Science.gov

Sample records for real-time signal processing

  1. Real-time fractal signal processing in the time domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, András; Mukli, Péter; Nagy, Zoltán; Kocsis, László; Hermán, Péter; Eke, András

    2013-01-01

    Fractal analysis has proven useful for the quantitative characterization of complex time series by scale-free statistical measures in various applications. The analysis has commonly been done offline with the signal being resident in memory in full length, and the processing carried out in several distinct passes. However, in many relevant applications, such as monitoring or forecasting, algorithms are needed to capture changes in the fractal measure real-time. Here we introduce real-time variants of the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) and the closely related Signal Summation Conversion (SSC) methods, which are suitable to estimate the fractal exponent in one pass. Compared to offline algorithms, the precision is the same, the memory requirement is significantly lower, and the execution time depends on the same factors but with different rates. Our tests show that dynamic changes in the fractal parameter can be efficiently detected. We demonstrate the applicability of our real-time methods on signals of cerebral hemodynamics acquired during open-heart surgery.

  2. Hybrid integrated optic modules for real-time signal processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, C. S.

    1984-01-01

    The most recent progress on four relatively new hybrid integrated optic device modules in LiNbO3 waveguides and one in YIG/GGG waveguide that are currently being studied are discussed. The five hybrid modules include a time-integrating acoustooptic correlator, a channel waveguide acoustooptic frequency shifter/modulator, an electrooptic channel waveguide total internal reflection moculator/switch, an electrooptic analog-to-digital converter using a Fabry-Perot modulator array, and a noncollinear magnetooptic modulator using magnetostatic surface waves. All of these devices possess the desirable characteristics of very large bandwidth (GHz or higher), very small substrate size along the optical path (typically 1.5 cm or less), single-mode optical propagation, and low drive power requirement. The devices utilize either acoustooptic, electrooptic or magnetooptic effects in planar or channel waveguides and, therefore, act as efficient interface devices between a light wave and temporal signals. Major areas of application lie in wideband multichannel optical real-time signal processing and communications. Some of the specific applications include spectral analysis and correlation of radio frequency (RF) signals, fiber-optic sensing, optical computing and multiport switching/routing, and analog-to-digital conversion of wide RF signals.

  3. Real-time digital signal processing-based optical coherence tomography and Doppler optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Alexander W; Reynolds, J Joshua; Marks, Daniel L; Boppart, Stephen A

    2004-01-01

    We present the development and use of a real-time digital signal processing (DSP)-based optical coherence tomography (OCT) and Doppler OCT system. Images of microstructure and transient fluid-flow profiles are acquired using the DSP architecture for real-time processing of computationally intensive calculations. This acquisition system is readily configurable for a wide range of real-time signal processing and image processing applications in OCT. PMID:14723509

  4. Earthquake early warning system using real-time signal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, R.R. Jr.; Dowla, F.U.

    1996-02-01

    An earthquake warning system has been developed to provide a time series profile from which vital parameters such as the time until strong shaking begins, the intensity of the shaking, and the duration of the shaking, can be derived. Interaction of different types of ground motion and changes in the elastic properties of geological media throughout the propagation path result in a highly nonlinear function. We use neural networks to model these nonlinearities and develop learning techniques for the analysis of temporal precursors occurring in the emerging earthquake seismic signal. The warning system is designed to analyze the first-arrival from the three components of an earthquake signal and instantaneously provide a profile of impending ground motion, in as little as 0.3 sec after first ground motion is felt at the sensors. For each new data sample, at a rate of 25 samples per second, the complete profile of the earthquake is updated. The profile consists of a magnitude-related estimate as well as an estimate of the envelope of the complete earthquake signal. The envelope provides estimates of damage parameters, such as time until peak ground acceleration (PGA) and duration. The neural network based system is trained using seismogram data from more than 400 earthquakes recorded in southern California. The system has been implemented in hardware using silicon accelerometers and a standard microprocessor. The proposed warning units can be used for site-specific applications, distributed networks, or to enhance existing distributed networks. By producing accurate, and informative warnings, the system has the potential to significantly minimize the hazards of catastrophic ground motion. Detailed system design and performance issues, including error measurement in a simple warning scenario are discussed in detail.

  5. Hardware System for Real-Time EMG Signal Acquisition and Separation Processing during Electrical Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Ya-Hsin; Yin, Chieh; Chen, Yan-Hong

    2015-09-01

    The study aimed to develop a real-time electromyography (EMG) signal acquiring and processing device that can acquire signal during electrical stimulation. Since electrical stimulation output can affect EMG signal acquisition, to integrate the two elements into one system, EMG signal transmitting and processing method has to be modified. The whole system was designed in a user-friendly and flexible manner. For EMG signal processing, the system applied Altera Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) as the core to instantly process real-time hybrid EMG signal and output the isolated signal in a highly efficient way. The system used the power spectral density to evaluate the accuracy of signal processing, and the cross correlation showed that the delay of real-time processing was only 250 μs. PMID:26210898

  6. Just noticeable difference level estimation in real-time digital signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrowski, Zbigniew; Rudkowski, Wojciech

    2008-01-01

    Modern state-of-the art watermarking systems use precise algorithms for ensure perceptual transparency of the additional signal in the host signal presence. Various Human Auditory System (HAS) models are implemented but only few of them are computationally effective giving reliable acoustic masking effect. This paper presents efficient algorithm and its implementation for Just Noticeable Difference level estimation using HAS for data hiding application. Implementation is based on effective Johnston [1] HAS model and real-time processing using TMS 320C6713 DSK board. The results of implementation as well as subjective fidelity test using standard ITU-R BS 1116.1 are described and illustrated. Numerical results of DSP real-time implementation are compared with the Matlab off-line HAS computational model.

  7. Integrating real-time digital signal processing capability into a large research and development facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manges, W. W.; Mallinak-Glassell, J. T.; Breeding, J. E.; Jansen, J. M., Jr.; Tate, R. M.; Bentz, R. R.

    The Instrumentation and Controls Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory recently developed and installed a large scale, real-time measurement system for the world's largest pressurized water tunnel. This water tunnel, the Large Cavitation Channel (LCC) provides a research and development facility for the study of acoustic phenomena to aid in model testing of new naval ship and submarine designs. The LCC design required the development of a near-field beamformer in addition to extending the range of real-time processing capability to frequencies unavailable at other facilities. The beamformer acquires and processes time-domain acoustic data at 9.5 MB/s from up to 45 hydrophones while performing 200 million floating-point operations per second, producing a time-integrated, spatially filtered, frequency-domain data set with improved signal-to-noise ratio. The acoustic processing software provides for the real-time analysis of acoustic data. Up to 128 facility sensors are sampled, time stamped, and stored at 600 kB/s. The system generates information for acoustic phenomena and facility measurements in real-time so that the operator can make facility adjustments to control the running equipment. This real-time control of facility conditions requires that the measurement system integrate facility and acoustic data for simultaneous display to the operator in engineering units via high-end workstations. A dual-host minicomputer configuration with high-end workstations connected via an Ethernet networking cluster controls and integrates measurement and display subsystems. The hardware and software architecture is described in this paper.

  8. Hardware and software platform for real-time processing and visualization of echographic radiofrequency signals.

    PubMed

    Scabia, Marco; Biagi, Elena; Masotti, Leonardo

    2002-10-01

    In this paper the architecture of a hardware and software platform, for ultrasonic investigation is presented. The platform, used in conjunction with an analog front-end hardware for driving the ultrasonic transducers of any commercial echograph, having the radiofrequency echo signal access, make it possible to dispose of a powerful echographic system for experimenting any processing technique, also in a clinical environment in which real-time operation mode is an essential prerequisite. The platform transforms any echograph into a test-system for evaluating the diagnostic effectiveness of new investigation techniques. A particular user interface was designed in order to allow a real-time and simultaneous visualization of the results produced in the different stages of the chosen processing procedure. This is aimed at obtaining a better optimization of the processing algorithm. The most important platform aspect, which also constitutes the basic differentiation with respect to similar systems, is the direct processing of the radiofrequency echo signal, which is essential for a complete analysis of the particular ultrasound-media interaction phenomenon. The platform completely integrates the architecture of a personal computer (PC) giving rise to several benefits, such as the quick technological evolution in the PC field and an extreme degree of programmability for different applications. The PC also constitutes the user interface, as a flexible and intuitive visualization support, and performs some software signal processing, by custom algorithms and commercial libraries. The realized close synergy between hardware and software allows the acquisition and real-time processing of the echographic radiofrequency (RF) signal with fast data representation. PMID:12403146

  9. A novel time-domain signal processing algorithm for real time ventricular fibrillation detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monte, G. E.; Scarone, N. C.; Liscovsky, P. O.; Rotter S/N, P.

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents an application of a novel algorithm for real time detection of ECG pathologies, especially ventricular fibrillation. It is based on segmentation and labeling process of an oversampled signal. After this treatment, analyzing sequence of segments, global signal behaviours are obtained in the same way like a human being does. The entire process can be seen as a morphological filtering after a smart data sampling. The algorithm does not require any ECG digital signal pre-processing, and the computational cost is low, so it can be embedded into the sensors for wearable and permanent applications. The proposed algorithms could be the input signal description to expert systems or to artificial intelligence software in order to detect other pathologies.

  10. Real Time Signal Processing and Data Handling with dedicated hardware in handheld OCT Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, P.; Valverde, J. J.; Martin, A.; Ledesma, M. J.; Rubio-Guivernau, J. L.; Santos, A.

    2015-11-01

    The manuscript presents the topics on real time signal processing with dedicated hardware presented at the INFIERI Summer School 2014. The focus of this work is on real-time signal processing, filtering and massive parallel computing. In general, medical devices have stringed demands on energy consumption as well as on data processing and handling. In fact, the development of novel medical devices has led to significant advances in fields such as instrumentation, algorithm development and image processing. In this manuscript, two aspects of the design are brought into consideration: the transformation of a conventional signal processing algorithm into an equivalent version that is suitable for hardware implementation and the use of on-chip modules originally developed for mass-electronics applications, for high speed data transmission. The development of a novel state-of-the-art hand-held OCT probe is used to exemplify theses aspects. In particular, the ``design process'' behind the implementation of a multichannel quadrature coherent demodulator is disclosed.

  11. Parallel field programmable gate array particle filtering architecture for real-time neural signal processing.

    PubMed

    Mountney, John; Silage, Dennis; Obeid, Iyad

    2010-01-01

    Both linear and nonlinear estimation algorithms have been successfully applied as neural decoding techniques in brain machine interfaces. Nonlinear approaches such as Bayesian auxiliary particle filters offer improved estimates over other methodologies seemingly at the expense of computational complexity. Real-time implementation of particle filtering algorithms for neural signal processing may become prohibitive when the number of neurons in the observed ensemble becomes large. By implementing a parallel hardware architecture, filter performance can be improved in terms of throughput over conventional sequential processing. Such an architecture is presented here and its FPGA resource utilization is reported. PMID:21096196

  12. Real Time Processing and Transferring ECG Signal by a Mobile Phone

    PubMed Central

    Raeiatibanadkooki, Mahsa; Quachani, Saeed Rahati; Khalilzade, Mohammadmahdi; Bahaadinbeigy, Kambiz

    2014-01-01

    The real-time ECG signal processing system based on mobile phones is very effective in identifying continuous ambulatory patients. It could monitor cardiovascular patients in their daily life and warns them in case of cardiac arrhythmia. An ECG signal of a patient is processed by a mobile phone with this proposed algorithm. An IIR low-pass filter is used to remove the noise and it has the 55 Hz cutoff frequency and order 3. The obtained SNR showed a desirable noise removal and it helps physicians in their diagnosis. In this paper, Hilbert transform was used and the R peaks are important component to differ normal beats from abnormal ones. The results of sensitivity and positive predictivity of algorithm are 96.97% and 95.63% respectively. If an arrhythmia occurred, 4 seconds of this signal is displayed on the mobile phone then it will be sent to a remote medical center by TCP/IP protocol. PMID:25684847

  13. Real Time Processing and Transferring ECG Signal by a Mobile Phone.

    PubMed

    Raeiatibanadkooki, Mahsa; Quachani, Saeed Rahati; Khalilzade, Mohammadmahdi; Bahaadinbeigy, Kambiz

    2014-12-01

    The real-time ECG signal processing system based on mobile phones is very effective in identifying continuous ambulatory patients. It could monitor cardiovascular patients in their daily life and warns them in case of cardiac arrhythmia. An ECG signal of a patient is processed by a mobile phone with this proposed algorithm. An IIR low-pass filter is used to remove the noise and it has the 55 Hz cutoff frequency and order 3. The obtained SNR showed a desirable noise removal and it helps physicians in their diagnosis. In this paper, Hilbert transform was used and the R peaks are important component to differ normal beats from abnormal ones. The results of sensitivity and positive predictivity of algorithm are 96.97% and 95.63% respectively. If an arrhythmia occurred, 4 seconds of this signal is displayed on the mobile phone then it will be sent to a remote medical center by TCP/IP protocol. PMID:25684847

  14. Peta-Flop Real Time Radio Astronomy Signal Processing Instrumentation and the CASPER Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werthimer, Dan

    2014-04-01

    I will briefly describe next generation radio telescopes, such as HERA and the Square Kilometer Array (SKA), which will require 1E15 to 1E17 operations per second of real time processing. I'll present some of the new architectures we've used to develop a variety of heterogeneous FPGA-GPU-CPU based signal processing systems for such telescopes, including spectrometers, correlators, and beam formers. I will also describe the CASPER collaboration, which has developed architectures, open source programming tools, libraries and reference designs that make it relatively easy to develop a variety of scalable, upgradeable, fault tolerant, low power, real time digital signal processing instrumentation. CASPER utilizes commercial 10Gbit and 40 Gbit ethernet switches to interconnect open source general purpose field programmable gate array (FPGA) boards with GPUs and software modules. CASPER collaborators at hundreds of universities, government labs and observatories have used these techniques to rapidly develop and deploy a variety of correlators, beamformers, spectrometers, pulsar/transient machines, and VLBI instrumentation. CASPER instrumentation is also utilized in physics, medicine, genomics and engineering. Open source source hardware, software, libraries, tools, tutorials, reference designs, information about workshops, and how to join the collaboration are available at http://casper.berkeley.edu

  15. Reading Between the Spikes: Real-Time Signal Processing in Neural Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warland, David Karsten

    This thesis discusses biological strategies for real-time signal processing in neural systems. Nearly all creatures encode information about the world as patterns of identically shaped action potentials, or "spikes". As a result, all the animal's knowledge of the world is contained in the occurrence times of these discrete events. Traditional approaches to the study of neural coding emphasize the encoding process, resulting in predictions of average neural responses to a limited class of stimuli. However, these studies fail to address the relevant biological question: What can the organism "learn" about the outside world from real-time observations of its own spike trains? Therefore, this thesis approaches neural coding from the point of view of the organism itself: We learn to decode neural spike trains to obtain real-time estimates of sensory stimuli. In particular, this ability to extract continuous signals from spiking cells, together with the definition of an equivalent spectral noise level for a spiking neuron allows characterization of the information contained in patterns of neural response as well as forming the basis for the prediction of optimal neural computation strategies with spike trains. These methods are applied to the design and analysis of experiments on a single wide field, movement -sensitive neuron (H1) in the visual system of the blowfly Calliphora erythrocephela and to the filiform hair receptors of the wind-sensing system of the cricket Acheta domestica. This thesis also discusses the generalization of these strategies to collections of neurons and the applications to future work in the context of neural computation in the retina.

  16. Real-time digital signal processing in multiphoton and time-resolved microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Jesse W.; Warren, Warren S.; Fischer, Martin C.

    2016-03-01

    The use of multiphoton interactions in biological tissue for imaging contrast requires highly sensitive optical measurements. These often involve signal processing and filtering steps between the photodetector and the data acquisition device, such as photon counting and lock-in amplification. These steps can be implemented as real-time digital signal processing (DSP) elements on field-programmable gate array (FPGA) devices, an approach that affords much greater flexibility than commercial photon counting or lock-in devices. We will present progress toward developing two new FPGA-based DSP devices for multiphoton and time-resolved microscopy applications. The first is a high-speed multiharmonic lock-in amplifier for transient absorption microscopy, which is being developed for real-time analysis of the intensity-dependence of melanin, with applications in vivo and ex vivo (noninvasive histopathology of melanoma and pigmented lesions). The second device is a kHz lock-in amplifier running on a low cost (50-200) development platform. It is our hope that these FPGA-based DSP devices will enable new, high-speed, low-cost applications in multiphoton and time-resolved microscopy.

  17. A scalable multi-FPGA framework for real-time digital signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irick, K. M.; DeBole, M.; Park, S.; Al Maashri, A.; Kestur, S.; Yu, C.-L.; Vijaykrishnan, N.

    2009-08-01

    FPGAs have emerged as the preferred platform for implementing real-time signal processing applications. In the sub-45nm technologies, FPGAs offer significant cost and design-time advantages over application-specific custom chips and consume significantly less power than general-purpose processors while maintaining, or improving performance. Moreover, FPGAs are more advantageous than GPUs in their support for control-intensive applications, custom bit-precision operations, and diverse system interface protocols. Nonetheless, a significant inhibitor to the widespread adoption of FPGAs has been the expertise required to effectively realize functional designs that maximize application performance. While there have been several academic and commercial efforts to improve the usability of FPGAs, they have primarily focused on easing the tasks of an expert FPGA designer rather than increasing the usability offered to an application developer. In this work, the design of a scalable algorithmic-level design framework for FPGAs, AlgoFLEX, is described. AlgoFLEX offers rapid algorithmic level composition and exploration while maintaining the performance realizable from a fully custom, albeit difficult and laborious, design effort. The framework masks aspects of accelerator implementation, mapping, and communication while exposing appropriate algorithm tuning facilities to developers and system integrators. The effectiveness of the AlgoFLEX framework is demonstrated by rapidly mapping a class of image and signal processing applications to a multi-FPGA platform.

  18. Real-time digital processing of Doppler ultrasound signals and calculation of flow parameters.

    PubMed

    Schlindwein, F S; Vieira, M H; Vasconcelos, C F; Simpson, D M

    1994-01-01

    Vascular diseases and their complications are responsible for around 27% of deaths in Brazil. Doppler ultrasound is a non-invasive technique that has been used to study blood flow in intact blood vessels since Satomura first reported the potential of the technique in 1959. Because it is non-invasive it makes sequential studies and those in normals feasible. Whereas in contrast angiography only vessel anatomy is displayed, Doppler ultrasound produces dynamic information on blood-flow. It may be used to estimate flow-rates, to image regions of blood flow (colour Doppler), and to help in locating sites of arterial disease, thus complementing X-ray examinations. This paper describes a system based on a Digital Signal Processor for real-time spectrum analysis of Doppler ultrasound signals, real-time display of sonograms, and calculation and analysis of three parameters of clinical interest derived from the Doppler signal. The system comprises a TMS320C25 development board, which acquires the signal and performs spectrum analysis, and a microcomputer, which reads the spectral estimates, displays them as a sonogram in real-time and calculates a set of spectral parameters proposed in the literature. The system permits a maximum sampling frequency of 40.96 kHz, and in the sonogram, 80 power spectra per second (each with 128 frequency bins) are displayed. In a preliminary study, the stability of the haemodynamic parameters and their dependence on a user-defined threshold value is investigated. PMID:7968870

  19. Systolic architectures based on barrel shifters for real-time digital signal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, T.

    1985-01-01

    The throughput in real-time digital signal processing applications is limited by both the capability of the processors employed for number-crunching operations and the capacity of a supporting communications link. The systolic architectures eliminate the memory bandwidth problems by allowing multiple computations for each memory access and result in a speed-up in the execution time of compute-bound computations. However, the throughput rate in a systolic array is still limited by the computational time needed for one basic cell, which is composed of a multiplier and an accumulator. The multiplier in the basic cell requires either a large chip area if high speed is desired, or a large amount of time if serial architecture is used. The use of barrel shifters as computational elements in systolic arrays was proposed and studied in detail in this thesis. In the new systolic arrays there are two different structures, parallel and cascaded, that can be used to implement FIR filters. A unique cascaded structure was developed in this study that is shown to have better performance and requires significantly less basic cells.

  20. Using miniature signal processing equipment in real-time brass performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plsek, Thomas J.

    2003-04-01

    Real time signal processing for brass instrument performance has been in use for more than 20 years now. It has been fraught with many problems not the least of which is the complexity, size, and expense of the equipment as well as the acoustical output of the instrument itself. One device which addresses these issues is the new Yamaha ST5: Personal Studio for brass instruments. By combining a Yamaha Pickup Mute, which very effectively minimizes the acoustical output of the instrument, with a battery powered unit small enough to be worn on a belt (ca. 5 in.×3 in.×1 in.), this system enables the performer to use such effects as reverb, delay, chorus, equalizer, pitch shifter, etc., that can be used in a wide variety of situations such as private practice, live concert performances, and recordings. By creatively managing the acoustic instrument and the miniature electronic equipment, a reasonably large array of musical resources become available to the performer enabling him/her to enhance existing performance environments, as well as find and develop new ones.

  1. The use of digital signal processors (DSPs) in real-time processing of multi-parametric bioelectronic signals.

    PubMed

    Ressler, Johann; Dirscherl, Andreas; Grothe, Helmut; Wolf, Bernhard

    2007-02-01

    In many cases of bioanalytical measurement, calculation of large amounts of data, analysis of complex signal waveforms or signal speed can overwhelm the performance of microcontrollers, analog electronic circuits or even PCs. One method to obtain results in real time is to apply a digital signal processor (DSP) for the analysis or processing of measurement data. In this paper we show how DSP-supported multiplying and accumulating (MAC) operations, such as time/frequency transformation, pattern recognition by correlation, convolution or filter algorithms, can optimize the processing of bioanalytical data. Discrete integral calculations are applied to the acquisition of impedance values as part of multi-parametric sensor chips, to pH monitoring using light-addressable potentiometric sensors (LAPS) and to the analysis of rapidly changing signal shapes, such as action potentials of cultured neuronal networks, as examples of DSP capability. PMID:17313351

  2. Rethinking data collection and signal processing. 1. Real-time oversampling filter for chemical measurements.

    PubMed

    Laude, Nicholas D; Atcherley, Christopher W; Heien, Michael L

    2012-10-01

    Minimizing noise in chemical measurements is critical to achieve low limits of detection and accurate measurements. We describe a real-time oversampling filter that offers a method to reduce stochastic noise in a time-dependent chemical measurement. The power of this technique is demonstrated in its application to the separation of dopamine and serotonin by micellar electrokinetic chromatography with amperometric detection. Signal-to-noise ratios were increased by almost an order of magnitude, allowing for limits of detection of 100 and 120 amol, respectively. Real-time oversampling filters can be implemented using simple software algorithms and require no change to existing experimental apparatus. The application is not limited to analytical separations, and this technique can be used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio in any experiment where the necessary sampling rate is less than the maximum sampling rate of the analog-to-digital converter. Theory, implementation, and the performance of this filter are described. We propose that this technique should be the default mode of operation for an analog-to-digital converter. PMID:22978644

  3. Real-time MST radar signal processing using a microcomputer running under FORTH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowhill, S. A.

    1983-01-01

    Data on power, correlation time, and velocity were obtained at the Urbana radar using microcomputer and a single floppy disk drive. This system includes the following features: (1) measurement of the real and imaginary components of the received signal at 20 altitudes spaced by 1.5 km; (2) coherent integration of these components over a 1/8-s time period; (3) continuous real time display of the height profiles of the two coherently integrated components; (4) real time calculation of the 1 minute averages of the power and autocovariance function up to 6 lags; (5) output of these data to floppy disk once every 2 minutes; (6) display of the 1 minute power profiles while the data are stored to the disk; (7) visual prompting for the operator to change disks when required at the end of each hour of data; and (8) continuous audible indication of the status of the interrupt service routine. Accomplishments were enabled by two developments: the use of a new correlation algorithm and the use of the FORTH language to manage the various low level and high level procedures involved.

  4. Real-Time Processing of Continuous Physiological Signals in a Neurocritical Care Unit on a Stream Data Analytics Platform.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yong; Sow, Daby; Vespa, Paul; Hu, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Continuous high-volume and high-frequency brain signals such as intracranial pressure (ICP) and electroencephalographic (EEG) waveforms are commonly collected by bedside monitors in neurocritical care. While such signals often carry early signs of neurological deterioration, detecting these signs in real time with conventional data processing methods mainly designed for retrospective analysis has been extremely challenging. Such methods are not designed to handle the large volumes of waveform data produced by bedside monitors. In this pilot study, we address this challenge by building a prototype system using the IBM InfoSphere Streams platform, a scalable stream computing platform, to detect unstable ICP dynamics in real time. The system continuously receives electrocardiographic and ICP signals and analyzes ICP pulse morphology looking for deviations from a steady state. We also designed a Web interface to display in real time the result of this analysis in a Web browser. With this interface, physicians are able to ubiquitously check on the status of their patients and gain direct insight into and interpretation of the patient's state in real time. The prototype system has been successfully tested prospectively on live hospitalized patients. PMID:27165881

  5. Fast, multi-channel real-time processing of signals with microsecond latency using graphics processing units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, N.; Kato, S.; Levesque, J. P.; Mauel, M. E.; Navratil, G. A.; Peng, Q.

    2014-04-01

    Fast, digital signal processing (DSP) has many applications. Typical hardware options for performing DSP are field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), application-specific integrated DSP chips, or general purpose personal computer systems. This paper presents a novel DSP platform that has been developed for feedback control on the HBT-EP tokamak device. The system runs all signal processing exclusively on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) to achieve real-time performance with latencies below 8 μs. Signals are transferred into and out of the GPU using PCI Express peer-to-peer direct-memory-access transfers without involvement of the central processing unit or host memory. Tests were performed on the feedback control system of the HBT-EP tokamak using forty 16-bit floating point inputs and outputs each and a sampling rate of up to 250 kHz. Signals were digitized by a D-TACQ ACQ196 module, processing done on an NVIDIA GTX 580 GPU programmed in CUDA, and analog output was generated by D-TACQ AO32CPCI modules.

  6. Fast, multi-channel real-time processing of signals with microsecond latency using graphics processing units.

    PubMed

    Rath, N; Kato, S; Levesque, J P; Mauel, M E; Navratil, G A; Peng, Q

    2014-04-01

    Fast, digital signal processing (DSP) has many applications. Typical hardware options for performing DSP are field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), application-specific integrated DSP chips, or general purpose personal computer systems. This paper presents a novel DSP platform that has been developed for feedback control on the HBT-EP tokamak device. The system runs all signal processing exclusively on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) to achieve real-time performance with latencies below 8 μs. Signals are transferred into and out of the GPU using PCI Express peer-to-peer direct-memory-access transfers without involvement of the central processing unit or host memory. Tests were performed on the feedback control system of the HBT-EP tokamak using forty 16-bit floating point inputs and outputs each and a sampling rate of up to 250 kHz. Signals were digitized by a D-TACQ ACQ196 module, processing done on an NVIDIA GTX 580 GPU programmed in CUDA, and analog output was generated by D-TACQ AO32CPCI modules. PMID:24784666

  7. Fast, multi-channel real-time processing of signals with microsecond latency using graphics processing units

    SciTech Connect

    Rath, N. Levesque, J. P.; Mauel, M. E.; Navratil, G. A.; Peng, Q.; Kato, S.

    2014-04-15

    Fast, digital signal processing (DSP) has many applications. Typical hardware options for performing DSP are field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), application-specific integrated DSP chips, or general purpose personal computer systems. This paper presents a novel DSP platform that has been developed for feedback control on the HBT-EP tokamak device. The system runs all signal processing exclusively on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) to achieve real-time performance with latencies below 8 μs. Signals are transferred into and out of the GPU using PCI Express peer-to-peer direct-memory-access transfers without involvement of the central processing unit or host memory. Tests were performed on the feedback control system of the HBT-EP tokamak using forty 16-bit floating point inputs and outputs each and a sampling rate of up to 250 kHz. Signals were digitized by a D-TACQ ACQ196 module, processing done on an NVIDIA GTX 580 GPU programmed in CUDA, and analog output was generated by D-TACQ AO32CPCI modules.

  8. Feature-level signal processing for near-real-time odor identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roppel, Thaddeus A.; Padgett, Mary Lou; Waldemark, Joakim T. A.; Wilson, Denise M.

    1998-09-01

    Rapid detection and classification of odor is of particular interest in applications such as manufacturing of consumer items, food processing, drug and explosives detection, and battlefield situation assessment. Various detection and classification techniques are under investigation so that end users can have access to useful information from odor sensor arrays in near-real-time. Feature-level data clustering and classification techniques are proposed that are (1) parallelizable to permit efficient hardware implementation, (2) adaptable to readily incorporate new data classes, (3) capable of gracefully handling outlier data points and failed sensor conditions, and (4) can provide confidence intervals and/or a traceable decision record along with each classification to permit validation and verification. Results from using specific techniques will be presented and compared. The techniques studied include principal components analysis, automated outlier determination, radial basis functions (RBF), multi-layer perceptrons (MLP), and pulse-coupled neural networks (PCNN). The results reported here are based on data from a testbed in which a gas sensor array is exposed to odor samples on a continuous basis. We have reported previously that more detailed and faster discrimination can be obtained by using sensor transient response in addition to steady state response. As the size of the data set grows we are able to more accurately model performance of a sensor array under realistic conditions.

  9. Novel human-robot interface integrating real-time visual tracking and microphone-array signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizoguchi, Hiroshi; Shigehara, Takaomi; Goto, Yoshiyasu; Hidai, Ken-ichi; Mishima, Taketoshi

    1998-10-01

    This paper proposes a novel human robot interface that is an integration of real time visual tracking and microphone array signal processing. The proposed interface is intended to be used as a speech signal input method for human collaborative robot. Utilizing it, the robot can clearly listen human master's voice remotely as if a wireless microphone were put just in front of the master. A novel technique to form `acoustic focus' at human face is developed. To track and locate the face dynamically, real time face tracking and stereo vision are utilized. To make the acoustic focus at the face, microphones array is utilized. Setting gain and delay of each microphone properly enables to form acoustic focus at desired location. The gain and delay are determined based upon the location of the face. Results of preliminary experiments and simulations demonstrate feasibility of the proposed idea.

  10. Digital CODEC for real-time processing of broadcast quality video signals at 1.8 bits/pixel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shalkhauser, Mary JO; Whyte, Wayne A.

    1991-01-01

    Advances in very large scale integration and recent work in the field of bandwidth efficient digital modulation techniques have combined to make digital video processing technically feasible an potentially cost competitive for broadcast quality television transmission. A hardware implementation was developed for DPCM (differential pulse code midulation)-based digital television bandwidth compression algorithm which processes standard NTSC composite color television signals and produces broadcast quality video in real time at an average of 1.8 bits/pixel. The data compression algorithm and the hardware implementation of the codec are described, and performance results are provided.

  11. Digital CODEC for real-time processing of broadcast quality video signals at 1.8 bits/pixel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shalkhauser, Mary JO; Whyte, Wayne A., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Advances in very large-scale integration and recent work in the field of bandwidth efficient digital modulation techniques have combined to make digital video processing technically feasible and potentially cost competitive for broadcast quality television transmission. A hardware implementation was developed for a DPCM-based digital television bandwidth compression algorithm which processes standard NTSC composite color television signals and produces broadcast quality video in real time at an average of 1.8 bits/pixel. The data compression algorithm and the hardware implementation of the CODEC are described, and performance results are provided.

  12. Multi-purpose fast neutron spectrum analyzer with real-time signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulyaev, Yu. S.; Puryga, E. A.; Khilchenko, A. D.; Kvashnin, A. N.; Polosatkin, S. V.; Rovenskikh, A. F.; Burdakov, A. V.; Grishnyaev, E. V.

