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1

Faraday waves under time-reversed excitation.  

PubMed

Do parametrically driven systems distinguish periodic excitations that are time mirrors of each other? Faraday waves in a Newtonian fluid are studied under excitation with superimposed harmonic wave forms. We demonstrate that the threshold parameters for the stability of the ground state are insensitive to a time inversion of the driving function. This is a peculiarity of some dynamic systems. The Faraday system shares this property with standard electroconvection in nematic liquid crystals [J. Heuer et al., Phys. Rev. E 78, 036218 (2008)]. In general, time inversion of the excitation affects the asymptotic stability of a parametrically driven system, even when it is described by linear ordinary differential equations. Obviously, the observed symmetry has to be attributed to the particular structure of the underlying differential equation system. The pattern selection of the Faraday waves above threshold, on the other hand, discriminates between time-mirrored excitation functions. PMID:23496716

Pietschmann, Dirk; Stannarius, Ralf; Wagner, Christian; John, Thomas

2013-03-01

2

Real Time Holographic Interferometry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The thesis presents an introduction into holographic interferometry with its history and applications. Problems involved with recording, developing, and reconstructing real time holographic interferograms are presented. Reconstruction was accomplished usi...

J. W. Somers

1974-01-01

3

Real-time sonography  

Microsoft Academic Search

This textbook acquaints the reader with normal and pathologic anatomy as depicted on dynamic or real-time scanning. Chapters are organized by specialty, such as abdominal, urologic, or pediatric. The text is illustrated with still-frame images and line drawings. The drawings show important areas of interest and provide graphic notation as to where and in what orientation the scan was obtained.

A. C. Fleischey; A. E. Jr. James

1984-01-01

4

Real-time signal processor for pulsar studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design, tests and preliminary results of a real-time parallel signal processor built to aid a wide\\u000a variety of pulsar observations. The signal processor reduces the distortions caused by the effects of dispersion, Faraday\\u000a rotation, doppler acceleration and parallactic angle variations, at a sustained data rate of 32 Msamples\\/sec. It also folds\\u000a the pulses coherently over the

P. S. Ramkumar; A. A. Deshpande

2001-01-01

5

Ultrafast time-resolved faraday rotation in EuO thin films.  

PubMed

We have investigated the ultrafast spin dynamics in EuO thin films by time-resolved Faraday rotation spectroscopy. The photoinduced magnetization is found to be increased in a transient manner, accompanied with subsequent demagnetization. The dynamical magnetization enhancement showed a maximum slightly below the Curie temperature with prolonged tails toward both lower and higher temperatures and dominates the demagnetization counterpart at 55 K. The magnetization enhancement component decays in ~1 ns. The realization of the transient collective ordering is attributable to the enhancement of the f-d exchange interaction. PMID:23004656

Liu, F; Makino, T; Yamasaki, T; Ueno, K; Tsukazaki, A; Fukumura, T; Kong, Y; Kawasaki, M

2012-06-19

6

Realism in real time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract With the continuous improvement in ray tracing and radiosity algorithms, image synthesis quality has reached the level of photo realism. However, efforts to achieve real-time performances by implementing ray tracing and radiosity algorithms on parallel processors and dedicated hardware have not been very successful so far. Increasing the number,of processors introduces a corresponding growth in inter-processor communication. Caching could

F. W. Jansen; A. Chalmers

1993-01-01

7

Real time interferogram simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electronic analog device has been constructed which displays synthesized interferograms on a cathode-ray tube (CRT) for real-time viewing. First- and third-order aberrations are generated individually or in combination. The exact amount of each aberration (in waves) appearing in the simulated interferogram is also displayed. A radial line cursor adjustable over 360 deg in the artificial exit pupil provides profile

J. M. Geary; D. Holmes

1979-01-01

8

A Real-Time Linux  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the design, implementation, experimental results, and possible applications of a real-time version of the Linux operating system. We have used the idea of virtual machines for running a standard time-sharing OS and a real-time executive on the same computer. Services provided by the real-time kernel are described. The comparison of our solution with other work on real-time

M. Barabanov; V. Yodaiken

1996-01-01

9

A Real-Time Linux  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the design, implementation, experimental results, and possible applications of a real-time version of the Linux operating system. We have used the idea of virtual machines for running a standard time-sharing OS and a real-time executive on the same computer. Services provided by the real-time kernel are described. The comparison of our solution with other work on real-time

Victor Yodaiken; Michael Barabanov

1997-01-01

10

Real time automated inspection  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus relating to the real time automatic detection and classification of characteristic type surface imperfections occurring on the surfaces of material of interest such as moving hot metal slabs produced by a continuous steel caster. A data camera transversely scans continuous lines of such a surface to sense light intensities of scanned pixels and generates corresponding voltage values. The voltage values are converted to corresponding digital values to form a digital image of the surface which is subsequently processed to form an edge-enhanced image having scan lines characterized by intervals corresponding to the edges of the image. The edge-enhanced image is thresholded to segment out the edges and objects formed by the edges are segmented out by interval matching and bin tracking. Features of the objects are derived and such features are utilized to classify the objects into characteristic type surface imperfections.

Fant, Karl M. (Minneapolis, MN); Fundakowski, Richard A. (Saint Paul, MN); Levitt, Tod S. (Minneapolis, MN); Overland, John E. (Plymouth, MN); Suresh, Bindinganavle R. (New Brighton, MN); Ulrich, Franz W. (Minneapolis, MN)

1985-01-01

11

Real time polarimetric dehazing.  

PubMed

Remote sensing is a rich topic due to its utility in gathering detailed accurate information from locations that are not economically feasible traveling destinations or are physically inaccessible. However, poor visibility over long path lengths is problematic for a variety of reasons. Haze induced by light scatter is one cause for poor visibility and is the focus of this article. Image haze comes about as a result of light scattering off particles and into the imaging path causing a haziness to appear on the image. Image processing using polarimetric information of light scatter can be used to mitigate image haze. An imaging polarimeter which provides the Stokes values in real time combined with a "dehazing" algorithm can automate image haze removal for instant applications. Example uses are to improve visual display providing on-the-spot detection or imbedding in an active control loop to improve viewing and tracking while on a moving platform. In addition, removing haze in this manner allows the trade space for a system operational waveband to be opened up to bands which are object matched and not necessarily restricted by scatter effects. PMID:23518739

Mudge, Jason; Virgen, Miguel

2013-03-20

12

Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Real Time Streaming Protocol, or RTSP, is an application-level protocol for control over the delivery of data with real-time properties. RTSP provides an extensible framework to enable controlled, on-demand delivery of real-time data, such as audio and video. Sources of data can include both live data feeds and stored clips. This protocol is intended to control multiple data delivery

H. Schulzrinne; A. Rao; R. Lanphier

1998-01-01

13

Real-time integrity constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose that Past Metric Temporal Logic (Temporal Logic with real-time operators referring to the past) be used as a language for specifying real-time integrity constraints. Building on our earlier work, we develop efficient, history-less methods of evaluating such constraints. We also argue that real-time constraints should be implemented as Condition-Action rules with temporal conditions.

Jan Chomicki

1992-01-01

14

Holographic moiré in real time  

Microsoft Academic Search

The body of knowledge necessary to observe holographic-moiré patterns in real time is introduced. The basic factors influencing fringe visibility in holographic moiré are analyzed and expressions to evaluate fringe visibility for any given displacement and deformation are given. The application of the introduced theory in the case of real-time observation is discussed. It is shown that the maximum benefits

C. A. Sciammarella; P. K. Rastogi; P. Jacquot; R. Narayanan

1982-01-01

15

Real Time Marathon Bonds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marathons have gained increasing popularity in recent years for both athletic competitors and those with fitness goals. Major marathon events attract at least 20,000 race participants and even more spectators making it a formidable task to locate one's friends and family. Supporters have an even more difficult time getting updates on the location of race participants since sections of the

Michelle Chang

16

Real Time Baseball Database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The author describes the system outline, features and operations of "Nikkan Sports Realtime Basaball Database" which was developed and operated by Nikkan Sports Shimbun, K. K. The system enables to input numerical data of professional baseball games as they proceed simultaneously, and execute data updating at realtime, just-in-time. Other than serving as supporting tool for prepareing newspapers it is also available for broadcasting media, general users through NTT dial Q2 and others.

Fukue, Yasuhiro

17

Interleaving Model for Real Time.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The interleaving model is both adequate and sufficiently abstract to allow for the practical specification and verification of many properties of concurrent systems. The authors incorporate real time into this model by defining the abstract notion of a re...

T. A. Henzinger Z. Manna A. Pnueli

1990-01-01

18

Real-time Service Acounting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Offering telematics services toward the end-users involves inter-domain real-time service provisioning, it therefore can also involves inter-domain real-time service accounting. Recognizing the increasing complexity of accounting services due to dynamic service usage behavior of the end-users, the paper addresses a way to first, decompose end-to-end service into accountable service components and second, apply formal modeling and analysis to service component

Le van M; Beijnum van B. J. F; Goede de B. L; T. Cheng

2002-01-01

19

Real-time shadowing techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shadows heighten realism and provide important visual cues about the spatial relationships between objects. But integration of robust shadow shadowing techniques in real-time rendering is not an easy task. In this course on how shadows are incorporated in real-time rendering, attendees learn basic shadowing techniques and more advanced techniques that exploit new features of graphics hardware.The course begins with shadowing

Tomas Akenine-Moeller; Eric Chan; Wolfgang Heidrich; Jan Kautz; Mark Kilgard; Marc Stamminger

2004-01-01

20

Faraday's Law  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Light a light bulb by waving a magnet. This simulation of a Faraday's Law is from the Physics Education Technology website of University of Colorado. It is accessible for teachers and students alike. Included are links to related topics and additional ideas and activities for teachers to use.

2008-11-05

21

Reconciling Real-Time and 'Fair' Scheduling,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Multiprogramming operating systems which support both real-time and non-real-time processes are called soft-real-time systems. In such systems, process scheduling is problematic, because there are two qualitatively different classes of processes requiring...

B. O. Gallmeister

1988-01-01

22

Roughing it in real time  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast to the organized and relatively predictable confines of the factory floor, many harsh environments create difficulties for conventional data acquisition and control systems. Very few systems can perform real-time analysis of the process under scrutiny, except perhaps for certain routine signal processing, such as filtering and spectral decomposition. Field operating conditions in petroleum exploration and production, in military

M. P. Cleary; A. M. Buharali; T. B. Wright; R. M. Jr. Willis

1987-01-01

23

Real Time Weld Quality Monitor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. A weld monitor with real time output can aid an inspector in designating suspect areas for nondestructive testing after welding. It also can be used to interrupt wel...

1982-01-01

24

Making Real-Time Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helping educators realize the benefits of integrating technology into curricula to effectively engage student learning and improve student achievement, particularly in science and mathematics, is the core mission of the Center for Improved Engineering and Science Education (CIESE). To achieve our mission, we focus on projects utilizing real-time data available from the Internet, and collaborative projects utilizing the Internet's potential

L. Hotaling

2003-01-01

25

Real time transfer limit calculations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an approach for implementing the real time transfer limit calculation (RTTLC) of the interconnected power systems in an energy management system (EMS). RTTLC evaluates MW transfer limits over a set of predefined transfer interfaces without power system security violations such as thermal overloads, bus voltage limit\\/voltage drop violations and voltage collapse. The network model, base case solution

Jianzhong Tong; PJM Int

2000-01-01

26

Real Time Scratches and Grooves  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a GPU-accelerated algorithm to render surface detail features like scratches and grooves in real time. Our method e- ciently models these features using a contin- uous representation that is stored in two tex- tures. The first texture plays the role of a hash and provides pointers to the second tex- ture containing the scratches paths, profiles and material

Carles Bosch; Gustavo Patow

27

Real time psychrometric data collection  

SciTech Connect

Eight Mine Weather Stations (MWS) installed at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to monitor the underground ventilation system are helping to simulate real-time ventilation scenarios. Seasonal weather extremes can result in variations of Natural Ventilation Pressure (NVP) which can significantly effect the ventilation system. The eight MWS(s) (which previously collected and stored temperature, barometric pressure and relative humidity data for subsequent NVP calculations) were upgraded to provide continuous real-time data to the site wide Central monitoring System. This data can now be utilized by the ventilation engineer to create realtime ventilation simulations and trends which assist in the prediction and mitigation of NVP and psychrometric related events.

McDaniel, K.H.

1996-12-31

28

Faraday instability and Faraday patterns in a superfluid Fermi gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the consideration of the coupling between the transverse width and the longitudinal density, the parametric excitations related to Faraday waves in a cigar-shaped superfluid Fermi gas are studied. A Mathieu equation is obtained, and it is demonstrated firstly that the excited actual 3D Faraday pattern is the combination of the longitudinal Faraday density wave and the corresponding transverse width fluctuation in the longitudinal direction. The Faraday instability growth index and the kinematic equations of the Faraday density wave and the width fluctuation along the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC)-Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) crossover are also given for the first time. It is found that the 3D Faraday pattern presents quite different behaviours (such as the excitations and the motions) when the system crosses from the BEC side to the BCS side. The coupling not only plays an important role in the parametric excitation, but also determines the dominant wavelength of the spatial structure. Along the crossover, the coupling effects are more significant in the BCS side. The final numerical investigation verifies these results and gives a detailed study of the parametric excitations (i.e. Faraday instability) and the 3D pattern formation.

Tang, Rong-An; Li, Hao-Cai; Xue, Ju-Kui

2011-06-01

29

Lines of Force: Faraday's and Students' Views.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Analyzes how electric and magnetic lines of force were conceived by Faraday and how they are understood by a group of Argentine university students after receiving instruction. Results show that many students possess ideas similar to those of Faraday in that lines of force are conceived as real physical entities responsible for the transmission…

Pocovi, M. Cecilia; Finley, Fred

2002-01-01

30

Lines of Force: Faraday's and Students' Views.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes how electric and magnetic lines of force were conceived by Faraday and how they are understood by a group of Argentine university students after receiving instruction. Results show that many students possess ideas similar to those of Faraday in that lines of force are conceived as real physical entities responsible for the transmission of…

Pocovi, M. Cecilia; Finley, Fred

2002-01-01

31

Real-time refinery optimization  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this article is to describe real-time refinery optimization, how data are used and what types of data storage and manipulation are required to support an automated operation. Free communication is required, although there are less data transferred than one might suspect. Many doubt the ability of a computer to accurately predict the future, but no one doubts its ability to give accurate documentation of current position and the effect of historical decisions. The economic benefit of accurate computer-assisted planning is dramatic. The company that moves rapidly based on an accurate, short-term prediction of the market will be the one that makes the highest return on its investment. Long-range planning is proper, but no one could have predicted the oil embargo or the travel plans of the motoring public in the wake of terrorist activity. The chief function of a planning system is not to predict the future, but to prepare a standard against which the real world can be assessed and a basis for needed changes to match the real world. This is the only reasonable way in which to extract useful information out of the vast paper landfill of refinery records.

Kennedy, J.P.

1989-04-01

32

Real-time flood forecasting  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Researchers at the Hydroinformatic Research and Development Team (HIRDT) of the National Taiwan University undertook a project to create a real time flood forecasting model, with an aim to predict the current in the Tamsui River Basin. The model was designed based on deterministic approach with mathematic modeling of complex phenomenon, and specific parameter values operated to produce a discrete result. The project also devised a rainfall-stage model that relates the rate of rainfall upland directly to the change of the state of river, and is further related to another typhoon-rainfall model. The geographic information system (GIS) data, based on precise contour model of the terrain, estimate the regions that were perilous to flooding. The HIRDT, in response to the project's progress, also devoted their application of a deterministic model to unsteady flow of thermodynamics to help predict river authorities issue timely warnings and take other emergency measures.

Lai, C.; Tsay, T. -K.; Chien, C. -H.; Wu, I. -L.

2009-01-01

33

Real-Time Reconfiguration Study (Final Report).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the real-time reconfiguration study was to implement a physical test bed for testing and evaluating a suite of reconfiguration algorithms. The software architecture was composed of an operating system which supported real-time programming...

D. Searles

1994-01-01

34

Real Time Software Development - an Engineering Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chapter 2 (JZ) - Specification and Design of Real-Time Software In this chapter, we introduce principles and notations for real-time software development. Concepts of software development methodologies, including methods, techniques and tools for real-time systems are presented. Basic aspects of requirements specification for real-time software are outlined. Notions of a physical diagram and a context diagram are introduced, including the

Andrew J. Kornecki; Janusz Zalewski

35

Real-time metabolic imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The endogenous substance pyruvate is of major importance to maintain energy homeostasis in the cells and provides a window to several important metabolic processes essential to cell survival. Cell viability is therefore reflected in the metabolism of pyruvate. NMR spectroscopy has until now been the only noninvasive method to gain insight into the fate of pyruvate in the body, but the low NMR sensitivity even at high field strength has only allowed information about steady-state conditions. The medically relevant information about the distribution, localization, and metabolic rate of the substance during the first minute after the injection has not been obtainable. Use of a hyperpolarization technique has enabled 10-15% polarization of 13C1 in up to a 0.3 M pyruvate solution. i.v. injection of the solution into rats and pigs allows imaging of the distribution of pyruvate and mapping of its major metabolites lactate and alanine within a time frame of 10 s. Real-time molecular imaging with MRI has become a reality. 13C | dynamic nuclear polarization | hyperpolarized | MRI | spectroscopy

Golman, Klaes; in 't Zandt, René; Thaning, Mikkel

2006-07-01

36

Real-time scene generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the techniques which have been developed for an infra-red (IR) target, countermeasure and background image generation system working in real time for HWIL and Trial Proving applications. Operation is in the 3 to 5 and 8 to 14 micron bands. The system may be used to drive a scene projector (otherwise known as a thermal picture synthesizer) or for direct injection into equipment under test. The provision of realistic IR target and countermeasure trajectories and signatures, within representative backgrounds, enables the full performance envelope of a missile system to be evaluated. It also enables an operational weapon system to be proven in a trials environment without compromising safety. The most significant technique developed has been that of line by line synthesis. This minimizes the processing delays to the equivalent of 1.5 frames from input of target and sightline positions to the completion of an output image scan. Using this technique a scene generator has been produced for full closed loop HWIL performance analysis for the development of an air to air missile system. Performance of the synthesis system is as follows: 256 * 256 pixels per frame; 350 target polygons per frame; 100 Hz frame rate; and Gouraud shading, simple reflections, variable geometry targets and atmospheric scaling. A system using a similar technique has also bee used for direct insertion into the video path of a ground to air weapon system in live firing trials. This has provided realistic targets without degrading the closed loop performance. Delay of the modified video signal has been kept to less than 5 lines. The technique has been developed using a combination of 4 high speed Intel i860 RISC processors in parallel with the 4000 series XILINX field programmable gate arrays (FPGA). Start and end conditions for each line of target pixels are prepared and ordered in the I860. The merging with background pixels and output shading and scaling is then carried out in the FPGA's on a line by line basis. The whole process is carried out at 4 * 4 super-sampled rates to minimize spatial aliasing. Other techniques such as real time selective image filtering will be described and a video will be shown to demonstrate the successful application of these in HWIL and Trials proving.

Lord, Eric; Shand, David J.; Cantle, Allan J.

1996-05-01

37

Automata For Modeling Real-Time Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

To model the behavior of finite-state asynchronous real-time systems we propose the notion of timed Büchi automata (TBA). TBAs are Büchi automata coupled with a mechanism to express constant bounds on the timing delays between system events. These automata accept languages of timed traces, traces in which each event has an associated real-valued time of occurrence.

Rajeev Alur

1990-01-01

38

On hard real-time management information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maintaining the quality of services for time-critical broadband applications on a high-speed network is an important subject for network management. Since the managed services are time-sensitive, the management applications managing these services must be real-time. This further implies that the real-time management applications must first have real-time management information to correctly take management actions. In this paper, we investigate how

Shyhtsun F. Wu; Gail E. Kaiser

1993-01-01

39

Students Collecting Real time Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students Collecting Real-Time Data The Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary has created opportunities for middle and high school students to become Student Researchers and to be involved in real-time marine data collection. It is important that we expose students to different fields of science and encourage them to enter scientific fields of study. The Humpback Whale Sanctuary has an education visitor center in Kihei, Maui. Located right on the beach, the site has become a living classroom facility. There is a traditional Hawaiian fishpond fronting the property. The fishpond wall is being restored, using traditional methods. The site has the incredible opportunity of incorporating Hawaiian cultural practices with scientific studies. The Sanctuary offers opportunities for students to get involved in monitoring and data collection studies. Invasive Seaweed Study: Students are collecting data on invasive seaweed for the University of Hawaii. They pull a large net through the shallow waters. Seaweed is sorted, identified and weighed. The invasive seaweeds are removed. The data is recorded and sent to UH. Remote controlled monitoring boats: The sanctuary has 6 boogie board sized remote controlled boats used to monitor reefs. Boats have a camera with lights on the underside. The boats have water quality monitoring devices and GPS units. The video from the underwater camera is transmitted via a wireless transmission. Students are able to monitor the fish, limu and invertebrate populations on the reef and collect water quality data via television monitors or computers. The boat can also pull a small plankton tow net. Data is being compiled into data bases. Artificial Reef Modules: The Sanctuary has a scientific permit from the state to build and deploy artificial reef modules. High school students are designing and building modules. These are deployed out in the Fishpond fronting the Sanctuary site and students are monitoring them on a weekly basis. Students are also building traditional Hawaiian modules, these being piles of rocks and attaching seaweeds to the rocks with natural fibers. The purpose of all these is to help restore habitat to the fishpond. Monitoring the Fishpond; The fishpond wall is presently being rebuilt. The new wall stands about eight feet high and twelve feet wide. The rocks to rebuild the wall are all being located underwater where the old wall stood. The state has required different information collected as the wall is reconstructed. Students GPS mapped the rock edges of the fallen wall, and will continue to map the progress of the new wall. Other students are monitoring the erosion of the sand dunes that front the edges of the wall and are also looking at the new deposition of sand in the pond. Students are snorkeling, running transects and collecting data on the changing populations of fish, invertebrates and seaweeds in the pond. The wall is only about a forth built and already we are seeing growth in the populations. Students and teachers work with the sanctuary staff to develop projects. The sanctuary loans the equipment to the students and the students collect the data for the sanctuary. It is a great partnership with the schools. The Sanctuary has been given a Congressional Earmark this year to develop marine curriculum for the Department of Education. Projects listed above are part of this curriculum with hopes of many more to be developed. By 2008, all seniors must participate in some type of research project to graduate. The goal is to offer opportunities for many of these projects to become marine science related projects and thus develop a budding new group of marine scientists.

Miller, P.

2006-05-01

40

Real Time Pricing and the Real Live Firm.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Energy economists have long argued the benefits of real time pricing (RTP) of electricity. Their basis for modeling customers response to short-term fluctuations in electricity prices are based on theories of rational firm behavior, where management striv...

M. Moezzi C. Goldman O. Sezgen R. Bharvirkar N. Hopper

2004-01-01

41

Static Security Optimization for Real Time Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing number of real-time applications like railway signaling control systems and medical electronics systems require high quality of security to assure confidentiality and integrity of information. Therefore, it is desirable and essential to fulfill security requirements in security-critical real-time systems. This paper addresses the issue of optimizing quality of security in real-time systems. To meet the needs of a

Man Lin; Li Xu; Laurence Tianruo Yang; Xiao Qin; Nenggan Zheng; Zhaohui Wu; Meikang Qiu

2009-01-01

42

The Real-Time Channel Administration Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Real-time Channel Administration Protocol (RCAP) provides con- trol and administration services for the Tenet real-time protocol suite, a connection-oriented suite of network and transport layer protocols for real- time communication. RCAP performs per-channel reservation of network resources based on worst-case analysis to provide hard guarantees on delay, jitter, and packet loss bounds. It uses a hierarchical approach to provide

Anindo Banerjea; Bruce A. Mah

1991-01-01

43

FPGA-Based Real-Time EMTP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real-time transient simulation of large transmission networks requires significant computational power. This paper proposes a field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based real-time electromagnetic transient simulator. Taking advantage of the inherent parallel architecture, high density, and high clock speed, the real-time Electromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP) is implemented on a single FPGA chip. It is based on a paralleled algorithm that is deeply pipelined,

Yuan Chen; Venkata Dinavahi

2009-01-01

44

Real-time scheduling on multithreaded processors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates real-time scheduling algorithms on upcoming multithreaded processors. As evaluation testbed we introduce a multithreaded processor kernel which is specifically designed as core processor of a micro- controller or system-on-a-chip. Handling of external real- time events is performed through multithreading. Real-time threads are used as interrupt service threads (ISTs) instead of interrupt service routines (ISRs). Our proposed micro-

Jochen Kreuzinger; A. Schulz; Matthias Pfeffer; Theo Ungerer; Uwe Brinkschulte; C. Krakowski

2000-01-01

45

The PROMPT Real-Time Commit Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the performance implications of providing transaction atomicity for firm-deadline real-time applications operating on distributed data. Using a detailed simulation model, the real-time performance of a representative set of classical transaction commit protocols is evaluated. The experimental results show that data distribution has a significant influence on real-time performance and that the choice of commit protocol clearly affects the

Jayant R. Haritsa; Krithi Ramamritham; Ramesh Gupta

2000-01-01

46

Composing Synchronization and Real-Time Constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been a number of publications illustrating the su ccesses of object-oriented techniques in creating highly reusable software systems. Several concurrent languages have been proposed for specifying reusable synchronization specifications. Recently, a number of real-time object-oriented languages have been introduced for building object-oriented programs with real-time behavior. Composing and reusing object-oriented programs with both synchronization and real-time constraints has

Lodewijk Bergmans; Mehmet Aksit

1996-01-01

47

Formation of K*He Exciplexes on the Surface of Helium Nanodroplets Studied in Real Time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superfluid helium nanodroplets are doped with potassium atoms to form complexes with the alkali atom residing on the surface of the droplets. Dispersed laser-induced fluorescence spectra of such systems already revealed the formation of M*He ( M = Na,K) exciplexes upon electronic excitation [Reho et al., Faraday Discuss. 108, 161 (1997)]. By means of femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy, this formation process now is followed in real time. We find K*Hen = 1 to be formed within 180 fs. Furthermore, the existence of exciplexes with n>1 is quantified suggesting that the first ring around the potassium atom contains four helium atoms.

Schulz, C. P.; Claas, P.; Stienkemeier, F.

2001-10-01

48

Timed multitasking for real-time embedded software  

Microsoft Academic Search

An event-triggered programming model, timed multitasking, is introduced that also takes a time-centric approach to real-time programming but controls timing properties through deadlines and events rather than time triggers.

Jie Liu; E.A. Lee

2003-01-01

49

Towards real-time business intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysing data to predict market trends of products and services and to improve performances of enterprise business systems has always been part of running a competitive business. But it is becoming essential nowadays that not only is the analysis done on real-time data, but also actions in response to analysis results can be performed in real time and instantaneously change

B. Azvine; Z. Cui; D. D. Nauck

2005-01-01

50

Real-time rendering of woven clothes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual environments containing humans moving and performing actions in real time are ubiquitous in computer graphics applications. Such characters are often clothed in woven fabrics. This paper presents a technique for visualizing woven clothes in real time, while optimizing the realistic appearance. The proposed approach supports rendering of complex weave patterns by adopting Weaving Information File (WIF), a standard from

Neeharika Adabala; Nadia Magnenat-Thalmann; Guangzheng Fei

2003-01-01

51

Real time modeling of human body dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

D real time human body dynamics modeling allows fast and correct assessment of internal forces distribut ion, providing measured by motion analysis kinematics. In this paper we touch upon a subject of unsupported human body motion modeling with real-time or interactive rate. Speed is very import ant when someone examines the reaction of human body on some external influence or

Ilya Phenichniy; Andrey Morozov; Victor Sholukha

52

Real time interactive lecture delivery system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Real Time Interactive Lecture Delivery System (RTILDS) project is motivated by the need to increase students' interaction with the lecturer in real time during a lecture. The completed system comprises of a website that maintains profiles of lecturers and lecture material (presentations, quizzes, student feedback, etc.). When the system is used at a lecture hall, the lecturers are allowed

W Ishara Udeshika Cooray; D M Pathmasiri Abhayawickrama; Roshan G Ragel

2010-01-01

53

Real Time Correlating Operation on Diffuse Objects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Real time correlating operations on diffuse objects are an expansion and outgrowth on 2-D transparent objects. A real time optical correlator with two transparent pieces is made using photorefractive crystal Bi12SiO20 (BSO) and noncrystal membrane As2S3 a...

W. Tianji Y. Shining L. Y. Tang Z. Chao

1995-01-01

54

Real Time Distributed Control Systems Using RTAI  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper outlines the design and implementation of the Real Time Application Interface (RTAI) for Linux, as used for high performance local\\/distributed control systems implemented on low cost off the shelf general purpose computers. Its native lean real time middleware layer is described along with its use in an advanced tool to easily manage and monitor complex networked control systems.

Lorenzo Dozio; Paolo Mantegazza

2003-01-01

55

Real time distribution analysis for electric utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric utilities are finding it increasingly necessary to better monitor, analyze and control their distribution systems. Planning and operation of the grid is increasing in complexity on one hand but subject to ever more binding constraints on the other. Real-time analysis is being seen as necessary to achieve acceptable operational efficiencies and quality of service. Real-time analysis is the combination

Jim See; W. Carr; S. E. Collier

2008-01-01

56

Real-time control systems: a tutorial  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature about real-time systems presents digital control or computer controlled systems as one of its most important practical application field. However, it is very difficult to find in these textbooks real-time control aspects. It seems to be more natural that these applications should be treated as part of digital control courses. In spite of that, control system literature rarely

A. Gambier

2004-01-01

57

Real-time Lighting of Ocean Surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real-time fluid simulation is very significant aspect in games and movies, the realistic plays a key role in virtual reality. It's a difficult in computer graphic because of the complexity of fluid natural attribution. Many researchers have developed a lot of advanced methods, however, we still need to balance the realistic and real-time requirements. In the paper, first we give

Wang Dongwei; Hao Aimin

2011-01-01

58

Real time programming environment for Windows  

SciTech Connect

This document provides a description of the Real Time Programming Environment (RTProE). RTProE tools allow a programmer to create soft real time projects under general, multi-purpose operating systems. The basic features necessary for real time applications are provided by RTProE, leaving the programmer free to concentrate efforts on his specific project. The current version supports Microsoft Windows{trademark} 95 and NT. The tasks of real time synchronization and communication with other programs are handled by RTProE. RTProE includes a generic method for connecting a graphical user interface (GUI) to allow real time control and interaction with the programmer`s product. Topics covered in this paper include real time performance issues, portability, details of shared memory management, code scheduling, application control, Operating System specific concerns and the use of Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tools. The development of RTProE is an important step in the expansion of the real time programming community. The financial costs associated with using the system are minimal. All source code for RTProE has been made publicly available. Any person with access to a personal computer, Windows 95 or NT, and C or FORTRAN compilers can quickly enter the world of real time modeling and simulation.

LaBelle, D.R. [LaBelle (Dennis R.), Clifton Park, NY (United States)

1998-04-01

59

Inverse Engineering a simple Real Time program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reverse engineering of interrupt-driven real-time programs with timing constraints is a par- ticularly challenging research area, because the functional behaviour of a program, and the non-functional timing requirements, are implicit and can be very di-cult to discover. However, in this paper we present a signiflcant advance in this area, which is achieved by modelling real-time programs with interrupts in the

E. J. Younger

1993-01-01

60

A framework for adaptive real-time applications: the declarative real-time OSGi component model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, more and more applications require OSGi to have some forms of real-time support, which is currently very limited. The resulting ad-hoc solutions forbid standard, system-wide policies for real-time system's adaptation, and reconfiguration. In order to tackle this problem, this paper proposes a declarative real-time component model. In this model, the distinguishing real-time contract of each component is declaratively described,

Ning Gui; Vincenzo De Florio; Hong Sun; Chris Blondia

2008-01-01

61

Real-Time Specification Inheritance Anomalies and Real-Time Filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real-time programs are, in general, difficult to design and verify. The inheritance mechanism can be useful in reusing well-defined and verified real-time programs. In applications developed by current real-time object- oriented languages, however, changing application requirements or changing real-time specifications in sub- classes may require excessive redefinitions although this seems to be intuitively unnecessary. We refer to this as the

Mehmet Aksit; Jan Bosch; William Van Der Sterren; Lodewijk Bergmans; Mario Tokoro; Remo Pareschi

1994-01-01

62

On Real-Time and Non Real-Time Distributed Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, taking an algorithmic viewpoint, we explore the differences existing between the class of non real-time computing problems (R~) versus the class of real-time computing problems (~). We show how a problem in class RN can be transformed into its counterpart in class ~. Claims of real-time behavior made for solutions to prob- lems in class ~ are

Gérard Le Lann

1995-01-01

63

Real Time Path Integral Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient methodology has been developed for simulating the long-time dynamics of quantum dissipative processes modeled in terms of a system coupled to a multidimensional harmonic bath. The starting point is expression of the path integral in terms of a quasi-adiabatic propagator which allows large time increments. The resulting quasi-adiabatic propagator path integral is evaluated on a system-specific discrete variable

Nancy Makri

1998-01-01

64

Programming real-time applications with SIGNAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present the main features of the SIGNAL language and its compiler. Designed to provide safe real time system programming, the SIGNAL language is based on synchronous principles. Its semantics are defined via a mathematical model of multiple-clocked flows of data and events. SIGNAL programs describe relations on such objects, so that it is possible to program a real

P. LeGuernic; THIERRY GAUTIER; MICHEL LE BORGNE; CLAUDE LE MAIRE

1991-01-01

65

Real-Time Thermal Green's Functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study perturbative techniques for evaluating real-time Green's functions of relativistic fields in thermal equilibrium. Our primary conclusion is that a consistent perturbation theory for real-time thermal Green's functions must include contributions from all segments of the time -integration contour C and three commonly used procedures for calculating real-time thermal Green's functions, which derive the same two-component finite-temperature Feynman rules, are incorrect. These three procedures are: the factorization prescription of Niemi and Semenoff; finite -temperature canonical quantization combined with a limiting procedure; and thermo field dynamics. We examine each of the three procedures and exhibit its flaw and we show why the two-component finite-temperature formalism these procedures yield is incorrect. After presenting the correct real-time thermal Feynman rules, we calculate the finite-temperature effective potential and the finite -temperature effective mass, both to one-loop order.

Iredale, Craig Bruce

1987-05-01

66

Electron correlation in real time.  

PubMed

Electron correlation, caused by the interaction among electrons in a multielectron system, manifests itself in all states of matter. A complete theoretical description of interacting electrons is challenging; different approximations have been developed to describe the fundamental aspects of the correlation that drives the evolution of simple (few-electron systems in atoms/molecules) as well as complex (multielectron wave functions in atoms, molecules, and solids) systems. Electron correlation plays a key role in the relaxation mechanisms that characterize excited states of neutral or ionized atoms and molecules populated by absorption of extreme ultraviolet (XUV) or X-ray radiation. The dynamics of these states can lead to different processes such as Fano resonance and Auger decay in atoms or interatomic Coulombic decay or charge migration in molecules and clusters. Many of these relaxation mechanisms are ubiquitous in nature and characterize the interaction of complex systems, such as biomolecules, adsorbates on surfaces, and hydrogen-bonded clusters, with XUV light. These mechanisms evolve typically on the femtosecond (1 fs=10(-15) s) or sub-femtosecond timescale. The experimental availability of few-femtosecond and attosecond (1 as=10(-18) s) XUV pulses achieved in the last 10 years offers, for the first time, the opportunity to excite and probe in time these dynamics giving the possibility to trace and control multielectron processes. The generation of ultrashort XUV radiation has triggered the development and application of spectroscopy techniques that can achieve time resolution well into the attosecond domain, thereby offering information on the correlated electronic motion and on the correlation between electron and nuclear motion. A deeper understanding of how electron correlation works could have a large impact in several research fields, such as biochemistry and biology, and trigger important developments in the design and optimization of electronic devices. PMID:22162320

Sansone, Giuseppe; Pfeifer, Thomas; Simeonidis, Konstantinos; Kuleff, Alexander I

2011-12-08

67

Real-Time Water Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides access to streamflow data for USGS (United States Geological Survey) streamflow monitoring sites around the United States. The data can be searched using an interactive map or by state. Most stations report Station Number, Station Name, long-term median flow, present flow stage, present water temperature, and the date and time of the last entry. Most stations also have stream flow statistics for the period of record including the latest flow, minimum flow, maximum flow, mean flow, and exceedance probabilities. Many stations also have links to the station description, annual peak streamflow data, and other historical data.

68

Analysis of real-time vibration data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In recent years, a few structures have been instrumented to provide continuous vibration data in real time, recording not only large-amplitude motions generated by extreme loads, but also small-amplitude motions generated by ambient loads. The main objective in continuous recording is to track any changes in structural characteristics, and to detect damage after an extreme event, such as an earthquake or explosion. The Fourier-based spectral analysis methods have been the primary tool to analyze vibration data from structures. In general, such methods do not work well for real-time data, because real-time data are mainly composed of ambient vibrations with very low amplitudes and signal-to-noise ratios. The long duration, linearity, and the stationarity of ambient data, however, allow us to utilize statistical signal processing tools, which can compensate for the adverse effects of low amplitudes and high noise. The analysis of real-time data requires tools and techniques that can be applied in real-time; i.e., data are processed and analyzed while being acquired. This paper presents some of the basic tools and techniques for processing and analyzing real-time vibration data. The topics discussed include utilization of running time windows, tracking mean and mean-square values, filtering, system identification, and damage detection.

Safak, E.

2005-01-01

69

Solar Neutrinos: Real-Time Experiments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report outlines the principle of real-time solar neutrino detection experiments by detecting electrons with suitable target material, via Charged-Current (CC) reaction using conventional counting techniques developed in high-energy physics. Only B-8 ...

Y. Totsuka

1993-01-01

70

Toward Real-Time Continuous Speech Recognition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This final report describes research on real-time speech recognition. The authors developed, under other DARPA-funded contracts, a system for continuous speech recognition. BYBLOS, the BBN Continuous Speech Recognition System, consists of a general paradi...

O. Kimball R. Schwartz

1989-01-01

71

Real Time Control of Reservoir Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of a new method for the real time operation of reservoir systems is described. The method, called Extended Linear Quadratic Gaussian (ELQG) controller, draws on and extends stochastic control theory results, and is well suited for the opti...

A. P. Georgakakos D. H. Marks

1985-01-01

72

Axial Tomography from Digitized Real Time Radiography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Axial tomography from digitized real time radiographs provides a useful tool for industrial radiography and tomography. The components of this system are: x-ray source, image intensifier, video camera, video line extractor and digitizer, data storage and ...

A. S. Zolnay W. M. McDonald P. A. Doupont R. L. McKinney M. M. Lee

1985-01-01

73

The Power of Real-time PCR  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Description of basic concepts, chemistries, and instrumentation of real-time polymerase chain reaction. Also includes present applications and future perspectives for this technology in biomedical sciences and in life science education

Mark A. Valasek (University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center Department of Physiology, Touchstone Center for Diabetes Research); Joyce J. Repa (University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center Department of Internal Medicine,Touchstone Center for Diabetes Research,)

2005-09-01

74

Scheduling for Embedded Real-Time Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors review several approaches to control-oriented and dataflow-oriented software scheduling to determine whether a given technique can satisfy deadlines, throughput, and other constraints for embedded real-time systems

Felice Balarin; Luciano Lavagno; Praveen K. Murthy; Alberto L. Sangiovanni-vincentelli

1998-01-01

75

Real-Time Holographic Stereogram Display.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To evaluate the feasibility of a prototype real-time display capable of projecting a 3-dimensional image holographically, researchers modified the design of a previously developed system to holographically project computer-generated or optically recorded ...

