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Sample records for real historical bricks

  1. Bricks in historical buildings of Toledo City: characterisation and restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Arce, Paula; Garcia-Guinea, Javier; Gracia, Mercedes; Obis, Joaquin

    2003-01-15

    Two different types of ancient bricks (12th to 14th centuries) collected from historical buildings of Toledo (Spain) were characterised by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometers (SEM/EDS), electron probe microanalysis (EM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and {sup 57}Fe-Moessbauer spectroscopy. Physical properties such as water absorption and suction, porosity, density and compression strength were also determined. Several minerals found in the brick matrix, such as garnet, let us infer raw material sources; calcite, dolomite, illite and neoformed gehlenite and diopside phases, on temperature reached in firing; secondary calcite, on first cooling scenarios; and manganese micronodules, on late pollution environments. XRD and DTA of original and refired samples supply information about firing temperatures. Additional data on firing conditions and type of the original clay are provided by the Moessbauer study. Physical properties of both types of bricks were compared and correlated with raw materials and fabric and firing technology employed. The physicochemical characterisation of these bricks provides valuable data for restoration purposes to formulate new specific bricks using neighbouring raw materials.

  2. Accelerated ageing in testing bricks used in the conservation of historic buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlendová, Gabriela; Podoba, Rudolf; Baník, Ivan

    2014-11-01

    The effect of accelerated climate ageing on historical bricks in the laboratory is investigated in the paper. Differences in thermal properties are experimentally determined and studied before and after bricks exposure to climate ageing, which consists of 60 freeze-thaw cycles. For measuring thermal conductivity, diffusivity and specific heat, pulse method is used.

  3. Mineralogical, physical and chemical characteristics of historic brick-made structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Midany, A. A.; Mahmoud, H. M.

    2015-12-01

    Brick-structured historic buildings represent one of the common monument types. Although they stand till now due to their fused structure, they are subjected to weathering and are affected by environmental deterioration. To perform any conservation/restortation process, a detailed characterization of the current conditions of the bricks is needed for identification of major threats and choosing a suitable material for conservation. In this study, historic brick-made structures was subjected to detailed characterization to identify the composition and quality of raw materials as well as environmental impacts on their original structure. Different characterization techniques such as mineralogical and petrographic examination, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and determination of physical and mechanical properties were used. The results of the characterization indicate that the bricks were manufactured from low-quality clay and treated at a temperature lower than 900 °C. In addition, environment pollution enhanced the presence of some ions, which affected the mechanical properties of bricks and lead to their deterioration and damage.

  4. Quaternary ammonium biocides as antimicrobial agents protecting historical wood and brick.

    PubMed

    Rajkowska, Katarzyna; Koziróg, Anna; Otlewska, Anna; Piotrowska, Małgorzata; Nowicka-Krawczyk, Paulina; Brycki, Bogumił; Kunicka-Styczyńska, Alina; Gutarowska, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are widely used in disinfection of water, surfaces and instruments as well as in textile, leather and food industries because of their relatively low toxicity, broad antimicrobial spectrum, non-volatility and chemical stability. Due to these advantages, QACs are also used in restoration and can be applied on historical material. The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of biocides based on quaternary ammonium salts and containing various excipients in the protection of historical materials against microbial growth. The study determined the antimicrobial activity of three biocides against bacteria: Pseudomonas fluorescens, Staphylococcus equorum, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus muralis, Sporosarcina aquimarina and Rhodococcus fascians, and moulds: Chaetomium globosum, Penicillium citreonigrum, Cladosporium cladosporioides I, Acremonium strictum, Aspergillus fumigatus and Cladosporium cladosporioides II, all isolated from historical wood and brick. Staphylococcus equorum, Bacillus cereus, Sporosarcina aquimarina and Rhodococcus fascians bacteria, and Cladosporium cladosporioides I and Acremonium strictum moulds showed high sensitivity to quaternary ammonium biocides. Historical wood can be effectively disinfected by three applications of biocide A (30% v/v) containing dodecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC), citric acid, propiconazole and propanol. Disinfection of historical brick can be carried out by three applications of 6% v/v solutions of biocide B (based on DDAC and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid - EDTA) or biocide C (containing a non-ionic surfactant, DDAC and EDTA). Effective protection of historical building materials against microbial growth for a period of seven days can be achieved by the application of biocide A (30% v/v) on the wood surface and biocide B (6% v/v) on the brick surface. PMID:26629794

  5. Innovative Solutions for Energetic Refurbishment of Historic Brick Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagorskas, Jurgis; Burinskienė, Marija; Paliulis, Gražvydas Mykolas; Venckauskaitė, Jūratė

    Building standards for energy effectiveness are increasing constantly and market follows these changes by construction of new buildings in accordance with standards and refurbishment of existing housing stock. Comprehensive trends of European construction market show tremendous increase in building retrofit works. It can be predicted that after this decade more than half of construction works in European cities will be taking place in existing buildings, pushing the construction of new buildings to the less important role. Such a growth in building refurbishment works is creating a demand for suitable materials, retrofitting techniques and research. The differences between refurbishment of new-build projects and historical or valuable buildings are insufficiently recognized—mostly the buildings without further cultural preservation requirements are studied. This article covers the theme of refurbishment measures in the historical buildings—the specific measures like inside insulation which is allowed due to the valuable façade or other heritage preservation requirements. An overview of other innovative methods for energy saving in existing buildings and their potential is given.

  6. Energetic Refurbishment of Historic Brick Buildings: Problems and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagorskas, Jurgis; Paliulis, Gražvydas Mykolas; Burinskienė, Marija; Venckauskaitė, Jūratė

    2013-12-01

    Building standards for energy effectiveness are increasing constantly and the market follows these changes by constructing new buildings in accordance with standards and refurbishment of the existing housing stock. Comprehensive trends in European construction market show tremendous increase in building retrofit works. It can be predicted that after the end of this decade, more than half of the construction works in European cities will be taking place in existing buildings, pushing the construction of new buildings to a less important role. Such a growth in building refurbishment works is creating a demand for suitable materials, retrofitting techniques and research. The differences between refurbishment of new-build projects and historical or valuable buildings are insufficiently recognized - mostly the buildings without further cultural preservation requirements are studied. This article covers the theme of refurbishment measures in historical buildings - the specific measures like inside insulation which are allowed due to the valuable façade or other heritage preservation requirements. An overview of other innovative methods for energy saving in existing buildings and their potential is given.

  7. 28. Brick apartment buildings with arched window openings, string courses, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Brick apartment buildings with arched window openings, string courses, a brick cornice, and an interrupted brick frieze. - Butte Historic District, Bounded by Copper, Arizona, Mercury & Continental Streets, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

  8. 41 CFR 102-78.65 - What are Federal agencies' historic preservation responsibilities when disposing of real property...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... agencies' historic preservation responsibilities when disposing of real property under their control? 102... Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 78-HISTORIC PRESERVATION Historic Preservation § 102-78.65 What are Federal agencies' historic preservation responsibilities when disposing...

  9. 41 CFR 102-78.65 - What are Federal agencies' historic preservation responsibilities when disposing of real property...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 78-HISTORIC PRESERVATION Historic... implement alternatives for historic properties, including adaptive use, that are not needed for current...

  10. 2. VIEW SOUTH SHOWING NORTHEAST ELEVATION; BRICK CORBELLING, BUTTRESSES AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTH SHOWING NORTHEAST ELEVATION; BRICK CORBELLING, BUTTRESSES AND ART DECO STAINED GLASS - Poletown Historic District, St. Michael's Greek Catholic Church, 2390 East Grand Boulevard, Detroit, MI

  11. Exterior building details of Building D, west façade: brick arch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building D, west façade: brick arch lintel over historic entry that was brick infilled; easterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  12. 41 CFR 102-75.445 - Who can convey surplus real and related personal property for historic monument use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... real and related personal property for historic monument use? 102-75.445 Section 102-75.445 Public... As Historic Monuments § 102-75.445 Who can convey surplus real and related personal property for historic monument use? A disposal agency may convey surplus real and related personal property for use as...

  13. 41 CFR 102-75.445 - Who can convey surplus real and related personal property for historic monument use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... real and related personal property for historic monument use? 102-75.445 Section 102-75.445 Public... As Historic Monuments § 102-75.445 Who can convey surplus real and related personal property for historic monument use? A disposal agency may convey surplus real and related personal property for use as...

  14. Interior building details of Building B, Room B004: south brick ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building B, Room B-004: south brick wall partial painted brick plaster with stair scar trace, historic brick infilled arch entry way to Room C-001; southeasterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  15. Insulated face brick

    SciTech Connect

    Cromrich, J.; Cromrich, L.B.

    1990-10-16

    This patent describes a method for forming insulated brick intended solely for use in building walls and having superior insulation qualities and lighter weight consonant with the load bearing capabilities of building bricks and the appearance of facing brick. It comprises dry mixing two parts of vermiculite and one part of brick clay, thereby forming a dry mixture having a vermiculite to clay ratio of approximately two-to-one by volume; adding water to the dry mixture and mixing, so that a substantially dry admixture having expanded vermiculite and brick clay is formed; forming a facing layer solely from brick clay; molding and compressing the substantially dry admixture, so as to form a generally rectangular main body layer having parallel top and bottom faces, a pair of parallel side faces and a pair of parallel end faces, respectively, the top and bottom faces being substantially larger in area than the respective side faces, and the side faces being substantially larger in area than the respective end faces, the body layer further having at least one bore formed therein, the bore running from the top face to the bottom face perpendicularly thereto and substantially parallel to the side surfaces thereof, the bore being substantially centrally disposed and wherein the facing layer is disposed on one of the side surfaces of the body portion; curing the molded admixture having the facing layer disposed thereon; whereby a cured brick is formed; and firing the cured brick and the facing layer disposed thereon, whereby an integral brick is formed having top and bottom faces of the brick which are entirely devoid of facing layers, wherein the brick has the desired load bearing capability substantially between its top and bottom faces, whereby the outer facing layer only provides the desired appearance and weather resistance, and further whereby the weight of the brick is substantially reduced.

  16. Orality and Literacy--the Real Difference: A Historical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Gary N.

    Just as a contemporary professional person maintains copies of wills, real estate records, and court decrees, so did 15th-century B.C. residents of the ancient city of Nuzi. Such documents, then and now, are generally written by legal scribes. The Hittites of the 14th century B.C. maintained detailed manuals concerning the care and feeding of…

  17. 33. July 1958 PARABOLIC BRICK VAULT IN SERVICE MAGAZINE UNDER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. July 1958 PARABOLIC BRICK VAULT IN SERVICE MAGAZINE UNDER RAVELIN (CIVIL WAR PERIOD) - Fort McHenry National Monument & Historic Shrine, East Fort Avenue at Whetstone Point, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  18. 41 CFR 102-75.445 - Who can convey surplus real and related personal property for historic monument use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... real and related personal property for historic monument use? 102-75.445 Section 102-75.445 Public... historic monument use? A disposal agency may convey surplus real and related personal property for use as a historic monument, without monetary consideration, to any State, political subdivision,...

  19. Training Guidelines: Bricks Operatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceramics, Glass, and Mineral Products Industry Training Board, Harrow (England).

    This manual offers guidelines for training of personnel involved in the manufacture of bricks, including employment practices; handling and preparation of raw materials; making, drying, firing, sorting, packing, and loading of bricks. A major emphasis is placed on industrial safety. (MF)

  20. 23. Brick coke quencher, brick stack, metal stack to right, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Brick coke quencher, brick stack, metal stack to right, coke gas pipe to left; in background, BOF building, limestone piles, Levy's Slag Dump. Looking north/northwest - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI

  1. A brick-architecture-based mobile under-vehicle inspection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Cheng; Page, David; Koschan, Andreas; Abidi, Mongi

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, a mobile scanning system for real-time under-vehicle inspection is presented, which is founded on a "Brick" architecture. In this "Brick" architecture, the inspection system is basically decomposed into bricks of three kinds: sensing, mobility, and computing. These bricks are physically and logically independent and communicate with each other by wireless communication. Each brick is mainly composed by five modules: data acquisition, data processing, data transmission, power, and self-management. These five modules can be further decomposed into submodules where the function and the interface are well-defined. Based on this architecture, the system is built by four bricks: two sensing bricks consisting of a range scanner and a line CCD, one mobility brick, and one computing brick. The sensing bricks capture geometric data and texture data of the under-vehicle scene, while the mobility brick provides positioning data along the motion path. Data of these three modalities are transmitted to the computing brick where they are fused and reconstruct a 3D under-vehicle model for visualization and danger inspection. This system has been successfully used in several military applications and proved to be an effective safer method for national security.

  2. Surface dating of bricks, an application of luminescence techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, Anna; Martini, Marco; Maspero, Francesco; Panzeri, Laura; Sibilia, Emanuela

    2014-05-01

    Luminescence techniques are a powerful tool to date archaeological ceramic materials and geological sediments. Thermoluminescence (TL) is widely used for bricks dating to reconstruct the chronology of urban complexes and the development of human cultures. However, it can sometimes be inconclusive, since TL assesses the firing period of bricks, which can be reused, even several centuries later. This problem can be circumvented using a dating technique based on a resetting event different from the last heating. OSL (Optically Stimulated Luminescence) exploits the last light exposition of the brick surface, which resets the light-sensitive electron traps until the surface is definitely shielded by mortar and superimposed bricks. This advanced application (surface dating) has been successfully attempted on rocks, marble and stone artifacts, but not yet on bricks. A recent conservation campaign at the Certosa di Pavia gave the opportunity to sample some bricks belonging to a XVII century collapsed wall, still tied to their mortars. This was an advantageous condition to test this technique, comparing the dating results with precise historical data. This attempt gave satisfactory results, allowing to identify bricks surely reused and to fully confirm that the edification of the perimetral wall occurred at the end of XVII century.

  3. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Stanley P. Mixon, Photographer September ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Stanley P. Mixon, Photographer September 11, 1940 EXTERIOR, BRICK END BARN WITH SIDE OVERHANG AND VENT PATTERN IN WALL. - Brick End Barn, Kleinfeltersville, Lebanon County, PA

  4. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer October 1936 #12 EARLY RED BRICK HOUSE, Elk and Prospect Sts., Galena, Illinois - Galena Doorways, Red Brick House, Elk & Prospect Streets, Galena, Jo Daviess County, IL

  5. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey E. H. Pickering, Photographer October ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey E. H. Pickering, Photographer October 1936 EXTERIOR VIEW SHOWING SIMILAR BRICK HOUSE ON ADJOINING PROPERTY - 3850 West Chapel Road (Brick House Number 2), Level, Harford County, MD

  6. The Brick Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Science fiction writers, like Jules Verne in France and Edward Everett Hale in America, had discovered one of the most vital elements in the formula for space travel-a fertile imagination. The first known proposal for a marned-satellite appears in a story by Hale entitled 'The Brick Moon' published in 1899. The story involved a group of young Bostonians who planned to put an artificial satellite into polar orbit for sailors to use to determine longitude accurately and easily. They planned to send a brick satellite into orbit because the satellite would have to withstand fire very well. The Satellite's 37 inhabitants signaled the Earth in morse code by jumping up and down on the outside of the satellite.

  7. Brick handling: a case study.

    PubMed

    Webb, R D; Handyside, J

    1982-09-01

    A small change in brick dimensions resulted in an increase in the perceived work-load of men loading and unloading pallets of bricks by hand. A laboratory study indicated that the change in brick dimensions required changes in grip pattern in order to unload bricks at the same rate, moving the same number at a time. These changed grip patterns resulted in increased upper body movement, increased chest-muscle activity and higher heart rates. These differences were reflected in higher subjective ratings of fatigue. PMID:15676442

  8. Speciation and bioaccessibility of mercury in adobe bricks and dirt floors in Huancavelica, Peru

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Huancavelica, Peru, a historic cinnabar refining site, is one of the most mercury (Hg) contaminated urban areas in the world. Residents’ exposures are amplified because residents build their adobe brick homes from contaminated soil. Objectives: The objectives of th...

  9. 17. Detail view southwest showing brick parapet, wood entablature, brick ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Detail view southwest showing brick parapet, wood entablature, brick pilasters with molded wood caps, splayed arch and arched window lintels of north elevation of west operator's house. - Yellow Mill Bridge, Spanning Yellow Mill Channel at Stratford Avenue, Bridgeport, Fairfield County, CT

  10. 5. Photocopy of brick block of Koster's Theatre and H. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopy of brick block of Koster's Theatre and H. E. Bonesteel Co. store left side of street, with cars blocking the front entrances, 1930s. Original photo at Nebraska State Historical Society. - Koster's Theatre, North side of Elm Street, Niobrara, Knox County, NE

  11. Method of forming ceramic bricks

    DOEpatents

    Poeppel, Roger B.; Claar, Terry D.; Silkowski, Peter

    1988-01-01

    A method for forming free standing ceramic bricks for use as tritium breeder material is disclosed. Aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate are mixed with an organic hydrocolloid dispersion and powdered lithium carbonate, spray dried, and ceramic bricks formed by molding in a die and firing.

  12. Method of forming ceramic bricks

    DOEpatents

    Poeppel, Roger B.; Claar, Terry D.; Silkowski, Peter

    1988-09-06

    A method for forming free standing ceramic bricks for use as tritium breeder material is disclosed. Aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate are mixed with an organic hydrocolloid dispersion and powdered lithium carbonate, spray dried, and ceramic bricks formed by molding in a die and firing.

  13. More than Bricks and Mortar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Gaythorne Row, a terrace of Victorian back-to-back houses in Great Horton, was earmarked for demolition when, in 1986, Bradford Industrial Museum took possession of the three cottages and transported them, brick by brick, to the museum site four miles away. The houses were built in 1876, a year later than the old worsted spinning mill in which the…

  14. Method of forming ceramic bricks

    DOEpatents

    Poeppel, R.B.; Claar, T.D.; Silkowski, P.

    1987-04-22

    A method for forming free standing ceramic bricks for use as tritium breeder material is disclosed. Aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate are mixed with an organic hydrocolloid dispersion and powdered lithium carbonate, spray dried, and ceramic bricks formed by molding in a die and firing.

  15. Automated Historical and Real-Time Cyclone Discovery With Multimodal Remote Satellite Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, S.; Talukder, A.; Liu, T.; Tang, W.; Bingham, A.

    2008-12-01

    methodology can be applied to (i) historical data to support Earth scientists in climate modeling, cyclonic-climate interactions, and obtain a better understanding of the cause and effects of cyclone (e.g. cyclo-genesis), and (ii) automatic cyclone discovery in near real-time using streaming satellite to support and improve the planning of global cyclone field campaigns. Additional satellite data from GOES and other orbiting satellites can be easily assimilated and integrated into our automated cyclone detection and tracking module to improve the temporal tracking accuracy of cyclones down to ½ hr and reduce the incidence of false alarms.

  16. Rebuilding Our Schools Brick by Brick.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neighborhood Capital Budget Group, Chicago, IL.

    This report takes the experience of one city--Chicago, Illinois--and uses it as a detailed example of how the struggle to rebuild U.S. schools, particularly a large-scale program, has fared in the real world, highlighting the need for a federal role in helping state and local governments fix its school buildings and relieve overcrowding. Chapter…

  17. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Nathaniel R. Ewan, Photographer February ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Nathaniel R. Ewan, Photographer February 21, 1939 EXTERIOR - BRICK PANING DETAIL - Van Ness House, Jackson Avenue & Pompton Pine, Pompton Plains, Morris County, NJ

  18. A real-time snow water equivalent interpolation system using wireless sensor networks and historical remotely sensed data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Z.; Zhang, Z.; Molotch, N. P.; Glaser, S.; Bales, R. C.; Conklin, M. H.

    2015-12-01

    Over 100 wireless sensors for monitoring real-time snow conditions were deployed in ten clusters distributed across the headwaters of the American River Basin. The sensors are strategically placed to measure snow depth across elevation gradients and local differences in slope, aspect and canopy coverage. The sensors provided near-real-time snow-depth readings during the 2014 and 2015 snow seasons. Also, time series of snow water equivalent (SWE) maps were reconstructed for 2012-2014 using energy-balance modeling with modeled energy forcings (NLDAS), terrain corrections for solar radiation (TOPORAD), and fractional snow cover data (MODIS). We blended the real-time snow-depth readings with the historical SWE reconstructions to interpolate real-time SWE conditions across the basin. Snow-depth readings from all sensors for selected dates in 2014 were converted into SWE estimates using density values from snow-pillow sites in the basin. SWE values for pixels where sensors were located were extracted from the reconstructed 2012-2013 data to develop a time-series array. Using a Nearest-Neighbor algorithm we searched the array for the closest conditions that matched the sensor data, interpolated the residuals between reconstructed versus measured SWE across the basin, and added the interpolated values to the reconstructed SWE. We also blended the sensor measurements with the 2014 reconstruction results that were from the same dates. We evaluated both the historical SWE blending results and the concurrent SWE blending results with the operational networks measurements, finding that the concurrent SWE blending has a slightly lower RMSE compared to that of historical SWE blending. Since the reconstruction results could only be estimated after the end of the season, concurrent SWE blending is not applicable to the real time SWE interpolation even though it has a more accurate estimation. However, the small difference of RMSE between the two approaches informs us that the

  19. Historical and future hydrologic response to glacier recession in the Cordillera Real, Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frans, C. D.; Istanbulluoglu, E.; Naz, B.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Condom, T.; Clarke, G. K.; Burns, P. J.; Nolin, A. W.