    2013-08-01

    Diagnostics of hot ion component of plasma on the products of fusion reactions is widely used on thermonuclear facilities. In case of employment of neutron spectrometers, based on organics scintillators, there is advanced technique developed to eliminate neutron pulses from gamma background—digital pulse shape discrimination. For every DPSD application it is necessary to use the fast (2-5 ns) and precise (12 bit) transient ADC unit with large amount of onboard memory for storing every digitized scintillation pulses during shot time. At present time the duration of hot thermonuclear plasma burning in large tokamaks approximate to 1 min, and this requires very high onboard memory capacity (˜100 GB). This paper describes a neutron spectrum analyzer with real-time DPSD algorithm, implemented to ADC unit. This approach saves about two orders of onboard memory capacity, gives the possibility of instant use of outcome to feedback systems. This analyzer was tested and calibrated with help of 60Co and 252Cf radiation sources, and deuterium neutron generator.

  13. Non-Intrusive Device for Real-Time Circulatory System Assessment with Advanced Signal Processing Capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro, E.; Postolache, O.; Girão, P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a device that uses three cardiography signals to characterize several important parameters of a subject's circulatory system. Using electrocardiogram, finger photoplethysmogram, and ballistocardiogram, three heart rate estimates are acquired from beat-to-beat time interval extraction. Furthermore, pre-ejection period, pulse transit time (PTT), and pulse arrival time (PAT) are computed, and their long-term evolution is analyzed. The system estimates heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV) from the heart rate and PAT time series, to infer the activity of the cardiac autonomic system. The software component of the device evaluates the frequency content of HRV and BPV, and also their fractal dimension and entropy, thus providing a detailed analysis of the time series' regularity and complexity evolution, to allow personalized subject evaluation.

  14. Optics based signal processing methods for intraoperative blood vessel detection and quantification in real time (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, Amal; Shukair, Shetha A.; Le Rolland, Paul; Vijayvergia, Mayank; Subramanian, Hariharan; Gunn, Jonathan W.

    2016-03-01

    Minimally invasive operations require surgeons to make difficult cuts to blood vessels and other tissues with impaired tactile and visual feedback. This leads to inadvertent cuts to blood vessels hidden beneath tissue, causing serious health risks to patients and a non-reimbursable financial burden to hospitals. Intraoperative imaging technologies have been developed, but these expensive systems can be cumbersome and provide only a high-level view of blood vessel networks. In this research, we propose a lean reflectance-based system, comprised of a dual wavelength LED, photodiode, and novel signal processing algorithms for rapid vessel characterization. Since this system takes advantage of the inherent pulsatile light absorption characteristics of blood vessels, no contrast agent is required for its ability to detect the presence of a blood vessel buried deep inside any tissue type (up to a cm) in real time. Once a vessel is detected, the system is able to estimate the distance of the vessel from the probe and the diameter size of the vessel (with a resolution of ~2mm), as well as delineate the type of tissue surrounding the vessel. The system is low-cost, functions in real-time, and could be mounted on already existing surgical tools, such as Kittner dissectors or laparoscopic suction irrigation cannulae. Having been successfully validated ex vivo, this technology will next be tested in a live porcine study and eventually in clinical trials.

  15. Real-time measurement of joint movement using a digital signal processor-based image processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorehead, John D.; Harvey, David M.; Dangerfield, Peter H.; Montgomery, S. C.

    1994-09-01

    A new low cost imaging system has been devised to detect and measure joint movement to help with the diagnosis of ligament injuries in the human knee. The system uses a domestic video camcorder to record the movement of marks on a patient's knee as it is flexed. The pictures are then fed into the imaging system, where the coordinates of each mark are determined for each angle of flexion. The coordinate data is then processed to show the dynamic operation of the knee, from which an assessment of ligament damage can be made. The imaging system is comprised of a PC host, a commercial frame store, and a custom built TMS320C40 digital signal processor (dsp) board. The dsp is used to perform correlation and other imaging functions, to automatically determine the mark coordinates in real time. This paper describes the application and development of the system, and gives the results of the research to date.

  16. Low power real time signal processing engine for optical coherence tomography systems using multi-core digital signal processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Murtaza; Parlapalli, Renuka; John, Renu; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2011-03-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) imaging is a high-resolution, sub-surface non-invasive imaging technique, using the principle of low coherence interferometry, that has become increasingly popular for various applications for structural and quantitative imaging [1]. Applications for OCT technology have been demonstrated in ophthalmology, dentistry, cardiology/intravascular imaging, endoscopy and intra-operative surgery, and many new applications are being researched. Due to higher sensitivity and faster rate of image acquisition, frequency domain OCT systems are now replacing the first generation time domain systems. These include spectral domain systems, which use a broadband low coherent source with spectrometer and a line scan camera based receive system, and swept source systems, that use wavelength sweeping source with a photo-detector based receive system. Both of these systems require very similar signal processing to recover the desired image from the captured digitized interference or fringe data.

  17. Processing PCM Data in Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wissink, T. L.

    1982-01-01

    Novel hardware configuration makes it possible for Space Shuttle launch processing system to monitor pulse-code-modulated data in real time. Using two microprogramable "option planes," incoming PCM data are monitored for changes at rate of one frame of data (80 16-bit words) every 10 milliseconds. Real-time PCM processor utilizes CPU in mini-computer and CPU's in two option planes.

  18. Acceleration of atmospheric Cherenkov telescope signal processing to real-time speed with the Auto-Pipe design system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyson, Eric J.; Buckley, James; Franklin, Mark A.; Chamberlain, Roger D.

    2008-10-01

    The imaging atmospheric Cherenkov technique for high-energy gamma-ray astronomy is emerging as an important new technique for studying the high energy universe. Current experiments have data rates of ≈20TB/year and duty cycles of about 10%. In the future, more sensitive experiments may produce up to 1000 TB/year. The data analysis task for these experiments requires keeping up with this data rate in close to real-time. Such data analysis is a classic example of a streaming application with very high performance requirements. This class of application often benefits greatly from the use of non-traditional approaches for computation including using special purpose hardware (FPGAs and ASICs), or sophisticated parallel processing techniques. However, designing, debugging, and deploying to these architectures is difficult and thus they are not widely used by the astrophysics community. This paper presents the Auto-Pipe design toolset that has been developed to address many of the difficulties in taking advantage of complex streaming computer architectures for such applications. Auto-Pipe incorporates a high-level coordination language, functional and performance simulation tools, and the ability to deploy applications to sophisticated architectures. Using the Auto-Pipe toolset, we have implemented the front-end portion of an imaging Cherenkov data analysis application, suitable for real-time or offline analysis. The application operates on data from the VERITAS experiment, and shows how Auto-Pipe can greatly ease performance optimization and application deployment of a wide variety of platforms. We demonstrate a performance improvement over a traditional software approach of 32x using an FPGA solution and 3.6x using a multiprocessor based solution.

  19. Implementing spiking neural networks for real-time signal-processing and control applications: a model-validated FPGA approach.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Martin J; Pipe, A G; Mitchinson, B; Gurney, K; Melhuish, C; Gilhespy, I; Nibouche, M

    2007-09-01

    In this paper, we present two versions of a hardware processing architecture for modeling large networks of leaky-integrate-and-fire (LIF) neurons; the second version provides performance enhancing features relative to the first. Both versions of the architecture use fixed-point arithmetic and have been implemented using a single field-programmable gate array (FPGA). They have successfully simulated networks of over 1000 neurons configured using biologically plausible models of mammalian neural systems. The neuroprocessor has been designed to be employed primarily for use on mobile robotic vehicles, allowing bio-inspired neural processing models to be integrated directly into real-world control environments. When a neuroprocessor has been designed to act as part of the closed-loop system of a feedback controller, it is imperative to maintain strict real-time performance at all times, in order to maintain integrity of the control system. This resulted in the reevaluation of some of the architectural features of existing hardware for biologically plausible neural networks (NNs). In addition, we describe a development system for rapidly porting an underlying model (based on floating-point arithmetic) to the fixed-point representation of the FPGA-based neuroprocessor, thereby allowing validation of the hardware architecture. The developmental system environment facilitates the cooperation of computational neuroscientists and engineers working on embodied (robotic) systems with neural controllers, as demonstrated by our own experience on the Whiskerbot project, in which we developed models of the rodent whisker sensory system. PMID:18220195

  20. Real-time 4D signal processing and visualization using graphics processing unit on a regular nonlinear-k Fourier-domain OCT system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kang; Kang, Jin U

    2010-05-24

    We realized graphics processing unit (GPU) based real-time 4D (3D+time) signal processing and visualization on a regular Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) system with a nonlinear k-space spectrometer. An ultra-high speed linear spline interpolation (LSI) method for lambda-to-k spectral re-sampling is implemented in the GPU architecture, which gives average interpolation speeds of >3,000,000 line/s for 1024-pixel OCT (1024-OCT) and >1,400,000 line/s for 2048-pixel OCT (2048-OCT). The complete FD-OCT signal processing including lambda-to-k spectral re-sampling, fast Fourier transform (FFT) and post-FFT processing have all been implemented on a GPU. The maximum complete A-scan processing speeds are investigated to be 680,000 line/s for 1024-OCT and 320,000 line/s for 2048-OCT, which correspond to 1GByte processing bandwidth. In our experiment, a 2048-pixel CMOS camera running up to 70 kHz is used as an acquisition device. Therefore the actual imaging speed is camera- limited to 128,000 line/s for 1024-OCT or 70,000 line/s for 2048-OCT. 3D Data sets are continuously acquired in real time at 1024-OCT mode, immediately processed and visualized as high as 10 volumes/second (12,500 A-scans/volume) by either en face slice extraction or ray-casting based volume rendering from 3D texture mapped in graphics memory. For standard FD-OCT systems, a GPU is the only additional hardware needed to realize this improvement and no optical modification is needed. This technique is highly cost-effective and can be easily integrated into most ultrahigh speed FD-OCT systems to overcome the 3D data processing and visualization bottlenecks. PMID:20589038

  1. Fast contactless vibrating structure characterization using real time field programmable gate array-based digital signal processing: demonstrations with a passive wireless acoustic delay line probe and vision.

    PubMed

    Goavec-Mérou, G; Chrétien, N; Friedt, J-M; Sandoz, P; Martin, G; Lenczner, M; Ballandras, S

    2014-01-01

    Vibrating mechanical structure characterization is demonstrated using contactless techniques best suited for mobile and rotating equipments. Fast measurement rates are achieved using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices as real-time digital signal processors. Two kinds of algorithms are implemented on FPGA and experimentally validated in the case of the vibrating tuning fork. A first application concerns in-plane displacement detection by vision with sampling rates above 10 kHz, thus reaching frequency ranges above the audio range. A second demonstration concerns pulsed-RADAR cooperative target phase detection and is applied to radiofrequency acoustic transducers used as passive wireless strain gauges. In this case, the 250 ksamples/s refresh rate achieved is only limited by the acoustic sensor design but not by the detection bandwidth. These realizations illustrate the efficiency, interest, and potentialities of FPGA-based real-time digital signal processing for the contactless interrogation of passive embedded probes with high refresh rates. PMID:24517814

  2. Fast contactless vibrating structure characterization using real time field programmable gate array-based digital signal processing: Demonstrations with a passive wireless acoustic delay line probe and vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goavec-Mérou, G.; Chrétien, N.; Friedt, J.-M.; Sandoz, P.; Martin, G.; Lenczner, M.; Ballandras, S.

    2014-01-01

    Vibrating mechanical structure characterization is demonstrated using contactless techniques best suited for mobile and rotating equipments. Fast measurement rates are achieved using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices as real-time digital signal processors. Two kinds of algorithms are implemented on FPGA and experimentally validated in the case of the vibrating tuning fork. A first application concerns in-plane displacement detection by vision with sampling rates above 10 kHz, thus reaching frequency ranges above the audio range. A second demonstration concerns pulsed-RADAR cooperative target phase detection and is applied to radiofrequency acoustic transducers used as passive wireless strain gauges. In this case, the 250 ksamples/s refresh rate achieved is only limited by the acoustic sensor design but not by the detection bandwidth. These realizations illustrate the efficiency, interest, and potentialities of FPGA-based real-time digital signal processing for the contactless interrogation of passive embedded probes with high refresh rates.

  3. Real-time optical image processing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang

    1988-01-01

    Nonlinear real-time optical processing on spatial pulse frequency modulation has been pursued through the analysis, design, and fabrication of pulse frequency modulated halftone screens and the modification of micro-channel spatial light modulators (MSLMs). Micro-channel spatial light modulators are modified via the Fabry-Perot method to achieve the high gamma operation required for non-linear operation. Real-time nonlinear processing was performed using the halftone screen and MSLM. The experiments showed the effectiveness of the thresholding and also showed the needs of higher SBP for image processing. The Hughes LCLV has been characterized and found to yield high gamma (about 1.7) when operated in low frequency and low bias mode. Cascading of two LCLVs should also provide enough gamma for nonlinear processing. In this case, the SBP of the LCLV is sufficient but the uniformity of the LCLV needs improvement. These include image correlation, computer generation of holograms, pseudo-color image encoding for image enhancement, and associative-retrieval in neural processing. The discovery of the only known optical method for dynamic range compression of an input image in real-time by using GaAs photorefractive crystals is reported. Finally, a new architecture for non-linear multiple sensory, neural processing has been suggested.

  4. Real-time dual-mode standard/complex Fourier-domain OCT system using graphics processing unit accelerated 4D signal processing and visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kang; Kang, Jin U.

    2011-03-01

    We realized a real-time dual-mode standard/complex Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) system using graphics processing unit (GPU) accelerated 4D (3D+time) signal processing and visualization. For both standard and complex FD-OCT modes, the signal processing tasks were implemented on a dual-GPUs architecture that included λ-to-k spectral re-sampling, fast Fourier transform (FFT), modified Hilbert transform, logarithmic-scaling, and volume rendering. The maximum A-scan processing speeds achieved are >3,000,000 line/s for the standard 1024-pixel-FD-OCT, and >500,000 line/s for the complex 1024-pixel-FD-OCT. Multiple volumerendering of the same 3D data set were preformed and displayed with different view angles. The GPU-acceleration technique is highly cost-effective and can be easily integrated into most ultrahigh speed FD-OCT systems to overcome the 3D data processing and visualization bottlenecks.

  5. Near real time data processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousessian, Ardvas; Vuu, Christina

    2008-08-01

    Raytheon recently developed and implemented a Near Real Time (NRT) data processing subsystem for Earth Observing System (EOS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS3) instrument on NASA Aura spacecraft. The NRT can be viewed as a customized Science Information Processing System (SIPS) where the measurements and information provided by the instrument are expeditiously processed, packaged, and delivered. The purpose of the MLS NRT is to process Level 0 data up through Level 2, and distribute standard data products to the customer within 3-5 hours of the first set of data arrival.

  6. The Raptor Real-Time Processing Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galassi, M.; Starr, D.; Wozniak, P.; Brozdin, K.

    The primary goal of Raptor is ambitious: to identify interesting optical transients from very wide field of view telescopes in real time, and then to quickly point the higher resolution Raptor ``fovea'' cameras and spectrometer to the location of the optical transient. The most interesting of Raptor's many applications is the real-time search for orphan optical counterparts of Gamma Ray Bursts. The sequence of steps (data acquisition, basic calibration, source extraction, astrometry, relative photometry, the smarts of transient identification and elimination of false positives, telescope pointing feedback, etc.) is implemented with a ``component'' approach. All basic elements of the pipeline functionality have been written from scratch or adapted (as in the case of SExtractor for source extraction) to form a consistent modern API operating on memory resident images and source lists. The result is a pipeline which meets our real-time requirements and which can easily operate as a monolithic or distributed processing system. Finally, the Raptor architecture is entirely based on free software (sometimes referred to as ``open source'' software). In this paper we also discuss the interplay between various free software technologies in this type of astronomical problem.

  7. A UWB Radar Signal Processing Platform for Real-Time Human Respiratory Feature Extraction Based on Four-Segment Linear Waveform Model.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chi-Hsuan; Chiu, Yu-Fang; Shen, Yi-Hsiang; Chu, Ta-Shun; Huang, Yuan-Hao

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents an ultra-wideband (UWB) impulse-radio radar signal processing platform used to analyze human respiratory features. Conventional radar systems used in human detection only analyze human respiration rates or the response of a target. However, additional respiratory signal information is available that has not been explored using radar detection. The authors previously proposed a modified raised cosine waveform (MRCW) respiration model and an iterative correlation search algorithm that could acquire additional respiratory features such as the inspiration and expiration speeds, respiration intensity, and respiration holding ratio. To realize real-time respiratory feature extraction by using the proposed UWB signal processing platform, this paper proposes a new four-segment linear waveform (FSLW) respiration model. This model offers a superior fit to the measured respiration signal compared with the MRCW model and decreases the computational complexity of feature extraction. In addition, an early-terminated iterative correlation search algorithm is presented, substantially decreasing the computational complexity and yielding negligible performance degradation. These extracted features can be considered the compressed signals used to decrease the amount of data storage required for use in long-term medical monitoring systems and can also be used in clinical diagnosis. The proposed respiratory feature extraction algorithm was designed and implemented using the proposed UWB radar signal processing platform including a radar front-end chip and an FPGA chip. The proposed radar system can detect human respiration rates at 0.1 to 1 Hz and facilitates the real-time analysis of the respiratory features of each respiration period. PMID:25667357

  8. Real Time Driver’s Drowsiness Detection by Processing the EEG Signals Stimulated with External Flickering Light

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Amjad; Saba, Valiallah; Resalat, Seyed Navid

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is development of driver’s sleepiness using Visually Evoked Potentials (VEP). VEP computed from EEG signals from the visual cortex. We use the Steady State VEPs (SSVEPs) that are one of the most important EEG signals used in human computer interface systems. SSVEP is a response to visual stimuli presented. We present a classification method to discriminate between closed eyes and opened eyes. Fourier transforms and power spectrum density features extracted from signals and Multilayer perceptron and radial basis function neural networks used for classification. The experimental results show an accuracy of 97% for test data. PMID:25436080

  9. An advanced real-time digital signal processing system for linear systems emulation, with special emphasis on network and acoustic response characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaydecki, Patrick; Fernandes, Bosco

    2003-11-01

    A fast digital signal processing (DSP) system is described that can perform real-time emulation of a wide variety of linear audio-bandwidth systems and networks, such as reverberant spaces, musical instrument bodies and very high order filter networks. The hardware design is based upon a Motorola DSP56309 operating at 110 million multiplication-accumulations per second and a dual-channel 24 bit codec with a maximum sampling frequency of 192 kHz. High level software has been developed to express complex vector frequency responses as both infinite impulse response (IIR) and finite impulse response (FIR) coefficients, in a form suitable for real-time convolution by the firmware installed in the DSP system memory. An algorithm has also been devised to express IIR filters as equivalent FIR structures, thereby obviating the potential instabilities associated with recursive equations and negating the traditional deficiencies of FIR filters respecting equivalent analogue designs. The speed and dynamic range of the system is such that, when sampling at 48 kHz, the frequency response can be specified to a spectral precision of 22 Hz when sampling at 10 kHz, this resolution increases to 0.9 Hz. Moreover, it is also possible to control the phase of any frequency band with a theoretical precision of 10-5 degrees in all cases. The system has been applied in the study of analogue filter networks, real-time Hilbert transformation, phase-shift systems and musical instrument body emulation, where it is providing valuable new insights into the understanding of psychoacoustic mechanisms.

  10. Real-time data compression of broadcast video signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shalkauser, Mary Jo W. (Inventor); Whyte, Wayne A., Jr. (Inventor); Barnes, Scott P. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A non-adaptive predictor, a nonuniform quantizer, and a multi-level Huffman coder are incorporated into a differential pulse code modulation system for coding and decoding broadcast video signals in real time.

  11. Real-time data compression of broadcast video signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shalkhauser, Mary J. (Inventor); Whyte, Wayne A., Jr. (Inventor); Barnes, Scott P. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A non-adaptive predictor, a nonuniform quantizer, and a multi-level Huffman coder are incorporated into a differential pulse code modulation system for coding and decoding broadcast video signals in real time.

  12. Real time simulator with Ti floating point digital signal processor

    SciTech Connect

    Razazian, K.; Bobis, J.P.; Dieckman, S.L.; Raptis, A.C.

    1994-08-01

    This paper describes the design and operation of a Real Time Simulator using Texas Instruments TMS320C30 digital signal processor. This system operates with two banks of memory which provide the input data to digital signal processor chip. This feature enables the TMS320C30 to be utilized in variety of applications for which external connections to acquire input data is not needed. In addition, some practical applications of this Real Time Simulator are discussed.

  13. Cutting force-based real-time estimation of tool wear in face milling using a combination of signal processing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, P.; Sengupta, D.; Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2007-08-01

    In this paper, combinations of signal processing techniques for real-time estimation of tool wear in face milling using cutting force signals are presented. Three different strategies based on linear filtering, time-domain averaging and wavelet transformation techniques are adopted for extracting relevant features from the measured signals. Sensor fusion at feature level is used in search of an improved and robust tool wear model. Isotonic regression and exponential smoothing techniques are introduced to enforce monotonicity and smoothness of the extracted features. At the first stage, multiple linear regression models are developed for specific cutting conditions using the extracted features. The best features are identified on the basis of a statistical model selection criterion. At the second stage, the first-stage models are combined, in accordance with proven theory, into a single tool wear model, including the effect of cutting parameters. The three chosen strategies show improvements over those reported in the literature, in the case of training data as well as test data used for validation—for both laboratory and industrial experiments. A method for calculating the probabilistic worst-case prediction of tool wear is also developed for the final tool wear model.

  14. Real time speech recognition on a distributed digital processing array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, P.; Roberts, J. B. G.

    1983-08-01

    A compact digital signal processor based on the architecture of the ICL Distributed Array Processor (DAP) is under development for MOD applications in Radar, ESM, Image Processing, etc. This Memorandum examines its applicability to speech recognition. In such a distributed processor, optimum mapping of the problem on to the array of processors is vital for efficiency. Three mappings of a dynamic time warping algorithm for isolated word recognition are examined, leading to a feasbile real time capability for continuous speech processing. The compatibility found between dynamic programming methods and this class of machine enlarges the scope of signal processing algorithms foreseen as amenable to parallel processing.

  15. OPAD-EDIFIS Real-Time Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katsinis, Constantine

    1997-01-01

    The Optical Plume Anomaly Detection (OPAD) detects engine hardware degradation of flight vehicles through identification and quantification of elemental species found in the plume by analyzing the plume emission spectra in a real-time mode. Real-time performance of OPAD relies on extensive software which must report metal amounts in the plume faster than once every 0.5 sec. OPAD software previously written by NASA scientists performed most necessary functions at speeds which were far below what is needed for real-time operation. The research presented in this report improved the execution speed of the software by optimizing the code without changing the algorithms and converting it into a parallelized form which is executed in a shared-memory multiprocessor system. The resulting code was subjected to extensive timing analysis. The report also provides suggestions for further performance improvement by (1) identifying areas of algorithm optimization, (2) recommending commercially available multiprocessor architectures and operating systems to support real-time execution and (3) presenting an initial study of fault-tolerance requirements.

  16. Real-Time Signal Processor for Pulsar Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramkumar, P. S.; Deshpande, A. A.

    2001-12-01

    This paper describes the design, tests and preliminary results of a real-time parallel signal processor built to aid a wide variety of pulsar observations. The signal processor reduces the distortions caused by the effects of dispersion, Faraday rotation, doppler acceleration and parallactic angle variations, at a sustained data rate of 32 Msamples/sec. It also folds the pulses coherently over the period and integrates adjacent samples in time and frequency to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio. The resulting data are recorded for further off-line analysis of the characteristics of pulsars and the intervening medium. The signal processing for analysis of pulsar signals is quite complex, imposing the need for a high computational throughput, typically of the order of a Giga operations per second (GOPS). Conventionally, the high computational demand restricts the flexibility to handle only a few types of pulsar observations. This instrument is designed to handle a wide variety of Pulsar observations with the Giant Metre Wave Radio Telescope (GMRT), and is flexible enough to be used in many other high-speed, signal processing applications. The technology used includes field-programmable-gate-array(FPGA) based data/code routing interfaces, PC-AT based control, diagnostics and data acquisition, digital signal processor (DSP) chip based parallel processing nodes and C language based control software and DSP-assembly programs for signal processing. The architecture and the software implementation of the parallel processor are fine-tuned to realize about 60 MOPS per DSP node and a multiple-instruction-multiple-data (MIMD) capability.

  17. Real time pressure signal system for a rotary engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, W. J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A real-time IMEP signal which is a composite of those produced in any one chamber of a three-lobed rotary engine is developed by processing the signals of four transducers positioned in a Wankel engine housing such that the rotor overlaps two of the transducers for a brief period during each cycle. During the overlap period of any two transducers, their output is compared and sampled for 10 microseconds per 0.18 degree of rotation by a sampling switch and capacitive circuit. When the switch is closed, the instantaneous difference between the value of the transducer signals is provided while with the switch open the average difference is produced. This combined signal, along with the original signal of the second transducer, is fed through a multiplexer to a pressure output terminal. Timing circuits, controlled by a crank angle encoder on the engine, determine which compared transducer signals are applied to the output terminal and when, as well as the open and closed periods of the switches.

  18. Real time reconstruction of quasiperiodic multi parameter physiological signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganeshapillai, Gartheeban; Guttag, John

    2012-12-01

    A modern intensive care unit (ICU) has automated analysis systems that depend on continuous uninterrupted real time monitoring of physiological signals such as electrocardiogram (ECG), arterial blood pressure (ABP), and photo-plethysmogram (PPG). These signals are often corrupted by noise, artifacts, and missing data. We present an automated learning framework for real time reconstruction of corrupted multi-parameter nonstationary quasiperiodic physiological signals. The key idea is to learn a patient-specific model of the relationships between signals, and then reconstruct corrupted segments using the information available in correlated signals. We evaluated our method on MIT-BIH arrhythmia data, a two-channel ECG dataset with many clinically significant arrhythmias, and on the CinC challenge 2010 data, a multi-parameter dataset containing ECG, ABP, and PPG. For each, we evaluated both the residual distance between the original signals and the reconstructed signals, and the performance of a heartbeat classifier on a reconstructed ECG signal. At an SNR of 0 dB, the average residual distance on the CinC data was roughly 3% of the energy in the signal, and on the arrhythmia database it was roughly 16%. The difference is attributable to the large amount of diversity in the arrhythmia database. Remarkably, despite the relatively high residual difference, the classification accuracy on the arrhythmia database was still 98%, indicating that our method restored the physiologically important aspects of the signal.

  19. Vector processing enhancements for real-time image analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Shoaf, S.; APS Engineering Support Division

    2008-01-01

    A real-time image analysis system was developed for beam imaging diagnostics. An Apple Power Mac G5 with an Active Silicon LFG frame grabber was used to capture video images that were processed and analyzed. Software routines were created to utilize vector-processing hardware to reduce the time to process images as compared to conventional methods. These improvements allow for more advanced image processing diagnostics to be performed in real time.

  20. High-density FPGAs for real-time video processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordhauser, Steven; Beckstead, Jeffrey A.; Castracane, James; Koltai, Peter J.; Mouzakes, Jason; Simkulet, Michelle D.

    1997-04-01

    The use of an off-the-shelf general purpose processing system supplied by Giga Operations as applied to real-time video applications is described. The system is modular enough to be used in many scientific and industrial applications and powerful enough to maintain the throughput required for real-time video processing. This hardware and the associated programming environment has enabled InterScience to pursue research in real-time data compression, real-time Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI) image processing, and industrial quality control and manufacturing. The system is based on Xilinx 4000 series field programmable gate arrays with associated static and dynamic random access memory in an architecture optimized for video processing on either the VL-Bus or PCI. This paper will focus on the design and development of a real-time frame subtractor for ESPI using this technology. Examples of the improvement in research capability provided by real-time frame subtraction are shown, including images from biomedical experiments. Further applications, based on this system are described. These include real-time data compression, quality control for production lines as part of an automated inspection system and a multi-camera security system allowing motion estimation to automatically prioritize camera selection.

  1. Infrared Signature Analysis: Real Time Monitoring Of Manufacturing Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangs, Edmund R.

    1988-01-01

    The ability to monitor manufacturing processes in an adaptive control mode and perform an inspection in real time is of interest to fabricators in the pressure vessel, aerospace, automotive, nuclear and shipbuilding industries. Results of a series of experiments using infrared thermography as the principal sensing mode are presented to show how artificial intelligence contained in infrared isotherm, contains vast critical process variables. Image processing computer software development has demonstrated in a spot welding application how the process can be monitored and controlled in real time. The IR vision sensor program is now under way. Research thus far has focused on fusion welding, resistance spot welding and metal removal.

  2. Real-Time "Garbage Collection" for List Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuler, Robert L., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Two proposed algorithmic techniques for list processing enable immediate identification of computer memory cells having become inactive through disconnection from active cells, together with addition of these inactive cells to pool of reusable cells. These two "garbage collection" techniques reduce memory requirements of list processors or increase their speed or both. With both techniques, processing continuity maintained, enabling real-time processing.

  3. Real-time hierarchically distributed processing network interaction simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, W. F.; Wu, C.

    1987-01-01

    The Telerobot Testbed is a hierarchically distributed processing system which is linked together through a standard, commercial Ethernet. Standard Ethernet systems are primarily designed to manage non-real-time information transfer. Therefore, collisions on the net (i.e., two or more sources attempting to send data at the same time) are managed by randomly rescheduling one of the sources to retransmit at a later time interval. Although acceptable for transmitting noncritical data such as mail, this particular feature is unacceptable for real-time hierarchical command and control systems such as the Telerobot. Data transfer and scheduling simulations, such as token ring, offer solutions to collision management, but do not appropriately characterize real-time data transfer/interactions for robotic systems. Therefore, models like these do not provide a viable simulation environment for understanding real-time network loading. A real-time network loading model is being developed which allows processor-to-processor interactions to be simulated, collisions (and respective probabilities) to be logged, collision-prone areas to be identified, and network control variable adjustments to be reentered as a means of examining and reducing collision-prone regimes that occur in the process of simulating a complete task sequence.

  4. Processing system for real-time holographic video computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nwodoh, Thomas A.; Bove, V. Michael, Jr.; Watlington, John A.; Benton, Stephen A.

    1999-08-01

    This paper discusses the Chidi holographic video processing system (called Holo-Chidi) used for real-time computation of computer generated holograms and the subsequent display of the holograms at video frame rates. Chidi is a reconfigurable multimedia processing system designed at the MIT Media Laboratory for real-time synthesis and analysis of multimedia data in general and digital video frames in particular. Holo-Chidi which is an adaptation of Chidi, comprises two main components: the sets of processor cards and the display interface cards.

  5. An Innovative Compiler For Programming And Designing Real-Time Signal Processors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petruschka, Orni; Torng, H. C.

    1986-04-01

    Real time signal processing tasks impose stringent requirements on computing systems. One approach to satisfying these demands is to employ intelligently interconnected multiple arithmetic units, such as multipliers, adders, logic units and others, to implement concurrent computations. Two problems emerge: 1) Programming: Programs with wide instruction words have to be developed to exercise the multiple arithmetic units fully and efficiently to meet the real-time processing loads; 2) Design: With a given set of real-time signal processing tasks, design procedures are needed to specify multiple arithmetic units and their interconnection schemes for the processor. This paper presents a compiler which provides a solution to the programming and design problems. The compiler that has been developed translates blocks of RISC-like instructions into programs of wide microinstructions; each of these microinstructions initiates many concurrently executable operations. In so doing, we seek to achieve the maximum utilization of execution resources and to complete processing tasks in minimum time. The compiler is based on an innovative "Dispatch Stack" concept, and has been applied to program Floating Point System(FPS) processors; the resulting program for computing inner-product and other signal processing tasks are as good as those obtained by laborious hand-compilation. We will then show that the compiler developed for programming can be used advantageously to design real-time signal processing systems with multiple arithmetic units.

  6. Real Time Calibration Method for Signal Conditioning Amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor); Mata, Carlos T. (Inventor); Eckhoff, Anthony (Inventor); Perotti, Jose (Inventor); Lucena, Angel (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A signal conditioning amplifier receives an input signal from an input such as a transducer. The signal is amplified and processed through an analog to digital converter and sent to a processor. The processor estimates the input signal provided by the transducer to the amplifier via a multiplexer. The estimated input signal is provided as a calibration voltage to the amplifier immediately following the receipt of the amplified input signal. The calibration voltage is amplified by the amplifier and provided to the processor as an amplified calibration voltage. The amplified calibration voltage is compared to the amplified input signal, and if a significant error exists, the gain and/or offset of the amplifier may be adjusted as necessary.

