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Sample records for real-time closed-loop processing

  1. Closed-loop real-time infrared scene generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crow, Dennis R.; Coker, Charles F.; Garbo, Dennis L.; Olson, Eric M.

    1998-07-01

    A computer program has been developed to provide closed-loop infrared imagery of composite targets and backgrounds in real- time. This program operates on parametric databases generated off-line by computationally intensive first principle physics codes such as the Composite Hardbody and Missile Plume (CHAMP) program, Synthetic Scene Generation Model (SSGM), and Multi- Spectral Modeling and Analysis (MSMA/Irma program. The parametric databases allow dynamic variations in flight and engagement scenarios to be modeled as closed-loop guidance and control algorithms modify the operational dynamics. The program is tightly coupled with the parametric databases to produce infrared radiation results in real-time and OpenGL graphic libraries to interface with high performance graphic hardware. The program is being sponsored for development by the Kinetic Kill Vehicle Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulator facility of the Air Force Research Laboratory Munitions Directorate located at Eglin AFB, Florida.

  2. Real-Time Closed Loop Modulated Turbine Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shyam, Vikram; Culley, Dennis E.; Eldridge, Jeffrey; Jones, Scott; Woike, Mark; Cuy, Michael

    2014-01-01

    It has been noted by industry that in addition to dramatic variations of temperature over a given blade surface, blade-to-blade variations also exist despite identical design. These variations result from manufacturing variations, uneven wear and deposition over the life of the part as well as limitations in the uniformity of coolant distribution in the baseline cooling design. It is proposed to combine recent advances in optical sensing, actuation, and film cooling concepts to develop a workable active, closed-loop modulated turbine cooling system to improve by 10 to 20 the turbine thermal state over the flight mission, to improve engine life and to dramatically reduce turbine cooling air usage and aircraft fuel burn. A reduction in oxides of nitrogen (NOx) can also be achieved by using the excess coolant to improve mixing in the combustor especially for rotorcraft engines. Recent patents filed by industry and universities relate to modulating endwall cooling using valves. These schemes are complex, add weight and are limited to the endwalls. The novelty of the proposed approach is twofold 1) Fluidic diverters that have no moving parts are used to modulate cooling and can operate under a wide range of conditions and environments. 2) Real-time optical sensing to map the thermal state of the turbine has never been attempted in realistic engine conditions.

  3. A Low-Cost Multielectrode System for Data Acquisition Enabling Real-Time Closed-Loop Processing with Rapid Recovery from Stimulation Artifacts

    PubMed Central

    Rolston, John D.; Gross, Robert E.; Potter, Steve M.

    2009-01-01

    Commercially available data acquisition systems for multielectrode recording from freely moving animals are expensive, often rely on proprietary software, and do not provide detailed, modifiable circuit schematics. When used in conjunction with electrical stimulation, they are prone to prolonged, saturating stimulation artifacts that prevent the recording of short-latency evoked responses. Yet electrical stimulation is integral to many experimental designs, and critical for emerging brain-computer interfacing and neuroprosthetic applications. To address these issues, we developed an easy-to-use, modifiable, and inexpensive system for multielectrode neural recording and stimulation. Setup costs are less than US$10,000 for 64 channels, an order of magnitude lower than comparable commercial systems. Unlike commercial equipment, the system recovers rapidly from stimulation and allows short-latency action potentials (<1 ms post-stimulus) to be detected, facilitating closed-loop applications and exposing neural activity that would otherwise remain hidden. To illustrate this capability, evoked activity from microstimulation of the rodent hippocampus is presented. System noise levels are similar to existing platforms, and extracellular action potentials and local field potentials can be recorded simultaneously. The system is modular, in banks of 16 channels, and flexible in usage: while primarily designed for in vivo use, it can be combined with commercial preamplifiers to record from in vitro multielectrode arrays. The system's open-source control software, NeuroRighter, is implemented in C#, with an easy-to-use graphical interface. As C# functions in a managed code environment, which may impact performance, analysis was conducted to ensure comparable speed to C++ for this application. Hardware schematics, layout files, and software are freely available. Since maintaining wired headstage connections with freely moving animals is difficult, we describe a new method of

  4. Closed-loop optical stimulation and recording system with GPU-based real-time spike sorting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ling; Nguyen, Thoa; Cabral, Henrique; Gysbrechts, Barbara; Battaglia, Francesco; Bartic, Carmen

    2014-05-01

    Closed-loop brain computer interfaces are rapidly progressing due to their applications in fundamental neuroscience and prosthetics. For optogenetic experiments, the integration of optical stimulation and electrophysiological recordings is emerging as an imperative engineering research topic. Optical stimulation does not only bring the advantage of cell-type selectivity, but also provides an alternative solution to the electrical stimulation-induced artifacts, a challenge in closedloop architectures. A closed-loop system must identify the neuronal signals in real-time such that a strategy is selected immediately (within a few milliseconds) for delivering stimulation patterns. Real-time spike sorting poses important challenges especially when a large number of recording channels are involved. Here we present a prototype allowing simultaneous optical stimulation and electro-physiological recordings in a closed-loop manner. The prototype was implemented with online spike detection and classification capabilities for selective cell stimulation. Real-time spike sorting was achieved by computations with a high speed, low cost graphic processing unit (GPU). We have successfully demonstrated the closed-loop operation, i.e. optical stimulation in vivo based on spike detection from 8 tetrodes (32 channels). The performance of GPU computation in spike sorting for different channel numbers and signal lengths was also investigated.

  5. A real-time pressure estimation algorithm for closed-loop combustion control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Durra, Ahmed; Canova, Marcello; Yurkovich, Stephen

    2013-07-01

    The cylinder pressure is arguably the most important variable characterizing the combustion process in internal combustion engines. In light of the recent advances in combustion technologies and in engine control, the use of cylinder pressure is now frequently considered as a feedback signal for closed-loop combustion control algorithms. In order to generate an accurate pressure trace for real-time combustion control and diagnostics, the output of the in-cylinder pressure transducer must be conditioned with signal processing methods to mitigate the well-known issues of offset and noise. While several techniques have been proposed for processing the cylinder pressure signal with limited computational burden, most of the available methods still require one to apply low-pass filters or moving average windows in order to mitigate the noise. This ultimately limits the opportunity of exploiting the in-cylinder pressure feedback for a cycle-by-cycle control of the combustion process. To this extent, this paper presents an estimation algorithm that extracts the pressure signal from the in-cylinder sensor in real-time, allowing for estimating the 50% burn rate location and IMEP on a cycle-by-cycle basis. The proposed approach relies on a model-based estimation algorithm whose starting point is a crank-angle based engine combustion model that predicts the in-cylinder pressure from the definition of a burn rate function. Linear parameter varying (LPV) techniques are then used to expand the region of estimation to cover the engine operating map, as well as allowing for real-time cylinder estimation during transients. The estimator is tested on the experimental data collected on an engine dynamometer as well as on a high-fidelity engine simulator. The results obtained show the effectiveness of the estimator in reconstructing the cylinder pressure on a crank-angle basis and in rejecting measurement noise and modeling errors, with considerably low computation effort.

  6. Real-time, closed-loop dual-wavelength optical polarimetry for glucose monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Bilal H.; Coté, Gerard L.

    2010-01-01

    The development of a real-time, dual-wavelength optical polarimetric system to ultimately probe the aqueous humor glucose concentrations as a means of noninvasive diabetic glucose monitoring is the long-term goal of this research. The key impact of the work is the development of an approach for the reduction of the time-variant corneal birefringence due to motion artifact, which is still a limiting factor preventing the realization of such a device. Our dual-wavelength approach utilizes real-time, closed-loop feedback that employs a classical three-term feedback controller and efficiently reduces the effect of motion artifact that appears as a common noise source for both wavelengths. In vitro results are shown for the open-loop system, and although the dual-wavelength system helps to reduce the noise, it is shown that closed-loop control is necessary to bring the noise down to a sufficient level for physiological monitoring. Specifically, in vitro measurement results with the closed-loop dual-wavelength approach demonstrate a sensitivity of 12.8 mg/dl across the physiologic glucose range in the presence of time-variant test cell birefringence. Overall, it is shown that this polarimetric system has the potential to be used as a noninvasive measure of glucose for diabetes.

  7. Real-time Electrophysiology: Using Closed-loop Protocols to Probe Neuronal Dynamics and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Linaro, Daniele; Couto, João; Giugliano, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Experimental neuroscience is witnessing an increased interest in the development and application of novel and often complex, closed-loop protocols, where the stimulus applied depends in real-time on the response of the system. Recent applications range from the implementation of virtual reality systems for studying motor responses both in mice and in zebrafish, to control of seizures following cortical stroke using optogenetics. A key advantage of closed-loop techniques resides in the capability of probing higher dimensional properties that are not directly accessible or that depend on multiple variables, such as neuronal excitability and reliability, while at the same time maximizing the experimental throughput. In this contribution and in the context of cellular electrophysiology, we describe how to apply a variety of closed-loop protocols to the study of the response properties of pyramidal cortical neurons, recorded intracellularly with the patch clamp technique in acute brain slices from the somatosensory cortex of juvenile rats. As no commercially available or open source software provides all the features required for efficiently performing the experiments described here, a new software toolbox called LCG was developed, whose modular structure maximizes reuse of computer code and facilitates the implementation of novel experimental paradigms. Stimulation waveforms are specified using a compact meta-description and full experimental protocols are described in text-based configuration files. Additionally, LCG has a command-line interface that is suited for repetition of trials and automation of experimental protocols. PMID:26132434

  8. A reconfigurable visual-programming library for real-time closed-loop cellular electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Biró, István; Giugliano, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Most of the software platforms for cellular electrophysiology are limited in terms of flexibility, hardware support, ease of use, or re-configuration and adaptation for non-expert users. Moreover, advanced experimental protocols requiring real-time closed-loop operation to investigate excitability, plasticity, dynamics, are largely inaccessible to users without moderate to substantial computer proficiency. Here we present an approach based on MATLAB/Simulink, exploiting the benefits of LEGO-like visual programming and configuration, combined to a small, but easily extendible library of functional software components. We provide and validate several examples, implementing conventional and more sophisticated experimental protocols such as dynamic-clamp or the combined use of intracellular and extracellular methods, involving closed-loop real-time control. The functionality of each of these examples is demonstrated with relevant experiments. These can be used as a starting point to create and support a larger variety of electrophysiological tools and methods, hopefully extending the range of default techniques and protocols currently employed in experimental labs across the world. PMID:26157385

  9. A reconfigurable visual-programming library for real-time closed-loop cellular electrophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Biró, István; Giugliano, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Most of the software platforms for cellular electrophysiology are limited in terms of flexibility, hardware support, ease of use, or re-configuration and adaptation for non-expert users. Moreover, advanced experimental protocols requiring real-time closed-loop operation to investigate excitability, plasticity, dynamics, are largely inaccessible to users without moderate to substantial computer proficiency. Here we present an approach based on MATLAB/Simulink, exploiting the benefits of LEGO-like visual programming and configuration, combined to a small, but easily extendible library of functional software components. We provide and validate several examples, implementing conventional and more sophisticated experimental protocols such as dynamic-clamp or the combined use of intracellular and extracellular methods, involving closed-loop real-time control. The functionality of each of these examples is demonstrated with relevant experiments. These can be used as a starting point to create and support a larger variety of electrophysiological tools and methods, hopefully extending the range of default techniques and protocols currently employed in experimental labs across the world. PMID:26157385

  10. Closed Loop Welding Controller for Manufacturing Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorso, F.; Bruno, C.; Cantelli, L.; Longo, D.; Muscato, G.; Rapisarda, S.

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate on the closed loop welding controller of a rapid manufacturing Shaped Metal Deposition (SMD) process. SMD was developed and patented by Rolls-Royce in order to produce mechanical parts directly from a CAD model. A simplified SMD plant has been set up in order to investigate the welding dynamics and parameters and to develop a SMD automatic controller. On the basis of the experience acquired, some basic control laws have been developed, and a closed loop controller has been implemented. This controller permits to find and to maintain the process stability condition, so that the final process results totally automatic. The control is performed adjusting the welding conditions on the basis of arc voltage information obtained from the welding machine during the deposition. The experimental results reported confirm the validity of the proposed strategy.

  11. Demonstration of innovative techniques used for real-time closed-loop infrared scene generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Eric M.; Coker, Charles F.; Coker, Jason S.; Garbo, Dennis L.

    1998-07-01

    Real-time infrared (IR) scene generation for Hardware-in-the- Loop (HWIL) testing of IR seeker systems is a complex operation. High frame rates and high image fidelity are required to properly evaluate a seeker system's designation, identification, tracking, and aim-point selection tasks. Rapidly improving Commercial-off-the-Shelf (COTS) scene generation hardware has become a viable solution for HWIL test activities conducted at the Kinetic Kill Vehicle Hardware-in- the-Loop Simulator (KHILS) facility at Eglin AFB, Florida. A real-time IR scene generation implementation for a complete closed-loop guided missile simulation test entry was accomplished at KHILS. The scenarios used for the simulation were Theater Missile Defense (TMD) exo-atmospheric hit-to-kill intercepts of a re-entry target. Innovative scene generation techniques were devised to resolve issues concerning scene content and rendering accuracy while maintaining the required imaging frame rate. This paper focuses on the real-time scene generation requirements, issues, and solutions used for KHILS test entries.

  12. Closed-loop training of attention with real-time brain imaging

    PubMed Central

    deBettencourt, Megan T.; Cohen, Jonathan D.; Lee, Ray F.; Norman, Kenneth A.; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B.

    2015-01-01

    Lapses of attention can have negative consequences, including accidents and lost productivity. Here we used closed-loop neurofeedback to improve sustained attention abilities and reduce the frequency of lapses. During a sustained attention task, the focus of attention was monitored in real time with multivariate pattern analysis of whole-brain neuroimaging data. When indicators of an attentional lapse were detected in the brain, we gave human participants feedback by making the task more difficult. Behavioral performance improved after one training session, relative to control participants who received feedback from other participants’ brains. This improvement was largest when feedback carried information from a frontoparietal attention network. A neural consequence of training was that the basal ganglia and ventral temporal cortex came to represent attentional states more distinctively. These findings suggest that attentional failures do not reflect an upper limit on cognitive potential and that attention can be trained with appropriate feedback about neural signals. PMID:25664913

  13. Development of a real-time closed-loop dual wavelength optical polarimeter for glucose monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Bilal H.; Coté, Gerard L.

    2010-02-01

    Over the last decade, noninvasive glucose sensors based on optical polarimetry have been proposed to probe the anterior chamber of the eye. Such sensors would ultimately be used to measure the aqueous humor glucose concentration which is correlated with blood glucose concentration. Although the effect of other chiral components in the eye has been minimized, the time-variant corneal birefringence due to motion artifact is still a limiting factor which needs to be resolved for realization of such a device. Here we present the development of a real-time dual wavelength optical polarimetric system employing a classical three-term feedback controller. Our dual wavelength system utilizes real-time closed-loop feedback based on proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control, which effectively reduced the time taken by the system to stabilize to less than 300 ms while minimizing the effect of motion artifact, which appears as common noise source for both wavelengths. Measurements in the presence of time-variant test cell birefringence demonstrate the sensitivity of the current system to measure glucose within the range of 0-600 mg/dl with a standard error of less than 13 mg/dl using the dual wavelength information.

  14. Real time closed loop control of an Ar and Ar/O2 plasma in an ICP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulkner, R.; Soberón, F.; McCarter, A.; Gahan, D.; Karkari, S.; Milosavljevic, V.; Hayden, C.; Islyaikin, A.; Law, V. J.; Hopkins, M. B.; Keville, B.; Iordanov, P.; Doherty, S.; Ringwood, J. V.

    2006-10-01

    Real time closed loop control for plasma assisted semiconductor manufacturing has been the subject of academic research for over a decade. However, due to process complexity and the lack of suitable real time metrology, progress has been elusive and genuine real time, multi-input, multi-output (MIMO) control of a plasma assisted process has yet to be successfully implemented in an industrial setting. A Splasma parameter control strategy T is required to be adopted whereby process recipes which are defined in terms of plasma properties such as critical species densities as opposed to input variables such as rf power and gas flow rates may be transferable between different chamber types. While PIC simulations and multidimensional fluid models have contributed considerably to the basic understanding of plasmas and the design of process equipment, such models require a large amount of processing time and are hence unsuitable for testing control algorithms. In contrast, linear dynamical empirical models, obtained through system identification techniques are ideal in some respects for control design since their computational requirements are comparatively small and their structure facilitates the application of classical control design techniques. However, such models provide little process insight and are specific to an operating point of a particular machine. An ideal first principles-based, control-oriented model would exhibit the simplicity and computational requirements of an empirical model and, in addition, despite sacrificing first principles detail, capture enough of the essential physics and chemistry of the process in order to provide reasonably accurate qualitative predictions. This paper will discuss the development of such a first-principles based, control-oriented model of a laboratory inductively coupled plasma chamber. The model consists of a global model of the chemical kinetics coupled to an analytical model of power deposition. Dynamics of actuators

  15. A Real-Time and Closed-Loop Control Algorithm for Cascaded Multilevel Inverter Based on Artificial Neural Network

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Libing; Mao, Chengxiong; Wang, Dan; Lu, Jiming; Zhang, Junfeng; Chen, Xun

    2014-01-01

    In order to control the cascaded H-bridges (CHB) converter with staircase modulation strategy in a real-time manner, a real-time and closed-loop control algorithm based on artificial neural network (ANN) for three-phase CHB converter is proposed in this paper. It costs little computation time and memory. It has two steps. In the first step, hierarchical particle swarm optimizer with time-varying acceleration coefficient (HPSO-TVAC) algorithm is employed to minimize the total harmonic distortion (THD) and generate the optimal switching angles offline. In the second step, part of optimal switching angles are used to train an ANN and the well-designed ANN can generate optimal switching angles in a real-time manner. Compared with previous real-time algorithm, the proposed algorithm is suitable for a wider range of modulation index and results in a smaller THD and a lower calculation time. Furthermore, the well-designed ANN is embedded into a closed-loop control algorithm for CHB converter with variable direct voltage (DC) sources. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed closed-loop control algorithm is able to quickly stabilize load voltage and minimize the line current's THD (<5%) when subjecting the DC sources disturbance or load disturbance. In real design stage, a switching angle pulse generation scheme is proposed and experiment results verify its correctness. PMID:24772025

  16. Real-time Closed-loop Control in a Rodent Model of Medically-induced Coma Using Burst Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Ching, ShiNung; Liberman, Max Y.; Chemali, Jessica J.; Westover, M. Brandon; Kenny, Jonathan; Solt, Ken; Purdon, Patrick L.; Brown, Emery N.

    2013-01-01

    Background A medically-induced coma is an anesthetic state of profound brain inactivation created to treat status epilepticus and to provide cerebral protection following traumatic brain injuries. We hypothesized that a closed-loop anesthetic delivery system could automatically and precisely control the electroencephalogram state of burst suppression and efficiently maintain a medically-induced coma. Methods In six rats, we implemented a closed-loop anesthetic delivery system for propofol consisting of: a computer-controlled pump infusion, a two-compartment pharmacokinetics model defining propofol’s electroencephalogram effects, the burst suppression probability algorithm to compute in real time from the electroencephalogram the brain’s burst suppression state, an on-line parameter estimation procedure and a proportional-integral controller. In the control experiment each rat was randomly assigned to one of the six burst suppression probability target trajectories constructed by permuting the burst suppression probability levels of 0.4, 0.65 and 0.9 with linear transitions between levels. Results In each animal the controller maintained approximately 60 min of tight, real-time control of burst suppression by tracking each burst suppression probability target level for 15 min and two between-level transitions for 5 to 10 min. The posterior probability that the closed-loop anesthetic delivery system was reliable across all levels was 0.94 [95% confidence interval; (0.77 to 1.00) n = 18] and that the system was accurate was 1.00 [95% confidence interval; (0.84 to 1.00) n = 18]. Conclusion Our findings establish the feasibility of using a closed-loop anesthetic delivery systems to achieve in real-time reliable and accurate control of burst suppression in rodents and suggest a paradigm to precisely control medically-induced coma in patients. PMID:23770601

  17. Quality assurance at the VLT: real-time assessment and closed loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mieske, Steffen; Wolff, Burkhard

    2015-12-01

    We will present a summary of the procedures in place at the VLT to ensure in real-time the quality of scientific and calibration data taken during the night, to monitor completeness and validity of calibrations in general, and to close the feedback loop with all stakeholders involved.

  18. Closed-loop 15N measurement of N2O and its isotopomers for real-time greenhouse gas tracing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaets, Johanna; Mayr, Leopold; Heiling, Maria; Zaman, Mohammad; Resch, Christian; Weltin, Georg; Gruber, Roman; Dercon, Gerd

    2016-04-01

    Quantifying sources of nitrous oxide is essential to improve understanding of the global N cycle and to develop climate-smart agriculture, as N2O has a global warming potential 300 times higher than CO2. The isotopic signature and the intramolecular distribution (site preference) of 15N are powerful tools to trace N2O, but the application of these methods is limited as conventional methods cannot provide continuous and in situ data. Here we present a method for closed-loop, real time monitoring of the N2O flux, the isotopic signature and the intramolecular distribution of 15N by using off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS, Los Gatos Research). The developed method was applied to a fertilizer inhibitor experiment, in which N2O emissions were measured on undisturbed soil cores for three weeks. The treatments consisted of enriched urea-N (100 kg urea-N/ha), the same fertilizer combined with the nitrification inhibitor nitrapyrin (375 g/100 kg urea), and control cores. Monitoring the isotopic signature makes it possible to distinguish emissions from soil and fertilizer. Characterization of site preference could additionally provide a tool to identify different microbial processes leading to N2O emissions. Furthermore, the closed-loop approach enables direct measurement on site and does not require removal of CO2 and H2O. Results showed that 75% of total N2O emissions (total=11 346 μg N2O-N/m2) in the fertilized cores originated from fertilizer, while only 55% of total emissions (total=2 450 μg N2ON/m2) stemmed from fertilizer for the cores treated with nitrapyrin. In the controls, N2O derived from soil was only 40% of the size of the corresponding pool from the fertilized cores, pointing towards a priming effect on the microbial community from the fertilizer and demonstrating the bias that could be introduced by relying on non-treated cores to estimate soil emission rates, rather than using the isotopic signature. The site preference increased linearly

  19. Incorporating real time velocity map image reconstruction into closed-loop coherent control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rallis, C. E.; Burwitz, T. G.; Andrews, P. R.; Zohrabi, M.; Averin, R.; De, S.; Bergues, B.; Jochim, Bethany; Voznyuk, A. V.; Gregerson, Neal; Gaire, B.; Znakovskaya, I.; McKenna, J.; Carnes, K. D.; Kling, M. F.; Ben-Itzhak, I.; Wells, E.

    2014-11-01

    We report techniques developed to utilize three-dimensional momentum information as feedback in adaptive femtosecond control of molecular dynamics. Velocity map imaging is used to obtain the three-dimensional momentum map of the dissociating ions following interaction with a shaped intense ultrafast laser pulse. In order to recover robust feedback information, however, the two-dimensional momentum projection from the detector must be inverted to reconstruct the full three-dimensional momentum of the photofragments. These methods are typically slow or require manual inputs and are therefore accomplished offline after the images have been obtained. Using an algorithm based upon an "onion-peeling" (also known as "back projection") method, we are able to invert 1040 × 1054 pixel images in under 1 s. This rapid inversion allows the full photofragment momentum to be used as feedback in a closed-loop adaptive control scheme, in which a genetic algorithm tailors an ultrafast laser pulse to optimize a specific outcome. Examples of three-dimensional velocity map image based control applied to strong-field dissociation of CO and O2 are presented.

  20. A closed-loop anesthetic delivery system for real-time control of burst suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberman, Max Y.; Ching, ShiNung; Chemali, Jessica; Brown, Emery N.

    2013-08-01

    Objective. There is growing interest in using closed-loop anesthetic delivery (CLAD) systems to automate control of brain states (sedation, unconsciousness and antinociception) in patients receiving anesthesia care. The accuracy and reliability of these systems can be improved by using as control signals electroencephalogram (EEG) markers for which the neurophysiological links to the anesthetic-induced brain states are well established. Burst suppression, in which bursts of electrical activity alternate with periods of quiescence or suppression, is a well-known, readily discernible EEG marker of profound brain inactivation and unconsciousness. This pattern is commonly maintained when anesthetics are administered to produce a medically-induced coma for cerebral protection in patients suffering from brain injuries or to arrest brain activity in patients having uncontrollable seizures. Although the coma may be required for several hours or days, drug infusion rates are managed inefficiently by manual adjustment. Our objective is to design a CLAD system for burst suppression control to automate management of medically-induced coma. Approach. We establish a CLAD system to control burst suppression consisting of: a two-dimensional linear system model relating the anesthetic brain level to the EEG dynamics; a new control signal, the burst suppression probability (BSP) defining the instantaneous probability of suppression; the BSP filter, a state-space algorithm to estimate the BSP from EEG recordings; a proportional-integral controller; and a system identification procedure to estimate the model and controller parameters. Main results. We demonstrate reliable performance of our system in simulation studies of burst suppression control using both propofol and etomidate in rodent experiments based on Vijn and Sneyd, and in human experiments based on the Schnider pharmacokinetic model for propofol. Using propofol, we further demonstrate that our control system reliably

  1. The Stomatogastric Nervous System as a Model for Studying Sensorimotor Interactions in Real-Time Closed-Loop Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Daur, Nelly; Diehl, Florian; Mader, Wolfgang; Stein, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The perception of proprioceptive signals that report the internal state of the body is one of the essential tasks of the nervous system and helps to continuously adapt body movements to changing circumstances. Despite the impact of proprioceptive feedback on motor activity it has rarely been studied in conditions in which motor output and sensory activity interact as they do in behaving animals, i.e., in closed-loop conditions. The interaction of motor and sensory activities, however, can create emergent properties that may govern the functional characteristics of the system. We here demonstrate a method to use a well-characterized model system for central pattern generation, the stomatogastric nervous system, for studying these properties in vitro. We created a real-time computer model of a single-cell muscle tendon organ in the gastric mill of the crab foregut that uses intracellular current injections to control the activity of the biological proprioceptor. The resulting motor output of a gastric mill motor neuron is then recorded intracellularly and fed into a simple muscle model consisting of a series of low-pass filters. The muscle output is used to activate a one-dimensional Hodgkin–Huxley type model of the muscle tendon organ in real-time, allowing closed-loop conditions. Model properties were either hand tuned to achieve the best match with data from semi-intact muscle preparations, or an exhaustive search was performed to determine the best set of parameters. We report the real-time capabilities of our models, its performance and its interaction with the biological motor system. PMID:22435059

  2. Real-time closed-loop simulation and upset evaluation of control systems in harsh electromagnetic environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Celeste M.

    1989-01-01

    Digital control systems for applications such as aircraft avionics and multibody systems must maintain adequate control integrity in adverse as well as nominal operating conditions. For example, control systems for advanced aircraft, and especially those with relaxed static stability, will be critical to flight and will, therefore, have very high reliability specifications which must be met regardless of operating conditions. In addition, multibody systems such as robotic manipulators performing critical functions must have control systems capable of robust performance in any operating environment in order to complete the assigned task reliably. Severe operating conditions for electronic control systems can result from electromagnetic disturbances caused by lightning, high energy radio frequency (HERF) transmitters, and nuclear electromagnetic pulses (NEMP). For this reason, techniques must be developed to evaluate the integrity of the control system in adverse operating environments. The most difficult and illusive perturbations to computer-based control systems that can be caused by an electromagnetic environment (EME) are functional error modes that involve no component damage. These error modes are collectively known as upset, can occur simultaneously in all of the channels of a redundant control system, and are software dependent. Upset studies performed to date have not addressed the assessment of fault tolerant systems and do not involve the evaluation of a control system operating in a closed-loop with the plant. A methodology for performing a real-time simulation of the closed-loop dynamics of a fault tolerant control system with a simulated plant operating in an electromagnetically harsh environment is presented. In particular, considerations for performing upset tests on the controller are discussed. Some of these considerations are the generation and coupling of analog signals representative of electromagnetic disturbances to a control system under test

  3. Closed-Loop Process Control for Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication and Deposition Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taminger, Karen M. (Inventor); Hafley, Robert A. (Inventor); Martin, Richard E. (Inventor); Hofmeister, William H. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A closed-loop control method for an electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF(sup 3)) process includes detecting a feature of interest during the process using a sensor(s), continuously evaluating the feature of interest to determine, in real time, a change occurring therein, and automatically modifying control parameters to control the EBF(sup 3) process. An apparatus provides closed-loop control method of the process, and includes an electron gun for generating an electron beam, a wire feeder for feeding a wire toward a substrate, wherein the wire is melted and progressively deposited in layers onto the substrate, a sensor(s), and a host machine. The sensor(s) measure the feature of interest during the process, and the host machine continuously evaluates the feature of interest to determine, in real time, a change occurring therein. The host machine automatically modifies control parameters to the EBF(sup 3) apparatus to control the EBF(sup 3) process in a closed-loop manner.

  4. Perception as a closed-loop convergence process

    PubMed Central

    Ahissar, Ehud; Assa, Eldad

    2016-01-01

    Perception of external objects involves sensory acquisition via the relevant sensory organs. A widely-accepted assumption is that the sensory organ is the first station in a serial chain of processing circuits leading to an internal circuit in which a percept emerges. This open-loop scheme, in which the interaction between the sensory organ and the environment is not affected by its concurrent downstream neuronal processing, is strongly challenged by behavioral and anatomical data. We present here a hypothesis in which the perception of external objects is a closed-loop dynamical process encompassing loops that integrate the organism and its environment and converging towards organism-environment steady-states. We discuss the consistency of closed-loop perception (CLP) with empirical data and show that it can be synthesized in a robotic setup. Testable predictions are proposed for empirical distinction between open and closed loop schemes of perception. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12830.001 PMID:27159238

  5. The Automatic Neuroscientist: A framework for optimizing experimental design with closed-loop real-time fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Romy; Monti, Ricardo Pio; Violante, Inês R.; Anagnostopoulos, Christoforos; Faisal, Aldo A.; Montana, Giovanni; Leech, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging typically explores how a particular task activates a set of brain regions. Importantly though, the same neural system can be activated by inherently different tasks. To date, there is no approach available that systematically explores whether and how distinct tasks probe the same neural system. Here, we propose and validate an alternative framework, the Automatic Neuroscientist, which turns the standard fMRI approach on its head. We use real-time fMRI in combination with modern machine-learning techniques to automatically design the optimal experiment to evoke a desired target brain state. In this work, we present two proof-of-principle studies involving perceptual stimuli. In both studies optimization algorithms of varying complexity were employed; the first involved a stochastic approximation method while the second incorporated a more sophisticated Bayesian optimization technique. In the first study, we achieved convergence for the hypothesized optimum in 11 out of 14 runs in less than 10 min. Results of the second study showed how our closed-loop framework accurately and with high efficiency estimated the underlying relationship between stimuli and neural responses for each subject in one to two runs: with each run lasting 6.3 min. Moreover, we demonstrate that using only the first run produced a reliable solution at a group-level. Supporting simulation analyses provided evidence on the robustness of the Bayesian optimization approach for scenarios with low contrast-to-noise ratio. This framework is generalizable to numerous applications, ranging from optimizing stimuli in neuroimaging pilot studies to tailoring clinical rehabilitation therapy to patients and can be used with multiple imaging modalities in humans and animals. PMID:26804778

  6. The Automatic Neuroscientist: A framework for optimizing experimental design with closed-loop real-time fMRI.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Romy; Monti, Ricardo Pio; Violante, Inês R; Anagnostopoulos, Christoforos; Faisal, Aldo A; Montana, Giovanni; Leech, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Functional neuroimaging typically explores how a particular task activates a set of brain regions. Importantly though, the same neural system can be activated by inherently different tasks. To date, there is no approach available that systematically explores whether and how distinct tasks probe the same neural system. Here, we propose and validate an alternative framework, the Automatic Neuroscientist, which turns the standard fMRI approach on its head. We use real-time fMRI in combination with modern machine-learning techniques to automatically design the optimal experiment to evoke a desired target brain state. In this work, we present two proof-of-principle studies involving perceptual stimuli. In both studies optimization algorithms of varying complexity were employed; the first involved a stochastic approximation method while the second incorporated a more sophisticated Bayesian optimization technique. In the first study, we achieved convergence for the hypothesized optimum in 11 out of 14 runs in less than 10min. Results of the second study showed how our closed-loop framework accurately and with high efficiency estimated the underlying relationship between stimuli and neural responses for each subject in one to two runs: with each run lasting 6.3min. Moreover, we demonstrate that using only the first run produced a reliable solution at a group-level. Supporting simulation analyses provided evidence on the robustness of the Bayesian optimization approach for scenarios with low contrast-to-noise ratio. This framework is generalizable to numerous applications, ranging from optimizing stimuli in neuroimaging pilot studies to tailoring clinical rehabilitation therapy to patients and can be used with multiple imaging modalities in humans and animals. PMID:26804778

  7. Closed Loop Control of Penetration Depth during CO2 Laser Lap Welding Processes

    PubMed Central

    Sibillano, Teresa; Rizzi, Domenico; Mezzapesa, Francesco P.; Lugarà, Pietro Mario; Konuk, Ali Riza; Aarts, Ronald; Veld, Bert Huis in 't; Ancona, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe a novel spectroscopic closed loop control system capable of stabilizing the penetration depth during laser welding processes by controlling the laser power. Our novel approach is to analyze the optical emission from the laser generated plasma plume above the keyhole, to calculate its electron temperature as a process-monitoring signal. Laser power has been controlled by using a quantitative relationship between the penetration depth and the plasma electron temperature. The sensor is able to correlate in real time the difference between the measured electron temperature and its reference value for the requested penetration depth. Accordingly the closed loop system adjusts the power, thus maintaining the penetration depth. PMID:23112646

  8. Closed loop control of penetration depth during CO₂ laser lap welding processes.

    PubMed

    Sibillano, Teresa; Rizzi, Domenico; Mezzapesa, Francesco P; Lugarà, Pietro Mario; Konuk, Ali Riza; Aarts, Ronald; Veld, Bert Huis In 't; Ancona, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe a novel spectroscopic closed loop control system capable of stabilizing the penetration depth during laser welding processes by controlling the laser power. Our novel approach is to analyze the optical emission from the laser generated plasma plume above the keyhole, to calculate its electron temperature as a process-monitoring signal. Laser power has been controlled by using a quantitative relationship between the penetration depth and the plasma electron temperature. The sensor is able to correlate in real time the difference between the measured electron temperature and its reference value for the requested penetration depth. Accordingly the closed loop system adjusts the power, thus maintaining the penetration depth. PMID:23112646

  9. Gait adaptation to visual kinematic perturbations using a real-time closed-loop brain–computer interface to a virtual reality avatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phat Luu, Trieu; He, Yongtian; Brown, Samuel; Nakagame, Sho; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L.

    2016-06-01

    Objective. The control of human bipedal locomotion is of great interest to the field of lower-body brain–computer interfaces (BCIs) for gait rehabilitation. While the feasibility of closed-loop BCI systems for the control of a lower body exoskeleton has been recently shown, multi-day closed-loop neural decoding of human gait in a BCI virtual reality (BCI-VR) environment has yet to be demonstrated. BCI-VR systems provide valuable alternatives for movement rehabilitation when wearable robots are not desirable due to medical conditions, cost, accessibility, usability, or patient preferences. Approach. In this study, we propose a real-time closed-loop BCI that decodes lower limb joint angles from scalp electroencephalography (EEG) during treadmill walking to control a walking avatar in a virtual environment. Fluctuations in the amplitude of slow cortical potentials of EEG in the delta band (0.1–3 Hz) were used for prediction; thus, the EEG features correspond to time-domain amplitude modulated potentials in the delta band. Virtual kinematic perturbations resulting in asymmetric walking gait patterns of the avatar were also introduced to investigate gait adaptation using the closed-loop BCI-VR system over a period of eight days. Main results. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using a closed-loop BCI to learn to control a walking avatar under normal and altered visuomotor perturbations, which involved cortical adaptations. The average decoding accuracies (Pearson’s r values) in real-time BCI across all subjects increased from (Hip: 0.18 ± 0.31 Knee: 0.23 ± 0.33 Ankle: 0.14 ± 0.22) on Day 1 to (Hip: 0.40 ± 0.24 Knee: 0.55 ± 0.20 Ankle: 0.29 ± 0.22) on Day 8. Significance. These findings have implications for the development of a real-time closed-loop EEG-based BCI-VR system for gait rehabilitation after stroke and for understanding cortical plasticity induced by a closed-loop BCI-VR system.

  10. An Internet Protocol-Based Software System for Real-Time, Closed-Loop, Multi-Spacecraft Mission Simulation Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Richard D.; Davis, George; Cary, Everett; Higinbotham, John; Hogie, Keith

    2003-01-01

    A mission simulation prototype for Distributed Space Systems has been constructed using existing developmental hardware and software testbeds at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center. A locally distributed ensemble of testbeds, connected through the local area network, operates in real time and demonstrates the potential to assess the impact of subsystem level modifications on system level performance and, ultimately, on the quality and quantity of the end product science data.

  11. Closed loop control of the induction heating process using miniature magnetic sensors

    DOEpatents

    Bentley, Anthony E.; Kelley, John Bruce; Zutavern, Fred J.

    2003-05-20

    A method and system for providing real-time, closed-loop control of the induction hardening process. A miniature magnetic sensor located near the outer surface of the workpiece measures changes in the surface magnetic field caused by changes in the magnetic properties of the workpiece as it heats up during induction heating (or cools down during quenching). A passive miniature magnetic sensor detects a distinct magnetic spike that appears when the saturation field, B.sub.sat, of the workpiece has been exceeded. This distinct magnetic spike disappears when the workpiece's surface temperature exceeds its Curie temperature, due to the sudden decrease in its magnetic permeability. Alternatively, an active magnetic sensor can measure changes in the resonance response of the monitor coil when the excitation coil is linearly swept over 0-10 MHz, due to changes in the magnetic permeability and electrical resistivity of the workpiece as its temperature increases (or decreases).

  12. An Internet Protocol-Based Software System for Real-Time, Closed-Loop, Multi-Spacecraft Mission Simulation Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, George; Cary, Everett; Higinbotham, John; Burns, Richard; Hogie, Keith; Hallahan, Francis

    2003-01-01

    The paper will provide an overview of the web-based distributed simulation software system developed for end-to-end, multi-spacecraft mission design, analysis, and test at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This software system was developed for an internal research and development (IR&D) activity at GSFC called the Distributed Space Systems (DSS) Distributed Synthesis Environment (DSE). The long-term goal of the DSS-DSE is to integrate existing GSFC stand-alone test beds, models, and simulation systems to create a "hands on", end-to-end simulation environment for mission design, trade studies and simulations. The short-term goal of the DSE was therefore to develop the system architecture, and then to prototype the core software simulation capability based on a distributed computing approach, with demonstrations of some key capabilities by the end of Fiscal Year 2002 (FY02). To achieve the DSS-DSE IR&D objective, the team adopted a reference model and mission upon which FY02 capabilities were developed. The software was prototyped according to the reference model, and demonstrations were conducted for the reference mission to validate interfaces, concepts, etc. The reference model, illustrated in Fig. 1, included both space and ground elements, with functional capabilities such as spacecraft dynamics and control, science data collection, space-to-space and space-to-ground communications, mission operations, science operations, and data processing, archival and distribution addressed.

  13. Improvement of process closed-loop control systems for power units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilenko, V. A.; Mikushevich, E. E.; Nikol'Skii, D. Yu.; Rogachev, R. L.; Romanov, N. A.

    2008-10-01

    We describe the results of activities carried out at ZAO Interavtomatika (Interautomatika AG) on the development and putting into use of improved systems for closed-loop control of the main process values of Russian power units equipped with once-through boilers. We also consider a general approach for improving control systems and describe specific technical solutions taken for furnishing the main technological items of coal-and gas-and-oil-fired power units with closed-loop control systems.

  14. A fast closed-loop process dynamics characterization.

    PubMed

    Mataušek, Miroslav R; Šekara, Tomislav B

    2014-03-01

    Stable, integrating and unstable processes, including dead-time, are analyzed in the loop with a known PI/PID controller. The ultimate gain and frequency of an unknown process G(p)(s), and the angle of tangent to the Nyquist curve G(p)(iω) at the ultimate frequency, are determined from the estimated Laplace transform of the set-point step response of amplitude r0. Gain G(p)(0) is determined from the measurements of the control variable and known r0. These estimates define a control relevant model G(m)(s), making possible the use of the previously determined and memorized look-up tables to obtain PID controller guaranteeing desired maximum sensitivity and desired sensitivity to measurement noise. Simulation and experimental results, from a laboratory thermal plant, are used to demonstrate the effectiveness and merits of the proposed method. PMID:24388771

  15. A closed loop process for recycling spent lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratz, Eric; Sa, Qina; Apelian, Diran; Wang, Yan

    2014-09-01

    As lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries continue to increase their market share, recycling Li-ion batteries will become mandatory due to limited resources. We have previously demonstrated a new low temperature methodology to separate and synthesize cathode materials from mixed cathode materials. In this study we take used Li-ion batteries from a recycling source and recover active cathode materials, copper, steel, etc. To accomplish this the batteries are shredded and processed to separate the steel, copper and cathode materials; the cathode materials are then leached into solution; the concentrations of nickel, manganese and cobalt ions are adjusted so NixMnyCoz(OH)2 is precipitated. The precipitated product can then be reacted with lithium carbonate to form LiNixMnyCozO2. The results show that the developed recycling process is practical with high recovery efficiencies (∼90%), and 1 ton of Li-ion batteries has the potential to generate 5013 profit margin based on materials balance.

  16. Processing PCM Data in Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wissink, T. L.

    1982-01-01

    Novel hardware configuration makes it possible for Space Shuttle launch processing system to monitor pulse-code-modulated data in real time. Using two microprogramable "option planes," incoming PCM data are monitored for changes at rate of one frame of data (80 16-bit words) every 10 milliseconds. Real-time PCM processor utilizes CPU in mini-computer and CPU's in two option planes.

  17. Real-time optical image processing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang

    1988-01-01

    Nonlinear real-time optical processing on spatial pulse frequency modulation has been pursued through the analysis, design, and fabrication of pulse frequency modulated halftone screens and the modification of micro-channel spatial light modulators (MSLMs). Micro-channel spatial light modulators are modified via the Fabry-Perot method to achieve the high gamma operation required for non-linear operation. Real-time nonlinear processing was performed using the halftone screen and MSLM. The experiments showed the effectiveness of the thresholding and also showed the needs of higher SBP for image processing. The Hughes LCLV has been characterized and found to yield high gamma (about 1.7) when operated in low frequency and low bias mode. Cascading of two LCLVs should also provide enough gamma for nonlinear processing. In this case, the SBP of the LCLV is sufficient but the uniformity of the LCLV needs improvement. These include image correlation, computer generation of holograms, pseudo-color image encoding for image enhancement, and associative-retrieval in neural processing. The discovery of the only known optical method for dynamic range compression of an input image in real-time by using GaAs photorefractive crystals is reported. Finally, a new architecture for non-linear multiple sensory, neural processing has been suggested.

  18. Gas powered, closed loop power system and process for using same

    SciTech Connect

    Cardone, J.T.; Dill, J.M.; Shatz, K.J.

    1982-06-08

    This invention relates to a gas powered, closed loop power generating system which generates power substantially as a result of the flow of gas through its power generating means. Gas flows through the power generating means because of a pressure drop caused by dissolving the gas in a solvent medium on the exit side of the power generating means. The solution is then separated into the solvent medium, and the gas. The gas pressure is raised and it is then fed back into the power generating means while the separated solvent medium is recycled to redissolve more exiting gas. A process for generating power is also disclosed.

  19. Near real time data processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousessian, Ardvas; Vuu, Christina

    2008-08-01

    Raytheon recently developed and implemented a Near Real Time (NRT) data processing subsystem for Earth Observing System (EOS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS3) instrument on NASA Aura spacecraft. The NRT can be viewed as a customized Science Information Processing System (SIPS) where the measurements and information provided by the instrument are expeditiously processed, packaged, and delivered. The purpose of the MLS NRT is to process Level 0 data up through Level 2, and distribute standard data products to the customer within 3-5 hours of the first set of data arrival.

  20. The Raptor Real-Time Processing Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galassi, M.; Starr, D.; Wozniak, P.; Brozdin, K.

    The primary goal of Raptor is ambitious: to identify interesting optical transients from very wide field of view telescopes in real time, and then to quickly point the higher resolution Raptor ``fovea'' cameras and spectrometer to the location of the optical transient. The most interesting of Raptor's many applications is the real-time search for orphan optical counterparts of Gamma Ray Bursts. The sequence of steps (data acquisition, basic calibration, source extraction, astrometry, relative photometry, the smarts of transient identification and elimination of false positives, telescope pointing feedback, etc.) is implemented with a ``component'' approach. All basic elements of the pipeline functionality have been written from scratch or adapted (as in the case of SExtractor for source extraction) to form a consistent modern API operating on memory resident images and source lists. The result is a pipeline which meets our real-time requirements and which can easily operate as a monolithic or distributed processing system. Finally, the Raptor architecture is entirely based on free software (sometimes referred to as ``open source'' software). In this paper we also discuss the interplay between various free software technologies in this type of astronomical problem.

  1. Autonomous Closed-Loop Tasking, Acquisition, Processing, and Evaluation for Situational Awareness Feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frye, Stuart; Mandl, Dan; Cappelaere, Pat

    2016-01-01

    This presentation describes the closed loop satellite autonomy methods used to connect users and the assets on Earth Orbiter- 1 (EO-1) and similar satellites. The base layer is a distributed architecture based on Goddard Mission Services Evolution Concept (GMSEC) thus each asset still under independent control. Situational awareness is provided by a middleware layer through common Application Programmer Interface (API) to GMSEC components developed at GSFC. Users setup their own tasking requests, receive views into immediate past acquisitions in their area of interest, and into future feasibilities for acquisition across all assets. Automated notifications via pubsub feeds are returned to users containing published links to image footprints, algorithm results, and full data sets. Theme-based algorithms are available on-demand for processing.

  2. Synthesis of nano precipitated calcium carbonate by using a carbonation process through a closed loop reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thriveni, Thenepalli; Ahn, Ji Whan; Ramakrishna, Chilakala; Ahn, Young Jun; Han, Choon

    2016-01-01

    Nano calcium carbonate particles have a wide range of industrial applications due to their beneficial properties such as high porosity and high surface area to volume ratio and due to their strengthening the mechanical properties of plastics and paper. Consequently, significant research has been done to deliver a new approach for the synthesis of precipitated nano calcium carbonate by using a carbonation process through a closed loop reactor. Both the experimental and the instrumental parameters, i.e. the CO2 flow rate, the concentration of the starting materials (Ca(OH)2 and CaO), the pH, the orifice diameter, etc., were investigated. The carbonation efficiency was increased due to the diffusion process involved in the loop reactor. The particle size was affected by the CO2 flow rate, reaction time, and orifice diameter. Finally, precipitated nano calcite calcium carbonate (50 to 100 nm) was synthesized by optimizing all the experimental and the instrumental parameters. The synthesized precipitated nano calcium carbonate was characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. This study has proved that the carbonation efficiency can be enhanced for a short time by using a loop reactor and that the carbonation process was more energy efficient and cost effective than other conventional methods.

  3. OPAD-EDIFIS Real-Time Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katsinis, Constantine

    1997-01-01

    The Optical Plume Anomaly Detection (OPAD) detects engine hardware degradation of flight vehicles through identification and quantification of elemental species found in the plume by analyzing the plume emission spectra in a real-time mode. Real-time performance of OPAD relies on extensive software which must report metal amounts in the plume faster than once every 0.5 sec. OPAD software previously written by NASA scientists performed most necessary functions at speeds which were far below what is needed for real-time operation. The research presented in this report improved the execution speed of the software by optimizing the code without changing the algorithms and converting it into a parallelized form which is executed in a shared-memory multiprocessor system. The resulting code was subjected to extensive timing analysis. The report also provides suggestions for further performance improvement by (1) identifying areas of algorithm optimization, (2) recommending commercially available multiprocessor architectures and operating systems to support real-time execution and (3) presenting an initial study of fault-tolerance requirements.

  4. The role of feed-forward and feedback processes for closed-loop prosthesis control

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It is widely believed that both feed-forward and feed-back mechanisms are required for successful object manipulation. Open-loop upper-limb prosthesis wearers receive no tactile feedback, which may be the cause of their limited dexterity and compromised grip force control. In this paper we ask whether observed prosthesis control impairments are due to lack of feedback or due to inadequate feed-forward control. Methods Healthy subjects were fitted with a closed-loop robotic hand and instructed to grasp and lift objects of different weights as we recorded trajectories and force profiles. We conducted three experiments under different feed-forward and feed-back configurations to elucidate the role of tactile feedback (i) in ideal conditions, (ii) under sensory deprivation, and (iii) under feed-forward uncertainty. Results (i) We found that subjects formed economical grasps in ideal conditions. (ii) To our surprise, this ability was preserved even when visual and tactile feedback were removed. (iii) When we introduced uncertainty into the hand controller performance degraded significantly in the absence of either visual or tactile feedback. Greatest performance was achieved when both sources of feedback were present. Conclusions We have introduced a novel method to understand the cognitive processes underlying grasping and lifting. We have shown quantitatively that tactile feedback can significantly improve performance in the presence of feed-forward uncertainty. However, our results indicate that feed-forward and feed-back mechanisms serve complementary roles, suggesting that to improve on the state-of-the-art in prosthetic hands we must develop prostheses that empower users to correct for the inevitable uncertainty in their feed-forward control. PMID:22032545

  5. Real-time control of ion density and ion energy in chlorine inductively coupled plasma etch processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Cheng-Hung; Leou, Keh-Chyang; Lin, Chaung; Lin, Tsan-Lang; Tseng, Chih-Wei; Tsai, Chuen-Horng

    2003-07-01

    In this study, we have experimentally demonstrated the real-time closed-loop control of both ion density and ion energy in a chlorine inductively coupled plasma etcher. To measure positive ion density, the trace rare gases-optical emission spectroscopy is used to measure the chlorine positive ion density. An rf voltage probe is adopted to measure the root-mean-square rf voltage on the electrostatic chuck which is linearly dependent on sheath voltage. One actuator is a 13.56 MHz rf generator to drive the inductive coil seated on a ceramic window. The second actuator is also a 13.56 MHz rf generator to power the electrostatic chuck. The closed-loop controller is designed to compensate for process drift, process disturbance, and pilot wafer effect and to minimize steady-state error of plasma parameters. This controller has been used to control the etch process of unpatterned polysilicon. The experimental results showed that the closed-loop control had a better repeatability of plasma parameters compared with open-loop control. The closed-loop control can eliminate the process disturbance resulting from reflected power. In addition, experimental results also demonstrated that closed-loop control has a better reproducibility in etch rate as compared with open-loop control.

  6. Industrial use of the real time monitor for quality assurance in electron processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneeland, D. R.; Nablo, S. V.; Weiss, D. E.; Sinz, T. E.

    1999-07-01

    The performance of a three channel real time radiation monitor, installed on a 250 kV×0.3 m electron sterilizer used for controlled depth of sterilization of medical devices, is reported. The bremsstrahlung generated at the window plane is monitored with good spatial resolution at three locations across the beam, and provides information on the electron current density (dose rate) and the electron energy. Software has been developed for analysis and display of these data in real time so that the dose received by the product, and the energy at which it was treated can be displayed and recorded. The several geometries used for bremsstrahlung detection are discussed, and some calculated low energy distributions are shown. Typical data are presented from an eleven channel unit mounted on a 250 kV×1.6 m processor illustrating its use for process quality assurance. The use of Monitorad® for overall closed-loop processor control is reviewed.

  7. Driving sleep slow oscillations by auditory closed-loop stimulation-a self-limiting process.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Hong-Viet V; Miedema, Arjan; Faude, Isabel; Martinetz, Thomas; Mölle, Matthias; Born, Jan

    2015-04-29

    The <1 Hz EEG slow oscillation (SO) is a hallmark of slow-wave sleep (SWS) and is critically involved in sleep-associated memory formation. Previous studies showed that SOs and associated memory function can be effectively enhanced by closed-loop auditory stimulation, when clicks are presented in synchrony with upcoming SO up states. However, increasing SOs and synchronized excitability also bear the risk of emerging seizure activity, suggesting the presence of mechanisms in the healthy brain that counter developing hypersynchronicity during SOs. Here, we aimed to test the limits of driving SOs through closed-loop auditory stimulation in healthy humans. Study I tested a "Driving stimulation" protocol (vs "Sham") in which trains of clicks were presented in synchrony with SO up states basically as long as an ongoing SO train was identified on-line. Study II compared Driving stimulation with a "2-Click" protocol where the maximum of stimuli delivered in a train was limited to two clicks. Stimulation was applied during SWS in the first 210 min of nocturnal sleep. Before and after sleep declarative word-pair memories were tested. Compared with the Sham control, Driving stimulation prolonged SO trains and enhanced SO amplitudes, phase-locked spindle activity, and overnight retention of word pairs (all ps < 0.05). Importantly, effects of Driving stimulation did not exceed those of 2-Click stimulation (p > 0.180), indicating the presence of a mechanism preventing the development of hypersynchronicity during SO activity. Assessment of temporal dynamics revealed a rapidly fading phase-locked spindle activity during repetitive click stimulation, suggesting that spindle refractoriness contributes to this protective mechanism. PMID:25926443

  8. Vector processing enhancements for real-time image analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Shoaf, S.; APS Engineering Support Division

    2008-01-01

    A real-time image analysis system was developed for beam imaging diagnostics. An Apple Power Mac G5 with an Active Silicon LFG frame grabber was used to capture video images that were processed and analyzed. Software routines were created to utilize vector-processing hardware to reduce the time to process images as compared to conventional methods. These improvements allow for more advanced image processing diagnostics to be performed in real time.

  9. High-density FPGAs for real-time video processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordhauser, Steven; Beckstead, Jeffrey A.; Castracane, James; Koltai, Peter J.; Mouzakes, Jason; Simkulet, Michelle D.

    1997-04-01

    The use of an off-the-shelf general purpose processing system supplied by Giga Operations as applied to real-time video applications is described. The system is modular enough to be used in many scientific and industrial applications and powerful enough to maintain the throughput required for real-time video processing. This hardware and the associated programming environment has enabled InterScience to pursue research in real-time data compression, real-time Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI) image processing, and industrial quality control and manufacturing. The system is based on Xilinx 4000 series field programmable gate arrays with associated static and dynamic random access memory in an architecture optimized for video processing on either the VL-Bus or PCI. This paper will focus on the design and development of a real-time frame subtractor for ESPI using this technology. Examples of the improvement in research capability provided by real-time frame subtraction are shown, including images from biomedical experiments. Further applications, based on this system are described. These include real-time data compression, quality control for production lines as part of an automated inspection system and a multi-camera security system allowing motion estimation to automatically prioritize camera selection.

  10. Neural signal processing and closed-loop control algorithm design for an implanted neural recording and stimulation system.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Lei; McConley, Marc; Angermueller, Kai; Goldberg, David; Corba, Massimiliano; Kim, Louis; Moran, James; Parks, Philip D; Sang Chin; Widge, Alik S; Dougherty, Darin D; Eskandar, Emad N

    2015-08-01

    A fully autonomous intracranial device is built to continually record neural activities in different parts of the brain, process these sampled signals, decode features that correlate to behaviors and neuropsychiatric states, and use these features to deliver brain stimulation in a closed-loop fashion. In this paper, we describe the sampling and stimulation aspects of such a device. We first describe the signal processing algorithms of two unsupervised spike sorting methods. Next, we describe the LFP time-frequency analysis and feature derivation from the two spike sorting methods. Spike sorting includes a novel approach to constructing a dictionary learning algorithm in a Compressed Sensing (CS) framework. We present a joint prediction scheme to determine the class of neural spikes in the dictionary learning framework; and, the second approach is a modified OSort algorithm which is implemented in a distributed system optimized for power efficiency. Furthermore, sorted spikes and time-frequency analysis of LFP signals can be used to generate derived features (including cross-frequency coupling, spike-field coupling). We then show how these derived features can be used in the design and development of novel decode and closed-loop control algorithms that are optimized to apply deep brain stimulation based on a patient's neuropsychiatric state. For the control algorithm, we define the state vector as representative of a patient's impulsivity, avoidance, inhibition, etc. Controller parameters are optimized to apply stimulation based on the state vector's current state as well as its historical values. The overall algorithm and software design for our implantable neural recording and stimulation system uses an innovative, adaptable, and reprogrammable architecture that enables advancement of the state-of-the-art in closed-loop neural control while also meeting the challenges of system power constraints and concurrent development with ongoing scientific research designed

  11. Infrared Signature Analysis: Real Time Monitoring Of Manufacturing Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangs, Edmund R.

    1988-01-01

    The ability to monitor manufacturing processes in an adaptive control mode and perform an inspection in real time is of interest to fabricators in the pressure vessel, aerospace, automotive, nuclear and shipbuilding industries. Results of a series of experiments using infrared thermography as the principal sensing mode are presented to show how artificial intelligence contained in infrared isotherm, contains vast critical process variables. Image processing computer software development has demonstrated in a spot welding application how the process can be monitored and controlled in real time. The IR vision sensor program is now under way. Research thus far has focused on fusion welding, resistance spot welding and metal removal.

  12. Real-Time "Garbage Collection" for List Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuler, Robert L., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Two proposed algorithmic techniques for list processing enable immediate identification of computer memory cells having become inactive through disconnection from active cells, together with addition of these inactive cells to pool of reusable cells. These two "garbage collection" techniques reduce memory requirements of list processors or increase their speed or both. With both techniques, processing continuity maintained, enabling real-time processing.

  13. Real-time hierarchically distributed processing network interaction simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, W. F.; Wu, C.

    1987-01-01

    The Telerobot Testbed is a hierarchically distributed processing system which is linked together through a standard, commercial Ethernet. Standard Ethernet systems are primarily designed to manage non-real-time information transfer. Therefore, collisions on the net (i.e., two or more sources attempting to send data at the same time) are managed by randomly rescheduling one of the sources to retransmit at a later time interval. Although acceptable for transmitting noncritical data such as mail, this particular feature is unacceptable for real-time hierarchical command and control systems such as the Telerobot. Data transfer and scheduling simulations, such as token ring, offer solutions to collision management, but do not appropriately characterize real-time data transfer/interactions for robotic systems. Therefore, models like these do not provide a viable simulation environment for understanding real-time network loading. A real-time network loading model is being developed which allows processor-to-processor interactions to be simulated, collisions (and respective probabilities) to be logged, collision-prone areas to be identified, and network control variable adjustments to be reentered as a means of examining and reducing collision-prone regimes that occur in the process of simulating a complete task sequence.

  14. Processing system for real-time holographic video computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nwodoh, Thomas A.; Bove, V. Michael, Jr.; Watlington, John A.; Benton, Stephen A.

    1999-08-01

    This paper discusses the Chidi holographic video processing system (called Holo-Chidi) used for real-time computation of computer generated holograms and the subsequent display of the holograms at video frame rates. Chidi is a reconfigurable multimedia processing system designed at the MIT Media Laboratory for real-time synthesis and analysis of multimedia data in general and digital video frames in particular. Holo-Chidi which is an adaptation of Chidi, comprises two main components: the sets of processor cards and the display interface cards.

  15. Dynamic Modeling of Process Technologies for Closed-Loop Water Recovery Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allada, Rama Kumar; Lange, Kevin E.; Anderson, Molly S.

    2012-01-01

    Detailed chemical process simulations are a useful tool in designing and optimizing complex systems and architectures for human life support. Dynamic and steady-state models of these systems help contrast the interactions of various operating parameters and hardware designs, which become extremely useful in trade-study analyses. NASA s Exploration Life Support technology development project recently made use of such models to compliment a series of tests on different waste water distillation systems. This paper presents dynamic simulations of chemical process for primary processor technologies including: the Cascade Distillation System (CDS), the Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) system, the Wiped-Film Rotating Disk (WFRD), and post-distillation water polishing processes such as the Volatiles Removal Assembly (VRA). These dynamic models were developed using the Aspen Custom Modeler (Registered TradeMark) and Aspen Plus(Registered TradeMark) process simulation tools. The results expand upon previous work for water recovery technology models and emphasize dynamic process modeling and results. The paper discusses system design, modeling details, and model results for each technology and presents some comparisons between the model results and available test data. Following these initial comparisons, some general conclusions and forward work are discussed.

  16. Dynamic Modeling of Process Technologies for Closed-Loop Water Recovery Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allada, Rama Kumar; Lange, Kevin; Anderson, Molly

    2011-01-01

    Detailed chemical process simulations are a useful tool in designing and optimizing complex systems and architectures for human life support. Dynamic and steady-state models of these systems help contrast the interactions of various operating parameters and hardware designs, which become extremely useful in trade-study analyses. NASA s Exploration Life Support technology development project recently made use of such models to compliment a series of tests on different waste water distillation systems. This paper presents dynamic simulations of chemical process for primary processor technologies including: the Cascade Distillation System (CDS), the Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) system, the Wiped-Film Rotating Disk (WFRD), and post-distillation water polishing processes such as the Volatiles Removal Assembly (VRA) that were developed using the Aspen Custom Modeler and Aspen Plus process simulation tools. The results expand upon previous work for water recovery technology models and emphasize dynamic process modeling and results. The paper discusses system design, modeling details, and model results for each technology and presents some comparisons between the model results and available test data. Following these initial comparisons, some general conclusions and forward work are discussed.

  17. In situ heat treatment process utilizing a closed loop heating system

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Nguyen, Scott Vinh

    2010-12-07

    Systems and methods for an in situ heat treatment process that utilizes a circulation system to heat one or more treatment areas are described herein. The circulation system may use a heated liquid heat transfer fluid that passes through piping in the formation to transfer heat to the formation. In some embodiments, the piping may be positioned in at least two of the wellbores.

  18. An intelligent processing environment for real-time simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, Chester C.; Wells, Buren Earl, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The development of a highly efficient and thus truly intelligent processing environment for real-time general purpose simulation of continuous systems is described. Such an environment can be created by mapping the simulation process directly onto the University of Alamba's OPERA architecture. To facilitate this effort, the field of continuous simulation is explored, highlighting areas in which efficiency can be improved. Areas in which parallel processing can be applied are also identified, and several general OPERA type hardware configurations that support improved simulation are investigated. Three direct execution parallel processing environments are introduced, each of which greatly improves efficiency by exploiting distinct areas of the simulation process. These suggested environments are candidate architectures around which a highly intelligent real-time simulation configuration can be developed.

  19. Direct PID Tuning from Closed-Loop Data and Its Application to Unstable Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasaka, Kenichi; Kano, Manabu; Ogawa, Morimasa; Masuda, Shiro; Yamamoto, Toru

    In the present work, a new practical method for direct tuning of PID controllers using operation data under feedback control is proposed. Conventional direct tuning methods have the following problems: need for iterative experiments and difficulty in properly determining a reference model without information on a process. The objective of this research is to propose Extended Fictitious Reference Iterative Tuning (E-FRIT) for solving these problems through 1) the objective function is modifieded to include the penalty for changes of the input variable, 2) the parameter in the reference model is optimized together with PID control parameters, and 3) particle swarm optimization (PSO) is used to make the first two extensions with facility. The usefulness of the proposed E-FRIT is demonstrated through the case studies of unstable chemical reaction processes.

  20. Closed loop control of the multi-column solvent gradient purification process.

    PubMed

    Krättli, M; Ströhlein, G; Aumann, L; Müller-Späth, T; Morbidelli, M

    2011-12-16

    A PID controller able to support the operator in the operation of the Multi-column Countercurrent Solvent Gradient Purification (MCSGP) process which is a continuous, countercurrent chromatographic process has been developed. As measurement, only the online UV signals at each column outlet are used. This guarantees a simple and cheap control implementation and a fast control action. Accordingly, the controller does not guarantee any purity or yield value, but simply that the withdrawn window of the product is centered in a specific region of the UV chromatogram where the purity specifications are expected to be satisfied. This can be determined by the operator based on the batch chromatogram selected for designing the MCSGP operating conditions. Thus the controller provides a reliable and efficient tool for the operator to run properly a MCSGP unit in combination with suitable offline analytics for the quantification of purity and yield. The applications are discussed involving the purification of a model protein and a peptide. It is shown that the developed controller is effective in driving the unit to steady state during start up and in keeping a stable steady state while rejecting external disturbances. PMID:22055525

  1. Real time speech recognition on a distributed digital processing array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, P.; Roberts, J. B. G.

    1983-08-01

    A compact digital signal processor based on the architecture of the ICL Distributed Array Processor (DAP) is under development for MOD applications in Radar, ESM, Image Processing, etc. This Memorandum examines its applicability to speech recognition. In such a distributed processor, optimum mapping of the problem on to the array of processors is vital for efficiency. Three mappings of a dynamic time warping algorithm for isolated word recognition are examined, leading to a feasbile real time capability for continuous speech processing. The compatibility found between dynamic programming methods and this class of machine enlarges the scope of signal processing algorithms foreseen as amenable to parallel processing.