    2013-12-01

    In many partially glaciated watersheds climate-forced glacier recession has altered and will continue to alter seasonal water availability, leading to profound implications for water supply systems. The tropical glaciers of the Cordillera Real, Bolivia, whose melt water significantly contributes to water supply and energy production for the densely populated La Paz area, have retreated at unprecedented rates since the 1970's. This glacier recession will continue with ongoing increasing temperatures projected for the subtropical Andes. We use a recently developed glacio-hydrological model to evaluate the contribution of glacier melt to watershed discharge, and track this contribution in time with changing glacier area. A glacier model, solving time-evolving and spatially-distributed balance equations for glacier mass and momentum, is integrated within the Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM). The glacio-hydrologic behavior of Cordillera Real watersheds is simulated during the historical period of 1987-2010. This model application is validated through comparisons with satellite derived glacier extent estimates and in-situ mass balance, surface energy flux, and stream discharge measurements. The retrospective analysis indicates that glacier melt contributed, on average, 31% (63%) of total annual (dry season-JJA) watershed discharge. Further, the modeling approach is used to predict the transitioning contribution of glacier melt and watershed hydrology through the 21st century. Multiple realizations of the 21st century meteorological data, used to force the glacier-hydrological model, are produced using a stochastic statistical downscaling technique. In this technique a weather generator (Advanced Weather Generator, AWE-GEN) is employed with statistical parameters of the future climate obtained from predictions of 11 CMIP5 general circulation models (GCMs). Future simulations indicate a 17% (23%) decrease in annual (JJA) runoff by the end of the 21st

  20. Historical ecology with real numbers: Past and present extent and biomass of an imperilled estuarine habitat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historic baselines are important in developing our understanding of ecosystems and species dynamics in the face of rapid global change. While a number of studies have sought to elucidate the historic abundance of exploited marine populations, there are few that confidently quantify patterns of abund...

  1. Standardized Curriculum for Brick, Block, and Stonemasonry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: brick, block, and stonemasonry I and II. The six units in brick, block, and stonemasonry I are as follows: orientation and leadership activities; safety; basic tools and equipment; masonry units; mortar; and wall layout. Brick, block,…

  2. Can an Electron Rotate a Brick?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohren, Craig F.

    2009-01-01

    In "The Theory of Almost Everything", Robert Oerter asserts the following: "Take a beam of electrons that are all spinning in the same direction and fire it at, say, a brick. If you could keep this up for long enough, and if there were no other forces acting on the brick, the electrons would transfer their rotation to the brick, and it would begin…

  3. Historical ecology with real numbers: past and present extent and biomass of an imperilled estuarine habitat

    PubMed Central

    Zu Ermgassen, Philine S. E.; Spalding, Mark D.; Blake, Brady; Coen, Loren D.; Dumbauld, Brett; Geiger, Steve; Grabowski, Jonathan H.; Grizzle, Raymond; Luckenbach, Mark; McGraw, Kay; Rodney, William; Ruesink, Jennifer L.; Powers, Sean P.; Brumbaugh, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Historic baselines are important in developing our understanding of ecosystems in the face of rapid global change. While a number of studies have sought to determine changes in extent of exploited habitats over historic timescales, few have quantified such changes prior to late twentieth century baselines. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the first ever large-scale quantitative assessment of the extent and biomass of marine habitat-forming species over a 100-year time frame. We examined records of wild native oyster abundance in the United States from a historic, yet already exploited, baseline between 1878 and 1935 (predominantly 1885–1915), and a current baseline between 1968 and 2010 (predominantly 2000–2010). We quantified the extent of oyster grounds in 39 estuaries historically and 51 estuaries from recent times. Data from 24 estuaries allowed comparison of historic to present extent and biomass. We found evidence for a 64 per cent decline in the spatial extent of oyster habitat and an 88 per cent decline in oyster biomass over time. The difference between these two numbers illustrates that current areal extent measures may be masking significant loss of habitat through degradation. PMID:22696522

  4. Exterior building details of Building C, east façade: historic fouroverfour ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building C, east façade: historic four-over-four window, brick lintel, brick quoins, corbelled brick cornice, spiral metal staircase to inclined stairs rising to second floor cantilever wooden walkway; westerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  5. Real-Time PCR Detection of Dogwood Anthracnose Fungus in Historical Herbarium Specimens from Asia

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Stephen; Masuya, Hayato; Zhang, Jian; Walsh, Emily; Zhang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Cornus species (dogwoods) are popular ornamental trees and important understory plants in natural forests of northern hemisphere. Dogwood anthracnose, one of the major diseases affecting the native North American Cornus species, such as C. florida, is caused by the fungal pathogen Discula destructiva. The origin of this fungus is not known, but it is hypothesized that it was imported to North America with its host plants from Asia. In this study, a TaqMan real-time PCR assay was used to detect D. destructiva in dried herbarium and fresh Cornus samples. Several herbarium specimens from Japan and China were detected positive for D. destructiva, some of which were collected before the first report of the dogwood anthracnose in North America. Our findings further support that D. destructiva was introduced to North America from Asia where the fungus likely does not cause severe disease. PMID:27096929

  6. Real-Time PCR Detection of Dogwood Anthracnose Fungus in Historical Herbarium Specimens from Asia.

    PubMed

    Miller, Stephen; Masuya, Hayato; Zhang, Jian; Walsh, Emily; Zhang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Cornus species (dogwoods) are popular ornamental trees and important understory plants in natural forests of northern hemisphere. Dogwood anthracnose, one of the major diseases affecting the native North American Cornus species, such as C. florida, is caused by the fungal pathogen Discula destructiva. The origin of this fungus is not known, but it is hypothesized that it was imported to North America with its host plants from Asia. In this study, a TaqMan real-time PCR assay was used to detect D. destructiva in dried herbarium and fresh Cornus samples. Several herbarium specimens from Japan and China were detected positive for D. destructiva, some of which were collected before the first report of the dogwood anthracnose in North America. Our findings further support that D. destructiva was introduced to North America from Asia where the fungus likely does not cause severe disease. PMID:27096929

  7. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, August, 1971 STREETSCAPE SHOWING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, August, 1971 STREETSCAPE SHOWING EAST (FRONT) ELEVATIONS OF HAINES BROTHERS BRICK STORE (FAR RIGHT), ORTH BUILDING, BRUNNER BROTHERS STORE, AND NORTH (FRONT) ELEVATION OF CITY HALL (FAR LEFT). - Haines Brothers Brick Store, 110 South Oregon Street, Jacksonville, Jackson County, OR

  8. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, August, 1971 SOUTH (FRONT) ELEVATIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, August, 1971 SOUTH (FRONT) ELEVATIONS OF CORNER OF UNITED STATES HOTEL (FAR LEFT), JUDGE AND NUNAN'S SADDLERY, P.J. RYAN'S FIRST BRICK STORE BUILDING (JACKSONVILLE INN). - P. J. Ryan's First Brick Store Building, 175 East California Street, Jacksonville, Jackson County, OR

  9. Exterior building details of Building C, east façade: historic six ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building C, east façade: historic six light entry double door with three light transom, historic six light door with a one light transom, arch brick lintels and quoins, scored cement plaster finished brick walls; westerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  10. 21 CFR 133.109 - Brick cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Brick cheese for manufacturing. 133.109 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.109 Brick cheese for manufacturing. Brick cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity for brick cheese prescribed by §...

  11. 21 CFR 133.109 - Brick cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Brick cheese for manufacturing. 133.109 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.109 Brick cheese for manufacturing. Brick cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity for brick cheese prescribed by §...

  12. 21 CFR 133.109 - Brick cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Brick cheese for manufacturing. 133.109 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.109 Brick cheese for manufacturing. Brick cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity for brick cheese prescribed by §...

  13. 21 CFR 133.109 - Brick cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brick cheese for manufacturing. 133.109 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.109 Brick cheese for manufacturing. Brick cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity for brick cheese prescribed by §...

  14. 21 CFR 133.109 - Brick cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Brick cheese for manufacturing. 133.109 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.109 Brick cheese for manufacturing. Brick cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity for brick cheese prescribed by §...

  15. Bridge and brick motifs in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chung-Yuan; Sun, Chuen-Tsai; Cheng, Chia-Ying; Hsieh, Ji-Lung

    2007-04-01

    Acknowledging the expanding role of complex networks in numerous scientific contexts, we examine significant functional and topological differences between bridge and brick motifs for predicting network behaviors and functions. After observing similarities between social networks and their genetic, ecological, and engineering counterparts, we identify a larger number of brick motifs in social networks and bridge motifs in the other three types. We conclude that bridge and brick motif content analysis can assist researchers in understanding the small-world and clustering properties of network structures when investigating network functions and behaviors.

  16. The quantitative estimation of the vulnerability of brick and concrete building impacted by debris flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Guo, Z. X.; Wang, D.; Qian, H.

    2015-08-01

    There is little historic data about the vulnerability of the damage elements in debris flow disaster in China. Therefore, it is difficult to estimate the vulnerability of debris flow quantitatively. This paper was devoted to the research of the vulnerability of brick and concrete building impacted by debris flow which widely existed in affected area. Under two assumptions, several prototype walls of brick and concrete were constructed to simulate the damaged structures in debris flow while the iron spheres were taken as the substitute of debris flow. The failure criterion of brick and concrete building was proposed with referring to the structure standards (brick and concrete) and the damage pattern in debris flow. The quantitatively estimation of vulnerability of brick and concrete building was finally established based on Fuzzy mathematics and the proposed failure criterion. The results show that the maximum impact bending moment is the best fit to be the disaster-causing factor in vulnerability curve and formula. The experiments in this paper is the preliminary research on the vulnerability of the element impacted by debris flow. The method and conclusion will be useful for the quantitative estimation of the vulnerability in debris flow and also can be referred in other types of the vulnerable elements research.

  17. Apparatus for forming adobe bricks and drilling wells

    SciTech Connect

    Kinnamon, H. D.

    1985-02-12

    An improved apparatus for the continuous and relatively labor-free fabrication of adobe bricks and the forcing of well casings into the earth. With regard to forming adobe bricks, a rotating table carries the bricks being processed from one station to the next and a novel means for applying unusually high forming pressures permits immediate forming and ejection of the bricks from the forms while at the same time producing adobe bricks of improved quality and hardness characteristics.

  18. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey George Eisenman, Photographer Summer 1967 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey George Eisenman, Photographer Summer 1967 BASEMENT: FIREPLACE SUPPORT ARCH, WEST WALL, UNDER BRICK ELL - Adams-Mason House, 1072 Thomas Jefferson Street Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  19. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey George Eisenman, Photographer Summer 1967 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey George Eisenman, Photographer Summer 1967 DETAIL, WINDOWS OF BRICK ELL - Adams-Mason House, 1072 Thomas Jefferson Street Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Nathaniel R. Ewan, Photographer November ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Nathaniel R. Ewan, Photographer November 20, 1936 EXTERIOR - SUN DRIED BRICK DETAIL - SECOND FLOOR - William R. Atkinson-Shinn House, Route 39, Columbus, Burlington County, NJ

  1. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Nathaniel R. Ewan, Photographer November ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Nathaniel R. Ewan, Photographer November 20, 1936 EXTERIOR - SUN DRIED BRICK DETAIL - FIRST FLOOR - William R. Atkinson-Shinn House, Route 39, Columbus, Burlington County, NJ

  2. 16. Historic American Buildings Survey E. W. Russell, Photographer, October ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Historic American Buildings Survey E. W. Russell, Photographer, October 6, 1936 FIREPLACE WITH RAISED BRICK HEARTH, W. WALL OF ATTIC ROOM - J. J. McMahon House, 456 Saint Francis Street, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  3. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, December 20, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, December 20, 1934. BRICK WALL, WAS ONCE USED AS A COW LOT - Jemison-van de Graaf-Burchfield House, 1305 Greensboro Avenue, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  4. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey E. W. Russell, Photographer, March ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey E. W. Russell, Photographer, March 22, 1937 BRICK WORK UNDER SOUTH WALL AND FRONT PORCH - Calvert-Webster House, 265 North Conception Street, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  5. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey, P. Kent Fairbanks, Photographer August, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey, P. Kent Fairbanks, Photographer August, 1968 DETAIL OF SOUTH ELEVATION STAIRWAY WINDOW AND EXPOSED ADOBE BRICK. - Beehive House, East South Temple Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  6. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey E. W. Russell, Photographer, June ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey E. W. Russell, Photographer, June 2, 1936 VIEW, TOWARDS N., OF SECOND STORY PORTICO - NOW CLOSED WITH BRICK WALLS - See Front View - Beehive Church, Franklin & Saint Michael Streets, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  7. 24. Historic American Buildings Survey, Stevens Commercial Photographers, September 17, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Historic American Buildings Survey, Stevens Commercial Photographers, September 17, 1927 Photocopy by Lyle E. Winkle, 1969 WEATHERLY BUILDING AND ORIENTAL THEATRE BEFORE BRICK AND TERRA-COTTA CLADDING. - Oriental Theatre, 828 Southeast Grand Avenue, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  8. XAL Application Framework and Bricks GUI Builder

    SciTech Connect

    Pelaia II, Tom

    2007-01-01

    The XAL [1] Application Framework is a framework for rapidly developing document based Java applications with a common look and feel along with many built-in user interface behaviors. The Bricks GUI builder consists of a modern application and framework for rapidly building user interfaces in support of true Model-View-Controller (MVC) compliant Java applications. Bricks and the XAL Application Framework allow developers to rapidly create quality applications.

  9. Modeling tools for the real-time evaluation and historical reconstruction of tsunami events in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrero, J. C.; Greer, D.; Goring, D. G. G.; Power, W. L.

    2014-12-01

    We assess tsunami hazards in New Zealand through a review of historical accounts, analysis of water level and current speed data and detailed numerical modeling. The tsunamis of 2010 (Chile) and 2011 (Japan) were recorded on tide gauges throughout New Zealand, providing a rich water level data set for model comparison and calibration. Furthermore, a current meter at the entrance to Tauranga Harbor also captured these tsunamis providing a unique current speed data set augmented by several concurrent water level records. Analysis of the current data from 2011 shows that although port operations were not adversely affected, tsunami currents may have exceeded thresholds for the navigation of large vessels through the narrow harbor entrance. Harmonic analysis of the current speed data also illustrates the effect of tidal flows on tsunami currents. This information was then used to calibrate numerical models using the ComMIT modeling tool. A sensitivity study for tsunamis generated from around the Pacific Rim indicates the relative hazards from different source regions. Deterministic scenario modeling of significant historical tsunamis provides a quantitative estimate of the expected effects from possible future great earthquakes. These models were tested in April 2014 after the Mw 8.2 earthquake offshore of Iquique, Chile - an event of particular concern given that the August 1868 Arica earthquake generated a tsunami of ~7 m in Lyttelton Harbor as well as runup of up to 10 m in the Chatham Islands. As the April 2014 event unfolded, it was initially unclear if an evacuation or other emergency response would be necessary in New Zealand given that a tsunami was observed and recorded on tide gauges and deep ocean tsunameters close to the source region. Models run in real time, using sources based on inverted tsunameter data and finite fault solutions of the earthquake, suggested that a damaging far-field tsunami was not expected. As a result, emergency response teams and

  10. Making Bengali Brick Lane: claiming and contesting space in East London.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Claire

    2011-06-01

    Based on a recent empirical project on 'the Bengal diaspora', the paper explores the construction and contestation of meanings around the iconic East London street, Brick Lane. Taking the 2006 protests around the film Brick Lane as its starting point, the paper draws on original interviews conducted in 2008 with a range of Bengali community representatives, to examine the narratives of space, community and belonging that emerge around the idea of Brick Lane as the 'cultural heartland' of the British Bangladeshi community. By exploring the representation, production and contestation of 'social space' through everyday practices, the paper engages with and contests the representation of minority ethnic 'communities' in the context of contemporary multicultural London and examines the process of 'claiming' and 'making' space in East London. In so doing, the paper contributes to a critical tradition that challenges essentialising and pathologizing accounts of ethnic communities and racialized spaces, or that places them outside of broader social and historical processes - redolent, for example, in contemporary discussions about 'parallel lives' or 'the clash of civilizations'. By contrast, this paper views social space as made through movement and narration, with a particular emphasis on the social agency of local Bengali inhabitants and the multiple meanings that emerge from within this 'imagined community'. However, rather than simply stressing the unfinished and processual nature of spatial meanings, the paper insists on the historical, embodied and affective dimensions of such meaning making, and a reckoning with the broader social and political landscape within which such meanings take shape. The focus on Brick Lane provides an empirically rich, geographically and historically located lens through which to explore the complex role of ethnicity as a marker of social space and of spatial practices of resistance and identity. By exploring Bengali Brick Lane through

  11. Manufacturing ceramic bricks with polyaluminum chloride (PAC) sludge from a water treatment plant.

    PubMed

    da Silva, E M; Morita, D M; Lima, A C M; Teixeira, L Girard

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research work is to assess the viability of manufacturing ceramic bricks with sludge from a water treatment plant (WTP) for use in real-world applications. Sludge was collected from settling tanks at the Bolonha WTP, which is located in Belém, capital of the state of Pará, Brazil. After dewatering in drainage beds, sludge was added to the clay at a local brickworks at different mass percentages (7.6, 9.0, 11.7, 13.9 and 23.5%). Laboratory tests were performed on the bricks to assess their resistance to compression, water absorption, dimensions and visual aspects. Percentages of 7.6, 9.0, 11.7 and 13.9% (w/w) of WTP sludge presented good results in terms of resistance, which indicates that technically, ceramic bricks can be produced by incorporating up to 13.9% of WTP sludge. PMID:26038928

  12. Evaluation of external exposures of the population of Ozyorsk, Russia, with luminescence measurements of bricks.

    PubMed

    Woda, Clemens; Jacob, P; Ulanovsky, A; Fiedler, I; Mokrov, Y; Rovny, S

    2009-11-01

    Recently discovered historical documents indicate that large releases of noble gases (mainly (41)Ar and radioactive isotopes of Kr and Xe) from the Mayak Production Association (MPA) over the period from 1948 to 1956 may have caused considerable external exposures of both, inhabitants of Ozyorsk and former inhabitants of villages at the upper Techa River. To quantify this exposure, seven brick samples from three buildings in Ozyorsk, located 8-10 km north-northwest from the radioactive gas release points, were taken. The absorbed dose in brick was measured in a depth interval of 3-13 mm below the exposed surface of the bricks by means of the thermoluminescence (TL) and the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) method. Generally, luminescence properties using TL were more favorable for precise dose determination than using OSL, but within their uncertainties the results from both methods agree well with each other. The absorbed dose due to natural radiation was assessed and subtracted under the assumption of the bricks to be completely dry. The weighted average of the anthropogenic dose for all samples measured by TL and OSL is 10 +/- 9 and 1 +/- 9 mGy, respectively. An upper limit for a possible anthropogenic dose in brick that would not be detected due to the measurement uncertainties is estimated at 24 mGy. This corresponds to an effective dose of about 21 mSv. A similar range of values is obtained in recently published dispersion calculations that were based on reconstructed MPA releases. It is concluded that the release of radioactive noble gases from the radiochemical and reactor plants at Mayak PA did not lead to a significant external exposure of the population of Ozyorsk. In addition, the study demonstrates the detection limit for anthropogenic doses in ca. 60-year-old bricks to be about 24 mGy, if luminescence methods are used. PMID:19680674

  13. The New Netherland/New York ceramic chemistry archive: Compositional analysis of bricks by ICP

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, A.S. ); Harbottle, G. )

    1990-01-01

    The need to track down the origins of ceramics recovered in historical excavations within the region of New York led to the establishment of a similar collection of ceramic analytical data. This initiative, called the New Netherland/New York ceramic chemistry archive (or NNNY), resides at Fordham University. The brick component of the archive is especially important. Whereas bricks or fragments of them are common in historic sites, their relatively narrow range of morphological variability makes it difficult to erect detailed classifications or link the different types with discrete sources. The present paper will explore the use of a cheap, recently developed multielement analytical technique, inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (or ICP), that has been the basis for all NNNY determinations. A demonstration of how ICP characterization works in the discrimination of brickmaking establishments along the Hudson River in the late 19th century follows in Section 5. 13 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Using solar dryers to dry clay bricks

    SciTech Connect

    Bernal, J.A.; Wicker, R.B.

    1996-12-31

    Experiments using a small-scale solar dryer have been performed to determine the effect of incorporating solar dryers in the pre-firing stage of clay brick production. A comparison of brick moisture content over time is presented for dry bricks that underwent additional drying either naturally through direct exposure, in convection ovens set at 65.6 C and 104 C, in the solar dryer, or sealed in plastic bags. The ambient temperature and relative humidity were monitored along with the solar dryer temperature. Results indicated the solar dryer removed from one to two percent more moisture than natural drying, but removed less moisture than did the ovens. A similar comparison of wet bricks naturally dried, oven dried, and placed in the solar dryer for periods of five and seven days is also presented. The solar dryer reduced the amount of time required for bricks to be dried to a specified moisture content and increased the amount of moisture removed for a given amount of time.