  7. Development of a real time bistatic radar receiver using signals of opportunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainville, Nicholas

    Passive bistatic radar remote sensing offers a novel method of monitoring the Earth's surface by observing reflected signals of opportunity. The Global Positioning System (GPS) has been used as a source of signals for these observations and the scattering properties of GPS signals from rough surfaces are well understood. Recent work has extended GPS signal reflection observations and scattering models to include communications signals such as XM radio signals. However the communication signal reflectometry experiments to date have relied on collecting raw, high data-rate signals which are then post-processed after the end of the experiment. This thesis describes the development of a communication signal bistatic radar receiver which computes a real time correlation waveform, which can be used to retrieve measurements of the Earth's surface. The real time bistatic receiver greatly reduces the quantity of data that must be stored to perform the remote sensing measurements, as well as offering immediate feedback. This expands the applications for the receiver to include space and bandwidth limited platforms such as aircraft and satellites. It also makes possible the adjustment of flight plans to the observed conditions. This real time receiver required the development of an FGPA based signal processor, along with the integration of commercial Satellite Digital Audio Radio System (SDARS) components. The resulting device was tested both in a lab environment as well on NOAA WP-3D and NASA WB-57 aircraft.

  8. An intelligent processing environment for real-time simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, Chester C.; Wells, Buren Earl, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The development of a highly efficient and thus truly intelligent processing environment for real-time general purpose simulation of continuous systems is described. Such an environment can be created by mapping the simulation process directly onto the University of Alamba's OPERA architecture. To facilitate this effort, the field of continuous simulation is explored, highlighting areas in which efficiency can be improved. Areas in which parallel processing can be applied are also identified, and several general OPERA type hardware configurations that support improved simulation are investigated. Three direct execution parallel processing environments are introduced, each of which greatly improves efficiency by exploiting distinct areas of the simulation process. These suggested environments are candidate architectures around which a highly intelligent real-time simulation configuration can be developed.

  9. Real-time implementation of the echo signal processing and digital scan conversion for medical ultrasound imaging with a single TMS320C6416 DSP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Choong; Sohn, Hak-Yeol; Han, Dong-Hoon; Song, Tai-Kyong

    2008-03-01

    Software implementation of a medical ultrasound imaging system using commercial DSPs (Digital Signal Processor) has advantages over FPGA- or ASIC-based system in development cost and time. The authors have developed a full software-based ultrasound scanner consisting of a typical analog front-end block and a DSP system. In this work, we present efficient methods for software realization of an echo processor to perform all the ultrasound signal processing functions following the receive beamforming. For implementation with a single TMS320C6416 DSP, the most computationally demanding functions such as dynamic filtering, quadrature demodulation, decimation, magnitude calculation, and log compression are implemented using modified algorithms and structures optimized to best match the DSP architecture for fast computation. The DSC (digital scan converter) is realized with an LUT for generating memory addresses and interpolation coefficients for each display point. The LUT table is stored in a single external SDRAM so that the internal DSP memory can be fully utilized by the DSP core to maximize the processing speed. The possible memory stall that can be caused by the external memory access is removed by properly employing the enhanced direct memory access channels. Experimental results show that the proposed implementation can support up to 4 kHz PRF (pulse repetition frequency) when the input data rate is 40 MHz.

  10. A real-time model of the synchronous machine based on digital signal processors

    SciTech Connect

    Do, Vanque; Barry, A.O. )

    1993-02-01

    A real-time digital model of a complete hydraulic synchronous machine is presented. The model is based on parallel processing using digital-signal processors (DSP) for fast calculation. The paper describes the modeling of the machine using block diagrams to represent the generator, voltage regulator, stabilizer, turbine, penstock and governor. Details of the hardware and software used to implement the real-time model of the machine are given. A first series of tests has been done and results are shown to evaluate the steady-state and transient performance of the model.

  11. An Algorithm for Network Real Time Kinematic Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malekzadeh, A.; Asgari, J.; Amiri-Simkooei, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    NRTK1 is an efficient method to achieve precise real time positioning from GNSS measurements. In this paper we attempt to improve NRTK algorithm by introducing a new strategy. In this strategy a precise relocation of master station observations is performed using Sagnac effect. After processing the double differences, the tropospheric and ionospheric errors of each baseline can be estimated separately. The next step is interpolation of these errors for the atmospheric errors mitigation of desired baseline. Linear and kriging interpolation methods are implemented in this study. In the new strategy the RINEX2 data of the master station is re-located and is converted to the desired virtual observations. Then the interpolated corrections are applied to the virtual observations. The results are compared by the classical method of VRS generation. 1 Network Real Time Kinematic 2 Receiver Independent Exchange Format

  12. Atlas-based multichannel monitoring of functional MRI signals in real-time: automated approach.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Hwan; O'Leary, Heather M; Park, Hyunwook; Jolesz, Ferenc A; Yoo, Seung-Schik

    2008-02-01

    We report an automated method to simultaneously monitor blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) MR signals from multiple cortical areas in real-time. Individual brain anatomy was normalized and registered to a pre-segmented atlas in standardized anatomical space. Subsequently, using real-time fMRI (rtfMRI) data acquisition, localized BOLD signals were measured and displayed from user-selected areas labeled with anatomical and Brodmann's Area (BA) nomenclature. The method was tested on healthy volunteers during the performance of hand motor and internal speech generation tasks employing a trial-based design. Our data normalization and registration algorithm, along with image reconstruction, movement correction and a data display routine were executed with enough processing and communication bandwidth necessary for real-time operation. Task-specific BOLD signals were observed from the hand motor and language areas. One of the study participants was allowed to freely engage in hand clenching tasks, and associated brain activities were detected from the motor-related neural substrates without prior knowledge of the task onset time. The proposed method may be applied to various applications such as neurofeedback, brain-computer-interface, and functional mapping for surgical planning where real-time monitoring of region-specific brain activity is needed. PMID:17370340

  13. Towards real-time remote processing of laparoscopic video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronaghi, Zahra; Duffy, Edward B.; Kwartowitz, David M.

    2015-03-01

    Laparoscopic surgery is a minimally invasive surgical technique where surgeons insert a small video camera into the patient's body to visualize internal organs and small tools to perform surgical procedures. However, the benefit of small incisions has a drawback of limited visualization of subsurface tissues, which can lead to navigational challenges in the delivering of therapy. Image-guided surgery (IGS) uses images to map subsurface structures and can reduce the limitations of laparoscopic surgery. One particular laparoscopic camera system of interest is the vision system of the daVinci-Si robotic surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA). The video streams generate approximately 360 megabytes of data per second, demonstrating a trend towards increased data sizes in medicine, primarily due to higher-resolution video cameras and imaging equipment. Processing this data on a bedside PC has become challenging and a high-performance computing (HPC) environment may not always be available at the point of care. To process this data on remote HPC clusters at the typical 30 frames per second (fps) rate, it is required that each 11.9 MB video frame be processed by a server and returned within 1/30th of a second. The ability to acquire, process and visualize data in real-time is essential for performance of complex tasks as well as minimizing risk to the patient. As a result, utilizing high-speed networks to access computing clusters will lead to real-time medical image processing and improve surgical experiences by providing real-time augmented laparoscopic data. We aim to develop a medical video processing system using an OpenFlow software defined network that is capable of connecting to multiple remote medical facilities and HPC servers.

  14. Toward real-time remote processing of laparoscopic video.

    PubMed

    Ronaghi, Zahra; Duffy, Edward B; Kwartowitz, David M

    2015-10-01

    Laparoscopic surgery is a minimally invasive surgical technique where surgeons insert a small video camera into the patient's body to visualize internal organs and use small tools to perform surgical procedures. However, the benefit of small incisions has a drawback of limited visualization of subsurface tissues, which can lead to navigational challenges in the delivering of therapy. Image-guided surgery uses the images to map subsurface structures and can reduce the limitations of laparoscopic surgery. One particular laparoscopic camera system of interest is the vision system of the daVinci-Si robotic surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, California). The video streams generate approximately 360 MB of data per second, demonstrating a trend toward increased data sizes in medicine, primarily due to higher-resolution video cameras and imaging equipment. Processing this data on a bedside PC has become challenging and a high-performance computing (HPC) environment may not always be available at the point of care. To process this data on remote HPC clusters at the typical 30 frames per second (fps) rate, it is required that each 11.9 MB video frame be processed by a server and returned within 1/30th of a second. The ability to acquire, process, and visualize data in real time is essential for the performance of complex tasks as well as minimizing risk to the patient. As a result, utilizing high-speed networks to access computing clusters will lead to real-time medical image processing and improve surgical experiences by providing real-time augmented laparoscopic data. We have performed image processing algorithms on a high-definition head phantom video (1920 × 1080 pixels) and transferred the video using a message passing interface. The total transfer time is around 53 ms or 19 fps. We will optimize and parallelize these algorithms to reduce the total time to 30 ms. PMID:26668817

  15. A novel algorithm for real-time adaptive signal detection and identification

    SciTech Connect

    Sleefe, G.E.; Ladd, M.D.; Gallegos, D.E.; Sicking, C.W.; Erteza, I.A.

    1998-04-01

    This paper describes a novel digital signal processing algorithm for adaptively detecting and identifying signals buried in noise. The algorithm continually computes and updates the long-term statistics and spectral characteristics of the background noise. Using this noise model, a set of adaptive thresholds and matched digital filters are implemented to enhance and detect signals that are buried in the noise. The algorithm furthermore automatically suppresses coherent noise sources and adapts to time-varying signal conditions. Signal detection is performed in both the time-domain and the frequency-domain, thereby permitting the detection of both broad-band transients and narrow-band signals. The detection algorithm also provides for the computation of important signal features such as amplitude, timing, and phase information. Signal identification is achieved through a combination of frequency-domain template matching and spectral peak picking. The algorithm described herein is well suited for real-time implementation on digital signal processing hardware. This paper presents the theory of the adaptive algorithm, provides an algorithmic block diagram, and demonstrate its implementation and performance with real-world data. The computational efficiency of the algorithm is demonstrated through benchmarks on specific DSP hardware. The applications for this algorithm, which range from vibration analysis to real-time image processing, are also discussed.

  16. A real-time dashboard for managing pathology processes

    PubMed Central

    Halwani, Fawaz; Li, Wei Chen; Banerjee, Diponkar; Lessard, Lysanne; Amyot, Daniel; Michalowski, Wojtek; Giffen, Randy

    2016-01-01

    Context: The Eastern Ontario Regional Laboratory Association (EORLA) is a newly established association of all the laboratory and pathology departments of Eastern Ontario that currently includes facilities from eight hospitals. All surgical specimens for EORLA are processed in one central location, the Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine (DPLM) at The Ottawa Hospital (TOH), where the rapid growth and influx of surgical and cytology specimens has created many challenges in ensuring the timely processing of cases and reports. Although the entire process is maintained and tracked in a clinical information system, this system lacks pre-emptive warnings that can help management address issues as they arise. Aims: Dashboard technology provides automated, real-time visual clues that could be used to alert management when a case or specimen is not being processed within predefined time frames. We describe the development of a dashboard helping pathology clinical management to make informed decisions on specimen allocation and tracking. Methods: The dashboard was designed and developed in two phases, following a prototyping approach. The first prototype of the dashboard helped monitor and manage pathology processes at the DPLM. Results: The use of this dashboard helped to uncover operational inefficiencies and contributed to an improvement of turn-around time within The Ottawa Hospital's DPML. It also allowed the discovery of additional requirements, leading to a second prototype that provides finer-grained, real-time information about individual cases and specimens. Conclusion: We successfully developed a dashboard that enables managers to address delays and bottlenecks in specimen allocation and tracking. This support ensures that pathology reports are provided within time frame standards required for high-quality patient care. Given the importance of rapid diagnostics for a number of diseases, the use of real-time dashboards within pathology departments could

  17. A real-time optical data processing device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, A.; Grinberg, J.; Bleha, W.; Miller, L.; Fraas, L.; Myer, G.; Boswell, D.

    1975-01-01

    The design, operation, and structure of the hybrid field effect light valve, a real-time input device for application to coherent optical data processing (CODP), is described. The device consists of a sandwich of thin films that electrically control the optical birefringence of a thin (2 micrometer) liquid crystal layer. It has high resolution (greater than 100 1/mm), contrast ratio (greater than 100:1), speed (10 sec on, 15 sec off) and input sensitivity (about 0.3 ergs/sq cm) in addition to cost and size advantages. Performance data for a laboratory model are presented.

  18. HPC enabled real-time remote processing of laparoscopic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronaghi, Zahra; Sapra, Karan; Izard, Ryan; Duffy, Edward; Smith, Melissa C.; Wang, Kuang-Ching; Kwartowitz, David M.

    2016-03-01

    Laparoscopic surgery is a minimally invasive surgical technique. The benefit of small incisions has a disadvantage of limited visualization of subsurface tissues. Image-guided surgery (IGS) uses pre-operative and intra-operative images to map subsurface structures. One particular laparoscopic system is the daVinci-si robotic surgical system. The video streams generate approximately 360 megabytes of data per second. Real-time processing this large stream of data on a bedside PC, single or dual node setup, has become challenging and a high-performance computing (HPC) environment may not always be available at the point of care. To process this data on remote HPC clusters at the typical 30 frames per second rate, it is required that each 11.9 MB video frame be processed by a server and returned within 1/30th of a second. We have implement and compared performance of compression, segmentation and registration algorithms on Clemson's Palmetto supercomputer using dual NVIDIA K40 GPUs per node. Our computing framework will also enable reliability using replication of computation. We will securely transfer the files to remote HPC clusters utilizing an OpenFlow-based network service, Steroid OpenFlow Service (SOS) that can increase performance of large data transfers over long-distance and high bandwidth networks. As a result, utilizing high-speed OpenFlow- based network to access computing clusters with GPUs will improve surgical procedures by providing real-time medical image processing and laparoscopic data.

  19. A conceptual framework for intelligent real-time information processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schudy, Robert

    1987-01-01

    By combining artificial intelligence concepts with the human information processing model of Rasmussen, a conceptual framework was developed for real time artificial intelligence systems which provides a foundation for system organization, control and validation. The approach is based on the description of system processing terms of an abstraction hierarchy of states of knowledge. The states of knowledge are organized along one dimension which corresponds to the extent to which the concepts are expressed in terms of the system inouts or in terms of the system response. Thus organized, the useful states form a generally triangular shape with the sensors and effectors forming the lower two vertices and the full evaluated set of courses of action the apex. Within the triangle boundaries are numerous processing paths which shortcut the detailed processing, by connecting incomplete levels of analysis to partially defined responses. Shortcuts at different levels of abstraction include reflexes, sensory motor control, rule based behavior, and satisficing. This approach was used in the design of a real time tactical decision aiding system, and in defining an intelligent aiding system for transport pilots.

  20. Near Real-Time Processing of Proteomics Data Using Hadoop.

    PubMed

    Hillman, Chris; Ahmad, Yasmeen; Whitehorn, Mark; Cobley, Andy

    2014-03-01

    This article presents a near real-time processing solution using MapReduce and Hadoop. The solution is aimed at some of the data management and processing challenges facing the life sciences community. Research into genes and their product proteins generates huge volumes of data that must be extensively preprocessed before any biological insight can be gained. In order to carry out this processing in a timely manner, we have investigated the use of techniques from the big data field. These are applied specifically to process data resulting from mass spectrometers in the course of proteomic experiments. Here we present methods of handling the raw data in Hadoop, and then we investigate a process for preprocessing the data using Java code and the MapReduce framework to identify 2D and 3D peaks. PMID:27447310

  1. Real-time image processing architecture for robot vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persa, Stelian; Jonker, Pieter P.

    2000-10-01

    This paper presents a study of the impact of MMX technology and PIII Streaming SIMD (Single Instruction stream, Multiple Data stream). Extensions in image processing and machine vision application, which, because of their hard real time constrains, is an undoubtedly challenging task. A comparison with traditional scalar code and with other parallel SIMD architecture (IMPA-VISION board) is discussed with emphasis of the particular programming strategies for speed optimization. More precisely we discuss the low level and intermediate level image processing algorithms, which are best suited for parallel SIMD implementation. High-level image processing algorithms are more suitable for parallel implementation on MIMD architectures. While the IMAP-VISION system performs better because of the large number of processing elements, the MMX processor and PIII (with Streaming SIMD Extensions) remains a good candidate for low-level image processing.

  2. Real-Time Monitoring of Psychotherapeutic Processes: Concept and Compliance

    PubMed Central

    Schiepek, Günter; Aichhorn, Wolfgang; Gruber, Martin; Strunk, Guido; Bachler, Egon; Aas, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The feasibility of a high-frequency real-time monitoring approach to psychotherapy is outlined and tested for patients' compliance to evaluate its integration to everyday practice. Criteria concern the ecological momentary assessment, the assessment of therapy-related cognitions and emotions, equidistant time sampling, real-time nonlinear time series analysis, continuous participative process control by client and therapist, and the application of idiographic (person-specific) surveys. Methods: The process-outcome monitoring is technically realized by an internet-based device for data collection and data analysis, the Synergetic Navigation System. Its feasibility is documented by a compliance study on 151 clients treated in an inpatient and a day-treatment clinic. Results: We found high compliance rates (mean: 78.3%, median: 89.4%) amongst the respondents, independent of the severity of symptoms or the degree of impairment. Compared to other diagnoses, the compliance rate was lower in the group diagnosed with personality disorders. Conclusion: The results support the feasibility of high-frequency monitoring in routine psychotherapy settings. Daily collection of psychological surveys allows for the assessment of highly resolved, equidistant time series data which gives insight into the nonlinear qualities of therapeutic change processes (e.g., pattern transitions, critical instabilities). PMID:27199837

  3. Severe storms measurement system real time data processing and displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeffreys, H. B.

    1980-01-01

    The objectives of the system are to provide the system operator with real time system performance check and to provide data recording of all SSMS data. Meteorologists are provided with real time indication of meteorological data measurements including aid for directing flight profiles in real time and aid for directing SSMS operations. A day-to-day feedback is provided to meteorologists, system operators, and flight crews for flight planning on subsequent flight tests days.

  4. Methods for real-time speech processing on Unix

    SciTech Connect

    Romberger, A.

    1982-01-01

    The author discusses computer programming done at the University of California, Berkeley, in support of research work in the area of speech analysis and synthesis. The purpose of this programming is to set up a system for doing real-time speech sampling using the Unix operating system. Two alternative approaches to real time work on Unix are discussed. The first approach is to do the real-time input/output on a secondary (satellite) machine that is not running Unix. The second approach is to do the real-time input/output on the main machine with the aid of special hardware.

  5. Multiprocessor DSP for real-time data processing on Earth orbiting scatterometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachmann, A.; Clark, D.; Lux, J.; Steffke, R.

    2000-01-01

    The implementation of a Multi DSP radar signal processor for a Ku-Band Earth orbiting scatterometer is discussed. A testbed has been assembled using a combination of commercial DSP hardware and spaceflight components to evaluate the proposed multiprocessing approaches. Test results of real-time radar echo processing are presented, as well as proposed designs for future investigation.

  6. A new method of real-time signal extraction for diffuse reflection laser ranging based on Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Yan; Qian, Weiping

    2015-10-01

    Diffuse reflection laser ranging is one of the feasible ways to realize high precision measurement of the space debris. However, the weak echo of diffuse reflection results in a poor signal-to-noise ratio. Thus, it is difficult to realize the real-time signal extraction for diffuse reflection laser ranging when echo signal photons are blocked by a large amount of noise photons. The Genetic Algorithm, originally evolved from the idea of natural selection process, is a heuristic search algorithm which is famous for the adaptive optimization and the global search ability. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first one to propose a method of real-time signal extraction for diffuse reflection laser ranging based on Genetic Algorithm. The extraction results are regarded as individuals in the population. Besides, short-term linear fitting degree and data correlation level are used as selection criteria to search for an optimal solution. Fine search in the real-time data part gives the suitable new data quickly in real-time signal extraction. A coarse search in both historical data and real-time data after the fine search is designed. The co-evolution of both parts can increase the search accuracy of real-time data as well as the precision of the history data. Simulation experiments show that our method has good signal extraction capability in poor signal-to-noise ratio circumstance, especially for data with high correlation.

  7. Real-Time Fault Classification for Plasma Processes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ryan; Chen, Rongshun

    2011-01-01

    Plasma process tools, which usually cost several millions of US dollars, are often used in the semiconductor fabrication etching process. If the plasma process is halted due to some process fault, the productivity will be reduced and the cost will increase. In order to maximize the product/wafer yield and tool productivity, a timely and effective fault process detection is required in a plasma reactor. The classification of fault events can help the users to quickly identify fault processes, and thus can save downtime of the plasma tool. In this work, optical emission spectroscopy (OES) is employed as the metrology sensor for in-situ process monitoring. Splitting into twelve different match rates by spectrum bands, the matching rate indicator in our previous work (Yang, R.; Chen, R.S. Sensors 2010, 10, 5703–5723) is used to detect the fault process. Based on the match data, a real-time classification of plasma faults is achieved by a novel method, developed in this study. Experiments were conducted to validate the novel fault classification. From the experimental results, we may conclude that the proposed method is feasible inasmuch that the overall accuracy rate of the classification for fault event shifts is 27 out of 28 or about 96.4% in success. PMID:22164001

  8. The psychophysiology of real-time financial risk processing.

    PubMed

    Lo, Andrew W; Repin, Dmitry V

    2002-04-01

    A longstanding controversy in economics and finance is whether financial markets are governed by rational forces or by emotional responses. We study the importance of emotion in the decision-making process of professional securities traders by measuring their physiological characteristics (e.g., skin conductance, blood volume pulse, etc.) during live trading sessions while simultaneously capturing real-time prices from which market events can be detected. In a sample of 10 traders, we find statistically significant differences in mean electrodermal responses during transient market events relative to no-event control periods, and statistically significant mean changes in cardiovascular variables during periods of heightened market volatility relative to normal-volatility control periods. We also observe significant differences in these physiological responses across the 10 traders that may be systematically related to the traders' levels of experience. PMID:11970795

  9. A real-time optical data processing device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, A.; Grinberg, J.; Bleha, W.; Miller, L.; Fraas, L.; Myer, G.; Boswell, D.

    1976-01-01

    A novel liquid-crystal electro-optical device useful as a real-time input device in coherent optical data processing is described. The device is a special adaptation of an ac photoactivated liquid-crystal light valve, and utilizes a hybrid field effect (45 deg twisted nematic effect in OFF state and pure optical birefringence of the liquid crystal in ON state). A thin-film sandwich exerts photoelectric control over the optical birefringence of a thin liquid-crystal layer. Liquid-crystal layer thickness is successfully reduced without image degradation. The device offers high resolution (better than 100 lines/mm), contrast (better than 100/1), high speed (10 msec ON, 15 msec OFF), high input sensitivity, low power input, low fabrication cost, and can be operated at below 10 V rms. Preliminary measurements on device performance in level slicing, filtering, contrast reversal, and edge enhancement are under way.

  10. A programmable microcomputer for real time speech processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apelewicz, T.; Schilling, D. L.

    1977-01-01

    The implementation of a programmable microprocessor for real time speech processing is described. The design of a fast special-purpose computer operating at 150 nsec per instruction time reduces the problem of speech encoding and decoding to a software problem. Each instruction is a twelve-bit word, and the information conveyed by a word is explained. The microprocessor is controlled by two clocks - the A/D clock, or input sampling clock, which loads the digital input into the input register and presets the counter to a value set by the external switches; and the instruction clock, or system clock, which operates at 6 MHz. At this system clock rate and a sampling clock rate of 30 KHz, 200 instructions can be executed between samples, and for many speech encoding and decoding algorithms, 200 instructions are more than enough. The microcomputer is being used to test various delta modulator encoding algorithms.

  11. Management Of Airborne Reconnaissance Images Through Real-Time Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endsley, Neil H.

    1985-12-01

    Digital reconnaissance images gathered by low-altitude over-flights with resolutions on the order of a few feet and fields of view up to 120 degrees can generate millions of pixels per second. Storing this data in-flight, transmitting it to the ground, and analyzing it presents significant problems to the tactical community. One potential solution is in-flight preview and pruning of the data where an operator keeps or transmits only those image segments which on first view contain potential intelligence data. To do this, the images must be presented to the operator in a geometrically correct form. Wide-angle dis-tortion, distortions induced by yaw, pitch, roll and altitude variations, and distortions due to non-ideal alignment of the focal plane array must be removed so the operator can quickly assess the scene content and make decisions on which image segments to keep. When multiple sensors are used with a common field of view, they must be mutually coregistered to permit multispectral or multimode processing to exploit these rich data dimensions. In addition, the operator should be able to alter the apparent point of view of the image, i.e., be able to zoom in and out, rotate, and roam through the displayed field of view while maintaining geometric and radiometric precision. These disparate requirements have a common feature in the ability to perform real-time image geometry manipulation. The role of image geometry manipulation, or image warping, is reviewed and a "strawman" system dis-cussed which incorporates the Pipelined Resampling Processor (PRP). The PRP is a real-time image warping processor discussed at this conference in previous years"2'3". Actual results from the PRP prototype are presented. In addition, other image processing aids such as image enhancement and object classification are discussed as they apply to reconnaissance applications.

  12. Architecture and implementation for high-bandwidth real-time radar signal transmission and computing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Yoong-Goog; Chandrasekar, V.; Jayasumana, Anura P.; Brunkow, David

    2002-06-01

    he design, architecture, and implementation for the high-throughput data transmission and high-performance computing,which are applicable for various real-time radar signal transmission applications over the data network, are presented. With a client-server model, the multiple processes and threads on the end systems operate simultaneously and collaborately to meet the real-time requirement. The design covers the Digitized Radar Signal (DRS) data acquisition and data transmission on the DRS server end as well as DRS data receiving, radar signal parameter computation and parameter transmission on the DRS receiver end. Generic packet and data structures for transmission and inter-process data sharing are constructed. The architecture was successfully implemented on Sun/Solaris workstations with dual 750 MHz UltraSPARC-III processors containing Gigabit Ethernet card. The comparison in transmission throughput over gigabit link between with computation and without computation clearly shows the importance of the signal processing capability on the end-to-end performance. Profiling analysis on the DRS receiver process shows the work-loaded functions and provides guides for improving computing capabilities.

  13. Near Real Time Processing Chain for Suomi NPP Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monsorno, Roberto; Cuozzo, Giovanni; Costa, Armin; Mateescu, Gabriel; Ventura, Bartolomeo; Zebisch, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Since 2009, the EURAC satellite receiving station, located at Corno del Renon, in a free obstacle site at 2260 m a.s.l., has been acquiring data from Aqua and Terra NASA satellites equipped with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors. The experience gained with this local ground segmenthas given the opportunity of adapting and modifying the processing chain for MODIS data to the Suomi NPP, the natural successor to Terra and Aqua satellites. The processing chain, initially implemented by mean of a proprietary system supplied by Seaspace and Advanced Computer System, was further developed by EURAC's Institute for Applied Remote Sensing engineers. Several algorithms have been developed using MODIS and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) data to produce Snow Cover, Particulate Matter estimation and Meteo maps. These products are implemented on a common processor structure based on the use of configuration files and a generic processor. Data and products have then automatically delivered to the customers such as the Autonomous Province of Bolzano-Civil Protection office. For the processing phase we defined two goals: i) the adaptation and implementation of the products already available for MODIS (and possibly new ones) to VIIRS, that is one of the sensors onboard Suomi NPP; ii) the use of an open source processing chain in order to process NPP data in Near Real Time, exploiting the knowledge we acquired on parallel computing. In order to achieve the second goal, the S-NPP data received and ingested are sent as input to RT-STPS (Real-time Software Telemetry Processing System) software developed by the NASA Direct Readout Laboratory 1 (DRL) that gives as output RDR files (Raw Data Record) for VIIRS, ATMS (Advanced Technology Micorwave Sounder) and CrIS (Cross-track Infrared Sounder)sensors. RDR are then transferred to a server equipped with CSPP2 (Community Satellite Processing Package) software developed by the University of

  14. Real Time Phase Noise Meter Based on a Digital Signal Processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angrisani, Leopoldo; D'Arco, Mauro; Greenhall, Charles A.; Schiano Lo Morille, Rosario

    2006-01-01

    A digital signal-processing meter for phase noise measurement on sinusoidal signals is dealt with. It enlists a special hardware architecture, made up of a core digital signal processor connected to a data acquisition board, and takes advantage of a quadrature demodulation-based measurement scheme, already proposed by the authors. Thanks to an efficient measurement process and an optimized implementation of its fundamental stages, the proposed meter succeeds in exploiting all hardware resources in such an effective way as to gain high performance and real-time operation. For input frequencies up to some hundreds of kilohertz, the meter is capable both of updating phase noise power spectrum while seamlessly capturing the analyzed signal into its memory, and granting as good frequency resolution as few units of hertz.

  15. Real-time distortion correction of fish-eye lens based on Bayer image signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Shiming; Xiong, Zhihui; Chen, Lidong; Tan, Xin; Zhang, Maojun

    2014-03-01

    The imaging system based on a fish-eye lens generally has to correct the distortion of fish-eye images. The distortion correction based on the Bayer image signal is valuable, such as reducing the computation burden of image signal processing chips and providing a new imaging system structure of fish-eye lens. In this paper, a distortion correction method of fish-eye lens based on the Bayer image signal is proposed. Firstly, a distortion correction method that focuses on vertical straight lines and processing delay is proposed. Secondly, according to the correlation among color channels of the Bayer image, a novel Hermite interpolation method appropriate for Bayer image signal is proposed. Finally, a prototype system of fish-eye-lens-based imaging is established and the real-time field-programmable gate array (FPGA) implementation of the proposed method is demonstrated. The experiment demonstrates that the proposed distortion correction is not only characteristic of real-time processing and the smaller computation amount, but also applicable to embedded hardware.

  16. GPUs for real-time processing in HEP trigger systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamanna, G.; Ammendola, R.; Bauce, M.; Biagioni, A.; Fantechi, R.; Fiorini, M.; Giagu, S.; Graverini, E.; Lamanna, G.; Lonardo, A.; Messina, A.; Pantaleo, F.; Paolucci, P. S.; Piandani, R.; Rescigno, M.; Simula, F.; Sozzi, M.; Vicini, P.

    2014-06-01

    We describe a pilot project for the use of Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) for online triggering applications in High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments. Two major trends can be identified in the development of trigger and DAQ systems for HEP experiments: the massive use of general-purpose commodity systems such as commercial multicore PC farms for data acquisition, and the reduction of trigger levels implemented in hardware, towards a pure software selection system (trigger-less). The very innovative approach presented here aims at exploiting the parallel computing power of commercial GPUs to perform fast computations in software both at low- and high-level trigger stages. General-purpose computing on GPUs is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to the specific strengths of such devices as accelerator in offline computation. With the steady reduction of GPU latencies, and the increase in link and memory throughputs, the use of such devices for real-time applications in high-energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems is becoming very attractive. We discuss in details the use of online parallel computing on GPUs for synchronous low-level trigger with fixed latency. In particular we show preliminary results on a first test in the NA62 experiment at CERN. The use of GPUs in high-level triggers is also considered, the ATLAS experiment (and in particular the muon trigger) at CERN will be taken as a study case of possible applications.

  17. The Real-Time Processing of Sluiced Sentences

    PubMed Central

    Wolfinger, Katie; Spellman, Lisa; Shapiro, Lewis P.