  2. An Algorithm for Network Real Time Kinematic Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malekzadeh, A.; Asgari, J.; Amiri-Simkooei, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    NRTK1 is an efficient method to achieve precise real time positioning from GNSS measurements. In this paper we attempt to improve NRTK algorithm by introducing a new strategy. In this strategy a precise relocation of master station observations is performed using Sagnac effect. After processing the double differences, the tropospheric and ionospheric errors of each baseline can be estimated separately. The next step is interpolation of these errors for the atmospheric errors mitigation of desired baseline. Linear and kriging interpolation methods are implemented in this study. In the new strategy the RINEX2 data of the master station is re-located and is converted to the desired virtual observations. Then the interpolated corrections are applied to the virtual observations. The results are compared by the classical method of VRS generation. 1 Network Real Time Kinematic 2 Receiver Independent Exchange Format

  3. Real-time fractal signal processing in the time domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, András; Mukli, Péter; Nagy, Zoltán; Kocsis, László; Hermán, Péter; Eke, András

    2013-01-01

    Fractal analysis has proven useful for the quantitative characterization of complex time series by scale-free statistical measures in various applications. The analysis has commonly been done offline with the signal being resident in memory in full length, and the processing carried out in several distinct passes. However, in many relevant applications, such as monitoring or forecasting, algorithms are needed to capture changes in the fractal measure real-time. Here we introduce real-time variants of the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) and the closely related Signal Summation Conversion (SSC) methods, which are suitable to estimate the fractal exponent in one pass. Compared to offline algorithms, the precision is the same, the memory requirement is significantly lower, and the execution time depends on the same factors but with different rates. Our tests show that dynamic changes in the fractal parameter can be efficiently detected. We demonstrate the applicability of our real-time methods on signals of cerebral hemodynamics acquired during open-heart surgery.

  4. Closed-loop anesthesia.

    PubMed

    LE Guen, Morgan; Liu, Ngai; Chazot, Thierry; Fischler, Marc

    2016-05-01

    Automated anesthesia which may offer to the physician time to control hemodynamic and to supervise neurological outcome and which may offer to the patient safety and quality was until recently consider as a holy grail. But this field of research is now increasing in every component of general anesthesia (hypnosis, nociception, neuromuscular blockade) and literature describes some successful algorithms - single or multi closed-loop controller. The aim of these devices is to control a predefined target and to continuously titrate anesthetics whatever the patients' co morbidities and surgical events to reach this target. Literature contains many randomized trials comparing manual and automated anesthesia and shows feasibility and safety of this system. Automation could quickly concern other aspects of anesthesia as fluid management and this review proposes an overview of closed-loop systems in anesthesia. PMID:26554614

  5. Towards real-time remote processing of laparoscopic video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronaghi, Zahra; Duffy, Edward B.; Kwartowitz, David M.

    2015-03-01

    Laparoscopic surgery is a minimally invasive surgical technique where surgeons insert a small video camera into the patient's body to visualize internal organs and small tools to perform surgical procedures. However, the benefit of small incisions has a drawback of limited visualization of subsurface tissues, which can lead to navigational challenges in the delivering of therapy. Image-guided surgery (IGS) uses images to map subsurface structures and can reduce the limitations of laparoscopic surgery. One particular laparoscopic camera system of interest is the vision system of the daVinci-Si robotic surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA). The video streams generate approximately 360 megabytes of data per second, demonstrating a trend towards increased data sizes in medicine, primarily due to higher-resolution video cameras and imaging equipment. Processing this data on a bedside PC has become challenging and a high-performance computing (HPC) environment may not always be available at the point of care. To process this data on remote HPC clusters at the typical 30 frames per second (fps) rate, it is required that each 11.9 MB video frame be processed by a server and returned within 1/30th of a second. The ability to acquire, process and visualize data in real-time is essential for performance of complex tasks as well as minimizing risk to the patient. As a result, utilizing high-speed networks to access computing clusters will lead to real-time medical image processing and improve surgical experiences by providing real-time augmented laparoscopic data. We aim to develop a medical video processing system using an OpenFlow software defined network that is capable of connecting to multiple remote medical facilities and HPC servers.

  6. Toward real-time remote processing of laparoscopic video.

    PubMed

    Ronaghi, Zahra; Duffy, Edward B; Kwartowitz, David M

    2015-10-01

    Laparoscopic surgery is a minimally invasive surgical technique where surgeons insert a small video camera into the patient's body to visualize internal organs and use small tools to perform surgical procedures. However, the benefit of small incisions has a drawback of limited visualization of subsurface tissues, which can lead to navigational challenges in the delivering of therapy. Image-guided surgery uses the images to map subsurface structures and can reduce the limitations of laparoscopic surgery. One particular laparoscopic camera system of interest is the vision system of the daVinci-Si robotic surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, California). The video streams generate approximately 360 MB of data per second, demonstrating a trend toward increased data sizes in medicine, primarily due to higher-resolution video cameras and imaging equipment. Processing this data on a bedside PC has become challenging and a high-performance computing (HPC) environment may not always be available at the point of care. To process this data on remote HPC clusters at the typical 30 frames per second (fps) rate, it is required that each 11.9 MB video frame be processed by a server and returned within 1/30th of a second. The ability to acquire, process, and visualize data in real time is essential for the performance of complex tasks as well as minimizing risk to the patient. As a result, utilizing high-speed networks to access computing clusters will lead to real-time medical image processing and improve surgical experiences by providing real-time augmented laparoscopic data. We have performed image processing algorithms on a high-definition head phantom video (1920 × 1080 pixels) and transferred the video using a message passing interface. The total transfer time is around 53 ms or 19 fps. We will optimize and parallelize these algorithms to reduce the total time to 30 ms. PMID:26668817

  7. A real-time dashboard for managing pathology processes

    PubMed Central

    Halwani, Fawaz; Li, Wei Chen; Banerjee, Diponkar; Lessard, Lysanne; Amyot, Daniel; Michalowski, Wojtek; Giffen, Randy

    2016-01-01

    Context: The Eastern Ontario Regional Laboratory Association (EORLA) is a newly established association of all the laboratory and pathology departments of Eastern Ontario that currently includes facilities from eight hospitals. All surgical specimens for EORLA are processed in one central location, the Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine (DPLM) at The Ottawa Hospital (TOH), where the rapid growth and influx of surgical and cytology specimens has created many challenges in ensuring the timely processing of cases and reports. Although the entire process is maintained and tracked in a clinical information system, this system lacks pre-emptive warnings that can help management address issues as they arise. Aims: Dashboard technology provides automated, real-time visual clues that could be used to alert management when a case or specimen is not being processed within predefined time frames. We describe the development of a dashboard helping pathology clinical management to make informed decisions on specimen allocation and tracking. Methods: The dashboard was designed and developed in two phases, following a prototyping approach. The first prototype of the dashboard helped monitor and manage pathology processes at the DPLM. Results: The use of this dashboard helped to uncover operational inefficiencies and contributed to an improvement of turn-around time within The Ottawa Hospital's DPML. It also allowed the discovery of additional requirements, leading to a second prototype that provides finer-grained, real-time information about individual cases and specimens. Conclusion: We successfully developed a dashboard that enables managers to address delays and bottlenecks in specimen allocation and tracking. This support ensures that pathology reports are provided within time frame standards required for high-quality patient care. Given the importance of rapid diagnostics for a number of diseases, the use of real-time dashboards within pathology departments could

  8. A real-time optical data processing device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, A.; Grinberg, J.; Bleha, W.; Miller, L.; Fraas, L.; Myer, G.; Boswell, D.

    1975-01-01

    The design, operation, and structure of the hybrid field effect light valve, a real-time input device for application to coherent optical data processing (CODP), is described. The device consists of a sandwich of thin films that electrically control the optical birefringence of a thin (2 micrometer) liquid crystal layer. It has high resolution (greater than 100 1/mm), contrast ratio (greater than 100:1), speed (10 sec on, 15 sec off) and input sensitivity (about 0.3 ergs/sq cm) in addition to cost and size advantages. Performance data for a laboratory model are presented.

  9. HPC enabled real-time remote processing of laparoscopic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronaghi, Zahra; Sapra, Karan; Izard, Ryan; Duffy, Edward; Smith, Melissa C.; Wang, Kuang-Ching; Kwartowitz, David M.

    2016-03-01

    Laparoscopic surgery is a minimally invasive surgical technique. The benefit of small incisions has a disadvantage of limited visualization of subsurface tissues. Image-guided surgery (IGS) uses pre-operative and intra-operative images to map subsurface structures. One particular laparoscopic system is the daVinci-si robotic surgical system. The video streams generate approximately 360 megabytes of data per second. Real-time processing this large stream of data on a bedside PC, single or dual node setup, has become challenging and a high-performance computing (HPC) environment may not always be available at the point of care. To process this data on remote HPC clusters at the typical 30 frames per second rate, it is required that each 11.9 MB video frame be processed by a server and returned within 1/30th of a second. We have implement and compared performance of compression, segmentation and registration algorithms on Clemson's Palmetto supercomputer using dual NVIDIA K40 GPUs per node. Our computing framework will also enable reliability using replication of computation. We will securely transfer the files to remote HPC clusters utilizing an OpenFlow-based network service, Steroid OpenFlow Service (SOS) that can increase performance of large data transfers over long-distance and high bandwidth networks. As a result, utilizing high-speed OpenFlow- based network to access computing clusters with GPUs will improve surgical procedures by providing real-time medical image processing and laparoscopic data.

  10. A conceptual framework for intelligent real-time information processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schudy, Robert

    1987-01-01

    By combining artificial intelligence concepts with the human information processing model of Rasmussen, a conceptual framework was developed for real time artificial intelligence systems which provides a foundation for system organization, control and validation. The approach is based on the description of system processing terms of an abstraction hierarchy of states of knowledge. The states of knowledge are organized along one dimension which corresponds to the extent to which the concepts are expressed in terms of the system inouts or in terms of the system response. Thus organized, the useful states form a generally triangular shape with the sensors and effectors forming the lower two vertices and the full evaluated set of courses of action the apex. Within the triangle boundaries are numerous processing paths which shortcut the detailed processing, by connecting incomplete levels of analysis to partially defined responses. Shortcuts at different levels of abstraction include reflexes, sensory motor control, rule based behavior, and satisficing. This approach was used in the design of a real time tactical decision aiding system, and in defining an intelligent aiding system for transport pilots.

  11. Near Real-Time Processing of Proteomics Data Using Hadoop.

    PubMed

    Hillman, Chris; Ahmad, Yasmeen; Whitehorn, Mark; Cobley, Andy

    2014-03-01

    This article presents a near real-time processing solution using MapReduce and Hadoop. The solution is aimed at some of the data management and processing challenges facing the life sciences community. Research into genes and their product proteins generates huge volumes of data that must be extensively preprocessed before any biological insight can be gained. In order to carry out this processing in a timely manner, we have investigated the use of techniques from the big data field. These are applied specifically to process data resulting from mass spectrometers in the course of proteomic experiments. Here we present methods of handling the raw data in Hadoop, and then we investigate a process for preprocessing the data using Java code and the MapReduce framework to identify 2D and 3D peaks. PMID:27447310

  12. Real-time image processing architecture for robot vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persa, Stelian; Jonker, Pieter P.

    2000-10-01

    This paper presents a study of the impact of MMX technology and PIII Streaming SIMD (Single Instruction stream, Multiple Data stream). Extensions in image processing and machine vision application, which, because of their hard real time constrains, is an undoubtedly challenging task. A comparison with traditional scalar code and with other parallel SIMD architecture (IMPA-VISION board) is discussed with emphasis of the particular programming strategies for speed optimization. More precisely we discuss the low level and intermediate level image processing algorithms, which are best suited for parallel SIMD implementation. High-level image processing algorithms are more suitable for parallel implementation on MIMD architectures. While the IMAP-VISION system performs better because of the large number of processing elements, the MMX processor and PIII (with Streaming SIMD Extensions) remains a good candidate for low-level image processing.

  13. Real-Time Monitoring of Psychotherapeutic Processes: Concept and Compliance

    PubMed Central

    Schiepek, Günter; Aichhorn, Wolfgang; Gruber, Martin; Strunk, Guido; Bachler, Egon; Aas, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The feasibility of a high-frequency real-time monitoring approach to psychotherapy is outlined and tested for patients' compliance to evaluate its integration to everyday practice. Criteria concern the ecological momentary assessment, the assessment of therapy-related cognitions and emotions, equidistant time sampling, real-time nonlinear time series analysis, continuous participative process control by client and therapist, and the application of idiographic (person-specific) surveys. Methods: The process-outcome monitoring is technically realized by an internet-based device for data collection and data analysis, the Synergetic Navigation System. Its feasibility is documented by a compliance study on 151 clients treated in an inpatient and a day-treatment clinic. Results: We found high compliance rates (mean: 78.3%, median: 89.4%) amongst the respondents, independent of the severity of symptoms or the degree of impairment. Compared to other diagnoses, the compliance rate was lower in the group diagnosed with personality disorders. Conclusion: The results support the feasibility of high-frequency monitoring in routine psychotherapy settings. Daily collection of psychological surveys allows for the assessment of highly resolved, equidistant time series data which gives insight into the nonlinear qualities of therapeutic change processes (e.g., pattern transitions, critical instabilities). PMID:27199837

  14. Severe storms measurement system real time data processing and displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeffreys, H. B.

    1980-01-01

    The objectives of the system are to provide the system operator with real time system performance check and to provide data recording of all SSMS data. Meteorologists are provided with real time indication of meteorological data measurements including aid for directing flight profiles in real time and aid for directing SSMS operations. A day-to-day feedback is provided to meteorologists, system operators, and flight crews for flight planning on subsequent flight tests days.

  15. Methods for real-time speech processing on Unix

    SciTech Connect

    Romberger, A.

    1982-01-01

    The author discusses computer programming done at the University of California, Berkeley, in support of research work in the area of speech analysis and synthesis. The purpose of this programming is to set up a system for doing real-time speech sampling using the Unix operating system. Two alternative approaches to real time work on Unix are discussed. The first approach is to do the real-time input/output on a secondary (satellite) machine that is not running Unix. The second approach is to do the real-time input/output on the main machine with the aid of special hardware.

  16. Closed-Loop Optogenetic Intervention in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Oijala, Mikko; Soltesz, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Optogenetic interventions offer novel ways of probing, in a temporally specific manner, the roles of specific cell types in neuronal network functions of awake, behaving animals. Despite the unique potential for temporally specific optogenetic interventions in disease states, a major hurdle in its broad application to unpredictable brain states in a laboratory setting is constructing a real-time responsive system. We recently created a closed-loop system for stopping spontaneous seizures in chronically epileptic mice using optogenetic intervention. This system performs with very high sensitivity and specificity, and the strategy is relevant not only to epilepsy, but can also be used to react in real time, with optogenetic or other interventions, to diverse brain states. The protocol presented here is highly modular and requires variable time to perform. We describe the basic construction of a complete system, and include our downloadable custom closed-loop detection software which can be employed for this purpose. PMID:23845961

  17. Real-Time Fault Classification for Plasma Processes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ryan; Chen, Rongshun

    2011-01-01

    Plasma process tools, which usually cost several millions of US dollars, are often used in the semiconductor fabrication etching process. If the plasma process is halted due to some process fault, the productivity will be reduced and the cost will increase. In order to maximize the product/wafer yield and tool productivity, a timely and effective fault process detection is required in a plasma reactor. The classification of fault events can help the users to quickly identify fault processes, and thus can save downtime of the plasma tool. In this work, optical emission spectroscopy (OES) is employed as the metrology sensor for in-situ process monitoring. Splitting into twelve different match rates by spectrum bands, the matching rate indicator in our previous work (Yang, R.; Chen, R.S. Sensors 2010, 10, 5703–5723) is used to detect the fault process. Based on the match data, a real-time classification of plasma faults is achieved by a novel method, developed in this study. Experiments were conducted to validate the novel fault classification. From the experimental results, we may conclude that the proposed method is feasible inasmuch that the overall accuracy rate of the classification for fault event shifts is 27 out of 28 or about 96.4% in success. PMID:22164001

  18. A real-time optical data processing device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, A.; Grinberg, J.; Bleha, W.; Miller, L.; Fraas, L.; Myer, G.; Boswell, D.

    1976-01-01

    A novel liquid-crystal electro-optical device useful as a real-time input device in coherent optical data processing is described. The device is a special adaptation of an ac photoactivated liquid-crystal light valve, and utilizes a hybrid field effect (45 deg twisted nematic effect in OFF state and pure optical birefringence of the liquid crystal in ON state). A thin-film sandwich exerts photoelectric control over the optical birefringence of a thin liquid-crystal layer. Liquid-crystal layer thickness is successfully reduced without image degradation. The device offers high resolution (better than 100 lines/mm), contrast (better than 100/1), high speed (10 msec ON, 15 msec OFF), high input sensitivity, low power input, low fabrication cost, and can be operated at below 10 V rms. Preliminary measurements on device performance in level slicing, filtering, contrast reversal, and edge enhancement are under way.

  19. The psychophysiology of real-time financial risk processing.

    PubMed

    Lo, Andrew W; Repin, Dmitry V

    2002-04-01

    A longstanding controversy in economics and finance is whether financial markets are governed by rational forces or by emotional responses. We study the importance of emotion in the decision-making process of professional securities traders by measuring their physiological characteristics (e.g., skin conductance, blood volume pulse, etc.) during live trading sessions while simultaneously capturing real-time prices from which market events can be detected. In a sample of 10 traders, we find statistically significant differences in mean electrodermal responses during transient market events relative to no-event control periods, and statistically significant mean changes in cardiovascular variables during periods of heightened market volatility relative to normal-volatility control periods. We also observe significant differences in these physiological responses across the 10 traders that may be systematically related to the traders' levels of experience. PMID:11970795

  20. A programmable microcomputer for real time speech processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apelewicz, T.; Schilling, D. L.

    1977-01-01

    The implementation of a programmable microprocessor for real time speech processing is described. The design of a fast special-purpose computer operating at 150 nsec per instruction time reduces the problem of speech encoding and decoding to a software problem. Each instruction is a twelve-bit word, and the information conveyed by a word is explained. The microprocessor is controlled by two clocks - the A/D clock, or input sampling clock, which loads the digital input into the input register and presets the counter to a value set by the external switches; and the instruction clock, or system clock, which operates at 6 MHz. At this system clock rate and a sampling clock rate of 30 KHz, 200 instructions can be executed between samples, and for many speech encoding and decoding algorithms, 200 instructions are more than enough. The microcomputer is being used to test various delta modulator encoding algorithms.

  1. Management Of Airborne Reconnaissance Images Through Real-Time Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endsley, Neil H.

    1985-12-01

    Digital reconnaissance images gathered by low-altitude over-flights with resolutions on the order of a few feet and fields of view up to 120 degrees can generate millions of pixels per second. Storing this data in-flight, transmitting it to the ground, and analyzing it presents significant problems to the tactical community. One potential solution is in-flight preview and pruning of the data where an operator keeps or transmits only those image segments which on first view contain potential intelligence data. To do this, the images must be presented to the operator in a geometrically correct form. Wide-angle dis-tortion, distortions induced by yaw, pitch, roll and altitude variations, and distortions due to non-ideal alignment of the focal plane array must be removed so the operator can quickly assess the scene content and make decisions on which image segments to keep. When multiple sensors are used with a common field of view, they must be mutually coregistered to permit multispectral or multimode processing to exploit these rich data dimensions. In addition, the operator should be able to alter the apparent point of view of the image, i.e., be able to zoom in and out, rotate, and roam through the displayed field of view while maintaining geometric and radiometric precision. These disparate requirements have a common feature in the ability to perform real-time image geometry manipulation. The role of image geometry manipulation, or image warping, is reviewed and a "strawman" system dis-cussed which incorporates the Pipelined Resampling Processor (PRP). The PRP is a real-time image warping processor discussed at this conference in previous years"2'3". Actual results from the PRP prototype are presented. In addition, other image processing aids such as image enhancement and object classification are discussed as they apply to reconnaissance applications.

  2. Near Real Time Processing Chain for Suomi NPP Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monsorno, Roberto; Cuozzo, Giovanni; Costa, Armin; Mateescu, Gabriel; Ventura, Bartolomeo; Zebisch, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Since 2009, the EURAC satellite receiving station, located at Corno del Renon, in a free obstacle site at 2260 m a.s.l., has been acquiring data from Aqua and Terra NASA satellites equipped with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors. The experience gained with this local ground segmenthas given the opportunity of adapting and modifying the processing chain for MODIS data to the Suomi NPP, the natural successor to Terra and Aqua satellites. The processing chain, initially implemented by mean of a proprietary system supplied by Seaspace and Advanced Computer System, was further developed by EURAC's Institute for Applied Remote Sensing engineers. Several algorithms have been developed using MODIS and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) data to produce Snow Cover, Particulate Matter estimation and Meteo maps. These products are implemented on a common processor structure based on the use of configuration files and a generic processor. Data and products have then automatically delivered to the customers such as the Autonomous Province of Bolzano-Civil Protection office. For the processing phase we defined two goals: i) the adaptation and implementation of the products already available for MODIS (and possibly new ones) to VIIRS, that is one of the sensors onboard Suomi NPP; ii) the use of an open source processing chain in order to process NPP data in Near Real Time, exploiting the knowledge we acquired on parallel computing. In order to achieve the second goal, the S-NPP data received and ingested are sent as input to RT-STPS (Real-time Software Telemetry Processing System) software developed by the NASA Direct Readout Laboratory 1 (DRL) that gives as output RDR files (Raw Data Record) for VIIRS, ATMS (Advanced Technology Micorwave Sounder) and CrIS (Cross-track Infrared Sounder)sensors. RDR are then transferred to a server equipped with CSPP2 (Community Satellite Processing Package) software developed by the University of

  3. Acoustic sensor for real-time control for the inductive heating process

    DOEpatents

    Kelley, John Bruce; Lu, Wei-Yang; Zutavern, Fred J.

    2003-09-30

    Disclosed is a system and method for providing closed-loop control of the heating of a workpiece by an induction heating machine, including generating an acoustic wave in the workpiece with a pulsed laser; optically measuring displacements of the surface of the workpiece in response to the acoustic wave; calculating a sub-surface material property by analyzing the measured surface displacements; creating an error signal by comparing an attribute of the calculated sub-surface material properties with a desired attribute; and reducing the error signal below an acceptable limit by adjusting, in real-time, as often as necessary, the operation of the inductive heating machine.

  4. Hybrid integrated optic modules for real-time signal processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, C. S.

    1984-01-01

    The most recent progress on four relatively new hybrid integrated optic device modules in LiNbO3 waveguides and one in YIG/GGG waveguide that are currently being studied are discussed. The five hybrid modules include a time-integrating acoustooptic correlator, a channel waveguide acoustooptic frequency shifter/modulator, an electrooptic channel waveguide total internal reflection moculator/switch, an electrooptic analog-to-digital converter using a Fabry-Perot modulator array, and a noncollinear magnetooptic modulator using magnetostatic surface waves. All of these devices possess the desirable characteristics of very large bandwidth (GHz or higher), very small substrate size along the optical path (typically 1.5 cm or less), single-mode optical propagation, and low drive power requirement. The devices utilize either acoustooptic, electrooptic or magnetooptic effects in planar or channel waveguides and, therefore, act as efficient interface devices between a light wave and temporal signals. Major areas of application lie in wideband multichannel optical real-time signal processing and communications. Some of the specific applications include spectral analysis and correlation of radio frequency (RF) signals, fiber-optic sensing, optical computing and multiport switching/routing, and analog-to-digital conversion of wide RF signals.

  5. The Real-Time Processing of Sluiced Sentences

    PubMed Central

    Wolfinger, Katie; Spellman, Lisa; Shapiro, Lewis P.

    2012-01-01

    Ellipsis refers to an element that is absent from the input but whose meaning can nonetheless be recovered from context. In this cross-modal priming study, we examined the online processing of Sluicing, an ellipsis whose antecedent is an entire clause: The handyman threw a book to the programmer but I don’t know which book the handyman threw to the programmerellipsis. To understand such an elliptical construction, the listener arguably must ‘fill in’ the missing material (“the handyman threw___ to the programmer”) based on that which occurs in the antecedent clause. We aimed to determine the point in time in which reconstruction of the sluiced sentence is attempted and whether such a complex antecedent is re-accessed by the ellipsis. Out of the two antecedent constituents for which we probed, only the Object (programmer) was found active in the elliptical clause, confirming that an antecedent is attributed to the sluice in real time. Possible reasons for the non-observation of the Subject (handyman) are considered. We also suggest that ellipses are detected earlier in coordinated than subordinated sentences. PMID:20229060

  6. GPUs for real-time processing in HEP trigger systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammendola, R.; Biagioni, A.; Deri, L.; Fiorini, M.; Frezza, O.; Lamanna, G.; Lo Cicero, F.; Lonardo, A.; Messina, A.; Sozzi, M.; Pantaleo, F.; Paolucci, Ps; Rossetti, D.; Simula, F.; Tosoratto, L.; Vicini, P.; Gap Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    We describe a pilot project (GAP - GPU Application Project) for the use of GPUs (Graphics processing units) for online triggering applications in High Energy Physics experiments. Two major trends can be identified in the development of trigger and DAQ systems for particle physics experiments: the massive use of general-purpose commodity systems such as commercial multicore PC farms for data acquisition, and the reduction of trigger levels implemented in hardware, towards a fully software data selection system ("trigger-less"). The innovative approach presented here aims at exploiting the parallel computing power of commercial GPUs to perform fast computations in software not only in high level trigger levels but also in early trigger stages. General-purpose computing on GPUs is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to the specific strengths of such devices as accelerators in offline computation. With the steady reduction of GPU latencies, and the increase in link and memory throughputs, the use of such devices for real-time applications in high energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems is becoming relevant. We discuss in detail the use of online parallel computing on GPUs for synchronous low-level triggers with fixed latency. In particular we show preliminary results on a first test in the CERN NA62 experiment. The use of GPUs in high level triggers is also considered, the CERN ATLAS experiment being taken as a case study of possible applications.

  7. GPUs for real-time processing in HEP trigger systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamanna, G.; Ammendola, R.; Bauce, M.; Biagioni, A.; Fantechi, R.; Fiorini, M.; Giagu, S.; Graverini, E.; Lamanna, G.; Lonardo, A.; Messina, A.; Pantaleo, F.; Paolucci, P. S.; Piandani, R.; Rescigno, M.; Simula, F.; Sozzi, M.; Vicini, P.

    2014-06-01

    We describe a pilot project for the use of Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) for online triggering applications in High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments. Two major trends can be identified in the development of trigger and DAQ systems for HEP experiments: the massive use of general-purpose commodity systems such as commercial multicore PC farms for data acquisition, and the reduction of trigger levels implemented in hardware, towards a pure software selection system (trigger-less). The very innovative approach presented here aims at exploiting the parallel computing power of commercial GPUs to perform fast computations in software both at low- and high-level trigger stages. General-purpose computing on GPUs is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to the specific strengths of such devices as accelerator in offline computation. With the steady reduction of GPU latencies, and the increase in link and memory throughputs, the use of such devices for real-time applications in high-energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems is becoming very attractive. We discuss in details the use of online parallel computing on GPUs for synchronous low-level trigger with fixed latency. In particular we show preliminary results on a first test in the NA62 experiment at CERN. The use of GPUs in high-level triggers is also considered, the ATLAS experiment (and in particular the muon trigger) at CERN will be taken as a study case of possible applications.

  8. A digital wireless system for closed-loop inhibition of nociceptive signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Chao; Yang, Xiaofei; Wang, Yang; Hagains, Christopher E.; Li, Ai-Ling; Peng, Yuan B.; Chiao, J.-C.

    2012-10-01

    Neurostimulation of the spinal cord or brain has been used to inhibit nociceptive signals in pain management applications. Nevertheless, most of the current neurostimulation models are based on open-loop system designs. There is a lack of closed-loop systems for neurostimulation in research with small freely-moving animals and in future clinical applications. Based on our previously developed analog wireless system for closed-loop neurostimulation, a digital wireless system with real-time feedback between recorder and stimulator modules has been developed to achieve multi-channel communication. The wireless system includes a wearable recording module, a wearable stimulation module and a transceiver connected to a computer for real-time and off-line data processing, display and storage. To validate our system, wide dynamic range neurons in the spinal cord dorsal horn have been recorded from anesthetized rats in response to graded mechanical stimuli (brush, pressure and pinch) applied in the hind paw. The identified nociceptive signals were used to automatically trigger electrical stimulation at the periaqueductal gray in real time to inhibit their own activities by the closed-loop design. Our digital wireless closed-loop system has provided a simplified and efficient method for further study of pain processing in freely-moving animals and potential clinical application in patients. Groups 1, 2 and 3 contributed equally to this project.

  9. Closed loop steam cooled airfoil

    SciTech Connect

    Widrig, Scott M.; Rudolph, Ronald J.; Wagner, Gregg P.

    2006-04-18

    An airfoil, a method of manufacturing an airfoil, and a system for cooling an airfoil is provided. The cooling system can be used with an airfoil located in the first stages of a combustion turbine within a combined cycle power generation plant and involves flowing closed loop steam through a pin array set within an airfoil. The airfoil can comprise a cavity having a cooling chamber bounded by an interior wall and an exterior wall so that steam can enter the cavity, pass through the pin array, and then return to the cavity to thereby cool the airfoil. The method of manufacturing an airfoil can include a type of lost wax investment casting process in which a pin array is cast into an airfoil to form a cooling chamber.

  10. Echo movement and evolution from real-time processing.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffner, M. R.

    1972-01-01

    Preliminary experimental data on the effectiveness of conventional radars in measuring the movement and evolution of meteorological echoes when the radar is connected to a programmable real-time processor are examined. In the processor programming is accomplished by conceiving abstract machines which constitute the actual programs used in the methods employed. An analysis of these methods, such as the center of gravity method, the contour-displacement method, the method of slope, the cross-section method, the contour crosscorrelation method, the method of echo evolution at each point, and three-dimensional measurements, shows that the motions deduced from them may differ notably (since each method determines different quantities) but the plurality of measurement may give additional information on the characteristics of the precipitation.

  11. Real-time digital signal processing-based optical coherence tomography and Doppler optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Alexander W; Reynolds, J Joshua; Marks, Daniel L; Boppart, Stephen A

    2004-01-01

    We present the development and use of a real-time digital signal processing (DSP)-based optical coherence tomography (OCT) and Doppler OCT system. Images of microstructure and transient fluid-flow profiles are acquired using the DSP architecture for real-time processing of computationally intensive calculations. This acquisition system is readily configurable for a wide range of real-time signal processing and image processing applications in OCT. PMID:14723509

  12. Closed-Loop Rehabilitation of Age-Related Cognitive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Jyoti; Gazzaley, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive deficits are common in older adults, as a result of both the natural aging process and neurodegenerative disease. Although medical advancements have successfully prolonged the human lifespan, the challenge of remediating cognitive aging remains. The authors discuss the current state of cognitive therapeutic interventions and then present the need for development and validation of more powerful neurocognitive therapeutics. They propose that the next generation of interventions be implemented as closed-loop systems that target specific neural processing deficits, incorporate quantitative feedback to the individual and clinician, and are personalized to the individual’s neurocognitive capacities using real-time performance-adaptive algorithms. This approach should be multimodal and seamlessly integrate other treatment approaches, including neurofeedback and transcranial electrical stimulation. This novel approach will involve the generation of software that engages the individual in an immersive and enjoyable game-based interface, integrated with advanced biosensing hardware, to maximally harness plasticity and assure adherence. Introducing such next-generation closed-loop neurocognitive therapeutics into the mainstream of our mental health care system will require the combined efforts of clinicians, neuroscientists, bioengineers, software game developers, and industry and policy makers working together to meet the challenges and opportunities of translational neuroscience in the 21st century. PMID:25520029

  13. Closed-loop rehabilitation of age-related cognitive disorders.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Jyoti; Gazzaley, Adam

    2014-11-01

    Cognitive deficits are common in older adults, as a result of both the natural aging process and neurodegenerative disease. Although medical advancements have successfully prolonged the human lifespan, the challenge of remediating cognitive aging remains. The authors discuss the current state of cognitive therapeutic interventions and then present the need for development and validation of more powerful neurocognitive therapeutics. They propose that the next generation of interventions be implemented as closed-loop systems that target specific neural processing deficits, incorporate quantitative feedback to the individual and clinician, and are personalized to the individual's neurocognitive capacities using real-time performance-adaptive algorithms. This approach should be multimodal and seamlessly integrate other treatment approaches, including neurofeedback and transcranial electrical stimulation. This novel approach will involve the generation of software that engages the individual in an immersive and enjoyable game-based interface, integrated with advanced biosensing hardware, to maximally harness plasticity and assure adherence. Introducing such next-generation closed-loop neurocognitive therapeutics into the mainstream of our mental health care system will require the combined efforts of clinicians, neuroscientists, bioengineers, software game developers, and industry and policy makers working together to meet the challenges and opportunities of translational neuroscience in the 21st century. PMID:25520029

  14. An architecture for heuristic control of real-time processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raulefs, P.; Thorndyke, P. W.

    1987-01-01

    Abstract Process management combines complementary approaches of heuristic reasoning and analytical process control. Management of a continuous process requires monitoring the environment and the controlled system, assessing the ongoing situation, developing and revising planned actions, and controlling the execution of the actions. For knowledge-intensive domains, process management entails the potentially time-stressed cooperation among a variety of expert systems. By redesigning a blackboard control architecture in an object-oriented framework, researchers obtain an approach to process management that considerably extends blackboard control mechanisms and overcomes limitations of blackboard systems.

  15. Derivation of sequential, real-time, process-control programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzullo, Keith; Schneider, Fred B.; Budhiraja, Navin

    1991-01-01

    The use of weakest-precondition predicate transformers in the derivation of sequential, process-control software is discussed. Only one extension to Dijkstra's calculus for deriving ordinary sequential programs was found to be necessary: function-valued auxiliary variables. These auxiliary variables are needed for reasoning about states of a physical process that exists during program transitions.

  16. Real-time optical monitoring of the wastewater treatment process.

    PubMed

    Tomperi, Jani; Koivuranta, Elisa; Kuokkanen, Anna; Juuso, Esko; Leiviskä, Kauko

    2016-01-01

    One activated sludge process line was optically monitored in situ by a novel image analysis equipment. The results of the image analysis were studied to find out dependencies to the process variables of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and to the quality of the treated wastewater. The quality parameter of the treated wastewater, suspended solids, was modelled using the image analysis results. The model can be used for evaluating the performance of the WWTP and for the better control for stable effluent quality. It was shown that the results of the online optical monitoring reveal useful information from the process and can be used in forecasting the quality of biologically treated wastewater. The optical monitoring method together with process measurements has an important role in keeping the process in stable operating conditions and avoiding environmental risks. PMID:26238162

  17. Medical Image Processing Using Real-Time Optical Fourier Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, D. V. G. L. N.; Panchangam, Appaji; Sastry, K. V. L. N.; Material Science Team

    2001-03-01

    Optical Image Processing Techniques are inherently fast in view of parallel processing. A self-adaptive Optical Fourier Processing system using photo induced dichroism in a Bacteriorhodopsin film was experimentally demonstrated for medical image processing. Application of this powerful analog all-optical interactive technique for cancer diagnostics is illustrated with mammograms and Pap smears. Micro calcification clusters buried in surrounding tissue showed up clearly in the processed image. By playing with one knob, which rotates the analyzer in the optical system, either the micro calcification clusters or the surrounding dense tissue can be selectively displayed. Bacteriorhodopsin films are stable up to 140^oC and environmental friendly. As no interference is involved in the experiments, vibration isolation and even a coherent light source are not required. It may be possible to develop a low-cost rugged battery operated portable signal-enhancing magnifier.

  18. Real Time Data Processing for Optical Remote Sensing Payloads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlfeil, J.; Börner, A.; Buder, M.; Ernst, I.; Krutz, D.; Reulke, R.

    2012-07-01

    The application of operational systems for remote sensing requires new approaches for data processing. It has to be the goal to derive user relevant information close the sensor itself and to downlink this information to a ground station or to provide them as input to an actuator of the space-borne platform. A complete automation of data processing is an essential first step for a thematic onboard data processing. In a second step, an appropriate onboard computer system has to be de-signed being able to fulfill the requirements. In this paper, standard data processing steps will be introduced correcting systematic errors during image capturing. A new hardware operating system, which is the interface between FPGA hardware and data processing algorithms, gives the opportunity to implement complex data processing modules in an effective way. As an example the derivation the camera's orientation based on data of an optical payload is described in detail. The thereby derived absolute or relative orientation is essential for high level data products. This will be illustrated by means of an onboard image matcher

  19. Closed-Loop Neuromorphic Benchmarks

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Terrence C.; DeWolf, Travis; Kleinhans, Ashley; Eliasmith, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating the effectiveness and performance of neuromorphic hardware is difficult. It is even more difficult when the task of interest is a closed-loop task; that is, a task where the output from the neuromorphic hardware affects some environment, which then in turn affects the hardware's future input. However, closed-loop situations are one of the primary potential uses of neuromorphic hardware. To address this, we present a methodology for generating closed-loop benchmarks that makes use of a hybrid of real physical embodiment and a type of “minimal” simulation. Minimal simulation has been shown to lead to robust real-world performance, while still maintaining the practical advantages of simulation, such as making it easy for the same benchmark to be used by many researchers. This method is flexible enough to allow researchers to explicitly modify the benchmarks to identify specific task domains where particular hardware excels. To demonstrate the method, we present a set of novel benchmarks that focus on motor control for an arbitrary system with unknown external forces. Using these benchmarks, we show that an error-driven learning rule can consistently improve motor control performance across a randomly generated family of closed-loop simulations, even when there are up to 15 interacting joints to be controlled. PMID:26696820

  20. Closed-Loop Neuromorphic Benchmarks.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Terrence C; DeWolf, Travis; Kleinhans, Ashley; Eliasmith, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating the effectiveness and performance of neuromorphic hardware is difficult. It is even more difficult when the task of interest is a closed-loop task; that is, a task where the output from the neuromorphic hardware affects some environment, which then in turn affects the hardware's future input. However, closed-loop situations are one of the primary potential uses of neuromorphic hardware. To address this, we present a methodology for generating closed-loop benchmarks that makes use of a hybrid of real physical embodiment and a type of "minimal" simulation. Minimal simulation has been shown to lead to robust real-world performance, while still maintaining the practical advantages of simulation, such as making it easy for the same benchmark to be used by many researchers. This method is flexible enough to allow researchers to explicitly modify the benchmarks to identify specific task domains where particular hardware excels. To demonstrate the method, we present a set of novel benchmarks that focus on motor control for an arbitrary system with unknown external forces. Using these benchmarks, we show that an error-driven learning rule can consistently improve motor control performance across a randomly generated family of closed-loop simulations, even when there are up to 15 interacting joints to be controlled. PMID:26696820

  1. Method and system for enabling real-time speckle processing using hardware platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, Fernando E. (Inventor); Kelmelis, Eric (Inventor); Durbano, James P. (Inventor); Curt, Peterson F. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An accelerator for the speckle atmospheric compensation algorithm may enable real-time speckle processing of video feeds that may enable the speckle algorithm to be applied in numerous real-time applications. The accelerator may be implemented in various forms, including hardware, software, and/or machine-readable media.

  2. The Real-Time Processing of Sluiced Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poirier, Josee; Wolfinger, Katie; Spellman, Lisa; Shapiro, Lewis P.

    2010-01-01

    Ellipsis refers to an element that is absent from the input but whose meaning can nonetheless be recovered from context. In this cross-modal priming study, we examined the online processing of Sluicing, an ellipsis whose antecedent is an entire clause: "The handyman threw a book to the programmer but I don't know which book" the handyman threw to…

  3. Implementing spiking neural networks for real-time signal-processing and control applications: a model-validated FPGA approach.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Martin J; Pipe, A G; Mitchinson, B; Gurney, K; Melhuish, C; Gilhespy, I; Nibouche, M

    2007-09-01

    In this paper, we present two versions of a hardware processing architecture for modeling large networks of leaky-integrate-and-fire (LIF) neurons; the second version provides performance enhancing features relative to the first. Both versions of the architecture use fixed-point arithmetic and have been implemented using a single field-programmable gate array (FPGA). They have successfully simulated networks of over 1000 neurons configured using biologically plausible models of mammalian neural systems. The neuroprocessor has been designed to be employed primarily for use on mobile robotic vehicles, allowing bio-inspired neural processing models to be integrated directly into real-world control environments. When a neuroprocessor has been designed to act as part of the closed-loop system of a feedback controller, it is imperative to maintain strict real-time performance at all times, in order to maintain integrity of the control system. This resulted in the reevaluation of some of the architectural features of existing hardware for biologically plausible neural networks (NNs). In addition, we describe a development system for rapidly porting an underlying model (based on floating-point arithmetic) to the fixed-point representation of the FPGA-based neuroprocessor, thereby allowing validation of the hardware architecture. The developmental system environment facilitates the cooperation of computational neuroscientists and engineers working on embodied (robotic) systems with neural controllers, as demonstrated by our own experience on the Whiskerbot project, in which we developed models of the rodent whisker sensory system. PMID:18220195

  4. Real-time garbage collection for list processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuler, R. L., Jr. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    In a list processing system, small reference counters are maintained in conjunction with memory cells for the purpose of identifying memory cells that become available for re-use. The counters are updated as references to the cells are created and destroyed, and when a counter of a cell is decremented to logical zero the cell is immediately returned to a list of free cells. In those cases where a counter must be incremented beyond the maximum value that can be represented in a small counter, the cell is restructured so that the additional reference count can be represented. The restructuring involves allocating an additional cell, distributing counter, tag, and pointer information among the two cells, and linking both cells appropriately into the existing list structure.

  5. SETI-Italia: Present Activities and Future Real Time Data Processing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montebugnoli, S.; Bianchi, G.; Bartolini, M.; Mattana, A.; Monari, J.; Naldi, G.; Perini, F.; Pluchino, S.; Pupillo, G.

    2010-04-01

    A complete review of present SETI-Italia activities and data processing systems are presented. The future plan is to develop a new very powerful data processing reconfigurable platform (based on FPGAs) to implement even more powerful real time algorithms.

  6. Human movement analysis with image processing in real time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauvet, Eric; Paindavoine, Michel; Cannard, F.

    1991-04-01

    In the field of the human sciences, a lot of applications needs to know the kinematic characteristics of the human movements Psycology is associating the characteristics with the control mechanism, sport and biomechariics are associating them with the performance of the sportman or of the patient. So the trainers or the doctors can correct the gesture of the subject to obtain a better performance if he knows the motion properties. Roherton's studies show the children motion evolution2 . Several investigations methods are able to measure the human movement But now most of the studies are based on image processing. Often the systems are working at the T.V. standard (50 frame per secund ). they permit only to study very slow gesture. A human operator analyses the digitizing sequence of the film manually giving a very expensive, especially long and unprecise operation. On these different grounds many human movement analysis systems were implemented. They consist of: - markers which are fixed to the anatomical interesting points on the subject in motion, - Image compression which is the art to coding picture data. Generally the compression Is limited to the centroid coordinates calculation tor each marker. These systems differ from one other in image acquisition and markers detection.

  7. Expert system and process optimization techniques for real-time monitoring and control of plasma processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jie; Qian, Zhaogang; Irani, Keki B.; Etemad, Hossein; Elta, Michael E.

    1991-03-01

    To meet the ever-increasing demand of the rapidly-growing semiconductor manufacturing industry it is critical to have a comprehensive methodology integrating techniques for process optimization real-time monitoring and adaptive process control. To this end we have accomplished an integrated knowledge-based approach combining latest expert system technology machine learning method and traditional statistical process control (SPC) techniques. This knowledge-based approach is advantageous in that it makes it possible for the task of process optimization and adaptive control to be performed consistently and predictably. Furthermore this approach can be used to construct high-level and qualitative description of processes and thus make the process behavior easy to monitor predict and control. Two software packages RIST (Rule Induction and Statistical Testing) and KARSM (Knowledge Acquisition from Response Surface Methodology) have been developed and incorporated with two commercially available packages G2 (real-time expert system) and ULTRAMAX (a tool for sequential process optimization).

  8. Closed-Loop, Open-Source Electrophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Rolston, John D.; Gross, Robert E.; Potter, Steve M.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple extracellular microelectrodes (multi-electrode arrays, or MEAs) effectively record rapidly varying neural signals, and can also be used for electrical stimulation. Multi-electrode recording can serve as artificial output (efferents) from a neural system, while complex spatially and temporally targeted stimulation can serve as artificial input (afferents) to the neuronal network. Multi-unit or local field potential (LFP) recordings can not only be used to control real world artifacts, such as prostheses, computers or robots, but can also trigger or alter subsequent stimulation. Real-time feedback stimulation may serve to modulate or normalize aberrant neural activity, to induce plasticity, or to serve as artificial sensory input. Despite promising closed-loop applications, commercial electrophysiology systems do not yet take advantage of the bidirectional capabilities of multi-electrodes, especially for use in freely moving animals. We addressed this lack of tools for closing the loop with NeuroRighter, an open-source system including recording hardware, stimulation hardware, and control software with a graphical user interface. The integrated system is capable of multi-electrode recording and simultaneous patterned microstimulation (triggered by recordings) with minimal stimulation artifact. The potential applications of closed-loop systems as research tools and clinical treatments are broad; we provide one example where epileptic activity recorded by a multi-electrode probe is used to trigger targeted stimulation, via that probe, to freely moving rodents. PMID:20859448

  9. Closed-loop, open-source electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Rolston, John D; Gross, Robert E; Potter, Steve M

    2010-01-01

    Multiple extracellular microelectrodes (multi-electrode arrays, or MEAs) effectively record rapidly varying neural signals, and can also be used for electrical stimulation. Multi-electrode recording can serve as artificial output (efferents) from a neural system, while complex spatially and temporally targeted stimulation can serve as artificial input (afferents) to the neuronal network. Multi-unit or local field potential (LFP) recordings can not only be used to control real world artifacts, such as prostheses, computers or robots, but can also trigger or alter subsequent stimulation. Real-time feedback stimulation may serve to modulate or normalize aberrant neural activity, to induce plasticity, or to serve as artificial sensory input. Despite promising closed-loop applications, commercial electrophysiology systems do not yet take advantage of the bidirectional capabilities of multi-electrodes, especially for use in freely moving animals. We addressed this lack of tools for closing the loop with NeuroRighter, an open-source system including recording hardware, stimulation hardware, and control software with a graphical user interface. The integrated system is capable of multi-electrode recording and simultaneous patterned microstimulation (triggered by recordings) with minimal stimulation artifact. The potential applications of closed-loop systems as research tools and clinical treatments are broad; we provide one example where epileptic activity recorded by a multi-electrode probe is used to trigger targeted stimulation, via that probe, to freely moving rodents. PMID:20859448

  10. In vivo dynamic process imaging using real-time optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wei; Shao, Peng; Hajireza, Parsin; Forbrich, Alexander; Zemp, Roger J.

    2013-02-01

    The authors demonstrate in vivo dynamic process imaging using a label-free real-time optical-resolution photoacoustic microscope (OR-PAM). This reflection-mode system takes advantage of a 532-nm fiber laser source with a high pulse repetition rate of up to 600 kHz combined with a fast-scanning mirror system. Microvasculature in SCID mouse ears is imaged at near real-time (0.5 fps) for a 1×1 mm2 field of view (FOV) with micron-scale lateral resolution. We also demonstrate imaging of cardiac-induced microhemodynamics in murine microvasculature at real-time frame-rates (30 fps) over a 250×250 μ FOV using real-time C-scan OR-PAM with ability to provide sustained imaging with near real-time feedback for focusing and positioning.

  11. In vivo dynamic process imaging using real-time optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei; Shao, Peng; Hajireza, Parsin; Forbrich, Alexander; Zemp, Roger J

    2013-02-01

    The authors demonstrate in vivo dynamic process imaging using a label-free real-time optical-resolution photoacoustic microscope (OR-PAM). This reflection-mode system takes advantage of a 532-nm fiber laser source with a high pulse repetition rate of up to 600 kHz combined with a fast-scanning mirror system. Microvasculature in SCID mouse ears is imaged at near real-time (0.5 fps) for a 1×1 mm2 field of view (FOV) with micron-scale lateral resolution. We also demonstrate imaging of cardiac-induced microhemodynamics in murine microvasculature at real-time frame-rates (30 fps) over a 250×250 μm2 FOV using real-time C-scan OR-PAM with ability to provide sustained imaging with near real-time feedback for focusing and positioning. PMID:23377002

  12. Microgyroscope with closed loop output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Gutierrez, Roman C. (Inventor); Tang, Tony K. (Inventor); Cargille, Donald R. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A micro-gyroscope (10) having closed loop operation by a control voltage (V.sub.TY), that is demodulated by an output signal of the sense electrodes (S1, S2), providing Coriolis torque rebalance to prevent displacement of the micro-gyroscope (10) on the output axis (y-axis). The present invention provides wide-band, closed-loop operation for a micro-gyroscope (10) and allows the drive frequency to be closely tuned to a high Q sense axis resonance. A differential sense signal (S1-S2) is compensated and fed back by differentially changing the voltage on the drive electrodes to rebalance Coriolis torque. The feedback signal is demodulated in phase with the drive axis signal (K.sub..omega..crclbar..sub.x) to produce a measure of the Coriolis force.

  13. Real-Time Monitoring of Scada Based Control System for Filling Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soe, Aung Kyaw; Myint, Aung Naing; Latt, Maung Maung; Theingi

    2008-10-01

    This paper is a design of real-time monitoring for filling system using Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA). The monitoring of production process is described in real-time using Visual Basic.Net programming under Visual Studio 2005 software without SCADA software. The software integrators are programmed to get the required information for the configuration screens. Simulation of components is expressed on the computer screen using parallel port between computers and filling devices. The programs of real-time simulation for the filling process from the pure drinking water industry are provided.

  14. Adaptive autofocusing: a closed-loop perspective.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Wen, Changyun; Soh, Yeng Chai; Fong, Aik Meng

    2005-04-01

    We present an adaptive autofocusing scheme. In this scheme, the focus measure is updated with focus tuning. To achieve this, we construct the focus measure by using image moments and develop an adaptive focus-tuning strategy to estimate the measure in closed loop. It is shown that the adaptive updating of the focus measure enables us to overcome the dependence of autofocusing on the image contents. Such an adaptive closed-loop focusing operation also effectively suppresses both the effect of the noise in optical imaging and the effect of time delay due to image processing time. Therefore a high accuracy of autofocusing is guaranteed. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is demonstrated by simulations and experiments. PMID:15839269

  15. Real-Time Plasma Process Condition Sensing and Abnormal Process Detection

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ryan; Chen, Rongshun

    2010-01-01

    The plasma process is often used in the fabrication of semiconductor wafers. However, due to the lack of real-time etching control, this may result in some unacceptable process performances and thus leads to significant waste and lower wafer yield. In order to maximize the product wafer yield, a timely and accurately process fault or abnormal detection in a plasma reactor is needed. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) is one of the most frequently used metrologies in in-situ process monitoring. Even though OES has the advantage of non-invasiveness, it is required to provide a huge amount of information. As a result, the data analysis of OES becomes a big challenge. To accomplish real-time detection, this work employed the sigma matching method technique, which is the time series of OES full spectrum intensity. First, the response model of a healthy plasma spectrum was developed. Then, we defined a matching rate as an indictor for comparing the difference between the tested wafers response and the health sigma model. The experimental results showed that this proposal method can detect process faults in real-time, even in plasma etching tools. PMID:22219683

  16. Model-integrated program synthesis environment for parallel/real-time image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Michael S.; Sztipanovitz, Janos; Karsai, Gabor; Nichols, James A.

    1997-09-01

    In this paper, it is shown that, through the use of model- integrated program synthesis (MIPS), parallel real-time implementations of image processing data flows can be synthesized from high level graphical specifications. The complex details in inherent to parallel and real-time software development become transparent to the programmer, enabling the cost-effective exploitation of parallel hardware for building more flexible and powerful real-time imaging systems. The model integrated real-time image processing system (MIRTIS) is presented as an example. MIRTIS employs the multigraph architecture (MGA), a framework and set of tools for building MIPS systems, to generate parallel real-time image processing software which runs under the control of a parallel run-time kernel on a network of Texas Instruments TMS320C40 DSPs (C40s). The MIRTIS models contain graphical declarations of the image processing computations to be performed, the available hardware resources, and the timing constraints of the application. The MIRTIS model interpreter performs the parallelization, scaling, and mapping of the computations to the resources automatically or determines that the timing constraints cannot be met with the available resources. MIRTIS is a clear example of how parallel real-time image processing systems can be built which are (1) cost-effectively programmable, (2) flexible, (3) scalable, and (4) built from commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components.

  17. Closed-Loop, Multichannel Experimentation Using the Open-Source NeuroRighter Electrophysiology Platform

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Jonathan P.; Zeller-Townson, Riley; Fong, Ming-Fai; Arcot Desai, Sharanya; Gross, Robert E.; Potter, Steve M.

    2013-01-01

    Single neuron feedback control techniques, such as voltage clamp and dynamic clamp, have enabled numerous advances in our understanding of ion channels, electrochemical signaling, and neural dynamics. Although commercially available multichannel recording and stimulation systems are commonly used for studying neural processing at the network level, they provide little native support for real-time feedback. We developed the open-source NeuroRighter multichannel electrophysiology hardware and software platform for closed-loop multichannel control with a focus on accessibility and low cost. NeuroRighter allows 64 channels of stimulation and recording for around US $10,000, along with the ability to integrate with other software and hardware. Here, we present substantial enhancements to the NeuroRighter platform, including a redesigned desktop application, a new stimulation subsystem allowing arbitrary stimulation patterns, low-latency data servers for accessing data streams, and a new application programming interface (API) for creating closed-loop protocols that can be inserted into NeuroRighter as plugin programs. This greatly simplifies the design of sophisticated real-time experiments without sacrificing the power and speed of a compiled programming language. Here we present a detailed description of NeuroRighter as a stand-alone application, its plugin API, and an extensive set of case studies that highlight the system’s abilities for conducting closed-loop, multichannel interfacing experiments. PMID:23346047

  18. Real-time process control using diode-laser absorption sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, D.S.; Furlong, E.R.; Hanson, R.K.

    1996-12-31

    A multiplexed diode-laser sensor system, based on absorption spectroscopy techniques and comprised of two InGaAsP diode lasers and fiber-optic components, has been developed to measure temperature and species concentration non-intrusively over a single path for closed-loop process control. The system was applied to measure and control the gas temperature in the post-flame gases 6 mm above the surface of a Hencken burner (multiple CH{sub 4}-air diffusion flames). The wavelengths of the lasers were independently current-tuned across H{sub 2}O transitions near 1343 nm (v{sub 1} + v{sub 3} band) and 1392 nm (2v{sub 1}, v{sub 1} + v{sub 3} bands). Temperature was determined from the ratio of measured peak absorbances, and H{sub 2}O concentration was determined from the measured peak absorbance of one transition set at the measured temperature. A closed-loop feedback system was demonstrated to control the mean temperature and the amplitude of temperature fluctuations at particular frequencies by appropriately modulating the fuel flow rate. The results obtained demonstrate the potential of multiplexed diode lasers for rapid, continuous, in situ measurements and control of gasdynamic parameters in high-temperature combustion flowfields and other environments with difficult optical access.

  19. AUTOMATED CONTROL AND REAL-TIME DATA PROCESSING OF WIRE SCANNER/HALO SCRAPER MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    L.A. DAY; J.D. GILPATRICK; ET AL

    2001-06-01

    The Low-Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA), assembled and operating at Los Alamos National Laboratory, provides the platform for obtaining measurements of high-power proton beam-halo formation. Control system software and hardware have been integrated and customized to enable the production of real-time beam-halo profiles. The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) hosted on a VXI platform, Interactive Data Language (IDL) programs hosted on UNIX platforms, and LabVIEW (LV) Virtual Instruments hosted on a PC platform have been integrated and customized to provide real-time, synchronous motor control, data acquisition, and data analysis of data acquired through specialized DSP instrumentation. These modules communicate through EPICS Channel Access (CA) communication protocol extensions to control and manage execution flow ensuring synchronous data acquisition and real-time processing of measurement data. This paper describes the software integration and management scheme implemented to produce these real-time beam profiles.

  20. Hardware System for Real-Time EMG Signal Acquisition and Separation Processing during Electrical Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Ya-Hsin; Yin, Chieh; Chen, Yan-Hong

    2015-09-01

    The study aimed to develop a real-time electromyography (EMG) signal acquiring and processing device that can acquire signal during electrical stimulation. Since electrical stimulation output can affect EMG signal acquisition, to integrate the two elements into one system, EMG signal transmitting and processing method has to be modified. The whole system was designed in a user-friendly and flexible manner. For EMG signal processing, the system applied Altera Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) as the core to instantly process real-time hybrid EMG signal and output the isolated signal in a highly efficient way. The system used the power spectral density to evaluate the accuracy of signal processing, and the cross correlation showed that the delay of real-time processing was only 250 μs. PMID:26210898

  1. Virtual Grasping: Closed-Loop Force Control Using Electrotactile Feedback

    PubMed Central

    Jorgovanovic, Nikola; Dosen, Strahinja; Djozic, Damir J.; Krajoski, Goran; Farina, Dario

    2014-01-01

    Closing the control loop by providing somatosensory feedback to the user of a prosthesis is a well-known, long standing challenge in the field of prosthetics. Various approaches have been investigated for feedback restoration, ranging from direct neural stimulation to noninvasive sensory substitution methods. Although there are many studies presenting closed-loop systems, only a few of them objectively evaluated the closed-loop performance, mostly using vibrotactile stimulation. Importantly, the conclusions about the utility of the feedback were partly contradictory. The goal of the current study was to systematically investigate the capability of human subjects to control grasping force in closed loop using electrotactile feedback. We have developed a realistic experimental setup for virtual grasping, which operated in real time, included a set of real life objects, as well as a graphical and dynamical model of the prosthesis. We have used the setup to test 10 healthy, able bodied subjects to investigate the role of training, feedback and feedforward control, robustness of the closed loop, and the ability of the human subjects to generalize the control to previously “unseen” objects. Overall, the outcomes of this study are very optimistic with regard to the benefits of feedback and reveal various, practically relevant, aspects of closed-loop control. PMID:24516504

  2. Closed-Loop Analysis of Soft Decisions for Serial Links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansdowne, Chatwin A.; Steele, Glen F.; Zucha, Joan P.; Schlensinger, Adam M.

    2012-01-01

    Modern receivers are providing soft decision symbol synchronization as radio links are challenged to push more data and more overhead through noisier channels, and software-defined radios use error-correction techniques that approach Shannon s theoretical limit of performance. The authors describe the benefit of closed-loop measurements for a receiver when paired with a counterpart transmitter and representative channel conditions. We also describe a real-time Soft Decision Analyzer (SDA) implementation for closed-loop measurements on single- or dual- (orthogonal) channel serial data communication links. The analyzer has been used to identify, quantify, and prioritize contributors to implementation loss in real-time during the development of software defined radios.

  3. Real-time image processing for non-contact monitoring of dynamic displacements using smartphone technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Jae-Hong; Gelo, Nikolas J.; Jo, Hongki

    2016-04-01

    The newly developed smartphone application, named RINO, in this study allows measuring absolute dynamic displacements and processing them in real time using state-of-the-art smartphone technologies, such as high-performance graphics processing unit (GPU), in addition to already powerful CPU and memories, embedded high-speed/ resolution camera, and open-source computer vision libraries. A carefully designed color-patterned target and user-adjustable crop filter enable accurate and fast image processing, allowing up to 240fps for complete displacement calculation and real-time display. The performances of the developed smartphone application are experimentally validated, showing comparable accuracy with those of conventional laser displacement sensor.

  4. Error analysis of real time and post processed or bit determination of GFO using GPS tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiner, William S.

    1991-01-01

    The goal of the Navy's GEOSAT Follow-On (GFO) mission is to map the topography of the world's oceans in both real time (operational) and post processed modes. Currently, the best candidate for supplying the required orbit accuracy is the Global Positioning System (GPS). The purpose of this fellowship was to determine the expected orbit accuracy for GFO in both the real time and post-processed modes when using GPS tracking. This report presents the work completed through the ending date of the fellowship.

  5. Real-Time Language Processing in School-Age Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, James W.

    2006-01-01

    Background:School-age children with specific language impairment (SLI) exhibit slower real-time (i.e. immediate) language processing relative to same-age peers and younger, language-matched peers. Results of the few studies that have been done seem to indicate that the slower language processing of children with SLI is due to inefficient…

  6. Application of Bf-EVALPSN to Real-time Process Order Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamatsu, Kazumi; Akama, Seiki; Abe, Jair M.

    2009-04-01

    We have already proposed a paraconsistent annotated logic program called EVALPSN. In this paper, EVALPSN is developed to deal with before-after relations between two processes (time intervals), and its application to real-time process order control based on logical safety verification.

  7. Real-time multi-camera video acquisition and processing platform for ADAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saponara, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents the design of a real-time and low-cost embedded system for image acquisition and processing in Advanced Driver Assisted Systems (ADAS). The system adopts a multi-camera architecture to provide a panoramic view of the objects surrounding the vehicle. Fish-eye lenses are used to achieve a large Field of View (FOV). Since they introduce radial distortion of the images projected on the sensors, a real-time algorithm for their correction is also implemented in a pre-processor. An FPGA-based hardware implementation, re-using IP macrocells for several ADAS algorithms, allows for real-time processing of input streams from VGA automotive CMOS cameras.

  8. Improved process control through real-time measurement of mineral content

    SciTech Connect

    Turler, Daniel; Karaca, Murat; Davis, William B.; Giauque, Robert D.; Hopkins, Deborah

    2001-11-02

    In a highly collaborative research and development project with mining and university partners, sensors and data-analysis tools are being developed for rock-mass characterization and real-time measurement of mineral content. Determining mineralogy prior to mucking in an open-pit mine is important for routing the material to the appropriate processing stream. A possible alternative to lab assay of dust and cuttings obtained from drill holes is continuous on-line sampling and real-time x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy. Results presented demonstrate that statistical analyses combined with XRF data can be employed to identify minerals and, possibly, different rock types. The objective is to create a detailed three-dimensional mineralogical map in real time that would improve downstream process efficiency.

  9. The UNAVCO Real-time GPS Data Processing System and Community Reference Data Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sievers, C.; Mencin, D.; Berglund, H. T.; Blume, F.; Meertens, C. M.; Mattioli, G. S.

    2013-12-01

    UNAVCO has constructed a real-time GPS (RT-GPS) network of 420 GPS stations. The majority of the streaming stations come from the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) through an NSF-ARRA funded Cascadia Upgrade Initiative that upgraded 100 backbone stations throughout the PBO footprint and 282 stations focused in the Pacific Northwest. Additional contributions from NOAA (~30 stations in Southern California) and the USGS (8 stations at Yellowstone) account for the other real-time stations. Based on community based outcomes of a workshop focused on real-time GPS position data products and formats hosted by UNAVCO in Spring of 2011, UNAVCO now provides real-time PPP positions for all 420 stations using Trimble's PIVOT software and for 50 stations using TrackRT at the volcanic centers located at Yellowstone (Figure 1 shows an example ensemble of TrackRT networks used in processing the Yellowstone data), Mt St Helens, and Montserrat. The UNAVCO real-time system has the potential to enhance our understanding of earthquakes, seismic wave propagation, volcanic eruptions, magmatic intrusions, movement of ice, landslides, and the dynamics of the atmosphere. Beyond its increasing uses for science and engineering, RT-GPS has the potential to provide early warning of hazards to emergency managers, utilities, other infrastructure managers, first responders and others. With the goal of characterizing stability and improving software and higher level products based on real-time GPS time series, UNAVCO is developing an open community standard data set where data processors can provide solutions based on common sets of RT-GPS data which simulate real world scenarios and events. UNAVCO is generating standard data sets for playback that include not only real and synthetic events but also background noise, antenna movement (e.g., steps, linear trends, sine waves, and realistic earthquake-like motions), receiver drop out and online return, interruption of communications (such as

  10. Organizing the Extremely Large LSST Database forReal-Time Astronomical Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Becla, Jacek; Lim, Kian-Tat; Monkewitz, Serge; Nieto-Santisteban, Maria; Thakar, Ani; /Johns Hopkins U.

    2007-11-07

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will catalog billions of astronomical objects and trillions of sources, all of which will be stored and managed by a database management system. One of the main challenges is real-time alert generation. To generate alerts, up to 100K new difference detections have to be cross-correlated with the huge historical catalogs, and then further processed to prune false alerts. This paper explains the challenges, the implementation of the LSST Association Pipeline and the database organization strategies we are planning to use to meet the real-time requirements, including data partitioning, parallelization, and pre-loading.

  11. Process for fabricating device structures for real-time process control of silicon doping

    DOEpatents

    Weiner, Kurt H.

    2001-01-01

    Silicon device structures designed to allow measurement of important doping process parameters immediately after the doping step has occurred. The test structures are processed through contact formation using standard semiconductor fabrication techniques. After the contacts have been formed, the structures are covered by an oxide layer and an aluminum layer. The aluminum layer is then patterned to expose the contact pads and selected regions of the silicon to be doped. Doping is then performed, and the whole structure is annealed with a pulsed excimer laser. But laser annealing, unlike standard annealing techniques, does not effect the aluminum contacts because the laser light is reflected by the aluminum. Once the annealing process is complete, the structures can be probed, using standard techniques, to ascertain data about the doping step. Analysis of the data can be used to determine probable yield reductions due to improper execution of the doping step and thus provide real-time feedback during integrated circuit fabrication.