K. S. Kollin S. C. Hill

1990-01-01

76

Real-time multimedia coding and transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper sums up relevant topics covered by the special issue titled `Real-Time Multimedia Coding and Transmission', including efficient content representation, multimedia transmission, hardware and software acceleration, and transcoding techniques.

García-Naya, José A.; López-Granado, Otoniel; Dapena, Adriana; Marcellin, Michael W.; Cruz-Chavez, Marco

2013-12-01

77

Real-time LMFBR steam generator analyzer  

SciTech Connect

A model was developed for steam generator analysis in real-time. This model is based on a movable boundary formulation, the Gear method for the solution of stiff differential equations, and the use of analytic relationships. (DLC)

Tzanos, C.P.

1985-01-01

78

Real-Timed Concurrent Refineable Behaviours  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to present a real-timed concurrency theory incorporating true concurrency and event refinement. The theory is based on the occurrences of actions; each occurrence or event has a start and a finish. Causality is modelled by assigning a strict partial order to these starts and finishes, while timing is modelled by giving them reals.\\u000a The

David Murphy; David H. Pitt

1992-01-01

79

Concepts in real-time video tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the real-time video (RTV) tracking system which will be deployed at the White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) during fiscal year 1979. This tracking system utilizes a distributive array of the five high-speed microprocessors to implement a real-time tracking algorithm with sufficient intelligence to overcome the tracking problems associated with typical noisy and cluttered backgrounds encountered in WSMR

A. L. Gilbert; M. K. Giles

1978-01-01

80

It's About Time: Real-Time Logics Reviewed  

Microsoft Academic Search

. We summarize and reorganize some of the last decade's researchon real-time extensions of temporal logic. Our main focus is ontableau constructions for model checking linear temporal formulas withtiming constraints. In particular, we find that a great deal of real-timeverification can be performed in polynomial space, but also that considerablecare must be exercised in order to keep the real-time verificationproblem

Thomas A. Henzinger

1998-01-01

81

REAL TIME SYSTEM OPERATIONS 2006-2007  

SciTech Connect

The Real Time System Operations (RTSO) 2006-2007 project focused on two parallel technical tasks: (1) Real-Time Applications of Phasors for Monitoring, Alarming and Control; and (2) Real-Time Voltage Security Assessment (RTVSA) Prototype Tool. The overall goal of the phasor applications project was to accelerate adoption and foster greater use of new, more accurate, time-synchronized phasor measurements by conducting research and prototyping applications on California ISO's phasor platform - Real-Time Dynamics Monitoring System (RTDMS) -- that provide previously unavailable information on the dynamic stability of the grid. Feasibility assessment studies were conducted on potential application of this technology for small-signal stability monitoring, validating/improving existing stability nomograms, conducting frequency response analysis, and obtaining real-time sensitivity information on key metrics to assess grid stress. Based on study findings, prototype applications for real-time visualization and alarming, small-signal stability monitoring, measurement based sensitivity analysis and frequency response assessment were developed, factory- and field-tested at the California ISO and at BPA. The goal of the RTVSA project was to provide California ISO with a prototype voltage security assessment tool that runs in real time within California ISO?s new reliability and congestion management system. CERTS conducted a technical assessment of appropriate algorithms, developed a prototype incorporating state-of-art algorithms (such as the continuation power flow, direct method, boundary orbiting method, and hyperplanes) into a framework most suitable for an operations environment. Based on study findings, a functional specification was prepared, which the California ISO has since used to procure a production-quality tool that is now a part of a suite of advanced computational tools that is used by California ISO for reliability and congestion management.

Eto, Joseph H.; Parashar, Manu; Lewis, Nancy Jo

2008-08-15

82

Real-time scheduling for multimedia services  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-speed networks and high-performance workstations are necessary but not sufficient to support distributed multimedia applications. A real-time scheduling system designed for multimedia data types is also required to orchestrate communications channels, disk storage units, output devices, and the CPU. These subsystems are coordinated to accommodate the special requirements of multimedia data: timely retrieval, transmission, and delivery with permissible levels of data loss and corruption. In this paper we present our framework for the use of real-time scheduling disciplines to support time-dependent multimedia data in a distributed-data environment. Within this framework we propose the application of a statistical resource reservation mechanism and a real-time session scheduler. Furthermore, we relate scheduling and quality of service in a summary of the objectives of multimedia service provision and negotiation.

Little, Thomas D.; Gibbon, John F.

1993-02-01

83

Enhancing Real-Time CORBA via Real-Time Java Features  

Microsoft Academic Search

End-to-end middleware predictability is essential to support quality of service (QoS) capabilities needed by dis- tributed real-time and embedded (DRE) applications. Real-time CORBA is a middleware standard that allows DRE applications to allocate, schedule, and control the QoS of CPU, memory, and networking resources. Existing Real-time CORBA solutions are implemented in C++, which is generally more complicated and error-prone to

Arvind S. Krishna; Douglas C. Schmidt; Raymond Klefstad

2004-01-01

84

Enhancing Real-Time CORBA via Optimization Strategies and Real-Time Java features  

Microsoft Academic Search

End-to-end middleware predictability is essential to support quality of service (QoS) capabilities needed by distributed real-time and embedded (DRE) applications. Real-time CORBA is a middleware standard that allows DRE applica- tions to allocate, schedule, and control the QoS of CPU, mem- ory, and networking resources. Existing Real-time CORBA solutions are implemented in C++, which is generally more complicated and error-prone

Arvind S. Krishna; Raymond Klefstad; Douglas C. Schmidt

2004-01-01

85

Real-Time Mach: Towards a Predictable Real-Time System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed real-time systems play a very important role in our modern society. They are used in aircraft control, communica- tion systems, military command and control systems, factory automation, and robotics. However, satisfying the rigid ti m- ing requirements of various real-time activities in distri buted real-time systems often requires ad hoc methods to tune the system's runtime behavior The objective

Hideyuki Tokuda; Tatsuo Nakajima; Prithvi Rao

1990-01-01

86

Conflict-Tolerant Real-Time Features  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problem of detecting and re- solving conflicts due to timing constraints imposed by fea- tures in real-time systems. We consider systems composed of a base system with multiplefeatures or controllers, each of which independently advise the system on how to react to input events so as to conform to their individual specifica- tions. We propose a

Deepak D'souza; Madhu Gopinathan; S. Ramesh; Prahladavaradan Sampath

2008-01-01

87

Real-time superensemble tropical cyclone prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addresses the improvement of forecasting tropical cyclones (TCs) using ensemble forecasting techniques. The methodology for these forecasts is called the multi-model superensemble. This statistical method makes use of the real-time forecasts provided by a number of operational and research models to construct the superensemble forecasts. This method divides the forecast time line into two phases: a training phase

Charles Eric Williford

2002-01-01

88

Real time control of wastewater systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of real time control (RTC) within a wastewater system may be useful if operational problems exist which vary in time and space and if idle capacity in the system is simultaneously available.In a first section in this paper general features of RTC systems are discussed. Typically a RTC system requires hardware that can work under harsh conditions. In

Wolfgang Schilling; Bengt Andersson; Ulf Nyberg; Henrik Aspegren; Wolfgang Rauch; Poul Harremoës

1996-01-01

89

Real-time var control by SCADA  

SciTech Connect

This paper outlines the operation and advantages of the SCADA capacitor control called CAPCON, developed by the Virginia Electric and Power Company (Virginia Power). CAPCON is used to control vars system-wide by switching substation capacitor banks based on real-time var and voltage data instead of the traditional time clock method.

Girotti, T.B.; Tweed, N.B.; Houser, N.R. (Virginia Power Co., Richmond, VA (USA))

1990-02-01

90

Real-time stereo 3D ultrasound.  

PubMed

Real-time 3D ultrasound was developed at Duke University in 1991 and has since been used with a variety of transducers and shown effectiveness in clinical applications and in vivo animal imaging studies. Methods for displaying the 3D pyramid of data acquired by the system include selecting 2D image slices or integrating data into a volume rendered view. A third method, real-time stereo 3D imaging, is discussed here. The clinical commercial 3D system has been modified in our laboratory to display a real-time stereo image pair on the scanner display to be viewed through a stereoscope. This merges the pair into a single image, with a sensation of depth. Stereoscopic displays have previously been demonstrated to provide benefits, including improved depth judgments and increased perception of image quality in other applications. Previously-saved volumes of ultrasound data are shown in stereo 3D using the new system. PMID:17521045

Noble, Joanna R; Fronheiser, Matthew P; Smith, Stephen W

2006-10-01

91

RealTime Physics: Active learning laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our research shows that student learning of physics concepts in introductory physics courses is enhanced by the use of special guided discovery laboratory curricula which embody the results of educational research and which are supported by the use of the Tools for Scientific Thinking microcomputer-based laboratory (MBL) tools. In this paper we first describe the general characteristics of the research-based RealTime Physics laboratory curricula developed for use in introductory physics classes in colleges, universities and high schools. We then describe RealTime Physics Mechanics in detail. Finally we examine student learning of dynamics in traditional physics courses and in courses using RealTime Physics Mechanics, primarily by the use of correlated questions on the Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation. We present considerable evidence that students who use the new laboratory curricula demonstrate significantly improved learning and retention of dynamics concepts compared to students taught by traditional methods.

Thornton, Ronald K.; Sokoloff, David R.

1997-03-01

92

Durham adaptive optics real-time controller.  

PubMed

The Durham adaptive optics (AO) real-time controller was initially a proof of concept design for a generic AO control system. It has since been developed into a modern and powerful central-processing-unit-based real-time control system, capable of using hardware acceleration (including field programmable gate arrays and graphical processing units), based primarily around commercial off-the-shelf hardware. It is powerful enough to be used as the real-time controller for all currently planned 8 m class telescope AO systems. Here we give details of this controller and the concepts behind it, and report on performance, including latency and jitter, which is less than 10 ?s for small AO systems. PMID:21068868

Basden, Alastair; Geng, Deli; Myers, Richard; Younger, Eddy

2010-11-10

93

Continuous, real time microwave plasma element sensor  

DOEpatents

Microwave-induced plasma is described for continuous, real time trace element monitoring under harsh and variable conditions. The sensor includes a source of high power microwave energy and a shorted waveguide made of a microwave conductive, refractory material communicating with the source of the microwave energy to generate a plasma. The high power waveguide is constructed to be robust in a hot, hostile environment. It includes an aperture for the passage of gases to be analyzed and a spectrometer is connected to receive light from the plasma. Provision is made for real time in situ calibration. The spectrometer disperses the light, which is then analyzed by a computer. The sensor is capable of making continuous, real time quantitative measurements of desired elements, such as the heavy metals lead and mercury. 3 figs.

Woskov, P.P.; Smatlak, D.L.; Cohn, D.R.; Wittle, J.K.; Titus, C.H.; Surma, J.E.

1995-12-26

94

Real-time coherent OFDM transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the recent development in real-time coherent optical OFDM (CO-OFDM) transmission for their algorithm and implementation. The unique challenge of real-time implementation of OFDM for high speed optical data transmission including relatively large phase noise, frequency offset and dynamically changing optical channels are discussed. The fundamental digital signal processing (DSP) architectures of transmitter and receiver are presented in the manner achievable in state of the art field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) or application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs). Primary DSP components' algorithms and implementations are presented and discussed. The successful demonstration of real-time CO-OFDM receivers includes a receiver with sampling rate of 2.5-Gsamples/s to receive a 3.55-Gb/s single channel and 53.3-Gb/s multi-band CO-OFDM signal.

Kaneda, Noriaki; Pfau, Timo; Yang, Qi; Chen, Y. K.

2011-01-01

95

Making Real-Time Data "Real" for General Interest Users  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Helping educators realize the benefits of integrating technology into curricula to effectively engage student learning and improve student achievement, particularly in science and mathematics, is the core mission of the Center for Improved Engineering and Science Education (CIESE). To achieve our mission, we focus on projects utilizing real-time data available from the Internet, and collaborative projects utilizing the Internet's potential to reach peers and experts around the world. As a member of the Mid-Atlantic Center for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE), the Center for Improved Engineering and Science Education (CIESE), is committed to delivering relevant ocean science education to diverse audiences, including K-12 teachers, students, coastal managers, families and tourists. The highest priority of the Mid-Atlantic COSEE is to involve scientists and educators in the translation of data and information from the coastal observatories into instructional materials and products usable by educators and the public. A combination of three regional observing systems, the New Jersey Shelf Observing System (NJSOS), Chesapeake Bay Observing System (CBOS), and the York River observing system will provide the scientific backbone for an integrated program of science and education that improves user access to, and understanding of, modern ocean science and how it affects our daily lives. At present, the Mid-Atlantic COSEE offers three projects that enable users to apply and validate scientific concepts to real world situations. (1) The Gulf Stream Voyage is an online multidisciplinary project that utilizes both real-time data and primary source materials to help guide students to discover the science and history of the Gulf Stream current. (2) C.O.O.L. Classroom is an online project that utilizes concepts and real-time data collected through the NJSOS. The C.O.O.L. Classroom is based on the concept of the Rutgers-IMCS Coastal Ocean Observation Laboratory, a real place where ocean scientists from various disciplines study the coastal ocean collaboratively. (3) Oceans Connecting the Nation is an online collaborative project currently in development. The core activities will involve the study of Nonpoint Source Pollution (NPS). Students will conduct water quality (nutrient) testing and share that data, along with climate data and local characteristics with other participants. This will promote discussions about how NPS affects local communities as well as the oceans, and allow users to develop an understanding of how the oceans affect their daily lives.

Hotaling, L.

2003-04-01

96

Real-time simulation using multiple microcomputers  

SciTech Connect

The author describes how several microcomputers can cooperate to achieve real-time simulation at low cost. Constructing such multiple computer systems requires consideration of task allocation, decomposition schemes, and interprocessor communications. An example system consisting of five 8-bit microprocessors which uses direct interprocessor communication and shared memory is described. The system was used to simulate a spark-ignited, internal combustion engine in real time. The simulator provides manifold pressure, net torque, and engine speed in response to throttle angle, air-fuel ratio, exhaust gas recirculation, spark advance, and load torque. Simulation results showed good agreement with actual engine performance. 20 references.

Pimentel, J.R.

1983-03-01

97

REAL TIME CONTROL OF URBAN DRAINAGE NETWORKS  

EPA Science Inventory

Real-time control (RTC) is a custom-designed, computer-assisted management technology for a specific sewerage network to meet the operational objectives of its collection/conveyance system. RTC can operate in several modes, including a mode that is activated during a wet weather ...

98

A real time race classification system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the progress toward a face detection and race classification system that is robust and works in real-time. We address the race classification problem as classifying a frontal face into Asian or non-Asian. Firstly, we propose principal component analysis (PCA) for feature generation and independent component analysis (ICA) for feature extraction. Then, we use SVM for training process

Yongsheng Ou; Xinyu Wu; Huihuan Qian; Yangsheng Xu

2005-01-01

99

Spectral tracking of objects in real time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced multispectral, or hyperspectral, camera systems are being used to identify objects of interest on the basis of spectral characteristics. This paper will describe developments in the field of a real time spectral matched filtering. Matched filtering relies on there being a measurable difference between the spectrum of the target and that of background materials such as soil, vegetation, concrete

Gary J. Bishop; Ainsley Killey; Matthew D. Porter; Adrian S. Blagg

2008-01-01

100

Real Time Power Monitoring & integration with BIM  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Real Time Power Monitoring (RTPM) System is proposed in which end-use detailed energy consumption data is provided for each load level. The data will be integrated with a BIM (Building Information Modeling) Model to create a Realtime on-line electronic BIM Model. This paper describes the RTPM system and the process leading to its creation. The basic components of the

Mahmoud Alahmad; Wisam Nader; Jill Neal; Jonathan Shi; C. Berryman; Y. Cho; Siu-Kit Lau; H. Li; A. Schwer; Zhigang Shen; J. Stansbury; Tian Zhang

2010-01-01

101

Real Time Analysis of Voiced Sounds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A power spectrum analysis of the harmonic content of a voiced sound signal is conducted in real time by phase-lock-loop tracking of the fundamental frequency of the signal and successive harmonics hl through hn of the fundamental frequency. The quadrature...

J. P. Hong

1974-01-01

102

Real time radiography of Titan IV booster.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory successfully completed.a real time radiography of the Titan IV booster motor in February 1993. The success of this project depended on the quick response-to Air Force criteria and securing a multi disciplinary team a...

B. Costerus D. Perkins D. Turner K. Dolan M. La Chapell

1993-01-01

103

Real-time multichannel computerized electrogastrograph  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to develop a real-time multichannel computerized electrogastrograph (EGG) to measure and analyze electrical signals from the human abdominal surface. A soft-contact matrix composed of 25 cutaneous electrodes is embedded evenly in a latex mat. The mat can be firmly attached to the abdominal surface by drawing a vacuum between the matrix and the stomach.

Mingying Zhou; Hui Zhang; Robert Shaw; Frank S. Barnes

1997-01-01

104

Synthesizing Subdivision Meshes Using Real Time Tessellation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new GPU method for synthesizing subdivision meshes with exact adaptive geometry in real time. Our GPU kernel builds upon precomputed tables of basis functions for subdivision surfaces and is therefore supporting all subdivision schemes, either interpolating or approximating, for triangle or quad meshes. We designed our kernel so that it can be integrated seamlessly within a standard

Matthias Holländer; Tamy Boubekeur

2010-01-01

105

Real time repeated video sequence identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a real time system for detecting repeated video clips from a live video source such as news broadcasts. Our system utilizes customized temporal video segmentation techniques to automatically partition the digital video signal into semantically sensible shots and scenes. As each frame of the video source is processed, we extract auxiliary information to facilitate repeated

Kok Meng Pua; John M. Gauch; Susan E Gauch; Jedrzej Z. Miadowicz

2004-01-01

106

Digital Computers for Real-Time Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since digital computers can solve certain systems of equations faster than analog computers, the question arises whether a digital computer can be used for real-time simulation. The advantages of a digital simu- lator are its flexibility in transferring from one simulation to a second, its universal application without mechanical alteration, its greater pre- cision and accuracy, and its ability to

Morris Rubinoff

1955-01-01

107

Solar neutrinos: Real-time experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report outlines the principle of real-time solar neutrino detection experiments by detecting electrons with suitable target material, via Charged-Current (CC) reaction using conventional counting techniques developed in high-energy physics. Only B-8 neutrinos can be detected by minimum detectable energy of several MeV. The MSW (Mikheyev, Smirnov, Wolfenstein) effect not only distorts the energy spectrum but also induces new type of neutrinos, i.e. mu-neutrinos or tau-neutrinos. These neutrinos do not participate in the CC reaction. Therefore real-time experiment is to be sensitive to Neutral Current (NC) reactions. It is a challenge to eliminate environment background as much as possible and to lower the minimum detectable energy to several 100 keV, which will enable observation of Be-7 neutrinos. Target particles of real-time experiments currently running and under construction or planning are electron, deuteron, or argon. The relevant reactions corresponding to CC reaction and some relevant comments on the following targets are described: (1) electron target; (2) deuteron target; and (3) argon target. On-going experiment and future experiments for real-time neutron detection are also outlined.

Totsuka, Yoji

1993-04-01

108

Concepts in Real-Time Video Tracking.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the real-time video (RTV) tracking system which will be deployed at the White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) during fiscal year 1979. This tracking system utilizes a distributive array of the five high-speed microprocessors to implement ...

A. L. Gilbert M. K. Giles

1978-01-01

109

Adaptive Modeling and Real-Time Simulation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the final report covering progress on a two year research effort towards the development of basic technology for adaptive modeling and real-time computer simulation to support decision-making in a number of critical planning situations that arise ...

W. M. Tyson

1984-01-01

110

Tumult-X: A Real Time Executive.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Tumult-X real-time executive, used in the tightly coupled multi-processor system, Tumult-64, is described. It offers three different classes of processes which are ordered by priority. The highest priority class maps onto the traditional interrupt-han...

M. L. M. Luttmer H. Ribbers P. G. Jansen

1989-01-01

111

Real-time intrapartum fetal ECG analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

During labour, it is believed that the fetal electrocardiogram (FECG) provides a more accurate indication of fetal distress, than monitoring fetal heart rate alone. For this reason, a real-time FECG analysis system has been built with the versatility of displaying a choice of parameters. The system obtains the scalp-clip derived FECG from a commercially available CTG monitor (provided by Oxford

M. E. Crittenden; J. A. Crowe; B. R. Hayes-Gill

1996-01-01

112

Real-Time Omnidirectional Image Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional T.V. cameras are limited in their field of view. A real-time omnidirectional camera which can acquire an omnidirectional (360 degrees) field of view at video rate and which could be applied in a variety of fields, such as autonomous navigation, telepresence, virtual reality and remote monitoring, is presented. We have developed three different types of omnidirectional image sensors, and

Yasushi Yagi; Masahiko Yachida

2004-01-01

113

Real-time Shadows in Computergraphics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in 3D GPU technology have led to an increased in realistic graphic effects, like shadows. Extensive research has taken place in that field and the advances in the last years have been con- siderable. Real-time shadows are already considered indispensable in a range of applications and further improvements such as soft shadow generation continue to be a challenging

Matthias Buchetics

114

Real-Time Character Animation Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report reviews the literature in the field of computer animation and robotics to illustrate the numerous approaches to simulating, controlling and displaying the realistic, real-time animation of virtual characters. Critical analyses of the various high-level approaches are conducted, with a view to identifyin g key areas of interest for future research in the area of \\

Thanh Giang; Robert Mooney; Christopher Peters; Carol O'Sullivan

2000-01-01

115

Real Time Quality Assessment for CORS Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing use of real time high accuracy Global Positioning System (GPS) techniques has resulted in an increase in the number of critical decisions made on the basis of a GPS derived position. When making these decisions mobile users require assurance that the GPS position quality meets their requirements. Providers of Continually Operating Reference Stations (CORS), whom mobile users are

Simon Fuller; Philip Collier; Allison Kealy

2005-01-01

116

Rethinking real-time electricity pricing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most US consumers are charged a near-constant retail price for electricity, despite substan- tial hourly variation in the wholesale market price. This paper evaluates the …rst program to expose residential consumers to hourly real time pricing (RTP). I …nd that enrolled households are statistically signi…cantly price elastic and that consumers responded by conserving energy during peak hours, but remarkably did

Hunt Allcott

2011-01-01

117

Real-Time Measurements of Aquatic Nitrogen.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research involves real-time measurements of aquatic nitrogen utilizing a nitrate (NO3(-)) probe, an ammonia (NH3) probe and a pyrolysis/microcoulometric total nitrogen (TN) analyzer. Organic nitrogen can be estimated by difference (Org N)=(TN)-(NO3(-...

J. S. Mazurek

1974-01-01

118

The Power of Real-Time PCR  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In recent years, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has emerged as a robust and widely used methodology for biological investigation because it can detect and quantify very small amounts of specific nucleic acid sequences. As a research tool, a major application of this technology is the rapid and accurate assessment of changes in gene…

Valasek, Mark A.; Repa, Joyce J.

2005-01-01

119

Real-time optoacoustic monitoring during thermotherapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optoacoustic monitoring of tissue optical properties and speed of sound in real time can provide fast and accurate feedback information during thermotherapy performed with various heating or cooling agents. Amplitude and temporal characteristics of optoacoustic pressure waves are dependent on tissue properties. Detection and measurement of the optoacoustic waves may be used to monitor the extent of tissue hyperthermia, coagulation, or freezing with high resolution and contrast. We studied real-time optoacoustic monitoring of thermal coagulation induced by conductive heating and laser radiation and cryoablation with liquid nitrogen. Q-switched Nd:YAG laser pulses were used as probing radiation to induce optoacoustic waves in tissues. Dramatic changes in optoacoustic signal parameters were detected during tissue freezing and coagulation due to sharp changes in tissue properties. The dimensions of thermally- induced lesions were measured in real time with the optoacoustic technique. Our studies demonstrated that the laser optoacoustic technique is capable of real-time monitoring of tissue coagulation and freezing front with submillimeter spatial resolution. This may allow accurate thermal ablation or cryotherapy of malignant and benign lesions with minimal damage to normal tissues.

Esenaliev, Rinat O.; Larina, Irina V.; Larin, Kirill V.; Motamedi, Massoud

2000-05-01

120

Real-time rendering of trimmed surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rational tensor product surfaces, (Bézier, NURBS, Hermite, polynomial, etc.) are rendered in real-time by uniform faceting. The described methods are modular and can be balanced for optimal implementation on different hardware platforms. Discretization anomalies such as angularities, Mach banding, cracking etc. are avoided by tessellating the surface patches and segmenting the trimming curves based on the view.

Alyn P. Rockwood; Kurt Heaton; Tom Davis

1989-01-01

121

Real-time shaded NC milling display  

Microsoft Academic Search

The real-time shaded display of a solid model being milled by a cutting tool following an NC path is attained by the image-space Boolean subtraction of solid objects. The technique is suitable for implementation in microcode in a raster graphic display processor. Update rates of 10 cutting operations per second are typical.

Tim Van Hook

1986-01-01

122

Real-time closed-world tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

A real-time tracking algorithm that uses contextual in- formation is described. The method is capable of simul- taneously tracking multiple, non-rigid objects when erratic movement and object collisions are common. A closed- world assumption is used to adaptively select and weight image features used for correspondence. Results of algo- rithm testing and the limitationsof the method are discussed. The algorithm

Stephen S. Intille; James W. Davis; Aaron F. Bobick

1997-01-01

123

Real Time Control of Urban Drainage Networks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Real-time control (RTC) is a custom-designed, computer-assisted management technology for a specific sewerage network to meet the operational objectives of its collection/conveyance system. RTC can operate in several modes, including a mode that is activa...

2006-01-01

124

Tradeoffs for real-time hyperspectral analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been considerable interest in the application of real-time processing techniques to the problem of hyperspectral scene analysis. Recent satellite and aircraft systems can produce data at a rate far faster than the data can be analyzed by interactive computer procedures. Automated and fast procedures for preparing the data for analyst inspection are required for even laboratory use of the large quantities of data. In addition, there are several real-time applications where the data must be processed as it is being acquired. A typical application is a computing system on-board an airplane for operator analysis of the scene as the hyperspectral sensor collects data. In this paper the possible tradeoffs fore rapid analysis are discussed, including choice of algorithm, possible dimensionality reduction, and reduced display level. A real time anomaly detection processing system based on the N- FINDR algorithm has been designed and implemented for the Night Vision Imaging Spectrometer (NVIS). The N-FINDR algorithm is a linear unmixing based algorithm that automatically finds spectral endmembers. The algorithm works by inflating a simplex inside the data, beginning with a random set of pixels. Once these endmember spectra have been found, the image cube can be unmixed using a least-squares approach into a map of fractional abundances of each endmember material in each pixel. In addition to the N-FINDR algorithm, the real-time processing system performs calibration, bad pixel removal, and display of selected fraction planes. The real-time processor is implemented in a commercial Pentium IV computer.

Winter, Edwin M.; Schlangen, Michael J.; Hill, Anthony B.; Simi, Christopher G.; Winter, Michael E.

2002-08-01

125

Real-time quantitative PCR in parasitology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard techniques for counting parasites are often time-consuming, difficult and inaccurate, and occasionally unpleasant. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction has recently been applied to parasitology, specifically Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, Leishmania and Neospora. These techniques are truly quantitative, give results over a range of 6–7 orders of magnitude, are quick to perform and require no manipulations post-amplification. They can be used to

Andrew S. Bell; Lisa C. Ranford-Cartwright

2002-01-01

126

Real-time algorithm for retinal tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional retinal laser photocoagulation is presently performed by an ophthalmologist manually aiming a low-power laser beam at a desired site and firing a high-power laser for a preselected interval of time. To automate this process a retinal tracker must acquire a target, track small saccades, and identify loss of track during a large saccade. The authors successfully implemented a real-time

Michael S. Markow; A. J. Welch

1993-01-01

127

Real-time digital hardware pitch detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-quality pitch detector has been built in digital hard-ware and operates in real time at a 10 kHz sampling rate. The hardware is capable of providing energy as well as pitch-period estimates. The pitch and energy computations are performed 100 times\\/s (i.e., once per 10 ms interval). The algorithm to estimate the pitch period uses center clipping, infinite peak

JOHN J. DUBNOWSKI; RONALD W. SCHAFER; L. Rabiner

1976-01-01

128

Cache Memories and Real-Time Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cache memories can contribute to significant performance advantages due to the gap between CPU and memory speed. They have although been considered as a contributor to unpredictability while the user can't be sure of the time that will elapse when a memory-operation is performed. To avoid the conflict, the real-time-people has turned of t he c ache and run the

Filip Sebek

1997-01-01

129

Mechanically scanned real-time passive millimeter-wave imaging at 94 GHz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that millimetre wave systems can penetrate poor weather and battlefield obscurants far better than infrared or visible systems. Thermal imaging in this band offers the opportunity for passive surveillance and navigation, allowing military operations in poor weather. We have previously reported a novel real time mechanically scanned passive millimetre wave imager operating at 35GHz and in this paper a 94GHz variant will be described. This 94GHz imager has a field-of-view of 60° x 30° and has diffraction limited performance over the central two thirds of this field-of-view. It is relatively inexpensive because the scene is imaged using a linear array of direct detection receivers and compact folded optics. The receiver array has been constructed using indium phosphide monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) allowing high gain and low noise figure to be achieved. The compact optics consist of a polarisation sensitive mirror and a Faraday rotator. readily The mirror is constructed from expanded polystyrene, supporting a printed copper grid etched onto a PTFE/glass fibre substrate. These materials are low cost and readily available. The Faraday rotator is made from a commercial grade plasto-ferrite sandwiched between antireflection coatings. The optics produce a conical scan pattern and image processing is used to generate a raster scan pattern and to perform gain and offset corrections.

Appleby, Roger; Anderton, Rupert N.; Price, Sean; Salmon, Neil A.; Sinclair, Gordon N.; Coward, Peter R.; Barnes, Andrew R.; Munday, P. D.; Moore, M.; Lettington, Alan H.; Robertson, Duncan A.

2003-08-01

130

Real Time RF Simulator (RTS) and control  

SciTech Connect

The multi-cavity RTS allows LLRF algorithm development and lab testing prior to commissioning with real cavities and cryomodules. The RTS is a valuable tool since it models the functions, errors and disturbances of real RF systems. The advantage of a RTS over an off-line simulator is that it can be implemented on the actual LLRF hardware, on the same FPGA and processor, and run at the same speed of the LLRF control loop. Additionally the RTS can be shared by collaborators who do not have access to RF systems or when the systems are not available to LLRF engineers. The RTS simulator incorporates hardware, firmware and software errors and limitations of a real implementation, which would be hard to identify and time consuming to model in off-line simulations.

Cancelo, G.; Armiento, C.; Treptow, K.; Vignoni, A.; Zmuda, T.; /Fermilab

2008-10-01

131

Real Time Pricing and the Real Live Firm  

SciTech Connect

Energy economists have long argued the benefits of real time pricing (RTP) of electricity. Their basis for modeling customers response to short-term fluctuations in electricity prices are based on theories of rational firm behavior, where management strives to minimize operating costs and optimize profit, and labor, capital and energy are potential substitutes in the firm's production function. How well do private firms and public sector institutions operating conditions, knowledge structures, decision-making practices, and external relationships comport with these assumptions and how might this impact price response? We discuss these issues on the basis of interviews with 29 large (over 2 MW) industrial, commercial, and institutional customers in the Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation service territory that have faced day-ahead electricity market prices since 1998. We look at stories interviewees told about why and how they respond to RTP, why some customers report that they can't, and why even if they can, they don't. Some firms respond as theorized, and we describe their load curtailment strategies. About half of our interviewees reported that they were unable to either shift or forego electricity consumption even when prices are high ($0.50/kWh). Reasons customers gave for why they weren't price-responsive include implicit value placed on reliability, pricing structures, lack of flexibility in adjusting production inputs, just-in-time practices, perceived barriers to onsite generation, and insufficient time. We draw these observations into a framework that could help refine economic theory of dynamic pricing by providing real-world descriptions of how firms behave and why.

Moezzi, Mithra; Goldman, Charles; Sezgen, Osman; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Hopper, Nicole

2004-05-26

132

Real time gamma-ray signature identifier  

SciTech Connect

A real time gamma-ray signature/source identification method and system using principal components analysis (PCA) for transforming and substantially reducing one or more comprehensive spectral libraries of nuclear materials types and configurations into a corresponding concise representation/signature(s) representing and indexing each individual predetermined spectrum in principal component (PC) space, wherein an unknown gamma-ray signature may be compared against the representative signature to find a match or at least characterize the unknown signature from among all the entries in the library with a single regression or simple projection into the PC space, so as to substantially reduce processing time and computing resources and enable real-time characterization and/or identification.

Rowland, Mark (Alamo, CA); Gosnell, Tom B. (Moraga, CA); Ham, Cheryl (Livermore, CA); Perkins, Dwight (Livermore, CA); Wong, James (Dublin, CA)

2012-05-15

133

Incremental Verification of Timing Constraints for Real-Time Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Testing constraints for real-time systems are usually verified through the satisfiability of propositional formulae. In this paper, we propose an alternative where the verification of timing constraints can be done by counting the number of truth assignments instead of boolean satisfiability. This number can also tell us how \\

Stefan ANDREI; Wei-Ngan CHIN; Martin RINARD

134

Real time radiography of Titan IV booster  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory successfully completed.a real time radiography of the Titan IV booster motor in February 1993. The success of this project depended on the quick response-to Air Force criteria and securing a multi disciplinary team addressing the numerous technical challenges. The team's Challenges included large area imager design and fabrication problems; vibrating mitigation obstacles; sound mitigation dilemmas; high levels of fail safe confidence; and operating a fragile, transportable x-ray linear accelerator. The data was viewed real-time and stored utilizing standard video hardware. The data from the test is presently being analyzed. The multi disciplinary team was presented with many serious technical challenges that needed to be addressed expeditiously. The purpose of this paper is to examine some of the technical issues and how they were executed.

La Chapell, M.; Turner, D.; Dolan, K.; Perkins, D.; Costerus, B.

1993-04-01

135

Real time radiography of Titan IV booster  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory successfully completed.a real time radiography of the Titan IV booster motor in February 1993. The success of this project depended on the quick response-to Air Force criteria and securing a multi disciplinary team addressing the numerous technical challenges. The team`s Challenges included large area imager design and fabrication problems; vibrating mitigation obstacles; sound mitigation dilemmas; high levels of fail safe confidence; and operating a fragile, transportable x-ray linear accelerator. The data was viewed real-time and stored utilizing standard video hardware. The data from the test is presently being analyzed. The multi disciplinary team was presented with many serious technical challenges that needed to be addressed expeditiously. The purpose of this paper is to examine some of the technical issues and how they were executed.

La Chapell, M.; Turner, D.; Dolan, K.; Perkins, D.; Costerus, B.

1993-04-01

136

Distributed Real-Time Computing with Harness  

SciTech Connect

Modern parallel and distributed computing solutions are often built onto a ''middleware'' software layer providing a higher and common level of service between computational nodes. Harness is an adaptable, plugin-based middleware framework for parallel and distributed computing. This paper reports recent research and development results of using Harness for real-time distributed computing applications in the context of an industrial environment with the needs to perform several safety critical tasks. The presented work exploits the modular architecture of Harness in conjunction with a lightweight threaded implementation to resolve several real-time issues by adding three new Harness plug-ins to provide a prioritized lightweight execution environment, low latency communication facilities, and local timestamped event logging.

Di Saverio, Emanuele [University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', Rome, Italy; Cesati, Marco [University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', Rome, Italy; Di Biagio, Christian [MBDA Italia SPA, Rome, Italy; Pennella, Guido [MBDA Italia SPA, Rome, Italy; Engelmann, Christian [ORNL

2007-01-01

137

ARGUS: real-time UAV imaging system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In January 1991, Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical embarked on a company funded, quick reaction program to develop a real-time reconnaissance kit which can be installed on existing BQM- 34A target aircraft. This kit was designed to provide real-time, day-night, reconnaissance video imagery to the battlefield commander in the field or to the airborne command post. This imagery is used to direct or redirect airborne strike aircraft using the latest targeting and bomb-damage assessment information available. This system uses low-cost, broadcast TV, recording, and data communications equipment technology readily available in either the commercial or military markets. The ARGUS system was subsequently demonstrated during Green Flag 92-5 at Nellis AFB, NV using two modified BQM-34A Firebee Target aircraft.

Hansen, Bertel J.; Sturz, Richard A.

1993-12-01

138

Real-Time Imaging of Quantum Entanglement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum Entanglement is widely regarded as one of the most prominent features of quantum mechanics and quantum information science. Although, photonic entanglement is routinely studied in many experiments nowadays, its signature has been out of the grasp for real-time imaging. Here we show that modern technology, namely triggered intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) cameras are fast and sensitive enough to image in real-time the effect of the measurement of one photon on its entangled partner. To quantitatively verify the non-classicality of the measurements we determine the detected photon number and error margin from the registered intensity image within a certain region. Additionally, the use of the ICCD camera allows us to demonstrate the high flexibility of the setup in creating any desired spatial-mode entanglement, which suggests as well that visual imaging in quantum optics not only provides a better intuitive understanding of entanglement but will improve applications of quantum science.

Fickler, Robert; Krenn, Mario; Lapkiewicz, Radek; Ramelow, Sven; Zeilinger, Anton

2013-05-01

139

Real-time modular distributed signal processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is pointed out that recent developments in the fields of optical and focal plane technologies have resulted in a proliferation of new advanced sensor types. This is true in particular for sensors developed for ballistic missile defense (BMD). A description is given of a methodology that has been developed to analyze the real-time processing requirements of these sensors. The methodology defines real-time processing architectures using a versatile and flexible set of architectural building blocks currently under development. The various types of sensors are also described. These include spectral imaging sensors, ambient optics sensors, laser radars, wide angle optics, endo interceptor sensors, high endo designation sensors, and two-color UV sensors.

Gross, J. S.; Patel, J. N.; Kobler, V.

1982-10-01

140

Real time radiography of Titan 4 booster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory successfully completed a real-time radiography of the Titan 4 booster motor in February 1993. The success of this project depended on the quick response to Air Force criteria and securing a multi-disciplinary team addressing the numerous technical challenges. The team's challenges included the following: large area imager design and fabrication problems; vibrating mitigation obstacles; sound mitigation dilemmas; high levels of fail safe confidence; and operating a fragile, transportable x-ray linear accelerator. The data was viewed in real-time and stored utilizing standard video hardware. The data from the test is presently being analyzed. The multi-disciplinary team was presented with many serious technical challenges that needed to be addressed expeditiously. The purpose of this paper is to examine some of the technical issues and how they were executed.

Lachapell, M.; Turner, D.; Dolan, K.; Perkins, D.; Costerus, B.

1993-04-01

141

CIESE Real Time Data Projects: Tsunami Surge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This internet-based project for Grades 6-12 taps into real-time data as the framework for a student investigation of tsunami phenomena. First, students look at historical information on five tsunamis, then interactively explore the science behind tsunamis and wave behavior. Next, students will access and interpret existing data from the highly destructive 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Finally, students take on roles as scientists to develop a global tsunami preparedness plan based on a budget. They must support their ideas with evidence from reliable data and present arguments based upon their studies. Included are detailed project instructions, teacher's guide, reference material, and a student discussion forum. This project is part of the CIESE K-12 Curriculum Program's Real Time Data Projects. See Related Materials for a link to the full index of data projects.