    2012-01-01

    Ellipsis refers to an element that is absent from the input but whose meaning can nonetheless be recovered from context. In this cross-modal priming study, we examined the online processing of Sluicing, an ellipsis whose antecedent is an entire clause: The handyman threw a book to the programmer but I don’t know which book the handyman threw to the programmerellipsis. To understand such an elliptical construction, the listener arguably must ‘fill in’ the missing material (“the handyman threw___ to the programmer”) based on that which occurs in the antecedent clause. We aimed to determine the point in time in which reconstruction of the sluiced sentence is attempted and whether such a complex antecedent is re-accessed by the ellipsis. Out of the two antecedent constituents for which we probed, only the Object (programmer) was found active in the elliptical clause, confirming that an antecedent is attributed to the sluice in real time. Possible reasons for the non-observation of the Subject (handyman) are considered. We also suggest that ellipses are detected earlier in coordinated than subordinated sentences. PMID:20229060

  18. GPUs for real-time processing in HEP trigger systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammendola, R.; Biagioni, A.; Deri, L.; Fiorini, M.; Frezza, O.; Lamanna, G.; Lo Cicero, F.; Lonardo, A.; Messina, A.; Sozzi, M.; Pantaleo, F.; Paolucci, Ps; Rossetti, D.; Simula, F.; Tosoratto, L.; Vicini, P.; Gap Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    We describe a pilot project (GAP - GPU Application Project) for the use of GPUs (Graphics processing units) for online triggering applications in High Energy Physics experiments. Two major trends can be identified in the development of trigger and DAQ systems for particle physics experiments: the massive use of general-purpose commodity systems such as commercial multicore PC farms for data acquisition, and the reduction of trigger levels implemented in hardware, towards a fully software data selection system ("trigger-less"). The innovative approach presented here aims at exploiting the parallel computing power of commercial GPUs to perform fast computations in software not only in high level trigger levels but also in early trigger stages. General-purpose computing on GPUs is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to the specific strengths of such devices as accelerators in offline computation. With the steady reduction of GPU latencies, and the increase in link and memory throughputs, the use of such devices for real-time applications in high energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems is becoming relevant. We discuss in detail the use of online parallel computing on GPUs for synchronous low-level triggers with fixed latency. In particular we show preliminary results on a first test in the CERN NA62 experiment. The use of GPUs in high level triggers is also considered, the CERN ATLAS experiment being taken as a case study of possible applications.

  19. FRET microscopy for real-time monitoring of signaling events in live cells using unimolecular biosensors.

    PubMed

    Sprenger, Julia U; Perera, Ruwan K; Götz, Konrad R; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O

    2012-01-01

    Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) microscopy continues to gain increasing interest as a technique for real-time monitoring of biochemical and signaling events in live cells and tissues. Compared to classical biochemical methods, this novel technology is characterized by high temporal and spatial resolution. FRET experiments use various genetically-encoded biosensors which can be expressed and imaged over time in situ or in vivo. Typical biosensors can either report protein-protein interactions by measuring FRET between a fluorophore-tagged pair of proteins or conformational changes in a single protein which harbors donor and acceptor fluorophores interconnected with a binding moiety for a molecule of interest. Bimolecular biosensors for protein-protein interactions include, for example, constructs designed to monitor G-protein activation in cells, while the unimolecular sensors measuring conformational changes are widely used to image second messengers such as calcium, cAMP, inositol phosphates and cGMP. Here we describe how to build a customized epifluorescence FRET imaging system from single commercially available components and how to control the whole setup using the Micro-Manager freeware. This simple but powerful instrument is designed for routine or more sophisticated FRET measurements in live cells. Acquired images are processed using self-written plug-ins to visualize changes in FRET ratio in real-time during any experiments before being stored in a graphics format compatible with the build-in ImageJ freeware used for subsequent data analysis. This low-cost system is characterized by high flexibility and can be successfully used to monitor various biochemical events and signaling molecules by a plethora of available FRET biosensors in live cells and tissues. As an example, we demonstrate how to use this imaging system to perform real-time monitoring of cAMP in live 293A cells upon stimulation with a β-adrenergic receptor agonist and blocker. PMID

  20. A computational approach to real-time image processing for serial time-encoded amplified microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikawa, Minoru; Hiyama, Daisuke; Hirayama, Ryuji; Hasegawa, Satoki; Endo, Yutaka; Sugie, Takahisa; Tsumura, Norimichi; Kuroshima, Mai; Maki, Masanori; Okada, Genki; Lei, Cheng; Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Goda, Keisuke; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi

    2016-03-01

    High-speed imaging is an indispensable technique, particularly for identifying or analyzing fast-moving objects. The serial time-encoded amplified microscopy (STEAM) technique was proposed to enable us to capture images with a frame rate 1,000 times faster than using conventional methods such as CCD (charge-coupled device) cameras. The application of this high-speed STEAM imaging technique to a real-time system, such as flow cytometry for a cell-sorting system, requires successively processing a large number of captured images with high throughput in real time. We are now developing a high-speed flow cytometer system including a STEAM camera. In this paper, we describe our approach to processing these large amounts of image data in real time. We use an analog-to-digital converter that has up to 7.0G samples/s and 8-bit resolution for capturing the output voltage signal that involves grayscale images from the STEAM camera. Therefore the direct data output from the STEAM camera generates 7.0G byte/s continuously. We provided a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) device as a digital signal pre-processor for image reconstruction and finding objects in a microfluidic channel with high data rates in real time. We also utilized graphics processing unit (GPU) devices for accelerating the calculation speed of identification of the reconstructed images. We built our prototype system, which including a STEAM camera, a FPGA device and a GPU device, and evaluated its performance in real-time identification of small particles (beads), as virtual biological cells, owing through a microfluidic channel.

  1. Wavelet Transform for Real-Time Detection of Action Potentials in Neural Signals

    PubMed Central

    Quotb, Adam; Bornat, Yannick; Renaud, Sylvie

    2011-01-01

    We present a study on wavelet detection methods of neuronal action potentials (APs). Our final goal is to implement the selected algorithms on custom integrated electronics for on-line processing of neural signals; therefore we take real-time computing as a hard specification and silicon area as a price to pay. Using simulated neural signals including APs, we characterize an efficient wavelet method for AP extraction by evaluating its detection rate and its implementation cost. We compare software implementation for three methods: adaptive threshold, discrete wavelet transform (DWT), and stationary wavelet transform (SWT). We evaluate detection rate and implementation cost for detection functions dynamically comparing a signal with an adaptive threshold proportional to its SD, where the signal is the raw neural signal, respectively: (i) non-processed; (ii) processed by a DWT; (iii) processed by a SWT. We also use different mother wavelets and test different data formats to set an optimal compromise between accuracy and silicon cost. Detection accuracy is evaluated together with false negative and false positive detections. Simulation results show that for on-line AP detection implemented on a configurable digital integrated circuit, APs underneath the noise level can be detected using SWT with a well-selected mother wavelet, combined to an adaptive threshold. PMID:21811455

  2. Real-time synchronization of wireless sensor network by 1-PPS signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giammarini, Marco; Pieralisi, Marco; Isidori, Daniela; Concettoni, Enrico; Cristalli, Cristina; Fioravanti, Matteo

    2015-05-01

    The use of wireless sensor networks with different nodes is desirable in a smart environment, because the network setting up and installation on preexisting structures can be done without a fixed cabled infrastructure. The flexibility of the monitoring system is fundamental where the use of a considerable quantity of cables could compromise the normal exercise, could affect the quality of acquired signal and finally increase the cost of the materials and installation. The network is composed of several intelligent "nodes", which acquires data from different kind of sensors, and then store or transmit them to a central elaboration unit. The synchronization of data acquisition is the core of the real-time wireless sensor network (WSN). In this paper, we present a comparison between different methods proposed by literature for the real-time acquisition in a WSN and finally we present our solution based on 1-Pulse-Per-Second (1-PPS) signal generated by GPS systems. The sensor node developed is a small-embedded system based on ARM microcontroller that manages the acquisition, the timing and the post-processing of the data. The communications between the sensors and the master based on IEEE 802.15.4 protocol and managed by dedicated software. Finally, we present the preliminary results obtained on a 3 floor building simulator with the wireless sensors system developed.

  3. Real-time processing of radar return on a parallel computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aalfs, David D.

    1992-01-01

    NASA is working with the FAA to demonstrate the feasibility of pulse Doppler radar as a candidate airborne sensor to detect low altitude windshears. The need to provide the pilot with timely information about possible hazards has motivated a demand for real-time processing of a radar return. Investigated here is parallel processing as a means of accommodating the high data rates required. A PC based parallel computer, called the transputer, is used to investigate issues in real time concurrent processing of radar signals. A transputer network is made up of an array of single instruction stream processors that can be networked in a variety of ways. They are easily reconfigured and software development is largely independent of the particular network topology. The performance of the transputer is evaluated in light of the computational requirements. A number of algorithms have been implemented on the transputers in OCCAM, a language specially designed for parallel processing. These include signal processing algorithms such as the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), pulse-pair, and autoregressive modelling, as well as routing software to support concurrency. The most computationally intensive task is estimating the spectrum. Two approaches have been taken on this problem, the first and most conventional of which is to use the FFT. By using table look-ups for the basis function and other optimizing techniques, an algorithm has been developed that is sufficient for real time. The other approach is to model the signal as an autoregressive process and estimate the spectrum based on the model coefficients. This technique is attractive because it does not suffer from the spectral leakage problem inherent in the FFT. Benchmark tests indicate that autoregressive modeling is feasible in real time.

  4. Medical Image Processing Using Real-Time Optical Fourier Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, D. V. G. L. N.; Panchangam, Appaji; Sastry, K. V. L. N.; Material Science Team

    2001-03-01

    Optical Image Processing Techniques are inherently fast in view of parallel processing. A self-adaptive Optical Fourier Processing system using photo induced dichroism in a Bacteriorhodopsin film was experimentally demonstrated for medical image processing. Application of this powerful analog all-optical interactive technique for cancer diagnostics is illustrated with mammograms and Pap smears. Micro calcification clusters buried in surrounding tissue showed up clearly in the processed image. By playing with one knob, which rotates the analyzer in the optical system, either the micro calcification clusters or the surrounding dense tissue can be selectively displayed. Bacteriorhodopsin films are stable up to 140^oC and environmental friendly. As no interference is involved in the experiments, vibration isolation and even a coherent light source are not required. It may be possible to develop a low-cost rugged battery operated portable signal-enhancing magnifier.

  5. Real-time Graphics Processing Unit Based Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography and Surgical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kang

    2011-12-01

    In this dissertation, real-time Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) capable of multi-dimensional micrometer-resolution imaging targeted specifically for microsurgical intervention applications was developed and studied. As a part of this work several ultra-high speed real-time FD-OCT imaging and sensing systems were proposed and developed. A real-time 4D (3D+time) OCT system platform using the graphics processing unit (GPU) to accelerate OCT signal processing, the imaging reconstruction, visualization, and volume rendering was developed. Several GPU based algorithms such as non-uniform fast Fourier transform (NUFFT), numerical dispersion compensation, and multi-GPU implementation were developed to improve the impulse response, SNR roll-off and stability of the system. Full-range complex-conjugate-free FD-OCT was also implemented on the GPU architecture to achieve doubled image range and improved SNR. These technologies overcome the imaging reconstruction and visualization bottlenecks widely exist in current ultra-high speed FD-OCT systems and open the way to interventional OCT imaging for applications in guided microsurgery. A hand-held common-path optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) distance-sensor based microsurgical tool was developed and validated. Through real-time signal processing, edge detection and feed-back control, the tool was shown to be capable of track target surface and compensate motion. The micro-incision test using a phantom was performed using a CP-OCT-sensor integrated hand-held tool, which showed an incision error less than +/-5 microns, comparing to >100 microns error by free-hand incision. The CP-OCT distance sensor has also been utilized to enhance the accuracy and safety of optical nerve stimulation. Finally, several experiments were conducted to validate the system for surgical applications. One of them involved 4D OCT guided micro-manipulation using a phantom. Multiple volume renderings of one 3D data set were

  6. Digital signal processor-based real-time optical Doppler tomography system.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shikui; Piao, Daqing; Chen, Yueli; Zhu, Quing

    2004-01-01

    We present a real-time data-processing and display unit based on a custom-designed digital signal processor (DSP) module for imaging tissue structure and Doppler blood flow. The DSP module is incorporated into a conventional optical coherence tomography system. We also demonstrate the flexibility of embedding advanced Doppler processing algorithms in the DSP module. Two advanced velocity estimation algorithms previously introduced by us are incorporated in this DSP module. Experiments on Intralipid flow demonstrate that a pulsatile flow of several hundred pulses per minute can be faithfully captured in M-scan mode by this DSP system. In vivo imaging of a rat's abdominal blood flow is also presented. PMID:15189082

  7. Ultra-high throughput real-time instruments for capturing fast signals and rare events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Brandon Walter

    Wide-band signals play important roles in the most exciting areas of science, engineering, and medicine. To keep up with the demands of exploding internet traffic, modern data centers and communication networks are employing increasingly faster data rates. Wide-band techniques such as pulsed radar jamming and spread spectrum frequency hopping are used on the battlefield to wrestle control of the electromagnetic spectrum. Neurons communicate with each other using transient action potentials that last for only milliseconds at a time. And in the search for rare cells, biologists flow large populations of cells single file down microfluidic channels, interrogating them one-by-one, tens of thousands of times per second. Studying and enabling such high-speed phenomena pose enormous technical challenges. For one, parasitic capacitance inherent in analog electrical components limits their response time. Additionally, converting these fast analog signals to the digital domain requires enormous sampling speeds, which can lead to significant jitter and distortion. State-of-the-art imaging technologies, essential for studying biological dynamics and cells in flow, are limited in speed and sensitivity by finite charge transfer and read rates, and by the small numbers of photo-electrons accumulated in short integration times. And finally, ultra-high throughput real-time digital processing is required at the backend to analyze the streaming data. In this thesis, I discuss my work in developing real-time instruments, employing ultrafast optical techniques, which overcome some of these obstacles. In particular, I use broadband dispersive optics to slow down fast signals to speeds accessible to high-bit depth digitizers and signal processors. I also apply telecommunication multiplexing techniques to boost the speeds of confocal fluorescence microscopy. The photonic time stretcher (TiSER) uses dispersive Fourier transformation to slow down analog signals before digitization and

  8. A real-time device for converting Doppler ultrasound audio signals into fluid flow velocity.

    PubMed

    Herr, Michael D; Hogeman, Cynthia S; Koch, Dennis W; Krishnan, Anandi; Momen, Afsana; Leuenberger, Urs A

    2010-05-01

    A Doppler signal converter has been developed to facilitate cardiovascular and exercise physiology research. This device directly converts audio signals from a clinical Doppler ultrasound imaging system into a real-time analog signal that accurately represents blood flow velocity and is easily recorded by any standard data acquisition system. This real-time flow velocity signal, when simultaneously recorded with other physiological signals of interest, permits the observation of transient flow response to experimental interventions in a manner not possible when using standard Doppler imaging devices. This converted flow velocity signal also permits a more robust and less subjective analysis of data in a fraction of the time required by previous analytic methods. This signal converter provides this capability inexpensively and requires no modification of either the imaging or data acquisition system. PMID:20173048

  9. A real-time device for converting Doppler ultrasound audio signals into fluid flow velocity

    PubMed Central

    Hogeman, Cynthia S.; Koch, Dennis W.; Krishnan, Anandi; Momen, Afsana; Leuenberger, Urs A.

    2010-01-01

    A Doppler signal converter has been developed to facilitate cardiovascular and exercise physiology research. This device directly converts audio signals from a clinical Doppler ultrasound imaging system into a real-time analog signal that accurately represents blood flow velocity and is easily recorded by any standard data acquisition system. This real-time flow velocity signal, when simultaneously recorded with other physiological signals of interest, permits the observation of transient flow response to experimental interventions in a manner not possible when using standard Doppler imaging devices. This converted flow velocity signal also permits a more robust and less subjective analysis of data in a fraction of the time required by previous analytic methods. This signal converter provides this capability inexpensively and requires no modification of either the imaging or data acquisition system. PMID:20173048

  10. Echo movement and evolution from real-time processing.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffner, M. R.

    1972-01-01

    Preliminary experimental data on the effectiveness of conventional radars in measuring the movement and evolution of meteorological echoes when the radar is connected to a programmable real-time processor are examined. In the processor programming is accomplished by conceiving abstract machines which constitute the actual programs used in the methods employed. An analysis of these methods, such as the center of gravity method, the contour-displacement method, the method of slope, the cross-section method, the contour crosscorrelation method, the method of echo evolution at each point, and three-dimensional measurements, shows that the motions deduced from them may differ notably (since each method determines different quantities) but the plurality of measurement may give additional information on the characteristics of the precipitation.

  11. Real-time computational processing and implementation for concealed object detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong-Su; Yeom, Seokwon; Chang, YuShin; Lee, Mun-Kyo; Jung, Sang-Won

    2012-07-01

    Millimeter wave (MMW) readily penetrates fabrics, thus it can be used to detect objects concealed under clothing. A passive MMW imaging system can operate as a stand-off type sensor that scans people both indoors and outdoors. However, because of the diffraction limit and low signal level, the imaging system often suffers from low image quality. Therefore, suitable computational processing would be required for automatic analysis of the images. The authors present statistical and computational algorithms and their implementations for real-time concealed object detection. The histogram of the image is modeled as a Gaussian mixture distribution, and hidden object areas are segmented by a multilevel scheme involving the expectation-maximization algorithm. The complete algorithm has been implemented in both MATLAB and C++. Experimental and simulation results confirm that the implemented system can achieve real-time detection of concealed objects.

  12. Pseudo-Real-Time Signal Visualization during Pulsar Observations on the Green Bank Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, C. J.; O'Neil, K.

    2004-12-01

    Pseudo-Real-Time Signal Visualization during Pulsar Observations on the Green Bank Telescope J. Kelly (Rockbridge County Public Schools & NRAO), K. O'Neil (NRAO) When using the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) for pulsar observations, observers need to be able to insure the data reaching the observer is of the highest quality possible. To do this, telescope users need to be able to monitor, in real time, the raw signal intensity of data as it flows in from the GBT. In the summer of 2004 at NRAO-Greenbank, my Research Experience For Teachers project was spent developing this utility. For portability and compatibility, the computer language python was used to build the visualization utility. The major hurdle in developing the python modules was in reading and manipulating the tremendous quantity of unprocessed data acquired during an observation. (The spigot data rate is set to be 25 Mb/s.) The data stream is intercepted by a "spigot" card, buffered and then stored on a hard drive as a series of binary files. The python modules attempt to read, parse and organize these binary files to ultimately produce a simple intensity versus time plot of the data stream. The modules developed run as a loop to update the plot several times per minute. Integrating the knowledge and experience of this research in the classroom involves an introductory unit on radio astronomy and astrophysics. Additionally, students will have the opportunity to analyze data collected from the Crab Nebula Pulsar and experience backend processes such as data folding. These activities will be described. This work was funded by the National Science Foundation RET program.

  13. Real-time bicycle detection at signalized intersections using thermal imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collaert, Robin

    2013-02-01

    More and more governments and authorities around the world are promoting the use of bicycles in cities, as this is healthy for the bicyclist and improves the quality of life in general. Safety and efficiency of bicyclists has become a major focus. To achieve this, there is a need for a smarter approach towards the control of signalized intersections. Various traditional detection technologies, such as video, microwave radar and electromagnetic loops, can be used to detect vehicles at signalized intersections, but none of these can consistently separate bikes from other traffic, day and night and in various weather conditions. As bikes should get a higher priority and also require longer green time to safely cross the signalized intersection, traffic managers are looking for alternative detection systems that can make the distinction between bicycles and other vehicles near the stop bar. In this paper, the drawbacks of a video-based approach are presented, next to the benefits of a thermal-video-based approach for vehicle presence detection with separation of bicycles. Also, the specific technical challenges are highlighted in developing a system that combines thermal image capturing, image processing and output triggering to the traffic light controller in near real-time and in a single housing.

  14. A real-time and fine resolution analyser used to estimate the instantaneous energy distribution of Doppler signals.

    PubMed

    Fan, L; Evans, D H

    1994-01-01

    Doppler ultrasound signal analysers in current use require that the signal be stationary within the time interval of processing, and yield average results for that interval. A real-time instantaneous frequency analyser based on the Wigner distribution function (WDF) has been developed, which provides a means of analysing time-varying signals or signals with short stationary time periods, and also produces results with very high instantaneous temporal resolution without causing significant deterioration of frequency resolution. In addition to the real-time processing, the most recent 2.4 s of Doppler signal is stored in the analyser so that the operator can perform further fine analysis and obtain results with very high resolutions in both the time and frequency domains. The pseudo-instantaneous mean frequency (PIMF) and the Pseudo-Instantaneous Power Distribution (PIPD) are calculated and displayed every 4.0 ms in the real-time processing mode, and with a resolution of between 80 microseconds and 2 ms in the fine resolution analysis mode. The analyser utilises an algorithm developed so that the WDF can be calculated efficiently using the conventional Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) method, and the PIPDs are calculated from data that contribute equally. PMID:7941102

  15. Real-time combining of residual carrier array signals using ML weight estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, Victor A.; Rodemich, Eugene R.; Dolinar, Samuel J., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A real-time digital signal combining system for use with array feeds is proposed. The combining system attempts to compensate for signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) loss resulting from antenna deformations induced by gravitational and atmospheric effects. The combining weights are obtained directly from the observed residual carrier samples in each channel using a 'sliding-window' implementation of a maximum-likelihood (ML) parameter estimator. It is shown that with averaging times of about 0.1 s, combining loss for a seven-element array can be limited to about 0.1 dB in a realistic operational environment. This result suggests that the real-time combining system proposed here is capable of recovering virtually all of the signal power captured by the array feed, even in the presence of severe wind gusts and similar disturbances.

  16. Algorithm for removing scalp signals from functional near-infrared spectroscopy signals in real time using multidistance optodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiguchi, Masashi; Funane, Tsukasa

    2014-11-01

    A real-time algorithm for removing scalp-blood signals from functional near-infrared spectroscopy signals is proposed. Scalp and deep signals have different dependencies on the source-detector distance. These signals were separated using this characteristic. The algorithm was validated through an experiment using a dynamic phantom in which shallow and deep absorptions were independently changed. The algorithm for measurement of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobins using two wavelengths was explicitly obtained. This algorithm is potentially useful for real-time systems, e.g., brain-computer interfaces and neuro-feedback systems.

  17. An architecture for heuristic control of real-time processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raulefs, P.; Thorndyke, P. W.

    1987-01-01

    Abstract Process management combines complementary approaches of heuristic reasoning and analytical process control. Management of a continuous process requires monitoring the environment and the controlled system, assessing the ongoing situation, developing and revising planned actions, and controlling the execution of the actions. For knowledge-intensive domains, process management entails the potentially time-stressed cooperation among a variety of expert systems. By redesigning a blackboard control architecture in an object-oriented framework, researchers obtain an approach to process management that considerably extends blackboard control mechanisms and overcomes limitations of blackboard systems.

  18. Real-time Live Imaging of T-cell Signaling Complex Formation

    PubMed Central

    Barda-Saad, Mira

    2013-01-01

    real-time imaging of live cells allows both the spatial tracking of proteins and the ability to temporally distinguish between signaling events, thus shedding light on the dynamics of the process 9,10. We present a method of real-time imaging of signaling-complex formation during T-cell activation. Primary T-cells or T-cell lines, such as Jurkat, are transfected with plasmids encoding for proteins of interest fused to monomeric fluorescent proteins, preventing non-physiological oligomerization 11. Live T cells are dropped over a coverslip pre-coated with T-cell activating antibody 8,9, which binds to the CD3/TCR complex, inducing T-cell activation while overcoming the need for specific activating antigens. Activated cells are constantly imaged with the use of confocal microscopy. Imaging data are analyzed to yield quantitative results, such as the colocalization coefficient of the signaling proteins. PMID:23851483

  19. Derivation of sequential, real-time, process-control programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzullo, Keith; Schneider, Fred B.; Budhiraja, Navin

    1991-01-01

    The use of weakest-precondition predicate transformers in the derivation of sequential, process-control software is discussed. Only one extension to Dijkstra's calculus for deriving ordinary sequential programs was found to be necessary: function-valued auxiliary variables. These auxiliary variables are needed for reasoning about states of a physical process that exists during program transitions.

  20. Implementation of real-time digital endoscopic image processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Chul Gyu; Lee, Young Mook; Lee, Sang Min; Kim, Won Ky; Lee, Jae Ho; Lee, Myoung Ho

    1997-10-01

    Endoscopy has become a crucial diagnostic and therapeutic procedure in clinical areas. Over the past four years, we have developed a computerized system to record and store clinical data pertaining to endoscopic surgery of laparascopic cholecystectomy, pelviscopic endometriosis, and surgical arthroscopy. In this study, we developed a computer system, which is composed of a frame grabber, a sound board, a VCR control board, a LAN card and EDMS. Also, computer system controls peripheral instruments such as a color video printer, a video cassette recorder, and endoscopic input/output signals. Digital endoscopic data management system is based on open architecture and a set of widely available industry standards; namely Microsoft Windows as an operating system, TCP/IP as a network protocol and a time sequential database that handles both images and speech. For the purpose of data storage, we used MOD and CD- R. Digital endoscopic system was designed to be able to store, recreate, change, and compress signals and medical images. Computerized endoscopy enables us to generate and manipulate the original visual document, making it accessible to a virtually unlimited number of physicians.

  1. Real-time optical monitoring of the wastewater treatment process.

    PubMed

    Tomperi, Jani; Koivuranta, Elisa; Kuokkanen, Anna; Juuso, Esko; Leiviskä, Kauko

    2016-01-01

    One activated sludge process line was optically monitored in situ by a novel image analysis equipment. The results of the image analysis were studied to find out dependencies to the process variables of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and to the quality of the treated wastewater. The quality parameter of the treated wastewater, suspended solids, was modelled using the image analysis results. The model can be used for evaluating the performance of the WWTP and for the better control for stable effluent quality. It was shown that the results of the online optical monitoring reveal useful information from the process and can be used in forecasting the quality of biologically treated wastewater. The optical monitoring method together with process measurements has an important role in keeping the process in stable operating conditions and avoiding environmental risks. PMID:26238162

  2. Bifunctional electro-optical nanoprobe to real-time detect local biochemical processes in single cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xin Ting; Hu, Weihua; Wang, Houxiao; Yang, Hongbin; Zhou, Wei; Li, Chang Ming

    2011-07-15

    A bifunctional electro-optical nanoprobe with integrated nanoring electrode and optical nanotip was fabricated and investigated to simultaneously detect both electrical and optical signals in real-time with high spatial resolution. Concurrent measurements of the oxidant generation and the intracellular antioxidant levels in single cells correlate the stronger oxidant generation with an altered initial antioxidant response in the breast cancer cells in comparison to the normal ones suggesting that the cell malignancy is associated with the strength of oxidative stress, and the higher antioxidant level may be the cause of the drug resistance. While the optical detection indicates the fluctuation of the intracellular redox homeostasis, the chronoamperometric signals allow quantitative real-time detection of the H₂O₂ release and decay. Furthermore, the nanoscale probe enables localized simultaneous detections thus discovering that activated enzymes responsible for the oxidative stress target at specific membrane regions. This method promises applications in study of the dynamics of important physiological processes, and provides the opportunity to unravel the interplay of various signaling pathways. PMID:21632233

  3. Real Time Data Processing for Optical Remote Sensing Payloads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlfeil, J.; Börner, A.; Buder, M.; Ernst, I.; Krutz, D.; Reulke, R.

    2012-07-01

    The application of operational systems for remote sensing requires new approaches for data processing. It has to be the goal to derive user relevant information close the sensor itself and to downlink this information to a ground station or to provide them as input to an actuator of the space-borne platform. A complete automation of data processing is an essential first step for a thematic onboard data processing. In a second step, an appropriate onboard computer system has to be de-signed being able to fulfill the requirements. In this paper, standard data processing steps will be introduced correcting systematic errors during image capturing. A new hardware operating system, which is the interface between FPGA hardware and data processing algorithms, gives the opportunity to implement complex data processing modules in an effective way. As an example the derivation the camera's orientation based on data of an optical payload is described in detail. The thereby derived absolute or relative orientation is essential for high level data products. This will be illustrated by means of an onboard image matcher

  4. Semi-real-time monitoring of cracking on couplings by neural network analysis of acoustic emission signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godinez-Azcuaga, Valery F.; Shu, Fong; Finlayson, Richard D.; O'Donnell, Bruce W.

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents the results obtained during the development of a semi-real-time monitoring methodology based on Neural Network Pattern Recognition of Acoustic Emission (AE) signals for early detection of cracks in couplings used in aircraft and engine drive systems. AE signals were collected in order to establish a baseline of a gear-testing fixture background noise and its variations due to rotational speed and torque. Also, simulated cracking signals immersed in background noise were collected. EDM notches were machined in the driving gear and the load on the gearbox was increased until damaged was induced. Using these data, a Neural Network Signal Classifier (NNSC) was implemented and tested. The testing showed that the NNSC was capable of correctly identifying six different classes of AE signals corresponding to different gearbox operation conditions. Also, a semi-real-time classification software was implemented. This software includes functions that allow the user to view and classify AE data from a dynamic process as they are recorded at programmable time intervals. The software is capable of monitoring periodic statistics of AE data, which can be used as an indicator of damage presence and severity in a dynamic system. The semi-real-time classification software was successfully tested in situations where a delay of 10 seconds between data acquisition and classification was achieved with a hit rate of 50 hits/second per channel on eight active AE channels.

  5. Method and system for enabling real-time speckle processing using hardware platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, Fernando E. (Inventor); Kelmelis, Eric (Inventor); Durbano, James P. (Inventor); Curt, Peterson F. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An accelerator for the speckle atmospheric compensation algorithm may enable real-time speckle processing of video feeds that may enable the speckle algorithm to be applied in numerous real-time applications. The accelerator may be implemented in various forms, including hardware, software, and/or machine-readable media.

  6. Position information by signal analysis in real time from resistive anode microchannel plate detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, K.; Benmaimon, R.; Prabhakaran, A.; Rappaport, M. L.; Heber, O.; Schwalm, D.; Zajfman, D.

    2016-07-01

    Resistive anode multichannel plate detectors are extensively used for imaging photons, electrons and ions. We present a method to acquire position information from such detector systems by considering simple parameters of the signals produced from the resistive anode encoder. Our technique is easy to implement and computes position in real time during experiments. Position information can be obtained using our method without the need for dedicated position analyser units.

  7. Real-Time On-Board Processing Validation of MSPI Ground Camera Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pingree, Paula J.; Werne, Thomas A.; Bekker, Dmitriy L.

    2010-01-01

    The Earth Sciences Decadal Survey identifies a multiangle, multispectral, high-accuracy polarization imager as one requirement for the Aerosol-Cloud-Ecosystem (ACE) mission. JPL has been developing a Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (MSPI) as a candidate to fill this need. A key technology development needed for MSPI is on-board signal processing to calculate polarimetry data as imaged by each of the 9 cameras forming the instrument. With funding from NASA's Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) Program, JPL is solving the real-time data processing requirements to demonstrate, for the first time, how signal data at 95 Mbytes/sec over 16-channels for each of the 9 multiangle cameras in the spaceborne instrument can be reduced on-board to 0.45 Mbytes/sec. This will produce the intensity and polarization data needed to characterize aerosol and cloud microphysical properties. Using the Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA including PowerPC440 processors we have implemented a least squares fitting algorithm that extracts intensity and polarimetric parameters in real-time, thereby substantially reducing the image data volume for spacecraft downlink without loss of science information.

  8. The Real-Time Processing of Sluiced Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poirier, Josee; Wolfinger, Katie; Spellman, Lisa; Shapiro, Lewis P.

    2010-01-01

    Ellipsis refers to an element that is absent from the input but whose meaning can nonetheless be recovered from context. In this cross-modal priming study, we examined the online processing of Sluicing, an ellipsis whose antecedent is an entire clause: "The handyman threw a book to the programmer but I don't know which book" the handyman threw to…

  9. Real-time speckle variance swept-source optical coherence tomography using a graphics processing unit

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kenneth K. C.; Mariampillai, Adrian; Yu, Joe X. Z.; Cadotte, David W.; Wilson, Brian C.; Standish, Beau A.; Yang, Victor X. D.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Advances in swept source laser technology continues to increase the imaging speed of swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) systems. These fast imaging speeds are ideal for microvascular detection schemes, such as speckle variance (SV), where interframe motion can cause severe imaging artifacts and loss of vascular contrast. However, full utilization of the laser scan speed has been hindered by the computationally intensive signal processing required by SS-OCT and SV calculations. Using a commercial graphics processing unit that has been optimized for parallel data processing, we report a complete high-speed SS-OCT platform capable of real-time data acquisition, processing, display, and saving at 108,000 lines per second. Subpixel image registration of structural images was performed in real-time prior to SV calculations in order to reduce decorrelation from stationary structures induced by the bulk tissue motion. The viability of the system was successfully demonstrated in a high bulk tissue motion scenario of human fingernail root imaging where SV images (512 × 512 pixels, n = 4) were displayed at 54 frames per second. PMID:22808428

  10. FPGA based image processing for optical surface inspection with real time constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasani, Ylber; Bodenstorfer, Ernst; Brodersen, Jörg; Mayer, Konrad J.