  15. IET. Stack interior. Masons lay fire brick liner, leaving air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET. Stack interior. Masons lay fire brick liner, leaving air layer between bricks and concrete wall. Date: May 20, 1955. INEEL negative no. 55-1306 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. WEST FACADE. THREESTORY BRICK AND STEEL BUILDING WITH CONCRETE ADDITION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST FACADE. THREE-STORY BRICK AND STEEL BUILDING WITH CONCRETE ADDITION AT SOUTH FACE. NOTE OPENINGS INTO BUILDING ARE BOARDED OR BRICKED UP WITH WOODEN BOARDS OR CONCRETE BLOCK - National Can Company, 2566 East Grand Boulevard, Detroit, MI

  17. Detail of bricked up storage vault opening Central of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of bricked up storage vault opening - Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Brick Storage Vaults under Jones Street, Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  18. Water vapor sorption hysteresis of ceramic bricks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koronthalyova, Olga

    2016-07-01

    A quantification of the hysteretic effects and their thorough analysis was carried out for three types of ceramic bricks. Water vapor adsorption/desorption isotherms were measured by the standard desiccator method. The desorption measurements were carried out from capillary moisture content as well as from equilibrium moisture content corresponding to the relative humidity of 98 %. For all three tested types of bricks the hysteretic effects were present but their significance differed depending on the particular type of brick. Significant differences were noticed also in desorption curves determined from capillary moisture content and from equilibrium moisture content corresponding to the relative humidity of 98 %. Based on the measured data a possible correlation between pore structure parameters and noticed hysteretic effects as well as relevance of the open pore model are discussed. The obtained adsorption/desorption curves were approximated by an analytical relation.

  19. View SE of threestory steel and brick building. Part of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View SE of three-story steel and brick building. Part of large complex of buildings along Milwaukee Ave. (1920, 1950, & 1960 Milwaukee Ave. E) that is attached to the back of 1891 Trombly Ave. Openings on first floor are bricked up; second floor rectangular widows on the street facade are framed by an arched brick pattern. One brick course protrudes to form a cornice line between the second and third floors - 1900 East Milwaukee (Industrial Building), Detroit, MI

  20. View looking SW at brick retaining wall running parallel to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking SW at brick retaining wall running parallel to Jones Street showing bricked up storage vaults - Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Brick Storage Vaults under Jones Street, Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  1. The quantitative estimation of the vulnerability of brick and concrete wall impacted by an experimental boulder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Guo, Z. X.; Wang, D.; Qian, H.

    2016-02-01

    There is little historic data about the vulnerability of damaged elements due to debris flow events in China. Therefore, it is difficult to quantitatively estimate the vulnerable elements suffered by debris flows. This paper is devoted to the research of the vulnerability of brick and concrete walls impacted by debris flows. An experimental boulder (an iron sphere) was applied to be the substitute of debris flow since it can produce similar shape impulse load on elements as debris flow. Several walls made of brick and concrete were constructed in prototype dimensions to physically simulate the damaged structures in debris flows. The maximum impact force was measured, and the damage conditions of the elements (including cracks and displacements) were collected, described and compared. The failure criterion of brick and concrete wall was proposed with reference to the structure characteristics as well as the damage pattern caused by debris flows. The quantitative estimation of the vulnerability of brick and concrete wall was finally established based on fuzzy mathematics and the proposed failure criterion. Momentum, maximum impact force and maximum impact bending moment were compared to be the best candidate for disaster intensity index. The results show that the maximum impact bending moment seems to be most suitable for the disaster intensity index in establishing vulnerability curve and formula.

  2. Urban waste as a potential source for brick plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daugherty, K. E.; Eberendu, A.; Griffin, J.; Gegbe, H.; Ike, C.; Aboo, A.

    1982-02-01

    A joint government/industry/university project was formulated to address the technical feasibility of utilizing municipal solid waste (MSW) as a commercial fuel for the brick industry. Specifically, refuse derived fuel (RDF) from MSW was investigated for three potential applications in the brick industry: (1) rotary brick kilns; (2) tunnel brick kilns; and (3) moisture dryers. The successful development of such a procedure would be a dramatic achievement with widespread applicability, transferability, and commercial merit for energy displacement. The sampling, collection, and analysis of MSW, the analysis of RDF, and the potential utilization of RDF as an alternate source of fuel for the brick industry are described.

  3. Not "Just Another Brick in the Wall"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zolkower, Betina A.; Rubel, Laurie H.

    2015-01-01

    "Low threshold, high ceiling" tasks are accessible to diverse learners; invite a wide range of approaches; and hold the potential to further challenge, strengthen, and extend everyone's mathematical reasoning. In this article, the authors present a family of Brick Pyramid problems as examples of "low threshold, high ceiling"…

  4. [Brick-tea type adult bone fluorosis].

    PubMed

    Cao, Jin; Zhao, Yan; Liu, Jianwei; Xirao, Ruodeng

    2003-03-01

    To investigate health impact of brick-tea type fluorosis in adults, the total daily fluorine intake, environment fluorine level were determined, the average urinary fluorine content assay and bone X-ray examination were conducted, the clinical manifestations were observed in the brick-tea type bone fluorosis epidemiological study conducted in Naqu County, Tibet at September, 2001. One hundred and eleven adults aged at 30-78 year-old were enrolled. It was found that the fluorine level of drinking water in Naqu County was 0.10 +/- 0.03 mg/L, but the brick-tea water processed foods-zamba and buttered tea had fluorine content of 4.52 +/- 0.74 mg/kg and 3.21 +/- 0.65 mg/kg respectively. The adult daily fluorine intake reached 11.99 mg, among which 99% is originated from the brick-tea containing foods. Positive detection rate of fluorosis osteopathy was 89% and the X-ray film confirmed that the diagnosis rate was 83%. Degenerative arthropathy and ossification of the interosteal membrane, calcification of the tendon were the characteristics that indicated by both the positive signs and reogenological examination. The prevalence of osteosclerosis type (bone matrix increased) was 74%. It is suggested that there were even more severe health impact compared with those in the water type and coal combustion type fluorosis. PMID:12793007

  5. Assessment of air pollutant emissions from brick kilns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajarathnam, Uma; Athalye, Vasudev; Ragavan, Santhosh; Maithel, Sameer; Lalchandani, Dheeraj; Kumar, Sonal; Baum, Ellen; Weyant, Cheryl; Bond, Tami

    2014-12-01

    India has more than 100,000 brick kilns producing around 250 billion bricks annually. Indian brick industry is often a small scale industry and third largest consumer of coal in the country. With the growing demand for building materials and characterised by lack of pollution control measures the brick industry has a potential to cause adverse effects on the environment. This paper presents assessment of five brick making technologies based on the measurements carried out at seventeen individual brick kilns. Emissions of PM, SO2, CO and CO2 were measured and these emissions were used to estimate the emission factors for comparing the emissions across different fuel or operating conditions. Estimated emission from brick kilns in South Asia are about 0.94 million tonnes of PM; 3.9 million tonnes of CO and 127 million tonnes of CO2 per year. Among various technologies that are widely used in India, Zig zag and vertical shaft brick kilns showed better performance in terms of emissions over the traditional fixed chimney Bull's trench kilns. This suggests that the replacement of traditional technologies with Zig zag, vertical shaft brick kilns or other cleaner kiln technologies will contribute towards improvements in the environmental performance of brick kiln industry in the country. Zig zag kilns appear to be the logical replacement because of low capital investment, easy integration with the existing production process, and the possibility of retrofitting fixed chimney Bull's trench kilns into Zig zag firing.

  6. DNA Brick Crystals with Prescribed Depth

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Yonggang; Ong, Luvena L.; Sun, Wei; Song, Jie; Dong, Mingdong; Shih, William M.; Yin, Peng

    2014-01-01

    We describe a general framework for constructing two-dimensional crystals with prescribed depth and sophisticated three-dimensional features. These crystals may serve as scaffolds for the precise spatial arrangements of functional materials for diverse applications. The crystals are self-assembled from single-stranded DNA components called DNA bricks. We demonstrate the experimental construction of DNA brick crystals that can grow to micron-size in the lateral dimensions with precisely controlled depth up to 80 nanometers. They can be designed to display user-specified sophisticated three-dimensional nanoscale features, such as continuous or discontinuous cavities and channels, and to pack DNA helices at parallel and perpendicular angles relative to the plane of the crystals. PMID:25343605

  7. Refining quadrilateral and brick element meshes

    SciTech Connect

    Schneiders, R.; Debye, J.

    1995-12-31

    We consider the problem of refining unstructured quadrilateral and brick element meshes. We present an algorithm which is a generalization of an algorithm developed by Cheng et. al. for structured quadrilateral element meshes. The problem is solved for the two-dimensional case. Concerning three dimensions we present a solution for some special cases and a general solution that introduces tetrahedral and pyramidal transition elements.

  8. Three-dimensional structures self-assembled from DNA bricks.

    PubMed

    Ke, Yonggang; Ong, Luvena L; Shih, William M; Yin, Peng

    2012-11-30

    We describe a simple and robust method to construct complex three-dimensional (3D) structures by using short synthetic DNA strands that we call "DNA bricks." In one-step annealing reactions, bricks with hundreds of distinct sequences self-assemble into prescribed 3D shapes. Each 32-nucleotide brick is a modular component; it binds to four local neighbors and can be removed or added independently. Each 8-base pair interaction between bricks defines a voxel with dimensions of 2.5 by 2.5 by 2.7 nanometers, and a master brick collection defines a "molecular canvas" with dimensions of 10 by 10 by 10 voxels. By selecting subsets of bricks from this canvas, we constructed a panel of 102 distinct shapes exhibiting sophisticated surface features, as well as intricate interior cavities and tunnels. PMID:23197527

  9. 6. Detail of the west side showing the original brick ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail of the west side showing the original brick detailing. The Roman bricks in the first story were installed in the 1950s. The heavy wood mullions are original and support a wood beam that carries the second-story brick facade. Remnants of the 1950s facade still remain above the parapet. Credit GADA/MRM. - Stroud Building, 31-33 North Central Avenue, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  10. View from intersection. Ninestory reinforced concrete building infilled with brick. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from intersection. Nine-story reinforced concrete building infilled with brick. The street facades on beaubien and east grand are faced with stone accents and elaborate brick work. Brick pilasters run the entire height of the building. Steel tiebacks are apparent running up the height of the building on the east side. The large tower appears at the northeast and southeast corners - Detroit Storage Company, 2937 East Grand Boulevard, Detroit, MI

  11. 15. Detail view of the south elevation brick work at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Detail view of the south elevation brick work at the west end, with scale. (Note initials and date carved into the bricks and how the coursing does not line up. The end bricks could be an early repair to the masonry or be the result of replacing wood walls with brick and what is evident is how the new walls were keyed into the gable walls. In either scenario, the mortar has been poorly repointed and is a later change.) - Kiskiack, Naval Mine Depot, State Route 238 vicinity, Yorktown, York County, VA

  12. Bricks as indicators for an urban soil genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehls, Thomas; Rokia, Sarah; Schwartz, Christophe; Wessolek, Gerd

    2013-04-01

    Bricks can be considered as anthropogenic markers since they are regularly found in urban soils worldwide. They are among the most resistent residues of building materials, therefore are called technogenic substrates. They have been dumped to urban soils since more than 4000 years and can be dated back to their burning using thermoluminescence. In Berlin, bricks have been piled up to more than 37 rubble mountains in the city after WW II. The devils mountain, the most prominent of them is higher than 60m. However, bricks are known not to be isolated in the soil but to fulfill soil functions due to their porosity. Therefore, they are nice research objects for soil scientists. The purpose of this study is to investigate abundance and functions of bricks in urban soils, focusing on plant nutrition and contamination aspects. Three different Berlin urban soils have been studied for their brick contents in the coarse and fine earth fractions by endless hand sorting. Light and scanning electron microscopy was then employed to investigate the bricks for proofs of plant roots. Third, CEC, pH, EC, Corg, nutrient storage (XRF) and availability (2:1 extract, ion chromatography, AAS) of bricks and fine earth fractions of the corresponding soil horizons have been investigated. The fine earth fractions of the investigated soils contain 3 to 5% of bricks, while the coarse fractions contain up to 50%. We found roots entering brick pores or at least attached to brick surfaces. Therefore, plants can use the water and nutrients stored in bricks. The CEC of bricks is grain size dependent and reaches a maximum of 6 cmolc kg-1 for particles smaller than 0.063 mm. This dependency is not explained by a low pore connectivity. Rather, it is the result of the restricted diffusion into the brick pore system due to the short shaking time in the CEC analysis protocol. From the nutrient storage and availabilities we conclude that bricks can better supply plants with K, Mg, Ca and S than the bulk

  13. Exterior building details of Building E, oblique west façade: brick ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building E, oblique west façade: brick arch lintel and brick infilled window with brick sill; southeasterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  14. Speciation and bioaccessibility of mercury in adobe bricks and dirt floors in Huancavelica, Peru.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Nicole; Robins, Nicholas; Gonzales, Ruben Dario Espinoza; Hsu-Kim, Heileen

    2015-04-01

    Huancavelica, Peru, a historic cinnabar refining site, is one of the most mercury (Hg)-contaminated urban areas in the world. Exposure is amplified because residents build their adobe brick homes from contaminated soil. The objectives of this study were to compare two Hg-leaching procedures, and their application as risk-assessment screening tools in Hg-contaminated adobe brick homes in Huancavelica. The purpose was to evaluate potential health implications, particularly for children, after ingestion of Hg-contaminated particles. Hg was measured in adobe brick and dirt floor samples from 60 households by total Hg extraction, simulated gastric fluid (GF) extraction, and sequential selective extraction (SSE), which provides more detailed data but is resource-intensive. Most of the Hg present in samples was relatively insoluble, although in some households soluble Hg species were present at concentrations that may be of concern after ingestion. A strong correlation was identified between results from simulated GF extraction of adobe bricks and dirt floors and the more soluble fractions of Hg from SSE. Simulated GF extraction data were combined with ingestion and body mass characteristics for small children to compare potential risk of ingestion of Hg-contaminated soil with current health standards. Simulated GF extraction can be used as a risk assessment screening tool for effective allocation of time and resources to households that have measurable concentrations of bioaccessible Hg. Combining simulated GF extraction data with health standards enables intervention strategies targeted at households with the greatest potential health threat from ingestion of Hg-contaminated particles. PMID:25169738

  15. Brick walls and AdS/CFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, Bernard S.; Ortíz, L.

    2014-05-01

    We discuss the relationship between the bulk-boundary correspondence in Rehren's algebraic holography (and in other `fixed-background', QFT-based, approaches to holography) and in mainstream string-theoretic `Maldacena AdS/CFT'. Especially, we contrast the understanding of black-hole entropy from the point of view of QFT in curved spacetime—in the framework of 't Hooft's `brick wall' model—with the understanding based on Maldacena AdS/CFT. We show that the brick-wall modification of a Klein-Gordon field in the Hartle-Hawking-Israel state on dimensional Schwarzschild AdS has a well-defined boundary limit with the same temperature and entropy as the brick-wall-modified bulk theory. One of our main purposes is to point out a close connection, for general AdS/CFT situations, between the puzzle raised by Arnsdorf and Smolin regarding the relationship between Rehren's algebraic holography and mainstream AdS/CFT and the puzzle embodied in the `complementarity principle' proposed by Mukohyama and Israel in their work on the brick-wall approach to black hole entropy. Working on the assumption that similar results will hold for bulk QFT other than the Klein-Gordon field and for Schwarzschild AdS in other dimensions, and recalling the first author's proposed resolution to the Mukohyama-Israel puzzle based on his `matter-gravity entanglement hypothesis', we argue that, in Maldacena AdS/CFT, the algebra of the boundary CFT is isomorphic only to a proper subalgebra of the bulk algebra, albeit (at non-zero temperature) the (GNS) Hilbert spaces of bulk and boundary theories are still the `same'—the total bulk state being pure, while the boundary state is mixed (thermal). We also argue from the finiteness of its boundary (and hence, on our assumptions, also bulk) entropy at finite temperature, that the Rehren dual of the Maldacena boundary CFT cannot itself be a QFT and must, instead, presumably be something like a string theory.

  16. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF EASTERN BEEHIVE BRICK, SAN ANTONIO, TEXAS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF EASTERN BEEHIVE BRICK, SAN ANTONIO, TEXAS. KILNS 1A, 2A, 3A, AND 4A IN FOREGROUND. GAS VALVE AND METERING HOUSE TO LEFT OF PICTURE. - Jenkins Brick Company, Plant No. 2, Furnace Street, Montgomery, Montgomery County, AL

  17. WEST FACADE. THREESTORY BRICK AND STEEL BUILDING WITH CONCRETE ADDITION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST FACADE. THREE-STORY BRICK AND STEEL BUILDING WITH CONCRETE ADDITION AT SOUTH FACE. NOTE OPENINGS INTO BUILDING ARE BOARDED OR BRICKED UP WITH WOODEN BOARDS OR CONCRETE BLOCK. (Duplicate color view of HAER MI-352-1) - National Can Company, 2566 East Grand Boulevard, Detroit, MI

  18. 78 FR 44433 - Safety Zone; Metedeconk River; Brick Township, NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Metedeconk River; Brick Township, NJ AGENCY... regulation applies to only one recurring fireworks event held in the Metedeconk River in Brick Township,...

  19. Inside the Sex Ed Studio: An Interview with Peggy Brick

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taverner, William J.

    2008-01-01

    "Inside the Sex Ed Studio" profiles leaders in the field of sexuality education. Peggy Brick, former director of Planned Parenthood of Greater Northern New Jersey's Center for Family Life Education (CFLE) and author of numerous sexuality education resources used worldwide, is the subject of this interview. Ms. Brick was interviewed by William J.…

  20. 78 FR 3449 - Silica Bricks and Shapes From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... 23, 2012 (77 FR 70185). The conference was held in Washington, DC, on December 6, 2012, and all... COMMISSION Silica Bricks and Shapes From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... China of silica bricks and shapes, provided for in subheading 6902.20.10 of the Harmonized...

  1. An Exploration of the Nanoworld with LEGO Bricks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Dean J.; Miller, Josiah D.; Bannon, Stephen J.; Obermaier, Lauren M.

    2011-01-01

    LEGO bricks can be used for a number of demonstrations of chemical structures and properties, especially at the nanoscale level. These bricks can also be used to model instrumentation that probes these structures and properties. Detailed resources about many of these demonstrations are located on the extensive Web site "Exploring the Nanoworld…

  2. Perspective view. Threestory steel and brick building with factory windows ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view. Three-story steel and brick building with factory windows punctuating facades. East and west facades have tall brick piers capped with evenly spaced stone capitals. North facade (facing Milwaukee Ave. E.) has parapet element decorated with stone accent lines and large flagpole. Piers on north facade have raised stone base - New Center Stamping, 950 East Milwaukee Avenue, Detroit, MI

  3. Three-Dimensional Structures Self-Assembled from DNA Bricks

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Yonggang; Ong, Luvena L.; Shih, William M.; Yin, Peng

    2013-01-01

    We describe a simple and robust method to construct complex three-dimensional (3D) structures using short synthetic DNA strands that we call “DNA bricks”. In one-step annealing reactions, bricks with hundreds of distinct sequences self-assemble into prescribed 3D shapes. Each 32-nucleotide brick is a modular component; it binds to four local neighbors and can be removed or added independently. Each 8-base-pair interaction between bricks defines a voxel with dimensions 2.5 nanometers by 2.5 nanometers by 2.7 nanometers, and a master brick collection defines a “molecular canvas” with dimensions of 10 by 10 by 10 voxels. By selecting subsets of bricks from this canvas, we constructed a panel of 102 distinct shapes exhibiting sophisticated surface features as well as intricate interior cavities and tunnels. PMID:23197527

  4. Combination of High Rate, Real-time GNSS and Accelerometer Observations - Preliminary Results Using a Shake Table and Historic Earthquake Events.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Michael; Passmore, Paul; Zimakov, Leonid; Raczka, Jared

    2014-05-01

    One of the fundamental requirements of an Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) system (and other mission critical applications) is to quickly detect and process the information from the strong motion event, i.e. event detection and location, magnitude estimation, and the peak ground motion estimation at the defined targeted site, thus allowing the civil protection authorities to provide pre-programmed emergency response actions: Slow down or stop rapid transit trains and high-speed trains; shutoff of gas pipelines and chemical facilities; stop elevators at the nearest floor; send alarms to hospitals, schools and other civil institutions. An important question associated with the EEW system is: can we measure displacements in real time with sufficient accuracy? Scientific GNSS networks are moving towards a model of real-time data acquisition, storage integrity, and real-time position and displacement calculations. This new paradigm allows the integration of real-time, high-rate GNSS displacement information with acceleration and velocity data to create very high-rate displacement records. The mating of these two instruments allows the creation of a new, very high-rate (200 Hz) displacement observable that has the full-scale displacement characteristics of GNSS and high-precision dynamic motions of seismic technologies. It is envisioned that these new observables can be used for earthquake early warning studies and other mission critical applications, such as volcano monitoring, building, bridge and dam monitoring systems. REF TEK a Division of Trimble has developed the integrated GNSS/Accelerograph system, model 160-09SG, which consists of REF TEK's fourth generation electronics, a 147-01 high-resolution ANSS Class A accelerometer, and Trimble GNSS receiver and antenna capable of real time, on board Precise Point Positioning (PPP) techniques with satellite clock and orbit corrections delivered to the receiver directly via L-band satellite communications. The test we

  5. Emissions from South Asian brick production.

    PubMed

    Weyant, Cheryl; Athalye, Vasudev; Ragavan, Santhosh; Rajarathnam, Uma; Lalchandani, Dheeraj; Maithel, Sameer; Baum, Ellen; Bond, Tami C

    2014-06-01

    Thirteen South Asian brick kilns were tested to quantify aerosol and gaseous pollutant emissions. Particulate matter (PM2.5), carbon monoxide (CO), and optical scattering and absorption measurements in the exhaust of six kiln technologies demonstrate differences in overall emission profiles and relative climate warming resulting from kiln design and fuel choice. Emission factors differed between kiln types, in some cases by an order of magnitude. The kilns currently dominating the sector had the highest emission factors of PM2.5 and light absorbing carbon, while improved Vertical Shaft and Tunnel kilns were lower emitters. An improved version of the most common technology in the region, the zig-zag kiln, was among the lowest emitting kilns in PM2.5, CO, and light absorbing carbon. Emission factors measured here are lower than those currently used in emission inventories as inputs to global climate models; 85% lower (PM2.5) and 35% lower for elemental carbon (EC) for the most common kiln in the region, yet the ratio of EC to total carbon was higher than previously estimated (0.96 compared to 0.47). Total annual estimated emissions from the brick industry are 120 Tg CO2, 2.5 Tg CO, 0.19 Tg PM2.5, and 0.12 Tg EC. PMID:24735080

  6. Exterior building details of Building C, east façade: brick quoins, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building C, east façade: brick quoins, brick lintels, brick window sills, decorative metal grilles, scored cement finished brick wall; westerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  7. Using seismic hazard assessment to study dynamic behavior of Gonbad-e Kāvus tower (the tallest brick tower in the world)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Gholamreza; Keshtkar, Rooholla; Mavizchi, Masoud; Vetr, Mohammad Ghasem

    2014-12-01

    Gonbad-e Kāvus Brick tower, which was completed in the tenth century, is the remnant of an ancient glorious building that is located in downtown of Gonbad-e Kāvus, Golestan, Iran. It is of note that, this massive brick structure is known as the tallest brick tower in the world. Unfortunately, the tower is located on a very active seismic region, hence there is an urgent need for a careful study of seismic behavior of the tower due to its historical importance. Hence, probabilistic seismic hazard assessment has been performed for Gonbad region to prepare the acceleration spectrum charts. Three-dimensional finite element models of the tower are used in the nonlinear finite element program ANSYS. Dynamic modal and dynamic analyses by means of two spectral accelerations were conducted to study the dynamic response. In conclusion, earthquake with 2,475 years period duration can cause damage to the overall the tower.