142

System Equivalent for Real Time Digital Simulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this research is to develop a method of making system equivalents for the Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS), which should enhance its capability of simulating large power systems. The proposed equivalent combines a Frequency Dependent Network Equivalent (FDNE) for the high frequency electromagnetic transients and a Transient Stability Analysis (TSA) type simulation block for the electromechanical transients. The frequency dependent characteristic for FDNE is obtained by curve-fitting frequency domain admittance characteristics using the Vector Fitting method. An approach for approximating the frequency dependent characteristic of large power networks from readily available typical power-flow data is also introduced. A new scheme of incorporating TSA solution in RTDS is proposed. This report shows how the TSA algorithm can be adapted to a real time platform. The validity of this method is confirmed with examples, including the study of a multi in-feed HVDC system based network.

Lin, Xi

143

Real Time Tracking of Musical Performances  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Real time tracking of musical performances allows for implementation of virtual teachers of musical instruments, automatic\\u000a accompanying of musicians or singers, and automatic adding of special effects in live presentations.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a State of the art approaches make a local alignment of the score (the target audio) and a musical performance, such procedure\\u000a induce cumulative error since it assumes the rendition to

Antonio Camarena-Ibarrolaand; Edgar Chávez

2010-01-01

144

Solar neutrinos: Real-time experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report outlines the principle of real-time solar neutrino detection experiments by detecting electrons with suitable target material, via Charged-Current (CC) reaction using conventional counting techniques developed in high-energy physics. Only B-8 neutrinos can be detected by minimum detectable energy of several MeV. The MSW (Mikheyev, Smirnov, Wolfenstein) effect not only distorts the energy spectrum but also induces new type

Yoji Totsuka

1993-01-01

145

The real-time polymerase chain reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scientific, medical, and diagnostic communities have been presented the most powerful tool for quantitative nucleic acids analysis: real-time PCR [Bustin, S.A., 2004. A–Z of Quantitative PCR. IUL Press, San Diego, CA]. This new technique is a refinement of the original Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) developed by Kary Mullis and coworkers in the mid 80:ies [Saiki, R.K., et al., 1985.

Mikael Kubista; José Manuel Andrade; Martin Bengtsson; Amin Forootan; Jiri Jonák; Kristina Lind; Radek Sindelka; Robert Sjöback; Björn Sjögreen; Linda Strömbom; Anders Stĺhlberg; Neven Zoric

2006-01-01

146

Real-Time Clinical Monitoring of Biomolecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous monitoring of clinical biomarkers offers the exciting possibility of new therapies that use biomarker levels to guide treatment in real time. This review explores recent progress toward this goal. We initially consider measurements in body fluids by a range of analytical methods. We then discuss direct tissue measurements performed by implanted sensors; sampling techniques, including microdialysis and ultrafiltration; and noninvasive methods. A future directions section considers analytical methods at the cusp of clinical use.

Rogers, Michelle L.; Boutelle, Martyn G.

2013-06-01

147

Real-time control of optical tweezers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optically trapped microshperes can be manipulated by steering the trap beam, while the object position is measured with sub-nanometer resolution. A fast steering system is required to create feedback loop for measurements at a constant force or to increase position detection precision by trap stiffening. Using a real-time re-programmable digital signal processor, we combine steering and position detection to create

Anders E. Wallin; Heikki Ojala; Anders Korsbäck; Edward Haeggström; Roman Tuma

2007-01-01

148

Salmonella real-time PCR-Nachweis  

Microsoft Academic Search

:  Salmonella belongs to the most important bacterial pathogens worldwide causing disease in humans and animals mainly by the oral uptake\\u000a of contaminated food. Consequently, detection methodologies for Salmonella from food items are meaningful for routine laboratories. Here, we describe two different real-time PCR based methods for\\u000a the detection of Salmonella in food. The procedure begins with a cultural pre-enrichment in

B. Malorny; A. Anderson; I. Huber

2007-01-01

149

Pose detection of cameras in real time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work introduces a novel approach to the precise estimation, in real-time, of pose parameters of planar three-dimensional object. A suitable set of coplanar marks is used to calculate the tilt and pan angles values of the planar object. Feature points are calculated with subpixel accuracy and a weighted approach is applied to reduce variations in feature points positions due to noise. An application of this method is also shown for virtual TV sets.

Cozar, Julian R.; Guil, Nicolas; Zapata, Emilio L.

2003-01-01

150

Real-Time Object Detection for \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an efficient shape-based object detectionmethod based on Distance Transforms and describesits use for real-time vision on-board vehicles.The method uses a template hierarchy to capture thevariety of object shapes# efficient hierarchies can begenerated offline for given shape distributions usingstochastic optimization techniques (i.e. simulated annealing). Online, matching involves a simultaneouscoarse-to-fine approach over the shape hierarchy andover the...

Dariu Gavrila; Vasanth Philomin

1999-01-01

151

Real time analysis of fetal phonocardiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple, low cost and non-invasive PC-based system that is capable of processing real time fetal phonocardiographic signal was developed. The hardware of the system mainly consists of two modules: the front-end module and the data acquisition & control module. The front-end module is mainly used for heart sound signal capturing and conditioning. A new electronic stethoscope with enhanced performance

B. H. Tan; M. Moghavvemi

2000-01-01

152

CRTF Real-Time Aperture Flux system  

SciTech Connect

The Real-Time Aperture Flux system (TRAF) is a test measurement system designed to determine the input power/unit area (flux density) during solar experiments conducted at the Central Receiver Test Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. The RTAF is capable of using both thermal sensors and photon sensors to determine the flux densities in the RTAF measuring plane. These data are manipulated in various ways to derive input power and flux density distribution to solar experiments.

Davis, D.B.

1980-01-01

153

Real-Time Tracking Using Level Sets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose a novel implementation of the level set method that achieves real-time level-set-based video tracking. In our fast algorithm, the evolution of the curve is realized by simple operations such as switching elements between two linked lists and there is no need to solve any partial differential equations. Furthermore, a novel procedure based on Gaussian filtering

Yonggang Shi; William Clement Karl

2005-01-01

154

In Vivo Real-Time Intravascular MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. The Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an emerging technology for catheter-based imaging and interventions. Real-time MRI is a promising method for overcoming catheter and physiologic motion for intravascular imaging. Methods. All imaging was performed on a 1.5 T Signa MRI scanner with high- speed gradients. Multiple catheter coils were designed and constructed, including low-profile, stub-matched coils. Coil sensitivity patterns

Pedro A. Rivas; Krishna S. Nayak; Greig C. Scott; Michael V. McConnell; Adam B. Kerr; Dwight G. Nishimura; John M. Pauly; Bob S. Hu

2002-01-01

155

Real-Time Reconfigurable Subthreshold CMOS Perceptron  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new, real-time reconfigurable perceptron circuit element is presented. A six-transistor version used as a threshold gate, having a fan-in of three, producing adequate outputs for threshold of T = 1,2 and 3 is demonstrated by chip measurements. Subthreshold operation for supply voltages in the range of 100-350 mV is shown. The circuit performs competitively with a

Snorre Aunet; Bengt Oelmann; P. A. Norseng; Yngvar Berg

2008-01-01

156

Real-time integrated process supervision  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the use of a micro-controller-based integrated process supervision (IPS) system as a real-time platform for investigative work in structuring expert control. Two different control approaches, based on classical and artificial intelligence techniques, were integrated within IPS and serve as practical examples of the structured approach to expert control. The IPS is a refinement of the expert control

C. Quek; A. Wahab

2000-01-01

157

Real-time simulation of photovoltaic modules  

Microsoft Academic Search

A photovoltaic (PV) array simulator, consisting of a computer controlled d.c. power supply producing up to 100 W and associated control software, was designed and developed to generate real-time current-voltage (I-V) output characteristic curves of photovoltaic cells under simulated conditions. The system is also capable of modelling radiation damage due to high energy particles. The system comprises a pre-regulator, a

Kame Khouzam; Keith Hoffman

1996-01-01

158

Robust real-time NURBS path interpolators  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a review of the real-time non-uniform rational B-splines (NURBS) path interpolation method in CNC controllers, it was found that none of the NURBS interpolators described in the literature has the necessary robustness against an extreme knot distribution. The problems begin with the calculation of the total length of the NURBS path: most interpolators handle knots as a global curve

W. T. Lei; S. B. Wang

2009-01-01

159

Real-time beamforming synthetic aperture radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the concept and design of a real-time Digital Beamforming Synthetic Aperture Radar (DBSAR) for airborne applications which can achieve fine spatial resolutions and wide swaths. The development of the DBSAR enhances important scientific measurements in Earth science, and serves as a prove-of-concept for planetary exploration missions. A unique aspect of DBSAR is that it achieves fine resolutions

Rafael Rincon; Peter Hildebrand; Lawrence Hilliard; Damon Bradley; Luko Krnan; Salman Sheikh; Jared Lucey

2006-01-01

160

Real-Time Procedural Solid Texturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shortly after its introduction in 1985, procedural solid texturing became a must-have tool in the production-quality graphics of the motion-picture industry. Now, over fifteen years later, we are finally able to provide this feature for the real-time consumer graphics used in videogames and virtual environments. A texture atlas is used to create a 2-D texture map of the 3-D solid

Nathan A. Carr; John C. Hart

161

The IGS Real-Time Service  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The IGS Real-Time Service (RTS) is being rolled out in 2013 following the successful completion of the IGS Real-Time Pilot Project. The RTS has recently completed beta testing and is now operating at the level of initial operating capability. The service will reach full operating capability by the end of 2013. RTS products include GNSS data streams and GNSS orbit and clock correction streams. These products are available in real-time in accordance with the IGS open-data policy using RTCM standard formats and the NTRIP transportation protocol. The RTS is key to IGS's support of the GGOS Natural Hazards theme. Of particular importance in this context is the high degree of redundancy that is build into the RTS in order to reliably support public-good scientific applications commonly associated with natural hazards; for example, precise-point positioning applications requiring high accuracy and low latency related to earthquakes and tsunamis . This presentation will illustrate the data gathering through product generation to user distribution design of the RTS, highlighting built-in robustness at various stages. The presentation will also present an assessment of the performance of the service to date.

Caissy, Mark; Agrotis, Loukis; Weber, Georg; Fisher, Steven

2013-04-01

162

Real-time monitoring of airborne metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Potential human exposure to airborne metals occurs in a broad number of government and civilian operations and processes. Included among these are hard chromium plating, firing ranges, metallurgy and metals processing, lead paint abatement, and decontamination and decommissioning activities at hazardous waste sites. Effective control of these fugitive emissions requires sensitive real time monitoring. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has developed a real time monitor for lead and chromium based on spark-induced breakdown spectroscopy (SIBS). The basis of SIBS is a high energy breakdown creating atomic emission which is sensitively viewed with a radiometer. This technology has been successfully demonstrated to detect low ppbw ((mu) g/m3) concentrations of lead and chromium in incinerator stack gases (joint DoE/EPA test a Research Triangle Park in September 1997), airborne lead at a local firing range (in the airspace of the shooters and in the ventilation system), and chromium at a hard chromium electroplating facility. The PSI SIBS technology is being developed as an inexpensive real time monitor for toxic metals in a variety of applications including: process control, emission compliance and industrial hygiene. Our progress towards developing a commercially viable prototype will be reviewed.

Fraser, Mark E.; Hunter, Amy J.; Davis, Steven J.

1999-02-01

163

Turning movement estimation in real time  

SciTech Connect

Fast processors offer exciting opportunities for real-time traffic monitoring. Conventional transportation planning models that assume stable and predictable travel patterns do not lend themselves to on-line traffic forecasting. This paper describes how a new traffic flow inference model has the potential to determine comprehensive flow information in real time. Its philosophical basis is borrowed from the field of operational research, where it has been used for optimizing water and electricity flows. This paper shows how road traffic turning movement flows can be estimated from link detected flows at small recurrent intervals, in real time. The paper details the formulation of the problem, outlines the structure of the data set that provides the detector data for the model input and observed turning flows for the model evaluation. The theoretical principles that define the model are described briefly. Turning movement flow estimates, at 5-min intervals, from two independent surveys are presented and analyzed. The results show an overall mean coefficient of determination (r{sup 2}) of 79--82% between observed and modeled turning movement flows.

Martin, P.T. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

1997-08-01

164

Raptor -- Mining the Sky in Real Time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary goal of Raptor is ambitious: to identify interesting optical transients from very wide field of view telescopes in real time, and then to quickly point the higher resolution Raptor ``fovea'' cameras and spectrometer to the location of the optical transient. The most interesting of Raptor's many applications is the real-time search for orphan optical counterparts of Gamma Ray Bursts. The sequence of steps (data acquisition, basic calibration, source extraction, astrometry, relative photometry, the smarts of transient identification and elimination of false positives, telescope pointing feedback...) is implemented with a ``component'' aproach. All basic elements of the pipeline functionality have been written from scratch or adapted (as in the case of SExtractor for source extraction) to form a consistent modern API operating on memory resident images and source lists. The result is a pipeline which meets our real-time requirements and which can easily operate as a monolithic or distributed processing system. Finally: the Raptor architecture is entirely based on free software (sometimes referred to as "open source" software). In this paper we also discuss the interplay between various free software technologies in this type of astronomical problem.

Galassi, M.; Borozdin, K.; Casperson, D.; McGowan, K.; Starr, D.; White, R.; Wozniak, P.; Wren, J.

2004-06-01

165

The Raptor Real-Time Processing Architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary goal of Raptor is ambitious: to identify interesting optical transients from very wide field of view telescopes in real time, and then to quickly point the higher resolution Raptor ``fovea'' cameras and spectrometer to the location of the optical transient. The most interesting of Raptor's many applications is the real-time search for orphan optical counterparts of Gamma Ray Bursts. The sequence of steps (data acquisition, basic calibration, source extraction, astrometry, relative photometry, the smarts of transient identification and elimination of false positives, telescope pointing feedback, etc.) is implemented with a ``component'' approach. All basic elements of the pipeline functionality have been written from scratch or adapted (as in the case of SExtractor for source extraction) to form a consistent modern API operating on memory resident images and source lists. The result is a pipeline which meets our real-time requirements and which can easily operate as a monolithic or distributed processing system. Finally, the Raptor architecture is entirely based on free software (sometimes referred to as ``open source'' software). In this paper we also discuss the interplay between various free software technologies in this type of astronomical problem.

Galassi, M.; Starr, D.; Wozniak, P.; Brozdin, K.

166

Real-time superensemble tropical cyclone prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study addresses the improvement of forecasting tropical cyclones (TCs) using ensemble forecasting techniques. The methodology for these forecasts is called the multi-model superensemble. This statistical method makes use of the real-time forecasts provided by a number of operational and research models to construct the superensemble forecasts. This method divides the forecast time line into two phases: a training phase and a forecast computing phase. The training phase includes an inventory of past applicable hurricane forecasts, each by the multi-models. The model biases of position and intensity errors of past forecasts are summarized via a simple linear multiple regression of these forecasts against the best-observed estimates of position and intensity. The analysis of this technique and its usage requires a review of the real-time Atlantic TC superensemble forecasts for the years 1999 to 2001. The training and statistics for the 1998 Atlantic season were used and passed on to future forecasts of the multi-models in order to forecast the hurricanes of 1999. This method was first tested for the hurricanes of 1998 with considerable success and those statistics were refined for the 1999 Atlantic season. Overall, the main result of the seasonal summary is that the errors for the multi-model superensemble are generally less than those of all of the participating models during 1 to 5 day real-time forecasts. Some of the major storms of the Atlantic 1999 season, such as Dennis, Floyd, Irene and Lenny, were extremely well handled by this superensemble approach. Due to significant model changes prior to the 2000 and 2001 hurricane seasons, many of the TCs in 2000 and 2001 were not as well handled compared to the 1999 cases. These significant changes to the models are key reasons for this reduced operational performance. In order to enhance the superensemble's capabilities in TC prediction, this research describes an optimized, objective technique for real-time superensemble forecasting. This research validates that it is a viable technique to construct improved real-time forecasts of TC positions and intensity and details the drawbacks and possible improvements of using this TC forecasting technique for both research and operational prediction.

Williford, Charles Eric

167

Practical Real-Time Computing System for Biomedical Experiment Interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many biomedical experiments require a precisely timed real-time (RT) computer interface. Because commonly used desktop operating systems are inherently non-real-time, real-time laboratory computer systems are often based on outdated DOS software or expensive proprietary real-time operating systems. Here we discuss a real-time computing system, based on the free RT-Linux operating system, which we have developed for adaptive pacing control in

David J. Christini; Kenneth M. Stein; Steven M. Markowitz; Bruce B. Lerman

1999-01-01

168

Evolvable Real-Time C3 Systems-II: Real-Time Infrastructure Requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

MITRE's Evolvable Real-Time Command Control, and Communications (C3) project, funded under the Air Force Mission Oriented Investigation and Experimentation (MOIE) program attempts to develop an approach that would enable current real-time systems to evolve into the systems of the future. The project has chosen the Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) as an example to test the concepts and architectures

Bhavani M. Thuraisingham; Arkady Kanevsky; Peter C. Krupp; Alice Schafer; Mike Gates; Thomas Wheeler; Edward H. Bensley; Ruth Ann Sigel; Michael Squadrito

1996-01-01

169

The real-time polymerase chain reaction.  

PubMed

The scientific, medical, and diagnostic communities have been presented the most powerful tool for quantitative nucleic acids analysis: real-time PCR [Bustin, S.A., 2004. A-Z of Quantitative PCR. IUL Press, San Diego, CA]. This new technique is a refinement of the original Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) developed by Kary Mullis and coworkers in the mid 80:ies [Saiki, R.K., et al., 1985. Enzymatic amplification of beta-globin genomic sequences and restriction site analysis for diagnosis of sickle cell anemia, Science 230, 1350], for which Kary Mullis was awarded the 1993 year's Nobel prize in Chemistry. By PCR essentially any nucleic acid sequence present in a complex sample can be amplified in a cyclic process to generate a large number of identical copies that can readily be analyzed. This made it possible, for example, to manipulate DNA for cloning purposes, genetic engineering, and sequencing. But as an analytical technique the original PCR method had some serious limitations. By first amplifying the DNA sequence and then analyzing the product, quantification was exceedingly difficult since the PCR gave rise to essentially the same amount of product independently of the initial amount of DNA template molecules that were present. This limitation was resolved in 1992 by the development of real-time PCR by Higuchi et al. [Higuchi, R., Dollinger, G., Walsh, P.S., Griffith, R., 1992. Simultaneous amplification and detection of specific DNA-sequences. Bio-Technology 10(4), 413-417]. In real-time PCR the amount of product formed is monitored during the course of the reaction by monitoring the fluorescence of dyes or probes introduced into the reaction that is proportional to the amount of product formed, and the number of amplification cycles required to obtain a particular amount of DNA molecules is registered. Assuming a certain amplification efficiency, which typically is close to a doubling of the number of molecules per amplification cycle, it is possible to calculate the number of DNA molecules of the amplified sequence that were initially present in the sample. With the highly efficient detection chemistries, sensitive instrumentation, and optimized assays that are available today the number of DNA molecules of a particular sequence in a complex sample can be determined with unprecedented accuracy and sensitivity sufficient to detect a single molecule. Typical uses of real-time PCR include pathogen detection, gene expression analysis, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis, analysis of chromosome aberrations, and most recently also protein detection by real-time immuno PCR. PMID:16460794

Kubista, Mikael; Andrade, José Manuel; Bengtsson, Martin; Forootan, Amin; Jonák, Jiri; Lind, Kristina; Sindelka, Radek; Sjöback, Robert; Sjögreen, Björn; Strömbom, Linda; Stĺhlberg, Anders; Zoric, Neven

2006-02-03

170

Modeling fibril fragmentation in real-time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the application of the mass-action-equation models to the study of amyloid fiber formation, time-consuming numerical calculations constitute a major bottleneck. To conquer this difficulty, here an alternative efficient method is introduced for the fragmentation-only model. It includes two basic steps: (1) simulate close-formed time-evolutionary equations for the number concentration P(t) derived from the moment-closure method; (2) reconstruct the detailed fiber length distribution based on the knowledge of moments obtained in the first step. Compared to direct calculation, our method speeds up the performance by at least 10 000 times (from days to seconds). The accuracy is also satisfactory if suitable functions for the approximate fibril length distribution are taken. Further application to the sonication studies on PI264-b-PFS48 micelles performed by Guerin et al. confirms our method is very promising for the real-time analysis of the experiments on fibril fragmentation.

Tan, Pengzhen; Hong, Liu

2013-08-01

171

Real-time structured light depth extraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gathering depth data using structured light has been a procedure for many different environments and uses. Many of these system are utilized instead of laser line scanning because of their quickness. However, to utilize depth extraction for some applications, in our case laparoscopic surgery, the depth extraction must be in real time. We have developed an apparatus that speeds up the raw image display and grabbing in structured light depth extraction from 30 frames per second to 60 and 180 frames per second. This results in an updated depth and texture map of about 15 times per second versus about 3. This increased update rate allows for real time depth extraction for use in augmented medical/surgical applications. Our miniature, fist-sized projector utilizes an internal ferro-reflective LCD display that is illuminated with cold light from a flex light pipe. The miniature projector, attachable to a laparoscope, displays inverted pairs of structured light into the body where these images are then viewed by a high-speed camera set slightly off axis from the projector that grabs images synchronously. The images from the camera are ported to a graphics-processing card where six frames are worked on simultaneously to extract depth and create mapped textures from these images. This information is then sent to the host computer with 3D coordinate information of the projector/camera and the associated textures. The surgeon is then able to view body images in real time from different locations without physically moving the laparoscope imager/projector, thereby, reducing the trauma of moving laparoscopes in the patient.

Keller, Kurtis; Ackerman, Jeremy

2000-03-01

172

MIPAS near real time level 2 results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Starting from the end of March 2002, MIPAS (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding) is measuring atmospheric middle-infrared limb-emission spectra from the sun-synchronous, nearly-polar orbit ENVISAT satellite. The spectra are acquired continuously during both day and night and their Level 2 analysis provides, through an inversion process, a 3-dimensional, almost global, map of many atmospheric constituents every 24 hours. The code for the Level 2 near real-time (NRT) analysis of MIPAS spectra was developed by an international consortium of scientists (ORM Team) supported by the European Space Agency (ESA) and was implemented in the ENVISAT Payload Data Segment. This code is designed to provide, in an automated and continuous mode, atmospheric vertical profiles of temperature, pressure and concentration of six key species: O3, H2O, CH4, HNO3, N2O and NO2, in the range 6-68 km. Depending on data availability, the Level 2 NRL processor provided from the first day of operation continuous products and non change was necessary in the code. Some minor changes have been introduced in auxiliary data and setting parameters. Some quality improvements, involving an extra computing time that is not feasible with the near real time processor, were adopted in a parallel off-line processor. Results are presented that assess the quality of MIPAS measurements and their innovation in terms of vertical resolution and multidimensional coverage (time, space and chemical species).

Carli, B.; Orm Team

173

Real Time Simulation of Power Grid Disruptions  

SciTech Connect

DOE-OE and DOE-SC workshops (Reference 1-3) identified the key power grid problem that requires insight addressable by the next generation of exascale computing is coupling of real-time data streams (1-2 TB per hour) as the streams are ingested to dynamic models. These models would then identify predicted disruptions in time (2-4 seconds) to trigger the smart grid s self healing functions. This project attempted to establish the feasibility of this approach and defined the scientific issues, and demonstrated example solutions to important smart grid simulation problems. These objectives were accomplished by 1) using the existing frequency recorders on the national grid to establish a representative and scalable real-time data stream; 2) invoking ORNL signature identification algorithms; 3) modeling dynamically a representative region of the Eastern interconnect using an institutional cluster, measuring the scalability and computational benchmarks for a national capability; and 4) constructing a prototype simulation for the system s concept of smart grid deployment. The delivered ORNL enduring capability included: 1) data processing and simulation metrics to design a national capability justifying exascale applications; 2) Software and intellectual property built around the example solutions; 3) demonstrated dynamic models to design few second self-healing.

Chinthavali, Supriya [ORNL; Dimitrovski, Aleksandar D [ORNL; Fernandez, Steven J [ORNL; Groer, Christopher S [ORNL; Nutaro, James J [ORNL; Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL; Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Shankar, Mallikarjun [ORNL; Spafford, Kyle L [ORNL; Vacaliuc, Bogdan [ORNL

2012-11-01

174

A Flexible Real-Time Architecture  

SciTech Connect

Assuring hard real-time characteristics of I/O associated with embedded software is often a difficult task. Input-Output related statements are often intermixed with the computational code, resulting in I/O timing that is dependent on the execution path and computational load. One way to mitigate this problem is through the use of interrupts. However, the non-determinism that is introduced by interrupt driven I/O may be so difficult to analyze that it is prohibited in some high consequence systems. This paper describes a balanced hardware/software solution to obtain consistent interrupt-free I/O timing, and results in software that is much more amenable to analysis.

WICKSTROM,GREGORY L.

2000-08-17

175

Real-time teleteaching in medical physics  

PubMed Central

Medical physics is a relatively small professional community, usually with a scarcity of expertise that could greatly benefit students entering the field. However, the reach of the profession can span great geographical distances, making the training of students a difficult task. In addition to the requirement of training new students, the evolving field of medical physics, with its many emerging advanced techniques and technologies, could benefit greatly from ongoing continuing education as well as consultation with experts. Many continuing education courses and workshops are constantly being offered, including many web-based study courses and virtual libraries. However, one mode of education and communication that has not been widely used is the real-time interactive process. Video-based conferencing systems do exist, but these usually require a substantial amount of effort and cost to set up. The authors have been working on promoting the ever-expanding capability of the Internet to facilitate the education of medical physics to students entering the field. A pilot project has been carried out for six years and reported previously. The project is a collaboration between the Department of Medical Physics at the Toronto Odette Cancer Centre in Canada and the Department of Biomedical Imaging at the University of Malaya in Malaysia. Since 2001, medical physics graduate students at the University of Malaya have been taught by lecturers from Toronto every year, using the Internet as the main tool of communication. The pilot study explored the different methods that can be used to provide real-time interactive remote education, and delivered traditional classroom lectures as well as hands-on workshops. Another similar project was started in 2007 to offer real-time teaching to a class of medical physics students at Wuhan University in Hubei, China. There are new challenges as well as new opportunities associated with this project. By building an inventory of tools and experiences, the intent is to broaden the real-time teleteaching method to serve a wide community so that future students entering the field can have efficient access to high-quality education that will benefit the profession in the long term.

Woo, M; Ng, KH

2008-01-01

176

Real-time radar rainfall estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research reports on several aspects of real-time monitoring of the spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall from ground-based weather radar. Optimization of the performance of the National Weather Service's Precipitation Processing Subsystem (PPS) is the first objective. This is achieved by developing a calibration procedure which simultaneously estimates the optimal parameter values by providing a global assessment of the system's performance. Evaluation of the system is based on a data set consisting of two months of radar reflectivity measurements, and hourly raingage rainfall accumulations, from the Melbourne, Florida WSR-88D site. Radar-raingage root mean square (RMS) difference reduction up to 20% with respect to the default system parameter values is demonstrated. Investigation of statistical procedures for real-time adjustment of the mean-field systematic radar rainfall error is the second objective. For this purpose, a data- based Monte Carlo simulation experiment is performed. The study uses an extensive data set of hourly radar rainfall products and raingage accumulations from the Tulsa, Oklahoma WSR-88D site. This intercomparison study concluded to a bias procedure which overall appeared to perform better than the other. The main results from this research are: (1) statistical methods with optimal error model parameters perform significantly better than using only bias observations, and (2) bias adjustment is mostly effective in cold season precipitation measurements. Final objective of this research is development of a new real-time radar rainfall estimation algorithm. The new processing steps introduced in this algorithm are beam- height effect correction, vertical integration, rain classification, and continuous range effect correction. Additionally, the algorithm applies advection correction at the gridded rainfall rates to minimize the temporal sampling effect, and its calibration is cast in a recursive formulation with parameters adjusted in real- time. A new statistical method has been developed for quantification of radar rainfall products uncertainty. Evaluation of the system and the uncertainty quantification method is based on the data set from Melbourne, Florida WSR-88D site. Radar-raingage RMS difference reduction up to 50% with respect to the default PPS is demonstrated for the proposed algorithm.

Anagnostou, Emmanouil Nikolaos

1997-08-01

177

Real time electron density profiles from ionograms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ionosonde for the real-time acquisition of electron density profiles is presented which enables the vertical echoes with ordinary and extraordinary polarization to be clearly identified. Virtual height traces h-prime(f) for the E and F regions, along with important ionospheric parameters, are determined with the present technique. The automatically-derived electron density profiles are used to test simple ionospheric models for the cases of the calculation of skywave field strengths and transmission losses at HF. Methods of data presentation and archiving are considered.

Reinisch, Bodo W.; Gamache, Robert R.; Huang, Xueqin; McNamara, Leo F.

178

Real-time fractal signal processing in the time domain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fractal analysis has proven useful for the quantitative characterization of complex time series by scale-free statistical measures in various applications. The analysis has commonly been done offline with the signal being resident in memory in full length, and the processing carried out in several distinct passes. However, in many relevant applications, such as monitoring or forecasting, algorithms are needed to capture changes in the fractal measure real-time. Here we introduce real-time variants of the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) and the closely related Signal Summation Conversion (SSC) methods, which are suitable to estimate the fractal exponent in one pass. Compared to offline algorithms, the precision is the same, the memory requirement is significantly lower, and the execution time depends on the same factors but with different rates. Our tests show that dynamic changes in the fractal parameter can be efficiently detected. We demonstrate the applicability of our real-time methods on signals of cerebral hemodynamics acquired during open-heart surgery.

Hartmann, András; Mukli, Péter; Nagy, Zoltán; Kocsis, László; Hermán, Péter; Eke, András

2013-01-01

179

Improving Timeliness in Real-Time Secure Database Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Database systems for real-time applications must satisfy timing constraints associated with transactions, while maintaining data consistency. In addition to real-time requirements, security is usually required in many applications. Multilevel security req...

S. H. Son R. David B. Thuraisingham

2006-01-01

180

Real-time fetal heart monitoring in biomagnetic measurements using adaptive real-time ICA.  

PubMed

Electrophysiological signals of the developing fetal brain and heart can be investigated by fetal magnetoencephalography (fMEG). During such investigations, the fetal heart activity and that of the mother should be monitored continuously to provide an important indication of current well-being. Due to physical constraints of an fMEG system, it is not possible to use clinically established heart monitors for this purpose. Considering this constraint, we developed a real-time heart monitoring system for biomagnetic measurements and showed its reliability and applicability in research and for clinical examinations. The developed system consists of real-time access to fMEG data, an algorithm based on Independent Component Analysis (ICA), and a graphical user interface (GUI). The algorithm extracts the current fetal and maternal heart signal from a noisy and artifact-contaminated data stream in real-time and is able to adapt automatically to continuously varying environmental parameters. This algorithm has been named Adaptive Real-time ICA (ARICA) and is applicable to real-time artifact removal as well as to related blind signal separation problems. PMID:17926685

Waldert, Stephan; Bensch, Michael; Bogdan, Martin; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Schölkopf, Bernhard; Lowery, Curtis L; Eswaran, Hari; Preissl, Hubert

2007-10-01

181

An accurate and efficient algorithm for Faraday rotation corrections for spaceborne microwave radiometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Faraday rotation changes the polarization plane of linearly polarized microwaves which propagate through the ionosphere. To correct for ionospheric polarization error, it is necessary to have electron density profiles on a global scale that represent the ionosphere in real time. We use raytrace through the combined models of ionospheric conductivity and electron density (ICED), Bent, and Gallagher models (RIBG model) to specify the ionospheric conditions by ingesting the GPS data from observing stations that are as close as possible to the observation time and location of the space system for which the corrections are required. To accurately calculate Faraday rotation corrections, we also utilize the raytrace utility of the RIBG model instead of the normal shell model assumption for the ionosphere. We use WindSat data, which exhibits a wide range of orientations of the raypath and a high data rate of observations, to provide a realistic data set for analysis. The standard single-shell models at 350 and 400 km are studied along with a new three-shell model and compared with the raytrace method for computation time and accuracy. We have compared the Faraday results obtained with climatological (International Reference Ionosphere and RIBG) and physics-based (Global Assimilation of Ionospheric Measurements) ionospheric models. We also study the impact of limitations in the availability of GPS data on the accuracy of the Faraday rotation calculations.

Singh, Malkiat; Bettenhausen, Michael H.

2011-08-01

182

Neutron monitor database in real time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A first distributed Real Time Cosmic Ray Database using measurements of several neutron monitors is presented. The aim of the project is to develop a unified database with data from different neutron monitors collected together, in unified format and to provide a user with several commonly used data access methods. The database contains original cosmic ray as well as all housekeeping and technical data necessary for scientific data analysis. Currently the database includes Lomnicky Stit, Moscow, Oulu, Tixie Bay, Yakutsk stations and it is opened for other neutron monitors. The main database server is located in IKFIA SB RAS (Yakutsk) but there will be several mirrors of the database. The datbase and all its mirrors are updated on the nearly real-time (1 hour) basis. The data access software includes WWW-interface, Perl scipts and C library, which may be linked to a user program. Most of frequently used functions are implemented to make it operable to users without SQL language knowledge. A draft of the data representation standard is suggested, based on common practice of neutron monitor community. The database engine is freely distributed open-sourced PostgreSQL server coupled with a set of replication tools developed at Bioengineering division of the IRCCS E. Medea, Italy.

Kozlov, Valery; Kudela, Karel; Starodubtsev, Sergei; Turpanov, Alexey; Usoskin, Ilya; Yanke, Victor

2003-09-01

183

REal-time COsmic Ray Database (RECORD)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a first distributed REal-time COsmic Ray Database (RECORD). The aim of the project is to develop a unified database with data from different neutron monitors collected together, in unified format and to provide a user with several commonly used data access methods. The database contains not only original cosmic ray data but also auxiliary data necessary for scientific data analysis. Currently the database includes Lomn.Stit, Moscow, Oulu; Tixie Bay, Yakutsk stations. The main database server is located in IKFIA SB RAS (Yakutsk) but there will be several mirrors of the database. The database and all its mirrors are up dated on the nearly real-time (1 hour) basis. The data access software includes WWW-interface, Perl scripts and C library, which may be linked to a user program. Most of frequently used functions are implemented to make it operable to users without SQL language knowledge. A draft of the data representation standard is suggested, based on common practice of neutron monitor community. The database engine is freely distributed open-sourced PostgreSQL server coupled with a set of replication to ols developed at Bio engineering division of the IRCCS E.Medea, Italy.

Usoskin, I.; Kozlov, Valery; Ksenofontov, Leonid, Kudela, Karel; Starodubtsev, Sergei; Turpanov, Alexey; Yanke, Victor

2003-07-01

184

Reconfigurable real-time distributed processing network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a novel real-time image and signal processing network, RONINTM, which facilitates the rapid design and deployment of systems providing advanced geospatial surveillance and situational awareness capability. RONINTM is a distributed software architecture consisting of multiple agents or nodes, which can be configured to implement a variety of state-of-the-art computer vision and signal processing algorithms. The nodes operate in an asynchronous fashion and can run on a variety of hardware platforms, thus providing a great deal of scalability and flexibility. Complex algorithmic configuration chains can be assembled using an intuitive graphical interface in a plug-and- play manner. RONINTM has been successfully exploited for a number of applications, ranging from remote event detection to complex multiple-camera real-time 3D object reconstruction. This paper describes the motivation behind the creation of the network, the core design features, and presents details of an example application. Finally, the on-going development of the network is discussed, which is focussed on dynamic network reconfiguration. This allows to the network to automatically adapt itself to node or communications failure by intelligently re-routing network communications and through adaptive resource management.

Page, S. F.; Seely, R. D.; Hickman, D.

2011-05-01

185

Residential Real-time Price Response Simulation  

SciTech Connect

The electric industry is gaining experience with innovative price responsive demand pilots and limited roll-outs to customers. One of these pilots is investigating real-time pricing signals to engage end-use systems and local distributed generation and storage in a distributed optimization process. Attractive aspects about the approach include strong scalability characteristics, simplified interfaces between automation devices, and the adaptability to integrate a wide variety of devices and systems. Experience in this nascent field is revealing a rich array of for engineering decisions and the application of complexity theory. To test the decisions, computer simulations are used to reveal insights about design, demand elasticity, and the limits of response (including consumer fatigue). Agent-based approaches lend themselves well in the simulation to modeling the participation and interaction of each piece of equipment on a distribution feeder. This paper discusses rate design and simulation experiences at the distribution feeder level where consumers and their HVAC systems and water heaters on a feeder receive real-time pricing signals.

Widergren, Steven E.; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Chassin, David P.; Fuller, Jason C.; Pratt, Robert G.

2011-10-10

186

Real-time regularized ultrasound elastography.  

PubMed

This paper introduces two real-time elastography techniques based on analytic minimization (AM) of regularized cost functions. The first method (1D AM) produces axial strain and integer lateral displacement, while the second method (2D AM) produces both axial and lateral strains. The cost functions incorporate similarity of radio-frequency (RF) data intensity and displacement continuity, making both AM methods robust to small decorrelations present throughout the image. We also exploit techniques from robust statistics to make the methods resistant to large local decorrelations. We further introduce Kalman filtering for calculating the strain field from the displacement field given by the AM methods. Simulation and phantom experiments show that both methods generate strain images with high SNR, CNR and resolution. Both methods work for strains as high as 10% and run in real-time. We also present in vivo patient trials of ablation monitoring. An implementation of the 2D AM method as well as phantom and clinical RF-data can be downloaded. PMID:21075717

Rivaz, Hassan; Boctor, Emad M; Choti, Michael A; Hager, Gregory D

2010-11-11

187

Development of real-time photoacoustic microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoacoustic tomography detecting ultrasound signals generated from photon absorption provides optical absorption contrast in vivo for structural, functional and molecular imaging. Although photoacoustic tomography technology has grown fast in recent years, real-time photoacoustic imaging with cellular spatial resolution are still strongly demanded. We developed a photoacoustic microscopy which has video-rate imaging capability with cellular spatial resolution. The system consists of a single-element focused ultrasound transducer, a fiber-based light-delivery subsystem, a voice-coil translation stage, a motion controller, and a data acquisition subsystem. A compact cube is employed to split optical and acoustic beams. The mass of the entire scanning photoacoustic probe is less than 40 grams, which minimizes potential vibrations and inertial effects, therefore, makes it capable to scan fast. The imaging system is capable of acquiring 20 cross-sectional (B-scan) images per second over 9 mm, and up to 40 B-scan images per second over 1 mm. Focused laser beams provide a lateral resolution of five microns. Confocal deployment of optical and acoustic focuses provides higher SNR than optical scanning approach. Micron-sized carbon particles flowing in silicone tubing and in vivo blood flows were imaged in video-rate, which demonstrated the capability to image highly dynamic biological processes in vivo with cellular resolution. This real-time high-resolution photoacoustic imaging system provides a promising approach for various in vivo imaging and quantitative studies.

Wang, Lidai; Maslov, Konstantin; Yao, Junjie; Li, Li; Wang, Lihong V.

2011-02-01

188

PCs stir reliability, real-time concerns  

SciTech Connect

While pre-Christmas price wars regularly boost personal computer sales this time of year, price cuts alone won`t cause process control systems designers to open their wallets and buy PCs. User studies and user feedback to process control equipment suppliers show several other issues continue to rank higher than price including: (1) Hardware and software reliability; (2) easy-to-use user interfaces; (3) ability to do multitasking; (4) need for real-time updates. These and several other non-price issues - including open versus proprietary systems, slower scan rates from PCs compared to programmable controllers, and assurances that the PC will work in an industrial environment - scored high in a study authored earlier this year by Jesse Yoder, owner of Idea Network, Clinton, NJ. The report, titled {open_quotes}The World Market for Process Control Equipment,{close_quotes} was written for FIND/SVP, a New York City market research firm.