    2015-02-01

    Today, high-quality printing products like banknotes, stamps, or vouchers, are automatically checked by optical surface inspection systems. In a typical optical surface inspection system, several digital cameras acquire the printing products with fine resolution from different viewing angles and at multiple wavelengths of the visible and also near infrared spectrum of light. The cameras deliver data streams with a huge amount of image data that have to be processed by an image processing system in real time. Due to the printing industry's demand for higher throughput together with the necessity to check finer details of the print and its security features, the data rates to be processed tend to explode. In this contribution, a solution is proposed, where the image processing load is distributed between FPGAs and digital signal processors (DSPs) in such a way that the strengths of both technologies can be exploited. The focus lies upon the implementation of image processing algorithms in an FPGA and its advantages. In the presented application, FPGAbased image-preprocessing enables real-time implementation of an optical color surface inspection system with a spatial resolution of 100 μm and for object speeds over 10 m/s. For the implementation of image processing algorithms in the FPGA, pipeline parallelism with clock frequencies up to 150 MHz together with spatial parallelism based on multiple instantiations of modules for parallel processing of multiple data streams are exploited for the processing of image data of two cameras and three color channels. Due to their flexibility and their fast response times, it is shown that FPGAs are ideally suited for realizing a configurable all-digital PLL for the processing of camera line-trigger signals with frequencies about 100 kHz, using pure synchronous digital circuit design.

  11. Real-time garbage collection for list processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuler, R. L., Jr. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    In a list processing system, small reference counters are maintained in conjunction with memory cells for the purpose of identifying memory cells that become available for re-use. The counters are updated as references to the cells are created and destroyed, and when a counter of a cell is decremented to logical zero the cell is immediately returned to a list of free cells. In those cases where a counter must be incremented beyond the maximum value that can be represented in a small counter, the cell is restructured so that the additional reference count can be represented. The restructuring involves allocating an additional cell, distributing counter, tag, and pointer information among the two cells, and linking both cells appropriately into the existing list structure.

  12. SETI-Italia: Present Activities and Future Real Time Data Processing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montebugnoli, S.; Bianchi, G.; Bartolini, M.; Mattana, A.; Monari, J.; Naldi, G.; Perini, F.; Pluchino, S.; Pupillo, G.

    2010-04-01

    A complete review of present SETI-Italia activities and data processing systems are presented. The future plan is to develop a new very powerful data processing reconfigurable platform (based on FPGAs) to implement even more powerful real time algorithms.

  13. Human movement analysis with image processing in real time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauvet, Eric; Paindavoine, Michel; Cannard, F.

    1991-04-01

    In the field of the human sciences, a lot of applications needs to know the kinematic characteristics of the human movements Psycology is associating the characteristics with the control mechanism, sport and biomechariics are associating them with the performance of the sportman or of the patient. So the trainers or the doctors can correct the gesture of the subject to obtain a better performance if he knows the motion properties. Roherton's studies show the children motion evolution2 . Several investigations methods are able to measure the human movement But now most of the studies are based on image processing. Often the systems are working at the T.V. standard (50 frame per secund ). they permit only to study very slow gesture. A human operator analyses the digitizing sequence of the film manually giving a very expensive, especially long and unprecise operation. On these different grounds many human movement analysis systems were implemented. They consist of: - markers which are fixed to the anatomical interesting points on the subject in motion, - Image compression which is the art to coding picture data. Generally the compression Is limited to the centroid coordinates calculation tor each marker. These systems differ from one other in image acquisition and markers detection.

  14. Expert system and process optimization techniques for real-time monitoring and control of plasma processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jie; Qian, Zhaogang; Irani, Keki B.; Etemad, Hossein; Elta, Michael E.

    1991-03-01

    To meet the ever-increasing demand of the rapidly-growing semiconductor manufacturing industry it is critical to have a comprehensive methodology integrating techniques for process optimization real-time monitoring and adaptive process control. To this end we have accomplished an integrated knowledge-based approach combining latest expert system technology machine learning method and traditional statistical process control (SPC) techniques. This knowledge-based approach is advantageous in that it makes it possible for the task of process optimization and adaptive control to be performed consistently and predictably. Furthermore this approach can be used to construct high-level and qualitative description of processes and thus make the process behavior easy to monitor predict and control. Two software packages RIST (Rule Induction and Statistical Testing) and KARSM (Knowledge Acquisition from Response Surface Methodology) have been developed and incorporated with two commercially available packages G2 (real-time expert system) and ULTRAMAX (a tool for sequential process optimization).

  15. Real Time Pattern Recognition And Feature Analysis From Video Signals Applied To Eye Movement And Pupillary Reflex Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlier, Jacques R.; Bariseau, Jean-Luc; Chuffart, Vincent; Marsy, Frangoise; Hache, Jean-Claude

    1984-06-01

    Original techniques for real time pattern recognition and feature analysis from standard video signals have been developed. These techniques have been applied to the monitoring of eye movements and pupillary size during visual field and electrophysio-logical examinations in routine ophtalmological practice. The basic features of the resulting instrument are : 1- the use of low-cost hardware, i.e. standard video equipment and LSI circuitry. 2- the measurement of eye, orientation from the position of the bright pupil relative to the corneal reflection. 3- "real time" processing and high data throughout of 50 samples per second, allowing pupillary and oculomotor reflex analysis. 4- specialized hardware and software permitting an adjustment free feature identifica-tion and analysis directly from video signals. Severe perturbations of the ocular video images can be handled by the system, including partial occlusions of the pupil with eye lids or eye lashes, fluctuations of amplitude levels and parasite light reflections.

  16. In vivo dynamic process imaging using real-time optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wei; Shao, Peng; Hajireza, Parsin; Forbrich, Alexander; Zemp, Roger J.

    2013-02-01

    The authors demonstrate in vivo dynamic process imaging using a label-free real-time optical-resolution photoacoustic microscope (OR-PAM). This reflection-mode system takes advantage of a 532-nm fiber laser source with a high pulse repetition rate of up to 600 kHz combined with a fast-scanning mirror system. Microvasculature in SCID mouse ears is imaged at near real-time (0.5 fps) for a 1×1 mm2 field of view (FOV) with micron-scale lateral resolution. We also demonstrate imaging of cardiac-induced microhemodynamics in murine microvasculature at real-time frame-rates (30 fps) over a 250×250 μ FOV using real-time C-scan OR-PAM with ability to provide sustained imaging with near real-time feedback for focusing and positioning.

  17. In vivo dynamic process imaging using real-time optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei; Shao, Peng; Hajireza, Parsin; Forbrich, Alexander; Zemp, Roger J

    2013-02-01

    The authors demonstrate in vivo dynamic process imaging using a label-free real-time optical-resolution photoacoustic microscope (OR-PAM). This reflection-mode system takes advantage of a 532-nm fiber laser source with a high pulse repetition rate of up to 600 kHz combined with a fast-scanning mirror system. Microvasculature in SCID mouse ears is imaged at near real-time (0.5 fps) for a 1×1 mm2 field of view (FOV) with micron-scale lateral resolution. We also demonstrate imaging of cardiac-induced microhemodynamics in murine microvasculature at real-time frame-rates (30 fps) over a 250×250 μm2 FOV using real-time C-scan OR-PAM with ability to provide sustained imaging with near real-time feedback for focusing and positioning. PMID:23377002

  18. Real-time intelligent pattern recognition algorithm for surface EMG signals

    PubMed Central

    Khezri, Mahdi; Jahed, Mehran

    2007-01-01

    Background Electromyography (EMG) is the study of muscle function through the inquiry of electrical signals that the muscles emanate. EMG signals collected from the surface of the skin (Surface Electromyogram: sEMG) can be used in different applications such as recognizing musculoskeletal neural based patterns intercepted for hand prosthesis movements. Current systems designed for controlling the prosthetic hands either have limited functions or can only be used to perform simple movements or use excessive amount of electrodes in order to achieve acceptable results. In an attempt to overcome these problems we have proposed an intelligent system to recognize hand movements and have provided a user assessment routine to evaluate the correctness of executed movements. Methods We propose to use an intelligent approach based on adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) integrated with a real-time learning scheme to identify hand motion commands. For this purpose and to consider the effect of user evaluation on recognizing hand movements, vision feedback is applied to increase the capability of our system. By using this scheme the user may assess the correctness of the performed hand movement. In this work a hybrid method for training fuzzy system, consisting of back-propagation (BP) and least mean square (LMS) is utilized. Also in order to optimize the number of fuzzy rules, a subtractive clustering algorithm has been developed. To design an effective system, we consider a conventional scheme of EMG pattern recognition system. To design this system we propose to use two different sets of EMG features, namely time domain (TD) and time-frequency representation (TFR). Also in order to decrease the undesirable effects of the dimension of these feature sets, principle component analysis (PCA) is utilized. Results In this study, the myoelectric signals considered for classification consists of six unique hand movements. Features chosen for EMG signal are time and time

  19. Real-time dielectric-film thickness measurement system for plasma processing chamber wall monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin-Yong; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2015-12-01

    An in-situ real-time processing chamber wall monitoring system was developed. In order to measure the thickness of the dielectric film, two frequencies of small sinusoidal voltage (˜1 V) signals were applied to an electrically floated planar type probe, which is positioned at chamber wall surface, and the amplitudes of the currents and the phase differences between the voltage and current were measured. By using an equivalent sheath circuit model including a sheath capacitance, the dielectric thickness can be obtained. Experiments were performed in various plasma condition, and reliable dielectric film thickness was obtained regardless of the plasma properties. In addition, availability in commercial chamber for plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition was verified. This study is expected to contribute to the control of etching and deposition processes and optimization of periodic maintenance in semiconductor manufacturing process.

  20. Real-Time Monitoring of Scada Based Control System for Filling Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soe, Aung Kyaw; Myint, Aung Naing; Latt, Maung Maung; Theingi

    2008-10-01

    This paper is a design of real-time monitoring for filling system using Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA). The monitoring of production process is described in real-time using Visual Basic.Net programming under Visual Studio 2005 software without SCADA software. The software integrators are programmed to get the required information for the configuration screens. Simulation of components is expressed on the computer screen using parallel port between computers and filling devices. The programs of real-time simulation for the filling process from the pure drinking water industry are provided.

  1. The Information Adaptive System - A demonstration of real-time onboard image processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, G. L.; Carney, P. C.; Meredith, B. D.

    1983-01-01

    The Information Adaptive System (IAS) program has the objective to develop and demonstrate, at the brassboard level, an architecture which can be used to perform advanced signal procesing functions on board the spacecraft. Particular attention is given to the processing of high-speed multispectral imaging data in real-time, and the development of advanced technology which could be employed for future space applications. An IAS functional description is provided, and questions of radiometric correction are examined. Problems of data packetization are considered along with data selection, a distortion coefficient processor, an adaptive system controller, an image processing demonstration system, a sensor simulator and output data buffer, a test support and demonstration controller, and IAS demonstration operating modes.

  2. Real-time image processing for passive mmW imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozacik, Stephen; Paolini, Aaron; Bonnett, James; Harrity, Charles; Mackrides, Daniel; Dillon, Thomas E.; Martin, Richard D.; Schuetz, Christopher A.; Kelmelis, Eric; Prather, Dennis W.

    2015-05-01

    The transmission characteristics of millimeter waves (mmWs) make them suitable for many applications in defense and security, from airport preflight scanning to penetrating degraded visual environments such as brownout or heavy fog. While the cold sky provides sufficient illumination for these images to be taken passively in outdoor scenarios, this utility comes at a cost; the diffraction limit of the longer wavelengths involved leads to lower resolution imagery compared to the visible or IR regimes, and the low power levels inherent to passive imagery allow the data to be more easily degraded by noise. Recent techniques leveraging optical upconversion have shown significant promise, but are still subject to fundamental limits in resolution and signal-to-noise ratio. To address these issues we have applied techniques developed for visible and IR imagery to decrease noise and increase resolution in mmW imagery. We have developed these techniques into fieldable software, making use of GPU platforms for real-time operation of computationally complex image processing algorithms. We present data from a passive, 77 GHz, distributed aperture, video-rate imaging platform captured during field tests at full video rate. These videos demonstrate the increase in situational awareness that can be gained through applying computational techniques in real-time without needing changes in detection hardware.

  3. Real-Time Plasma Process Condition Sensing and Abnormal Process Detection

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ryan; Chen, Rongshun

    2010-01-01

    The plasma process is often used in the fabrication of semiconductor wafers. However, due to the lack of real-time etching control, this may result in some unacceptable process performances and thus leads to significant waste and lower wafer yield. In order to maximize the product wafer yield, a timely and accurately process fault or abnormal detection in a plasma reactor is needed. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) is one of the most frequently used metrologies in in-situ process monitoring. Even though OES has the advantage of non-invasiveness, it is required to provide a huge amount of information. As a result, the data analysis of OES becomes a big challenge. To accomplish real-time detection, this work employed the sigma matching method technique, which is the time series of OES full spectrum intensity. First, the response model of a healthy plasma spectrum was developed. Then, we defined a matching rate as an indictor for comparing the difference between the tested wafers response and the health sigma model. The experimental results showed that this proposal method can detect process faults in real-time, even in plasma etching tools. PMID:22219683

  4. A design of real time image capturing and processing system using Texas Instrument's processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wee, Toon-Joo; Chaisorn, Lekha; Rahardja, Susanto; Gan, Woon-Seng

    2007-09-01

    In this work, we developed and implemented an image capturing and processing system that equipped with capability of capturing images from an input video in real time. The input video can be a video from a PC, video camcorder or DVD player. We developed two modes of operation in the system. In the first mode, an input image from the PC is processed on the processing board (development platform with a digital signal processor) and is displayed on the PC. In the second mode, current captured image from the video camcorder (or from DVD player) is processed on the board but is displayed on the LCD monitor. The major difference between our system and other existing conventional systems is that image-processing functions are performed on the board instead of the PC (so that the functions can be used for further developments on the board). The user can control the operations of the board through the Graphic User Interface (GUI) provided on the PC. In order to have a smooth image data transfer between the PC and the board, we employed Real Time Data Transfer (RTDX TM) technology to create a link between them. For image processing functions, we developed three main groups of function: (1) Point Processing; (2) Filtering and; (3) 'Others'. Point Processing includes rotation, negation and mirroring. Filter category provides median, adaptive, smooth and sharpen filtering in the time domain. In 'Others' category, auto-contrast adjustment, edge detection, segmentation and sepia color are provided, these functions either add effect on the image or enhance the image. We have developed and implemented our system using C/C# programming language on TMS320DM642 (or DM642) board from Texas Instruments (TI). The system was showcased in College of Engineering (CoE) exhibition 2006 at Nanyang Technological University (NTU) and have more than 40 users tried our system. It is demonstrated that our system is adequate for real time image capturing. Our system can be used or applied for

  5. Model-integrated program synthesis environment for parallel/real-time image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Michael S.; Sztipanovitz, Janos; Karsai, Gabor; Nichols, James A.

    1997-09-01

    In this paper, it is shown that, through the use of model- integrated program synthesis (MIPS), parallel real-time implementations of image processing data flows can be synthesized from high level graphical specifications. The complex details in inherent to parallel and real-time software development become transparent to the programmer, enabling the cost-effective exploitation of parallel hardware for building more flexible and powerful real-time imaging systems. The model integrated real-time image processing system (MIRTIS) is presented as an example. MIRTIS employs the multigraph architecture (MGA), a framework and set of tools for building MIPS systems, to generate parallel real-time image processing software which runs under the control of a parallel run-time kernel on a network of Texas Instruments TMS320C40 DSPs (C40s). The MIRTIS models contain graphical declarations of the image processing computations to be performed, the available hardware resources, and the timing constraints of the application. The MIRTIS model interpreter performs the parallelization, scaling, and mapping of the computations to the resources automatically or determines that the timing constraints cannot be met with the available resources. MIRTIS is a clear example of how parallel real-time image processing systems can be built which are (1) cost-effectively programmable, (2) flexible, (3) scalable, and (4) built from commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components.

  6. Real-time forecast of aftershocks from a single seismic station signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippiello, E.; Cirillo, A.; Godano, G.; Papadimitriou, E.; Karakostas, V.

    2016-06-01

    The evaluation of seismic hazard in the hours following large earthquakes is strongly affected by biases due to difficulties in determining earthquake location. This leads to the huge incompleteness of instrumental catalogs. Here we show that if, on the one hand, the overlap of aftershock coda waves hides many small events, on the other hand, it leads to a well-determined empirical law controlling the decay of the amplitude of the seismic signal at a given site. The fitting parameters of this law can be related to those controlling the temporal decay of the aftershock number, and it is then possible to obtain short-term postseismic occurrence probability from a single recorded seismic signal. We therefore present a novel procedure which, without requiring earthquake location, produces more accurate and almost real-time forecast, in a site of interest, directly from the signal of a seismic station installed at that site.

  7. All-optical quality-of-signal monitoring in real time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Betty Lise; Abou-Galala, Feras; Rabb, David; Durresi, Arjan

    2003-08-01

    An new optical correlator containing a tapped delay line with thousands of taps is described. This enables ultra-high resolution correlation. We apply this to monitoring quality-of-signal by correlating the received, degraded bits with and un-degraded signal. The strength of the correlation signal, which is all optical, is proportional to the quality. Dispersion and attenuation can be evaluated in less than 100 ps at 40Gb/s, and jitter and noise in less than 100 ns. This is a significant improvement over minutes or even hours for bit-error-rate measurements. Simulations show good correspondence to eye-diagram measurements, the conventional (but slow) way to measure signal quality. If a network node can know the quality of all its links in real-time, it can re-route signals around poor links, and provide restoration and protection as well. The key to all this is an optical correlator with a very large number of taps in its internal tapped delay line. Our device uses a White cell and a fixed micro-mirror array. In a White cell, light bounces back and forth between three spherical mirrors. Multiple beams circulate in the same cell without interfering and are each refocused to a unique pattern of spots. We make the spots land on the micro-mirror array to switch between cells of slightly different lengths. Our current design provides 6550 possible delays for thousands of light beams, using only ten mirrors, a lens, and the micro-mirror array. We have developed two routing and protection protocols to exploit having this real-time information available to the network.

  8. AUTOMATED CONTROL AND REAL-TIME DATA PROCESSING OF WIRE SCANNER/HALO SCRAPER MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    L.A. DAY; J.D. GILPATRICK; ET AL

    2001-06-01

    The Low-Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA), assembled and operating at Los Alamos National Laboratory, provides the platform for obtaining measurements of high-power proton beam-halo formation. Control system software and hardware have been integrated and customized to enable the production of real-time beam-halo profiles. The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) hosted on a VXI platform, Interactive Data Language (IDL) programs hosted on UNIX platforms, and LabVIEW (LV) Virtual Instruments hosted on a PC platform have been integrated and customized to provide real-time, synchronous motor control, data acquisition, and data analysis of data acquired through specialized DSP instrumentation. These modules communicate through EPICS Channel Access (CA) communication protocol extensions to control and manage execution flow ensuring synchronous data acquisition and real-time processing of measurement data. This paper describes the software integration and management scheme implemented to produce these real-time beam profiles.

  9. Distributed real time data processing architecture for the TJ-II data acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, M.; Barrera, E.; López, S.; Machón, D.; Vega, J.; Sánchez, E.

    2004-10-01

    This article describes the performance of a new model of architecture that has been developed for the TJ-II data acquisition system in order to increase its real time data processing capabilities. The current model consists of several compact PCI extension for instrumentation (PXI) standard chassis, each one with various digitizers. In this architecture, the data processing capability is restricted to the PXI controller's own performance. The controller must share its CPU resources between the data processing and the data acquisition tasks. In the new model, distributed data processing architecture has been developed. The solution adds one or more processing cards to each PXI chassis. This way it is possible to plan how to distribute the data processing of all acquired signals among the processing cards and the available resources of the PXI controller. This model allows scalability of the system. More or less processing cards can be added based on the requirements of the system. The processing algorithms are implemented in LabVIEW (from National Instruments), providing efficiency and time-saving application development when compared with other efficient solutions.

  10. Resolving dynamics of cell signaling via real-time imaging of the immunological synapse.

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, Mark A.; Pfeiffer, Janet R.; Wilson, Bridget S.; Timlin, Jerilyn Ann; Thomas, James L.; Lidke, Keith A.; Spendier, Kathrin; Oliver, Janet M.; Carroll-Portillo, Amanda; Aaron, Jesse S.; Mirijanian, Dina T.; Carson, Bryan D.; Burns, Alan Richard; Rebeil, Roberto

    2009-10-01

    This highly interdisciplinary team has developed dual-color, total internal reflection microscopy (TIRF-M) methods that enable us to optically detect and track in real time protein migration and clustering at membrane interfaces. By coupling TIRF-M with advanced analysis techniques (image correlation spectroscopy, single particle tracking) we have captured subtle changes in membrane organization that characterize immune responses. We have used this approach to elucidate the initial stages of cell activation in the IgE signaling network of mast cells and the Toll-like receptor (TLR-4) response in macrophages stimulated by bacteria. To help interpret these measurements, we have undertaken a computational modeling effort to connect the protein motion and lipid interactions. This work provides a deeper understanding of the initial stages of cellular response to external agents, including dynamics of interaction of key components in the signaling network at the 'immunological synapse,' the contact region of the cell and its adversary.

  11. MIMD (multiple instruction multiple data) multiprocessor system for real-time image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirsch, Peter; Jeschke, Hartwig

    1991-06-01

    Anovel MIMD (Multiple Instruction Multiple Data) based architecture consisting of multiple processing elements (PE) has been developed. This architecture is adapted to real-time processing of sequences of different tasks for local image segments. Each PE contains an arithmetic processing unit (APU), adapted to parallel processing of low level operations, and a high level and control processor (HLCP) for medium and high level operations and control of the PE. This HLCP can be a standard signal processor or a RISC processor. Because of the local control of each PE by the HLCP and a SIMD structure of the APU, the overall system architecture is characterized as MIMD based with a local SIMD structure for low level processing. Due to an overlapped computation and communication the multiprocessor system achieves a linear speedup compared to a single processing element. Main parts of the PE have been realized as two ASICs in a 1.5 jim CMOS-Process. With a system clock rate of 25MHz, each PE provides a peak performance of 400 Mega operations per second (MOPS).

  12. Real-Time Sensor Validation, Signal Reconstruction, and Feature Detection for an RLV Propulsion Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jankovsky, Amy L.; Fulton, Christopher E.; Binder, Michael P.; Maul, William A., III; Meyer, Claudia M.

    1998-01-01

    A real-time system for validating sensor health has been developed in support of the reusable launch vehicle program. This system was designed for use in a propulsion testbed as part of an overall effort to improve the safety, diagnostic capability, and cost of operation of the testbed. The sensor validation system was designed and developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center and integrated into a propulsion checkout and control system as part of an industry-NASA partnership, led by Rockwell International for the Marshall Space Flight Center. The system includes modules for sensor validation, signal reconstruction, and feature detection and was designed to maximize portability to other applications. Review of test data from initial integration testing verified real-time operation and showed the system to perform correctly on both hard and soft sensor failure test cases. This paper discusses the design of the sensor validation and supporting modules developed at LeRC and reviews results obtained from initial test cases.

  13. Novel Real-Time Diagnosis of the Freezing Process Using an Ultrasonic Transducer

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Yen-Hsiang; Cheng, Chin-Chi; Cheng, Hong-Ping; Lee, Dasheng

    2015-01-01

    The freezing stage governs several critical parameters of the freeze drying process and the quality of the resulting lyophilized products. This paper presents an integrated ultrasonic transducer (UT) in a stainless steel bottle and its application to real-time diagnostics of the water freezing process. The sensor was directly deposited onto the stainless steel bottle using a sol-gel spray technique. It could operate at temperature range from −100 to 400 °C and uses an ultrasonic pulse-echo technique. The progression of the freezing process, including water-in, freezing point and final phase change of water, were all clearly observed using ultrasound. The ultrasonic signals could indicate the three stages of the freezing process and evaluate the cooling and freezing periods under various processing conditions. The temperature was also adopted for evaluating the cooling and freezing periods. These periods increased with water volume and decreased with shelf temperature (i.e., speed of freezing). This study demonstrates the effectiveness of the ultrasonic sensor and technology for diagnosing and optimizing the process of water freezing to save energy. PMID:25946629

  14. Novel real-time diagnosis of the freezing process using an ultrasonic transducer.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Yen-Hsiang; Cheng, Chin-Chi; Cheng, Hong-Ping; Lee, Dasheng

    2015-01-01

    The freezing stage governs several critical parameters of the freeze drying process and the quality of the resulting lyophilized products. This paper presents an integrated ultrasonic transducer (UT) in a stainless steel bottle and its application to real-time diagnostics of the water freezing process. The sensor was directly deposited onto the stainless steel bottle using a sol-gel spray technique. It could operate at temperature range from -100 to 400 °C and uses an ultrasonic pulse-echo technique. The progression of the freezing process, including water-in, freezing point and final phase change of water, were all clearly observed using ultrasound. The ultrasonic signals could indicate the three stages of the freezing process and evaluate the cooling and freezing periods under various processing conditions. The temperature was also adopted for evaluating the cooling and freezing periods. These periods increased with water volume and decreased with shelf temperature (i.e., speed of freezing). This study demonstrates the effectiveness of the ultrasonic sensor and technology for diagnosing and optimizing the process of water freezing to save energy. PMID:25946629

  15. The real-time realization of detecting weak multi-pulse laser echo signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tinghua; Fan, Guihua; Sun, Huayan

    2014-12-01

    The multi-pulsed laser ranging technology is prominent on improving the maximum measuring range of laser active detection,laser range finder and other long-distance measurement. For all laser echo detection techniques, the weak signal detection is an important step, which aims to increase the detection range. Most algorithms are based on the priori knowledge of laser echo or the improvement of laser power. However, we cannot know or estimate the waveform accurately in many applications. Moreover, these means are difficult to satisfy the real-time needs. The present paper proposes an improved algorithm which extended the signal accumulation algorithm for the high power burst laser. This method is mainly based on signal accumulation and tri-cumulant algorithm which can improve the signal to noise SNR of the weak laser echo; moreover it does not need more prior knowledge of echo. In order to reduce the detection time, the algorithm is realized based on FPGA using signal retiming and parallel pipeline structure. The simulations and experiments results demonstrate that the minimum detecting SNR is -5dB and the maximum detecting time is only less than 1us.

  16. Real-time image processing for non-contact monitoring of dynamic displacements using smartphone technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Jae-Hong; Gelo, Nikolas J.; Jo, Hongki

    2016-04-01

    The newly developed smartphone application, named RINO, in this study allows measuring absolute dynamic displacements and processing them in real time using state-of-the-art smartphone technologies, such as high-performance graphics processing unit (GPU), in addition to already powerful CPU and memories, embedded high-speed/ resolution camera, and open-source computer vision libraries. A carefully designed color-patterned target and user-adjustable crop filter enable accurate and fast image processing, allowing up to 240fps for complete displacement calculation and real-time display. The performances of the developed smartphone application are experimentally validated, showing comparable accuracy with those of conventional laser displacement sensor.

  17. APNEA list mode data acquisition and real-time event processing

    SciTech Connect

    Hogle, R.A.; Miller, P.; Bramblett, R.L.

    1997-11-01

    The LMSC Active Passive Neutron Examinations and Assay (APNEA) Data Logger is a VME-based data acquisition system using commercial-off-the-shelf hardware with the application-specific software. It receives TTL inputs from eighty-eight {sup 3}He detector tubes and eight timing signals. Two data sets are generated concurrently for each acquisition session: (1) List Mode recording of all detector and timing signals, timestamped to 3 microsecond resolution; (2) Event Accumulations generated in real-time by counting events into short (tens of microseconds) and long (seconds) time bins following repetitive triggers. List Mode data sets can be post-processed to: (1) determine the optimum time bins for TRU assay of waste drums, (2) analyze a given data set in several ways to match different assay requirements and conditions and (3) confirm assay results by examining details of the raw data. Data Logger events are processed and timestamped by an array of 15 TMS320C40 DSPs and delivered to an embedded controller (PowerPC604) for interim disk storage. Three acquisition modes, corresponding to different trigger sources are provided. A standard network interface to a remote host system (Windows NT or SunOS) provides for system control, status, and transfer of previously acquired data. 6 figs.

  18. Low-cost real-time infrared scene generation for image projection and signal injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buford, James A., Jr.; King, David E.; Bowden, Mark H.

    1998-07-01

    As cost becomes an increasingly important factor in the development and testing of Infrared sensors and flight computer/processors, the need for accurate hardware-in-the- loop (HWIL) simulations is critical. In the past, expensive and complex dedicated scene generation hardware was needed to attain the fidelity necessary for accurate testing. Recent technological advances and innovative applications of established technologies are beginning to allow development of cost-effective replacements for dedicated scene generators. These new scene generators are mainly constructed from commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware and software components. At the U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Command (AMCOM) Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (MRDEC), researchers have developed such a dynamic IR scene generator (IRSG) built around COTS hardware and software. The IRSG is used to provide dynamic inputs to an IR scene projector for in-band seeker testing and for direct signal injection into the seeker or processor electronics. AMCOM MRDEC has developed a second generation IRSG, namely IRSG2, using the latest Silicon Graphics Incorporated (SGI) Onyx2 with Infinite Reality graphics. As reported in previous papers, the SGI Onyx Reality Engine 2 is the platform of the original IRSG that is now referred to as IRSG1. IRSG1 has been in operation and used daily for the past three years on several IR projection and signal injection HWIL programs. Using this second generation IRSG, frame rates have increased from 120 Hz to 400 Hz and intensity resolution from 12 bits to 16 bits. The key features of the IRSGs are real time missile frame rates and frame sizes, dynamic missile-to-target(s) viewpoint updated each frame in real-time by a six-degree-of- freedom (6DOF) system under test (SUT) simulation, multiple dynamic objects (e.g. targets, terrain/background, countermeasures, and atmospheric effects), latency compensation, point-to-extended source anti-aliased targets, and

  19. Identification of complex scattered signals with a fast real-time hybrid electro-optical correlator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, Arun K.; Sandomirsky, Sergey

    1997-10-01

    The goal of this work was to develop a fast optical correlator for automatic real-time target recognition. The tremendous importance of optical correlators for military and civilian applications was recognized recently and approved by a US conference committee of senators nd representatives. This publication presents the experimental results of detecting and identifying complex scattered signals by using an innovative, hybrid electro-optical correlator. Our technique is based on achieving optical correlation by utilizing state-of-the-art devices: time delay integration, charge coupled devices, liquid crystal displays, and electronically controllable light sources. Results of the experiment with our optical correlator, performed with simulated sonar signals with a center frequency of 100 kHz and duration of 8 to 512 pulses, show the possibility of recognizing a Doppler shift of 20 Hz. This Doppler shift corresponds to a target velocity of 20.7 m/sec. Simulation results indicate that we can achieve significant correlation for a noisy signal by using appropriate signal length. Our experiments demonstrate that we can perform approximately 1010 multiply accumulate operations per second with the high parallel optical corrector, compared to approximately 106 multiply accumulate operations per second using a Pentium 133 MHz personal computer. This new optical correlation scheme can provide solutions for overcoming the inherent shortcomings attributable to the low dynamic range of CCD, and the problem of compatibility caused by different pixel patterns between LCD and CCD by making use of high-quality optics and modern means of achieving uniform illumination.

  20. Low-cost real-time infrared scene generation for image projection and signal injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buford, James A., Jr.; King, David E.; Bowden, Mark H.