  12. Real-time microstructural and functional imaging and image processing in optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, Volker

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive optical imaging technique that allows high-resolution cross-sectional imaging of tissue microstructure, achieving a spatial resolution of about 10 mum. OCT is similar to B-mode ultrasound (US) except that it uses infrared light instead of ultrasound. In contrast to US, no coupling gel is needed, simplifying the image acquisition. Furthermore, the fiber optic implementation of OCT is compatible with endoscopes. In recent years, the transition from slow imaging, bench-top systems to real-time clinical systems has been under way. This has lead to a variety of applications, namely in ophthalmology, gastroenterology, dermatology and cardiology. First, this dissertation will demonstrate that OCT is capable of imaging and differentiating clinically relevant tissue structures in the gastrointestinal tract. A careful in vitro correlation study between endoscopic OCT images and corresponding histological slides was performed. Besides structural imaging, OCT systems were further developed for functional imaging, as for example to visualize blood flow. Previously, imaging flow in small vessels in real-time was not possible. For this research, a new processing scheme similar to real-time Doppler in US was introduced. It was implemented in dedicated hardware to allow real-time acquisition and overlayed display of blood flow in vivo. A sensitivity of 0.5mm/s was achieved. Optical coherence microscopy (OCM) is a variation of OCT, improving the resolution even further to a few micrometers. Advances made in the OCT scan engine for the Doppler setup enabled real-time imaging in vivo with OCM. In order to generate geometrical correct images for all the previous applications in real-time, extensive image processing algorithms were developed. Algorithms for correction of distortions due to non-telecentric scanning, nonlinear scan mirror movements, and refraction were developed and demonstrated. This has led to interesting new

  13. Real-Time and Post-Processed Orbit Determination and Positioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Sever, Yoaz E. (Inventor); Bertiger, William I. (Inventor); Dorsey, Angela R. (Inventor); Harvey, Nathaniel E. (Inventor); Lu, Wenwen (Inventor); Miller, Kevin J. (Inventor); Miller, Mark A. (Inventor); Romans, Larry J. (Inventor); Sibthorpe, Anthony J. (Inventor); Weiss, Jan P. (Inventor); Garcia Fernandez, Miquel (Inventor); Gross, Jason (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Novel methods and systems for the accurate and efficient processing of real-time and latent global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) data are described. Such methods and systems can perform orbit determination of GNSS satellites, orbit determination of satellites carrying GNSS receivers, positioning of GNSS receivers, and environmental monitoring with GNSS data.

  14. Real-Time and Post-Processed Orbit Determination and Positioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Sever, Yoaz E. (Inventor); Bertiger, William I. (Inventor); Dorsey, Angela R. (Inventor); Harvey, Nathaniel E. (Inventor); Lu, Wenwen (Inventor); Miller, Kevin J. (Inventor); Miller, Mark A. (Inventor); Romans, Larry J. (Inventor); Sibthorpe, Anthony J. (Inventor); Weiss, Jan P. (Inventor); Garcia Fernandez, Miquel (Inventor); Gross, Jason (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Novel methods and systems for the accurate and efficient processing of real-time and latent global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) data are described. Such methods and systems can perform orbit determination of GNSS satellites, orbit determination of satellites carrying GNSS receivers, positioning of GNSS receivers, and environmental monitoring with GNSS data.

  15. Perception and Presupposition in Real-Time Language Comprehension: Insights from Anticipatory Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Craig G.; San Juan, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that listeners use verbs and other predicate terms to anticipate reference to semantic entities during real-time language comprehension. This process involves evaluating the denoted action against relevant properties of potential referents. The current study explored whether action-relevant properties are readily…

  16. Real-time image processing for rapid contaminant detection on broiler carcasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Bosoon; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Windham, William R.; Snead, M. Preston

    2004-11-01

    Recently, the imaging research group at Russell Research Center, ARS in Athens, Georgia has developed a real-time multispectral imaging system for fecal and ingesta contaminant detection on broiler carcasses. The prototype system includes a common aperture camera with three optical trim filters (515.4, 566.4 and 631-nm wavelength), which were selected by visible/NIR spectroscopy and validated by a hyperspectral imaging system. The preliminary results showed that the multispectral imaging technique can be used effectively for detecting feces (from duodenum, ceca, and colon) and ingesta on the surface of poultry carcasses with a processing speed of 140 birds per minute. The accuracy for the detection of fecal and ingesta contaminates was 96%. However, the system contains many false positives including scabs, feathers, and boundaries. This paper demonstrates calibration of common aperture multispectral imaging hardware and real-time multispectral image processing software. The software design, especially the Unified Modeling Language (UML) design approach was used to develop real-time image processing software for on-line application. The UML models including class, object, activity, sequence, and collaboration diagram were discussed. Both hardware and software for a real-time fecal and ingesta contaminant detection were tested at the pilot-scale poultry processing line.

  17. In-Situ Real Time Monitoring and Control of Mold Making and Filling Processes

    SciTech Connect

    2004-11-01

    This factsheet describes a research effort to develop an innovative approach to introduce technologies for real-time characterization of sand molds, lost foam patterns, and monitoring of the mold filling process. This will reduce scrap, improve product quality, and save energy.

  18. Multiprocessor DSP for real-time data processing on Earth orbiting scatterometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachmann, A.; Clark, D.; Lux, J.; Steffke, R.

    2000-01-01

    The implementation of a Multi DSP radar signal processor for a Ku-Band Earth orbiting scatterometer is discussed. A testbed has been assembled using a combination of commercial DSP hardware and spaceflight components to evaluate the proposed multiprocessing approaches. Test results of real-time radar echo processing are presented, as well as proposed designs for future investigation.

  19. Closed-Loop Control System for Friction Stir Welding Retractable Pin Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey; Romine, Peter L.; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA invention disclosure, NASA Case No. MFS-31413, entitled "System for Controlling the Stirring Pin of a Friction Stir Welding Apparatus", (Patent Pending) authored by Jeff Ding, Dr Peter Romine and Pete Oelgoetz, addresses the precision control of the friction stir welding process. The closed-loop control system automatically adjusts the spinning welding pin, real-time, to maintain a precise penetration ligament (i.e., distance between pin-tip and weld panel backside surface). A specific pin length can be maintained while welding constant thickness or tapered material thickness weld panels. The closed-loop control system provides operator data and information relative to the exact position of the welding pin inside the weld joint. This paper presents the closed-loop RPT control system that operates using the auto-feedback of force signals sensed by the tip and shoulder of the welding pin. Significance: The FSW process can be successfully used in a production environment only if there is a method or technique that informs the FSW operator the precise location of the welding pin inside the weld joint. This is essential for applications in aerospace, automotive, pressure vessel, commercial aircraft and other industries.

  20. Real-Time Data Processing Systems and Products at the Alaska Earthquake Information Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruppert, N. A.; Hansen, R. A.

    2007-05-01

    The Alaska Earthquake Information Center (AEIC) receives data from over 400 seismic sites located within the state boundaries and the surrounding regions and serves as a regional data center. In 2007, the AEIC reported ~20,000 seismic events, with the largest event of M6.6 in Andreanof Islands. The real-time earthquake detection and data processing systems at AEIC are based on the Antelope system from BRTT, Inc. This modular and extensible processing platform allows an integrated system complete from data acquisition to catalog production. Multiple additional modules constructed with the Antelope toolbox have been developed to fit particular needs of the AEIC. The real-time earthquake locations and magnitudes are determined within 2-5 minutes of the event occurrence. AEIC maintains a 24/7 seismologist-on-duty schedule. Earthquake alarms are based on the real- time earthquake detections. Significant events are reviewed by the seismologist on duty within 30 minutes of the occurrence with information releases issued for significant events. This information is disseminated immediately via the AEIC website, ANSS website via QDDS submissions, through e-mail, cell phone and pager notifications, via fax broadcasts and recorded voice-mail messages. In addition, automatic regional moment tensors are determined for events with M>=4.0. This information is posted on the public website. ShakeMaps are being calculated in real-time with the information currently accessible via a password-protected website. AEIC is designing an alarm system targeted for the critical lifeline operations in Alaska. AEIC maintains an extensive computer network to provide adequate support for data processing and archival. For real-time processing, AEIC operates two identical, interoperable computer systems in parallel.

  1. Integrating real-time digital signal processing capability into a large research and development facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manges, W. W.; Mallinak-Glassell, J. T.; Breeding, J. E.; Jansen, J. M., Jr.; Tate, R. M.; Bentz, R. R.

    The Instrumentation and Controls Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory recently developed and installed a large scale, real-time measurement system for the world's largest pressurized water tunnel. This water tunnel, the Large Cavitation Channel (LCC) provides a research and development facility for the study of acoustic phenomena to aid in model testing of new naval ship and submarine designs. The LCC design required the development of a near-field beamformer in addition to extending the range of real-time processing capability to frequencies unavailable at other facilities. The beamformer acquires and processes time-domain acoustic data at 9.5 MB/s from up to 45 hydrophones while performing 200 million floating-point operations per second, producing a time-integrated, spatially filtered, frequency-domain data set with improved signal-to-noise ratio. The acoustic processing software provides for the real-time analysis of acoustic data. Up to 128 facility sensors are sampled, time stamped, and stored at 600 kB/s. The system generates information for acoustic phenomena and facility measurements in real-time so that the operator can make facility adjustments to control the running equipment. This real-time control of facility conditions requires that the measurement system integrate facility and acoustic data for simultaneous display to the operator in engineering units via high-end workstations. A dual-host minicomputer configuration with high-end workstations connected via an Ethernet networking cluster controls and integrates measurement and display subsystems. The hardware and software architecture is described in this paper.

  2. A computational approach to real-time image processing for serial time-encoded amplified microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikawa, Minoru; Hiyama, Daisuke; Hirayama, Ryuji; Hasegawa, Satoki; Endo, Yutaka; Sugie, Takahisa; Tsumura, Norimichi; Kuroshima, Mai; Maki, Masanori; Okada, Genki; Lei, Cheng; Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Goda, Keisuke; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi

    2016-03-01

    High-speed imaging is an indispensable technique, particularly for identifying or analyzing fast-moving objects. The serial time-encoded amplified microscopy (STEAM) technique was proposed to enable us to capture images with a frame rate 1,000 times faster than using conventional methods such as CCD (charge-coupled device) cameras. The application of this high-speed STEAM imaging technique to a real-time system, such as flow cytometry for a cell-sorting system, requires successively processing a large number of captured images with high throughput in real time. We are now developing a high-speed flow cytometer system including a STEAM camera. In this paper, we describe our approach to processing these large amounts of image data in real time. We use an analog-to-digital converter that has up to 7.0G samples/s and 8-bit resolution for capturing the output voltage signal that involves grayscale images from the STEAM camera. Therefore the direct data output from the STEAM camera generates 7.0G byte/s continuously. We provided a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) device as a digital signal pre-processor for image reconstruction and finding objects in a microfluidic channel with high data rates in real time. We also utilized graphics processing unit (GPU) devices for accelerating the calculation speed of identification of the reconstructed images. We built our prototype system, which including a STEAM camera, a FPGA device and a GPU device, and evaluated its performance in real-time identification of small particles (beads), as virtual biological cells, owing through a microfluidic channel.

  3. Real-time Graphics Processing Unit Based Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography and Surgical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kang

    2011-12-01

    In this dissertation, real-time Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) capable of multi-dimensional micrometer-resolution imaging targeted specifically for microsurgical intervention applications was developed and studied. As a part of this work several ultra-high speed real-time FD-OCT imaging and sensing systems were proposed and developed. A real-time 4D (3D+time) OCT system platform using the graphics processing unit (GPU) to accelerate OCT signal processing, the imaging reconstruction, visualization, and volume rendering was developed. Several GPU based algorithms such as non-uniform fast Fourier transform (NUFFT), numerical dispersion compensation, and multi-GPU implementation were developed to improve the impulse response, SNR roll-off and stability of the system. Full-range complex-conjugate-free FD-OCT was also implemented on the GPU architecture to achieve doubled image range and improved SNR. These technologies overcome the imaging reconstruction and visualization bottlenecks widely exist in current ultra-high speed FD-OCT systems and open the way to interventional OCT imaging for applications in guided microsurgery. A hand-held common-path optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) distance-sensor based microsurgical tool was developed and validated. Through real-time signal processing, edge detection and feed-back control, the tool was shown to be capable of track target surface and compensate motion. The micro-incision test using a phantom was performed using a CP-OCT-sensor integrated hand-held tool, which showed an incision error less than +/-5 microns, comparing to >100 microns error by free-hand incision. The CP-OCT distance sensor has also been utilized to enhance the accuracy and safety of optical nerve stimulation. Finally, several experiments were conducted to validate the system for surgical applications. One of them involved 4D OCT guided micro-manipulation using a phantom. Multiple volume renderings of one 3D data set were

  4. Fast processing of quantitative phase profiles from off-axis interferograms for real-time applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girshovitz, Pinhas; Shaked, Natan T.

    2015-03-01

    We review new and efficient algorithms, lately presented by us, for rapid reconstruction of quantitative phase maps from off-axis digital interferograms. These algorithms improve the conventional Fourier-based algorithm by using the Fourier transforms and the phase unwrapping process more efficiently, and thus decrease the calculation complexity required for extracting the sample phase map from the recorded interferograms. Using the new algorithms, on a standard personal computer without using the graphic processing-unit programming or parallel computing, we were able to speed up the processing and reach frame rates of up to 45 frames per second for one megapixel off-axis interferograms. These capabilities allow real-time visualization, calculation and data extraction for dynamic samples and processes, inspected by off-axis digital holography. Specific applications include biological cell imaging without labeling and real-time nondestructive testing.

  5. Real-time SAR image processing onboard a Venus orbiting spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arens, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    The potential use of real-time synthetic aperture radar (SAR) processing to produce 200 meter resolution imagery onboard a 1983 Venus orbiter imaging radar spacecraft is described. The VOIR SAR processing requirements are defined in terms of a nominal baseline design evolving from a 1977 VOIR mission study. A candidate onboard SAR processor architecture compatible with the VOIR requirements is next detailed. Finally, implementation characteristics, based upon currently available integrated circuits, are estimated in terms of chip count, power, and weight.

  6. Closed Loop Requirements and Analysis Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamoreaux, Michael; Verhoef, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Effective systems engineering involves the use of analysis in the derivation of requirements and verification of designs against those requirements. The initial development of requirements often depends on analysis for the technical definition of specific aspects of a product. Following the allocation of system-level requirements to a product's components, the closure of those requirements often involves analytical approaches to verify that the requirement criteria have been satisfied. Meanwhile, changes that occur in between these two processes need to be managed in order to achieve a closed-loop requirement derivation/verification process. Herein are presented concepts for employing emerging Team center capabilities to jointly manage requirements and analysis data such that analytical techniques are utilized to effectively derive and allocate requirements, analyses are consulted and updated during the change evaluation processes, and analyses are leveraged during the design verification process. Recommendations on concept validation case studies are also discussed.

  7. Massively parallel per-pixel-based zerotree processing architecture for real-time video compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alagoda, Geoffrey; Rassau, Alexander M.; Eshraghian, Kamran

    2001-11-01

    In the span of a few years, mobile multimedia communication has rapidly become a significant area of research and development constantly challenging boundaries on a variety of technological fronts. Video compression, a fundamental component for most mobile multimedia applications, generally places heavy demands in terms of the required processing capacity. Hardware implementations of typical modern hybrid codecs require realisation of components such as motion compensation, wavelet transform, quantisation, zerotree coding and arithmetic coding in real-time. While the implementation of such codecs using a fast generic processor is possible, undesirable trade-offs in terms of power consumption and speed must generally be made. The improvement in power consumption that is achievable through the use of a slow-clocked massively parallel processing environment, while maintaining real-time processing speeds, should thus not be overlooked. An architecture to realise such a massively parallel solution for a zerotree entropy coder is, therefore, presented in this paper.

  8. Applying an integrated neuro-expert system model in a real-time alarm processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosla, Rajiv; Dillon, Tharam S.

    1993-03-01

    In this paper we propose an integrated model which is derived from the combination of a generic neuro-expert system model, an object model, and unix operating system process (UOSP) model. This integrated model reflects the strengths of both artificial neural nets (ANNs) and expert systems (ESs). A formalism of ES object, ANN object, UOSP object, and problem domain object is used for developing a set of generic data structures and methods. These generic data structures and methods help us to build heterogeneous ES-ANN objects with uniform communication interface. The integrated model is applied in a real-time alarm processing system for a non-trivial terminal power station. It is shown how features like hierarchical/distributed ES/ANN objects, inter process communication, and fast concurrent execution help to cope with real-time system constraints like, continuity, data variability, and fast response time.

  9. Real-time processing of radar return on a parallel computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aalfs, David D.

    1992-01-01

    NASA is working with the FAA to demonstrate the feasibility of pulse Doppler radar as a candidate airborne sensor to detect low altitude windshears. The need to provide the pilot with timely information about possible hazards has motivated a demand for real-time processing of a radar return. Investigated here is parallel processing as a means of accommodating the high data rates required. A PC based parallel computer, called the transputer, is used to investigate issues in real time concurrent processing of radar signals. A transputer network is made up of an array of single instruction stream processors that can be networked in a variety of ways. They are easily reconfigured and software development is largely independent of the particular network topology. The performance of the transputer is evaluated in light of the computational requirements. A number of algorithms have been implemented on the transputers in OCCAM, a language specially designed for parallel processing. These include signal processing algorithms such as the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), pulse-pair, and autoregressive modelling, as well as routing software to support concurrency. The most computationally intensive task is estimating the spectrum. Two approaches have been taken on this problem, the first and most conventional of which is to use the FFT. By using table look-ups for the basis function and other optimizing techniques, an algorithm has been developed that is sufficient for real time. The other approach is to model the signal as an autoregressive process and estimate the spectrum based on the model coefficients. This technique is attractive because it does not suffer from the spectral leakage problem inherent in the FFT. Benchmark tests indicate that autoregressive modeling is feasible in real time.

  10. A flexible software architecture for scalable real-time image and video processing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usamentiaga, Rubén; Molleda, Julio; García, Daniel F.; Bulnes, Francisco G.

    2012-06-01

    Real-time image and video processing applications require skilled architects, and recent trends in the hardware platform make the design and implementation of these applications increasingly complex. Many frameworks and libraries have been proposed or commercialized to simplify the design and tuning of real-time image processing applications. However, they tend to lack flexibility because they are normally oriented towards particular types of applications, or they impose specific data processing models such as the pipeline. Other issues include large memory footprints, difficulty for reuse and inefficient execution on multicore processors. This paper presents a novel software architecture for real-time image and video processing applications which addresses these issues. The architecture is divided into three layers: the platform abstraction layer, the messaging layer, and the application layer. The platform abstraction layer provides a high level application programming interface for the rest of the architecture. The messaging layer provides a message passing interface based on a dynamic publish/subscribe pattern. A topic-based filtering in which messages are published to topics is used to route the messages from the publishers to the subscribers interested in a particular type of messages. The application layer provides a repository for reusable application modules designed for real-time image and video processing applications. These modules, which include acquisition, visualization, communication, user interface and data processing modules, take advantage of the power of other well-known libraries such as OpenCV, Intel IPP, or CUDA. Finally, we present different prototypes and applications to show the possibilities of the proposed architecture.

  11. Near Real Time Review of Instrument Performance using the Airborne Data Processing and Analysis Software Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delene, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    Research aircraft that conduct atmospheric measurements carry an increasing array of instrumentation. While on-board personnel constantly review instrument parameters and time series plots, there are an overwhelming number of items. Furthermore, directing the aircraft flight takes up much of the flight scientist time. Typically, a flight engineer is given the responsibility of reviewing the status of on-board instruments. While major issues like not receiving data are quickly identified during a flight, subtle issues like low but believable concentration measurements may go unnoticed. Therefore, it is critical to review data after a flight in near real time. The Airborne Data Processing and Analysis (ADPAA) software package used by the University of North Dakota automates the post-processing of aircraft flight data. Utilizing scripts to process the measurements recorded by data acquisition systems enables the generation of data files within an hour of flight completion. The ADPAA Cplot visualization program enables plots to be quickly generated that enable timely review of all recorded and processed parameters. Near real time review of aircraft flight data enables instrument problems to be identified, investigated and fixed before conducting another flight. On one flight, near real time data review resulted in the identification of unusually low measurements of cloud condensation nuclei, and rapid data visualization enabled the timely investigation of the cause. As a result, a leak was found and fixed before the next flight. Hence, with the high cost of aircraft flights, it is critical to find and fix instrument problems in a timely matter. The use of a automated processing scripts and quick visualization software enables scientists to review aircraft flight data in near real time to identify potential problems.

  12. Hybrid implementation of a real-time Radon-space image-processing system.

    PubMed

    Woolven, S; Ristic, V M; Chevrette, P

    1993-11-10

    A unique hybrid optical-digital image-processing system that functions at real-time rates and performs analysis in Radon space is presented. This system functions by using the forward Radon transform (a mathematical tomographic transform of image data from two-dimensional image space to onedimensional Radon space), which is achieved by a front-end optical processor followed by a digital processing subsystem operating in Radon space. The system works by optically converting the two-dimensional image data into a series of one-dimensional projections. All further processing is performed digitally in Radon space on the one-dimensional projections. Using the system in transform space, we show that it can perform real-time detection of minimum-resolvable-temperature-difference measurement targets better than a human observer. Also, this paper discusses the potential of real-time object-moment analysis in Radon space. These object moments can be calculated in Radon space with significantly less image data and fewer digital processing operations than in image space. The optical front end is capable of performing 6.04 × 10(10) operations/s on the two-dimensional image data. PMID:20856498

  13. A Real-Time Processing System for Pulsation Detection in Neonatal Cranial Ultrasonogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuzawa, Masayuki; Kitsunezuka, Yoshiki; Yamada, Masayoshi

    1998-05-01

    In order to observe artery pulsation in the neonatal cranium at the site of pediatric diagnosis, a real-time processing system was developed for continuous detection and display of artery pulsation, from the moving images of the neonatal cranial ultrasonogram.The pulsation images were continuously generated by calculating the absolute difference between each pixel value at the two images corresponding to about half a heartbeat interval.The system was confirmed to process and continuously display at intervals of about 150 ms while capturing the echo images at the video rate of 30 ms, showing that the system performance was good enough to observe the artery pulsation in real-time.By monitoring the pulsation images continuously redisplayed, the critical conditions of the echo image such as the sway of the ultrasound probe could be easily avoided at the site of diagnosis.

  14. US GEOLOGICAL SURVEY'S NATIONAL SYSTEM FOR PROCESSING AND DISTRIBUTION OF NEAR REAL-TIME HYDROLOGICAL DATA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shope, William G., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The US Geological Survey is utilizing a national network of more than 1000 satellite data-collection stations, four satellite-relay direct-readout ground stations, and more than 50 computers linked together in a private telecommunications network to acquire, process, and distribute hydrological data in near real-time. The four Survey offices operating a satellite direct-readout ground station provide near real-time hydrological data to computers located in other Survey offices through the Survey's Distributed Information System. The computerized distribution system permits automated data processing and distribution to be carried out in a timely manner under the control and operation of the Survey office responsible for the data-collection stations and for the dissemination of hydrological information to the water-data users.

  15. Real time polarization sensor image processing on an embedded FPGA/multi-core DSP system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednara, Marcus; Chuchacz-Kowalczyk, Katarzyna

    2015-05-01

    Most embedded image processing SoCs available on the market are highly optimized for typical consumer applications like video encoding/decoding, motion estimation or several image enhancement processes as used in DSLR or digital video cameras. For non-consumer applications, on the other hand, optimized embedded hardware is rarely available, so often PC based image processing systems are used. We show how a real time capable image processing system for a non-consumer application - namely polarization image data processing - can be efficiently implemented on an FPGA and multi-core DSP based embedded hardware platform.

  16. A High Speed Mobile Courier Data Access System That Processes Database Queries in Real-Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatsheni, Barnabas Ndlovu; Mabizela, Zwelakhe

    A secure high-speed query processing mobile courier data access (MCDA) system for a Courier Company has been developed. This system uses the wireless networks in combination with wired networks for updating a live database at the courier centre in real-time by an offsite worker (the Courier). The system is protected by VPN based on IPsec. There is no system that we know of to date that performs the task for the courier as proposed in this paper.

  17. A portable real-time data processing system for standard meteorological radiosondes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staffanson, F. L.

    1983-01-01

    The UMET-1 is a microprocessor-based portable system for automatic real-time processing of flight data transmitted from the standard RAWINSONDE upper atmosphere meteorological balloonsonde. The first 'target system' is described which was designed to receive data from a mobile tracking and telemetry receiving station (TRADAT), as the balloonsonde ascends to apogee. After balloon-burst, the UMET-1 produces user-ready hardcopy.

  18. a Real-Time Optical/digital Radon Space Image Processing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolven, Steve

    A unique hybrid optical/digital general image processing system which potentially functions at real-time rates and performs analysis on low object-to-background contrast images in Radon space is investigated. The system is capable of some real-time functions which are invariant to object distortions. This research is presented in three stages: the development and analysis of the theory of Radon space, the hardware and software design and implementation of the working system, and the results achieved. This original system functions by using the forward Radon transform ^1, which is achieved by a front-end optical processor, followed by a digital processing subsystem operating in Radon space instead of the more familiar image space. The system works by converting the two dimensional image data into a series of one dimensional projections, and it is demonstrated that several digital image processing functions can potentially be performed faster on the projection data than on the original image data. Using the transform, it is shown that the system is theoretically capable of performing real-time two dimensional Fourier transforms and matched filtering operations. Also, this document presents and demonstrates a method of potential real-time object-moment analysis which allows objects to undergo distortions and continue to be recognized as the original object. It is shown that these moments can be calculated in Radon space using significantly less image data and fewer digital processing operations than in image space. The optical system is potentially capable of performing 6.04 times 10^{10 } operations per second on the two dimensional image data. ftn^1The Radon transform refers to a mathematical tomographic transform of image data from two dimensional image space to a one dimensional space (Radon space).

  19. Closed-Loop Analysis of Soft Decisions for Serial Links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansdowne, Chatwin A.; Steele, Glen F.; Zucha, Joan P.; Schlesinger, Adam M.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the benefit of using closed-loop measurements for a radio receiver paired with a counterpart transmitter. We show that real-time analysis of the soft decision output of a receiver can provide rich and relevant insight far beyond the traditional hard-decision bit error rate (BER) test statistic. We describe a Soft Decision Analyzer (SDA) implementation for closed-loop measurements on single- or dual- (orthogonal) channel serial data communication links. The analyzer has been used to identify, quantify, and prioritize contributors to implementation loss in live-time during the development of software defined radios. This test technique gains importance as modern receivers are providing soft decision symbol synchronization as radio links are challenged to push more data and more protocol overhead through noisier channels, and software-defined radios (SDRs) use error-correction codes that approach Shannon's theoretical limit of performance.

  20. A Cloud-Based Infrastructure for Near-Real-Time Processing and Dissemination of NPP Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J. D.; Valente, E. G.; Chettri, S. S.

    2011-12-01

    We are building a scalable cloud-based infrastructure for generating and disseminating near-real-time data products from a variety of geospatial and meteorological data sources, including the new National Polar-Orbiting Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP). Our approach relies on linking Direct Broadcast and other data streams to a suite of scientific algorithms coordinated by NASA's International Polar-Orbiter Processing Package (IPOPP). The resulting data products are directly accessible to a wide variety of end-user applications, via industry-standard protocols such as OGC Web Services, Unidata Local Data Manager, or OPeNDAP, using open source software components. The processing chain employs on-demand computing resources from Amazon.com's Elastic Compute Cloud and NASA's Nebula cloud services. Our current prototype targets short-term weather forecasting, in collaboration with NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program and the National Weather Service. Direct Broadcast is especially crucial for NPP, whose current ground segment is unlikely to deliver data quickly enough for short-term weather forecasters and other near-real-time users. Direct Broadcast also allows full local control over data handling, from the receiving antenna to end-user applications: this provides opportunities to streamline processes for data ingest, processing, and dissemination, and thus to make interpreted data products (Environmental Data Records) available to practitioners within minutes of data capture at the sensor. Cloud computing lets us grow and shrink computing resources to meet large and rapid fluctuations in data availability (twice daily for polar orbiters) - and similarly large fluctuations in demand from our target (near-real-time) users. This offers a compelling business case for cloud computing: the processing or dissemination systems can grow arbitrarily large to sustain near-real time data access despite surges in

  1. Comparison of Different Techniques for Processing GNSS Data in Real Time for Tsunami Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, M.; Dragert, H.; Lu, Y.; Henton, J.; MacLeod, K.

    2012-12-01

    Real-time processing and dissemination of GNSS derived co-seismic position offsets for tsunami early warning has been under development at the Geological Survey of Canada (NRCan) for the past six years. Using streamed data from the Western Canada Deformation Array (WCDA), results from two variations of Precise Point Positioning (PPP) and two variations of network-based solutions are evaluated: NRCan's real-time PPP software, and two commercial software packages RTD and RTNET, licensed from Geodetics Inc. and GPS Solutions Inc. respectively. Of the two commercial packages, the former provides independent, epoch-by-epoch network solutions, while the latter has the capability to process data using both PPP and Network approaches. There are clear advantages and disadvantages to the independent PPP solutions vs. the network based solutions. PPP solutions (smoothed and un-smoothed) provide position estimates for single stations in a global framework. They are not reliant on 'fixed' reference stations that, if located within the seismogenic zone, will clearly experience co-seismic displacements. Under best-case scenarios, error levels of 1-2 cm horizontal and 3-6cm vertical are achievable for network based solutions whereas PPP solutions with ambiguity resolution are currently somewhat noisier. Both analysis methodologies are critically dependent on data continuity and robust tracking of all available satellites at each site. A clear case is made for the requirement for network based processing capacity for baselines of greater than 150km in order to ensure robust co-seismic displacement estimates during large earthquakes. Results from tests within the WCDA network using the different techniques are presented as well as recommendations for computational and operational improvements. NRCan's real-time web based interface offers the user community with a real-time display of position offset estimates for sites in southwestern coastal British Columbia.

  2. Just noticeable difference level estimation in real-time digital signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrowski, Zbigniew; Rudkowski, Wojciech

    2008-01-01

    Modern state-of-the art watermarking systems use precise algorithms for ensure perceptual transparency of the additional signal in the host signal presence. Various Human Auditory System (HAS) models are implemented but only few of them are computationally effective giving reliable acoustic masking effect. This paper presents efficient algorithm and its implementation for Just Noticeable Difference level estimation using HAS for data hiding application. Implementation is based on effective Johnston [1] HAS model and real-time processing using TMS 320C6713 DSK board. The results of implementation as well as subjective fidelity test using standard ITU-R BS 1116.1 are described and illustrated. Numerical results of DSP real-time implementation are compared with the Matlab off-line HAS computational model.

  3. Demonstration plan for real time receiving and processing of flight data from the space transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, James W.; Avery, Don E.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents a detailed demonstration test plan for receiving and processing data from experiments being conducted on the Space Transportation System near real time at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). This task can readily be achieved using the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE). The Space Shuttle data flow is described including both the payload and the mission data. A description is presented of the OARE instrument which is used to measure low frequency Space Shuttle accelerations in nano-gs. Procedures are shown for obtaining the required mission data and OARE payload data at LaRC. The demonstration test plan schedule and costs are presented. It is recommended that both the OARE data and the pertinent Space Shuttle mission data be received at LaRC over the NASA Communication System (NASCOM) on a near real time basis.

  4. Real-time computational processing and implementation for concealed object detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong-Su; Yeom, Seokwon; Chang, YuShin; Lee, Mun-Kyo; Jung, Sang-Won

    2012-07-01

    Millimeter wave (MMW) readily penetrates fabrics, thus it can be used to detect objects concealed under clothing. A passive MMW imaging system can operate as a stand-off type sensor that scans people both indoors and outdoors. However, because of the diffraction limit and low signal level, the imaging system often suffers from low image quality. Therefore, suitable computational processing would be required for automatic analysis of the images. The authors present statistical and computational algorithms and their implementations for real-time concealed object detection. The histogram of the image is modeled as a Gaussian mixture distribution, and hidden object areas are segmented by a multilevel scheme involving the expectation-maximization algorithm. The complete algorithm has been implemented in both MATLAB and C++. Experimental and simulation results confirm that the implemented system can achieve real-time detection of concealed objects.

  5. Real-time lossy compression of hyperspectral images using iterative error analysis on graphics processing units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Sergio; Plaza, Antonio

    2012-06-01

    Hyperspectral image compression is an important task in remotely sensed Earth Observation as the dimensionality of this kind of image data is ever increasing. This requires on-board compression in order to optimize the donwlink connection when sending the data to Earth. A successful algorithm to perform lossy compression of remotely sensed hyperspectral data is the iterative error analysis (IEA) algorithm, which applies an iterative process which allows controlling the amount of information loss and compression ratio depending on the number of iterations. This algorithm, which is based on spectral unmixing concepts, can be computationally expensive for hyperspectral images with high dimensionality. In this paper, we develop a new parallel implementation of the IEA algorithm for hyperspectral image compression on graphics processing units (GPUs). The proposed implementation is tested on several different GPUs from NVidia, and is shown to exhibit real-time performance in the analysis of an Airborne Visible Infra-Red Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data sets collected over different locations. The proposed algorithm and its parallel GPU implementation represent a significant advance towards real-time onboard (lossy) compression of hyperspectral data where the quality of the compression can be also adjusted in real-time.

  6. A complete solar eruption activity processing tool with robotization and real time (II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ganghua; Zhao, Cui; Yang, Xiao

    2014-07-01

    Intense solar active events have made significant impacts on the modern high technology system and living environment of human being, therefore solar activities forecast and space weather forecast are getting more and more attention. Meanwhile, data volume acquisitioned by solar monitor facility is growing larger and larger due to the requirement of multiple dimensions observation and high temporal and spatial resolution. As staffs of a solar monitor data producer, we are encouraged to adopt new techniques and methods to provide valuable information to solar activities forecast organization and the other related users, and provide convenient products and tools to the users. In the previous paper "A complete solar eruption activities processing tool with robotization and real time (I)", we presented a fully automatic and real time detecting architecture for different solar erupt activities. In this paper, we present new components of new data sets in the architecture design, latest progresses on automatic recognition of solar flare, filament and magnetic field, and a newly introduced method with which solar photospheric magnetic nonpotentiality parameters are processed in real time, then its result directly can be used in solar active forecast.

  7. Language at Three Timescales: The Role of Real-Time Processes in Language Development and Evolution.

    PubMed

    McMurray, Bob

    2016-04-01

    Evolutionary developmental systems (evo-devo) theory stresses that selection pressures operate on entire developmental systems rather than just genes. This study extends this approach to language evolution, arguing that selection pressure may operate on two quasi-independent timescales. First, children clearly must acquire language successfully (as acknowledged in traditional evo-devo accounts) and evolution must equip them with the tools to do so. Second, while this is developing, they must also communicate with others in the moment using partially developed knowledge. These pressures may require different solutions, and their combination may underlie the evolution of complex mechanisms for language development and processing. I present two case studies to illustrate how the demands of both real-time communication and language acquisition may be subtly different (and interact). The first case study examines infant-directed speech (IDS). A recent view is that IDS underwent cultural to statistical learning mechanisms that infants use to acquire the speech categories of their language. However, recent data suggest is it may not have evolved to enhance development, but rather to serve a more real-time communicative function. The second case study examines the argument for seemingly specialized mechanisms for learning word meanings (e.g., fast-mapping). Both behavioral and computational work suggest that learning may be much slower and served by general-purpose mechanisms like associative learning. Fast-mapping, then, may be a real-time process meant to serve immediate communication, not learning, by augmenting incomplete vocabulary knowledge with constraints from the current context. Together, these studies suggest that evolutionary accounts consider selection pressure arising from both real-time communicative demands and from the need for accurate language development. PMID:26991438

  8. A wearable smartphone-based platform for real-time cardiovascular disease detection via electrocardiogram processing.

    PubMed

    Oresko, Joseph J; Duschl, Heather; Cheng, Allen C

    2010-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the single leading cause of global mortality and is projected to remain so. Cardiac arrhythmia is a very common type of CVD and may indicate an increased risk of stroke or sudden cardiac death. The ECG is the most widely adopted clinical tool to diagnose and assess the risk of arrhythmia. ECGs measure and display the electrical activity of the heart from the body surface. During patients' hospital visits, however, arrhythmias may not be detected on standard resting ECG machines, since the condition may not be present at that moment in time. While Holter-based portable monitoring solutions offer 24-48 h ECG recording, they lack the capability of providing any real-time feedback for the thousands of heart beats they record, which must be tediously analyzed offline. In this paper, we seek to unite the portability of Holter monitors and the real-time processing capability of state-of-the-art resting ECG machines to provide an assistive diagnosis solution using smartphones. Specifically, we developed two smartphone-based wearable CVD-detection platforms capable of performing real-time ECG acquisition and display, feature extraction, and beat classification. Furthermore, the same statistical summaries available on resting ECG machines are provided. PMID:20388600

  9. Graphic processing unit accelerated real-time partially coherent beam generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Xiaolong; Liu, Zhi; Chen, Chunyi; Jiang, Huilin; Fang, Hanhan; Song, Lujun; Zhang, Su

    2016-07-01

    A method of using liquid-crystals (LCs) to generate a partially coherent beam in real-time is described. An expression for generating a partially coherent beam is given and calculated using a graphic processing unit (GPU), i.e., the GeForce GTX 680. A liquid-crystal on silicon (LCOS) with 256 × 256 pixels is used as the partially coherent beam generator (PCBG). An optimizing method with partition convolution is used to improve the generating speed of our LC PCBG. The total time needed to generate a random phase map with a coherence width range from 0.015 mm to 1.5 mm is less than 2.4 ms for calculation and readout with the GPU; adding the time needed for the CPU to read and send to LCOS with the response time of the LC PCBG, the real-time partially coherent beam (PCB) generation frequency of our LC PCBG is up to 312 Hz. To our knowledge, it is the first real-time partially coherent beam generator. A series of experiments based on double pinhole interference are performed. The result shows that to generate a laser beam with a coherence width of 0.9 mm and 1.5 mm, with a mean error of approximately 1%, the RMS values needed 0.021306 and 0.020883 and the PV values required 0.073576 and 0.072998, respectively.

  10. Real-Time Joint Streaming Data Processing from Social and Physical Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kropivnitskaya, Y. Y.; Qin, J.; Tiampo, K. F.; Bauer, M.

    2014-12-01

    The results of the technological breakthroughs in computing that have taken place over the last few decades makes it possible to achieve emergency management objectives that focus on saving human lives and decreasing economic effects. In particular, the integration of a wide variety of information sources, including observations from spatially-referenced physical sensors and new social media sources, enables better real-time seismic hazard analysis through distributed computing networks. The main goal of this work is to utilize innovative computational algorithms for better real-time seismic risk analysis by integrating different data sources and processing tools into streaming and cloud computing applications. The Geological Survey of Canada operates the Canadian National Seismograph Network (CNSN) with over 100 high-gain instruments and 60 low-gain or strong motion seismographs. The processing of the continuous data streams from each station of the CNSN provides the opportunity to detect possible earthquakes in near real-time. The information from physical sources is combined to calculate a location and magnitude for an earthquake. The automatically calculated results are not always sufficiently precise and prompt that can significantly reduce the response time to a felt or damaging earthquake. Social sensors, here represented as Twitter users, can provide information earlier to the general public and more rapidly to the emergency planning and disaster relief agencies. We introduce joint streaming data processing from social and physical sensors in real-time based on the idea that social media observations serve as proxies for physical sensors. By using the streams of data in the form of Twitter messages, each of which has an associated time and location, we can extract information related to a target event and perform enhanced analysis by combining it with physical sensor data. Results of this work suggest that the use of data from social media, in conjunction

  11. Hardware and software platform for real-time processing and visualization of echographic radiofrequency signals.

    PubMed

    Scabia, Marco; Biagi, Elena; Masotti, Leonardo

    2002-10-01

    In this paper the architecture of a hardware and software platform, for ultrasonic investigation is presented. The platform, used in conjunction with an analog front-end hardware for driving the ultrasonic transducers of any commercial echograph, having the radiofrequency echo signal access, make it possible to dispose of a powerful echographic system for experimenting any processing technique, also in a clinical environment in which real-time operation mode is an essential prerequisite. The platform transforms any echograph into a test-system for evaluating the diagnostic effectiveness of new investigation techniques. A particular user interface was designed in order to allow a real-time and simultaneous visualization of the results produced in the different stages of the chosen processing procedure. This is aimed at obtaining a better optimization of the processing algorithm. The most important platform aspect, which also constitutes the basic differentiation with respect to similar systems, is the direct processing of the radiofrequency echo signal, which is essential for a complete analysis of the particular ultrasound-media interaction phenomenon. The platform completely integrates the architecture of a personal computer (PC) giving rise to several benefits, such as the quick technological evolution in the PC field and an extreme degree of programmability for different applications. The PC also constitutes the user interface, as a flexible and intuitive visualization support, and performs some software signal processing, by custom algorithms and commercial libraries. The realized close synergy between hardware and software allows the acquisition and real-time processing of the echographic radiofrequency (RF) signal with fast data representation. PMID:12403146

  12. Observations of breakup processes of liquid jets using real-time X-ray radiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Char, J. M.; Kuo, K. K.; Hsieh, K. C.

    1988-01-01

    To unravel the liquid-jet breakup process in the nondilute region, a newly developed system of real-time X-ray radiography, an advanced digital image processor, and a high-speed video camera were used. Based upon recorded X-ray images, the inner structure of a liquid jet during breakup was observed. The jet divergence angle, jet breakup length, and fraction distributions along the axial and transverse directions of the liquid jets were determined in the near-injector region. Both wall- and free-jet tests were conducted to study the effect of wall friction on the jet breakup process.

  13. Parallel field programmable gate array particle filtering architecture for real-time neural signal processing.

    PubMed

    Mountney, John; Silage, Dennis; Obeid, Iyad

    2010-01-01

    Both linear and nonlinear estimation algorithms have been successfully applied as neural decoding techniques in brain machine interfaces. Nonlinear approaches such as Bayesian auxiliary particle filters offer improved estimates over other methodologies seemingly at the expense of computational complexity. Real-time implementation of particle filtering algorithms for neural signal processing may become prohibitive when the number of neurons in the observed ensemble becomes large. By implementing a parallel hardware architecture, filter performance can be improved in terms of throughput over conventional sequential processing. Such an architecture is presented here and its FPGA resource utilization is reported. PMID:21096196

  14. Real-time reprogrammable low-level image processing: edge detection and edge tracking accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meribout, M.; Hou, Kun M.

    1993-10-01

    Currently, in image processing, segmentation algorithms comprise between real time video rate processing and accurate results. In this paper, we present an efficient and not recursive algorithm filter originated from Deriche filter. This algorithm is implemented in hardware by using FPGA technology. Thus, it permits video rate edge detection. In addition, the FPGA board is used as an edge tracking accelerator, it allows us to greatly reduce execution time by avoiding scanning the whole image. We also present the architecture of our vision system dedicated to build 3D scene every 200 ms.

  15. In-Situ Real Time Monitoring and Control of Mold Making and Filling Processes: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed Abdelrahman; Kenneth Currie

    2010-12-22

    This project presents a model for addressing several objectives envisioned by the metal casting industries through the integration of research and educational components. It provides an innovative approach to introduce technologies for real time characterization of sand molds, lost foam patterns and monitoring of the mold filling process. The technology developed will enable better control over the casting process. It is expected to reduce scrap and variance in the casting quality. A strong educational component is integrated into the research plan to utilize increased awareness of the industry professional, the potential benefits of the developed technology, and the potential benefits of cross cutting technologies.

  16. Real Time Signal Processing and Data Handling with dedicated hardware in handheld OCT Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, P.; Valverde, J. J.; Martin, A.; Ledesma, M. J.; Rubio-Guivernau, J. L.; Santos, A.

    2015-11-01

    The manuscript presents the topics on real time signal processing with dedicated hardware presented at the INFIERI Summer School 2014. The focus of this work is on real-time signal processing, filtering and massive parallel computing. In general, medical devices have stringed demands on energy consumption as well as on data processing and handling. In fact, the development of novel medical devices has led to significant advances in fields such as instrumentation, algorithm development and image processing. In this manuscript, two aspects of the design are brought into consideration: the transformation of a conventional signal processing algorithm into an equivalent version that is suitable for hardware implementation and the use of on-chip modules originally developed for mass-electronics applications, for high speed data transmission. The development of a novel state-of-the-art hand-held OCT probe is used to exemplify theses aspects. In particular, the ``design process'' behind the implementation of a multichannel quadrature coherent demodulator is disclosed.

  17. Fluctuations in closed-loop fluorescent particle tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berglund, Andrew J.; McHale, Kevin; Mabuchi, Hideo

    2007-06-01

    We present a comprehensive theory of closed-loop particle tracking for calculating the statistics of a diffusing fluorescent particle’s motion relative to the tracking lock point. A detailed comparison is made between the theory and experimental results, with excellent quantitative agreement found in all cases. A generalization of the theory of (open-loop) fluorescence correlation spectroscopy is developed, and the relationship to previous results is discussed. Two applications of the statistical techniques are given: a method for determining a tracked particle’s localization and an algorithm for rapid particle classification based on real-time analysis of the tracking control signal.

  18. VerifEYE: a real-time meat inspection system for the beef processing industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocak, Donna M.; Caimi, Frank M.; Flick, Rick L.; Elharti, Abdelmoula

    2003-02-01

    Described is a real-time meat inspection system developed for the beef processing industry by eMerge Interactive. Designed to detect and localize trace amounts of contamination on cattle carcasses in the packing process, the system affords the beef industry an accurate, high speed, passive optical method of inspection. Using a method patented by United States Department of Agriculture and Iowa State University, the system takes advantage of fluorescing chlorophyll found in the animal's diet and therefore the digestive track to allow detection and imaging of contaminated areas that may harbor potentially dangerous microbial pathogens. Featuring real-time image processing and documentation of performance, the system can be easily integrated into a processing facility's Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point quality assurance program. This paper describes the VerifEYE carcass inspection and removal verification system. Results indicating the feasibility of the method, as well as field data collected using a prototype system during four university trials conducted in 2001 are presented. Two successful demonstrations using the prototype system were held at a major U.S. meat processing facility in early 2002.

  19. Real-time processing for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a field programmable gate array

    PubMed Central

    Ustun, Teoman E.; Iftimia, Nicusor V.; Ferguson, R. Daniel; Hammer, Daniel X.

    2008-01-01

    Real-time display of processed Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FDOCT) images is important for applications that require instant feedback of image information, for example, systems developed for rapid screening or image-guided surgery. However, the computational requirements for high-speed FDOCT image processing usually exceeds the capabilities of most computers and therefore display rates rarely match acquisition rates for most devices. We have designed and developed an image processing system, including hardware based upon a field programmable gated array, firmware, and software that enables real-time display of processed images at rapid line rates. The system was designed to be extremely flexible and inserted in-line between any FDOCT detector and any Camera Link frame grabber. Two versions were developed for spectrometer-based and swept source-based FDOCT systems, the latter having an additional custom high-speed digitizer on the front end but using all the capabilities and features of the former. The system was tested in humans and monkeys using an adaptive optics retinal imager, in zebrafish using a dual-beam Doppler instrument, and in human tissue using a swept source microscope. A display frame rate of 27 fps for fully processed FDOCT images (1024 axial pixels×512 lateral A-scans) was achieved in the spectrometer-based systems. PMID:19045902

  20. Ultrasonic Real-Time Quality Monitoring Of Aluminum Spot Weld Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez Regalado, Waldo Josue

    The real-time ultrasonic spot weld monitoring system, introduced by our research group, has been designed for the unsupervised quality characterization of the spot welding process. It comprises the ultrasonic transducer (probe) built into one of the welding electrodes and an electronics hardware unit which gathers information from the transducer, performs real-time weld quality characterization and communicates with the robot programmable logic controller (PLC). The system has been fully developed for the inspection of spot welds manufactured in steel alloys, and has been mainly applied in the automotive industry. In recent years, a variety of materials have been introduced to the automotive industry. These include high strength steels, magnesium alloys, and aluminum alloys. Aluminum alloys have been of particular interest due to their high strength-to-weight ratio. Resistance spot welding requirements for aluminum vary greatly from those of steel. Additionally, the oxide film formed on the aluminum surface increases the heat generation between the copper electrodes and the aluminum plates leading to accelerated electrode deterioration. Preliminary studies showed that the real-time quality inspection system was not able to monitor spot welds manufactured with aluminum. The extensive experimental research, finite element modelling of the aluminum welding process and finite difference modeling of the acoustic wave propagation through the aluminum spot welds presented in this dissertation, revealed that the thermodynamics and hence the acoustic wave propagation through an aluminum and a steel spot weld differ significantly. For this reason, the hardware requirements and the algorithms developed to determine the welds quality from the ultrasonic data used on steel, no longer apply on aluminum spot welds. After updating the system and designing the required algorithms, parameters such as liquid nugget penetration and nugget diameter were available in the ultrasonic data

  1. Enhancing Sensitivity of a Miniature Spectrometer Using a Real-Time Image Processing Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chandramohan, Sabarish; Avrutsky, Ivan

    2016-05-01

    A real-time image processing algorithm is developed to enhance the sensitivity of a planar single-mode waveguide miniature spectrometer with integrated waveguide gratings. A novel approach of averaging along the arcs in a curved coordinate system is introduced which allows for collecting more light, thereby enhancing the sensitivity. The algorithm is tested using CdSeS/ZnS quantum dots drop casted on the surface of a single-mode waveguide. Measurements indicate that a monolayer of quantum dots is expected to produce guided mode attenuation approximately 11 times above the noise level. PMID:27170777

  2. Real time video processing software for the analysis of endoscopic guided-biopsies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordoñez, C.; Bouchet, A.; Pastore, J.; Blotta, E.

    2011-12-01

    The severity in Barrett esophagus disease is, undoubtedly, the possibility of its malignization. To make an early diagnosis in order to avoid possible complications, it is absolutely necessary collect biopsies to make a histological analysis. This should be done under endoscopic control to avoid mucus areas that may co-exist within the columnar epithelial, which could lead to a false diagnosis. This paper presents a video processing software in real-time in order to delineate and enhance areas of interest to facilitate the work of the expert.

  3. A Real-Time Spectroscopic Sensor for Monitoring Laser Welding Processes

    PubMed Central

    Sibillano, Teresa; Ancona, Antonio; Berardi, Vincenzo; Lugarà, Pietro Mario

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we report on the development of a sensor for real time monitoring of laser welding processes based on spectroscopic techniques. The system is based on the acquisition of the optical spectra emitted from the laser generated plasma plume and their use to implement an on-line algorithm for both the calculation of the plasma electron temperature and the analysis of the correlations between selected spectral lines. The sensor has been patented and it is currently available on the market. PMID:22412317

  4. Real-time blood flow visualization using the graphics processing unit.

    PubMed

    Yang, Owen; Cuccia, David; Choi, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Laser speckle imaging (LSI) is a technique in which coherent light incident on a surface produces a reflected speckle pattern that is related to the underlying movement of optical scatterers, such as red blood cells, indicating blood flow. Image-processing algorithms can be applied to produce speckle flow index (SFI) maps of relative blood flow. We present a novel algorithm that employs the NVIDIA Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) platform to perform laser speckle image processing on the graphics processing unit. Software written in C was integrated with CUDA and integrated into a LabVIEW Virtual Instrument (VI) that is interfaced with a monochrome CCD camera able to acquire high-resolution raw speckle images at nearly 10 fps. With the CUDA code integrated into the LabVIEW VI, the processing and display of SFI images were performed also at ∼10 fps. We present three video examples depicting real-time flow imaging during a reactive hyperemia maneuver, with fluid flow through an in vitro phantom, and a demonstration of real-time LSI during laser surgery of a port wine stain birthmark. PMID:21280915

  5. Raman Based Process Monitor For Continuous Real-Time Analysis Of High Level Radioactive Waste Components

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Samuel A.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Schlahta, Stephan N.

    2008-05-27

    ABSTRACT A new monitoring system was developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to quickly generate real-time data/analysis to facilitate a timely response to the dynamic characteristics of a radioactive high level waste stream. The developed process monitor features Raman and Coriolis/conductivity instrumentation configured for the remote monitoring, MatLab-based chemometric data processing, and comprehensive software for data acquisition/storage/archiving/display. The monitoring system is capable of simultaneously and continuously quantifying the levels of all the chemically significant anions within the waste stream including nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, carbonate, chromate, hydroxide, sulfate, and aluminate. The total sodium ion concentration was also determined independently by modeling inputs from on-line conductivity and density meters. In addition to the chemical information, this monitoring system provides immediate real-time data on the flow parameters, such as flow rate and temperature, and cumulative mass/volume of the retrieved waste stream. The components and analytical tools of the new process monitor can be tailored for a variety of complex mixtures in chemically harsh environments, such as pulp and paper processing liquids, electroplating solutions, and radioactive tank wastes. The developed monitoring system was tested for acceptability before it was deployed for use in Hanford Tank S-109 retrieval activities. The acceptance tests included performance inspection of hardware, software, and chemometric data analysis to determine the expected measurement accuracy for the different chemical species that are encountered during S-109 retrieval.

  6. Raman Based Process Monitor for Continuous Real-Time Analysis Of High Level Radioactive Waste Components

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, S.; Levitskaia, T.; Schlahta, St.

    2008-07-01

    A new monitoring system was developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to quickly generate real-time data/analysis to facilitate a timely response to the dynamic characteristics of a radioactive high level waste stream. The developed process monitor features Raman and Coriolis/conductivity instrumentation configured for the remote monitoring, MatLab-based chemometric data processing, and comprehensive software for data acquisition/storage/archiving/display. The monitoring system is capable of simultaneously and continuously quantifying the levels of all the chemically significant anions within the waste stream including nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, carbonate, chromate, hydroxide, sulfate, and aluminate. The total sodium ion concentration was also determined independently by modeling inputs from on-line conductivity and density meters. In addition to the chemical information, this monitoring system provides immediate real-time data on the flow parameters, such as flow rate and temperature, and cumulative mass/volume of the retrieved waste stream. The components and analytical tools of the new process monitor can be tailored for a variety of complex mixtures in chemically harsh environments, such as pulp and paper processing liquids, electroplating solutions, and radioactive tank wastes. The developed monitoring system was tested for acceptability before it was deployed for use in Hanford Tank S-109 retrieval activities. The acceptance tests included performance inspection of hardware, software, and chemometric data analysis to determine the expected measurement accuracy for the different chemical species that are encountered during S-109 retrieval. (authors)

  7. [Design and implementation of real-time processing platform for movement error correction of hyperspectrual imaging].

    PubMed

    Yu, Tao; Hu, Bing-liang; Gao, Xiao-hui; Wei, Ru-yi; Jing, Juan-juan

    2012-08-01

    The approach that deals with compressed and packed image data transmitted from satellite to the ground is too slow for real-time application occasion, it also has huge image, multi-processing step and complexity recovery arithmetic synchronously, so it is urgent to build accurate and fast data processing platform for real-time processing. For the moment, the platform for data recovery and error correction is much less, the so-called successful platform may directly affect the effect of target detection and identification because of processing speed, precision, flexibility, configuration and upgrade. The platform we build is to set spatial modulation spectrometer as the research goal, We design and implement a hardware platform based on Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA, It is combined with ISE IP soft-core resources which is configurable, high-precision and flexible by focusing on analyzing key aspects of the hardware platform. And the relevant test data were drawn, then a good way for spectrum recovery and error correction was explored. PMID:23156797

  8. Real-time speckle variance swept-source optical coherence tomography using a graphics processing unit

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kenneth K. C.; Mariampillai, Adrian; Yu, Joe X. Z.; Cadotte, David W.; Wilson, Brian C.; Standish, Beau A.; Yang, Victor X. D.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Advances in swept source laser technology continues to increase the imaging speed of swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) systems. These fast imaging speeds are ideal for microvascular detection schemes, such as speckle variance (SV), where interframe motion can cause severe imaging artifacts and loss of vascular contrast. However, full utilization of the laser scan speed has been hindered by the computationally intensive signal processing required by SS-OCT and SV calculations. Using a commercial graphics processing unit that has been optimized for parallel data processing, we report a complete high-speed SS-OCT platform capable of real-time data acquisition, processing, display, and saving at 108,000 lines per second. Subpixel image registration of structural images was performed in real-time prior to SV calculations in order to reduce decorrelation from stationary structures induced by the bulk tissue motion. The viability of the system was successfully demonstrated in a high bulk tissue motion scenario of human fingernail root imaging where SV images (512 × 512 pixels, n = 4) were displayed at 54 frames per second. PMID:22808428

  9. Reading Between the Spikes: Real-Time Signal Processing in Neural Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warland, David Karsten

    This thesis discusses biological strategies for real-time signal processing in neural systems. Nearly all creatures encode information about the world as patterns of identically shaped action potentials, or "spikes". As a result, all the animal's knowledge of the world is contained in the occurrence times of these discrete events. Traditional approaches to the study of neural coding emphasize the encoding process, resulting in predictions of average neural responses to a limited class of stimuli. However, these studies fail to address the relevant biological question: What can the organism "learn" about the outside world from real-time observations of its own spike trains? Therefore, this thesis approaches neural coding from the point of view of the organism itself: We learn to decode neural spike trains to obtain real-time estimates of sensory stimuli. In particular, this ability to extract continuous signals from spiking cells, together with the definition of an equivalent spectral noise level for a spiking neuron allows characterization of the information contained in patterns of neural response as well as forming the basis for the prediction of optimal neural computation strategies with spike trains. These methods are applied to the design and analysis of experiments on a single wide field, movement -sensitive neuron (H1) in the visual system of the blowfly Calliphora erythrocephela and to the filiform hair receptors of the wind-sensing system of the cricket Acheta domestica. This thesis also discusses the generalization of these strategies to collections of neurons and the applications to future work in the context of neural computation in the retina.

  10. Iterative LQG Controller Design Through Closed-Loop Identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsiao, Min-Hung; Huang, Jen-Kuang; Cox, David E.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an iterative Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) controller design approach for a linear stochastic system with an uncertain open-loop model and unknown noise statistics. This approach consists of closed-loop identification and controller redesign cycles. In each cycle, the closed-loop identification method is used to identify an open-loop model and a steady-state Kalman filter gain from closed-loop input/output test data obtained by using a feedback LQG controller designed from the previous cycle. Then the identified open-loop model is used to redesign the state feedback. The state feedback and the identified Kalman filter gain are used to form an updated LQC controller for the next cycle. This iterative process continues until the updated controller converges. The proposed controller design is demonstrated by numerical simulations and experiments on a highly unstable large-gap magnetic suspension system.

  11. Peta-Flop Real Time Radio Astronomy Signal Processing Instrumentation and the CASPER Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werthimer, Dan

    2014-04-01

    I will briefly describe next generation radio telescopes, such as HERA and the Square Kilometer Array (SKA), which will require 1E15 to 1E17 operations per second of real time processing. I'll present some of the new architectures we've used to develop a variety of heterogeneous FPGA-GPU-CPU based signal processing systems for such telescopes, including spectrometers, correlators, and beam formers. I will also describe the CASPER collaboration, which has developed architectures, open source programming tools, libraries and reference designs that make it relatively easy to develop a variety of scalable, upgradeable, fault tolerant, low power, real time digital signal processing instrumentation. CASPER utilizes commercial 10Gbit and 40 Gbit ethernet switches to interconnect open source general purpose field programmable gate array (FPGA) boards with GPUs and software modules. CASPER collaborators at hundreds of universities, government labs and observatories have used these techniques to rapidly develop and deploy a variety of correlators, beamformers, spectrometers, pulsar/transient machines, and VLBI instrumentation. CASPER instrumentation is also utilized in physics, medicine, genomics and engineering. Open source source hardware, software, libraries, tools, tutorials, reference designs, information about workshops, and how to join the collaboration are available at http://casper.berkeley.edu

  12. Image Corruption Detection in Diffusion Tensor Imaging for Post-Processing and Real-Time Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yue; Shea, Steven M.; Lorenz, Christine H.; Jiang, Hangyi; Chou, Ming-Chung; Mori, Susumu

    2013-01-01

    Due to the high sensitivity of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to physiological motion, clinical DTI scans often suffer a significant amount of artifacts. Tensor-fitting-based, post-processing outlier rejection is often used to reduce the influence of motion artifacts. Although it is an effective approach, when there are multiple corrupted data, this method may no longer correctly identify and reject the corrupted data. In this paper, we introduce a new criterion called “corrected Inter-Slice Intensity Discontinuity” (cISID) to detect motion-induced artifacts. We compared the performance of algorithms using cISID and other existing methods with regard to artifact detection. The experimental results show that the integration of cISID into fitting-based methods significantly improves the retrospective detection performance at post-processing analysis. The performance of the cISID criterion, if used alone, was inferior to the fitting-based methods, but cISID could effectively identify severely corrupted images with a rapid calculation time. In the second part of this paper, an outlier rejection scheme was implemented on a scanner for real-time monitoring of image quality and reacquisition of the corrupted data. The real-time monitoring, based on cISID and followed by post-processing, fitting-based outlier rejection, could provide a robust environment for routine DTI studies. PMID:24204551

  13. Real Time Implementation of Wiener Model PI (WMPI) Controller in a Conical Tank Liquid Level Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaba, P. K.; Sathishbabu, S.; Asokan, A.; Karunanithi, T.

    Level control is very important for the successful operation of most chemical and biochemical industries since it is through the proper control of flows and levels that the desired production rates and inventories can be achieved. The aim of this study was the development and real time implementation of a Wiener Model based PI Controller (WMPIC) for a conical tank level process. The conical tank level process exhibits severe static non-linear behavior and dynamic characteristics. Here, a WMPIC structure was developed by the way of compensating the process static non-linearity. Tuning rules suggested by PadmaSree-Srinivas-Chidambaram (2004) and Ziegler-Nichols (1942) were considered here for designing the controller. The real time implementation results of wiener model based PI controller were compared with those obtained using a conventional Linear PI Controller (LPIC). The performance of these controllers was analyzed in terms of Integral Square Error (ISE) criterion. In addition to this, the robustness of the controllers was also analyzed.

  14. FPGA based image processing for optical surface inspection with real time constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasani, Ylber; Bodenstorfer, Ernst; Brodersen, Jörg; Mayer, Konrad J.

    2015-02-01

    Today, high-quality printing products like banknotes, stamps, or vouchers, are automatically checked by optical surface inspection systems. In a typical optical surface inspection system, several digital cameras acquire the printing products with fine resolution from different viewing angles and at multiple wavelengths of the visible and also near infrared spectrum of light. The cameras deliver data streams with a huge amount of image data that have to be processed by an image processing system in real time. Due to the printing industry's demand for higher throughput together with the necessity to check finer details of the print and its security features, the data rates to be processed tend to explode. In this contribution, a solution is proposed, where the image processing load is distributed between FPGAs and digital signal processors (DSPs) in such a way that the strengths of both technologies can be exploited. The focus lies upon the implementation of image processing algorithms in an FPGA and its advantages. In the presented application, FPGAbased image-preprocessing enables real-time implementation of an optical color surface inspection system with a spatial resolution of 100 μm and for object speeds over 10 m/s. For the implementation of image processing algorithms in the FPGA, pipeline parallelism with clock frequencies up to 150 MHz together with spatial parallelism based on multiple instantiations of modules for parallel processing of multiple data streams are exploited for the processing of image data of two cameras and three color channels. Due to their flexibility and their fast response times, it is shown that FPGAs are ideally suited for realizing a configurable all-digital PLL for the processing of camera line-trigger signals with frequencies about 100 kHz, using pure synchronous digital circuit design.

  15. A closed-loop dual-modulation multi-spectral polarimeter for glucose monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhen fang; Pirnstill, Casey W.; Coté, Gerard L.

    2016-03-01

    Optical polarimetry is a promising noninvasive means of assessing glucose concentration in the aqueous humor of the eye. One the major limiting factors is time-varying cornea birefringence due to motion artifact, which prevents the realization of this device. In this study, we simultaneously utilize laser intensity modulation and Faraday polarization rotation modulation for a real-time closed-loop multi-spectral polarimeter for glucose monitoring in vitro. In this report, a real-time closed-loop dual-modulation dual-spectral polarimeter was presented and in vitro glucose measurements were performed demonstrating the accuracy and repeatability of this polarimeter.

  16. Study on algorithm and real-time implementation of infrared image processing based on FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Yulin; Ding, Ruijun; Liu, Shanshan; Chen, Zhe

    2010-10-01

    With the fast development of Infrared Focal Plane Arrays (IRFPA) detectors, high quality real-time image processing becomes more important in infrared imaging system. Facing the demand of better visual effect and good performance, we find FPGA is an ideal choice of hardware to realize image processing algorithm that fully taking advantage of its high speed, high reliability and processing a great amount of data in parallel. In this paper, a new idea of dynamic linear extension algorithm is introduced, which has the function of automatically finding the proper extension range. This image enhancement algorithm is designed in Verilog HDL and realized on FPGA. It works on higher speed than serial processing device like CPU and DSP. Experiment shows that this hardware unit of dynamic linear extension algorithm enhances the visual effect of infrared image effectively.