Strothman, J. [ed.

1994-11-01

189

Real Time Nonequilibrium Dynamics of Quantum Plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We implement the dynamical renormalization group (DRG) using the hard thermal loop (HTL) approximation for the real-time nonequilibrium dynamics in hot plasmas. The focus is on the study of the relaxation of gauge and fermionic mean fields and on the quantum kinetics of the photon and fermion distribution functions. As a concrete physical prediction, we find that for a QGP of temperature T~200 MeV and lifetime 10<=t<= 50 fm/c there is a new contribution to the hard (k~T) photon production form off-shell bremsstrahlung (q-->q? and $\\bar{q}\\to \\bar{q}\\gamma$) at just O(?) that grows logarithmically in time and is comparable to the known on-shell Compton scattering and pair annihilation at O(??s).

de Vega, H. J.

190

Real-time outdoor pre-visualization method for videographers - real-time geometric registration using point-based model -  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a real-time pre-visualization method using augmented reality techniques for videographers. It enables them to test camera work without real actors in a real environment. As a substitute for real actors, virtual ones are superimposed on a live video in real-time according to a real camera motion and an illumination condition. The key technique of this method is

Sei Ikeda; Takafumi Taketomi; Bunyo Okumura; Tomokazu Sato; Masayuki Kanbara; Naokazu Yokoya; Kunihiro Chihara

2008-01-01

191

Passive Global, Real-Time TEC Monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sensors are being developed to provide a satellite-based VHF global lightning monitor (e.g. Suszcynsky, et al., "VHF Global Lightning and Severe Storm Monitoring from Space: Storm-level Characterization of VHF Lightning Emissions," EOS Trans. AGU 2001 Fall Mt. Prog. And Abstr. 82, No. 47, F143, 2001). Dispersive effects of propagation of the lightning electromagnetic wave through the ionospheric and plasmaspheric plasmas cause the higher frequency components to arrive at the satellite before lower frequency components. From the time-of-arrival at several frequencies we can derive the TEC between the satellite and the lightning. Using multi-satellite techniques we can geolocate the lightning and the ionospheric penetration point quite accurately. A single ground station could provide essentially real-time regional TEC coverage. Four ground stations could provide global, real-time TEC measurements to supplement existing ground-based systems, especially over broad ocean areas. We expect several lightning detections per satellite per minute. Temporal resolution will be limited only by ground segment processing. Spatial coverage and resolution will be limited by lightning occurrence, but many commercial sector TEC requirements are also correlated to lightning occurrence. With our FORTE (Fast On-orbit Recording of Transient Events) satellite we sense lightning over most of the globe including the oceans. We expect to determine TEC spatial gradients with tens of km resolution. This capability should be especially useful in severe convective weather to aircraft using GPS-based navigation, e.g. the FAA's Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS).

Pongratz, M. B.

2002-12-01

192

Learning in Real-Time Search: A Unifying Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real-time search methods are suited for tasks in which the agent is interacting with an initially unknown environment in real time. In such simultaneous planning and learning problems, the agent has to select its actions in a limited amount of time, while sensing only a local part of the environ- ment centered at the agent's current location. Real-time heuristic search

Vadim Bulitko; Greg Lee

2006-01-01

193

REAL TIME SCHEDULING METHODS REQUIREMENTS IN DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed control systems involve three main disciplines: control systems, real time systems, and communication systems. Control systems, due their stringent timing constraints, demand real time computing technology. Distributed control systems need communication systems when distributing sensors, actuators, the control procedures and data messaging. In general, demands of distributed control systems and properties of real time scheduling algorithms differ, for example,

Pau Martí; Ricard Villŕ; Josep M. Fuertes; Gerhard Fohler

2000-01-01

194

Cryogenic Faraday isolator  

SciTech Connect

A Faraday isolator is described in which thermal effects are suppressed by cooling down to liquid nitrogen temperatures. The principal scheme, main characteristics and modifications of the isolator are presented. The isolation degree is studied experimentally for the subkilowatt average laser radiation power. It is shown that the isolator can be used at radiation powers up to tens of kilowatts. (quantum electronic devices)

Zheleznov, D S; Zelenogorskii, V V; Katin, E V; Mukhin, I B; Palashov, O V; Khazanov, Efim A [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhnii Novgorod (Russian Federation)

2010-05-26

195

A real-time prediction of UTC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reference time scale for all scientific and technologic applications on the Earth, the Universal Coordinated Time (UTC), must be as stable, reliable, and accurate as possible. With this in view the BIPM and before it the BIH, have always calculated and then disseminated UTC with a delay of about 80 days. There are three fundamental reasons for doing this: (1) It takes some weeks for data, gathered from some 200 clocks spread world-wide, to be collected and for errors to be eliminated; (2) changes in clock rates can only be measured with high precision well after the fact; and (3) the measurement noise originating in time links, in particular using Loran-C, is smoothed out only when averaging over an extended period. Until mid-1992, the ultimate stability of UTC was reached at averaging times of about 100 days and corresponded to an Allan deviation sigma(sub y)(tau) of about 1,5x10(exp -14) then compared to the best primary clock in the world, the PTB CS2. For several years now, a predicted UTC has been computed by the USNO through an extrapolation of the values as published in deferred time by the BIPM. This is made available through the USNO Series 4, through the USNO Automated Data Service, and through GPS signals. Due to the instability of UTC, the poor predictability of the available clocks, and the intentional SA degradation of GPS signals, the real-time access to this extrapolated UTC has represented the true deferred-time UTC only to within several hundreds of nanoseconds.

Thomas, Claudine; Allan, David W.

1994-05-01

196

Real time speech formant analyzer and display  

DOEpatents

A speech analyzer for interpretation of sound includes a sound input which converts the sound into a signal representing the sound. The signal is passed through a plurality of frequency pass filters to derive a plurality of frequency formants. These formants are converted to voltage signals by frequency-to-voltage converters and then are prepared for visual display in continuous real time. Parameters from the inputted sound are also derived and displayed. The display may then be interpreted by the user. The preferred embodiment includes a microprocessor which is interfaced with a television set for displaying of the sound formants. The microprocessor software enables the sound analyzer to present a variety of display modes for interpretive and therapeutic used by the user.

Holland, George E. (Ames, IA); Struve, Walter S. (Ames, IA); Homer, John F. (Ames, IA)

1987-01-01

197

Real time speech formant analyzer and display  

DOEpatents

A speech analyzer for interpretation of sound includes a sound input which converts the sound into a signal representing the sound. The signal is passed through a plurality of frequency pass filters to derive a plurality of frequency formants. These formants are converted to voltage signals by frequency-to-voltage converters and then are prepared for visual display in continuous real time. Parameters from the inputted sound are also derived and displayed. The display may then be interpreted by the user. The preferred embodiment includes a microprocessor which is interfaced with a television set for displaying of the sound formants. The microprocessor software enables the sound analyzer to present a variety of display modes for interpretive and therapeutic used by the user. 19 figs.

Holland, G.E.; Struve, W.S.; Homer, J.F.

1987-02-03

198

Real Time Seismic Prediction while Drilling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Efficient and safe drilling is a prerequisite to enhance the mobility of people and goods, to improve the traffic as well as utility infrastructure of growing megacities, and to ensure the growing energy demand while building geothermal and in hydroelectric power plants. Construction within the underground is often building within the unknown. An enhanced risk potential for people and the underground building may arise if drilling enters fracture zones, karsts, brittle rocks, mixed solid and soft rocks, caves, or anthropogenic obstacles. Knowing about the material behavior ahead of the drilling allows reducing the risk during drilling and construction operation. In drilling operations direct observations from boreholes can be complemented with geophysical investigations. In this presentation we focus on “real time” seismic prediction while drilling which is seen as a prerequisite while using geophysical methods in modern drilling operations. In solid rocks P- and S-wave velocity, refraction and reflection as well as seismic wave attenuation can be used for the interpretation of structures ahead of the drilling. An Integrated Seismic Imaging System (ISIS) for exploration ahead of a construction is used, where a pneumatic hammer or a magnetostrictive vibration source generate repetitive signals behind the tunneling machine. Tube waves are generated which travel along the tunnel to the working face. There the tube waves are converted to mainly S- but also P-Waves which interact with the formation ahead of the heading face. The reflected or refracted waves travel back to the working front are converted back to tube waves and recorded using three-component geophones which are fit into the tips of anchor rods. In near real time, the ISIS software allows for an integrated 3D imaging and interpretation of the observed data, geological and geotechnical parameters. Fracture zones, heterogeneities, and variations in the rock properties can be revealed during the drilling operation. First experiments indicate that parts of the ISIS system can be used for smaller diameters e.g. in vertical drilling. In unconsolidated rocks S-waves are strongly attenuated. For the Sonic Softground Probing (SSP) system P-waves are used. A vibration-seismic correlation positioning system was developed. One transmitter and several receiver are placed within the cutting wheel. During drilling, a specially coded transmitter signal is sent directly from the cutterhead via the face support medium in the direction of tunneling. With this geometry, boulders can be detected 50 m ahead of the working face. Fracture zones and other discontinuities can be localized, and the physical properties of the upcoming rocks can be partly determined nearly in real time, while using sound velocity and attenuation as indicators. All evaluation is based on real time 3D velocity models which are determined during the drilling operation. Different technologies allow a seismic prediction while drilling in various rock types and geologies. Seismic prediction during vertical drilling will significantly profit from the lesson learned from state of the art tunneling systems.

Schilling, F. R.; Bohlen, T.; Edelmann, T.; Kassel, A.; Heim, A.; Gehring, M.; Lüth, S.; Giese, R.; Jaksch, K.; Rechlin, A.; Kopf, M.; Stahlmann, J.; Gattermann, J.; Bruns, B.

2009-12-01

199

Real-time slicing of data space  

SciTech Connect

Real-time rendering of iso-contour surfaces is problematic for large complex data sets. In this paper, an algorithm is presented that allows very rapid representation of an interval set surrounding a iso-contour surface. The algorithm draws upon three main ideas. A fast indexing scheme is used to select only those data points near the contour surface. Hardware assisted splatting is then employed on these data points to produce a volume rendering of the interval set. Finally, by shifting a small window through the indexing scheme or data space, animated volumes are produced showing the changing contour values. In addition to allowing fast selection and rendering of the data, the indexing scheme allows a much compressed representation of the data by eliminating ``noise`` data points.

Crawfis, R.A.

1996-07-01

200

RealTime Physics at UCF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RealTime Physics (RTP) is an activity-based laboratory curriculum developed by D. Sokoloff, R. Thornton, and P. Laws which has met with success at other universities and colleges. It was recently been adopted at the University of Central Florida (UCF), a large metropolitan university that is rapidly becoming a major research university. A key question is then if successful physics education practices remain effective in an environment as the one present at UCF. By the completion of the Fall 2008 semester, UCF will have three semesters using RTP in some classes while keeping a traditional format in others. Using a pre and post semester test, as well as student interviews, the preliminary data indicate quite a success at UCF during the initial phase of the project.

Efthimiou, Costas; Maronde, Dan; McGreevy, Tim; McCole, Stefanie; Del Barco, Enrique

2009-03-01

201

[Computerized report of anesthesia in real time].  

PubMed

The computerized report of anesthesia (C.R.A.) is an equivalent of the document filled out by the anesthesiologist, linked to a multicriteria research program giving the opportunity to study connections between different performances of anesthesia. To obtain these results, the authors are introducing a microcomputerized system in real time, including a microcomputer (capacity 64 kO), a visual display monitor (80 column format), two floppy disks controllers and a printer. Through a "menu", there is an access to the following functions: identity, patient story, drug prescriptions, anesthetics used, chronology of administration, monitoring of parameters, incidents/accidents, multicriteria research, editing of the C.R.A. The operational realisation shows that this computerized system offers storage capacity and allows a retrospective analysis of anesthesia. As it is inexpensive and easy to use, it may become a very important device in every-day practice. PMID:3995393

Pourriat, J L; Rathat, C; Larmignat, P; Huet, B

1985-03-01

202

Real-time snapshot hyperspectral imaging endoscope  

PubMed Central

Hyperspectral imaging has tremendous potential to detect important molecular biomarkers of early cancer based on their unique spectral signatures. Several drawbacks have limited its use for in vivo screening applications: most notably the poor temporal and spatial resolution, high expense, and low optical throughput of existing hyperspectral imagers. We present the development of a new real-time hyperspectral endoscope (called the image mapping spectroscopy endoscope) based on an image mapping technique capable of addressing these challenges. The parallel high throughput nature of this technique enables the device to operate at frame rates of 5.2 frames per second while collecting a (x, y, ?) datacube of 350 × 350 × 48. We have successfully imaged tissue in vivo, resolving a vasculature pattern of the lower lip while simultaneously detecting oxy-hemoglobin.

Kester, Robert T.; Bedard, Noah; Gao, Liang; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

2011-01-01

203

The RHIC real time data link system  

SciTech Connect

The RHIC Real Time Data Link (RTDL) System distributes to all locations around the RHIC ring machine parameters of general interest to accelerator systems and users. The system, along with supporting host interface, is centrally located. The RTDL System is comprised of two module types: the Encoder Module (V105) and the Input Module (V106). There is only one V105 module, but many (up to 128) Input Modules. Multiple buffered outputs are provided for use locally or for retransmission to other RHIC equipment locations. Machine parameters are generated from the V115 Waveform Generator Module (WFG) or from machine hardware and coupled directly through a fiber optic serial link to one of the V106 input channels.

Hartmann, H.

1997-07-01

204

REAL TIME DATA FOR REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES [11505  

SciTech Connect

Health physicists from the CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company collaborated with Berkeley Nucleonics Corporation to modify the SAM 940 isotope identifier instrument to be used for nuclear waste remediation. These modifications coupled with existing capabilities of the SAM 940 have proven to be invaluable during remediation activities, reducing disposal costs by allowing swift remediation of targeted areas that have been identified as having isotopes of concern (IOC), and eliminating multiple visits to sites by declaring an excavation site clear of IOCs before demobilizing from the site. These advantages are enabled by accumulating spectral data for specific isotopes that is nearly 100 percent free of false positives, which are filtered out in 'real time.'

BROCK CT

2011-01-13

205

Design of a Real-Time Adaptive Filter Development System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes a hardware test platform designed to implement adaptive lattice filters in real time. To achieve real time processing speeds, algorithm complexity was accomplished by custom designing the computation engines with respect to the lattic...

M. D. Juniper R. C. North T. R. Albert W. H. Ku

1991-01-01

206

Design of a Real-Time Adaptive Filter Development System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes a hardware test platform designed to implement adaptive lattice filters in real-time. To achieve real-time processing speeds, algorithm complexity was accommodated by custom designing the computation engines with respect to the lattic...

M. D. Juniper R. C. North T. R. Albert W. H. Ku

1992-01-01

207

Definitions and Requirements for Distributed Real-Time Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The performance parameters are defined for distributed real-time control systems and the differences in requirements are described between these and the other major categories of distributed real-time systems: resource sharing. Examples of explicit values...

C. Berggren

1988-01-01

208

Fast Faraday Cup With High Bandwidth  

DOEpatents

A circuit card stripline Fast Faraday cup quantitatively measures the picosecond time structure of a charged particle beam. The stripline configuration maintains signal integrity, and stitching of the stripline increases the bandwidth. A calibration procedure ensures the measurement of the absolute charge and time structure of the charged particle beam.

Deibele, Craig E [Knoxville, TN

2006-03-14

209

Real-Time Visualization in the Offshore Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real-time underwater visualization has been extremely slow to develop within the offshore industry and has generally been limited to 2D representations of vessel positions on digital charts. Only recently have marine industries realized the potential of 3D real-time virtual environments and visualization systems for effective management planning and real-time situation awareness. We describe a real-time visualization of the clean-up of

Peter Stevens; Derek Wills; Graham Brookes

2001-01-01

210

Integrated scenario in JET using real-time profile control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent development of real-time measurements and control tools in JET has enhanced the reliability and reproducibility of the relevant ITER scenarios. Diagnostics such as charge exchange, interfero-polarimetry, electron cyclotron emission have been upgraded for real-time measurements. In addition, real-time processes like magnetic equilibrium and q profile reconstruction have been developed and applied successfully in real-time q profile control experiments

E. Joffrin; F. Crisanti; R. Felton; X. Litaudon; D. Mazon; D. Moreau; L. Zabeo; R. Albanese; M. Ariola; D. Alves; O. Barana; V. Basiuk; A. Bécoulet; M. Bécoulet; J. Blum; T. Bolzonnella; K. Bosak; J. M. Chareau; M. de Baar; E. de la Luna; P. de Vries; P. Dumortier; D. Elbeze; J. Farthing; H. Fernandes; C. Fenzi; R. Giannella; K. Guenther; J. Harling; N. Hawkes; T. C. Hender; D. F. Howell; P. Heesterman; F. Imbeaux; P. Innocente; L. Laborde; G. Lloyd; P. J. Lomas; D. C. McDonald; J. Mailloux; M. Mantsinen; A. Messiaen; A. Murari; J. Ongena; F. Orsitto; V. Pericoli-Ridolfini; M. Riva; J. Sanchez; F. Sartori; O. Sauter; A. C. C. Sips; T. Tala; A. Tuccillo; D. Van Ester; K.-D. Zastrow; M. Zerbini; JET EFDA Programme

2003-01-01

211

Real-time adaptation for model errors in dynamic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The real-time operation of (integrated) navigation systems requires that also the quality control is executed in real-time.\\u000a After a model error has been detected and identified, the bias in the state estimate caused by the model error has to be eliminated\\u000a in real-time as well. This real-time recovery from errors is called adaptation. Adaptation is the last step of the

Martin Salzmann

1995-01-01

212

Faraday current sensing employing chromatic modulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Faraday current sensors using a variety of sensing elements have been investigated extensively for their high sensitivity as well as other advantages [G.L. Lewis et al., Proc. IEE Conf. on The Reliability of Transmission and Distribution Equipment, 1995; Y.N. Ning et al., Optics Lett. 16 (1991); C.M.M. van den Tempel, Appl. Optics 32 (1993)]. Concurrently chromatic modulation techniques have been investigated at the University of Liverpool for use with optical fibre sensors of different types [N.A. Pilling, Ph.D. Thesis, 1992; M.M. Murphy, Ph.D. Thesis, 1991] including Faraday current sensing, for overcoming difficulties with non-referenced intensity modulation systems. In this contribution a brief discussion of the scope of chromatically based Faraday current sensing with particular regard to electric power transmission and distribution industries is given. A novel sensor based upon a Faraday glass block in combination with a BSO crystal in the sensing element is described. The sensor takes advantage of the natural gyrotropy of the BSO which conversely has been previously regarded as a disadvantage. The experimental results obtained indicate that this method offers a novel approach to improving system sensitivity. The extension of the approach from a simple bench top demonstrator to real power systems deployment is also discussed.

Jones, G. R.; Li, G.; Spencer, J. W.; Aspey, R. A.; Kong, M. G.

1998-01-01

213

The multispectral advanced volumetric real-time imaging compositor for real-time distributed scene generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AMRDEC has developed the Multi-spectral Advanced Volumetric Real-time Imaging Compositor (MAVRIC) prototype for distributed real-time hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) scene generation. MAVRIC is a dynamic object-based energy conserved scene compositor that can seamlessly convolve distributed scene elements into temporally aligned physicsbased scenes for enhancing existing AMRDEC scene generation codes. The volumetric compositing process accepts input independent of depth order. This real-time compositor framework is built around AMRDEC's ContinuumCore API which provides the common messaging interface leveraging the Neutral Messaging Language (NML) for local, shared memory, reflective memory, network, and remote direct memory access (RDMA) communications and the Joint Signature Image Generator (JSIG) that provides energy conserved scene component interface at each render node. This structure allows for a highly scalable real-time environment capable of rendering individual objects at high fidelity while being considerate of real-time hardware-in-the-loop concerns, such as latency. As such, this system can be scaled to handle highly complex detailed scenes such as urban environments. This architecture provides the basis for common scene generation as it provides disparate scene elements to be calculated by various phenomenology codes and integrated seamlessly into a unified composited environment. This advanced capability is the gateway to higher fidelity scene generation such as ray-tracing. The high speed interconnects using PCI Express and InfiniBand were examined to support distributed scene generation whereby the scene graph, associated phenomenology, and the scene elements can be dynamically distributed across multiple high performance computing assets to maximize system performance.

Morris, Joseph W.; Ballard, Gary H.; Bunfield, Dennis H.; Peddycoart, Thomas E.; Trimble, Darian E.

2011-05-01

214

VLSI Architecture Design Approaches for Real-Time Video Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the programmable and dedicated approaches for real-time video processing applications. Various VLSI architecture including the design examples of both approaches are reviewed. Finally, discussions of several practical designs in real-time video processing applications are then considered in VLSI architectures to provide significant guidelines to VLSI designers for any further real-time video processing design works.

A. AHMAD; K. K. LOO; J. COSMAS

2008-01-01

215

Real-time Video Quality Assessment in Packet Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a great demand to assess video quality transmitted in real time over packet networks, and to make this assessment in real time too. Quality assessment is achieved using two types of methods: objective or subjective. Subjective methods give more reliable results (objective ones do not correlate well with human perception), but unfortunately, they are not suitable to real-time

Samir Mohamed; Gerardo Rubino

216

Real-Time Simulation of Geomagnetically Induced Currents  

Microsoft Academic Search

To monitor the impact of geomagnetic disturbances on a power network a system has been developed to provide real-time simulations of the geomagnetically induced currents flowing in a power system. The Real- Time GIC Simulator uses real-time magnetic data from a magnetic observatory. This is combined with a model of the earth conductivity structure to determine the electric field produced

D. H. Boteler; L. Trichtchenko; R. Pirjola; J. Parmelee; S. Souksaly; A. Foss; L. Marti

2007-01-01

217

ARGO: Observing the Ocean in Real Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Beginning September 19, 2000, an international collaboration of oceanographers from such institutes as Scripps Institution of Oceanography, the University of Washington, Institut fuer Meereskunde (Germany), Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), and others are placing a global array of 3,000 floating instruments in the world's oceans. This project is called Argo, and its mission is to relay data on the salinity and temperature of the upper 2,000 meters of the ocean. According to the site, "Argo builds on the existing upper-ocean thermal networks, extending their spatial and temporal coverage, depth range and accuracy, and enhancing them through addition of salinity and velocity measurements. The name Argo is chosen to emphasize the strong complementary relationship of the global float array with the Jason altimeter mission. For the first time, the physical state of the upper ocean will be systematically measured and assimilated in near real-time." Visitors to the Argo site can see color schematics of the instrumentation layout, the probes, and maps of the array and present floats in the oceans. Documentation such as Argo scientific meeting reports, the design document, and an informational brochures can be downloaded in .pdf format, and a PowerPoint presentation with detailed color graphics is also available for download. Links to international oceanography programs and related news sites are provided as well.

218

Real-Time Dosimetry for Radiobiology Experiments Using 25 MeV LINAC  

SciTech Connect

The next generation of radiobiology research requires increasingly more complex radiation sources to address questions ranging from the effects of space-based radiation to the influence of dose rate on biological systems. The Idaho Accelerator Center (IAC) has developed a radiobiology research facility to address some of these questions. The irradiation challenge is to deliver stable and reproducible conditions of high dose rate with well-controlled beam uniformity, dose, and dose rate under controlled temperature. In this work, we used a 25 MeV modified medical grade linear accelerator (LINAC) to obtain a high and adjustable electron dose rate. To overcome electron beam drift we used a collimator that both assisted the LINAC operator to steer the beam and ensured that regardless of beam drift, only the fixed collimated beam would irradiate the specimens. In addition, we utilized a beam flattener to keep the beam variation as low as 3% at 2.5 cm from the beam's center, and 1% variation between the simultaneously irradiated sample tubes. We also demonstrated that a segmented Faraday 'cup'(FC) array provides a useful real-time beam scanning and monitoring system, and is promising for implementing real-time dosimetry and control.

Mestari, Mohammed A.; Naeem, Syed F. [Department of Physics, Idaho State University, 921 S. 8th St., MS 8106, Pocatello, ID 83209 (United States); Wells, Douglas P.; Hunt, Alan [Idaho Accelerator Center, Idaho State University, 921 S. 8th St., MS 8263, Pocatello, ID 83209 (United States); Department of Physics, Idaho State University, 921 S. 8th St., MS 8106, Pocatello, ID 83209 (United States); DeVeaux, Linda C. [Idaho Accelerator Center, Idaho State University, 921 S. 8th St., MS 8263, Pocatello, ID 83209 (United States); Department of Biological Sciences, Idaho State University, 921 S. 8th St., MS 8007, Pocatello, ID 83209 (United States)

2009-03-10

219

VLTI fringe tracking real time computer architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fringe tracking is a CPU intensive real time application. Rates of up to 1 KHz are needed to be able to freeze the atmosphere; in addition, each available baseline must be tracked independently. To be able to overcome the CPU performance limits, VLTI 1st generation trackers PRIMA fringe sensor unit (FSU) and FINITO were implemented in a distributed architecture separating the sensor from the controller. A side effect of this design was that the control loop delay increases as the system runs asynchronously causing an increase of the phase RMS value. This is in conflict with the objective of stabilizing the fringes with the smallest possible phase RMS. VLTI 2nd generation trackers (GRAVITY 6 and ESO 2GFT) currently being designed, will operate with up to six baselines and need to achieve phase RMS values smaller than 200 [nm]. This paper will present the computer architecture of the first generation trackers. Using simulations carried out in the PRIMA testbed, the induction of phase RMS by additional pure delays of the control loop will be precisely quantify. Afterwards, using the current architecture as reference, expected values of pure delays will be estimated for a six baselines tracker. Finally, an in order to overcome this problem, a new design that exploits the inherent parallelism of the multiples baselines and integrates the sensor and the controller in a single computer will be briefly proposed.

Abuter, Roberto; di Lieto, Nicola; Schmid, Christian

2012-07-01

220

Near Real-Time Image Reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, post-facto image-processing algorithms have been developed to achieve diffraction-limited observations of the solar surface. We present a combination of frame selection, speckle-masking imaging, and parallel computing which provides real-time, diffraction-limited, 256×256 pixel images at a 1-minute cadence. Our approach to achieve diffraction limited observations is complementary to adaptive optics (AO). At the moment, AO is limited by the fact that it corrects wavefront abberations only for a field of view comparable to the isoplanatic patch. This limitation does not apply to speckle-masking imaging. However, speckle-masking imaging relies on short-exposure images which limits its spectroscopic applications. The parallel processing of the data is performed on a Beowulf-class computer which utilizes off-the-shelf, mass-market technologies to provide high computational performance for scientific calculations and applications at low cost. Beowulf computers have a great potential, not only for image reconstruction, but for any kind of complex data reduction. Immediate access to high-level data products and direct visualization of dynamic processes on the Sun are two of the advantages to be gained.

Denker, C.; Yang, G.; Wang, H.

2001-08-01

221

Nonlinear real-time optical signal processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report summarizes the results of a research program in nonlinear real-time optical signal processing. The program began April 15, 1981 and ended June 30, 1984. The research effort has centered on optical sequential logic systems and their use in digital optical computers, and on variable grating mode (VGM) liquid crystal spatial light modulators. As part of this study, parallel and twisted nematic liquid crystal light valve (LCLV) devices have been used as a nonlinear element in a feedback arrangement to implement a binary sequential logic system. A computer generated hologram fabricated on an e-beam system serves as a beamsteering interconnection element. A completely optical oscillator and frequency divider have been experimentally demonstrated, and various circuit interconnection techniques have been explored. Variable-grating mode (VGM) liquid crystal devices that perform local spatial frequency modulation as a function of the incident intensity have also been investigated. These devices can be used for nonlinear processing by selection and recombination of devices can be used for nonlinear processing by selection and recombination of these spatial frequency components. These devices have many interesting physical effects with useful applications in both analog and numerical optical signal processing.

Sawchuk, A. A.; Strand, T. C.; Tanguay, A. R., Jr.

1984-10-01

222

Real time visual servoing using controlled illumination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A real-time visual servoing approach is applied to robotics tasks consisting of the positioning of the end effector with respect to a priori known polyhedral objects. The vision apparatus is consituted by a compact CCD camera rigidly coupled with two laser stripes mounted on the wrist of a robot manipulator. The objective is to servo the robot and effector at a constant position and orientation with respect to a known object in three- dimensional space in the field of view of the sensory system. The approach is expressed in terms of sensor-based control applied to visual servoing. In the case of camera-light stripe coupling, the elementary visual signals used for visual servoing are the points of discontinuity in the light stripes. The feasibility of the approach is demonstrated in a factory automation task consisting of the positioning of the end-effector tool over a vehicle battery. Both simulation and experimentation results are presented, proving the robustness and stability of the algorithm.

Urban, J. P.; Motyl, G.; Gallice, J.

1994-02-01

223

Real-Time Accumulative Computation Motion Detectors  

PubMed Central

The neurally inspired accumulative computation (AC) method and its application to motion detection have been introduced in the past years. This paper revisits the fact that many researchers have explored the relationship between neural networks and finite state machines. Indeed, finite state machines constitute the best characterized computational model, whereas artificial neural networks have become a very successful tool for modeling and problem solving. The article shows how to reach real-time performance after using a model described as a finite state machine. This paper introduces two steps towards that direction: (a) A simplification of the general AC method is performed by formally transforming it into a finite state machine. (b) A hardware implementation in FPGA of such a designed AC module, as well as an 8-AC motion detector, providing promising performance results. We also offer two case studies of the use of AC motion detectors in surveillance applications, namely infrared-based people segmentation and color-based people tracking, respectively.

Fernandez-Caballero, Antonio; Lopez, Maria Teresa; Castillo, Jose Carlos; Maldonado-Bascon, Saturnino

2009-01-01

224

Real-time DIRCM system modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Directed infrared countermeasures (DIRCM) play an increasingly important role in electronic warfare to counteract threats posed by infrared seekers. The usefulness and performance of such countermeasures depend, for example, on atmospheric conditions (attenuation and turbulence) and platform vibrations, causing pointing and tracking errors for the laser beam and reducing the power transferred to the seeker aperture. These problems make it interesting to simulate the performance of a DIRCM system in order to understand how easy or difficult it is to counteract an approaching threat and evaluate limiting factors in various situations. This paper describes a DIRCM model that has been developed, including atmospheric effects such as attenuation and turbulence as well as closed loop tracking algorithms, where the retro reflex of the laser is used for the pointing control of the beam. The DIRCM model is part of a large simulation framework (EWSim), which also incorporates several descriptions of different seekers (e.g. reticle, rosette, centroid, nutating cross) and models of robot dynamics. Effects of a jamming laser on a specific threat can be readily verified by simulations within this framework. The duel between missile and countermeasure is simulated in near real-time and visualized graphically in 3D. A typical simulation with a reticle seeker jammed by a modulated laser is included in the paper.

Petersson, Mikael

2004-12-01

225

Real-time adaptive radiometric compensation.  

PubMed

Recent radiometric compensation techniques make it possible to project images onto colored and textured surfaces. This is realized with projector-camera systems by scanning the projection surface on a per-pixel basis. Using the captured information, a compensation image is calculated that neutralizes geometric distortions and color blending caused by the underlying surface. As a result, the brightness and the contrast of the input image is reduced compared to a conventional projection onto a white canvas. If the input image is not manipulated in its intensities, the compensation image can contain values that are outside the dynamic range of the projector. These will lead to clipping errors and to visible artifacts on the surface. In this article, we present an innovative algorithm that dynamically adjusts the content of the input images before radiometric compensation is carried out. This reduces the perceived visual artifacts while simultaneously preserving a maximum of luminance and contrast. The algorithm is implemented entirely on the GPU and is the first of its kind to run in real-time. PMID:17993705

Grundhöfer, Anselm; Bimber, Oliver

226

Real-time Streaming Technology in Educational Settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streaming media is a method of making audio, video and other media files available in real-time, with no download wait, over the Internet or corporate Intranets. This paper briefly introduces the application of real-time streaming technology in educational settings. This paper also shows two case studies where simple virtual classrooms are used to support real classroom environments. It is shown

Parviz Doulai

2002-01-01

227

Faraday Disk Dynamo Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EJS Faraday Disk Dynamo shows a conducting disk that rotates in a magnetic field. This produces a current (homopolar generator) and for certain configurations, it is a self-exciting dynamo. A self-exciting dynamo is the mechanical analog of a proposed mechanism to produce the earth and sun's magnetic fields. You can modify this simulation if you have Ejs installed by right-clicking within the plot and selecting âOpen Ejs Modelâ from the pop-up menu item. The Faraday Disk Dynamo model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_em_FaradayDiskDynamo.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.

Cox, Anne

2009-09-28

228

A Rigorous Method for Testing Real-Time Reactive Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real-time reactive systems are complex systems to design andverify. Rigorous testing of real- time reactive systems complement the more difficult and expe nsive formal verification process. This paper gives a rigorous method for black-box testing of real- time reactive systems whose design specifications are given in the Timed Reactive Object Model (TROM) formalism. This paper discusses a black-box testing method

Vangalur S. Alagar; Mao Zheng

2001-01-01

229

Robust Partitioning for Reliable Real-Time Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechatronic systems request for high reliability, especially in the context of time where mostly hard real-time capabilities are mandatory. Maybe even stronger requirements regard the robustness against software failures and interdependences from erroneous tasks to others. This paper proposes the concept of robust partitioning for reliable real-time embedded systems. The concept consists of two parts, memory space protection and time

Reinhard Seyer; Christian Siemers; Rainer Falsett; Klaus H. Ecker; Harald Richter

2004-01-01

230

The use of cache memory in real-time systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real-time computer systems must meet specific deadlines in generating their outputs. As a result, all components of the real-time system must have predictable performance so that hardware resources can be effectively scheduled, ensuring that all deadlines are met. Cache memories, by their nature, have unpredictable access times which result in execution times that may vary significantly for multiple runs of

M. K. J. Milligan; H. G. Cragon

1996-01-01

231

Real Time Wide Area Radiation Surveillance System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the REWARD project, financed within the FP7 programme, theme SEC-2011.1.5-1 (Development of detection capabilities of difficult to detect radioactive sources and nuclear materials - Capability Project). Within this project, we propose a novel mobile system for real time, wide area radiation surveillance. The system is based on the integration of new miniaturized solid-state radiation sensors: a CdZnTe detector for gamma radiation and a high efficiency neutron detector based on novel silicon technologies. The sensing unit will include a wireless communication interface to send the data remotely to a monitoring base station which also uses a GPS system to calculate the position of the tag. The system will also incorporate middleware and high level software to provide web-service interfaces for the exchange of information, and that will offer top level functionalities as management of users, mobile tags and environment data and alarms, database storage and management and a web-based graphical user interface. Effort will be spent to ensure that the software is modular and re-usable across as many architectural levels as possible. Finally, an expert system will continuously analyze the information from the radiation sensor and correlate it with historical data from the tag location in order to generate an alarm when an abnormal situation is detected. The system will be useful for many different scenarios, including such lost radioactive sources and radioactive contamination. It will be possible to deploy in emergency units and in general in any type of mobile or static equipment. The sensing units will be highly portable thanks to their low size and low energy consumption. The complete system will be scalable in terms of complexity and cost and will offer very high precision on both the measurement and the location of the radiation. The modularity and flexibility of the system will allow for a realistic introduction to the market. Authorities may start with a basic, low cost system and increase the complexity of it based on the latest needs and also on the budget.

Biafore, M.

2012-04-01

232

Instrumentation development for real time brainwave monitoring.  

SciTech Connect

The human brain functions through a chemically-induced biological process which operates in a manner similar to electrical systems. The signal resulting from this biochemical process can actually be monitored and read using tools and having patterns similar to those found in electrical and electronics engineering. The primary signature of this electrical activity is the ''brain wave'', which looks remarkably similar to the output of many electrical systems. Likewise, the device currently used in medical arenas to read brain electrical activity is the electroencephalogram (EEG) which is synonymous with a multi-channel oscilloscope reading. Brain wave readings and recordings for medical purposes are traditionally taken in clinical settings such as hospitals, laboratories or diagnostic clinics. The signal is captured via externally applied scalp electrodes using semi-viscous gel to reduce impedance. The signal will be in the 10 to 100 microvolt range. In other instances, where surgeons are attempting to isolate particular types of minute brain signals, the electrodes may actually be temporarily implanted in the brain during a preliminary procedure. The current configurations of equipment required for EEGs involve large recording instruments, many electrodes, wires, and large amounts of hard disk space devoted to storing large files of brain wave data which are then eventually analyzed for patterns of concern. Advances in sensors, signal processing, data storage and microelectronics over the last decade would seem to have paved the way for the realization of devices capable of ''real time'' external monitoring, and possible assessment, of brain activity. A myriad of applications for such a capability are likewise presenting themselves, including the ability to assess brain functioning, level of functioning and malfunctioning. Our plan is to develop the sensors, signal processing, and portable instrumentation package which could capture, analyze, and communicate information on brain activity which could be of use to the individual, medical personnel or in other potential arenas. To take this option one step further, one might foresee that the signal would be captured, analyzed, and communicated to a person or device and which would result an action or reaction by that person or device. It is envisioned that ultimately a system would include a sensor detection mechanism, transmitter, receiver, microprocessor and associated memory, and audio and/or visual alert system. If successful in prototyping, the device could be considered for eventual implementation in ASIC form or as a fully integrated CMOS microsystem.

Anderson, Lawrence Frederick; Clough, Benjamin W.

2005-12-01

233

Real-time Forensic Disaster Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM, www.cedim.de) - an interdisciplinary research center founded by the German Research Centre for Geoscience (GFZ) and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) - has embarked on a new style of disaster research known as Forensic Disaster Analysis. The notion has been coined by the Integrated Research on Disaster Risk initiative (IRDR, www.irdrinternational.org) launched by ICSU in 2010. It has been defined as an approach to studying natural disasters that aims at uncovering the root causes of disasters through in-depth investigations that go beyond the reconnaissance reports and case studies typically conducted after disasters. In adopting this comprehensive understanding of disasters CEDIM adds a real-time component to the assessment and evaluation process. By comprehensive we mean that most if not all relevant aspects of disasters are considered and jointly analysed. This includes the impact (human, economy, and infrastructure), comparisons with recent historic events, social vulnerability, reconstruction and long-term impacts on livelihood issues. The forensic disaster analysis research mode is thus best characterized as "event-based research" through systematic investigation of critical issues arising after a disaster across various inter-related areas. The forensic approach requires (a) availability of global data bases regarding previous earthquake losses, socio-economic parameters, building stock information, etc.; (b) leveraging platforms such as the EERI clearing house, relief-web, and the many sources of local and international sources where information is organized; and (c) rapid access to critical information (e.g., crowd sourcing techniques) to improve our understanding of the complex dynamics of disasters. The main scientific questions being addressed are: What are critical factors that control loss of life, of infrastructure, and for economy? What are the critical interactions between hazard - socio-economic systems - technological systems? What were the protective measures and to what extent did they work? Can we predict pattern of losses and socio-economic implications for future extreme events from simple parameters: hazard parameters, historic evidence, socio-economic conditions? Can we predict implications for reconstruction from simple parameters: hazard parameters, historic evidence, socio-economic conditions? The M7.2 Van Earthquake (Eastern Turkey) of 23 Oct. 2011 serves as an example for a forensic approach.