  8. Moisture properties of the lightweight brick body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čáchová, Monika; Koňáková, Dana; Vejmelková, Eva; Keppert, Martin; Černý, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Brick have been used for thousands years and during that time they went throw the long development. One of the possibilities how to changed properties of ceramic products is to change material compositions. This article is focused on utilization of lightening additives. Commonly used sawdust is compared with straw. The matter of measurement was to determine its influence on moisture properties. Basic physical properties were measured as well, since mainly open porosity has influence on water transport. Achieved results proved that utilization of straw leads to open porosity decrease. Particularly the amount of small pores (diameter under 1µm) went down. Regarding the moisture properties water vapor transport ability was decreased by adding straw in to the ceramic, while ability of water liquid transport remained unaffected.

  9. IN MY OPINION: Bricks, buildings and brickbats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, Ken

    1999-09-01

    You find that you want to erect a building. Presumably you know why - somewhere to live, somewhere to park a car, a kitchen extension, a shop, a gymnasium - a cathedral even. You explain your needs to an expert - an architect, someone who knows how to convert a (more or less) clearly defined aim into a workable plan. The architect consults with a builder, and together they estimate how many bricks, windows, pieces of wood, wires etc, etc they need to make the plan a reality. They should also give you a reasonably accurate estimate of the cost of the building. At least this is what happened when I had to get a new garage and wanted to extend a kitchen. It was all done professionally and both sides were satisfied. During the summer of 1999 interested parties are looking closely at the government's proposals for the next version of the National Curriculum. New National Curriculums appear much more often than I can afford to alter or extend my kitchen, and there seems to be a major difference in the way an educational system is constructed compared to the way a new building is built. If kitchen extensions were built using the educational method, the user (or customer, as I sometimes like to think of the teacher-pupil symbiosis) would find piles of bricks, window frames, wires and pieces of wood carefully dumped on the front garden. There would also be a rather brief set of instructions, plus some fairly rigid building regulations. We would then be asked to comment on this, and maybe a few extra bricks would be delivered or some taken away. As a nation of Do-it-Yourselfers we would of course cope. My experience of working with a team trying (with some success) to construct a coherent structure of learning based on the National Curriculum at Key Stage 4 was instructive and character-building. Some vital pieces seemed to be missing (but we couldn't put them in because that would have overloaded the content). Some bits couldn't be fitted in anywhere, so we relied on a

  10. Monitoring 2009 Forest Disturbance across the Conterminous United States, Based on Near-Real Time and Historical MODIS 250 Meter NDVI Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spruce, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Gasser, G.; Smoot, J. C.; Kuper, P.

    2009-12-01

    This presentation discusses a study on the use of MODIS NDVI data for viewing regional patterns of forest disturbance across the conterminous United States. This capability is a part of a national forest threat early warning system (EWS) being developed by the USDA Forest Service’s Eastern and Western Environmental Threat Centers with help from NASA Stennis Space Center and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The viewing capability of the EWS was recently demonstrated for 2009, using near-real time (NRT) MODIS NDVI data from the USGS eMODIS Web site and historical NDVI data from standard MOD13 products. For this study, a historical maximum NDVI baseline for CONUS was computed from fused Aqua and Terra MOD13 data for June 10-July 27 of each year during 2000-2006. Comparable 2009 MODIS NDVI imagery was computed from fusion and re-compositing of eMODIS NRT Aqua and Terra 7-day products. For the historical data, time series data processing software was used to remove poor quality data and to mitigate data gaps mainly due to clouds. Although the NRT component was not as rigorously processed to mitigate noise, the processing still yielded largely cloud-free clean, coherent CONUS NDVI imagery initially with only 21-days of compositing. The principal end product of the study was a forest disturbance visualization product based on an NDVI RGB image that combines data from 2 dates (i.e. time frames). For this RGB, the historical maximum NDVI for the observed temporal window was assigned to the red color gun and the 2009 NRT product for the same time frame was assigned to the blue and green guns. The resulting image was masked with a USFS FIA 250-m type map to include only forested areas. The forest disturbance areas on the forest-masked 2-date NDVI RGB are shown in red tones with non-disturbed closed canopy forest generally shown in medium to bright gray tones. This product highlighted several broad-scaled forest canopy disturbances for the observed time in 2009, including

  11. 21. Detail of brick above Flemish accent band, back side, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Detail of brick above Flemish accent band, back side, between 1st and 2nd windows from the right - Oklahoma State University, Boys Dormitory, Northwest corner of Hester Street & Athletic Avenue, Stillwater, Payne County, OK

  12. Detail of second floor window with splayed brick header, east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of second floor window with splayed brick header, east elevation; camera facing west. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Rubber Shop, California Avenue, west side across from Dry Dock 1 near Ninth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  13. 6. BASEMENT OF FRONT HOUSE, NORTH WALL BRICK ARCHES SUPPORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. BASEMENT OF FRONT HOUSE, NORTH WALL BRICK ARCHES SUPPORT ALLEY AT FIRST FLOOR LEVEL. Photo by Theodore F. Dillon, August 1960 - Captain James Abercrombie House, 268-270 South Second Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. Brane brick models and 2 d (0 , 2) triality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Sebastián; Lee, Sangmin; Seong, Rak-Kyeong

    2016-05-01

    We provide a brane realization of 2 d (0 , 2) Gadde-Gukov-Putrov triality in terms of brane brick models. These are Type IIA brane configurations that are T-dual to D1-branes over singular toric Calabi-Yau 4-folds. Triality translates into a local transformation of brane brick models, whose simplest representative is a cube move. We present explicit examples and construct their triality networks. We also argue that the classical mesonic moduli space of brane brick model theories, which corresponds to the probed Calabi-Yau 4-fold, is invariant under triality. Finally, we discuss triality in terms of phase boundaries, which play a central role in connecting Calabi-Yau 4-folds to brane brick models.

  15. 2. Dark brick buildings at right are mill (four story) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Dark brick buildings at right are mill (four story) and warehouse (two story) sections of 1900-1904 construction; at left is 1885 mill. - Empire Mills Company, Front Avenue between Eighth & Tenth Streets, Columbus, Muscogee County, GA

  16. 1. Light brick buildings on left constitute 1885 mill built ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Light brick buildings on left constitute 1885 mill built by George Woodruff; lower section was probably a leading area. - Empire Mills Company, Front Avenue between Eighth & Tenth Streets, Columbus, Muscogee County, GA

  17. 16. Detail view southwest showing brick parapet, wood entablature, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Detail view southwest showing brick parapet, wood entablature, and splayed arch window lintel of east elevation of west operator's house. - Yellow Mill Bridge, Spanning Yellow Mill Channel at Stratford Avenue, Bridgeport, Fairfield County, CT

  18. 31. THE BRICK BUILDING IS THE FACTORY BEFORE LATER ADDITIONS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. THE BRICK BUILDING IS THE FACTORY BEFORE LATER ADDITIONS, LOOKING NORTHWEST. TAKEN CIRCA 1886-90, PHOTOGRAPHER UNKNOWN. - Ybor Cigar Factory, 1916 North Fourteenth Street, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  19. 1. A BRICK AND CONCRETE FAN HOUSING ADJACENT TO ONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. A BRICK AND CONCRETE FAN HOUSING ADJACENT TO ONE OF THE ADIT OPENINGS (VIEW TO THE NORTH). - Foster Gulch Mine, Fan Housing, Bear Creek 1 mile Southwest of Town of Bear Creek, Red Lodge, Carbon County, MT

  20. 42. DETAIL OF TRIPLE WINDOW ELEMENT WITH DECORATIVE BRICK SURROUND, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. DETAIL OF TRIPLE WINDOW ELEMENT WITH DECORATIVE BRICK SURROUND, ON EAST SIDE OF 1931 SECTION, TAKEN FROM THE EAST. - James Russell Lowell Elementary School, 4501 Crittenden Drive, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  1. 41. DETAIL OF DOUBLE WINDOW ELEMENT WITH ARCHED BRICK PATTERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. DETAIL OF DOUBLE WINDOW ELEMENT WITH ARCHED BRICK PATTERN ON EAST SIDE OF 1931 SECTION, TAKEN FROM THE EAST. - James Russell Lowell Elementary School, 4501 Crittenden Drive, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  2. 36. DETAIL OF WINDOW ELEMENT WITH DECORATIVE BRICK PATTERN ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. DETAIL OF WINDOW ELEMENT WITH DECORATIVE BRICK PATTERN ON MAIN FRONT OF 1931 SECTION, TAKEN FROM THE NORTH. - James Russell Lowell Elementary School, 4501 Crittenden Drive, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  3. View east of brick railroad viaduct central of Georgia ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View east of brick railroad viaduct - central of Georgia - spannin canal prism (now used as pedestrian walk) - Savannah & Ogeechee Barge Canal, Between Ogeechee & Savannah Rivers, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  4. 39. ARCHED HERRINGBONE BRICK PATTERN DETAIL ON FRONT OF 1931 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. ARCHED HERRINGBONE BRICK PATTERN DETAIL ON FRONT OF 1931 SECTION, PROJECTING SIDE BAY, TAKEN FROM THE NORTH. - James Russell Lowell Elementary School, 4501 Crittenden Drive, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  5. 8. July, 1970 DETAIL OF BRICK SIDEWALK AND GRANITE CURB, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. July, 1970 DETAIL OF BRICK SIDEWALK AND GRANITE CURB, LOOKING EAST ON NORTH SIDE OF INDIA STREET FROM DRIVEWAY OF 31 INDIA STREET - India Street Neighborhood Study, 15-45 India Street, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  6. 7. July, 1970 DETAIL OF BRICK SIDEWALK AND GRANITE CURB, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. July, 1970 DETAIL OF BRICK SIDEWALK AND GRANITE CURB, LOOKING EAST ON NORTH SIDE OF INDIA STREET FROM DRIVEWAY OF 31 INDIA STREET - India Street Neighborhood Study, 15-45 India Street, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  7. Conjugate mixed convection heat and mass transfer in brick drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, H. N.; Aswatha Narayana, P. A.; Seetharamu, K. N.

    In this study, a numerical methodology for the solution of conjugate heat and mass transfer problem is presented. Fluid flow, heat and mass transfer over a rectangular brick due to transient laminar mixed convection has been numerically simulated. The coupled non-linear partial differential equations, for both gas phase and solid are solved using finite element procedure. Flow is assumed to be incompressible, two-dimensional, laminar. Analysis has been carried out at a Reynolds number of 200 with Pr=0.71. The effect of buoyancy on the brick drying has been investigated. Velocity vectors, streamlines in the flow field and temperature and moisture contours and temperature distribution along the solid surface are presented. It is observed that there is considerable effect of buoyancy during drying. The results indicate a non-uniform drying of the brick with the leading edge drying faster than the rest of the brick.

  8. IET. Typical detail during Snaptran reactor experiments. Shielding bricks protect ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET. Typical detail during Snaptran reactor experiments. Shielding bricks protect ion chamber beneath reactor on dolly. Photographer: Page Comiskey. Date: August 11, 1965. INEEL negative no. 65-4039 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. Detail of large, brick columns and bracket inside Electrical Shop ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of large, brick columns and bracket inside Electrical Shop - Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Electrical Shop, Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  10. View of original brick wall on the western face of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of original brick wall on the western face of the boiler house (center right) and electrical department (far right). - Johnson Steel Street Rail Company, Electrical Department & Boiler House, 525 Central Avenue, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  11. 13. DETAIL VIEW OF INITIALS IN BRICK WALL, EAST (RIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL VIEW OF INITIALS IN BRICK WALL, EAST (RIVER FRONT) ELEVATION, NORTH SIDE OF DOORWAY, NOTE 'S S (SAMUEL SNOWDEN) 1786', 'G W 1786', ETC. - Snow Hill, 13209 Laurel-Bowie Road, Laurel, Prince George's County, MD

  12. Morning view, brick post detail; view also shows dimensional wallconstruction ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Morning view, brick post detail; view also shows dimensional wall-construction detail. North wall, with the camera facing northwest. - Beaufort National Cemetery, Wall, 1601 Boundary Street, Beaufort, Beaufort County, SC

  13. 20. Detail, crack in southeast end wall showing hollow brick ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Detail, crack in southeast end wall showing hollow brick lining of exterior wall; view to south, 135mm lens plus electronic flash illumination. - Benicia Arsenal, Powder Magazine No. 5, Junction of Interstate Highways 680 & 780, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  14. 4. Detail of west facade showing brick piers and industrial ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Detail of west facade showing brick piers and industrial windows with metal sash and reinforced concrete lintels and sills. - Champion-International Paper Company, Paper Machine Building, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

  15. 8. Detail of rebuilt east wall of brick engine house ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail of rebuilt east wall of brick engine house spanning raceway; view to southwest. - Champion-International Paper Company, Paper Machine Building, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

  16. 3. General oblique view of west facade showing brick piers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. General oblique view of west facade showing brick piers and industrial windows; view to southeast. - Champion-International Paper Company, Paper Machine Building, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

  17. 6. Closer view of ruins of brick engine house; view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Closer view of ruins of brick engine house; view to southeast. - Champion-International Paper Company, Paper Machine Building, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

  18. 13. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, BRICK SKINNER SALT ROASTER AND STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, BRICK SKINNER SALT ROASTER AND STEEL SKINNER SALT ROASTER. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  19. 12. VIEW TO SOUTH, BRICK SKINNER SALT ROASTER AND STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW TO SOUTH, BRICK SKINNER SALT ROASTER AND STEEL SKINNER SALT ROASTER. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  20. Use of boron waste as an additive in red bricks

    SciTech Connect

    Uslu, T.; Arol, A.I

    2004-07-01

    In boron mining and processing operations, large amounts of clay containing tailings have to be discarded. Being rich in boron, the tailings do not only cause economical loss but also pose serious environmental problems. Large areas have to be allocated for waste disposal. In order to alleviate this problem, the possibility of using clayey tailings from a borax concentrator in red brick manufacturing was investigated. Up to 30% by weight tailings addition was found to improve the brick quality.

  1. Perspective view. The threestory reinforced concrete building faced with brick ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view. The three-story reinforced concrete building faced with brick has direct frontage onto neighboring railroad line. The facade says: "The Fairmont Creamery Company" in white stone. The facade is divided into bays by large brick piers capped with a square accent piece. A large stone band runs just above the windows and between the second and third floors - The Fairmont Creamery Company, 608 East Milwaukee Avenue, Detroit, MI

  2. 15. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arnold Moses, Photographer December 1, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arnold Moses, Photographer December 1, 1936, VIEW LOOKING SOUTH FROM THIRD FLOOR OF 29 1/2 CHERRY STREET SHOWING ROOF LINE OF BRICK FILLED TIMBER HOUSE RECENTLY DEMOLISHED. - John Beekman House, 29-29 1/2 Cherry Street, New York County, NY

  3. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Nathaniel R. Ewan, Photographer February ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Nathaniel R. Ewan, Photographer February 27, 1939 EXTERIOR - OUTSIDE ARCH BRICK DETAIL. THIS PICTURE IS OF AN ARCHWAY WHICH WAS ORIGINALLY OPEN AND LED TO A LOADING OR UNLOADING PLATFORM WITHIN THE HOUSE AND WAS ACCESSIBLE TO THE KITCHEN AND ROOT CELLAR. - Hudson Burr Mansion, South Pemberton, Burlington County, NJ

  4. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, August, 1979 SOUTH (FRONT) ELEVATIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, August, 1979 SOUTH (FRONT) ELEVATIONS OF CORNER OF UNITED STATES HOTEL (FAR LEFT), JUDGE AND NUNAN'S SADDLERY, P.J. RYAN'S FIRST BRICK STORE BUILDING (JACKSONVILLE INN). - Judge & Nunan's Saddlery, 165 East California Street, Jacksonville, Jackson County, OR

  5. 46. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer CHIMNEY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer CHIMNEY BASE LOOKING N.E. NOTE ORIGINAL HEWN TIMBER FRAMING THE STAIR, AND BEHIND IT A LATER SAWN TIMBER FOR PRESENT STAIR. BRICK UNDERPINNING OF CELLAR WALL COMPARATIVELY RECENT. - Doe Garrison, Lamprey River & Great Bay, Newmarket, Rockingham County, NH

  6. Mechanical Properties of Unreinforced Brick Masonry, Section1

    SciTech Connect

    Mosalam, K; Glascoe, L; Bernier, J

    2009-10-02

    Before the advent of concrete and steel, masonry helped build civilizations. From Egypt in Africa, Rome in Europe, Maya in the America to China in Asia, masonry was exploited to construct the most significant, magnificent and long lasting structures on the Earth. Looking at the Egyptian pyramids, Mayan temples, Roman coliseum and Chinese Great Wall, one cannot stop wondering about the significance and popularity that masonry has had through out history. Lourenco et al (1989) summed up the reasons for the popularity of masonry in the following, 'The most important characteristic of masonry construction is its simplicity. Laying pieces of stone or bricks on top of each other, either with or without cohesion via mortar, is a simple, though adequate, technique that has been successful ever since remote ages. Other important characteristics are the aesthetics, solidity, durability, low maintenance, versatility, sound absorption and fire protection' Despite these advantages, masonry is no longer preferred structural material in many parts of the developed world, especially in seismically active parts of the world. Partly, masonry and especially unreinforced masonry (URM) has mechanical properties such as strength and ductility inferior to those of reinforced concrete and steel. Moreover, masonry structures were traditionally built based on rules of thumb acquired over many years of practice and/or empirical data from testing. Accordingly, we do not have a rigorous and uniform method of analysis and design for masonry. Nevertheless, the world still possesses numerous historic and ordinary masonry structures, which require maintenance and strengthening to combat the assault of time and nature. Hence, it is important to study fundamental properties of masonry so that new masonry structures can be effectively designed and built, and the cost for servicing old structures and for building new ones will be less expensive.