    1997-07-01

    As cost becomes an increasingly important factor in the development and testing of infrared (IR) sensors and flight computer/processors, the need for accurate hardware-in-the- loop simulations is critical. In the past, expensive and complex dedicated scene generation hardware was needed to attain the fidelity necessary for accurately testing systems under test (SUT). Recent technological advances and innovative applications of established technologies are beginning to allow development of cost effective replacements for dedicated scene generators. These new scene generators are mainly constructed from commercial off-the- shelf (COTS) hardware and software components. At the U.S. Army Missile Command (MICOM) researchers have developed such a dynamic IR scene generator (IRSG) built around COTS hardware and software. The IRSG is being used to provide inputs to an IR scene projector for in-band sensor testing and for direct signal injection into the sensor or processor electronics. Using this `baseline' IRSG, up to 120 frames per second (Hz) of 12-bit intensity images are being generated at 640 by 640 pixel resolution. The IRSG SUT-to- target viewpoint is dynamically updated in real time by a six-degree-of-freedom SUT simulation executing on a facility simulation computer, synchronized with an external signal from the SUT hardware, and compensates for system latency using a special purpose hardware component implemented on a single VME card. Multiple dynamic targets, terrain/backgrounds, countermeasures, and atmospheric effects in real time by the facility simulation computer via a shared memory interface to the IRSG. The `next generation' IRSG is currently under development at MICOM using `next generation' COTS hardware and software. `Next generation' performance specifications are estimated to yield 16-bit intensity, 250 - 300 Hz frame rate, at 1024 X 1024 pixel resolution.

  1. Error analysis of real time and post processed or bit determination of GFO using GPS tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiner, William S.

    1991-01-01

    The goal of the Navy's GEOSAT Follow-On (GFO) mission is to map the topography of the world's oceans in both real time (operational) and post processed modes. Currently, the best candidate for supplying the required orbit accuracy is the Global Positioning System (GPS). The purpose of this fellowship was to determine the expected orbit accuracy for GFO in both the real time and post-processed modes when using GPS tracking. This report presents the work completed through the ending date of the fellowship.

  2. Real-Time Language Processing in School-Age Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, James W.

    2006-01-01

    Background:School-age children with specific language impairment (SLI) exhibit slower real-time (i.e. immediate) language processing relative to same-age peers and younger, language-matched peers. Results of the few studies that have been done seem to indicate that the slower language processing of children with SLI is due to inefficient…

  3. Application of Bf-EVALPSN to Real-time Process Order Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamatsu, Kazumi; Akama, Seiki; Abe, Jair M.

    2009-04-01

    We have already proposed a paraconsistent annotated logic program called EVALPSN. In this paper, EVALPSN is developed to deal with before-after relations between two processes (time intervals), and its application to real-time process order control based on logical safety verification.

  4. Real-time multi-camera video acquisition and processing platform for ADAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saponara, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents the design of a real-time and low-cost embedded system for image acquisition and processing in Advanced Driver Assisted Systems (ADAS). The system adopts a multi-camera architecture to provide a panoramic view of the objects surrounding the vehicle. Fish-eye lenses are used to achieve a large Field of View (FOV). Since they introduce radial distortion of the images projected on the sensors, a real-time algorithm for their correction is also implemented in a pre-processor. An FPGA-based hardware implementation, re-using IP macrocells for several ADAS algorithms, allows for real-time processing of input streams from VGA automotive CMOS cameras.

  5. Improved process control through real-time measurement of mineral content

    SciTech Connect

    Turler, Daniel; Karaca, Murat; Davis, William B.; Giauque, Robert D.; Hopkins, Deborah

    2001-11-02

    In a highly collaborative research and development project with mining and university partners, sensors and data-analysis tools are being developed for rock-mass characterization and real-time measurement of mineral content. Determining mineralogy prior to mucking in an open-pit mine is important for routing the material to the appropriate processing stream. A possible alternative to lab assay of dust and cuttings obtained from drill holes is continuous on-line sampling and real-time x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy. Results presented demonstrate that statistical analyses combined with XRF data can be employed to identify minerals and, possibly, different rock types. The objective is to create a detailed three-dimensional mineralogical map in real time that would improve downstream process efficiency.

  6. Cytotoxicity and mitogenicity assays with real-time and label-free monitoring of human granulosa cells with an impedance-based signal processing technology intergrating micro-electronics and cell biology.

    PubMed

    Oktem, Ozgur; Bildik, Gamze; Senbabaoglu, Filiz; Lack, Nathan A; Akin, Nazli; Yakar, Feridun; Urman, Defne; Guzel, Yilmaz; Balaban, Basak; Iwase, Akira; Urman, Bulent

    2016-04-01

    A recently developed technology (xCelligence) integrating micro-electronics and cell biology allows real-time, uninterrupted and quantitative analysis of cell proliferation, viability and cytotoxicity by measuring the electrical impedance of the cell population in the wells without using any labeling agent. In this study we investigated if this system is a suitable model to analyze the effects of mitogenic (FSH) and cytotoxic (chemotherapy) agents with different toxicity profiles on human granulosa cells in comparison to conventional methods of assessing cell viability, DNA damage, apoptosis and steroidogenesis. The system generated the real-time growth curves of the cells, and determined their doubling times, mean cell indices and generated dose-response curves after exposure to cytotoxic and mitogenic stimuli. It accurately predicted the gonadotoxicity of the drugs and distinguished less toxic agents (5-FU and paclitaxel) from more toxic ones (cisplatin and cyclophosphamide). This platform can be a useful tool for specific end-point assays in reproductive toxicology. PMID:26746109

  7. Real-time detection of transient cardiac ischemic episodes from ECG signals.

    PubMed

    Dranca, L; Goñi, A; Illarramendi, A

    2009-09-01

    We propose a new algorithm to detect and classify transient cardiac ischemia episodes, designed with the goal of providing a real-time execution without penalizing the classifier accuracy much. The algorithm is based on a novel mixture of time-domain analysis and machine learning techniques, specifically bagging of decision trees, and it has been developed using a well-recognized and freely distributed database, namely the long-term ST database. The ST episode detection sensitivity/positive predictivity using the annotation protocol A for this database is 68.26%/74.91%. The sensitivity result increases until 93.97% for the most dangerous episodes in terms of duration and magnitude (annotated according to protocol C). The test of the algorithm over the freely distributed part of the European Society of Cardiology database has shown results of sensitivity and positive predictivity of 83.33% and 77.31%, respectively. Those results are close to the results obtained by related works that present approaches to detect ischemia episodes off-line, which is remarkable if we take into account that in our real-time approach, less information is available during the classification process. PMID:19696464

  8. The UNAVCO Real-time GPS Data Processing System and Community Reference Data Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sievers, C.; Mencin, D.; Berglund, H. T.; Blume, F.; Meertens, C. M.; Mattioli, G. S.

    2013-12-01

    UNAVCO has constructed a real-time GPS (RT-GPS) network of 420 GPS stations. The majority of the streaming stations come from the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) through an NSF-ARRA funded Cascadia Upgrade Initiative that upgraded 100 backbone stations throughout the PBO footprint and 282 stations focused in the Pacific Northwest. Additional contributions from NOAA (~30 stations in Southern California) and the USGS (8 stations at Yellowstone) account for the other real-time stations. Based on community based outcomes of a workshop focused on real-time GPS position data products and formats hosted by UNAVCO in Spring of 2011, UNAVCO now provides real-time PPP positions for all 420 stations using Trimble's PIVOT software and for 50 stations using TrackRT at the volcanic centers located at Yellowstone (Figure 1 shows an example ensemble of TrackRT networks used in processing the Yellowstone data), Mt St Helens, and Montserrat. The UNAVCO real-time system has the potential to enhance our understanding of earthquakes, seismic wave propagation, volcanic eruptions, magmatic intrusions, movement of ice, landslides, and the dynamics of the atmosphere. Beyond its increasing uses for science and engineering, RT-GPS has the potential to provide early warning of hazards to emergency managers, utilities, other infrastructure managers, first responders and others. With the goal of characterizing stability and improving software and higher level products based on real-time GPS time series, UNAVCO is developing an open community standard data set where data processors can provide solutions based on common sets of RT-GPS data which simulate real world scenarios and events. UNAVCO is generating standard data sets for playback that include not only real and synthetic events but also background noise, antenna movement (e.g., steps, linear trends, sine waves, and realistic earthquake-like motions), receiver drop out and online return, interruption of communications (such as

  9. Organizing the Extremely Large LSST Database forReal-Time Astronomical Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Becla, Jacek; Lim, Kian-Tat; Monkewitz, Serge; Nieto-Santisteban, Maria; Thakar, Ani; /Johns Hopkins U.

    2007-11-07

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will catalog billions of astronomical objects and trillions of sources, all of which will be stored and managed by a database management system. One of the main challenges is real-time alert generation. To generate alerts, up to 100K new difference detections have to be cross-correlated with the huge historical catalogs, and then further processed to prune false alerts. This paper explains the challenges, the implementation of the LSST Association Pipeline and the database organization strategies we are planning to use to meet the real-time requirements, including data partitioning, parallelization, and pre-loading.

  10. Respiratory-Induced Prostate Motion Using Wavelet Decomposition of the Real-Time Electromagnetic Tracking Signal

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yuting; Liu, Tian; Yang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yuenan; Khan, Mohammad K.

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: The objective of this work is to characterize and quantify the impact of respiratory-induced prostate motion. Methods and Materials: Real-time intrafraction motion is observed with the Calypso 4-dimensional nonradioactive electromagnetic tracking system (Calypso Medical Technologies, Inc. Seattle, Washington). We report the results from a total of 1024 fractions from 31 prostate cancer patients. Wavelet transform was used to decompose the signal to extract and isolate the respiratory-induced prostate motion from the total prostate displacement. Results: Our results show that the average respiratory motion larger than 0.5 mm can be observed in 68% of the fractions. Fewer than 1% of the patients showed average respiratory motion of less than 0.2 mm, whereas 99% of the patients showed average respiratory-induced motion ranging between 0.2 and 2 mm. The maximum respiratory range of motion of 3 mm or greater was seen in only 25% of the fractions. In addition, about 2% patients showed anxiety, indicated by a breathing frequency above 24 times per minute. Conclusions: Prostate motion is influenced by respiration in most fractions. Real-time intrafraction data are sensitive enough to measure the impact of respiration by use of wavelet decomposition methods. Although the average respiratory amplitude observed in this study is small, this technique provides a tool that can be useful if one moves to smaller treatment margins (≤5 mm). This also opens ups the possibility of being able to develop patient specific margins, knowing that prostate motion is not unpredictable.

  11. Process for fabricating device structures for real-time process control of silicon doping

    DOEpatents

    Weiner, Kurt H.

    2001-01-01

    Silicon device structures designed to allow measurement of important doping process parameters immediately after the doping step has occurred. The test structures are processed through contact formation using standard semiconductor fabrication techniques. After the contacts have been formed, the structures are covered by an oxide layer and an aluminum layer. The aluminum layer is then patterned to expose the contact pads and selected regions of the silicon to be doped. Doping is then performed, and the whole structure is annealed with a pulsed excimer laser. But laser annealing, unlike standard annealing techniques, does not effect the aluminum contacts because the laser light is reflected by the aluminum. Once the annealing process is complete, the structures can be probed, using standard techniques, to ascertain data about the doping step. Analysis of the data can be used to determine probable yield reductions due to improper execution of the doping step and thus provide real-time feedback during integrated circuit fabrication.

  12. Real-time microstructural and functional imaging and image processing in optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, Volker

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive optical imaging technique that allows high-resolution cross-sectional imaging of tissue microstructure, achieving a spatial resolution of about 10 mum. OCT is similar to B-mode ultrasound (US) except that it uses infrared light instead of ultrasound. In contrast to US, no coupling gel is needed, simplifying the image acquisition. Furthermore, the fiber optic implementation of OCT is compatible with endoscopes. In recent years, the transition from slow imaging, bench-top systems to real-time clinical systems has been under way. This has lead to a variety of applications, namely in ophthalmology, gastroenterology, dermatology and cardiology. First, this dissertation will demonstrate that OCT is capable of imaging and differentiating clinically relevant tissue structures in the gastrointestinal tract. A careful in vitro correlation study between endoscopic OCT images and corresponding histological slides was performed. Besides structural imaging, OCT systems were further developed for functional imaging, as for example to visualize blood flow. Previously, imaging flow in small vessels in real-time was not possible. For this research, a new processing scheme similar to real-time Doppler in US was introduced. It was implemented in dedicated hardware to allow real-time acquisition and overlayed display of blood flow in vivo. A sensitivity of 0.5mm/s was achieved. Optical coherence microscopy (OCM) is a variation of OCT, improving the resolution even further to a few micrometers. Advances made in the OCT scan engine for the Doppler setup enabled real-time imaging in vivo with OCM. In order to generate geometrical correct images for all the previous applications in real-time, extensive image processing algorithms were developed. Algorithms for correction of distortions due to non-telecentric scanning, nonlinear scan mirror movements, and refraction were developed and demonstrated. This has led to interesting new

  13. Perception and Presupposition in Real-Time Language Comprehension: Insights from Anticipatory Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Craig G.; San Juan, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that listeners use verbs and other predicate terms to anticipate reference to semantic entities during real-time language comprehension. This process involves evaluating the denoted action against relevant properties of potential referents. The current study explored whether action-relevant properties are readily…

  14. Real-Time and Post-Processed Orbit Determination and Positioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Sever, Yoaz E. (Inventor); Bertiger, William I. (Inventor); Dorsey, Angela R. (Inventor); Harvey, Nathaniel E. (Inventor); Lu, Wenwen (Inventor); Miller, Kevin J. (Inventor); Miller, Mark A. (Inventor); Romans, Larry J. (Inventor); Sibthorpe, Anthony J. (Inventor); Weiss, Jan P. (Inventor); Garcia Fernandez, Miquel (Inventor); Gross, Jason (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Novel methods and systems for the accurate and efficient processing of real-time and latent global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) data are described. Such methods and systems can perform orbit determination of GNSS satellites, orbit determination of satellites carrying GNSS receivers, positioning of GNSS receivers, and environmental monitoring with GNSS data.

  15. Real-Time and Post-Processed Orbit Determination and Positioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Sever, Yoaz E. (Inventor); Bertiger, William I. (Inventor); Dorsey, Angela R. (Inventor); Harvey, Nathaniel E. (Inventor); Lu, Wenwen (Inventor); Miller, Kevin J. (Inventor); Miller, Mark A. (Inventor); Romans, Larry J. (Inventor); Sibthorpe, Anthony J. (Inventor); Weiss, Jan P. (Inventor); Garcia Fernandez, Miquel (Inventor); Gross, Jason (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Novel methods and systems for the accurate and efficient processing of real-time and latent global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) data are described. Such methods and systems can perform orbit determination of GNSS satellites, orbit determination of satellites carrying GNSS receivers, positioning of GNSS receivers, and environmental monitoring with GNSS data.

  16. Real-time image processing for rapid contaminant detection on broiler carcasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Bosoon; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Windham, William R.; Snead, M. Preston

    2004-11-01

    Recently, the imaging research group at Russell Research Center, ARS in Athens, Georgia has developed a real-time multispectral imaging system for fecal and ingesta contaminant detection on broiler carcasses. The prototype system includes a common aperture camera with three optical trim filters (515.4, 566.4 and 631-nm wavelength), which were selected by visible/NIR spectroscopy and validated by a hyperspectral imaging system. The preliminary results showed that the multispectral imaging technique can be used effectively for detecting feces (from duodenum, ceca, and colon) and ingesta on the surface of poultry carcasses with a processing speed of 140 birds per minute. The accuracy for the detection of fecal and ingesta contaminates was 96%. However, the system contains many false positives including scabs, feathers, and boundaries. This paper demonstrates calibration of common aperture multispectral imaging hardware and real-time multispectral image processing software. The software design, especially the Unified Modeling Language (UML) design approach was used to develop real-time image processing software for on-line application. The UML models including class, object, activity, sequence, and collaboration diagram were discussed. Both hardware and software for a real-time fecal and ingesta contaminant detection were tested at the pilot-scale poultry processing line.

  17. In-Situ Real Time Monitoring and Control of Mold Making and Filling Processes

    SciTech Connect

    2004-11-01

    This factsheet describes a research effort to develop an innovative approach to introduce technologies for real-time characterization of sand molds, lost foam patterns, and monitoring of the mold filling process. This will reduce scrap, improve product quality, and save energy.

  18. Real-Time Data Processing in the muon system of the D0 detector.

    SciTech Connect

    Neeti Parashar et al.

    2001-07-03

    This paper presents a real-time application of the 16-bit fixed point Digital Signal Processors (DSPs), in the Muon System of the D0 detector located at the Fermilab Tevatron, presently the world's highest-energy hadron collider. As part of the Upgrade for a run beginning in the year 2000, the system is required to process data at an input event rate of 10 KHz without incurring significant deadtime in readout. The ADSP21csp01 processor has high I/O bandwidth, single cycle instruction execution and fast task switching support to provide efficient multisignal processing. The processor's internal memory consists of 4K words of Program Memory and 4K words of Data Memory. In addition there is an external memory of 32K words for general event buffering and 16K words of Dual port Memory for input data queuing. This DSP fulfills the requirement of the Muon subdetector systems for data readout. All error handling, buffering, formatting and transferring of the data to the various trigger levels of the data acquisition system is done in software. The algorithms developed for the system complete these tasks in about 20 {micro}s per event.

  19. Real time moving object detection using motor signal and depth map for robot car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hao; Siu, Wan-Chi

    2013-12-01

    Moving object detection from a moving camera is a fundamental task in many applications. For the moving robot car vision, the background movement is 3D motion structure in nature. In this situation, the conventional moving object detection algorithm cannot be use to handle the 3D background modeling effectively and efficiently. In this paper, a novel scheme is proposed by utilizing the motor control signal and depth map obtained from a stereo camera to model the perspective transform matrix between different frames under a moving camera. In our approach, the coordinate relationship between frames during camera moving is modeled by a perspective transform matrix which is obtained by using current motor control signals and the pixel depth value. Hence, the relationship between a static background pixel and the moving foreground corresponding to the camera motion can be related by a perspective matrix. To enhance the robustness of classification, we allowed a tolerance range during the perspective transform matrix prediction and used multi-reference frames to classify the pixel on current frame. The proposed scheme has been found to be able to detect moving objects for our moving robot car efficiently. Different from conventional approaches, our method can model the moving background in 3D structure, without online model training. More importantly, the computational complexity and memory requirement are low making it possible to implement this scheme in real-time, which is even valuable for a robot vision system.

  20. Real-time classification of signals from three-component seismic sensors using neural nets

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, B.C.; Dowla, F.

    1992-05-05

    Adaptive seismic data acquisition systems with capabilities of signal discrimination and event classification are important in treaty monitoring, proliferation, and earthquake early detection systems. Potential applications include monitoring underground chemical explosions, as well as other military, cultural, and natural activities where characteristics of signals change rapidly and without warning. In these applications, the ability to detect and interpret events rapidly without falling behind the influx of the data is critical. We developed a system for real-time data acquisition, analysis, learning, and classification of recorded events employing some of the latest technology in computer hardware, software, and artificial neural networks methods. The system is able to train dynamically, and updates its knowledge based on new data. The software is modular and hardware-independent; i.e., the front-end instrumentation is transparent to the analysis system. The software is designed to take advantage of the multiprocessing environment of the Unix operating system. The Unix System V shared memory and static RAM protocols for data access and the semaphore mechanism for interprocess communications were used. As the three-component sensor detects a seismic signal, it is displayed graphically on a color monitor using X11/Xlib graphics with interactive screening capabilities. For interesting events, the triaxial signal polarization is computed, a fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm is applied, and the normalized power spectrum is transmitted to a backpropagation neural network for event classification. The system is currently capable of handling three data channels with a sampling rate of 500 Hz, which covers the bandwidth of most seismic events. The system has been tested in laboratory setting with artificial events generated in the vicinity of a three-component sensor.

  1. Real-Time Data Processing Systems and Products at the Alaska Earthquake Information Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruppert, N. A.; Hansen, R. A.

    2007-05-01

    The Alaska Earthquake Information Center (AEIC) receives data from over 400 seismic sites located within the state boundaries and the surrounding regions and serves as a regional data center. In 2007, the AEIC reported ~20,000 seismic events, with the largest event of M6.6 in Andreanof Islands. The real-time earthquake detection and data processing systems at AEIC are based on the Antelope system from BRTT, Inc. This modular and extensible processing platform allows an integrated system complete from data acquisition to catalog production. Multiple additional modules constructed with the Antelope toolbox have been developed to fit particular needs of the AEIC. The real-time earthquake locations and magnitudes are determined within 2-5 minutes of the event occurrence. AEIC maintains a 24/7 seismologist-on-duty schedule. Earthquake alarms are based on the real- time earthquake detections. Significant events are reviewed by the seismologist on duty within 30 minutes of the occurrence with information releases issued for significant events. This information is disseminated immediately via the AEIC website, ANSS website via QDDS submissions, through e-mail, cell phone and pager notifications, via fax broadcasts and recorded voice-mail messages. In addition, automatic regional moment tensors are determined for events with M>=4.0. This information is posted on the public website. ShakeMaps are being calculated in real-time with the information currently accessible via a password-protected website. AEIC is designing an alarm system targeted for the critical lifeline operations in Alaska. AEIC maintains an extensive computer network to provide adequate support for data processing and archival. For real-time processing, AEIC operates two identical, interoperable computer systems in parallel.

  2. Real-time processing of ASL signs: Delayed first language acquisition affects organization of the mental lexicon.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Amy M; Borovsky, Arielle; Hatrak, Marla; Mayberry, Rachel I

    2015-07-01

    Sign language comprehension requires visual attention to the linguistic signal and visual attention to referents in the surrounding world, whereas these processes are divided between the auditory and visual modalities for spoken language comprehension. Additionally, the age-onset of first language acquisition and the quality and quantity of linguistic input for deaf individuals is highly heterogeneous, which is rarely the case for hearing learners of spoken languages. Little is known about how these modality and developmental factors affect real-time lexical processing. In this study, we ask how these factors impact real-time recognition of American Sign Language (ASL) signs using a novel adaptation of the visual world paradigm in deaf adults who learned sign from birth (Experiment 1), and in deaf adults who were late-learners of ASL (Experiment 2). Results revealed that although both groups of signers demonstrated rapid, incremental processing of ASL signs, only native signers demonstrated early and robust activation of sublexical features of signs during real-time recognition. Our findings suggest that the organization of the mental lexicon into units of both form and meaning is a product of infant language learning and not the sensory and motor modality through which the linguistic signal is sent and received. PMID:25528091

  3. Acoustic sensor for real-time control for the inductive heating process

    DOEpatents

    Kelley, John Bruce; Lu, Wei-Yang; Zutavern, Fred J.

    2003-09-30

    Disclosed is a system and method for providing closed-loop control of the heating of a workpiece by an induction heating machine, including generating an acoustic wave in the workpiece with a pulsed laser; optically measuring displacements of the surface of the workpiece in response to the acoustic wave; calculating a sub-surface material property by analyzing the measured surface displacements; creating an error signal by comparing an attribute of the calculated sub-surface material properties with a desired attribute; and reducing the error signal below an acceptable limit by adjusting, in real-time, as often as necessary, the operation of the inductive heating machine.

  4. Fast processing of quantitative phase profiles from off-axis interferograms for real-time applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girshovitz, Pinhas; Shaked, Natan T.

    2015-03-01

    We review new and efficient algorithms, lately presented by us, for rapid reconstruction of quantitative phase maps from off-axis digital interferograms. These algorithms improve the conventional Fourier-based algorithm by using the Fourier transforms and the phase unwrapping process more efficiently, and thus decrease the calculation complexity required for extracting the sample phase map from the recorded interferograms. Using the new algorithms, on a standard personal computer without using the graphic processing-unit programming or parallel computing, we were able to speed up the processing and reach frame rates of up to 45 frames per second for one megapixel off-axis interferograms. These capabilities allow real-time visualization, calculation and data extraction for dynamic samples and processes, inspected by off-axis digital holography. Specific applications include biological cell imaging without labeling and real-time nondestructive testing.

  5. Rapid detection of Listeria monocytogenes by real-time PCR in processed meat and dairy products.

    PubMed

    Heo, Eun Jeong; Song, Bo Ra; Park, Hyun Jung; Kim, Young Jo; Moon, Jin San; Wee, Sung Hwan; Kim, Jin-Seok; Yoon, Yohan

    2014-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the detection of Listeria monocytogenes in different ready-to-eat foods using real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Various concentrations (10(0) to 10(5) CFU/ml) of L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115 were inoculated into ham, sausage, ground meat, processed milk, cheese, and infant formula. L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115 in the samples was then enumerated on Oxford agar, and DNA was extracted from the samples before and after incubation at 36°C for 4 h. A set of primers and hybridization probe designed in this study was then used to detect the pathogen. The standard curve was then prepared by plotting cycle threshold values for each dilution versus L. monocytogenes cell counts (log CFU). The specificity of the set of primers and hybridization probe was appropriate. A 4-h incubation at 36°C before DNA extraction produced optimum standard curves in comparison to the results for a 0-h incubation. Thus, a 4-h incubation at 36°C was applied for monitoring L. monocytogenes in collected food samples. To monitor L. monocytogenes in foods, 533 samples (ham, 129; sausage, 226; ground meat, 72; processed cheese, 54; processed milk, 42; and infant formula, 10) were collected from retail markets and from the step before pasteurization in plants. Of all 533 samples, 4 samples (0.8%) showed positive signals in RT-PCR. Two samples from hams (1.6%) and two samples from sausages (0.9%) were determined to be positive for L. monocytogenes at < 100 CFU/g. The results indicate that the RT-PCR detection method with the set of primers and hybridization probe designed in this study should be useful in monitoring for L. monocytogenes in processed meat and milk products. PMID:24674437

  6. Real-time SAR image processing onboard a Venus orbiting spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arens, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    The potential use of real-time synthetic aperture radar (SAR) processing to produce 200 meter resolution imagery onboard a 1983 Venus orbiter imaging radar spacecraft is described. The VOIR SAR processing requirements are defined in terms of a nominal baseline design evolving from a 1977 VOIR mission study. A candidate onboard SAR processor architecture compatible with the VOIR requirements is next detailed. Finally, implementation characteristics, based upon currently available integrated circuits, are estimated in terms of chip count, power, and weight.

  7. Massively parallel per-pixel-based zerotree processing architecture for real-time video compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alagoda, Geoffrey; Rassau, Alexander M.; Eshraghian, Kamran

    2001-11-01

    In the span of a few years, mobile multimedia communication has rapidly become a significant area of research and development constantly challenging boundaries on a variety of technological fronts. Video compression, a fundamental component for most mobile multimedia applications, generally places heavy demands in terms of the required processing capacity. Hardware implementations of typical modern hybrid codecs require realisation of components such as motion compensation, wavelet transform, quantisation, zerotree coding and arithmetic coding in real-time. While the implementation of such codecs using a fast generic processor is possible, undesirable trade-offs in terms of power consumption and speed must generally be made. The improvement in power consumption that is achievable through the use of a slow-clocked massively parallel processing environment, while maintaining real-time processing speeds, should thus not be overlooked. An architecture to realise such a massively parallel solution for a zerotree entropy coder is, therefore, presented in this paper.

  8. Applying an integrated neuro-expert system model in a real-time alarm processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosla, Rajiv; Dillon, Tharam S.

    1993-03-01

    In this paper we propose an integrated model which is derived from the combination of a generic neuro-expert system model, an object model, and unix operating system process (UOSP) model. This integrated model reflects the strengths of both artificial neural nets (ANNs) and expert systems (ESs). A formalism of ES object, ANN object, UOSP object, and problem domain object is used for developing a set of generic data structures and methods. These generic data structures and methods help us to build heterogeneous ES-ANN objects with uniform communication interface. The integrated model is applied in a real-time alarm processing system for a non-trivial terminal power station. It is shown how features like hierarchical/distributed ES/ANN objects, inter process communication, and fast concurrent execution help to cope with real-time system constraints like, continuity, data variability, and fast response time.

  9. A flexible software architecture for scalable real-time image and video processing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usamentiaga, Rubén; Molleda, Julio; García, Daniel F.; Bulnes, Francisco G.

    2012-06-01

    Real-time image and video processing applications require skilled architects, and recent trends in the hardware platform make the design and implementation of these applications increasingly complex. Many frameworks and libraries have been proposed or commercialized to simplify the design and tuning of real-time image processing applications. However, they tend to lack flexibility because they are normally oriented towards particular types of applications, or they impose specific data processing models such as the pipeline. Other issues include large memory footprints, difficulty for reuse and inefficient execution on multicore processors. This paper presents a novel software architecture for real-time image and video processing applications which addresses these issues. The architecture is divided into three layers: the platform abstraction layer, the messaging layer, and the application layer. The platform abstraction layer provides a high level application programming interface for the rest of the architecture. The messaging layer provides a message passing interface based on a dynamic publish/subscribe pattern. A topic-based filtering in which messages are published to topics is used to route the messages from the publishers to the subscribers interested in a particular type of messages. The application layer provides a repository for reusable application modules designed for real-time image and video processing applications. These modules, which include acquisition, visualization, communication, user interface and data processing modules, take advantage of the power of other well-known libraries such as OpenCV, Intel IPP, or CUDA. Finally, we present different prototypes and applications to show the possibilities of the proposed architecture.

  10. Real-time target detection technology of large view-field infrared image based on multicore DSP parallel processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Gang; Liu, Songlin; Wang, Weihua; Chen, Zengping

    2013-10-01

    In order to implement real-time detection of hedgehopping target in large view-field infrared (LVIR) image, the paper proposes a fast algorithm flow to extract the target region of interest (ROI). The ground building region was rejected quickly and target ROI was segmented roughly through the background classification. Then the background image containing target ROI was matched with previous frame based on a mean removal normalized product correlation (MRNPC) similarity measure function. Finally, the target motion area was extracted by inter-frame difference in time domain. According to the proposed algorithm flow, this paper designs the high-speed real-time signal processing hardware platform based on FPGA + DSP, and also presents a new parallel processing strategy that called function-level and task-level, which could parallel process LVIR image by multi-core and multi-task. Experimental results show that the algorithm can extract low altitude aero target with complex background in large view effectively, and the new design hardware platform could implement real time processing of the IR image with 50000x288 pixels per second in large view-field infrared search system (LVIRSS).

  11. Near Real Time Review of Instrument Performance using the Airborne Data Processing and Analysis Software Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delene, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    Research aircraft that conduct atmospheric measurements carry an increasing array of instrumentation. While on-board personnel constantly review instrument parameters and time series plots, there are an overwhelming number of items. Furthermore, directing the aircraft flight takes up much of the flight scientist time. Typically, a flight engineer is given the responsibility of reviewing the status of on-board instruments. While major issues like not receiving data are quickly identified during a flight, subtle issues like low but believable concentration measurements may go unnoticed. Therefore, it is critical to review data after a flight in near real time. The Airborne Data Processing and Analysis (ADPAA) software package used by the University of North Dakota automates the post-processing of aircraft flight data. Utilizing scripts to process the measurements recorded by data acquisition systems enables the generation of data files within an hour of flight completion. The ADPAA Cplot visualization program enables plots to be quickly generated that enable timely review of all recorded and processed parameters. Near real time review of aircraft flight data enables instrument problems to be identified, investigated and fixed before conducting another flight. On one flight, near real time data review resulted in the identification of unusually low measurements of cloud condensation nuclei, and rapid data visualization enabled the timely investigation of the cause. As a result, a leak was found and fixed before the next flight. Hence, with the high cost of aircraft flights, it is critical to find and fix instrument problems in a timely matter. The use of a automated processing scripts and quick visualization software enables scientists to review aircraft flight data in near real time to identify potential problems.

  12. High-throughput platform for real-time monitoring of biological processes by multicolor single-molecule fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jin; Dalal, Ravindra V.; Petrov, Alexey N.; Tsai, Albert; O’Leary, Seán E.; Chapin, Karen; Cheng, Janice; Ewan, Mark; Hsiung, Pei-Lin; Lundquist, Paul; Turner, Stephen W.; Hsu, David R.; Puglisi, Joseph D.