Wenzel, F.; Daniell, J.; Khazai, B.; Mühr, B.; Kunz-Plapp, T.; Markus, M.; Vervaeck, A.

2012-04-01

234

Professor Henry, Mr. Faraday, and the Hunt for Electromagnetic Induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

On different sides of the Atlantic but about the same time, Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry announced success in a quest that had preoccupied the scientific community for a decade: coaxing electricity from magnetism. \\

Albert E. Moyer

1997-01-01

235

Development of Real-time Seismic Cable System  

Microsoft Academic Search

RSCS (Real-time seismic Cable System) is a new real-time seafloor reflection seismic observation system. It is a series of 3-component geophones and telemetry opto-electronics equipped into a high pressure resistant housing, which enables real-time seismic data acquisition at ultra deep sea. The first reflection seismic survey was carried out in March 2006. The geophone data show the high quality with

H. Takahashi; E. Asakawa; Y. Kawai; Y. Ogasawara; T. Saeki

2007-01-01

236

A Switch Design for Real-Time Industrial Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The convergence of computers and the physical world is the theme for next generation networking research. This trend calls for real-time network infrastructure, which re- quires a high-speed real-time WAN to serve as its back- bone. However, commercially available high-speed WAN switches (routers) are designed for best-effort Internet traf- fic. A real-time switch design for the aforementioned net- works is

Qixin Wang; Sathish Gopalakrishnan; Xue Liu; Lui Sha

2008-01-01

237

RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This memorandum describes RTP, the real-time transport protocol. RTP provides end-to-end network transport functions suitable for applications transmitting real-time data, such as audio, video or simulation data, over multicast or unicast network services. RTP does not address resource reservation and does not guarantee quality-of-service for real-time services. The data transport is augmented by a control protocol (RTCP) to allow monitoring

H. Schulzrinne; S. Casner; R. Frederick; V. Jacobson

2001-01-01

238

Real-time optimal power flow in automatic generation control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe the concept, mathematical formulation, and solution of a real-time OPF (optimal power flow) in an energy management system. The real-time OPF replaces a classical real-time economic dispatch whenever a network flow violation occurs. To meet performance requirements (solution speed and frequency of execution) a two-stage approach is proposed. A full OPF is first executed in a nontime-critical

R. Bacher; H. P. Van Meeteren

1988-01-01

239

Quantification using real-time PCR technology: applications and limitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of real-time PCR technology has significantly improved and simplified the quantification of nucleic acids, and this technology has become an invaluable tool for many scientists working in different disciplines. Especially in the field of molecular diagnostics, real-time PCR-based assays have gained favour in the recent past. However, the wide use of real-time PCR methods has also highlighted some

Dieter Klein

2002-01-01

240

Real-time programming platforms in the mainstream environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The functionality of a real-time system is divided into separate run able entities, referred to as tasks. The term real -time system refers to generally-rendered system as processing unit having a set of input & output. There exists a group of notions closely intertwined when speaking of real-time system. The term embedded system refers to equipment or devices not classified

Husein A. Al Ofeishat; Ahmad A. Al-Rababah

2009-01-01

241

New real-time strain imaging concepts using diagnostic ultrasound  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two real-time strain imaging concepts and systems are presented. Both systems are based on a conventional ultrasound scanner that is connected to a PC with an A\\/D converter card for real-time data acquisition of rf data. Differential strain between successively acquired rf frames are estimated using phase root seeking. The first concept uses a special real-time implementation of manual elastography.

A. Pesavento; A. Lorenz; S. Siebers; H. Ermert

2000-01-01

242

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF REAL TIME SCHEDULING IN CONTROL SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real time computing is considered an important and enabling technology for many application areas such as control systems. Its main characteristic is to provide predictability; i.e. it should be possible to prove that requirements are met, in accordance to any assumptions made. Regarding timing requirements, real time scheduling is the main concern. An increasing number of complex systems relying, in

Pau MARTÍ

243

Real-Time Interactive Learning in the NERO Video Game  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the NeuroEvolving Robotic Operatives (NERO) video game, the player trains a team of virtual robots for combat against other players' teams. The virtual robots learn in real time through interacting with the player. Since NERO was originally released in June, 2005, it has been downloaded over 50,000 times, ap- peared on Slashdot, and won several honors. The real- time

Kenneth O. Stanley; Igor Karpov; Risto Miikkulainen; Aliza Gold

2006-01-01

244

Fast Simulation of Tsunamis in Real Time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Tsunami Warning Centers primarily base their wave height forecasts on precomputed tsunami scenarios, such as the SIFT model (Standby Inundation Forecasting of Tsunamis) developed by NOAA's Center for Tsunami Research. In SIFT, tsunami simulations for about 1600 individual earthquake sources, each 100x50 km, define shallow subduction worldwide. These simulations are stored in a database and combined linearly to make up the tsunami from any great earthquake. Precomputation is necessary because the nonlinear shallow-water wave equations are too time consuming to compute during an event. While such scenario-based models are valuable, they tacitly assume all energy in a tsunami comes from thrust at the décollement. The thrust assumption is often violated (e.g., 1933 Sanriku, 2007 Kurils, 2009 Samoa), while a significant number of tsunamigenic earthquakes are completely unrelated to subduction (e.g., 1812 Santa Barbara, 1939 Accra, 1975 Kalapana). Finally, parts of some subduction zones are so poorly defined that precomputations may be of little value (e.g., 1762 Arakan, 1755 Lisbon). For all such sources, a fast means of estimating tsunami size is essential. At the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center, we have been using our model RIFT (Real-time Inundation Forecasting of Tsunamis) experimentally for two years. RIFT is fast by design: it solves only the linearized form of the equations. At 4 arc-minutes resolution calculations for the entire Pacific take just a few minutes on an 8-processor Linux box. Part of the rationale for developing RIFT was earthquakes of M 7.8 or smaller, which approach the lower limit of the more complex SIFT's abilities. For such events we currently issue a fixed warning to areas within 1,000 km of the source, which typically means a lot of over-warning. With sources defined by W-phase CMTs, exhaustive comparison with runup data shows that we can reduce the warning area significantly. Even before CMTs are available, we routinely run models based on the local tectonics, which provide a useful first estimate of the tsunami. Our runup comparisons show that Green's Law (i.e., 1-D runup estimates) works very well indeed, especially if computations are run at 2 arc-minutes. We are developing an experimental RIFT-based product showing expected runups on open coasts. While these will necessarily be rather crude they will be a great help to emergency managers trying to assess the hazard. RIFT is typically run using a single source, but it can already handle multiple sources. In particular, it can handle multiple sources of different orientations such as 1993 Okushiri, or the décollement-splay combinations to be expected during major earthquakes in accretionary margins such as Nankai, Cascadia, and Middle America. As computers get faster and the number-crunching burden is off-loaded to GPUs, we are convinced there will still be a use for a fast, linearized, modeling capability. Rather than applying scaling laws to a CMT, or distributing slip over 100x50 km sub-faults, for example, it would be preferable to model tsunamis using the output from a finite-fault analysis. To accomplish such a compute-bound task fast enough for warning purposes will demand a rapid, approximate technique like RIFT.

Fryer, G. J.; Wang, D.; Becker, N. C.; Weinstein, S. A.; Walsh, D.

2011-12-01

245

Optical Faraday rotation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three calculations of optical Faraday rotation are presented in which a linearly polarized field is incident on a medium of harmonic oscillators in the presence of a longitudinal magnetic field. The rotation of the plane of polarization of the field is evaluated using classical oscillators and the Lorentz force equation, quantum oscillators and the Heisenberg equations of motion, and quantum oscillators and a Schrödinger equation approach. It is shown that a simple argument, based on the assumption that a circularly polarized field drives either ?m=1 or ?m=-1 transitions on absorption (m is the magnetic quantum number), leads to an incorrect result for the Verdet constant.

Berman, P. R.

2010-03-01

246

Exact Acceleration of Real-Time Model Checking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dierent time scales do often occur in real-time systems, e.g., a polling real-time system samples the environment many times per second, whereas the environment may only change a few times per second. When these systems are modeled as (net- works of) timed automata, the validation using symbolic model checking techniques can significantly be slowed down by unnecessary fragmentation of the

Martijn Hendriks; Kim Guldstrand Larsen

2002-01-01

247

Real-time embedded emotional controller  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies show that emotion is a mechanism for fast decision-making in human and other animals. Mathematical models have\\u000a been developed for describing emotion in mammals. These models, similar to other bioinspired models, must be implemented in\\u000a embedded platforms for industrial and real applications. In this paper, brain emotional learning based intelligent controller,\\u000a which is based on mammalian middle brain,

M. R. Jamali; M. Dehyadegari; Arash Arami; Caro Lucas; Zainalabedin Navabi

2010-01-01

248

Real Time Flux Control in PM Motors  

SciTech Connect

Significant research at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) is being conducted to develop ways to increase (1) torque, (2) speed range, and (3) efficiency of traction electric motors for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) within existing current and voltage bounds. Current is limited by the inverter semiconductor devices' capability and voltage is limited by the stator wire insulation's ability to withstand the maximum back-electromotive force (emf), which occurs at the upper end of the speed range. One research track has been to explore ways to control the path and magnitude of magnetic flux while the motor is operating. The phrase, real time flux control (RTFC), refers to this mode of operation in which system parameters are changed while the motor is operating to improve its performance and speed range. RTFC has potential to meet an increased torque demand by introducing additional flux through the main air gap from an external source. It can augment the speed range by diverting flux away from the main air gap to reduce back-emf at high speeds. Conventional RTFC technology is known as vector control [1]. Vector control decomposes the stator current into two components; one that produces torque and a second that opposes (weakens) the magnetic field generated by the rotor, thereby requiring more overall stator current and reducing the efficiency. Efficiency can be improved by selecting a RTFC method that reduces the back-emf without increasing the average current. This favors methods that use pulse currents or very low currents to achieve field weakening. Foremost in ORNL's effort to develop flux control is the work of J. S. Hsu. Early research [2,3] introduced direct control of air-gap flux in permanent magnet (PM) machines and demonstrated it with a flux-controlled generator. The configuration eliminates the problem of demagnetization because it diverts all the flux from the magnets instead of trying to oppose it. It is robust and could be particularly useful for PM generators and electric vehicle drives. Recent efforts have introduced a brushless machine that transfers a magneto-motive force (MMF) generated by a stationary excitation coil to the rotor [4]. Although a conventional PM machine may be field weakened using vector control, the air-gap flux density cannot be effectively enhanced. In Hsu's new machine, the magnetic field generated by the rotor's PM may be augmented by the field from the stationery excitation coil and channeled with flux guides to its desired destination to enhance the air-gap flux that produces torque. The magnetic field can also be weakened by reversing the current in the stationary excitation winding. A patent for advanced technology in this area is pending. Several additional RTFC methods have been discussed in open literature. These include methods of changing the number of poles by magnetizing and demagnetizing the magnets poles with pulses of current corresponding to direct-axis (d-axis) current of vector control [5,6], changing the number of stator coils [7], and controlling the air gap [8]. Test experience has shown that the magnet strengths may vary and weaken naturally as rotor temperature increases suggesting that careful control of the rotor temperature, which is no easy task, could yield another method of RTFC. The purpose of this report is to (1) examine the interaction of rotor and stator flux with regard to RTFC, (2) review and summarize the status of RTFC technology, and (3) compare and evaluate methods for RTFC with respect to maturity, advantages and limitations, deployment difficulty and relative complexity.

Otaduy, P.J.

2005-09-27

249

Feedback Control Real-Time Scheduling: Framework, Modeling, and Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a feedback control real-time scheduling (FCS) framework for adaptive real-timesystems. An advantage of the FCS framework is its use of feedback control theory (rather than ad hoc solutions)as a scientific underpinning. We apply a control theory based methodology to systematically design FCSalgorithms to satisfy the transient and steady state performance specifications of real-time systems. In particular,we establish

Chenyang Lu; John A. Stankovic; Sang Hyuk Son; Gang Tao

2002-01-01

250

Deductive Verification of Probabilistic Real-Time Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many people have studied formal specification and verification methods of real-time systems all over the world. We can specify real-time systems using timed automata, and verify them using model-checking. Especially, recently, probabilistic timed automata and their model-checking have been developed in order to express the relative likelihood of the system exhibiting certain behavior. Moreover, model-checking and probabilistic timed simulation verification

Satoshi Yamane

2004-01-01

251

A real world object modeling method for creating simulation environment of real-time systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most real-time embedded control software feature complex interactions with asynchronous inputs and environment objects, and a meaningful simulation of a real-time control software specification requires realistic simulation of its environment. Two problems that need to be addressed in the simulation of a target software system and its environment: First, integration and simulation of the specifications of a target software system

Ji Y. Lee; Hye J. Kim; Kyo C. Kang

2000-01-01

252

REAL-TIME ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING: APPLICATIONS FOR HOMELAND SECURITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Real-time monitoring technology developed as part of the EMPACT program has a variety of potential applications. These tools can measure a variety of potential contaminants in the air, water, in buildings, or in the soil. Real-time monitoring technology allows these detection sys...

253

Real-Time Business Intelligence: Best Practices at Continental Airlines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data management for decision support has moved through three generations, with the latest being real-time data warehousing. This latest generation is significant because of its potential for affecting tactical decision making and business processes. Continental Airlines is a leader in real-time business intelligence, and much can be learned from how they have implemented it.

Hugh J. Watson; Barbara H. Wixom; Jeffrey A. Hoffer; Ron Anderson-lehman; Anne Marie Reynolds

2006-01-01

254

Real-time multispectral imaging application for poultry safety inspection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ARS imaging research group in Athens, Georgia has developed a real-time multispectral imaging system for fecal and ingesta contaminant detection on broiler carcasses for poultry industry. The industrial scale system includes a common aperture camera with three visible wavelength optical trim filters. This paper demonstrates calibration of common aperture multispectral imaging hardware and real-time image processing software. The software

Kurt C. Lawrence; William R. Windham; Matthew P. Snead

2006-01-01

255

Real-Time, Fully Automatic Upper Facial Feature Tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robust, real-time, fully automatic tracking of facial fea- tures is required for many computer vision and graphics ap- plications. In this paper, we describe a fully automatic sys- tem that tracks eyes and eyebrows in real time. The pupils are tracked using the red eye effect by an infrared sensitive camera equipped with infrared LEDs. Templates are used to parameterize

Ashish Kapoor; Rosalind W. Picard

2002-01-01

256

Towards a Real-Time Cluster Computing Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

Real-time computing has traditionally been considered largely in the context of single-processor and embedded systems, and indeed, the terms real-time computing, embedded systems, and control systems are often mentioned in closely related contexts. However, real-time computing in the context of multinode systems, specifically high-performance, cluster-computing systems, remains relatively unexplored, largely due to the fact that until now, there has not been a need for such an environment. In this paper, we motivate the need for a cluster computing infrastructure capable of supporting computation over large datasets in real-time. Our motivating example is an analytical framework to support the next generation North American power grid, which is growing both in size and complexity. With streaming sensor data in the future power grid potentially reaching rates on the order of terabytes per day, the task of analyzing this data subject to real-time guarantees becomes a daunting task which will require the power of high-performance cluster computing capable of functioning under real-time constraints. One specific challenge that such an environment presents is the need for real-time networked communication between cluster nodes. In this paper, we discuss the need for real-time high-performance cluster computation, along with our work-in-progress towards an infrastructure which will ultimately enable such an environment.

Hui, Peter SY; Chikkagoudar, Satish; Chavarría-Miranda, Daniel; Johnston, Mark R.

2011-11-01

257

Real-Time Simulator of a Turbofan Engine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A real-time digital simulator of a Pratt and Whitney F100 engine has been developed for real-time code verification and for actuator diagnosis during full-scale engine testing. This self-contained unit can operate in an open-loop stand-alone mode ore as p...

J. C. DeLaat J. S. Litt W. C. Merrill

1989-01-01

258

The Use of Real Time Computers for Inventory Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A real-time system provides immediate access to information stored in the computer by operating personnel throughout the organization. The purpose of this thesis is to analyze existing and proposed real-time inventory control systems in order to determine...

D. D. Sharp

1964-01-01

259

Efficient HVDC converter model for real time transients simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient model has been developed to simulate high voltage direct current (HVDC) power converters in real-time transient simulators. Real time performance of 45 ?s per solution step has been achieved for a 12-pulse monopolar converter and 81 ?s for the bipolar converter using a single processor Pentium Pro 200 MHz desktop computer. The HVDC power converter model is solved

S. Acevedo; L. R. Linares; J. R. Marti; Y. Fujimoto

1999-01-01

260

Real-Time Optic Flow Computation with Variational Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variational methods for optic flow computation have the rep- utation of producing good results at the expense of being too slow for real-time applications. We show that real-time variational computation of optic flow fields is possible when appropriate methods are combined with modern numerical techniques. We consider the CLG method, a re- cent variational technique that combines the quality of

Andrés Bruhn; Joachim Weickert; Christian Feddern; Timo Kohlberger; Christoph Schnörr

2003-01-01

261

A study of real estate investment timing under asymmetric duopoly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optimal timing analysis of the land development is not only an important topic for real estate firms, but also the focus of the application of option-game theory. This paper constructs a continuous time option game model under asymmetrical duopoly by assuming that different competitive strengths exits between duopoly due to differentiated real estate products, and deduces the equilibrium strategies

Y. Wang; Y. Zhou; W. K. Xu

2009-01-01

262

Real-Time Mass Passenger Transport Network Optimization Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the real-time mass transport vehicle routing problem (MTVRP) is to find a solution to route n vehicles in real time to pick up and deliver m passengers. This problem is described in the context of flexible large-scale mass transportation options that use new technologies for communication among passengers and vehicles. This study does not focus on the

Laia Pages; R. Jayakrishnan

2006-01-01

263

Shape based kinetic outlier detection in real-time PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Real-time PCR has recently become the technique of choice for absolute and relative nucleic acid quantification. The gold standard quantification method in real-time PCR assumes that the compared samples have similar PCR efficiency. However, many factors present in biological samples affect PCR kinetic, confounding quantification analysis. In this work we propose a new strategy to detect outlier samples, called

Davide Sisti; Michele Guescini; Marco B. L. Rocchi; Pasquale Tibollo; Mario D'Atri; Vilberto Stocchi

2010-01-01

264

IPS Real-Time Space Weather Status Panel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The IPS (Ionospheric Prediction Service) Real-Time Space Weather Status Panel, an agency of the Australian government, offers this collection of real-time space weather data. Available here are different types of up-to-date data for solar conditions, ionospheric conditions, and geomagnetic conditions.

265

Energy Aware Scheduling for Distributed Real-Time Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power management has become popular in mobile com- puting as well as in server farms. Although a lot of work has been done to manage the energy consumption on uniproces- sor real-time systems, there is less work done on their multi- computer counterparts. For a set of real-time tasks with precedence constraints executing on a distributed system, we propose new

Ramesh Mishra; Namrata Rastogi; Dakai Zhu; Daniel Mossé; Rami G. Melhem

2003-01-01

266

Neural Networks for Real-Time Traffic Signal Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real-time traffic signal control is an integral part of the urban traffic control system, and providing effective real-time traffic signal control for a large complex traffic network is an extremely challenging distributed control problem. This paper adopts the multiagent system approach to develop distributed unsupervised traffic responsive signal control models, where each agent in the system is a local traffic

Dipti Srinivasan; Min Chee Choy; Ruey Long Cheu

2006-01-01

267

Real-Time Data Fusion in the Intensive Care Unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of the process trellis, a domain- and hardware-independent software architecture. Its usefulness in building the Intelligent Cardiovascular Monitor, a real-time clinical decision-support system whose 'paving-stone' interface gives a clinician an instantaneous overview of a patient's status, is demonstrated. Issues of parallelism, real-time operation, and visualization are discussed.

Michael Factor; David H. Gelernter; Craig E. Kolb; Perry L. Miller; Dean F. Sittig

1991-01-01

268

Real-time video mosaicking of the ocean floor  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach was developed for real-time creation of video mosaics of the ocean floor. The approach uses visual correspondence during both image acquisition and consolidation to insure that there are no gaps in the mosaic. The use of visual information for mosaic creation offers an accuracy previously unachievable in real time. A complete mosaicking approach was developed, including a technique

R. L. Marks; S. M. Rock; M. J. Lee

1995-01-01

269

Real-time optoacoustic monitoring of temperature in tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve the safety and efficacy of thermal therapy, it is necessary to map tissue temperature in real time with submillimetre spatial resolution. Accurate temperature maps may provide the necessary control of the boundaries of the heated regions and minimize thermal damage to surrounding normal tissues. Current imaging modalities fail to monitor tissue temperature in real time with high resolution

Irina V. Larina; Kirill V. Larin; Rinat O. Esenaliev

2005-01-01

270

Collaborative Real-time Digital Reference Services in Academic Libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The real-time digital reference service is valued by most academic librarians in United States. To make the collaborative real-time digital reference service viable in academic library service, the libraries need to understand the information seeking behavior of potential users and to train the staff well. The participating libraries also need to coordinate the following issues in advance: quality control, question

Shiao-Feng Su

2004-01-01

271

The Durham adaptive optics real-time controller  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Durham adaptive optics real-time controller was initially a proof of concept design for a generic adaptive optics control system. It has since been developed into a modern and powerful CPU based real-time control system, capable of using hardware acceleration (including FPGAs and GPUs), based primarily around commercial off the shelf hardware. It is powerful enough to be used as

Alastair Basden; Deli Geng; Richard Myers; Eddy Younger

2010-01-01

272

Statistical analysis of real-time PCR data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Even though real-time PCR has been broadly applied in biomedical sciences, data processing procedures for the analysis of quantitative real-time PCR are still lacking; specifically in the realm of appropriate statistical treatment. Confidence interval and statistical significance considerations are not explicit in many of the current data analysis approaches. Based on the standard curve method and other useful data

Joshua S. Yuan; Ann Reed; Feng Chen; C. Neal Stewart Jr.

2006-01-01

273

COMPUTER-CONTROLLED, REAL-TIME AUTOMOBILE EMISSIONS MONITORING SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

A minicomputer controlled automotive emissions sampling and analysis system (the Real-Time System) was developed to determine vehicular modal emissions over various test cycles. This data acquisition system can sample real-time emissions at a rate of 10 samples/s. A buffer utiliz...

274

A systematic approach to designing distributed real-time systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe the use of generalized rate monotonic scheduling (GRMS) theory for the design and analysis of a distributed real-time system. This theory ensures that as long as the system utilization of all tasks lies below a certain bound, and appropriate scheduling algorithms are used, all tasks will meet their deadlines. This puts the development and maintenance of real-time

L. Sha; S. S. Sathaye

1993-01-01

275

Hardware implementation of a real-time operating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new approach to realize a very high performance real-time OS using VLSI technology. In this method, quick and steady response can be guaranteed by implementing basic operations of a real-time OS as a peripheral chip (Silicon TRON) to be connected to general purpose microprocessors. In order to confirm the effectiveness of this method, most basic system

T. Nakano; A. Utama; M. Itabashi; A. Shiomi; M. Imai

1995-01-01

276

Scheduling Algorithm for Real-Time Operating Systems Using ACO  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ant Colony Optimization algorithms (ACO) are computational models inspired by the collective foraging behavior of ants. By looking at the strengths of ACO, they are the most appropriate for scheduling of tasks in soft real-time systems. In this paper, ACO based scheduling algorithm for real-time operating systems (RTOS) has been proposed. During simulation, results are obtained with periodic tasks,

Apurva Shah; Ketan Kotecha

2010-01-01

277

Real-Time Community Sea Otter Monitoring Project 2004.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Real-Time Community Sea Otter Monitoring Project 2004: Final Report details the process and outcome of a pilot community monitoring project. From March 2005 to March 2006, TASSC worked with two Tribal Governments to implement the Real-Time Community S...

E. Fruzza L. Jack

2006-01-01

278

Real-Time Landslide Warning During Heavy Rainfall  

Microsoft Academic Search

A real-time system for issuing warnings of landslides during major storms is being developed for the San Francisco Bay region, California. The system is based on empirical and theoretical relations between rainfall and landslide initiation, geologic determination of areas sus­ ceptible to landslides, real-time monitoring of a regional network oftelemetering rain gages, and National Weath­ er Service precipitation forecasts. This

DAVID K. KEEFER; RAYMOND C. WILSON; R. K. MARK; EARL E. BRABB; WILLIAM M. BROWN; STEPHEN D. ELLEN; EDWIN L. HARP; G. F. WIECZOREK; C. S. ALGER; R. S. ZATKIN

1987-01-01

279

Real-time PCR for universal phytoplasma detection and quantification.  

PubMed

Currently, the most efficient detection and precise quantification of phytoplasmas is by real-time PCR. Compared to nested PCR, this method is less sensitive to contamination and is less work intensive. Therefore, a universal real-time PCR method will be valuable in screening programs and in other setups in which large numbers of samples are tested. PMID:22987421

Christensen, Nynne Meyn; Nyskjold, Henriette; Nicolaisen, Mogens

2013-01-01

280

Real Time Loss Detection for SNM in Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper discusses the basis of a design for real time special nuclear material (SNM) loss detectors. The design utilizes process measurements and signal processing techniques to produce a timely estimate of material loss. A state estimator is employed ...

J. V. Candy D. R. Dunn D. T. Gavel

1980-01-01

281

Temporal Proof Methodologies for Real-Time Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The authors extend the specification language of temporal logic, the corresponding verification framework, and the underlying computational model to deal with real-time properties of reactive systems. The abstract notion of timed transition systems genera...

T. A. Henzinger Z. Manna A. Pnueli

1990-01-01

282

A Real-Time Radio Frequency Spectrum analyzer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use OptiSystem to demonstrate a technique to make Real-Time Radio Frequency Spectrum measurements through the combination of cross phase modulation, and the time domain analog to Fraunhofer Diffraction.

B. H. Hamel-Bissell; L. R. Chen

2010-01-01

283

Overview of real-time computer systems technical analysis of the Modcomp implementation of a proprietary system MAX IV'' and real-time UNIX system REAL/IX''  

SciTech Connect

There many applications throughout industry and government requiring real-time computing. Any application that monitors and/or controls a process would fit into this category. Some examples are: Nuclear power plants, Steel mills, Space program, etc. General Atomics uses eight real-time computer systems for control and high speed data acquisition required to run the nuclear fusion experiments. Real-Time computing can be defined as the ability to respond to asynchronous external events in a predictable (preferably fast) time frame. Real-Time computer systems are similar to other computers in many ways and may by used for general computing requirements such as Time-Sharing. However special hardware, operating systems and software had to be developed to meet the requirement for real-time computing. Traditionally, real-time computing has been a realm of proprietary operating systems with real-time applications written in FORTRAN and assembly language. In the past, these systems adequately served the needs of the real-time world. Many of these systems that were developed 15 years ago are still being used today. However the real-time world is now changing, demanding new systems to be developed. This paper gives a description of general real-time computer systems and how they differ from other systems. However, the main purpose of this paper is to give a detailed technical description of the hardware and operating systems of an existing proprietary system and a real-time UNIX system. The two real-time computer systems described in detail are Modcomp Classic III/95 with the MAX IV operating system and Modcomp TRI-D 9750 with the REAL/IX.2 operating system.

Cummings, J.

1990-10-01

284

Evaluation of the Faraday angle by numerical methods and comparison with the Tore Supra and JET polarimeter electronics.  

PubMed

On the Tore Supra tokamak, a far infrared polarimeter diagnostic has been routinely used for diagnosing the current density by measuring the Faraday rotation angle. A high precision of measurement is needed to correctly reconstruct the current profile. To reach this precision, electronics used to compute the phase and the amplitude of the detected signals must have a good resilience to the noise in the measurement. In this article, the analogue card's response to the noise coming from the detectors and their impact on the Faraday angle measurements are analyzed, and we present numerical methods to calculate the phase and the amplitude. These validations have been done using real signals acquired by Tore Supra and JET experiments. These methods have been developed to be used in real-time in the future numerical cards that will replace the Tore Supra present analogue ones. PMID:21678660

Brault, C; Gil, C; Boboc, A; Spuig, P

2011-04-01

285

A Real-Time Interval Logic and Its Decision Procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Real-Time Future Interval Logic is a visual logic in whichformulae have a natural graphical representation, resembling timing diagrams.It is a dense real-time temporal logic that is based on two simpletemporal primitives: interval modalities for the purely qualitativepart and duration predicates for the quantitative part. We give a decisionprocedure for the logic by reduction to the emptiness problemfor Timed Buchi

Y. S. Ramakrishna; Laura K. Dillon; Louise E. Moser; P. M. Melliar-smith; G. Kutty

1993-01-01

286

Scheduling optional computations for adaptive real-time systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, the critical computations of real-time systems are guaranteed before run- time by performing a worst-case analysis of the system's timing and resource requirements. The result is that real-time systems are engineered to have spare capacity, under normal operation. A challenge of current research is to make use of this spare capacity, in order to satisfy requirements for adaptivity

Charlie Mcelhone; Alan Burns

2000-01-01

287

MARS: The Magnet II Real-Time Scheduling Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A real-time scheduling algorithm for AsynchronousTime Sharing based switching nodes is presented. Threeclasses of traffic sources are considered to load theswitching nodes: real-time video sources with guaranteedmaximum end-to-end delay SIfor all cells; realtimevoice sources with guaranteed end-to-end delaySII, ffl% cell loss rate and average gap length j; anddata traffic with guaranteed minimum average throughputand maximum average time delay. The proposedalgorithm

Jay M. Hyman; Aurel A. Lazar; Giovanni Pacifici

1991-01-01

288

Utilizing real-time and near real-time data in the iNtegrated Space Weather Analysis System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Access to near real-time and real-time space weather data is essential to accurately specifying and forecasting the space environment. The Space Weather Desk at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Space Weather Laboratory provides vital space weather forecasting services primarily to NASA robotic mission operators, as well as external space weather stakeholders including the Air Force Weather Agency. A key component

M. M. Maddox; R. E. Mullinix; L. Rastaetter; A. Pulkkinen; Y. Zheng; D. Berrios; M. Hesse; M. M. Kuznetsova; A. Taktakishvili; A. Chulaki; J. Shim; S. S. Bakshi; K. D. Patel; P. Jain

2010-01-01

289

Emerging Trends of Computational Grid Based Near Real Time\\/Real Time Flood Assessment and Forecasting Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

From recent past, the computational Grid based flood assessment and forecasting models is getting emerged as an interdisciplinary integrated `near real time\\/real time model'. Many such, Grid based flood assessment and forecasting model supports in logically integrating various components of flood related scientific simulations such as Metrological, Hydrological, Hydraulic, RADAR, LIDAR Remote Sensing, GIS, Satellite Communication and other technologies and

M. Manavalan; S. Chattopadhyay; M. Mangala; Y. S. Rao

2010-01-01

290

Spin Motive Force and Faraday Law for Electrons in Mesoscopic Rings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spin motive force and Faraday law for electrons due to the time-dependent Aharonov-Casher effect are studied by using the Goldhaber-Anandan gauge theory for a low energy spin particle. The spin motive force and Faraday law associated with the time-dependent magnetic field are also discussed based on the same gauge theory. The gauge theoretic approach provides a unified view for the various spin motive forces and spin Faraday laws.

Ryu, Chang-Mo

1996-02-01

291

Elapsed Time in the Real World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 3-lesson unit develops students' abilities to measure and model elapsed time in various ways. Students construct clocks, time line models, and they read and interpret schedules. The lessons employ hands on activities, interactive technology, and literature to enhance understanding. Student materials, assessments and solutions are provided.

Maple, John; Straub, Kristie

2007-01-01

292

Real-Time Scheduling with a Budget  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suppose that we are given a set of jobs, where each job has a processing time, a non-negative weight, and a set of possible time intervals in which it can be processed. In addition, each job has a processing cost. Our goal is to schedule a feasible subset of the jobs on a single machine, such that the total weight

Joseph Naor; Hadas Shachnai; Tami Tamir

2003-01-01

293

Faraday Optical Rotation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this experiment students measure the effects of a magnetic field on the polarization of light (laser beam) propagating through, or reflected from, a solid transparent medium. The effect can be explained in terms of a simple model that relates the "optical activity" of the medium to the applied magnetic field. Students learn about â˘Rotation of linearly polarized light by electromagnetic fields â˘Connection to Zeeman Effect â˘Atomic model of light propagation in dielectrics. Prof. Paul R. Berman of The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, has recently published (March 2010) an American Journal of Physics article on three different calculations of the Optical Faraday Rotation (please see link below.) Students are strongly encouraged to study this article.

2010-03-25

294

Toward Real-Time Performance Benchmarks for Ada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benchmarks are developed to measure the Ada notion of time, the Ada features believed important to real-time performance, and other time-related features that are not part of the language, but are part of the run-time system; these benchmarks are then applied to the language and run-time system, and the results evaluated.

Russell M. Clapp; Louis Duchesneau; Richard A. Volz; Trevor N. Mudge; Timothy Schultze

1986-01-01

295

Analysis for Real-time Intransitive Information Flow Security Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real-time information flow security properties such as timed noninterference provide assurances that some time dependent information flows may not become possible. However, with transitive noninterference formulation, it is difficult to deal with intransitive flow policies like channel control and secure downgrading of information with time constraints. In this paper, we introduce the notion of trust domain into Timed Secure Process

Yong Huang; Lingdi Ping; Shanping Li; Xuezeng Pan

2009-01-01

296

17 CFR 43.3 - Method and timing for real-time public reporting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...transaction and pricing data in real-time for all publicly reportable...transaction and pricing data in real-time shall perform, on an annual...in a consistent, usable and machine-readable electronic format...publicly disseminated in real-time shall be corrected or...

2013-04-01

297

The minus sign in Faraday’s law revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By introducing the mathematical concept of orientation, the significance of the minus sign in Faraday’s law may be made clear to students with some knowledge of vector calculus. For many students, however, the traditional approach of treating the law as a relationship between positive scalars and of relying on Lenz’s law to provide the information on the direction of the induced electromotive force may be a preferable pedagogical practice.

O'Sullivan, Colm; Hurley, Donal

2013-01-01

298

Real-Time Scheduling with a Budget  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suppose that we are given a set of jobs, where each job has a processing time, a non-negative weight, and a set of possible\\u000a time intervals in which it can be processed. In addition, each job has a processing cost. Our goal is to schedule a feasible\\u000a subset of the jobs on a single machine, such that the total weight

Hadas Shachnai; Tami Tamir

2007-01-01

299

Dynamic Scheduling of Real-Time Tasks under Precedence Constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

While scheduling theory has been developed over a long period of time, it is important to note that most results concern problems with static characteristics. However, a real-time system is dynamic and requires on-line and adaptive scheduling strategies. So, an important aspect of real-time systems research is to devise methods flexible enough to react to a dynamic change of processor

Houssine Chetto; Maryline Silly; T. Bouchentouf

1990-01-01

300

A real-time interval logic and its decision procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real-Time Future Interval Logic is a temporal logic in which formulć have a natural graphical representation, resembling timing\\u000a diagrams. It is a dense real-time logic that is based on two simple temporal primitives:interval modalities for the purely qualitative part andduration predicates for the quantitative part. This paper describes the logic and gives a decision procedure for satisfiability by reduction\\u000a to

Y S Ramakrishna; L K Dillon; L E Moser; P M Melliar-Smith; G Kutty

1996-01-01

301

Optimal procrastinating voltage scheduling for hard real-time systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an optimal procrastinating voltage scheduling (OP-DVS) for hard real-time systems using stochastic workload information. Algorithms are presented for both single-task and multi-task workloads. Offline calculations provide real-time guarantees for worst-case execution, and online scheduling reclaims slack time and schedules tasks accordingly. The OP-DVS algorithm is provably optimal in terms of energy minimization with no deadline misses. Simulation

Yan Zhang; Zhijian Lu; John Lach; Kevin Skadron; Mircea R. Stan

2005-01-01

302

Integrating Unbounded Software Components into Hard Real-Time Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incorporation of unbounded components (i.e. software modules that cannot be analysed to produce realistic worst case execution\\u000a times) into hard real-time applications has been recognised as a key issue for the next generation of real-time systems. In\\u000a this paper, we present a system model that caters for the three main approaches to integrating unbounded components: milestone\\u000a methods, sieve functions

N. C. Audsley; A. Burns; R. I. Davis; A. J. Wellings

303

Vector processing enhancements for real-time image analysis.  

SciTech Connect

A real-time image analysis system was developed for beam imaging diagnostics. An Apple Power Mac G5 with an Active Silicon LFG frame grabber was used to capture video images that were processed and analyzed. Software routines were created to utilize vector-processing hardware to reduce the time to process images as compared to conventional methods. These improvements allow for more advanced image processing diagnostics to be performed in real time.

Shoaf, S.; APS Engineering Support Division

2008-01-01

304

Multiple vehicle detection and tracking in hard real-time  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vision system is developed that recognizes and tracks multiple cars from sequences of gray-scale images taken from a moving car in hard real-time. The recognition method is based on feature detection, online deformable template matching, and temporal differencing. The vision system utilizes the hard real-time operating system Maruti which guarantees that the timing constraints on the various processes of

Margrit Betke; Esin Haritaoglu; Larry S. Davis

1996-01-01

305

Time-Triggered Message-Triggered Object Modeling of a Distributed Real-Time Control Application for Its Real-Time Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The time-triggered message-triggered object (TMO) has been devised as the basic component model for high level distributed real time programming as well as real time application system\\/subsystem design and modeling. One of the strengths of the TMO is its facilitation of multi-phased top-down modeling of real time distributed computing application systems. TMO-structured models are capable of representing both a real

Moon-hae Kim; Jung-guk Kim; K. H. Kim; Myeong-soo Lee; Shin-yeol Park

2000-01-01

306

Real-Time Search for Real-World Entities: A Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are observing an increasing trend of connecting embedded sensors and sensor networks to the Internet and publishing their output on the Web. We believe that this development is a precursor of a Web of Things, which gives real-world objects and places a Web presence that not only contains a static description of these entities, but also their real-time state.

Kay Romer; Benedikt Ostermaier; Friedemann Mattern; Michael Fahrmair; Wolfgang Kellerer

2010-01-01

307

Compositional Feasibility Analysis of Conditional Real-Time Task Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conditional real-time task models, which are general- izations of periodic, sporadic, and multi-frame tasks, repre- sent real world applications more accurately. These mod- els can be classified based on a tradeoff in two dimensions - expressivity and hardness of schedulability analysis. In this work, we introduce a class of conditional task models and derive efficient schedulability analysis techniques for them.

Madhukar Anand; Arvind Easwaran; Sebastian Fischmeister; Insup Lee

2008-01-01

308

Real-time, heuristic-based controlof molecular beam epitaxy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real-time, heuristic-based control is appropriate for materials processes where accurate numerical models are not available.\\u000a Frequently,bdthe scientists working with a process base their decisions when controlling the process on a set of heuristics.This\\u000a article describes the use of a rule base for real-time control of molecular beam epitaxy MBE,a semiconductor thin-film growth\\u000a process. As is often true in applying real-time

O. D. Patterson; K. G. Eyink; S. Cong

1993-01-01

309

Predictable Threads for Dynamic, Hard Real-Time Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Next-generationhard real-time systemswill require new,flexible functionality and guaranteed, predictable performance. This paper describes the UMass Spring threads package, designed specifically for multiprocessing in dynamic, hard real-time envi- ronments.,This package,is unique,because,of its support,for new,thread semantics for real-time processing.,Predictable creation and execution of threads,is achieved because of an underlying predictable kernel, the UMass Spring kernel. Design de- cisions and lessons learned,while

Marty Humphrey; John A. Stankovic

1999-01-01

310

Real-time optical multiplication with high accuracy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method of performing matrix multiplication using optical processing is presented. It combines speed due to the inherent parallelism of optics and high accuracy due to the digital representation of the multiplied numbers. The multiplication of numbers is performed by spatially convolving their binary digital representations. The spatial convolution is realized by frequency-domain multiplication. Real-time recording is necessary. An architecture for vector- vector multiplication is also proposed. The real-time recording is performed by real-time holography using four-wave optical mixing.