  7. Two American Entrepreneurs: Madame C. J. Walker and J. C. Penney. Teaching with Historic Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koman, Rita

    2000-01-01

    This lesson is based on the National Historic Landmark files, "Madame C. J. Walker Building" and "J. C. Penney Historic District," as well as other relevant sources. The lesson first discusses the Indianapolis (Indiana) site of Madame Walker's cosmetics business. The building is a 4-story brick structure completed in 1927. Another building built…

  8. Effect of peat on physicomechanical properties of cemented brick.

    PubMed

    Islam, Syed Mofachirul; Hashim, Roslan; Islam, A B M Saiful; Kurnia, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    The popularity of low cost, lightweight, and environmentally affable masonry unit in building industry carries the need to investigate more flexible and adaptable brick component as well as to retain the requirements confirmed in building standards. In this study, potential use of local materials used as lightweight building materials in solving the economic problems of housing has been investigated. Experimental studies on peat added bricks have been carried out. It demonstrates the physicomechanical properties of bricks and investigates the influence of peat, sand, and cement solid bricks to the role of various types of constructional applications. The achieved compressive strength, spitting strength, flexural strength, unit weight, and ultrasonic pulse velocity are significantly reduced and the water absorption is increased with percentage wise replacement of peat as aggregate in the samples. The maximum 20% of (% mass) peat content meets the requirements of relevant well-known international standards. The experimental values illustrate that, the 44% volumetric replacement with peat did not exhibit any sudden brittle fracture even beyond the ultimate loads and a comparatively smooth surface is found. The application of peat as efficient brick substance shows a potential to be used for wall and a viable solution in the economic buildings design. PMID:24982941

  9. Manganese micro-nodules on ancient brick walls.

    PubMed

    López-Arce, P; García-Guinea, J; Fierro, J L G

    2003-01-20

    Romans, Jews, Arabs and Christians built the ancient city of Toledo (Spain) with bricks as the main construction material. Manganese micro-nodules (circa 2 microm in diameter) have grown under the external bio-film surface of the bricks. Recent anthropogenic activities such as industrial emissions, foundries, or traffic and housing pollution have further altered these old bricks. The energy-dispersive X-ray microanalyses (XPS) of micro-nodules show Al, Si, Ca, K, Fe and Mn, with some carbon species. Manganese atoms are present only as Mn(4+) and iron as Fe(3+) (FeOOH-Fe(2)O(3) mixtures). The large concentration of alga biomass of the River Tagus and the Torcón and Guajaraz reservoirs suggest manganese micro-nodules are formed either from water solutions rich in anthropogenic MnO(4)K in a reduction environment (from Mn(7+) to Mn(4+)) or by oxidation mechanisms from dissolved Mn(2+) (from Mn(2+) to Mn(4+)) linked to algae biofilm onto the ancient brick surfaces. Ancient wall surfaces were also studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Chemical and biological analyses of the waters around Toledo are also analysed for possible sources of manganese. Manganese micro-nodules on ancient brick walls are good indicators of manganese pollution. PMID:12526915

  10. Effect of Peat on Physicomechanical Properties of Cemented Brick

    PubMed Central

    Hashim, Roslan; Kurnia, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    The popularity of low cost, lightweight, and environmentally affable masonry unit in building industry carries the need to investigate more flexible and adaptable brick component as well as to retain the requirements confirmed in building standards. In this study, potential use of local materials used as lightweight building materials in solving the economic problems of housing has been investigated. Experimental studies on peat added bricks have been carried out. It demonstrates the physicomechanical properties of bricks and investigates the influence of peat, sand, and cement solid bricks to the role of various types of constructional applications. The achieved compressive strength, spitting strength, flexural strength, unit weight, and ultrasonic pulse velocity are significantly reduced and the water absorption is increased with percentage wise replacement of peat as aggregate in the samples. The maximum 20% of (% mass) peat content meets the requirements of relevant well-known international standards. The experimental values illustrate that, the 44% volumetric replacement with peat did not exhibit any sudden brittle fracture even beyond the ultimate loads and a comparatively smooth surface is found. The application of peat as efficient brick substance shows a potential to be used for wall and a viable solution in the economic buildings design. PMID:24982941

  11. Recent enhancements to and applications of the SmartBrick structural health monitoring platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunasekaran, A.; Cross, S.; Patel, N.; Sedigh, S.

    2012-04-01

    The SmartBrick network is an autonomous and wireless solution for structural health monitoring of civil infrastructures. The base station is currently in its third generation and has been laboratory- and field-tested in the United States and Italy. The second generation of the sensor nodes has been laboratory-tested as of publication. In this paper, we present recent enhancements made to hardware and software of the SmartBrick platform. Salient improvements described include the development of a new base station with fully-integrated long-range GSM (cellular) and short-range ZigBee communication. The major software improvement described in this paper is migration to the ZigBee PRO stack, which was carried out in the interest of interoperability. To broaden the application of the platform to critical environments that require survivability and fault tolerance, we have striven to achieve compliance with military standards in the areas of hardware, software, and communication. We describe these efforts and present a survey of the military standards investigated. Also described is instrumentation of a three-span experimental bridge in Washington County, Missouri; with the SmartBrick platform. The sensors, whose output is conditioned and multiplexed; include strain gauges, thermocouples, push potentiometers, and three-axis inclinometers. Data collected is stored on site and reported over the cellular network. Real-time alerts are generated if any monitored parameter falls outside its acceptable range. Redundant sensing and communication provide reliability and facilitate corroboration of the data collected. A web interface is used to issue remote configuration commands and to facilitate access to and visualization of the data collected.

  12. Interior building details of Building E, Room E002a multi brick ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building E, Room E-002a multi brick arch way under road level all walls and ceiling are brick; northerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  13. Residential metal contamination and potential health risks of exposure in adobe brick houses in Potosí, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Abigail R; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Robins, Nicholas A; Hagan, Nicole A; Halabi, Susan; Barras, Olivo; Richter, Daniel deB; Vandenberg, John J

    2016-08-15

    Potosí, Bolivia, is the site of centuries of historic and present-day mining of the Cerro Rico, a mountain known for its rich polymetallic deposits, and was the site of large-scale Colonial era silver refining operations. In this study, the concentrations of several metal and metalloid elements were quantified in adobe brick, dirt floor, and surface dust samples from 49 houses in Potosí. Median concentrations of total mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and arsenic (As) were significantly greater than concentrations measured in Sucre, Bolivia, a non-mining town, and exceeded US-based soil screening levels. Adobe brick samples were further analyzed for bioaccessible concentrations of trace elements using a simulated gastric fluid (GF) extraction. Median GF extractable concentrations of Hg, As, and Pb were 0.085, 13.9, and 32.2% of the total element concentration, respectively. Total and GF extractable concentrations of Hg, As, and Pb were used to estimate exposure and potential health risks to children following incidental ingestion of adobe brick particles. Risks were assessed using a range of potential ingestion rates (50-1000mg/day). Overall, the results of the risk assessment show that the majority of households sampled contained concentrations of bioaccessible Pb and As, but not Hg, that represent a potential health risk. Even at the lowest ingestion rate considered, the majority of households exceeded the risk threshold for Pb, indicating that the concentrations of this metal are of particular concern. To our knowledge, this is the first study to quantify key trace elements in building materials in adobe brick houses and the results indicate that these houses are a potential source of exposure to metals and metalloids in South American mining communities. Additional studies are needed to fully characterize personal exposure and to understand potential adverse health outcomes within the community. PMID:27100004

  14. Experimental analysis to utilize the solid wastes in brick production.

    PubMed

    Varadarajan, Rajagopalan; Govindan, Venkatesan

    2013-07-01

    Utilization of industrial, municipal, agricultural and other waste products in the industry has been the focus of research for economical, environmental, and technical reasons. Two solid wastes, i.e. Sugar-cane bagasse--is a fibrous waste-product of the sugar refining industry and granite processing industry generates a large amount of wastes mainly in the form of powder during sawing and polishing processes, which pollute and damage the environment, have been taken to experimental study. The objective of this study is to utilize the bagasse ash and granite waste for the manufacturing of bricks. Mixtures were prepared with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% wastes of total weight of clay. The produced bricks are tested for mechanical properties, such as water absorption and compressive strength, according to Indian Standard Code. The result showed that 20% of bagasse ash and granite waste is optimum percentage to be used in the manufacturing of conventional bricks. PMID:25509952

  15. Defluoridation of groundwater using brick powder as an adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Asheesh Kumar; Kaushik, C P; Haritash, Anil Kumar; Kansal, Ankur; Rani, Neetu

    2006-02-01

    Defluoridation of groundwater using brick powder as an adsorbent was studied in batch process. Different parameters of adsorption, viz. effect of pH, effect of dose and contact time were selected and optimized for the study. Feasible optimum conditions were applied to two groundwater samples of high fluoride concentration to study the suitability of adsorbent in field conditions. Comparison of adsorption by brick powder was made with adsorption by commercially available activated charcoal. In the optimum condition of pH and dose of adsorbents, the percentage defluoridation from synthetic sample, increased from 29.8 to 54.4% for brick powder and from 47.6 to 80.4% for commercially available activated charcoal with increasing the contact time starting from 15 to 120 min. Fluoride removal was found to be 48.73 and 56.4% from groundwater samples having 3.14 and 1.21 mg l(-1) fluoride, respectively, under the optimized conditions. Presence of other ions in samples did not significantly affect the deflouridation efficiency of brick powder. The optimum pH range for brick powder was found to be 6.0-8.0 and adsorption equilibrium was found to be 60 min. These conditions make it very suitable for use in drinking water treatment. Deflouridation capacity of brick powder can be explained on the basis of the chemical interaction of fluoride with the metal oxides under suitable pH conditions. The adsorption process was found to follow first order rate mechanism as well as Freundlich isotherm. PMID:16233952

  16. Analytical methods for the characterization of surface finishing in bricks.

    PubMed

    Nardini, I; Zendri, E; Biscontin, G; Brunetin, A

    2006-09-01

    The recent restoration works of Santo Stefano Church Façade (XV century) in Venice have shown traces variously saved of different kind of surface finishes. These finishes were found on the brick's surface both in the masonry and in the decorative elements. Different brick's surface and decorative tile samples were investigated using several techniques: optical microscopy, scanning electron-microscopy, thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy and reflectance Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. The evaluation of the reached results was used to understand the decorative techniques and to recognize the material employed. PMID:17723684

  17. 4. OVERALL VIEW OF THE SOUTHEAST FACADE. THE BRICK MASONRY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. OVERALL VIEW OF THE SOUTHEAST FACADE. THE BRICK MASONRY WALLS ARE LAID IN COMMON BOND WITH A BRICK DETAIL SURROUNDING THE FLAT ARCHED WOODEN DOORS. THE SYMMETRICAL PLACEMENT OF DOORS HAS BEEN VISUALLY AFFECTED BY THE ADDITION OF A WOOD FIRE STAIR. A BEAM USED TO LOAD HAY INTO THE UPPER LOFT AREA PROTRUDES THROUGH THE MASONRY WALL JUST BELOW THE ROOF LINE. - Presidio of San Francisco, Cavalry Stables, Cowles Street, between Lincoln Boulevard & McDowell Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  18. Excitonic AND Logic Gates on DNA Brick Nanobreadboards

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A promising application of DNA self-assembly is the fabrication of chromophore-based excitonic devices. DNA brick assembly is a compelling method for creating programmable nanobreadboards on which chromophores may be rapidly and easily repositioned to prototype new excitonic devices, optimize device operation, and induce reversible switching. Using DNA nanobreadboards, we have demonstrated each of these functions through the construction and operation of two different excitonic AND logic gates. The modularity and high chromophore density achievable via this brick-based approach provide a viable path toward developing information processing and storage systems. PMID:25839049

  19. Thermoluminescence dating analysis at the site of an ancient brick structure at Pengkalan Bujang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sabtu, Siti Norbaini; Mahat, Rosli Hj; Amin, Yusoff Mohd; Price, David M; Bradley, D A; Maah, Mohd Jamil

    2015-11-01

    Bujang Valley is a well-known historical complex found in the north-west of peninsular Malaysia; more than 50 ancient monuments and hundreds of artefacts have been discovered throughout the area. The discovery of these suggests Bujang Valley to have been an important South East Asian trading centre over the period from the 10th to 14th centuries. Present work concerns thermoluminescence (TL) dating analysis of shards collected from a historic monument located at Pengkalan Bujang in Bujang Valley. All the shards were prepared using the fine grain technique and the additive dose method was applied in determining the paleodose of each shard. The annual dose rate was obtained by measuring the concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides (U, Th and K) in the samples and their surroundings. The TL ages of the shards were found to range between 330±21 years and 920±69 years, indicative of the last firing of the bricks and tiles from which the shards originated, some dating back to the period during which the historical complex remained active. PMID:26319091

  20. Clone-based comparative sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes retrieved from biodeteriorating brick buildings of the former Auschwitz II-Birkenau concentration and extermination camp.

    PubMed

    Otlewska, Anna; Adamiak, Justyna; Gutarowska, Beata

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze the bacterial communities in four samples of historical materials (plaster, brick, and wood) derived from buildings located in the former Auschwitz II-Birkenau concentration and extermination camp in Brzezinka, Poland. For this purpose a molecular strategy based on the construction of 16S rRNA clone libraries was used. In total, 138 partial 16S rRNA gene sequences (∼600bp) were obtained and compared. The clones belonged to phyla Proteobacteria (classes: Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria), Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. The plaster samples predominantly contained clones closely related to Actinobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria, brick samples contained Gammaproteobacteria, while wood samples had Actinobacteria clones. Interestingly, the historic plaster and brick samples contained the following bacteria with known and described biodeterioration potential: chemoorganotrophic Streptomyces sp. and Pseudonocardia sp., halotolerant or halophilic Rubrobacter sp., Salinisphaera sp. and Halomonas sp. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that amongst the bacterial species detected and identified none occurred on all the tested historical materials. The 16S rRNA clone library construction method was successfully used for the detection and diversity determination of bacterial communities inhabiting brick barracks located in the former Auschwitz II-Birkenau concentration and extermination camp in Brzezinka. PMID:25458608

  1. Segment of brick perimeter wall extending around the naval asylum ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Segment of brick perimeter wall extending around the naval asylum grounds at twenty-fourth street with Gray's Ferry Avenue branching to the left and Bainbridge Street to the right, looking southwest. - U. S. Naval Asylum, Biddle Hall, Gray's Ferry Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. 5. BASEMENT OF FRONT HOUSE, SHOWING BRICK ARCHES CARRYING ALLEY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. BASEMENT OF FRONT HOUSE, SHOWING BRICK ARCHES CARRYING ALLEY ABOVE (LEFT) AND STONE FOUNDATION OF CENTRAL CHIMNEY STACK (RIGHT). Photo by Theodore F. Dillon, August 1960 - Captain James Abercrombie House, 268-270 South Second Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. 3. VIEW SOUTHWEST OF MAILBOX BASE MADE OF REFRACTORY BRICKS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW SOUTHWEST OF MAILBOX BASE MADE OF REFRACTORY BRICKS FROM THE THREE MT. UNION BRICKYARDS. LOCATED AT THE CORNER OF MARKET AND SOUTH JEFFERSON STREETS IN FRONT OF THE POST OFFICE. - U.S. Post Office, Market & South Jefferson Street, Mount Union, Huntingdon County, PA

  4. 28. VIEW OF THE SOLDERING NICHE FORMED WITH BRICKS. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. VIEW OF THE SOLDERING NICHE FORMED WITH BRICKS. THE BACK OF THE NICHE IS CEMENT FINISHED. THE BOTTOM HAS A 1 INCH THICK ASBESTOS SHELF. THIS PHOTO WAS TAKEN AT THE 3RD FLOOR. - Pacific Telephone & Telegraph Company Building, 1519 Franklin Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  5. DETAIL VIEW OF SIDEWALK, CLINKER BRICK RETAINING WALL, AND ENTRANCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF SIDEWALK, CLINKER BRICK RETAINING WALL, AND ENTRANCE WAY TO WILLIAM R. THORSEN HOUSE BY CHARLES & HENRY GREENE, 1909. EAST SIDE OF PIEDMONT AVENUE LOOKING SE. Photograph by Fredrica Drotos and Michael Kelly, July 9, 2006 - Piedmont Way & the Berkeley Property Tract, East of College Avenue between Dwight Way & U.C. Memorial Stadium, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  6. 24. VIEW INSIDE BRICK ADDITION ON SOUTHWEST END OF ORIGINAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. VIEW INSIDE BRICK ADDITION ON SOUTHWEST END OF ORIGINAL MILL, LOOKING NORTH. NOTE WOOD TRUSSES AND FLUTED COLUMNS (CAST IRON WITH EGYPTIAN REVIVAL CAPITAL). THIS SECTION OF THE MILL WAS PROBABLY PART OF THE WEAVE ROOM ADDITIONS DURING THE 1860s. - Graniteville Mill, Marshall Street, Graniteville, Aiken County, SC

  7. Brick tea fluoride as a main source of adult fluorosis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jin; Zhao, Yan; Liu, Jianwei; Xirao, Ruoden; Danzeng, Sangbu; Daji, Dawei; Yan, Yu

    2003-04-01

    An epidemiological survey was conducted in Naqu County, Tibet in September 2001 to investigate the manifestations of fluorosis in adults caused by the habitual consumption of brick tea. Profiles were obtained for the total daily fluoride intake, environmental fluoride levels and average urinary fluoride concentration, and a physical examination and a skeletal radiographic study were conducted. One hundred and eleven 30-78-year-old adults were enrolled. It was found that the fluoride level of water sources in Naqu County was 0.10+/-0.03 mg/l; no evidence of fluoride air pollution was found, but the brick tea water processed foods--zamba and buttered tea--had fluoride contents of 4.52+/-0.74 mg/kg and 3.21+/-0.65 mg/l, respectively. The adult daily fluoride intake reached 12 mg, of which 99% originated from the brick tea-containing foods. The positive rate of clinical symptoms by physical examination was 89%; furthermore, 42 of the 111 subjects were diagnosed by X-ray. The positive examination rate was 83%. Although the osteosclerosis-type skeletal fluorosis (overall increased bone matrix density) affected 74%, arthropathy and arthritis affected a significant number of the patients, resulting in functional disability. The results suggest that this brick tea-type fluorosis had even more severe adverse effects on human health compared with both the water-type and coal combustion-type fluorosis that occurred in other areas of China. PMID:12615125

  8. Detail of brick fire wall and steel trusses, note the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of brick fire wall and steel trusses, note the gable roof with saw tooth monitors in the background, view facing north - Kahului Cannery, Plant No. 28, Cannery Building and Dryer House/Feed Storage Building, 120 Kane Street, Kahului, Maui County, HI

  9. Preparation and characterization of green bricks using pharmaceutical industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Yamuna Rani, M; Bhagawan, D; Himabindu, V; Venkateswara Reddy, V; Saritha, P

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports on recycling of industrial wastes (three pharmaceutical industrial sludges) into environmental friendly value-added materials. Stabilization/Solidification (S/S or bricks) process was applied to make a safer way for the utilization of pharmaceutical waste. The additives in this study include binders (cement, lime and bentonite) and strengthening material (pulverized fuel ash (PFA), silica fume and quarry dust) was used at different compositions. Bricks were cured for 28 days, and the following analysis-like compressive strength, leachability of heavy metals, mineralogical phase identity by X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermal behaviour by thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) had done. All the bricks were observed to achieve the standard compressive strength as required for construction according to BIS standards. Metal concentration in the leachate has reached the dischargeable limits according to Brazilian standards. Results of this study demonstrate that production of bricks is a promising and achievable productive use of pharmaceutical sludge. PMID:26286801

  10. EXTERIOR VIEW, FRONT (NORTH) ELEVATION. THIS THREESTORY BRICK BUILDING WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW, FRONT (NORTH) ELEVATION. THIS THREE-STORY BRICK BUILDING WITH DEEPLY-BRACKETED AND OVERHANGING EAVES INCLUDES MULTIPLE BAYS CONSTRUCTED BEGINNING IN 1913 TO SERVE AS A 'CIVIC CENTER' FOR ACIPCO EMPLOYEES AND THEIR FAMILIES. THE BUILDING CURRENTLY INCLUDES THE TIME OFFICE, CAFETERIA, AND AUDITORIUM. - American Cast Iron Pipe Company, Service Building, 1501 Thirty-first Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  11. 2. Credit GE. Photographic copy of photograph, refractory brick lining ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Credit GE. Photographic copy of photograph, refractory brick lining being laid in Test Stand 'A' flame pit to protect concrete from heat of rocket engine flames. (JPL negative no. 383-764, 8 March 1945) - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand A, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  12. 5. General oblique view of brick engine house spanning the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. General oblique view of brick engine house spanning the raceway and attached to north wall of Paper Machine Building; view to southeast. - Champion-International Paper Company, Paper Machine Building, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

  13. Brick and Stone Masonry Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This task list is intended for use in planning and/or evaluating a competency-based course in brick and stone masonry. The tasks required for 15 different duties performed by bricklayers and 13 different duties typically performed by rocklayers are outlined. The following bricklaying duties are covered: estimating materials for and laying out a…

  14. View west of the front of the brick vault built ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View west of the front of the brick vault built into the northern slope of Mount Zion Cemetery. - Mount Zion Cemetery/ Female Union Band Cemetery, Bounded by 27th Street right-of-way N.W. (formerly Lyons Mill Road), Q Street N.W., & Mill Road N.W., Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  15. View north of the brick vault built into the northern ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north of the brick vault built into the northern slope of Mount Zion Cemetery with Rock Creek and Rock Creek Park beyond the trees. - Mount Zion Cemetery/ Female Union Band Cemetery, Bounded by 27th Street right-of-way N.W. (formerly Lyons Mill Road), Q Street N.W., & Mill Road N.W., Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  16. Do Schools Still Need Brick-and-Mortar Libraries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Doug; Mastrion, Keith

    2009-01-01

    Do all schools need brick-and-mortar libraries? In this article, Johnson and Mastrion share their contradictory thoughts to the question. Johnson says some schools don't need library facilities or programs or librarians. These schools' teachers and administrators: (1) feel no need for a collaborative learning space; (2) feel the ability to process…

  17. 11. VIEW TO NORTH, STEELSKINNER SALT ROASTER AND BRICK SKINNER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW TO NORTH, STEEL-SKINNER SALT ROASTER AND BRICK SKINNER SALT ROASTER (FOREGROUND), AND MECHANIC SHED, MILL WAREHOUSE AND DRYERS (BACKGROUND). - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  18. Monitoring Thermal Performance of Hollow Bricks with Different Cavity Fillers in Difference Climate Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlík, Zbyšek; Jerman, Miloš; Fořt, Jan; Černý, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Hollow brick blocks have found widespread use in the building industry during the last decades. The increasing requirements to the thermal insulation properties of building envelopes given by the national standards in Europe led the brick producers to reduce the production of common solid bricks. Brick blocks with more or less complex systems of internal cavities replaced the traditional bricks and became dominant on the building ceramics market. However, contrary to the solid bricks where the thermal conductivity can easily be measured by standard methods, the complex geometry of hollow brick blocks makes the application of common techniques impossible. In this paper, a steady-state technique utilizing a system of two climatic chambers separated by a connecting tunnel for sample positioning is used for the determination of the thermal conductivity, thermal resistance, and thermal transmittance ( U value) of hollow bricks with the cavities filled by air, two different types of mineral wool, polystyrene balls, and foam polyurethane. The particular brick block is provided with the necessary temperature- and heat-flux sensors and thermally insulated in the tunnel. In the climatic chambers, different temperatures are set. After steady-state conditions are established in the measuring system, the effective thermal properties of the brick block are calculated using the measured data. Experimental results show that the best results are achieved with hydrophilic mineral wool as a cavity filler; the worst performance exhibits the brick block with air-filled cavities.