    2014-01-01

    Zero-mode waveguides provide a powerful technology for studying single-molecule real-time dynamics of biological systems at physiological ligand concentrations. We customized a commercial zero-mode waveguide-based DNA sequencer for use as a versatile instrument for single-molecule fluorescence detection and showed that the system provides long fluorophore lifetimes with good signal to noise and low spectral cross-talk. We then used a ribosomal translation assay to show real-time fluidic delivery during data acquisition, showing it is possible to follow the conformation and composition of thousands of single biomolecules simultaneously through four spectral channels. This instrument allows high-throughput multiplexed dynamics of single-molecule biological processes over long timescales. The instrumentation presented here has broad applications to single-molecule studies of biological systems and is easily accessible to the biophysical community. PMID:24379388

  13. A flexible real-time pulsar processing system for the VLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demorest, Paul; Butler, Bryan J.; Cordes, James M.; Chatterjee, Shami; Deller, Adam; Dhawan, Vivek; Lazio, Joseph; Majid, Walid A.; Ransom, Scott M.; Wharton, Robert

    2015-01-01

    With its large collecting area, sensitive octave-bandwidth receivers and wide-band digital correlator, the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) has potential to become a useful instrument for radio pulsar science. Most observations of this type are currently performed by large single-dish telescopes (e.g., GBT, Arecibo). In certain cases, an array instrument like the VLA can provide a unique complement to "traditional" single-dish pulsar data. It is also an excellent development platform for planned future large-area, array-based pulsar telescopes.We have developed a new flexible real-time software signal processing system for "phased array" pulsar observing. In this mode, signals from each antenna in the array are coherently summed to form a sensitive single beam on the sky. This is ideal for timing observations in which pulsars with accurately known positions are monitored for years or decades in order to study their binary properties, explore the nature of dense neutron star matter, test general relativity, and possibly directly detect gravitational radiation. Phased array observing can also be used for pulsar searches; the small field-of-view makes it primarily suited for targeted observations of specific areas of interest. Here we describe the system design and current technical capabilities of this system. Phased, summed data from the correlator are sent over ethernet to a computer cluster that performs filterbank, coherent dedispersion, and/or pulse period folding in software. The system utilizes existing VLA computing resources, and no additional hardware costs were required to enable the new capabilites. The software architecture uses code developed for the GUPPI pulsar instrument together with the community-developed DSPSR pulsar signal processing library, both publicly-available open-source software packages. To date, we have demonstrated processing of up to 4 GHz total bandwidth.We also summarize initial observations and results obtained using this

  14. Hybrid implementation of a real-time Radon-space image-processing system.

    PubMed

    Woolven, S; Ristic, V M; Chevrette, P

    1993-11-10

    A unique hybrid optical-digital image-processing system that functions at real-time rates and performs analysis in Radon space is presented. This system functions by using the forward Radon transform (a mathematical tomographic transform of image data from two-dimensional image space to onedimensional Radon space), which is achieved by a front-end optical processor followed by a digital processing subsystem operating in Radon space. The system works by optically converting the two-dimensional image data into a series of one-dimensional projections. All further processing is performed digitally in Radon space on the one-dimensional projections. Using the system in transform space, we show that it can perform real-time detection of minimum-resolvable-temperature-difference measurement targets better than a human observer. Also, this paper discusses the potential of real-time object-moment analysis in Radon space. These object moments can be calculated in Radon space with significantly less image data and fewer digital processing operations than in image space. The optical front end is capable of performing 6.04 × 10(10) operations/s on the two-dimensional image data. PMID:20856498

  15. A Real-Time Processing System for Pulsation Detection in Neonatal Cranial Ultrasonogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuzawa, Masayuki; Kitsunezuka, Yoshiki; Yamada, Masayoshi

    1998-05-01

    In order to observe artery pulsation in the neonatal cranium at the site of pediatric diagnosis, a real-time processing system was developed for continuous detection and display of artery pulsation, from the moving images of the neonatal cranial ultrasonogram.The pulsation images were continuously generated by calculating the absolute difference between each pixel value at the two images corresponding to about half a heartbeat interval.The system was confirmed to process and continuously display at intervals of about 150 ms while capturing the echo images at the video rate of 30 ms, showing that the system performance was good enough to observe the artery pulsation in real-time.By monitoring the pulsation images continuously redisplayed, the critical conditions of the echo image such as the sway of the ultrasound probe could be easily avoided at the site of diagnosis.

  16. US GEOLOGICAL SURVEY'S NATIONAL SYSTEM FOR PROCESSING AND DISTRIBUTION OF NEAR REAL-TIME HYDROLOGICAL DATA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shope, William G., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The US Geological Survey is utilizing a national network of more than 1000 satellite data-collection stations, four satellite-relay direct-readout ground stations, and more than 50 computers linked together in a private telecommunications network to acquire, process, and distribute hydrological data in near real-time. The four Survey offices operating a satellite direct-readout ground station provide near real-time hydrological data to computers located in other Survey offices through the Survey's Distributed Information System. The computerized distribution system permits automated data processing and distribution to be carried out in a timely manner under the control and operation of the Survey office responsible for the data-collection stations and for the dissemination of hydrological information to the water-data users.

  17. Real time polarization sensor image processing on an embedded FPGA/multi-core DSP system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednara, Marcus; Chuchacz-Kowalczyk, Katarzyna

    2015-05-01

    Most embedded image processing SoCs available on the market are highly optimized for typical consumer applications like video encoding/decoding, motion estimation or several image enhancement processes as used in DSLR or digital video cameras. For non-consumer applications, on the other hand, optimized embedded hardware is rarely available, so often PC based image processing systems are used. We show how a real time capable image processing system for a non-consumer application - namely polarization image data processing - can be efficiently implemented on an FPGA and multi-core DSP based embedded hardware platform.

  18. A High Speed Mobile Courier Data Access System That Processes Database Queries in Real-Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatsheni, Barnabas Ndlovu; Mabizela, Zwelakhe

    A secure high-speed query processing mobile courier data access (MCDA) system for a Courier Company has been developed. This system uses the wireless networks in combination with wired networks for updating a live database at the courier centre in real-time by an offsite worker (the Courier). The system is protected by VPN based on IPsec. There is no system that we know of to date that performs the task for the courier as proposed in this paper.

  19. A portable real-time data processing system for standard meteorological radiosondes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staffanson, F. L.

    1983-01-01

    The UMET-1 is a microprocessor-based portable system for automatic real-time processing of flight data transmitted from the standard RAWINSONDE upper atmosphere meteorological balloonsonde. The first 'target system' is described which was designed to receive data from a mobile tracking and telemetry receiving station (TRADAT), as the balloonsonde ascends to apogee. After balloon-burst, the UMET-1 produces user-ready hardcopy.

  20. a Real-Time Optical/digital Radon Space Image Processing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolven, Steve

    A unique hybrid optical/digital general image processing system which potentially functions at real-time rates and performs analysis on low object-to-background contrast images in Radon space is investigated. The system is capable of some real-time functions which are invariant to object distortions. This research is presented in three stages: the development and analysis of the theory of Radon space, the hardware and software design and implementation of the working system, and the results achieved. This original system functions by using the forward Radon transform ^1, which is achieved by a front-end optical processor, followed by a digital processing subsystem operating in Radon space instead of the more familiar image space. The system works by converting the two dimensional image data into a series of one dimensional projections, and it is demonstrated that several digital image processing functions can potentially be performed faster on the projection data than on the original image data. Using the transform, it is shown that the system is theoretically capable of performing real-time two dimensional Fourier transforms and matched filtering operations. Also, this document presents and demonstrates a method of potential real-time object-moment analysis which allows objects to undergo distortions and continue to be recognized as the original object. It is shown that these moments can be calculated in Radon space using significantly less image data and fewer digital processing operations than in image space. The optical system is potentially capable of performing 6.04 times 10^{10 } operations per second on the two dimensional image data. ftn^1The Radon transform refers to a mathematical tomographic transform of image data from two dimensional image space to a one dimensional space (Radon space).

  1. A Cloud-Based Infrastructure for Near-Real-Time Processing and Dissemination of NPP Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J. D.; Valente, E. G.; Chettri, S. S.

    2011-12-01

    We are building a scalable cloud-based infrastructure for generating and disseminating near-real-time data products from a variety of geospatial and meteorological data sources, including the new National Polar-Orbiting Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP). Our approach relies on linking Direct Broadcast and other data streams to a suite of scientific algorithms coordinated by NASA's International Polar-Orbiter Processing Package (IPOPP). The resulting data products are directly accessible to a wide variety of end-user applications, via industry-standard protocols such as OGC Web Services, Unidata Local Data Manager, or OPeNDAP, using open source software components. The processing chain employs on-demand computing resources from Amazon.com's Elastic Compute Cloud and NASA's Nebula cloud services. Our current prototype targets short-term weather forecasting, in collaboration with NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program and the National Weather Service. Direct Broadcast is especially crucial for NPP, whose current ground segment is unlikely to deliver data quickly enough for short-term weather forecasters and other near-real-time users. Direct Broadcast also allows full local control over data handling, from the receiving antenna to end-user applications: this provides opportunities to streamline processes for data ingest, processing, and dissemination, and thus to make interpreted data products (Environmental Data Records) available to practitioners within minutes of data capture at the sensor. Cloud computing lets us grow and shrink computing resources to meet large and rapid fluctuations in data availability (twice daily for polar orbiters) - and similarly large fluctuations in demand from our target (near-real-time) users. This offers a compelling business case for cloud computing: the processing or dissemination systems can grow arbitrarily large to sustain near-real time data access despite surges in

  2. Comparison of Different Techniques for Processing GNSS Data in Real Time for Tsunami Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, M.; Dragert, H.; Lu, Y.; Henton, J.; MacLeod, K.

    2012-12-01

    Real-time processing and dissemination of GNSS derived co-seismic position offsets for tsunami early warning has been under development at the Geological Survey of Canada (NRCan) for the past six years. Using streamed data from the Western Canada Deformation Array (WCDA), results from two variations of Precise Point Positioning (PPP) and two variations of network-based solutions are evaluated: NRCan's real-time PPP software, and two commercial software packages RTD and RTNET, licensed from Geodetics Inc. and GPS Solutions Inc. respectively. Of the two commercial packages, the former provides independent, epoch-by-epoch network solutions, while the latter has the capability to process data using both PPP and Network approaches. There are clear advantages and disadvantages to the independent PPP solutions vs. the network based solutions. PPP solutions (smoothed and un-smoothed) provide position estimates for single stations in a global framework. They are not reliant on 'fixed' reference stations that, if located within the seismogenic zone, will clearly experience co-seismic displacements. Under best-case scenarios, error levels of 1-2 cm horizontal and 3-6cm vertical are achievable for network based solutions whereas PPP solutions with ambiguity resolution are currently somewhat noisier. Both analysis methodologies are critically dependent on data continuity and robust tracking of all available satellites at each site. A clear case is made for the requirement for network based processing capacity for baselines of greater than 150km in order to ensure robust co-seismic displacement estimates during large earthquakes. Results from tests within the WCDA network using the different techniques are presented as well as recommendations for computational and operational improvements. NRCan's real-time web based interface offers the user community with a real-time display of position offset estimates for sites in southwestern coastal British Columbia.

  3. Industrial use of the real time monitor for quality assurance in electron processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneeland, D. R.; Nablo, S. V.; Weiss, D. E.; Sinz, T. E.

    1999-07-01

    The performance of a three channel real time radiation monitor, installed on a 250 kV×0.3 m electron sterilizer used for controlled depth of sterilization of medical devices, is reported. The bremsstrahlung generated at the window plane is monitored with good spatial resolution at three locations across the beam, and provides information on the electron current density (dose rate) and the electron energy. Software has been developed for analysis and display of these data in real time so that the dose received by the product, and the energy at which it was treated can be displayed and recorded. The several geometries used for bremsstrahlung detection are discussed, and some calculated low energy distributions are shown. Typical data are presented from an eleven channel unit mounted on a 250 kV×1.6 m processor illustrating its use for process quality assurance. The use of Monitorad® for overall closed-loop processor control is reviewed.

  4. Demonstration plan for real time receiving and processing of flight data from the space transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, James W.; Avery, Don E.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents a detailed demonstration test plan for receiving and processing data from experiments being conducted on the Space Transportation System near real time at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). This task can readily be achieved using the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE). The Space Shuttle data flow is described including both the payload and the mission data. A description is presented of the OARE instrument which is used to measure low frequency Space Shuttle accelerations in nano-gs. Procedures are shown for obtaining the required mission data and OARE payload data at LaRC. The demonstration test plan schedule and costs are presented. It is recommended that both the OARE data and the pertinent Space Shuttle mission data be received at LaRC over the NASA Communication System (NASCOM) on a near real time basis.

  5. Real time intelligent process control system for thin film solar cell manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    George Atanasoff

    2010-10-29

    This project addresses the problem of lower solar conversion efficiency and waste in the typical solar cell manufacturing process. The work from the proposed development will lead toward developing a system which should be able to increase solar panel conversion efficiency by an additional 12-15% resulting in lower cost panels, increased solar technology adoption, reduced carbon emissions and reduced dependency on foreign oil. All solar cell manufacturing processes today suffer from manufacturing inefficiencies that currently lead to lower product quality and lower conversion efficiency, increased product cost and greater material and energy consumption. This results in slower solar energy adoption and extends the time solar cells will reach grid parity with traditional energy sources. The thin film solar panel manufacturers struggle on a daily basis with the problem of thin film thickness non-uniformity and other parameters variances over the deposited substrates, which significantly degrade their manufacturing yield and quality. Optical monitoring of the thin films during the process of the film deposition is widely perceived as a necessary step towards resolving the non-uniformity and non-homogeneity problem. In order to enable the development of an optical control system for solar cell manufacturing, a new type of low cost optical sensor is needed, able to acquire local information about the panel under deposition and measure its local characteristics, including the light scattering in very close proximity to the surface of the film. This information cannot be obtained by monitoring from outside the deposition chamber (as traditional monitoring systems do) due to the significant signal attenuation and loss of its scattering component before the reflected beam reaches the detector. In addition, it would be too costly to install traditional external in-situ monitoring systems to perform any real-time monitoring over large solar panels, since it would require

  6. Real-time lossy compression of hyperspectral images using iterative error analysis on graphics processing units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Sergio; Plaza, Antonio

    2012-06-01

    Hyperspectral image compression is an important task in remotely sensed Earth Observation as the dimensionality of this kind of image data is ever increasing. This requires on-board compression in order to optimize the donwlink connection when sending the data to Earth. A successful algorithm to perform lossy compression of remotely sensed hyperspectral data is the iterative error analysis (IEA) algorithm, which applies an iterative process which allows controlling the amount of information loss and compression ratio depending on the number of iterations. This algorithm, which is based on spectral unmixing concepts, can be computationally expensive for hyperspectral images with high dimensionality. In this paper, we develop a new parallel implementation of the IEA algorithm for hyperspectral image compression on graphics processing units (GPUs). The proposed implementation is tested on several different GPUs from NVidia, and is shown to exhibit real-time performance in the analysis of an Airborne Visible Infra-Red Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data sets collected over different locations. The proposed algorithm and its parallel GPU implementation represent a significant advance towards real-time onboard (lossy) compression of hyperspectral data where the quality of the compression can be also adjusted in real-time.

  7. A complete solar eruption activity processing tool with robotization and real time (II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ganghua; Zhao, Cui; Yang, Xiao

    2014-07-01

    Intense solar active events have made significant impacts on the modern high technology system and living environment of human being, therefore solar activities forecast and space weather forecast are getting more and more attention. Meanwhile, data volume acquisitioned by solar monitor facility is growing larger and larger due to the requirement of multiple dimensions observation and high temporal and spatial resolution. As staffs of a solar monitor data producer, we are encouraged to adopt new techniques and methods to provide valuable information to solar activities forecast organization and the other related users, and provide convenient products and tools to the users. In the previous paper "A complete solar eruption activities processing tool with robotization and real time (I)", we presented a fully automatic and real time detecting architecture for different solar erupt activities. In this paper, we present new components of new data sets in the architecture design, latest progresses on automatic recognition of solar flare, filament and magnetic field, and a newly introduced method with which solar photospheric magnetic nonpotentiality parameters are processed in real time, then its result directly can be used in solar active forecast.

  8. Language at Three Timescales: The Role of Real-Time Processes in Language Development and Evolution.

    PubMed

    McMurray, Bob

    2016-04-01

    Evolutionary developmental systems (evo-devo) theory stresses that selection pressures operate on entire developmental systems rather than just genes. This study extends this approach to language evolution, arguing that selection pressure may operate on two quasi-independent timescales. First, children clearly must acquire language successfully (as acknowledged in traditional evo-devo accounts) and evolution must equip them with the tools to do so. Second, while this is developing, they must also communicate with others in the moment using partially developed knowledge. These pressures may require different solutions, and their combination may underlie the evolution of complex mechanisms for language development and processing. I present two case studies to illustrate how the demands of both real-time communication and language acquisition may be subtly different (and interact). The first case study examines infant-directed speech (IDS). A recent view is that IDS underwent cultural to statistical learning mechanisms that infants use to acquire the speech categories of their language. However, recent data suggest is it may not have evolved to enhance development, but rather to serve a more real-time communicative function. The second case study examines the argument for seemingly specialized mechanisms for learning word meanings (e.g., fast-mapping). Both behavioral and computational work suggest that learning may be much slower and served by general-purpose mechanisms like associative learning. Fast-mapping, then, may be a real-time process meant to serve immediate communication, not learning, by augmenting incomplete vocabulary knowledge with constraints from the current context. Together, these studies suggest that evolutionary accounts consider selection pressure arising from both real-time communicative demands and from the need for accurate language development. PMID:26991438

  9. Implementation of a data processing platform for real-time distance measurement with dual-comb lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Kai; Xu, Mingfei; Zhou, Qian; Dong, Hao; Li, Xinghui; Wu, Guanhao

    2015-08-01

    Absolute distance measurement with dual femtosecond comb lasers has advantages of wide-range, high-accuracy and fast speed. It combines time-of-flight and interferometric measurement. The novelty of ranging method leads to new challenges in designing the data acquisition and processing hardware system. Currently there are no available real-time data processing system for dual-comb ranging. This paper introduces our recent progress on designing and implementing such a platform. Our platform mainly contains four different function modules. First, a clock module that accept a 250MHz maximum reference clock input was introduced to generate the sample clock for A/D converter, and the module's output clock can be delayed up to 20ns with a resolution of 714ps. Second, a high-speed data acquisition module with a 14-bit resolution and a 125 MSPS maximum sample rate was designed to convert the analog laser pulse signal to digital signal. Third, we built a real-time data processing module that allows an input of 16-bit data in the FPGA to calculate the distance from the digital signal within 83us. Finally, a data transmission module based on a 128MB DDR SDRAM and USB2.0 was added so that we can easily debug the platform in the PC. The performance of our system is evaluated in real-time. The test bench consists of two femtosecond laser sources, an optical fiber interferometer and our data processing system. The repetition frequencies of the two combs are around 50MHz, with frequency difference of 2.5kHz. The center wavelength of laser pulses is 1560nm. The target distance is from 0m to 3m. The experimental results show that our system can output measurement results at the rate of 2500 pts/s, and the measurement deviation is less than 10um.

  10. Multigate transcranial Doppler ultrasound system with real-time embolic signal identification and archival.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lingke; Boni, Enrico; Tortoli, Piero; Evans, David H

    2006-10-01

    An integrated system for acquisition and processing of intracranial and extracranial Doppler signals and automatic embolic signal detection has been developed. The hardware basis of the system is a purpose-built acquisition/processing board that includes a multigate Doppler unit controlled through a computer. The signal-processing engine of the system contains a fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based, spectral-analysis unit and an embolic signal-detection unit using expert system reasoning theory. The system is designed so that up to four receive gates from a single transducer can be used to provide useful reasoning information to the embolic signal-detection unit. Alternatively, two transducers can be used simultaneously, either for bilateral transcranial Doppler (TCD) investigations or for simultaneous intra- and extracranial investigation of different arteries. The structure of the software will allow the future implementation of embolus detection algorithms that use the information from all four channels when a single transducer is used, or of independent embolus detection in two sets of two channels when two transducers are used. The user-friendly system has been tested in-vitro, and it has demonstrated a 93.6% sensitivity for micro-embolic signal (MES) identification. Preliminary in-vivo results also are encouraging. PMID:17036793

  11. A wearable smartphone-based platform for real-time cardiovascular disease detection via electrocardiogram processing.

    PubMed

    Oresko, Joseph J; Duschl, Heather; Cheng, Allen C

    2010-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the single leading cause of global mortality and is projected to remain so. Cardiac arrhythmia is a very common type of CVD and may indicate an increased risk of stroke or sudden cardiac death. The ECG is the most widely adopted clinical tool to diagnose and assess the risk of arrhythmia. ECGs measure and display the electrical activity of the heart from the body surface. During patients' hospital visits, however, arrhythmias may not be detected on standard resting ECG machines, since the condition may not be present at that moment in time. While Holter-based portable monitoring solutions offer 24-48 h ECG recording, they lack the capability of providing any real-time feedback for the thousands of heart beats they record, which must be tediously analyzed offline. In this paper, we seek to unite the portability of Holter monitors and the real-time processing capability of state-of-the-art resting ECG machines to provide an assistive diagnosis solution using smartphones. Specifically, we developed two smartphone-based wearable CVD-detection platforms capable of performing real-time ECG acquisition and display, feature extraction, and beat classification. Furthermore, the same statistical summaries available on resting ECG machines are provided. PMID:20388600

  12. Graphic processing unit accelerated real-time partially coherent beam generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Xiaolong; Liu, Zhi; Chen, Chunyi; Jiang, Huilin; Fang, Hanhan; Song, Lujun; Zhang, Su

    2016-07-01

    A method of using liquid-crystals (LCs) to generate a partially coherent beam in real-time is described. An expression for generating a partially coherent beam is given and calculated using a graphic processing unit (GPU), i.e., the GeForce GTX 680. A liquid-crystal on silicon (LCOS) with 256 × 256 pixels is used as the partially coherent beam generator (PCBG). An optimizing method with partition convolution is used to improve the generating speed of our LC PCBG. The total time needed to generate a random phase map with a coherence width range from 0.015 mm to 1.5 mm is less than 2.4 ms for calculation and readout with the GPU; adding the time needed for the CPU to read and send to LCOS with the response time of the LC PCBG, the real-time partially coherent beam (PCB) generation frequency of our LC PCBG is up to 312 Hz. To our knowledge, it is the first real-time partially coherent beam generator. A series of experiments based on double pinhole interference are performed. The result shows that to generate a laser beam with a coherence width of 0.9 mm and 1.5 mm, with a mean error of approximately 1%, the RMS values needed 0.021306 and 0.020883 and the PV values required 0.073576 and 0.072998, respectively.

  13. Real-Time Joint Streaming Data Processing from Social and Physical Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kropivnitskaya, Y. Y.; Qin, J.; Tiampo, K. F.; Bauer, M.

    2014-12-01

    The results of the technological breakthroughs in computing that have taken place over the last few decades makes it possible to achieve emergency management objectives that focus on saving human lives and decreasing economic effects. In particular, the integration of a wide variety of information sources, including observations from spatially-referenced physical sensors and new social media sources, enables better real-time seismic hazard analysis through distributed computing networks. The main goal of this work is to utilize innovative computational algorithms for better real-time seismic risk analysis by integrating different data sources and processing tools into streaming and cloud computing applications. The Geological Survey of Canada operates the Canadian National Seismograph Network (CNSN) with over 100 high-gain instruments and 60 low-gain or strong motion seismographs. The processing of the continuous data streams from each station of the CNSN provides the opportunity to detect possible earthquakes in near real-time. The information from physical sources is combined to calculate a location and magnitude for an earthquake. The automatically calculated results are not always sufficiently precise and prompt that can significantly reduce the response time to a felt or damaging earthquake. Social sensors, here represented as Twitter users, can provide information earlier to the general public and more rapidly to the emergency planning and disaster relief agencies. We introduce joint streaming data processing from social and physical sensors in real-time based on the idea that social media observations serve as proxies for physical sensors. By using the streams of data in the form of Twitter messages, each of which has an associated time and location, we can extract information related to a target event and perform enhanced analysis by combining it with physical sensor data. Results of this work suggest that the use of data from social media, in conjunction

  14. Real-time reprogrammable low-level image processing: edge detection and edge tracking accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meribout, M.; Hou, Kun M.

    1993-10-01

    Currently, in image processing, segmentation algorithms comprise between real time video rate processing and accurate results. In this paper, we present an efficient and not recursive algorithm filter originated from Deriche filter. This algorithm is implemented in hardware by using FPGA technology. Thus, it permits video rate edge detection. In addition, the FPGA board is used as an edge tracking accelerator, it allows us to greatly reduce execution time by avoiding scanning the whole image. We also present the architecture of our vision system dedicated to build 3D scene every 200 ms.

  15. Observations of breakup processes of liquid jets using real-time X-ray radiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Char, J. M.; Kuo, K. K.; Hsieh, K. C.

    1988-01-01

    To unravel the liquid-jet breakup process in the nondilute region, a newly developed system of real-time X-ray radiography, an advanced digital image processor, and a high-speed video camera were used. Based upon recorded X-ray images, the inner structure of a liquid jet during breakup was observed. The jet divergence angle, jet breakup length, and fraction distributions along the axial and transverse directions of the liquid jets were determined in the near-injector region. Both wall- and free-jet tests were conducted to study the effect of wall friction on the jet breakup process.

  16. In-Situ Real Time Monitoring and Control of Mold Making and Filling Processes: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed Abdelrahman; Kenneth Currie

    2010-12-22

    This project presents a model for addressing several objectives envisioned by the metal casting industries through the integration of research and educational components. It provides an innovative approach to introduce technologies for real time characterization of sand molds, lost foam patterns and monitoring of the mold filling process. The technology developed will enable better control over the casting process. It is expected to reduce scrap and variance in the casting quality. A strong educational component is integrated into the research plan to utilize increased awareness of the industry professional, the potential benefits of the developed technology, and the potential benefits of cross cutting technologies.

  17. Real-time processing for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a field programmable gate array

    PubMed Central

    Ustun, Teoman E.; Iftimia, Nicusor V.; Ferguson, R. Daniel; Hammer, Daniel X.

    2008-01-01

    Real-time display of processed Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FDOCT) images is important for applications that require instant feedback of image information, for example, systems developed for rapid screening or image-guided surgery. However, the computational requirements for high-speed FDOCT image processing usually exceeds the capabilities of most computers and therefore display rates rarely match acquisition rates for most devices. We have designed and developed an image processing system, including hardware based upon a field programmable gated array, firmware, and software that enables real-time display of processed images at rapid line rates. The system was designed to be extremely flexible and inserted in-line between any FDOCT detector and any Camera Link frame grabber. Two versions were developed for spectrometer-based and swept source-based FDOCT systems, the latter having an additional custom high-speed digitizer on the front end but using all the capabilities and features of the former. The system was tested in humans and monkeys using an adaptive optics retinal imager, in zebrafish using a dual-beam Doppler instrument, and in human tissue using a swept source microscope. A display frame rate of 27 fps for fully processed FDOCT images (1024 axial pixels×512 lateral A-scans) was achieved in the spectrometer-based systems. PMID:19045902

  18. VerifEYE: a real-time meat inspection system for the beef processing industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocak, Donna M.; Caimi, Frank M.; Flick, Rick L.; Elharti, Abdelmoula

    2003-02-01

    Described is a real-time meat inspection system developed for the beef processing industry by eMerge Interactive. Designed to detect and localize trace amounts of contamination on cattle carcasses in the packing process, the system affords the beef industry an accurate, high speed, passive optical method of inspection. Using a method patented by United States Department of Agriculture and Iowa State University, the system takes advantage of fluorescing chlorophyll found in the animal's diet and therefore the digestive track to allow detection and imaging of contaminated areas that may harbor potentially dangerous microbial pathogens. Featuring real-time image processing and documentation of performance, the system can be easily integrated into a processing facility's Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point quality assurance program. This paper describes the VerifEYE carcass inspection and removal verification system. Results indicating the feasibility of the method, as well as field data collected using a prototype system during four university trials conducted in 2001 are presented. Two successful demonstrations using the prototype system were held at a major U.S. meat processing facility in early 2002.

  19. Ultrasonic Real-Time Quality Monitoring Of Aluminum Spot Weld Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez Regalado, Waldo Josue

    The real-time ultrasonic spot weld monitoring system, introduced by our research group, has been designed for the unsupervised quality characterization of the spot welding process. It comprises the ultrasonic transducer (probe) built into one of the welding electrodes and an electronics hardware unit which gathers information from the transducer, performs real-time weld quality characterization and communicates with the robot programmable logic controller (PLC). The system has been fully developed for the inspection of spot welds manufactured in steel alloys, and has been mainly applied in the automotive industry. In recent years, a variety of materials have been introduced to the automotive industry. These include high strength steels, magnesium alloys, and aluminum alloys. Aluminum alloys have been of particular interest due to their high strength-to-weight ratio. Resistance spot welding requirements for aluminum vary greatly from those of steel. Additionally, the oxide film formed on the aluminum surface increases the heat generation between the copper electrodes and the aluminum plates leading to accelerated electrode deterioration. Preliminary studies showed that the real-time quality inspection system was not able to monitor spot welds manufactured with aluminum. The extensive experimental research, finite element modelling of the aluminum welding process and finite difference modeling of the acoustic wave propagation through the aluminum spot welds presented in this dissertation, revealed that the thermodynamics and hence the acoustic wave propagation through an aluminum and a steel spot weld differ significantly. For this reason, the hardware requirements and the algorithms developed to determine the welds quality from the ultrasonic data used on steel, no longer apply on aluminum spot welds. After updating the system and designing the required algorithms, parameters such as liquid nugget penetration and nugget diameter were available in the ultrasonic data

  20. A real time dynamic data acquisition and processing system for velocity, density, and total temperature fluctuation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clukey, Steven J.

    1991-01-01

    The real time Dynamic Data Acquisition and Processing System (DDAPS) is described which provides the capability for the simultaneous measurement of velocity, density, and total temperature fluctuations. The system of hardware and software is described in context of the wind tunnel environment. The DDAPS replaces both a recording mechanism and a separate data processing system. DDAPS receives input from hot wire anemometers. Amplifiers and filters condition the signals with computer controlled modules. The analog signals are simultaneously digitized and digitally recorded on disk. Automatic acquisition collects necessary calibration and environment data. Hot wire sensitivities are generated and applied to the hot wire data to compute fluctuations. The presentation of the raw and processed data is accomplished on demand. The interface to DDAPS is described along with the internal mechanisms of DDAPS. A summary of operations relevant to the use of the DDAPS is also provided.

  1. A Real-Time Spectroscopic Sensor for Monitoring Laser Welding Processes

    PubMed Central

    Sibillano, Teresa; Ancona, Antonio; Berardi, Vincenzo; Lugarà, Pietro Mario

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we report on the development of a sensor for real time monitoring of laser welding processes based on spectroscopic techniques. The system is based on the acquisition of the optical spectra emitted from the laser generated plasma plume and their use to implement an on-line algorithm for both the calculation of the plasma electron temperature and the analysis of the correlations between selected spectral lines. The sensor has been patented and it is currently available on the market. PMID:22412317

  2. Real time video processing software for the analysis of endoscopic guided-biopsies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordoñez, C.; Bouchet, A.; Pastore, J.; Blotta, E.

    2011-12-01

    The severity in Barrett esophagus disease is, undoubtedly, the possibility of its malignization. To make an early diagnosis in order to avoid possible complications, it is absolutely necessary collect biopsies to make a histological analysis. This should be done under endoscopic control to avoid mucus areas that may co-exist within the columnar epithelial, which could lead to a false diagnosis. This paper presents a video processing software in real-time in order to delineate and enhance areas of interest to facilitate the work of the expert.