Kalivas, Dimitris S.

1994-10-01

311

Faraday imaging at high temperatures  

DOEpatents

A Faraday filter rejects background light from self-luminous thermal objects, but transmits laser light at the passband wavelength, thus providing an ultra-narrow optical bandpass filter. The filter preserves images so a camera looking through a Faraday filter at a hot target illuminated by a laser will not see the thermal radiation but will see the laser radiation. Faraday filters are useful for monitoring or inspecting the uranium separator chamber in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. Other uses include viewing welds, furnaces, plasma jets, combustion chambers, and other high temperature objects. These filters are can be produced at many discrete wavelengths. A Faraday filter consists of a pair of crossed polarizers on either side of a heated vapor cell mounted inside a solenoid. 3 figs.

Hackel, L.A.; Reichert, P.

1997-03-18

312

SPARSE FARADAY ROTATION MEASURE SYNTHESIS  

SciTech Connect

Faraday rotation measure synthesis is a method for analyzing multichannel polarized radio emissions, and it has emerged as an important tool in the study of Galactic and extragalactic magnetic fields. The method requires the recovery of the Faraday dispersion function from measurements restricted to limited wavelength ranges, which is an ill-conditioned deconvolution problem. Here, we discuss a recovery method that assumes a sparse approximation of the Faraday dispersion function in an overcomplete dictionary of functions. We discuss the general case when both thin and thick components are included in the model, and we present the implementation of a greedy deconvolution algorithm. We illustrate the method with several numerical simulations that emphasize the effect of the covered range and sampling resolution in the Faraday depth space, and the effect of noise on the observed data.

Andrecut, M.; Stil, J. M.; Taylor, A. R. [Institute for Space Imaging Science, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada)

2012-02-15

313

Heterodyne range imaging in real-time  

Microsoft Academic Search

A versatile full-field range imaging system has previously been constructed. This system is configurable in software to produce either high precision or fast acquisition range images. Indicatively a 10 second exposure has been shown to produce a range image of sub-millimeter precision, whilst video frame rate (30 fps) acquisition provides for centimetre precision. Currently the acquisition time of the system

A. P. P. Jongenelen; D. A. Carnegie; A. A. Dorrington; A. D. Payne

2008-01-01

314

Spectral image processing in real-time  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fields of classical image processing and optical spectroscopy developed independently since a long time. While the first subject deals with pictorial information that uses the description of material by their surfaces in terms of brightness, texture and color depending on the illumination in the two dimensional field of view of the optics, the second one classifies usually material properties

Matthias F. Carlsohn

2006-01-01

315

Transaction-cost Economics in Real Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to place the theq of the boundaries of thejirm within the context of the passage of time. More precisely, it resurrects and places in a modem frame some of the insights of the chsical and Marshallian theories of organization. The modem reinterpretation of those theories centers around the 'capabilities' view of the jirm. Taken together with governance

RICHARD N. LANGLOIS

1992-01-01

316

Heterodyne-enhanced Faraday rotation spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel heterodyne-enhanced Faraday rotation spectroscopic (H-FRS) system for trace gas detection of nitric oxide (NO) is demonstrated. The system is based on a quantum cascade laser emitting at ~5.2 ?m and a mercury cadmium telluride photodetector (both thermoelectrically cooled). The heterodyne detection is performed at 30MHz, where the laser relative intensity noise is significantly smaller than at low frequencies. With an implementation of active interferometer stabilization technique, the current system shows total noise level that is only 5.4 times above the fundamental shot-noise limit and the Faraday rotation angle sensitivity of 2.6 × 10-8 rad/?Hz. The NO detection limit of 30.7 ppb-v/?Hz was achieved for the R(8.5)e NO transition using 100 Gauss magnetic field and 0.15 m optical path length.

Wang, Yin; Nikodem, Michal; Hoyne, Jake; Wysocki, Gerard

2012-01-01

317

Aperiodic Task Scheduling for Hard Real-Time Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

 A real-time system consists of both aperiodic and periodic tasks. Periodic tasks have regular arrival times and hard deadlines. Aperiodic tasks have irregular arrival times and either soft or hard deadlines. In this article, we present a new algorithm, the Sporadic Server algorithm, which greatly improves response times for soft deadline aperiodic tasks and can guarantee hard deadlines for both

Brinkley Sprunt; Lui Sha; John P. Lehoczky

1989-01-01

318

Verification, refinement and scheduling of real-time programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A real-time program can be developed by refining a specificati on into program code. Verification of the timing properties of the program is then usually done at two levels: verification of the ordering of timed actions in the program and proof that execution of the program on a specific system will meet its timing requirements. Refinement is done within a

Zhiming Liu; Mathai Joseph

2001-01-01

319

Faraday's law and seawater motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using Faraday's law, one can illustrate how an electromotive force generator, directly utilizing seawater motion, works. The conceptual device proposed is rather simple in its components and can be built in any high school or college laboratory. The description of the way in which the device generates an electromotive force can be instructive not only when illustrating Faraday's law, but also in introducing alternative energy concepts.

De Luca, R.

2010-05-01

320

Operational and real-time Business Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key component of a company’s IT framework is a business intelligence (BI) system. BI enables business users to report on, analyze and optimize business operations to reduce costs and increase revenues. Organizations use BI for strategic and tactical decision making where the decision-making cycle may span a time period of several weeks (e.g., campaign management) or months (e.g., improving

Daniela Ioana SANDU

2008-01-01

321

Real Time Maneuver Optimization in General Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with the issue of optimum maneuver in general environment on local and global level and with effective exploitation\\u000a of traffic segment overload, considering traffic density dependence and dynamic condition change on communications or terrain\\u000a areas. Solution of this issue is dependent on time density expectation (extrapolation) of partial traffic segments computed\\u000a based on optimum path solution and

J. Mazal

322

Utilizing Grid Computing to Support Massive Real-time Computing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Static road routing applications consider a limited number of road characteristics in routing, and are well solved by Dijsktra and A* algorithms and their variations. However, the dynamics of our current traffic networks requires routing based on near real-time information, such as thunder storms, to produce timely routing results for end-users. The traditional Dijsktra and A* algorithms are not applicable because dynamic routing needs to route based on future predictions and time stamped travel time for road links. And the massive request numbers will require significant amount of computing power. This paper introduced a new approach using the grid computing techniques to support real-time routing. Within the approach, two hierarchies for the road network are constructed with the first hierarchy comprising the nodes of state highway and interstate highway, and the second one including the nodes of the entire road network. In the second hierarchy, besides the attributes of "real-time link traveling time" to adjacent nodes, each node of the network has additional attributes of "real-time link traveling time" to surrounding nodes of the first hierarchy. Then the second hierarchy network is partitioned into several grid sections, and each section with a route finding algorithm extended on Dijstra Algorithm, is submitted as a job to the grid computing to obtain real-time additional attributes of each node belong to this section. The attributes of each pair of OD, the origin and destination nodes, are read from grid computing in real-time, and a new network is constructed with the first hierarchy network and the pair of OD. Using the Extended Dijstra Algorithm, the real-time route for the pair of OD nodes in this new network, can be obtained.

Huang, Q.; Yang, C.; Cao, Y.; Xie, J.

2008-12-01

323

Developing infrared array controller with software real time operating system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real-time capabilities are required for a controller of a large format array to reduce a dead-time attributed by readout and data transfer. The real-time processing has been achieved by dedicated processors including DSP, CPLD, and FPGA devices. However, the dedicated processors have problems with memory resources, inflexibility, and high cost. Meanwhile, a recent PC has sufficient resources of CPUs and memories to control the infrared array and to process a large amount of frame data in real-time. In this study, we have developed an infrared array controller with a software real-time operating system (RTOS) instead of the dedicated processors. A Linux PC equipped with a RTAI extension and a dual-core CPU is used as a main computer, and one of the CPU cores is allocated to the real-time processing. A digital I/O board with DMA functions is used for an I/O interface. The signal-processing cores are integrated in the OS kernel as a real-time driver module, which is composed of two virtual devices of the clock processor and the frame processor tasks. The array controller with the RTOS realizes complicated operations easily, flexibly, and at a low cost.

Sako, Shigeyuki; Miyata, Takashi; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Motohara, Kentaro; Uchimoto, Yuka Katsuno; Onaka, Takashi; Kataza, Hirokazu

2008-08-01

324

Real-time video codec using reversible wavelets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the hardware implementation of a real-time video codec using reversible Wavelets. The TechSoft (TS) real-time video system employs the Wavelet differencing for the inter-frame compression based on the independent Embedded Block Coding with Optimized Truncation (EBCOT) of the embedded bit stream. This high performance scalable image compression using EBCOT has been selected as part of the ISO new image compression standard, JPEG2000. The TS real-time video system can process up to 30 frames per second (fps) of the DVD format. In addition, audio signals are also processed by the same design for the cost reduction. Reversible Wavelets are used not only for the cost reduction, but also for the lossless applications. Design and implementation issues of the TS real-time video system are discussed.

Huang, Gen Dow; Chiang, David J.; Huang, Yi-En; Cheng, Allen

2003-04-01

325

Expected Performance of Real-Time Interactive System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This memorandum describes the expected real-time performance of an interactive long-period seismic processing system and of an interactive complex cepstrum program, both utilizing a graphic output. It was found that a highly automated system could probabl...

S. S. Lane

1975-01-01

326

Real-time Position Control of Concentric Tube Robots  

PubMed Central

A novel approach to constructing robots is based on concentrically combining pre-curved elastic tubes. By rotating and extending the tubes with respect to each other, their curvatures interact elastically to position and orient the robot's tip, as well as to control the robot's shape along its length. Since these robots form slender curves, they are well suited for minimally invasive medical procedures. A substantial challenge to their practical use is the real-time solution of their kinematics that are described by differential equations with split boundary equations. This paper proposes a numerically efficient approach to real-time position control. It is shown that the forward kinematics are smooth functions that can be pre-computed and accurately approximated using Fourier series. The inverse kinematics can be solved in real time using root finding applied to the functional approximation. Experimental demonstration of real-time position control using this approach is also described.

Dupont, Pierre E.; Lock, Jesse; Itkowitz, Brandon

2011-01-01

327

Analytical and Simulation Models for Real-Time Networks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper, we present a discussion of analytical and simulation models which have been developed for the purpose of assessing/predicting the performance of local area networks (LANs) used to interconnect distributed, real-time simulation and training ...

J. Thompson M. Bassiouni M. Georgiopoulos

1989-01-01

328

High-Fidelity Real-Time Simulation on Deployed Platforms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We present a certified reduced basis method for high-fidelity real- time solution of parametrized partial differential equations on deployed platforms. Applications include in situ parameter estimation, adaptive design and control, interactive synthesis a...

A. T. Patera D. B. Huynh D. J. Knezevic J. W. Peterson

2010-01-01

329

Real-time PCR detection of male-specific coliphages.  

PubMed

Male-specific coliphages are often used as indicators of contamination by enteric viruses. These phages can be detected in water samples by plaque assays and by polymerase chain reaction. In this study, the M13 coliphage was used to develop a real-time PCR assay for the detection of male-specific DNA coliphages. The real-time PCR was found to have a reaction efficiency of 1.45 and detection limit of 10(-3) plaque forming units per reaction mix. Repeated amplification and melting curve analyses demonstrated high specificity and reproducibility of the real-time assay. Quantitative detection with the real-time PCR should allow rapid assessment of the level of viral contamination in water. PMID:18376795

Yong, S F Y; Ngeow, Y F; Tong, Y K; Ong, J T

2006-12-01

330

Cybersecurity through Real-Time Distributed Control Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Critical infrastructure sites and facilities are becoming increasingly dependent on interconnected physical and cyber-based real-time distributed control systems (RTDCSs). A mounting cybersecurity threat results from the nature of these ubiquitous and som...

J. J. Nutaro J. K. Munro L. P. MacIntyre R. A. Kisner W. W. Manges

2010-01-01

331

Simulated Real-Time Intercomparison of Hydrological Models.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study to compare the abilities of both rainfall runoff and snowmelt runoff models to forecast streamflow under simulated real time conditions is presented. The results of the study are reported, thus offering guidance through demonstrations of the model...

1992-01-01

332

Real-time earthquake monitoring: Early warning and rapid response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A panel was established to investigate the subject of real-time earthquake monitoring (RTEM) and suggest recommendations on the feasibility of using a real-time earthquake warning system to mitigate earthquake damage in regions of the United States. The findings of the investigation and the related recommendations are described in this report. A brief review of existing real-time seismic systems is presented with particular emphasis given to the current California seismic networks. Specific applications of a real-time monitoring system are discussed along with issues related to system deployment and technical feasibility. In addition, several non-technical considerations are addressed including cost-benefit analysis, public perceptions, safety, and liability.

333

Real-Time Space System Control with Expert Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many aspects of space system operations involve continuous control of real time processes. These processes include electrical power system monitoring, prelaunch and ongoing propulsion system health and maintenance, environmental and life support systems, ...

D. Leinweber L. Hawkinson J. Perry

1988-01-01

334

Decision graphs: a tool for developing real-time software  

SciTech Connect

The use of decision graphs in the preparation of, in particular, real-time software is briefly described. The usefulness of decision graphs in software design, testing, and maintenance is pointed out. 2 figures. (RWR)

Kozubal, A.J.

1981-01-01

335

TUMULT-64: A Real-Time Multi-Processor System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

TUMULT, a modular extendible multi-processor system, is described. Nodes communicate via a high performance switching network. Processors within a node communicate via a shared memory. A distributed real-time operating system was designed and implemented,...

G. J. M. Smit P. G. Jansen

1989-01-01

336

2-D real time polarimetric spectrograph with 64-channel.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A brief description of the multichannel birefringent filter and its three types is provided. A 2-D real time polarimetric spectrograph with 64-channel, an achromatic KD'P modulator, and an automatic supplement system for temperature change, are introduced.

Ai, Guoxiang

1991-01-01

337

Real-Time Engineering Simulation of Lunar Excavation  

SciTech Connect

DigitalSpace Corporation has been building an open source real-time three-dimensional (3-D) collaborative design engineering and training platform called Digital Spaces (DSS) in support of the Exploration Vision of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Real-time 3-D simulation has reached a level of maturity where it is capable of supporting engineering design and operations using off-the-shelf game chipsets and open source physics and rendering technologies. This paper will illustrate a state-of-the-art real-time engineering simulation utilizing DSS in support of NASA lunar excavation studies. During the project DigitalSpace building driveable 3-D models of lunar excavators and South Polar terrain, and added a soil mechanics physics model as well as a random failure generator to the repertoire of standard mobility platform physics in prior use for real-time engineering and operational analysis at NASA.

Bruce Damer, George Tompkins, Sheldon Freid, Dave Rasmussen, Peter Newman, Brad Blair

2007-06-12

338

Teaching Hard Real-Time Software Development via Prototyping.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Teaching graduate students to develop hard real time software for embedded systems is a challenging task. At the Naval Postgraduate School, we successfully developed a series of software engineering courses to teach graduate students the characteristics o...

M. Shing Luqi

1994-01-01

339

Raman Lidar Transmissometer Data Processing in Real Time.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A minicomputer with 8K memory was interfaced with a pulsed nitrogen laser Raman Transmissometer to provide real time data processing and display capability. Self-calibration, normalization and ambient background substraction are included in the minicomput...

B. Caputo D. A. Leonard

1973-01-01

340

Development of Real-Time Monitors for Gaseous Formaldehyde.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two new methods for real-time measurement of gaseous formaldehyde have been developed. One is a spectroscopic method based on direct fluorescence detection of gaseous formaldehyde following excitation with UV light. This method has been developed to the p...

T. J. Kelly R. H. Barnes

1990-01-01

341

Semantics and Pragmatics of Real-Time Maude.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At present, designers of real-time systems face a dilemma between expressiveness and automatic verification: if they can specify some aspects of their system in some automaton-based formalism, then automatic verification is possible; but more complex syst...

J. Meseguer P. C. Olveczky

2007-01-01

342

NOAA's Physical Oceanographic Real-Time Systems (PORTS(Registered)).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NOAA's Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS) has developed the Physical Oceanographic Real-Time System (PORTS ) to meet the specific needs of the local maritime community by measuring, integrating, and disseminating observati...

D. Wright R. Bassett

2010-01-01

343

Real-Time Targeting for Network Enabled Weapons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The continual movement within the Department of Defense to advance net-centric warfare capabilities in operational environments has presented new challenges for test and evaluation of network enabled weapons. The Network Enabled Weapon Real-Time Targeting...

S. R. Frame

2010-01-01

344

Real-time operating environmentfor networked control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the development of a novel real-time operating environment for networked control systems (NCSs). An open-loop unstable magnetic-levitation (maglev) test bed was constructed and used to develop an NCS with real-time application interface (RTAI). A client-server architecture on a local-area network was developed with the network communication based on the user datagram protocol. The control loop of our

Won-jong Kim; Kun Ji; Ajit Ambike

2006-01-01

345

Taking advantage of real-time collaboration tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

The I'Net age (the combination of the Internet, intranets, and extranets) supports real-time or synchronous interaction. Synchronous interactions are those in which a response typically occurs in less than 10 seconds. Relying on a standard Java-enabled 4.x browser, many organizations are collaborating in real time on decisions, proposals, customer service, e-commerce, marketing documents, and more. As defined by our consultancy,

D. Coleman; L. Ward

1999-01-01

346

The Design and Performance of Real-Time Java Middleware  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 90 percent of all microprocessors are now used for real-time and embedded applications. Since the behav- ior of these applications is often constrained by the physi- cal world, it is important to devise higher-level languages and middleware that meet conventional functional require- ments and dependably and productively enforce real-time constraints. This paper provides two contributions to the study of

Angelo Corsaro; Douglas C. Schmidt

2003-01-01

347

Real-Time Control of Networked Control Systems via Ethernet  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we discuss real-time control of networked control systems (NCSs) and practical issues in the choice of the communication networks for this purpose. An appropriate integration of control systems, real-time environments, and network communication systems allows the optimization of the quality-of-control (QoC) in NCSs. We compare several prevailing network types that may be used in control applications to

Kun Ji; Won-jong Kim

2005-01-01

348

Real-time operating environment for networked control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the real-time aspects of networked control systems' (NCSs) operating environments. An open-loop unstable magnetic-levitation (Maglev) test bed was constructed and used to develop an NCS with a real-time application interface (RTAI) operating environment. A client-server architecture on a local area network (LAN) was developed with the network communication based on the user datagram protocol (UDP). The implementation

Ajit Ambike; Won-jong Kim; Kun Ji

2005-01-01

349

Hardware-Software Partitioning for Real-Time Embedded Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present an approach to hardware-software partitioning for real-time embedded systems. Hardware and software components are modeled at the system level, so that cost and performance tradeoffs can be studied early in the design process and a large design space can be explored. Feasibility factor is introduced to measure the possibility of a real-time system being feasible,

Joseph G. D’Ambrosio

1997-01-01

350

Wavelet encoding of BRDFs for real-time rendering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acquired data often provides the best knowledge of a material's bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). Its integra- tion into most real-time rendering systems requires both data com- pression and the implementation of the decompression and fil- tering stages on contemporary graphics processing units (GPUs). This paper improves the quality of real-time per-pixel lighting on GPUs using a wavelet decomposition of

Luc Claustres; Loďc Barthe; Mathias Paulin

2007-01-01

351

Real time network simulation with PC-cluster  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new architecture layout for a real-time power system simulator based on a distributed cluster of IBM PC-compatible desktop computers. A real-time network simulator based on a PC cluster can successfully cope with the size requirements of growing power systems and the computational demands of fast transient studies. A powerful product has been developed using off-the-shelf Pentium

Jorge Ariel Hollman; José Ramón Martí

2003-01-01

352

Real-time video-based fire smoke detection system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A real-time video-based fire smoke detection method that can be incorporated with a automatic monitoring system for early alerts is proposed by this paper. The successive processing steps of our real-time algorithm are using the motion history segmentation algorithm to register the possible fire smoke position in a video and then analyze the spectral, spatial and temporal characteristics of the

Chao-Ching Ho; Tzu-Hsin Kuo

2009-01-01

353

Techniques for enhancing real-time CORBA quality of service  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract End-to-end predictability of remote operations is essential for many fixed-priority distributed real-time and embedded,(DRE) applications, such as command and control systems, manufacturing process control systems, large-scale distributed interactive simulations, and testbeam data acquisition systems. To enhance predictability, the Real-time CORBA specification defines standard middleware,features that allow applications to allocate, schedule, and control key CPU, memory, and networking,resources necessary to

Irfan Pyarali; Douglas C. Schmidt; RON K. CYTRON

2003-01-01

354

Secure Buffering in Firm Real-Time Database Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many real-time database applications arise in electronic financial services, safety-critical installations and military systems where enforcing security is crucial to the success of the enterprise. We investigate here the perfor- mance implications, in terms of killed transactions, of guar- anteeing multi-level secrecy in a real-time database system supporting applications with firm deadlines. In particular, we focus on the buffer management

Binto George; Jayant R. Haritsa

1998-01-01

355

Species identification in meat products using real-time PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most convenient methods for the identification of animal species in processed meat products is the examination of DNA sequences. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) techniques are particularly suitable because even small fragments of DNA formed during heat processing of the meat can be amplified and identified. A real-time PCR method has been developed and evaluated for the

K. M. Jonker; J. J. H. C. Tilburg; G. H. Hägele; E. de Boer

2008-01-01

356

Final report on Arete's real-time processor  

SciTech Connect

This is Arete Associates' final report on the initial phase of a project to develop a real-time processor for an airborne lidar system. Arete has developed a programmable Real-Time Processor (RTP) and image display and recording system. It is presently integrated with an ocean (water) lidar sensor (OWLS) system onboard one of the Navel Air Development Center's (NADC's) P-3A aircraft. The RTP is a rack mounted, PF/AT based system.

Sanborn, J.; Reder, L.; Tong, K. (Arete Associates, Sherman Oaks, CA (USA))

1990-01-12

357

Real-time facial information acquisition system for multimodal interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A real-time face tracking and facial information acquisition system developed for multimodal man-machine communication s presented in this paper. The sadism can track a human face and report mouth position and other facial information in real-time. A stochastic model to characterize the skin color distribution of human skin is used to transform the hue image of the HSI color space

Jian Wang; Yufeng Liang; Joseph Wilder

1999-01-01

358

Self-adaptive software for hard real-time environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers in the Automated Reasoning group at the Honeywell Technology Center and at the University of Michigan are developing adaptive intelligent software for high-risk situations. We are building a system called Self-Adaptive CIRCA (based on our cooperative intelligent real-time control architecture model) that combines the assurance of hard real-time systems with the self-modeling, self-monitoring, and self-modifying capabilities of self-adaptive software.

D. J. Musliner; R. P. Goldman; M. J. Pelican; K. D. Krebsbach

1999-01-01

359

Real-time ionospheric science: The new reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until the early 1990s, near-real-time updates to monthly climatological ionospheric models were driven primarily by military requirements. Since then, civilian research and commercial requirements for corrections to precise satellite ranging systems have become the driving forces for real-time ionospheric data, and they likely will continue to be major reasons for the availability of worldwide transionospheric observations in the future. This

John A. Klobuchar

1997-01-01

360

Composition and Refinement of Discrete Real-Time Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactive systems exhibit ongoing, possibly non-terminating, interaction with the environment. Real-time systems are reactive systems that must satisfy quantitative tim- ing constraints. This paper presents a structured compositional design method for discrete real-time systems that can be used to combat the combinatorial explosion of states in the verification of large systems. A composition rule describes how the correctness of the

Jonathan S. Ostroff

1998-01-01

361

Real-time 3D image-guided HIFU therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real-time three-dimensional ultrasound imaging (4D US) was utilized to monitor the treatment site during high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment. To obtain real-time monitoring during HIFU sonication, a 4D US imaging system and HIFU were synchronized and interference on the US image adjusted so that the region of interest was visible during treatment. The system was tested using tissue mimicking phantom

Ali Ziadloo; Shahram Vaezy

2008-01-01

362

Real-time Learning in the NERO Video Game  

Microsoft Academic Search

If game characters could learn through interacting with the player, behavior could improve as the game is played, keeping it interesting. The real-time NeuroEvo- lution of Augmenting Topologies (rtNEAT) method, which can evolve increasingly complex artificial neu- ral networks in real time as a game is being played, will be presented. The rtNEAT method makes possi- ble an entirely new

Kenneth O. Stanley; Ryan Cornelius; Risto Miikkulainen

2005-01-01

363

Real-time 4-D radiotherapy for lung cancer.  

PubMed

Respiratory motion considerably influences dose distribution, and thus clinical outcomes in radiotherapy for lung cancer. Breath holding, breath coaching, respiratory gating with external surrogates, and mathematical predicting models all have inevitable uncertainty due to the unpredictable variations of internal tumor motion. The amplitude of the same tumor can vary with standard deviations > 5 mm occurring in 23% of T1-2N0M0 non-small cell lung cancers. Residual motion varied 1-6 mm (95th percentile) for the 40% duty cycle of respiratory gating with external surrogates. The 4-D computed tomography is vulnerable to problems relating to the external surrogates. Real-time 4-D radiotherapy (4DRT), where the temporal changes in anatomy during the delivery of radiotherapy are explicitly considered in real time, is emerging as a new method to reduce these known sources of uncertainty. Fluoroscopic, real-time tumor-tracking technology using internal fiducial markers near the tumor has ± 2 mm accuracy, and has achieved promising clinical results when used with X-ray therapy. Instantaneous irradiation based on real-time verification of internal fiducial markers is considered the minimal requisite for real-time 4DRT of lung cancers at present. Real-time tracking radiotherapy using gamma rays from positron emitters in tumors is in the preclinical research stage, but has been successful in experiments in small animals. Real-time tumor tracking via spot-scanning proton beam therapy has the capability to cure large lung cancers in motion, and is expected to be the next-generation real-time 4DRT. PMID:21954991

Shirato, Hiroki; Onimaru, Rikiya; Ishikawa, Masayori; Kaneko, Jun-ichi; Takeshima, Tsuguhide; Mochizuki, Kenta; Shimizu, Shinichi; Umegaki, Kikuo

2011-11-14

364

Real-Time Garbage Collection for a Multithreaded Java Microcontroller  

Microsoft Academic Search

We envision the upcoming of microcontrollers and systems-on-a-chip that are based on multithreaded proces- sor kernels due to the fast context switching ability of hard- ware multithreading. Moreover we envision an extensive market for Java-based applications in embedded real-time systems. This paper introduces two new garbage collection algo- rithms that are dedicated to real-time garbage collection on a multithreaded Java

Stephan Fuhrmann; Matthias Pfeffer; Jochen Kreuzinger; Theo Ungerer; Uwe Brinkschulte

2001-01-01

365

Real-Time Garbage Collection for a Multithreaded Java Microcontroller  

Microsoft Academic Search

We envision the upcoming of microcontrollers and systems-on-chip that are based on multithreaded processor kernels due to the fast context switching ability of hardware multithreading. Moreover we envision an extensive market for Java-based applications in embedded real-time systems. This paper introduces two new garbage collection algorithms that are dedicated to real-time garbage collection on a multithreaded Java microcontroller. Our garbage

Matthias Pfeffer; Theo Ungerer; Stephan Fuhrmann; Jochen Kreuzinger; Uwe Brinkschulte

2004-01-01

366

Real-time numerical simulation of the Carnot cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a highly interactive, multi-windows Java applet which made it possible to simulate and visualize within any platform and internet the Carnot cycle (or engine) in a real-time computer experiment. We extended our previous model and algorithm (Galant et al 2003 Heat Transfer, Newton's Law of Cooling and the Law of Entropy Increase Simulated by the Real-Time Computer Experiments

J. Hurkala; M. Gall; R. Kutner; M. Maciejczyk

2005-01-01

367

A Distributed Real-Time Java System Based on CSP  

Microsoft Academic Search

CSP is a fundamental concept for developing software for distributed real-time systems. The CSP paradigm constitutes a natural addition to Object Orientation and offers higher- order multithreading constructs. The CSP channel concept that has been implemented in Java deals with single- and multi-processor environments and also takes care of the real-time priority scheduling requirements. For this, the notion of priority

Gerald H. Hilderink; Andry W. P. Bakkers; Jan F. Broenink

2000-01-01

368

Real-time NURBS interpolator: application to short linear segments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study proposes the use of a real-time non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) interpolator with a look-ahead function to\\u000a handle numerous short linear segments. The short linear segments conforming to the continuous short block (CSB) criterion\\u000a can be fitted into NURBS curves in real time. A modified maximum feedrate equation based on the geometric characteristics\\u000a of the fitting curves and the

Jun-Bin Wang; Hong-Tzong Yau

2009-01-01

369

Innovations within the Altair real-time wavefront reconstructor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gemini North adaptive optics system Altair utilises five cooperative CPU's to perform all the associated real-time tasks. One, the reconstructor (RTC), manages all of the highest speed hard real-time duties. As well as the core, computationally intensive, wavefront reconstruction, this processor implements a number of algorithms providing control system support services. These include: the quad-cell centroid gain estimation, determination

Leslie K. Saddlemyer; Glen Herriot; Jean-Pierre Vrran; Malcolm Smith; Jennifer Dunn

2004-01-01

370

Real-time airborne particle analyzer  

SciTech Connect

An aerosol particle analyzer includes a laser ablation chamber, a gas-filled conduit, and a mass spectrometer. The laser ablation chamber can be operated at a low pressure, which can be from 0.1 mTorr to 30 mTorr. The ablated ions are transferred into a gas-filled conduit. The gas-filled conduit reduces the electrical charge and the speed of ablated ions as they collide and mix with buffer gases in the gas-filled conduit. Preferably, the gas filled-conduit includes an electromagnetic multipole structure that collimates the nascent ions into a beam, which is guided into the mass spectrometer. Because the gas-filled conduit allows storage of vast quantities of the ions from the ablated particles, the ions from a single ablated particle can be analyzed multiple times and by a variety of techniques to supply statistically meaningful analysis of composition and isotope ratios.

Reilly, Peter T.A.

2012-10-16

371

Real-time animation of synchrotron radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New mathematical method has been developed to compute radiation field from a moving charge in free space. It is not based on the retarded potential or its derivation [R.Y. Tsien, Picture of dynamic electric fields, Am. J. Phys. 40, 1972]. It solves conformal mapping of electric field lines based on the following two facts: (1) once a wave is emitted from a particle, it propagates as a spherical wave. The wavelet (a part of the wave-front) runs with speed of the light, and does not change its direction, (2) the initial direction of the wavelet is determined by the Lorentz transformation between the electron-rest-frame to the laboratory frame, which gives the light aberration effect. 2D radiation simulator has been developed based on this method, which simulates synchrotron, undulator and dipole radiation in time domain [T. Shintake, Simulation of field lines generated by a moving charge, private note 1984 March 19 at KEK, not published].

Shintake, Tsumoru

2003-07-01

372

Run Time Detection of Blocking Time Violations in Real-Time Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The run-time support mechanism usually deployed for monitoring the timing requirements of real-time systems is based on deadline monitoring, i.e., the system calls specific application code whenever a deadline is violated. However, from a fault-tolerance point-of-view, deadline miss is the final error in a chain of errors that results from some fault in the execution of one or more threads.

Osmar Marchi Dos Santos; Andy J. Wellings

2008-01-01

373

A SFCL modeling and application with real HTS material connecting to real time simulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a real time simulation method for the SFCL (superconducting fault current limiter) modeling and application with the real HTS (high temperature superconducting) material by using RTDS (real time digital simulator), and the transient phenomenon of SFCL system was analyzed in the simulated utility power network. SFCL components were modeled with the test sample of Bi-2223 and YBCO HTS tape with stabilizer of copper and brass material due the electrical characteristics of SFCL are dominantly dependent on the start of HTS tapes. The results from the simulation analysis proposed by this paper can be a good guideline for the selection of the SFCL material.

Kim, J. H.; Park, M.; Ali, M. H.; Kim, A. R.; Lee, S. R.; Yoon, J. Y.; Cho, J.; Sim, K. D.; Kim, S. H.; Yu, I. K.

2008-09-01

374

Real-time Java for on-board systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Java language has several attractive features but cannot at present be used in on-board systems primarily because it lacks support for hard real-time operation. This shortcoming is in being addressed: some suppliers are already providing implementations of Java that are RT-compliant; Sun Microsystem has approved a formal specification for a real-time extension of the language; and an independent consortium is working on an alternative specification for real-time Java. It is therefore expected that, within a year or so, standardized commercial implementations of real-time Java will be on the market. Availability of real-time implementations now opens the way to its use on-board. Within this context, this paper has two objectives. Firstly, it discusses the suitability of Java for on-board applications. Secondly, it reports the results of an ESA study to port a software framework for on-board control systems to a commercial real-time version of Java.

Cechticky, V.; Pasetti, A.

2002-07-01

375

Near real-time skin deformation mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel in vivo approach is described that provides large area mapping of the mechanical properties of the skin in human patients. Such information is important in the understanding of skin health, cosmetic surgery[1], aging, and impacts of sun exposure. Currently, several methods have been developed to estimate the local biomechanical properties of the skin, including the use of a physical biopsy of local areas of the skin (in vitro methods) [2, 3, and 4], and also the use of non-invasive methods (in vivo) [5, 6, and 7]. All such methods examine localized areas of the skin. Our approach examines the local elastic properties via the generation of field displacement maps of the skin created using time-sequence imaging [9] with 2D digital imaging correlation (DIC) [10]. In this approach, large areas of the skin are reviewed rapidly, and skin displacement maps are generated showing the contour maps of skin deformation. These maps are then used to precisely register skin images for purposes of diagnostic comparison. This paper reports on our mapping and registration approach, and demonstrates its ability to accurately measure the skin deformation through a described nulling interpolation process. The result of local translational DIC alignment is compared using this interpolation process. The effectiveness of the approach is reported in terms of residual RMS, image entropy measures, and differential segmented regional errors.

Kacenjar, Steve; Chen, Suzie; Jafri, Madiha; Wall, Brian; Pedersen, Richard; Bezozo, Richard

2013-02-01

376

Real Time Observation of DNA Nanotube Assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DNA nanotubes are of interest for applications ranging from nanofabrication to biophysical studies. The DNA Nanotubes used in this research are self-assembling structures composed of DNA double-crossover tiles. These tiles are simply two connected helices composed of five single stranded DNA oligomers. Each tile exposes four sticky ends responsible for the linkage between neighboring tiles. This linkage creates the nanotube lattice, with intrinsic curvature. The curvature orients each tile with a 60^o angle from the previous one so that six tiles make up the circumference of a nanotube. Nanotube stability depends on conditions such as ionic strength and temperature. A PCR machine is used to anneal the strands into nanotubes. A duplicated annealing process was constructed under a light microscope. PVP (polyvinyl prolidone) coated glass both confined the DNA nanotubes to a 2-3 ?m focal plane and prevented them from sticking to the sample surface. By the time the tubes were long enough to track (>= 3 ?m), they continued to lengthen primarily via end-to-end joining with some reaching lengths greater than 100 ?m. These observations helped define more efficient annealing protocols that resulted in tubes with fewer imperfections.

Verde, Lisa Val

2006-03-01

377

Real time imaging of human progenitor neurogenesis.  

PubMed

Human neural progenitors are increasingly being employed in drug screens and emerging cell therapies targeted towards neurological disorders where neurogenesis is thought to play a key role including developmental disorders, Alzheimer's disease, and depression. Key to the success of these applications is understanding the mechanisms by which neurons arise. Our understanding of development can provide some guidance but since little is known about the specifics of human neural development and the requirement that cultures be expanded in vitro prior to use, it is unclear whether neural progenitors obey the same developmental mechanisms that exist in vivo. In previous studies we have shown that progenitors derived from fetal cortex can be cultured for many weeks in vitro as undifferentiated neurospheres and then induced to undergo neurogenesis by removing mitogens and exposing them to supportive substrates. Here we use live time lapse imaging and immunocytochemical analysis to show that neural progenitors use developmental mechanisms to generate neurons. Cells with morphologies and marker profiles consistent with radial glia and recently described outer radial glia divide asymmetrically and symmetrically to generate multipolar intermediate progenitors, a portion of which express ASCL1. These multipolar intermediate progenitors subsequently divide symmetrically to produce CTIP2(+) neurons. This 3-cell neurogenic scheme echoes observations in rodents in vivo and in human fetal slice cultures in vitro, providing evidence that hNPCs represent a renewable and robust in vitro assay system to explore mechanisms of human neurogenesis without the continual need for fresh primary human fetal tissue. Knowledge provided by this and future explorations of human neural progenitor neurogenesis will help maximize the safety and efficacy of new stem cell therapies by providing an understanding of how to generate physiologically-relevant cell types that maintain their identities when placed in diagnostic or transplantation environments. PMID:20949053

Keenan, Thomas M; Nelson, Aaron D; Grinager, Jeffrey R; Thelen, Jarett C; Svendsen, Clive N

2010-10-07

378

A Formal Model for Real-Time Parallel Computation  

SciTech Connect

The imposition of real-time constraints on a parallel computing environment--- specifically high-performance, cluster-computing systems--- introduces a variety of challenges with respect to the formal verification of the system's timing properties. In this paper, we briefly motivate the need for such a system, and we introduce an automaton-based method for performing such formal verification. We define the concept of a consistent parallel timing system: a hybrid system consisting of a set of timed automata (specifically, timed Buechi automata as well as a timed variant of standard finite automata), intended to model the timing properties of a well-behaved real-time parallel system. Finally, we give a brief case study to demonstrate the concepts in the paper: a parallel matrix multiplication kernel which operates within provable upper time bounds. We give the algorithm used, a corresponding consistent parallel timing system, and empirical results showing that the system operates under the specified timing constraints.

Hui, Peter SY; Chikkagoudar, Satish

2012-12-29

379

Explaining How to Play Real-Time Strategy Games  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real-time strategy games share many aspects with real situations in domains such as battle planning, air traffic control, and emergency response team management which makes them appealing test-beds for Artificial Intelligence (AI) and machine learning. End user annotations could help to provide supplemental information for learning algorithms, especially when training data is sparse. This paper presents a formative study to uncover how experienced users explain game play in real-time strategy games. We report the results of our analysis of explanations and discuss their characteristics that could support the design of systems for use by experienced real-time strategy game users in specifying or annotating strategy-oriented behavior.

Metoyer, Ronald; Stumpf, Simone; Neumann, Christoph; Dodge, Jonathan; Cao, Jill; Schnabel, Aaron

380

The Cassini Solar Faraday Rotation experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cassini Solar Faraday Rotation Experiment took place during the Cassini solar conjunctions in 2002 and 2003. One hundred and sixty hours of open-loop radioscience data were collected in the 8 and 32 GHz frequencies (X- and Ka-bands). These frequencies are both much higher than the plasma frequencies in the corona, but sufficiently low to undergo measurable Faraday rotation in the solar corona. During the 2002 experiment, four Coronal Mass Ejections crossed the signal between Cassini and the Earth. Each Coronal Mass Ejection crossing was different. The first occurred during the day of conjunction when the spacecraft's signal passed within approximately 2 solar radii of the center of the sun. The second occurred 1 day later when the closest approach of the signal had moved to 3 solar radii. This event was oriented almost perpendicular to the first as shown by the SOHO EIT imager. It had a significant impact on the signal, causing the Ka-band transmitter on Cassini to lose lock on the Earth one roundtrip light time later. The 3rd and 4th CMEs occurred 2 days later as a paired event when the line of sight to Cassini came as close as 5 solar radii. During the 2003 experiment, the line of sight from Cassini to the Earth passed within 1.25 solar radii of the center of the sun. The received data is highly variable and constitutes the closest radio occultation measurement to the surface of the sun. We discuss the Cassini Faraday Rotation data, the deduced electron densities and the magnetic fields required to produce the measured Faraday rotations.