  19. BioBrick assembly standards and techniques and associated software tools.

    PubMed

    Røkke, Gunvor; Korvald, Eirin; Pahr, Jarle; Oyås, Ove; Lale, Rahmi

    2014-01-01

    The BioBrick idea was developed to introduce the engineering principles of abstraction and standardization into synthetic biology. BioBricks are DNA sequences that serve a defined biological function and can be readily assembled with any other BioBrick parts to create new BioBricks with novel properties. In order to achieve this, several assembly standards can be used. Which assembly standards a BioBrick is compatible with, depends on the prefix and suffix sequences surrounding the part. In this chapter, five of the most common assembly standards will be described, as well as some of the most used assembly techniques, cloning procedures, and a presentation of the available software tools that can be used for deciding on the best method for assembling of different BioBricks, and searching for BioBrick parts in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts database. PMID:24395353

  20. Prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among the brick field workers of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Das, Banibrata

    2014-01-01

    Brick field industry is one of the most important and oldest industries in India, where millions of workers suffered from work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). The main aim of the present investigation was to assess the prevalence of WMSDs among brick field workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 216 brick field workers. A modified Nordic questionnaire was applied among them. In brick making industry, the workers adopt different unfavorable actions, such as frequent bending; bending and twisting of the body; and working above shoulder height, which may lead to severe pain in different parts of the body, especially lower back (brick carriers: 90%; moulders: 92%; fireman: 75%; stackers: 88%) and neck (brick carriers: 89%; moulders: 88%; fireman: 54%; stackers: 72%), It was concluded from the study that health of the brick field workers was highly affected due to working in different awkward postures for long periods. PMID:24499251

  1. Inventorying Toronto's single detached housing stocks to examine the availability of clay brick for urban mining.

    PubMed

    Ergun, Deniz; Gorgolewski, Mark

    2015-11-01

    This study examines the stocks of clay brick in Toronto's single detached housing, to provide parameters for city scale material reuse and recycling. Based on consensus from the literature and statistics on Toronto's single detached housing stocks, city scale reusable and recyclable stocks were estimated to provide an understanding of what volume could be saved from landfill and reintroduced into the urban fabric. On average 2523-4542 m(3) of brick was determined to be available annually for reuse, which would account for 20-36% of the volume of virgin brick consumed in new house construction in 2012. A higher volume, 6187 m(3) of brick, was determined to be available annually for recycling because more of the prevalence of cement-based mortar, which creates challenges for brick reuse in Toronto. The results demonstrated that older housing containing reusable brick were being mostly landfilled and replaced with housing that contained only recyclable brick. PMID:25912626

  2. Effects of waste glass additions on quality of textile sludge-based bricks.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Ari; Urabe, Takeo; Kishimoto, Naoyuki; Mizuhara, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated the utilization of textile sludge as a substitute for clay in brick production. The addition of textile sludge to a brick specimen enhanced its pores, thus reducing the quality of the product. However, the addition of waste glass to brick production materials improved the quality of the brick in terms of both compressive strength and water absorption. Maximum compressive strength was observed with the following composition of waste materials: 30% textile sludge, 60% clay and 10% waste glass. The melting of waste glass clogged up pores on the brick, which improved water absorption performance and compressive strength. Moreover, a leaching test on a sludge-based brick to which 10% waste glass did not detect significant heavy metal compounds in leachates, with the product being in conformance with standard regulations. The recycling of textile sludge for brick production, when combined with waste glass additions, may thus be promising in terms of both product quality and environmental aspects. PMID:25812619

  3. Antioxidant enzymes status and reproductive health of adult male workers exposed to brick kiln pollutants in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Jahan, Sarwat; Falah, Samreen; Ullah, Hizb; Ullah, Asad; Rauf, Naveed

    2016-07-01

    The present study was designed to study the effect of brick kilns emissions on the reproductive health and biochemical status of brick kiln workers and people living in the area near brick kilns. Body mass index (BMI) was significantly reduced in brick makers, carriers, and bakers compared to the control. Red blood cells count and hematocrit (%) were significantly high in brick bakers while MCH was significantly reduced in brick makers and brick bakers. Heavy metals (lead, cadmium, and chromium) concentration in whole blood of the brick kiln workers were significantly higher as compared to the control. Antioxidant enzymes (CAT, SOD, POD, GSH, and GR) were significantly reduced in brick kiln workers as compared to the control while TBARS level were significantly high in brick bakers as compared to the control. Plasma leutinizing hormone (LH) was significantly high in brick bakers while testosterone concentrations were significantly reduced in brick makers, carriers, and bakers. The present study shows that brick kiln workers and people living in the brick kiln vicinity are exposed to heavy metals and other pollutants that is a serious threat to their health. Alternate technology is needed to be developed and brick kilns should be replaced. PMID:26996903

  4. Low Temperature Regolith Bricks for In-Situ Structural Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, Kevin; Sakthivel, Tamil S.; Mantovani, James; Seal, Sudipta

    2016-01-01

    Current technology for producing in-situ structural materials on future missions to Mars or the moon relies heavily on energy-intensive sintering processes to produce solid bricks from regolith. This process requires heating the material up to temperatures in excess of 1000 C and results in solid regolith pieces with compressive strengths in the range of 14000 to 28000 psi, but are heavily dependent on the porosity of the final material and are brittle. This method is currently preferred over a low temperature cementation process to prevent consumption of precious water and other non-renewable materials. A high strength structural material with low energy requirements is still needed for future colonization of other planets. To fulfill these requirements, a nano-functionalization process has been developed to produce structural bricks from regolith simulant and shows promising mechanical strength results. Functionalization of granular silicate particles into alkoxides using a simple low temperature chemical process produces a high surface area zeolite particles that are held together via inter-particle oxygen bonding. Addition of water in the resulting zeolite particles produces a sol-gel reaction called "inorganic polymerization" which gives a strong solid material after a curing process at 60 C. The aqueous solution by-product of the reaction is currently being investigated for its reusability; an essential component of any ISRU technology. For this study, two batches of regolith bricks are synthesized from JSC-1A; the first batch from fresh solvents and chemicals, the second batch made from the water solution by-product of the first batch. This is done to determine the feasibility of recycling necessary components of the synthesis process, mainly water. Characterization including BET surface area, SEM, and EDS has been done on the regolith bricks as well as the constituent particles,. The specific surface area of 17.53 sq m/g (average) of the granular regolith

  5. Fingermark recovery from riot debris: Bricks and stones.

    PubMed

    Davis, Lisa; Fisher, Ruth

    2015-03-01

    During the UK riots in August 2011, large volumes of bricks and stones were used as weapons or projectiles in acts of violence or to gain illegal entry to properties. As a result, it has been emphasised that it is necessary to determine suitable chemical treatment(s) that will enable the development of fingermarks on such items in order to identify those involved. This study has undertaken the task of attempting to develop latent fingermarks on common house bricks, limestone and sandstone using current techniques including ninhydrin and fluorescence. Results produced have shown that, with fluorescent fingerprint powder, silver nitrate and superglue providing the best results, it is now possible to enhance fingermarks that were previously left undeveloped. In addition, Isomark T-1 Rapid Grey High Resolution Forensic Impression Material has proved extremely effective as an alternative method of recovering fingermarks developed with fluorescent fingerprint powder. PMID:25753994

  6. OSL studies of local bricks for retrospective dosimetric application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A. K.; Menon, S. N.; Kadam, S. Y.; Koul, D. K.; Datta, D.

    2016-09-01

    Luminescence properties of quartz extracted from bricks has been reported worldwide for its use in dose estimation in case of nuclear or radiological accident. Accordingly, in this study the feasibility of utilizing the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) emission of quartz extracted from red bricks collected from three different locations in and around Mumbai, India for retrospective dosimetry was explored. Thermoluminescence and OSL characterization of the samples were carried out. The growth curve, thermal stability and equivalent dose plateau of the OSL signal suggested the signals to be well behaving. Subsequently, the dose recovery tests carried for different administered doses, using single aliquot regenerative protocol, demonstrated the feasibility of the OSL emissions of these samples for dose evaluation in retrospective dosimetry.

  7. Brick Kiln Emissions Quantified with the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory During the Short Lived Climate Forcing (SLCF) 2013 Campaign in Guanajuato Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortner, E.; Knighton, W. B.; Herndon, S.; Roscioli, J. R.; Zavala, M.; Onasch, T. B.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Kolb, C. E.; Molina, L. T.

    2013-12-01

    Brick kiln emissions are suspected to be a major source of atmospheric black carbon (BC) in developing countries; and black carbon's role as a short lived climate forcing (SLCF) pollutant is widely recognized. The SLCF-Mexico brick kiln study was conducted from 12-17 March 2013 in Mexico's Guanajuato state. Three different types of brick kilns were investigated (MK2, traditional, and traditional three tier) providing data on the effects of different kiln designs on particle and gas phase emissions. The BC and gaseous combustion emissions from these kilns were measured during both the fire stage and the subsequent smoldering stage with real-time instruments deployed on the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory, and quantified utilizing flux tracer gases released adjacent to the brick kiln. This method allows examination of the brick kiln plume's evolution as it transits downwind from the source. Particulate measurements conducted by the mobile laboratory included the multi angle absorption photometer (MAAP) to measure black carbon mass, cavity attenuated phase shift (CAPSext) monitor to measure extinction and soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) measurements of black carbon. The SP-AMS instrument combines the ability to measure black carbon with the ability to determine the chemical composition of the other particulate matter (PM) components associated with black carbon particles. The variance of PM chemical composition will be examined as a function of burning stage and kiln type and compared to other black carbon PM sources. Gas phase exhaust species measured included CO, CO2, NOx, SO2, CH4, C2H6, as well as a variety of VOCs (acetonitrile, benzene etc.) measured with a PTR-MS instrument. All of these measurements will be examined to construct emission ratios evaluating how these vary with different kiln types and different firing conditions. The evolution of particulate matter and gas phase species as they transit away from the source will also be examined.

  8. A practical proposal for solving the world's cigarette butt problem: Recycling in fired clay bricks.

    PubMed

    Mohajerani, Abbas; Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Larobina, Luke

    2016-06-01

    The disposal and littering of cigarette butts (CBs) is a serious environmental problem. Trillions of cigarettes are produced every year worldwide, resulting in millions of tonnes of toxic waste being dumped into the environment in the form of cigarette butts. As CBs have poor biodegradability, it can take many years for them to break down. This paper reviews and presents some of the results of a study on the recycling of CBs into fired clay bricks. Bricks with 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10% CB content by weight were manufactured and tested, and then compared against control clay bricks with 0% CB content. The results showed that the dry density decreased by up to 30% and the compressive strength decreased by 88% in bricks with 10% CBs. The calculated compressive strength of bricks with 1% CBs was determined to be 19.53Mpa. To investigate the effect of mixing time, bricks with 7.5% CB content were manufactured with different mixing times of 5, 10, and 15min. To test the effect of heating time on the properties of CB bricks, the heating rate used during manufacturing was changed to 0.7, 2, 5, and 10°Cmin(-1). Bricks with 0% and 5% CB content were fired with these heating rates. Leachate tests were carried out for bricks with 0%, 2.5%, 5%, and 10% CB content. The emissions released during firing were tested for bricks with 0% and 5% CB content using heating rates of 0.7, 2, 5, and 10°Cmin(-1). The gases tested were carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), chlorine (Cl2), nitrogen oxide (NO), and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Finally, estimations were made for the energy that could be saved by firing bricks incorporating CBs. Calculations showed that up to 58% of the firing energy could potentially be saved. Bricks were shown to be a viable solution for the disposal of CBs. They can reduce contamination caused by cigarette butts and provide a masonry construction material that can be either loadbearing or non-loadbearing, depending on the quantity of CBs incorporated. This

  9. Interior building details of Building D, Room DM2: historic wood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building D, Room D-M2: historic wood trim, full height partition wall with hopper and east brick retaining wall; southeasterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  10. Wave Manipulation in Metamaterials: A LEGO® Bricks Enabled Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celli, Paolo; Gonella, Stefano

    In this work, we show how simple, reconfigurable arrangements of LEGO® bricks can be turned into the building blocks of an experimental platform for the investigation of wave phenomena in metamaterial architectures. The approach involves the assembly of reconfigurable specimens consisting of patterns of bricks on a baseplate and the use of a 3D laser vibrometer to reconstruct global and local wave features. The ability to seamlessly transition between different topologies makes this an effective approach for rapid experimental verification and proof of concept in the arena of mechanical metamaterials engineering. The intuitive nature of the brick-and-baseplate assembly paradigm can also be leveraged to implement families of intuitive lab demonstrations with significant didactic and scientific outreach potential. The versatility of the platform is tested through a series of experiments that illustrate a variety of wave manipulation effects, such as waveguiding and seismic isolation, both in periodic and disordered topologies. We acknowledge the support of the National Science Foundation (Grant CMMI-1266089).

  11. Volumetric radioassay of lead bricks being considered for unrestricted release

    SciTech Connect

    Gehrke, R.J.; Losinski, S.J.; Seal, G.L.

    1995-01-01

    The hardware, software, and a protocol have been developed for the screening of lead bricks for free release or recycle from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The procedure for measuring the background from a sampling of ``clean`` lead bricks and for deducing the decision limits (in pCi/g) have been developed. At the decision limit, a radioactive lead brick would be detected with 95% confidence if it were present. The total and peak efficiencies of a 2.54-cm diameter {times} 2.54-cm high NaI(Tl) scintillation detector for the counting geometry of the present study were measured with a mixed radionuclide standard and calculated with a Monte Carlo program, CYLTRAN. The deduced decision limit for the counting conditions of the present study were 0.0588 pCi/g by analyzing the entire spectrum and 0.256 pCi/g by analyzing the 661-keV peak region for a 900-second count.

  12. [Study on Hollow Brick Wall's Surface Temperature with Infrared Thermal Imaging Method].

    PubMed

    Tang, Ming-fang; Yin, Yi-hua

    2015-05-01

    To address the characteristic of uneven surface temperature of hollow brick wall, the present research adopts soft wares of both ThermaCAM P20 and ThermaCAM Reporter to test the application of infrared thermal image technique in measuring surface temperature of hollow brick wall, and further analyzes the thermal characteristics of hollow brick wall, and building material's impact on surface temperature distribution including hollow brick, masonry mortar, and so on. The research selects the construction site of a three-story-high residential, carries out the heat transfer experiment, and further examines the exterior wall constructed by 3 different hollow bricks including sintering shale hollow brick, masonry mortar and brick masonry. Infrared thermal image maps are collected, including 3 kinds of sintering shale hollow brick walls under indoor heating in winter; and temperature data of wall surface, and uniformity and frequency distribution are also collected for comparative analysis between 2 hollow bricks and 2 kinds of mortar masonry. The results show that improving heat preservation of hollow brick aid masonry mortar can effectively improve inner wall surface temperature and indoor thermal environment; non-uniformity of surface temperature decreases from 0. 6 to 0. 4 °C , and surface temperature frequency distribution changes from the asymmetric distribution into a normal distribution under the condition that energy-saving sintering shale hollow brick wall is constructed by thermal mortar replacing cement mortar masonry; frequency of average temperature increases as uniformity of surface temperature increases. This research provides a certain basis for promotion and optimization of hollow brick wall's thermal function. PMID:26415433

  13. Prevalence of Brick Tea-Type Fluorosis in the Tibet Autonomous Region

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Zhipeng; Gao, Yanhui; Wang, Wei; Gong, Hongqiang; Guo, Min; Zhao, Shengcheng; Liu, Xuehui; Yu, Bing; Sun, Dianjun

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis is high in Tibet because of the habit of drinking brick tea in this region. Brick tea-type fluorosis has become an urgent public health problem in China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis in all districts of Tibet using a stratified cluster sampling method. Dental fluorosis in children aged 8–12 years and clinical skeletal fluorosis in adults were diagnosed according to the national criteria. A total of 423 children and 1320 adults participated in the study. Samples of drinking water, brick tea, brick tea infusion (or buttered tea), and urine were collected and measured for fluoride concentrations by the fluoride ion selective electrode method. Results The fluoride level in all but one of the brick tea samples was above the national standard. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea in all seven districts in Tibet was much higher than the national standard. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 33.57%, and the prevalence of clinical skeletal fluorosis was 46.06%. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea (r = 0.292, P < 0.05), urine fluoride concentrations in children (r = 0.134, P < 0.05), urine fluoride concentrations in adults (r = 0.162, P < 0.05), and altitude (r = 0.276, P < 0.05) were positively correlated with the prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis. Herdsmen had the highest fluoride exposure and the most severe skeletal fluorosis. Conclusions Brick tea-type fluorosis in Tibet is more serious than in other parts of China. The altitude and occupational factors are important risk factors for brick tea-type fluorosis. PMID:26499132

  14. Dredged sediments as a resource for brick production: Possibilities and barriers from a consumers’ perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Cappuyns, Valérie Deweirt, Valentine; Rousseau, Sandra

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Consumers are suspicious towards bricks produced from dredged sediments. • Technical quality, safety and environmental impacts are considered key characteristics. • Public has insufficient knowledge on bricks produced from dredged sediments. • Sensitization and provision of information to customers are of primary importance. - Abstract: A possible solution for the oversupply of dredged sediments is their use as a raw material in brick production. Despite the fact that several examples (e.g., Agostini et al., 2007; Hamer and Karius, 2002; Xu et al., 2014) show that this application is feasible, some economic, technical and social limitations interfere with the development of a market of dredged materials in brick production in Flanders. While we describe the main characteristics of the supply side, we focus on the limitations and barriers from the demand side in the present study. Based on a consumers survey we analyze consumers’ risk perceptions and attitudes towards bricks produced from dredged sediments. Consumers in Flanders are rather suspicious with respect to bricks produced from dredged sediments and their risk perception is mainly determined by the possibility of a bad bargain (brick of inferior quality) and the connotation with chemical contamination. The willingness to pay for bricks made from dredged sediments is mainly influenced by the age of the respondents, as well environmental awareness, and the respondents’ belief in their ability to influence environmental problems. Sensitization and information of customers seems to be of primary importance to make dredged-sediment-derived bricks a successful product.

  15. Historical and Near Real-Time Physical, Chemical, and Biological Oceanographic Data in Support of the International Polar Year 2007-08

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatusko, R. L.; Allegra, A. J.; Beattie, J. A.; Dwivedi, P. H.; Grimes, D.; Hamilton, M. A.; Levitus, S.; Sun, C. L.; Woods, M. H.

    2004-12-01

    The U.S. NOAA/NESDIS/National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), located in Silver Spring, Maryland, has extensive capabilities in archiving and providing public access to polar oceanographic and coastal data, products, and information. The World Ocean Database (WOD), a scientifically quality-controlled, global, oceanographic database, is the most comprehensive database of historical ocean profile data and plankton measurements in existence. The World Data Center for Oceanography (WDC) in Silver Spring conducts international exchange of oceanographic observations in accordance with the principles set forth by the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU). The WDC is collocated with and operated by the NODC, and it also leads the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) Global Oceanographic Data Archaeology and Rescue (GODAR) project, which attempts to locate and rescue historical data that are at risk of being lost due to media decay or neglect, and the IOC World Ocean Database (WOD) project, which is intended to stimulate international exchange of modern oceanographic data. The WOD will continue to be enhanced as new data is received through the WDC, IOC projects, and data incorporated into the NODC Archive Management and Metadata System (AMS). The Ocean Archive System (OAS) is the public Web interface to the AMS, and it provides access to original sets of ocean data as they were provided to (and archived by) the NODC. The NODC also participates in the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP), which is a cooperative international program designed to develop and maintain a global ocean T-S resource with data that are as up-to-date and of the highest quality as possible. It also operates the long-term archive for Argo data, also known as the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR). The NOAA Central Library, also a division of NODC, maintains the largest meteorological collection in the western hemisphere and supports extensive oceanographic and

  16. Brick manufacture with fly ash from Illinois coals. Technical report, March 1, 1995--May 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.E.; Dreher, G.; Moore, D.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Fiocchi, T.; Swartz, D.