  17. Real-time processing in picture naming in adults who stutter: ERP evidence

    PubMed Central

    Maxfield, Nathan D.; Morris, Kalie; Frisch, Stefan A.; Morphew, Kathryn; Constantine, Joseph L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim was to compare real-time language/cognitive processing in picture naming in adults who stutter (AWS) versus typically-fluent adults (TFA). Methods Participants named pictures preceded by masked prime words. Primes and target picture labels were Identical or mismatched. Priming effects on naming and picture-elicited ERP activity were analyzed. Vocabulary knowledge correlations with these measures were assessed. Results Priming improved naming RTs and accuracy in both groups. RTs were longer for AWS, and correlated positively with receptive vocabulary in TFA. Electrophysiologically, posterior-P1 amplitude negatively correlated with expressive vocabulary in TFA versus receptive vocabulary in AWS. Frontal/temporal-P1 amplitude correlated positively with expressive vocabulary in AWS. Identity priming enhanced frontal/posterior-N2 amplitude in both groups, and attenuated P280 amplitude in AWS. N400 priming was topographically-restricted in AWS. Conclusions Results suggest that conceptual knowledge was perceptually-grounded in expressive vocabulary in TFA versus receptive vocabulary in AWS. Poorer expressive vocabulary in AWS was potentially associated with greater suppression of irrelevant conceptual information. Priming enhanced N2-indexed cognitive control and visual attention in both groups. P280-indexed focal attention attenuated with priming in AWS only. Topographically-restricted N400 priming suggests that lemma/word form connections were weaker in AWS. Significance Real-time language/cognitive processing in picture naming operates differently in AWS. PMID:24910149

  18. Real-time digital signal processing in multiphoton and time-resolved microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Jesse W.; Warren, Warren S.; Fischer, Martin C.

    2016-03-01

    The use of multiphoton interactions in biological tissue for imaging contrast requires highly sensitive optical measurements. These often involve signal processing and filtering steps between the photodetector and the data acquisition device, such as photon counting and lock-in amplification. These steps can be implemented as real-time digital signal processing (DSP) elements on field-programmable gate array (FPGA) devices, an approach that affords much greater flexibility than commercial photon counting or lock-in devices. We will present progress toward developing two new FPGA-based DSP devices for multiphoton and time-resolved microscopy applications. The first is a high-speed multiharmonic lock-in amplifier for transient absorption microscopy, which is being developed for real-time analysis of the intensity-dependence of melanin, with applications in vivo and ex vivo (noninvasive histopathology of melanoma and pigmented lesions). The second device is a kHz lock-in amplifier running on a low cost (50-200) development platform. It is our hope that these FPGA-based DSP devices will enable new, high-speed, low-cost applications in multiphoton and time-resolved microscopy.

  19. [Real time diagnostics of instantaneous temperature of combustion and explosion process by modern spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xue-tie; Wang, Jun-de; Li, Yan; Liu, Da-bing

    2003-04-01

    The combustion temperature is one of the important parameters to express flame combustion and explosion characteristics. It will effectively guide the design and manufacture of new model explosives, industrial explosive materials, and weapons. The recent developments and applications of real time diagnostics of instantaneous temperature of combustion and explosion processes by modern spectroscopic methods, such as atomic absorption-emission method, atomic emission two-line spectroscopy, atomic emission multiline spectroscopy, molecular rotation-vibration spectroscopy, coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and plane laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF), were reviewed in this paper. The maximum time resolution of atomic absorption-emission method is 25 microseconds. The time resolution of atomic emission two-line spectroscopy can reach 0.1 microsecond. These two methods can completely suit the need of real time and instantaneous temperature diagnostics of violent explosion and flame combustion. Other methods will also provide new effective research methods for the processes and characteristics of combustion, flame and explosion. PMID:12961909

  20. Real-time processing of off-axis interferograms: from the camera to the user

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girshovitz, Pinhas; Gabay, Tamir; Shaked, Natan T.

    2014-07-01

    We review new algorithms that have been presented by us lately1 for fast reconstruction and phase unwrapping of sample wave-fronts recorded using off-axis digital holographic imaging. These algorithms enable reconstruction and phase unwrapping of sample wave-fronts up to 16 times faster than the conventional Fourier-based reconstruction algorithm. The algorithms exploit the compression properties of holographic imaging for decreasing the calculation complexity required for extracting the sample wave-front from the recorded interferogram. Using the presented algorithms, we were able to reconstruct, for the first time, 1 Mega pixels off-axis interferograms in more than 30 frames per second using a standard single-core personal computer on a Matlab-Labview interface, without using a graphic processing-unit programming or parallel computing. This computational speedup is important for real-time visualization, calculation and data extraction for dynamic samples and processes that are evaluated using off-axis digital holography such as biological cell imaging and real-time nondestructive testing.

  1. Real-Time On-Board Processing Validation of MSPI Ground Camera Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pingree, Paula J.; Werne, Thomas A.; Bekker, Dmitriy L.

    2010-01-01

    The Earth Sciences Decadal Survey identifies a multiangle, multispectral, high-accuracy polarization imager as one requirement for the Aerosol-Cloud-Ecosystem (ACE) mission. JPL has been developing a Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (MSPI) as a candidate to fill this need. A key technology development needed for MSPI is on-board signal processing to calculate polarimetry data as imaged by each of the 9 cameras forming the instrument. With funding from NASA's Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) Program, JPL is solving the real-time data processing requirements to demonstrate, for the first time, how signal data at 95 Mbytes/sec over 16-channels for each of the 9 multiangle cameras in the spaceborne instrument can be reduced on-board to 0.45 Mbytes/sec. This will produce the intensity and polarization data needed to characterize aerosol and cloud microphysical properties. Using the Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA including PowerPC440 processors we have implemented a least squares fitting algorithm that extracts intensity and polarimetric parameters in real-time, thereby substantially reducing the image data volume for spacecraft downlink without loss of science information.

  2. A design of real time image capturing and processing system using Texas Instrument's processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wee, Toon-Joo; Chaisorn, Lekha; Rahardja, Susanto; Gan, Woon-Seng

    2007-09-01

    In this work, we developed and implemented an image capturing and processing system that equipped with capability of capturing images from an input video in real time. The input video can be a video from a PC, video camcorder or DVD player. We developed two modes of operation in the system. In the first mode, an input image from the PC is processed on the processing board (development platform with a digital signal processor) and is displayed on the PC. In the second mode, current captured image from the video camcorder (or from DVD player) is processed on the board but is displayed on the LCD monitor. The major difference between our system and other existing conventional systems is that image-processing functions are performed on the board instead of the PC (so that the functions can be used for further developments on the board). The user can control the operations of the board through the Graphic User Interface (GUI) provided on the PC. In order to have a smooth image data transfer between the PC and the board, we employed Real Time Data Transfer (RTDX TM) technology to create a link between them. For image processing functions, we developed three main groups of function: (1) Point Processing; (2) Filtering and; (3) 'Others'. Point Processing includes rotation, negation and mirroring. Filter category provides median, adaptive, smooth and sharpen filtering in the time domain. In 'Others' category, auto-contrast adjustment, edge detection, segmentation and sepia color are provided, these functions either add effect on the image or enhance the image. We have developed and implemented our system using C/C# programming language on TMS320DM642 (or DM642) board from Texas Instruments (TI). The system was showcased in College of Engineering (CoE) exhibition 2006 at Nanyang Technological University (NTU) and have more than 40 users tried our system. It is demonstrated that our system is adequate for real time image capturing. Our system can be used or applied for

  3. Real-Time Detection Methods to Monitor TRU Compositions in UREX+Process Streams

    SciTech Connect

    McDeavitt, Sean; Charlton, William; Indacochea, J Ernesto; taleyarkhan, Rusi; Pereira, Candido

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has developed advanced methods for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel. The majority of this development was accomplished under the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), building on the strong legacy of process development R&D over the past 50 years. The most prominent processing method under development is named UREX+. The name refers to a family of processing methods that begin with the Uranium Extraction (UREX) process and incorporate a variety of other methods to separate uranium, selected fission products, and the transuranic (TRU) isotopes from dissolved spent nuclear fuel. It is important to consider issues such as safeguards strategies and materials control and accountability methods. Monitoring of higher actinides during aqueous separations is a critical research area. By providing on-line materials accountability for the processes, covert diversion of the materials streams becomes much more difficult. The importance of the nuclear fuel cycle continues to rise on national and international agendas. The U.S. Department of Energy is evaluating and developing advanced methods for safeguarding nuclear materials along with instrumentation in various stages of the fuel cycle, especially in material balance areas (MBAs) and during reprocessing of used nuclear fuel. One of the challenges related to the implementation of any type of MBA and/or reprocessing technology (e.g., PUREX or UREX) is the real-time quantification and control of the transuranic (TRU) isotopes as they move through the process. Monitoring of higher actinides from their neutron emission (including multiplicity) and alpha signatures during transit in MBAs and in aqueous separations is a critical research area. By providing on-line real-time materials accountability, diversion of the materials becomes much more difficult. The objective of this consortium was to develop real time detection methods to monitor the efficacy of the UREX+ process and to safeguard the separated

  4. Demonstration of real-time monitoring of a photolithographic exposure process using chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Mowry, C.D.

    1998-02-01

    Silicon wafers are coated with photoresist and exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light in a laboratory to simulate typical conditions expected in an actual semiconductor manufacturing process tool. Air is drawn through the exposure chamber and analyzed using chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CI/MS). Species that evaporate or outgas from the wafer are thus detected. The purpose of such analyses is to determine the potential of CI/MS as a real-time process monitoring tool. Results demonstrate that CI/MS can remotely detect the products evolved before, during, and after wafer UV exposure; and that the quantity and type of products vary with the photoresist coated on the wafer. Such monitoring could provide semiconductor manufacturers benefits in quality control and process analysis. Tool and photoresist manufacturers could also realize benefits from this measurement technique with respect to new tool, method, or photoresist development. The benefits realized can lead to improved device yields and reduced product and development costs.

  5. Real-time dielectric-film thickness measurement system for plasma processing chamber wall monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin-Yong; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2015-12-01

    An in-situ real-time processing chamber wall monitoring system was developed. In order to measure the thickness of the dielectric film, two frequencies of small sinusoidal voltage (˜1 V) signals were applied to an electrically floated planar type probe, which is positioned at chamber wall surface, and the amplitudes of the currents and the phase differences between the voltage and current were measured. By using an equivalent sheath circuit model including a sheath capacitance, the dielectric thickness can be obtained. Experiments were performed in various plasma condition, and reliable dielectric film thickness was obtained regardless of the plasma properties. In addition, availability in commercial chamber for plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition was verified. This study is expected to contribute to the control of etching and deposition processes and optimization of periodic maintenance in semiconductor manufacturing process.

  6. Monitoring real-time navigation processes using the automated reasoning tool (ART)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maletz, M. C.; Culbert, C. J.

    1985-01-01

    An expert system is described for monitoring and controlling navigation processes in real-time. The ART-based system features data-driven computation, accommodation of synchronous and asynchronous data, temporal modeling for individual time intervals and chains of time intervals, and hypothetical reasoning capabilities that consider alternative interpretations of the state of navigation processes. The concept is illustrated in terms of the NAVEX system for monitoring and controlling the high speed ground navigation console for Mission Control at Johnson Space Center. The reasoning processes are outlined, including techniques used to consider alternative data interpretations. Installation of the system has permitted using a single operator, instead of three, to monitor the ascent and entry phases of a Shuttle mission.

  7. High-speed camera with internal real-time image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paindavoine, M.; Mosqueron, R.; Dubois, J.; Clerc, C.; Grapin, J. C.; Tomasini, F.

    2005-08-01

    High-speed video cameras are powerful tools for investigating for instance the dynamics of fluids or the movements of mechanical parts in manufacturing processes. In the past years, the use of CMOS sensors instead of CCDs have made possible the development of high-speed video cameras offering digital outputs, readout flexibility and lower manufacturing costs. In this field, we designed a new fast CMOS camera with a 1280×1024 pixels resolution at 500 fps. In order to transmit from the camera only useful information from the fast images, we studied some specific algorithms like edge detection, wavelet analysis, image compression and object tracking. These image processing algorithms have been implemented into a FPGA embedded inside the camera. This FPGA technology allows us to process fast images in real time.

  8. All-IP-Ethernet architecture for real-time sensor-fusion processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraki, Kei; Inaba, Mary; Tezuka, Hiroshi; Tomari, Hisanobu; Koizumi, Kenichi; Kondo, Shuya

    2016-03-01

    Serendipter is a device that distinguishes and selects very rare particles and cells from huge amount of population. We are currently designing and constructing information processing system for a Serendipter. The information processing system for Serendipter is a kind of sensor-fusion system but with much more difficulties: To fulfill these requirements, we adopt All IP based architecture: All IP-Ethernet based data processing system consists of (1) sensor/detector directly output data as IP-Ethernet packet stream, (2) single Ethernet/TCP/IP streams by a L2 100Gbps Ethernet switch, (3) An FPGA board with 100Gbps Ethernet I/F connected to the switch and a Xeon based server. Circuits in the FPGA include 100Gbps Ethernet MAC, buffers and preprocessing, and real-time Deep learning circuits using multi-layer neural networks. Proposed All-IP architecture solves existing problem to construct large-scale sensor-fusion systems.

  9. Computer-enhanced video microscopy: digitally processed microscope images can be produced in real time.

    PubMed Central

    Walter, R J; Berns, M W

    1981-01-01

    Digital processing techniques can be used to greatly enhance the available information in an optical image. Although this technology has been routinely used in many fields for a number of years, little application of digital image-processing techniques have been made toward analysis and enhancement of the types of images seen most often by the research biologist. We describe here a computer-based video microscope system that is capable of performing extensive manipulation and enhancement of microscope images in real time. The types of manipulations possible with these techniques greatly surpass the enhancement capabilities of photographic or video techniques alone. The speed and flexibility of this system enables experimental manipulation of the microscopic specimen based on its live processed image. These features greatly extend the power and versatility of the light microscope. Images PMID:6947267

  10. A novel time-domain signal processing algorithm for real time ventricular fibrillation detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monte, G. E.; Scarone, N. C.; Liscovsky, P. O.; Rotter S/N, P.

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents an application of a novel algorithm for real time detection of ECG pathologies, especially ventricular fibrillation. It is based on segmentation and labeling process of an oversampled signal. After this treatment, analyzing sequence of segments, global signal behaviours are obtained in the same way like a human being does. The entire process can be seen as a morphological filtering after a smart data sampling. The algorithm does not require any ECG digital signal pre-processing, and the computational cost is low, so it can be embedded into the sensors for wearable and permanent applications. The proposed algorithms could be the input signal description to expert systems or to artificial intelligence software in order to detect other pathologies.

  11. Improved radar data processing algorithms for quantitative rainfall estimation in real time.

    PubMed

    Krämer, S; Verworn, H R

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a new methodology to process C-band radar data for direct use as rainfall input to hydrologic and hydrodynamic models and in real time control of urban drainage systems. In contrast to the adjustment of radar data with the help of rain gauges, the new approach accounts for the microphysical properties of current rainfall. In a first step radar data are corrected for attenuation. This phenomenon has been identified as the main cause for the general underestimation of radar rainfall. Systematic variation of the attenuation coefficients within predefined bounds allows robust reflectivity profiling. Secondly, event specific R-Z relations are applied to the corrected radar reflectivity data in order to generate quantitative reliable radar rainfall estimates. The results of the methodology are validated by a network of 37 rain gauges located in the Emscher and Lippe river basins. Finally, the relevance of the correction methodology for radar rainfall forecasts is demonstrated. It has become clearly obvious, that the new methodology significantly improves the radar rainfall estimation and rainfall forecasts. The algorithms are applicable in real time. PMID:19587415

  12. Near real-time AIRS processing and distribution system: from design to operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Walter; King, Thomas; Goldberg, Mitchell D.; Zhou, Lihang; Barnet, Chris D.

    2004-10-01

    A near real-time AIRS processing and distribution system is fully operational at NOAA/NESDIS/ORA. The AIRS system went though three separate production phases: design and development, implementation, and operations. The design and development phase consisted of two years of preparation for the near real-time AIRS data. The approach was to fully emulate the AIRS measurement stream. This was accomplished by using a forecast model to represent the geophysical state and computation of simulated AIRS measurements using the characteristics of the AIRS channels. The preparation included file format development and the creation of a program to subset the radiance and product data. The implementation phase lasted over a year and involved utilizing AIRS/AMSU/HSB simulated data quasi-operationally. This simulated data was placed into deliverable files and distributed to the customers for their pre-launch preparations. The operational phase consisted of switching the simulation system to real data and is the current system status. Details of what went right and wrong at each production phase will be presented. This methodology eased the transition to operations and will be applied to other advanced sounders such as IASI and CrIS.

  13. Bifunctional electro-optical nanoprobe to real-time detect local biochemical processes in single cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xin Ting; Hu, Weihua; Wang, Houxiao; Yang, Hongbin; Zhou, Wei; Li, Chang Ming

    2011-07-15

    A bifunctional electro-optical nanoprobe with integrated nanoring electrode and optical nanotip was fabricated and investigated to simultaneously detect both electrical and optical signals in real-time with high spatial resolution. Concurrent measurements of the oxidant generation and the intracellular antioxidant levels in single cells correlate the stronger oxidant generation with an altered initial antioxidant response in the breast cancer cells in comparison to the normal ones suggesting that the cell malignancy is associated with the strength of oxidative stress, and the higher antioxidant level may be the cause of the drug resistance. While the optical detection indicates the fluctuation of the intracellular redox homeostasis, the chronoamperometric signals allow quantitative real-time detection of the H₂O₂ release and decay. Furthermore, the nanoscale probe enables localized simultaneous detections thus discovering that activated enzymes responsible for the oxidative stress target at specific membrane regions. This method promises applications in study of the dynamics of important physiological processes, and provides the opportunity to unravel the interplay of various signaling pathways. PMID:21632233

  14. Validation of Real-Time Data Processing for the Ground and Air-MSPI Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werne, Thomas; Bekker, Dmitriy L.; Pingree, Paula J.

    2011-01-01

    JPL is currently developing the multi-angle spectro-polarimetric imager (MSPI), targeted for the Aerosol-Cloud-Ecosystems (ACE) mission, as defined in the National Academies 2007 Decadal Survey. In preparation for the space instrument, the MSPI team has built two incremental camera systems (Ground- and Air-MSPI) to improve understanding of the proposed architecture. Ground-MSPI is a gimballed instrument used primarily for stationary observation and characterization of the imager and optics. The ER-2 based Air-MSPI operates in a step-and-stare mode, providing multi-angle imaging of a static target. This mode-of-operation simulates the observation scenario of the space instrument. Physically, MSPI is a pushbroom camera with a specialized frontend. Before imaging, light entering the camera passes through a pair of photoelastic modulators and a set of pattern polarizers. These optical elements act on the light to make polarimetric extraction computationally feasible. Calculating polarimetric parameters from the imager's data stream requires a real-time least-squares computation that produces coefficients of a truncated time-series expansion of the image. As reported in, the data processing algorithm can operate in real-time on a Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA. Moving beyond verification with an onboard data source, the algorithm has been validated on a commercial development board interfaced with the ground camera. In addition, the algorithm has been instantiated within the Air-MSPI electronics board's FPGA, and in situ first-light has been achieved.

  15. Real-time image processing for passive mmW imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozacik, Stephen; Paolini, Aaron; Bonnett, James; Harrity, Charles; Mackrides, Daniel; Dillon, Thomas E.; Martin, Richard D.; Schuetz, Christopher A.; Kelmelis, Eric; Prather, Dennis W.

    2015-05-01

    The transmission characteristics of millimeter waves (mmWs) make them suitable for many applications in defense and security, from airport preflight scanning to penetrating degraded visual environments such as brownout or heavy fog. While the cold sky provides sufficient illumination for these images to be taken passively in outdoor scenarios, this utility comes at a cost; the diffraction limit of the longer wavelengths involved leads to lower resolution imagery compared to the visible or IR regimes, and the low power levels inherent to passive imagery allow the data to be more easily degraded by noise. Recent techniques leveraging optical upconversion have shown significant promise, but are still subject to fundamental limits in resolution and signal-to-noise ratio. To address these issues we have applied techniques developed for visible and IR imagery to decrease noise and increase resolution in mmW imagery. We have developed these techniques into fieldable software, making use of GPU platforms for real-time operation of computationally complex image processing algorithms. We present data from a passive, 77 GHz, distributed aperture, video-rate imaging platform captured during field tests at full video rate. These videos demonstrate the increase in situational awareness that can be gained through applying computational techniques in real-time without needing changes in detection hardware.

  16. Software-Based Real-Time Acquisition and Processing of PET Detector Raw Data.

    PubMed

    Goldschmidt, Benjamin; Schug, David; Lerche, Christoph W; Salomon, André; Gebhardt, Pierre; Weissler, Bjoern; Wehner, Jakob; Dueppenbecker, Peter M; Kiessling, Fabian; Schulz, Volkmar

    2016-02-01

    In modern positron emission tomography (PET) readout architectures, the position and energy estimation of scintillation events (singles) and the detection of coincident events (coincidences) are typically carried out on highly integrated, programmable printed circuit boards. The implementation of advanced singles and coincidence processing (SCP) algorithms for these architectures is often limited by the strict constraints of hardware-based data processing. In this paper, we present a software-based data acquisition and processing architecture (DAPA) that offers a high degree of flexibility for advanced SCP algorithms through relaxed real-time constraints and an easily extendible data processing framework. The DAPA is designed to acquire detector raw data from independent (but synchronized) detector modules and process the data for singles and coincidences in real-time using a center-of-gravity (COG)-based, a least-squares (LS)-based, or a maximum-likelihood (ML)-based crystal position and energy estimation approach (CPEEA). To test the DAPA, we adapted it to a preclinical PET detector that outputs detector raw data from 60 independent digital silicon photomultiplier (dSiPM)-based detector stacks and evaluated it with a [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-filled hot-rod phantom. The DAPA is highly reliable with less than 0.1% of all detector raw data lost or corrupted. For high validation thresholds (37.1 ± 12.8 photons per pixel) of the dSiPM detector tiles, the DAPA is real time capable up to 55 MBq for the COG-based CPEEA, up to 31 MBq for the LS-based CPEEA, and up to 28 MBq for the ML-based CPEEA. Compared to the COG-based CPEEA, the rods in the image reconstruction of the hot-rod phantom are only slightly better separable and less blurred for the LS- and ML-based CPEEA. While the coincidence time resolution (∼ 500 ps) and energy resolution (∼12.3%) are comparable for all three CPEEA, the system sensitivity is up to 2.5 × higher for the LS- and ML-based CPEEA

  17. Real time explosive hazard information sensing, processing, and communication for autonomous operation

    DOEpatents

    Versteeg, Roelof J.; Few, Douglas A.; Kinoshita, Robert A.; Johnson, Douglas; Linda, Ondrej

    2015-12-15

    Methods, computer readable media, and apparatuses provide robotic explosive hazard detection. A robot intelligence kernel (RIK) includes a dynamic autonomy structure with two or more autonomy levels between operator intervention and robot initiative A mine sensor and processing module (ESPM) operating separately from the RIK perceives environmental variables indicative of a mine using subsurface perceptors. The ESPM processes mine information to determine a likelihood of a presence of a mine. A robot can autonomously modify behavior responsive to an indication of a detected mine. The behavior is modified between detection of mines, detailed scanning and characterization of the mine, developing mine indication parameters, and resuming detection. Real time messages are passed between the RIK and the ESPM. A combination of ESPM bound messages and RIK bound messages cause the robot platform to switch between modes including a calibration mode, the mine detection mode, and the mine characterization mode.

  18. Real time explosive hazard information sensing, processing, and communication for autonomous operation

    DOEpatents

    Versteeg, Roelof J; Few, Douglas A; Kinoshita, Robert A; Johnson, Doug; Linda, Ondrej

    2015-02-24

    Methods, computer readable media, and apparatuses provide robotic explosive hazard detection. A robot intelligence kernel (RIK) includes a dynamic autonomy structure with two or more autonomy levels between operator intervention and robot initiative A mine sensor and processing module (ESPM) operating separately from the RIK perceives environmental variables indicative of a mine using subsurface perceptors. The ESPM processes mine information to determine a likelihood of a presence of a mine. A robot can autonomously modify behavior responsive to an indication of a detected mine. The behavior is modified between detection of mines, detailed scanning and characterization of the mine, developing mine indication parameters, and resuming detection. Real time messages are passed between the RIK and the ESPM. A combination of ESPM bound messages and RIK bound messages cause the robot platform to switch between modes including a calibration mode, the mine detection mode, and the mine characterization mode.

  19. The Information Adaptive System - A demonstration of real-time onboard image processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, G. L.; Carney, P. C.; Meredith, B. D.

    1983-01-01

    The Information Adaptive System (IAS) program has the objective to develop and demonstrate, at the brassboard level, an architecture which can be used to perform advanced signal procesing functions on board the spacecraft. Particular attention is given to the processing of high-speed multispectral imaging data in real-time, and the development of advanced technology which could be employed for future space applications. An IAS functional description is provided, and questions of radiometric correction are examined. Problems of data packetization are considered along with data selection, a distortion coefficient processor, an adaptive system controller, an image processing demonstration system, a sensor simulator and output data buffer, a test support and demonstration controller, and IAS demonstration operating modes.

  20. Real Time Processing and Transferring ECG Signal by a Mobile Phone

    PubMed Central

    Raeiatibanadkooki, Mahsa; Quachani, Saeed Rahati; Khalilzade, Mohammadmahdi; Bahaadinbeigy, Kambiz

    2014-01-01

    The real-time ECG signal processing system based on mobile phones is very effective in identifying continuous ambulatory patients. It could monitor cardiovascular patients in their daily life and warns them in case of cardiac arrhythmia. An ECG signal of a patient is processed by a mobile phone with this proposed algorithm. An IIR low-pass filter is used to remove the noise and it has the 55 Hz cutoff frequency and order 3. The obtained SNR showed a desirable noise removal and it helps physicians in their diagnosis. In this paper, Hilbert transform was used and the R peaks are important component to differ normal beats from abnormal ones. The results of sensitivity and positive predictivity of algorithm are 96.97% and 95.63% respectively. If an arrhythmia occurred, 4 seconds of this signal is displayed on the mobile phone then it will be sent to a remote medical center by TCP/IP protocol. PMID:25684847

  1. Real Time Processing and Transferring ECG Signal by a Mobile Phone.

    PubMed

    Raeiatibanadkooki, Mahsa; Quachani, Saeed Rahati; Khalilzade, Mohammadmahdi; Bahaadinbeigy, Kambiz

    2014-12-01

    The real-time ECG signal processing system based on mobile phones is very effective in identifying continuous ambulatory patients. It could monitor cardiovascular patients in their daily life and warns them in case of cardiac arrhythmia. An ECG signal of a patient is processed by a mobile phone with this proposed algorithm. An IIR low-pass filter is used to remove the noise and it has the 55 Hz cutoff frequency and order 3. The obtained SNR showed a desirable noise removal and it helps physicians in their diagnosis. In this paper, Hilbert transform was used and the R peaks are important component to differ normal beats from abnormal ones. The results of sensitivity and positive predictivity of algorithm are 96.97% and 95.63% respectively. If an arrhythmia occurred, 4 seconds of this signal is displayed on the mobile phone then it will be sent to a remote medical center by TCP/IP protocol. PMID:25684847

  2. Multithreaded real-time 3D image processing software architecture and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandra, Vikas; Atanassov, Kalin; Aleksic, Milivoje; Goma, Sergio R.

    2011-03-01

    Recently, 3D displays and videos have generated a lot of interest in the consumer electronics industry. To make 3D capture and playback popular and practical, a user friendly playback interface is desirable. Towards this end, we built a real time software 3D video player. The 3D video player displays user captured 3D videos, provides for various 3D specific image processing functions and ensures a pleasant viewing experience. Moreover, the player enables user interactivity by providing digital zoom and pan functionalities. This real time 3D player was implemented on the GPU using CUDA and OpenGL. The player provides user interactive 3D video playback. Stereo images are first read by the player from a fast drive and rectified. Further processing of the images determines the optimal convergence point in the 3D scene to reduce eye strain. The rationale for this convergence point selection takes into account scene depth and display geometry. The first step in this processing chain is identifying keypoints by detecting vertical edges within the left image. Regions surrounding reliable keypoints are then located on the right image through the use of block matching. The difference in the positions between the corresponding regions in the left and right images are then used to calculate disparity. The extrema of the disparity histogram gives the scene disparity range. The left and right images are shifted based upon the calculated range, in order to place the desired region of the 3D scene at convergence. All the above computations are performed on one CPU thread which calls CUDA functions. Image upsampling and shifting is performed in response to user zoom and pan. The player also consists of a CPU display thread, which uses OpenGL rendering (quad buffers). This also gathers user input for digital zoom and pan and sends them to the processing thread.

  3. Near Real-Time Processing and Archiving of GPS Surveys for Crustal Motion Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowell, B. W.; Bock, Y.

    2008-12-01

    We present an inverse instantaneous RTK method for rapidly processing and archiving GPS data for crustal motion surveys that gives positional accuracy similar to traditional post-processing methods. We first stream 1 Hz data from GPS receivers over Bluetooth to Verizon XV6700 smartphones equipped with Geodetics, Inc. RTD Rover software. The smartphone transmits raw receiver data to a real-time server at the Scripps Orbit and Permanent Array Center (SOPAC) running RTD Pro. At the server, instantaneous positions are computed every second relative to the three closest base stations in the California Real Time Network (CRTN), using ultra-rapid orbits produced by SOPAC, the NOAATrop real-time tropospheric delay model, and ITRF2005 coordinates computed by SOPAC for the CRTN stations. The raw data are converted on-the-fly to RINEX format at the server. Data in both formats are stored on the server along with a file of instantaneous positions, computed independently at each observation epoch. The single-epoch instantaneous positions are continuously transmitted back to the field surveyor's smartphone, where RTD Rover computes a median position and interquartile range for each new epoch of observation. The best-fit solution is the last median position and is available as soon as the survey is completed. We describe how we used this method to process 1 Hz data from the February, 2008 Imperial Valley GPS survey of 38 geodetic monuments established by Imperial College, London in the 1970's, and previously measured by SOPAC using rapid-static GPS methods in 1993, 1999 and 2000, as well as 14 National Geodetic Survey (NGS) monuments. For redundancy, each monument was surveyed for about 15 minutes at least twice and at staggered intervals using two survey teams operating autonomously. Archiving of data and the overall project at SOPAC is performed using the PGM software, developed by the California Spatial Reference Center (CSRC) for the National Geodetic Survey (NGS). The

  4. Real-time design of N-dimensional digital filters for image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drynkin, Vladimir N.

    1995-12-01

    The main body of remote sensing data is obtained with the aid of optoelectronic and photographic devices. This data is usually referred to as the video information since it may be presented as images of terrestrial surface on a satellite track or an airway. This is the reason of increasing interest of specialists in the field of the remote sensing devices design to the methods of synthesis of optimal data processing hardware. The design of effective systems of the remote sensing data formation and transmission are impossible without using the state-of- the-art synthesis methods of digital image processing systems, taking account of a message source and their recipient characteristic properties. It is possible to take account of these characteristic properties only on the basis of optimal N-dimensional digital filtering. From this point of view the N-dimensional filter, used for video images filtering, becomes optimal only in the case of coincidence of the pass band region of its spatial frequency response (SFR) with the isoenergetic surface of the image spectrum with allowance for eyesight characteristics. In the light of the above the problem of N-dimensional digital filters design with the given pass band region configuration becomes actual. Incidentally the practicable interest presents first of all the methods, allowing with relatively low hardware expenses to design structures, from one part operating in the real time, and from the other -- approaching best of all the given characteristics. In this case it is necessary to ensure stability during their operation. In the following we shall present the results of the synthesis method development of N-dimensional digital filters with the guaranteed stability and the given pass band region configuration, realizing the image processing in the real time.

  5. Distributed real time data processing architecture for the TJ-II data acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, M.; Barrera, E.; López, S.; Machón, D.; Vega, J.; Sánchez, E.

    2004-10-01

    This article describes the performance of a new model of architecture that has been developed for the TJ-II data acquisition system in order to increase its real time data processing capabilities. The current model consists of several compact PCI extension for instrumentation (PXI) standard chassis, each one with various digitizers. In this architecture, the data processing capability is restricted to the PXI controller's own performance. The controller must share its CPU resources between the data processing and the data acquisition tasks. In the new model, distributed data processing architecture has been developed. The solution adds one or more processing cards to each PXI chassis. This way it is possible to plan how to distribute the data processing of all acquired signals among the processing cards and the available resources of the PXI controller. This model allows scalability of the system. More or less processing cards can be added based on the requirements of the system. The processing algorithms are implemented in LabVIEW (from National Instruments), providing efficiency and time-saving application development when compared with other efficient solutions.

  6. Processing, Cataloguing and Distribution of Uas Images in Near Real Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runkel, I.

    2013-08-01

    can be checked and interpreted in near real-time. For sensible areas it gives you the possibility to inform remote decision makers or interpretation experts in order to provide them situations awareness, wherever they are. For monitoring and inspection tasks it speeds up the process of data capture and data interpretation. The fully automated workflow of data pre-processing, data georeferencing, data cataloguing and data dissemination in near real time was developed based on the Intergraph products ERDAS IMAGINE, ERDAS APOLLO and GEOSYSTEMS METAmorph!IT. It is offered as adaptable solution by GEOSYSTEMS GmbH.

  7. Intensity Maps Production Using Real-Time Joint Streaming Data Processing From Social and Physical Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kropivnitskaya, Y. Y.; Tiampo, K. F.; Qin, J.; Bauer, M.

    2015-12-01

    Intensity is one of the most useful measures of earthquake hazard, as it quantifies the strength of shaking produced at a given distance from the epicenter. Today, there are several data sources that could be used to determine intensity level which can be divided into two main categories. The first category is represented by social data sources, in which the intensity values are collected by interviewing people who experienced the earthquake-induced shaking. In this case, specially developed questionnaires can be used in addition to personal observations published on social networks such as Twitter. These observations are assigned to the appropriate intensity level by correlating specific details and descriptions to the Modified Mercalli Scale. The second category of data sources is represented by observations from different physical sensors installed with the specific purpose of obtaining an instrumentally-derived intensity level. These are usually based on a regression of recorded peak acceleration and/or velocity amplitudes. This approach relates the recorded ground motions to the expected felt and damage distribution through empirical relationships. The goal of this work is to implement and evaluate streaming data processing separately and jointly from both social and physical sensors in order to produce near real-time intensity maps and compare and analyze their quality and evolution through 10-minute time intervals immediately following an earthquake. Results are shown for the case study of the M6.0 2014 South Napa, CA earthquake that occurred on August 24, 2014. The using of innovative streaming and pipelining computing paradigms through IBM InfoSphere Streams platform made it possible to read input data in real-time for low-latency computing of combined intensity level and production of combined intensity maps in near-real time. The results compare three types of intensity maps created based on physical, social and combined data sources. Here we correlate

  8. The application of digital computers to near-real-time processing of flutter test data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurley, S. R.

    1976-01-01

    Procedures used in monitoring, analyzing, and displaying flight and ground flutter test data are presented. These procedures include three digital computer programs developed to process structural response data in near real time. Qualitative and quantitative modal stability data are derived from time history response data resulting from rapid sinusoidal frequency sweep forcing functions, tuned-mode quick stops, and pilot induced control pulses. The techniques have been applied to both fixed and rotary wing aircraft, during flight, whirl tower rotor systems tests, and wind tunnel flutter model tests. An hydraulically driven oscillatory aerodynamic vane excitation system utilized during the flight flutter test programs accomplished during Lockheed L-1011 and S-3A development is described.

  9. A Real-Time Optical Tracking and Measurement Processing System for Flying Targets

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Pengyu; Ding, Shaowen; Zhang, Hongliang; Zhang, Xiaohu

    2014-01-01

    Optical tracking and measurement for flying targets is unlike the close range photography under a controllable observation environment, which brings extreme conditions like diverse target changes as a result of high maneuver ability and long cruising range. This paper first designed and realized a distributed image interpretation and measurement processing system to achieve resource centralized management, multisite simultaneous interpretation and adaptive estimation algorithm selection; then proposed a real-time interpretation method which contains automatic foreground detection, online target tracking, multiple features location, and human guidance. An experiment is carried out at performance and efficiency evaluation of the method by semisynthetic video. The system can be used in the field of aerospace tests like target analysis including dynamic parameter, transient states, and optical physics characteristics, with security control. PMID:24987748

  10. A real-time optical tracking and measurement processing system for flying targets.

    PubMed

    Guo, Pengyu; Ding, Shaowen; Zhang, Hongliang; Zhang, Xiaohu

    2014-01-01

    Optical tracking and measurement for flying targets is unlike the close range photography under a controllable observation environment, which brings extreme conditions like diverse target changes as a result of high maneuver ability and long cruising range. This paper first designed and realized a distributed image interpretation and measurement processing system to achieve resource centralized management, multisite simultaneous interpretation and adaptive estimation algorithm selection; then proposed a real-time interpretation method which contains automatic foreground detection, online target tracking, multiple features location, and human guidance. An experiment is carried out at performance and efficiency evaluation of the method by semisynthetic video. The system can be used in the field of aerospace tests like target analysis including dynamic parameter, transient states, and optical physics characteristics, with security control. PMID:24987748

  11. Side-scan sonar mapping: Pseudo-real-time processing and mosaicking techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Danforth, W.W.; Schwab, W.C.; O'Brien, T.F. ); Karl, H. )

    1990-05-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) surveyed 1,000 km{sup 2} of the continental shelf off San Francisco during a 17-day cruise, using a 120-kHz side-scan sonar system, and produced a digitally processed sonar mosaic of the survey area. The data were processed and mosaicked in real time using software developed at the Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory and modified by the USGS, a substantial task due to the enormous amount of data produced by high-resolution side-scan systems. Approximately 33 megabytes of data were acquired every 1.5 hr. The real-time sonar images were displayed on a PC-based workstation and the data were transferred to a UNIX minicomputer where the sonar images were slant-range corrected, enhanced using an averaging method of desampling and a linear-contrast stretch, merged with navigation, geographically oriented at a user-selected scale, and finally output to a thermal printer. The hard-copy output was then used to construct a mosaic of the survey area. The final product of this technique is a UTM-projected map-mosaic of sea-floor backscatter variations, which could be used, for example, to locate appropriate sites for sediment sampling to ground truth the sonar imagery while still at sea. More importantly, reconnaissance surveys of this type allow for the analysis and interpretation of the mosaic during a cruise, thus greatly reducing the preparation time needed for planning follow-up studies of a particular area.

  12. Real-time gesture interface based on event-driven processing from stereo silicon retinas.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Haeng; Delbruck, Tobi; Pfeiffer, Michael; Park, Paul K J; Shin, Chang-Woo; Ryu, Hyunsurk Eric; Kang, Byung Chang

    2014-12-01

    We propose a real-time hand gesture interface based on combining a stereo pair of biologically inspired event-based dynamic vision sensor (DVS) silicon retinas with neuromorphic event-driven postprocessing. Compared with conventional vision or 3-D sensors, the use of DVSs, which output asynchronous and sparse events in response to motion, eliminates the need to extract movements from sequences of video frames, and allows significantly faster and more energy-efficient processing. In addition, the rate of input events depends on the observed movements, and thus provides an additional cue for solving the gesture spotting problem, i.e., finding the onsets and offsets of gestures. We propose a postprocessing framework based on spiking neural networks that can process the events received from the DVSs in real time, and provides an architecture for future implementation in neuromorphic hardware devices. The motion trajectories of moving hands are detected by spatiotemporally correlating the stereoscopically verged asynchronous events from the DVSs by using leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF) neurons. Adaptive thresholds of the LIF neurons achieve the segmentation of trajectories, which are then translated into discrete and finite feature vectors. The feature vectors are classified with hidden Markov models, using a separate Gaussian mixture model for spotting irrelevant transition gestures. The disparity information from stereovision is used to adapt LIF neuron parameters to achieve recognition invariant of the distance of the user to the sensor, and also helps to filter out movements in the background of the user. Exploiting the high dynamic range of DVSs, furthermore, allows gesture recognition over a 60-dB range of scene illuminance. The system achieves recognition rates well over 90% under a variety of variable conditions with static and dynamic backgrounds with naïve users. PMID:25420246

  13. Global grid of master events for waveform cross-correlation: from testing to real time processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrov, Dmitry; Rozhkov, Mikhail; Kitov, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    Seismic monitoring of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) requires a globally uniform detection threshold, which is provided by geographical distribution of the Primary Seismic Network of the International Monitoring System (IMS). This detection threshold has to be as low as allowed by the entire set of real time and historical data recorded by the IMS. The International Data Centre (IDC) analyzes all relevant data in automatic processing and interactive review to issue a Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB), which includes all qualified events as obtained for the purpose of nuclear test monitoring. Since 2000, raw data, individual detections, and created events are saved in the IDC archive currently reaching tens of terabyte. In order to effectively use this archive in global monitoring we introduced the waveform cross correlation (matched filter) technique. Cross correlation between real time records at IMS stations and template waveforms is calculated for a dense (spacing of ~ 140 km) and regular grid of master events uniformly covering the globe. There are approximately 25,000 master events with 3 to 10 templates at IMS stations. In seismically active zones, we populate masters with real waveforms. For aseismic zones, we develop an extended set of synthetic templates for virtual master events. For optimal performance of cross correlation, the Principal and Independent Component Analysis are applied to the historical (from earthquakes and underground nuclear tests) and synthetic waveforms. Real waveform templates and selected PCA/ICA components are used in automatic processing for the production of a tentative cross-correlation standard event list (XSEL).

  14. MIMD (multiple instruction multiple data) multiprocessor system for real-time image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirsch, Peter; Jeschke, Hartwig

    1991-06-01

    Anovel MIMD (Multiple Instruction Multiple Data) based architecture consisting of multiple processing elements (PE) has been developed. This architecture is adapted to real-time processing of sequences of different tasks for local image segments. Each PE contains an arithmetic processing unit (APU), adapted to parallel processing of low level operations, and a high level and control processor (HLCP) for medium and high level operations and control of the PE. This HLCP can be a standard signal processor or a RISC processor. Because of the local control of each PE by the HLCP and a SIMD structure of the APU, the overall system architecture is characterized as MIMD based with a local SIMD structure for low level processing. Due to an overlapped computation and communication the multiprocessor system achieves a linear speedup compared to a single processing element. Main parts of the PE have been realized as two ASICs in a 1.5 jim CMOS-Process. With a system clock rate of 25MHz, each PE provides a peak performance of 400 Mega operations per second (MOPS).

  15. Novel Real-Time Diagnosis of the Freezing Process Using an Ultrasonic Transducer

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Yen-Hsiang; Cheng, Chin-Chi; Cheng, Hong-Ping; Lee, Dasheng

    2015-01-01

    The freezing stage governs several critical parameters of the freeze drying process and the quality of the resulting lyophilized products. This paper presents an integrated ultrasonic transducer (UT) in a stainless steel bottle and its application to real-time diagnostics of the water freezing process. The sensor was directly deposited onto the stainless steel bottle using a sol-gel spray technique. It could operate at temperature range from −100 to 400 °C and uses an ultrasonic pulse-echo technique. The progression of the freezing process, including water-in, freezing point and final phase change of water, were all clearly observed using ultrasound. The ultrasonic signals could indicate the three stages of the freezing process and evaluate the cooling and freezing periods under various processing conditions. The temperature was also adopted for evaluating the cooling and freezing periods. These periods increased with water volume and decreased with shelf temperature (i.e., speed of freezing). This study demonstrates the effectiveness of the ultrasonic sensor and technology for diagnosing and optimizing the process of water freezing to save energy. PMID:25946629

  16. Novel real-time diagnosis of the freezing process using an ultrasonic transducer.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Yen-Hsiang; Cheng, Chin-Chi; Cheng, Hong-Ping; Lee, Dasheng

    2015-01-01

    The freezing stage governs several critical parameters of the freeze drying process and the quality of the resulting lyophilized products. This paper presents an integrated ultrasonic transducer (UT) in a stainless steel bottle and its application to real-time diagnostics of the water freezing process. The sensor was directly deposited onto the stainless steel bottle using a sol-gel spray technique. It could operate at temperature range from -100 to 400 °C and uses an ultrasonic pulse-echo technique. The progression of the freezing process, including water-in, freezing point and final phase change of water, were all clearly observed using ultrasound. The ultrasonic signals could indicate the three stages of the freezing process and evaluate the cooling and freezing periods under various processing conditions. The temperature was also adopted for evaluating the cooling and freezing periods. These periods increased with water volume and decreased with shelf temperature (i.e., speed of freezing). This study demonstrates the effectiveness of the ultrasonic sensor and technology for diagnosing and optimizing the process of water freezing to save energy. PMID:25946629

  17. Large Scale GPS Processing at ESOC for LEO, GNSS and Real-Time Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boomkamp, H.; Dow, J.

    2003-12-01

    Most POD systems that are used in GPS data analysis, for instance in routine IGS processing, are large FORTRAN programs that have evolved from early generation systems over many years of use. These systems do not exploit the advantages of modern software engineering technology, and their limited processing efficiency constrains their application to emerging large-scale GPS processes, like real-time GPS, high-rate data processing or combined solutions for LEO + MEO constellations. In support of such high-performance applications, the ESOC IGS Analysis Centre is developing a new POD system based on the latest software engineering methods. This system is optimised in its use of both CPU and memory, following fundamental rules of minimum information containment that are more commonly found in internet search engines or artificial intelligence applications. Although this new system still has an experimental status it is expected to augment the GPS data processing capacity at ESOC by at least one order of magnitude. Some innovative concepts behind the system will be presented, together with first examples of GPS processes that until now were prohibitively large or slow.

  18. Real-time display on Fourier domain optical coherence tomography system using a graphics processing unit.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yuuki; Itagaki, Toshiki

    2009-01-01

    Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) requires resampling of spectrally resolved depth information from wavelength to wave number, and the subsequent application of the inverse Fourier transform. The display rates of OCT images are much slower than the image acquisition rates due to processing speed limitations on most computers. We demonstrate a real-time display of processed OCT images using a linear-in-wave-number (linear-k) spectrometer and a graphics processing unit (GPU). We use the linear-k spectrometer with the combination of a diffractive grating with 1200 lines/mm and a F2 equilateral prism in the 840-nm spectral region to avoid calculating the resampling process. The calculations of the fast Fourier transform (FFT) are accelerated by the GPU with many stream processors, which realizes highly parallel processing. A display rate of 27.9 frames/sec for processed images (2048 FFT size x 1000 lateral A-scans) is achieved in our OCT system using a line scan CCD camera operated at 27.9 kHz. PMID:20059237

  19. Real-time display on Fourier domain optical coherence tomography system using a graphics processing unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yuuki; Itagaki, Toshiki

    2009-11-01

    Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) requires resampling of spectrally resolved depth information from wavelength to wave number, and the subsequent application of the inverse Fourier transform. The display rates of OCT images are much slower than the image acquisition rates due to processing speed limitations on most computers. We demonstrate a real-time display of processed OCT images using a linear-in-wave-number (linear-k) spectrometer and a graphics processing unit (GPU). We use the linear-k spectrometer with the combination of a diffractive grating with 1200 lines/mm and a F2 equilateral prism in the 840-nm spectral region to avoid calculating the resampling process. The calculations of the fast Fourier transform (FFT) are accelerated by the GPU with many stream processors, which realizes highly parallel processing. A display rate of 27.9 frames/sec for processed images (2048 FFT size×1000 lateral A-scans) is achieved in our OCT system using a line scan CCD camera operated at 27.9 kHz.

  20. Mock Circulatory Loop Compliance Chamber Employing a Novel Real-Time Control Process.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Charles E; Miller, Gerald E

    2012-12-01

    The use of compliance chambers in mock circulatory loop construction is the predominant means of simulating arterial compliance. Utilizing mock circulatory loops as bench test methods for cardiac assist technologies necessitates that they must be capable of reproducing the circulatory conditions that would exist physiologically. Of particular interest is the ability to determine instantaneous compliance of the system, and the ability to change the compliance in real-time. This capability enables continuous battery testing of conditions without stopping the flow to change the compliance chamber settings, and the simulation of dynamic changes in arterial compliance. The method tested involves the use of a compliance chamber utilizing a circular natural latex rubber membrane separating the fluid and air portions of the device. Change in system compliance is affected by the airspace pressure, which creates more reaction force at the membrane to the fluid pressure. A pressure sensor in the fluid portion of the chamber and a displacement sensor monitoring membrane center deflection allow for real-time inputs to the control algorithm. A predefined numerical model correlates the displacement sensor data to the volume displacement of the membrane. The control algorithm involves a tuned π loop maintaining the volume distention of the membrane via regulation of the air space pressure. The proportional integral (PI) controller tuning was achieved by creating a computational model of the compliance chamber using Simulink™ Simscape(®) toolboxes. These toolboxes were used to construct a model of the hydraulic, mechanical, and pneumatic elements in the physical design. Parameter Estimation™ tools and Design Optimization™ methods were employed to determine unknown physical parameters in the system, and tune the process controller used to maintain the compliance setting. It was found that the resulting control architecture was capable of maintaining compliance along a

  1. Delay-Dependent Response in Weakly Electric Fish under Closed-Loop Pulse Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Forlim, Caroline Garcia; Pinto, Reynaldo Daniel; Varona, Pablo; Rodríguez, Francisco B.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we apply a real time activity-dependent protocol to study how freely swimming weakly electric fish produce and process the timing of their own electric signals. Specifically, we address this study in the elephant fish, Gnathonemus petersii, an animal that uses weak discharges to locate obstacles or food while navigating, as well as for electro-communication with conspecifics. To investigate how the inter pulse intervals vary in response to external stimuli, we compare the response to a simple closed-loop stimulation protocol and the signals generated without electrical stimulation. The activity-dependent stimulation protocol explores different stimulus delivery delays relative to the fish’s own electric discharges. We show that there is a critical time delay in this closed-loop interaction, as the largest changes in inter pulse intervals occur when the stimulation delay is below 100 ms. We also discuss the implications of these findings in the context of information processing in weakly electric fish. PMID:26473597

  2. A comparison of real-time blade-element and rotor-map helicopter simulations using parallel processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corliss, Lloyd; Du Val, Ronald W.; Gillman, Herbert, III; Huynh, Loc C.

    1990-01-01

    In recent efforts by NASA, the Army, and Advanced Rotorcraft Technology, Inc. (ART), the application of parallel processing techniques to real-time simulation have been studied. Traditionally, real-time helicopter simulations have omitted the modeling of high-frequency phenomena in order to achieve real-time operation on affordable computers. Parallel processing technology can now provide the means for significantly improving the fidelity of real-time simulation, and one specific area for improvement is the modeling of rotor dynamics. This paper focuses on the results of a piloted simulation in which a traditional rotor-map mathematical model was compared with a more sophisticated blade-element mathematical model that had been implemented using parallel processing hardware and software technology.

  3. Real-time Imaging of Earthquake Rupture Process: Offline Tests for the 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Wang, R.; Zschau, J.; Chen, Y. T.; Parolai, S.; Dahm, T.

    2014-12-01

    Lack of the knowledge on rupture process in earthquake early warning (EEW) caused serious underestimations on tsunami disaster of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. Based on the newly developed iterative deconvolution and stacking (IDS) method for automatic source imaging, we demonstrate an offline test for real-time analysis on the rupture process of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake by using the high-rate GPS measurements. It is shown that, we had been theoretically able to image the complex ongoing rupture process, even with some instabilities of fault slips which depend on the detected moment growth rate (see image uploaded). We also investigate the influences of station density and maximum epicentral distance of the network on real-time source imaging. It is found that, for the case of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, station spacing within 100 km do not significantly disturb the real-time imaging; and small maximum epicentral distances make real-time estimated magnitudes converge earlier.

  4. Real-time SHVC software decoding with multi-threaded parallel processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudumasu, Srinivas; He, Yuwen; Ye, Yan; He, Yong; Ryu, Eun-Seok; Dong, Jie; Xiu, Xiaoyu

    2014-09-01

    This paper proposes a parallel decoding framework for scalable HEVC (SHVC). Various optimization technologies are implemented on the basis of SHVC reference software SHM-2.0 to achieve real-time decoding speed for the two layer spatial scalability configuration. SHVC decoder complexity is analyzed with profiling information. The decoding process at each layer and the up-sampling process are designed in parallel and scheduled by a high level application task manager. Within each layer, multi-threaded decoding is applied to accelerate the layer decoding speed. Entropy decoding, reconstruction, and in-loop processing are pipeline designed with multiple threads based on groups of coding tree units (CTU). A group of CTUs is treated as a processing unit in each pipeline stage to achieve a better trade-off between parallelism and synchronization. Motion compensation, inverse quantization, and inverse transform modules are further optimized with SSE4 SIMD instructions. Simulations on a desktop with an Intel i7 processor 2600 running at 3.4 GHz show that the parallel SHVC software decoder is able to decode 1080p spatial 2x at up to 60 fps (frames per second) and 1080p spatial 1.5x at up to 50 fps for those bitstreams generated with SHVC common test conditions in the JCT-VC standardization group. The decoding performance at various bitrates with different optimization technologies and different numbers of threads are compared in terms of decoding speed and resource usage, including processor and memory.

  5. Real-Time Imaging of the Process of Stone Crushing by Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Akira; Yoshizawa, Shin; Kaneko, Yukio; Kume, Haruki; Kitamura, Tadaichi; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2007-05-01

    A new method of lithotripsy combining high and low frequency ultrasound has been investigated. This method controls generation of cavitation only on the stone surface and utilizes collapse pressure of the bubbles. In order to apply this method for clinical practice, it is important to monitor the process of stone crushing and behavior of cavitation from outside the body. In this study, ultrasound imaging was coupled with a therapeutic ultrasound system for real-time monitoring and targeting of stones. Stone crushing tests have been conducted in vitro and in vivo experiments. In vitro experiment, crushing process of a model stone in a polyacrylamide gel was observed with both ultrasound imaging and a digital video camera. It was observed with ultrasound imaging that the stone was crushed with ultrasound. In vivo experiment, a stone crushing experiment has been conducted in a pig bladder. And a mark of crushing was found on the surface of the stone taken out from the bladder after the irradiation, as well as in vitro experiment. The process of stone crushing in a pig bladder could be monitored with bi-plane ultrasound imaging from outside the body.

  6. MOVIE: a hardware building block for software-only real-time video processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzic, Ronan; Bouville, Christian; Charot, Francois; Le Fol, Gwendal; Lemonnier, Pascal; Wagner, Charles

    1996-03-01

    The goal of the MOVIE VLSI chip is to facilitate the development of software-only solutions for real time video processing applications. This chip can be seen as a building block for SIMD arrays of processing elements and its architecture has been designed so as to facilitate high level language programming. The basic architecture building block associates a sub-array of computational processors with a I/O processor. A module can be seen as a small linear, systolic-like array of processing elements, connected at each end to the I/O processor. The module can communicate with its two nearest neighbors via two communication ports. The chip architecture also includes three 16-bit video ports. One important aspect in the programming environment is the C-stolic programming language. C-stolic is a C-like language augmented with parallel constructs which allow to differentiate between the array controller variables (scalar variables) and the local variables in the array structure (systolic variables). A statement operating on systolic variables implies a simultaneous execution on all the cells of the structure. Implementation examples of MOVIE-based architectures dealing with video compression algorithms are given.

  7. Embedded real-time image processing hardware for feature extraction and clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Lihu; Chang, Grant

    2003-08-01

    Printronix, Inc. uses scanner-based image systems to perform print quality measurements for line-matrix printers. The size of the image samples and image definition required make commercial scanners convenient to use. The image processing is relatively well defined, and we are able to simplify many of the calculations into hardware equations and "c" code. The process of rapidly prototyping the system using DSP based "c" code gets the algorithms well defined early in the development cycle. Once a working system is defined, the rest of the process involves splitting the task up for the FPGA and the DSP implementation. Deciding which of the two to use, the DSP or the FPGA, is a simple matter of trial benchmarking. There are two kinds of benchmarking: One for speed, and the other for memory. The more memory intensive algorithms should run in the DSP, and the simple real time tasks can use the FPGA most effectively. Once the task is split, we can decide which platform the algorithm should be executed. This involves prototyping all the code in the DSP, then timing various blocks of the algorithm. Slow routines can be optimized using the compiler tools, and if further reduction in time is needed, into tasks that the FPGA can perform.

  8. Real-time on-line monitoring of process water for low concentrations of bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, John A.; McCarty, David; Crousore, Kristina

    2006-03-01

    Naturally occurring outbreaks of bacteria have the potential to contaminate process water used in semiconductor manufacturing. Bacteria are normally filtered out in the water treatment process, however contamination can still occur from biofilm growth, filter or media break-through, and air vectors. Because there is seldom a residual disinfectant and system sanitation is intermittent, the manufacturer must rely on point of use filters to prevent contamination at critical points in the process. Particle counters in the distribution system can tell when the number of particles is increasing but cannot discriminate bacteria from small silica particles and often are unable to detect smaller gram-negative particles. If an on-line multi-angle light scattering system is used in place of particle counters or in conjunction with them, then the discrimination between silica particles and bacteria can be made and the proper action taken in the distribution system to help identify the contamination source, improve preventative maintenance, and ultimately increase yields. This paper describes the multi-angle light scattering method of detecting bacteria with the BioSentry TM system to provide an effective real-time on-line water monitoring sensor.

  9. Dynamic Engagement of Cognitive Control Modulates Recovery From Misinterpretation During Real-Time Language Processing.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Nina S; Novick, Jared M

    2016-04-01

    Speech unfolds swiftly, yet listeners keep pace by rapidly assigning meaning to what they hear. Sometimes, though, initial interpretations turn out to be wrong. How do listeners revise misinterpretations of language input moment by moment to avoid comprehension errors? Cognitive control may play a role by detecting when processing has gone awry and then initiating behavioral adjustments accordingly. However, no research to date has investigated a cause-and-effect interplay between cognitive-control engagement and the overriding of erroneous interpretations in real time. Using a novel cross-task paradigm, we showed that Stroop-conflict detection, which mobilizes cognitive-control procedures, subsequently facilitates listeners' incremental processing of temporarily ambiguous spoken instructions that induce brief misinterpretation. When instructions followed incongruent Stroop items, compared with congruent Stroop items, listeners' eye movements to objects in a scene reflected more transient consideration of the false interpretation and earlier recovery of the correct one. Comprehension errors also decreased. Cognitive-control engagement therefore accelerates sentence-reinterpretation processes, even as linguistic input is still unfolding. PMID:26957521

  10. Reverse Engineering of Free-Form Surface Based on the Closed-Loop Theory

    PubMed Central

    He, Xue Ming; He, Jun Fei; Wu, Mei Ping; Zhang, Rong; Ji, Xiao Gang

    2015-01-01

    To seek better methods of measurement and more accurate model of reconstruction in the field of reverse engineering has been the focus of researchers. Based on this, a new method of adaptive measurement, real-time reconstruction, and online evaluation of free-form surface was presented in this paper. The coordinates and vectors of the prediction points are calculated according to a Bézier curve which is fitted by measured points. Final measured point cloud distribution is in agreement with the geometric characteristics of the free-form surfaces. Fitting the point cloud to a surface model by the nonuniform B-spline method, extracting some check points from the surface models based on grids and a feature on the surface, review the location of these check points on the surface with CMM and evaluate the model, and then update the surface model to meet the accuracy. Integrated measurement, reconstruction, and evaluation, with the closed-loop reverse process, established an accurate model. The results of example show that the measuring points are distributed over the surface according to curvature, and the reconstruction model can be completely expressed with micron level. Meanwhile, measurement, reconstruction and evaluation are integrated in forms of closed-loop reverse system. PMID:25879078

  11. Sub-millisecond closed-loop feedback stimulation between arbitrary sets of individual neurons

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Jan; Bakkum, Douglas J.; Hierlemann, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    We present a system to artificially correlate the spike timing between sets of arbitrary neurons that were interfaced to a complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) high-density microelectrode array (MEA). The system features a novel reprogrammable and flexible event engine unit to detect arbitrary spatio-temporal patterns of recorded action potentials and is capable of delivering sub-millisecond closed-loop feedback of electrical stimulation upon trigger events in real-time. The relative timing between action potentials of individual neurons as well as the temporal pattern among multiple neurons, or neuronal assemblies, is considered an important factor governing memory and learning in the brain. Artificially changing timings between arbitrary sets of spiking neurons with our system could provide a “knob” to tune information processing in the network. PMID:23335887

  12. Real-Time Data Processing in the muon system of the D0 detector.

    SciTech Connect

    Neeti Parashar et al.

    2001-07-03

    This paper presents a real-time application of the 16-bit fixed point Digital Signal Processors (DSPs), in the Muon System of the D0 detector located at the Fermilab Tevatron, presently the world's highest-energy hadron collider. As part of the Upgrade for a run beginning in the year 2000, the system is required to process data at an input event rate of 10 KHz without incurring significant deadtime in readout. The ADSP21csp01 processor has high I/O bandwidth, single cycle instruction execution and fast task switching support to provide efficient multisignal processing. The processor's internal memory consists of 4K words of Program Memory and 4K words of Data Memory. In addition there is an external memory of 32K words for general event buffering and 16K words of Dual port Memory for input data queuing. This DSP fulfills the requirement of the Muon subdetector systems for data readout. All error handling, buffering, formatting and transferring of the data to the various trigger levels of the data acquisition system is done in software. The algorithms developed for the system complete these tasks in about 20 {micro}s per event.

  13. The role of parallelism in the real-time processing of anaphora

    PubMed Central

    Poirier, Josée; Walenski, Matthew; Shapiro, Lewis P.

    2012-01-01

    Parallelism effects refer to the facilitated processing of a target structure when it follows a similar, parallel structure. In coordination, a parallelism-related conjunction triggers the expectation that a second conjunct with the same structure as the first conjunct should occur. It has been proposed that parallelism effects reflect the use of the first structure as a template that guides the processing of the second. In this study, we examined the role of parallelism in real-time anaphora resolution by charting activation patterns in coordinated constructions containing anaphora, Verb-Phrase Ellipsis (VPE) and Noun-Phrase Traces (NP-traces). Specifically, we hypothesised that an expectation of parallelism would incite the parser to assume a structure similar to the first conjunct in the second, anaphora-containing conjunct. The speculation of a similar structure would result in early postulation of covert anaphora. Experiment 1 confirms that following a parallelism-related conjunction, first-conjunct material is activated in the second conjunct. Experiment 2 reveals that an NP-trace in the second conjunct is posited immediately where licensed, which is earlier than previously reported in the literature. In light of our findings, we propose an intricate relation between structural expectations and anaphor resolution. PMID:23741080

  14. Lysosome triggered near-infrared fluorescence imaging of cellular trafficking processes in real time.

    PubMed

    Grossi, Marco; Morgunova, Marina; Cheung, Shane; Scholz, Dimitri; Conroy, Emer; Terrile, Marta; Panarella, Angela; Simpson, Jeremy C; Gallagher, William M; O'Shea, Donal F

    2016-01-01

    Bioresponsive NIR-fluorophores offer the possibility for continual visualization of dynamic cellular processes with added potential for direct translation to in vivo imaging. Here we show the design, synthesis and lysosome-responsive emission properties of a new NIR fluorophore. The NIR fluorescent probe design differs from typical amine functionalized lysosomotropic stains with off/on fluorescence switching controlled by a reversible phenol/phenolate interconversion. Emission from the probe is shown to be highly selective for the lysosomes in co-imaging experiments using a HeLa cell line expressing the lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 fused to green fluorescent protein. The responsive probe is capable of real-time continuous imaging of fundamental cellular processes such as endocytosis, lysosomal trafficking and efflux in 3D and 4D. The advantage of the NIR emission allows for direct translation to in vivo tumour imaging, which is successfully demonstrated using an MDA-MB-231 subcutaneous tumour model. This bioresponsive NIR fluorophore offers significant potential for use in live cellular and in vivo imaging, for which currently there is a deficit of suitable molecular fluorescent tools. PMID:26927507

  15. Lysosome triggered near-infrared fluorescence imaging of cellular trafficking processes in real time

    PubMed Central

    Grossi, Marco; Morgunova, Marina; Cheung, Shane; Scholz, Dimitri; Conroy, Emer; Terrile, Marta; Panarella, Angela; Simpson, Jeremy C.; Gallagher, William M.; O'Shea, Donal F.

    2016-01-01

    Bioresponsive NIR-fluorophores offer the possibility for continual visualization of dynamic cellular processes with added potential for direct translation to in vivo imaging. Here we show the design, synthesis and lysosome-responsive emission properties of a new NIR fluorophore. The NIR fluorescent probe design differs from typical amine functionalized lysosomotropic stains with off/on fluorescence switching controlled by a reversible phenol/phenolate interconversion. Emission from the probe is shown to be highly selective for the lysosomes in co-imaging experiments using a HeLa cell line expressing the lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 fused to green fluorescent protein. The responsive probe is capable of real-time continuous imaging of fundamental cellular processes such as endocytosis, lysosomal trafficking and efflux in 3D and 4D. The advantage of the NIR emission allows for direct translation to in vivo tumour imaging, which is successfully demonstrated using an MDA-MB-231 subcutaneous tumour model. This bioresponsive NIR fluorophore offers significant potential for use in live cellular and in vivo imaging, for which currently there is a deficit of suitable molecular fluorescent tools. PMID:26927507

  16. A scalable multi-FPGA framework for real-time digital signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irick, K. M.; DeBole, M.; Park, S.; Al Maashri, A.; Kestur, S.; Yu, C.-L.; Vijaykrishnan, N.