Jensen, E. A.; Bird, M. K.; Asmar, S. W.; Anderson, J. D.; Russell, C. T.

381

High Performance Real-Time Flight Simulation at NASA Langley.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to meet the stringent time-critical requirements for real-time man-in-the-loop flight simulation, computer processing operations must be deterministic and be completed in as short a time as possible. This includes simulation mathematical model co...

J. I. Cleveland

1994-01-01

382

List processing in real time on a serial computer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A real-time list processing system is one in which the time required by the elementary list operations (e.g. CONS, CAR, CDR, RPLACA, RPLACD, EQ, and ATOM in LISP) is bounded by a (small) constant. Classical implementations of list processing systems lack this property because allocating a list cell from the heap may cause a garbage collection, which process requires time

Henry G. Baker Jr.; R. L. Rivest

1978-01-01

383

Midplane Faraday Rotation: A densitometer for BPX  

SciTech Connect

The density in a high field, high density tokamak such as BPX can be determined by measuring the Faraday rotation of a 10.6 {mu}m laser directed tangent to the toroidal field. If there is a horizontal array of such beams, then n{sub e}(R) can be readily obtained with a simple Abel version about the center line of the tokamak. For BPX operated at full field and density, the rotation angle would be quite large -- about 75{degrees} per pass. A layout in which a single laser beam is fanned out in the horizontal midplane of the tokamak, with a set of retroreflectors on the far side of the vacuum vessel, would provide good spatial resolution, depending only upon the number of reflectors. With this proposed layout, only one window would be needed. Because the rotation angle is never more than 1 fringe,'' the data is always good, and it is also a continuous measurement in time. Faraday rotation is dependent only upon the plasma itself, and thus is not sensitive to vibration of the optical components. Simulations of the expected results show that BPX would be well served even at low densities by a Midplane Faraday Rotation densitometer of {approximately}64 channels. Both TFTR and PBX-M would be suitable test beds for the BPX system.

Jobes, F.C.; Mansfield, D.K.

1992-02-01

384

Midplane Faraday Rotation: A densitometer for BPX  

SciTech Connect

The density in a high field, high density tokamak such as BPX can be determined by measuring the Faraday rotation of a 10.6 {mu}m laser directed tangent to the toroidal field. If there is a horizontal array of such beams, then n{sub e}(R) can be readily obtained with a simple Abel version about the center line of the tokamak. For BPX operated at full field and density, the rotation angle would be quite large -- about 75{degrees} per pass. A layout in which a single laser beam is fanned out in the horizontal midplane of the tokamak, with a set of retroreflectors on the far side of the vacuum vessel, would provide good spatial resolution, depending only upon the number of reflectors. With this proposed layout, only one window would be needed. Because the rotation angle is never more than 1 ``fringe,`` the data is always good, and it is also a continuous measurement in time. Faraday rotation is dependent only upon the plasma itself, and thus is not sensitive to vibration of the optical components. Simulations of the expected results show that BPX would be well served even at low densities by a Midplane Faraday Rotation densitometer of {approximately}64 channels. Both TFTR and PBX-M would be suitable test beds for the BPX system.

Jobes, F.C.; Mansfield, D.K.

1992-02-01

385

A Metric for Judicious Relaxation of Timing Constraints in Soft Real-Time Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

For soft real-time systems, timing constraints are not as stringent as those in hard real-time systems: some constraint violations are permitted as long as the amount of violation is within a given limit. The allowed flexibility for soft real-time systems can be utilized to improve system's other quality-of-service (QoS) properties, such as energy consumption. One way to enforce constraint violation

Yue Yu; Shangping Ren; Xiaobo Sharon Hu

2009-01-01

386

Kohn-Sham Self-Interaction Correction in Real Time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a solution scheme for the time-dependent Kohn-Sham self-interaction correction. Based on the generalized optimized effective potential approach, the multiplicative Kohn-Sham potential is constructed in real time and real space for the self-interaction corrected local density approximation. Excitations of different character, including charge-transfer excitations that had been regarded as prime examples for the failure of standard time-dependent density functionals, are described correctly by this approach. We analyze the time-dependent exchange-correlation potential and density, revealing features that are decisive for the correct description of the response.

Hofmann, D.; Körzdörfer, T.; Kümmel, S.

2012-04-01

387

Scheduling Algorithms for a Mixture of Real-Time and Non-Real-Time Data in HDR  

Microsoft Academic Search

High Data Rate (HDR) technologz has recently been proposed as an overlay to CDMA... In this paper, we study various scheduling algorithms for a mixture of real-time and non-real-time data over HDR\\/CDMA and compare their performance. We study the performance with respect to packet delays and also average throughput, where we use a token based mechanism to give minimum throughput

Sanjay Shakkottai; Alexander L. Stolyar

2001-01-01

388

Timing fault detection for safety-critical real-time embedded systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the one hand, a major aspect of dependability for real-time embedded systems is the respect of timing require- ments. On the other hand, the complexity of modern real- time embedded system implies the need for new design pro- cess focusing on high-level features, such as architecture- based design. In this paper, we show how to integrate a timing fault

Sébastien Faucou; Anne-marie Déplanche; Yvon Trinquet

2002-01-01

389

Lightweight distributed computing for intraoperative real-time image guidance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to provide real-time intraoperative guidance, computer assisted surgery (CAS) systems often rely on computationally expensive algorithms. The real-time constraint is especially challenging if several components such as intraoperative image processing, soft tissue registration or context aware visualization are combined in a single system. In this paper, we present a lightweight approach to distribute the workload over several workstations based on the OpenIGTLink protocol. We use XML-based message passing for remote procedure calls and native types for transferring data such as images, meshes or point coordinates. Two different, but typical scenarios are considered in order to evaluate the performance of the new system. First, we analyze a real-time soft tissue registration algorithm based on a finite element (FE) model. Here, we use the proposed approach to distribute the computational workload between a primary workstation that handles sensor data processing and visualization and a dedicated workstation that runs the real-time FE algorithm. We show that the additional overhead that is introduced by the technique is small compared to the total execution time. Furthermore, the approach is used to speed up a context aware augmented reality based navigation system for dental implant surgery. In this scenario, the additional delay for running the computationally expensive reasoning server on a separate workstation is less than a millisecond. The results show that the presented approach is a promising strategy to speed up real-time CAS systems.

Suwelack, Stefan; Katic, Darko; Wagner, Simon; Spengler, Patrick; Bodenstedt, Sebastian; Röhl, Sebastian; Dillmann, Rüdiger; Speidel, Stefanie

2012-02-01

390

Real-time hybrid simulation using the convolution integral method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a real-time hybrid simulation method that will allow complex systems to be tested within the hybrid test framework by employing the convolution integral (CI) method. The proposed CI method is potentially transformative for real-time hybrid simulation. The CI method can allow real-time hybrid simulation to be conducted regardless of the size and complexity of the numerical model and for numerical stability to be ensured in the presence of high frequency responses in the simulation. This paper presents the general theory behind the proposed CI method and provides experimental verification of the proposed method by comparing the CI method to the current integration time-stepping (ITS) method. Real-time hybrid simulation is conducted in the Advanced Hazard Mitigation Laboratory at the University of Connecticut. A seismically excited two-story shear frame building with a magneto-rheological (MR) fluid damper is selected as the test structure to experimentally validate the proposed method. The building structure is numerically modeled and simulated, while the MR damper is physically tested. Real-time hybrid simulation using the proposed CI method is shown to provide accurate results.

Jig Kim, Sung; Christenson, Richard E.; Wojtkiewicz, Steven F.; Johnson, Erik A.

2011-02-01

391

Software-safety and software quality assurance in real-time applications Part 2: Real-time structures and languages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our society is depending more and more on the reliability of embedded (real-time) computer systems even in every-day life. Considering the complexity of the real world, this might become a severe threat. Real-time programming is a discipline important not only in process control and data acquisition systems, but also in fields like communication, office automation, interactive databases, interactive graphics and operating systems development. General concepts of concurrent programming and constructs for process-synchronization are discussed in detail. Tasking and synchronization concepts, methods of process communication, interrupt- and timeout handling in systems based on semaphores, signals, conditional critical regions or on real-time languages like Concurrent PASCAL, MODULA, CHILL and ADA are explained and compared with each other and with respect to their potential to quality and safety.

Schoitsch, Erwin

1988-07-01

392

Real-time real-sky dual-conjugate adaptive optics experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current status of a real-time real-sky dual-conjugate adaptive optics experiment is presented. This experiment is a follow-up on a lab experiment at Lund Observatory that demonstrated dual-conjugate adaptive optics on a static atmosphere. The setup is to be placed at Lund Observatory. This means that the setup will be available 24h a day and does not have to share

Per Knutsson; Mette Owner-Petersen

2006-01-01

393

Case histories show real-time information reduces uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drill-bit seismic technology provides useful real-time information that reduces uncertainty for the driller. This second part of a two-part series provides real examples, describes the current state of technology and experience, and discusses techniques that will add value through the incorporation of additional information sources. To date, this technology has been used on more than 50 wells in all areas

R. Meehan; L. Nutt; N. Dutta; J. Menzies

1998-01-01

394

Real-Time Multimodal Human-Avatar Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel real-time multimodal human-avatar interaction (RTM-HAI) framework with vision-based remote animation control (RAC). The framework is designed for both mobile and desktop avatar-based human-machine or human-human visual communications in real-world scenarios. Using 3-D components stored in the Java mobile 3-D (M3G) file format, the avatar models can be flexibly constructed and customized on the fly on

Yun Fu; Renxiang Li; Thomas S. Huang; Mike Danielsen

2008-01-01

395

Near-real-time connectivity estimation for multivariate neural data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical imaging in vivo is an important tool for allowing researchers to understand neural ensemble interactions during awake behavior, sleep, anesthesia and during seizure activity. A major bottleneck in the overall efficiency of neural imaging experiments is the need for post-hoc analysis of imaging data. Computational capabilities are now at the point where real- or near-real-time multivariate analysis of imaging

Anne C. Smith; Christopher P. Fall; Andrew T. Sornborger

2011-01-01

396

Real-Time Digital Timing in Positron Emission Tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positron emission tomography (PET) requires accurate timing of scintillation events to properly discriminate between coincident and noncoincident pairs. The traditional solution to timing is based on custom application specific integrated circuits (ASIC) designs, whose cost may not be justified in the design of experimental small animal PET scanners. The new generation of PET scanners introduces the idea of continuous sampling

P. Guerra; J. E. Ortuno; G. Kontaxakis; M. J. Ledesma-Carbayo; J. J. Vaquero; M. Desco; A. Santos

2008-01-01

397

Guaranteed Response Times in a Hard-Real-Time Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a scheduling algorithm for a set of tasks that guarantees the time within which a task, once started, will complete. A task is started upon receipt of an external signal or the completion of other tasks. Each task has a rxed set of requirements in processor time, resources, and device operations needed for completion of its various

Dennis W. Leinbaugh

1980-01-01

398

Study on Amortization Time and Rationality in Real Estate Investment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amortization time and rationality has been discussed a lot in real estate investment research. As the price of real estate is driven by Geometric Brown Motion (GBM), whether the mortgagors should amortize in advance has become a key issue in amortization time research. This paper presents a new method to solve the problem by using the optimal stopping time theory and option pricing theory models. We discuss the option value in amortizing decision based on this model. A simulation method is used to test this method.

Li, Yancang; Zhou, Shujing; Suo, Juanjuan

399

Real-time position reconstruction with hippocampal place cells.  

PubMed

Brain-computer interfaces (BCI) are using the electroencephalogram, the electrocorticogram and trains of action potentials as inputs to analyze brain activity for communication purposes and/or the control of external devices. Thus far it is not known whether a BCI system can be developed that utilizes the states of brain structures that are situated well below the cortical surface, such as the hippocampus. In order to address this question we used the activity of hippocampal place cells (PCs) to predict the position of an rodent in real-time. First, spike activity was recorded from the hippocampus during foraging and analyzed off-line to optimize the spike sorting and position reconstruction algorithm of rats. Then the spike activity was recorded and analyzed in real-time. The rat was running in a box of 80?cm?×?80?cm and its locomotor movement was captured with a video tracking system. Data were acquired to calculate the rat's trajectories and to identify place fields. Then a Bayesian classifier was trained to predict the position of the rat given its neural activity. This information was used in subsequent trials to predict the rat's position in real-time. The real-time experiments were successfully performed and yielded an error between 12.2 and 17.4% using 5-6 neurons. It must be noted here that the encoding step was done with data recorded before the real-time experiment and comparable accuracies between off-line (mean error of 15.9% for three rats) and real-time experiments (mean error of 14.7%) were achieved. The experiment shows proof of principle that position reconstruction can be done in real-time, that PCs were stable and spike sorting was robust enough to generalize from the training run to the real-time reconstruction phase of the experiment. Real-time reconstruction may be used for a variety of purposes, including creating behavioral-neuronal feedback loops or for implementing neuroprosthetic control. PMID:21808603

Guger, Christoph; Gener, Thomas; Pennartz, Cyriel M A; Brotons-Mas, Jorge R; Edlinger, Günter; Bermúdez I Badia, S; Verschure, Paul; Schaffelhofer, Stefan; Sanchez-Vives, Maria V

2011-06-30

400

A hardware time manager implementation for the Xenomai real-time kernel of embedded Linux  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, the use of embedded operating systems in different embedded projects is subject to a tremendous growth. Embedded Linux is becoming one of those most popular EOSs due to its modularity, efficiency, reliability, and cost. One way to make it hard real-time is to include a real-time kernel like Xenomai. One of the key characteristics of a Real-Time Operating System

Pierre Olivier; Jalil Boukhobza

401

Spatio-temporal modeling for real-time ozone forecasting  

PubMed Central

The accurate assessment of exposure to ambient ozone concentrations is important for informing the public and pollution monitoring agencies about ozone levels that may lead to adverse health effects. High-resolution air quality information can offer significant health benefits by leading to improved environmental decisions. A practical challenge facing the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) is to provide real-time forecasting of current 8-hour average ozone exposure over the entire conterminous United States. Such real-time forecasting is now provided as spatial forecast maps of current 8-hour average ozone defined as the average of the previous four hours, current hour, and predictions for the next three hours. Current 8-hour average patterns are updated hourly throughout the day on the EPA-AIRNow web site. The contribution here is to show how we can substantially improve upon current real-time forecasting systems. To enable such forecasting, we introduce a downscaler fusion model based on first differences of real-time monitoring data and numerical model output. The model has a flexible coefficient structure and uses an efficient computational strategy to fit model parameters. Our hybrid computational strategy blends continuous background updated model fitting with real-time predictions. Model validation analyses show that we are achieving very accurate and precise ozone forecasts.

Paci, Lucia; Gelfand, Alan E.; Holland, David M.

2013-01-01

402

Real-time operating systems at higher control  

SciTech Connect

Although virtually all development of real-time operating systems focuses on the lowest of the three traditional control levels, sheet economics demands higher level real-time OSs. Meeting this demand requires a major change in the mindset of the people who have been focusing on the lowest level of control. {open_quotes}These people are trying to deal with an elephant`s tail, but they don`t realize that there is an elephant attached to it.{close_quotes} For more than three decades, the historical real-time mindset, concepts and techniques have been driven by a particular pair of contexts. First is the application context, which can be characterized as {open_quotes}small, simple, centralized, static subsystems for low-level, sampled data, monitoring and first-order control.{close_quotes} Second is the hardware context, characterized by a scarcity of hardware resources due to size, weight, power and cost considerations. Both of these contexts are changing dramatically in ways that {open_quotes}have a significant impact on the concepts and techniques of real-time computing.{close_quotes} Hardware now offers much higher performance and the real-time domain is expanding upward in the application control hierarchy.

Jensen, E.D.

1995-01-01

403

A GPS Real Time Earthquake and Tsunami (GREAT) Alert System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The GREAT Alert is a NASA-sponsored, real-time prototype system designed to enhance natural hazard warning capability and damage assessment. The system takes advantage of the increasingly available global and regional real-time GPS data, as well as advanced fault and ocean dynamics models to enable more accurate and timely assessment of the magnitude and mechanism of large earthquakes, and the magnitude and direction of resulting tsunamis. We will describe the prototype operational system being developed, highlighting the underlying GNSS technology. The key system components are: 1. The operational real-time estimation of site coordinates from hundreds of GPS sites using a precise point positioning (PPP) algorithm. This is accomplished by the NASA Global Differential GPS (GDGPS) System which, unlike other GPS algorithms such as real-time kinematic (RTK), is insensitive to motions of any ground-based reference stations in the vicinity of an event. 2. The application of data filtering and quality control techniques to the real-time site position time series in order to enhance the accurate retrieval of co-seismic site motions. 3. Usage of a Fingerprint inversion model (and potentially other models) for the rapid determination of the earthquake displacement field from the GPS-based records of ground motion at each station. 4. Detected and modeled seafloor displacements are then used within a special ocean dynamics model to determine tsunami source energy and scales, and estimate the tsunami propagation. 5. The resulting near-real-time information about earthquake source properties magnitude, type, and when relevant, magnitude and direction of the resulting tsunami, is then available to the responsible agencies to help in their decision-making processes. We will discuss the preliminary performance of the system, and analyze the aspects of GNSS infrastructure and technology that require further investments in order to realize the full potential of the GREAT Alert system and similar approaches for natural hazard monitoring.

Bar-Sever, Yoaz

2010-05-01

404

Designing a real-time ramp arrival prediction tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airline efficiency may be increased by the timely dissemination of accurate ramp time-of-arrival predictions for inbound aircraft. Potential benefits include improvements to gate management, ramp management, and personnel\\/equipment resource allocation. These benefits can lead to shorter aircraft turn-around times and reduced airline operating costs. Collaboration with Federal Express has identified the following criteria for a real-time prediction system: a gate

J. Legge

2004-01-01

405

Real-time scheduling for energy harvesting sensor nodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy harvesting has recently emerged as a feasible option to increase the oper- ating time of sensor networks. If each node of the network, however, is powered by a fluctuating energy source, common power management solutions have to be reconceived. This holds in particular if real-time responsiveness of a given application has to be guaranteed. Task scheduling at the single

Clemens Moser; Davide Brunelli; Lothar Thiele; Luca Benini

2007-01-01

406

Language Support for the Maruti Real-Time System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maruti is a testbed for the design of time-driven hard real-time systems. It uses the technique of prescheduling, where the application is scheduled prior to execution and resources required by the application are reserved, in order to ensure that deadlines are met. A description is given of the features of MPL, a language for Maruti. MPL provides constructs for expressing

Vivek M. Nirkhe; Satish K. Tripathi; Ashok K. Agrawala

1990-01-01

407

The stack resource protocol based on real time transactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current hard real time (HRT) kernels have their timely behaviour guaranteed at the cost of a rather restrictive use of the available resources. This makes current HRT scheduling techniques inadequate for use in a multimedia environment where one can profit by a better and more flexible use of the resources. It is shown that one can improve the flexibility and

Pierre G. Jansen; René Laan

1999-01-01

408

Intelligent decision support to assist real-time collaboration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under conditions associated with real-time decisions, humans may experience stressors such as information overload, time pressure, emotional intensity, and uncertainty. These pressures increase with distributed teams that must collaborate to make decisions in rapidly changing environments over networks due to factors such as delays or misunderstandings in communication. Intelligent decision support systems attempt to mitigate these issues by integrating capabilities

Gloria Phillips-Wren

2008-01-01

409

DETECTION OF FECAL ENTEROCOCCI USING A REAL TIME PCR METHOD  

EPA Science Inventory

In spite of their importance in public health, the detection of fecal enterococci is performed via culturing methods that are time consuming and that are subject to inaccuracies that relate to their culturable status. In order to address these problems, a real time PCR (TaqMan) ...

410

Instruction Cache Memory Issues in Real-Time Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Cache memories can contribute to significant performance advantages due to the gap between CPU and memory speed They have traditionally been thought of as contributors to unpredictability because the user can not be sure of ex - actly how much time will elapse while a memory - operation is performed In a real - time system, the cache memory

Filip Sebek

411

Accurate Real-time Identification of IP Hijacking  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present novel and practical techniques to accurately detect IP prefix hijacking attacks in real time to facilitate timely mitigation respon ses. There are strong evidences that IP hijacking is common on today's Internet. Attackers may hi jack victim's IP address space to perpetrate malicious activities such as spamming and launching DoS attacks without worrying about disclosing

Xin Hu; Z. Morley Mao

412

ASSET2: Real-Time Motion Segmentation and Shape Tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a system for detecting and tracking moving objects in a moving world. The feature-based optic flow field is segmented into clusters with affine internal motion which are tracked over time. The system runs in real-time, and is accurate and reliable

Stephen M. Smith; Michael Brady

1995-01-01

413

Near Real-Time Simulation of Particle Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulation of particle systems is time consuming. However, many particle system applications require fast interactive animations. For example, simulation of physically realistic complex dust behaviors is very useful in training, education, art, advertising, and entertainment. There are no published models for real-time simulation of dust behavior generated by a traveling vehicle. In this paper we use particle systems, computational fluid

Jim X. Chen; Edward J. Wegman; Xiaodong Fu; Yonggao Yang

1999-01-01

414

Real-time EMTP-based transients simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer program has been written for the simulation of power system transients in real time. The program is based on EMTP models and solution techniques optimized for maximum performance in superscalar computer architectures. Timings ranging from 38 to 107 ?s have been obtained for systems from 18 to 30 nodes using an IBM RISC System\\/6000 Model 560 workstation. These

J. R. Marti; L. R. Linares

1994-01-01

415

Real-Time Traffic Volume Estimation with Fuzzy Linear Regression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate knowledge of future short time traffic volume on the travel network is critical for traffic signal control and guidance information. It is important and necessary to estimate traffic volume precisely in real-time with historic collected data. In this paper, based on literature review of several methods to estimate future short interval traffic volume, a fuzzy linear regression algorithm is

Hong Dai; Zhaosheng Yang; Shengwei Guo

2006-01-01

416

Incremental Satisfiability Counting for Real-Time Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Testing constraints for real-time systems are usually verified through the satisfiability of propositional formulae. In this paper, we propose an alternative where the verification of timing constraints can be done by counting the number of truth assignments instead of boolean satisfiability. This number can also tell us how \\

Stefan Andrei; Wei-ngan Chin

2004-01-01

417

Real-Time Based Strong Consistency for Distributed Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

A distributed computation satisfies sequential consistency if it is possible to establish a legal ordering of all the operations such that the program order of each site in the distributed system is respected. However, sequential consistency does not necessarily consider the particular real-time instant at which each operation is executed. A timed consistency model addresses how quickly the effects of

Francisco J. Torres-rojas; Mustaque Ahamad; Michel Raynal

2001-01-01

418

Polychronous design of embedded real-time applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embedded real-time systems consist of hardware and software that controls the behavior of a device or plant. They are ubiquitous in today's technological landscape and found in domains such as telecommunications, nuclear power, avionics, and medical technology. These systems are difficult to design and build because they must satisfy both functional and timing requirements to work correctly in their intended

Abdoulaye Gamatié; Thierry Gautier; Paul Le Guernic; Jean-pierre Talpin

2007-01-01

419

An Open Environment for Real-Time Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: This paper describes an open system architecture that allows independently developed hard realtimeapplications to run together and supports their reconfiguration at run-time. In the opensystem, each real-time application is executed by a server. At the lower level, the OS schedulerschedules all the servers on the EDF basis. At the upper level, the server scheduler of each serverschedules the ready

Zhong Deng; Jane W.-S. Liu; Lynn Y. Zhang; Mouna Seri; Alban Frei

1999-01-01

420

EMBEDDED HARD REAL-TIME SOFTWARE SYNTHESIS CONSIDERING DISPATCHER OVERHEADS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the increasing complexity and diversity of requirements, embedded software has become much harder to design. For instance, since several applications demand safety properties, the correctness and timeliness verification is an issue to be concerned. Usually, complex embedded real-time systems rely on specialized operating system kernels. However, operating systems may introduce significant overheads in execution time as well as

Raimundo Barreto; Eduardo Tavares; Paulo Maciel; Marília Neves; Meuse Oliveira Jr; Leonardo Amorim; Arthur Bessa; Ricardo Lima

421

Real-Time Collision Detection for Virtual Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a simple method for performing real-time collision detection in a virtual surgery environment. The method relies on the graphics hardware for testing the inter- penetration between a virtual deformable organ and a rigid tool controlled by the user. The method enables to take into account the motion of the tool between two consecutive time steps. For our specic

Jean-christophe Lombardo; Marie-paule Cani; Fabrice Neyret

1999-01-01

422

Sequential tests for near-real-time accounting  

SciTech Connect

Statistical hypothesis testing is used in the analysis of nuclear materials accounting data for evidence of diversion. Sequential hypothesis testing is particularly well suited for analyzing data that arise sequentially in time from near-real-time accounting systems. The properties of selected sequential tests adapted for this application are described. 10 figures, 12 tables.

Cobb, D.D.

1981-01-01

423

Toward Real Time Data Analysis for Smart Grids  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the architecture and design of a novel system for supporting large-scale real-time data analysis for future power grid systems. The widespread deployment of renewable generation, smart grid controls, energy storage, plug-in hybrids, and new conducting materials will require fundamental changes in the operational concepts and principal components of the grid. As a result, the whole system becomes highly dynamic and requires constant adjusting based on real time data. Even though millions of sensors such as phase measurement units (PMU) and smart meters are being widely deployed, a data layer that can analyze this amount of data in real time is needed. Unlike the data fabric in other cloud services, the data layer for smart grids has some unique design requirements. First, this layer must provide real time guarantees. Second, this layer must be scalable to allow a large number of applications to access the data from millions of sensors in real time. Third, reliability is critical and this layer must be able to continue to provide service in face of failures. Fourth, this layer must be secure. We address these challenges though a scalable system architecture that integrates the I/O and data processing capability in a devise set of devices. Data process operations can be placed anywhere from sensors, data storage devices, to control centers. We further employ compression to improve performance. We design a lightweight compression customized for power grid data. Our system can reduce end-to-end response time by reduce I/O overhead through compression and overlap compression operations with I/O. The initial prototype of our system was demonstrated with several use cases from PNNL’s FPGI and show that our system can provide real time guarantees to a diverse set of applications.

Yin, Jian; Gorton, Ian; Sharma, Poorva

2012-11-10

424

Galactic and intergalactic Faraday rotation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model of the systematic component of the magnetic field of the Galaxy is fitted to a sample of 459 extragalactic rotation measures (RM), and the results are found to be consistent with a previous analysis of pulsar RMs by Thomson and Nelson (1980). The model is then used to reduce the effect of galactic Faraday rotation on the RMs of 134 QSOs, and the results used to investigate the existence of a Faraday-active intergalactic medium. Three models are considered in order to explain the redshift dependence of the RM variance. Although none of these models can be excluded, a significant fraction of the observed Faraday rotation may take place in extended cluster/supercluster haloes with dimensions about 9 Mpc, electron densities about 0.0001/cu cm and magnetic fields about 0.1-1 microgauss. The inferred filling-factor, about 0.002, implies omega of about 0.1.

Thomson, R. C.; Nelson, A. H.

1982-10-01

425

Coherent processor for real-time inspection of technical surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The number of applications in product inspection is already large and grows rapidly. Fabrication processes run at high speeds, and demands on accuracy and quality are rising. Today, electronic vision system often do not provide enough processing performance to satisfy real-time requirements of industrial applications. This motivates the development of hybrid vision systems which, by utilization of parallel optical filtering, have enough processing power to become applicable in automated product inspection. We have developed a programmable optical processor which is designed to extract defects on technical surfaces by means of optical image analysis. The processor is capable of analyzing video image sequences in real-time using liquid-crystal spatial light modulator technology. Structural defects are visually enhanced by an adaptive wavelet filtering method. We have implemented a demonstrator device and showed its operation by an example of practical relevance. The experiments confirm that optical image processing is an attractive way to do quality control in real-time.

Teiwes, Stephan; Duerr, Matthias; Kreissl, Mario; Krueger, Sven; Schwarzer, Heiko

1998-04-01

426

Integrated real-time fracture-diagnostics instrumentation system  

SciTech Connect

The use of an integrated, real-time fracture-diagnostics instrumentation system for the control of the fracturing treatment during massive hydraulic fracturing is proposed. The proposed system consists of four subsystems: an internal-fracture-pressure measurement system, a fluid-flow measurement system, a borehole seismic system, and a surface-electric-potential measurement system. This use of borehole seismic and surface-electric-potential measurements, which are essentially away-from-the-wellbore measurements, in conjunction with the use of the more commonly used types of measurements, i.e., at-the-wellbore pressure and fluid-flow measurements, is a distinctive feature of the composite real-time diagnostics system. Currently, the real-time capabilities of the individual subsystems are being developed, and the problems associated with their integration into a complete, computer-linked instrumentation system are being addressed. 2 figures.

Engi, D

1983-01-01

427

Software engineering aspects of real-time programming concepts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real-time programming is a discipline of great importance not only in process control, but also in fields like communication, office automation, interactive databases, interactive graphics and operating systems development. General concepts of concurrent programming and constructs for process-synchronization are discussed in detail. Tasking and synchronization concepts, methods of process communication, interrupt and timeout handling in systems based on semaphores, signals, conditional critical regions or on real-time languages like Concurrent PASCAL, MODULA, CHILL and ADA are explained and compared with each other. The second part deals with structuring and modularization of technical processes to build reliable and maintainable real time systems. Software-quality and software engineering aspects are considered throughout the paper.

Schoitsch, Erwin

1986-08-01

428

New real-time strain imaging concepts using diagnostic ultrasound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two real-time strain imaging concepts and systems are presented. Both systems are based on a conventional ultrasound scanner that is connected to a PC with an A/D converter card for real-time data acquisition of rf data. Differential strain between successively acquired rf frames are estimated using phase root seeking. The first concept uses a special real-time implementation of manual elastography. In the second concept, denoted `vibrography', the static compression is replaced by low-frequency axial vibration of the probe, still operating in quasistatic acquisition mode. The properties of both concepts are discussed with regard to noise and motion artefacts, and it is shown, using simulations and phantom experiments, that both imaging concepts yield the same kind of strain images. Vibrography has the advantage that no manual compression has to be applied, total compression can be very low and some motion artefacts are better suppressed.

Pesavento, A.; Lorenz, A.; Siebers, S.; Ermert, H.

2000-06-01

429

New real-time strain imaging concepts using diagnostic ultrasound.  

PubMed

Two real-time strain imaging concepts and systems are presented. Both systems are based on a conventional ultrasound scanner that is connected to a PC with an A/D converter card for real-time data acquisition of rf data. Differential strain between successively acquired rf frames are estimated using phase root seeking. The first concept uses a special real-time implementation of manual elastography. In the second concept, denoted 'vibrography', the static compression is replaced by low-frequency axial vibration of the probe, still operating in quasistatic acquisition mode. The properties of both concepts are discussed with regard to noise and motion artefacts, and it is shown, using simulations and phantom experiments, that both imaging concepts yield the same kind of strain images. Vibrography has the advantage that no manual compression has to be applied, total compression can be very low and some motion artefacts are better suppressed. PMID:10870701

Pesavento, A; Lorenz, A; Siebers, S; Ermert, H

2000-06-01

430

Single-protein nanomechanical mass spectrometry in real time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) resonators can detect mass with exceptional sensitivity. Previously, mass spectra from several hundred adsorption events were assembled in NEMS-based mass spectrometry using statistical analysis. Here, we report the first realization of single-molecule NEMS-based mass spectrometry in real time. As each molecule in the sample adsorbs on the resonator, its mass and position of adsorption are determined by continuously tracking two driven vibrational modes of the device. We demonstrate the potential of multimode NEMS-based mass spectrometry by analysing IgM antibody complexes in real time. NEMS-based mass spectrometry is a unique and promising new form of mass spectrometry: it can resolve neutral species, provide a resolving power that increases markedly for very large masses, and allow the acquisition of spectra, molecule-by-molecule, in real time.

Hanay, M. S.; Kelber, S.; Naik, A. K.; Chi, D.; Hentz, S.; Bullard, E. C.; Colinet, E.; Duraffourg, L.; Roukes, M. L.

2012-09-01

431

Parallel architecture for real-time simulation. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

This thesis is concerned with the development of a very fast and highly efficient parallel computer architecture for real-time simulation of continuous systems. Currently, several parallel processing systems exist that may be capable of executing a complex simulation in real-time. These systems are examined and the pros and cons of each system discussed. The thesis then introduced a custom-designed parallel architecture based upon The University of Alabama's OPERA architecture. Each component of this system is discussed and rationale presented for its selection. The problem selected, real-time simulation of the Space Shuttle Main Engine for the test and evaluation of the proposed architecture, is explored, identifying the areas where parallelism can be exploited and parallel processing applied. Results from the test and evaluation phase are presented and compared with the results of the same problem that has been processed on a uniprocessor system.

Cockrell, C.D.

1989-01-01

432

Training recurrent neurocontrollers for real-time applications.  

PubMed

In this paper, we introduce a new approach to train recurrent neurocontrollers for real-time applications. We begin with training a recurrent neurocontroller for robustness on high-fidelity models of physical systems. For training, we use a recently developed derivative-free Kalman filter method which we enhance for controller training. After training, we fix weights of our recurrent neurocontroller and deploy it in an embedded environment. Then, we carry out additional training of the neurocontroller by adapting in real time its internal state (short-term memory), rather than its weights (long-term memory). Such real-time training is done with a new combination of simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation (SPSA) and adaptive critic. Our critic is also a recurrent neural network (RNN), and it is trained by stochastic meta-descent (SMD) for increased efficiency. Our approach is applied to two important practical problems, electronic throttle control and hybrid electric vehicle control, with apparent performance improvement. PMID:17668657

Prokhorov, Danil V

2007-07-01

433

Real-time structured light intraoral 3D measurement pipeline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computer aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) is increasingly becoming a standard feature and service provided to patients in dentist offices and denture manufacturing laboratories. Although the quality of the tools and data has slowly improved in the last years, due to various surface measurement challenges, practical, accurate, invivo, real-time 3D high quality data acquisition and processing still needs improving. Advances in GPU computational power have allowed for achieving near real-time 3D intraoral in-vivo scanning of patient's teeth. We explore in this paper, from a real-time perspective, a hardware-software-GPU solution that addresses all the requirements mentioned before. Moreover we exemplify and quantify the hard and soft deadlines required by such a system and illustrate how they are supported in our implementation.

Gheorghe, Radu; Tchouprakov, Andrei; Sokolov, Roman

2013-02-01

434

Advances in MWD technology improve real time data  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that improvements in measurement while drilling (MWD) technology have increased drilling efficiency by allowing the driller to steer the bit with real-time formation evaluation measurements and to optimize bottom hole assembly (BHA) performance during drilling. Significant advances in MWD will come in a viable market that values real-time downhole measurements not only as a replacement for conventional measurements, but also as a means to optimize drilling and increase recoverable reserves. MWD technology will center on improving the real-time capabilities of geosteering, moving sensors closer to the bit, and reducing the length of the entire BHA. The key to success is careful planning, cross training for MWD engineers and directional drillers, and a well-prepared team that includes the operator's representative, well site geologist, driller, and reservoir engineer.

Brugess, T.; Voisin, B. (Anadrill Schlumberger, Sugar Land, TX (US))

1992-02-17

435

Effective Product Recommendation using the Real-Time Web  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The so-called real-time web (RTW) is a web of opinions, comments, and personal viewpoints, often expressed in the form of short, 140-character text messages providing abbreviated and highly personalized commentary in real-time. Today, Twitter is undoubtedly the king of the RTW. It boasts 190 million users and generates in the region of 65m tweets per day1. This RTW data is far from the structured data (movie ratings, product features, etc.) that is familiar to recommender systems research but it is useful to consider its applicability to recommendation scenarios. In this paper we consider harnessing the real-time opinions of users, expressed through the Twitter-like short textual reviews available on the Blippr service (www.blippr.com). In particular we describe how users and products can be represented from the terms used in their associated reviews and describe experiments to highlight the recommendation potential of this RTW data-source and approach.

Esparza, Sandra Garcia; O'Mahony, Michael P.; Smyth, Barry

436

Innovations within the Altair real-time wavefront reconstructor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gemini North adaptive optics system Altair utilises five cooperative CPU's to perform all the associated real-time tasks. One, the reconstructor (RTC), manages all of the highest speed hard real-time duties. As well as the core, computationally intensive, wavefront reconstruction, this processor implements a number of algorithms providing control system support services. These include: the quad-cell centroid gain estimation, determination and subtraction of invisible modes on the deformable mirror, and the blending of tip, tilt and focus from the on instrument wavefront sensors (which exist on all facility Gemini instruments). These associated support tasks are critically important to ensure that the system always runs with an optimal bandwidth and produce stable images with no artefacts such as a waffle pattern or residual non-common path errors. We present the original algorithm that we have developed for the centroid gain estimate and discuss how it is efficiently and conveniently implemented on the hard real-time processor.

Saddlemyer, Leslie K.; Herriot, Glen; Vrran, Jean-Pierre; Smith, Malcolm; Dunn, Jennifer

2004-10-01

437

Geologic hazard monitoring with real-time GPS (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The USGS Earthquake and Volcano Hazards Science Centers are developing a high-rate (1-s epoch), real-time ground deformation monitoring system using data streamed from continuously recording GPS stations. We began by evaluating the ability of GPS data reduction software to recover offsets in a displacement test data set generated by offsetting a GPS antenna by measured amounts. We found that offsets as large as several meters and as small as 1 cm could be reliably resolved. Our methods and initial results were summarized in USGS Open File Report 1235 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1235/of2006-1235.pdf). Further evaluation of GPS software using raw data from the report and real-time GPS data were conducted after publication of the report. Based upon these results, we selected software that could produce both double difference (baseline) and single difference (point positioning) solutions. Using this software, we are now running real-time, 1-s, fixed-ambiguity, double-difference solutions for USGS deformation monitoring networks in Southern California, the San Francisco Bay Area, Long Valley, and at several Cascades volcanoes. GPS data are streamed over the Internet to processing centers in Pasadena, CA, and Vancouver, WA. Solutions are generally reliable, but we note solution gaps caused by the breakdown in the GPS data streams and intervals when baseline ambiguities are not resolved in some of the longer (>50 km) baselines. We have not yet attempted real-time point-position solutions because we lack accurate real-time satellite clock corrections. We plan to implement this technique in the future by either calculating satellite clock corrections using a network of stations or by applying corrections produced by JPL. We currently generate alarms for data gaps in the real-time GPS solutions and plan to automate displacement anomaly detection using an algorithm that removes common-mode and multi-path noise.

Lisowski, M.; Langbein, J. O.; Murray-Moraleda, J. R.; Poland, M. P.; Hudnut, K. W.; Cervelli, P. F.; King, N. E.

2009-12-01

438

Modeling Faraday Excitation of a Viscous Fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Modeling Faraday Excitation of a Viscous Fluid by Bradley Forrest May 2002 Faraday Excitation is the occurrence of growing surface waves when a ?uid is subjected to periodic forcing. Given a ?uid, Faraday Excitation will occur for some, but not all, values of forcing frequency and amplitude. In this thesis, a viscous ?uid is modeled through linear stability analysis

Bradley Forrest; Andrew Bernofi

439

Time will show: real time predictions during interpersonal action perception.  