    1995-12-31

    This investigation seeks to utilize fly ash in fired-clay products such as building and patio bricks, ceramic blocks, field and sewer tile, and flower pots. This goal is accomplished by 1) one or more plant-scale, 5000-brick tests of fly ash mixed with brick clays at the 20% or higher level; 2) a laboratory-scale study to measure the firing reactions of a range of compositions of clay and fly ash mixtures; 3) a preliminary study to evaluate the potential environmental and economic benefits of brick manufacture with fly ash. Bricks and feed materials will be tested for compliance with market specifications and for leachability of pollutants derived from fly ash. The laboratory study will combine ISGS databases, ICCI-supported characterization methods, and published information to improve predictions of the firing characteristics of Illinois fly ash and brick clay mixtures. Because identical methods are used to test clay firing and coal ash fusion, and because melting mechanisms are the same, improved coal ash fusion predictions are and additional expected result of this research. During this quarter we completed a manufacturing run at Colonial Brick Co. and began laboratory testing of samples from that run: clays, fly ash (from Illinois Power Company`s Wood River plant), and green and fired bricks, with and without fly ash. Bricks with 20% fly ash ``scummed`` during firing, and the fly ash failed to increase oxidation rate or water absorption, which were both expected. We obtained chemical and mineralogical analyses of the fireclays and shales at Colonial and Marseilles Brick Companies and began a series of selective dissolution analyses to more accurately determine the composition of the principal clay minerals in brick clays and the components in fly ash. We began related work of calculating normative mineralogical analyses for all clays and fly ashes that we sample.

  17. Historical Renovations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Planning & Management, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Describes how two colleges are combining historical renovation with state-of-the-art design. The historic Thompson House on the campus of Austin College, Texas, is now a modern building adapted to the computer age with appropriate restoration to the aesthetic grandeur of the late 19th century. Yale University's Lillian Goldman Law Library now…

  18. Rice and bricks: environmental issues and mapping of the unusual crop rotation pattern in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Haack, Barry N; Khatiwada, Gyanendra

    2007-06-01

    The Kathmandu Valley in Nepal has experienced a very rapid increase in population resulting in considerable land use/land cover change and also a series of environmental problems. One of the results of the population increase is an expansion of brick manufacturing within the Valley because most structures are brick. The brick kilns are intense in several locations of the Valley and have an interesting pattern of using the same lands for bricks during the dry season and then conversion to rice during the wet, summer monsoon months. The increase in brick production has contributed to environmental problems including decreased soil productivity, lowered ground water levels, and particularly air pollution. Brick manufacturing has little, if any, effective regulation. There is a lack of current, accurate data on brick production that could be resolved by remote sensing methods. Controls should be established and more information acquired on the location and impacts of brick production. PMID:17453278

  19. 27. MASCOT BRICK AUGER AND No 1 COMBINATION CUTTING TABLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. MASCOT BRICK AUGER AND No 1 COMBINATION CUTTING TABLE MANUFACTURED BY THE AMERICAN CLAY MACHINERY CO. OF BUCYRUS, OHIO. IT WAS PURCHASED IN 1903. AND USED AT THE FIRST MORAVIAN POTTERY AND TILE WORKS BEFORE BEING MOVED TO ITS PRESENT LOCATION IN 1912. IT IS USED TO SCREEN STONES FROM RAW CLAY AND INCORPORATE WATER TO A PROPER WORKING CONSISTENCY. IT IS NOW POWERED BY AN ELECTRIC MOTOR INSTALLED IN 1990. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  20. 75 FR 4528 - Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks From the People's Republic of China: Alignment of Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... Carbon Bricks from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Countervailing Duty Investigation, 74 FR... Mexico: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigations, 74 FR 42852 (August 25, 2009). The CVD... Bricks From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Negative Countervailing Duty Determination, 74...

  1. 75 FR 11847 - Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ...The Department of Commerce (``Department'') preliminarily determines that certain magnesia carbon bricks (``bricks'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') are being, or are likely to be, sold in the United States at less than fair value (``LTFV''), as provided in section 733 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (``Act''), for the period of investigation (``POI'') January 1, 2008,......

  2. The gamma-ray and neutron shielding factors of fly-ash brick materials.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vishwanath P; Badiger, N M

    2014-03-01

    A comprehensive study of gamma-ray exposure build-up factors (EBFs) of fly-ash brick materials has been carried out for photon energies of 0.015-15 MeV up to a penetration depth of 40 mfp (mean free path) by a geometrical progression (GP) fitting method. The EBF values of the fly-ash brick materials were found to be dependent upon the photon energy, penetration depth and chemical composition, and were found to be higher than the values for mud bricks and common bricks. Above a photon energy of 3 MeV for large penetration depths (>10 mfp), the EBF becomes directly proportional to Zeq. EBFs of fly-ashes were found to be less than or equal to those of concrete for low penetration depths (<10 mfp) for intermediate photon energies up to 1.5 MeV. The EBF values of fly-ash materials were found to be almost independent of Si concentration. The fast neutron removal cross sections of the fly-ash brick materials, mud bricks and common bricks were also calculated to understand their shielding effectiveness. The shielding effectiveness of the fly-ash materials against gamma-ray radiation was lower than that of common and mud bricks. PMID:24270465

  3. 78 FR 21106 - Silica Bricks and Shapes From the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigation, 77 FR 73982 (December 12, 2012). On March... International Trade Administration Silica Bricks and Shapes From the People's Republic of China: Postponement of... of silica bricks and shapes from the People's Republic of China.\\1\\ The period of investigation...

  4. 77 FR 70185 - Silica Bricks and Shapes From China; Institution of an Antidumping Duty Investigation and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ..., 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6, 2011) and the Commission's Handbook on Filing Procedures, 76 FR 62092 (Oct. 6... COMMISSION Silica Bricks and Shapes From China; Institution of an Antidumping Duty Investigation and... from China of silica bricks and shapes, provided for in subheading 6902.20.10 of the Harmonized...

  5. Preparation and mechanism of the sintered bricks produced from Yellow River silt and red mud.

    PubMed

    He, Hongtao; Yue, Qinyan; Su, Yuan; Gao, Baoyu; Gao, Yue; Wang, Jingzhou; Yu, Hui

    2012-02-15

    The preparation, characteristics and mechanisms of sintered bricks manufactured by Yellow River silt and red mud were studied. The sintering shrinkage, weight loss on ignition, water absorption and compressive strength were tested to determine the optimum preparation condition. Sintering mechanisms were discussed through linear regression analysis. Crystalline components of raw materials and bricks were analyzed by X-ray diffraction. Leaching toxicity of raw materials and bricks were measured according to sulphuric acid and nitric acid method. Radiation safety of the sintered bricks was characterized by calculating internal exposure index and external exposure index. The results showed that at the chosen best parameters (red mud content of 40%, sintering temperature of 1050°C and sintering time of 2h), the best characteristics of sintered bricks could be obtained. The weight loss on ignition of sintered bricks was principally caused by the removal of absorbed water and crystal water. The sintering shrinkage of sintered bricks mainly depended on sodium compounds and iron compounds of red mud. The sintering process made some components of raw materials transform into other crystals having better thermostability. Besides, the leaching toxicity and radioactivity index of sintered bricks produced under the optimum condition were all below standards. PMID:22192584

  6. Chemical and engineering properties of fired bricks containing 50 weight percent of class F fly ash

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chou, I.-Ming; Patel, V.; Laird, C.J.; Ho, K.K.

    2001-01-01

    The generation of fly ash during coal combustion represents a considerable solid waste disposal problem in the state of Illinois and nationwide. In fact, the majority of the three million tons of fly ash produced from burning Illinois bituminous coals is disposed of in landfills. The purpose of this study was to obtain a preliminary assessment of the technical feasibility of mitigating this solid waste problem by making fired bricks with the large volume of fly ash generated from burning Illinois coals. Test bricks were produced by the extrusion method with increasing amounts (20-50% by weight) of fly ash as a replacement for conventional raw materials. The chemical characteristics and engineering properties of the test bricks produced with and without 50 wt% of fly ash substitutions were analyzed and compared. The properties of the test bricks containing fly ash were at least comparable to, if not better than, those of standard test bricks made without fly ash and met the commercial specifications for fired bricks. The positive results of this study suggest that further study on test bricks with fly ash substitutions of greater than 50wt% is warranted. Successful results could have an important impact in reducing the waste disposal problem related to class F fly ash while providing the brick industry with a new low cost raw material. Copyright ?? 2001 Taylor & Francis.

  7. 75 FR 56556 - Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks From China and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... Register of April 23, 2010 (75 FR 21346). The hearing was held in Washington, DC, on July 27, 2010, and all... COMMISSION Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks From China and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... from China and Mexico of certain magnesia carbon bricks, provided for in subheadings 6902.10.10,...

  8. Natural radioactivity hazards of building bricks fabricated from saline soil of two districts of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Tufail, M; Nasim-Akhtar; Sabiha-Javied; Hamid, Tehsin

    2007-12-01

    Primordial radionuclides in building materials are one of the sources of radiation hazard in dwellings made of those materials. Activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides 40K, 226Ra and 232Th have been measured in house building bricks fabricated from saline soil. Forty samples of the bricks were collected from the brick fabrication sites and brick baking kilns in and around the saline soil areas of the districts of Lahore and Faisalabad in the Punjab province of Pakistan. The technique of gamma-ray spectroscopy using an HPGe detector with a PC-based multi-channel analyser was applied for determination of activity concentrations in the brick samples. The activity mass concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th measured in the brick samples were respectively 567.7 +/- 38.3 (493-631), 28.4 +/- 3.8 (23-35), and 56.0 +/- 4.6 (46-65) Bq kg(-1). The radiological hazards of the bricks were calculated using various models given in the literature. The radium equivalent activity was less than the accepted standard criterion value of 370 Bq kg(-1) and the values of other hazard indices were also below their limit values. The radiological hazard parameters of the bricks under investigation have been compared with those from other locations of Pakistan and also from some other countries in Asia. PMID:18268379

  9. GPU-based simulations of fracture in idealized brick and mortar composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    William Pro, J.; Kwei Lim, Rone; Petzold, Linda R.; Utz, Marcel; Begley, Matthew R.

    2015-07-01

    Stiff ceramic platelets (or bricks) that are aligned and bonded to a second ductile phase with low volume fraction (mortar) are a promising pathway to produce stiff, high-toughness composites. For certain ranges of constituent properties, including those of some synthetic analogs to nacre, one can demonstrate that the deformation is dominated by relative brick motions. This paper describes simulations of fracture that explicitly track the motions of individual rigid bricks in an idealized microstructure; cohesive tractions acting between the bricks introduce elastic, plastic and rupture behaviors. Results are presented for the stresses and damage near macroscopic cracks with different brick orientations relative to the loading orientation. The anisotropic macroscopic initiation toughness is computed for small-scale yielding conditions and is shown to be independent of specimen geometry and loading configuration. The results are shown to be in agreement with previously published experiments on synthetic nacre.

  10. Spectroscopic investigation on the production of clay bricks with SCBA waste.

    PubMed

    Viruthagiri, G; Sathiya priya, S; Shanmugam, N; Balaji, A; Balamurugan, K; Gopinathan, E

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, the effect of sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) addition to the brick making clay has been analyzed using spectroscopic techniques. For that, mixtures of brick making clay (BMC) with sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) in proportions of 0-20 wt.% were hydraulic uniaxially pressed and sintered at temperatures of 800-1100 °C. The partial replacement of the brick making clay with SCBA was studied with chemical and mineralogical analyzes (XRF and X-ray diffraction). The quantitative estimation of minerals was made by FTIR analysis. The results of FT-IR reveal that kaolinite, quartz, and lignin are predominant, whereas, cellulose and calcite are in moderate levels. In addition, magnetite and hematite are found in trace level. The overall results reveal that the brick making clay substituted with 15 wt.% of SCBA can open up a new path for the fabrication of quality bricks at low cost. PMID:25978014

  11. An occupational risk survey of a refractory brick company in Ha Noi, Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Hai, D N; Chai, S K; Chien, V C; Keifer, M; Takaro, T; Yu, J; Son, P H; Trung, L V; Barnhart, S

    2001-01-01

    Viet Nam has an increasing need for building materials, including refractory bricks. Little is known regarding the occupational hazards incurred in brick manufacturing. To determine the occupational health hazards posed by a refractory brick operation in Ha Noi, Viet Nam, a cross-sectional occupational risk survey was conducted, focusing on respirable dust hazards. It included an industrial hygiene walk-through and gravimetric dust analysis. Noise, heat, lack of head protection, and dust exposure were hazards identified at the brick-manufacturing site. Respiratory protection involved a three-layer cloth mask that had not been tested for efficacy. Silica dust exposure levels exceeded the Vietnamese permissible exposure level by almost fivefold based on gravimetric assessment and estimated silica content. This brick manufacturing site contains significant injury and respiratory illness hazards. Further investigations are necessary to begin to develop occupational safety measures at the site. PMID:11513069

  12. Molecular mechanics of DNA bricks: in situ structure, mechanical properties and ionic conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slone, Scott Michael; Li, Chen-Yu; Yoo, Jejoong; Aksimentiev, Aleksei

    2016-05-01

    The DNA bricks method exploits self-assembly of short DNA fragments to produce custom three-dimensional objects with subnanometer precision. In contrast to DNA origami, the DNA brick method permits a variety of different structures to be realized using the same library of DNA strands. As a consequence of their design, however, assembled DNA brick structures have fewer interhelical connections in comparison to equivalent DNA origami structures. Although the overall shape of the DNA brick objects has been characterized and found to conform to the features of the target designs, the microscopic properties of DNA brick objects remain yet to be determined. Here, we use the all-atom molecular dynamics method to directly compare the structure, mechanical properties and ionic conductivity of DNA brick and DNA origami structures different only by internal connectivity of their consistituent DNA strands. In comparison to equivalent DNA origami structures, the DNA brick structures are found to be less rigid and less dense and have a larger cross-section area normal to the DNA helix direction. At the microscopic level, the junction in the DNA brick structures are found to be right-handed, similar to the structure of individual Holliday junctions (HJ) in solution, which contrasts with the left-handed structure of HJ in DNA origami. Subject to external electric field, a DNA brick plate is more leaky to ions than an equivalent DNA origami plate because of its lower density and larger cross-section area. Overall, our results indicate that the structures produced by the DNA brick method are fairly similar in their overall appearance to those created by the DNA origami method but are more compliant when subject to external forces, which likely is a consequence of their single crossover design.

  13. Brick walls for black holes in AdS/CFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizuka, Norihiro; Terashima, Seiji

    2015-06-01

    We study the 't Hooft's brick wall model for black holes in a holographic context. The brick wall model suggests that without an appropriate near horizon IR cut-off, the free energy of the probe fields shows the divergence due to the large degenerate states near the horizons. After studying the universal nature of the divergence in various holographic settings in various dimensions, we interpret the nature of the divergence in a holographic context. The free energy divergence is due to the large degeneracy and continuity of the low energy spectrum in the boundary theory at the deconfinement phase. These divergence and continuity should be removed by finite N effects, which make the spectrum discrete even at the deconfinement phase. On the other hand, in the bulk, these degenerate states are localized near the horizon, and the universal divergence of these degenerate states implies that the naive counting of the degrees of freedom in bulk should be modified once we take into account the non-perturbative quantum gravity effects near the horizon. Depending on the microscopic degrees of freedom, the position, where the effective field theory description to count the states breaks down, has different Planck scale dependence. It also implies the difficulty to have an electron like gauge-singlet elementary field in the boundary theory Lagrangian. These singlet fields are at most composite fields, because they show divergent free energy, suggesting a positive power of N at the deconfinement phase.

  14. Evaluation of a stack: A concrete chimney with brick liner

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, J.R.; Amin, J.A.; Porthouse, R.A.

    1995-12-31

    A 200 ft. tall stack, consisting of a concrete chimney with an independent acid proof brick liner built in the 1950`s, serving the Separations facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS), was evaluated for the performance category 3 (PC3) level of Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) effects. The inelastic energy absorption capacity of the concrete chimney was considered in the evaluation of the earthquake resistance, in particular, to compute the F{sub {mu}} factor. The calculated value of F{sub {mu}} exceeded 3.0, while the seismic demand for the PC3 level, using an F{sub {mu}} value of 1.5, was found to be less than the capacity of the concrete chimney. The capacity formulation of ACI 307 was modified to incorporate the effect of an after design opening on the tension side. There are considerable uncertainties in determining the earthquake resistance of the independent brick liner. The critical liner section, located at the bottom of the breeching opening, does not meet the current recommendations. A discussion is provided for the possible acceptable values for the ``Moment Reduction Factor``, R{sub w} or F{sub {mu}} for the liner. Comments are provided on the comparison of stack demands using response spectra (RS) versus time history (TH) analysis, with and without soil structure interaction (SSI) effects.

  15. Real and Virtual Heritage Historical Astronomical Plate Archives in Sonneberg, Bamberg and Hamburg Observatories, the Evolution of Astrophysics and their Influence on Human Knowledge and Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunzmann, Björn

    The rise of astrophysics around 1860 introduced new instruments, methods and research areas. Of course, the increasing number of foundations of new observatories around the world starting at that time was forced by that new scientific discipline, too, but especially by the usage of photographic instruments. At the end of the 19th century the formation and development of photographic methods and techniques had reached a level of sufficient stability for productive usage in astronomy and astrophysics, their new instrumrents, methods and goals. The fundamental meaning of star light analysis for astrophysics by increasing discoveries of Variable Stars and the Systematic search for moving Solar System objects had basically driven the beginning of large photographic sky patrols at that time, using photographic glass plates as detectors and information storages. Sky Patrols, especially systematic long-term monitoring of the whole sky or of well defined selected areas and Sky Surveys were (and still are) an important key method that forced the evolution and progress of astrophysics. Important scientific results by famous astronomers, for example Walter Baade, Cuno Hoffmeister and Harlow Shapley depended on the analysis of photographic plates. Today, there are around 50 photographic plate archives world-wide. Most of them, unfortunately, are in a quite poor condition and not yet digitized. Following Harvard College Observatory with an estimated total of 600,000 plates, Sonneberg observatory harbours the second largest archive world-wide (around 300,000 plates) among other large ones in Germany like Bamberg (40,000 plates) and Hamburg (35,000 plates). These plate archives form an important heritage with a total of roughly two million direct plates and some ten or hundred thousands of spectroscopic plates. A lot of progress has been made by transforming this real heritage to a virtual one by systematic digitisation of the plates, but perhaps only 15% of them have been

  16. 32 CFR 644.317 - Preserving historic landmarks and properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Preserving historic landmarks and properties... (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal § 644.317 Preserving historic landmarks and properties. Purposes of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, as amended, (16 U.S.C. 470)...

  17. 32 CFR 644.317 - Preserving historic landmarks and properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Preserving historic landmarks and properties. 644... (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal § 644.317 Preserving historic landmarks and properties. Purposes of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, as amended, (16 U.S.C. 470)...

  18. 32 CFR 644.317 - Preserving historic landmarks and properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Preserving historic landmarks and properties. 644... (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal § 644.317 Preserving historic landmarks and properties. Purposes of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, as amended, (16 U.S.C. 470)...

  19. 32 CFR 644.317 - Preserving historic landmarks and properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Preserving historic landmarks and properties... (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal § 644.317 Preserving historic landmarks and properties. Purposes of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, as amended, (16 U.S.C. 470)...

  20. 32 CFR 644.317 - Preserving historic landmarks and properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Preserving historic landmarks and properties. 644... (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal § 644.317 Preserving historic landmarks and properties. Purposes of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, as amended, (16 U.S.C. 470)...

  1. Dredged sediments as a resource for brick production: possibilities and barriers from a consumers' perspective.

    PubMed

    Cappuyns, Valérie; Deweirt, Valentine; Rousseau, Sandra

    2015-04-01

    A possible solution for the oversupply of dredged sediments is their use as a raw material in brick production. Despite the fact that several examples (e.g., Agostini et al., 2007; Hamer and Karius, 2002; Xu et al., 2014) show that this application is feasible, some economic, technical and social limitations interfere with the development of a market of dredged materials in brick production in Flanders. While we describe the main characteristics of the supply side, we focus on the limitations and barriers from the demand side in the present study. Based on a consumers survey we analyze consumers' risk perceptions and attitudes towards bricks produced from dredged sediments. Consumers in Flanders are rather suspicious with respect to bricks produced from dredged sediments and their risk perception is mainly determined by the possibility of a bad bargain (brick of inferior quality) and the connotation with chemical contamination. The willingness to pay for bricks made from dredged sediments is mainly influenced by the age of the respondents, as well environmental awareness, and the respondents' belief in their ability to influence environmental problems. Sensitization and information of customers seems to be of primary importance to make dredged-sediment-derived bricks a successful product. PMID:25618756

  2. Brick manufacture with fly ash from Illinois coals. Quarterly technical report, September 1, 1994--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.E.; Dreher, G.; Frost, J.; Moore, D.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Fiocchi, T.; Swartz, D.