    2009-08-01

    FPGAs have emerged as the preferred platform for implementing real-time signal processing applications. In the sub-45nm technologies, FPGAs offer significant cost and design-time advantages over application-specific custom chips and consume significantly less power than general-purpose processors while maintaining, or improving performance. Moreover, FPGAs are more advantageous than GPUs in their support for control-intensive applications, custom bit-precision operations, and diverse system interface protocols. Nonetheless, a significant inhibitor to the widespread adoption of FPGAs has been the expertise required to effectively realize functional designs that maximize application performance. While there have been several academic and commercial efforts to improve the usability of FPGAs, they have primarily focused on easing the tasks of an expert FPGA designer rather than increasing the usability offered to an application developer. In this work, the design of a scalable algorithmic-level design framework for FPGAs, AlgoFLEX, is described. AlgoFLEX offers rapid algorithmic level composition and exploration while maintaining the performance realizable from a fully custom, albeit difficult and laborious, design effort. The framework masks aspects of accelerator implementation, mapping, and communication while exposing appropriate algorithm tuning facilities to developers and system integrators. The effectiveness of the AlgoFLEX framework is demonstrated by rapidly mapping a class of image and signal processing applications to a multi-FPGA platform.

  17. APNEA list mode data acquisition and real-time event processing

    SciTech Connect

    Hogle, R.A.; Miller, P.; Bramblett, R.L.

    1997-11-01

    The LMSC Active Passive Neutron Examinations and Assay (APNEA) Data Logger is a VME-based data acquisition system using commercial-off-the-shelf hardware with the application-specific software. It receives TTL inputs from eighty-eight {sup 3}He detector tubes and eight timing signals. Two data sets are generated concurrently for each acquisition session: (1) List Mode recording of all detector and timing signals, timestamped to 3 microsecond resolution; (2) Event Accumulations generated in real-time by counting events into short (tens of microseconds) and long (seconds) time bins following repetitive triggers. List Mode data sets can be post-processed to: (1) determine the optimum time bins for TRU assay of waste drums, (2) analyze a given data set in several ways to match different assay requirements and conditions and (3) confirm assay results by examining details of the raw data. Data Logger events are processed and timestamped by an array of 15 TMS320C40 DSPs and delivered to an embedded controller (PowerPC604) for interim disk storage. Three acquisition modes, corresponding to different trigger sources are provided. A standard network interface to a remote host system (Windows NT or SunOS) provides for system control, status, and transfer of previously acquired data. 6 figs.

  18. Real-time tracking data drive process improvements, even while ED volumes continue to climb.

    PubMed

    2012-06-01

    Christiana Hospital in Newark, DE, has been able to dramatically reduce length-of-stay in the ED by making use of data derived from a real-time location system (RTLS) that tracks the movements of patients, providers, and staff. Administrators say that while some efficiencies are gained from the system alone, most of the positive impact is derived from using the RTLS data to focus on specific processes and make refinements. Within one year of implementing the RTLS technology, LOS in the ED was reduced by 40 minutes for admitted patients and 18 to 20 minutes for the treated-and-released population. A work group focused on process improvements in the ED's fast track section reduced the average LOS from 2.5 hours to 60 minutes or less. Similarly, a work group focused on the ESI 3 population reduced the average treatment time for this population from 5 or 6 hours to 3.4 hours. Administrators say key steps toward a successful RTLS implementation are careful planning for how you want to use the technology, and alleviating staff concerns about why their movements are being tracked. PMID:22645845

  19. Near Real Time VIIRS EDR Products Via Direct Broadcast Using the Community Satellite Processing Package (CSPP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cureton, G. P.; Mindock, S.; Martin, G.; Garcia, R.; Strabala, K.; Davies, J.; Bearson, N.; Gumley, L.; Huang, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) has a long history of supporting the Direct Broadcast (DB) community for various sensors, recently with the International MODIS/AIRS Processing Package (IMAPP) for the NASA EOS polar orbiters Terra and Aqua. CIMSS has continued this effort into the NPP/JPSS (previously NPOESS) era with the development of the Community Satellite Processing Package (CSPP), supporting the VIIRS, CrIS and ATMS sensors on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) spacecraft. Within CSPP, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Environmental Data Record (EDR) products are based on the NOAA Operational products as implemented by Raytheon in the Algorithm Development Library (ADL), packaged for use in a Direct Broadcast environment. Examples of near real time usage of various VIIRS EDR products are given, with a focus on products obtained using CSPP (which include the Cloud Mask, Active Fires, Aerosol Optical Thickness, Sea Surface Temperature, Surface Reflectance, Vegetation Index, Surface Type and Land Surface Temperature products).

  20. Why in situ, real-time characterization of thin film growth processes?

    SciTech Connect

    Auciello, O.; Krauss, A.R.

    1995-08-01

    Since thin-film growth occurs at the surface, the analytical methods should be highly surface-specific. although subsurface diffusion and chemical processes also affect film properties. Sampling depth and ambient-gas is compatibility are key factors which must be considered when choosing in situ probes of thin-film growth phenomena. In most cases, the sampling depth depends on the mean range of the exit species (ion, photon, or electron) in the sample. The techniques that are discussed in this issue of the MRS Bulletin (1) have been chosen because they may be used for in situ, real-time analysis of film-growth phenomena in vacuum and in the presence of ambient gases resulting either from the deposition process or as a requirement for the production of the desired chemical phase. A second criterion for inclusion is that the instrumentation be sufficiently compact and inexpensive to permit use as a dedicated tool in a thin-film deposition system.

  1. Advanced image processing and wavefront sensing with real-time phase diversity.

    PubMed

    Dolne, Jean J; Menicucci, Paul; Miccolis, David; Widen, Ken; Seiden, Harold; Vachss, Frederick; Schall, Harold

    2009-01-01

    This paper will describe a state-of-the-art approach to real-time wavefront sensing and image enhancement. It will explore Boeing's existing technology to realize a 50 Hz frame rate (with a path to 1 KHz and higher). At this higher rate, phase diversity will be readily applicable to compensate for distortions of large dynamic bandwidth such as those of the atmosphere. We will describe various challenges in aligning a two-camera phase diversity system. Such configurations make it almost impossible to process the captured images without additional upgrade in the algorithm to account for alignment errors. An example of an error is the relative misalignment of the two images, the "best-focus" and the diversity image, where it is extremely hard to maintain alignment to less than a fraction of 1 pixel. We will show that the algorithm performance increases dramatically when we account for these errors in the estimation process. Preliminary evaluation has assessed a National Imagery Interpretability Rating Scale increase of approximately 3 from the best-focus to the enhanced image. Such a performance improvement would greatly increase the operating range (or, equivalently, decrease the weight) of many optical systems. PMID:19107152

  2. Accessible high performance computing solutions for near real-time image processing for time critical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielski, Conrad; Lemoine, Guido; Syryczynski, Jacek

    2009-09-01

    High Performance Computing (HPC) hardware solutions such as grid computing and General Processing on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPGPU) are now accessible to users with general computing needs. Grid computing infrastructures in the form of computing clusters or blades are becoming common place and GPGPU solutions that leverage the processing power of the video card are quickly being integrated into personal workstations. Our interest in these HPC technologies stems from the need to produce near real-time maps from a combination of pre- and post-event satellite imagery in support of post-disaster management. Faster processing provides a twofold gain in this situation: 1. critical information can be provided faster and 2. more elaborate automated processing can be performed prior to providing the critical information. In our particular case, we test the use of the PANTEX index which is based on analysis of image textural measures extracted using anisotropic, rotation-invariant GLCM statistics. The use of this index, applied in a moving window, has been shown to successfully identify built-up areas in remotely sensed imagery. Built-up index image masks are important input to the structuring of damage assessment interpretation because they help optimise the workload. The performance of computing the PANTEX workflow is compared on two different HPC hardware architectures: (1) a blade server with 4 blades, each having dual quad-core CPUs and (2) a CUDA enabled GPU workstation. The reference platform is a dual CPU-quad core workstation and the PANTEX workflow total computing time is measured. Furthermore, as part of a qualitative evaluation, the differences in setting up and configuring various hardware solutions and the related software coding effort is presented.

  3. Processing 3D flash LADAR point-clouds in real-time for flight applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, R.; Gravseth, I.; Earhart, R. P.; Bladt, J.; Barnhill, S.; Ruppert, L.; Centamore, C.

    2007-04-01

    Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. has demonstrated real-time processing of 3D imaging LADAR point-cloud data to produce the industry's first time-of-flight (TOF) 3D video capability. This capability is uniquely suited to the rigorous demands of space and airborne flight applications and holds great promise in the area of autonomous navigation. It will provide long-range, three dimensional video information to autonomous flight software or pilots for immediate use in rendezvous and docking, proximity operations, landing, surface vision systems, and automatic target recognition and tracking. This is enabled by our new generation of FPGA based "pixel-tube" processors, coprocessors and their associated algorithms which have led to a number of advancements in high-speed wavefront processing along with additional advances in dynamic camera control, and space laser designs based on Ball's CALIPSO LIDAR. This evolution in LADAR is made possible by moving the mechanical complexity required for a scanning system into the electronics, where production, integration, testing and life-cycle costs can be significantly reduced. This technique requires a state of the art TOF read-out integrated circuit (ROIC) attached to a sensor array to collect high resolution temporal data, which is then processed through FPGAs. The number of calculations required to process the data is greatly reduced thanks to the fact that all points are captured at the same time and thus correlated. This correlation allows extremely efficient FPGA processing. This capability has been demonstrated in prototype form at both Marshal Space Flight Center and Langley Research Center on targets that represent docking and landing scenarios. This report outlines many aspects of this work as well as aspects of our recent testing at Marshall's Flight Robotics Laboratory.

  4. Systolic architectures based on barrel shifters for real-time digital signal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, T.

    1985-01-01

    The throughput in real-time digital signal processing applications is limited by both the capability of the processors employed for number-crunching operations and the capacity of a supporting communications link. The systolic architectures eliminate the memory bandwidth problems by allowing multiple computations for each memory access and result in a speed-up in the execution time of compute-bound computations. However, the throughput rate in a systolic array is still limited by the computational time needed for one basic cell, which is composed of a multiplier and an accumulator. The multiplier in the basic cell requires either a large chip area if high speed is desired, or a large amount of time if serial architecture is used. The use of barrel shifters as computational elements in systolic arrays was proposed and studied in detail in this thesis. In the new systolic arrays there are two different structures, parallel and cascaded, that can be used to implement FIR filters. A unique cascaded structure was developed in this study that is shown to have better performance and requires significantly less basic cells.

  5. Real-time measurements of crystallization processes in viscoelastic polymeric photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snoswell, David R. E.; Finlayson, Chris E.; Zhao, Qibin; Baumberg, Jeremy J.

    2015-11-01

    We present a study of the dynamic shear ordering of viscoelastic photonic crystals, based on core-shell polymeric composite particles. Using an adapted shear-cell arrangement, the crystalline ordering of the material under conditions of oscillatory shear is interrogated in real time, through both video imaging and from the optical transmission spectra of the cell. In order to gain a deeper understanding of the macroscopic influences of shear on the crystallization process in this solvent-free system, the development of bulk ordering is studied as a function of the key parameters including duty cycle and shear-strain magnitude. In particular, optimal ordering is observed from a prerandomized sample at shear strains of around 160%, for 1-Hz oscillations. This ordering reaches completion over time scales of order 10 s. These observations suggest significant local strains are needed to drive nanoparticles through energy barriers, and that local creep is needed to break temporal symmetry in such high-viscosity nanoassemblies. Crystal shear-melting effects are also characterized under conditions of constant shear rate. These quantitative experiments aim to stimulate the development of theoretical models which can deal with the strong local particle interactions in this system.

  6. Using miniature signal processing equipment in real-time brass performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plsek, Thomas J.

    2003-04-01

    Real time signal processing for brass instrument performance has been in use for more than 20 years now. It has been fraught with many problems not the least of which is the complexity, size, and expense of the equipment as well as the acoustical output of the instrument itself. One device which addresses these issues is the new Yamaha ST5: Personal Studio for brass instruments. By combining a Yamaha Pickup Mute, which very effectively minimizes the acoustical output of the instrument, with a battery powered unit small enough to be worn on a belt (ca. 5 in.×3 in.×1 in.), this system enables the performer to use such effects as reverb, delay, chorus, equalizer, pitch shifter, etc., that can be used in a wide variety of situations such as private practice, live concert performances, and recordings. By creatively managing the acoustic instrument and the miniature electronic equipment, a reasonably large array of musical resources become available to the performer enabling him/her to enhance existing performance environments, as well as find and develop new ones.

  7. Real-time image processing of TOF range images using a reconfigurable processor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussmann, S.; Knoll, F.; Edeler, T.

    2011-07-01

    During the last years, Time-of-Flight sensors achieved a significant impact onto research fields in machine vision. In comparison to stereo vision system and laser range scanners they combine the advantages of active sensors providing accurate distance measurements and camera-based systems recording a 2D matrix at a high frame rate. Moreover low cost 3D imaging has the potential to open a wide field of additional applications and solutions in markets like consumer electronics, multimedia, digital photography, robotics and medical technologies. This paper focuses on the currently implemented 4-phase-shift algorithm in this type of sensors. The most time critical operation of the phase-shift algorithm is the arctangent function. In this paper a novel hardware implementation of the arctangent function using a reconfigurable processor system is presented and benchmarked against the state-of-the-art CORDIC arctangent algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is well suited for real-time processing of the range images of TOF cameras.

  8. Real-time nonlinear finite element analysis for surgical simulation using graphics processing units.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Zeike A; Cheng, Mario; Ourselin, Sébastien

    2007-01-01

    Clinical employment of biomechanical modelling techniques in areas of medical image analysis and surgical simulation is often hindered by conflicting requirements for high fidelity in the modelling approach and high solution speeds. We report the development of techniques for high-speed nonlinear finite element (FE) analysis for surgical simulation. We employ a previously developed nonlinear total Lagrangian explicit FE formulation which offers significant computational advantages for soft tissue simulation. However, the key contribution of the work is the presentation of a fast graphics processing unit (GPU) solution scheme for the FE equations. To the best of our knowledge this represents the first GPU implementation of a nonlinear FE solver. We show that the present explicit FE scheme is well-suited to solution via highly parallel graphics hardware, and that even a midrange GPU allows significant solution speed gains (up to 16.4x) compared with equivalent CPU implementations. For the models tested the scheme allows real-time solution of models with up to 16000 tetrahedral elements. The use of GPUs for such purposes offers a cost-effective high-performance alternative to expensive multi-CPU machines, and may have important applications in medical image analysis and surgical simulation. PMID:18051120

  9. Feature-level signal processing for near-real-time odor identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roppel, Thaddeus A.; Padgett, Mary Lou; Waldemark, Joakim T. A.; Wilson, Denise M.

    1998-09-01

    Rapid detection and classification of odor is of particular interest in applications such as manufacturing of consumer items, food processing, drug and explosives detection, and battlefield situation assessment. Various detection and classification techniques are under investigation so that end users can have access to useful information from odor sensor arrays in near-real-time. Feature-level data clustering and classification techniques are proposed that are (1) parallelizable to permit efficient hardware implementation, (2) adaptable to readily incorporate new data classes, (3) capable of gracefully handling outlier data points and failed sensor conditions, and (4) can provide confidence intervals and/or a traceable decision record along with each classification to permit validation and verification. Results from using specific techniques will be presented and compared. The techniques studied include principal components analysis, automated outlier determination, radial basis functions (RBF), multi-layer perceptrons (MLP), and pulse-coupled neural networks (PCNN). The results reported here are based on data from a testbed in which a gas sensor array is exposed to odor samples on a continuous basis. We have reported previously that more detailed and faster discrimination can be obtained by using sensor transient response in addition to steady state response. As the size of the data set grows we are able to more accurately model performance of a sensor array under realistic conditions.

  10. High-speed camera with real time processing for frequency domain imaging

    PubMed Central

    Shia, Victor; Watt, David; Faris, Gregory W.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a high-speed camera system for frequency domain imaging suitable for applications such as in vivo diffuse optical imaging and fluorescence lifetime imaging. 14-bit images are acquired at 2 gigapixels per second and analyzed with real-time pipeline processing using field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). Performance of the camera system has been tested both for RF-modulated laser imaging in combination with a gain-modulated image intensifier and a simpler system based upon an LED light source. System amplitude and phase noise are measured and compared against theoretical expressions in the shot noise limit presented for different frequency domain configurations. We show the camera itself is capable of shot noise limited performance for amplitude and phase in as little as 3 ms, and when used in combination with the intensifier the noise levels are nearly shot noise limited. The best phase noise in a single pixel is 0.04 degrees for a 1 s integration time. PMID:21750770

  11. ISPATOM: A Generic Real-Time Data Processing Tool Without Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dershowitz, Adam

    2007-01-01

    Information Sharing Protocol Advanced Tool of Math (ISPATOM) is an application program allowing for the streamlined generation of comps, which subscribe to streams of incoming telemetry data, perform any necessary computations on the data, then send the data to other programs for display and/or further processing in NASA mission control centers. Heretofore, the development of comps was difficult, expensive, and time-consuming: Each comp was custom written manually, in a low-level computing language, by a programmer attempting to follow requirements of flight controllers. ISPATOM enables a flight controller who is not a programmer to write a comp by simply typing in one or more equation( s) at a command line or retrieving the equation(s) from a text file. ISPATOM then subscribes to the necessary input data, performs all of necessary computations, and sends out the results. It sends out new results whenever the input data change. The use of equations in ISPATOM is no more difficult than is entering equations in a spreadsheet. The time involved in developing a comp is thus limited to the time taken to decide on the necessary equations. Thus, ISPATOM is a real-time dynamic calculator.

  12. Ultrafast two-dimensional NMR relaxometry for investigating molecular processes in real time.

    PubMed

    Ahola, Susanna; Telkki, Ville-Veikko

    2014-06-01

    Nuclear spin-lattice (T1) and spin-spin (T2) relaxation times provide versatile information about the dynamics and structure of substances, such as proteins, polymers, porous media, and so forth. Multidimensional experiments increase the information content and resolution of NMR relaxometry, but they also multiply the measurement time. To overcome this issue, we present an efficient strategy for a single-scan measurement of a 2D T1-T2 correlation map. The method shortens the experimental time by one to three orders of magnitude as compared to the conventional method, offering an unprecedented opportunity to study molecular processes in real-time. We demonstrate that, despite the tremendous speed-up, the T1-T2 correlation maps determined by the single-scan method are in good agreement with the maps measured by the conventional method. The concept of the single-scan T1-T2 correlation experiment is applicable to a broad range of other multidimensional relaxation and diffusion experiments. PMID:24634359

  13. Biomass burning observations for near-real-time applications: advances in satellite data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyer, E. J.; Reid, J. S.; Prins, E. M.; Hoffman, J.; Schmidt, C. C.; Giglio, L.; Peterson, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    Satellites have been used to provide information on fire activity for wildfire response and air quality applications for many years. While important refinements have been made to algorithmic processing of single satellite scenes for fire detection, most near-real-time (NRT) applications still use fire products in their simplest form-a list of locations and times of fires detected from space. This information can be thought of as the numerator in a fire activity term: it captures relative variations in fire activity, and can be transformed into absolute fire activity only by assuming that the sensitivity of the sensor (the denominator) is consistent and unchanging. This standard for satellite fire products arose from computational necessity, and persists because of simplicity. Using only this limited information restricts development of NRT fire applications in two key ways: first, it does not permit applications to account for variations in detection efficiency by a single sensor, and second, it provides no pathway for quantitative integration of multiple sensors, especially if those sensors have different fire detection properties. We will demonstrate techniques, using current satellite fire products, to improve the fidelity of the description of fire activity from satellite by accounting for variation in detection efficiency, and demonstrate how an absolute metric of fire sensitivity can be used to integrate fire detections from diverse sources, such as polar and geostationary satellite observations, in order to improve NRT description of spatial and temporal patterns of fire activity.

  14. Rapid detection of Listeria monocytogenes by real-time PCR in processed meat and dairy products.

    PubMed

    Heo, Eun Jeong; Song, Bo Ra; Park, Hyun Jung; Kim, Young Jo; Moon, Jin San; Wee, Sung Hwan; Kim, Jin-Seok; Yoon, Yohan

    2014-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the detection of Listeria monocytogenes in different ready-to-eat foods using real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Various concentrations (10(0) to 10(5) CFU/ml) of L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115 were inoculated into ham, sausage, ground meat, processed milk, cheese, and infant formula. L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115 in the samples was then enumerated on Oxford agar, and DNA was extracted from the samples before and after incubation at 36°C for 4 h. A set of primers and hybridization probe designed in this study was then used to detect the pathogen. The standard curve was then prepared by plotting cycle threshold values for each dilution versus L. monocytogenes cell counts (log CFU). The specificity of the set of primers and hybridization probe was appropriate. A 4-h incubation at 36°C before DNA extraction produced optimum standard curves in comparison to the results for a 0-h incubation. Thus, a 4-h incubation at 36°C was applied for monitoring L. monocytogenes in collected food samples. To monitor L. monocytogenes in foods, 533 samples (ham, 129; sausage, 226; ground meat, 72; processed cheese, 54; processed milk, 42; and infant formula, 10) were collected from retail markets and from the step before pasteurization in plants. Of all 533 samples, 4 samples (0.8%) showed positive signals in RT-PCR. Two samples from hams (1.6%) and two samples from sausages (0.9%) were determined to be positive for L. monocytogenes at < 100 CFU/g. The results indicate that the RT-PCR detection method with the set of primers and hybridization probe designed in this study should be useful in monitoring for L. monocytogenes in processed meat and milk products. PMID:24674437

  15. Real-time monitoring of calcification process by Sporosarcina pasteurii biofilm.

    PubMed

    Harris, Dustin; Ummadi, Jyothir Ganesh; Thurber, Andrew R; Allau, Yvan; Verba, Circe; Colwell, Frederick; Torres, Marta E; Koley, Dipankar

    2016-05-10

    Sporosarcina pasteurii is known to produce calcite or biocement in the presence of urea and Ca(2+). Herein, we report the use of novel ultramicrosensors such as pH, Ca(2+), and redox sensors, along with a scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM), to monitor a real-time, bacteria-mediated urea hydrolysis process and subsequent changes in morphology due to CaCO3 precipitation. We report that the surface pH of a live biofilm changed rapidly from 7.4 to 9.2 within 2 min, whereas similar fast depletion (10 min) of Ca(2+) was observed from 85 mM to 10 mM in the presence of a high urea (10 g L(-1)) brine solution at 23 °C. Both the pH and the Ca(2+) concentration profiles were extended up to 600 μm from the biofilm surface, whereas the bulk chemical composition of the brine solution remained constant over the entire 4 h of SECM experiments. In addition, we observed a change in biofilm surface morphology and an increase in overall biofilm height of 50 μm after 4 h of precipitation. Electron microscopy confirmed the changes in surface morphology and formation of CaCO3 crystals. Development of the Ca(2+) profile took 10 min, whereas that of the pH profile took 2 min. This finding indicates that the initial urea hydrolysis process is fast and limited by urease or number of bacteria, whereas later CaCO3 formation and growth of crystals is a slow chemical process. The ultramicrosensors and approaches employed here are capable of accurately characterizing bioremediation on temporal and spatial scales pertinent to the microbial communities and the processes they mediate. PMID:26939806

  16. A translational platform for prototyping closed-loop neuromodulation systems

    PubMed Central

    Afshar, Pedram; Khambhati, Ankit; Stanslaski, Scott; Carlson, David; Jensen, Randy; Linde, Dave; Dani, Siddharth; Lazarewicz, Maciej; Cong, Peng; Giftakis, Jon; Stypulkowski, Paul; Denison, Tim

    2013-01-01

    While modulating neural activity through stimulation is an effective treatment for neurological diseases such as Parkinson's disease and essential tremor, an opportunity for improving neuromodulation therapy remains in automatically adjusting therapy to continuously optimize patient outcomes. Practical issues associated with achieving this include the paucity of human data related to disease states, poorly validated estimators of patient state, and unknown dynamic mappings of optimal stimulation parameters based on estimated states. To overcome these challenges, we present an investigational platform including: an implanted sensing and stimulation device to collect data and run automated closed-loop algorithms; an external tool to prototype classifier and control-policy algorithms; and real-time telemetry to update the implanted device firmware and monitor its state. The prototyping system was demonstrated in a chronic large animal model studying hippocampal dynamics. We used the platform to find biomarkers of the observed states and transfer functions of different stimulation amplitudes. Data showed that moderate levels of stimulation suppress hippocampal beta activity, while high levels of stimulation produce seizure-like after-discharge activity. The biomarker and transfer function observations were mapped into classifier and control-policy algorithms, which were downloaded to the implanted device to continuously titrate stimulation amplitude for the desired network effect. The platform is designed to be a flexible prototyping tool and could be used to develop improved mechanistic models and automated closed-loop systems for a variety of neurological disorders. PMID:23346048

  17. Closed loop kinesthetic feedback for postural control rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Vérité, Fabien; Bachta, Wael; Morel, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Postural control rehabilitation may benefit from the use of smart devices providing biofeedback. This approach consists of increasing the patients perception of their postural state. Namely, postural state is monitored and fed back in real time to the patients through one or more sensory channels. This allows implementing rehabilitation exercises where the patients control their posture with the help of additional sensory inputs. In this paper, a closed loop control of the Center-Of-Pressure (CoP) based on kinesthetic feedback is proposed as a new form of biofeedback. The motion of a one Degree of Freedom (DoF) translational device, lightly touched by the patient's forefinger, is servoed to the patient's CoP position extracted from the measurements of a force plate on which he/she stands. As a result, the patient's CoP can be controllably displaced. A first set of experiments is used to prove the feasibility of this closed-loop control under ideal conditions favoring the perception of the kinesthetic feedback, while the subject is totally unaware of the context. A second set of experiments is then proposed to evaluate the robustness of this approach under experimental conditions that are more realistic with regards to the clinical context of a rehabilitation program involving biofeedback-based exercises. PMID:24968379

  18. Real time intelligent process control system for thin film solar cell manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    George Atanasoff

    2010-10-29

    This project addresses the problem of lower solar conversion efficiency and waste in the typical solar cell manufacturing process. The work from the proposed development will lead toward developing a system which should be able to increase solar panel conversion efficiency by an additional 12-15% resulting in lower cost panels, increased solar technology adoption, reduced carbon emissions and reduced dependency on foreign oil. All solar cell manufacturing processes today suffer from manufacturing inefficiencies that currently lead to lower product quality and lower conversion efficiency, increased product cost and greater material and energy consumption. This results in slower solar energy adoption and extends the time solar cells will reach grid parity with traditional energy sources. The thin film solar panel manufacturers struggle on a daily basis with the problem of thin film thickness non-uniformity and other parameters variances over the deposited substrates, which significantly degrade their manufacturing yield and quality. Optical monitoring of the thin films during the process of the film deposition is widely perceived as a necessary step towards resolving the non-uniformity and non-homogeneity problem. In order to enable the development of an optical control system for solar cell manufacturing, a new type of low cost optical sensor is needed, able to acquire local information about the panel under deposition and measure its local characteristics, including the light scattering in very close proximity to the surface of the film. This information cannot be obtained by monitoring from outside the deposition chamber (as traditional monitoring systems do) due to the significant signal attenuation and loss of its scattering component before the reflected beam reaches the detector. In addition, it would be too costly to install traditional external in-situ monitoring systems to perform any real-time monitoring over large solar panels, since it would require

  19. A Closed-Loop Hardware Simulation of Decentralized Satellite Formation Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebimuma, Takuji; Lightsey, E. Glenn; Baur, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, there has been significant interest in the use of formation flying spacecraft for a variety of earth and space science missions. Formation flying may provide smaller and cheaper satellites that, working together, have more capability than larger and more expensive satellites. Several decentralized architectures have been proposed for autonomous establishment and maintenance of satellite formations. In such architectures, each satellite cooperatively maintains the shape of the formation without a central supervisor, and processing only local measurement information. The Global Positioning System (GPS) sensors are ideally suited to provide such local position and velocity measurements to the individual satellites. An investigation of the feasibility of a decentralized approach to satellite formation flying was originally presented by Carpenter. He extended a decentralized linear-quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) framework proposed by Speyer in a fashion similar to an extended Kalman filter (EKE) which processed GPS position fix solutions. The new decentralized LQG architecture was demonstrated in a numerical simulation for a realistic scenario that is similar to missions that have been proposed by NASA and the U.S. Air Force. Another decentralized architecture was proposed by Park et al. using carrier differential-phase GPS (CDGPS). Recently, Busse et al demonstrated the decentralized CDGPS architecture in a hardware-in-the-loop simulation on the Formation Flying TestBed (FFTB) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), which features two Spirent Cox 16 channel GPS signal generator. Although representing a step forward by utilizing GPS signal simulators for a spacecraft formation flying simulation, only an open-loop performance, in which no maneuvers were executed based on the real-time state estimates, was considered. In this research, hardware experimentation has been extended to include closed-loop integrated guidance and navigation of multiple spacecraft

  20. Closed-loop pulsed helium ionization detector

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, Roswitha S.; Todd, Richard A.

    1987-01-01

    A helium ionization detector for gas chromatography is operated in a constant current, pulse-modulated mode by configuring the detector, electrometer and a high voltage pulser in a closed-loop control system. The detector current is maintained at a fixed level by varying the frequency of fixed-width, high-voltage bias pulses applied to the detector. An output signal proportional to the pulse frequency is produced which is indicative of the charge collected for a detected species.

  1. Closed Loop System Identification with Genetic Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whorton, Mark S.

    2004-01-01

    High performance control design for a flexible space structure is challenging since high fidelity plant models are di.cult to obtain a priori. Uncertainty in the control design models typically require a very robust, low performance control design which must be tuned on-orbit to achieve the required performance. Closed loop system identi.cation is often required to obtain a multivariable open loop plant model based on closed-loop response data. In order to provide an accurate initial plant model to guarantee convergence for standard local optimization methods, this paper presents a global parameter optimization method using genetic algorithms. A minimal representation of the state space dynamics is employed to mitigate the non-uniqueness and over-parameterization of general state space realizations. This control-relevant system identi.cation procedure stresses the joint nature of the system identi.cation and control design problem by seeking to obtain a model that minimizes the di.erence between the predicted and actual closed-loop performance.

  2. Process Mining Methodology for Health Process Tracking Using Real-Time Indoor Location Systems.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Llatas, Carlos; Lizondo, Aroa; Monton, Eduardo; Benedi, Jose-Miguel; Traver, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    The definition of efficient and accurate health processes in hospitals is crucial for ensuring an adequate quality of service. Knowing and improving the behavior of the surgical processes in a hospital can improve the number of patients that can be operated on using the same resources. However, the measure of this process is usually made in an obtrusive way, forcing nurses to get information and time data, affecting the proper process and generating inaccurate data due to human errors during the stressful journey of health staff in the operating theater. The use of indoor location systems can take time information about the process in an unobtrusive way, freeing nurses, allowing them to engage in purely welfare work. However, it is necessary to present these data in a understandable way for health professionals, who cannot deal with large amounts of historical localization log data. The use of process mining techniques can deal with this problem, offering an easily understandable view of the process. In this paper, we present a tool and a process mining-based methodology that, using indoor location systems, enables health staff not only to represent the process, but to know precise information about the deployment of the process in an unobtrusive and transparent way. We have successfully tested this tool in a real surgical area with 3613 patients during February, March and April of 2015. PMID:26633395

  3. Process Mining Methodology for Health Process Tracking Using Real-Time Indoor Location Systems

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Llatas, Carlos; Lizondo, Aroa; Monton, Eduardo; Benedi, Jose-Miguel; Traver, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    The definition of efficient and accurate health processes in hospitals is crucial for ensuring an adequate quality of service. Knowing and improving the behavior of the surgical processes in a hospital can improve the number of patients that can be operated on using the same resources. However, the measure of this process is usually made in an obtrusive way, forcing nurses to get information and time data, affecting the proper process and generating inaccurate data due to human errors during the stressful journey of health staff in the operating theater. The use of indoor location systems can take time information about the process in an unobtrusive way, freeing nurses, allowing them to engage in purely welfare work. However, it is necessary to present these data in a understandable way for health professionals, who cannot deal with large amounts of historical localization log data. The use of process mining techniques can deal with this problem, offering an easily understandable view of the process. In this paper, we present a tool and a process mining-based methodology that, using indoor location systems, enables health staff not only to represent the process, but to know precise information about the deployment of the process in an unobtrusive and transparent way. We have successfully tested this tool in a real surgical area with 3613 patients during February, March and April of 2015. PMID:26633395

  4. Laser velocimeter data acquisition and real time processing using a microcomputer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, James F.

    1988-01-01

    An evolutionary data acquisition system for laser velocimeter applications is presented. The system uses a laser velocimeter (autocovariance) buffer interface to acquire the data, a WORM optical disk for storage, and a high-speed microcomputer for real time statistical computations.

  5. LIBRARY INFORMATION PROCESSING USING AN ON-LINE, REAL-TIME COMPUTER SYSTEM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HOLZBAUR, FREDERICK W.; FARRIS, EUGENE H.

    DIRECT MAN-MACHINE COMMUNICATION IS NOW POSSIBLE THROUGH ON-LINE, REAL-TIME TYPEWRITER TERMINALS DIRECTLY CONNECTED TO COMPUTERS. THESE TERMINAL SYSTEMS PERMIT THE OPERATOR, WHETHER ORDER CLERK, CATALOGER, REFERENCE LIBRARIAN OR TYPIST, TO INTERACT WITH THE COMPUTER IN MANIPULATING DATA STORED WITHIN IT. THE IBM ADMINISTRATIVE TERMINAL SYSTEM…

  6. Similarity Metrics for Closed Loop Dynamic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whorton, Mark S.; Yang, Lee C.; Bedrossian, Naz; Hall, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    To what extent and in what ways can two closed-loop dynamic systems be said to be "similar?" This question arises in a wide range of dynamic systems modeling and control system design applications. For example, bounds on error models are fundamental to the controller optimization with modern control design methods. Metrics such as the structured singular value are direct measures of the degree to which properties such as stability or performance are maintained in the presence of specified uncertainties or variations in the plant model. Similarly, controls-related areas such as system identification, model reduction, and experimental model validation employ measures of similarity between multiple realizations of a dynamic system. Each area has its tools and approaches, with each tool more or less suited for one application or the other. Similarity in the context of closed-loop model validation via flight test is subtly different from error measures in the typical controls oriented application. Whereas similarity in a robust control context relates to plant variation and the attendant affect on stability and performance, in this context similarity metrics are sought that assess the relevance of a dynamic system test for the purpose of validating the stability and performance of a "similar" dynamic system. Similarity in the context of system identification is much more relevant than are robust control analogies in that errors between one dynamic system (the test article) and another (the nominal "design" model) are sought for the purpose of bounding the validity of a model for control design and analysis. Yet system identification typically involves open-loop plant models which are independent of the control system (with the exception of limited developments in closed-loop system identification which is nonetheless focused on obtaining open-loop plant models from closed-loop data). Moreover the objectives of system identification are not the same as a flight test and

  7. Applications of neural networks to real-time data processing at the Environmental and Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL)

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, P.E.; Kouzes, R.T.; Kangas, L.J.

    1993-06-01

    Detailed design of the Environmental and Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is nearing completion and construction is scheduled to begin later this year. This facility will assist in the environmental restoration and waste management mission at the Hanford Site. This paper identifies several real-time data processing applications within the EMSL where neural networks can potentially be beneficial. These applications include real-time sensor data acquisition and analysis, spectral analysis, process control, theoretical modeling, and data compression.

  8. A State-of-the-Art Review of the Real-Time Computer-Aided Study of the Writing Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdel Latif, Muhammad M.

    2008-01-01

    Writing researchers have developed various methods for investigating the writing process since the 1970s. The early 1980s saw the occurrence of the real-time computer-aided study of the writing process that relies on the protocols generated by recording the computer screen activities as writers compose using the word processor. This article…

  9. A flexible real-time pulsar processing system for the VLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demorest, Paul; Butler, Bryan J.; Cordes, James M.; Chatterjee, Shami; Deller, Adam; Dhawan, Vivek; Lazio, Joseph; Majid, Walid A.; Ransom, Scott M.; Wharton, Robert

    2015-01-01

    With its large collecting area, sensitive octave-bandwidth receivers and wide-band digital correlator, the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) has potential to become a useful instrument for radio pulsar science. Most observations of this type are currently performed by large single-dish telescopes (e.g., GBT, Arecibo). In certain cases, an array instrument like the VLA can provide a unique complement to "traditional" single-dish pulsar data. It is also an excellent development platform for planned future large-area, array-based pulsar telescopes.We have developed a new flexible real-time software signal processing system for "phased array" pulsar observing. In this mode, signals from each antenna in the array are coherently summed to form a sensitive single beam on the sky. This is ideal for timing observations in which pulsars with accurately known positions are monitored for years or decades in order to study their binary properties, explore the nature of dense neutron star matter, test general relativity, and possibly directly detect gravitational radiation. Phased array observing can also be used for pulsar searches; the small field-of-view makes it primarily suited for targeted observations of specific areas of interest. Here we describe the system design and current technical capabilities of this system. Phased, summed data from the correlator are sent over ethernet to a computer cluster that performs filterbank, coherent dedispersion, and/or pulse period folding in software. The system utilizes existing VLA computing resources, and no additional hardware costs were required to enable the new capabilites. The software architecture uses code developed for the GUPPI pulsar instrument together with the community-developed DSPSR pulsar signal processing library, both publicly-available open-source software packages. To date, we have demonstrated processing of up to 4 GHz total bandwidth.We also summarize initial observations and results obtained using this

  10. An optimal open/closed-loop control method with application to a pre-stressed thin duralumin plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadimpalli, Sruthi Raju

    The excessive vibrations of a pre-stressed duralumin plate, suppressed by a combination of open-loop and closed-loop controls, also known as open/closed-loop control, is studied in this thesis. The two primary steps involved in this process are: Step (I) with an assumption that the closed-loop control law is proportional, obtain the optimal open-loop control by direct minimization of the performance measure consisting of energy at terminal time and a penalty on open-loop control force via calculus of variations. If the performance measure also involves a penalty on closed-loop control effort then a Fourier based method is utilized. Step (II) the energy at terminal time is minimized numerically to obtain optimal values of feedback gains. The optimal closed-loop control gains obtained are used to describe the displacement and the velocity of open-loop, closed-loop and open/closed-loop controlled duralumin plate.

  11. Real-time detection of optical transients with RAPTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Borozdin, K. N.; Brumby, Steven P.; Galassi, M. C.; McGowan, K. E.; Starr, D. L.; Vestrand, W. T.; White, R. R.; Wozniak, P. R.; Wren, J.

    2002-01-01

    Fast variability of optical objects is an interesting though poorly explored subject in modern astronomy. Real-time data processing and identification of transient, celestial events in the images is very important, for such study as it allows rapid follow-up with more sensitive instruments, We discuss an approach which we have chosen for the RAPTOR project which is a pioneering close-loop system combining real-time transient detection with rapid follow-up. Our data processing pipeline is able to identify and localize an optical transient within seconds after the observation. We describe the challenges we met, solutions we found and some results obtained in our search for fast optical transients. The software pipeline we have developed for RAPTOR can easily be applied to the data from other experiments.

  12. Real-Time Detection of Optical Transients with RAPTOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borozdin, Konstantin N.; Brumby, Steven P.; Galassi, Mark C.; McGowan, Katherine; Starr, Daniel; Vestrand, Thomas; White, Robert; Wozniak, Przemek; Wren, James A.

    2002-12-01

    Fast variability of optical objects is an interesting though poorly explored subject in modern astronomy. Real-time data processing and identification of transient celestial events in the images is very important for such study as it allows rapid follow-up with more sensitive instruments. We discuss an approach which we have developed for the RAPTOR project, a pioneering closed-loop system combining real-time transient detection with rapid follow-up. RAPTOR's data processing pipeline is able to identify and localize an optical transient within seconds after the observation. The testing we performed so far have been confirming the effectiveness of our method for the optical transient detection. The software pipeline we have developed for RAPTOR can easily be applied to the data from other experiments.

  13. Graphics processing unit-accelerated real-time compressive sensing spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Daguang; Huang, Yong; Kang, Jin U.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we systematically demonstrate two real-time CS SD OCT systems based on a conventional desktop having three GPUs. The first one takes fast Fourier transform (FFT) as the sensing technique and under-sampled linear wavenumber spectral sampling as input data, while the second one uses non-uniform fast Fourier transform (NUFFT) and under-sampled nonlinear wavenumber spectral sampling, respectively. The maximum reconstruction speed of 72k and 33.5k A-line/s were achieved for these two systems, respectively, with A-scan size 2048. It is >100 times faster than the C++ implementation and >400 times faster than the MATLAB implementation. Finally, we present real-time dispersion compensated image reconstruction for both systems.

  14. Real-time monitoring and control of the plasma hearth process

    SciTech Connect

    Power, M.A.; Carney, K.P.; Peters, G.G.

    1996-05-01

    A distributed monitoring and control system is proposed for a plasma hearth, which will be used to decompose hazardous organic materials, encapsulate actinide waste in an obsidian-like slag, and reduce storage volume of actinide waste. The plasma hearth will be installed at ANL-West with the assistance of SAIC. Real-time monitoring of the off-gas system is accomplished using a Sun Workstation and embedded PCs. LabWindows/CVI software serves as the graphical user interface.

  15. Integrated otpical monitoring of MEMS for closed-loop control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Jeremy M.; Wang, Limin; McCormick, W. B.; Rittenhouse, S. A.; Famouri, Parviz F.; Hornak, Lawrence A.

    2003-01-01

    Robust control and failure assessment of MEMS employed in physically demanding, mission critical applications will allow for higher degrees of quality assurance in MEMS operation. Device fault detection and closed-loop control require detailed knowledge of the operational states of MEMS over the lifetime of the device, obtained by a means decoupled from the system. Preliminary through-wafer optical monitoring research efforts have shown that through-wafer optical probing is suitable for characterizing and monitoring the behavior of MEMS, and can be implemented in an integrated optical monitoring package for continuous in-situ device monitoring. This presentation will discuss research undertaken to establish integrated optical device metrology for closed-loop control of a MUMPS fabricated lateral harmonic oscillator. Successful linear closed-loop control results using a through-wafer optical microprobe position feedback signal will be presented. A theoretical optical output field intensity study of grating structures, fabricated on the shuttle of the resonator, was performed to improve the position resolution of the optical microprobe position signal. Through-wafer microprobe signals providing a positional resolution of 2 μm using grating structures will be shown, along with initial binary Fresnel diffractive optical microelement design layout, process development, and testing results. Progress in the design, fabrication, and test of integrated optical elements for multiple microprobe signal delivery and recovery will be discussed, as well as simulation of device system model parameter changes for failure assessment.

  16. A neuron-inspired computational architecture for spatiotemporal visual processing: real-time visual sensory integration for humanoid robots.

    PubMed

    Holzbach, Andreas; Cheng, Gordon

    2014-06-01

    In this article, we present a neurologically motivated computational architecture for visual information processing. The computational architecture's focus lies in multiple strategies: hierarchical processing, parallel and concurrent processing, and modularity. The architecture is modular and expandable in both hardware and software, so that it can also cope with multisensory integrations - making it an ideal tool for validating and applying computational neuroscience models in real time under real-world conditions. We apply our architecture in real time to validate a long-standing biologically inspired visual object recognition model, HMAX. In this context, the overall aim is to supply a humanoid robot with the ability to perceive and understand its environment with a focus on the active aspect of real-time spatiotemporal visual processing. We show that our approach is capable of simulating information processing in the visual cortex in real time and that our entropy-adaptive modification of HMAX has a higher efficiency and classification performance than the standard model (up to ∼+6%). PMID:24687170

  17. Fast Estimate of Rupture Process of Large Earthquakes via Real Time Hi-net Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Kawakatsu, H.; Mori, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    We developed a real time system based on Hi-net seismic array that can offer fast and reliable source information, for example, source extent and rupture velocity, for earthquakes that occur at distance of roughly 30°- 85°with respect to the array center. We perform continuous grid search on a Hi-net real time data stream to identify possible source locations (following Nishida, K., Kawakatsu, H., and S. Obara, 2008). Earthquakes that occurred off the bright area of the array (30°- 85°with respect to the array center) will be ignored. Once a large seismic event is identified successfully, back-projection will be implemented to trace the source propagation and energy radiation. Results from extended global GRiD-MT and real time W phase inversion will be combined for the better identification of large seismic events. The time required is mainly due to the travel time from the epicenter to the array stations, so we can get the results between 6 to 13 min depending on the epicenter distances. This system can offer fast and robust estimates of earthquake source information, which will be useful for disaster mitigation, such as tsunami evacuation, emergency rescue, and aftershock hazard evaluation.

  18. Information management for real-time multimedia battlefield information dissemination and processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newsome, Thomas C., Jr.; Choi, Dupyo; Orr, Michael P.

    1998-08-01

    The warfighter of tomorrow will demand near real time multimedia data access to obtain critical information in rapidly changing battlefield situation. Phase 1 of the Battlefield Awareness and Data Dissemination (BADD) Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration (ACTD) developed a near real time multimedia data access capability to provide the warfighter with sensor and command and control data on an integrated display. The system provides both live and historical display of the multimedia products with the ability to rapidly search spatially and temporally using a powerful graphical user interface. A key development for the system is the implementation of a video server that provides rapid access to stored video that is keyed to a map showing the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) flight path and its sensor coverage. The BADD System managed the multimedia information from field sensors and processors and utilized the Global Broadcast System (GBS) to disseminate the data to remote users. The system provides the capability to disseminate battlefield data based on user defined profiles (Smart Push) and by queries for stored products (Warfighter Pull). The research addressed the multimedia information management architecture required to meet these requirements in a near real time battlefield exercise. The BADD system interfaced with the legacy and emerging systems in Task Force (TF) XXI and Division XXI. The research also addressed the user and system issues necessary for successful field operation. The BADD system was successful in TFXXI and improvements were incorporated in Division XXI.

  19. Real-time digital processing of Doppler ultrasound signals and calculation of flow parameters.

    PubMed

    Schlindwein, F S; Vieira, M H; Vasconcelos, C F; Simpson, D M

    1994-01-01

    Vascular diseases and their complications are responsible for around 27% of deaths in Brazil. Doppler ultrasound is a non-invasive technique that has been used to study blood flow in intact blood vessels since Satomura first reported the potential of the technique in 1959. Because it is non-invasive it makes sequential studies and those in normals feasible. Whereas in contrast angiography only vessel anatomy is displayed, Doppler ultrasound produces dynamic information on blood-flow. It may be used to estimate flow-rates, to image regions of blood flow (colour Doppler), and to help in locating sites of arterial disease, thus complementing X-ray examinations. This paper describes a system based on a Digital Signal Processor for real-time spectrum analysis of Doppler ultrasound signals, real-time display of sonograms, and calculation and analysis of three parameters of clinical interest derived from the Doppler signal. The system comprises a TMS320C25 development board, which acquires the signal and performs spectrum analysis, and a microcomputer, which reads the spectral estimates, displays them as a sonogram in real-time and calculates a set of spectral parameters proposed in the literature. The system permits a maximum sampling frequency of 40.96 kHz, and in the sonogram, 80 power spectra per second (each with 128 frequency bins) are displayed. In a preliminary study, the stability of the haemodynamic parameters and their dependence on a user-defined threshold value is investigated. PMID:7968870

  20. Real-time Process Monitoring and Temperature Mapping of the 3D Polymer Printing Process

    SciTech Connect

    Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton; Love, Lonnie J; Rowe, John C

    2013-01-01

    An extended range IR camera was used to make temperature measurements of samples as they are being manufactured. The objective is to quantify the temperature variation inside the system as parts are being fabricated, as well as quantify the temperature of a part during fabrication. The IR camera was used to map the temperature within the build volume of the oven and surface temperature measurement of a part as it was being manufactured. The development of the temperature map of the oven provides insight into the global temperature variation within the oven that may lead to understanding variations in the properties of parts as a function of location. The observation of the temperature variation of a part that fails during construction provides insight into how the deposition process itself impacts temperature distribution within a single part leading to failure.

  1. Real-time detection and elimination of nonorthogonality error in interference fringe processing

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Haijiang; Zhang Fengdeng

    2011-05-20

    In the measurement system of interference fringe, the nonorthogonality error is a main error source that influences the precision and accuracy of the measurement system. The detection and elimination of the error has been an important target. A novel method that only uses the cross-zero detection and the counting is proposed to detect and eliminate the nonorthogonality error in real time. This method can be simply realized by means of the digital logic device, because it does not invoke trigonometric functions and inverse trigonometric functions. And it can be widely used in the bidirectional subdivision systems of a Moire fringe and other optical instruments.

  2. Real-time multilevel process monitoring and control of CR image acquisition and preprocessing for PACS and ICU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianguo; Wong, Stephen T. C.; Andriole, Katherine P.; Wong, Albert W. K.; Huang, H. K.

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a control theory and a fault tolerance algorithm developed for real time monitoring and control of acquisition and preprocessing of computed radiographs for PACS and Intensive Care Unit operations. This monitoring and control system uses the event-driven, multilevel processing approach to remove computational bottleneck and to improve system reliability. Its computational performance and processing reliability are evaluated and compared with those of the traditional, single level processing approach.

  3. Real-time MST radar signal processing using a microcomputer running under FORTH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowhill, S. A.

    1983-01-01

    Data on power, correlation time, and velocity were obtained at the Urbana radar using microcomputer and a single floppy disk drive. This system includes the following features: (1) measurement of the real and imaginary components of the received signal at 20 altitudes spaced by 1.5 km; (2) coherent integration of these components over a 1/8-s time period; (3) continuous real time display of the height profiles of the two coherently integrated components; (4) real time calculation of the 1 minute averages of the power and autocovariance function up to 6 lags; (5) output of these data to floppy disk once every 2 minutes; (6) display of the 1 minute power profiles while the data are stored to the disk; (7) visual prompting for the operator to change disks when required at the end of each hour of data; and (8) continuous audible indication of the status of the interrupt service routine. Accomplishments were enabled by two developments: the use of a new correlation algorithm and the use of the FORTH language to manage the various low level and high level procedures involved.

  4. Rethinking data collection and signal processing. 1. Real-time oversampling filter for chemical measurements.

    PubMed

    Laude, Nicholas D; Atcherley, Christopher W; Heien, Michael L

    2012-10-01

    Minimizing noise in chemical measurements is critical to achieve low limits of detection and accurate measurements. We describe a real-time oversampling filter that offers a method to reduce stochastic noise in a time-dependent chemical measurement. The power of this technique is demonstrated in its application to the separation of dopamine and serotonin by micellar electrokinetic chromatography with amperometric detection. Signal-to-noise ratios were increased by almost an order of magnitude, allowing for limits of detection of 100 and 120 amol, respectively. Real-time oversampling filters can be implemented using simple software algorithms and require no change to existing experimental apparatus. The application is not limited to analytical separations, and this technique can be used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio in any experiment where the necessary sampling rate is less than the maximum sampling rate of the analog-to-digital converter. Theory, implementation, and the performance of this filter are described. We propose that this technique should be the default mode of operation for an analog-to-digital converter. PMID:22978644

  5. Accuracy of Single Frequency GPS Observations Processing In Near Real-time With Use of Code Predicted Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielgosz, P. A.

    In this year, the system of active geodetic GPS permanent stations is going to be estab- lished in Poland. This system should provide GPS observations for a wide spectrum of users, especially it will be a great opportunity for surveyors. Many of surveyors still use cheaper, single frequency receivers. This paper focuses on processing of single frequency GPS observations only. During processing of such observations the iono- sphere plays an important role, so we concentrated on the influence of the ionosphere on the positional coordinates. Twenty consecutive days of GPS data from 2001 year were processed to analyze the accuracy of a derived three-dimensional relative vec- tor position between GPS stations. Observations from two Polish EPN/IGS stations: BOGO and JOZE were used. In addition to, a new test station - IGIK was created. In this paper, the results of single frequency GPS observations processing in near real- time are presented. Baselines of 15, 27 and 42 kilometers and sessions of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 hours long were processed. While processing we used CODE (Centre for Orbit De- termination in Europe, Bern, Switzerland) predicted products: orbits and ionosphere info. These products are available in real-time and enable near real-time processing. Software Bernese v. 4.2 for Linux and BPE (Bernese Processing Engine) mode were used. These results are shown with a reference to dual frequency weekly solution (the best solution). Obtained GPS positional time and GPS baseline length dependency accuracy is presented for single frequency GPS observations.

  6. Real-Time Processing of Continuous Physiological Signals in a Neurocritical Care Unit on a Stream Data Analytics Platform.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yong; Sow, Daby; Vespa, Paul; Hu, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Continuous high-volume and high-frequency brain signals such as intracranial pressure (ICP) and electroencephalographic (EEG) waveforms are commonly collected by bedside monitors in neurocritical care. While such signals often carry early signs of neurological deterioration, detecting these signs in real time with conventional data processing methods mainly designed for retrospective analysis has been extremely challenging. Such methods are not designed to handle the large volumes of waveform data produced by bedside monitors. In this pilot study, we address this challenge by building a prototype system using the IBM InfoSphere Streams platform, a scalable stream computing platform, to detect unstable ICP dynamics in real time. The system continuously receives electrocardiographic and ICP signals and analyzes ICP pulse morphology looking for deviations from a steady state. We also designed a Web interface to display in real time the result of this analysis in a Web browser. With this interface, physicians are able to ubiquitously check on the status of their patients and gain direct insight into and interpretation of the patient's state in real time. The prototype system has been successfully tested prospectively on live hospitalized patients. PMID:27165881

  7. A closed-loop compressive-sensing-based neural recording system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie; Mitra, Srinjoy; Suo, Yuanming; Cheng, Andrew; Xiong, Tao; Michon, Frederic; Welkenhuysen, Marleen; Kloosterman, Fabian; Chin, Peter S.; Hsiao, Steven; Tran, Trac D.; Yazicioglu, Firat; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph

    2015-06-01

    Objective. This paper describes a low power closed-loop compressive sensing (CS) based neural recording system. This system provides an efficient method to reduce data transmission bandwidth for implantable neural recording devices. By doing so, this technique reduces a majority of system power consumption which is dissipated at data readout interface. The design of the system is scalable and is a viable option for large scale integration of electrodes or recording sites onto a single device. Approach. The entire system consists of an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) with 4 recording readout channels with CS circuits, a real time off-chip CS recovery block and a recovery quality evaluation block that provides a closed feedback to adaptively adjust compression rate. Since CS performance is strongly signal dependent, the ASIC has been tested in vivo and with standard public neural databases. Main results. Implemented using efficient digital circuit, this system is able to achieve >10 times data compression on the entire neural spike band (500-6KHz) while consuming only 0.83uW (0.53 V voltage supply) additional digital power per electrode. When only the spikes are desired, the system is able to further compress the detected spikes by around 16 times. Unlike other similar systems, the characteristic spikes and inter-spike data can both be recovered which guarantes a >95% spike classification success rate. The compression circuit occupied 0.11mm2/electrode in a 180nm CMOS process. The complete signal processing circuit consumes <16uW/electrode. Significance. Power and area efficiency demonstrated by the system make it an ideal candidate for integration into large recording arrays containing thousands of electrode. Closed-loop recording and reconstruction performance evaluation further improves the robustness of the compression method, thus making the system more practical for long term recording.

  8. Study on digital closed-loop system of silicon resonant micro-sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yefeng; He, Mengke

    2008-10-01

    Designing a micro, high reliability weak signal extracting system is a critical problem need to be solved in the application of silicon resonant micro-sensor. The closed-loop testing system based on FPGA uses software to replace hardware circuit which dramatically decrease the system's mass and power consumption and make the system more compact, both correlation theory and frequency scanning scheme are used in extracting weak signal, the adaptive frequency scanning arithmetic ensures the system real-time. The error model was analyzed to show the solution to enhance the system's measurement precision. The experiment results show that the closed-loop testing system based on FPGA has the personality of low power consumption, high precision, high-speed, real-time etc, and also the system is suitable for different kinds of Silicon Resonant Micro-sensor.

  9. Monitoring Digital Closed-Loop Feedback Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard; Kleyner, Igor

    2011-01-01

    A technique of monitoring digital closed-loop feedback systems has been conceived. The basic idea is to obtain information on the performances of closed-loop feedback circuits in such systems to aid in the determination of the functionality and integrity of the circuits and of performance margins. The need for this technique arises as follows: Some modern digital systems include feedback circuits that enable other circuits to perform with precision and are tolerant of changes in environment and the device s parameters. For example, in a precision timing circuit, it is desirable to make the circuit insensitive to variability as a result of the manufacture of circuit components and to the effects of temperature, voltage, radiation, and aging. However, such a design can also result in masking the indications of damaged and/or deteriorating components. The present technique incorporates test circuitry and associated engineering-telemetry circuitry into an embedded system to monitor the closed-loop feedback circuits, using spare gates that are often available in field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). This technique enables a test engineer to determine the amount of performance margin in the system, detect out of family circuit performance, and determine one or more trend(s) in the performance of the system. In one system to which the technique has been applied, an ultra-stable oscillator is used as a reference for internal adjustment of 12 time-to-digital converters (TDCs). The feedback circuit produces a pulse-width-modulated signal that is fed as a control input into an amplifier, which controls the circuit s operating voltage. If the circuit s gates are determined to be operating too slowly or rapidly when their timing is compared with that of the reference signal, then the pulse width increases or decreases, respectively, thereby commanding the amplifier to increase or reduce, respectively, its output level, and "adjust" the speed of the circuits. The nominal

  10. Architecture For The Optimization Of A Machining Process In Real Time Through Rule-Based Expert System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano, Rafael; González, Luis Carlos; Martín, Francisco Jesús

    2009-11-01

    Under the project SENSOR-IA which has had financial funding from the Order of Incentives to the Regional Technology Centers of the Counsil of Innovation, Science and Enterprise of Andalusia, an architecture for the optimization of a machining process in real time through rule-based expert system has been developed. The architecture consists of an acquisition system and sensor data processing engine (SATD) from an expert system (SE) rule-based which communicates with the SATD. The SE has been designed as an inference engine with an algorithm for effective action, using a modus ponens rule model of goal-oriented rules.The pilot test demonstrated that it is possible to govern in real time the machining process based on rules contained in a SE. The tests have been done with approximated rules. Future work includes an exhaustive collection of data with different tool materials and geometries in a database to extract more precise rules.

  11. A parallel real-time computing-cluster implementation of spotlight SAR processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, Bipin; Rabinkin, Daniel

    2005-05-01

    The high resolution imaging capability of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is largely unaffected by atmospheric conditions and has proven to be an indispensable asset in a variety of military and civilian applications. Application of SAR methodology for real-time imaging however carries with it the large computational complexity and storage requirements of the image-forming algorithms. Recently however, the rapidly diminishing cost of computing hardware and the related ascent of cluster-based computing, has made parallelization of these algorithms an appealing area of investigation. This paper describes a parallel SAR processor developed at MIT Lincoln Laboratory. Several novel technologies were employed in it's implementation, including pMatlab which is a parallel extension of standard Matlab that is also being developed at MIT Lincoln Laboratory. These technologies will be described later in the document. We begin with a brief description of the basic SAR algorithm.

  12. Azimuth correlator for real-time synthetic aperture radar image processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arens, W. E. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    An azimuth correlator architecture is defined wherein a number of serial range-line buffer memories are cascaded such that the output stages of all buffer memories together form a complete and unique range bin in the azimuthal dimension at any given time. A range bin is automatically read out of the last stages of the registers in parallel on a range line sample-by-sample basis for subsequent range migration correction and correlation. Range migration correction is performed on the range bins by effectively varying the length of a delay register at the output of each range-line buffer memory. The corrected range bin output from the delay registers is then correlated with a Doppler reference function to form an image element on a real-time basis.

  13. Performance of a real-time sensor and processing system on a helicopter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurz, F.; Rosenbaum, D.; Meynberg, O.; Mattyus, G.; Reinartz, P.

    2014-11-01

    A new optical real-time sensor system (4k system) on a helicopter is now ready to use for applications during disasters, mass events and traffic monitoring scenarios. The sensor was developed light-weighted, small with relatively cheap components in a pylon mounted sideward on a helicopter. The sensor architecture is finally a compromise between the required functionality, the development costs, the weight and the sensor size. Aboard processors are integrated in the 4k sensor system for orthophoto generation, for automatic traffic parameter extraction and for data downlinks. It is planned to add real-time processors for person detection and tracking, for DSM generation and for water detection. Equipped with the newest and most powerful off-the-shelf cameras available, a wide variety of viewing configurations with a frame rate of up to 12 Hz for the different applications is possible. Based on three cameras with 50 mm lenses which are looking in different directions, a maximal FOV of 104° is reachable; with 100 mm lenses a ground sampling distance of 3.5 cm is possible at a flight height of 500 m above ground. In this paper, we present the first data sets and describe the technical components of the sensor. The effect of vibrations of the helicopter on the GNSS/IMU accuracy and on the 4k video quality is analysed. It can be shown, that if the helicopter hoovers the rolling shutter effect affects the 4k video quality drastically. The GNSS/IMU error is higher than the specified limit, which is mainly caused by the vibrations on the helicopter and the insufficient vibrational absorbers on the sensor board.

  14. Compact, closed-loop controlled waste incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Schadow, K.C.; Seeker, W.R.

    1999-07-01

    Technologies for solid and liquid waste destruction in compact incinerators are being developed in collaboration between industry, universities, and a Government laboratory. This paper reviews progress on one technology, namely active combustion control to achieve efficient and controlled afterburning of air-starved reaction products. This technology which uses synchronized waste gas injection into acoustically stabilized air vortices was transitioned to a simplified afterburner design and practical operational conditions. The full-scale, simplified afterburner, which achieved CO and NO{sub x} emissions of about 30 ppm with a residence time of less than 50 msec, was integrated with a commercially available marine incinerator to increase throughput and reduce emissions. Closed-loop active control with diode laser sensors and novel control strategies was demonstrated on a sub-scale afterburner.

  15. Closed-loop control of renal perfusion pressure in physiological experiments.

    PubMed

    Campos-Delgado, D U; Bonilla, I; Rodríguez-Martínez, M; Sánchez-Briones, M E; Ruiz-Hernández, E

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents the design, experimental modeling, and control of a pump-driven renal perfusion pressure (RPP)-regulatory system to implement precise and relatively fast RPP regulation in rats. The mechatronic system is a simple, low-cost, and reliable device to automate the RPP regulation process based on flow-mediated occlusion. Hence, the regulated signal is the RPP measured in the left femoral artery of the rat, and the manipulated variable is the voltage applied to a dc motor that controls the occlusion of the aorta. The control system is implemented in a PC through the LabView software, and a data acquisition board NI USB-6210. A simple first-order linear system is proposed to approximate the dynamics in the experiment. The parameters of the model are chosen to minimize the error between the predicted and experimental output averaged from eight input/output datasets at different RPP operating conditions. A closed-loop servocontrol system based on a pole-placement PD controller plus dead-zone compensation was proposed for this purpose. First, the feedback structure was validated in simulation by considering parameter uncertainty, and constant and time-varying references. Several experimental tests were also conducted to validate in real time the closed-loop performance for stepwise and fast switching references, and the results show the effectiveness of the proposed automatic system to regulate the RPP in the rat, in a precise, accurate (mean error less than 2 mmHg) and relatively fast mode (10-15 s of response time). PMID:23358945

  16. Real-time target detection technology of large view-field infrared image based on multicore DSP parallel processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Gang; Liu, Songlin; Wang, Weihua; Chen, Zengping

    2013-10-01

    In order to implement real-time detection of hedgehopping target in large view-field infrared (LVIR) image, the paper proposes a fast algorithm flow to extract the target region of interest (ROI). The ground building region was rejected quickly and target ROI was segmented roughly through the background classification. Then the background image containing target ROI was matched with previous frame based on a mean removal normalized product correlation (MRNPC) similarity measure function. Finally, the target motion area was extracted by inter-frame difference in time domain. According to the proposed algorithm flow, this paper designs the high-speed real-time signal processing hardware platform based on FPGA + DSP, and also presents a new parallel processing strategy that called function-level and task-level, which could parallel process LVIR image by multi-core and multi-task. Experimental results show that the algorithm can extract low altitude aero target with complex background in large view effectively, and the new design hardware platform could implement real time processing of the IR image with 50000x288 pixels per second in large view-field infrared search system (LVIRSS).

  17. Real-time 2D parallel windowed Fourier transform for fringe pattern analysis using Graphics Processing Unit.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wenjing; Huyen, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Loi, Ho Sy; Kemao, Qian

    2009-12-01

    In optical interferometers, fringe projection systems, and synthetic aperture radars, fringe patterns are common outcomes and usually degraded by unavoidable noises. The presence of noises makes the phase extraction and phase unwrapping challenging. Windowed Fourier transform (WFT) based algorithms have been proven to be effective for fringe pattern analysis to various applications. However, the WFT-based algorithms are computationally expensive, prohibiting them from real-time applications. In this paper, we propose a fast parallel WFT-based library using graphics processing units and computer unified device architecture. Real-time WFT-based algorithms are achieved with 4 frames per second in processing 256x256 fringe patterns. Up to 132x speedup is obtained for WFT-based algorithms using NVIDIA GTX295 graphics card than sequential C in quad-core 2.5GHz Intel(R)Xeon(R) CPU E5420. PMID:20052242

  18. Real-time process "defect" collection within the anatomic pathology laboratory to facilitate informatics driven workflow optimization.