  3. Enhancing Sensitivity of a Miniature Spectrometer Using a Real-Time Image Processing Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chandramohan, Sabarish; Avrutsky, Ivan

    2016-05-01

    A real-time image processing algorithm is developed to enhance the sensitivity of a planar single-mode waveguide miniature spectrometer with integrated waveguide gratings. A novel approach of averaging along the arcs in a curved coordinate system is introduced which allows for collecting more light, thereby enhancing the sensitivity. The algorithm is tested using CdSeS/ZnS quantum dots drop casted on the surface of a single-mode waveguide. Measurements indicate that a monolayer of quantum dots is expected to produce guided mode attenuation approximately 11 times above the noise level. PMID:27170777

  4. Real-time blood flow visualization using the graphics processing unit.

    PubMed

    Yang, Owen; Cuccia, David; Choi, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Laser speckle imaging (LSI) is a technique in which coherent light incident on a surface produces a reflected speckle pattern that is related to the underlying movement of optical scatterers, such as red blood cells, indicating blood flow. Image-processing algorithms can be applied to produce speckle flow index (SFI) maps of relative blood flow. We present a novel algorithm that employs the NVIDIA Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) platform to perform laser speckle image processing on the graphics processing unit. Software written in C was integrated with CUDA and integrated into a LabVIEW Virtual Instrument (VI) that is interfaced with a monochrome CCD camera able to acquire high-resolution raw speckle images at nearly 10 fps. With the CUDA code integrated into the LabVIEW VI, the processing and display of SFI images were performed also at ∼10 fps. We present three video examples depicting real-time flow imaging during a reactive hyperemia maneuver, with fluid flow through an in vitro phantom, and a demonstration of real-time LSI during laser surgery of a port wine stain birthmark. PMID:21280915

  5. [Design and implementation of real-time processing platform for movement error correction of hyperspectrual imaging].

    PubMed

    Yu, Tao; Hu, Bing-liang; Gao, Xiao-hui; Wei, Ru-yi; Jing, Juan-juan

    2012-08-01

    The approach that deals with compressed and packed image data transmitted from satellite to the ground is too slow for real-time application occasion, it also has huge image, multi-processing step and complexity recovery arithmetic synchronously, so it is urgent to build accurate and fast data processing platform for real-time processing. For the moment, the platform for data recovery and error correction is much less, the so-called successful platform may directly affect the effect of target detection and identification because of processing speed, precision, flexibility, configuration and upgrade. The platform we build is to set spatial modulation spectrometer as the research goal, We design and implement a hardware platform based on Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA, It is combined with ISE IP soft-core resources which is configurable, high-precision and flexible by focusing on analyzing key aspects of the hardware platform. And the relevant test data were drawn, then a good way for spectrum recovery and error correction was explored. PMID:23156797

  6. Raman Based Process Monitor For Continuous Real-Time Analysis Of High Level Radioactive Waste Components

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Samuel A.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Schlahta, Stephan N.

    2008-05-27

    ABSTRACT A new monitoring system was developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to quickly generate real-time data/analysis to facilitate a timely response to the dynamic characteristics of a radioactive high level waste stream. The developed process monitor features Raman and Coriolis/conductivity instrumentation configured for the remote monitoring, MatLab-based chemometric data processing, and comprehensive software for data acquisition/storage/archiving/display. The monitoring system is capable of simultaneously and continuously quantifying the levels of all the chemically significant anions within the waste stream including nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, carbonate, chromate, hydroxide, sulfate, and aluminate. The total sodium ion concentration was also determined independently by modeling inputs from on-line conductivity and density meters. In addition to the chemical information, this monitoring system provides immediate real-time data on the flow parameters, such as flow rate and temperature, and cumulative mass/volume of the retrieved waste stream. The components and analytical tools of the new process monitor can be tailored for a variety of complex mixtures in chemically harsh environments, such as pulp and paper processing liquids, electroplating solutions, and radioactive tank wastes. The developed monitoring system was tested for acceptability before it was deployed for use in Hanford Tank S-109 retrieval activities. The acceptance tests included performance inspection of hardware, software, and chemometric data analysis to determine the expected measurement accuracy for the different chemical species that are encountered during S-109 retrieval.

  7. Raman Based Process Monitor for Continuous Real-Time Analysis Of High Level Radioactive Waste Components

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, S.; Levitskaia, T.; Schlahta, St.

    2008-07-01

    A new monitoring system was developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to quickly generate real-time data/analysis to facilitate a timely response to the dynamic characteristics of a radioactive high level waste stream. The developed process monitor features Raman and Coriolis/conductivity instrumentation configured for the remote monitoring, MatLab-based chemometric data processing, and comprehensive software for data acquisition/storage/archiving/display. The monitoring system is capable of simultaneously and continuously quantifying the levels of all the chemically significant anions within the waste stream including nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, carbonate, chromate, hydroxide, sulfate, and aluminate. The total sodium ion concentration was also determined independently by modeling inputs from on-line conductivity and density meters. In addition to the chemical information, this monitoring system provides immediate real-time data on the flow parameters, such as flow rate and temperature, and cumulative mass/volume of the retrieved waste stream. The components and analytical tools of the new process monitor can be tailored for a variety of complex mixtures in chemically harsh environments, such as pulp and paper processing liquids, electroplating solutions, and radioactive tank wastes. The developed monitoring system was tested for acceptability before it was deployed for use in Hanford Tank S-109 retrieval activities. The acceptance tests included performance inspection of hardware, software, and chemometric data analysis to determine the expected measurement accuracy for the different chemical species that are encountered during S-109 retrieval. (authors)

  8. A real-time signal combining system for Ka-band feed arrays using maximum-likelihood weight estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, V. A.; Rodemich, E. R.

    1990-01-01

    A real-time digital signal combining system for use with Ka-band feed arrays is proposed. The combining system attempts to compensate for signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) loss resulting from antenna deformations induced by gravitational and atmospheric effects. The combining weights are obtained directly from the observed samples by using a sliding-window implementation of a vector maximum-likelihood parameter estimator. It is shown that with averaging times of about 0.1 second, combining loss for a seven-element array can be limited to about 0.1 dB in a realistic operational environment. This result suggests that the real-time combining system proposed here is capable of recovering virtually all of the signal power captured by the feed array, even in the presence of severe wind gusts and similar disturbances.

  9. Real Time Implementation of Wiener Model PI (WMPI) Controller in a Conical Tank Liquid Level Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaba, P. K.; Sathishbabu, S.; Asokan, A.; Karunanithi, T.

    Level control is very important for the successful operation of most chemical and biochemical industries since it is through the proper control of flows and levels that the desired production rates and inventories can be achieved. The aim of this study was the development and real time implementation of a Wiener Model based PI Controller (WMPIC) for a conical tank level process. The conical tank level process exhibits severe static non-linear behavior and dynamic characteristics. Here, a WMPIC structure was developed by the way of compensating the process static non-linearity. Tuning rules suggested by PadmaSree-Srinivas-Chidambaram (2004) and Ziegler-Nichols (1942) were considered here for designing the controller. The real time implementation results of wiener model based PI controller were compared with those obtained using a conventional Linear PI Controller (LPIC). The performance of these controllers was analyzed in terms of Integral Square Error (ISE) criterion. In addition to this, the robustness of the controllers was also analyzed.

  10. Image Corruption Detection in Diffusion Tensor Imaging for Post-Processing and Real-Time Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yue; Shea, Steven M.; Lorenz, Christine H.; Jiang, Hangyi; Chou, Ming-Chung; Mori, Susumu

    2013-01-01

    Due to the high sensitivity of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to physiological motion, clinical DTI scans often suffer a significant amount of artifacts. Tensor-fitting-based, post-processing outlier rejection is often used to reduce the influence of motion artifacts. Although it is an effective approach, when there are multiple corrupted data, this method may no longer correctly identify and reject the corrupted data. In this paper, we introduce a new criterion called “corrected Inter-Slice Intensity Discontinuity” (cISID) to detect motion-induced artifacts. We compared the performance of algorithms using cISID and other existing methods with regard to artifact detection. The experimental results show that the integration of cISID into fitting-based methods significantly improves the retrospective detection performance at post-processing analysis. The performance of the cISID criterion, if used alone, was inferior to the fitting-based methods, but cISID could effectively identify severely corrupted images with a rapid calculation time. In the second part of this paper, an outlier rejection scheme was implemented on a scanner for real-time monitoring of image quality and reacquisition of the corrupted data. The real-time monitoring, based on cISID and followed by post-processing, fitting-based outlier rejection, could provide a robust environment for routine DTI studies. PMID:24204551

  11. Study on algorithm and real-time implementation of infrared image processing based on FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Yulin; Ding, Ruijun; Liu, Shanshan; Chen, Zhe

    2010-10-01

    With the fast development of Infrared Focal Plane Arrays (IRFPA) detectors, high quality real-time image processing becomes more important in infrared imaging system. Facing the demand of better visual effect and good performance, we find FPGA is an ideal choice of hardware to realize image processing algorithm that fully taking advantage of its high speed, high reliability and processing a great amount of data in parallel. In this paper, a new idea of dynamic linear extension algorithm is introduced, which has the function of automatically finding the proper extension range. This image enhancement algorithm is designed in Verilog HDL and realized on FPGA. It works on higher speed than serial processing device like CPU and DSP. Experiment shows that this hardware unit of dynamic linear extension algorithm enhances the visual effect of infrared image effectively.

  12. Real-time processing in picture naming in adults who stutter: ERP evidence

    PubMed Central

    Maxfield, Nathan D.; Morris, Kalie; Frisch, Stefan A.; Morphew, Kathryn; Constantine, Joseph L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim was to compare real-time language/cognitive processing in picture naming in adults who stutter (AWS) versus typically-fluent adults (TFA). Methods Participants named pictures preceded by masked prime words. Primes and target picture labels were Identical or mismatched. Priming effects on naming and picture-elicited ERP activity were analyzed. Vocabulary knowledge correlations with these measures were assessed. Results Priming improved naming RTs and accuracy in both groups. RTs were longer for AWS, and correlated positively with receptive vocabulary in TFA. Electrophysiologically, posterior-P1 amplitude negatively correlated with expressive vocabulary in TFA versus receptive vocabulary in AWS. Frontal/temporal-P1 amplitude correlated positively with expressive vocabulary in AWS. Identity priming enhanced frontal/posterior-N2 amplitude in both groups, and attenuated P280 amplitude in AWS. N400 priming was topographically-restricted in AWS. Conclusions Results suggest that conceptual knowledge was perceptually-grounded in expressive vocabulary in TFA versus receptive vocabulary in AWS. Poorer expressive vocabulary in AWS was potentially associated with greater suppression of irrelevant conceptual information. Priming enhanced N2-indexed cognitive control and visual attention in both groups. P280-indexed focal attention attenuated with priming in AWS only. Topographically-restricted N400 priming suggests that lemma/word form connections were weaker in AWS. Significance Real-time language/cognitive processing in picture naming operates differently in AWS. PMID:24910149

  13. [Real time diagnostics of instantaneous temperature of combustion and explosion process by modern spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xue-tie; Wang, Jun-de; Li, Yan; Liu, Da-bing

    2003-04-01

    The combustion temperature is one of the important parameters to express flame combustion and explosion characteristics. It will effectively guide the design and manufacture of new model explosives, industrial explosive materials, and weapons. The recent developments and applications of real time diagnostics of instantaneous temperature of combustion and explosion processes by modern spectroscopic methods, such as atomic absorption-emission method, atomic emission two-line spectroscopy, atomic emission multiline spectroscopy, molecular rotation-vibration spectroscopy, coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and plane laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF), were reviewed in this paper. The maximum time resolution of atomic absorption-emission method is 25 microseconds. The time resolution of atomic emission two-line spectroscopy can reach 0.1 microsecond. These two methods can completely suit the need of real time and instantaneous temperature diagnostics of violent explosion and flame combustion. Other methods will also provide new effective research methods for the processes and characteristics of combustion, flame and explosion. PMID:12961909

  14. Real-time processing of off-axis interferograms: from the camera to the user

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girshovitz, Pinhas; Gabay, Tamir; Shaked, Natan T.

    2014-07-01

    We review new algorithms that have been presented by us lately1 for fast reconstruction and phase unwrapping of sample wave-fronts recorded using off-axis digital holographic imaging. These algorithms enable reconstruction and phase unwrapping of sample wave-fronts up to 16 times faster than the conventional Fourier-based reconstruction algorithm. The algorithms exploit the compression properties of holographic imaging for decreasing the calculation complexity required for extracting the sample wave-front from the recorded interferogram. Using the presented algorithms, we were able to reconstruct, for the first time, 1 Mega pixels off-axis interferograms in more than 30 frames per second using a standard single-core personal computer on a Matlab-Labview interface, without using a graphic processing-unit programming or parallel computing. This computational speedup is important for real-time visualization, calculation and data extraction for dynamic samples and processes that are evaluated using off-axis digital holography such as biological cell imaging and real-time nondestructive testing.

  15. Real-Time Detection Methods to Monitor TRU Compositions in UREX+Process Streams

    SciTech Connect

    McDeavitt, Sean; Charlton, William; Indacochea, J Ernesto; taleyarkhan, Rusi; Pereira, Candido

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has developed advanced methods for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel. The majority of this development was accomplished under the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), building on the strong legacy of process development R&D over the past 50 years. The most prominent processing method under development is named UREX+. The name refers to a family of processing methods that begin with the Uranium Extraction (UREX) process and incorporate a variety of other methods to separate uranium, selected fission products, and the transuranic (TRU) isotopes from dissolved spent nuclear fuel. It is important to consider issues such as safeguards strategies and materials control and accountability methods. Monitoring of higher actinides during aqueous separations is a critical research area. By providing on-line materials accountability for the processes, covert diversion of the materials streams becomes much more difficult. The importance of the nuclear fuel cycle continues to rise on national and international agendas. The U.S. Department of Energy is evaluating and developing advanced methods for safeguarding nuclear materials along with instrumentation in various stages of the fuel cycle, especially in material balance areas (MBAs) and during reprocessing of used nuclear fuel. One of the challenges related to the implementation of any type of MBA and/or reprocessing technology (e.g., PUREX or UREX) is the real-time quantification and control of the transuranic (TRU) isotopes as they move through the process. Monitoring of higher actinides from their neutron emission (including multiplicity) and alpha signatures during transit in MBAs and in aqueous separations is a critical research area. By providing on-line real-time materials accountability, diversion of the materials becomes much more difficult. The objective of this consortium was to develop real time detection methods to monitor the efficacy of the UREX+ process and to safeguard the separated

  16. Real-time scattered light dark-field microscopic imaging of the dynamic degradation process of sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Gang; Gao, Peng Fei; Liu, Hui; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Single nanoparticle analysis (SNA) technique with the aid of a dark-field microscopic imaging (iDFM) technique has attracted wide attention owing to its high sensitivity. Considering that the degradation of pesticides can bring about serious problems in food and the environment, and that the real-time monitoring of the dynamic degradation process of pesticides can help understand and define their degradation mechanisms, herein we real-time monitored the decomposition dynamics of sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate (NaDDC) under neutral and alkaline conditions by imaging single silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) under a dark-field microscope (DFM); the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) scattering signals were measured at a single nanoparticle level. As a result, the chemical mechanism of the degradation of NaDDC under neutral and alkaline conditions was proposed, and the inhibition effects of metal ions including Zn(ii) and Cu(ii) were investigated in order to understand the decomposition process in different environments. It was found that Cu(ii) forms the most stable complex with NaDDC with a stoichiometric ratio of 1 : 2, which greatly reduces the toxicity.Single nanoparticle analysis (SNA) technique with the aid of a dark-field microscopic imaging (iDFM) technique has attracted wide attention owing to its high sensitivity. Considering that the degradation of pesticides can bring about serious problems in food and the environment, and that the real-time monitoring of the dynamic degradation process of pesticides can help understand and define their degradation mechanisms, herein we real-time monitored the decomposition dynamics of sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate (NaDDC) under neutral and alkaline conditions by imaging single silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) under a dark-field microscope (DFM); the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) scattering signals were measured at a single nanoparticle level. As a result, the chemical mechanism of the degradation of Na

  17. High-speed camera with internal real-time image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paindavoine, M.; Mosqueron, R.; Dubois, J.; Clerc, C.; Grapin, J. C.; Tomasini, F.

    2005-08-01

    High-speed video cameras are powerful tools for investigating for instance the dynamics of fluids or the movements of mechanical parts in manufacturing processes. In the past years, the use of CMOS sensors instead of CCDs have made possible the development of high-speed video cameras offering digital outputs, readout flexibility and lower manufacturing costs. In this field, we designed a new fast CMOS camera with a 1280×1024 pixels resolution at 500 fps. In order to transmit from the camera only useful information from the fast images, we studied some specific algorithms like edge detection, wavelet analysis, image compression and object tracking. These image processing algorithms have been implemented into a FPGA embedded inside the camera. This FPGA technology allows us to process fast images in real time.

  18. All-IP-Ethernet architecture for real-time sensor-fusion processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraki, Kei; Inaba, Mary; Tezuka, Hiroshi; Tomari, Hisanobu; Koizumi, Kenichi; Kondo, Shuya

    2016-03-01

    Serendipter is a device that distinguishes and selects very rare particles and cells from huge amount of population. We are currently designing and constructing information processing system for a Serendipter. The information processing system for Serendipter is a kind of sensor-fusion system but with much more difficulties: To fulfill these requirements, we adopt All IP based architecture: All IP-Ethernet based data processing system consists of (1) sensor/detector directly output data as IP-Ethernet packet stream, (2) single Ethernet/TCP/IP streams by a L2 100Gbps Ethernet switch, (3) An FPGA board with 100Gbps Ethernet I/F connected to the switch and a Xeon based server. Circuits in the FPGA include 100Gbps Ethernet MAC, buffers and preprocessing, and real-time Deep learning circuits using multi-layer neural networks. Proposed All-IP architecture solves existing problem to construct large-scale sensor-fusion systems.

  19. Demonstration of real-time monitoring of a photolithographic exposure process using chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Mowry, C.D.

    1998-02-01

    Silicon wafers are coated with photoresist and exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light in a laboratory to simulate typical conditions expected in an actual semiconductor manufacturing process tool. Air is drawn through the exposure chamber and analyzed using chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CI/MS). Species that evaporate or outgas from the wafer are thus detected. The purpose of such analyses is to determine the potential of CI/MS as a real-time process monitoring tool. Results demonstrate that CI/MS can remotely detect the products evolved before, during, and after wafer UV exposure; and that the quantity and type of products vary with the photoresist coated on the wafer. Such monitoring could provide semiconductor manufacturers benefits in quality control and process analysis. Tool and photoresist manufacturers could also realize benefits from this measurement technique with respect to new tool, method, or photoresist development. The benefits realized can lead to improved device yields and reduced product and development costs.

  20. Monitoring real-time navigation processes using the automated reasoning tool (ART)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maletz, M. C.; Culbert, C. J.

    1985-01-01

    An expert system is described for monitoring and controlling navigation processes in real-time. The ART-based system features data-driven computation, accommodation of synchronous and asynchronous data, temporal modeling for individual time intervals and chains of time intervals, and hypothetical reasoning capabilities that consider alternative interpretations of the state of navigation processes. The concept is illustrated in terms of the NAVEX system for monitoring and controlling the high speed ground navigation console for Mission Control at Johnson Space Center. The reasoning processes are outlined, including techniques used to consider alternative data interpretations. Installation of the system has permitted using a single operator, instead of three, to monitor the ascent and entry phases of a Shuttle mission.

  1. Computer-enhanced video microscopy: digitally processed microscope images can be produced in real time.

    PubMed Central

    Walter, R J; Berns, M W

    1981-01-01

    Digital processing techniques can be used to greatly enhance the available information in an optical image. Although this technology has been routinely used in many fields for a number of years, little application of digital image-processing techniques have been made toward analysis and enhancement of the types of images seen most often by the research biologist. We describe here a computer-based video microscope system that is capable of performing extensive manipulation and enhancement of microscope images in real time. The types of manipulations possible with these techniques greatly surpass the enhancement capabilities of photographic or video techniques alone. The speed and flexibility of this system enables experimental manipulation of the microscopic specimen based on its live processed image. These features greatly extend the power and versatility of the light microscope. Images PMID:6947267

  2. PAU/GNSS-R: Implementation, Performance and First Results of a Real-Time Delay-Doppler Map Reflectometer Using Global Navigation Satellite System Signals

    PubMed Central

    Marchan-Hernandez, Juan Fernando; Camps, Adriano; Rodriguez-Alvarez, Nereida; Bosch-Lluis, Xavier; Ramos-Perez, Isaac; Valencia, Enric

    2008-01-01

    Signals from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) were originally conceived for position and speed determination, but they can be used as signals of opportunity as well. The reflection process over a given surface modifies the properties of the scattered signal, and therefore, by processing the reflected signal, relevant geophysical data regarding the surface under study (land, sea, ice…) can be retrieved. In essence, a GNSS-R receiver is a multi-channel GNSS receiver that computes the received power from a given satellite at a number of different delay and Doppler bins of the incoming signal. The first approaches to build such a receiver consisted of sampling and storing the scattered signal for later post-processing. However, a real-time approach to the problem is desirable to obtain immediately useful geophysical variables and reduce the amount of data. The use of FPGA technology makes this possible, while at the same time the system can be easily reconfigured. The signal tracking and processing constraints made necessary to fully design several new blocks. The uniqueness of the implemented system described in this work is the capability to compute in real-time Delay-Doppler maps (DDMs) either for four simultaneous satellites or just one, but with a larger number of bins. The first tests have been conducted from a cliff over the sea and demonstrate the successful performance of the instrument to compute DDMs in real-time from the measured reflected GNSS/R signals. The processing of these measurements shall yield quantitative relationships between the sea state (mainly driven by the surface wind and the swell) and the overall DDM shape. The ultimate goal is to use the DDM shape to correct the sea state influence on the L-band brightness temperature to improve the retrieval of the sea surface salinity (SSS).

  3. Field Installation and Real-Time Data Processing of the New Integrated SeismoGeodetic System with Real-Time Acceleration and Displacement Measurements for Earthquake Characterization Based on High-Rate Seismic and GPS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimakov, Leonid; Jackson, Michael; Passmore, Paul; Raczka, Jared; Alvarez, Marcos; Barrientos, Sergio

    2015-04-01

    We will discuss and show the results obtained from an integrated SeismoGeodetic System, model SG160-09, installed in the Chilean National Network. The SG160-09 provides the user high rate GNSS and accelerometer data, full epoch-by-epoch measurement integrity and, using the Trimble Pivot™ SeismoGeodetic App, the ability to create combined GNSS and accelerometer high-rate (200Hz) displacement time series in real-time. The SG160-09 combines seismic recording with GNSS geodetic measurement in a single compact, ruggedized package. The system includes a low-power, 220-channel GNSS receiver powered by the latest Trimble-precise Maxwell™6 technology and supports tracking GPS, GLONASS and Galileo signals. The receiver incorporates on-board GNSS point positioning using Real-Time Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technology with satellite clock and orbit corrections delivered over IP networks. The seismic recording element includes an ANSS Class A, force balance triaxial accelerometer with the latest, low power, 24-bit A/D converter, which produces high-resolution seismic data. The SG160-09 processor acquires and packetizes both seismic and geodetic data and transmits it to the central station using an advanced, error-correction protocol with back fill capability providing data integrity between the field and the processing center. The SG160-09 has been installed in the seismic station close to the area of the Iquique earthquake of April 1, 2014, in northern Chile, a seismically prone area at the current time. The hardware includes the SG160-09 system, external Zephyr Geodetic-2 GNSS antenna, and high-speed Internet communication media. Both acceleration and displacement data was transmitted in real-time to the National Seismological Center in Santiago for real-time data processing using Earthworm / Early Bird software. Command/Control of the field station and real-time GNSS position correction are provided via the Pivot software suite. Data from the SG160-09 system was

  4. Improved radar data processing algorithms for quantitative rainfall estimation in real time.

    PubMed

    Krämer, S; Verworn, H R

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a new methodology to process C-band radar data for direct use as rainfall input to hydrologic and hydrodynamic models and in real time control of urban drainage systems. In contrast to the adjustment of radar data with the help of rain gauges, the new approach accounts for the microphysical properties of current rainfall. In a first step radar data are corrected for attenuation. This phenomenon has been identified as the main cause for the general underestimation of radar rainfall. Systematic variation of the attenuation coefficients within predefined bounds allows robust reflectivity profiling. Secondly, event specific R-Z relations are applied to the corrected radar reflectivity data in order to generate quantitative reliable radar rainfall estimates. The results of the methodology are validated by a network of 37 rain gauges located in the Emscher and Lippe river basins. Finally, the relevance of the correction methodology for radar rainfall forecasts is demonstrated. It has become clearly obvious, that the new methodology significantly improves the radar rainfall estimation and rainfall forecasts. The algorithms are applicable in real time. PMID:19587415

  5. Validation of Real-Time Data Processing for the Ground and Air-MSPI Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werne, Thomas; Bekker, Dmitriy L.; Pingree, Paula J.

    2011-01-01

    JPL is currently developing the multi-angle spectro-polarimetric imager (MSPI), targeted for the Aerosol-Cloud-Ecosystems (ACE) mission, as defined in the National Academies 2007 Decadal Survey. In preparation for the space instrument, the MSPI team has built two incremental camera systems (Ground- and Air-MSPI) to improve understanding of the proposed architecture. Ground-MSPI is a gimballed instrument used primarily for stationary observation and characterization of the imager and optics. The ER-2 based Air-MSPI operates in a step-and-stare mode, providing multi-angle imaging of a static target. This mode-of-operation simulates the observation scenario of the space instrument. Physically, MSPI is a pushbroom camera with a specialized frontend. Before imaging, light entering the camera passes through a pair of photoelastic modulators and a set of pattern polarizers. These optical elements act on the light to make polarimetric extraction computationally feasible. Calculating polarimetric parameters from the imager's data stream requires a real-time least-squares computation that produces coefficients of a truncated time-series expansion of the image. As reported in, the data processing algorithm can operate in real-time on a Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA. Moving beyond verification with an onboard data source, the algorithm has been validated on a commercial development board interfaced with the ground camera. In addition, the algorithm has been instantiated within the Air-MSPI electronics board's FPGA, and in situ first-light has been achieved.

  6. Near real-time AIRS processing and distribution system: from design to operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Walter; King, Thomas; Goldberg, Mitchell D.; Zhou, Lihang; Barnet, Chris D.

    2004-10-01

    A near real-time AIRS processing and distribution system is fully operational at NOAA/NESDIS/ORA. The AIRS system went though three separate production phases: design and development, implementation, and operations. The design and development phase consisted of two years of preparation for the near real-time AIRS data. The approach was to fully emulate the AIRS measurement stream. This was accomplished by using a forecast model to represent the geophysical state and computation of simulated AIRS measurements using the characteristics of the AIRS channels. The preparation included file format development and the creation of a program to subset the radiance and product data. The implementation phase lasted over a year and involved utilizing AIRS/AMSU/HSB simulated data quasi-operationally. This simulated data was placed into deliverable files and distributed to the customers for their pre-launch preparations. The operational phase consisted of switching the simulation system to real data and is the current system status. Details of what went right and wrong at each production phase will be presented. This methodology eased the transition to operations and will be applied to other advanced sounders such as IASI and CrIS.

  7. Software-Based Real-Time Acquisition and Processing of PET Detector Raw Data.

    PubMed

    Goldschmidt, Benjamin; Schug, David; Lerche, Christoph W; Salomon, André; Gebhardt, Pierre; Weissler, Bjoern; Wehner, Jakob; Dueppenbecker, Peter M; Kiessling, Fabian; Schulz, Volkmar

    2016-02-01

    In modern positron emission tomography (PET) readout architectures, the position and energy estimation of scintillation events (singles) and the detection of coincident events (coincidences) are typically carried out on highly integrated, programmable printed circuit boards. The implementation of advanced singles and coincidence processing (SCP) algorithms for these architectures is often limited by the strict constraints of hardware-based data processing. In this paper, we present a software-based data acquisition and processing architecture (DAPA) that offers a high degree of flexibility for advanced SCP algorithms through relaxed real-time constraints and an easily extendible data processing framework. The DAPA is designed to acquire detector raw data from independent (but synchronized) detector modules and process the data for singles and coincidences in real-time using a center-of-gravity (COG)-based, a least-squares (LS)-based, or a maximum-likelihood (ML)-based crystal position and energy estimation approach (CPEEA). To test the DAPA, we adapted it to a preclinical PET detector that outputs detector raw data from 60 independent digital silicon photomultiplier (dSiPM)-based detector stacks and evaluated it with a [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-filled hot-rod phantom. The DAPA is highly reliable with less than 0.1% of all detector raw data lost or corrupted. For high validation thresholds (37.1 ± 12.8 photons per pixel) of the dSiPM detector tiles, the DAPA is real time capable up to 55 MBq for the COG-based CPEEA, up to 31 MBq for the LS-based CPEEA, and up to 28 MBq for the ML-based CPEEA. Compared to the COG-based CPEEA, the rods in the image reconstruction of the hot-rod phantom are only slightly better separable and less blurred for the LS- and ML-based CPEEA. While the coincidence time resolution (∼ 500 ps) and energy resolution (∼12.3%) are comparable for all three CPEEA, the system sensitivity is up to 2.5 × higher for the LS- and ML-based CPEEA

  8. Real time explosive hazard information sensing, processing, and communication for autonomous operation

    DOEpatents

    Versteeg, Roelof J.; Few, Douglas A.; Kinoshita, Robert A.; Johnson, Douglas; Linda, Ondrej

    2015-12-15

    Methods, computer readable media, and apparatuses provide robotic explosive hazard detection. A robot intelligence kernel (RIK) includes a dynamic autonomy structure with two or more autonomy levels between operator intervention and robot initiative A mine sensor and processing module (ESPM) operating separately from the RIK perceives environmental variables indicative of a mine using subsurface perceptors. The ESPM processes mine information to determine a likelihood of a presence of a mine. A robot can autonomously modify behavior responsive to an indication of a detected mine. The behavior is modified between detection of mines, detailed scanning and characterization of the mine, developing mine indication parameters, and resuming detection. Real time messages are passed between the RIK and the ESPM. A combination of ESPM bound messages and RIK bound messages cause the robot platform to switch between modes including a calibration mode, the mine detection mode, and the mine characterization mode.

  9. Real time explosive hazard information sensing, processing, and communication for autonomous operation

    DOEpatents

    Versteeg, Roelof J; Few, Douglas A; Kinoshita, Robert A; Johnson, Doug; Linda, Ondrej

    2015-02-24

    Methods, computer readable media, and apparatuses provide robotic explosive hazard detection. A robot intelligence kernel (RIK) includes a dynamic autonomy structure with two or more autonomy levels between operator intervention and robot initiative A mine sensor and processing module (ESPM) operating separately from the RIK perceives environmental variables indicative of a mine using subsurface perceptors. The ESPM processes mine information to determine a likelihood of a presence of a mine. A robot can autonomously modify behavior responsive to an indication of a detected mine. The behavior is modified between detection of mines, detailed scanning and characterization of the mine, developing mine indication parameters, and resuming detection. Real time messages are passed between the RIK and the ESPM. A combination of ESPM bound messages and RIK bound messages cause the robot platform to switch between modes including a calibration mode, the mine detection mode, and the mine characterization mode.

  10. Multithreaded real-time 3D image processing software architecture and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandra, Vikas; Atanassov, Kalin; Aleksic, Milivoje; Goma, Sergio R.

    2011-03-01

    Recently, 3D displays and videos have generated a lot of interest in the consumer electronics industry. To make 3D capture and playback popular and practical, a user friendly playback interface is desirable. Towards this end, we built a real time software 3D video player. The 3D video player displays user captured 3D videos, provides for various 3D specific image processing functions and ensures a pleasant viewing experience. Moreover, the player enables user interactivity by providing digital zoom and pan functionalities. This real time 3D player was implemented on the GPU using CUDA and OpenGL. The player provides user interactive 3D video playback. Stereo images are first read by the player from a fast drive and rectified. Further processing of the images determines the optimal convergence point in the 3D scene to reduce eye strain. The rationale for this convergence point selection takes into account scene depth and display geometry. The first step in this processing chain is identifying keypoints by detecting vertical edges within the left image. Regions surrounding reliable keypoints are then located on the right image through the use of block matching. The difference in the positions between the corresponding regions in the left and right images are then used to calculate disparity. The extrema of the disparity histogram gives the scene disparity range. The left and right images are shifted based upon the calculated range, in order to place the desired region of the 3D scene at convergence. All the above computations are performed on one CPU thread which calls CUDA functions. Image upsampling and shifting is performed in response to user zoom and pan. The player also consists of a CPU display thread, which uses OpenGL rendering (quad buffers). This also gathers user input for digital zoom and pan and sends them to the processing thread.