    1995-03-01

    This investigation seeks to utilize fly ash in fired-clay products such as building and patio bricks, ceramic blocks, field and sewer tile, and flower pots. This goal is accomplished by (1) one or more plant-scale, 5000-brick tests with fly ash mixed with brick clays at the 20% or higher level; (2) a laboratory-scale study to measure the firing reactions of a range of compositions of clay and fly ash mixtures; (3) a technical and economic study to evaluate the potential environmental and economic benefits of brick manufacture with fly ash. Bricks and feed materials will be tested for compliance with market specifications and for leachability of pollutants derived from fly ash. The laboratory study will combine ISGS databases, ICCI-supported characterization methods, and published information to improve predictions of the firing characteristics of Illinois fly ash and brick clay mixtures. Because identical methods are used to test clay firing and coal ash fusion, and because melting mechanisms are the same, improved coal ash fusion predictions are an expected result of this research. If successful, this project should convert an environmental problem (fly ash) into valuable products - bricks. During this quarter, the authors set up the manufacturing run at Colonial Brick Co., provided an expanded NEPA questionnaire for DOE, made preliminary arrangements for a larger brick manufacturing run at Marseilles Brick Co., revised laboratory procedures for selective dissolution analysis, and began characterization of brick clays that could be mixed with fly ash for fired-clay products.

  3. Aerosol Radiative Forcing Estimates from South Asian Clay Brick Production Based on Direct Emission Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weyant, C.; Athalye, V.; Ragavan, S.; Rajarathnam, U.; Kr, B.; Lalchandani, D.; Maithel, S.; Malhotra, G.; Bhanware, P.; Thoa, V.; Phuong, N.; Baum, E.; Bond, T. C.

    2012-12-01

    About 150-200 billion clay bricks are produced in India every year. Most of these bricks are fired in small-scale traditional kilns that burn coal or biomass without pollution controls. Reddy and Venkataraman (2001) estimated that 8% of fossil fuel related PM2.5 emissions and 23% of black carbon emissions in India are released from brick production. Few direct emissions measurements have been done in this industry and black carbon emissions, in particular, have not been previously measured. In this study, 9 kilns representing five common brick kiln technologies were tested for aerosol properties and gaseous pollutant emissions, including optical scattering and absorption and thermal-optical OC/EC. Simple relationships are then used to estimate the radiative-forcing impact. Kiln design and fuel quality greatly affect the overall emission profiles and relative climate warming. Batch production kilns, such as the Downdraft kiln, produce the most PM2.5 (0.97 gPM2.5/fired brick) with an OC/EC fraction of 0.3. Vertical Shaft Brick kilns using internally mixed fuels produce the least PM (0.09 gPM2.5/kg fired brick) with the least EC (OC/EC = 16.5), but these kilns are expensive to implement and their use throughout Southern Asia is minimal. The most popular kiln in India, the Bull's Trench kiln, had fewer emissions per brick than the Downdraft kiln, but an even higher EC fraction (OC/EC = 0.05). The Zig-zag kiln is similar in structure to the Bull's Trench kiln, but the emission factors are significantly lower: 50% reduction for CO, 17% for PM2.5 and 60% for black carbon. This difference in emissions suggests that converting traditional Bull's Trench kilns into less polluting Zig-zag kilns would result in reduced atmospheric warming from brick production.

  4. Testing the Multispecimen Absolute Paleointensity Method with Archaeological Baked Clays and Bricks: New Data for Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnepp, Elisabeth; Leonhardt, Roman

    2014-05-01

    few or even less than one per cent, although the data points are scattered in some cases. For these sites comparison with the historical field values shows very good agreement. Small deviations could be explained by the higher cooling rates used in the laboratory. These young structures were made of bricks and the unweathered baked clay of the 2003 experimental kiln was like brick, either. The sites provided much material so that tests were done to investigate the MSP-DSC methodology further. For example it was tested, if different NRM deblocking fractions have influence on the paleointensity estimate. It seems that use of fractions lower than 20% of the NRM can lead to an underestimation of PI. Although MSP-DSC experiments carried out on different blocks of the same structure can provide very similar results, the use of several fragments from at least five different units (potshards, bricks, in situ burnt blocks or rocks) of the same structure is recommended in or to obtain a reliable estimate of the experimental errors. Five data points may define already a well constraint straight line, but for a better precision 15 (< 2%) data points may be required. For the young structures the MSP-DSC method provided reliable PI estimates which have been included into the archaeointensity data base

  5. Historical Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, D. A.; Stephenson, F. R.

    The available historical records of supernovae occurring in our own Galaxy over the past two thousand years are reviewed. These accounts include the well-recorded supernovae of AD1604 (Kepler's SN), AD1572 (Tycho's SN), AD1181 AD1054 (which produced the Crab Nebula) and AD1006, together with less certain events dating back to AD185. In the case of the supernovae of AD1604 and AD1572 it is European records that provide the most accurate information available, whereas for earlier supernovae records are principally from East Asian sources. Also discussed briefly are several spurious supernova candidates, and the future prospects for studies of historical supernovae.

  6. A comparison of microwave versus direct solar heating for lunar brick production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yankee, S. J.; Strenski, D. G.; Pletka, B. J.; Patil, D. S.; Mutsuddy, B. C.

    1990-01-01

    Two processing techniques considered suitable for producing bricks from lunar regolith are examined: direct solar heating and microwave heating. An analysis was performed to compare the two processes in terms of the amount of power and time required to fabricate bricks of various sizes. Microwave heating was shown to be significantly faster than solar heating for rapid production of realistic-size bricks. However, the relative simplicity of the solar collector(s) used for the solar furnace compared to the equipment necessary for microwave generation may present an economic tradeoff.

  7. Characterization, reproduction and optimization of traditional adobe bricks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioannou, Ioannis; Eftychiou, Marina; Costi de Castrillo, Maria; Illampas, Rogiros

    2013-04-01

    Adobe bricks were first introduced 10-12,000 years ago. Extensive use of the material throughout the centuries has led to strong local traditions of building with earth and has established adobe masonry as an important feature of the international architectural heritage. Today, despite no longer being a prevalent building material, adobes are still in use, since a number of earthen structures survive worldwide. Furthermore, the simplicity, low cost and almost negligible embodied energy associated with the production of adobes, as well as their good thermal and acoustic properties, render them an attractive option for use in contemporary sustainable construction. Therefore, several ongoing research projects internationally investigate the physicochemical and mechanical properties of traditional adobe bricks and the design/production of optimized adobes, with improved characteristics, for use in contemporary architecture. Here, we present ongoing research on adobe bricks carried out in the framework of the project E& IXEIPH EI / POION/0609/41, which is co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund and the Republic of Cyprus, through the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation. Our work focuses on the characterization of traditional adobes, their reproduction and optimization in the laboratory to produce materials with improved physicomechanical properties. Results up-to-date show that traditional adobes are mostly composed of random quantities of silt and clay. Calcite is also predominant in relevant X-ray diffraction analyses. The average capillary water absorption coefficient (measured against a saturated sponge surface) of samples collected from market suppliers rarely exceeds 1 mm/min1 -2, while their thermal conductivity is around 0.55 W/mK. The response of traditional adobes to compression is characterized by intense deformability. The average compressive strength recorded depends on the form of test specimen (cube, cylinder, prism). Samples with aspect

  8. Historic Houses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Nancy

    1997-01-01

    Reviews some of the efforts of the Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities (SPNEA) to preserve, conserve, and interpret historic houses to the public. Examines the history and some of the specific preservation problems concerning the Beauport Cottage, the Sayward-Wheeler House, and the Gropius House. (MJP)

  9. Historical Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharlach, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a historical overview of four decades of scholarship and changing public policy on family and informal caregiving for older adults. Families are changing at a dizzying pace. Changes in family composition, cultural diversity, geographic mobility, and societal norms, coupled with increasing numbers of older…

  10. 41 CFR 102-78.15 - What are historic properties?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... specifically defined at 36 CFR 800.16. ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What are historic... Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 78-HISTORIC PRESERVATION...

  11. 41 CFR 102-78.15 - What are historic properties?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... specifically defined at 36 CFR 800.16. ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What are historic... Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 78-HISTORIC PRESERVATION...

  12. 41 CFR 102-78.15 - What are historic properties?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... specifically defined at 36 CFR 800.16. ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are historic... Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 78-HISTORIC PRESERVATION...

  13. 41 CFR 102-78.15 - What are historic properties?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... specifically defined at 36 CFR 800.16. ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are historic... Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 78-HISTORIC PRESERVATION...

  14. 41 CFR 102-78.15 - What are historic properties?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... specifically defined at 36 CFR 800.16. ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What are historic... Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 78-HISTORIC PRESERVATION...

  15. 19. Detail of brick courses 116, back side, between 1st ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Detail of brick courses 1-16, back side, between 1st and 2nd windows from the right - Oklahoma State University, Boys Dormitory, Northwest corner of Hester Street & Athletic Avenue, Stillwater, Payne County, OK

  16. 20. Detail of brick courses 4675, back side, between 1st ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Detail of brick courses 46-75, back side, between 1st and 2nd windows from the right - Oklahoma State University, Boys Dormitory, Northwest corner of Hester Street & Athletic Avenue, Stillwater, Payne County, OK

  17. Recycling of stone cutting sludge in formulations of bricks and terrazzo tiles.

    PubMed

    Al-Zboon, Kamel; Tahat, Montasser; Abu-Hamatteh, Ziad S H; Al-Harahsheh, Mohammad S

    2010-06-01

    This study examines the possibility for enhancing the use of stone cutting sludge waste in the production of building bricks and terrazzo tiles, which would reduce both the environmental impact and the production costs. Stone cutting wastes in the form of sludge is currently generated at several factories in Jordan. At the Samara factory, incorporation of the sludge in the batch formulations of bricks and terrazzo tiles was examined. The physicochemical and mineralogical characteristics of the sludge were analyzed to identify the major components. Results indicated that the sludge generated from stone cutting could be used in producing concrete bricks. Mixtures of aggregates with added amounts of sludge were used successfully to produce non-load bearing bricks. Sludge was also used to produce terrazzo tiles and the results indicate that the transverse strength, water absorption and tile measurements, for all the taken samples, comply with Jordanian standards. The transverse strength decreased while water absorption increased as the sludge ratio increased. PMID:19837706

  18. Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site showing brick ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site showing brick and concrete paving of patio, and circular planters. View facing east. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Pearl City Peninsula, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. Determine the Compressive Strength of Calcium Silicate Bricks by Combined Nondestructive Method

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the application of combined nondestructive method for assessment of compressive strength of calcium silicate bricks. In this case, it is a combination of the rebound hammer method and ultrasonic pulse method. Calibration relationships for determining compressive strength of calcium silicate bricks obtained from nondestructive parameter testing for the combined method as well as for the L-type Schmidt rebound hammer and ultrasonic pulse method are quoted here. Calibration relationships are known for their close correlation and are applicable in practice. The highest correlation between parameters from nondestructive measurement and predicted compressive strength is obtained using the SonReb combined nondestructive method. Combined nondestructive SonReb method was proved applicable for determination of compressive strength of calcium silicate bricks at checking tests in a production plant and for evaluation of bricks built in existing masonry structures. PMID:25276864

  20. Determine the compressive strength of calcium silicate bricks by combined nondestructive method.

    PubMed

    Brozovsky, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the application of combined nondestructive method for assessment of compressive strength of calcium silicate bricks. In this case, it is a combination of the rebound hammer method and ultrasonic pulse method. Calibration relationships for determining compressive strength of calcium silicate bricks obtained from nondestructive parameter testing for the combined method as well as for the L-type Schmidt rebound hammer and ultrasonic pulse method are quoted here. Calibration relationships are known for their close correlation and are applicable in practice. The highest correlation between parameters from nondestructive measurement and predicted compressive strength is obtained using the SonReb combined nondestructive method. Combined nondestructive SonReb method was proved applicable for determination of compressive strength of calcium silicate bricks at checking tests in a production plant and for evaluation of bricks built in existing masonry structures. PMID:25276864

  1. A view of microstructure with technological behavior of waste incorporated ceramic bricks.

    PubMed

    Nirmala, G; Viruthagiri, G

    2015-01-25

    Production of ceramic bricks from mixtures of ceramic industry wastes (up to 50 wt%) from the area of Vriddhachalam, Cuddalore district, Tamilnadu, India and kaolinitic clay from Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala were investigated. The firing behavior of the ceramic mixtures was studied by determining their changes in mineralogy and basic ceramic properties such as water absorption, porosity, compressive strength and firing shrinkage at temperatures ranging from 900 to 1200 °C in short firing cycles. The effect of the rejects addition gradually up to 50 wt% was analyzed with the variation of temperature on the mechanical properties and microstructure of the bricks. The highest compressive strength and lowest water absorption is observed for the sample with 40% rejects at 1100 °C which is supported by the results of SEM analysis. The resulting ceramic bricks exhibit features that suggest possibilities of using the ceramic rejects in the conventional brick making methods. PMID:25062052

  2. PBF Reactor Building (PER620) basement, inside cubicle 13. Lead bricks ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF Reactor Building (PER-620) basement, inside cubicle 13. Lead bricks shield the fission product detection system (FPDS). The system detected fission products in pressure loop from in-pile tube. shielding was to prevent other radiation in cubicle from interfering. Assembly of bricks in foreground will slide back to enclose and shield equipment in the three chambers. Date: 1982. INEEL negative no. 82-6376 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. Effect of brick kiln emissions on commonly used vegetables of Kashmir Valley.

    PubMed

    Skinder, Bhat M; Sheikh, Afeefa Q; Pandit, Ashok K; Ganai, Bashir A; Kuchy, Aashiq H

    2015-11-01

    To study the impact of brick kiln emissions on plant growth and productivity, a study was conducted on various biochemical parameters of three main vegetables Brassica oleracea L., Phaseolus vulgaris L., and Solanum melongena L. cultivated in the vicinity of the brick kiln area of the Panzan village of district Budgam (J&K). Plants in the vicinity of brick kilns are direct recipients of emissions and therefore important materials for assessing potential effects of kiln pollutants. The biochemical values of all the three vegetables of the brick kiln site when compared to the control site are significantly (P ≤ 0.05) different. The findings of the present work depict that the brick kilns are the prime reason for the deterioration of important consumable vegetables, which could lead to chaos in the food security of the area in concern besides a threat to local people in terms of health if proper pollution control devices or the replacement of brick kilns are not put in place with new technology. PMID:26788302

  4. Quality Characterization of Silicon Bricks using Photoluminescence Imaging and Photoconductive Decay: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, S.; Yan, F.; Zaunbrecher, K.; Al-Jassim, M.; Sidelkheir, O.; Ounadjela, K.

    2012-06-01

    Imaging techniques can be applied to multicrystalline silicon solar cells throughout the production process, which includes as early as when the bricks are cut from the cast ingot. Photoluminescence (PL) imaging of the band-to-band radiative recombination is used to characterize silicon quality and defects regions within the brick. PL images of the brick surfaces are compared to minority-carrier lifetimes measured by resonant-coupled photoconductive decay (RCPCD). Photoluminescence images on silicon bricks can be correlated to lifetime measured by photoconductive decay and could be used for high-resolution characterization of material before wafers are cut. The RCPCD technique has shown the longest lifetimes of any of the lifetime measurement techniques we have applied to the bricks. RCPCD benefits from the low-frequency and long-excitation wavelengths used. In addition, RCPCD is a transient technique that directly monitors the decay rate of photoconductivity and does not rely on models or calculations for lifetime. The measured lifetimes over brick surfaces have shown strong correlations to the PL image intensities; therefore, this correlation could then be used to transform the PL image into a high-resolution lifetime map.

  5. Preparation and characterization of regenerated MgO-CaO refractory bricks sintered under different atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Gui-bo; Yue, Chang-sheng; Li, Xiang; Guo, Min; Zhang, Mei

    2014-12-01

    Regenerated MgO-CaO brick samples containing 80wt%, 70wt%, and 60wt% MgO were prepared using spent MgO-CaO bricks and fused magnesia as raw materials and paraffin as a binder. The bricks were sintered at 1873 K for 2 h under an air atmosphere and under an isolating system. The microstructure, mechanical properties at room temperature, and hydration resistance of the regenerated samples were measured and compared. The results indicated that the isolating sintering generated a strongly reducing atmosphere as a result of the incomplete combustion of paraffin, and the partial oxygen pressure was approximately 6.68 × 10-7 Pa. The properties of the regenerated bricks sintered under air conditions were all higher than those of the bricks sintered under a reducing atmosphere. The deterioration of the bricks was a result of MgO reduction and a decrease in the amount of liquid phase formed during sintering under a reducing atmosphere.

  6. Biocalcification using B. pasteurii for strengthening brick masonry civil engineering structures.

    PubMed

    Raut, Supriya H; Sarode, D D; Lele, S S

    2014-01-01

    Microbiologically induced calcite precipitation in bricks by bacterium Bacillus pasteurii (NCIM 2477) using a media especially optimized for urease production (OptU) was demonstrated in this study. Effect of biocalcification activity on compressive strength and water absorption capacity of bricks was investigated. Various other parameters such as pH, growth profile, urease activity, urea breakdown and calcite precipitated were monitored during the 28 days curing period. Efficiency of B. pasteurii to form microbial aided calcite precipitate in OptU media resulted into 83.9% increase in strength of the bricks as compared to only 24.9% with standard media, nutrient broth (NB). In addition to significant increase in the compressive strength, bricks treated with B. pasteurii grown in OptU media resulted in 48.9 % reduction in water absorption capacity as compared to control bricks immersed in tap water. Thus it was successfully demonstrated that microbial calcification in optimized media by Bacillus pasteurii has good potential for commercial application to improve the life span of structures constructed with bricks, particularly structures of heritage importance. PMID:23884843

  7. Production of fired construction brick from high sulfate-containing fly ash with boric acid addition.

    PubMed

    Başpinar, M Serhat; Kahraman, Erhan; Görhan, Gökhan; Demir, Ismail

    2010-01-01

    The increase of power plant capacity has led to the production of an increasing amount of fly ash that causes high environmental impact in Turkey. Some of the fly ash is utilized within the fired brick industry but high sulfate-containing fly ash creates severe problems during sintering of the fired brick. This study attempted to investigate the potential for converting high sulfate-containing fly ash into useful material for the construction industry by the addition of boric acid. The chemical and mineralogical composition of fly ash and clay were investigated. Boric acid (H(3)BO(3)) was added to fly ash-clay mixtures with up to 5 wt.%. Six different series of test samples were produced by uniaxial pressing. The samples were fired at the industrial clay-brick firing temperatures of 800, 900 and 1000 degrees C. The microstructures of the fired samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and some physical and mechanical properties were measured. It was concluded that the firing at conventional brick firing temperature of high sulfate fly ash without any addition of boric acid resulted in very weak strength bricks. The addition of boric acid and clay simultaneously to the high sulfate- containing fly ash brick dramatically increased the compressive strength of the samples at a firing temperature of 1000 degrees C by modifying the sintering behaviour of high sulfate fly ash. PMID:19423597

  8. 8. Historic view of the building: 'Warren Street from State ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic view of the building: 'Warren Street from State Street' ca. 1890. Courtesy of the Trenton Free Public Library. This shows the building before the True American's renovations of 1893. It is the three-story buildings, flanked by lower ones in the middle of the block. At the time of the photograph, the brick exterior was painted a light color and dark-colored louvered shutters flanked all the upper story windows. - 14 North Warren Street (Commercial Building), True American Building, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  9. Strength Parameters Of Masonry Walls In Modelling Historic Constructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gołębiewski, Michał; Lubowiecka, Izabela; Kujawa, Marcin

    2015-09-01

    The paper presents the determination of the basic material properties of a historic brickwork. Experimental studies were used to identify the basic material properties of bricks. The mechanical properties of the masonry, as an orthotropic homogenized material, were calculated. Then, numerical simulations using the Finite Element Method (FEM) were performed to verify the experimental outcomes. Macromodels with element sizes of 40, 20, 10 and 5 mm, and a micromodel with an element size of 5 mm were applied. The results were compared with experimental data and results available in literature.

  10. Brick manufacture with fly ash from Illinois coals. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.E.; Dreher, G.; Frost, J.; Moore, D.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Fiocchi, T.; Swartz, D.

    1995-12-31

    This investigation seeks to utilize fly ash in fired-clay products such as building and patio bricks, ceramic blocks, field and sewer tile, and flower pots. This goal is accomplished by (1) one or more plant-scale, 5000-brick tests with fly ash mixed with brick clays at the 20% or higher level; (2) a laboratory-scale study to measure the firing reactions of a range of compositions of clay and fly ash mixtures; (3) a preliminary study to evaluate the potential environmental and economic benefits of brick manufacture with fly ash. Bricks and feed materials will be tested for compliance with market specifications and for leachability of pollutants derived from fly ash. The laboratory study will combine ISGS databases, ICCI-supported characterization methods, and published information to improve predictions of the firing characteristics of Illinois fly ash and brick clay mixtures. Because identical methods are used to test clay firing and coal ash fusion, and because melting mechanisms are the same, improved coal ash fusion predictions are an additional expected result of this research. If successful, this project should convert a disposal problem (fly ash) into valuable products-bricks. During this quarter we set up the manufacturing run at Colonial Brick Co., finalized arrangements for a larger brick manufacturing run at Marseilles Brick Co. in YR2, revised our laboratory procedures for selective dissolution analysis, obtained information to select three standard fly ashes, and continued our characterization of brick clays that could be mixed with fly ash for fired-clay products. Due to delays in other areas, we began construction of the optimization program for year 2. We discovered recently that fly ash dust will be an unanticipated problem at the brick plant.