    PubMed

    Riben, Michael; Nesbitt, Leslie; Ninan, Shibu; Routbort, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Our anatomic pathology laboratory workflow optimization project developed a 2-pronged approach to real-time rapid process "defect" collection using a customized Post-it (3M) note for non-computerized workstations and a data collection module within our workflow integration software system, each of which takes less than 5 minutes to complete. We present results from our baseline, pre-implementation data collection event and discuss the applicability for other areas of healthcare. PMID:18999113

  19. Fast, multi-channel real-time processing of signals with microsecond latency using graphics processing units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, N.; Kato, S.; Levesque, J. P.; Mauel, M. E.; Navratil, G. A.; Peng, Q.

    2014-04-01

    Fast, digital signal processing (DSP) has many applications. Typical hardware options for performing DSP are field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), application-specific integrated DSP chips, or general purpose personal computer systems. This paper presents a novel DSP platform that has been developed for feedback control on the HBT-EP tokamak device. The system runs all signal processing exclusively on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) to achieve real-time performance with latencies below 8 μs. Signals are transferred into and out of the GPU using PCI Express peer-to-peer direct-memory-access transfers without involvement of the central processing unit or host memory. Tests were performed on the feedback control system of the HBT-EP tokamak using forty 16-bit floating point inputs and outputs each and a sampling rate of up to 250 kHz. Signals were digitized by a D-TACQ ACQ196 module, processing done on an NVIDIA GTX 580 GPU programmed in CUDA, and analog output was generated by D-TACQ AO32CPCI modules.

  20. Fast, multi-channel real-time processing of signals with microsecond latency using graphics processing units.

    PubMed

    Rath, N; Kato, S; Levesque, J P; Mauel, M E; Navratil, G A; Peng, Q

    2014-04-01

    Fast, digital signal processing (DSP) has many applications. Typical hardware options for performing DSP are field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), application-specific integrated DSP chips, or general purpose personal computer systems. This paper presents a novel DSP platform that has been developed for feedback control on the HBT-EP tokamak device. The system runs all signal processing exclusively on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) to achieve real-time performance with latencies below 8 μs. Signals are transferred into and out of the GPU using PCI Express peer-to-peer direct-memory-access transfers without involvement of the central processing unit or host memory. Tests were performed on the feedback control system of the HBT-EP tokamak using forty 16-bit floating point inputs and outputs each and a sampling rate of up to 250 kHz. Signals were digitized by a D-TACQ ACQ196 module, processing done on an NVIDIA GTX 580 GPU programmed in CUDA, and analog output was generated by D-TACQ AO32CPCI modules. PMID:24784666

  1. Fast, multi-channel real-time processing of signals with microsecond latency using graphics processing units

    SciTech Connect

    Rath, N. Levesque, J. P.; Mauel, M. E.; Navratil, G. A.; Peng, Q.; Kato, S.

    2014-04-15

    Fast, digital signal processing (DSP) has many applications. Typical hardware options for performing DSP are field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), application-specific integrated DSP chips, or general purpose personal computer systems. This paper presents a novel DSP platform that has been developed for feedback control on the HBT-EP tokamak device. The system runs all signal processing exclusively on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) to achieve real-time performance with latencies below 8 μs. Signals are transferred into and out of the GPU using PCI Express peer-to-peer direct-memory-access transfers without involvement of the central processing unit or host memory. Tests were performed on the feedback control system of the HBT-EP tokamak using forty 16-bit floating point inputs and outputs each and a sampling rate of up to 250 kHz. Signals were digitized by a D-TACQ ACQ196 module, processing done on an NVIDIA GTX 580 GPU programmed in CUDA, and analog output was generated by D-TACQ AO32CPCI modules.

  2. Real-time processing of ASL signs: Delayed first language acquisition affects organization of the mental lexicon.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Amy M; Borovsky, Arielle; Hatrak, Marla; Mayberry, Rachel I

    2015-07-01

    Sign language comprehension requires visual attention to the linguistic signal and visual attention to referents in the surrounding world, whereas these processes are divided between the auditory and visual modalities for spoken language comprehension. Additionally, the age-onset of first language acquisition and the quality and quantity of linguistic input for deaf individuals is highly heterogeneous, which is rarely the case for hearing learners of spoken languages. Little is known about how these modality and developmental factors affect real-time lexical processing. In this study, we ask how these factors impact real-time recognition of American Sign Language (ASL) signs using a novel adaptation of the visual world paradigm in deaf adults who learned sign from birth (Experiment 1), and in deaf adults who were late-learners of ASL (Experiment 2). Results revealed that although both groups of signers demonstrated rapid, incremental processing of ASL signs, only native signers demonstrated early and robust activation of sublexical features of signs during real-time recognition. Our findings suggest that the organization of the mental lexicon into units of both form and meaning is a product of infant language learning and not the sensory and motor modality through which the linguistic signal is sent and received. PMID:25528091

  3. Profiling Real-Time Electricity Consumption Data for Process Monitoring and Control

    SciTech Connect

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A

    2013-01-01

    Today, smart meters serve as key assets to utilities and their customers because they are capable of recording and communicating real-time energy usage data; thus, enabling better understanding of energy usage patterns. Other potential benefits of smart meters data include the ability to improve customer experience, grid reliability, outage management, and operational efficiency. Despite these tangible benefits, many utilities are inundated by data and remain uncertain about how to extract additional value from these deployed assets outside of billing operations. One way to overcome this challenge is the development of new metrics for classifying utility customers. Traditionally, utilities classified their customers based on their business nature (residential, commercial, and industrial) and/or their total annual consumption. While this classification is useful for some operational functions, it is too limited for designing effective monitoring and control strategies. In this paper, a data mining methodology is proposed for clustering and profiling smart meters data in order to form unique classes of customers exhibiting similar usage patterns. The developed clusters could help utilities in identifying opportunities for achieving some of the benefits of smart meters data.

  4. Multi-purpose fast neutron spectrum analyzer with real-time signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulyaev, Yu. S.; Puryga, E. A.; Khilchenko, A. D.; Kvashnin, A. N.; Polosatkin, S. V.; Rovenskikh, A. F.; Burdakov, A. V.; Grishnyaev, E. V.

    2013-08-01

    Diagnostics of hot ion component of plasma on the products of fusion reactions is widely used on thermonuclear facilities. In case of employment of neutron spectrometers, based on organics scintillators, there is advanced technique developed to eliminate neutron pulses from gamma background—digital pulse shape discrimination. For every DPSD application it is necessary to use the fast (2-5 ns) and precise (12 bit) transient ADC unit with large amount of onboard memory for storing every digitized scintillation pulses during shot time. At present time the duration of hot thermonuclear plasma burning in large tokamaks approximate to 1 min, and this requires very high onboard memory capacity (˜100 GB). This paper describes a neutron spectrum analyzer with real-time DPSD algorithm, implemented to ADC unit. This approach saves about two orders of onboard memory capacity, gives the possibility of instant use of outcome to feedback systems. This analyzer was tested and calibrated with help of 60Co and 252Cf radiation sources, and deuterium neutron generator.

  5. Real-time portable dual channel image fusion and data processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin; Yang, Yong-ying; Wang, Dao-dang; Liu, Dong

    2009-05-01

    Presently electricity utilities make use of a number of inspection tools to survey their transmission lines and electrical distribution equipment. Visible and ultraviolet cameras are the latest visual diagnostic tools available to utilities to identify potential failures on electrical equipment. Based on the DSP and FPGA hardware platform, a system is designed to collect images from both visible and ultraviolet channels. Moreover, it performs image fusion, characteristic enhancement and image analysis as well. For detecting the corona, a ultra-violet quantum detector is used in the form of an image intensifier tube with a Cesium-Telluride photocathode, which is competent for single photon counting. For acquiring visible images, a high-speed industrial CCD is implemented to assure definition of images in terms of 1394 protocol. The real-time images is displayed on a LCD, compressed and saved for further analysis. Finally, several methods of program debugging are introduced. The experimental results in the field show that the designed system has good performance in the detection of corona radiation.

  6. Detection by real time PCR of walnut allergen coding sequences in processed foods.

    PubMed

    Linacero, Rosario; Ballesteros, Isabel; Sanchiz, Africa; Prieto, Nuria; Iniesto, Elisa; Martinez, Yolanda; Pedrosa, Mercedes M; Muzquiz, Mercedes; Cabanillas, Beatriz; Rovira, Mercè; Burbano, Carmen; Cuadrado, Carmen

    2016-07-01

    A quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) method, employing novel primer sets designed on Jug r 1, Jug r 3, and Jug r 4 allergen-coding sequences, was set up and validated. Its specificity, sensitivity, and applicability were evaluated. The DNA extraction method based on CTAB-phenol-chloroform was best for walnut. RT-PCR allowed a specific and accurate amplification of allergen sequence, and the limit of detection was 2.5pg of walnut DNA. The method sensitivity and robustness were confirmed with spiked samples, and Jug r 3 primers detected up to 100mg/kg of raw walnut (LOD 0.01%, LOQ 0.05%). Thermal treatment combined with pressure (autoclaving) reduced yield and amplification (integrity and quality) of walnut DNA. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) did not produce any effect on the walnut DNA amplification. This RT-PCR method showed greater sensitivity and reliability in the detection of walnut traces in commercial foodstuffs compared with ELISA assays. PMID:26920302

  7. Advancement of Solidification Processing Technology Through Real Time X-Ray Transmission Microscopy: Sample Preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanescu, D. M.; Curreri, P. A.

    1996-01-01

    Two types of samples were prepared for the real time X-ray transmission microscopy (XTM) characterization. In the first series directional solidification experiments were carried out to evaluate the critical velocity of engulfment of zirconia particles in the Al and Al-Ni eutectic matrix under ground (l-g) conditions. The particle distribution in the samples was recorded on video before and after the samples were directionally solidified. In the second series samples of the above two type of composites were prepared for directional solidification runs to be carried out on the Advanced Gradient Heating Facility (AGHF) aboard the space shuttle during the LMS mission in June 1996. X-ray microscopy proved to be an invaluable tool for characterizing the particle distribution in the metal matrix samples. This kind of analysis helped in determining accurately the critical velocity of engulfment of ceramic particles by the melt interface in the opaque metal matrix composites. The quality of the cast samples with respect to porosity and instrumented thermocouple sheath breakage or shift could be easily viewed and thus helped in selecting samples for the space shuttle experiments. Summarizing the merits of this technique it can be stated that this technique enabled the use of cast metal matrix composite samples since the particle location was known prior to the experiment.

  8. Color reproduction and processing algorithm based on real-time mapping for endoscopic images.

    PubMed

    Khan, Tareq H; Mohammed, Shahed K; Imtiaz, Mohammad S; Wahid, Khan A

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a real-time preprocessing algorithm for image enhancement for endoscopic images. A novel dictionary based color mapping algorithm is used for reproducing the color information from a theme image. The theme image is selected from a nearby anatomical location. A database of color endoscopy image for different location is prepared for this purpose. The color map is dynamic as its contents change with the change of the theme image. This method is used on low contrast grayscale white light images and raw narrow band images to highlight the vascular and mucosa structures and to colorize the images. It can also be applied to enhance the tone of color images. The statistic visual representation and universal image quality measures show that the proposed method can highlight the mucosa structure compared to other methods. The color similarity has been verified using Delta E color difference, structure similarity index, mean structure similarity index and structure and hue similarity. The color enhancement was measured using color enhancement factor that shows considerable improvements. The proposed algorithm has low and linear time complexity, which results in higher execution speed than other related works. PMID:26759756

  9. Real-time CHAMP (RTC) infrared scene generation program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crow, Dennis R.; Coker, Charles F.

    2001-08-01

    The Real-Time CHAMP (RTC) program is a computer simulation used to provide time varying high-fidelity infrared simulations of airborne vehicles and backgrounds in real- time. RTC is currently being utilized to provide real-time infrared imagery to support closed-loop digital and hardware-in-the-loop simulations. RTC computational algorithms take advantage of parametric databases created by its non real-time companion code (CHAMP--Composite Hardbody and Missile Plume) to allow accurate infrared imagery to be generated at real-time frame rates.

  10. Real time image processing: Concepts and technologies; Proceedings of the Meeting, Cannes, France, Nov. 17, 18, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Besson, J.

    1988-01-01

    The conference presents papers on architectures for hybrid and optical processing, image processing and analysis, and modelization-artificial vision-processing for robots. Consideration is given to a prototype of an adaptive optical system for astronomical observation, the influennce of the choice of expansion center on the rotationally invariant correlation filter performance, and a matched filter for IR background suppression. Other topics include progress in real-time image processing for target detection, target tracking, and seeker heads; stereo vision by pyramidal BLI graph matching; and the modeling of a natural three-dimensional scene consisting of moving objects from a sequence of monocular TV images.

  11. High-throughput platform for real-time monitoring of biological processes by multicolor single-molecule fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jin; Dalal, Ravindra V.; Petrov, Alexey N.; Tsai, Albert; O’Leary, Seán E.; Chapin, Karen; Cheng, Janice; Ewan, Mark; Hsiung, Pei-Lin; Lundquist, Paul; Turner, Stephen W.; Hsu, David R.; Puglisi, Joseph D.

    2014-01-01

    Zero-mode waveguides provide a powerful technology for studying single-molecule real-time dynamics of biological systems at physiological ligand concentrations. We customized a commercial zero-mode waveguide-based DNA sequencer for use as a versatile instrument for single-molecule fluorescence detection and showed that the system provides long fluorophore lifetimes with good signal to noise and low spectral cross-talk. We then used a ribosomal translation assay to show real-time fluidic delivery during data acquisition, showing it is possible to follow the conformation and composition of thousands of single biomolecules simultaneously through four spectral channels. This instrument allows high-throughput multiplexed dynamics of single-molecule biological processes over long timescales. The instrumentation presented here has broad applications to single-molecule studies of biological systems and is easily accessible to the biophysical community. PMID:24379388

  12. Novel human-robot interface integrating real-time visual tracking and microphone-array signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizoguchi, Hiroshi; Shigehara, Takaomi; Goto, Yoshiyasu; Hidai, Ken-ichi; Mishima, Taketoshi

    1998-10-01

    This paper proposes a novel human robot interface that is an integration of real time visual tracking and microphone array signal processing. The proposed interface is intended to be used as a speech signal input method for human collaborative robot. Utilizing it, the robot can clearly listen human master's voice remotely as if a wireless microphone were put just in front of the master. A novel technique to form `acoustic focus' at human face is developed. To track and locate the face dynamically, real time face tracking and stereo vision are utilized. To make the acoustic focus at the face, microphones array is utilized. Setting gain and delay of each microphone properly enables to form acoustic focus at desired location. The gain and delay are determined based upon the location of the face. Results of preliminary experiments and simulations demonstrate feasibility of the proposed idea.

  13. Adaptive multispectral stimulator providing registered IR and RF data in a closed-loop environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Stephen C.; Hall, Robert L.

    2004-08-01

    The Multi-Spectral Stimulator described in this paper has been designed to answer the future testing and evaluation needs for emerging multi-spectral technology. This system is portable, low cost, and scalable, and can produce synchronous IR and RF images and signals, respectively, for both injection and projection to multi-mode sensors. The scenes generated are temporally and spatially registered and generated from a three-dimensional database. Its present development provides closed-loop capabilities to a missile simulation. Two adaptive technologies are merged into a flexible system that can stimulate multiple sensors simultaneously in real time. It merges Scientific Research Corporation's Adaptable Radar Environment Simulator (ARES) and Quantum3D/CG2 Inc.'s real-time, multi-spectral Scene Generation system. The stimulator can run in either real-time or stepped mode, providing signals on demand. The resulting stimulator test bed is integrated to a non-real-time high fidelity missile simulation that consists of an IR seeker, IR imaging tracker, and a 6-DOF/Autopilot model. The stimulator design can be modified to stimulate multiple passive sensors, active laser systems, multi-mode systems, multiple radar systems, or almost any combination of sensors. The next planned development stage integrates the system to real-time closed-loop system and associated interface electronics. This will provide a bridge to full hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) integration for the simulation of a dual mode missile system.

  14. A real-time autostereoscopic display method based on partial sub-pixel by general GPU processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Duo; Sang, Xinzhu; Cai, Yuanfa

    2013-08-01

    With the progress of 3D technology, the huge computing capacity for the real-time autostereoscopic display is required. Because of complicated sub-pixel allocating, masks providing arranged sub-pixels are fabricated to reduce real-time computation. However, the binary mask has inherent drawbacks. In order to solve these problems, weighted masks are used in displaying based on partial sub-pixel. Nevertheless, the corresponding computations will be tremendously growing and unbearable for CPU. To improve calculating speed, Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) processing with parallel computing ability is adopted. Here the principle of partial sub-pixel is presented, and the texture array of Direct3D 10 is used to increase the number of computable textures. When dealing with a HD display and multi-viewpoints, a low level GPU is still able to permit a fluent real time displaying, while the performance of high level CPU is really not acceptable. Meanwhile, after using texture array, the performance of D3D10 could be double, and sometimes be triple faster than D3D9. There are several distinguishing features for the proposed method, such as the good portability, less overhead and good stability. The GPU display system could also be used for the future Ultra HD autostereoscopic display.

  15. Rapid spatial frequency domain inverse problem solutions using look-up tables for real-time processing (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelo, Joseph P.; Bigio, Irving J.; Gioux, Sylvain

    2016-03-01

    Imaging technologies working in the spatial frequency domain are becoming increasingly popular for generating wide-field optical property maps, enabling further analysis of tissue parameters such as absorption or scattering. While acquisition methods have witnessed a very rapid growth and are now performing in real-time, processing methods are yet slow preventing information to be acquired and displayed in real-time. In this work, we present solutions for rapid inverse problem solving for optical properties by use of advanced look-up tables. In particular, we present methods and results from a dense, linearized look-up table and an analytical representation that currently run 100 times faster than the standard method and within 10% in both absorption and scattering. With the resulting computation time in the tens of milliseconds range, the proposed techniques enable video-rate feedback of real-time techniques such as snapshot of optical properties (SSOP) imaging, making full video-rate guidance in the clinic possible.

  16. First Results from a Hardware-in-the-Loop Demonstration of Closed-Loop Autonomous Formation Flying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, E.; Naasz, Bo; Ebinuma, T.

    2003-01-01

    A closed-loop system for the demonstration of autonomous satellite formation flying technologies using hardware-in-the-loop has been developed. Making use of a GPS signal simulator with a dual radio frequency outlet, the system includes two GPS space receivers as well as a powerful onboard navigation processor dedicated to the GPS-based guidance, navigation, and control of a satellite formation in real-time. The closed-loop system allows realistic simulations of autonomous formation flying scenarios, enabling research in the fields of tracking and orbit control strategies for a wide range of applications. The autonomous closed-loop formation acquisition and keeping strategy is based on Lyapunov's direct control method as applied to the standard set of Keplerian elements. This approach not only assures global and asymptotic stability of the control but also maintains valuable physical insight into the applied control vectors. Furthermore, the approach can account for system uncertainties and effectively avoids a computationally expensive solution of the two point boundary problem, which renders the concept particularly attractive for implementation in onboard processors. A guidance law has been developed which strictly separates the relative from the absolute motion, thus avoiding the numerical integration of a target trajectory in the onboard processor. Moreover, upon using precise kinematic relative GPS solutions, a dynamical modeling or filtering is avoided which provides for an efficient implementation of the process on an onboard processor. A sample formation flying scenario has been created aiming at the autonomous transition of a Low Earth Orbit satellite formation from an initial along-track separation of 800 m to a target distance of 100 m. Assuming a low-thrust actuator which may be accommodated on a small satellite, a typical control accuracy of less than 5 m has been achieved which proves the applicability of autonomous formation flying techniques to

  17. Digital CODEC for real-time processing of broadcast quality video signals at 1.8 bits/pixel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shalkhauser, Mary JO; Whyte, Wayne A.

    1991-01-01

    Advances in very large scale integration and recent work in the field of bandwidth efficient digital modulation techniques have combined to make digital video processing technically feasible an potentially cost competitive for broadcast quality television transmission. A hardware implementation was developed for DPCM (differential pulse code midulation)-based digital television bandwidth compression algorithm which processes standard NTSC composite color television signals and produces broadcast quality video in real time at an average of 1.8 bits/pixel. The data compression algorithm and the hardware implementation of the codec are described, and performance results are provided.

  18. Digital CODEC for real-time processing of broadcast quality video signals at 1.8 bits/pixel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shalkhauser, Mary JO; Whyte, Wayne A., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Advances in very large-scale integration and recent work in the field of bandwidth efficient digital modulation techniques have combined to make digital video processing technically feasible and potentially cost competitive for broadcast quality television transmission. A hardware implementation was developed for a DPCM-based digital television bandwidth compression algorithm which processes standard NTSC composite color television signals and produces broadcast quality video in real time at an average of 1.8 bits/pixel. The data compression algorithm and the hardware implementation of the CODEC are described, and performance results are provided.

  19. Real-time imaging implementation of the Army Research Laboratory synchronous impulse reconstruction radar on a graphics processing unit architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Song Jun; Nguyen, Lam H.; Shires, Dale R.; Henz, Brian J.

    2009-05-01

    High computing requirements for the synchronous impulse reconstruction (SIRE) radar algorithm present a challenge for near real-time processing, particularly the calculations involved in output image formation. Forming an image requires a large number of parallel and independent floating-point computations. To reduce the processing time and exploit the abundant parallelism of image processing, a graphics processing unit (GPU) architecture is considered for the imaging algorithm. Widely available off the shelf, high-end GPUs offer inexpensive technology that exhibits great capacity of computing power in one card. To address the parallel nature of graphics processing, the GPU architecture is designed for high computational throughput realized through multiple computing resources to target data parallel applications. Due to a leveled or in some cases reduced clock frequency in mainstream single and multi-core general-purpose central processing units (CPUs), GPU computing is becoming a competitive option for compute-intensive radar imaging algorithm prototyping. We describe the translation and implementation of the SIRE radar backprojection image formation algorithm on a GPU platform. The programming model for GPU's parallel computing and hardware-specific memory optimizations are discussed in the paper. A considerable level of speedup is available from the GPU implementation resulting in processing at real-time acquisition speeds.

  20. Advanced real-time bus system for concurrent data paths used in high-performance image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodersen, Jorg; Palkovich, Roland; Landl, Dieter; Furtler, Johannes; Dulovits, Martin

    2004-05-01

    In this paper we present a new bus protocol satisfying extreme real time demands. It has been applied to a high performance quality inspection system which can involve up to eight sensors of various types. Thanks to the modular configuration this multi-sensor inspection system acts on the outside as a single sensor image processing system. In general, image processing systems comprise three basic functions (i) image acquisition, (ii) image processing and (iii) output of processed data. The data transfers for these three fundamental functions can be accomplished either by individual bus systems or by a single bus. In case of using a single bus the system complexity of the implementation, i.e. Development of protocols, hardware employment and EMC technical considerations, is far smaller. An important goal of the new protocol design is to support extremely fast communication between individual processing modules. For example, the input data (image acquisition) is transferred in real time to individual processing modules. Concurrent to this communication the processed data are being transferred to the output module. Therefore, the key function of this protocol is to realize concurrent data paths (data rates over 1.2 Gbit/s) by using principles of pipeline architectures and methods of time division multiplex. Moreover, the new bus protocol enables concurrent data transfers via a single bus system. In this paper the function of the new bus protocol including hardware layout and innovative bus arbiter are described in details.

  1. A method for closed-loop presentation of sensory stimuli conditional on the internal brain-state of awake animals

    PubMed Central

    Rutishauser, Ueli; Kotowicz, Andreas; Laurent, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    Brain activity often consists of interactions between internal—or on-going—and external—or sensory—activity streams, resulting in complex, distributed patterns of neural activity. Investigation of such interactions could benefit from closed-loop experimental protocols in which one stream can be controlled depending on the state of the other. We describe here methods to present rapid and precisely timed visual stimuli to awake animals, conditional on features of the animal’s on-going brain state; those features are the presence, power and phase of oscillations in local field potentials (LFP). The system can process up to 64 channels in real time. We quantified its performance using simulations, synthetic data and animal experiments (chronic recordings in the dorsal cortex of awake turtles). The delay from detection of an oscillation to the onset of a visual stimulus on an LCD screen was 47.5 ms and visual-stimulus onset could be locked to the phase of ongoing oscillations at any frequency ≤40 Hz. Our software’s architecture is flexible, allowing on-the-fly modifications by experimenters and the addition of new closed-loop control and analysis components through plugins. The source code of our system “StimOMatic” is available freely as open-source. PMID:23473800

  2. Implementation of a data processing platform for real-time distance measurement with dual-comb lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Kai; Xu, Mingfei; Zhou, Qian; Dong, Hao; Li, Xinghui; Wu, Guanhao

    2015-08-01

    Absolute distance measurement with dual femtosecond comb lasers has advantages of wide-range, high-accuracy and fast speed. It combines time-of-flight and interferometric measurement. The novelty of ranging method leads to new challenges in designing the data acquisition and processing hardware system. Currently there are no available real-time data processing system for dual-comb ranging. This paper introduces our recent progress on designing and implementing such a platform. Our platform mainly contains four different function modules. First, a clock module that accept a 250MHz maximum reference clock input was introduced to generate the sample clock for A/D converter, and the module's output clock can be delayed up to 20ns with a resolution of 714ps. Second, a high-speed data acquisition module with a 14-bit resolution and a 125 MSPS maximum sample rate was designed to convert the analog laser pulse signal to digital signal. Third, we built a real-time data processing module that allows an input of 16-bit data in the FPGA to calculate the distance from the digital signal within 83us. Finally, a data transmission module based on a 128MB DDR SDRAM and USB2.0 was added so that we can easily debug the platform in the PC. The performance of our system is evaluated in real-time. The test bench consists of two femtosecond laser sources, an optical fiber interferometer and our data processing system. The repetition frequencies of the two combs are around 50MHz, with frequency difference of 2.5kHz. The center wavelength of laser pulses is 1560nm. The target distance is from 0m to 3m. The experimental results show that our system can output measurement results at the rate of 2500 pts/s, and the measurement deviation is less than 10um.

  3. A Flexible Pilot-Scale Setup for Real-Time Studies in Process Systems Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panjapornpon, Chanin; Fletcher, Nathan; Soroush, Masoud

    2006-01-01

    This manuscript describes a flexible, pilot-scale setup that can be used for training students and carrying out research in process systems engineering. The setup allows one to study a variety of process systems engineering concepts such as design feasibility, design flexibility, control configuration selection, parameter estimation, process and…

  4. The Impact of Number Mismatch and Passives on the Real-Time Processing of Relative Clauses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contemori, Carla; Marinis, Theodoros

    2014-01-01

    Language processing plays a crucial role in language development, providing the ability to assign structural representations to input strings (e.g., Fodor, 1998). In this paper we aim at contributing to the study of children's processing routines, examining the operations underlying the auditory processing of relative clauses in children…

  5. Fusion of product and process data: Batch-mode and real-time streaming

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent De Sapio; Spike Leonard

    1999-12-01

    In today's DP product realization enterprise it is imperative to reduce the design-to-fabrication cycle time and cost while improving the quality of DP parts (reducing defects). Much of this challenge resides in the inherent gap between the product and process worlds. The lack of seamless, bi-directional flow of information prevents true concurrency in the product realization world. This report addresses a framework for product-process data fusion to help achieve next generation product realization. A fundamental objective is to create an open environment for multichannel observation of process date, and subsequent mapping of that data onto product geometry. In addition to the sensor-based observation of manufacturing processes, model-based process data provides an important complement to empirically acquired data. Two basic groups of manufacturing models are process physics, and machine kinematics and dynamics. Process physics addresses analytical models that describe the physical phenomena of the process itself. Machine kinematic and dynamic models address the mechanical behavior of the processing equipment. As a secondary objective, an attempt has been made in this report to address part of the model-based realm through the development of an open object-oriented library and toolkit for machine kinematics and dynamics. Ultimately, it is desirable to integrate design definition, with all types of process data; both sensor-based and model-based. Collectively, the goal is to allow all disciplines within the product realization enterprise to have a centralized medium for the fusion of product and process data.

  6. Real-time water treatment process control with artificial neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Q.; Stanley, S.J.

    1999-02-01

    With more stringent requirements being placed on water treatment performance, operators need a reliable tool to optimize the process control in the treatment plant. In the present paper, one such tool is presented, which is a process control system built with the artificial neural network (ANN) modeling approach. The coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation processes involve many complex physical and chemical phenomena and thus are difficult to model for process control with traditional methods. Proposed is the use of a neural network process control system for the coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation processes. Presented is a review of influential control parameters and control requirements for these processes followed by the development of a feed forward neural network control scheme. A neural network process model was built based on nearly 2,000 sets of process control data. This model formed the major component of a software controller and was found to consistently predict the optimum alum and power activated carbon doses for different control actions. With minor modifications, the approach illustrated can be used for building control models for other water treatment processes.

  7. Selection of internal control genes for quantitative real-time RT-PCR studies during tomato development process

    PubMed Central

    Expósito-Rodríguez, Marino; Borges, Andrés A; Borges-Pérez, Andrés; Pérez, José A

    2008-01-01

    Background The elucidation of gene expression patterns leads to a better understanding of biological processes. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR has become the standard method for in-depth studies of gene expression. A biologically meaningful reporting of target mRNA quantities requires accurate and reliable normalization in order to identify real gene-specific variation. The purpose of normalization is to control several variables such as different amounts and quality of starting material, variable enzymatic efficiencies of retrotranscription from RNA to cDNA, or differences between tissues or cells in overall transcriptional activity. The validity of a housekeeping gene as endogenous control relies on the stability of its expression level across the sample panel being analysed. In the present report we describe the first systematic evaluation of potential internal controls during tomato development process to identify which are the most reliable for transcript quantification by real-time RT-PCR. Results In this study, we assess the expression stability of 7 traditional and 4 novel housekeeping genes in a set of 27 samples representing different tissues and organs of tomato plants at different developmental stages. First, we designed, tested and optimized amplification primers for real-time RT-PCR. Then, expression data from each candidate gene were evaluated with three complementary approaches based on different statistical procedures. Our analysis suggests that SGN-U314153 (CAC), SGN-U321250 (TIP41), SGN-U346908 ("Expressed") and SGN-U316474 (SAND) genes provide superior transcript normalization in tomato development studies. We recommend different combinations of these exceptionally stable housekeeping genes for suited normalization of different developmental series, including the complete tomato development process. Conclusion This work constitutes the first effort for the selection of optimal endogenous controls for quantitative real-time RT-PCR studies of gene

  8. Real-time scattered light dark-field microscopic imaging of the dynamic degradation process of sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Gang; Gao, Peng Fei; Liu, Hui; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Single nanoparticle analysis (SNA) technique with the aid of a dark-field microscopic imaging (iDFM) technique has attracted wide attention owing to its high sensitivity. Considering that the degradation of pesticides can bring about serious problems in food and the environment, and that the real-time monitoring of the dynamic degradation process of pesticides can help understand and define their degradation mechanisms, herein we real-time monitored the decomposition dynamics of sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate (NaDDC) under neutral and alkaline conditions by imaging single silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) under a dark-field microscope (DFM); the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) scattering signals were measured at a single nanoparticle level. As a result, the chemical mechanism of the degradation of NaDDC under neutral and alkaline conditions was proposed, and the inhibition effects of metal ions including Zn(ii) and Cu(ii) were investigated in order to understand the decomposition process in different environments. It was found that Cu(ii) forms the most stable complex with NaDDC with a stoichiometric ratio of 1 : 2, which greatly reduces the toxicity.Single nanoparticle analysis (SNA) technique with the aid of a dark-field microscopic imaging (iDFM) technique has attracted wide attention owing to its high sensitivity. Considering that the degradation of pesticides can bring about serious problems in food and the environment, and that the real-time monitoring of the dynamic degradation process of pesticides can help understand and define their degradation mechanisms, herein we real-time monitored the decomposition dynamics of sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate (NaDDC) under neutral and alkaline conditions by imaging single silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) under a dark-field microscope (DFM); the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) scattering signals were measured at a single nanoparticle level. As a result, the chemical mechanism of the degradation of Na

  9. Towards real-time wavefront sensorless adaptive optics using a graphical processing unit (GPU) in a line scanning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biss, David P.; Patel, Ankit H.; Ferguson, R. Daniel; Mujat, Mircea; Iftimia, Nicusor; Hammer, Daniel X.

    2011-03-01

    Adaptive optics ophthalmic imaging systems that rely on a standalone wave-front sensor can be costly to build and difficult for non-technical personnel to operate. As an alternative we present a simplified wavefront sensorless adaptive optics laser scanning ophthalmoscope. This sensorless system is based on deterministic search algorithms that utilize the image's spatial frequency as an optimization metric. We implement this algorithm on a NVIDIA video card to take advantage of the graphics processing unit (GPU)'s parallel architecture to reduce algorithm computation times and approach real-time correction.

  10. Development of a Real-Time Pulse Processing Algorithm for TES-Based X-Ray Microcalorimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, Hui; Hennig, Wolfgang; Warburton, William K.; Doriese, W. Bertrand; Kilbourne, Caroline A.

    2011-01-01

    We report here a real-time pulse processing algorithm for superconducting transition-edge sensor (TES) based x-ray microcalorimeters. TES-based. microca1orimeters offer ultra-high energy resolutions, but the small volume of each pixel requires that large arrays of identical microcalorimeter pixe1s be built to achieve sufficient detection efficiency. That in turn requires as much pulse processing as possible must be performed at the front end of readout electronics to avoid transferring large amounts of data to a host computer for post-processing. Therefore, a real-time pulse processing algorithm that not only can be implemented in the readout electronics but also achieve satisfactory energy resolutions is desired. We have developed an algorithm that can be easily implemented. in hardware. We then tested the algorithm offline using several data sets acquired with an 8 x 8 Goddard TES x-ray calorimeter array and 2x16 NIST time-division SQUID multiplexer. We obtained an average energy resolution of close to 3.0 eV at 6 keV for the multiplexed pixels while preserving over 99% of the events in the data sets.

  11. Real-time atmospheric imaging and processing with hybrid adaptive optics and hardware accelerated lucky-region fusion (LRF) algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jony Jiang; Carhart, Gary W.; Beresnev, Leonid A.; Aubailly, Mathieu; Jackson, Christopher R.; Ejzak, Garrett; Kiamilev, Fouad E.

    2014-09-01

    Atmospheric turbulences can significantly deteriorate the performance of long-range conventional imaging systems and create difficulties for target identification and recognition. Our in-house developed adaptive optics (AO) system, which contains high-performance deformable mirrors (DMs) and the fast stochastic parallel gradient decent (SPGD) control mechanism, allows effective compensation of such turbulence-induced wavefront aberrations and result in significant improvement on the image quality. In addition, we developed advanced digital synthetic imaging and processing technique, "lucky-region" fusion (LRF), to mitigate the image degradation over large field-of-view (FOV). The LRF algorithm extracts sharp regions from each image obtained from a series of short exposure frames and fuses them into a final improved image. We further implemented such algorithm into a VIRTEX-7 field programmable gate array (FPGA) and achieved real-time video processing. Experiments were performed by combining both AO and hardware implemented LRF processing technique over a near-horizontal 2.3km atmospheric propagation path. Our approach can also generate a universal real-time imaging and processing system with a general camera link input, a user controller interface, and a DVI video output.

  12. Real-time display on SD-OCT using a linear-in-wavenumber spectrometer and a graphics processing unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yuuki; Itagaki, Toshiki

    2010-02-01

    We demonstrated a real-time display of processed OCT images using a linear-in-wavenumber (linear-k) spectrometer and a graphics processing unit (GPU). We used the linear-k spectrometer with optimal combination of a diffractive grating with 1200 lines/mm and a F2 equilateral prism in the 840 nm spectral region, to avoid calculating the re-sampling process. The calculations of the FFT (fast Fourier transform) were accelerated by the low cost GPU with many stream processors, which realized highly parallel processing. A display rate of 27.9 frames per second for processed images (2048 FFT size × 1000 lateral A-scans) was achieved in our OCT system using a line scan CCD camera operated at 27.9 kHz.

  13. Design and performance of a real-time radon-space hybrid image processing system for FLIR target evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolven, Steven; Chevrette, Paul C.

    1994-10-01

    A unique real-time hybrid optical-digital image processing system has been developed to perform analysis of low contrast visual and infrared images in radon-space. This system functions by implementing the forward radon transform (a mathematical tomographic transform of image data from two-dimensional image-space to one-dimensional radon-space) in a front-end optical processor, and a digital processing subsystem operating in radon-space instead of the more traditional image-space. The system works by optically converting the two-dimensional image-space data into a series of one-dimensional projections. All further processing is performed digitally in radon-space on the one-dimensional projections. Applications of interest such as the objective minimum resolvable temperature difference measurement of thermal imagers and automatic pattern recognition are discussed. Also, this paper discusses the topic of real-time object-moment analysis in radon-space which can be used for target identification under conditions of certain image distortions (size, rotation, translation, and contrast). Radon-space object-moments can be calculated using significantly less image data and fewer digital operations than those in image-space.

  14. Hardware acceleration of lucky-region fusion (LRF) algorithm for high-performance real-time video processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, Tyler; Jackson, Christopher; Cayci, Furkan; Carhart, Gary W.; Liu, J. J.; Kiamilev, Fouad

    2015-06-01

    "Lucky-region" fusion (LRF) is a synthetic imaging technique that has proven successful in enhancing the quality of images distorted by atmospheric turbulence. The LRF algorithm extracts sharp regions of an image obtained from a series of short exposure frames from fast, high-resolution image sensors, and fuses the sharp regions into a final, improved image. In our previous research, the LRF algorithm had been implemented on CPU and field programmable gate array (FPGA) platforms. The CPU did not have sufficient processing power to handle real-time processing of video. Last year, we presented a real-time LRF implementation using an FPGA. However, due to the slow register-transfer level (RTL) development and simulation time, it was difficult to adjust and discover optimal LRF settings such as Gaussian kernel radius and synthetic frame buffer size. To overcome this limitation, we implemented the LRF algorithm on an off-the-shelf graphical processing unit (GPU) in order to take advantage of built-in parallelization and significantly faster development time. Our initial results show that the unoptimized GPU implementation has almost comparable turbulence mitigation to the FPGA version. In our presentation, we will explore optimization of the LRF algorithm on the GPU to achieve higher performance results, and adding new performance capabilities such as image stabilization.

  15. Distributed processing for features improvement in real-time portable medical devices.

    PubMed

    Mercado, Erwin John Saavedra

    2008-01-01

    Portable biomedical devices are being developed and incorporated in daily life. Nevertheless, their standalone capacity is diminished due to the lack of processing power required to face such duties as for example, signal artifacts robustness in EKG monitor devices. The following paper presents a multiprocessor architecture made from simple microcontrollers to provide an increase in processing performance, power consumption efficiency and lower cost. PMID:19164071

  16. Field Installation and Real-Time Data Processing of the New Integrated SeismoGeodetic System with Real-Time Acceleration and Displacement Measurements for Earthquake Characterization Based on High-Rate Seismic and GPS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimakov, Leonid; Jackson, Michael; Passmore, Paul; Raczka, Jared; Alvarez, Marcos; Barrientos, Sergio

    2015-04-01

    We will discuss and show the results obtained from an integrated SeismoGeodetic System, model SG160-09, installed in the Chilean National Network. The SG160-09 provides the user high rate GNSS and accelerometer data, full epoch-by-epoch measurement integrity and, using the Trimble Pivot™ SeismoGeodetic App, the ability to create combined GNSS and accelerometer high-rate (200Hz) displacement time series in real-time. The SG160-09 combines seismic recording with GNSS geodetic measurement in a single compact, ruggedized package. The system includes a low-power, 220-channel GNSS receiver powered by the latest Trimble-precise Maxwell™6 technology and supports tracking GPS, GLONASS and Galileo signals. The receiver incorporates on-board GNSS point positioning using Real-Time Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technology with satellite clock and orbit corrections delivered over IP networks. The seismic recording element includes an ANSS Class A, force balance triaxial accelerometer with the latest, low power, 24-bit A/D converter, which produces high-resolution seismic data. The SG160-09 processor acquires and packetizes both seismic and geodetic data and transmits it to the central station using an advanced, error-correction protocol with back fill capability providing data integrity between the field and the processing center. The SG160-09 has been installed in the seismic station close to the area of the Iquique earthquake of April 1, 2014, in northern Chile, a seismically prone area at the current time. The hardware includes the SG160-09 system, external Zephyr Geodetic-2 GNSS antenna, and high-speed Internet communication media. Both acceleration and displacement data was transmitted in real-time to the National Seismological Center in Santiago for real-time data processing using Earthworm / Early Bird software. Command/Control of the field station and real-time GNSS position correction are provided via the Pivot software suite. Data from the SG160-09 system was

  17. Physical Processes and Real-Time Chemical Measurement of the Insect Olfactory Environment

    PubMed Central

    Abrell, Leif; Hildebrand, John G.

    2009-01-01

    Odor-mediated insect navigation in airborne chemical plumes is vital to many ecological interactions, including mate finding, flower nectaring, and host locating (where disease transmission or herbivory may begin). After emission, volatile chemicals become rapidly mixed and diluted through physical processes that create a dynamic olfactory environment. This review examines those physical processes and some of the analytical technologies available to characterize those behavior-inducing chemical signals at temporal scales equivalent to the olfactory processing in insects. In particular, we focus on two areas of research that together may further our understanding of olfactory signal dynamics and its processing and perception by insects. First, measurement of physical atmospheric processes in the field can provide insight into the spatiotemporal dynamics of the odor signal available to insects. Field measurements in turn permit aspects of the physical environment to be simulated in the laboratory, thereby allowing careful investigation into the links between odor signal dynamics and insect behavior. Second, emerging analytical technologies with high recording frequencies and field-friendly inlet systems may offer new opportunities to characterize natural odors at spatiotemporal scales relevant to insect perception and behavior. Characterization of the chemical signal environment allows the determination of when and where olfactory-mediated behaviors may control ecological interactions. Finally, we argue that coupling of these two research areas will foster increased understanding of the physicochemical environment and enable researchers to determine how olfactory environments shape insect behaviors and sensory systems. PMID:18548311

  18. Real-time imaging for thermal spray process development and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agapakis, J.; Hoffman, T.

    1992-03-01

    Thermal spray and other high-temperature industrial processes are quite difficult to monitor with the human eye, because the luminous volume of the plasma or flame obscures the behavior of the solid or molten material in the heat-affected area. When a photographic or video camera is used, viewing is further degraded by the extreme contrast variation across the image area, making it impossible to achieve proper exposure throughout the image—except possibly for small areas of comparable brightness. Optical filtering with neutral density filters, such as those used in a welder’s helmet, are of no practical benefit. With thermal spray processes, the injection and flow of particles within the plasma flame is almost totally concealed by the extreme brightness of the plasma, flame, or arc. In addition, the particles quickly accelerate to very high speeds, making their detection even more difficult. This article discusses the development of integrated thermal spray process monitoring and analysis techniques based on two principles. The first is a unique vision sensing system that suppresses the flame, plasma, arc, or other high-luminosity phenomena in the video image. A further improvement is the use of dedicated image and analysis processing to enhance the sensor images and extract features of interest or dimensional measurements. These experimental techniques can be used as feedback for automated process monitoring and control.

  19. Real-time resampling in Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a graphics processing unit.

    PubMed

    Van der Jeught, Sam; Bradu, Adrian; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh

    2010-01-01

    Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) requires either a linear-in-wavenumber spectrometer or a computationally heavy software algorithm to recalibrate the acquired optical signal from wavelength to wavenumber. The first method is sensitive to the position of the prism in the spectrometer, while the second method drastically slows down the system speed when it is implemented on a serially oriented central processing unit. We implement the full resampling process on a commercial graphics processing unit (GPU), distributing the necessary calculations to many stream processors that operate in parallel. A comparison between several recalibration methods is made in terms of performance and image quality. The GPU is also used to accelerate the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and to remove the background noise, thereby achieving full GPU-based signal processing without the need for extra resampling hardware. A display rate of 25 framessec is achieved for processed images (1,024 x 1,024 pixels) using a line-scan charge-coupled device (CCD) camera operating at 25.6 kHz. PMID:20614994

  20. Real-time resampling in Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a graphics processing unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Jeught, Sam; Bradu, Adrian; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2010-05-01

    Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) requires either a linear-in-wavenumber spectrometer or a computationally heavy software algorithm to recalibrate the acquired optical signal from wavelength to wavenumber. The first method is sensitive to the position of the prism in the spectrometer, while the second method drastically slows down the system speed when it is implemented on a serially oriented central processing unit. We implement the full resampling process on a commercial graphics processing unit (GPU), distributing the necessary calculations to many stream processors that operate in parallel. A comparison between several recalibration methods is made in terms of performance and image quality. The GPU is also used to accelerate the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and to remove the background noise, thereby achieving full GPU-based signal processing without the need for extra resampling hardware. A display rate of 25 frames/sec is achieved for processed images (1024×1024 pixels) using a line-scan charge-coupled device (CCD) camera operating at 25.6 kHz.

  1. Evaluating Mobile Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) for Real-Time Resource Constrained Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Meredith, J; Conger, J; Liu, Y; Johnson, J

    2005-11-11

    Modern graphics processing units (GPUs) can provide tremendous performance boosts for some applications beyond what a single CPU can accomplish, and their performance is growing at a rate faster than CPUs as well. Mobile GPUs available for laptops have the small form factor and low power requirements suitable for use in embedded processing. We evaluated several desktop and mobile GPUs and CPUs on traditional and non-traditional graphics tasks, as well as on the most time consuming pieces of a full hyperspectral imaging application. Accuracy remained high despite small differences in arithmetic operations like rounding. Performance improvements are summarized here relative to a desktop Pentium 4 CPU.

  2. A real-time imaging system for rapid processing of radioactive DNA samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGann, W. J.; McConchie, L.; Entine, G.

    1990-12-01

    A new, high-resolution nuclear-imaging detector system is described which substantially improves the speed of detection of radioactively labeled DNA samples. Ultimately this system will be made compatible with a fully automated DNA processing system to aid in the isolation and harvesting of DNA clones in the human genome.

  3. Automatic Near-Real-Time Image Processing Chain for Very High Resolution Optical Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostir, K.; Cotar, K.; Marsetic, A.; Pehani, P.; Perse, M.; Zaksek, K.; Zaletelj, J.; Rodic, T.

    2015-04-01

    In response to the increasing need for automatic and fast satellite image processing SPACE-SI has developed and implemented a fully automatic image processing chain STORM that performs all processing steps from sensor-corrected optical images (level 1) to web-delivered map-ready images and products without operator's intervention. Initial development was tailored to high resolution RapidEye images, and all crucial and most challenging parts of the planned full processing chain were developed: module for automatic image orthorectification based on a physical sensor model and supported by the algorithm for automatic detection of ground control points (GCPs); atmospheric correction module, topographic corrections module that combines physical approach with Minnaert method and utilizing anisotropic illumination model; and modules for high level products generation. Various parts of the chain were implemented also for WorldView-2, THEOS, Pleiades, SPOT 6, Landsat 5-8, and PROBA-V. Support of full-frame sensor currently in development by SPACE-SI is in plan. The proposed paper focuses on the adaptation of the STORM processing chain to very high resolution multispectral images. The development concentrated on the sub-module for automatic detection of GCPs. The initially implemented two-step algorithm that worked only with rasterized vector roads and delivered GCPs with sub-pixel accuracy for the RapidEye images, was improved with the introduction of a third step: super-fine positioning of each GCP based on a reference raster chip. The added step exploits the high spatial resolution of the reference raster to improve the final matching results and to achieve pixel accuracy also on very high resolution optical satellite data.

  4. A Prototype Lisp-Based Soft Real-Time Object-Oriented Graphical User Interface for Control System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan; Wong, Edmond; Simon, Donald L.

    1994-01-01

    A prototype Lisp-based soft real-time object-oriented Graphical User Interface for control system development is presented. The Graphical User Interface executes alongside a test system in laboratory conditions to permit observation of the closed loop operation through animation, graphics, and text. Since it must perform interactive graphics while updating the screen in real time, techniques are discussed which allow quick, efficient data processing and animation. Examples from an implementation are included to demonstrate some typical functionalities which allow the user to follow the control system's operation.

  5. Graphics processing unit-assisted real-time three-dimensional measurement using speckle-embedded fringe.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shijie; Chen, Qian; Zuo, Chao

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a novel two-frame fringe projection technique for real-time, accurate, and unambiguous three-dimensional (3D) measurement. One of the frames is a digital speckle pattern, and the other one is a composite image which is generated by fusing that speckle image with sinusoidal fringes. The contained sinusoidal component is used to obtain a wrapped phase map by Fourier transform profilometry, and the speckle image helps determine the fringe order for phase unwrapping. Compared with traditional methods, the proposed pattern scheme enables measurements of discontinuous surfaces with only two frames, greatly reducing the number of required patterns and thus reducing the sensitivity to movements. This merit makes the method very suitable for inspecting dynamic scenes. Moreover, it shows close performance in measurement accuracy compared with the phase-shifting method from our experiments. To process data in real time, a Compute Unified Device Architecture-enabled graphics processing unit is adopted to accelerate some time-consuming computations. With our system, measurements can be performed at 21 frames per second with a resolution of 307,000 points per frame. PMID:26368103

  6. Super-resolution algorithms based on atomic wavelet functions in real-time processing of video sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomeztagle-Sepulveda, Francisco; Kravchenko, Victor; Ponomaryov, Volodymyr I.

    2010-05-01

    In the real world, there are a variety of applications of high resolution (HR) images in remote sensing, video frame freezing, medicine, robot artificial viewing, military information acquisition, etc. Because of the high cost and physical limitations of the acquisition hardware, the low-resolution (LR) images are used frequently. So, super-resolution (SR) restoration is an emerged solution permitting to form one or a set of HR images from a sequence of LR images. The proposed SR framework takes into account the spatial and spectral WT pixel information reconstructing different video and texture nature, presenting good performance in terms of objective (PSNR, MAE, NCD) criteria and visual subjective perception, employing the Wavelets based on atomic functions (WAF). Statistical simulations have demonstrated the effectiveness of the novel approach. The real time digital processing has been implemented on DSP of Texas Instruments TMS320DM642, demonstrating the effectiveness of the reconstruction of SR images in real time processing mode, and justifying this in the video sequences of different nature, pixel resolution and motion behavior.

  7. Monitoring of Dynamic Microbiological Processes Using Real-Time Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Arnoldini, Markus; Heck, Tobias; Blanco-Fernández, Alfonso; Hammes, Frederik

    2013-01-01

    We describe a straightforward approach to continuously monitor a variety of highly dynamic microbiological processes in millisecond resolution with flow cytometry, using standard bench-top instrumentation. Four main experimental examples are provided, namely: (1) green fluorescent protein expression by antibiotic-stressed Escherichia coli, (2) fluorescent labeling of heat-induced membrane damage in an autochthonous freshwater bacterial community, (3) the initial growth response of late stationary E. coli cells inoculated into fresh growth media, and (4) oxidative disinfection of a mixed culture of auto-fluorescent microorganisms. These examples demonstrate the broad applicability of the method to diverse biological experiments, showing that it allows the collection of detailed, time-resolved information on complex processes. PMID:24244624

  8. Development of image processing LSI "SuperVchip" for real-time vision systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, Shoji; Kobayashi, Yoshiki; Otsuka, Yasuo; Shojima, Hiroshi; Tsutsumi, Takayuki; Imai, Toshihiko; Yamada, Shigeyoshi

    2002-03-01

    A new image processing LSI SuperVchip with high-performance computing power has been developed. The SuperVchip has powerful capability for vision systems as follows: 1. General image processing by 3x3, 5x5, 7x7 kernel for high speed filtering function. 2. 16-parallel gray search engine units for robust template matching. 3. 49 block matching Pes to calculate the summation of the absolution difference in parallel for stereo vision function. 4. A color extraction unit for color object recognition. The SuperVchip also has peripheral function of vision systems, such as video interface, PCI extended interface, RISC engine interface and image memory controller on a chip. Therefore, small and high performance vision systems are realized via SuperVchip. In this paper, the above specific circuits are presented, and an architecture of a vision device equipped with SuperVchip and its performance are also described.

  9. Improved determination of plasmid copy number using quantitative real-time PCR for monitoring fermentation processes

    PubMed Central

    Škulj, Mihaela; Okršlar, Veronika; Jalen, Špela; Jevševar, Simona; Slanc, Petra; Štrukelj, Borut; Menart, Viktor

    2008-01-01

    Background Recombinant protein production in Escherichia coli cells is a complex process, where among other parameters, plasmid copy number, structural and segregational stability of plasmid have an important impact on the success of productivity. It was recognised that a method for accurate and rapid quantification of plasmid copy number is necessary for optimization and better understanding of this process. Lately, qPCR is becoming the method of choice for this purpose. In the presented work, an improved qPCR method adopted for PCN determination in various fermentation processes was developed. Results To avoid experimental errors arising from irreproducible DNA isolation, whole cells, treated by heating at 95°C for 10 minutes prior to storage at -20°C, were used as a template source. Relative quantification, taking into account different amplification efficiencies of amplicons for chromosome and plasmid, was used in the PCN calculation. The best reproducibility was achieved when the efficiency estimated for specific amplicon, obtained within one run, was averaged. It was demonstrated that the quantification range of 2 log units (100 to 10000 bacteria per well) enable quantification in each time point during fermentation. The method was applied to study PCN variation in fermentation at 25°C and the correlation between PCN and protein accumulation was established. Conclusion Using whole cells as a template source and relative quantification considering different PCR amplification efficiencies are significant improvements of the qPCR method for PCN determination. Due to the approaches used, the method is suitable for PCN determination in fermentation processes using various media and conditions. PMID:18328094

  10. Image processing algorithm design and implementation for real-time autonomous inspection of mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Schalkoff, R.J.; Shaaban, K.M.; Carver, A.E.

    1996-12-31

    The ARIES {number_sign}1 (Autonomous Robotic Inspection Experimental System) vision system is used to acquire drum surface images under controlled conditions and subsequently perform autonomous visual inspection leading to a classification as `acceptable` or `suspect`. Specific topics described include vision system design methodology, algorithmic structure,hardware processing structure, and image acquisition hardware. Most of these capabilities were demonstrated at the ARIES Phase II Demo held on Nov. 30, 1995. Finally, Phase III efforts are briefly addressed.

  11. Closed-Loop Control of Chemical Injection Rate for a Direct Nozzle Injection System

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xiang; Walgenbach, Martin; Doerpmond, Malte; Schulze Lammers, Peter; Sun, Yurui

    2016-01-01

    To realize site-specific and variable-rate application of agricultural pesticides, accurately metering and controlling the chemical injection rate is necessary. This study presents a prototype of a direct nozzle injection system (DNIS) by which chemical concentration transport lag was greatly reduced. In this system, a rapid-reacting solenoid valve (RRV) was utilized for injecting chemicals, driven by a pulse-width modulation (PWM) signal at 100 Hz, so with varying pulse width the chemical injection rate could be adjusted. Meanwhile, a closed-loop control strategy, proportional-integral-derivative (PID) method, was applied for metering and stabilizing the chemical injection rate. In order to measure chemical flow rates and input them into the controller as a feedback in real-time, a thermodynamic flowmeter that was independent of chemical viscosity was used. Laboratory tests were conducted to assess the performance of DNIS and PID control strategy. Due to the nonlinear input–output characteristics of the RRV, a two-phase PID control process obtained better effects as compared with single PID control strategy. Test results also indicated that the set-point chemical flow rate could be achieved within less than 4 s, and the output stability was improved compared to the case without control strategy. PMID:26805833

  12. Closed-Loop Control of Chemical Injection Rate for a Direct Nozzle Injection System.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiang; Walgenbach, Martin; Doerpmond, Malte; Schulze Lammers, Peter; Sun, Yurui

    2016-01-01

    To realize site-specific and variable-rate application of agricultural pesticides, accurately metering and controlling the chemical injection rate is necessary. This study presents a prototype of a direct nozzle injection system (DNIS) by which chemical concentration transport lag was greatly reduced. In this system, a rapid-reacting solenoid valve (RRV) was utilized for injecting chemicals, driven by a pulse-width modulation (PWM) signal at 100 Hz, so with varying pulse width the chemical injection rate could be adjusted. Meanwhile, a closed-loop control strategy, proportional-integral-derivative (PID) method, was applied for metering and stabilizing the chemical injection rate. In order to measure chemical flow rates and input them into the controller as a feedback in real-time, a thermodynamic flowmeter that was independent of chemical viscosity was used. Laboratory tests were conducted to assess the performance of DNIS and PID control strategy. Due to the nonlinear input-output characteristics of the RRV, a two-phase PID control process obtained better effects as compared with single PID control strategy. Test results also indicated that the set-point chemical flow rate could be achieved within less than 4 s, and the output stability was improved compared to the case without control strategy. PMID:26805833

  13. Androgynous, Reconfigurable Closed Loop Feedback Controlled Low Impact Docking System With Load Sensing Electromagnetic Capture Ring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, James L. (Inventor); Carroll, Monty B. (Inventor); Morales, Ray H. (Inventor); Le, Thang D. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to a fully androgynous, reconfigurable closed loop feedback controlled low impact docking system with load sensing electromagnetic capture ring. The docking system of the present invention preferably comprises two Docking- assemblies, each docking assembly comprising a load sensing ring having an outer face, one of more electromagnets, one or more load cells coupled to said load sensing ring. The docking assembly further comprises a plurality of actuator arms coupled to said load sensing ring and capable of dynamically adjusting the orientation of said load sensing ring and a reconfigurable closed loop control system capable of analyzing signals originating from said plurality of load cells and of outputting real time control for each of the actuators. The docking assembly of the present invention incorporates an active load sensing system to automatically dynamically adjust the load sensing ring during capture instead of requiring significant force to push and realign the ring.

  14. A Closed Loop Brain-machine Interface for Epilepsy Control Using Dorsal Column Electrical Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Pais-Vieira, Miguel; Yadav, Amol P; Moreira, Derek; Guggenmos, David; Santos, Amílcar; Lebedev, Mikhail; Nicolelis, Miguel A L

    2016-01-01

    Although electrical neurostimulation has been proposed as an alternative treatment for drug-resistant cases of epilepsy, current procedures such as deep brain stimulation, vagus, and trigeminal nerve stimulation are effective only in a fraction of the patients. Here we demonstrate a closed loop brain-machine interface that delivers electrical stimulation to the dorsal column (DCS) of the spinal cord to suppress epileptic seizures. Rats were implanted with cortical recording microelectrodes and spinal cord stimulating electrodes, and then injected with pentylenetetrazole to induce seizures. Seizures were detected in real time from cortical local field potentials, after which DCS was applied. This method decreased seizure episode frequency by 44% and seizure duration by 38%. We argue that the therapeutic effect of DCS is related to modulation of cortical theta waves, and propose that this closed-loop interface has the potential to become an effective and semi-invasive treatment for refractory epilepsy and other neurological disorders. PMID:27605389

  15. A Closed Loop Brain-machine Interface for Epilepsy Control Using Dorsal Column Electrical Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Pais-Vieira, Miguel; Yadav, Amol P.; Moreira, Derek; Guggenmos, David; Santos, Amílcar; Lebedev, Mikhail; Nicolelis, Miguel A. L.

    2016-01-01

    Although electrical neurostimulation has been proposed as an alternative treatment for drug-resistant cases of epilepsy, current procedures such as deep brain stimulation, vagus, and trigeminal nerve stimulation are effective only in a fraction of the patients. Here we demonstrate a closed loop brain-machine interface that delivers electrical stimulation to the dorsal column (DCS) of the spinal cord to suppress epileptic seizures. Rats were implanted with cortical recording microelectrodes and spinal cord stimulating electrodes, and then injected with pentylenetetrazole to induce seizures. Seizures were detected in real time from cortical local field potentials, after which DCS was applied. This method decreased seizure episode frequency by 44% and seizure duration by 38%. We argue that the therapeutic effect of DCS is related to modulation of cortical theta waves, and propose that this closed-loop interface has the potential to become an effective and semi-invasive treatment for refractory epilepsy and other neurological disorders. PMID:27605389

  16. Multiday Fully Closed Loop Insulin Delivery in Monitored Outpatient Conditions

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-04-29

    To Demonstrate That the Closed Loop System Can be Used Safely Over a Few Consecutive Days.; To Assess Effectiveness in Maintaining Patients' Glucose Levels in the Target Range of 70 to 180 mg/dl, Measured by Blood Glucose Sensor.; To Evaluate the User Experience With a Closed Loop System

  17. In vitro closed loop optical network electrophysiology: An introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hady, A. El; Stühmer, W.

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel experimental paradigm "In vitro closed loop optical network electrophysiology (ivCLONE)". This seminar note gives an overviewof the basics of optical neurostimulation, network electrophysiology and closed loop electrophysiology. Moreover, the notes discuss how combination of aforementioned techniqueswould help us to address network-level phenomenon and how single neuron properties are related to collective network dynamics.

  18. Developing an EEG-based on-line closed-loop lapse detection and mitigation system

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-Te; Huang, Kuan-Chih; Wei, Chun-Shu; Huang, Teng-Yi; Ko, Li-Wei; Lin, Chin-Teng; Cheng, Chung-Kuan; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2014-01-01

    In America, 60% of adults reported that they have driven a motor vehicle while feeling drowsy, and at least 15–20% of fatal car accidents are fatigue-related. This study translates previous laboratory-oriented neurophysiological research to design, develop, and test an On-line Closed-loop Lapse Detection and Mitigation (OCLDM) System featuring a mobile wireless dry-sensor EEG headgear and a cell-phone based real-time EEG processing platform. Eleven subjects participated in an event-related lane-keeping task, in which they were instructed to manipulate a randomly deviated, fixed-speed cruising car on a 4-lane highway. This was simulated in a 1st person view with an 8-screen and 8-projector immersive virtual-reality environment. When the subjects experienced lapses or failed to respond to events during the experiment, auditory warning was delivered to rectify the performance decrements. However, the arousing auditory signals were not always effective. The EEG spectra exhibited statistically significant differences between effective and ineffective arousing signals, suggesting that EEG spectra could be used as a countermeasure of the efficacy of arousing signals. In this on-line pilot study, the proposed OCLDM System was able to continuously detect EEG signatures of fatigue, deliver arousing warning to subjects suffering momentary cognitive lapses, and assess the efficacy of the warning in near real-time to rectify cognitive lapses. The on-line testing results of the OCLDM System validated the efficacy of the arousing signals in improving subjects' response times to the subsequent lane-departure events. This study may lead to a practical on-line lapse detection and mitigation system in real-world environments. PMID:25352773

  19. Developing an EEG-based on-line closed-loop lapse detection and mitigation system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Te; Huang, Kuan-Chih; Wei, Chun-Shu; Huang, Teng-Yi; Ko, Li-Wei; Lin, Chin-Teng; Cheng, Chung-Kuan; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2014-01-01

    In America, 60% of adults reported that they have driven a motor vehicle while feeling drowsy, and at least 15-20% of fatal car accidents are fatigue-related. This study translates previous laboratory-oriented neurophysiological research to design, develop, and test an On-line Closed-loop Lapse Detection and Mitigation (OCLDM) System featuring a mobile wireless dry-sensor EEG headgear and a cell-phone based real-time EEG processing platform. Eleven subjects participated in an event-related lane-keeping task, in which they were instructed to manipulate a randomly deviated, fixed-speed cruising car on a 4-lane highway. This was simulated in a 1st person view with an 8-screen and 8-projector immersive virtual-reality environment. When the subjects experienced lapses or failed to respond to events during the experiment, auditory warning was delivered to rectify the performance decrements. However, the arousing auditory signals were not always effective. The EEG spectra exhibited statistically significant differences between effective and ineffective arousing signals, suggesting that EEG spectra could be used as a countermeasure of the efficacy of arousing signals. In this on-line pilot study, the proposed OCLDM System was able to continuously detect EEG signatures of fatigue, deliver arousing warning to subjects suffering momentary cognitive lapses, and assess the efficacy of the warning in near real-time to rectify cognitive lapses. The on-line testing results of the OCLDM System validated the efficacy of the arousing signals in improving subjects' response times to the subsequent lane-departure events. This study may lead to a practical on-line lapse detection and mitigation system in real-world environments. PMID:25352773

  20. LANDSAT digital data processing: A near real-time application. [Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L.; Bohn, C.; Stuart, L.; Hill, J.

    1975-01-01

    An application of rapid generation of classed digital images from LANDSAT-1 was demonstrated and its feasibility evaluated by NASA in conjunction with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Texas A and M University (TAMU), and the Cousteau Society. The primary purpose was to show that satellite data could be processed and transmitted to the Calypso, which was used as a research vessel, in time for use in directing it to specific locations of possible plankton upwellings, sediment, or other anomalies in the coastal water areas along the Gulf of Mexico.

  1. XSTREAM: A Highly Efficient High Speed Real-time Satellite Data Acquisition and Processing System using Heterogeneous Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramod Kumar, K.; Mahendra, P.; Ramakrishna rReddy, V.; Tirupathi, T.; Akilan, A.; Usha Devi, R.; Anuradha, R.; Ravi, N.; Solanki, S. S.; Achary, K. K.; Satish, A. L.; Anshu, C.

