., Jr.; Brink, P. L.; Cabrera, B.; Clarke, R. M.; Gaitskell, R. J.; Golwala, S. R.; Huber, M. E.; Kurylowicz, M.; Mandic, V.; Martinis, J. M.; Meunier, P.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Nam, S. W.; Perillo-Isaac, M.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Schnee, R. W.; Seitz, D. N.; Shutt, T.; Smith, G. W.; Stockwell, W. K.; Sundqvist, K. M.; White, S.

    2008-07-01

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment employs ultra-cold solid-state detectors to search for rare events resulting from WIMP-nucleus scattering. An innovative detector packaging and readout system has been developed to meet the unusual combination of requirements for: low temperature, low radioactivity, low energy threshold, and large channel count. Features include use of materials with low radioactivity such as multi-layer KAPTON laminates for circuit boards; immunity to microphonic noise via a vacuum coaxial wiring design, manufacturability, and modularity. The detector readout design had to accommodate various electronic components which have to be operated in close proximity to the detector as well maintaining separate individual temperatures (ranging from 600 mK to 150 K) in order to achieve optimal noise performance. The paper will describe the general electrical, thermal, and mechanical designs of the CDMS readout system, as well as presenting the theoretical and measured performance of the detector readout channels.

  7. Transputer-based readout controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belusevic, R.; Nixon, G.

    1989-05-01

    A bus-oriented readout controller is described that uses a transputer both as a direct memory access (DMA) device and a crate processor. It achieves data transfer rates of up to 13 Mbytes/s, yet is very simple in design. Data transfer is reduced to moving arrays within memory, which eliminates the need for bus arbitration and interfacing logic. A trivial extension of the basic design results in a twofold increase in the maximum data transfer speed, to 27 Mbytes/s. A second transputer, added to the crate controller for extra flexibility and processing power, enables it to form part of a second level data acquisition system, with a total of 8 links (maximum link speed 20 Mbits/s) available for intercrate communications. This design was developed for the readout system of the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector.

  8. High-fidelity projective read-out of a solid-state spin quantum register.

    PubMed

    Robledo, Lucio; Childress, Lilian; Bernien, Hannes; Hensen, Bas; Alkemade, Paul F A; Hanson, Ronald

    2011-09-29

    Initialization and read-out of coupled quantum systems are essential ingredients for the implementation of quantum algorithms. Single-shot read-out of the state of a multi-quantum-bit (multi-qubit) register would allow direct investigation of quantum correlations (entanglement), and would give access to further key resources such as quantum error correction and deterministic quantum teleportation. Although spins in solids are attractive candidates for scalable quantum information processing, their single-shot detection has been achieved only for isolated qubits. Here we demonstrate the preparation and measurement of a multi-spin quantum register in a low-temperature solid-state system by implementing resonant optical excitation techniques originally developed in atomic physics. We achieve high-fidelity read-out of the electronic spin associated with a single nitrogen-vacancy centre in diamond, and use this read-out to project up to three nearby nuclear spin qubits onto a well-defined state. Conversely, we can distinguish the state of the nuclear spins in a single shot by mapping it onto, and subsequently measuring, the electronic spin. Finally, we show compatibility with qubit control: we demonstrate initialization, coherent manipulation and single-shot read-out in a single experiment on a two-qubit register, using techniques suitable for extension to larger registers. These results pave the way for a test of Bell's inequalities on solid-state spins and the implementation of measurement-based quantum information protocols. PMID:21937989

  9. Readout of silicon strip detectors with position and timing information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedl, M.; Irmler, C.; Pernicka, M.

    2009-01-01

    Low-noise front-end amplifiers for silicon strip detectors are already available for decades, providing excellent signal-to-noise ratio and thus very precise spatial resolution, but at the cost of a long shaping time in the microsecond range. Due to occupancy and pile-up issues, modern experiments need much faster electronics. With submicron ASICs, adequate readout and data processing, it is possible to obtain not only spatial hit data, but also accurate timing information—a feature which is rarely exploited so far. We present the concept of a silicon vertex detector readout system intended for an upgrade of the Belle experiment at KEK (Tsukuba, Japan). The APV25 front-end chip, originally developed for CMS at CERN, is used in a way where it delivers multiple samples along the shaped waveform, such that not only the analog pulse height, but also the timing of each particle hit can be determined. We developed a complete readout system including an FADC +Processor VME module which performs zero-suppression in FPGAs. The hit time measurement is also planned on the same module. As fast amplifiers are inherently more susceptible to noise, which largely depends on the load capacitance, the front-end chips should be located as close to the detector as possible. On the other hand, the material budget, especially in a low-energy electron-positron machine such as Belle, should be minimized. We tried to merge those demands with a fully functional "Flex_Module", where thinned APV25 readout chips are mounted on the silicon sensor.

  10. Methods development for electron transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganapol, Barry D.

    1992-04-01

    This report consists of two code manuals and an article recently published in the proceedings of the American Nuclear Society Mathematics and Computation Topical Meeting held in Pittsburgh. In these presentations, deterministic calculational methods simulating electron transport in solids are detailed. The first method presented (Section 2) is for the solution of the Spencer-Lewis equation in which electron motion is characterized by continuous slowing down theory and a pathlength formulation. The FN solution to the standard monoenergetic transport equation for electron transport with isotropic scattering in finite media is given in Section 3. For both codes, complete flow charts, operational instructions and sample problems are included. Finally, in Section 4, an application of the multigroup formulation of electron transport in an infinite medium is used to verify an equivalent SN formulation. For this case, anisotropic scattering is also included.