PubMed

Predictive processes are crucial not only for interpreting the actions of individual agents, but also to predict how, in the context of a social interaction between two agents, the actions of one agent relate to the actions of a second agent. In the present study we investigated whether, in the context of a communicative interaction between two agents, observers can use the actions of one agent to predict when the action of a second agent will take place. Participants observed point-light displays of two agents (A and B) performing separate actions. In the communicative condition, the action performed by agent B responded to a communicative gesture performed by agent A. In the individual condition, agent A's communicative action was substituted with a non-communicative action. For each condition, we manipulated the temporal coupling of the actions of the two agents, by varying the onset of agent A's action. Using a simultaneous masking detection task, we demonstrated that the timing manipulation had a critical effect on the communicative condition, with the visual discrimination of agent B increasing linearly while approaching the original interaction timing. No effect of the timing manipulation was found for the individual condition. Our finding complements and extends previous evidence for interpersonal predictive coding, suggesting that the communicative gestures of one agent can serve not only to predict what the second agent will do, but also when his/her action will take place. PMID:23349992

Manera, Valeria; Schouten, Ben; Verfaillie, Karl; Becchio, Cristina

2013-01-22

440

Real-time delay statistics in wireless IP networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the wireless communication, the variation of the transmission delay is called jitter and is one of the variables responsible for the degradation of the service quality. Jitter is present in every section of the transmission system. Its stochastic behavior depends on the technology implemented in the system and the service provided by the system. This paper focuses on mathematical modeling and phenomenological analysis of the jitter encountered by the real-time services in a wireless network. Using the data made available to the public by the wireless industry, we explore the stochastic characterizations of the jitter in a wireless IP networks. Within the scope of real-time service, we studied the relation between delay, jitter and the inter-packet time. Evaluation of the sample data indicates a long range dependence of the inter-packet time of the received packets in a real-time connection. The result helps understanding the transmission delay encountered by the real-time service over wireless IP networks.

Huo, D.

2012-09-01

441

Application of real-time locating in health care.  

PubMed

This paper describes real-time locating technology and its possible use in health care. Real time locating may be applied in different segments of everyday life, including hospitals (medical equipment and devices, locating patients, and alarm in case of emergency), working environment (locating persons to control access to restricted areas or in case of fire to see if anyone has been trapped inside the building), sports, logistics, retail trade, and offices. Tagged hospital equipment is easy to trace inside hospital premises and the system makes it possible to track patients and staff, and to redistribute work in particular wards. PMID:20061250

Zigman, Dubravko; Krajina, Slaven; Krznari?, Marija

2009-12-01

442

Terahertz real-time imaging for nondestructive detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a real time imaging measurement in the terahertz (THz) frequency region. The dynamic subtraction technique is used to reduce long-term optical background drift. The reflective images of two targets, a Nikon camera's lens cap and a plastic toy gun, are obtained. For the lens cap, the image data were processed to be false color images. For the toy gun, we show that even under an optically opaque canvas bag, a clear terahertz image is obtained. It is shown that terahertz real time imaging can be used to nondestructively detect concealed objects.

Zhang, LiangLiang; Karpowicz, Nick; Zhang, CunLin; Zhao, YueJin; Zhang, XiCheng

2008-03-01

443

Real-time nondestructive imaging with THz waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a real-time imaging measurement in the terahertz (THz) frequency region. The dynamic subtraction technique is used to reduce long-term optical background drift. The reflective images of two targets, a Nikon camera’s lens cap and a plastic toy gun, are obtained. For the lens cap, the image data were processed to be false-color images. For the toy gun, we show that even under an optically opaque canvas bag, a clear terahertz image is obtained. It is shown that terahertz real-time imaging can be used to nondestructively detect concealed objects.

Zhang, Liangliang; Karpowicz, Nick; Zhang, Cunlin; Zhao, Yuejin; Zhang, Xicheng

2008-03-01

444

Magneto-optical system for high speed real time imaging.  

PubMed

A new magneto-optical system has been developed to expand the range of high speed real time magneto-optical imaging. A special source for the external magnetic field has also been designed, using a pump solenoid to rapidly excite the field coil. Together with careful modifications of the cryostat, to reduce eddy currents, ramping rates reaching 3000 T/s have been achieved. Using a powerful laser as the light source, a custom designed optical assembly, and a high speed digital camera, real time imaging rates up to 30 000 frames per seconds have been demonstrated. PMID:22938303

Baziljevich, M; Barness, D; Sinvani, M; Perel, E; Shaulov, A; Yeshurun, Y

2012-08-01

445

Embedded real-time operating system micro kernel design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Embedded systems usually require a real-time character. Base on an 8051 microcontroller, an embedded real-time operating system micro kernel is proposed consisting of six parts, including a critical section process, task scheduling, interruption handle, semaphore and message mailbox communication, clock managent and memory managent. Distributed CPU and other resources are among tasks rationally according to the importance and urgency. The design proposed here provides the position, definition, function and principle of micro kernel. The kernel runs on the platform of an ATMEL AT89C51 microcontroller. Simulation results prove that the designed micro kernel is stable and reliable and has quick response while operating in an application system.

Cheng, Xiao-hui; Li, Ming-qiang; Wang, Xin-zheng

2005-12-01

446

Pfinder: real-time tracking of the human body  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pfinder is a real-time system for tracking and interpretation of people. It runs on a standard SGI Indy computer, and has performed reliably on thousands of people in many different physical locations. The system uses a multiclass statistical model of color and shape to segment a person from a background scene, and implements heuristics which can find and track people's head and hands in a wide range of viewing conditions. Pfinder produces a real- time representation of a user useful for applications such as wireless interfaces, video databases, and low-bandwidth coding, without cumbersome wires or attached sensors.

Wren, Christopher R.; Azarbayejani, Ali J.; Darrell, Trevor J.; Pentland, Alexander P.

1996-01-01

447

Real-Time Ocean Data in the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To apply students' savvy internet skills in the science classroom--as well as capture their interest in science and investigation, and provide opportunities for authentic research--introduce them to real-time data from ocean-observing systems. Students can use data from these ocean-observing systems to discover the winds and waves from storms or to explore currents and predict marine-organism distribution. The four web-based student activities presented in this article bring the world of high-tech instruments and real-time data information to the classroom.

Ward, Angela; Gibson, Deidre; Murray, Laura

2008-10-01

448

Magneto-optical system for high speed real time imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new magneto-optical system has been developed to expand the range of high speed real time magneto-optical imaging. A special source for the external magnetic field has also been designed, using a pump solenoid to rapidly excite the field coil. Together with careful modifications of the cryostat, to reduce eddy currents, ramping rates reaching 3000 T/s have been achieved. Using a powerful laser as the light source, a custom designed optical assembly, and a high speed digital camera, real time imaging rates up to 30 000 frames per seconds have been demonstrated.

Baziljevich, M.; Barness, D.; Sinvani, M.; Perel, E.; Shaulov, A.; Yeshurun, Y.

2012-08-01

449

Integrating Real-time Earthquakes into Natural Hazard Courses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural hazard courses are playing an increasingly important role in college and university earth science curricula. Students' intrinsic curiosity about the subject and the potential to make the course relevant to the interests of both science and non-science students make natural hazards courses popular additions to a department's offerings. However, one vital aspect of "real-life" natural hazard management that has not translated well into the classroom is the real-time nature of both events and response. The lack of a way to entrain students into the event/response mode has made implementing such real-time activities into classroom activities problematic. Although a variety of web sites provide near real-time postings of natural hazards, students essentially learn of the event after the fact. This is particularly true for earthquakes and other events with few precursors. As a result, the "time factor" and personal responsibility associated with natural hazard response is lost to the students. We have integrated the real-time aspects of earthquake response into two natural hazard courses at Penn State (a 'general education' course for non-science majors, and an upper-level course for science majors) by implementing a modification of the USGS Earthworm system. The Earthworm Database Management System (E-DBMS) catalogs current global seismic activity. It provides earthquake professionals with real-time email/cell phone alerts of global seismic activity and access to the data for review/revision purposes. We have modified this system so that real-time response can be used to address specific scientific, policy, and social questions in our classes. As a prototype of using the E-DBMS in courses, we have established an Earthworm server at Penn State. This server receives national and global seismic network data and, in turn, transmits the tailored alerts to "on-duty" students (e-mail, pager/cell phone notification). These students are responsible to react to the alarm real-time, consulting other members of their class and accessing the E-DBMS server and other links to glean information that they will then use to make decisions. Students wrestle with the complications in interpreting natural hazard data, evaluating whether a response is needed, and problems such as those associated with communication between media and the public through these focused exercises. Although earthquakes are targeted at present, similar DBMS systems are envisioned for other natural hazards like flooding, volcanoes, and severe weather. We are testing this system as a prototype intended to be expanded to provide web-based access to classes at both the middle/high school and college/university levels.

Furlong, K. P.; Benz, H. M.; Whitlock, J. S.; Bittenbinder, A. N.; Bogaert, B. B.

2001-12-01

450

Integration of Real-Time Data Into Building Automation Systems  

SciTech Connect

The project goal was to investigate the possibility of using predictive real-time information from the Internet as an input to building management system algorithms. The objectives were to identify the types of information most valuable to commercial and residential building owners, managers, and system designers. To comprehensively investigate and document currently available electronic real-time information suitable for use in building management systems. Verify the reliability of the information and recommend accreditation methods for data and providers. Assess methodologies to automatically retrieve and utilize the information. Characterize equipment required to implement automated integration. Demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of using the information in building management systems. Identify evolutionary control strategies.

Mark J. Stunder; Perry Sebastian; Brenda A. Chube; Michael D. Koontz

2003-04-16

451

Real-Time Character Control for Wrestling Games  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a method to simulate the real-time interactions of tangling motions by two virtual wrestlers in 3D computer games. The characters are controlled individually by two different players - one player controls the attacker and the other controls the defender. We make use of the topology coordinates which are effective to synthesize tangling movements. The attacker's movements are simulated by changing the topology coordinates at every frame, and the defender is controlled to escape from such an attack by inverse kinematics. The experimental results show the methodology can simulate realistic competitive interactions of wrestling in real-time, which is difficult by previous methods.

Ho, Edmond S. L.; Komura, Taku

452

USGS Geomagnetism Program Real-time Product Summary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The USGS Geomagnetism Program operates magnetic observatories across the United States, providing high quality, near real-time magnetic field measurements. These data support operational tasks, and are used as near real-time drivers to space weather models and indices. This presentation describes the operational products being produced at the USGS, including 1-minute Dst, 1-minute K index, and local disturbance measurements. In addition, we present the USGS products under development, including hazard mapping, geomagnetic storm operational summaries, and ground level electric field estimates.

Gannon, J. L.; Love, J. J.; Finn, C. A.; Stewart, D. C.; McWhirter, E. A.

2011-12-01

453

Steam generator model for real-time analysis  

SciTech Connect

Plant safety as well as plant availability can significantly be improved if functions such as data validation, plant state verification and fault identification are automated. This can be achieved if computers are utilized, with plant models that run in real-time, for continuous on-line plant information processing and analysis. Such models can also be used in plant simulators for operator training. This paper presents a model for real-time analysis of a once-through liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) steam generator.

Tzanos, C.P.

1985-01-01

454

Sensitivity analysis for fixed-priority real-time systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

At early stages in the design of real-time embedded applications, the timing attributes of the computational activities are\\u000a often incompletely specified or subject to changes. Later in the development cycle, schedulability analysis can be used to\\u000a check the feasibility of the task set. However, the knowledge of the worst-case response times of tasks is often not sufficient\\u000a to precisely determine

Enrico Bini; Marco Di Natale; Giorgio C. Buttazzo

2008-01-01

455

Real–Time Measurement of Outdoor Tobacco Smoke Particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current lack of empirical data on outdoor tobacco smoke (OTS) levels impedes OTS exposure and risk assessments. We sought to measure peak and time-averaged OTS concentrations in common outdoor settings near smokers and to explore the determinants of time-varying OTS levels, including the effects of source proximity and wind. Using five types of real-time airborne particle monitoring devices, we

Neil E. Klepeis; Wayne R. Ott; Paul Switzer; Xiaosheng Qin; Guohe Huang; Guangming Zeng; Amit Chakma; Beidou Xi; John Gillies; Hampden Kuhns; Johann Engelbrecht; Sebastian Uppapalli; Vicken Etyemezian; George Nikolich; Yinchang Feng; Yonghua Xue; Xiaohua Chen; Jianhui Wu; Tan Zhu; Zhipeng Bai; Shengtang Fu; Changju Gu; Richard Corsi; Matthew Walker; Howard Liljestrand; Heidi Hubbard; Dustin Poppendieck; Jawad Touma; Vlad Isakov; Alan Cimorelli; Roger Brode; Bret Anderson; John Offenberg; Michael Lewandowski; Edward Edney; Tadeusz Kleindienst; Mohammed Jaoui; Shin-An Chen; Jun-Nan Nian; Chien-Cheng Tsai; Hsisheng Teng; Birnur Buzcu-Guven; Steven Brown; Anna Frankel; Hilary Hafner; Paul Roberts; Elizabeth Vega; Hugo Ruiz; Gerardo Marti´nez-Villa; Gustavo Gonza´lez-A´; Elizabeth Reyes; Jose´ Garci´a

2007-01-01

456

Conflict-free Real-time AGV Routing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. We present an algorithm for the problem of routing Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs) in an automated logistic system. The algorithm avoids collisions, deadlocks and livelocks already at the time of route computation (conict-free rout- ing). After a preprocessing step the real-time computation for each request consists of the determination of a shortest path with time-windows and a following readjust-

Rolf H. Möhring; Ekkehard Köhler; Ewgenij Gawrilow; Björn Stenzel

2004-01-01

457

Analysis of Three Real-Time Dst Indices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dst is commonly used to specify geomagnetic disturbance periods and characterize the resulting ring current enhancements from ground-based horizontal magnetic field intensity measurements. Real-time versions of the Dst index are produced for operational purposes, and are of interest to many users, including the US military, airline industry, and power companies. USGS Real time Dst, Kyoto Quicklook Dst, and Space Environment Corporation RDst use preliminary data and use a variety of contributing observatories and processing methods. Both USGS and RDst use a combined time-and-frequency domain method and Kyoto uses a time domain only method in creating the Dst index. We perform an analysis of these three real time Dst indices for the time period of October 1, 2009 to May 31, 2010. The USGS 3, using three observatories instead of the standard four, and the Kyoto Sym-H index, are introduced in the analysis for comparison of observatory location with the three main Dst indices. We present a statistical study of the differences due to algorithm, output time resolution, and location of contributing observatories. Higher time resolution shows higher frequency fluctuations during disturbances and more defined storm features. There were small differences in mid- to low-latitude observatories during quiet to moderate storm time periods. The average impact on the index due to the different algorithms used was approximately 9 nT, and greater for individual storms.

Carranza-Fulmer, T. L.; Gannon, J. L.; Love, J. J.

2010-12-01

458

Java takes flight: time-portable real-time programming with exotasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing programming methodologies for real-time systems suffer from a low level of abstraction and non-determinism in both the timing and the functional domains. As a result, real-time systems are difficult to test and must be re-certified every time changes are made to either the software or hardware environment. Exotasks are a novel Java programming construct that achievedeterministic timing, even in

Joshua Auerbach; David F. Bacon; Daniel T. Iercan; Christoph M. Kirsch; V. T. Rajan; Harald Roeck; Rainer Trummer

2007-01-01

459

Distribution automation system with real-time analysis tools  

SciTech Connect

In the past 10 years, the electric power industry`s involvement in distribution automation (DA) has been principally focused on remote monitoring and control of the distribution systems and their equipment. SCADA has constituted the most significant attribute. Electric utilities in many locations around the world have installed numerous SCADA systems for their distribution substations and feeders and built the infrastructure for real-time distribution operation and control. Real-time data is available to human operators, enabling them to monitor more and more events in their distribution systems and to control automatic equipment remotely. At the same time, the added volume of real-time data has also created data overloads at some distribution control centers. Without proper decision support tools, operators could only rely on their past experience in making operating decisions based on a subset of the data they receive. As a result, large volumes of real-time data along with much of the infrastructure built for automatic operation of the distribution systems could remain underutilized. This article features PG and E`s approach to utilizing the existing infrastructures and available data more effectively by introducing intelligence to DA/SCADA systems through development of advanced analytical tools for operations decision support.

Shirmohammadi, D. [Shir Consultants, San Ramon, CA (United States); Liu, W.H.E.; Lau, K.C. [Pacific Gas and Electric Co., San Ramon, CA (United States); Hong, H.W. [Opercon Systems, Inc., Alameda, CA (United States)

1996-04-01

460

Real-time segmentation by Active Geometric Functions  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in 4D imaging and real-time imaging provide image data with clinically important cardiac dynamic information at high spatial or temporal resolution. However, the enormous amount of information contained in these data has also raised a challenge for traditional image analysis algorithms in terms of efficiency. In this paper, a novel deformable model framework, Active Geometric Functions (AGF), is introduced to tackle the real-time segmentation problem. As an implicit framework paralleling to level-set, AGF has mathematical advantages in efficiency and computational complexity as well as several flexible feature similar to level-set framework. AGF is demonstrated in two cardiac applications: endocardial segmentation in 4D ultrasound and myocardial segmentation in MRI with super high temporal resolution. In both applications, AGF can perform real-time segmentation in several milliseconds per frame, which was less than the acquisition time per frame. Segmentation results are compared to manual tracing with comparable performance with inter-observer variability. The ability of such real-time segmentation will not only facilitate the diagnoses and workflow, but also enables novel applications such as interventional guidance and interactive image acquisition with online segmentation.

Duan, Qi; Angelini, Elsa D.; Laine, Andrew F.

2011-01-01

461

AMPERE Real-Time Data Reduction and Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AMPERE: The Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment, uses a constellation of 66 satellites plus on-orbit spares that are part of the Iridium Communications network. The electro-dynamic coupling of the ionosphere to the surrounding space environment is monitored in real-time by magnetometers carried by each satellite for attitude determination at 780-km-altitude with circular, near-polar orbits. The magnetometer data are continuously sent from Iridium Satellite Network Operations Center to the AMPERE Science Data Center (SDC), where they are processed to extract the magnetic perturbation signatures associated with the Birkeland currents. Two processing chains have been implemented, definitive and real-time corresponding to two data streams derived from the space telemetry. The definitive methodology is derived from final telemetry data generated by merging the real-time and store-and-dump telemetry data to ensure against dropped telemetry frames and uses after-the-fact attitude and space vehicle orbit solutions that optimize the ephemeris data quality. These data are generated and delivered to the SDC within five days of on-orbit data acquisition. The definitive data processing yields magnetic field perturbations with error residuals near the 30-nT digitization resolution of the magnetometers, and uses one day of data to intercalibrate the magnetic field data against the IGRF model, evaluate baselines, and identify missing segments in data which are filled in by interpolation from ahead and behind space vehicles. The real-time telemetry are forwarded to the SDC immediately upon receipt in the operations center, typically within two minutes of the time the data packet is completed on orbit. The real-time data include on-board attitude and predicted orbit ephemerides. The real-time data processing chain uses intercalibrations against the IGRF model obtained from the previous day. Baseline determination is done using data window extending 24 hours prior to the current time. Gap filling uses only data from the satellite ahead (already acquired over a track segment with a gap) for interpolating over any data gaps. This data product is then used to derive the Birkeland currents by applying Ampere's law to the spherical harmonic fit of the perturbation data in the same fashion as the post-processed science quality data. We present the processing methodology and discuss the assumptions that underlie the accuracy of the derived real-time magnetic perturbations as compared to the standard full day processing results, and show an analysis of both geomagneticly quiet and active periods.

Fentzke, J. T.; Dyrud, L. P.; Anderson, B. J.; Barnes, R. J.; Korth, H.

2011-12-01

462

A hybrid deformable model for real-time surgical simulation.  

PubMed

Modeling organ deformation in real remains a challenge in virtual minimally invasive (MIS) surgery simulation. In this paper, we propose a new hybrid deformable model to simulate deformable organs in the real-time surgical training system. Our hybrid model uses boundary element method (BEM) to compute global deformation based on a coarse surface mesh and uses a mass-spring model to simulate the dynamic behaviors of soft tissue interacting with surgical instruments. The simulation result is coupled with a high-resolution rendering mesh through a particle surface interpolation algorithm. Accurate visual and haptic feedbacks are provided in real time and temporal behaviors of biological soft tissues including viscosity and creeping are modeled as well. We prove our model to be suitable to work in complex virtual surgical environment by integrating it into a MIS training system. The hybrid model is evaluated with respect to efficiency, accuracy and robustness by a series of experiments. PMID:22483053

Zhu, Bo; Gu, Lixu

2012-04-05

463

Lattice simulations of real-time quantum fields  

SciTech Connect

We investigate lattice simulations of scalar and non-Abelian gauge fields in Minkowski space-time. For SU(2) gauge-theory expectation values of link variables in 3+1 dimensions are constructed by a stochastic process in an additional (5th) 'Langevin-time'. A sufficiently small Langevin step size and the use of a tilted real-time contour leads to converging results in general. All fixed point solutions are shown to fulfil the infinite hierarchy of Dyson-Schwinger identities, however, they are not unique without further constraints. For the non-Abelian gauge theory the thermal equilibrium fixed point is only approached at intermediate Langevin-times. It becomes more stable if the complex time path is deformed towards Euclidean space-time. We analyze this behavior further using the real-time evolution of a quantum anharmonic oscillator, which is alternatively solved by diagonalizing its Hamiltonian. Without further optimization stochastic quantization can give accurate descriptions if the real-time extent of the lattice is small on the scale of the inverse temperature.

Berges, J.; Sexty, D. [Institute for Nuclear Physics, Darmstadt University of Technology, Schlossgartenstr. 9, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Borsanyi, Sz.; Stamatescu, I.-O. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

2007-02-15

464

23 CFR 511.313 - Metropolitan Area real-time information program supplement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT REAL-TIME SYSTEM MANAGEMENT INFORMATION PROGRAM Real-Time System Management Information Program § 511.313 Metropolitan Area real-time information...

2013-04-01

465

23 CFR 511.311 - Real-time information program establishment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT REAL-TIME SYSTEM MANAGEMENT INFORMATION PROGRAM Real-Time System Management Information Program § 511.311 Real-time information program...

2013-04-01

466

Faraday cup with nanosecond response and adjustable impedance for fast electron beam characterization.  

PubMed

A movable Faraday cup design with simple structure and adjustable impedance is described in this work. This Faraday cup has external adjustable shunt resistance for self-biased measurement setup and 50 ? characteristic impedance to match with 50 ? standard BNC coaxial cable and vacuum feedthroughs for nanosecond-level pulse signal measurements. Adjustable shunt resistance allows self-biased measurements to be quickly acquired to determine the electron energy distribution function. The performance of the Faraday cup is validated by tests of response time and amplitude of output signal. When compared with a reference source, the percent difference of the Faraday cup signal fall time is less than 10% for fall times greater than 10 ns. The percent difference of the Faraday cup signal pulse width is below 6.7% for pulse widths greater than 10 ns. A pseudospark-generated electron beam is used to compare the amplitude of the Faraday cup signal with a calibrated F-70 commercial current transformer. The error of the Faraday cup output amplitude is below 10% for the 4-14 kV tested pseudospark voltages. The main benefit of this Faraday cup is demonstrated by adjusting the external shunt resistance and performing the self-biased method for obtaining the electron energy distribution function. Results from a 4 kV pseudospark discharge indicate a "double-humped" energy distribution. PMID:21806182

Hu, Jing; Rovey, Joshua L

2011-07-01

467

Faraday cup with nanosecond response and adjustable impedance for fast electron beam characterization  

SciTech Connect

A movable Faraday cup design with simple structure and adjustable impedance is described in this work. This Faraday cup has external adjustable shunt resistance for self-biased measurement setup and 50 {Omega} characteristic impedance to match with 50 {Omega} standard BNC coaxial cable and vacuum feedthroughs for nanosecond-level pulse signal measurements. Adjustable shunt resistance allows self-biased measurements to be quickly acquired to determine the electron energy distribution function. The performance of the Faraday cup is validated by tests of response time and amplitude of output signal. When compared with a reference source, the percent difference of the Faraday cup signal fall time is less than 10% for fall times greater than 10 ns. The percent difference of the Faraday cup signal pulse width is below 6.7% for pulse widths greater than 10 ns. A pseudospark-generated electron beam is used to compare the amplitude of the Faraday cup signal with a calibrated F-70 commercial current transformer. The error of the Faraday cup output amplitude is below 10% for the 4-14 kV tested pseudospark voltages. The main benefit of this Faraday cup is demonstrated by adjusting the external shunt resistance and performing the self-biased method for obtaining the electron energy distribution function. Results from a 4 kV pseudospark discharge indicate a ''double-humped'' energy distribution.

Hu Jing; Rovey, Joshua L. [Missouri University of Science and Technology (Formerly University of Missouri-Rolla), Rolla, Missouri 65409 (United States)

2011-07-15

468

Real-time path planning for Aerial robot in real environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of real-time path planning in actual environments is challenging. This paper presents a realtime planning algorithm using image processing techniques for navigating a Aerial robot in known irregular environments. It includes two steps. The proposed strategy, based on the generation of a novel search space, finds a suboptimal rough path as an initial condition by constructing and searching

Liting Wu; Yuan Tian; Yiping Yang

2009-01-01

469

Real Time Business Intelligence for the Adaptive Enterprise  

Microsoft Academic Search

In today's competitive environment, analysing data to predict market trends of products and services a nd to improve the performance of enterprise systems is an essenti al business survival activity. However, it is becoming clear t hat business success requires such data analysis to be carried o ut in real-time, and that actions in response to analysis results mu st

Ben Azvine; Zhan Cui; Detlef Nauck; Basim A. Majeed

2006-01-01

470

Holistic schedulability analysis for distributed hard real-time systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper extends the current analysis associated with static priority pre-emptive based scheduling to address the wider problem of analysing schedulability of a distributed hard real-time system; in particular it derives analysis for a distributed system where tasks with arbitrary deadlines communicate by message passing and shared data areas. A simple TDMA protocol is assumed, and analysis developed to bound

Ken Tindell; John Clark

1994-01-01

471

Molecular Aptamer Beacons for Real-Time Protein Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most pressing problems facing those attempting to understand the regulation of gene expression and translation is the necessity to monitor protein production in a variety of metabolic states. Thus far, there is no easy solution that will either identify or quantitate proteins in real time. Here we introduce a novel protein probe, molecular aptamer beacon (MAB), for

Jianwei J. Li; Xiaohong Fang; Weihong Tan

2002-01-01

472

Real-Time PCR Quantification of Methanobrevibacter oralis in Periodontitis  

PubMed Central

A real-time PCR assay developed to quantify Methanobrevibacter oralis indicated that its inoculum significantly correlated with periodontitis severity (P = 0.003), despite a nonsignificant difference in prevalence between controls (3/10) and patients (12/22) (P = 0.2, Fisher test). The M. oralis load can be used as a biomarker for periodontitis.

Bringuier, Amelie; Khelaifia, Saber; Richet, Herve; Aboudharam, Gerard

2013-01-01

473

Rendering energy-conservative scenes in real time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real-time infrared (IR) scene generation from HardWare-in- the-Loop (HWIL) testing of IR seeker systems is a complex problem due to the required frame rates and image fidelity. High frame rates are required for current generation seeker systems to perform designation, discrimination, identification, tracking, and aimpoint selection tasks. Computational requirements for IR signature phenomenology and sensor effects have been difficult to perform in real- time to support HWIL testing. Commercial scene generation hardware is rapidly improving and is becoming a viable solution for HWIL testing activities being conducted at the Kinetic Kill Vehicle Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulator facility at Eglin AFB, Florida. This paper presents computational techniques performed to overcome IR scene rendering errors incurred with commercially available hardware and software for real-time scene generation in support of HWIL testing. These techniques provide an acceptable solution to real-time IR scene generation that strikes a balance between physical accuracy and image framing rates. The results of these techniques are investigated as they pertain to rendering accuracy and speed for target objects which begin as a point source during acquisition and develop into an extended source representation during aimpoint selection.

Olson, Eric M.; Garbo, Dennis L.; Crow, Dennis R.; Coker, Charles F.

1997-07-01

474

Real-Time Station Clock Synchronization for GNSS Integrity Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precise synchronization of monitoring station clocks is a crucial part of a real-time integrity monitoring system as foreseen for Galileo. Stringent requirements on accuracy and robustness in the presence of narrow performance margins raise the need to identify an optimal algorithm for the efficient computation of synchronization parameters. In this context several types of candidate clock filter algorithms have been

Johannes Mach; Ingrid Deuster; Robert Wolf; Theo Zink

475

Real Time Muscle Deformations using Mass-Spring Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose a method to simulate muscle deformation in real-time, still aiming at satisfying visual results; that is, we are not attempting perfect simulation, but building a useful tool for interactive applications. Muscles are represented at 2 levels: the action lines and the muscle shape. The action line represents the force produced by a muscle on the

Luciana Porcher Nedel; Daniel Thalmann

1998-01-01

476

Real time monitoring of hazardous airborne chemicals: A styrene investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The low level detection of air pollutants requires reliable sampling and calibration techniques, as well as using sophisticated analytical instrumentation. Incorporating these requirements into a mobile platform allows for accurate, curb side measurement of airborne ambient chemicals in real time. In this case study, air emissions from two manufacturing facilities in close proximity to each other were monitored with a

Qing Feng Chen; Rebecca K. Milburn; Nick S. Karellas

2006-01-01

477

A REGULAR ALGORITHM FOR REAL TIME RADON & INVERSE RADON TRANSFORM  

Microsoft Academic Search

To meet the real time requirements an interpolation free, parallel algorithm for the Fast Radon Transform (FRT) and Inverse FRT (IFRT) is proposed. The proposed method solves all the important problems associated with the previous interpolation free FRT and IFRT algorithm and reduces the number of computations and algorithmic complexities significantly. The proposed algorithm is highly regular and we also

Abhishek Mitra; Swapna Banerjee

2004-01-01

478

Real-Time Dehazing for Image and Video  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outdoor photography and computer vision tasks often suffer from bad weather conditions, observed objects lose visibility and contrast due to the presence of atmospheric haze, fog, and smoke. In this paper, we propose a new method for real-time image and video dehazing. Based on a newly presented haze-free image prior - dark channel prior and a common haze imaging model,

Xingyong Lv; Wenbin Chen; I-fan Shen

2010-01-01

479

The “BIM's 4D+” dimension: Real time energy monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the current trend towards Building Information Model (BIM), facility managers have a new tool for raising efficiency. This paper discusses the integration of the BIM software with a real-time monitoring (RTM) system, as a 4D+ dimension in BIM, to track the electrical usage at every location in a building. This ability could be invaluable in identifying what unnecessary loads

Mahmoud Alahmad; Wisam Nader; Adam Brumbaugh; Yong Cho; Song Ci; Hamid Sharif; Jonathan Shi; Jill Neal

2011-01-01

480

Real-time voltage stability monitoring and evaluation using synchorophasors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on evaluating online voltage stability indices for an interconnected power system. The voltage stability indices are measured during the operation of the power system when the dynamic changes take places. The evaluation of the stability and security indices were performed by simulation and measurement of real-time data using Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs). The evaluation of the dynamic

Vahid Salehi; O. Mohammed

2011-01-01

481

Real-time optimizations for integrated smart network camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an integrated real-time smart network camera. This system is composed of an image sensor, an embedded PC based electronic card for image processing and some network capabilities. The application detects events of interest in visual scenes, highlights alarms and computes statistics. The system also produces meta-data information that could be shared between other cameras in a network. We

Xavier Desurmont; Bruno Lienard; Jerome Meessen; Jean-Francois Delaigle

2005-01-01

482

Robust Real-Time Face Tracking and Gesture Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

People naturally express themselves through fa­ cial gestures. We have implemented an inter­ face that tracks a person's facial features ro- bustly in real time (30Hz) and does not re­ quire artificial artifacts such as special illumi­ nation or facial makeup. Even if features be­ come occluded the system is capable of recover­ ing tracking in a couple of frames

J. Heizmann; Alexander Zelinsky

1997-01-01

483

Real-Time Localisation and Mapping with Wearable Active Vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a general method for real-time, vision- only single-camera simultaneous localisation and mapping (SLAM) — an algorithm which is applicable to the locali- sation of any camera moving through a scene — and study its application to the localisation of a wearable robot with active vision. Starting from very sparse initial scene knowl- edge, a map of natural point

Andrew J. Davison; Walterio W. Mayol-cuevas; David W. Murray

2003-01-01

484

Real-time Character Motion Control Using Data Gloves  

Microsoft Academic Search

For computer games, communications using avatars, and real-time animation systems, users want to move a character freely in a virtual world. However, the flexibility of the current motion control interface is very limited because currently character motion is simply controlled with pre-defined motion data. In this paper, we present a motion control method that uses two data gloves as an

Nik Isrozaidi Nik Ismail; Katsuya Ishiguro; Masaki Oshita

485

RTS Games and Real-Time AI Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article1 motivates AI research in the area of real-time strategy (RTS) games and describes the current status of the ORTS project whose goals are to implement an RTS game program- ming environment and to build AI systems that eventually can outperform human experts in this popular and challenging domain. Commercial computer games are a growing part of the en-

Michael Buro; Timothy M. Furtak

2004-01-01

486

Contact Response Maps for Real Time Dynamic Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the generation and use of “contact response maps” for real time dynamic simulation. Contact response maps are geometry and material dependent maps on physical objects which describe the surface tractions associated with local deformations during contact. We develop a technique for precomputing contact response maps for elastic bodies using the boundary element method to solve the corresponding plane

C. Ullricht; Dinesh K. Pai

1998-01-01

487

Real time face tracking by genetic particle filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are a great variety of human faces tracking methods based on particle filter. However, most tracking algorithms, so far, are unable to meet the demands for both precise and fast tracking. A real-time algorithm, based on genetic particle filter (GPF) for human faces tracking is presented in this paper. The crossover and mutation operations in evolutionary computation are introduced

Liu Yanli; Zhang Heng

2009-01-01

488

Real-Time Robot ARM Collision Detection System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A data structure and update algorithm are presented for a prototype real time collision detection safety system for a multi-robot environment. The data structure is a variant of the octree, which serves as a spatial index. An octree recursively decomposes...

C. A. Shaffer G. M. Herb

1990-01-01

489

Multiplex real-time PCR detection of Vibrio cholerae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cholera is an important enteric disease, which is endemic to different regions of the world and has historically been the cause of severe pandemics. Vibrio cholerae is a natural inhabitant of the aquatic environment and the toxigenic strains are causative agents of potentially life-threatening diarrhoea. A multiplex, real-time detection assay was developed targeting four genes characteristic of potentially toxigenic strains

Aneta J. Gubala

2006-01-01

490

Real-time indoor autonomous vehicle test environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate and develop unmanned vehicle systems technologies for autonomous multiagent mission platforms, we are using an indoor multivehicle testbed called real-time indoor autonomous vehicle test environment (RAVEN) to study long-duration multivehicle missions in a controlled environment. Normally, demonstrations of multivehicle coordination and control technologies require that multiple human operators simultaneously manage flight hardware, navigation, control, and vehicle tasking. However,

BRETT BETHKE; ADRIAN FRANK; DANIEL DALE; JOHN VIAN

2008-01-01

491

The pinwheel: a real-time scheduling problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some satellites transmit a piece of information for a set duration, then proceed with another piece of information. A ground station receiving from several such satellites and wishing to avoid data loss faces a real-time scheduling problem. The pinwheel is a formalization of this problem. Given a multiset A of integers=( a1, a2, . . ., an ), a successful

R. Holte; A. Mok; L. Rosier; I. Tulchinsky; D. Varvel

1989-01-01

492

Embedded real-time system modeling and analysis using AADL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embedded real-time system has requirements for nonfunctional features such as schedulability, dependability and safety. With traditional design and development methodology these nonfunctional features could only be analyzed after the system is fully implemented. Architecture Analysis and Design Language (AADL) is a modeling language that supports early and repeated analyses of a system's architecture with respect to performance-critical properties through an

Yue Zhao; Dianfu Ma

2010-01-01

493

Coherent processor for real-time inspection of technical surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of applications in product inspection is already large and grows rapidly. Fabrication processes run at high speeds, and demands on accuracy and quality are rising. Today, electronic vision system often do not provide enough processing performance to satisfy real-time requirements of industrial applications. This motivates the development of hybrid vision systems which, by utilization of parallel optical filtering,

Stephan Teiwes; Matthias Duerr; Mario Kreissl; Sven Krueger; Heiko Schwarzer

1998-01-01

494

Real-time processing of spectroscopic optical coherence tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectroscopic OCT improves upon the conventional OCT system by processing the entire detected interference signal and extracting spectral information. We implement it as a real-time process using FPGA\\/DSP based processing hardware. We propose an algorithm based on the Morlet wavelet transform that can be approximated using our existing OCT system and hardware. The spectral information that can be obtained by

Jian Ye; Alexander W. Schaefer; Daniel L. Marks; J. Joshua Reynolds; Stephen A. Boppart

2002-01-01

495

Accelerating real-time shading with reverse reprojection caching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluating pixel shaders consumes a growing share of the computational budget for real-time applications. How- ever, the significant temporal coherence in visible surface regions, lighting conditions, and camera location al- lows reusing computationally-intensive shading calculations between frames to achieve significant performance improvements at little degradation in visual quality. This paper investigates a caching scheme based on reverse reprojection which allows

Diego F. Nehab; Pedro V. Sander; Jason Lawrence; Natalya Tatarchuk; John R. Isidoro

2007-01-01

496

A parallel system for real-time traffic sign recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a system for the real-time recognition of traffic signs from a moving car on European highways. The traffic sign recognition system (TSR) was developed within the European PROMETHEUS project in cooperation with Daimler-Benz and is installed in an autonomous car. Our TSR is also intended to serve as a driver assistance tool. The TSR is based on a

Volker Rehrmann; Raimund Lakmann; Lutz Priese

497

A HANDHELD REAL TIME THERMAL CYCLER FOR BACTERIAL PATHOGEN DETECTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Handheld Advanced Nucleic Acid Analyzer (HANAA) is a portable real time thermal cycler unit that weighs under 1 kg and uses silicon and platinum-based thermalcycler units to conduct rapid heating and cooling of plastic reaction tubes. Two light emitting diodes (LED) provide greater than 1 mW of ...

498

Real-time embedded face recognition for smart home  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a near real-time face recognition system for embedding in consumer applications. The system is embedded in a networked home environment and enables personalized services by automatic identification of users. The aim of our research is to design and build a face recognition system that is robust for natural consumer environments and can be executed on low-cost hardware. For

Fei Zuo

2005-01-01

499

Fast and Secure Real-Time Video Encryption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in digital content transmission have increased in the past few years. Security and privacy issues of the transmitted data have become an important concern in multimedia technology. In this paper, we propose a computationally efficient and secure video encryption al- gorithm. This makes secure video encryption feasible for real-time applications without any extra dedicated hard- ware. We achieve computationalefficiency

Chigullapally Narsimha Raju; Ganugula Umadevi; Kannan Srinathan; C. V. Jawahar

2008-01-01

500

An Automatic Lace Trimming Process Using Real-Time Vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a computer vision-based system for automatic lace scalloping. The main problem other than scalloping path detection in real-time is that of coping with material flexibility. This problem varies depending on the material type and the complexity of the lace pattern. The vision system has to work with many different patterns and sizes of lace as well as

Chi-hsien Victor Shih; Nasser Sherkat; Peter Thomas

1996-01-01