    2014-11-01

    In the last decade, the remote sensing community has observed a significant growth in number of satellites, sensors and their resolutions, thereby increasing the volume of data to be processed each day. Satellite data processing is a complex and time consuming activity. It consists of various tasks, such as decode, decrypt, decompress, radiometric normalization, stagger corrections, ephemeris data processing for geometric corrections etc., and finally writing of the product in the form of an image file. Each task in the processing chain is sequential in nature and has different computing needs. Conventionally the processes are cascaded in a well organized workflow to produce the data products, which are executed on general purpose high-end servers / workstations in an offline mode. Hence, these systems are considered to be ineffective for real-time applications that require quick response and just-intime decision making such as disaster management, home land security and so on. This paper discusses anovel approach to processthe data online (as the data is being acquired) using a heterogeneous computing platform namely XSTREAM which has COTS hardware of CPUs, GPUs and FPGA. This paper focuses on the process architecture, re-engineering aspects and mapping of tasks to the right computing devicewithin the XSTREAM system, which makes it an ideal cost-effective platform for acquiring, processing satellite payload data in real-time and displaying the products in original resolution for quick response. The system has been tested for IRS CARTOSAT and RESOURCESAT series of satellites which have maximum data downlink speed of 210 Mbps.

  2. A self-adaptive parameter optimization algorithm in a real-time parallel image processing system.

    PubMed

    Li, Ge; Zhang, Xuehe; Zhao, Jie; Zhang, Hongli; Ye, Jianwei; Zhang, Weizhe

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at the stalemate that precision, speed, robustness, and other parameters constrain each other in the parallel processed vision servo system, this paper proposed an adaptive load capacity balance strategy on the servo parameters optimization algorithm (ALBPO) to improve the computing precision and to achieve high detection ratio while not reducing the servo circle. We use load capacity functions (LC) to estimate the load for each processor and then make continuous self-adaptation towards a balanced status based on the fluctuated LC results; meanwhile, we pick up a proper set of target detection and location parameters according to the results of LC. Compared with current load balance algorithm, the algorithm proposed in this paper is proceeded under an unknown informed status about the maximum load and the current load of the processors, which means it has great extensibility. Simulation results showed that the ALBPO algorithm has great merits on load balance performance, realizing the optimization of QoS for each processor, fulfilling the balance requirements of servo circle, precision, and robustness of the parallel processed vision servo system. PMID:24174920

  3. A real time dynamic data acquisition and processing system for velocity, density, and total temperature fluctuation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clukey, Steven J.

    1991-01-01

    The real time Dynamic Data Acquisition and Processing System (DDAPS) is described which provides the capability for the simultaneous measurement of velocity, density, and total temperature fluctuations. The system of hardware and software is described in context of the wind tunnel environment. The DDAPS replaces both a recording mechanism and a separate data processing system. DDAPS receives input from hot wire anemometers. Amplifiers and filters condition the signals with computer controlled modules. The analog signals are simultaneously digitized and digitally recorded on disk. Automatic acquisition collects necessary calibration and environment data. Hot wire sensitivities are generated and applied to the hot wire data to compute fluctuations. The presentation of the raw and processed data is accomplished on demand. The interface to DDAPS is described along with the internal mechanisms of DDAPS. A summary of operations relevant to the use of the DDAPS is also provided.

  4. General-Purpose Front End for Real-Time Data Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark

    2007-01-01

    FRONTIER is a computer program that functions as a front end for any of a variety of other software of both the artificial intelligence (AI) and conventional data-processing types. As used here, front end signifies interface software needed for acquiring and preprocessing data and making the data available for analysis by the other software. FRONTIER is reusable in that it can be rapidly tailored to any such other software with minimum effort. Each component of FRONTIER is programmable and is executed in an embedded virtual machine. Each component can be reconfigured during execution. The virtual-machine implementation making FRONTIER independent of the type of computing hardware on which it is executed.

  5. Two dimensional recursive digital filters for near real time image processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, D.; Sherrod, E.

    1980-01-01

    A program was designed toward the demonstration of the feasibility of using two dimensional recursive digital filters for subjective image processing applications that require rapid turn around. The concept of the use of a dedicated minicomputer for the processor for this application was demonstrated. The minicomputer used was the HP1000 series E with a RTE 2 disc operating system and 32K words of memory. A Grinnel 256 x 512 x 8 bit display system was used to display the images. Sample images were provided by NASA Goddard on a 800 BPI, 9 track tape. Four 512 x 512 images representing 4 spectral regions of the same scene were provided. These images were filtered with enhancement filters developed during this effort.

  6. Detection of almond allergen coding sequences in processed foods by real time PCR.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Nuria; Iniesto, Elisa; Burbano, Carmen; Cabanillas, Beatriz; Pedrosa, Mercedes M; Rovira, Mercè; Rodríguez, Julia; Muzquiz, Mercedes; Crespo, Jesus F; Cuadrado, Carmen; Linacero, Rosario

    2014-06-18

    The aim of this work was to develop and analytically validate a quantitative RT-PCR method, using novel primer sets designed on Pru du 1, Pru du 3, Pru du 4, and Pru du 6 allergen-coding sequences, and contrast the sensitivity and specificity of these probes. The temperature and/or pressure processing influence on the ability to detect these almond allergen targets was also analyzed. All primers allowed a specific and accurate amplification of these sequences. The specificity was assessed by amplifying DNA from almond, different Prunus species and other common plant food ingredients. The detection limit was 1 ppm in unprocessed almond kernels. The method's robustness and sensitivity were confirmed using spiked samples. Thermal treatment under pressure (autoclave) reduced yield and amplificability of almond DNA; however, high-hydrostatic pressure treatments did not produced such effects. Compared with ELISA assay outcomes, this RT-PCR showed higher sensitivity to detect almond traces in commercial foodstuffs. PMID:24857239

  7. Novel real-time monitoring technique of the all-optical poling process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostoluk, Aleksandra; Chapron, David; Sahraoui, Bouchta; Gadret, Gregory; Fiorini-Debuisschert, Celine; Raimond, Paul; Nunzi, Jean-Michel

    2002-03-01

    All-optical poling technique permits purely optical orientation of molecules. The experiment consists of two steps: the writing (so-called seeding) period and the readout one. In the seeding phase two beams, the fundamental one ((omega) ) and its second harmonic (SH, 2(omega) ) illuminate the sample and print in the medium the second order (chi) (2) susceptibility grating with a periodicity satisfying the condition of phase matching for SH generation. In the readout period only the fundamental beam irradiates the sample, and the second harmonic generation is observed at the sample output. Efficient all-optical poling requires optimisation of the seeding beam intensities and their relative phase difference. We propose a novel technique for non-perturbative monitoring of the all-optical poling process and the easy method of orienting molecules without any necessity of taking into account the phase difference between seeding beams.

  8. Real-time garbage collection for list processing using restructured cells for increased reference counter size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuler, Jr., Robert L. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    In a list processing system, small reference counters are maintained in conjunction with memory cells for the purpose of identifying memory cells that become available for re-use. The counters are updated as references to the cells are created and destroyed, and when a counter of a cell is decremented to logical zero the cell is immediately returned to a list of free cells. In those cases where a counter must be incremented beyond the maximum value that can be represented in a small counter, the cell is restructured so that the additional reference count can be represented. The restructuring involves allocating an additional cell, distributing counter, tag, and pointer information among the two cells, and linking both cells appropriately into the existing list structure.

  9. Use of miniature magnetic sensors for real-time control of the induction heating process

    DOEpatents

    Bentley, Anthony E.; Kelley, John Bruce; Zutavern, Fred J.

    2002-01-01

    A method of monitoring the process of induction heating a workpiece. A miniature magnetic sensor located near the outer surface of the workpiece measures changes in the surface magnetic field caused by changes in the magnetic properties of the workpiece as it heats up during induction heating (or cools down during quenching). A passive miniature magnetic sensor detects a distinct magnetic spike that appears when the saturation field, B.sub.sat, of the workpiece has been exceeded. This distinct magnetic spike disappears when the workpiece's surface temperature exceeds its Curie temperature, due to the sudden decrease in its magnetic permeability. Alternatively, an active magnetic sensor can also be used to measure changes in the resonance response of the monitor coil when the excitation coil is linearly swept over 0-10 MHz, due to changes in the magnetic permeability and electrical resistivity of the workpiece as its temperature increases (or decreases).

  10. Real-time photoacoustic and ultrasound dual-modality imaging system facilitated with graphics processing unit and code parallel optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jie; Xu, Guan; Yu, Yao; Zhou, Yu; Carson, Paul L.; Wang, Xueding; Liu, Xiaojun

    2013-08-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) offers structural and functional imaging of living biological tissue with highly sensitive optical absorption contrast and excellent spatial resolution comparable to medical ultrasound (US) imaging. We report the development of a fully integrated PAT and US dual-modality imaging system, which performs signal scanning, image reconstruction, and display for both photoacoustic (PA) and US imaging all in a truly real-time manner. The back-projection (BP) algorithm for PA image reconstruction is optimized to reduce the computational cost and facilitate parallel computation on a state of the art graphics processing unit (GPU) card. For the first time, PAT and US imaging of the same object can be conducted simultaneously and continuously, at a real-time frame rate, presently limited by the laser repetition rate of 10 Hz. Noninvasive PAT and US imaging of human peripheral joints in vivo were achieved, demonstrating the satisfactory image quality realized with this system. Another experiment, simultaneous PAT and US imaging of contrast agent flowing through an artificial vessel, was conducted to verify the performance of this system for imaging fast biological events. The GPU-based image reconstruction software code for this dual-modality system is open source and available for download from http://sourceforge.net/projects/patrealtime.

  11. Real-time measuring system design and application of thermal expansion displacement during resistance spot welding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, YongBing; Xu, Jun; Chen, GuanLong; Lin, ZhongQin

    2005-12-01

    Resistance spot welding (RSW) technology is the most important joining method in auto-body manufacturing. Quality of spot weld not only determines reliability and safety of cars, but also has an important influence on assembly variation of auto-body. Many welding quality parameters, such as welding current, electric resistance, electrode pressure, and thermal expansion displacement, had been proposed to monitoring and controlling spot weld quality, in which thermal expansion displacement was thought as a very promising method. But the measurement of dynamic displacement encounters many difficulties in measuring precision, measuring speed and sensor installation, which limit the usage of this method. This paper introduced a kind of laser displacement sensor made in OMRON to overcome the limitations of displacement measuring precision and measuring speed, and at the same time designed an ingenious fixture to mount the sensor to welding gun. Calibration experiments showed that the fixture reduced vibration introduced by pneumatic welding gun and interference between sensor and welding gun, and have a good linearity with standard clearance gauge. Based on this measuring system, dynamic thermal expansion displacement during RSW process was real-time monitored. Analysis found thermal expansion displacement can be used to real-time distinguish weld quality, such as small nugget, splash.

  12. A convenient method of preparing gene vector for real time monitoring transfection process based on the quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hai-Li; Zhang, Ming-Zhen; Li, Xiang-Yong; Wan, Min; Li, Yong-Qiang; Zhang, Rong-Ying; Zhao, Yuan-Di

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ► An easy and direct way to prepare QDs–DNA complexes was developed. ► Surface charge of QDs was tuned with different ratio of amino and glycolate. ► Transfection efficiency was dependent on the surface zeta potentials of QDs. ► Cellular toxicity of this gene vectors is much lower than commercial liposome. ► Whole intracellular behavior of QDs–DNA complexes can be monitored in real time. -- Abstract: Nanoparticle carrier has been developed by combining water-soluble quantum dots and plasmid DNA expressed enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in a convenient and direct way. First the QDs with different surface charges were obtained by coating with amino and carboxyl terminals at different ratios. Then plasmid DNA was conjugated to QDs via electrostatic interaction. The resultant QDs–DNA complexes showed enhanced resistance to DNase I digestion. The following transfection experiments demonstrated that the transfection efficiency was dependent on the surface charges on QDs. The real time imaging of the transfection process showed that the nanoparticles experienced binding, penetrating the cell membrane and entering cytoplasm in the first 6 h of transfection. The green fluorescence of EGFP began to appear after 18 h transfection and plasmid DNA was fully expressed in the following 6 h. This new QDs–DNA platform showed great potential as new gene delivery carrier.

  13. Optics based signal processing methods for intraoperative blood vessel detection and quantification in real time (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, Amal; Shukair, Shetha A.; Le Rolland, Paul; Vijayvergia, Mayank; Subramanian, Hariharan; Gunn, Jonathan W.

    2016-03-01

    Minimally invasive operations require surgeons to make difficult cuts to blood vessels and other tissues with impaired tactile and visual feedback. This leads to inadvertent cuts to blood vessels hidden beneath tissue, causing serious health risks to patients and a non-reimbursable financial burden to hospitals. Intraoperative imaging technologies have been developed, but these expensive systems can be cumbersome and provide only a high-level view of blood vessel networks. In this research, we propose a lean reflectance-based system, comprised of a dual wavelength LED, photodiode, and novel signal processing algorithms for rapid vessel characterization. Since this system takes advantage of the inherent pulsatile light absorption characteristics of blood vessels, no contrast agent is required for its ability to detect the presence of a blood vessel buried deep inside any tissue type (up to a cm) in real time. Once a vessel is detected, the system is able to estimate the distance of the vessel from the probe and the diameter size of the vessel (with a resolution of ~2mm), as well as delineate the type of tissue surrounding the vessel. The system is low-cost, functions in real-time, and could be mounted on already existing surgical tools, such as Kittner dissectors or laparoscopic suction irrigation cannulae. Having been successfully validated ex vivo, this technology will next be tested in a live porcine study and eventually in clinical trials.

  14. InSAR processing for volcano monitoring and other near-real time applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spaans, Karsten; Hooper, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Radar interferometry (InSAR, interferometric synthetic aperture radar) is routinely used to measure surface deformation prior to, during, and after volcanic events, although not in a monitoring capacity. The improved data availability of some current satellite missions presents us with the opportunity to do just that. We present here a fast and flexible algorithm to estimate coherence and select points on an interferogram-by-interferogram basis, which overcomes limitations of the conventional boxcar ensemble method in areas of marginal coherence. Time series methods, which offer an alternative way to select coherent points, are typically slow, and do not allow for insertion of new data without reprocessing the entire data set. Our new algorithm calculates the coherence for each point based on an ensemble of points with similar amplitude behavior throughout the data set. The points that behave similarly are selected prior to new images being acquired, on the assumption that the behavior of these nearby points does not change rapidly through time. The resulting coherence estimate is superior in resolution and noise level to the boxcar method. In contrast to most other time series methods, we select a different set of coherent points for each interferogram, avoiding the selection compromise inherent to other time series methods. The relative simplicity of this strategy compared to other time series techniques means we can process new images in about 1 h for a typical setup.

  15. Implementation of a truncated cusp filter for real-time digital pulse processing in nuclear spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogovac, M.; Csato, C.

    2012-12-01

    In this work the transfer function for a truncated cusp infinite impulse response (IIR) filter has been derived. The truncated cusp filter, when given an exponential pulse in the presence of white noise, outputs a truncated cusp pulse which is optimum pulse shape under the constraint of finite pulse duration. However it features a pole outside of the unit-circle and is therefore inherently unstable. To overcome this instability a switching algorithm with two alternating poles has been applied. The filter has been simulated with MATLAB and Simulink and implemented on-board a FPGA. The pulses from a waveform generator and silicon drift detector (SDD) have been also processed by the filter and results compared with theory. We find that the simulation and measurements were in agreement and show that energy resolution due to electronic noise can be improved by up to 7.5% using a truncated cusp instead of triangular filter. An improvement of up to 2.8% in overall energy resolution was measured with a typical X-ray spectrometer based on a SDD detector with a nominal energy resolution of 150 eV at energies of MnKα line.

  16. Embedded piezoelectric sensor-based real-time strength monitoring during curing process of concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong-Jin; Lee, Changgil; Chang, Hajoo; Park, Seunghee

    2011-04-01

    Recently, novel methods to monitor the strength development of concrete during curing process have been reported based on electro-mechanical impedance measurement using piezoelectric sensors. However, the previous research works could not provide the information about the absolute strength of concrete. In order to estimate the absolute strength directly, an embedded piezoelectric sensor system based strength monitoring technique was proposed in this study. To avoid the degradation of a piezoelectric sensor due to external and internal impacts and/or environmental variations, the piezoelectric sensor soldered with a lead wire is inserted into a small concrete block and then this block is embedded in larger concrete specimen. While the concrete is cured, the electro-mechanical impedance and guided wave signals, self-measured from the embedded piezoelectric sensor, would be changed because those are related to the material properties of the concrete such as the strength and the stiffness. Hence, the strength of concrete can be monitored by analyzing the root-mean-square-deviation (RMSD) of the impedance signals and the amplitude variation of the guided wave signals. Specific equations to estimate the strength of the concrete are derived using a regression analysis based on the features extracted from the signal variations. Finally, to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach, a series of experimental studies using miscellaneous concrete specimens are conducted and further research issues will be discussed for real-world implementation of the proposed approach.

  17. The use of digital signal processors (DSPs) in real-time processing of multi-parametric bioelectronic signals.

    PubMed

    Ressler, Johann; Dirscherl, Andreas; Grothe, Helmut; Wolf, Bernhard

    2007-02-01

    In many cases of bioanalytical measurement, calculation of large amounts of data, analysis of complex signal waveforms or signal speed can overwhelm the performance of microcontrollers, analog electronic circuits or even PCs. One method to obtain results in real time is to apply a digital signal processor (DSP) for the analysis or processing of measurement data. In this paper we show how DSP-supported multiplying and accumulating (MAC) operations, such as time/frequency transformation, pattern recognition by correlation, convolution or filter algorithms, can optimize the processing of bioanalytical data. Discrete integral calculations are applied to the acquisition of impedance values as part of multi-parametric sensor chips, to pH monitoring using light-addressable potentiometric sensors (LAPS) and to the analysis of rapidly changing signal shapes, such as action potentials of cultured neuronal networks, as examples of DSP capability. PMID:17313351

  18. Real-time monitoring of the cell physiological and pathological processes using computer-aided phase microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilenko, Irina A.; Shabalin, Vladimir; Tychinsky, Vladimir P.; Kufal, Georgy E.; Konradov, A.; Slinchenko, O. I.

    1996-01-01

    Living cells investigation and cell response to external factors are of great interest for practical medicine and biology. The main advantages of computer aided phase microscope (CPM) Cytoscan which permits us to observe the cell surface and internal structure consists in superresolution and the possibility of the dynamic processes registering. We attempt to characterize some aspects of the morphofunctional status of human lymphocytes determining the dynamics of the selected points in normal or pathological cells. To evaluate the lymphocyte homeostasis donors and persons of autoimmune diseases were analyzed and the changes of optical and geometrical cell parameters registered by CPM Cytoscan. The dynamic process registration allowed us to perform the real-time quantitative analysis of the living lymphocyte activity in norm and pathology.

  19. Real-time temperature monitoring of Si substrate during plasma processing and its heat-flux analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutsumi, Takayoshi; Ishikawa, Kenji; Takeda, Keigo; Kondo, Hiroki; Ohta, Takayuki; Ito, Masafumi; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    Actual Si wafer temperatures during plasma etching processes were temporally measured using a real-time wafer-temperature monitoring system with autocorrelation-type frequency-domain low-coherence interferometry. Indeed, the Si wafer temperature, which was 20 °C before the process, rapidly increased in 10 s. Then, the temperature rise gradually slowed, but continued to increase and reached 45 °C after 600 s. This can be due to the fact that there exists a heat source for the wafer other than the plasma. Reasonably, the Si wafer was found to be sensitive to the temperature of the disk covering the area around the wafer, i.e., the focus ring. Usually, the temperature of the focus ring is not controlled and causes the radial distribution of Si wafer temperature. Consequently, the Si wafer temperature should be controlled with the temperature increase of other heat sources, especially the focus ring.

  20. Integrated real time studies to track all physical and chemical changes in polyimide film processing from casting to imidization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unsal, Emre

    Physical and chemical changes during the complex multi-step thermal imidization reaction were investigated including all processing steps (solution casting, drying and imidization), using newly developed highly instrumented measurement systems. These instruments allowed us to observe the dynamic relationship between the bound solvent evaporation that causes relaxation and chain orientation during the imidization. Drying and imidization of PMDA-ODA solutions in NMP were investigated by a novel custom designed measurement system that tracks real time weight, thickness, surface temperature, in-plane and out-of-plane birefringence. At low temperature drying stage (T < 120°C), the weight and thickness reductions occurred rapidly as a result of solvent evaporation. All the parameters started leveling off while the out of plane birefringence steadily increased and reached a plateau at longer drying times. When the temperature was increased for imidization reaction (T=200°C), additional weight loss accompanied by temporary reduction of birefringence was observed due to evaporation of bound solvent as solvent molecules decomplexed from the polymer chains and plasticized the film. During the latter stage, out-of-plane birefringence rose rapidly as the polymer chains increasingly became oriented with their chain axes were preferentially oriented in the film plane. Throughout the whole process the in-plane birefringence remained zero. For the first time, these real time measurements allowed us to quantitatively show the dynamics between chain relaxation due to evaporation of the decomplexed solvent molecules, and orientation development due to decreased chain mobility caused by imidization reaction and increasing Tg for the PMDA-ODA/NMP solutions. In addition, the dynamics of this interplay was investigated by varying the processing conditions: initial casting thickness and drying temperature. Chemical conversion, bound solvent and chain orientation that take place during

  1. Real-time data transmission, processing, and dissemination of GPS dropwindsonde data from the NASA Global Hawk unmanned aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, M. L.; Wick, G. A.; Spackman, J. R.; Hock, T.; Hood, R.

    2011-12-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) dropwindsondes (dropsonde) designed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) have been used on National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) aircraft since 1996 to study and provide real-time vertical profiles of winds and thermodynamics within Tropical Cyclones (TC) and their atmospheric environment to forecasters and scientists. Operational and research aircraft from other agencies such as the Air Force, Navy, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have since used these instruments, deployed from aircraft to provide invaluable data for use in numerical weather models and for scientific projects as part of their observing systems. The GPS dropsondes are now used routinely by the U. S. Government, universities, and other countries to observe and study a wide range of atmospheric phenomena. NOAA finalized a contract with NCAR to design and build a dropsonde system for the NASA Global Hawk autonomous (unmanned) aircraft to be used initially during the NASA (TC) Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) field campaign held during the late summer of 2010. This was the first time that a dropsonde system was designed to be installed on a fully autonomous aircraft. This concept provided numerous engineering obstacles but the potential for positive impacts for the scientific and operational community made the effort worthwhile. The system was installed and tested during GRIP but some engineering problems prevented it from being used fully during the experiment. NCAR engineers overcame these obstacles and the dropsonde system was ready for final testing in early 2011. The Global Hawk completed several successful test and science flights with the dropsonde system from February to March 2011. Three science flights, designed specifically to test and validate the dropsonde system on the GH as part of the NOAA Winter Storms and Atmospheric Rivers (WISPAR) experiment, were conducted in the

  2. Real-time measurement of joint movement using a digital signal processor-based image processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorehead, John D.; Harvey, David M.; Dangerfield, Peter H.; Montgomery, S. C.

    1994-09-01

    A new low cost imaging system has been devised to detect and measure joint movement to help with the diagnosis of ligament injuries in the human knee. The system uses a domestic video camcorder to record the movement of marks on a patient's knee as it is flexed. The pictures are then fed into the imaging system, where the coordinates of each mark are determined for each angle of flexion. The coordinate data is then processed to show the dynamic operation of the knee, from which an assessment of ligament damage can be made. The imaging system is comprised of a PC host, a commercial frame store, and a custom built TMS320C40 digital signal processor (dsp) board. The dsp is used to perform correlation and other imaging functions, to automatically determine the mark coordinates in real time. This paper describes the application and development of the system, and gives the results of the research to date.

  3. Soft x-ray scattering facility at the Advanced Light Source with real-time data processing and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gann, E.; Collins, B. A.; Ade, H.; Young, A. T.; Nasiatka, J.; Padmore, H. A.; Hexemer, A.; Wang, C.; Yan, H.

    2012-04-15

    We present the development and characterization of a dedicated resonant soft x-ray scattering facility. Capable of operation over a wide energy range, the beamline and endstation are primarily used for scattering from soft matter systems around the carbon K-edge ({approx}285 eV). We describe the specialized design of the instrument and characteristics of the beamline. Operational characteristics of immediate interest to users such as polarization control, degree of higher harmonic spectral contamination, and detector noise are delineated. Of special interest is the development of a higher harmonic rejection system that improves the spectral purity of the x-ray beam. Special software and a user-friendly interface have been implemented to allow real-time data processing and preliminary data analysis simultaneous with data acquisition.

  4. The Maia Spectroscopy Detector System: Engineering for Integrated Pulse Capture, Low-Latency Scanning and Real-Time Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkham, R.; Siddons, D.; Dunn, P.A.; Kuczewski, A.J.; Dodanwela, R.; Moorhead, G.F.; Ryan, C.G.; De Geronimo, G.; Beuttenmuller, R.; Pinelli, D.; Pfeffer, M.; Davey, P.; Jensen, M.; de Jonge, M.D.; Howard, D.L.; Kusel, M.; McKinlay, J.

    2010-06-23

    The Maia detector system is engineered for energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and elemental imaging at photon rates exceeding 10{sup 7}/s, integrated scanning of samples for pixel transit times as small as 50 {micro}s and high definition images of 10{sup 8} pixels and real-time processing of detected events for spectral deconvolution and online display of pure elemental images. The system developed by CSIRO and BNL combines a planar silicon 384 detector array, application-specific integrated circuits for pulse shaping and peak detection and sampling and optical data transmission to an FPGA-based pipelined, parallel processor. This paper describes the system and the underpinning engineering solutions.

  5. Bio-Inspired Controller on an FPGA Applied to Closed-Loop Diaphragmatic Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Zbrzeski, Adeline; Bornat, Yannick; Hillen, Brian; Siu, Ricardo; Abbas, James; Jung, Ranu; Renaud, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Cervical spinal cord injury can disrupt connections between the brain respiratory network and the respiratory muscles which can lead to partial or complete loss of ventilatory control and require ventilatory assistance. Unlike current open-loop technology, a closed-loop diaphragmatic pacing system could overcome the drawbacks of manual titration as well as respond to changing ventilation requirements. We present an original bio-inspired assistive technology for real-time ventilation assistance, implemented in a digital configurable Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The bio-inspired controller, which is a spiking neural network (SNN) inspired by the medullary respiratory network, is as robust as a classic controller while having a flexible, low-power and low-cost hardware design. The system was simulated in MATLAB with FPGA-specific constraints and tested with a computational model of rat breathing; the model reproduced experimentally collected respiratory data in eupneic animals. The open-loop version of the bio-inspired controller was implemented on the FPGA. Electrical test bench characterizations confirmed the system functionality. Open and closed-loop paradigm simulations were simulated to test the FPGA system real-time behavior using the rat computational model. The closed-loop system monitors breathing and changes in respiratory demands to drive diaphragmatic stimulation. The simulated results inform future acute animal experiments and constitute the first step toward the development of a neuromorphic, adaptive, compact, low-power, implantable device. The bio-inspired hardware design optimizes the FPGA resource and time costs while harnessing the computational power of spike-based neuromorphic hardware. Its real-time feature makes it suitable for in vivo applications. PMID:27378844

  6. Bio-Inspired Controller on an FPGA Applied to Closed-Loop Diaphragmatic Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Zbrzeski, Adeline; Bornat, Yannick; Hillen, Brian; Siu, Ricardo; Abbas, James; Jung, Ranu; Renaud, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Cervical spinal cord injury can disrupt connections between the brain respiratory network and the respiratory muscles which can lead to partial or complete loss of ventilatory control and require ventilatory assistance. Unlike current open-loop technology, a closed-loop diaphragmatic pacing system could overcome the drawbacks of manual titration as well as respond to changing ventilation requirements. We present an original bio-inspired assistive technology for real-time ventilation assistance, implemented in a digital configurable Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The bio-inspired controller, which is a spiking neural network (SNN) inspired by the medullary respiratory network, is as robust as a classic controller while having a flexible, low-power and low-cost hardware design. The system was simulated in MATLAB with FPGA-specific constraints and tested with a computational model of rat breathing; the model reproduced experimentally collected respiratory data in eupneic animals. The open-loop version of the bio-inspired controller was implemented on the FPGA. Electrical test bench characterizations confirmed the system functionality. Open and closed-loop paradigm simulations were simulated to test the FPGA system real-time behavior using the rat computational model. The closed-loop system monitors breathing and changes in respiratory demands to drive diaphragmatic stimulation. The simulated results inform future acute animal experiments and constitute the first step toward the development of a neuromorphic, adaptive, compact, low-power, implantable device. The bio-inspired hardware design optimizes the FPGA resource and time costs while harnessing the computational power of spike-based neuromorphic hardware. Its real-time feature makes it suitable for in vivo applications. PMID:27378844

  7. Real-time prediction and gating of respiratory motion using an extended Kalman filter and Gaussian process regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukhari, W.; Hong, S.-M.

    2015-01-01

    Motion-adaptive radiotherapy aims to deliver a conformal dose to the target tumour with minimal normal tissue exposure by compensating for tumour motion in real time. The prediction as well as the gating of respiratory motion have received much attention over the last two decades for reducing the targeting error of the treatment beam due to respiratory motion. In this article, we present a real-time algorithm for predicting and gating respiratory motion that utilizes a model-based and a model-free Bayesian framework by combining them in a cascade structure. The algorithm, named EKF-GPR+, implements a gating function without pre-specifying a particular region of the patient’s breathing cycle. The algorithm first employs an extended Kalman filter (LCM-EKF) to predict the respiratory motion and then uses a model-free Gaussian process regression (GPR) to correct the error of the LCM-EKF prediction. The GPR is a non-parametric Bayesian algorithm that yields predictive variance under Gaussian assumptions. The EKF-GPR+ algorithm utilizes the predictive variance from the GPR component to capture the uncertainty in the LCM-EKF prediction error and systematically identify breathing points with a higher probability of large prediction error in advance. This identification allows us to pause the treatment beam over such instances. EKF-GPR+ implements the gating function by using simple calculations based on the predictive variance with no additional detection mechanism. A sparse approximation of the GPR algorithm is employed to realize EKF-GPR+ in real time. Extensive numerical experiments are performed based on a large database of 304 respiratory motion traces to evaluate EKF-GPR+. The experimental results show that the EKF-GPR+ algorithm effectively reduces the prediction error in a root-mean-square (RMS) sense by employing the gating function, albeit at the cost of a reduced duty cycle. As an example, EKF-GPR+ reduces the patient-wise RMS error to 37%, 39% and 42% in

  8. Neurochemostat: A Neural Interface SoC With Integrated Chemometrics for Closed-Loop Regulation of Brain Dopamine.

    PubMed

    Bozorgzadeh, Bardia; Schuweiler, Douglas R; Bobak, Martin J; Garris, Paul A; Mohseni, Pedram

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a 3.3×3.2 mm(2) system-on-chip (SoC) fabricated in AMS 0.35 μm 2P/4M CMOS for closed-loop regulation of brain dopamine. The SoC uniquely integrates neurochemical sensing, on-the-fly chemometrics, and feedback-controlled electrical stimulation to realize a "neurochemostat" by maintaining brain levels of electrically evoked dopamine between two user-set thresholds. The SoC incorporates a 90 μW, custom-designed, digital signal processing (DSP) unit for real-time processing of neurochemical data obtained by 400 V/s fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) with a carbon-fiber microelectrode (CFM). Specifically, the DSP unit executes a chemometrics algorithm based upon principal component regression (PCR) to resolve in real time electrically evoked brain dopamine levels from pH change and CFM background-current drift, two common interferents encountered using FSCV with a CFM in vivo. Further, the DSP unit directly links the chemically resolved dopamine levels to the activation of the electrical microstimulator in on-off-keying (OOK) fashion. Measured results from benchtop testing, flow injection analysis (FIA), and biological experiments with an anesthetized rat are presented. PMID:26390501

  9. Real-time failure control (SAFD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panossian, Hagop V.; Kemp, Victoria R.; Eckerling, Sherry J.

    1990-01-01

    The Real Time Failure Control program involves development of a failure detection algorithm, referred as System for Failure and Anomaly Detection (SAFD), for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). This failure detection approach is signal-based and it entails monitoring SSME measurement signals based on predetermined and computed mean values and standard deviations. Twenty four engine measurements are included in the algorithm and provisions are made to add more parameters if needed. Six major sections of research are presented: (1) SAFD algorithm development; (2) SAFD simulations; (3) Digital Transient Model failure simulation; (4) closed-loop simulation; (5) SAFD current limitations; and (6) enhancements planned for.

  10. Acceleration of atmospheric Cherenkov telescope signal processing to real-time speed with the Auto-Pipe design system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyson, Eric J.; Buckley, James; Franklin, Mark A.; Chamberlain, Roger D.

    2008-10-01

    The imaging atmospheric Cherenkov technique for high-energy gamma-ray astronomy is emerging as an important new technique for studying the high energy universe. Current experiments have data rates of ≈20TB/year and duty cycles of about 10%. In the future, more sensitive experiments may produce up to 1000 TB/year. The data analysis task for these experiments requires keeping up with this data rate in close to real-time. Such data analysis is a classic example of a streaming application with very high performance requirements. This class of application often benefits greatly from the use of non-traditional approaches for computation including using special purpose hardware (FPGAs and ASICs), or sophisticated parallel processing techniques. However, designing, debugging, and deploying to these architectures is difficult and thus they are not widely used by the astrophysics community. This paper presents the Auto-Pipe design toolset that has been developed to address many of the difficulties in taking advantage of complex streaming computer architectures for such applications. Auto-Pipe incorporates a high-level coordination language, functional and performance simulation tools, and the ability to deploy applications to sophisticated architectures. Using the Auto-Pipe toolset, we have implemented the front-end portion of an imaging Cherenkov data analysis application, suitable for real-time or offline analysis. The application operates on data from the VERITAS experiment, and shows how Auto-Pipe can greatly ease performance optimization and application deployment of a wide variety of platforms. We demonstrate a performance improvement over a traditional software approach of 32x using an FPGA solution and 3.6x using a multiprocessor based solution.

  11. Microcomputer-based artificial vision support system for real-time image processing for camera-driven visual prostheses.

    PubMed

    Fink, Wolfgang; You, Cindy X; Tarbell, Mark A

    2010-01-01

    It is difficult to predict exactly what blind subjects with camera-driven visual prostheses (e.g., retinal implants) can perceive. Thus, it is prudent to offer them a wide variety of image processing filters and the capability to engage these filters repeatedly in any user-defined order to enhance their visual perception. To attain true portability, we employ a commercial off-the-shelf battery-powered general purpose Linux microprocessor platform to create the microcomputer-based artificial vision support system (microAVS(2)) for real-time image processing. Truly standalone, microAVS(2) is smaller than a deck of playing cards, lightweight, fast, and equipped with USB, RS-232 and Ethernet interfaces. Image processing filters on microAVS(2) operate in a user-defined linear sequential-loop fashion, resulting in vastly reduced memory and CPU requirements during execution. MiccroAVS(2) imports raw video frames from a USB or IP camera, performs image processing, and issues the processed data over an outbound Internet TCP/IP or RS-232 connection to the visual prosthesis system. Hence, microAVS(2) affords users of current and future visual prostheses independent mobility and the capability to customize the visual perception generated. Additionally, microAVS(2) can easily be reconfigured for other prosthetic systems. Testing of microAVS(2) with actual retinal implant carriers is envisioned in the near future. PMID:20210459

  12. Microcomputer-based artificial vision support system for real-time image processing for camera-driven visual prostheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, Wolfgang; You, Cindy X.; Tarbell, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    It is difficult to predict exactly what blind subjects with camera-driven visual prostheses (e.g., retinal implants) can perceive. Thus, it is prudent to offer them a wide variety of image processing filters and the capability to engage these filters repeatedly in any user-defined order to enhance their visual perception. To attain true portability, we employ a commercial off-the-shelf battery-powered general purpose Linux microprocessor platform to create the microcomputer-based artificial vision support system (μAVS2) for real-time image processing. Truly standalone, μAVS2 is smaller than a deck of playing cards, lightweight, fast, and equipped with USB, RS-232 and Ethernet interfaces. Image processing filters on μAVS2 operate in a user-defined linear sequential-loop fashion, resulting in vastly reduced memory and CPU requirements during execution. μAVS2 imports raw video frames from a USB or IP camera, performs image processing, and issues the processed data over an outbound Internet TCP/IP or RS-232 connection to the visual prosthesis system. Hence, μAVS2 affords users of current and future visual prostheses independent mobility and the capability to customize the visual perception generated. Additionally, μAVS2 can easily be reconfigured for other prosthetic systems. Testing of μAVS2 with actual retinal implant carriers is envisioned in the near future.

  13. On the evaluation of expected performance cost for partially observed closed-loop stochastic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, D. S.; Eslami, M.

    1985-01-01

    New methods are presented for evaluating the expected performance cost of partially observed closed-loop stochastic systems. When the variances of the process statistics are small, a linearized model of the closed-loop stochastic system is defined for which the expected cost can be evaluated by recursion on a set of purely deterministic difference equations. When the variances of the process statistics are large, the linearized model can be used in the control variate method of variance reduction for reducing the number of sample paths required for effective Monte Carlo estimation.

  14. Camera Based Closed Loop Control for Partial Penetration Welding of Overlap Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abt, F.; Heider, A.; Weber, R.; Graf, T.; Blug, A.; Carl, D.; Höfler, H.; Nicolosi, L.; Tetzlaff, R.

    Welding of overlap joints with partial penetration in automotive applications is a challenging process, since the laser power must be set very precisely to achieve a proper connection between the two joining partners without damaging the backside of the sheet stack. Even minor changes in welding conditions can lead to bad results. To overcome this problem a camera based closed loop control for partial penetration welding of overlap joints was developed. With this closed loop control it is possible to weld such configurations with a stable process result even under changing welding conditions.

  15. Closed-Loop Control of a Neuroprosthetic Hand by Magnetoencephalographic Signals

    PubMed Central

    Fukuma, Ryohei; Yanagisawa, Takufumi; Yorifuji, Shiro; Kato, Ryu; Yokoi, Hiroshi; Hirata, Masayuki; Saitoh, Youichi; Kishima, Haruhiko; Kamitani, Yukiyasu; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2015-01-01

    Objective A neuroprosthesis using a brain–machine interface (BMI) is a promising therapeutic option for severely paralyzed patients, but the ability to control it may vary among individual patients and needs to be evaluated before any invasive procedure is undertaken. We have developed a neuroprosthetic hand that can be controlled by magnetoencephalographic (MEG) signals to noninvasively evaluate subjects’ ability to control a neuroprosthesis. Method Six nonparalyzed subjects performed grasping or opening movements of their right hand while the slow components of the MEG signals (SMFs) were recorded in an open-loop condition. The SMFs were used to train two decoders to infer the timing and types of movement by support vector machine and Gaussian process regression. The SMFs were also used to calculate estimated slow cortical potentials (eSCPs) to identify the origin of motor information. Finally, using the trained decoders, the subjects controlled a neuroprosthetic hand in a closed-loop condition. Results The SMFs in the open-loop condition revealed movement-related cortical field characteristics and successfully inferred the movement type with an accuracy of 75.0 ± 12.9% (mean ± SD). In particular, the eSCPs in the sensorimotor cortex contralateral to the moved hand varied significantly enough among the movement types to be decoded with an accuracy of 76.5 ± 10.6%, which was significantly higher than the accuracy associated with eSCPs in the ipsilateral sensorimotor cortex (58.1 ± 13.7%; p = 0.0072, paired two-tailed Student’s t-test). Moreover, another decoder using SMFs successfully inferred when the accuracy was the greatest. Combining these two decoders allowed the neuroprosthetic hand to be controlled in a closed-loop condition. Conclusions Use of real-time MEG signals was shown to successfully control the neuroprosthetic hand. The developed system may be useful for evaluating movement-related slow cortical potentials of severely paralyzed patients

  16. Bidirectional neural interface: Closed-loop feedback control for hybrid neural systems.

    PubMed

    Chou, Zane; Lim, Jeffrey; Brown, Sophie; Keller, Melissa; Bugbee, Joseph; Broccard, Frédéric D; Khraiche, Massoud L; Silva, Gabriel A; Cauwenberghs, Gert

    2015-08-01

    Closed-loop neural prostheses enable bidirectional communication between the biological and artificial components of a hybrid system. However, a major challenge in this field is the limited understanding of how these components, the two separate neural networks, interact with each other. In this paper, we propose an in vitro model of a closed-loop system that allows for easy experimental testing and modification of both biological and artificial network parameters. The interface closes the system loop in real time by stimulating each network based on recorded activity of the other network, within preset parameters. As a proof of concept we demonstrate that the bidirectional interface is able to establish and control network properties, such as synchrony, in a hybrid system of two neural networks more significantly more effectively than the same system without the interface or with unidirectional alternatives. This success holds promise for the application of closed-loop systems in neural prostheses, brain-machine interfaces, and drug testing. PMID:26737158

  17. Closed-Loop Time-Optimal Attitude Maneuvering of Magnetically Actuated Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekhavat, Pooya; Yan, Hui; Fleming, Andrew; Ross, I. Michael; Alfriend, Kyle T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the performance of the pseudospectral optimal control scheme for closed-loop time-optimal attitude maneuvering of the NPSAT1 spacecraft, a magnetically actuated spacecraft designed and built at the Naval Postgraduate School. The closed-loop control is devised and implemented using the notion of Carathéodory-π solutions: repeated computation and update of the complete open-loop control solution in real-time. The performance of the pseudospectral feedback-control scheme is compared to a standard state feedback-control technique. It is shown that the use of standard state feedback control leads to significantly slower convergence time and may lead to substantially lower performance metrics. The substantial performance gains when using closed-loop optimal control are attributed to the optimal scheme's ability to exploit the full maneuverability envelope of the spacecraft by applying bang-bang controls in all three directions. In contrast, traditional gain-based feedback control laws substantially limit the performance of the vehicle to well below its physical capabilities. The feasibility of each open-loop optimal control solution is verified by numerical propagation while Pontryagin's necessary conditions for optimality are used to verify the solution's optimality.

  18. Closed loop spray cooling apparatus. [for particle accelerator targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alger, D. L.; Schwab, W. B.; Furman, E. R. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A closed loop apparatus for spraying coolant against the back of a radiation target is described. The coolant was circulated through a closed loop with a bubble of inert gas being maintained around the spray. Mesh material was disposed between the bubble and the surface of the liquid coolant which was below the bubble at a predetermined level. In a second embodiment, no inert gas was used, the bubble consisting of a vapor produced when the coolant was sprayed against the target.

  19. Kinematic calibration of manipulators with closed loop actuated joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everett, Louis J.; Lin, C. Y.

    1988-01-01

    A method for performing forward kinematic calibration of manipulators having one or more closed-loop-actuated joints is presented. The technique is an extension of algorithms designed for open-loop jointed manipulators. The calibration is equivalent to minimizing an objective function subject to constraints. The objective function is taken as the integral of end-effector position and orientation error. The constraints arise from the closed-loop mechanisms present in the manipulator.

  20. Direct-contact closed-loop heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Berry, Gregory F.; Minkov, Vladimir; Petrick, Michael

    1984-01-01

    A high temperature heat exchanger with a closed loop and a heat transfer liquid within the loop, the closed loop having a first horizontal channel with inlet and outlet means for providing direct contact of a first fluid at a first temperature with the heat transfer liquid, a second horizontal channel with inlet and outlet means for providing direct contact of a second fluid at a second temperature with the heat transfer liquid, and means for circulating the heat transfer liquid.

  1. Conceptualization and validation of an open-source closed-loop deep brain stimulation system in rat

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hemmings; Ghekiere, Hartwin; Beeckmans, Dorien; Tambuyzer, Tim; van Kuyck, Kris; Aerts, Jean-Marie; Nuttin, Bart

    2015-01-01

    Conventional deep brain stimulation (DBS) applies constant electrical stimulation to specific brain regions to treat neurological disorders. Closed-loop DBS with real-time feedback is gaining attention in recent years, after proved more effective than conventional DBS in terms of pathological symptom control clinically. Here we demonstrate the conceptualization and validation of a closed-loop DBS system using open-source hardware. We used hippocampal theta oscillations as system input, and electrical stimulation in the mesencephalic reticular formation (mRt) as controller output. It is well documented that hippocampal theta oscillations are highly related to locomotion, while electrical stimulation in the mRt induces freezing. We used an Arduino open-source microcontroller between input and output sources. This allowed us to use hippocampal local field potentials (LFPs) to steer electrical stimulation in the mRt. Our results showed that closed-loop DBS significantly suppressed locomotion compared to no stimulation, and required on average only 56% of the stimulation used in open-loop DBS to reach similar effects. The main advantages of open-source hardware include wide selection and availability, high customizability, and affordability. Our open-source closed-loop DBS system is effective, and warrants further research using open-source hardware for closed-loop neuromodulation. PMID:25897892

  2. Conceptualization and validation of an open-source closed-loop deep brain stimulation system in rat.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hemmings; Ghekiere, Hartwin; Beeckmans, Dorien; Tambuyzer, Tim; van Kuyck, Kris; Aerts, Jean-Marie; Nuttin, Bart

    2015-01-01

    Conventional deep brain stimulation (DBS) applies constant electrical stimulation to specific brain regions to treat neurological disorders. Closed-loop DBS with real-time feedback is gaining attention in recent years, after proved more effective than conventional DBS in terms of pathological symptom control clinically. Here we demonstrate the conceptualization and validation of a closed-loop DBS system using open-source hardware. We used hippocampal theta oscillations as system input, and electrical stimulation in the mesencephalic reticular formation (mRt) as controller output. It is well documented that hippocampal theta oscillations are highly related to locomotion, while electrical stimulation in the mRt induces freezing. We used an Arduino open-source microcontroller between input and output sources. This allowed us to use hippocampal local field potentials (LFPs) to steer electrical stimulation in the mRt. Our results showed that closed-loop DBS significantly suppressed locomotion compared to no stimulation, and required on average only 56% of the stimulation used in open-loop DBS to reach similar effects. The main advantages of open-source hardware include wide selection and availability, high customizability, and affordability. Our open-source closed-loop DBS system is effective, and warrants further research using open-source hardware for closed-loop neuromodulation. PMID:25897892

  3. Excimer laser activation of ultra-shallow junctions in doped Si: Modeling, experiments and real time process monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semmar, Nadjib; Darif, Mohamed; Millon, Eric; Petit, Agnès; Etienne, Hasnaa; Delaporte, Philippe

    2012-07-01

    This work concerns the ALDIP (Laser Activation of Doping agents Implanted by Plasma immersion) project that was a successful collaboration with Ion Beam Services (IBS) corporation, the "Lasers, Plasmas and Photonic Processes" (LP3) laboratory and the GREMI laboratory. The aim of this work is to control the melted thickness (i.e. junction thickness in the range 10-100 nm) by the Real Time Reflectivity (TRR) monitoring during the Laser Thermal Processing (LTP). The LTP is achieved by using a KrF laser beam (248 nm, 27 ns) with a homogeneous 'Top-Hat' space distribution to induce a selective melting and the resolidification of the doped Si:B samples on few nanometers. This recrystallization is conducted here after the pre-amorphisation process resulting from the ionic implantation of Si (PIII IBS implanter). Thus, all the studied samples are partially amorphized and boron doped. TRR method allows the accurate evaluation of the melting threshold, the duration of the melting phase, and the maximum melted thickness. Obtained results versus laser fluence are shown in the new case of under vacuum treatment. In order to calibrate the TRR method (to determine the intensity and the profile of the TRR signal versus the melting depth), we have used the secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) analysis. This technique gives the doping agents profile versus the depth before and after LTP and confirms also the melting kinetics from TRR results.

  4. The Near Real Time Data Processing System For GPS Radio Occultation Data From Champ At Gfz Potsdam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, T.; Wickert, J.; Marquardt, Ch.; Beyerle, G.; Reigber, Ch.; Wehrenpfennig, A.

    GPS radio occultation measurements onboard low earth orbiting satellites (CHAMP) offer a prominent method for global and continuous monitoring of the Earth's atmo- sphere. Data assimilation studies using radio occultation data have already shown that this new type of remote sensing technique improves the accuracy of global and re- gional weather analyses and predictions. The use of products obtained from radio occultation data as, e.g., refractivity, tem- perature, or humidity profiles, by weather service centers requires an operational data processing system generating and delivering data products automatically within a 3 hour time limit. Since one year such a near real time data processing system is oper- ated at GFZ Potsdam with radio occultation data from the German satellite CHAMP (Challenging Minisatellite Payload). This system, the CHAMP Atmospheric Processor (CAP), will be introduced. The con- trolling and scientific components including ground infrastructure, data flow and soft- ware modules are discussed. CAP is designed to be easily extendable by additional scientific modules or input data. Thus, it also allows for an extension to other single- or multi-satellite occultation missions as, e.g., GRACE to be launched in March 2002. By end of April 2002 more than 50.000 occultations will be recorded. Extensive statis- tics as daily and monthly averages of processed occultations and global distributions of occultation events from one year of CHAMP radio occultation data will be presented.

  5. Closed-loop control of zebrafish response using a bioinspired robotic-fish in a preference test

    PubMed Central

    Kopman, Vladislav; Laut, Jeffrey; Polverino, Giovanni; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study the response of zebrafish to a robotic-fish whose morphology and colour pattern are inspired by zebrafish. Experiments are conducted in a three-chambered instrumented water tank where a robotic-fish is juxtaposed with an empty compartment, and the preference of live subjects is scored as the mean time spent in the vicinity of the tank's two lateral sides. The tail-beating of the robotic-fish is controlled in real-time based on feedback from fish motion to explore a spectrum of closed-loop systems, including proportional and integral controllers. Closed-loop control systems are complemented by open-loop strategies, wherein the tail-beat of the robotic-fish is independent of the fish motion. The preference space and the locomotory patterns of fish for each experimental condition are analysed and compared to understand the influence of real-time closed-loop control on zebrafish response. The results of this study show that zebrafish respond differently to the pattern of tail-beating motion executed by the robotic-fish. Specifically, the preference and behaviour of zebrafish depend on whether the robotic-fish tail-beating frequency is controlled as a function of fish motion and how such closed-loop control is implemented. PMID:23152102

  6. Closed-loop control of zebrafish response using a bioinspired robotic-fish in a preference test.

    PubMed

    Kopman, Vladislav; Laut, Jeffrey; Polverino, Giovanni; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study the response of zebrafish to a robotic-fish whose morphology and colour pattern are inspired by zebrafish. Experiments are conducted in a three-chambered instrumented water tank where a robotic-fish is juxtaposed with an empty compartment, and the preference of live subjects is scored as the mean time spent in the vicinity of the tank's two lateral sides. The tail-beating of the robotic-fish is controlled in real-time based on feedback from fish motion to explore a spectrum of closed-loop systems, including proportional and integral controllers. Closed-loop control systems are complemented by open-loop strategies, wherein the tail-beat of the robotic-fish is independent of the fish motion. The preference space and the locomotory patterns of fish for each experimental condition are analysed and compared to understand the influence of real-time closed-loop control on zebrafish response. The results of this study show that zebrafish respond differently to the pattern of tail-beating motion executed by the robotic-fish. Specifically, the preference and behaviour of zebrafish depend on whether the robotic-fish tail-beating frequency is controlled as a function of fish motion and how such closed-loop control is implemented. PMID:23152102

  7. Securing robust control in systems for closed-loop control of inertial thermal power facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovrigo, Yu. M.; Bagan, T. G.; Bunke, A. S.

    2014-03-01

    We consider two approaches to achieving the necessary stability margin in systems for closed-loop control of inertial thermal power facilities under the conditions of a variable operating mode of process equipment. Structural solutions for these systems are proposed, and tuning procedures are given. Transients in the synthesized systems are simulated, and the control quality indicators are calculated and compared. Application of the proposed procedures makes it possible to obtain a sufficient stability margin with preserving highquality performance of the closed-loop control systems.

  8. NEAR-REAL-TIME MEASUREMENT OF TRACE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM COMBUSTION PROCESSES USING AN ON-LINE GAS CHROMATOGRAPH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's current regulatory approach for combustion and incineration sources emphasizes the use of real-time continuous emission monitors (CEMs) for particulate, Metals, and volatile, semivolatile, and of nonvolatile organic compounds to monitor source emissions. Currently...

  9. A real-time study of the benefits of co-solvents in polymer solar cell processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Franeker, Jacobus J.; Turbiez, Mathieu; Li, Weiwei; Wienk, Martijn M.; Janssen, René A. J.

    2015-02-01

    The photoactive layer of organic solar cells consists of a nanoscale blend of electron-donating and electron-accepting organic semiconductors. Controlling the degree of phase separation between these components is crucial to reach efficient solar cells. In solution-processed polymer-fullerene solar cells, small amounts of co-solvents are commonly used to avoid the formation of undesired large fullerene domains that reduce performance. There is an ongoing discussion about the origin of this effect. To clarify the role of co-solvents, we combine three optical measurements to investigate layer thickness, phase separation and polymer aggregation in real time during solvent evaporation under realistic processing conditions. Without co-solvent, large fullerene-rich domains form via liquid-liquid phase separation at ~20 vol% solid content. Under such supersaturated conditions, co-solvents induce polymer aggregation below 20 vol% solids and prevent the formation of large domains. This rationalizes the formation of intimately mixed films that give high-efficient solar cells for the materials studied.

  10. Parallel processing of real-time dynamic systems simulation on OSCAR (Optimally SCheduled Advanced multiprocessoR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasahara, Hironori; Honda, Hiroki; Narita, Seinosuke

    1989-01-01

    Parallel processing of real-time dynamic systems simulation on a multiprocessor system named OSCAR is presented. In the simulation of dynamic systems, generally, the same calculation are repeated every time step. However, we cannot apply to Do-all or the Do-across techniques for parallel processing of the simulation since there exist data dependencies from the end of an iteration to the beginning of the next iteration and furthermore data-input and data-output are required every sampling time period. Therefore, parallelism inside the calculation required for a single time step, or a large basic block which consists of arithmetic assignment statements, must be used. In the proposed method, near fine grain tasks, each of which consists of one or more floating point operations, are generated to extract the parallelism from the calculation and assigned to processors by using optimal static scheduling at compile time in order to reduce large run time overhead caused by the use of near fine grain tasks. The practicality of the scheme is demonstrated on OSCAR (Optimally SCheduled Advanced multiprocessoR) which has been developed to extract advantageous features of static scheduling algorithms to the maximum extent.

  11. Automated Droplet Manipulation Using Closed-Loop Axisymmetric Drop Shape Analysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kyle; Yang, Jinlong; Zuo, Yi Y

    2016-05-17

    Droplet manipulation plays an important role in a wide range of scientific and industrial applications, such as synthesis of thin-film materials, control of interfacial reactions, and operation of digital microfluidics. Compared to micron-sized droplets, which are commonly considered as spherical beads, millimeter-sized droplets are generally deformable by gravity, thus introducing nonlinearity into control of droplet properties. Such a nonlinear drop shape effect is especially crucial for droplet manipulation, even for small droplets, at the presence of surfactants. In this paper, we have developed a novel closed-loop axisymmetric drop shape analysis (ADSA), integrated into a constrained drop surfactometer (CDS), for manipulating millimeter-sized droplets. The closed-loop ADSA generalizes applications of the traditional drop shape analysis from a surface tension measurement methodology to a sophisticated tool for manipulating droplets in real time. We have demonstrated the feasibility and advantages of the closed-loop ADSA in three applications, including control of drop volume by automatically compensating natural evaporation, precise control of surface area variations for high-fidelity biophysical simulations of natural pulmonary surfactant, and steady control of surface pressure for in situ Langmuir-Blodgett transfer from droplets. All these applications have demonstrated the accuracy, versatility, applicability, and automation of this new ADSA-based droplet manipulation technique. Combining with CDS, the closed-loop ADSA holds great promise for advancing droplet manipulation in a variety of material and surface science applications, such as thin-film fabrication, self-assembly, and biophysical study of pulmonary surfactant. PMID:27132978

  12. Real-time determination of critical quality attributes using near-infrared spectroscopy: a contribution for Process Analytical Technology (PAT).

    PubMed

    Rosas, Juan G; Blanco, Marcel; González, Josep M; Alcalà, Manel

    2012-08-15

    Process Analytical Technology (PAT) is playing a central role in current regulations on pharmaceutical production processes. Proper understanding of all operations and variables connecting the raw materials to end products is one of the keys to ensuring quality of the products and continuous improvement in their production. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been successfully used to develop faster and non-invasive quantitative methods for real-time predicting critical quality attributes (CQA) of pharmaceutical granulates (API content, pH, moisture, flowability, angle of repose and particle size). NIR spectra have been acquired from the bin blender after granulation process in a non-classified area without the need of sample withdrawal. The methodology used for data acquisition, calibration modelling and method application in this context is relatively inexpensive and can be easily implemented by most pharmaceutical laboratories. For this purpose, Partial Least-Squares (PLS) algorithm was used to calculate multivariate calibration models, that provided acceptable Root Mean Square Error of Predictions (RMSEP) values (RMSEP(API)=1.0 mg/g; RMSEP(pH)=0.1; RMSEP(Moisture)=0.1%; RMSEP(Flowability)=0.6 g/s; RMSEP(Angle of repose)=1.7° and RMSEP(Particle size)=2.5%) that allowed the application for routine analyses of production batches. The proposed method affords quality assessment of end products and the determination of important parameters with a view to understanding production processes used by the pharmaceutical industry. As shown here, the NIRS technique is a highly suitable tool for Process Analytical Technologies. PMID:22841062

  13. Real-time vision systems

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.; Hernandez, J.E.; Lu, Shin-yee

    1994-11-15

    Many industrial and defence applications require an ability to make instantaneous decisions based on sensor input of a time varying process. Such systems are referred to as `real-time systems` because they process and act on data as it occurs in time. When a vision sensor is used in a real-time system, the processing demands can be quite substantial, with typical data rates of 10-20 million samples per second. A real-time Machine Vision Laboratory (MVL) was established in FY94 to extend our years of experience in developing computer vision algorithms to include the development and implementation of real-time vision systems. The laboratory is equipped with a variety of hardware components, including Datacube image acquisition and processing boards, a Sun workstation, and several different types of CCD cameras, including monochrome and color area cameras and analog and digital line-scan cameras. The equipment is reconfigurable for prototyping different applications. This facility has been used to support several programs at LLNL, including O Division`s Peacemaker and Deadeye Projects as well as the CRADA with the U.S. Textile Industry, CAFE (Computer Aided Fabric Inspection). To date, we have successfully demonstrated several real-time applications: bullet tracking, stereo tracking and ranging, and web inspection. This work has been documented in the ongoing development of a real-time software library.

  14. An Engineered Approach to Stem Cell Culture: Automating the Decision Process for Real-Time Adaptive Subculture of Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ker, Dai Fei Elmer; Weiss, Lee E.; Junkers, Silvina N.; Chen, Mei; Yin, Zhaozheng; Sandbothe, Michael F.; Huh, Seung-il; Eom, Sungeun; Bise, Ryoma; Osuna-Highley, Elvira; Kanade, Takeo; Campbell, Phil G.

    2011-01-01

    Current cell culture practices are dependent upon human operators and remain laborious and highly subjective, resulting in large variations and inconsistent outcomes, especially when using visual assessments of cell confluency to determine the appropriate time to subculture cells. Although efforts to automate cell culture with robotic systems are underway, the majority of such systems still require human intervention to determine when to subculture. Thus, it is necessary to accurately and objectively determine the appropriate time for cell passaging. Optimal stem cell culturing that maintains cell pluripotency while maximizing cell yields will be especially important for efficient, cost-effective stem cell-based therapies. Toward this goal we developed a real-time computer vision-based system that monitors the degree of cell confluency with a precision of 0.791±0.031 and recall of 0.559±0.043. The system consists of an automated phase-contrast time-lapse microscope and a server. Multiple dishes are sequentially imaged and the data is uploaded to the server that performs computer vision processing, predicts when cells will exceed a pre-defined threshold for optimal cell confluency, and provides a Web-based interface for remote cell culture monitoring. Human operators are also notified via text messaging and e-mail 4 hours prior to reaching this threshold and immediately upon reaching this threshold. This system was successfully used to direct the expansion of a paradigm stem cell population, C2C12 cells. Computer-directed and human-directed control subcultures required 3 serial cultures to achieve the theoretical target cell yield of 50 million C2C12 cells and showed no difference for myogenic and osteogenic differentiation. This automated vision-based system has potential as a tool toward adaptive real-time control of subculturing, cell culture optimization and quality assurance/quality control, and it could be integrated with current and developing robotic cell

  15. Real-time processing of dual band HD video for maintaining operational effectiveness in degraded visual environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Steve C. J.; Hickman, Duncan L.; Smith, Moira I.

    2015-05-01

    Effective reconnaissance, surveillance and situational awareness, using dual band sensor systems, require the extraction, enhancement and fusion of salient features, with the processed video being presented to the user in an ergonomic and interpretable manner. HALO™ is designed to meet these requirements and provides an affordable, real-time, and low-latency image fusion solution on a low size, weight and power (SWAP) platform. The system has been progressively refined through field trials to increase its operating envelope and robustness. The result is a video processor that improves detection, recognition and identification (DRI) performance, whilst lowering operator fatigue and reaction times in complex and highly dynamic situations. This paper compares the performance of HALO™, both qualitatively and quantitatively, with conventional blended fusion for operation in degraded visual environments (DVEs), such as those experienced during ground and air-based operations. Although image blending provides a simple fusion solution, which explains its common adoption, the results presented demonstrate that its performance is poor compared to the HALO™ fusion scheme in DVE scenarios.

  16. Advanced ECCD based NTM control in closed-loop operation at ASDEX Upgrade (AUG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reich, Matthias; Barrera-Orte, Laura; Behler, Karl; Bock, Alexander; Giannone, Louis; Maraschek, Marc; Poli, Emanuele; Rapson, Chris; Stober, Jörg; Treutterer, Wolfgang

    2012-10-01

    In high performance plasmas, Neoclassical Tearing Modes (NTMs) are regularly observed at reactor-grade beta-values. They limit the achievable normalized beta, which is undesirable because fusion performance scales as beta squared. The method of choice for controlling and avoiding NTMs at AUG is the deposition of ECCD inside the magnetic island for stabilization in real-time (rt). Our approach to tackling such complex control problems using real-time diagnostics allows rigorous optimization of all subsystems. Recent progress in rt-equilibrium reconstruction (< 3.5 ms), rt-localization of NTMs (< 8 ms) and rt beam tracing (< 25 ms) allows closed-loop feedback operation using multiple movable mirrors as the ECCD deposition actuator. The rt-equilibrium uses function parametrization or a fast Grad-Shafranov solver with an option to include rt-MSE measurements. The island localization is based on a correlation of ECE and filtered Mirnov signals. The rt beam-tracing module provides deposition locations and their derivative versus actuator position of multiple gyrotrons. The ``MHD controller'' finally drives the actuators. Results utilizing closed-loop operation with multiple gyrotrons and their effect on NTMs are shown.

  17. Real time automated inspection

    DOEpatents

    Fant, Karl M.; Fundakowski, Richard A.; Levitt, Tod S.; Overland, John E.; Suresh, Bindinganavle R.; Ulrich, Franz W.

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus relating to the real time automatic detection and classification of characteristic type surface imperfections occurring on the surfaces of material of interest such as moving hot metal slabs produced by a continuous steel caster. A data camera transversely scans continuous lines of such a surface to sense light intensities of scanned pixels and generates corresponding voltage values. The voltage values are converted to corresponding digital values to form a digital image of the surface which is subsequently processed to form an edge-enhanced image having scan lines characterized by intervals corresponding to the edges of the image. The edge-enhanced image is thresholded to segment out the edges and objects formed by the edges are segmented out by interval matching and bin tracking. Features of the objects are derived and such features are utilized to classify the objects into characteristic type surface imperfections.

  18. Real time automated inspection

    DOEpatents

    Fant, K.M.; Fundakowski, R.A.; Levitt, T.S.; Overland, J.E.; Suresh, B.R.; Ulrich, F.W.

    1985-05-21

    A method and apparatus are described relating to the real time automatic detection and classification of characteristic type surface imperfections occurring on the surfaces of material of interest such as moving hot metal slabs produced by a continuous steel caster. A data camera transversely scans continuous lines of such a surface to sense light intensities of scanned pixels and generates corresponding voltage values. The voltage values are converted to corresponding digital values to form a digital image of the surface which is subsequently processed to form an edge-enhanced image having scan lines characterized by intervals corresponding to the edges of the image. The edge-enhanced image is thresholded to segment out the edges and objects formed by the edges by interval matching and bin tracking. Features of the objects are derived and such features are utilized to classify the objects into characteristic type surface imperfections. 43 figs.

  19. DSPACE hardware architecture for on-board real-time image/video processing in European space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saponara, Sergio; Donati, Massimiliano; Fanucci, Luca; Odendahl, Maximilian; Leupers, Reiner; Errico, Walter

    2013-02-01

    The on-board data processing is a vital task for any satellite and spacecraft due to the importance of elaborate the sensing data before sending them to the Earth, in order to exploit effectively the bandwidth to the ground station. In the last years the amount of sensing data collected by scientific and commercial space missions has increased significantly, while the available downlink bandwidth is comparatively stable. The increasing demand of on-board real-time processing capabilities represents one of the critical issues in forthcoming European missions. Faster and faster signal and image processing algorithms are required to accomplish planetary observation, surveillance, Synthetic Aperture Radar imaging and telecommunications. The only available space-qualified Digital Signal Processor (DSP) free of International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) restrictions faces inadequate performance, thus the development of a next generation European DSP is well known to the space community. The DSPACE space-qualified DSP architecture fills the gap between the computational requirements and the available devices. It leverages a pipelined and massively parallel core based on the Very Long Instruction Word (VLIW) paradigm, with 64 registers and 8 operational units, along with cache memories, memory controllers and SpaceWire interfaces. Both the synthesizable VHDL and the software development tools are generated from the LISA high-level model. A Xilinx-XC7K325T FPGA is chosen to realize a compact PCI demonstrator board. Finally first synthesis results on CMOS standard cell technology (ASIC 180 nm) show an area of around 380 kgates and a peak performance of 1000 MIPS and 750 MFLOPS at 125MHz.

  20. Real-time Data Processing and Visualization for the Airborne Scanning High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (S-HIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J. K.; Revercomb, H. E.; Hoese, D.; Garcia, R. K.; Smith, W. L.; Weisz, E.; Tobin, D. C.; Best, F. A.; Knuteson, R. O.; Sullivan, D. V.; Barnes, C. M.; Van Gilst, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    The Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) is a five-year NASA mission targeted to enhance the understanding of the formation and evolution of hurricanes in the Atlantic basin. Measurements were made from two NASA Global Hawk Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) during the 2012 through 2014 hurricane seasons, with flights conducted from the NASA Wallops Flight Facility. The Global Hawk aircraft are capable of high altitude flights with durations of up to 30 hours, which allow extensive observations over distant storms, not typically possible with manned aircraft. The two NASA Global Hawks were equipped with instrument suites to study the storm environment, and inner core structure and processes, respectively. The Scanning High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (S-HIS), designed and built by the University of Wisconsin (UW) Space Science and Engineering Center (SSEC), measures emitted thermal radiation at high spectral resolution between 3.3 and 18 microns. The radiance measurements are used to obtain temperature and water vapor profiles of the Earth's atmosphere. The S-HIS spatial resolution is 2 km at nadir, across a 40 km ground swath from a nominal altitude of 20 kilometers. Since 1998, the S-HIS has participated in 33 field campaigns and has proven to be extremely dependable, effective, and highly accurate. It has flown on the NASA ER-2, DC-8, Proteus, WB-57, and Global Hawk airborne platforms. The UW S-HIS infrared sounder instrument is equipped with a real-time ground data processing system capable of delivering atmospheric profiles, radiance data, and engineering status to mission support scientists - all within less than one minute from the time of observation. This ground data processing system was assembled by a small team using existing software and proven practical techniques similar to a satellite ground system architecture. This summary outlines the design overview for the system and illustrates the data path, content, and outcomes.

  1. Closed-loop autonomous docking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor); Howard, Richard T. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An autonomous docking system is provided which produces commands for the steering and propulsion system of a chase vehicle used in the docking of that chase vehicle with a target vehicle. The docking system comprises a passive optical target affixed to the target vehicle and comprising three reflective areas including a central area mounted on a short post, and tracking sensor and process controller apparatus carried by the chase vehicle. The latter apparatus comprises a laser diode array for illuminating the target so as to cause light to be reflected from the reflective areas of the target; a sensor for detecting the light reflected from the target and for producing an electrical output signal in accordance with an image of the reflected light; a signal processor for processing the electrical output signal in accordance with an image of the reflected light; a signal processor for processing the electrical output signal and for producing, based thereon, output signals relating to the relative range, roll, pitch, yaw, azimuth, and elevation of the chase and target vehicles; and a docking process controller, responsive to the output signals produced by the signal processor, for producing command signals for controlling the steering and propulsion system of the chase vehicle.

  2. Real-time studies of surface roughness development and reticulation mechanism of advanced photoresist materials during plasma processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, A. R.; Bruce, R. L.; Weilnboeck, F.; Engelmann, S.; Lin, T.; Kuo, M.-S.; Phaneuf, R.; Oehrlein, G. S.

    2009-01-01

    Surface roughness development of photoresist (PR) films during low pressure plasma etching has been studied using real-time laser light scattering from photoresist materials along with ellipsometric and atomic force microscopy (AFM) characterization. We show that evolution of the intensity of light scattered from a film surface can be used to study the development of surface roughness for a wide range of roughness starting from subnanometer to few hundred nanometers. Laser light scattering in combination with ellipsometry and AFM is also used to study the reticulation mechanism of 193 and 248 nm PRs during argon plasma processing. We employ a three-layer model (modified layer, rough layer, and bulk film) of the modified PR surface (193 and 248 nm PRs) to simulate and understand the behavior of ellipsometric Ψ-Δ trajectories. Bruggeman's effective medium approximation is employed to study the roughness that develops on the surface after reticulation. When the glass transition temperature of the organic materials is reached during Ar plasma processing, the PR films reticulate and roughness develops rapidly. Roughness development is more pronounced for 248 nm PR than for 193 nm PR. Simulation of Ψ-Δ shows that the growth of roughness is accompanied by strong expansion in the materials, which is stronger for 248 nm PR than 193 nm PR. The leading factors responsible for reticulation are found to be compressive stress that develops in the modified surface layer as it is created along with strong molecular chain motion and expansion of the material when the temperature is increased past the glass transition temperature. Reticulation leads to a significantly different surface morphology for 248 nm PR as compared to 193 nm PR and can be related to differences in molecular structure and composition leading to different responses when a modified surface layer is formed by ion bombardment accompanying plasma etching.

  3. Real-time direct cell concentration and viability determination using a fully automated microfluidic platform for standalone process monitoring.

    PubMed

    Nunes, P S; Kjaerulff, S; Dufva, M; Mogensen, K B

    2015-06-21

    The industrial production of cells has a large unmet need for greater process monitoring, in addition to the standard temperature, pH and oxygen concentration determination. Monitoring the cell health by a vast range of fluorescence cell-based assays can greatly improve the feedback control and thereby ensure optimal cell production, by prolonging the fermentation cycle and increasing the bioreactor output. In this work, we report on the development of a fully automated microfluidic system capable of extracting samples directly from a bioreactor, diluting the sample, staining the cells, and determining the total cell and dead cells concentrations, within a time frame of 10.3 min. The platform consists of custom made stepper motor actuated peristaltic pumps and valves, fluidic interconnections, sample to waste liquid management and image cytometry-based detection. The total concentration of cells is determined by brightfield microscopy, while fluorescence detection is used to detect propidium iodide stained non-viable cells. This method can be incorporated into facilities with bioreactors to monitor the cell concentration and viability during the cultivation process. Here, we demonstrate the microfluidic system performance by monitoring in real time the cell concentration and viability of yeast extracted directly from an in-house made bioreactor. This is the first demonstration of using the Dean drag force, generated due to the implementation of a curved microchannel geometry in conjunction with high flow rates, to promote passive mixing of cell samples and thus homogenization of the diluted cell plug. The autonomous operation of the fluidics furthermore allows implementation of intelligent protocols for administering air bubbles from the bioreactor in the microfluidic system, so that these will be guided away from the imaging region, thereby significantly improving both the robustness of the system and the quality of the data. PMID:25923294

  4. Interferometric closed-loop fiber-optic gyroscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korkishko, Yuri N.; Fedorov, Vyacheslav &.; Prilutskii, Victor &.; Ponomarev, Vladimir G.; Morev, Ivan V.; Kostritskii, Sergey M.

    2012-02-01

    The operation of Fiber Optic Gyro is based on the Sagnac Effect which states that light beams propagating along opposite directions in a rotating frame experience an optical path length difference. These two counter-propagating waves propagate within a closed fiber coil, and when this coil rotates the resultant phase difference is proportional to the rotation rate Ω. Fiber optic gyroscopes are desirable devices for many navigation and guidance applications because, being solid state devices, they have several major advantages including light weight, long working lifetimes, no moving parts and operate using low voltage power. In this paper the Optolink's single-axis and three-axis fiber optic gyroscopes are described. The Optolink's FOGs consist of the light-emitting diode, one or three photodetectors, circulators and polarization maintaining fiber couplers to divide the light into two or three parts, one or three sets of ring interferometers to sense one or three orthogonal angular rates, and installed PCB signal processing circuits. The ring interferometer consists of a multifunction integrated optic chip and polarization maintaining fiber coil, both these components are designed and fabricated by Optolink. The results illustrate the versatility of the technology, showing its potential to meet both the low-cost, compact sized needs of tactical guidance, as well as the very high performance needs of inertial navigation and precision applications. The optic and electronic blocks of closed-loop gyroscopes with integrated optic components are also considered in this paper.

  5. Closed-loop operation with alternative dewatering technology

    SciTech Connect

    Halliday, W.S.; Bray, R.P.; Youens, J.W.

    1993-03-01

    The introduction of dewatering devices for closed-loop drilling-fluid circulating systems and reserve pits is derived from technology that has been used in the industrial- and sanitary-waste treatment industries for years. This paper describes an overview of the need for closed-loop systems and provides the optimum design layout, including the fit of a dewatering device, for a drilling location. The introduction of a nonconventional dewatering device, called a screw press/thickener, is reviewed. A case history describing use of this technology in a southern Louisiana inland-marsh-area well is analyzed for the technical and economic viability of operating in a closed-loop mode. Results from this effort include a viable alternative to hauling off waste fluids from drilling sites and the realization that use of this technology can be justified economically.

  6. Optimizing the real-time automatic location of the events produced in Romania using an advanced processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neagoe, Cristian; Grecu, Bogdan; Manea, Liviu

    2016-04-01

    National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP) operates a real time seismic network which is designed to monitor the seismic activity on the Romanian territory, which is dominated by the intermediate earthquakes (60-200 km) from Vrancea area. The ability to reduce the impact of earthquakes on society depends on the existence of a large number of high-quality observational data. The development of the network in recent years and an advanced seismic acquisition are crucial to achieving this objective. The software package used to perform the automatic real-time locations is Seiscomp3. An accurate choice of the Seiscomp3 setting parameters is necessary to ensure the best performance of the real-time system i.e., the most accurate location for the earthquakes and avoiding any false events. The aim of this study is to optimize the algorithms of the real-time system that detect and locate the earthquakes in the monitored area. This goal is pursued by testing different parameters (e.g., STA/LTA, filters applied to the waveforms) on a data set of representative earthquakes of the local seismicity. The results are compared with the locations from the Romanian Catalogue ROMPLUS.

  7. Post-processing method to reduce noise while preserving high time resolution in aethalometer real-time black carbon data

    EPA Science Inventory

    Real-time aerosol black carbon (BC) data, presented at time resolutions on the order of seconds to minutes, is desirable in field and source characterization studies measuring rapidly varying concentrations of BC. The Optimized Noise-reduction Averaging (ONA) algorithm has been d...

  8. Design of embedded real-time cross-coupling compensation controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jinyong; Jiang, Tongmin; Li, Chuanri

    2006-11-01

    The cross-coupling compensation controller is a device for multi-shaker vibration testing to avoid deviations from the test specification caused by the inter-actuator forces. The applied theory and the developed closed-loop control algorithm are first introduced. An embedded real-time controller with PCI interface is designed to implement the algorithm. A bussimulating based system architecture design method is proposed for simplifying the logic design. To satisfy the special requirements of the forward channels, a multiple mode data acquisition subsystem is also designed. The system uses the embedded real-time kernel uC/OS-II as the algorithm development platform. The whole vibration control process is divided into several tasks, of which the communicating mechanism is given, according to their importance. The results of simulations and experiments demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method.

  9. Development of closed loop roll control for magnetic balance systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Covert, E. E.; Haldeman, C. W.; Ramohalli, G.; Way, P.

    1982-01-01

    This research was undertaken with the goal of demonstrating closed loop control of the roll degree of freedom on the NASA prototype magnetic suspension and balance system at the MIT Aerophysics Laboratory, thus, showing feasibility for a roll control system for any large magnetic balance system which might be built in the future. During the research under this grant, study was directed toward the several areas of torque generation, position sensing, model construction and control system design. These effects were then integrated to produce successful closed loop operation of the analogue roll control system. This experience indicated the desirability of microprocessor control for the angular degrees of freedom.

  10. Direct-contact closed-loop heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Berry, G.F.; Minkov, V.; Petrick, M.

    1981-11-02

    A high temperature heat exchanger is disclosed which has a closed loop and a heat transfer liquid within the loop, the closed loop having a first horizontal channel with inlet and outlet means for providing direct contact of a first fluid at a first temperature with the heat transfer liquid, a second horizontal channel with inlet and outlet means for providing direct contact of a second fluid at a second temperature with the heat transfer liquid, and means for circulating the heat transfer liquid.

  11. Closed-Loop Control of Epilepsy by Transcranial Electrical Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Berényi, Antal; Belluscio, Mariano; Mao, Dun; Buzsáki, György

    2016-01-01

    Many neurological and psychiatric diseases are associated with clinically detectable, altered brain dynamics. The aberrant brain activity, in principle, can be restored through electrical stimulation. In epilepsies, abnormal patterns emerge intermittently, and therefore, a closed-loop feedback brain control that leaves other aspects of brain functions unaffected is desirable. Here, we demonstrate that seizure-triggered, feedback transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) can dramatically reduce spike-and-wave episodes in a rodent model of generalized epilepsy. Closed-loop TES can be an effective clinical tool to reduce pathological brain patterns in drug-resistant patients. PMID:22879515

  12. Label-Free and Real-Time Detection of Antigen-Antibody Capture Processes Using the Oblique-Incidence Reflectivity Difference Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Li-Ping; Dai, Jun; Sun, Yue; Wang, Jing-Yi; Lü, Hui-Bin; Wang, Shu-Fang; Jin, Kui-Juan; Zhou, Yue-Liang; Yang, Guo-Zhen

    2012-07-01

    We successfully label-free and real-time detect the capture processes of human immunoglobulin G (IgG)/goat anti-human IgG and mouse IgG/goat anti-mouse IgG antigen-antibody pairs with different concentrations using the oblique-incidence reflectivity difference (OIRD) method, and obtain the interaction kinetics curves and the interaction times. The experimental results prove that the OIRD method is a promising technique for label-free and real-time detection of the biomolecular interaction processes and achieving the quantitative information of interaction kinetics.

  13. A real-time simulator of a turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Delaat, John C.; Merrill, Walter C.

    1989-01-01

    A real-time digital simulator of a Pratt and Whitney F100 engine has been developed for real-time code verification and for actuator diagnosis during full-scale engine testing. This self-contained unit can operate in an open-loop stand-alone mode or as part of closed-loop control system. It can also be used for control system design and development. Tests conducted in conjunction with the NASA Advanced Detection, Isolation, and Accommodation program show that the simulator is a valuable tool for real-time code verification and as a real-time actuator simulator for actuator fault diagnosis. Although currently a small perturbation model, advances in microprocessor hardware should allow the simulator to evolve into a real-time, full-envelope, full engine simulation.

  14. Evaluating the Performance of a Novel Embedded Closed-loop System.

    PubMed

    Leelarathna, Lalantha; Thabit, Hood; Allen, Janet M; Nodale, Marianna; Wilinska, Malgorzata E; Powell, Kevin; Lane, Stephen; Evans, Mark L; Hovorka, Roman

    2014-03-24

    The objective was to assess the reliability of a novel automated closed-loop glucose control system developed within the AP@home consortium in adults with type 1 diabetes. Eight adults with type 1 diabetes on insulin pump therapy (3 men; ages 40.5 ± 14.3 years; HbA1c 8.2 ± 0.8%) participated in an open-label, single-center, single-arm, 12-hour overnight study performed at the clinical research facility. A standardized evening meal (80 g CHO) accompanied by prandial insulin boluses were given at 19:00 followed by an optional snack of 15 g at 22:00 without insulin bolus. Automated closed-loop glucose control was started at 19:00 and continued until 07:00 the next day. Basal insulin delivery (Accu-Chek Spirit, Roche) was automatically adjusted by Cambridge model predictive control algorithm, running on a purpose-built embedded device, based on real-time continuous glucose monitor readings (Dexcom G4 Platinum). Closed-loop system was operational as intended over 99% of the time. Overnight plasma glucose levels (22:00 to 07:00) were within the target range (3.9 to 8.0 mmol/l) for 75.4% (37.5, 92.9) of the time without any time spent in hypoglycemia (<3.9 mmol/l). Mean overnight glucose was 7.8 ± 1.3 mmol/l. For the entire 12-hour closed-loop period (19:00 until 07:00) plasma glucose levels were within the target range (3.9 to 10.0 mmol/l) for 84.4% (63.3, 100) of time. There were no adverse events noted during the trial. We observed a high degree of reliability of the automated closed-loop system. The time spent in target glucose level overnight was comparable to results of previously published studies. Further developments to miniaturize the system for home studies are warranted. PMID:24876577

  15. Low-temperature plasma technology as part of a closed-loop resource management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hetland, Melanie D.; Rindt, John R.; Jones, Frank A.; Sauer, Randal S.

    1990-01-01

    The results of this testing indicate that the agitated low-temperature plasma reactor system successfully converted carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen into gaseous products at residence times that were about ten times shorter than those achieved by stationary processing. The inorganic matrix present was virtually unchanged by the processing technique. It was concluded that this processing technique is feasible for use as part of a close-looped processing resource management system.

  16. Low-temperature plasma technology as part of a closed-loop resource management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetland, Melanie D.; Rindt, John R.; Jones, Frank A.; Sauer, Randal S.

    1990-04-01

    The results of this testing indicate that the agitated low-temperature plasma reactor system successfully converted carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen into gaseous products at residence times that were about ten times shorter than those achieved by stationary processing. The inorganic matrix present was virtually unchanged by the processing technique. It was concluded that this processing technique is feasible for use as part of a close-looped processing resource management system.

  17. ELECTRODIALYSIS FOR CLOSED LOOP CONTROL OF CYANIDE RINSE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Full scale demonstration of electrodialysis for closed loop treatment of brass plating cyanide rinse waters was conducted in the Keystone Lamp Manufacturing plant at Slatington, Pa. In treatment of actual rinse water, the system was only one-quarter as effective as anticipated. N...

  18. Closed Loop Test Facility for hot dirty gas valves

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-02-06

    A design study of a closed loop test facility for eight-inch hot dirty gas valves is presented. The objective of the facility is to quality valves for use in coal gasifiers, combined cycle plants, and pressurized fluid bed combustors. Outline sketches and estimated costs are presented for the selected design.

  19. Ultrasonic real-time in-die monitoring of the tablet compaction process-a proof of concept study.

    PubMed

    Stephens, James D; Kowalczyk, Brian R; Hancock, Bruno C; Kaul, Goldi; Cetinkaya, Cetin

    2013-02-14

    The mechanical properties of a drug tablet can affect its performance (e.g., dissolution profile and its physical robustness. An ultrasonic system for real-time in-die tablet mechanical property monitoring during compaction has been demonstrated. The reported set-up is a proof of concept compaction monitoring system which includes an ultrasonic transducer mounted inside the upper punch of the compaction apparatus. This upper punch is utilized to acquire ultrasonic pressure wave phase velocity waveforms and extract the time-of-flight of pressure waves travelling within the compact at a number of compaction force levels during compaction. The reflection coefficients for the waves reflecting from punch tip-powder bed interface are extracted from the acquired waveforms. The reflection coefficient decreases with an increase in compaction force, indicating solidification. The data acquisition methods give an average apparent Young's moduli in the range of 8-20 GPa extracted during the compaction and release/decompression phases in real-time. A monitoring system employing such methods is capable of determining material properties and the integrity of the tablet during compaction. As compared to the millisecond time-scale dwell time of a typical commercial compaction press, the micro-second pulse duration and ToF of an acoustic pulse are sufficiently fast for real-time monitoring. PMID:22989980

  20. Hippocampal closed-loop modeling and implications for seizure stimulation design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandler, Roman A.; Song, Dong; Hampson, Robert E.; Deadwyler, Sam A.; Berger, Theodore W.; Marmarelis, Vasilis Z.

    2015-10-01

    Objective. Traditional hippocampal modeling has focused on the series of feedforward synapses known as the trisynaptic pathway. However, feedback connections from CA1 back to the hippocampus through the entorhinal cortex (EC) actually make the hippocampus a closed-loop system. By constructing a functional closed-loop model of the hippocampus, one may learn how both physiological and epileptic oscillations emerge and design efficient neurostimulation patterns to abate such oscillations. Approach. Point process input-output models where estimated from recorded rodent hippocampal data to describe the nonlinear dynamical transformation from CA3 → CA1, via the schaffer-collateral synapse, and CA1 → CA3 via the EC. Each Volterra-like subsystem was composed of linear dynamics (principal dynamic modes) followed by static nonlinearities. The two subsystems were then wired together to produce the full closed-loop model of the hippocampus. Main results. Closed-loop connectivity was found to be necessary for the emergence of theta resonances as seen in recorded data, thus validating the model. The model was then used to identify frequency parameters for the design of neurostimulation patterns to abate seizures. Significance. Deep-brain stimulation (DBS) is a new and promising therapy for intractable seizures. Currently, there is no efficient way to determine optimal frequency parameters for DBS, or even whether periodic or broadband stimuli are optimal. Data-based computational models have the potential to be used as a testbed for designing optimal DBS patterns for individual patients. However, in order for these models to be successful they must incorporate the complex closed-loop structure of the seizure focus. This study serves as a proof-of-concept of using such models to design efficient personalized DBS patterns for epilepsy.

  1. Real time polarimetric dehazing.

    PubMed

    Mudge, Jason; Virgen, Miguel

    2013-03-20

    Remote sensing is a rich topic due to its utility in gathering detailed accurate information from locations that are not economically feasible traveling destinations or are physically inaccessible. However, poor visibility over long path lengths is problematic for a variety of reasons. Haze induced by light scatter is one cause for poor visibility and is the focus of this article. Image haze comes about as a result of light scattering off particles and into the imaging path causing a haziness to appear on the image. Image processing using polarimetric information of light scatter can be used to mitigate image haze. An imaging polarimeter which provides the Stokes values in real time combined with a "dehazing" algorithm can automate image haze removal for instant applications. Example uses are to improve visual display providing on-the-spot detection or imbedding in an active control loop to improve viewing and tracking while on a moving platform. In addition, removing haze in this manner allows the trade space for a system operational waveband to be opened up to bands which are object matched and not necessarily restricted by scatter effects. PMID:23518739

  2. Real-Time Processing of Gender-Marked Articles by Native and Non-Native Spanish-Speaking Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lew-Williams, Casey

    2009-01-01

    Six experiments explored how native and non-native Spanish speakers process article-noun sequences in real time, using eye movements as a response measure. Can listeners use gender-marked articles ("la" and "el", the feminine and masculine forms of "the") to rapidly identify familiar and novel nouns? In Experiment 1, adults who learned Spanish as…

  3. Barrow real-time sea ice mass balance data: ingestion, processing, dissemination and archival of multi-sensor data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimes, J.; Mahoney, A. R.; Heinrichs, T. A.; Eicken, H.

    2012-12-01

    Sensor data can be highly variable in nature and also varied depending on the physical quantity being observed, sensor hardware and sampling parameters. The sea ice mass balance site (MBS) operated in Barrow by the University of Alaska Fairbanks (http://seaice.alaska.edu/gi/observatories/barrow_sealevel) is a multisensor platform consisting of a thermistor string, air and water temperature sensors, acoustic altimeters above and below the ice and a humidity sensor. Each sensor has a unique specification and configuration. The data from multiple sensors are combined to generate sea ice data products. For example, ice thickness is calculated from the positions of the upper and lower ice surfaces, which are determined using data from downward-looking and upward-looking acoustic altimeters above and below the ice, respectively. As a data clearinghouse, the Geographic Information Network of Alaska (GINA) processes real time data from many sources, including the Barrow MBS. Doing so requires a system that is easy to use, yet also offers the flexibility to handle data from multisensor observing platforms. In the case of the Barrow MBS, the metadata system needs to accommodate the addition of new and retirement of old sensors from year to year as well as instrument configuration changes caused by, for example, spring melt or inquisitive polar bears. We also require ease of use for both administrators and end users. Here we present the data and processing steps of using sensor data system powered by the NoSQL storage engine, MongoDB. The system has been developed to ingest, process, disseminate and archive data from the Barrow MBS. Storing sensor data in a generalized format, from many different sources, is a challenging task, especially for traditional SQL databases with a set schema. MongoDB is a NoSQL (not only SQL) database that does not require a fixed schema. There are several advantages using this model over the traditional relational database management system (RDBMS

  4. Real-time data processing for in-line monitoring of a pharmaceutical coating process by optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markl, Daniel; Ziegler, Jakob; Hannesschläger, Günther; Sacher, Stephan; Buchsbaum, Andreas; Leitner, Michael; Khinast, Johannes G.

    2014-05-01

    Coating of tablets is a widely applied unit operation in the pharmaceutical industry. Thickness and uniformity of the coating layer are crucial for efficacy as well as for compliance. Not only due to different initiatives it is thus essential to monitor and control the coating process in-line. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was already shown in previous works to be a suitable candidate for in-line monitoring of coating processes. However, to utilize the full potential of the OCT technology an automatic evaluation of the OCT measurements is essential. The automatic evaluation is currently implemented in MATLAB and includes several steps: (1) extraction of features of each A-scan, (2) classification of Ascan measurements based on their features, (3) detection of interfaces (air/coating and coating/tablet core), (4) correction of distortions due to the curvature of the bi-convex tablets and the oblique orientation of the tablets, and (5) determining the coating thickness. The algorithm is tested on OCT data acquired by moving the sensor head of the OCT system across a static tablet bed. The coating thickness variations of single tablets (i.e., intra-tablet coating variability) can additionally be analyzed as OCT allows the measurement of the coating thickness on multiple displaced positions on one single tablet. Specifically, the information about those parameters emphasizes the high capability of the OCT technology to improve process understanding and to assure a high product quality.

  5. A closed-loop system for frequency tracking of piezoresistive cantilever sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasisto, Hutomo Suryo; Zhang, Qing; Merzsch, Stephan; Waag, Andreas; Peiner, Erwin

    2013-05-01

    A closed loop circuit capable of tracking resonant frequencies for MEMS-based piezoresistive cantilever resonators is developed in this work. The proposed closed-loop system is mainly based on a phase locked loop (PLL) circuit. In order to lock onto the resonant frequency of the resonator, an actuation signal generated from a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) is locked to the phase of the input reference signal of the cantilever sensor. In addition to the PLL component, an instrumentation amplifier and an active low pass filter (LPF) are connected to the system for gaining the amplitude and reducing the noise of the cantilever output signals. The LPF can transform a rectangular signal into a sinusoidal signal with voltage amplitudes ranging from 5 to 10 V which are sufficient for a piezoactuator input (i.e., maintaining a large output signal of the cantilever sensor). To demonstrate the functionality of the system, a self-sensing silicon cantilever resonator with a built-in piezoresistive Wheatstone bridge is fabricated and integrated with the circuit. A piezoactuator is utilized for actuating the cantilever into resonance. Implementation of this closed loop system is used to track the resonant frequency of a silicon cantilever-based sensor resonating at 9.4 kHz under a cross-sensitivity test of ambient temperature. The changes of the resonant frequency are interpreted using a frequency counter connected to the system. From the experimental results, the temperature sensitivity and coefficient of the employed sensor are 0.3 Hz/°C and 32.8 ppm/°C, respectively. The frequency stability of the system can reach up to 0.08 Hz. The development of this system will enable real-time nanoparticle monitoring systems and provide a miniaturization of the instrumentation modules for cantilever-based nanoparticle detectors.

  6. Clinical requirements for closed-loop control systems.

    PubMed

    Clarke, William L; Renard, Eric

    2012-03-01

    Closed-loop (CL) therapy systems should be safe, efficacious, and easily manageable for type 1 diabetes mellitus patient use. For the first two clinical requirements, noninferiority and superiority criteria must be determined based on current conventional and intensive therapy outcomes. Current frequencies of hypoglycemia and diabetic ketoacidosis are reviewed and safety expectations for CL therapy systems are proposed. Glycosylated hemoglobin levels lower than current American Diabetes Association recommendations for different age groups are proposed as superiority criteria. Measures of glycemic variability are described and the recording of blood glucose levels as percentages within, above, and below a target range are suggested as reasonable alternatives to sophisticated statistical analyses. It is also suggested that Diabetes Quality of Life and Fear of Hypoglycemia surveys should be used to track psychobehavioral outcomes. Manageability requirements for safe and effective clinical management of CL systems are worth being underscored. The weakest part of the infusion system remains the catheter, which is exposed to variable and under-delivery incidents. Detection methods are needed to warn both the system and the patient about altered insulin delivery, including internal pressure and flow alarms. Glucose monitor sensor accuracy is another requirement; it includes the definition of conditions that lead to capillary glucose measurement, eventually followed by sensor recalibration or replacement. The crucial clinical requirement will be a thorough definition of the situations when the patient needs to move from CL to manual management of insulin delivery, or inversely can switch back to CL after a requested interruption. Instructions about these actions will constitute a major part of the education process of the patients before using CL systems and contribute to the manageability of these systems. PMID:22538159

  7. Closed loop high precision position control system with optical scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Cheng-liang; Liao, Yuan; He, Zhong-wu; Luo, Zhong-xiang; Huang, Zhi-wei; Wan, Min; Hu, Xiao-yang; Fan, Guo-bin; Liang, Zheng

    2008-03-01

    With the developments of science of art, there are more and more demands on the high resolution control of position of object to be controlled, such as lathe, product line, elements in the optical resonant cavity, telescope, and so on. As one device with high resolution, the optical scale has more and more utility within the industrial and civil applications. With one optical scale and small DC servo motor, one closed loop high resolution position control system is constructed. This apparatus is used to control the position of the elements of optical system. The optical scale is attached on the object or reference guide way. The object position is sampled by a readhead of non-contact optical encoder. Control system processes the position information and control the position of object through the motion control of servo DC motor. The DC motor is controlled by one controller which is connected to an industrial computer. And the micro frictionless slide table does support the smooth motion of object to be controlled. The control algorithm of system is PID (Proportional-Integral-Differential) methods. The PID control methods have well ROBUST. The needed data to control are position, velocity and acceleration of the object. These three parameters correspond to the PID characters respectively. After the accomplishments of hardware, GUI (Graphical user interface), that is, the software of control system is also programmed. The whole system is assembled by specialized worker. Through calibration experiments, the coefficients of PID are obtained respectively. And then the precision of position control of the system is about 0.1μm.

  8. Real-time radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Bossi, R.H.; Oien, C.T.

    1981-02-26

    Real-time radiography is used for imaging both dynamic events and static objects. Fluorescent screens play an important role in converting radiation to light, which is then observed directly or intensified and detected. The radiographic parameters for real-time radiography are similar to conventional film radiography with special emphasis on statistics and magnification. Direct-viewing fluoroscopy uses the human eye as a detector of fluorescent screen light or the light from an intensifier. Remote-viewing systems replace the human observer with a television camera. The remote-viewing systems have many advantages over the direct-viewing conditions such as safety, image enhancement, and the capability to produce permanent records. This report reviews real-time imaging system parameters and components.

  9. Closed Loop Interactions between Spiking Neural Network and Robotic Simulators Based on MUSIC and ROS

    PubMed Central

    Weidel, Philipp; Djurfeldt, Mikael; Duarte, Renato C.; Morrison, Abigail

    2016-01-01

    In order to properly assess the function and computational properties of simulated neural systems, it is necessary to account for the nature of the stimuli that drive the system. However, providing stimuli that are rich and yet both reproducible and amenable to experimental manipulations is technically challenging, and even more so if a closed-loop scenario is required. In this work, we present a novel approach to solve this problem, connecting robotics and neural network simulators. We implement a middleware solution that bridges the Robotic Operating System (ROS) to the Multi-Simulator Coordinator (MUSIC). This enables any robotic and neural simulators that implement the corresponding interfaces to be efficiently coupled, allowing real-time performance for a wide range of configurations. This work extends the toolset available for researchers in both neurorobotics and computational neuroscience, and creates the opportunity to perform closed-loop experiments of arbitrary complexity to address questions in multiple areas, including embodiment, agency, and reinforcement learning. PMID:27536234

  10. Closed Loop Interactions between Spiking Neural Network and Robotic Simulators Based on MUSIC and ROS.

    PubMed

    Weidel, Philipp; Djurfeldt, Mikael; Duarte, Renato C; Morrison, Abigail

    2016-01-01

    In order to properly assess the function and computational properties of simulated neural systems, it is necessary to account for the nature of the stimuli that drive the system. However, providing stimuli that are rich and yet both reproducible and amenable to experimental manipulations is technically challenging, and even more so if a closed-loop scenario is required. In this work, we present a novel approach to solve this problem, connecting robotics and neural network simulators. We implement a middleware solution that bridges the Robotic Operating System (ROS) to the Multi-Simulator Coordinator (MUSIC). This enables any robotic and neural simulators that implement the corresponding interfaces to be efficiently coupled, allowing real-time performance for a wide range of configurations. This work extends the toolset available for researchers in both neurorobotics and computational neuroscience, and creates the opportunity to perform closed-loop experiments of arbitrary complexity to address questions in multiple areas, including embodiment, agency, and reinforcement learning. PMID:27536234

  11. Distributed flow sensing for closed-loop speed control of a flexible fish robot.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feitian; Lagor, Francis D; Yeo, Derrick; Washington, Patrick; Paley, Derek A

    2015-12-01

    Flexibility plays an important role in fish behavior by enabling high maneuverability for predator avoidance and swimming in turbulent flow. This paper presents a novel flexible fish robot equipped with distributed pressure sensors for flow sensing. The body of the robot is molded from soft, hyperelastic material, which provides flexibility. Its Joukowski-foil shape is conducive to modeling the fluid analytically. A quasi-steady potential-flow model is adopted for real-time flow estimation, whereas a discrete-time vortex-shedding flow model is used for higher-fidelity simulation. The dynamics for the flexible fish robot yield a reduced model for one-dimensional swimming. A recursive Bayesian filter assimilates pressure measurements to estimate flow speed, angle of attack, and foil camber. The closed-loop speed-control strategy combines an inverse-mapping feedforward controller based on an average model derived for periodic actuation of angle-of-attack and a proportional-integral feedback controller utilizing the estimated flow information. Simulation and experimental results are presented to show the effectiveness of the estimation and control strategy. The paper provides a systematic approach to distributed flow sensing for closed-loop speed control of a flexible fish robot by regulating the flapping amplitude. PMID:26495855

  12. Using closed-loop dynamic optimization to improve boiler efficiency at Chemopetrol's Litvinov Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Jarc, C.A.; Lang, R.

    1998-07-01

    Due to ever increasing demands by shareholders, environmental and governmental agencies, and customers, power generation and co-generating companies are looking more and more into advanced technologies to help them gain an edge on their competitors. Intelligent empirical optimization is a promising family of technologies to tune boilers for maximum efficiency and/or minimum emissions. A recent project teamed the Ultramax Corporation and Honeywell to install an on-line, closed-loop optimization solution on four new boilers at the Chemopetrol plant in Litvinov, Czech Republic, Honeywell has created an engineered solution called Individual Boiler Optimization (IBO) which utilizes the Ultramax Method and Dynamic Optimization, known as ULTRAMAX{reg{underscore}sign}, to optimize combustion of the boilers which are controlled by Honeywell's TotalPlant{reg{underscore}sign} solutions (TPS) System. IBO provides a real-time shell providing for automatic Ultramax operation in either open or closed-loop. With this system, Chemopetrol will be able to improve their boiler efficiency and NO{sub x} emissions on-line with little operator intervention. It can safely maintain best operating settings and compensate for changes that could potentially cause poor performance. The integrated dynamic solution enables greater emissions control fuel savings, and the ability to respond rapidly and flexibly to changes in operating conditions, compliance regulations and plant demands.

  13. A system for neural recording and closed-loop intracortical microstimulation in awake rodents.

    PubMed

    Venkatraman, Subramaniam; Elkabany, Ken; Long, John D; Yao, Yimin; Carmena, Jose M

    2009-01-01

    There is growing interest in intracortical microstimulation as a means of providing sensory input in neuroprosthetic systems. We believe that precisely controlling the timing and parameters of stimulation in closed loop can significantly improve the efficacy of this technique. Here, we present a system for closed-loop microstimulation in awake rodents chronically implanted with multielectrode arrays. The system interfaces with existing commercial recording and stimulating hardware. Using custom-made hardware, we can stimulate and record from electrodes on the same implanted array and significantly reduce the stimulation artifact. Stimulation sequences can either be preprogrammed or triggered by neural or behavioral events. Specifically, this system can provide feedback stimulation in response to action potentials or features in the local field potential recorded on any of the electrodes within 15 ms. It can also trigger stimulation based on behavioral events, such as real-time tracking of rat whiskers captured with high-speed video. We believe that this system, which can be recreated easily, will help to significantly refine the technique of intracortical microstimulation and advance the field of neuroprostheses. PMID:19224714

  14. Closed-loop control of spinal cord stimulation to restore hand function after paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Jonas B.; Jackson, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    As yet, no cure exists for upper-limb paralysis resulting from the damage to motor pathways after spinal cord injury or stroke. Recently, neural activity from the motor cortex of paralyzed individuals has been used to control the movements of a robot arm but restoring function to patients' actual limbs remains a considerable challenge. Previously we have shown that electrical stimulation of the cervical spinal cord in anesthetized monkeys can elicit functional upper-limb movements like reaching and grasping. Here we show that stimulation can be controlled using cortical activity in awake animals to bypass disruption of the corticospinal system, restoring their ability to perform a simple upper-limb task. Monkeys were trained to grasp and pull a spring-loaded handle. After temporary paralysis of the hand was induced by reversible inactivation of primary motor cortex using muscimol, grasp-related single-unit activity from the ventral premotor cortex was converted into stimulation patterns delivered in real-time to the cervical spinal gray matter. During periods of closed-loop stimulation, task-modulated electromyogram, movement amplitude, and task success rate were improved relative to interleaved control periods without stimulation. In some sessions, single motor unit activity from weakly active muscles was also used successfully to control stimulation. These results are the first use of a neural prosthesis to improve the hand function of primates after motor cortex disruption, and demonstrate the potential for closed-loop cortical control of spinal cord stimulation to reanimate paralyzed limbs. PMID:24904251

  15. The hardware implementation for real-time network video processing and transportation based on FPGA and DSP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xuan; Xu, Huosheng; Chen, Xi; Fan, Yu

    2009-10-01

    This paper research on a high definition Ship-borne radar and video monitoring system which requires multi-channel TV video and radar video encoding and decoding ability. The real time data transferring is based on RTP/RTCP protocol with guarantee of QoS. In this paper, we propose an effective Feedback control for real time video stream to combine with forward error correction (FEC). In our scheme, the server multicasts the video in parallel with FEC packets and adaptive RTCP feedback control of the video stream. On the server side, we analyze and optimize the number of streams and FEC packets to meet a certain residual loss requirement. For every RTT round trip time, the sender sends a forward RTCP control packet. On the receiver side, we analyze the optimal combination of FEC and packets to minimize its loss. Upon the receipt of a backward RTCP packet with the packet loss ratio from the receiver, the output rate of the source is adjusted. Additive increase and multiplicative decrease (AIMD) model can achieve efficient congestion preventing when the accurate available bandwidth is estimated by the backward RTCP packet.

  16. Real-time 4D signal processing and visualization using graphics processing unit on a regular nonlinear-k Fourier-domain OCT system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kang; Kang, Jin U

    2010-05-24

    We realized graphics processing unit (GPU) based real-time 4D (3D+time) signal processing and visualization on a regular Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) system with a nonlinear k-space spectrometer. An ultra-high speed linear spline interpolation (LSI) method for lambda-to-k spectral re-sampling is implemented in the GPU architecture, which gives average interpolation speeds of >3,000,000 line/s for 1024-pixel OCT (1024-OCT) and >1,400,000 line/s for 2048-pixel OCT (2048-OCT). The complete FD-OCT signal processing including lambda-to-k spectral re-sampling, fast Fourier transform (FFT) and post-FFT processing have all been implemented on a GPU. The maximum complete A-scan processing speeds are investigated to be 680,000 line/s for 1024-OCT and 320,000 line/s for 2048-OCT, which correspond to 1GByte processing bandwidth. In our experiment, a 2048-pixel CMOS camera running up to 70 kHz is used as an acquisition device. Therefore the actual imaging speed is camera- limited to 128,000 line/s for 1024-OCT or 70,000 line/s for 2048-OCT. 3D Data sets are continuously acquired in real time at 1024-OCT mode, immediately processed and visualized as high as 10 volumes/second (12,500 A-scans/volume) by either en face slice extraction or ray-casting based volume rendering from 3D texture mapped in graphics memory. For standard FD-OCT systems, a GPU is the only additional hardware needed to realize this improvement and no optical modification is needed. This technique is highly cost-effective and can be easily integrated into most ultrahigh speed FD-OCT systems to overcome the 3D data processing and visualization bottlenecks. PMID:20589038

  17. Real-time GPU-accelerated processing and volumetric display for wide-field laser-scanning optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kang, Heesung; Lee, Sang-Won; Lee, Eun-Soo; Kim, Se-Hwa; Lee, Tae Geol

    2015-12-01

    Fast signal processing and real-time displays are essential for practical imaging modality in various fields of applications. However, the imaging speed in optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM), in particular, depends on factors such as the pulse repetition rate of the laser, scanning method, field of view (FOV), and signal processing time. In the past, efforts to increase acquisition speed either focused on developing new scanning methods or using lasers with higher pulse repetition rates. However, high-speed signal processing is also important for real-time volumetric display in OR-PAM. In this study, we carried out parallel signal processing using a graphics processing unit (GPU) to enable fast signal processing and wide-field real-time displays in laser-scanning OR-PAM. The average total GPU processing time for a B-mode PAM image was approximately 1.35 ms at a display speed of 480 fps when the data samples were acquired with 736 (axial) × 500 (lateral) points/B-mode-frame at a pulse repetition rate of 300 kHz. In addition, we successfully displayed maximum amplitude projection images of a mouse's ear as volumetric images with an FOV of 3 mm × 3 mm (500 × 500 pixels) at 1.02 s, corresponding to 0.98 fps. PMID:26713184

  18. Real-time GPU-accelerated processing and volumetric display for wide-field laser-scanning optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Heesung; Lee, Sang-Won; Lee, Eun-Soo; Kim, Se-Hwa; Lee, Tae Geol

    2015-01-01

    Fast signal processing and real-time displays are essential for practical imaging modality in various fields of applications. However, the imaging speed in optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM), in particular, depends on factors such as the pulse repetition rate of the laser, scanning method, field of view (FOV), and signal processing time. In the past, efforts to increase acquisition speed either focused on developing new scanning methods or using lasers with higher pulse repetition rates. However, high-speed signal processing is also important for real-time volumetric display in OR-PAM. In this study, we carried out parallel signal processing using a graphics processing unit (GPU) to enable fast signal processing and wide-field real-time displays in laser-scanning OR-PAM. The average total GPU processing time for a B-mode PAM image was approximately 1.35 ms at a display speed of 480 fps when the data samples were acquired with 736 (axial) × 500 (lateral) points/B-mode-frame at a pulse repetition rate of 300 kHz. In addition, we successfully displayed maximum amplitude projection images of a mouse’s ear as volumetric images with an FOV of 3 mm × 3 mm (500 × 500 pixels) at 1.02 s, corresponding to 0.98 fps. PMID:26713184

  19. Closed-loop and activity-guided optogenetic control.

    PubMed

    Grosenick, Logan; Marshel, James H; Deisseroth, Karl

    2015-04-01

    Advances in optical manipulation and observation of neural activity have set the stage for widespread implementation of closed-loop and activity-guided optical control of neural circuit dynamics. Closing the loop optogenetically (i.e., basing optogenetic stimulation on simultaneously observed dynamics in a principled way) is a powerful strategy for causal investigation of neural circuitry. In particular, observing and feeding back the effects of circuit interventions on physiologically relevant timescales is valuable for directly testing whether inferred models of dynamics, connectivity, and causation are accurate in vivo. Here we highlight technical and theoretical foundations as well as recent advances and opportunities in this area, and we review in detail the known caveats and limitations of optogenetic experimentation in the context of addressing these challenges with closed-loop optogenetic control in behaving animals. PMID:25856490

  20. Closed-loop insulin delivery: towards improved diabetes care.

    PubMed

    Kumareswaran, Kavita; Evans, Mark L; Hovorka, Roman

    2012-02-01

    The prevalence of type 1 diabetes is escalating worldwide. Novel therapies and management strategies are needed to reduce associated morbidity. Aggressive blood glucose lowering using conventional insulin replacement regimens is limited by the risk of hypoglycemia. Even the most motivated patients may struggle to manage day-to-day variability in insulin requirements. The artificial pancreas or closed-loop insulin delivery may improve outcomes, building on recent technological progress and combining continuous glucose monitoring with insulin pump therapy. So far, closed-loop prototypes have been evaluated under controlled conditions suggesting improved glucose control and a reduced risk of hypoglycemia. Limitations include suboptimal accuracy and reliability of continuous glucose monitors and delays associated with subcutaneous insulin delivery. Outpatient evaluation is required as the next step, leading to deployment into clinical practice. PMID:22369975

  1. Study of the Open Loop and Closed Loop Oscillator Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Imel, George R.; Baker, Benjamin; Riley, Tony; Langbehn, Adam; Aryal, Harishchandra; Benzerga, M. Lamine

    2015-04-11

    This report presents the progress and completion of a five-year study undertaken at Idaho State University of the measurement of very small worth reactivity samples comparing open and closed loop oscillator techniques.The study conclusively demonstrated the equivalency of the two techniques with regard to uncertainties in reactivity values, i.e., limited by reactor noise. As those results are thoroughly documented in recent publications, in this report we will concentrate on the support work that was necessary. For example, we describe in some detail the construction and calibration of a pilot rod for the closed loop system. We discuss the campaign to measure the required reactor parameters necessary for inverse-kinetics. Finally, we briefly discuss the transfer of the open loop technique to other reactor systems.

  2. Closed-Loop and Activity-Guided Optogenetic Control

    PubMed Central

    Grosenick, Logan; Marshel, James H.; Deisseroth, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Advances in optical manipulation and observation of neural activity have set the stage for widespread implementation of closed-loop and activity-guided optical control of neural circuit dynamics. Closing the loop optogenetically (i.e., basing optogenetic stimulation on simultaneously observed dynamics in a principled way) is a powerful strategy for causal investigation of neural circuitry. In particular, observing and feeding back the effects of circuit interventions on physiologically relevant timescales is valuable for directly testing whether inferred models of dynamics, connectivity, and causation are accurate in vivo. Here we highlight technical and theoretical foundations as well as recent advances and opportunities in this area, and we review in detail the known caveats and limitations of optogenetic experimentation in the context of addressing these challenges with closed-loop optogenetic control in behaving animals. PMID:25856490

  3. Fly-by-light aircraft closed loop test program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halski, Don J.; Kessler, Bradley L.; Mattes, Robert E.; Wanamaker, Michael F.; Baumbick, Robert J.

    1995-05-01

    The Fly-by-Light Aircraft Closed-Loop Test (FACT) program is a flight test program sponsored by NASA-Lewis Research Center. The objectives of the FACT program are to demonstrate optical closed-loop control of flight critical and non-flight critical control surfaces and to demonstrate installation and maintenance aspects of fiber optics for application to commercial aircraft. This paper summarizes the FACT program optical maintenance, test architecture, and hardware developments to be flight tested on the NASA-Dryden F/A-18 Systems Research Aircraft (SRA). The modifications include replacing Fly-By-Wire (FBW) main ram feedback LVDT's with optic position sensors and an electro-optic decoder, and using electrical to optic converters and reverse for commands. The performance and handling qualities will be validated by laboratory, ground, and flight tests. The goal is to demonstrate system performance equivalent to the production system.

  4. Feasibility of Outpatient Fully Integrated Closed-Loop Control

    PubMed Central

    Kovatchev, Boris P.; Renard, Eric; Cobelli, Claudio; Zisser, Howard C.; Keith-Hynes, Patrick; Anderson, Stacey M.; Brown, Sue A.; Chernavvsky, Daniel R.; Breton, Marc D.; Farret, Anne; Pelletier, Marie-Josée; Place, Jérôme; Bruttomesso, Daniela; Del Favero, Simone; Visentin, Roberto; Filippi, Alessio; Scotton, Rachele; Avogaro, Angelo; Doyle, Francis J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the feasibility of a wearable artificial pancreas system, the Diabetes Assistant (DiAs), which uses a smart phone as a closed-loop control platform. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Twenty patients with type 1 diabetes were enrolled at the Universities of Padova, Montpellier, and Virginia and at Sansum Diabetes Research Institute. Each trial continued for 42 h. The United States studies were conducted entirely in outpatient setting (e.g., hotel or guest house); studies in Italy and France were hybrid hospital–hotel admissions. A continuous glucose monitoring/pump system (Dexcom Seven Plus/Omnipod) was placed on the subject and was connected to DiAs. The patient operated the system via the DiAs user interface in open-loop mode (first 14 h of study), switching to closed-loop for the remaining 28 h. Study personnel monitored remotely via 3G or WiFi connection to DiAs and were available on site for assistance. RESULTS The total duration of proper system communication functioning was 807.5 h (274 h in open-loop and 533.5 h in closed-loop), which represented 97.7% of the total possible time from admission to discharge. This exceeded the predetermined primary end point of 80% system functionality. CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrated that a contemporary smart phone is capable of running outpatient closed-loop control and introduced a prototype system (DiAs) for further investigation. Following this proof of concept, future steps should include equipping insulin pumps and sensors with wireless capabilities, as well as studies focusing on control efficacy and patient-oriented clinical outcomes. PMID:23801798

  5. Closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    North, William Edward

    2000-01-01

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for providing a closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine. The method and apparatus provide for bleeding pressurized air from a gas turbine engine compressor for use in cooling the turbine components. The compressed air is cascaded through the various stages of the turbine. At each stage a portion of the compressed air is returned to the compressor where useful work is recovered.

  6. New field programmable gate array-based image-oriented acquisition and real-time processing applied to plasma facing component thermal monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, V.; Dunand, G.; Moncada, V.; Jouve, M.; Travere, J.-M.

    2010-10-15

    During operation of present fusion devices, the plasma facing components (PFCs) are exposed to high heat fluxes. Understanding and preventing overheating of these components during long pulse discharges is a crucial safety issue for future devices like ITER. Infrared digital cameras interfaced with complex optical systems have become a routine diagnostic to measure surface temperatures in many magnetic fusion devices. Due to the complexity of the observed scenes and the large amount of data produced, the use of high computational performance hardware for real-time image processing is then mandatory to avoid PFC damages. At Tore Supra, we have recently made a major upgrade of our real-time infrared image acquisition and processing board by the use of a new field programmable gate array (FPGA) optimized for image processing. This paper describes the new possibilities offered by this board in terms of image calibration and image interpretation (abnormal thermal events detection) compared to the previous system.

  7. The XH-map algorithm: A method to process stereo video to produce a real-time obstacle map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosselot, Donald; Hall, Ernest L.

    2005-10-01

    This paper presents a novel, simple and fast algorithm to produce a "floor plan" obstacle map in real time using video. The XH-map algorithm is a transformation of stereo vision data in disparity map space into a two dimensional obstacle map space using a method that can be likened to a histogram reduction of image information. The classic floor-ground background noise problem is addressed with a simple one-time semi-automatic calibration method incorporated into the algorithm. This implementation of this algorithm utilizes the Intel Performance Primitives library and OpenCV libraries for extremely fast and efficient execution, creating a scaled obstacle map from a 480x640x256 stereo pair in 1.4 milliseconds. This algorithm has many applications in robotics and computer vision including enabling an "Intelligent Robot" robot to "see" for path planning and obstacle avoidance.

  8. Potential for real-time understanding of coupled hydrologic and biogeochemical processes in stream ecosystems: Future integration of telemetered data with process models for glacial meltwater streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKnight, Diane M.; Cozzetto, Karen; Cullis, James D. S.; Gooseff, Michael N.; Jaros, Christopher; Koch, Joshua C.; Lyons, W. Berry; Neupauer, Roseanna; Wlostowski, Adam

    2015-08-01

    While continuous monitoring of streamflow and temperature has been common for some time, there is great potential to expand continuous monitoring to include water quality parameters such as nutrients, turbidity, oxygen, and dissolved organic material. In many systems, distinguishing between watershed and stream ecosystem controls can be challenging. The usefulness of such monitoring can be enhanced by the application of quantitative models to interpret observed patterns in real time. Examples are discussed primarily from the glacial meltwater streams of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. Although the Dry Valley landscape is barren of plants, many streams harbor thriving cyanobacterial mats. Whereas a daily cycle of streamflow is controlled by the surface energy balance on the glaciers and the temporal pattern of solar exposure, the daily signal for biogeochemical processes controlling water quality is generated along the stream. These features result in an excellent outdoor laboratory for investigating fundamental ecosystem process and the development and validation of process-based models. As part of the McMurdo Dry Valleys Long-Term Ecological Research project, we have conducted field experiments and developed coupled biogeochemical transport models for the role of hyporheic exchange in controlling weathering reactions, microbial nitrogen cycling, and stream temperature regulation. We have adapted modeling approaches from sediment transport to understand mobilization of stream biomass with increasing flows. These models help to elucidate the role of in-stream processes in systems where watershed processes also contribute to observed patterns, and may serve as a test case for applying real-time stream ecosystem models.

  9. An IP-Based Software System for Real-time, Closed Loop, Multi-Spacecraft Mission Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cary, Everett; Davis, George; Higinbotham, John; Burns, Richard; Hogie, Keith; Hallahan, Francis

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on the architecture of a computerized testbest for simulating Distributed Space Systems (DSS) for controlling spacecraft flying in formation. The presentation also discusses and diagrams the Distributed Synthesis Environment (DSE) for simulating and planning DSS missions.

  10. Near-real-time measurement of trace volatile organic compounds from combustion processes using an on-line gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, J.V.; Lemieux, P.M.; Preston, W.T.

    1998-12-31

    The US EPA`s current regulatory approach for combustion and incineration sources considers the use of real-time continuous emission monitors (CEMs) for particulate, metals, and organic compounds to monitor source emissions. Currently, the CEM technologies to support this approach have not been thoroughly developed and/or demonstrated. The EPA`s air Pollution Prevention and Control Division has developed a near-real-time volatile organic compound (VOC) CEM, using an on-line gas chromatograph (OLGC), capable of measuring over 20 VOCs at concentrations typically present in well-operated combustion systems. The OLGC system consists of a sample delivery system, a sample concentrator, and a GC equipped with both flame ionization and electron capture detectors. Application of the OLGC system was initially demonstrated through participation in the 1995 US EPA/DOE CEM demonstration program. Additional work has improved system performance, including increased automation and improved calibration technique. During pilot-scale incineration testing, measurement performance was examined in detail through comparisons to various CEM performance criteria. Specifically, calibration error, calibration drift error, and system bias were examined as a function of full scale and gas concentration. Although OLGC measurement performance was not able to meet standard EPA CEM measurement performance criteria, measurement performance was encouraging. The system demonstrated the ability to perform hourly trace level VOC measurements for as many as 23 different VOCs with boiling points ranging from {minus}23.7 to 180.5 C at a known level of measurement performance. This system is a suitable alternative to VOC reference method measurements which may be performed only intermittently.

  11. A robust adaptive denoising framework for real-time artifact removal in scalp EEG measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilicarslan, Atilla; Grossman, Robert G.; Contreras-Vidal, Jose Luis

    2016-04-01

    Objective. Non-invasive measurement of human neural activity based on the scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) allows for the development of biomedical devices that interface with the nervous system for scientific, diagnostic, therapeutic, or restorative purposes. However, EEG recordings are often considered as prone to physiological and non-physiological artifacts of different types and frequency characteristics. Among them, ocular artifacts and signal drifts represent major sources of EEG contamination, particularly in real-time closed-loop brain-machine interface (BMI) applications, which require effective handling of these artifacts across sessions and in natural settings. Approach. We extend the usage of a robust adaptive noise cancelling (ANC) scheme ({H}∞ filtering) for removal of eye blinks, eye motions, amplitude drifts and recording biases simultaneously. We also characterize the volume conduction, by estimating the signal propagation levels across all EEG scalp recording areas due to ocular artifact generators. We find that the amplitude and spatial distribution of ocular artifacts vary greatly depending on the electrode location. Therefore, fixed filtering parameters for all recording areas would naturally hinder the true overall performance of an ANC scheme for artifact removal. We treat each electrode as a separate sub-system to be filtered, and without the loss of generality, they are assumed to be uncorrelated and uncoupled. Main results. Our results show over 95-99.9% correlation between the raw and processed signals at non-ocular artifact regions, and depending on the contamination profile, 40-70% correlation when ocular artifacts are dominant. We also compare our results with the offline independent component analysis and artifact subspace reconstruction methods, and show that some local quantities are handled better by our sample-adaptive real-time framework. Decoding performance is also compared with multi-day experimental data from 2 subjects

  12. Design of an Implicit GMV-PID Controller Using Closed Loop Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakitani, Shin; Hosokawa, Kei; Yamamoto, Toru

    In industrial processes, PID control has been applied to a lot of real systems. The control performance strongly depends on PID parameters. Although, some schemes for tuning PID parameters have been proposed, however, these schemes need system parameters which are estimated by system identification in order to calculate PID parameters. On the other hand, model-free controller design schemes represented by VRFT or FRIT which have received much attention in last few years. These methods can calculate control parameters using closed-loop data and are expected to reduce computational costs. In this paper, a type of implicit PID controllers using closed-loop data is proposed. According to the proposed method, PID parameters are calculated based on the implicit GMVC. Moreover, the control performance can be suitably adjusted by only user-specified parameter. The effectiveness of the proposed method is numerically and experimentally evaluated.

  13. A Novel Digital Closed Loop MEMS Accelerometer Utilizing a Charge Pump.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yixing; Dong, Jingxin; Chi, Baoyong; Liu, Yunfeng

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel digital closed loop microelectromechanical system (MEMS) accelerometer with the architecture and experimental evaluation. The complicated timing diagram or complex power supply in published articles are circumvented by using a charge pump system of adjustable output voltage fabricated in a 2P4M 0.35 µm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process, therefore making it possible for interface circuits of MEMS accelerometers to be integrated on a single die on a large scale. The output bitstream of the sigma delta modulator is boosted by the charge pump system and then applied on the feedback comb fingers to form electrostatic forces so that the MEMS accelerometer can operate in a closed loop state. Test results agree with the theoretical formula nicely. The nonlinearity of the accelerometer within ±1 g is 0.222% and the long-term stability is about 774 µg. PMID:26999157

  14. Fault Detection and Safety in Closed-Loop Artificial Pancreas Systems

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion pumps and continuous glucose monitors enable individuals with type 1 diabetes to achieve tighter blood glucose control and are critical components in a closed-loop artificial pancreas. Insulin infusion sets can fail and continuous glucose monitor sensor signals can suffer from a variety of anomalies, including signal dropout and pressure-induced sensor attenuations. In addition to hardware-based failures, software and human-induced errors can cause safety-related problems. Techniques for fault detection, safety analyses, and remote monitoring techniques that have been applied in other industries and applications, such as chemical process plants and commercial aircraft, are discussed and placed in the context of a closed-loop artificial pancreas. PMID:25049365

  15. A Novel Digital Closed Loop MEMS Accelerometer Utilizing a Charge Pump

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Yixing; Dong, Jingxin; Chi, Baoyong; Liu, Yunfeng

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel digital closed loop microelectromechanical system (MEMS) accelerometer with the architecture and experimental evaluation. The complicated timing diagram or complex power supply in published articles are circumvented by using a charge pump system of adjustable output voltage fabricated in a 2P4M 0.35 µm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process, therefore making it possible for interface circuits of MEMS accelerometers to be integrated on a single die on a large scale. The output bitstream of the sigma delta modulator is boosted by the charge pump system and then applied on the feedback comb fingers to form electrostatic forces so that the MEMS accelerometer can operate in a closed loop state. Test results agree with the theoretical formula nicely. The nonlinearity of the accelerometer within ±1 g is 0.222% and the long-term stability is about 774 µg. PMID:26999157

  16. Fault detection and safety in closed-loop artificial pancreas systems.

    PubMed

    Bequette, B Wayne

    2014-11-01

    Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion pumps and continuous glucose monitors enable individuals with type 1 diabetes to achieve tighter blood glucose control and are critical components in a closed-loop artificial pancreas. Insulin infusion sets can fail and continuous glucose monitor sensor signals can suffer from a variety of anomalies, including signal dropout and pressure-induced sensor attenuations. In addition to hardware-based failures, software and human-induced errors can cause safety-related problems. Techniques for fault detection, safety analyses, and remote monitoring techniques that have been applied in other industries and applications, such as chemical process plants and commercial aircraft, are discussed and placed in the context of a closed-loop artificial pancreas. PMID:25049365

  17. Geophysical Measurements for Real-time Monitoring of Biogeochemical Processes for Improvement of Soil Engineering Properties and Subsurface Environmental Conditions (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeJong, J. T.

    2013-12-01

    A variety of biogeochemical processes, from inorganic mineral precipitation, to bio-film formation, to bio-gas generation, are being investigated as alternative methods to improve soil engineering properties and subsurface environmental conditions. Every process applied in a geotechnical or geoenvironmental application requires the ability to monitor the progression of treatment non-destructively and in real-time. Geophysical methods have been shown effective to monitor temporally and map spatially soil improvement. Results from seismic velocity (compression and shear wave) and resistivity measurements obtained on 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D experiments at scales ranging from bench-top to field scale will be presented. Shear wave velocity will be demonstrated to be most effective in monitoring microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICP) in sands while compression wave velocity will be used to monitor desaturation through bio-gas formation. Finally, the implications of these results for real-time monitoring during field-scale applications will be discussed.

  18. Real-Time Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Coryphaeus Software, founded in 1989 by former NASA electronic engineer Steve Lakowske, creates real-time 3D software. Designer's Workbench, the company flagship product, is a modeling and simulation tool for the development of both static and dynamic 3D databases. Other products soon followed. Activation, specifically designed for game developers, allows developers to play and test the 3D games before they commit to a target platform. Game publishers can shorten development time and prove the "playability" of the title, maximizing their chances of introducing a smash hit. Another product, EasyT, lets users create massive, realistic representation of Earth terrains that can be viewed and traversed in real time. Finally, EasyScene software control the actions among interactive objects within a virtual world. Coryphaeus products are used on Silican Graphics workstation and supercomputers to simulate real-world performance in synthetic environments. Customers include aerospace, aviation, architectural and engineering firms, game developers, and the entertainment industry.

  19. Real-Time PCR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evrard, A.; Boulle, N.; Lutfalla, G. S.

    Over the past few years there has been a considerable development of DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and real-time PCR has now superseded conventional PCR techniques in many areas, e.g., the quantification of nucleic acids and genotyping. This new approach is based on the detection and quantification of a fluorescent signal proportional to the amount of amplicons generated by PCR. Real-time detection is achieved by coupling a thermocycler with a fluorimeter. This chapter discusses the general principles of quantitative real-time PCR, the different steps involved in implementing the technique, and some examples of applications in medicine. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) provides a way of obtaining a large number of copies of a double-stranded DNA fragment of known sequence. This DNA amplification technique, developed in 1985 by K. Mullis (Cetus Corporation), saw a spectacular development over the space of a few years, revolutionising the methods used up to then in molecular biology. Indeed, PCR has many applications, such as the detection of small amounts of DNA, cloning, and quantitative analysis (assaying), each of which will be discussed further below.

  20. An open-source hardware and software system for acquisition and real-time processing of electrophysiology during high field MRI.

    PubMed

    Purdon, Patrick L; Millan, Hernan; Fuller, Peter L; Bonmassar, Giorgio

    2008-11-15

    Simultaneous recording of electrophysiology and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a technique of growing importance in neuroscience. Rapidly evolving clinical and scientific requirements have created a need for hardware and software that can be customized for specific applications. Hardware may require customization to enable a variety of recording types (e.g., electroencephalogram, local field potentials, or multi-unit activity) while meeting the stringent and costly requirements of MRI safety and compatibility. Real-time signal processing tools are an enabling technology for studies of learning, attention, sleep, epilepsy, neurofeedback, and neuropharmacology, yet real-time signal processing tools are difficult to develop. We describe an open-source system for simultaneous electrophysiology and fMRI featuring low-noise (<0.6microV p-p input noise), electromagnetic compatibility for MRI (tested up to 7T), and user-programmable real-time signal processing. The hardware distribution provides the complete specifications required to build an MRI-compatible electrophysiological data acquisition system, including circuit schematics, print circuit board (PCB) layouts, Gerber files for PCB fabrication and robotic assembly, a bill of materials with part numbers, data sheets, and vendor information, and test procedures. The software facilitates rapid implementation of real-time signal processing algorithms. This system has been used in human EEG/fMRI studies at 3 and 7T examining the auditory system, visual system, sleep physiology, and anesthesia, as well as in intracranial electrophysiological studies of the non-human primate visual system during 3T fMRI, and in human hyperbaric physiology studies at depths of up to 300 feet below sea level. PMID:18761038